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HCII Tables of Contents: 03-103-203-303-407-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-3

HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Ambient, Ubiquitous and Intelligent Interaction

Fullname:HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Ambient, Ubiquitous and Intelligent Interaction
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Volume:3
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5612
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02579-2 (print), 978-3-642-02580-8 (online); hcibib: HCII09-3
Papers:89
Pages:813
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 3
    1. Mobile Interaction
    2. In-Vehicle Interaction and Environment Navigation
    3. Agents, Avatars and Personalisation
    4. Ambient Interaction
    5. Affect, Emotion and Engagement
    6. Smart and Wearable Materials and Devices

HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 3

Mobile Interaction

BigKey: A Virtual Keyboard for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 3-10
  Khaldoun Al Faraj; Mustapha Mojahid; Nadine Vigouroux
This paper describes BigKey virtual keyboard for mobile devices, designed to make the keys of virtual keyboard easier to acquire. The tiny size of keys makes efficient selection difficult. To overcome this drawback, we propose to expand key size that corresponds to next character entry. The proposed solution helps to facilitate the selection task by expanding the next entry. Moreover the prediction system reduces the visual scanning time to find letters that one is looking for. Users' performance study showed that they were 25.14% faster and more accurate with BigKey virtual keyboard than with normal virtual keyboard.
Keywords: Virtual keyboard; text input; PDAs; expanding targets; letter prediction
TringIt: Easy Triggering of Web Actions from a Phone BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Vinod Anupam
Much information that is of interest to mobile users is available on the Web, yet is difficult to access for most users. We introduce a novel method for users to interact with network-connected computers using their phones, and describe a system called TringIt that implements the method. TringIt enables users to trigger Web actions by simply dialing specific numbers -- an action that we call a Phone Click. TringIt can be used out-of-the-box by any phone user. The Phone Click is most useful from mobile phones that can receive messages in response to the click. TringIt enables users to easily initiate interaction with businesses and content owners by simply dialing numbers discovered in offline media (e.g. print, TV, radio) as well as online media (e.g. Web, SMS, MMS.) It makes every mobile phone a more compelling information, interaction and participation device.
Keywords: Phone Click; Tring; Dial-to-Click; Call Triggered Messaging; User-to-Application Signaling; SMS/MMS Click-through; Dial-able hyperlinks
Context Awareness and Perceived Interactivity in Multimedia Computing BIBAKFull-Text 21-29
  Xiao Dong; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
Context awareness and perceived interactivity are two factors that might benefit mobile multimedia computing. This research takes mobile TV advertisements as a scenario and verifies the impacts of perceived interactivity and its interaction with context awareness. Seventy-two participants were recruited and an experiment was conducted in order to identify those impacts. The main findings indicated the following: (1) the effect of high perceived interactivity advertisement is significantly better than the effect of low perceived interactivity advertisement; (2) the interaction of context awareness and perceived interactivity has a significant influence on the effect of mobile TV advertising.
Keywords: Context awareness; perceived interactivity; mobile TV advertising
Human Computer Interaction with a PIM Application: Merging Activity, Location and Social Setting into Context BIBAKFull-Text 30-38
  Tor-Morten Grønli; Gheorghita Ghinea
Personal Information Managers exploit the ubiquitous paradigm in mobile computing technology to integrate services and programs for business and leisure. Recognizing that every situation is constituted by information and events, this context will vary depending on the situation users are in, and the tasks they are about to commit. The value of context as a source of information is highly recognized and for individual dimensions context has been both conceptually described and prototypes implemented. The novelty in this paper is a new implementation of context by integrating three dimensions of context: social information, activity information and geographical position. Based on an application developed for Microsoft Window Mobile these three dimensions of context are explored and implemented in an application for mobile telephone users. Experiment conducted show the viability of tailoring contextual information in three dimensions to provide user with timely and relevant information.
Keywords: PIM; context; context-aware; Microsoft pocket outlook; ubiquitous computing; HCI
CLURD: A New Character-Inputting System Using One 5-Way Key Module BIBAKFull-Text 39-47
  Hyunjin Ji; Taeyong Kim
A character inputting system using one 5-way key module has been developed for use in mobile devices such as cell phones, MP3 players, navigation systems, and remote controllers. All Korean and English alphabet characters are assembled by two key clicks, and because the five keys are adjacent to each other and the user does not have to monitor his/her finger movements while typing, the speed of generating characters can be extremely high and its convenience is also remarkable.
Keywords: Character Input; Typing; 5-way Key Module; Mobile Device; Keyboard; Wearable Computer
Menu Design in Cell Phones: Use of 3D Menus BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Kyungdoh Kim; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
The number of mobile phone users has been steadily increasing due to the development of microtechnology and human needs for ubiquitous communication. Menu design features play a significant role in cell phone design from the perspective of customer satisfaction. Moreover, small screens of the type used on mobile phones are limited in the amount of available space. Therefore, it is important to obtain good menu design. Review of previous menu design studies for human-computer interaction suggests that design guidelines for mobile phones need to be reappraised, especially 3D display features. We propose a conceptual model for cell phone menu design with 3D displays. The three main factors included in the model are: the number of items, task complexity, and task type.
Keywords: cell phones; menu design; 3D menu; task complexity; task type
Mobile Interfaces in Tangible Mnemonics Interaction BIBAFull-Text 58-66
  Thorsten D. Mahler; Marc Hermann; Michael Weber
The Tangible Reminder Mobile brings together tangible mnemonics with ambient displays and mobile interaction. Based on the Tangible Reminder Project we present a new interface for mobile devices that is capable of viewing and editing data linked to real world objects. An intelligent piece of furniture equipped with RFID-sensors and digitally controlled lighting keeps track of appointments linked to real world objects that are placed in its trays. The mobile interface now allows the complete waiving of classic computer interaction for this ambient shelf. Instead, by implementing the toolglas metaphor, the mobile interface can be used to edit and view linked data to objects.
Understanding the Relationship between Requirements and Context Elements in Mobile Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 67-76
  Sergio F. Ochoa; Rosa Alarcón; Luis A. Guerrero
The development of mobile collaborative applications involves several challenges, and one of the most important is to deal with the always changing work context. This paper describes the relationship between these applications requirements and the typically context elements that are present in mobile collaborative work. This article presents a house of quality which illustrates this relationship and shows the trade-off involved in several design decisions.
Keywords: Context Elements; Software Requirement; Mobile Collaboration; House of Quality
Continuous User Interfaces for Seamless Task Migration BIBAFull-Text 77-85
  Pardha S. Pyla; Manas Tungare; Jerome Holman; Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones
In this paper, we propose the Task Migration framework that provides a vocabulary and constructs to decompose a task into its components, and to examine issues that arise when it is performed using multiple devices. In a world of mobile devices and multiple computing devices, users are often forced to interrupt their tasks, move their data and information back and forth among the various devices manually, recreate the interaction context, and then resume the task on another device. We refer to this break from the task at hand as a task disconnect. Our objective is to study how software can bridge this task disconnect, enabling users to seamlessly transition a task across devices using continuous user interface. The framework is intended to help designers of interactive systems understand where breaks in task continuity may occur, and to proactively incorporate features and capabilities to mitigate their impact or avoid such Task Disconnects altogether.
A Study of Information Retrieval of En Route Display of Fire Information on PDA BIBAKFull-Text 86-94
  Weina Qu; Xianghong Sun; Thomas Plocher; Li Wang
This study was concentrated on which way is the most convenient for firefighter to get information, comparing among audio display, text display, and combined multi-modal display. Can fire commanders effectively obtain key fire information while they are en route to the fire, especially when they sitting in a moving and bumpy car? The task includes free-browse, free-recall and searching information. The result showed that: (1) Audio only always made firefighter taking the longest time to browse and search, but the introduction of audio display made the two combined displays more quickly to access information, and more easy to remember. (2) Searching in a moving environment took a little longer than searching in lab. (3) Comparing in the lab and in moving car, it was found that searching in a moving environment took a little longer than in lab. (4) It was proved that text display was still a necessary and indispensable way to display information.
Keywords: Information retrieval; Display; PDA; Free-browse; Free-recall; Search
A Mobile and Desktop Application for Enhancing Group Awareness in Knowledge Work Teams BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Timo Saari; Kari Kallinen; Mikko Salminen; Niklas Ravaja; Marco Rapino
In this paper we present a first prototype for a mobile and desktop system and application for enhancing group awareness in knowledge work teams. The prototype gathers information from the interactions of the group within the application and analyses it. Results are displayed to members of the group as key indexes describing the activity of the group as a whole and the individual members of the group. The advantages of using the prototype are expected to be increased awareness within group possibly leading to positive effects on group performance.
Keywords: Group awareness; emotional awareness; knowledge work; mobile application; desktop application
A Study of Fire Information Detection on PDA Device BIBAKFull-Text 105-113
  Xianghong Sun; Weina Qu; Thomas Plocher; Li Wang
This study was concentrated on how useful the en route information display system for firefighters' information accessing, current situation understanding, and decision making, we did a series of tests to investigate the efficiency of the system, to compare different display ways including audio, text, and their combinations to find the most appropriate one. The result showed that: (1) Audio only always made firefighter taking the longest time to information detection, but the introduction of audio display made the two combined displays (text + audio, and text + 3rd level audio) more quickly to access information, and more easy to remember. (2) It should be clarified that en route system could be used very well either in quiet and static environment, or in a moving and a little bumping environment if user could get some training before using it.
Keywords: Information detection; PDA; fire
Empirical Comparison of Task Completion Time between Mobile Phone Models with Matched Interaction Sequences BIBAKFull-Text 114-122
  Shunsuke Suzuki; Yusuke Nakao; Toshiyuki Asahi; Victoria Bellotti; Nick Yee; Shin'ichi Fukuzumi
CogTool is a predictive evaluation tool for user interfaces. We wanted to apply CogTool to an evaluation of two mobile phones, but, at the time of writing, CogTool lacks the necessary (modeling baseline) observed human performance data to allow it to make accurate predictions about mobile phone use. To address this problem, we needed to collect performance data from both novice users' and expert users' interactions to plug into CogTool. Whilst novice users for a phone are easy to recruit, in order to obtain observed data on expert users' performance, we had to recruit owners of our two target mobile phone models as participants. Unfortunately, it proved to be hard to find enough owners of each target phone model. Therefore we asked if multiple similar models that had matched interaction sequences could be treated as the same model from the point of view of expert performance characteristics. In this paper, we report an empirical experimental exercise to answer this question. We compared identical target task completion time for experts across two groups of similar models. Because we found significant differences in some of the task completion times within one group of models, we would argue that it is not generally advisable to consider multiple phone models as equivalent for the purpose of obtaining observed data for predictive modeling.
Keywords: Cognitive Model; CogTool; Evaluation; Human Centered Design; Human Interface; Mobile Phone; Systematization; Usability Test

In-Vehicle Interaction and Environment Navigation

Nine Assistant Guiding Methods in Subway Design -- A Research of Shanghai Subway Users BIBAKFull-Text 125-132
  Linong Dai
In big cities, it often occurs that passengers (users) have great difficulties to recognize subway stations. Except improving the signs of subway stations, based on large amounts of field researches, we find 9 practical and effective methods to help passengers to identify subway stations. These 9 methods include visual design, aural design, and tactual design etc. This paper also tries to apply some theories of cognitive psychology about human memory in the research of subways. These methods are also applicable to other space design in subway and even general underground space design.
Keywords: User Research; Subway Station; Quick-Identification
Pull and Push: Proximity-Aware User Interface for Navigating in 3D Space Using a Handheld Camera BIBAFull-Text 133-140
  Mingming Fan; Yuanchun Shi
In the 3D object controlling or virtual space wandering tasks, it is necessary to provide the efficient zoom operation. The common method is using the combination of the mouse and keyboard. This method requires users familiar with the operation which needs much time to practice. This paper presents two methods to recognize the zoom operation by sensing users' pull and push movement. People only need to hold a camera in hand and when they pull or push hands, our approach will sense the proximity and translate it into the zoom operation in the tasks. By user studies, we have compared different methods' correct rate and analyzed the factors which will affect the approach's performance. The results show that our methods are real-time and high accurate.
A Study on the Design of Voice Navigation of Car Navigation System BIBAKFull-Text 141-150
  Chih-Fu Wu; Wan-Fu Huang; Tung-Chen Wu
This study tries to find the designing blind spots of the voice prompt function in the current car navigation systems and make improvement suggestions. The experimental plan was implemented through videotape analysis of the voice-prompt mode, referring to Urban Road Classification Regulations and the questionnaire survey results. Driving simulation tests were conducted with 15 experimental subjects, 13 road combinations, and 3 running speeds, and different prompt modes which were run synchronously were also included. Compared with the present mode (prompt time is determined by distance.), the newly-designed mode (prompt time is determined by running speed.) significantly improved driving performance and reduced mental workload. When driving on a main artery with fast lanes and slow lanes, adding a changing-lane prompt with a clear sound to the system can help increasing the driving accuracy rate.
Keywords: navigation systems; voice prompt function; driving accuracy rate
Front Environment Recognition of Personal Vehicle Using the Image Sensor and Acceleration Sensors for Everyday Computing BIBAKFull-Text 151-158
  Takahiro Matsui; Takeshi Imanaka; Yasuyuki Kono
In this research, we propose the method for detecting moving objects in front of the Segway by detecting running state for the Segway. Running state of the personal vehicle Segway is detected with both an image sensor and an acceleration sensor mounted on the Segway. When objects are moving in front of the Segway, the image sensor can capture the motion while the acceleration sensor shows a different result. By analyzing the difference our method successfully recognizes moving objects from environment.
Keywords: Segway; Image Sensor; Acceleration Sensor; Optical Flow
Common Interaction Schemes for In-Vehicle User-Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 159-168
  Simon Nestler; Marcus Tönnis; Gudrun Klinker
In this paper different interaction schemes which are currently implemented by major automotive manufacturers have been identified and analyzed. Complete overviews on all in-vehicle user-interface concepts are rarely spread. This paper gives a deeper insight in interaction schemes and user-interface concepts which are implemented in current cars. Additionally an expert review with 7 experts was performed to get a first impression which user-interface interaction schemes work well in the in-vehicle context. In order to get an impression of the suitability of the interaction schemes for the development of usable in-vehicle user-interfaces we performed different tests. The results are reported in text and tables.
Keywords: User Interface Design; In-vehicle information systems; IVIS
Dynamic Maps for Future Navigation Systems: Agile Design Exploration of User Interface Concepts BIBAFull-Text 169-178
  Volker Paelke; Karsten Nebe
Maps have traditionally been used to support orientation and navigation. Navigation systems shift the focus from printed maps to interactive systems. The key goal of navigation systems is to simplify specific tasks, e.g. route planning or route following. While users of navigation systems need less skills in navigation specific activities, e.g. reading maps or manual route planning, they must now interact with the user interface of the navigation device, which requires a different set of skills. Current navigation systems aim to simplify the interaction by providing interfaces that use basic interaction mechanisms (e.g. button based interfaces on a touch-screen), exploiting the fact that many users are already familiar with such techniques. In the presentation of the information most navigation systems employ map-like displays, possibly combined with additional information, again to exploit familiarity. While such an approach can help with early adoption, it can also limit usefulness and usability. There is, however, a large opportunity to improve input, output and functionality of navigation systems. In this paper we expand a model of classical map based communication to identify possibilities where "dynamic maps" can enhance map based communication in navigation systems. We report on how an agile design exploration process was applied to examine the design space spanned by the new model and to develop system probes. We discuss the user feedback and its implications for future interface concepts for navigation systems.
Flight Searching -- A Comparison of Two User-Interface Design Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Antti Pirhonen; Niko Kotilainen
The most usable user-interface is not necessarily the most popular. For example, the extent to which an interaction is based on graphics can depend highly on convention rather than usability. This study compares contemporary flight search applications in order to investigate whether a more extensive use of graphics can enhance usability. Two user-interfaces are compared: one follows the ideal principles of graphical user-interfaces and direct manipulation, while the second interface requires text to be entered with a keyboard. The results of the comparison indicate that even an early prototype of the graphics based alternative performed better than the typical formula based search application for several measurements of usability.
Keywords: Flight search; direct manipulation; graphical user interface
Agent-Based Driver Abnormality Estimation BIBAFull-Text 189-198
  Tony Poitschke; Florian Laquai; Gerhard Rigoll
For enhancing current driver assistance and information systems with regard to the capability to recognize an individual driver's needs, we conceive a system based on fuzzy logic and a multi-agent-framework. We investigate how it is possible to gain useful information about the driver from typical vehicle data and apply the knowledge on our system. In a pre-stage, the system learns the driver's regular steering manner with the help of fuzzy inference models. By comparing his regular and current manner, the system recognizes whether the driver is possibly impaired and betakes in a risky situation. Furthermore, the steering behavior and traffical situation are continuously observed for similar pattern. According to the obtained information, the system tries to conform its assistance functionalities to the driver's needs.
Enhancing the Accessibility of Maps with Personal Frames of Reference BIBAFull-Text 199-210
  Falko Schmid
The visualization of geographic information requires large displays. Even large screens can be insufficient to visualize e.g. a long route in a scale, such that all decisive elements (like streets and turns) and their spatial context can be shown and understood at once. This is critical as the visualization of spatial data is currently migrating to mobile devices with small displays. Knowledge based maps, such as µMaps are a key to the visual compression of geographic information: those parts of the environment which are familiar to a user are compressed while the unfamiliar parts are displayed in full detail. As a result µMaps consist of elements of two different frames of reference: a personal and a geographic frame of reference. In this paper we argue for the integration personally meaningful places in µMaps. Their role is to clarify the spatial context without increasing the visual representation and they serve as an experienced based key to different scales (the compressed and uncompressed parts of the environment) of µMaps.
Augmented Interaction and Visualization in the Automotive Domain BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Roland Spies; Markus Ablaßmeier; Heiner Bubb; Werner Hamberger
This paper focuses on innovative interaction and visualization strategies for the automotive domain. To keep the increasing amount of information in vehicles easily accessible and also to minimize the mental workload for the driver, sophisticated presentation and interaction techniques are essential. In this contribution a new approach for interaction the so-called augmented interaction is presented. The new idea is an intelligent combination of innovative visualization and interaction technologies to reduce the driver's mental transfer effort that is necessary between displayed information, control movement and reality. Using contact-analog head-up displays relevant information can be presented exactly where it is needed. For control, an absolute natural and direct way of interaction is delivered by touch technologies. However, to leave the eyes on the road, the driver needs haptic feedback to handle a touchpad blindly. Therefore, the touchpad presented in this contribution, is equipped with a haptic adjustable surface. Combining both technologies delivers an absolutely innovative way for in-vehicle interaction. It enables the driver to interact in a very direct way by sensing the corresponding environment on the touchpad.
Keywords: head-up display; touch; haptic feedback; interaction; automotive; augmented reality
Proposal of a Direction Guidance System for Evacuation BIBAKFull-Text 221-227
  Chikamune Wada; Yu Yoneda; Yukinobu Sugimura
In this paper, we propose a device that indicates the direction to evacuate. Our proposed system, which would present the direction through the tactile sensation of the head, could be used in no visibility environment such as filled smoke. This paper describes a feasibility of our proposed system and indicates problems to be solved.
Keywords: Evacuation; Smoke; Direction; Guidance; Tactile sensation
A Virtual Environment for Learning Airport Emergency Management Protocols BIBAKFull-Text 228-235
  Telmo Zarraonandia; Mario Rafael Ruiz Vargas; Paloma Díaz; Ignacio Aedo
This paper presents a virtual environment designed to enhance the learning of airport emergency management protocols. The learning is performed in an informal manner, with each learner playing a different role in a particular emergency simulation. Learners interact within the virtual environment, managing the available information and following the steps prescribed for each type of emergency in the Airport Emergency Plan of the Spanish Civil Defence Organization. The simulation can be run in different modes of difficulty, and can be used as a learning tool as well as an evaluation tool to measure the accuracy of the learner's actuation within the protocol. It can also support stand-alone training having some of the emergency roles played out by the computer. The virtual environment has been built using DimensioneX, an open source multi-player online game engine.
Keywords: Virtual environment; emergency; game engine; simulation

Agents, Avatars and Personalisation

User Profiling for Web Search Based on Biological Fluctuation BIBAKFull-Text 239-247
  Yuki Arase; Takahiro Hara; Shojiro Nishio
Because of the information flood on the Web, it has become difficult to search necessary information. Although Web search engines assign authority values to Web pages and show ranked results, it is not enough to find information of interest easily, as users have to comb through reliable but out of the focus information. In this situation, personalization of Web search results is effective. To realize the personalization, a user profiling technique is essential, however, since the users' interests are not stable and are versatile, it should be flexible and tolerant to change of the environment. In this paper, we propose a user profiling method based on the model of the organisms' flexibility and environmental tolerance. We review the previous user profiling methods and discuss the adequacy of applying this model to user profiling.
Keywords: User profile; Web search; biological fluctuation
Expression of Personality through Avatars: Analysis of Effects of Gender and Race on Perceptions of Personality BIBAKFull-Text 248-256
  Jennifer Cloud-Buckner; Michael Sellick; Bhanuteja Sainathuni; Betty Yang; Jennie J. Gallimore
Avatars and virtual agents are used in social, military, educational, medical, training, and other applications. Although there is a need to develop avatars with human-like characteristics, many applications include avatars based on stereotypes. Prabhala and Gallimore (2007) conducted research to develop collaborative computer agents with personality. Using the Big Five Factor Model of personality they investigated how people perceive personality based on actions, language, and behaviors of two voice-only computer agents in a simulation. However, these computer agents included no visual features in order to avoid stereotypes. The objective of the current research extends the work of Prabhala and Gallimore by investigating the effects of personality, race, and gender on perceived personality of avatars with animated faces. Results showed that subjects were able to distinguish the different personalities and race and gender significantly affected perceptions on a trait-by-trait basis.
Keywords: avatar; virtual agent; personality; Big Five Factor
User-Definable Rule Description Framework for Autonomous Actor Agents BIBAKFull-Text 257-266
  Narichika Hamaguchi; Hiroyuki Kaneko; Mamoru Doke; Seiki Inoue
In the area of text-to-video research, our work focuses on creating video content from textual descriptions, or more specifically, the creation of TV program like content from script like descriptions. This paper discusses a description framework that can be used to specify rough action instructions in the form of a script that can be used to produce detailed instructions controlling the behavior and actions of autonomous video actor agents. The paper also describes a prototype text-to-video system and presents examples of instructions for controlling an autonomous actor agent with our designed descriptive scheme.
Keywords: Autonomous Actor Agent; Digital Storytelling; Text-to-Video; TVML; Object-Oriented Language
Cognitive and Emotional Characteristics of Communication in Human-Human/Human-Agent Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 267-274
  Yugo Hayashi; Kazuhisa Miwa
A psychological experiment was conducted to capture the nature of Human-Human and Human-Agent Interactions where humans and computer agents coexist in a collaborative environment. Two factors were manipulated to investigate the influences of the 'schema' about and the 'actual partner' on the characteristics of communication. The first factor, expectation about the partner, was controlled by the experimenter's instruction, manipulating with which partner (human or computer agent) participants believed to be collaborating. The second factor, the actual partner, was controlled by manipulating with which partner (human or computer agent) participants actually collaborated. The results of the experiments suggest that the degree of the refinement of the conversation controlled as the actual partner factor affected the emotional and cognitive characteristics of communication; however the schema about the opponent only affected the emotional characteristics of communication.
Keywords: Collaboration; Human-Human Interaction; Human-Agent Interaction; Communication
Identification of the User by Analyzing Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 275-283
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner
This paper describes a study analyzing the interaction of users with a computer system to show that user identification is possible only by analyzing the user interaction behavior. The identification of the user can be done with a precision of up to 99.1% within one working session. This classification rate can be improved using additional interaction indicators. Moreover, this kind of protection method using the analysis of the interaction of the user with the system cannot be betrayed because of the uniqueness of the user interaction patterns. The method and the results of the study will be presented and discussed.
Keywords: user interface; user identification; HCI analysis; interaction analysis; interaction indicator; tool; theft protection; computer protection; culture; user interface design; personalization; identification; recognition
The Anticipation of Human Behavior Using "Parasitic Humanoid" BIBAKFull-Text 284-293
  Hiroyuki Iizuka; Hideyuki Ando; Taro Maeda
This paper proposes the concept of Parasitic Humanoid (PH) that can realize a wearable robot to establish intuitive interactions with wearers rather than conventional counter-intuitive ways like key-typing. It requires a different paradigm or interface technology which is called behavioral or ambient interface that can harmonize human-environment interactions to naturally lead to a more suitable state with the integration of information science and biologically inspired technology. We re-examine the use of wearable computers or devices from the viewpoint of behavioral information. Then, a possible way to realize PH is shown as integrated wearable interface devices. In order that PH establishes the harmonic interaction with wearers, a mutually anticipated interaction between a computer and human is necessary. To establish the harmonic interaction, we investigate the social interaction by experiments of human interactions where inputs and outputs of subjects are restricted in a low dimension at the behavioral level. The results of experiments are discussed with the attractor superimposition. Finally, we will discuss integrated PH system for human supports.
Keywords: Ambient interface; parasitic humanoid; behavior-based Turing test; attractor superimposition
Modeling Personal Preferences on Commodities by Behavior Log Analysis with Ubiquitous Sensing BIBAFull-Text 294-303
  Naoki Imamura; Akihiro Ogino; Toshikazu Kato
Consumers may take some specific behavior preference or favorite items to get more information, such as the material and the price, in shopping. We have been developing a smart room to estimate their preference and favorite items through observation using ubiquitous sensors, such as RFID and Web cameras. We assumed the decision decision-making process in shopping as AIDMA rule, and detected specific behavior, which are "See", "Touch" and "Take", to estimate user's interest. We found that we can classify consumers by their behavior patterns of the times and duration of the behaviors. In our experiment we have tested twenty-eight subjects on twenty-four T-shirts. In the experiment, we got better precision ratio for each subjects on estimating preference and favorite items by discriminate analysis on his or her behavior log, and behavior patterns classification above.
A System to Construct an Interest Model of User Based on Information in Browsed Web Page by User BIBAFull-Text 304-313
  Kosuke Kawazu; Masakazu Murao; Takeru Ohta; Masayoshi Mase; Takashi Maeno
In these days, they expect that computers comprehend characteristics of the user, for example interest and liking, to interact with computers. In this study, we constructed a system to construct an interest model of the user based on information in browsed Web pages by the user by extracting words and interword relationships. In this model, metadata is appended to words and interword relationships. Kinds of metadata of words are six, personal name, corporate name, site name, name of commodity, product name and location name. And metadata of interword relationships is prepared to clarify relationships of these words. This system makes a map by visualizing this model. And this system has functions to zoom and modify this map. We showed efficacy of this system by using evaluation experiment.
Adaptive User Interfaces for the Clothing Retail BIBAKFull-Text 314-319
  Karim Khakzar; Jonas George; Rainer Blum
This paper presents the results of a research project that identifies the most important concepts for adaptive user interfaces in the context of e-commerce, such as online shops, and evaluates these concepts using a formalized method and standardized criteria. As a result, recommendations for the design of adaptive user interfaces are derived.
Keywords: Adaptive User Interfaces; Concepts; Evaluation; Retail Shops
Implementing Affect Parameters in Personalized Web-Based Design BIBAKFull-Text 320-329
  Zacharias Lekkas; Nikos Tsianos; Panagiotis Germanakos; Constantinos Mourlas; George Samaras
Researchers used to believe that emotional processes are beyond the scope of a scientific study. Recent advances in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, however, suggest that there is nothing mystical about emotional processes. Affective neuroscience and psychology have reported that human affect and emotional experience play a significant, and useful, role in human learning and decision making. Emotions are considered to play a central role in guiding and regulating learning, performance, behaviour and decision making, by modulating numerous cognitive and physiological activities. Our purpose is to improve learning performance and, most importantly, to personalize web-content to users' needs and preferences, eradicating known difficulties that occur in traditional approaches. Affect parameters are implemented, by constructing a theory that addresses emotion and is feasible in Web-learning environments.
Keywords: affect; emotions; mood; disposition; regulation; personalization; decision-making; learning
Modeling of User Interest Based on Its Interaction with a Collaborative Knowledge Management System BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Jaime Moreno-Llorena; Xavier Alamán Roldán; Ruth Cobos Pérez
SKC is a prototype system for knowledge management in the Web by means of semantic information without supervision and tries to select the knowledge contained in the system by paying attention to its use. This paper explains user activity analysis in order to find out their interest for knowledge elements in the system, and the application of this interest for users classification and knowledge identification for their interest, inside and outside SKC. As a result a model for user interest based on interaction is obtained.
Keywords: user interest model; user interaction; user profiling; data mining; knowledge management; CSCW
Some Pitfalls for Developing Enculturated Conversational Agents BIBAKFull-Text 340-348
  Matthias Rehm; Elisabeth André; Yukiko I. Nakano
A review of current agent-based systems exemplifies that a Western perspective is predominant in the field. But as conversational agents focus on rich multimodal interactive behaviors that underlie face-to-face encounters, it is indispensable to incorporate cultural heuristics of such behaviors into the system. In this paper we examine some of the pitfalls that arise in developing such systems.
Keywords: Embodied Conversational Agents; Cultural Heuristics; Multimodal Interaction
Comparison of Different Talking Heads in Non-Interactive Settings BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Benjamin Weiss; Christine Kühnel; Ina Wechsung; Sebastian Möller; Sascha Fagel
Six different talking heads have been evaluated in two consecutive experiments. Two text-to-speech components and three head components have been used. Results from semantic differentials show a clear preference for the most human-like and expressive head. The analysis of the semantic differentials reveals three factors each. These factors show different patterns for the head components. Overall quality is strongly related to one factor, which covers the quality aspect 'appearance'. Another factor found in both experiments comprises 'human likeliness' and 'naturalness' and is much less correlated with overall quality. While subjects have been able to clearly separate all head components with different factors of the semantic differential, only some of these factors are relevant for explicit quality ratings. A good appearance seems to affect the perception of sympathy and the ascription of reliability.
Keywords: talking heads; evaluation; quality aspects; smart home domain
Video Content Production Support System with Speech-Driven Embodied Entrainment Character by Speech and Hand Motion Inputs BIBAKFull-Text 358-367
  Michiya Yamamoto; Kouzi Osaki; Tomio Watanabe
InterActor is a speech-input-driven CG-embodied interaction character that can generate communicative movements and actions for entrained interaction. InterPuppet, on the other hand, is an embodied interaction character that is driven by both speech input, like the InterActor, and hand motion input, like a puppet. In this study, we apply InterPuppet to video content production and construct a system to evaluate the content production. Self-evaluation of long-term (5-day) video content production demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed system.
Keywords: Human communication; human interaction; embodied interaction; embodied communication; video content
Autonomous Turn-Taking Agent System Based on Behavior Model BIBAKFull-Text 368-373
  Masahide Yuasa; Hiroko Tokunaga; Naoki Mukawa
In this paper, we propose a turn-taking simulation system using animated agents. To develop our system, we analyzed eye-gaze and turn-taking behaviors of humans during actual conversations. The system, which can generate a wide variety of turn-taking patterns based on the analysis, will play an important role for modeling the behaviors at turn-takings, such as gazes, head orientations, facial expressions and gestures. The paper describes the system concept, its functions, and implementations. The findings obtained from investigations using the system will contribute to development of future conversational systems in which agents and robots communicate with users in a lively and emotional manner.
Keywords: animated agents; turn-taking; nonverbal information; conversation

Ambient Interaction

An Interoperable Concept for Controlling Smart Homes -- The ASK-IT Paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 377-386
  Evangelos Bekiaris; Kostas Kalogirou; Alexandros Mourouzis; Maria Panou
This paper presents an interoperable home automation infrastructure that offers new levels of mobility, accessibility, independence, comfort, and overall quality of life. Building on previous experience with similar systems and existing gaps over the full potential of automated support, both at home and on the move, new concepts and objectives are defined for R&D on smart homes. The paper outlines the proposed integrated and holistic solution, discusses design and development issues, provides indicative evaluation results emerging from a case study conducted in the European ASK-IT project, and concludes by highlighting open issues and future steps.
Keywords: Smart home; Ambient assisted living; Accessibility; Infomobility
Towards Ambient Augmented Reality with Tangible Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 387-396
  Mark Billinghurst; Raphael Grasset; Hartmut Seichter; Andreas Dünser
Ambient Interface research has the goal of embedding technology that disappears into the user's surroundings. In many ways Augmented Reality (AR) technology is complimentary to this in that AR interfaces seamlessly enhances the real environment with virtual information overlay. The two merge together in context aware Ambient AR applications, which allow users to easily perceive and interact with Ambient Interfaces by using AR overlay of the real world. In this paper we describe how Tangible Interaction techniques can be used for Ambient AR applications. We will present a conceptual framework for Ambient Tangible AR Interface, a new generation of software and hardware tools for development and methods for evaluating Ambient Tangible AR Interfaces.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Ambient Interfaces; Tangible Interfaces
Rapid Prototyping of an AmI-Augmented Office Environment Demonstrator BIBAFull-Text 397-406
  Dimitris Grammenos; Yannis Georgalis; Nikolaos Partarakis; Xenophon Zabulis; Thomas Sarmis; Sokratis Kartakis; Panagiotis Tourlakis; Antonis A. Argyros; Constantine Stephanidis
This paper presents the process and tangible outcomes of a rapid prototyping activity towards the creation of a demonstrator, showcasing the potential use and effect of Ambient Intelligence technologies in a typical office environment. In this context, the hardware and software components used are described, as well as the interactive behavior of the demonstrator. Additionally, some conclusions stemming from the experience gained are presented, along with pointers for future research and development work.
Challenges for User Centered Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 407-415
  Fabian Hermann; Roland Blach; Doris Janssen; Thorsten Klein; Andreas Schuller; Dieter Spath
Future smart environments integrate information on persons, ambient resources and objects. Many rich visions of smart environments have been developed, and current technological and market developments promise to bring aspects of these visions of into everyday life. The paper delineates the role of mobile and decentralized communities, semantic technologies, and virtual reality. Key challenges for a user centered development of smart environments are discussed, in particular the controllability of personal identity data, reliable user interfaces for autonomous systems, and seamless interaction in integrated virtual and physical environments.
Keywords: smart environments; adaptive systems; system autonomy; mixed reality; social software; semantic technology; digital identity; privacy; user controllability
Point and Control: The Intuitive Method to Control Multi-device with Single Remote Control BIBAKFull-Text 416-422
  Sung Soo Hong; Ju Il Eom
Remote controls are mainly used to control most of the CE devices in home environment these days. As the number of electronic devices increases in home, each device's corresponding remote may also be added, and user frequently controls several devices at one time. This situation makes a user feel difficulty in finding desired remote control among many of other controllers. To alleviate this inconvenience, a technique for controlling multiple electronic devices with a single remote, well-known as a universal remote control technique, has attracted attention. Generally, when a user uses the universal remote control, she must input a key code of a desired device. If a user were to control several devices interchangeably, she may hang out pushing the key code for one device after the other. This kind of maneuver can be very tiresome, and it may lead to dropping the usability drastically. This paper propose the hardware, and software structure of Point and Control (PAC), which uses the metaphor of pointing a objective target, to select the device user intend to control. By using PAC, users can easily select and control the target device among many of candidates in real time with just simple behavior.
Keywords: Remote control; Universal Remote control; IR LED; IR Image Sensor; Point and Control; PAC; Multi device Control; Concurrent Control
New Integrated Framework for Video Based Moving Object Tracking BIBAFull-Text 423-432
  Md. Zahidul Islam; Chi-Min Oh; Chil-Woo Lee
In this paper, we depict a novel approach to improve the moving object tracking system with particle filter using shape similarity and color histogram matching by a new integrated framework. The shape similarity between a template and estimated regions in the video sequences can be measured by their normalized cross-correlation of distance transformation image map. Observation model of the particle filter is based on shape from distance transformed edge features with concurrent effect of color information. The target object to be tracked forms the reference color window and its histogram are calculated, which is used to compute the histogram distance while performing a deterministic search for matching window. For both shape and color matching reference template window is created instantly by selecting any object in a video scene and updated in every frame. Experimental results have been offered to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Object Scanning Using a Sensor Frame BIBAKFull-Text 433-439
  Soonmook Jeong; Taehoun Song; Gihoon Go; Key Ho Kwon; Jae Wook Jeon
This paper focuses on object scanning using sensors. The objects are articles in daily use. Everyday objects, such as cups, bottles and vessels are good models to scan. The sensor scan represents the objects as 3D images on the computer monitor. Our research proposes a new device to scan real world objects. The device is a square frame, similar to a picture frame, but, except for the frame, is empty. The infrared sensors are arranged on the device frame. These sensors detect the object and extract the coordinates from the detected object. These coordinates are transmitted to the computer and the 3D creation algorithm represents these coordinates as a 3D image. The operating principle is simple, similar to scanning a person at a checkpoint. The user passes the object through the sensor frame to obtain the 3D image, creating the 3D image corresponding to the real object. Thus, the user can easily obtain the 3D object image. This approach uses a low-cost infrared sensor, rather than a high-cost sensor, such as a laser.
Keywords: Sensor frame; 3D image; Scanning; Infrared sensor
Mixed Realities -- Virtual Object Lessons BIBAKFull-Text 440-445
  Andreas Kratky
The question of how to design and implement efficient virtual classroom environments gains a new quality in the light of extensive digital education projects such as the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative. At the core of this consideration is not only the task of developing content for very different cultural settings but also the necessity to reflect the effects of learning processes that operate exclusively with digitally mediated content. This paper traces the design of the project Venture to the Interior, an interactive experience that presents selected objects from the collections of the Museum of Natural History in Berlin and reflects them as building blocks for the Enlightenment-idea of a building of knowledge. The project investigates the role of objects as a knowledge device and the possibilities for a translation of the didactic effects of experiential learning into virtual environments.
Keywords: Virtual Museums; Virtual Reality; Mixed Reality; Virtual Classroom; Distance Learning; Photorealism
New Human-Computer Interactions Using Tangible Objects: Application on a Digital Tabletop with RFID Technology BIBAKFull-Text 446-455
  Sébastien Kubicki; Sophie Lepreux; Yoann Lebrun; Philippe Dos Santos; Christophe Kolski; Jean Caelen
This paper presents a new kind of interaction between users and a tabletop. The table described is interactive and associated with tangible and traceable objects using RFID technology. As a consequence, some Human-Computer Interactions become possible implying these tangible objects. The multi-agent architecture of the table is also explained, as well as a case study based on a scenario.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; RFID; tabletop; tangible objects; Multi-Agent System
Context-Aware Cognitive Agent Architecture for Ambient User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 456-463
  Youngho Lee; Choonsung Shin; Woontack Woo
An ambient user interface is a set of hidden intelligent interfaces that recognize user's presence and provides services to immediate needs. There are several research activities on user interfaces and interactions which combining VR/AR, ubiquitous computing/ambient interfaces, and artificial intelligence. However, real-time and intelligent responses of user interfaces are still challenging problems. In this paper, we introduce the design of Context-aware Cognitive Agent Architecture (CCAA) for real-time and intelligent responses of ambient user interfaces in ubiquitous virtual reality, and discuss possible scenarios for realizing ambient interfaces. CCAA applies a vertically layered two-pass agent architecture with three layers. The three layers are AR (augmented reality) layer, CA (context-aware) layer, and AI layer. The two passes interconnect the layers as an input or output. One of the passes of each layer is an input path from a lower layer or environmental sensors describing a situation. The other pass is an output path and deliveries a set of appropriated actions based on the understanding of the situation. This architecture enables users interact with ambient smart objects through an ambient user interface in various ways of intelligence by exploiting context and AI techniques. Based on the architecture, several possible scenarios about recognition problems and higher level intelligent services for ambient interaction are suggested.
Keywords: Ambient user interface; ubiquitous virtual reality; context-awareness; augmented reality
An Embodied Approach for Engaged Interaction in Ubiquitous Computing BIBAKFull-Text 464-472
  Mark O. Millard; Firat Soylu
A particular vision of ubiquitous computing is offered to contribute to the burgeoning, dominant interaction paradigm in human-computer interaction (HCI). An engaged vision of ubiquitous computing (UbiComp) can take advantage of natural human abilities and tendencies for interaction. The HCI literature is reviewed to provide a brief overview of promising interaction styles and paradigms in order to situate them within ubiquitous computing. Embodied interaction is introduced as a key theoretical framework for moving UbiComp forward as an engaged interaction paradigm.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing; HCI; embodied interaction; tangible interaction
Generic Framework for Transforming Everyday Objects into Interactive Surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 473-482
  Elena Mugellini; Omar Abou Khaled; Stéphane Pierroz; Stefano Carrino; Houda Chabbi Drissi
According to Mark Weiser, smart environments are physical worlds that are richly and invisibly interwoven with sensors, actuators, displays, and computational elements, embedded seamlessly in the everyday objects of our lives. At present however turn everyday objects into interactive ones is a very challenging issue and this limits their widespread diffusion. In order to address this issue we propose a framework to turn everyday objects, such as a table or a mirror, into interactive surfaces allowing to access and manipulate digital information. The framework integrates several interaction technologies such as electromagnetic, acoustic and optical one, supporting rapid prototype development. Two prototypes, an interactive table and an interactive tray, have been developed using the toolkit to validate the proposed approach.
Keywords: human-computer interaction; interactive surfaces; RFID; electromagnetic; acoustic
mæve -- An Interactive Tabletop Installation for Exploring Background Information in Exhibitions BIBAKFull-Text 483-491
  Till Nagel; Larissa Pschetz; Moritz Stefaner; Matina Halkia; Boris Müller
This paper introduces the installation mæve: a novel approach to present background information in exhibitions in a highly interactive, tangible and sociable manner. Visitors can collect paper cards representing the exhibits and put them on an interactive surface to display associated concepts and relations to other works. As a result, users can explore both the unifying themes of the exhibition as well as individual characteristics of exhibits. On basis of metadata schemata developed in the MACE (Metadata for Architectural Contents in Europe) project, the system has been put to use the Architecture Biennale to display the entries to the Everyville student competition.
Keywords: Metadata; visualization; concept networks; tangible interface; exhibition; user experience
Relationality Design toward Enriched Communications BIBAFull-Text 492-500
  Yukiko I. Nakano; Masao Morizane; Ivan Tanev; Katsunori Shimohara
We have been conducting research on how to design relationality in complex systems composed of intelligent tangible or intangible, artificial artifacts, by using evolutionary computation and network science as methodologies. This paper describes the research concept, methodologies, and issues of relationality design. As one of research on relationality, we investigate here significance of linkage between a real world and a virtual world in a learning system.
Ultra Compact Laser Based Projectors and Imagers BIBAKFull-Text 501-510
  Harald Schenk; Thilo Sandner; Christian Drabe; Michael Scholles; Klaus Frommhagen; Christian Gerwig; Hubert Lakner
2D micro scanning mirrors are presented which make use of a degressive spring allowing to achieve an optical scan range of up to 112° x 84°, optically. The scanning mirrors are deployed for highly miniaturized monochrome and full color projectors as well as for laser imagers. The projectors allow for projection with VGA resolution at 50 Hz frame rate. The laser imager supports full color SVGA resolution at 30 Hz frame rate. Both, the projector and the imager are based on a single 2D scanner chip and thus could be combined in a single ultra compact system for simultaneous imaging and projection with high depth of focus.
Keywords: scanner; projection; imager; MEMS; micro scanning mirror
Understanding the Older User of Ambient Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 511-519
  Andrew Sixsmith
This paper reports on the user-driven research and development (R&D) approach adopted with the EU-funded SOPRANO project (http://www.soprano-ip.org/) to develop an "ambient assisted living" (AAL) system to enhance the lives of frail and disabled older people. The paper describes the conceptual framework and methods used within SOPRANO and briefly presents some of the results from requirements capture, use case development and initial prototype development. The focus of the research is on understanding the potential user of the SOPRANO AAL system using a holistic ecological model of person and context and using methods that aimed to explore different experiential "realities". The results demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for involving user in all stages of R&D and in generating and evaluating ideas for prototype development.
Keywords: Ambient assisted living; older people; user-driven research
Multi-pointing Method Using a Desk Lamp and Single Camera for Effective Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 520-525
  Taehoun Song; Thien Cong Pham; Soonmook Jung; Ji-Hwan Park; Key Ho Kwon; Jae Wook Jeon
Multi-pointing has become an important research interest, and is used in many computer applications to allow users to interact effectively with a program. Multi-pointing is used as an input method, and can also be fun and very user-friendly. However, in order to use the method, a complex and expensive hardware configuration is required. This paper presents a new and low cost method of multi-pointing based on a simple hardware configuration. Our method uses dual hand recognition, a table lamp, and a single CMOS camera. The table lamp provides a steady illumination environment for image processing, and the CMOS camera is mounted to maintain good stability. A single camera is used for dual hand recognition to achieve multi-pointing. Therefore, image processing does not require intensive computing which allows us to use a stand-alone system (including a 32 bit RISK processor). The results of the proposed method show that effective control navigation of applications such as Google Earth or Google Maps can be achieved.
Keywords: Multi-Pointing; Hand Recognition; Human-Computer Interaction
Communication Grill/Salon: Hybrid Physical/Digital Artifacts for Stimulating Spontaneous Real World Communication BIBAKFull-Text 526-535
  Koh Sueda; Koji Ishii; Takashi Miyaki; Jun Rekimoto
One of the problems encountered in face-to-face communication involves conversational imbalances among the participants caused by differences in conversational interests and social positions. It is common for us not to be able to communicate well with an unfamiliar person. On the other hand, old customs in the real world, such as the Japanese tea ceremony, effectively use physical artifacts to enable smoother conversation. In this project, we designed two communication systems that facilitate casual communication using physical/digital artifacts, such as a meal and text-chat, in order to clarify that real world communication can be supported by digital technology. The first system, called the "Communication Grill," connects a grill for cooking meat to a chat system. The grill is heated by the chatting activity. Thus, people must continue conversing to roast the meat. The second system is called the "Communication Salon." It is a computer-enhanced tea ceremony with a chat screen displayed at a tearoom. Using these systems, we conducted user evaluations at SIGGRAPH and other open events. Based on the chat logs at these events, we found that conversational topics gradually shifted from topics about the systems to more general topics. An analysis of these chat logs revealed that the participants began to communicate spontaneously using this system.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Chat; Chat-augmented meal; merging virtual and real; Communication Grill/Salon
Motion Capture System Using an Optical Resolver BIBAKFull-Text 536-543
  Takuji Tokiwa; Masashi Yoshidzumi; Hideaki Nii; Maki Sugimoto; Masahiko Inami
In this paper, we present a novel position measurement method that makes use of a couple of plane light sources created from an IR-LED matrix array and a photo-detector. The light sources emit light with the same frequency, but different phases, while the optical axes of the sources are set up orthogonally. Then, the signal place is diffused by the space with phase differences in each position. Finally, the signal received by the photo-detector is analyzed to determine the position.
Keywords: Motion Capture; Position Detection
The Effects of an Anti-glare Sleeve Installed on Fluorescent Tube Lamps on Glare and Reading Comfort BIBAKFull-Text 544-553
  Shiaw-Tsyr Uang; Cheng-Li Liu; Mali Chang
Our previous study has demonstrated the benefits of a reflective sleeve to redirect lighting and to enhance luminous intensity of fluorescent tube lamps in certain light projecting angles. A reflective sleeve is composed of a plastic reflector and a transparent refractor. However, the intensive centralized lighting may increase the possibilities of producing glare. In this study, the transparent refractor of the sleeve is replaced with a diffuser to compose an anti-glare sleeve. This study adopts measurement, optical software simulation, and experiment methods to investigate the effects of an anti-glare sleeve on redirecting lighting and reducing glare. The results demonstrate that luminous intensity towards viewing objects of a fluorescent tube lamp enhances after adopting an anti-glare sleeve. In addition, software simulation indicates an anti-glare sleeve increases light uniformity and reduces glare. The subjective evaluation also shows that florescent tube lamps with anti-glare sleeves produce less light reflection on various papers and more comfortable reading.
Keywords: Glare; Reading comfort; Fluorescent tube lamp; Lamp sleeve
Electromyography Focused on Passiveness and Activeness in Embodied Interaction: Toward a Novel Interface for Co-creating Expressive Body Movement BIBAKFull-Text 554-562
  Takabumi Watanabe; Norikazu Matsushima; Ryutaro Seto; Hiroko Nishi; Yoshiyuki Miwa
In expressive body movement created by one person and his/her partner, a sense of nonseparation, as if one's body and his/her partner's body are united, is experienced. For such a relationship between the two, a process to feel passiveness and activeness physically is important. The objective of this study is to capture passiveness and activeness in bodily interaction. We focused on myoelectric (ME) potential from which time of generation and amplitude differ in voluntary and reaction movements. A measurement system was developed using ME potential in bodily interaction. This technique was validated by our data.
Keywords: embodied interaction; expressive body movement; passiveness and activeness; surface EMG

Affect, Emotion and Engagement

An Integrated Approach to Emotion Recognition for Advanced Emotional Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 565-574
  Panagiotis D. Bamidis; Christos A. Frantzidis; Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; Andrej Luneski; Chrysa D. Lithari; Manousos A. Klados; Charalampos Bratsas; Christos L. Papadelis; Costas Pappas
Emotion identification is beginning to be considered as an essential feature in human-computer interaction. However, most of the studies are mainly focused on facial expression classifications and speech recognition and not much attention has been paid until recently to physiological pattern recognition. In this paper, an integrative approach is proposed to emotional interaction by fusing multi-modal signals. Subjects are exposed to pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). A feature extraction procedure is used to discriminate between four affective states by means of a Mahalanobis distance classifier. The average classifications rate (74.11%) was encouraging. Thus, the induced affective state is mirrored through an avatar by changing its facial characteristics and generating a voice message sympathising with the user's mood. It is argued that multi-physiological patterning in combination with anthropomorphic avatars may contribute to the enhancement of affective multi-modal interfaces and the advancement of machine emotional intelligence.
Keywords: Emotion; Affective Computing; EEG; Skin Conductance; Avatar; Mahalanobis; classifier
Addressing the Interplay of Culture and Affect in HCI: An Ontological Approach BIBAKFull-Text 575-584
  Emmanuel G. Blanchard; Riichiro Mizoguchi; Susanne P. Lajoie
Culture and affect are closely tied domains that have been considered separately in HCI until now. After carefully reviewing research done in each of those domains, a formal ontology engineering approach brings us to identify and structure useful concepts for considering their interplay.
Keywords: Affective Computing; Cultural Computing; Ontology Engineering; Awareness; Adaptation
Love at First Encounter -- Start-Up of New Applications BIBAKFull-Text 585-594
  Henning Breuer; Marlene Kettner; Matthias Wagler; Nathalie Preuschen; Fee Steinhoff
Whereas most research on usability focuses on known applications we explore the first encounters. Starting up new applications expectancy, impression management, initial dialogues and acquaintance, and ritualizing operations have to be handled. We present the research approach and document short histories of learning and fascination. Focussing on business users of mobile services we conducted diary research and expert interviews, reviewed design guidelines, and conducted a pattern-driven and resource-oriented innovation workshop. We present insights and results from the synthesis of guidelines, and ideas translated into experience prototypes.
Keywords: Start-up; seven touchpoints; learnability; service innovation; creativity; diary research; experience design
Responding to Learners' Cognitive-Affective States with Supportive and Shakeup Dialogues BIBAKFull-Text 595-604
  Sidney K. D'Mello; Scotty D. Craig; Karl Fike; Arthur C. Graesser
This paper describes two affect-sensitive variants of an existing intelligent tutoring system called AutoTutor. The new versions of AutoTutor detect learners' boredom, confusion, and frustration by monitoring conversational cues, gross body language, and facial features. The sensed cognitive-affective states are used to select AutoTutor's pedagogical and motivational dialogue moves and to drive the behavior of an embodied pedagogical agent that expresses emotions through verbal content, facial expressions, and affective speech. The first version, called the Supportive AutoTutor, addresses the presence of the negative states by providing empathetic and encouraging responses. The Supportive AutoTutor attributes the source of the learners' emotions to the material or itself, but never directly to the learner. In contrast, the second version, called the Shakeup AutoTutor, takes students to task by directly attributing the source of the emotions to the learners themselves and responding with witty, skeptical, and enthusiastic responses. This paper provides an overview of our theoretical framework, and the design of the Supportive and Shakeup tutors.
Keywords: affect; emotion; affect-sensitive AutoTutor; ITS
Trust in Online Technology: Towards Practical Guidelines Based on Experimentally Verified Theory BIBAKFull-Text 605-614
  Christian Detweiler; Joost Broekens
A large amount of research attempts to define trust, yet relatively little research attempts to experimentally verify what makes trust needed in interactions with humans and technology. In this paper we identify the underlying elements of trust-requiring situations: (a) goals that involve dependence on another, (b) a perceived lack of control over the other, (c) uncertainty regarding the ability of the other, and (d) uncertainty regarding the benevolence of the other. Then, we propose a model of the interaction of these elements. We argue that this model can explain why certain situations require trust. To test the applicability of the proposed model to an instance of human-technology interaction, we constructed a website which required subjects to depend on an intelligent software agent to accomplish a task. A strong correlation was found between subjects' level of trust in the software and the ability they perceived the software as having. Strong negative correlations were found between perceived risk and perceived ability, and between perceived risk and trust.
Keywords: Trust; user modeling; empirical research
Influence of User Experience on Affectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 615-620
  Ryoko Fukuda
Affectiveness is frequently discussed based on the first impression to the appearance of a product. However, experience in use of that product can also influence affectiveness. In order to clarify the influence of user experience on affectiveness, user perception of products should be investigated in several phases of using a product. In this paper, two experiments were presented, which compared user perception between before and after using products and investigated user perception during repeated use of products. The results suggested that user experience can affect affectiveness in several forms.
Keywords: user experience; affectiveness; attachment
A Human-Centered Model for Detecting Technology Engagement BIBAFull-Text 621-630
  James Glasnapp; Oliver Brdiczka
This paper proposes a human-centered engagement model for developing interactive media technology. The human-centered engagement model builds on previous interaction models for publicly located ambient displays. It is designed from ethnographic observation with the aim of informing technological innovation from the perspective of the user. The model will be presented along with technological mechanisms to detect human behavior with the aim of responsive media technology development.
Relationship Learning Software: Design and Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 631-640
  Kyla A. McMullen; Gregory H. Wakefield
Interface designers have been studying how to construct graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for a number of years, however adults are often the main focus of these studies. Children constitute a unique user group, making it necessary to design software specifically for them. For this study, several interface design frameworks were combined to synthesize a framework for designing educational software for children. Two types of learning, relationships and categories, are the focus of the present study because of their importance in early-child learning as well as standardized testing. For this study the educational game Melo's World was created as an experimental platform. The experiments assessed the performance differences found when including or excluding subsets of interface design features, specifically aesthetic and behavioral features. Software that contains aesthetic, but lack behavioral features, was found to have the greatest positive impact on a child's learning of thematic relationships.
Keywords: human computer interaction; educational technology; interactive systems design; user interface design
Relationship Enhancer: Interactive Recipe in Kitchen Island BIBAKFull-Text 641-650
  Tsai-Yun Mou; Tay-Sheng Jeng; Chun-Heng Ho
HCI researches on kitchen have been focusing on creating new devices to facilitate cooking works and eliminate mistakes. However, kitchen is also a place where family and friends create meaning and memories. Therefore, here we develop an interactive recipe in kitchen island that aims to enhance social bonds and pleasure among people. The system utilizes tangible interaction for creative recipe and keeps records of people's favorite foods. Groups of family and friends participated in the study. The results indicate that there existed a cognition gap in people's understanding of each other's food preference. Participants agreed that the interactive recipe increased communication when preparing food for others. In creativity aspect, the numbers of new dish did not increase because of collaboration, but instead people showed more creative dish ideas. On the other hand, individual developed more dish variations but ordinary recipe design.
Keywords: HCI; recipe; communication; creativity; social interaction
ConvoCons: Encouraging Affinity on Multitouch Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 651-659
  Michael A. Oren; Stephen B. Gilbert
This paper describes the design of ConvoCons, a system to promote affinity of group members working in a co-located multitouch environment. The research includes an exploratory study that led to the development of ConvoCons as well as the iterative evolution of the ConvoCon system, design trade-offs made, and empirical observations of users that led to design changes. This research adds to the literature on social interaction design and offers interface designers guidance on promoting affinity and increased collaboration via the user interface.
Keywords: Multitouch; affinity; table computing; collaboration; virtual assembly; creativity support
Development of an Emotional Interface for Sustainable Water Consumption in the Home BIBAKFull-Text 660-669
  Mehdi Ravandi; Jon Mok; Mark H. Chignell
The design of an application to monitor, analyze and report individual water consumption within a household is introduced. An interface design incorporating just-in-time feedback, positive and negative reinforcement, ecological contextualization, and social validation is used to promote behavior change. Reducing water consumption behavior in the shower is targeted, as it is the leading source of discretionary indoor water use in a typical home. In both in-shower and out-of-shower scenarios, interface designs aim to address user needs for information, context, control, reward, and convenience to reduce water consumption.
Keywords: Emotional design; Water Conservation; Home; Shower; Sustainability
Influences of Telops on Television Audiences' Interpretation BIBAFull-Text 670-678
  Hidetsugu Suto; Hiroshi Kawakami; Osamu Katai
The influence of text information, known as "telops," on the viewers of television programs is discussed. In recent television programs, textual information, i.e., captions and subtitles, is abundant. Production of a television program is facilitated by using telops, and therefore, the main reason for using this information is the producers' convenience. However, the effect on audiences cannot be disregarded when thinking about the influence of media on humans' lives. In this paper, channel theory and situation theory are introduced, and channel theory is expanded in order to represent the mental states and attitudes of an audience. Furthermore, the influence of telops is considered by using a scene of a quiz show as an example. Some assumptions are proposed based on the considerations, and experiments are carried out in order to verify the assumptions.
Extracting High-Order Aesthetic and Affective Components from Composer's Writings BIBAKFull-Text 679-682
  Akifumi Tokosumi; Hajime Murai
A digital humanities technique for the network analysis of words with a text is applied to capture the subtle and sensitive contents of essays written by a contemporary composer of classical music. Based on analysis findings, the possible contributions of digital humanities to affective technology are discussed. This paper also provides a systematic view of digital humanities and affective technology.
Keywords: high-order cognition; emotion; music; art; network analysis; digital humanities
Affective Technology, Affective Management, towards Affective Society BIBAKFull-Text 683-692
  Hiroyuki Umemuro
In this paper, the term affective is defined as "being capable to evoke affects in people's mind" or "being capable to deliberate affects to be evoked in people's mind". This paper discusses potential impact of concept of affectiveness on development of technological products and services, management, and value systems of societies.
Keywords: Affect; emotion; feeling; management; mood; quality; usability
Bio-sensing for Emotional Characterization without Word Labels BIBAKFull-Text 693-702
  Tessa Verhoef; Christine L. Lisetti; Armando Barreto; Francisco Ortega; Tijn van der Zant; Fokie Cnossen
In this article, we address some of the issues concerning emotion recognition from processing physiological signals captured by bio-sensors. We discuss some of our preliminary results, and propose future directions for emotion recognition based on our lessons learned.
Keywords: Emotion Recognition; Affective Computing; Bio-sensing
An Affect-Sensitive Social Interaction Paradigm Utilizing Virtual Reality Environments for Autism Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 703-712
  Karla Conn Welch; Uttama Lahiri; Changchun Liu; Rebecca Weller; Nilanjan Sarkar; Zachary Warren
This paper describes the design and development of both software to create social interaction modules on a virtual reality (VR) platform and individualized affective models for affect recognition of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which includes developing tasks for affect elicitation and using machine-learning mathematical tools for reliable affect recognition. A VR system will be formulated that can present realistic social communication tasks to the children with ASD and can monitor their affective response using physiological signals, such as cardiovascular activities including electrocardiogram, impedance cardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and phonocardiogram; electrodermal activities including tonic and phasic responses from galvanic skin response; electromyogram activities from corrugator supercilii, zygomaticus major, and upper trapezius muscles; and peripheral temperature. This affect-sensitive system will be capable of systematically manipulating aspects of social communication to more fully understand its salient components for children with ASD.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Physiological responses; Virtual Reality; Autism; Affective model
Recognizing and Responding to Student Affect BIBAKFull-Text 713-722
  Beverly Park Woolf; Toby Dragon; Ivon Arroyo; David G. Cooper; Winslow Burleson; Kasia Muldner
This paper describes the use of wireless sensors to recognize student emotion and the use of pedagogical agents to respond to students with these emotions. Minimally invasive sensor technology has reached such a maturity level that students engaged in classroom work can us sensors while using a computer-based tutor. The sensors, located on each of 25 student's chair, mouse, monitor, and wrist, provide data about posture, movement, grip tension, facially expressed mental states and arousal. This data has demonstrated that intelligent tutoring systems can provide adaptive feedback based on an individual student's affective state. We also describe the evaluation of emotional embodied animated pedagogical agents and their impact on student motivation and achievement. Empirical studies show that students using the agents increased their math value, self-concept and mastery orientation.
Keywords: intelligent tutoring systems; wireless sensors; student emotion; pedagogical agents

Smart and Wearable Materials and Devices

Usability Studies on Sensor Smart Clothing BIBAKFull-Text 725-730
  Haeng-Suk Chae; Woon Jung Cho; Soo Hyun Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
This paper presents approach to usability evaluation on sensor smart clothing that the methodologies can be divided into two categories. 1) usability evaluation that gather data from actual users on sensor smart clothing. 2) investigation weight values which is calculated for evaluation item. The result of usability evaluation shows that SC (sensor controller) influence on overall usability of sensor smart clothing. Effective item and module is social acceptance of SC, wearability of GC (general connector) & PA (platform appearance), usefulness of GC & PA and maintenance (400) of PA & SC. To estimate the sensor smart clothing, task process was applied and the components on the response of user were investigated. This study was performed to determine how effects the properties of sensor smart clothing. Our study suggests that usability evaluation may be important within design process of sensor smart clothing.
Keywords: Smart Clothing; Usability; Evaluation; Sensor; Wearable Computing; Wearability
Considering Personal Profiles for Comfortable and Efficient Interactions with Smart Clothes BIBAKFull-Text 731-740
  Sébastien Duval; Christian Hoareau; Gilsoo Cho
Profiles describing the abilities and specificities of individual wearers enable smart clothes to fundamentally and continuously personalize their behavior, suggesting or selecting useful, comfortable and efficient services and interaction modes. First, we suggest foundations for the design of personal profiles for the general public based on perception, bodily characteristics, culture, language, memory, and spatial abilities. Then, we sketch reactions towards profiles for oneself and one's family based on a 2008 pilot study in Japan. Accordingly, we discuss the creation, update, use and dissemination of profiles, and finally perspectives for future social investigations.
Keywords: General public; Interaction; Smart clothes; Sociology; Ubiquitous computing; Personal Profile; User profile
Interaction Wearable Computer with Networked Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 741-751
  Jiung-yao Huang; Ming-Chih Tung; Huan-Chao Keh; Ji-Jen Wu; Kun-Hang Lee; Chung-Hsien Tsai
The goal of this research is to propose a technique to integrate the mobile reality system into the legacy networked virtual environment. This research composes of two essential research domains, one is networked virtual environment (NVE) and the other is mobile computing. With the proposed technique, a user can use a mobile device to join a networked virtual environment and interact with desktop users of the same virtual environment. To achieve this goal, three technical issues have to be solved including mobile networking, resource-shortage and coordinates coordination. The paper presents solutions to all of these issues. Further, a Mobility Supporting Server (MSS) is proposed to implement presented solutions into an existing networked virtual environment, called 3D virtual campus, Taiwan. The result of this experimental research enlightens the possibility of building a Multiplayer Mobile Mixed Reality (M3R) environment in the near future.
Keywords: Networked Virtual Environment (NVE); Mobile Computing; Mobile Supporting Server; Multiplayer Mobile Mixed Reality
The Impact of Different Visual Feedback Presentation Methods in a Wearable Computing Scenario BIBAFull-Text 752-759
  Hendrik Iben; Hendrik Witt; Ernesto Morales Kluge
Interfaces for wearable computing applications have to be tailored to task and usability demands. Critical information has to be presented in a way allowing for fast absorption by the user while not distraction from the primary task. In this work we evaluated the impact of different information presentation methods on the performance of users in a wearable computing scenario. The presented information was critical to fulfill the given task and was displayed on two different types of head mounted displays (HMD). Further the representations were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of qualitative representations while the second group focused on quantitative information. Only a weak significance could be determined for effect the different methods used have on the performance but there is evidence that familiarity has an effect. A significant effect was found for the type of HMD.
Gold Coating of a Plastic Optical Fiber Based on PMMA BIBAKFull-Text 760-767
  Seok Min Kim; Sung Hun Kim; Eun Ju Park; Dong Lyun Cho; Moo Sung Lee
We investigated the adhesion between gold thin film and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-co-HFP)) substrates with the aim of imparting electrical conductivity to plastic optical fibers (POFs). The two polymers were used as the core and the cladding of POF, respectively. Gold thin film of 50nm thickness was deposited by ion sputtering onto the polymers and also POF. Several approaches, which were well known to be effective in enhancing adhesive strength between gold and polymers, were applied in this study: introduction of polar functionality on the substrate surface by plasma treatment, buffer layer insertion, and physical surface roughening. The variation of wettability and adhesion with plasma conditions was investigated through water contact angle measurement and cross hatch cut test. Even though the contact angles of substrates were decreased after Ar or O2 plasma treatment, irrespective of the polymer type, the adhesion of polymers with gold layer was very poor. The Ti buffer layer of 5nm thickness, which was deposited between PMMA substrate and gold layer, did not contribute to improve the adhesion. However, P(VDF-co-HFP) substrates with rough surface of 13.44nm RMS shows 3B class adhesion to gold from the cross hatch tape test. The gold-coated POF showed the electrical conductivity of 1.35×10³Scm-1 without significant optical loss. The result may be used for developing a medical device capable of simultaneously applying electrical and optical stimulus.
Keywords: plastic optical fiber; POF; sidelight; overcoating
Standardization for Smart Clothing Technology BIBAKFull-Text 768-777
  Kwangil Lee; Yong Gu Ji
Smart clothing is the next generation of apparel. It is a combination of new fabric technology and digital technology, which means that the clothing is made with new signal-transfer fabric technology installed with digital devices. Since this smart clothing is still under development, many problems have occurred due to the absence of the standardization of technology. Therefore, the efficiency of technology development can be strengthened through industrial standardization. This study consists of three phases. The first phase is selecting standardization factors to propose a standardization road map. The second phase is to research and collect related test evaluation methods of smart clothing. For this, we selected two categories, which are clothing and electricity/electron properties. The third phase is establishing a standardization road map for smart clothing. In this study, test evaluations have not yet been conducted and proved. However, this study shows how to approach standardization. We expect that it will be valuable for developing smart clothing technology and standardization in the future.
Keywords: smart clothing; standardization; new fabric technology; clothing property; electricity/electron property
Wearable ECG Monitoring System Using Conductive Fabrics and Active Electrodes BIBAKFull-Text 778-783
  Su Ho Lee; Seok Myung Jung; Chung Ki Lee; Kee Sam Jeong; Gilsoo Cho; Sun Kook Yoo
The aim of this paper is to develop nonintrusive type ECG monitoring system based on active electrode with conductive fabric. Our developed electrode can measure ECG signal without the electrolyte gel or the adhesives causing skin trouble. For the stable measurement of ECG signal, the buffer amplifier with high input impedance and the noise bypassing shield with conductive fabric were developed. This system involves real-time ECG signal monitoring, and wireless communication using the ZigBee protocol. We show experimental results for developing wearable ECG monitoring system and demonstrate how it can be applied to the design of nonintrusive electrode with conductive fabric.
Keywords: active electrode; conductive fabric; wearable; ZigBee; portable
Establishing a Measurement System for Human Motions Using a Textile-Based Motion Sensor BIBAKFull-Text 784-792
  Moonsoo Sung; Keesam Jeong; Gilsoo Cho
We developed a human motion measurement system using textile-based motion sensors whose electrical resistance changes with textile length. Eight body locations were marked and used for measurement, based on previous studies investigating the relationship between human muscles and activities. Five male subjects participated to the experiment, walking and running while the electrical resistance of each sensor was measured. Measuring and analyzing the variations in the electrical resistances of our sensors allowed us to successfully evaluate body postures and motions.
Keywords: human motion; human posture; measurement; textile-based motion sensor; electronic textile
A Context-Aware AR Navigation System Using Wearable Sensors BIBAFull-Text 793-801
  Daisuke Takada; Takefumi Ogawa; Kiyoshi Kiyokawa; Haruo Takemura
We have been developing a networked wearable AR system that determines the user's current context to provide appropriate annotations. This system allows for annotation management based on the relationship between annotations and the real environment along with data transfer routines that dynamically calculate annotations' priority to transfer just enough data from the annotation server to the wearable PC worn by the user. Furthermore, this system recognizes the user's activity to predict the kind and level of detail of annotations the user needs at a given time. This information can be used for dynamic annotation filtering and switching of rendering modes.
Emotional Smart Materials BIBAKFull-Text 802-805
  Akira Wakita; Midori Shibutani; Kohei Tsuji
To build affective and emotional interaction, we pay attention to materials of interface. We introduce two non-emissive displays as examples showing our concept. Fabcell is a fabric pixel that changes its color with non-emissive manner. Matrix arrangement of Fabcell enables information display with fabric texture. Jello Display is composed of gel blocks with moisture, coldness and softness. The unique look and feel enables organic information display. These kinds of haptic and organic information displays have ability adding rich affectivity to the artifacts used in our everyday life.
Keywords: smart material; affective computing; ubiquitous computing; tangible interface
Novel Stretchable Textile-Based Transmission Bands: Electrical Performance and Appearance after Abrasion/Laundering, and Wearability BIBAKFull-Text 806-813
  Yoonjung Yang; Gilsoo Cho
In this paper, we (1) compare the electrical performances and appearance changes of two textile-based transmission bands after repeated abrasion and laundering, and (2) evaluate their wearability with MP3 player jackets. The bands were made with non-stretchable Teflon-coated stainless steel yarns, or stretchable silicon-coated stainless steel yarns and spandex. The electrical resistance of the bands after repeated abrasion and laundering was measured with a RCL (resistance capacitance inductance) meter. The appearance changes were observed using a digital microscope. For wear tests, five subjects evaluated the degree of convenience while doing specific actions and other wear sensations using questionnaires with a 7-point Likert-type scale. Both non-stretchable and stretchable transmission bands were evaluated as excellent on electrical performances. Appearance changes after abrasion were tolerable, and there were neither exposure nor disconnection of stainless steel yarns. Convenience and other wear sensations for the MP3 player jacket using stretchable silicon-coated bands were evaluated as better than non-stretchable Teflon-coated bands.
Keywords: stretchable textile-based transmission band; silicon-coated stainless steel multifilament yarn; abrasion; laundering; electrical resistance; image analysis; MP3 player jacket; wear sensation