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HCII Tables of Contents: 09-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-314-414-515-1

HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on HCI, Part III: Applications and Services

Fullname:HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Users and Contexts of Use
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8006
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39265-8 hcibib: HCII13-3; ISBN: 978-3-642-39264-1 (print), 978-3-642-39265-8 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. HCII 2013-07-21 Volume 3
    1. Identity, Privacy and Trust
    2. User Studies
    3. Interaction for Society and Community
    4. HCI for Business and Innovation

HCII 2013-07-21 Volume 3

Identity, Privacy and Trust

SP-CIP: A Secure and Privacy Aware Patient Centric Information Portal BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Subrata Acharya
There is an urgent need for the establishment of patient-centric and quality aware solutions in today's healthcare environment. To this effect, Clinical Information Systems (CIP) play a powerful role to significantly influence the quality and efficiency of health care delivery systems. However, most of the current functional CIP are static [1] in design and typically represent and cater to only a single healthcare entity. This leads to an inaccurate and stale view of the patient status both in the care of the patient and also in the delivery of essential healthcare services. Moreover, it also delays patient care and leads to inconveniences in patient billing and the overall usability of the system. Added to this there is an oversight of security and privacy policies and procedures in the implementation of such systems. Thus, with the current pervasive nature of technology in such healthcare organizations, this creates a critical risk of such information systems to fall prey to data leaks and/or abuse during the access, storage and transmission of such systems.
   To address the above key barriers towards the development of the effective CIP this research proposes SP-CIP: a standardized, security and privacy aware patient portal system. By utilizing the proposed standard design framework, the features of patient portals can evolve from static to a more dynamic design, which is inclusive of a user-centric, secure and proactive approach for patient care. These features also provide flexibility to include a de-centralized mechanism to access, store and transmit healthcare information over cloud based systems, and aims to establish the expectations of an effective patient portal, leading to improved cost and quality of patient care in today's healthcare systems. The pilot evaluation of the proposed systems at a high-end federal government Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) 6 health care organization (> 500 bed capacity) and its associated partner organizations and clinical practices further demonstrates the strengths of proposed system.
Keywords: Clinical Information Portal; Security; Privacy Aware; Dynamic
Identity Management through "Profiles": Prototyping an Online Information Segregation Service BIBAKFull-Text 10-19
  Julio Angulo; Erik Wästlund
Whereas in real everyday life individuals have an intuitive approach at deciding which information to disseminate to others, in the digital world it becomes difficult to keep control over the information that is distributed to different online services. In this paper we present the design of a user interface for a system that can help users decide which pieces of information to distribute to which type of service providers by allowing them to segregate their information attributes into various personalized profiles. Iterative usability evaluations showed that users understand and appreciate the possibility to segregate information, and revealed possible improvements, implications and limitations of such an interface.
Keywords: Usability; identity management; privacy preferences; partial identities; audience segregation; digital transactions
An Empirical Investigation of Similarity-Driven Trust Dynamics in a Social Network BIBAKFull-Text 20-28
  Yugo Hayashi; Victor Kryssanov; Hitoshi Ogawa
Presently, people often create and keep lists of other people with similar preferences for hobbies, such as books, movies, music, and food in online social network service systems. Recent studies in recommender systems have shown that the user's data can be used to recommend items based on other users' preferences (e.g. as implemented in amazon.com). To make such systems more effective, there is a need to understand the mechanism of human trust formation. The goal of this study is to develop cognitive models describing the trust formation in social networks. This paper presents results of a controlled experiment conducted to collect human behavior data through a series of trust evaluation tasks.
Keywords: Social Cognition; Social networks; Trust Dynamics; Recommender Systems; Human-Computer Interaction; Conversational Agents
The di.me User Interface: Concepts for Sharing Personal Information via Multiple Identities in a Decentralized Social Network BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
  Fabian Hermann; Andreas Schuller; Simon Thiel; Christian Knecht; Simon Scerri
The di.me userware visualizes vast personal information from various sources and allows for sharing them in a decentralized social network. Multiple identities can be used to avoid unintended linkability when communicating to other users or external systems. The di.me user interface for that is presented in this paper. A user-centered information- and view-structure for items of the personal information sphere and concepts for multiple identities used for sharing are discussed.
Keywords: user interface design; decentralized social networking; personal identity management; security and privacy
Trust and Privacy in the di.me Userware BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Marcel Heupel; Mohamed Bourimi; Dogan Kesdogan
People in online social networks are constantly sharing information with different audiences and it becomes more and more difficult for them to keep track of distributed information. Further, due to the complexity of the digital landscape, it is a constant risk to unintentionally share information to the wrong people, possibly leading to a loss of reputation. The European research project di.me is concerned with the development of a userware, empowering end-users to keep track of their digital footprints, with an intelligent user interfaces (UI) and smart advisory. In this paper we present how we calculate persons trust and inform the privacy of resources shared among persons. We show the concepts for trust and privacy advisory in the di.me userware and address problems, we were confronted within the design and evaluation process and how we tackled them. In this respect we specifically address change requirements (i.e. trust model and UI improvements) we conducted after an evaluation and user trials with a first prototype.
Keywords: Trust; privacy; user interface; privacy advisory; online social networks; di.me
From Living Space to Urban Quarter: Acceptance of ICT Monitoring Solutions in an Ageing Society BIBAKFull-Text 49-58
  Simon Himmel; Martina Ziefle; Katrin Arning
The question of designing safe, secure, and human-centered urban living environments is complex, as different and controversial needs from different sources have to be harmonized. The ongoing demographic change with more and more older and frail persons living in urban environments raise the question how modern technologies in the information and communication sector can be seamlessly integrated in specific urban spaces. Not only (medical) safety and data security issues need to be considered but also technology acceptance and the fragile trade-off between the ubiquity of technologies on the one and the perceived trust in and reliability of technologies on the other hand are of pivotal importance. To understand users' willingness to accept monitoring technologies in different locations (ranging from home to public spaces) we pursued an exploratory approach. 127 participants in a wide age range volunteered to take part in the questionnaire study. Results show that individuals independently of age and gender are quite reluctant to accept such technologies in general, even for medical reasons. It was ascertained that acceptance was impacted by the type of technology and the space (domestic vs. public) and the health status of the people.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance; ICT Health Monitoring; Living Spaces; Urban Quarter; User Diversity
The Impact of Explanation Dialogues on Human-Computer Trust BIBAKFull-Text 59-67
  Florian Nothdurft; Tobias Heinroth; Wolfgang Minker
Maintaining and enhancing the willingness of a user to interact with a technical system is crucial for human-computer interaction (HCI). Trust has shown to be an important factor influencing the frequency and kind of usage. In this paper we present our work on using explanations to maintain the trust relationship between human and computer. We conducted an experiment on how different goals of explanations influence the bases of human-computer trust. We present the results of the conducted study and outline what this means for the design of future technical systems and in particular for the central dialogue management component controlling the course and content of the HCI.
Keywords: Computer applications; Knowledge based systems; Cooperative systems; Adaptive systems; Expert Systems
Trustworthy and Inclusive Identity Management for Applications in Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 68-77
  Till Halbach Røssvoll; Lothar Fritsch
We describe a prototype for inclusive and secure identity management regarding a bill sharing application in social media. Beginning with the principals of universal design, and involving groups of users with impairments, we designed a set of alternative authentication methods based on OpenID. This work explains the scenario and the particularities of designing a trust, security, and privacy infrastructure with a high degree of usability for diverse user groups, and which is aligned with the requirements from regulatory frameworks. The user trials show that several authentication alternatives in multiple modalities are welcomed by impaired users, but many have restrictions when it comes to payments in the context of social media.
Keywords: Authentication; Authorization; OpenID; Identity Management; Social Media; Payment; Accessibility; Usability; E-Inclusion
Towards a Design Guideline of Visual Cryptography on Stereoscopic Displays BIBAKFull-Text 78-84
  Shih-Lung Tsai; Chao-Hua Wen
This paper proposed a new visual cryptography scheme with the stereoscopic display which showed and accurately decrypted the hidden information for gray images. Results indicated that contrast ratio and pixel disparity of the decrypted stereo-image were key problems that would impact on the perceived quality of the decrypted image. Next, this research performed a subjective experiment of shifting pixels between both of left and right images to investigate the disparity effects of decrypted information on a full HD stereo-display with film-pattern-retarder technology. In addition, the effects of font size and contrast ratio were addressed as well. Results revealed that the thresholds of pixel disparity were between 2 and 7 pixels. To alphabets, the font size of 50 points was lower boundary to show the decrypted information. To numeric, the font size of 45 points was lower boundary over different contrast ratios.
Keywords: Visual cryptography; Stereoscopic display; Design guideline

User Studies

Interface Design for Minimizing Loss of Context in In-situ Remote Robot Control BIBAKFull-Text 87-96
  Jong-gil Ahn; Gerard Jounghyun Kim
When controlling robot in-situ, the operator's attention is often divided between the scene and the interface. This often causes inefficiency in the control performance. One possible solution to address this attention switch is to employ a camera (or sensor) view (despite being at the site) in which critical parts of the operating environment can be shown side-by-side with the control interface so that the user is not distracted from the either. In addition, when the user switches one's attention away unavoidably and then back to the control interface, the interface can be configured so that user can easily continue the task at hand without momentary the loss of context. In this paper, we describe the design of such an interface and investigate in the possible user attentive behaviors based on it. In particular, we present an experiment that compares three variant forms of interactions: (1) Nominal (no camera view), (2) Fixed (using a camera view and user not allowed to overlook into the scene), and (3) Free (using a camera view but user is free to overlook into the scene). The three approaches represent different balances between information availability, interface accessibility and the amount of attentional shift. Experiment results have shown that all three interaction models exhibited similar task performance even though the Fixed type induced much less attentional shift. However, the users much preferred the Nominal and Free type. Users mostly ignored the camera view, shifting one's attention excessively into the operating scene, due to the lack of visual quality, realistic scale and depth information of the camera view.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; In-Situ Robot Control; Interface Design
Assessing the Impact of Latency and Jitter on the Perceived Quality of Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2 BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Rahul Amin; France Jackson; Juan E. Gilbert; Jim Martin; Terry Shaw
Jane McGonigal stated in her 2010 TED Talk that humans spend 3 billion hours a week playing video games around the planet. Americans alone devote 183 million hours per week to gaming. With numbers like these, it's no wonder why end user demands for bandwidth have increased exponentially and the potential for network congestion is always present. We conduct a user study that focuses on the question: "How much network impairment is acceptable before users are dissatisfied?" In particular, the main objective of our study is to measure a gamer's perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) for a real-time first person shooter (FPS) online game Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2 in presence of varied levels of network congestion. We develop a Mean Opinion Score (MOS) metric to determine each gamers' QoE. We investigate the following hypothesis: The gamers' perceived QoE correlates to their skill level.
Keywords: Online Gaming; First Person Shooter Games; Network Impairment; Quality of Experience
The Effects of Negative Interaction Feedback in a Web Navigation Assistant BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Marcelo G. Armentano; Analía A. Amandi
Recommender systems are a common solution used to assist users in searching and retrieving information on the web due to the benefits that can be obtained from the evaluation and filtering of the vast amount of information available. This article presents a user study on the feasibility of using negative interaction, that is the absence of interaction with some items in a list of suggestions, as implicit feedback used to improve the performance of a web navigation assistant. Results showed an increment of 16.65% in the acceptance of the suggestions provided by the assistant and an increment of 43.05% in the average use of the suggestions window when using negative interaction with respect to not using this feedback mechanism.
Keywords: Intelligent Agents; Web Navigation Assistance; Implicit Feedback
Automatic Layout Generation for Digital Photo Albums: A User Study BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  Francine B. Bergmann; Isabel H. Manssour; Milene S. Silveira; João Batista S. de Oliveira
The low cost and ubiquitousness of digital cameras allow ever larger collections of photos. Although storage is not usually a problem, selection for presentation requires time and effort. Studies show the existence of user groups that never tried to create digital photo albums or were discouraged by the difficulty of this task. Trying to minimize the effort to create albums, we developed a prototype called Twingle. Using Twingle the creation of an album requires dragging pictures into a page and the program is responsible for positioning and resizing. To investigate whether such an automatic layout generation could be an alternative to users, we made a study exploring Twingle with users from several ages and professional areas. The related works, the performed user study and its results are discussed here.
Keywords: digital photo albums; automatic layout generation
Icon Design for Older Users of Project Management Software BIBAKFull-Text 127-135
  Christina Bröhl; Jennifer Bützler; Nicole Jochems; Christopher M. Schlick
Working in projects is an important part of many jobs in service industry. Due to their knowledge and experience project planning is often accomplished by older employees. Therefore, and with regard to the demographic change an integration of the needs of older employees into the work environment is required. Common to most IT-based systems, including project management software, is the use of icons. To investigate different icon sets in project management software, regarding age related differences, two studies were conducted. The first study aimed at investigating two different icon sets regarding execution times and eye movements in an applied setting. The second study consisted of a questionnaire where subjects had to map different icons to their corresponding functions and had to compare these icons regarding their intuitiveness. Results revealed that older users profit from an icon design which is low in complexity but no impact by different icon designs was found for younger users.
Keywords: Usability; icon design; human-computer interaction; project management; eye-tracking; age differences
Search Strategies in Hypermedia Navigation and Spatial Abilities: A Comparison with Physical Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 136-145
  Aurélie Brouwers
This article focuses on spatial abilities mobilized during hypertext navigation. Based on the evidence that spatial cognition plays a central role in navigation, we present an experiment involving information search tasks both in physical environment and in hypermedia environment. We investigate how users make use of their spatial abilities to search information in hypermedia, by comparing their performances in hypermedia navigation and physical navigation. As data collection and analysis are still in progress, we present preliminary results based on available data.
Keywords: hypermedia; navigation; visuospatial abilities; spatial cognition
Data Visualisation, User Experience and Context: A Case Study from Fantasy Sport BIBAKFull-Text 146-155
  Rob Euman; José Abdelnour-Nocera
Fantasy Football is a rapidly growing online social game. As users become more sophisticated and technology advances, the amount of data that is available to inform users' decision making is growing rapidly. Representing this data in an informative and engaging way can be a challenge but data visualisation offers many ways to achieve this. This paper focuses on the design of interactive solutions that are measured against existing products by way of a comparative evaluation. In order to study the impact on user performance, efficiency and accuracy are measured for clearly defined tasks carried out on each design. The user experience is measured to understand the satisfaction and perceived ease of use of each visualisation system. This study will be useful to validate or challenge existing principles of data visualisation design and perception as well as offering suggestions for improving fantasy football products. The study will also serve as a case study to support further research into data visualisation evaluation methods. The paper concludes by discussing the findings and possible areas for further research and design.
Keywords: HCI; social games; data visualisation; design; evaluation
A Pedestrian Navigation Method for User's Safe and Easy Wayfinding BIBAKFull-Text 156-165
  Hiroshi Furukawa; Yutaka Nakamura
In recent years, most of mobile phones have a function of pedestrian navigation guidance. It was reported that users sometimes feel anxiety because of low accuracy of the position estimation especially in urban area and delay of information updating. In order to reduce the anxiety, a route planning algorithm is proposed in this study, which weighs user's difficulty (or easiness) of locating own current position as well as total physical distance of courses. The difficulty is estimated by valuation functions based on the "recognizability" and "visibility" of landmarks. An experimental study conducted in real situation using a prototype system to examine and refine the model for the optimal route planning. As the result, a modified model is proposed as a promising method of route planning for user's easy wayfinding.
Keywords: navigation system; landmark; salience; cognitive model; anxiety; recognizability; visibility
The Effect of Information Quantity on Cbp Interface in the Advanced Nuclear Power Plant BIBAKFull-Text 166-173
  Min-Chih Hsieh; Sheue-Ling Hwang
Computer-based procedures (CBP) are widely used in advanced nuclear power plant (NPP). In order to improve operators' performance and decrease the probability of human errors, several different CBP interface layouts have been provided by previous studies. However, there has been little research discussing the information quantity that present on the CBP interface. This study is to examine operator performance in using computerized procedures from an information quantity point of view. A simulated CBP system was developed to present three different information present styles, each with different task complexity. The results indicated that medium information quantity of CBP interface was better than other level of information quantity.
Keywords: Computer-based procedures; Nuclear power plant; interface; information quantity
Development of Communication Support System at Mealtimes Using Tabletop Interface BIBAFull-Text 174-182
  Junko Itou; Shizuka Takao; Jun Munemori
In this research, we aim to develop a system to support communication during meal times. It is reported that the communication skills of young people have declined because of decrease of opportunity to speak face to face. We focus on the meal that is essential for everyday life as a place for face-to-face communication. The proposed system uses tabletop interface as a dining table to provide intuitive control without additional burden. Users can decorate the table and dishes with several digital items by only touching the surface of the table. Furthermore the system displays various visual events randomly on the table according to the condition of the items. By using visual effects, we realize the support to provide improving communication and enhancing the enjoyment of the meal. From the result of experiment, it was cleared that users could take a cue of conversation through use of the system.
Improving User Performance in Conditional Probability Problems with Computer-Generated Diagrams BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Vince Kellen; Susy Chan; Xiaowen Fang
Many disciplines in everyday life depend on improved performance in probability problems. Most adults struggle with conditional probability problems and prior studies have shown user accuracy is less than 50%. This study examined user performance when aided with computer-generated Venn and Euler-type diagrams in a non-learning context. Following relational complexity, working memory and mental model theories, this study manipulated problem complexity in diagrams and text-only displays. Partially consistent with the study hypotheses, complex visuals outperformed complex text-only displays and simple text-only displays outperformed complex text only displays. However, a significant interaction between users' spatial ability and the use of diagram displays led to a reversal of performance for low-spatial users in one of the diagram displays. Participants with less spatial ability were significantly impaired in their ability to solve problems with less relational complexity when aided by a diagram.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; diagrams; Bayesian reasoning; relational complexity; spatial ability; working memory; individual differences; mental models
Establishing a Cognitive Map of Public Place for Blind and Visual Impaired by Using IVEO Hands-On Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 193-198
  Qing-Wen Lin; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Jan-Li Wang
In recent years, there has been an escalation of orientation and way-finding technologies and systems for the blind visually impaired people. The purpose of this study was to help visual impaired to access and explore spatial information by establishing a cognitive map of public place using IVEO hands-on learning system and tactile direction map. The IVEO hands-on learning system combines touch, sound, and sight, using touch and sound learning modalities to help the blind and visually impaired to learn faster and retain information longer, meanwhile making learning more interesting and interactive. Subjects were divided into four groups in terms of route familiarity and IVEO Aids of exposure, with an equal number of subjects (N=4) in each group. Then, the subject performed an actual Way-finding test to get back and forth between Ximending and TDTB (Taiwan Digital Talking Books association). The dependent variables were total time, number of miss route, and number of request. The results revealed a significant effect of IVEO Aids, and the subjects could perform better through IVEO Aids. This research provided a learning method of orientation and mobility for the blind and visually impaired, and assisted them to be familiar with the route safer and faster.
Keywords: Learning System; audio-tactile maps; cognitive map; Way-finding; blind people
An Application of the Ballistic Movement Method for Evaluating Computer Mice BIBAKFull-Text 199-208
  Ray F. Lin; Ching-Wen Chung; Yi-Chien Tsai; Chi-Yu Huang
Lin and Drury [1] validated two ballistic movement models and suggested these models could have certain benefits for evaluating input devices. Hence, the study aimed at (1) validating the application of ballistic movement models for evaluating computer mice and (2) demonstrating the superiority of this method, compared to Fitts' law. In a two-stage experiment, four participants used six types of computer mice to execute Fitts-type aiming movements and ballistic movements, sequentially. The measured data were analyzed by Fitts' law and the ballistic movement models, respectively. The comparison of the results obtained by the two methods showed that (1) ballistic movement models can well fit the measured data and (2) the ballistic movement method can provide independent performance information of "speed" and "accuracy" that is not available by applying Fitts' law. This study demonstrated an alternative method for evaluating computer mice.
Keywords: ballistic movement method; computer mouse; input device; human movements; Fitts' law
AugmentedBacklight: Expansion of LCD Backlights Using Lighting Methods in the Real World BIBAKFull-Text 209-216
  Maho Oki; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
People experience various lights in daily life, such as sunlight through leaves and candle light. However, digital contents shown in common LCDs cannot express these impressive lights. In this paper, we propose a novel display technique, AugmentedBacklight, which can express impressive lights in the real world by expanding the LCD backlight. The system mainly consists of a transparent LCD, a screen behind the LCD, and a projector behind the above devices. The projector shows videos of impressive lights on the screen for the backlight of the transparent LCD. Thus, users can see digital contents (e.g., e-books and pictures) under various impressive lights in the real world.
Keywords: Display; backlight; lighting
An Exploratory Study to Understand Knowledge-Sharing in Data-Intensive Science BIBAKFull-Text 217-226
  Jongsoon Park; Joseph L. Gabbard
This paper describes a challenges associated with data-intensive research processes, knowledge-sharing phenomena, and end-users' expectations in the field of bioinformatics. We developed a questionnaire to support deeper understanding of user experiences with knowledge sharing activities. The results reveal that there are several challenging issues biologists encounter when using bioinformatics resources. A much smaller number of biologists have engaged in passive knowledge sharing within their research fields than we had expected. However, most biologists expressed their willingness to share their own knowledge with others. This result reinforces the need for more user-centered design approaches for supporting knowledge-sharing in rapidly emerging fields of data-intensive science. At the same time, our results suggest that more work is needed to examine how to best motivate users to further engage and contribute knowledge in online scientific communities.
Keywords: User-centered Design Approach; Knowledge-Sharing; Data-Intensive Science
Interaction of the Elderly Viewer with Additional Multimedia Content to Support the Appreciation of Television Programs BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
  Kamila Rodrigues; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris; Cesar Augusto Camillo Teixeira
For many people, television is still the main form of entertainment. The elderly population, in particular, spends much time at home and uses the television for companionship and entertainment. However, in some countries, due to low education level or the absence of it, to physical limitations and/or cognitive difficulties, to the lack of prior knowledge, among other difficulties, part of the elderly viewers do not enjoy enough the programs to have satisfaction with them. With the interactivity provided by the Digital TV, additional information may help the elderly viewer to better appreciate television programs and have more fun. This paper presents data from an observational case study conducted in the Brazilian scenario to analyze the interaction of elderly viewers with TV programs enriched with additional multimedia content in different formats. From the experience, some good practices for the design of additional multimedia content to the elderly viewer were formalized.
Keywords: Design; Interactive Digital TV; Elderly; Additional Multimedia Content; Satisfaction
Exploring Children's Attitudes towards Static and Moving Humanoid Robots BIBAKFull-Text 237-245
  Fang-Wu Tung; Tsen-Yao Chang
This study investigates the uncanny valley for robots designed specifically for child users, and examines their attitudes toward humanoid robots with different anthropomorphic appearances and behaviors. An uncanny valley was identified in this study, indicating that the children were less attracted to images they considered highly human-like, although they were distinguishable from humans. The results of this study support Mori's uncanny valley hypothesis regarding children's perceptions of static robots. A significant finding is that moving robots can moderate an uncanny valley plot, which contradicts Mori's uncanny valley theory that the movement of a robot amplifies a generated emotional response. The moving robots exhibited various behaviors, such as facial expressions, speech, gazing, and gestures, which can generally enhance children's perceptions of robots. These behaviors were derived from human-human interactions, and can be considered social cues. The results of this study show that social cues can be applied to child-robot interactions. Children perceive robots are more socially and physically attractive when they exhibit sufficient social cues. Specifically, the display of social cues by robots that are less anthropomorphic can significantly enhance children's social perceptions of them. This has crucial implications for the behavior a child anticipates from a machine-like robot compared to a human-like robot. According to the study results, robots designed for children do not require excessively human-like designs. Middle- to low-level anthropomorphic designs combined with appropriate social cues can enhance children preferences and acceptance of robots. This also enables businesses to develop educational, care, or entertainment robots for children at a reasonable cost.
Keywords: humanoid robot; child-robot interaction; behavior; social cue

Interaction for Society and Community

Mobile Money Services in Uganda: Design Gaps and Recommendations BIBAFull-Text 249-258
  Rehema Baguma
Mobile money is a great service for developing countries where the banking infrastructure is still severely limited and very few people can meet requirements of banking institutions. While these services are being greatly received due to the convenience that goes with electronic and mobile based services, the reception and uptake is still limited to literate populations who are the minority in these countries. This paper discusses the current design gaps of the mobile money service in Uganda based on a survey carried out in Kampala and Kayunga districts and provides recommendations on how these gaps can be addressed for the service to benefit more people especially the less literate poor that have no access or cannot afford conventional banking services.
A Static and Dynamic Recommendations System for Best Practice Networks BIBAKFull-Text 259-268
  Pierfrancesco Bellini; Ivan Bruno; Paolo Nesi; Michela Paolucci
Semantics computing technologies may be used to provide recommendations and stimulate user engagement in many kinds of services, such as social media, match making, best practice networks, technology transfer, etc. The recommendation metrics used take into account both static information and dynamical behaviors of users on a Social Network Platform. The recommendations provided include those realized taking into account also strategic and random users. The set of recommendations have been assessed with respect to the user's acceptance, which allowed to validate the solution and to tune the parameters. The experience performed in creating and validating recommendation systems adopted for ECLAP and APREToscana best practice networks is described and results obtained are reported. The identified model has significantly increased the acceptance rate for the recommendation on ECLAP.
Keywords: best practice network; semantic computing; recommendations; social media; grid computing; validation model
Connecting Electric Vehicles and Green Energy BIBAKFull-Text 269-276
  Peter Dempster
This paper discusses the interrelationship between the purchase of green energy (GE) and electric vehicles (EV) and the motivations for and values formed around the purchase of the combination of the two. The BMW Group completed a two-year EV and GE user study, a joint project with the PH&EV Research Center at UCDavis and multiple market research agencies. Through a focus group study of US East and West coast all-electric MINI E markets and a new car buyer online survey, the BMW Group assessed the value of offering GE with EVs. A follow-on user experience survey, assessed the success of two GE products in the US. 39% of MINI E and 29% of Active E respondents have purchased home solar. A vehicle design game revealed that adding GE options increased overall demand for EVs among conventional buyers by 23%, with technology interest, environment and cost savings reported as the motivation.
Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Green Energy; Solar; Environment
SOCIETY: A Social Reading Application to Join Education and Social Network Experience BIBAKFull-Text 277-284
  Elena Guercio; Fabio Luciano Mondin; Maurizio Belluati; Lucia Longo
This paper describes a social reading application designed for education and school communities based on electronic book reading experience. Both design and evaluation followed a user centered approach in order to obtain a custom made application called SOCIETY, to be used by community based groups with similar reading interests, running both on IOS and Android System. A special emphasis was given on personal and social aspects in writing and sharing notes with the community groups and the "facebook or twitter" large community to better understand how that can improve the learning process.
   Beside showing a high interest on society@school app our trial evidenced the need to separate school community from wider social networks, a need which seems to be important for students. That stresses the importance of privacy management in school applications design, because students seem to be worried about sharing information and mixing school and social networks contexts.
Keywords: Social reading; privacy/respecting; User Experience; School; User Interface; Personal; Social
The Evaluation of a Voting Web Based Application BIBAKFull-Text 285-294
  Linda Harley; Keith Kline; Jerry Ray; Carrie Bell; Andrew Baranak; Chandler Price; Matthew Hung; Brad Fain
Ballot layout and the incorporation of assistive technologies into voting systems are plagued with inconsistencies across the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both ballot layout display configuration (information density) and a variety of controllers (e.g., mouse, 2- or 5-button controller) in order to assess performance and preference among voters. Participants were presented with three mock ballots, each with different layouts (scrollable pages, multiple columns or multiple pages per contest). Eye-tracking data and selection time data were recorded and a usability questionnaire was administered after each testing condition. The results of the study found that participants preferred the multiple column display configuration and the use of the mouse. The results from this study will be leveraged to design an iPad Voting Application with appropriate interfaces and controls. This will allow individuals with disabilities the opportunity to vote without requiring the dexterity to use a paper and pencil ballot.
Keywords: vote; web based application; human factors engineering; interface
A Refuge Location Prediction System for When a Tsunami Has Occurred BIBAKFull-Text 295-300
  Akhiro Kawabe; Tomoko Izumi; Yoshio Nakatani
During the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, DMATs (Disaster Medical Assistance Teams) could not rescue victims efficiently with accurate location data, because the local governments had lost refuge location data and resident registers due to damage caused by the tsunami. In this paper, to support DMATs, a refuge prediction system based on the characteristics of disaster, landscape, and victims' psychology is proposed, which can function even if local governments lose information about victims and refuge locations. As an example, this system deals with tsunami. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this system by comparing the data of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami and our prediction system.
Keywords: Disaster Medical Assistance Team; earthquake; local government
Further Benefit of a Kind of Inconvenience for Social Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 301-306
  Hiroshi Kawakami
This paper discusses on social information systems from the viewpoint of Fuben-eki that stands for FUrther BENEfit of a King of Inconvenience. Analyzing several examples with benefit of inconvenience elucidates the relation between inconvenience and their benefits that in turn are organized into design guidelines. The guidelines applied to several design fields including social information system design. A few examples of such design are presented in this paper. One of the examples accumulates and shares information on literature, and the others are for establishing local communities.
Keywords: benefit of inconvenience; social information system; system design theory
The Present Condition and Problems for Elderly People Participating in Communities BIBAFull-Text 307-313
  Noriyuki Kobayashi; Shohei Yamane; Kotaro Ohori; Akihiko Obata
The proportion of aged citizens in Japan has been growing and has reached the highest proportion in the world (23.1% in October, 2010 [1]). The time when we need to tackle the social welfare problem of an aging society has arrived. It has been reported that social welfare services are insufficient to reach all people who need help, resulting in 32000 lonely deaths in a single year [2]. It is difficult to solve the problem only by reforming formal care systems under conditions where the number of senior citizens is increasing and the number of younger citizens is decreasing. Community activity that supports elderly citizens is important when the proportion of aged citizens is increasing to prevent over-reliance on formal care. The idea named PPK (pin-pin-korori [3]) thus emerged. This is the idea that the number of people requiring long-term care can be decreased by increasing the number of active senior citizens.
Applying to Twitter Networks of a Community Extraction Method Using Intersection Graph and Semantic Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 314-323
  Toshiya Kuramochi; Naoki Okada; Kyohei Tanikawa; Yoshinori Hijikata; Shogo Nishida
Many researchers have studied about complex networks such as the World Wide Web, social networks and the protein interaction network. One hot topic in this area is community detection. For example, in the WWW, the community shows a set of web pages about a certain topic. The community structure is unquestionably a key characteristic of complex networks. We have proposed the novel community extracting method. The method considers the overlaps between communities using the idea of the intersection graph. Additionally, we address the problem of edge inhomogeneity by weighting edges using content information. Finally, we conduct clustering based on modularity. In this paper, we evaluate our method through applying to real microblog networks.
Keywords: complex network; community extraction; intersection graph; hierarchical clustering; text mining; microblog network
Search Engine Accessibility for Low-Literate Users BIBAKFull-Text 324-331
  Débora Maurmo Modesto; Simone Bacellar Leal Ferreira; Aline Silva Alves
Search engines are often used to retrieve content on the Web, but it is not a simple activity for low-literate users since they have to know the technology and create strategies to query and navigate. Their interaction with search engines differ from high-literate users on strategies used, perception, communication and performance. In order to improve search engines and create solutions, we need to understand these users' needs. This research aimed to identify how search engine features influence the interaction of low-literate users. We analyzed the interaction of ten users through user tests that were part of a case study. Based on a limited set of features of a specific search engine, we identified what features were used, the perception about them and some barriers faced by these users. This study led to a list of recommendations for the development of search interfaces focused on low-literate users.
Keywords: Low-Literate Users; Search Engine Accessibility; Guidelines
Identifying and Representing Elements of Local Contexts in Namibia BIBAKFull-Text 332-341
  Kasper Rodil; Kasper Løvborg Jensen; Matthias Rehm; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus
In an attempt to represent local context in a 3D visualisation for rural elders in Namibia we have found major differences in the conceptualization of this context between external and local partners in the co-creation process. Through the evaluation of a mobile context capture tool we found a clear disconnection of community members with both abstract and absolute representations of points, paths and areas. From this we discuss how the local concepts of space and time as frames of reference can not be represented adequately with our current selection of contextual data, and how we are engaging in participatory activities to derive a common understanding of contextual representations.
Keywords: context; indigenous knowledge; Participatory Design; context-aware; re-contextualization
A Framework for Community-Oriented Mobile Interaction Design in Emerging Regions BIBAKFull-Text 342-351
  Monica Sebillo; Genoveffa Tortora; Giuliana Vitiello; Pasquale Di Giovanni; Marco Romano
The interaction design of mobile applications for a specific community of users, requires a deep knowledge of that community in order to establish appropriate usability requirements and tune the subsequent development activities. This is especially true when the target community is situated in one of the developing countries. There, mobile devices are increasingly playing the role that personal computers play in 'developed' countries, in spite of quite different cultural, social and technological constraints. In this paper we propose a 'community-centered' design approach, where different aspects of a community are used to formulate usability goals and are taken into account throughout the design, prototyping and testing phases, so as to ensure the actual application deployment by users of that community. The case study of a project carried out with a community of farmers in Sri Lanka is used to illustrate the approach.
Keywords: Analysis and design methods; Human Centered Design and User Centered Design; Human Factors Engineering Approach; Interaction design
The Effects of (Social) Media on Revolutions -- Perspectives from Egypt and the Arab Spring BIBAKFull-Text 352-358
  Christian Sturm; Hossam Amer
The Arab Spring has been titled as "social media revolution". While there is no doubt that Facebook and twitter contributed significantly to the course of events, its role can only be understood when put into a broader technological and historical context. Therefore, we looked at the role of technology during prior revolutions such as the French Revolution in 1789. It turns out that media technology has played an important supportive role in social and political movements throughout history. The changing characteristic, however, has always been the speed of information diffusion. Therefore, it is concluded that social media should be seen as supportive but not exclusively responsible for the events of the Arab Spring.
Keywords: Social media; society; revolution; evolution; twitter; Facebook; democratization; media technology; Arab Spring; French Revolution
Memotree: Using Online Social Networking to Strengthen Family Communication BIBAKFull-Text 359-367
  Tsai-Hsuan Tsai; Yi-Lun Ho; Hsien-Tsung Chang; Yu-Wen Li
This study describes the design and development of Memotree -- a basic service platform for family social interaction. Memotree features a Family Tree which displays the family relationships and links among family members, with features to encourage family interaction based on the Family Communications Scale. The system and its associated hardware are designed to be optimally accessible to family members of different generations. Finally, Heuristic Evaluation was used to evaluate Memotree usability. Test subjects affirmed the Memotree concept and provided positive feedback.
Keywords: social networking sites; family tree; family communication scale; heuristic evaluation

HCI for Business and Innovation

It Was Nice with the Brick So Now I'll Click: The Effects of Offline and Online Experience, Perceived Benefits, and Trust on Dutch Consumers' Online Repeat Purchase Intention BIBAKFull-Text 371-380
  Ardion Beldad; Mariël Segers
The present study investigated the factors influencing Dutch consumers' intention to continue purchasing from a brick-and-click clothes shop's online channel after an initial commercial exchange. Results on the online survey with 513 respondents reveal that their repeat online purchase intention is influenced by the quality of their previous online purchase experience with the retailer, their perception of the benefits associated with online purchasing, and their trust in the retailer. Analysis also shows that respondents' previous offline purchase experience and online purchase experience contribute to their trust in the retailer. Additionally, respondents' previous online purchase experience positively influences their perception of the benefits associated with purchasing online. The modified model also shows that respondents' trust in the retailer positively influences their perceptions of online shopping benefits.
Keywords: offline purchase experience; online purchase experience; online trust; repeat online purchase intention; blick-and-click
Interaction between Enterprise Resource Planning Systems and Organizational Culture BIBAKFull-Text 381-387
  Carlotta Herberhold
Building up on findings of IT culture research and ERP research, the assignment is to investigate organizational cultural variables impacting on changes through enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The study suggests seven cultural factors that are influence by ERP usage. The results are grounded in both a review of the literature on ERP, organizational culture, and an analysis of qualitative data collected from ERP experts. The findings will provide explanations that cultural factors should be considered when using an ERP system.
Keywords: Computer-augmented environment; organizational culture; Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); user behavior; organizational behavior
Reconfiguring the Corporate and Commons: Mobile and Online Activism as a Form of Socio-technical Design BIBAKFull-Text 388-395
  Constance Kampf
This paper describes a model for understanding how digital activists contribute to (re)defining the ways in which socio-technical interactions are (re)designed at the Macro-level. This macro level is explained in three parts -- 1) the cultural production of a new form of practice, 2) an active, contested knowledge process, and 3) as producing knowledge about the interface between society and business. Two kinds of digital activists are examined -- critical digital activists and activists from within the system.
Keywords: Socio-Technical Design; Culture; Knowledge
Social Media in the Product Development Process of the Automotive Industry: A New Approach BIBAKFull-Text 396-401
  Andreas Klein; Götz Spiegel
This paper introduces a new methodology for implementing social media monitoring into an important stage of the innovation process within the automotive industry -- the prototype stage. The information gathered on social media channels was used for project management, quality management and idea-generation purposes in order to support the parallel development of future generations of electric vehicles. As the project is still ongoing the first general results which show the effectiveness of the methodology can be presented in this paper.
Keywords: Social media monitoring; electric mobility; electric vehicles; product development; social networking sites
Do All People Enjoy the Benefits from Technology Innovation? BIBAKFull-Text 402-410
  Yoon Jeon Koh; Jae Heon Park; Byung Do Chung
The spread of emerging devices such as smartphone and Tablet PC enables people to experience an unprecedented technology innovation. However, some smartphone users show their intentions to reuse the feature phone due to the increased stress and pressure caused by a lot of functions of the smartphone. This study explores that the technology innovation doesn't provide all the people with the same level of values and satisfactions. A paper and pencil survey is employed with 3,798 mobile users randomly selected from 10's to 60's in Korea and asks them to answer the devices, ICT services, and applications in use, and the degree of their satisfactions as well as their perceived values and reuse intentions. Results show that the effects of technology innovation are different depending on mobile users' perceived value of technology innovation and price-value scheme, satisfaction of mobile service in use, and ages.
Keywords: technology innovation; smartphone; perceived value; satisfaction
Semantically Integrated Business Applications for Enterprise Resource Planning Systems BIBAKFull-Text 411-417
  Patricia Kraft; Rainer Thome
The development of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software or enterprise information systems (EIS) has always been closely linked to the discussion on integration. Over time, integration of software solutions has improved considerably. This has been achieved through several changes made in the past, but mostly it has become possible thanks to cutting-edge technologies. A new approach is semantically integrated business applications that enable the evolution of standard end-to-end software.
Keywords: Business applications; software development; enterprise resource planning (ERP); integration; add-on; enterprise information systems
Towards a Next Generation Universally Accessible 'Online Shopping-for-Apparel' System BIBAKFull-Text 418-427
  Kasper Kristensen; Nanna Borum; Line G. Christensen; Henrik W. Jepsen; Jacob Lam; Anthony L. Brooks; Eva Petersson Brooks
This paper reports initial research findings from on-going longitudinal participatory design studies within a national (Danish) funded project to realize a gesture-controlled 'Online shopping-for-apparel' system -- A Virtual Dressing Room (VDR). A product that reduces customer purchase returns, reportedly up to 40%, which is a huge burden to the clothing industries as shopping percentile of sales online continues to increase, is targeted. Three studies are reported where results cumulate to highlight the need for continued research to realize a next-generation system to improve the user experience of online shopping for apparel where conclusions point to the need for adaptive user interface improvements. Unforeseen was that wheelchair-bound public especially responded positively to the potentials for the concept due to their limited mobility in shopping and this accessibility aspect can be a significant future market.
Keywords: Online shopping system; purchase returns; e-shopping experiences
Digital Menu Boards as Influencer for Healthy Eating BIBAKFull-Text 428-437
  Anicia Peters; Brian Mennecke
This paper reports on research designed to examine the role of embedded videos in digital menu boards and it's influence on consumer decision-making. The study's results showed that the embedded videos caught the attention of decision makers and healthy food images have an effect on choice; however, these variables do not interact. The results for the main effects show that technology can aid decision-making during the information search and purchase/choice stages.
Keywords: Digital signage; digital menu boards; decision-making; healthy eating; information overload; video boards
Reverse Business Innovations -- The Impact of ERP Software Upgrades on Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 438-445
  Stefanie Rauff; Andreas Hufgard
Vendors of enterprise software continue to evolve their products and offer user organizations the latest functionality in new releases and upgrades. But this means companies are faced with the challenge of selecting features that add value, and trying to assess how implementation would impact them. Not every new function impacts all employees in the same way. Depending on the specific organizational structure, implementation will affect a varying number of users. And depending on a company's system landscape, implementation of new functions might require a range of IT activities and affect many processes.
   The authors have developed a concept that uses an organization's system usage data to deliver decision support. Various aspects of the upgrade can be assessed with the aid of software tools (analyses and evaluations of new functionality) to determine relevancy, benefits, profitability, strategic goals and impact. In this article we will present a portion of this concept: A model that can assess how new functionality would impact a business, if implemented.
Keywords: SAP ERP; upgrade; new release functions; decision support; usage analysis
Repository-Based Implementation of Information Pyramid: A Study Based on an ERP Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 446-455
  Hans-Jürgen Scheruhn; Daniel Ackermann; Roman Braun; Ulrich Förster
ERP case studies have an important impact on the transfer of knowledge between software vendor, lecturer and user. This paper describes to which extent ERP case studies can be used to demonstrate a repository based integrated approach for modeling and implementing the entire information pyramid in the context of the Business Process Management life cycle. The study is based on the Global Bike Inc. enterprise model repository created with ARIS Business Designer for SAP by Software AG. The information models have been exemplarily synchronized with SAP Solution Manager repository and implemented with SAP ERP respectively with SAP Netweaver BI.
Keywords: ERP case study; ARIS Business Designer; Business Process Management life cycle; SAP Solution Manager; SAP Netweaver BI; Sustainability Balanced Scorecard
Agility Based on Stakeholder Interaction -- Blending Organizational Learning with Interactive BPM BIBAKFull-Text 456-465
  Christian Stary; Werner Schmidt; Albert Fleischmann
Highly dynamic adaptation of interactive work procedures not only requires structuring mechanisms, but also engaging stakeholders. As it touches business operation, not only user interface designs are challenged, but rather underlying business logic and data management issues. An inclusive perspective and interactive development support can be provided by Subject-oriented Business Process Management (S-BPM). It enables stakeholder involvement throughout an entire engineering cycle based on interaction specifications of all involved stakeholders. In this paper we propose to use S-BPM representations for both, capturing the business processes that are modified (i.e. content), and the process of modifying them along Organizational Learning (OL) cycles (i.e. adaptation). Since validated S-BPM models can be executed automatically from each stakeholder perspective, such an integrated BPM-OL approach allows structuring and implementing agility in operation under direct control of stakeholders.
Keywords: Agility; Organizational Learning Framework; Organizational Memory; Subject-oriented Business Process Management
Analysis of Customer Preference through Unforced Natural Passive Observation BIBAKFull-Text 466-474
  Terumasa Tajima; Yusuke Iida; Toshikazu Kato
In our former research, customer's preference has been estimated by passive observation of shopping behavior, e.g. customer's "look" and "touch". It takes much time to understand their preferences form the log. We need quickly to build up the preference model to perform suitable recommendation for a new customer. For this reason, we will propose an active observation mechanism that detects customer's unforced natural behavior to information through ambient devices such as speakers and electric displays. This mechanism also analyzes customer's preference on features and their values of commodities, which enables the system to estimate the rate of preference to an unknown product. We have experimented on ten university students. We had them evaluate the thirty-six Shirts. We used these evaluations for precision evaluations in naive Bayes classifier. We used the leave-one-out cross-validation. As the result, we have achieved the average precision in the estimating preferences by naive Bayes classifier is 71%.
Keywords: Passive and active observation; Recommendation system; Machine classifier; Digital signage; Decision making support
The Development of an Innovative Design Process for Eco-efficient Green Products BIBAKFull-Text 475-483
  Shiaw-Tsyr Uang; Cheng-Li Liu
Along with the technological advances and the rapid flow of information, people continue to create more innovative technology products in order to make life more convenience and comfortable than the past. However, huge industrial processes bring significant changes in the environment, the earth's resources are getting to dry up, the natural environment and ozonosphere have been destroyed, and leading serious threats to the survival of the Earth's species. Therefore, in recent years, environmental awareness began to be respected, and people explore green issues, hoping to make the earth resources and living things can be survival sustainable. This research attempts to integrate 39 engineering parameters of TRIZ with 7 eco-efficient elements to construct a green product design matrix, and use the patents of LED lights to verify the validity of this innovative green product design process. The green product design process of this research may allow designers to generate green products by improving eco-efficient elements as well as resolving conflict design issues, and assist organizations to increase competitiveness and to achieve sustainable development goals.
Keywords: Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ); Eco-efficient; Green Design; Product Innovation; Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Principled Ways of Finding, Analysing and Planning for Communicative Overhead in Interaction Technology for Fashion Industry BIBAKFull-Text 484-491
  Jason Yang; Sean Rintel; Stephen Viller
In this paper, we identify and analyse the problems associated with communicative overheads of a fashion design and manufacturing workflow. We conduct a multi-stage qualitative study to investigate where the rich multiple channels of communication afford and constrain the workflow during remote collaboration. From this study, we define what communication channels we have in our system. We then use the video data that we had collected through user testing, together with the feedback from the video-assisted stimulated recall interviews, to identify three kinds of communicative overheads in our system: novelty of technology, ongoing constraints and operational problems. We analyse each communicative overhead with examples from our video data, and conclude that there are various overheads, some that participants may overcome through learning and familiarity with the system, some that may not be easily overcome, and some that may not even be unique to a remote collaborative environment, as they also occur in a face-to-face collaborative environment. We believe that offering richer communication channels does not necessarily equate to greater efficiency in the collaborative process, and that designers and developers of collaborative systems need to investigate the effect of communicative overheads before introducing new channels to their system, as these overheads may decrease the efficiency of any collaborative experiences.
Keywords: Coordination; workflow; communicative overhead; channel; remote collaboration; mash-up technologies; qualitative study
Continuing On-Premise or Adopt On-Demand? An Empirical Study of ERP Adoption in SMEs BIBAKFull-Text 492-500
  Fan Zhao; Elias Kirche
Vendors are now expanding into the small to mid-size organizational markets with simplified, less-risk, less-reward systems However, SMEs, who adopted ERP on-premise solutions before, are now facing a dilemma: continuing with ERP on-premise upgrades or switch to on-demand solutions. This study surveyed Chief Information Officers of SMEs with respect to indicators of ERP adoptions. Cost, reduced demand for own IT resources, outage/accessibility and performance were found to be the most critical and important factors to assess ERP adoptions for SMEs.
Keywords: ERP; Cloud Computing; Adoption; Upgrade; on-demand