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HCII Tables of Contents: 0103-103-203-303-407-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-2

HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Novel Interaction Methods and Techniques

Fullname:HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Novel Interaction Methods and Techniques
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5611
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02576-1 (print), 978-3-642-02577-8 (online); hcibib: HCII09-2
Papers:98
Pages:908
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 2
    1. Multimodal User Interfaces
    2. Gesture, Eyes Movement and Expression Recognition
    3. Human-Robot Interaction
    4. Touch and Pen-Based Interaction
    5. Brain Interfaces
    6. Language, Voice, Sound and Communication
    7. Visualisation, Images, and Pictures

HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 2

Multimodal User Interfaces

Using Acoustic Landscapes for the Evaluation of Multimodal Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Wolfgang Beinhauer; Cornelia Hipp
Multimodal mobile applications are gaining momentum in the field of location based services for special purposes. One of them is navigation systems and tourist guides for pedestrians. In some cases, when the visibility is limited or blind people are longing for guidance, acoustic landmarks are used for macro-navigation rather than visual landmarks. Likewise, micro-navigation supported by pedestrian navigation systems must comply to the user's expectations. In this paper, we present an acoustic landscape that allows the emulation of arbitrary out-door situations dedicated for the evaluation of navigation systems. We present the evaluation capabilities and limitations of the laboratory as well as an example of an evaluation of a pedestrian navigation system that uses acoustic and haptic feedback.
Keywords: Acoustic landscape; test bed; pedestrian navigation; haptic feedback
Modeling and Using Salience in Multimodal Interaction Systems BIBAFull-Text 12-18
  Ali Choumane; Jacques Siroux
We are interested in input to human-machine multimodal interaction systems for geographical information search. In our context of study, the system offers to the user the ability of using speech, gesture and visual modes. The system displays a map on the screen, the user ask the system about sites (hotels, campsites, ...) by specifying a place of search. Referenced places are objects in the visual context like cities, road, river, etc. The system should determine the designated object to complete the understanding process of user's request. In this context, we aim to improve the reference resolution process while taking into account ambiguous designations. In this paper, we focus on the modeling of visual context. In this modeling we take into account the notion of salience, its role in the designation and in the processing methods.
Exploring Multimodal Interaction in Collaborative Settings BIBAKFull-Text 19-28
  Luís Duarte; Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
This paper presents an initial study of a multimodal collaborative platform concerning user preferences and interaction technique adequacy towards a task. True collaborative interactions are a missing aspect of the majority of nowadays' multi-user system on par with the lack of support towards impaired users. In order to surpass these obstacles we provide an accessible platform for co-located collaborative environments which aims at not only improving the ways users interact within them but also at exploring novel interaction patterns. A brief study regarding a set of interaction techniques and tasks was conducted in order to assess the most suited modalities in certain settings. We discuss the results drawn from this study, detail some related conclusions and present future work directions.
Keywords: Collaboration; Multimodal Interaction; Accessibility
Towards a Multidimensional Approach for the Evaluation of Multimodal Application User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
  José Eustáquio Rangel de Queiroz; Joseana M. Fechine; Ana E. V. Barbosa; Danilo de Sousa Ferreira
This paper focuses on a multidimensional approach for evaluating multimodal UI based upon a set of well known techniques for usability evaluation. Each technique evaluates the problem from a different perspective which combines user opinion, standard conformity assessment, and user performance measurement. The method's presentation and the evaluation analysis will be supported by a discussion of the results obtained from the method's application to a case study involving a Smartphone. The main objective of the study was to investigate the need for adapting a multidimensional evaluation approach for desktop applications to the context of multimodal devices and applications.
Keywords: Multimodal user interface; usability evaluation techniques; multidimensional approach; multimodal application
Multimodal Shopping Lists BIBAKFull-Text 39-47
  Jhilmil Jain; Riddhiman Ghosh; Mohamed Dekhil
In this paper we present a prototype for creating shopping lists using multiple input devices such as desktop, smart phones, landline or cell phones and in multimodal formats such as structured text, audio, still images, video, unstructured text and annotated media. The prototype was used by 10 participants in a two week longitudinal study. The goal was to analyze the process that users go through in order to create and manage shopping related projects. Based on these findings, we recommend desirable features for personal information management systems specifically designed for managing collaborative shopping lists.
Keywords: shopping lists; images; text; video; audio; mobile; web
Value of Using Multimodal Data in HCI Methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Jhilmil Jain
In this paper, I will discuss two HCI methodologies, diary study and affinity diagramming, that were carried out using multimodal data such as images, audio, video, annotated media along with the traditional use of text. I will discuss a software solution that was developed at HP Labs to conduct a multimodal diary study using three touch points: PCs, mobile devices and any type of landline/cellular phone. This will be followed by a discussion on how Microsoft StickySorter software was used to conduct multimodal affinity diagramming exercises.
Keywords: multimodal diary study; multimodal affinity diagrams; audio; video; images; text; free-hand notes; annotated media
Effective Combination of Haptic, Auditory and Visual Information Feedback in Operation Feeling BIBAKFull-Text 58-65
  Keiko Kasamatsu; Tadahiro Minami; Kazuki Izumi; Hideo Jinguh
This research designed the means to offer the haptic feedback to the touch panel by producing the pen-shaped vibratory device. The task performance and the feeling of push touch using this device was experimented by the sensory evaluation. The psychological effects concerning the difference in the feeling of push touch and the acceptance of the device was evaluated by giving the haptic feedback compared with the visual and the auditory feedback. As a result, not only the haptic sense but also the effectiveness of two or more sensory integration was taken as an operation feeling. The goodness of the operation feeling was confirmed the improvement by a clear impression and comprehensible feedback. It is thought that the goodness of operativeness by the vibratory stimulation is connected with the sensibility such as the feeling of comfortable and security.
Keywords: feeling of push touch; haptic feedback; psychological effects
Multi-modal Interface in Multi-Display Environment for Multi-users BIBAKFull-Text 66-74
  Yoshifumi Kitamura; Satoshi Sakurai; Tokuo Yamaguchi; Ryo Fukazawa; Yuichi Itoh; Fumio Kishino
Multi-display environments (MDEs) are becoming more and more common. By introducing multi-modal interaction techniques such as gaze, body/hand and gestures, we established a sophisticated and intuitive interface for MDEs where the displays are stitched seamlessly and dynamically according to the users' viewpoints. Each user can interact with the multiple displays as if she is in front of an ordinary desktop GUI environment.
Keywords: 3D user interfaces; CSCW; graphical user interfaces; perspective correction
Reliable Evaluation of Multimodal Dialogue Systems BIBAKFull-Text 75-83
  Florian Metze; Ina Wechsung; Stefan Schaffer; Julia Seebode; Sebastian Möller
Usability evaluation is an indispensable issue during the development of new interfaces and interaction paradigms [1]. Although a wide range of reliable usability evaluation methods exists for graphical user interfaces, mature methods are rarely available for speech-based interfaces [2]. When it comes to multimodal interfaces, no standardized approach has so far been established. In previous studies [3], it was shown that usability questionnaires initially developed for unimodal systems may lead to unreliable results when applied to multimodal systems. In the current study, we therefore used several data sources (direct and indirect measurements) to evaluate two unimodal versions and one multimodal version of an information system. We investigated, to which extent the different data showed concordance for the three system versions. The aim was to examine, if, and under which conditions, common and widely used methods originally developed for graphical user interfaces are also appropriate for speech-based and multimodal intelligent interfaces.
Keywords: usability evaluation methods; multimodal interfaces
Evaluation Proposal of a Framework for the Integration of Multimodal Interaction in 3D Worlds BIBAFull-Text 84-92
  Héctor Olmedo-Rodríguez; David Escudero Mancebo; Valentín Cardeñoso-Payo
This paper describes a multimodal architecture to control 3D avatars with speech dialogs and mouse events. We briefly describe the scripting language used to specify the sequences and the components of the architecture supporting the system. Then we focus on the evaluation procedure that is proposed to test the system. The discussion on the evaluation results shows us the future work to be accomplished.
Building a Practical Multimodal System with a Multimodal Fusion Module BIBAKFull-Text 93-102
  Yong Sun; Yu (David) Shi; Fang Chen; Vera Chung
A multimodal system is a system equipped with a multimodal interface through which a user can interact with the system by using his/her natural communication modalities, such as speech, gesture, eye gaze, etc. To understand a user's intension, multimodal input fusion, a critical component of a multimodal interface, integrates a user's multimodal inputs and finds the combined semantic interpretation of them. As powerful, yet affordable input and output technologies becoming available, such as speech recognition and eye tracking, it becomes possible to attach recognition technologies to existing applications with a multimodal input fusion module; therefore, a practical multimodal system can be built. This paper documents our experience about building a practical multimodal system with our multimodal input fusion technology. The pilot study has been conducted over the multimodal system. By outlining observations from the pilot study, the implications on multimodal interface design are laid out.
Keywords: Multimodal system design; practical multimodal system; multimodal input fusion
Modeling Multimodal Interaction for Performance Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 103-112
  Emile Verdurand; Gilles Coppin; Franck Poirier; Olivier Grisvard
When designing multimodal systems, the designer faces the problem of the choice of modalities to optimize the system usability. Based on modeling at a high level of abstraction, we propose an evaluation of this choice during the design phase, using a multi-criteria principle. The evaluation focuses on several points of view simultaneously, weighted according to the environment and the nature of the task. It relies on measures estimating the adequacies between the elements involved in the interaction. These measures arise from a fine decomposition of the interaction modalities.
Keywords: modeling; evaluation; modality; context adequacy; interaction language; multimodal interaction
Usability Evaluation of Multimodal Interfaces: Is the Whole the Sum of Its Parts? BIBAFull-Text 113-119
  Ina Wechsung; Klaus-Peter Engelbrecht; Stefan Schaffer; Julia Seebode; Florian Metze; Sebastian Möller
Usability evaluation of multimodal systems is a complex issue. Multimodal systems provide multiple channels to communicate with the system. Thus, the single modalities as well as their combination have to be taken into account. This paper aims to investigate how ratings of single modalities relate to the ratings of their combination. Therefore a usability evaluation study was conducted testing an information system in two unimodal versions and one multimodal version. Multiple linear regression showed that for overall and global judgments ratings of the single modalities are very good predictors for the ratings of the multimodal system. For separate usability aspects (e.g. hedonic qualities) the prediction was less accurate.

Gesture, Eyes Movement and Expression Recognition

An Open Source Framework for Real-Time, Incremental, Static and Dynamic Hand Gesture Learning and Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 123-130
  Todd C. Alexander; Hassan S. Ahmed; Georgios C. Anagnostopoulos
Real-time, static and dynamic hand gesture learning and recognition makes it possible to have computers recognize hand gestures naturally. This creates endless possibilities in the way humans can interact with computers, allowing a human hand to be a peripheral by itself. The software framework developed provides a lightweight, robust, and practical application programming interface that helps further research in the area of human-computer interaction. Approaches that have proven in analogous areas such as speech and handwriting recognition were applied to static and dynamic hand gestures. A semi-supervised Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network was used for incremental online learning and recognition of static gestures; and, Hidden Markov models for online recognition of dynamic gestures. A simple anticipatory method was implemented for determining when to update key frames allowing the framework to work with dynamic backgrounds.
Keywords: Motion detection; hand tracking; real-time gesture recognition; software framework; FAST corner detection; ART Neural Networks
Gesture-Controlled User Input to Complete Questionnaires on Wrist-Worn Watches BIBAKFull-Text 131-140
  Oliver Amft; Roman Amstutz; Asim Smailagic; Daniel P. Siewiorek; Gerhard Tröster
The aim of this work was to investigate arm gestures as an alternative input modality for wrist-worn watches. In particular we implemented a gesture recognition system and questionnaire interface into a watch prototype. We analyzed the wearer's effort and learning performance to use the gesture interface and compared their performance to a classical button-based solution. Moreover we evaluated the system performance to spot wearer gestures and the system responsiveness. Our wearer study showed that the watch achieved a recognition accuracy of more than 90%. Completion times showed a clear decrease from 3 min in the first repetition to 1 min, 49 sec in the last one. Similarly, variance of completion times between wearers decreased during repetitions. Completion time using the button interface was 36 sec. Ratings of physical and concentration effort decreased during the study. Our results confirm that wearer training state is rather reflected in completion time than recognition performance.
Keywords: gesture spotting; activity recognition; eWatch; user evaluation
UbiGesture: Customizing and Profiling Hand Gestures in Ubiquitous Environment BIBAKFull-Text 141-150
  Ayman Atia; Shin Takahashi; Kazuo Misue; Jiro Tanaka
One of the main challenges of interaction in a ubiquitous environment is the use of hand gestures for interacting with day to day applications. This interaction may be negatively affected due to the change in the user's position, interaction device, or the level of social acceptance of a specific hand gesture. We present UbiGesture as architecture for developers and users who frequently change locations while interacting in ubiquitous environments. The architecture enables applications to be operated by using hand gestures. Normal users can customize their own hand gestures when interacting with computers in context-aware ubiquitous environments. UbiGesture is based on combining user preferences, location, input/output devices, applications, and hand gestures into one profile. A prototype implementation application for UbiGesture is presented. Then a subjective and objective primary evaluation for UbiGesture while interacting in different locations with different hand gesture profiles is presented.
Keywords: Ubiquitous environment; Hand gesture profiles; Context aware services
The Gestural Input System for Living Room Digital Devices BIBAKFull-Text 151-160
  Wen-Shan Chang; Fong-Gong Wu
The focus of this research is to help users learn gesture symbols through semantic perception. With the semantic perception as the basis, qualitative and quantitative analysis will be conducted to analyze digital homes -- as exemplified by the gesture symbols in the 3D space of the living room in order to deduce the design principles of different perceptive semantics. Samples of the case studies will be constructed in accordance with this design principle. Inspections and assessments will also be conducted to demonstrate the accuracy and feasibility of this principle. The findings in this research shall serve as reference for the design of interfaces and gesture recognition systems in the comprehensive surrounding. It shall also serve as the design standard for relevant future designs that involve semantic perception and design gesture symbols.
Keywords: home audiovisual multimedia; gesture recognition; gesture symbol; cognition
Touchless Interaction-Novel Chances and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 161-169
  René de la Barré; Paul Chojecki; Ulrich Leiner; Lothar Mühlbach; Detlef Ruschin
Touchless or empty-handed gestural input has received considerable attention during the last years because of such benefits as removing the burden of physical contact with an interactive system and making the interaction pleasurable. What is often overlooked is that those special forms of touchless interaction which employ genuine gestures -- defined as movements that have a meaning -- are associated with the danger of suffering from the same drawbacks as command based interfaces do, which have been widely abandoned in favor of direct manipulation interfaces. Touchless direct manipulation, however, is about to reach maturity in certain application fields. In our paper we try to point out why and under which conditions this is going to happen, and how we are working to optimize the interfaces through user tests.
Keywords: interaction; touchless; direct manipulation; gestures; hand tracking; user experience
Did I Get It Right: Head Gestures Analysis for Human-Machine Interactions BIBAFull-Text 170-177
  Jürgen Gast; Alexander Bannat; Tobias Rehrl; Gerhard Rigoll; Frank Wallhoff; Christoph Mayer; Bernd Radig
This paper presents a system for another input modality in a multimodal human-machine interaction scenario. In addition to other common input modalities, e.g. speech, we extract head gestures by image interpretation techniques based on machine learning algorithms to have a nonverbal and familiar way of interacting with the system. Our experimental evaluation proofs the capability of the presented approach to work in real-time and reliable.
Interactive Demonstration of Pointing Gestures for Virtual Trainers BIBAKFull-Text 178-187
  Yazhou Huang; Marcelo Kallmann
While interactive virtual humans are becoming widely used in education, training and delivery of instructions, building the animations required for such interactive characters in a given scenario remains a complex and time consuming work. One of the key problems is that most of the systems controlling virtual humans are mainly based on pre-defined animations which have to be re-built by skilled animators specifically for each scenario. In order to improve this situation this paper proposes a framework based on the direct demonstration of motions via a simplified and easy to wear set of motion capture sensors. The proposed system integrates motion segmentation, clustering and interactive motion blending in order to enable a seamless interface for programming motions by demonstration.
Keywords: virtual humans; motion capture; interactive demonstration
Anthropometric Facial Emotion Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 188-197
  Julia Jarkiewicz; Rafal Kocielnik; Krzysztof Marasek
The aim of this project is detection, analysis and recognition of facial features. The system operates on grayscale images. For the analysis Haar-like face detector was used along with anthropometric face model and a hybrid feature detection approach. The system localizes 17 characteristic points of analyzed face and, based on their displacements certain emotions can be automatically recognized. The system was tested on a publicly available database (Japanese Female Expression Database) JAFFE with ca. 77% accuracy for 7 basic emotions using various classifiers. Thanks to its open structure the system can cooperate well with any HCI system.
Keywords: emotion recognition; facial expression detection; affective computing
Real-Time Face Tracking and Recognition Based on Particle Filtering and AdaBoosting Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 198-207
  Chin-Shyurng Fahn; Ming-Jui Kuo; Kai-Yi Wang
In this paper, a real-time face tracking and recognition system based on particle filtering and AdaBoosting techniques is presented. Regarding the face tracking, we develop an effective particle filter to locate faces in image sequences. Since we have considered the hair color information of a human head, the particle filter will keep tracking even if the person is back to the line of sight of a camera. We further adopt both the motion and color cues as the features to make the influence of the background as low as possible. A new fashion of classification architecture trained with an AdaBoost algorithm is also proposed to achieve face recognition rapidly. Compared to other machine learning schemes, the AdaBoost algorithm can update training samples to deal with comprehensive circumstances, but it need not spend much computational cost. Experimental results reveal that the face tracking rate is more than 97% in general situations and 89% when the face suffering from temporal occlusion. As for the face recognition, the accuracy rate is more than 90%; besides this, the efficiency of system execution is very satisfactory, which reaches 20 frames per second at least.
Keywords: face tracking; face recognition; particle filter; AdaBoost algorithm
A Real-Time Hand Interaction System for Image Sensor Based Interface BIBAKFull-Text 208-215
  SeIn Lee; Jonghoon Seo; Soon-Bum Lim; Yoon-Chul Choy; Tack-Don Han
Diverse sensors are available in ubiquitous computing of which resources is inherent in environment. Among them, image sensor acquires necessary data using camera without any extra devices, which is a different aspect from other sensors. It can provide additional services and/or applications by using a location of code and ID in real time image. Focusing on this, Intuitive interface operating method in ubiquitous computing environment that has plenty of image codes is suggested. GUI using image sensor was designed, which works real-time interactive operation between user and the GUI without any additional button or device. This interface method recognizes user's hand images in real-time by learning them at a starting point. The method sets interaction point, and operates the GUI through hand gestures defined previously. We expect this study can be adopted to augmented reality area and real time interface using user's hand.
Keywords: HCI; Hand interface; Hand interaction; Augmented Reality
Gesture-Based Interface for Connection and Control of Multi-device in a Tabletop Display Environment BIBAKFull-Text 216-225
  Hyunglae Lee; Heeseok Jeong; Joong-Ho Lee; Ki-Won Yeom; Ji-Hyung Park
In this paper, we propose a gesture-based interface for connection and control of multiple devices in a ubiquitous computing environment. With simple selection and pointing gestures, users can easily control connections between multiple devices as well as manage information or data between them. Based on a robust gesture recognition algorithm and a virtual network computing technology, we implemented this concept in an intelligent meeting room consisting of a tabletop, interactive wall displays, and other popular devices such as laptops and mobile devices. We also performed a preliminary user study in this environment, and the results show the usability of the suggested interface.
Keywords: Gesture-based interface; multi-device connection
Shadow Awareness: Bodily Expression Supporting System with Use of Artificial Shadow BIBAKFull-Text 226-235
  Yoshiyuki Miwa; Shiroh Itai; Takabumi Watanabe; Koji Iida; Hiroko Nishi
As a supporting means for self-creating bodily expression, shadow media system was developed with which shadow is artificially deformed into diverse forms and such deformed shadow can be displayed on a screen without separating it from the own body. With the system, it was found that the awareness was established inside the body via deformed shadows; therefore it can support an improvised creation of the images. Furthermore, by the subject-object inseparable interaction through shadows, co-creation of images with others was encouraged. Accordingly, it was indicated that this media system is promising and effective to support co-creative expression and shows its potential applicability as a creative archive technology to connect to past people.
Keywords: Bodily Expression; image; awareness; co-creation; shadow media
An Approach to Glove-Based Gesture Recognition BIBAFull-Text 236-245
  Farid Parvini; Dennis McLeod; Cyrus Shahabi; Bahareh Navai; Baharak Zali; Shahram Ghandeharizadeh
Nowadays, computer interaction is mostly done using dedicated devices. But gestures are an easy mean of expression between humans that could be used to communicate with computers in a more natural manner. Most of the current research on hand gesture recognition for Human-Computer Interaction rely on either the Neural Networks or Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). In this paper, we compare different approaches for gesture recognition and highlight the major advantages of each. We show that gestures recognition based on the Bio-mechanical characteristic of the hand provides an intuitive approach which provides more accuracy and less complexity.
cfHMI: A Novel Contact-Free Human-Machine Interface BIBAFull-Text 246-254
  Tobias Rehrl; Alexander Bannat; Jürgen Gast; Gerhard Rigoll; Frank Wallhoff
In this paper we present our approach for a new contact-free Human-Machine Interface (cfHMI). This cfHMI is designed for controlling applications -- instruction presentation, robot control -- in the so-called "Cognitive Factory Scenario", introduced in [1]. However, the interface can be applied in other environments and areas of application as well. Due to its generic approach, this low-cost contact-free interface can be easily adapted to several independent applications, featuring individual menu-structures, etc. In addition, the modular software architecture facilitates the upgrades and improvements of the different software modules embedded in the cfHMI.
Fly! Little Me: Localization of Body-Image within Reduced-Self BIBAKFull-Text 255-260
  Tatsuya Saito; Masahiko Sato
In conventional interface design, manipulated objects are visually represented and an actor of manipulation is a user's physical body. Although it is a bodily contact between the user and the virutla objects, these virtual objects are detached from the user's physical body and are usually operated as target objects through an interface device. We propose a new type of embodied interaction based on visual-somatosensory integration to evoke localization of a user's body-image within a visual object on a screen. The major difference between conventional interaction and the proposed framework is whether the center of the user's body-image is localized within the screen or outside of the screen. When the user's body-image is outside of the screen, manipulation of screen objects is transitive action, or target operation under a subject-object structure. In contrast, when the user's body-image is localized within a screen object, the operation of the object becomes intransitive action and the user operates the screen object as if he moves a part of his body. Although object manipulation as intransitive action indeed has a history as long as interface design itself, it has not yet been exposed to thorough inspection. To qualitatively analyze intransitive manipulation and effect of body-image localization, which we think is a core factor, we implemented an interactive system based on several proposed design principles and exhibited the system at a gallery opened for the public to collect qualitative evidences on the effect.
Keywords: Embodied Interface; Spatialized Display; Localization of Body-Image; Visual somatosensory Integration. Categories and Subject Descriptors: H.5.2 [User Interfaces]: Evaluation/methodology; Interaction styles; User-centered design. General terms: Performance; Design; Experimentation; Security; Human Factors; Theory
New Interaction Concepts by Using the Wii Remote BIBAKFull-Text 261-270
  Michael Schreiber; Margeritta von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff; Ralph Bruder
The interaction concept of the video game console Nintendo Wii has created a furor in the interface design community due to its intuitive interface: the Wii Remote. At the Institute of Ergonomics (IAD) of the Darmstadt University of Technology, several projects investigated the potential of interaction concepts with the Wii Remote, especially in nongaming contexts. In a first study an interactive whiteboard according to [1] was recreated, modified and evaluated. In this case, the Wii Remote is not the human-machine-interface but the sensor that detects an infrared emitting (IR) pencil. A survey with 15 subjects was conducted in which different IR pencils were evaluated. In a second study the potential of a gesture based human-computer interaction with the help of the Wii-Remote according to [2] was evaluated by using a multimedia software application. In a survey with 30 subjects, the Wii gesture interaction was compared to a standard remote control.
Keywords: Wii Remote; Wii; gesture based interaction; interactive whiteboard
Wireless Data Glove for Gesture-Based Robotic Control BIBAKFull-Text 271-280
  Nghia Xuan Tran; Hoa Van Phan; Vince V. Dinh; Jeffrey Ellen; Bryan Berg; Jason Lum; Eldridge Alcantara; Mike Bruch; Marion G. Ceruti; Charles Kao; Daniel Garcia; Sunny Fugate; LorRaine Duffy
A wireless data glove was developed to control a Talon robot. Sensors mounted on the glove send signals to a processing unit, worn on the user's forearm that translates hand postures into data. An RF transceiver, also mounted on the user, transmits the encoded signals representing the hand postures and dynamic gestures to the robot via RF link. Commands to control the robot's position, camera, claw, and arm include "activate mobility," "hold on," "point camera," and "grab object."
Keywords: Communications; conveying intentions; distributed environment; gestures; human-computer interactions; human-robot interactions; military battlefield applications; non-verbal interface; robot; wireless data glove; wireless motion sensing
PALMbit-Silhouette: A User Interface by Superimposing Palm-Silhouette to Access Wall Displays BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Goshiro Yamamoto; Huichuan Xu; Kazuto Ikeda; Kosuke Sato
In this paper, we propose a new type of user interface using palm-silhouette, which realizes intuitive interaction on ubiquitous displays located at far from user's location or interfered in direct operation. In the area of augmented reality based user interface, besides the interface which allows users to operate virtual objects directly, the interface which lets users to interact remotely from a short-distant location is necessary, especially in the environment where multi-displays are shared in public areas. We propose two gesture-related functions using the palm-silhouette interface: grasp-and-release operation and wrist rotating operation which represent "selecting" and "adjustment" respectively. The usability of proposed palm-silhouette interface was evaluated by experiment comparison with a conventional arrowhead pointer. We studied and concluded the design rationale to realize a rotary switch operation by utilizing pseudo-haptic visual cue.
Keywords: user interface; shadow; pseudo-haptic
Potential Limitations of Multi-touch Gesture Vocabulary: Differentiation, Adoption, Fatigue BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Wendy Yee
The majority of gestural interactions in consumer electronics currently represent "direct" gestures related to the direct manipulation of onscreen objects. As gestural interactions extend beyond consumer electronics and become more prevalent in productivity applications, these gestures will need to address more abstract or "indirect" actions. This paper addresses some of the usability concerns associated with indirect gestures and their potential limitations for the typical end-user. In addition, it outlines a number of considerations for the integration of abstract gestures with productivity workspaces.
Keywords: Interaction design; multi-touch; software design; gestures

Human-Robot Interaction

A Multimodal Human-Robot-Interaction Scenario: Working Together with an Industrial Robot BIBAFull-Text 303-311
  Alexander Bannat; Jürgen Gast; Tobias Rehrl; Wolfgang Rösel; Gerhard Rigoll; Frank Wallhoff
In this paper, we present a novel approach for multimodal interactions between humans and industrial robots.
   The application scenario is situated in a factory, where a human worker is supported by a robot to accomplish a given hybrid assembly scenario, that covers manual and automated assembly steps. The robot is acting as an assistant as well as a fully autonomous assembly unit.
   For interacting with the presented system, the human is able to give his commands via three different input modalities (speech, gaze and the so-called soft-buttons).
Robotic Home Assistant Care-O-bot® 3 Product Vision and Innovation Platform BIBAKFull-Text 312-320
  Birgit Graf; Christopher Parlitz; Martin Hägele
The development of a mobile robot to assist people in their home is a long term goal of Fraunhofer IPA. In order to meet this goal, three generations of a robotic home assistant "Care-O-bot®" have been developed so far. As a vision of a future household product, Care-O-bot® 3 is equipped with the latest industrial state-of-the art hardware components. It offers all modern multi-media and interaction equipment as well as most advanced sensors and control. It is able to navigate among humans, detect and grasp objects and pass them safely to human users using its tray. Care-O-bot® 3 has been presented to the public on several occasions where it distributed drinks to the visitors of trade fairs and events.
Keywords: robotic home assistant; Care-O-bot; product vision; navigation; manipulation; object learning and detection; safe human-robot interaction; fetch and carry tasks
Designing Emotional and Interactive Behaviors for an Entertainment Robot BIBAKFull-Text 321-330
  Yo Chan Kim; Hyuk Tae Kwon; Wan Chul Yoon; Jong Cheol Kim
In the process of developing an entertainment robot, Mon-e, we represented the robot's emotional and interactive behaviors in the form of scripts. A unified model was established to manage all the different scripts. We designed the personality profile to possess two dimensions of criteria for script selection. Emotion variable was introduced to create a variety of robot behavior according to the context. Reinforcing mechanisms of the personality profile and the emotion variable were developed.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Script-based Robot Behavior; Robot Personality; Robot Emotion; Service Robots
Emotions and Messages in Simple Robot Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 331-340
  Jamy Li; Mark H. Chignell; Sachi Mizobuchi; Michiaki Yasumura
Understanding how people interpret robot gestures will aid design of effective social robots. We examine the generation and interpretation of gestures in a simple social robot capable of head and arm movement using two studies. In the first study, four participants created gestures with corresponding messages and emotions based on 12 different scenarios provided to them. The resulting gestures were then shown in the second study to 12 participants who judged which emotions and messages were being conveyed. Knowledge (present or absent) of the motivating scenario (context) for each gesture was manipulated as an experimental factor. Context was found to assist message understanding while providing only modest assistance to emotion recognition. While better than chance, both emotion (22%) and message understanding (40%) accuracies were relatively low. The results obtained are discussed in terms of implied guidelines for designing gestures for social robots.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Gestures; Social Robots; Emotion
Life with a Robot Companion: Video Analysis of 16-Days of Interaction with a Home Robot in a "Ubiquitous Home" Environment BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Naoko Matsumoto; Hirotada Ueda; Tatsuya Yamazaki; Hajime Murai
This paper examines human-robot interaction within a home environment over the course of a 16 day-long experiment. Its purpose is to describe the human cognitive activities involving a symbiotic robot with dialogue interface within domestic settings. The participants were a couple in their 60's. Analysis of video data indicates that (a) the participants continuously used the robot's dialogue interface, and persevered within this despite the performance of the voice recognition system (b) the participants checked out the robot's function as a tool and gradually came to regard the robot as a companion, (c) fixed instruction expressions increased the use of the dialogue interface for the light controls, while the participants employed both the dialogue interface and the remote controller for the TV and light controls.
Keywords: home robot; ubiquitous environment; dialogue interface; life experiment; video analysis
Impression Evaluation of a Conversational Robot Playing RAKUGO BIBAFull-Text 351-360
  Akihiro Ogino; Noritaka Moriya; Park Seung-Joon; Hirotada Ueda
The purpose of this paper is to detect a comfortable strength and timing of gestures of the robot for people. This paper describes the evaluation of individual impressions concerning RAKUGO of the traditional Japanese comic storytelling that is performed by a conversational robot. This paper shows that the gestures of the robot like professional actor of RAKUGO give smart and mature impressions to people than exaggerated gestures. In order to detect a tendency of impression based on individual personality, this paper also describes a relation between the individual impression to the gesture of the robot and Transactional Analysis that is one of psychology. We detect that there is a correlation between their impression to the gesture and their personality.
Performance Assessment of Swarm Robots BIBAKFull-Text 361-367
  Ercan Öztemel; Cemalettin Kubat; Özer Uygun; Tuba Canvar; Tulay Korkusuz; Vinesh Raja; Anthony Soroka
Swarm intelligence is the emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple autonomous agents which are autonomous subsystems that interact with their environment. This paper presents a performance evaluation system for swarm robots. The model proposed includes a set of performance assessment criteria and performance assessment and monitoring system. The proposed approach is developed for swarm robots developed for health system responsible for delivery, guidance, monitoring, recognition, and delivery which a project in European 6th Framework Research Program and carried out by several European nations.
Keywords: swarm robots; performance assessment
A Robotic Introducer Agent Based on Adaptive Embodied Entrainment Control BIBAKFull-Text 368-376
  Mutsuo Sano; Kenzaburo Miyawaki; Ryohei Sasama; Tomoharu Yamaguchi; Keiji Yamada
The necessity for the individual and the individual's tying in real space increases while the age of piece progresses. The robot is requested in that and it is requested what role be able to be played. Here, we pursue the research on the robot design to expand and to promote the group conversation. It proposes the technique to advance the conversation of couple 1 of the first meeting smoothly as the first stage. Especially, it is confirmed that nonverbal interactions are more important than language interactions by a lot of researches so that the individual and the individual may tie. We newly define the communications activity based on embodied entrainment, and propose the method to control the behavior of the robot dynamically according to the state of communications. The active control method uses interaction timing learning which depends on nonverbal communication channels. Our mechanism selects an appropriate embodied robotic behavior by changing the communication strategy based on the state transition of an introduction scene, and increases the communication activity measured by sensing data. The action timing is learned and controlled by a decision-tree. As the result, the real agent robot could control communication situations similarly to a human. We became "Yes" by the evaluation value of 82% for the question that communications had risen as a result of doing the questionnaire survey to 20 university students. Moreover, familiarity became a first meeting introduction robot with "Yes" for the question about whether being possible to have it by the evaluation value of 85%. Therefore, the effectiveness of this proposal technique was verified. Finally, the possibility that the circle of communications can be expanded to N person's group is discussed based on this result.
Keywords: Embodied Entrainment Nonverbal Communication Robotic Introducer Agent; Group communication; Human's Action Learning
Robot Helps Teachers for Education of the C Language Beginners BIBAKFull-Text 377-384
  Haruaki Tamada; Akihiro Ogino; Hirotada Ueda
In this paper, we propose a learning support framework for teacher and learners that achieves the following three requirements: (A) to use unaware system, (B) to support the teacher for educating learners, and (C) to support learners for solving assignments. Based on the proposed framework, we implemented a system using a robot which supports learners.
Keywords: Robot; the C language; human/robot interaction
An Interactive Robot Butler BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  Yeow Kee Tan; Dilip Kumar Limbu; Ridong Jiang; Liyuan Li; Kah Eng Hoe; Xinguo Yu; Li Dong; Chern Yuen Wong; Haizhou Li
This paper describes a novel robotic butler, developed by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers. The robotic butler is capable of detecting and tracking human, recognize hand gestures, serving beverages and performs dialog conversation with guest about their interests and their preferences; and providing specific information on the facilities at Fusionopolis building and various technologies used by the robot. The robot employs an event driven dialogue management system (DMS) architecture, speech recognition, ultra wideband, vision understanding and radio frequency identification. All these components and agents that are integrated in the DMS architecture are modular and can be re-used by other applications. In this paper, we will first describe the design concept and the architecture of the robotic butler. Secondly, we will describe in detail the workings of the speech and vision technology as this paper mainly focuses on human-robot interaction aspects of the social robot. Lastly, this paper will highlight some key challenges that were faced during the implementation of speech and vision technology into the robot.
Keywords: speech recognition; gesture recognition; robot and dialog management system

Touch and Pen-Based Interaction

A Study on Fundamental Information Transmission Characteristics of an Air-Jet Driven Tactile Display BIBAKFull-Text 397-406
  Takafumi Asao; Hiroaki Hayashi; Masayoshi Hayashi; Kentaro Kotani; Ken Horii
There are many people with impaired vision as well as hearing. Tactile displays can be useful to such people for communicating by means of characters and shapes. Many devices for tactile displays such as oscillators and electrocutaneous stimulators have been developed. However oscillators have two drawbacks: physical stress tends to build up in actuators because of long term exposure to oscillations, and they may transmit erroneous information because of unstable contacts between magnetic pins and the skin. Moreover, electrocutaneous stimulators cause discomfort to the user. In this study, we have developed a tactile information presentation technique that uses air jet stimulations and tactile phantom sensations induced by a complex combination of tactile perceptions. The tactile display can transmit information to the skin without physical contact and is free from the restriction of pitch size. In this paper, we have examined its fundamental information transmission characteristics.
Keywords: Tactile Display; Air Jet Stimulation; Phantom Sensation
VersaPatch: A Low Cost 2.5D Capacitive Touch Sensor BIBAKFull-Text 407-416
  Ray Bittner; Mike Sinclair
Capacitive input devices are becoming increasingly prevalent in consumer devices. This paper presents the hardware and algorithms for the low cost implementation of a capacitive 2.5D input device. The low cost and low power consumption of the device make it suitable for use in portable devices such as cellular phones. The electrical properties used are such that the pre-existing snap dome technologies in such devices can be used as capacitive sensing elements, further reducing the cost and size impact of the capacitive sensor.
Keywords: 2D Pointing; Capacitive Sensing; Interface; Low Cost; Low Power
From Implicit to Touching Interaction by Identification Technologies: Towards Tagging Context BIBAKFull-Text 417-425
  José Bravo; Ramón Hervás; Carmen Fuentes; Vladimir Villarreal; Gabriel Chavira; Salvador W. Nava; Jesús Fontecha; Gregorio Casero; Rocío Peña; Marcos Vergara
Intelligent environments need interactions capable of detecting users and providing them with good-quality contextual information. In this sense we adapt technologies, identifying and locating people for supporting their needs. However, it is necessary to analyze some important features in order to compare the implicit interaction, which is closer to the users and more natural, to a new interaction by contact. In this paper we present the adaptability of two technologies; Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC). In the first one, the interaction is more appropriate within intelligent environments but in the second one, the same RFID technology, placed in mobile phones, achieves some advantages that we consider to be an intermediate solution until the standardization of sensors arrives.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; NFC; Touching Interaction; Location-based Services
VTouch: A Vision-Base Dual Finger Touched Inputs for Large Displays BIBAKFull-Text 426-434
  Ching-Han Chen; Cun-Xian Nian
In this work, we present a complete architecture to implement a dual touch function for large sized displays. The architecture includes the hardware device and the software algorithm. The system has lower cost and smaller size than previous works for large sized display. And the proposed approach eliminates the requirement of special hardware. The system can be plugged to a normal display and change the display to equip the dual touch function. At the final of this paper, we give an experiment to demonstrate the system and show its usability.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; dual touch screen; multi-touch screen; user interface
Overview of Meta-analyses Investigating Vibrotactile versus Visual Display Options BIBAKFull-Text 435-443
  Linda R. Elliott; Michael D. Coovert; Elizabeth S. Redden
The literature is replete with studies that investigated the effectiveness of vibrotactile displays; however, individual studies in this area often yield discrepant findings that are difficult to synthesize. In this paper, we provide an overview of a comprehensive review of the literature and meta-analyses that organized studies to enable comparisons of visual and tactile presentations of information, to yield information useful to researchers and designers. Over six hundred studies were initially reviewed and coded along numerous criteria that determined appropriateness for meta-analysis categories. Comparisons were made between conditions that compared (a) adding a tactile cue to a baseline condition, (b) a visual cue with a multimodal (visual and tactile) presentation, and (c) a visual cue with a tactile cue. In addition, we further categorized within these comparisons with regard to type of information, that ranged from simple alerts and single direction cues to more complex tactile patterns representing spatial orientation or short communications.
Keywords: Tactile; Visual; Display; Interface; Design; Military; Army; Attention management; Spatial orientation; Navigation; Communication
Experimental Study about Effect of Thermal Information Presentation to Mouse BIBAKFull-Text 444-450
  Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Sakae Yamamoto
Despite the many types of telecommunication systems that have been developed, it can still be hard to convey various types of information expressively to a remote partner. Our research focuses on the use of variations in temperature to represent information expressively. We developed a mouse device with thermal capabilities; the device becomes warmer or colder to a user's palm when the user clicks "thermal" photographic images on a computer screen. Each image has an associated thermal value. In this paper, we report the results of an evaluation of the thermal performance of the device. We also report results from a preliminary experiment that determine how the thermal expression affects a user's impression of images.
Keywords: thermal information; thermal mouse; warm sense; cold sense; pair comparisons
Preliminary Study on Vibrotactile Messaging for Sharing Brief Information BIBAKFull-Text 451-460
  Teruaki Ito
Ubiquitous computing is spreading as a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction, in which information processing is thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. This study focuses on the vibrotactile signals for sharing and feeling the brief information among several users. The information here is limited to brief information which does not include detailed information but does cover the rough idea of the content of the information, so that the data size of the information can be kept very small. This paper presents a prototype device for vibrotactile messaging called VIBRATO. Then it shows the experimental results regarding VIBRATO message under different conditions and clarifies how to use VIBRATO effectively for understanding vibrotactile messages. The simple vibration alert used in a silent mode of mobile phones does not fully exploit the potential of vibration as a means of communication. This experiment shows how to exploit this potentiality of vibration.
Keywords: Vibrotactile message; brief information; ubiquitous computing; human interface
Orientation Responsive Touch Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 461-469
  Jinwook Kim; Jong-gil Ahn; Heedong Ko
A novel touch based interaction method by use of orientation information of a touch region is proposed. To capture higher dimensional information of touch including a position and an orientation as well, we develop robust algorithms to detect a contact shape and to estimate its orientation angle. Also we suggest practical guidelines to use our method through experiments considering various conditions and show possible service scenarios of aligning documents and controlling a media player.
Keywords: Touch Interaction; Interaction techniques; Touch direction; Touch orientation; Tabletop; Media player controller
Representation of Velocity Information by Using Tactile Apparent Motion BIBAKFull-Text 470-478
  Kentaro Kotani; Toru Yu; Takafumi Asao; Ken Horii
The objective of the study is to evaluate whether use of apparent motion can be an effective presentation method for velocity information. Ten subjects participated in the experiment where they perceived apparent motion generated by air-jet and they controlled the speed of the moving object on the PC screen to express their perceived velocity. As a result, perceived velocity decreased significantly as the ISOI was increased. Perceived velocity changed with the duration when the ISOI was between 30-70 ms and when apparent motion was provided. Duration only affected perceived velocity when apparent motion is provided to the subjects. In conclusion, apparent motion generated by stimuli can be effectively used to transmit precise velocity information tactually.
Keywords: Apparent motion; Velocity; Tactile perception; Air-jet
Tactile Spatial Cognition by the Palm BIBAKFull-Text 479-485
  Misa Grace Kwok
The purpose of this research is to determine tactile spatial cognition characteristics through basic experiments. Two experiments were conducted: 1) distinctiveness of geometrical figure recognition, 2) haptic spatial recognition. As for the results, difference characteristics between visual spatial cognition and tactile spatial cognition were detected. The vertically direction is more accurate and easier to understand than horizontally direction to recognize spatial information.
Keywords: tactile; spatial recognition; palm; vertical direction
A Study on Effective Tactile Feeling of Control Panels for Electrical Appliances BIBAKFull-Text 486-495
  Miwa Nakanishi; Yusaku Okada; Sakae Yamamoto
This study focuses on the fact that tactile factors, compared to visual factors, have not been effectively applied to enhance the usability of control panels. It also evaluates the effectiveness of allocating a rough/smooth feeling to the surface of each button in a control panel according to its operational function. The first experiment reveals relationships between some of the impressions concerning the operation of electrical appliances and the rough/smooth feeling when touching the surface of buttons. Moreover, it provides specific information on what degree of roughness/smoothness should be applied to what types of functional buttons. The second experiment demonstrates that the usability of control panels can be enhanced by providing a rough/smooth feeling to each button, considering suitability with respect to operation impressions. In addition, results indicate that users may feel discomfort when the rough/smooth feeling does not correspond to operation impressions.
Keywords: Tactile feeling; operation impression; control panel
Facilitating the Design of Vibration for Handheld Devices BIBAKFull-Text 496-502
  Taezoon Park; Jihong Hwang; Wonil Hwang
Vibrations are actively used both to supplement the multi-modal interactions and to deliver information independently. Especially, vibration is adopted as a feedback for touch-screen type interfaces for cell phone because touch-screen interface lacks the tactile feedback. However, how to effectively design vibration is not being investigated yet although different types of vibration is used according to its application area. This study summarizes the characteristics of vibrations especially in the view point of human perception, and covers a couple of attempts to composing vibrations currently used. Finally, a suggested design for developing software tools which facilitates the design of effective vibrations is presented as a conclusion.
Keywords: Vibration; Haptics; Vibration composer
Interaction Technique for a Pen-Based Interface Using Finger Motions BIBAKFull-Text 503-512
  Yu Suzuki; Kazuo Misue; Jiro Tanaka
Our research goal is to improve stylus operability by utilizing the human knowledge and skills applied when a user uses a pen. Such knowledge and skills include, for example, the way a person holds a pen to apply a generous amount of ink to draw a thick line with a brush pen. We propose a form of interaction, Finger Action, which uses input operations applying such knowledge and skills. Finger Action consists of five input operations: gripping, thumb tapping, index-finger tapping, thumb rubbing, and index-finger rubbing. In this paper, we describe Finger Action, a prototype pressure-sensitive stylus used to realize Finger Action, an application of Finger Action, and an evaluation of the practicality of Finger Action.
Keywords: Pen-based Interface; Finger Motion; Pen Grip; Pressure Sensor
A Basic Study of Sensory Characteristics toward Interaction with a Box-Shaped Interface BIBAKFull-Text 513-522
  Noriko Suzuki; Tosirou Kamiya; Shunsuke Yoshida; Sumio Yano
Our research focuses on the sensory characteristics of interacting with a novel box-shaped interface device for facilitating transfer of a digital object to another person. Such findings are important for constructing an ultra-realistic communication system with shared reality. This paper presents two kinds of pilot studies: (I) graspability of a box-shaped interface device through controlling feedback timing from the device, and (II) the sense of possessing a modality in information transfer between two devices. Both psychological and behavioral evaluation results suggest that graspability increases more from feedback of the device just after grasping it than from that just before grasping it. Furthermore, psychological evaluation results suggest that a touch-and-move method, i.e., the receiver of feedback changes precisely from one user to the other after touching the two devices, increases the sense of possessing a modality more than does a touch-and-copy method, i.e., both users simultaneously receive feedback after touching.
Keywords: Sensory characteristics; Box-shaped interface device; Ultra-realistic communication system; Graspability; Sense of possessing a modality; Behavioral evaluation; Psychological evaluation
TACTUS: A Hardware and Software Testbed for Research in Multi-Touch Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 523-532
  Paul Varcholik; Joseph J., Jr. LaViola; Denise M. Nicholson
This paper presents the TACTUS Multi-Touch Research Testbed, a hardware and software system for enabling research in multi-touch interaction. A detailed discussion is provided on hardware construction, pitfalls, design options, and software architecture to bridge the gaps in the existing literature and inform the researcher on the practical requirements of a multi-touch research testbed. This includes a comprehensive description of the vision-based image processing pipeline, developed for the TACTUS software library, which makes surface interactions available to multi-touch applications. Furthermore, the paper explores the higher-level functionality and utility of the TACTUS software library and how researchers can leverage the system to investigate multi-touch interaction techniques.
Keywords: Multi-Touch; HCI; Touch Screen; Testbed; API
Low Cost Flexible Wrist Touch UI Solution BIBAKFull-Text 533-541
  Bin Wang; Chenguang Cai; Emilia Koskinen; Tang Zhenqi; Huayu Cao; Leon Xu; Antti O. Salo
Wrist device is an interesting and convenient user interaction method between a user and a mobile communication device. This paper presents a low cost flexible wrist device user interaction solution based on flexible touch screen technology. We mainly focused on the 2 aspects: one is the user study to understand what requirements of the wrist UI the users demand; and another is how to realize the specific UI solutions that the users demand. Base on user study report from NRC Helsinki and Beijing, we adopt 3x3 matrix resistance touch panel module and 2-color flexible LCD module as the user interaction hardware solution.
Keywords: Wrist UI; resistance touch panel; accessory; user study
Grasping Interface with Photo Sensor for a Musical Instrument BIBAKFull-Text 542-547
  Tomoyuki Yamaguchi; Shuji Hashimoto
This paper introduces a luminance intensity interface driven by grasping forces, and its application as a musical instrument. In traditional musical instruments, the relationship between the action and the generated sound is determined by the physical structures of the instruments. Moreover, the freedom of the musical performances is limited by the structures. We developed a ball-shaped interface with handheld size. A photo diode is embedded in the translucent rubber ball to reacts to the grasping force of the performer. The grasping force is detected as the luminance intensity. The performer can use the ball interface only by grasping directly but also by holding to the environmental light or shading it by hands. The output of the interface is fed to the sound generator and the relationship between the performer's action and the generated sound is determined by the instrumental program to make the universal musical instrument.
Keywords: Grasping interface; Illumination control; Ball-shaped interface; Musical performance

Brain Interfaces

Ensemble SWLDA Classifiers for the P300 Speller BIBAFull-Text 551-557
  Garett D. Johnson; Dean J. Krusienski
The P300 Speller has proven to be an effective paradigm for brain-computer interface (BCI) communication. Using this paradigm, studies have shown that a simple linear classifier can perform as well as more complex nonlinear classifiers. Several studies have examined methods such as Fisher's Linear Discriminant (FLD), Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis (SWLDA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for training a linear classifier in this context. Overall, the results indicate marginal performance differences between classifiers trained using these methods. It has been shown that, by using an ensemble of linear classifiers trained on independent data, performance can be further improved because this scheme can better compensate for response variability. The present study evaluates several offline implementations of ensemble SWLDA classifiers for the P300 speller and compares the results to a single SWLDA classifier for seven able-bodied subjects.
The I of BCIs: Next Generation Interfaces for Brain-Computer Interface Systems That Adapt to Individual Users BIBAKFull-Text 558-568
  Brendan Z. Allison
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have advanced rapidly in the last several years, and can now provide many useful command and control features to a wide variety of users -- if an expert is available to find, assemble, setup, configure, and maintain the BCI. Developing BCI systems that are practical for nonexperts remains a major challenge, and is the principal focus of the EU BRAIN project and other work. This paper describes five challenges in BCI interface development, and how they might be addressed with a hypothetical easy BCI system called EZBCI. EZBCI requires a new interface that is natural, intuitive, and easy to configure without expert help. Finally, two true scenarios with severely disabled users highlight the impact that EZBCI would have on users' lives.
Keywords: Brain-computer interface; Brain-machine interface; BCI; BMI; expertise; nonexpert; interface; adaptive; reliability; usability; flexibility; assistive technology; smart homes; realworld; EZBCI
Mind-Mirror: EEG-Guided Image Evolution BIBAKFull-Text 569-578
  Nima Bigdely Shamlo; Scott Makeig
We propose a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for evolving images in real-time based on subject feedback derived from electroencephalography (EEG). The goal of this system is to produce a picture best resembling a subject's 'imagined' image. This system evolves images using Compositional Pattern Producing Networks (CPPNs) via the NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) genetic algorithm. Fitness values for NEAT-based evolution are derived from a real-time EEG classifier as images are presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Here, we report the design and performance, for a pilot training session, of a BCI system for real-time single-trial binary classification of viewed images based on participant-specific brain response signatures present in 128-channel EEG data. Selected training-session image clips created by the image evolution algorithm were presented in 2-s bursts at 8/s. The subject indicated by subsequent button press whether or not each burst included an image resembling two eyes. Approximately half the bursts included such an image. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract a set of maximally independent EEG source time-courses and their 100 minimally-redundant low-dimensional informative features in the time and time-frequency amplitude domains from the (94%) bursts followed by correct manual responses. To estimate the likelihood that the post-image EEG contained EEG 'flickers' of target recognition, we applied two Fisher discriminant classifiers to the time and/or time-frequency features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve by tenfold cross-validation was 0.96 using time-domain features, 0.97 using time-frequency domain features, and 0.98 using both domain features.
Keywords: human-computer interface (HCI); brain-computer interface (BCI); evolutionary algorithms; genetic algorithms (GA); electroencephalography (EEG); independent component analysis (ICA); rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP); genetic art; evolutionary art
BEXPLORER: Computer and Communication Control Using EEG BIBAKFull-Text 579-587
  Mina Mikhail; Marian Abdel-Shahid; Mina Guirguis; Nadine Shehad; Baher Soliman; Khaled El-Ayat
Humans are able to communicate in many rich and complex ways, with each other, or increasingly, with digital devices. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct neural interface and a communication pathway between the human brain and an external device such as a computer or artificial limb. With such an interface, a severely handicapped person, such as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patient, with severe muscle disorder may still communicate and even control their environment relying solely on his brain activity. The system introduced detects EEG signals arising from various eye-blinking activities and applies the results to control various popular computer applications. Using BCI2000 as a platform, the system allows handicapped patients to communicate with a computer and initiate various computer commands, send instant messages, and even browse the web. The application also enables the user to communicate using mobile phone SMS messaging.
Keywords: BCI; ALS; electroencephalography (EEG); blink artifact; assistive technology; Human computer interface (HCI); information transfer rate; classification
Continuous Control Paradigms for Direct Brain Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 588-595
  Melody Moore Jackson; Rudolph L., IV Mappus; Evan Barba; Sadir Hussein; Girish R. Venkatesh; Chetna Shastry; Amichai Israeli
Direct Brain Interfaces (DBIs) offer great possibilities for people with severe disabilities to communicate and control their environments. However, many DBI systems implement discrete selection, such as choosing a letter from an alphabet, which offers limited control over certain tasks. Continuous control is important for applications such as driving a wheelchair or drawing for creative expression. This paper describes two projects currently underway at the Georgia Tech BrainLab exploring continuous control interface paradigms for an EEG-based approach centered on responses from visual cortex, and functional near Infrared (fNIR) imaging of the language center of the brain.
Keywords: Direct Brain Interfaces; Brain Computer Interfaces; Continuous Control; SSVEP; functional near Infrared imaging
Constructive Adaptive User Interfaces Based on Brain Waves BIBAFull-Text 596-605
  Masayuki Numao; Takayuki Nishikawa; Toshihito Sugimoto; Satoshi Kurihara; Roberto S. Legaspi
We demonstrate a method to locate relations and constraints between a music score and its impressions, by which we show that machine learning techniques may provide a powerful tool for composing music and analyzing human feelings. We examine its generality by modifying some arrangements to provide the subjects with a specified impression. This demonstration introduces some user interfaces, which are capable of predicting feelings and creating new objects based on seed structures, such as spectrums and their transition for sounds that have been extracted and are perceived as favorable by the test subject. This paper proposes to define knowledge components for the seed structure.
Development of Symbiotic Brain-Machine Interfaces Using a Neurophysiology Cyberworkstation BIBAKFull-Text 606-615
  Justin C. Sanchez; Renato J. O. Figueiredo; José A. B. Fortes; José Carlos Príncipe
We seek to develop a new generation of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) that enable both the user and the computer to engage in a symbiotic relationship where they must co-adapt to each other to solve goal-directed tasks. Such a framework would allow the possibility real-time understanding and modeling of brain behavior and adaptation to a changing environment, a major departure from either offline learning and static models or one-way adaptive models in conventional BMIs. To achieve a symbiotic architecture requires a computing infrastructure that can accommodate multiple neural systems, respond within the processing deadlines of sensorimotor information, and can provide powerful computational resources to design new modeling approaches. To address these issues we present or ongoing work in the development of a neurophysiology Cyberworkstation for BMI design.
Keywords: Brain-Machine Interface; Co-Adaptive; Cyberworkstation
Sensor Modalities for Brain-Computer Interfacing BIBAKFull-Text 616-622
  Gerwin Schalk
Many people have neuromuscular conditions or disorders that impair the neural pathways that control muscles. Those most severely affected lose all voluntary muscle control and hence lose the ability to communicate. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) might be able to restore some communication or control functions for these people by creating a new communication channel -- directly from the brain to an output device. Many studies over the past two decades have shown that such BCI communication is possible and that it can serve useful functions. This paper reviews the different sensor methodologies that have been explored in these studies.
Keywords: Brain-computer interface; BCI; Neural Engineering; Neural Prosthesis
A Novel Dry Electrode for Brain-Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 623-631
  Eric W. Sellers; Peter J. Turner; William A. Sarnacki; Tobin McManus; Theresa M. Vaughan; Robert Matthews
A brain-computer interface is a device that uses signals recorded from the brain to directly control a computer. In the last few years, P300-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have proven an effective and reliable means of communication for people with severe motor disabilities such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite this fact, relatively few individuals have benefited from currently available BCI technology. Independent BCI use requires easily acquired, good-quality electroencephalographic (EEG) signals maintained over long periods in less-than-ideal electrical environments. Conventional, wet-sensor, electrodes require careful application. Faulty or inadequate preparation, noisy environments, or gel evaporation can result in poor signal quality. Poor signal quality produces poor user performance, system downtime, and user and caregiver frustration. This study demonstrates that a hybrid dry electrode sensor array (HESA) performs as well as traditional wet electrodes and may help propel BCI technology to a widely accepted alternative mode of communication.
Keywords: Brain-computer interface; P300 event-related potential; dry electrode; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Effect of Mental Training on BCI Performance BIBAFull-Text 632-635
  Lee-Fan Tan; Ashok Jansari; Shian-Ling Keng; Sing-Yau Goh
This paper reports initial findings from a randomized controlled trial conducted on 9 subjects to investigate the effect of two mental training programs (a mindfulness meditation and learning to play a guitar) on their BCI performance. After 4 weeks of intervention, results show that subjects who had undergone a program of mindfulness meditation improved their BCI performance scores significantly compared to a no-treatment control group. Subjects who were learning to play a guitar also improved their BCI performance scores but not as much as the meditation group.
The Research on EEG Coherence Around Central Area of Left Hemisphere According to Grab Movement of Right Hand BIBAKFull-Text 636-642
  Min Cheol Whang; Jincheol Woo; Jonghwa Kim
This study is to find significant EEG coherence for predict movement. Eight students were asked to visuo-motor task and their EMG at flexor carpi radialis of right hand and EEG at C3 and 4 orthogonal points 2.5 cm away from C3 were measured. EEG coherence between non-motor area and motor area and between motor areas were analyzed based on movement duration calculated from EMG activation, movement delay and coherence delay. In the results, most participants showed significant coherence between sensory or frontal and motor area discriminating movement and non-movement. However, there were individual differences in areas and frequency band showing significant coherence.
Keywords: EEG Coherence; EMG; hand grab movement; movement delay

Language, Voice, Sound and Communication

A Speech-Act Oriented Approach for User-Interactive Editing and Regulation Processes Applied in Written and Spoken Technical Texts BIBAKFull-Text 645-653
  Christina Alexandris
A speech-act oriented approach for Controlled Language specifications is presented for the implementation in a user-interactive HCI system for the editing process and for the regulation of written and, subsequently, spoken technical texts for Modern Greek. Sublanguage-specific and sublanguage independent parameters are used targeting to "Precision", "Directness" and "User-friendliness", based on the criteria of Moeller, 2005 for the success and efficiency of spoken Human-Computer Interaction, on the Utterance Level, the Functional Level and the Satisfaction Level.
Keywords: Controlled Language; Speech Act; Technical texts; Task-oriented dialog; prosodic modeling
Interacting with a Music Conducting System BIBAKFull-Text 654-663
  Carlos Rene Argueta; Ching-Ju Ko; Yi-Shin Chen
Music conducting is the art of directing musical ensembles with hand gestures to personalize and diversify a musical piece. The ability to successfully perform a musical piece demands intense training and coordination from the conductor, but preparing a practice session is an expensive and time-consuming task. Accordingly, there is a need for alternatives to provide adequate training to conductors at all skill levels; virtual reality technology holds promise for this application. The goal of this research was to study the mechanics of music conducting and develop a system capable of closely simulating the conducting experience. After extensive discussions with professional and nonprofessional conductors, as well as extensive research on music conducting material, we identified several key features of conducting. A set of lightweight algorithms exploring those features were developed to enable tempo control and instrument emphasis, two core components of conducting. By using position/orientation sensors and data gloves as the interface for human-computer interaction, we developed a functional version of the system. Evaluating the algorithms in real-world scenarios gave us promising results; most users of the final system expressed satisfaction with the virtual experience.
Keywords: music conducting; human-computer interaction; virtual reality; tempo control; instrument emphasis
Hierarchical Structure: A Step for Jointly Designing Interactive Software Dialog and Task Model BIBAKFull-Text 664-673
  Sybille Caffiau; Patrick Girard; Laurent Guittet; Dominique L. Scapin
In order to design interactive applications, the first step is usually the definition of user needs. While performing this step, activities may be modeled using task models. Some task model components express scheduling information that describes the task dynamics. According to a model-based approach, the dynamics of applications (i.e.: the dialog) can be formalized using a dialog model. Several approaches seek to exploit the task model information to perform the dialog model. This paper aims to show that the use of the hierarchical dialog model facilitates its design according to task model information during the whole iterative design process.
Keywords: task models; dialog; iterative design
Breaking of the Interaction Cycle: Independent Interpretation and Generation for Advanced Dialogue Management BIBAKFull-Text 674-683
  David del Valle-Agudo; Francisco Javier Calle-Gómez; Dolores Cuadra Fernández; Jessica Rivero-Espinosa
This paper presents an architecture for Natural Interaction Systems in order to make interpretation and generation processes independent, opposite to the traditional development of the interaction, typically called Interaction Cycle. With this aim a multi-agent platform is applied, together with a joint action Dialogue Manager based on the Threads Model [1] and an advanced Presentation Manager. The combination of these factors enables: a concurrent execution of all processed involved in the Natural Interaction; the capability of adjust on each moment new goals from both, user and system, into the state of interaction; and organizing both processes depending on the need, opportunity and obligation of generate new utterances, respectively.
Keywords: Natural Interaction Systems; Turn Taking; Grounding; Independent Interpretation and Generation; Threads Model
SimulSort: Multivariate Data Exploration through an Enhanced Sorting Technique BIBAKFull-Text 684-693
  Inkyoung Hur; Ji Soo Yi
Sorting is one of the well-understood and widely-used interaction techniques. Sorting has been adopted in many software applications and supports various cognitive tasks. However, when used in analyzing multi-attribute data in a table, sorting appears to be limited. When a table is sorted by a column, it rearranges the whole table, so the insights gained through the previous sorting arrangements of another column are often difficult to retain. Thus, this study proposed an alternative interaction technique, called "SimulSort." By sorting all of the columns simultaneously, SimulSort helps users see an overview of the data at a glance. Additional interaction techniques, such as highlighting and zooming, were also employed to alleviate the drawbacks of SimulSort. A within-subject controlled study with 15 participants was conducted to compare SimulSort and the typical sorting feature. The results showed typical sorting and SimulSort work with comparable efficiency and effectiveness for most of the tasks. Sorting more effectively supports understanding correlation and reading corresponding values, and SimulSort shows the potential to more effectively support tasks that need multi-attribute analyses. The implications of the results and planned future work are discussed as well.
Keywords: Sort; SimulSort; information visualization; multi-attribute data analysis; tabular information; decision support system
WeMe: Seamless Active and Passive Liquid Communication BIBAKFull-Text 694-700
  Nicolas Masson; Wendy E. Mackay
WeMe is designed to help remote families stay in touch, providing peripheral awareness of each other combined with the possibility of more direct interaction. WeMe's ferrofluid bubbles move in response to ambient sounds, both local and distant. As many as three family members can generate patterns intentionally, by moving their hands around the surface. WeMe acts as a stand-alone sculpture, a passive indicator of remote activity and a source of shared interaction.
Keywords: Ambient display; peripheral awareness; communication appliances; presence
Study of Feature Values for Subjective Classification of Music BIBAKFull-Text 701-709
  Masashi Murakami; Toshikazu Kato
In this research, we analyze how the sound and music relate to humans from the aspect of Kansei engineering. We analyze what features of the sound humans pay attention and how humans interpret sound. Therefore, we divide the signal processing of sound that humans do into four levels. At the physiological level, processing is done by the auditory characteristic. In this level, humans don't interpret the image of the sound yet. There is no subjectivity for the sound. By using auditory characteristic, we investigate the features which help in the case that sound and music is analyzed. We consider that the processing at early stage of auditory nervous system is to extract the change in power, which is obtained from the segmentation of the sound-signals which is divided by band of the frequency and time interval, and its contrast. We also consider the features obtained by that extractation. Moreover, in the cognitive level, we analyze the correlation of that features with the word of interpretation that humans do subjectively. By these modelings, we develop the method of retrieving the sound and music that having the similarity, or having the image that is expressed by any subjective words.
Keywords: Music; Hierarchical model of Kansei; Auditory characteristic
Development of Speech Input Method for Interactive VoiceWeb Systems BIBAKFull-Text 710-719
  Ryuichi Nisimura; Jumpei Miyake; Hideki Kawahara; Toshio Irino
We have developed a speech input method called "w3voice" to build practical and handy voice-enabled Web applications. It is constructed using a simple Java applet and CGI programs comprising free software. In our website (http://w3voice.jp/), we have released automatic speech recognition and spoken dialogue applications that are suitable for practical use. The mechanism of voice-based interaction is developed on the basis of raw audio signal transmissions via the POST method and the redirection response of HTTP. The system also aims at organizing a voice database collected from home and office environments over the Internet. The purpose of the work is to observe actual voice interactions of human-machine and human-human. We have succeeded in acquiring 8,412 inputs (47.9 inputs per day) captured by using normal PCs over a period of seven months. The experiments confirmed the user-friendliness of our system in human-machine dialogues with trial users.
Keywords: Voice-enabled Web; Spoken interface; Voice collection
Non-verbal Communication System Using Pictograms BIBAFull-Text 720-724
  Makiko Okita; Yuki Nakaura; Hidetsugu Suto
A system is described that uses pictograms to support interactive non-verbal communication. While pictograms are typically used with objects, this system uses them for events as well. Moreover, whereas communication systems using pictograms are generally designed for people with disabilities, this system is designed for people in general. It can thus be used between a non-disabled person and a person with a disability, between an adult and a child, between a Japanese person and an American person, and so on.
Modeling Word Selection in Predictive Text Entry BIBAKFull-Text 725-734
  Hamed H. Sad; Franck Poirier
Although word, or short phrase, selection from a list is an extensively used task on different types of interfaces, there is no accepted model for its execution time in the literature. We present a Keystroke Level Model (KLM) adapted for this task on both desktop and handheld interfaces. The model is built from the results of an empirical study for exploring the effect of the list sorting and the number of words displayed to the user on the selection time of a word at a specified position in the list. The resulting model is integrated into an existing model for predicting the text entry speed of word-disambiguation entry methods. The predicted text entry speed is then compared to the published empirical results and to the theoretical results of the model that doesn't take into account word selection search time. The error between prediction and empirical-results is effectively reduced using the modified model.
Keywords: User interface; modeling; word selection; text entry; evaluation
Using Pictographic Representation, Syntactic Information and Gestures in Text Entry BIBAKFull-Text 735-744
  Hamed H. Sad; Franck Poirier
With the increasing popularity of touch screen mobile devices, it is becoming increasingly important to design fast and reliable methods for text input on such devices. In this work, we exploit the capabilities of those devices and a specific language model to enhance the efficiency of text entry tasks. We will distribute the roles between the user and the device in a way that allocates the tasks to the side where they can be efficiently done. The user is not a good processor of syntactic and memory retrieval operations but she/he is a highly efficient processor for handling semantic and pattern recognition operations. The reverse is true for computational devices. These facts are exploited in two designs for the entry of common words which represent a high percentage of our written and spoken materials. A common word is typed in two or three clicks, with or without a gesture on a touch screen.
Keywords: mobile text entry; pictographs; pen gestures; syntactic information
Embodied Sound Media Technology for the Enhancement of the Sound Presence BIBAKFull-Text 745-751
  Kenji Suzuki
In this paper, the paradigms of Embodied Sound Media (ESM) technology are described with several case studies. The ESM is designed to formalize a musical sound-space based on the conversion of free human movement into sounds. This technology includes the measurement of human motion, processing, acoustic conversion and output. The first idea was to introduce direct and intuitive sound feedbacks within the context of not only embodied interaction between humans and devices but also social interaction among humans. The developed system is a sort of active aid for an embodied performance that allows the users to get feedback for emotional stimuli in terms of sound surrounding the users. The overviews of several devices developed in this scenario and the potential applications to physical fitness, exercise, entertainment, assistive technology and rehabilitation are also addressed.
Keywords: Embodied sound media; wearable device; sound interface; sound conversion; social-musical interaction
Compensate the Speech Recognition Delays for Accurate Speech-Based Cursor Position Control BIBAKFull-Text 752-760
  Qiang Tong; Ziyun Wang
In this paper, we describe a back-compensate mechanism to improve the precision of speech-based cursor control. Using this mechanism we can control the cursor more easily to move to small on-screen targets during continuous direction-based navigation despite the processing delays associated with speech recognition. In comparison, using traditional speech-recognition systems, it is difficult to move the cursor precisely to a desired position because of the processing delays introduced by speech recognition. We also describe an experiment in which we evaluated the two alternative solutions, one using the traditional speech-based cursor control, and the other using the back-compensate mechanism. We present the encouraging evaluation results at the end of this paper and discuss future work.
Keywords: Speech recognition; delays; navigation; mouse; cursor control
Effectiveness of the Text Display in Bilingual Presentation of JSL/JT for Emergency Information BIBAFull-Text 761-769
  Shunichi Yonemura; Shin'ichiro Eitoku; Kazuo Kamata
This paper describes an experiment on the message transmission effectiveness achieved by adding Japanese text (JT) to a Japanese sign language (JSL) video. The transmission efficiency of information and the understanding of information are quantitatively measured. The situation assumed is that information about a vehicle accident is to be displayed in a railroad carriage to deaf people. Three information methods are examined JT, JSL, and JT+JSL. We show that JT and JT+JSL yield high correct answer rates; JSL yields low rates. Furthermore, the subjects' impressions of the three methods show that they responded favorably to JT.

Visualisation, Images, and Pictures

Specifying the Representation of Non-geometric Information in 3D Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 773-782
  Kaveh Bazargan; Gilles Falquet
In 3D virtual environments (3DVE), we need to know what an object looks like (i.e. geometric information) and what the object is, what are its properties and characteristics and how it relates to other objects (i.e. non-geometric information). Several interactive presentation techniques have been devised to incorporate non-geometric information into 3DVEs. The relevance of a technique depends on the context. Therefore, the choice of an appropriate representation technique cannot be done once for all and must be adapted to the context. In this paper, we first present a preliminary classification of representation techniques for non-geometric information in 3DVE. Then we propose a formalism, based on description logics, to describe the usability of a technique in a given context. We show how these descriptions can be processed to select appropriate techniques when automatically or semi-automatically generating a 3DVE.
Keywords: Information-rich virtual environments; 3D interaction techniques; Human computer interaction; Usability
Prompter "." Based Creating Thinking Support Communication System That Allows Hand-Drawing BIBAKFull-Text 783-790
  Li Jen Chen; Jun Ohya; Shunichi Yonemura; Sven Forstmann; Yukio Tokunaga
Research into creative thinking-support tools and communication is commonly focused on how to develop and share ideas between participants or with others. In this paper, we proposes a creative thinking support method that utilizes randomly generated visual prompter (black circle) image patterns (VP-patterns) and free hand-drawing and writing functions. Concepts and ideas of the research have been explained together with the development of the systems (CSP1 and CSP2). Experiments have been conducted in order to evaluate the potentials and effectiveness of the system. From the results, a tendency towards inspiring creative ideas by participants has been observed.
Keywords: Creative communication; visual stimuli; idea generation; creative thinking support; self-expression; learn and develop creative ability
A Zoomable User Interface for Presenting Hierarchical Diagrams on Large Screens BIBAFull-Text 791-800
  Christian Geiger; Holger Reckter; Roman Dumitrescu; Sascha Kahl; Jan Berssenbrügge
We present the design, implementation and initial evaluation of a zoomable interface dedicated to present a large hierarchical design model of a complex mechatronic system. The large hierarchical structure of the model is illustrated by means of a visual notation and consists of over 800 elements. An efficient presentation of this complex model is realized by means of a zoomable user interface that is rendered on a large Virtual Reality wall with a high resolution (3860 x 2160). We assume that this visualization set-up combined with dedicated interaction techniques for selection and navigation reduces the cognitive workload of a passive audience and supports the understanding of complex hierarchical structures. To validate this assumption we have designed a small experiment that compares the traditional visualization techniques PowerPoint and paper sheets with this new presentation form.
Phorigami: A Photo Browser Based on Meta-categorization and Origami Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 801-810
  Shuo Hsiu Hsu; Pierre Cubaud; Sylvie Jumpertz
Phorigami is a photo browser whose meta-interface visualizes photos by groups according to the analysis of photo contexts. At the core of Phorigami, we proposed a meta-categorization for photo regrouping. This categorization method encompasses the scope of current or expected recognition technologies. Two experiments are conducted by manual classification tasks to study the pertinence of proposed categorization method. We then outline our meta-interface by applying different interaction technique to feature each photo group.
Keywords: Categorization; digital photo collections; content management; interface design
Sphere Anchored Map: A Visualization Technique for Bipartite Graphs in 3D BIBAFull-Text 811-820
  Takao Ito; Kazuo Misue; Jiro Tanaka
Circular anchored maps have been proposed as a drawing technique to acquire knowledge from bipartite graphs, where nodes in one set are arranged on a circumference. However, the readability decreases when large-scale graphs are drawn. To maintain the readability in drawing large-scale graphs, we developed "sphere anchored maps," in which nodes in one set are arranged on a sphere. We describe the layout method for sphere anchored maps and the results of our user study. The results of our study revealed that more clusters of free nodes can be found using sphere anchored maps than using circular anchored maps. Thus, our maps have high readability, particularly around anchors.
Motion Stroke-A Tablet-Based Interface for Motion Design Tool Using Drawing BIBAKFull-Text 821-829
  Haruki Kouda; Ichiroh Kanaya; Kosuke Sato
Conventional animation tools provide users with complicated operations which require them to adjust too much variables to design a virtual model's 3D motion. In the proposed system, "Motion Stroke", users can control these variables only by their 2D drawings on a tablet surface. The proposed interface allows users to create new motions through a trial-and-error process which is nature in drawing of a picture on a paper. It offers a familiar form for designing of a virtual object's motion. We conducted several evaluations and confirmed that the proposed system allows users to explore their desired motions flexibly.
Keywords: Motion deign; Drawing; User interface
Tooling the Dynamic Behavior Models of Graphical DSLs BIBAKFull-Text 830-839
  Tihamer Levendovszky; Tamás Mészáros
Domain-specific modeling is a powerful technique to describe complex systems in a precise but still understandable way. Rapid creation of graphical Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) has been focused for many years. Research efforts have proven that metamodeling is a promising way of defining the abstract syntax of the language. It is also clear that DSLs can be developed to describe the concrete syntax and the dynamic behavior. Previous research has contributed a set of graphical DSLs to model the behavior ("animation") of arbitrary graphical DSLs. This paper contributes practical techniques to simplify our message handling method, automate the integration process, and show where domain-specific model patterns can help to accelerate the simulation modeling process.
Keywords: Domain-Specific Modeling Languages; Metamodeling; Simulation
Pattern Recognition Strategies for Interactive Sketch Composition BIBAKFull-Text 840-849
  Sébastien Macé; Éric Anquetil
The design of industrial pen-based systems for sketch composition and interpretation is still a challenging problem when dealing with complex domains. In this paper, we present a method that is based on an eager interpretation of the user strokes, i.e. on an incremental process with visual feedback to the user. We present the benefits of using such an interactive approach in order to design efficient and robust sketch recognition. We focus more specifically on the requirements in order to avoid as much as possible to disturb the user. We show how we exploit pattern recognition strategies, for instance the evaluation of adequacy measures thanks to the fuzzy set theory, the exploitation of reject options, etc., to deal with each of these difficulties. The DALI method that we present in this paper has been used to design an industrial system for the composition of electrical sketches. We show how the presented techniques are used in this system.
Keywords: Hand-drawn shape recognition; pen-based interaction; visual languages and grammars; fuzzy set theory; reject options
Specification of a Drawing Facility for Diagram Editors BIBAFull-Text 850-859
  Sonja Maier; Mark Minas
The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of a drawing approach for the visualization of diagrams. The approach is tailored to editors for visual languages, which support structured editing as well as free-hand editing. In this approach, the editor developer visually specifies layout behavior. From this specification a drawing facility is generated. With the generated editor, the user may perform incremental diagram drawing at any time. When visualizing components, taking into account geometric dependencies between different components for layout computation is a challenging task. Therefore, we choose the visual languages Petri nets and GUI forms as running examples. Based on these examples, we show the applicability of our approach to graph-based and hierarchical visual languages.
A Basic Study on a Drawing-Learning Support System in the Networked Environment BIBAKFull-Text 860-868
  Takashi Nagai; Mizue Kayama; Kazunori Itoh
The purpose of this study is to develop a support system in drawing-learning within a networked environment. In this paper, we describe the results of potential assessment for our system. Two assessment approaches are shown. One is the possibility of a digital pen as a drawing-tool. The other approach is the effectiveness of the drawing-learning support in the networked environment, based on the reuse of the learner's and/or expert's drawing process. The drawing process model for supporting individual drawing-learning is also discussed.
Keywords: Drawing-learning; Learning Support System; On-line Class; Drawing Process; Digital Pen
Benefit and Evaluation of Interactive 3D Process Data Visualization for the Presentation of Complex Problems BIBAKFull-Text 869-878
  Dorothea Pantförder; Birgit Vogel-Heuser; Karin Schweizer
The increasing complexity of industrial plants and more intelligent equipment technology lead to a growing amount of process data. The approach of interactive 3D process data visualization and associated training concepts for processes without a process model can assists operators to analyze complex processes. This paper describes a set of experiments that analyzed the benefits of a 3D data presentation as part of an HMI in combination with different types of operator training in process control.
Keywords: 3D visualization; operator training
Modeling the Difficulty for Centering Rectangles in One and Two Dimensions BIBAFull-Text 879-888
  Robert Pastel
Centering, positioning an object within specified bounds, is a common computer task, for example making selections using a standard mouse or on a touch screen using a finger. These experiments measured times for participants (n = 131) to position a rectangular cursor with various widths, p (10 px ≤ p ≤ 160 px), completely within rectangular targets with various widths, w, and tolerances, t = w-p (4 px ≤ t ≤ 160 px) in one and two dimensions. The analysis divides the movement time into two phases, the transport time and the centering time. Centering times are modeled well by 1/t. All models have high correlation, r² ≥ 0.95.
Composing Visual Syntax for Domain Specific Languages BIBAFull-Text 889-898
  Luis Pedro; Matteo Risoldi; Didier Buchs; Bruno Barroca; Vasco Amaral
With the increasing interest in metamodeling techniques for Domain Specific Modeling Languages (DSML) definition, there is a strong need to improve the language modeling process. One of the problems to solve is language evolution. Possible solutions include maximizing the reuse of metamodel patterns, composing them to form new, more expressive DSMLs.
   In this paper we improve the process of rapid prototyping of DSML graphical editors in meta-modeling tools, by defining composition rules for the graphical syntax layer. The goal is to provide formally defined operators to specify what happens to graphical mappings when their respective metamodels are composed. This improves reuse of Domain Specific Modeling Languages definitions and reduces development time.
The Effectiveness of Interactivity in Computer-Based Instructional Diagrams BIBAFull-Text 899-908
  Lisa Whitman
This study investigates if interaction between a student and instructional diagrams displayed on a computer can be effective in significantly improving understanding of the concepts the diagrams represent over viewing animated or static instructional diagrams. Participants viewed either interactive, animated, or static versions of multimedia tutorials that taught how a simple mechanical system, a lock, worked and how a complex mechanical system, an automobile clutch, worked. Participants were tested on recall and comprehension to determine which presentation style; static, animated, or interactive; greater impacts learning, and whether that impact is mediated by the complexity of the mechanical system. Participants who studied from interactive multimedia presentations demonstrating how simple and complex mechanical systems work performed significantly better on comprehension tests for both mechanical systems than those who studied from static or animated presentations. However, all participants performed similarly on recall tests. Research on the effectiveness of computer learning environments and how to optimize their potential for effective instruction through improved multimedia design is important as computers are increasingly being used for training and education.