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HCII Tables of Contents: 99-199-20103-103-203-303-407-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-6

HCI International 2007: 12th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: HCI Applications and Services

Fullname:HCI International 2007: 12th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: HCI Applications and Services
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4553
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73109-2 (print), 978-3-540-73111-5 (online); hcibib: HCII07-4
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HCII 2007-07-22 Volume 4
    1. Part I: Business Applications
    2. Part II: Learning and Entertainment
    3. Part III: Health Applications
    4. Part IV: Work and Collaboration Support
    5. Part V: Web-Based and Mobile Applications and Services
    6. Part VI: Advanced Design and Development Support

HCII 2007-07-22 Volume 4

Part I: Business Applications

The Experiential Preferences of the Online Consumers in Different Internet Shopping Lifestyles Towards Online Shopping Websites BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  YenLee Chu; Jim Jiunde Lee
Consumers nowadays are too often to purchase or consume through internet, thus, their requirements towards online shopping are seemingly higher than before. Subsequently the online shopping vendors are supposed to satisfy the consuming experience of shoppers that come from different kinds of levels in order to compete in this market. This research is based on Schmitt's (1999/2003) Strategic Experiential Modules and Lifestyles Theory. By using the quantitative method, this study figured out the experiential strategy and designed elements that were preferred by the consumers from dissimilar lifestyle who surfed in different kind of online shopping websites. According to the results of this study, Taiwan online consumers could be divided into three lifestyle groups: online shopping avoider, online shopping lovers and fearful online shoppers. Among the online specialty consumers, the online shopping avoider, the online shopping lovers and the fearful online shoppers paid attention on sensory experiences, affective experiences and relational experiences, respectively. Whereas, among the online shopping mall shoppers, online shopping avoider and online shopping lovers insisted on sensory experiences and interaction experiences respectively.
Keywords: Lifestyles; Experiential Marketing; Online Shopping
Guidelines of Quality for Industrial Online Tourism BIBAKFull-Text 12-21
  Miguel Cipolla-Ficarra; Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra
We present guidelines to foster quality industrial online tourism. This is the first guideline ever made where the component of presentation of the contents prevails over the other categories of design in a hypermedia system, such as navigation or structure. As well as this, a heuristic table has been determined to show whether the website correctly represents the online content for tourist promotion. The main features that a heuristic assessor in the industrial multimedia/hypermedia systems has to consider are those locations where there is a crossing point among tourism, communicability, design industry and trade.
Keywords: Industrial; Tourism; Design; Layout; Evaluation; Guidelines; Museum
Provide Context-Aware Advertisements with Interactivity BIBAKFull-Text 22-31
  Qin Gao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
Interactivity and context-awareness are two salient features of mobile advertising, but their actual influences on advertising effectiveness have not been studied. This study attempts to understand expectations and concerns of Chinese mobile users hold for context aware advertising, and to investigate the influences of interactivity and context-awareness. A web-based survey and an experiment were conducted for the two purposes respectively. Results suggested that Chinese users generally hold a modestly positive attitude towards context aware advertisements; advertisements adapt to physical environment, geographic context, and purchasing history are desired; young people are more open to context aware advertisements. Their major concerns were irrelevant messages and information flood. The interaction between perceived interactivity and context awareness has a big effect on advertising effectiveness. For high interactivity advertisements, contextual offers of the advertisements result in more responses and better advertisement attitude. But for low interactivity advertisements, contextual offers incur more negative attitude and lead to lower purchase intention.
Keywords: mobile advertising; context-aware computing; interactivity; user experience
Skills Matter: A Tale of the Anxious Online Shopper BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Yi Maggie Guo; Barbara D. Klein
In this study we investigate the effects of user skill and task challenge on online shoppers' experiences. We use a model suggested by flow theory in which shoppers are grouped into four categories (flow, anxiety, boredom, and apathy) based on their perceptions of task challenge and their skill in performing an online shopping task. Results show that anxious shoppers have lower perceptions of the dimensions of flow, believe online shopping websites are less useful, and believe they are less likely to use the system in the future compared to the other three groups of online shoppers.
Keywords: Flow; Internet; online shopping
ATM Advertisement and Financial Preferences with Sensory Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 42-47
  Naotsune Hosono; Sayuri Gotanda; Hiromitsu Inoue; Yutaka Tomita
This paper discusses a sensory evaluation technique to find relationships between advertisements on Auto teller Machine (ATM) screen and users' financial preferences under the extended AIDMA model which represents Attention, Interest, Desire, Memory and Action. The basic three financial preferences are purchasing, savings and investment.
   Twenty assessors performed three steps of; checked by Marble Method and Correspondence Analysis with Supplementary Treatment thorough trial experimentation of e-Commerce. This survey, using ATM advertisements, clarified users' dynamic financial preference shifts through the e-Commerce influence.
   In conclusion, the purchasing and the investment groups shift to the saving group. In this tendency it is surmised that looking at full varieties of the catalogues in the e-Commerce influenced the financial preferences.
   This experimentation can be applied to the environment of the customer relationship management (CRM).
Keywords: Human Centred Design (HCD) Sensory Evaluation ATM AIDMA model; Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Multi-users and Multi-contextuality -- A Mobile Tourism Setting BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Carina Ihlström Eriksson; Maria Åkesson
This paper reports from an initial stage of a Swedish project concerning mobile IT support for tourism. From three workshops with actors within the tourism sector we identified barriers and challenges in designing IT support for all phases of the tourist life cycle. Thereafter we designed and evaluated a mobile tourism guide in real life setting with six different user groups. The research question of this paper is: What factors influence the design of mobile services to be used by multi-users in multiple contexts? The initial findings show that indeed there are several design challenges regarding e.g. a) the visibility of the content of the screen when multi-users are simultaneously using the service, b) the audibility of the speaker voice in the service when used in a surrounding with traffic noise, c) providing optional designs for different context, i.e. indoors/outdoors etc, and d) providing personalization options for different group sizes.
Keywords: mobility; mobile services; tourism; multi-users; multi-contextuality
"My Money in E-Purse" Searching Problems in Self Service User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 58-66
  Eylem Kiliç
The purpose of this study is to investigate the usability problems while using one of the applications of smart card, electronic purse with self service interfaces of NETMATIK. The usability problems of this self service interface were evaluated by heuristic evaluation and user trials. Two target groups, students and staffs, were involved in user trial. The average age for the first (younger) group was 18 while it was over 40 for the second (older) group. The problems that two target groups have encountered were evaluated separately and the effect of age differences on problems has been explored whether it is the same for both target groups or not. The result of this study shows that both target groups had approximately same problems with the interface; however, these problems are more severe for the older groups. The common problems which both groups have with the interface are being timed out by the system, failing to enter password for card, failing to enter required password for e-purse. Implication for interface design is discussed.
Keywords: Interface design; age; e-community
Traffic Classification -- Towards Accurate Real Time Network Applications BIBAKFull-Text 67-76
  Zhu Li; Ruixi Yuan; Xiaohong Guan
Timely traffic identification is critical in network security monitoring and traffic engineering. Traditional methods using well-known ports, protocols and precise signature matching are no longer accurate with the proliferation of new applications. Recently, applying pattern recognition methods to classify network application traffic based on the flow parameters (e.g. port, flow duration, etc.) has become increasing popular. However, many methods developed in the previous works are either too complex to be applied in real-time, or suffer from lower accuracy due to the insufficient knowledge of the application. In this paper, we first give an overview on the developments of pattern recognition methods as traffic classification tools. We then develop two separate pattern recognition methods: one with supervised learning, and one with un-supervised learning, and apply them to classify traffic captured from a campus backbone network. The supervised learning method (an optimized SVM method) yields approximately 99.41% accuracy for the collected traffic. The un-supervised learning method (an entropy based clustering method) gets the average accuracy of 92.41% for the top 20 traffic generating hosts during the same time period. Performance test on a single PC with 3GHz Pentium 4 processors and 1GB of memory show that both methods can handle more than 10000 network flows per second, close to real time requirements for many situations.
Keywords: network flows; traffic identification; supervised learning; Pattern recognition
First Impressions with Websites: The Effect of the Familiarity and Credibility of Corporate Logos on Perceived Consumer Swift Trust of Websites BIBAFull-Text 77-85
  Paul Benjamin Lowry; Tom L. Roberts; Trevor Higbee
The current study extends theory related to the truth effect and mere-exposure effect by detailing how increased familiarity with third-party vendor logos will increase consumer short-term trust in unfamiliar websites, based on short-term impressions. The study uses a controlled 254-participant experiment. The results indicate that familiarity with a third-party logo positively impacts the credibility and short-term (swift) trust of an unfamiliar website. Additionally, the study finds that credibility of a third-party logo positively impacts the swift trust a visitor has in a website. Overall, the study concludes that both familiarity and credibility of third-party logos positively impacts swift trust in consumer websites, and familiarity has a positive impact on increasing credibility.
Online Ad Intrusiveness BIBAKFull-Text 86-89
  Scott McCoy; Andrea Everard; Peter Polak; Dennis F. Galletta
In spite of the large extent and variety of on-line ads, their effects on users are largely unknown. Although the diversity of ads on the web is staggering, and new types spring up all the time, their properties can be abstracted to a relatively small number of important generic features. These characteristics include whether they obscure content and whether users have the control to remove them. These factors were tested in a laboratory study and results will be shared with participants at the conference.
Keywords: Online Advertising; E-commerce; Attitudes
An Examination of Online Product Comparison Service: Fit Between Product Type and Disposition Style BIBAKFull-Text 90-94
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Weiyin Hong; Liqiang Chen; Hong-Hee Lee
Horizontal and vertical disposition styles are two main formats used in product comparison service on e-commerce websites. In this research, we hypothesize that there is a fit between product type ('think' vs. 'feel' product) and disposition style (horizontal vs. vertical style), where horizontal disposition style is more appropriate for 'feel' products and vertical disposition style is a better fit for 'think' products. An experiment will be carried out to test the hypotheses.
Keywords: Cognitive fit; product comparison service; product type; presentation format; e-commerce websites
Measuring Service Quality of Online Bookstores with WebQual BIBAKFull-Text 95-103
  Heejun Park; Seung Baek
With the rapid growth of the Internet technology, e-Commerce has taken one major way of doing business. However, research on the measurement of e-Commerce service quality, has not been sufficient. Only the evaluation of web sites has been used to measure indirectly service quality of e-Commerce. Due to paucity of research on the measurement, the robust research result has not been achieved, and some research presented inconsistent results in the same domain. This research used WebQual, a measurement uniquely developed for e-Commerce service quality through continuous revisions, to measure e-Commerce quality of four representative Internet Bookstores in Korea. Some statistical analyses were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of WebQaul as an e-Commerce service measurement. According to the research results, WebQual was confirmed as a robust e-Commerce measurement in terms of its reliability and validity. Further, it is identified that e-Commerce service quality, customer satisfaction, and site revisit have positive relationships in sequence.
Keywords: WebQual; ServQual; Bookstore; e-Commerce; Service Quality
Designing Product List on E-tailing Websites: The Effect of Sorting on Consumer Decision BIBAKFull-Text 104-113
  Shun Cai; Yunjie Xu
One common information display design which appears in nearly all the online retailing websites is the product list on e-tailing websites, where a number of products are displayed together to allow online consumers to search for and choose from. While some e-tailers present their product list in an alphabetic order of brand or model, which results in a somewhat random list in terms of product quality, many e-tailers provide sorting functions which allow consumers to sort the products in a descending or ascending order. However, the extant literature has not been particularly insightful on how consumers respond to different order of product list. Despite the intuitive postulation that items appearing in an early position of a list may draw more attentions from consumers (serial position effect), it is not evident whether and how different order of products in a list affect consumer decisions. The purpose of this research is to investigate how product list design (ascending list, descending list, and random list) influence consumer decisions. Such investigations are important because the design of product listing pages explains more than half of the variance in monthly sales on commercial websites. Accounting for the sorting effect in models that explain online consumers' decision making can enable marketers to construct strategically product list driven by business objectives.
Keywords: E-tailing; product list design; sorting effect; decision making
Analysis of Web Page Complexity Through Visual Segmentation BIBAKFull-Text 114-123
  Guangfeng Song
Web pages have increasingly been used as the user interface of many software systems. The simplicity of interaction with web pages is a desirable advantage of using them. However, the user interface can also get more complex when more complex web pages are used to build it. Understanding the complexity of web pages as perceived subjectively by users is therefore important to better design this type of user interface. This paper reports an analysis of web page complexity through visual segmentation of web pages. 100 web pages were visually segmented by human participants as well as a computer program using Gestalt principles. The participants also indicated the perceived complexity of the web pages during the experiment. The result shows the perception of complexity is highly subjective but may be reliably measured. The number of blocks resulted from the three segmentation methods seemed to be irrelevant to perceived complexity. However, a composite metric that incorporate visual block information and other data of web pages seems to be promising in predicting the perceived complexity.
Keywords: Visual Segmentation; Interface Complexity
An Investigation of Online Group-Buying Institution and Buyer Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 124-131
  Chuan-Hoo Tan; Khim-Yong Goh; Hock-Hai Teo
This study draws on interdependency theory to propose and assess the effects of two artifacts -- conditional purchase and information cue -- on decisional choice in the online group-buying context. Our results suggest that buyers presented with conditional purchase options (i.e., of not honoring the purchase when the expected discount price is not met) are more willing to make a purchase choice (i.e., deviate from an inactive inertia). Counter-intuitively, provision of information cues (i.e., information about procurement actions of the other buyers) appears to induce inaction. However, when a choice has to be made between a riskier and a less risky choice, the presence of information cues leads to a higher propensity for the riskier choice. Implications for theory and practice are further discussed.
Keywords: Electronic market; group-buying; interdependence theory
Challenges and Solutions of Multilingual and Translingual Information Service Systems BIBAKFull-Text 132-141
  Hans Uszkoreit; Feiyu Xu; Weiquan Liu
In this paper, we present a survey of challenges and solutions of multilingual and translingual information service systems. In contrast to the computational linguistics literature on such systems, we are approaching the theme here from an HCI perspective. We will argue for a strategy that reduces reliance on automatic free-text translation, language input and classical information retrieval while not giving up these less reliable technologies altogether. We will also opt for a close situation-driven integration of information and communication functionalities. The described solutions have been incorporated into a novel mobile combined information and communication system for foreign tourists that has been tested under realistic conditions by users from several countries. The system is developed by the German-Chinese cooperation project COMPASS2008, a research action within the Digital Olympics framework.
Keywords: human computer interaction; multimodal interaction; multilingual and crosslingual strategies
The Antecedents of Online Consumers' Perceived Usefulness of Website: A Protocol Analysis Approach BIBAKFull-Text 142-149
  Cheng Yi; Zhenhui Jiang
Internet-based interactive multimedia technologies enable online firms to display featured products via a variety of product information and various presentation formats. This study investigates how consumers evaluate the usefulness of online product presentations from their experience with the virtual products. Three different product displays on two products are tested in a survey. Using a written protocol analysis approach, the study has confirmed our expectations on the impact of information quality and system quality on consumers' online shopping experience.
Keywords: Product presentation; vividness; interactivity; information quality; perceived usefulness
A Study on the Characteristics for the Day and Night Time Consumer Groups of Internet Shopping Malls BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Sung hee Yoon; Soo ae Kweon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in fashion lifestyles, shopping orientation, the perception of time constraints and shopping cost among two consumer groups (day and night-time internet shopping mall users). 1. Fashion lifestyles depend on fashion leadership, the importance of fashion, fashion imitation and fashion indifference. Compared to night-time users, day-time users showed relatively low interest in fashion while night-time users showed a high degree of fashion pursuit. 2. Shopping orientation was summarized as six factors; Enjoyment shopping orientation, Fashion orientation, Brand orientation, Convenience/time saving, Price conscious orientation, Practical orientation. Night-time users were also noted to have a high interest in fashion and tendencies to pursue brand names and trends. 3. Not much difference was shown between the two groups about perception of time constraints and shopping costs.
Keywords: Internet shopping mall; Day and Night Time Consumer Groups; fashion lifestyle; Shopping orientation; Perception of time constraints; Perception of shopping cost

Part II: Learning and Entertainment

Interaction Design Patterns for Classroom Environments BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Henning Breuer; Nelson Baloian; Christian Sousa; Mitsuji Matsumoto
In our research, we synthesize two lines of development that have been dealt with independently so far: 1) the development and evaluation of educational technologies to support problem-oriented and collaborative learning activities inside and outside of the classroom, and 2) interaction design patterns as a means to document and generate design knowledge. Primary contributions are software prototypes for enhancing classroom interaction through interactive whiteboards, multiple clients with pen-tablets and PDAs, and a basic layout of a pattern language for formal and informal learning environments.
Keywords: Interaction Design Patterns; Educational Technology; Learning Theories; Activity Theory; Classroom; Whiteboards; Pen-Tablets; PDAs; Gesture-based Interaction; Open Space
Predicting the Outcome of a Computer Literacy Course Based on a Candidate's Personal Characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Andries J. Burger; Pieter J. Blignaut
People differ and we tend to notice the physical differences among them more readily than we notice their differences in thinking styles. The success of an information system can be influenced by the psychological make-up of an individual. Specific biographical, psychological and cognitive factors were identified that may explain why, with the same amount of computer training and experience, some people will have a higher degree of computer proficiency than others. Two formulas were derived and it was found that different variables predict the computer proficiency of white and black students, respectively.
Keywords: computer proficiency; personality; learning style; anxiety; spatial visualisation ability; numerical ability; scholastic ability; mathematics ability; computer attitude
An Essay About the Relevance of Educational Interactive Systems in the Learning Process BIBAKFull-Text 183-189
  Alessandra Carusi; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
This work aimed to investigate the relevance of hypertextuality in interactive systems designed for children's learning. For that, it was carried out eight interviews within experts from the following areas: teachers, pedagogic coordinators and Pre-School and Low Elementary Supervisors. These professionals were asked about the importance of the usage of interactive systems in scholar and educational environment, its learning's efficiency during usage, frequency of usage during classes and trends of these products. Collected information was discussed using the "contents analysis" method.
Keywords: children; learning process; interactive systems
Interacting Play -- Design as a Metaphor for Developing Interactive Games BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  Teng-Wen Chang
Interactive game, especially for users can be physically involved in the game, is one of important applications for gaming nowadays. With the most up-to-date mediated devices, experience design has inspired lots of researches to explore possible or better innovative interactivity between human and machines. With physical interaction and rapid prototyping, a new computing paradigm combining both sensor/electronic/robotic technology and digital design media starts to show its root in both design and computing, namely ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence. In addition to this paradigm, we adapt the interactivity of design and the design methods for studying situated interactive design. Furthermore, this paper documents a series of interacting plays for exploring possible interactions. Three attempts have conducted: Smart Toys, Spatial Components and Ambient Interaction under the realm of computational design and digital media. The outcomes of exploration are documented in the paper.
Keywords: Interactive creativity; situated interactive design; physical computing; experience design; smart toy; ambient environment
Usability Assessment of an E-Learning Courseware for Basic Cataloging BIBAKFull-Text 198-207
  X. Sherab Chen; Tingting Lu
A study was conducted to assess the usability of an e-learning courseware prototype. Participants of three expertise levels -- novice students, experienced student workers, and domain experts -- were recruited. 27 evaluated the e-learning courseware and 2 received the same training content in a face-to-face session to provide benchmark data. A total of 16 usability problems and 4 pedagogical problems were identified. Preliminary findings suggest that e-learning is a promising format for basic cataloging training and different patterns are found in the three groups of participants' evaluations of the courseware.
Keywords: E-learning; usability; library cataloging training
Suppressing Competition in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 208-214
  Kwangsu Cho; Bosung Kim
The purpose of this study is to explore how student competition using the tit-for-tat strategy could be remedied with a minimum design change in order to support student to collaborate constructively in a computer supported-collaborative learning system called SWoRD (Scaffolded Writing and Reviewing in the Discipline) [5], a reciprocal peer reviewing of writing system. We identified a factor for the tit-for-tat that causes learners to compete each other, and removed the factor from the interface. The results show when with the interface improvement the tit-for-tat strategy was restrained in the SWoRD system, which helped the learners constructively respond to peer comments.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Peer review of writing; competition; SWoRD; peer evaluation
A Study of Acteme on Users Unexpert of Videogames BIBAKFull-Text 215-224
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra
We present here a heuristic evaluation of the use of videogames among inexperienced players through the notion of acteme. Firstly, we're going to analyse the evolution of new technologies, videogames, and behaviours of people from childhood to school age by drawing a parallel between adults and children. Secondly, we will take into consideration mass media theorists' different points of view regarding the introduction of videogames in homes and educational institutions. Third, the role of the main types of interactive games in each formative process of the individual has also been studied. Finally, a guideline has been created with those components of videogames that encourage self-learning and increase attention and motivation of inexpert users.
Keywords: Acteme; Behaviour; Communication; Design; Education; Hypermedia; Human-Computer Interaction; Semiotic; Videogames
A Natural Language Interface for a 2D Networked Game BIBAKFull-Text 225-234
  Andrea Corradini; Adrian Bak; Thomas Hanneforth
This paper describes a system for playing a digital version of a board game using natural language. We consider the control of the game through players interacting with a 2D graphical interface by typing in appropriate text instructions. Such an input is syntactically parsed using a set of pushdown transducers to generate a simplified string representation of the original user's sentence. Further, a semantic parser splits the new input representation into a series of frames, each one representing the semantics of the underlying text chunks. Based on the game logic and according to context information, we resolve ambiguities and incompleteness within these data structures and generate a set of possible game instructions. Eventually, we check preconditions related to the validity of the hypothesized commands and, if the preconditions are met, the equivalent instructions are carried out and the game state is updated. For testing purposes, we fed our system with game instructions that are automatically generated by an equivalent context free grammar that can be described by our pushdown transducers. In the case of parseable instructions, the system has been shown to properly perform with over 98% accuracy. The application can be played over the network based on a client/server architecture where players exchange periodic updates through a central host.
Keywords: Natural Language Processing; Multiplayer Networked Game
Detecting Learning Difficulties on Ubiquitous Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 235-244
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
This paper describes a multi-platform framework that supports a set of activities performed by both teachers and students within an educational context. The framework's main contribution lies on the possibility given to teachers to customize, according to various dimensions (e.g., content, user context, and subject), material that is later provided to students. On the other hand, students are allowed to accomplish their activities ubiquitously through mobile devices (e.g. PDAs). The second contribution however, is the ability that teachers gain to detect learning difficulties and problems faced by students while accomplishing their tasks even while away from classes and school. We describe the experiences that have been conducted and present some results that address both educational and human-computer interaction issues.
Keywords: m-learning; ubiquitous computing; mobile devices; usability evaluation
Synchronous Reading in Real-Time Environments BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
  Yoram Eshet; Eran Chajut
The story-telling multimedia Living Book is one of the most common edutainment genres, in which children hear and play with interactive and animated stories. Living Books are designed so that every word of the narrated story is projected on the computer monitor as it is narrated. This enables listeners to integrate between the audio and textual representation of words and thus to understand their meaning and learn their pronunciation. The present paper presents results of a study which showed that young children who did not know how to speak or read the English language became proficient in pronunciation and gained a high level of understanding by playing with Living Books. Results show that the participants were able to correctly pronounce almost 70% of the words in the Living Book, and could identify the meaning of about 70% of them. On the other hand, it was found that they were able to read words as orthographic units but not to identify individual letters (average of 6.25%). Our findings point to the potential for incidental learning in highly-interactive, engaging and playful multimedia environments, such as Living Books.
Keywords: living books; multimedia; reading; edutainment; incidental learning
Design and Development of Mixed Mobile Education System Based on SIFT Algorithm BIBAFull-Text 255-263
  Kwangjin Hong; Keechul Jung
Due to popularization of the wireless Internet and mobile devices, the infrastructure of the ubiquitous environment is created and users can get information whatever they want, anytime and anywhere. Therefore, many laboratories study methods for efficiency of information transmission using on-line and off-line contents. In the educational field, many laboratories also study methods which apply on-line contents to off-line contents and make dynamic contents. In this paper, we propose the Mixed Mobile Education system (MME) that improves educational efficiency using on-line and off-line contents on mobile devices. Unlike the previous studies, the proposed system does not use additional makers but recognizes off-line contents as we extract feature points in the input image using the mobile camera to provide the natural environment. We use the SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm to extract feature points, which are not affected by noise, color distortion, size and rotation in the input image captured by the low resolution camera. Experimental results show that compared with previous work, the proposed system has some advantages and disadvantages and that the proposed system has good efficiency on various environments.
The Effects of Visual Versus Verbal Metaphors on Novice and Expert Learners' Performance BIBAKFull-Text 264-269
  Yu-chen Hsu
Since 1990 there have been a series of studies examining the effects of diagrams versus text on computer user's performance. There have also been studies investigating the effects of metaphors on learning and information searching. Research results indicate that verbal metaphors help learners to develop more complete mental models. However, little is know about the effects of visual metaphors that possess both the features of diagrams and metaphors. In response to the gaps in the metaphor research literature, the present study aims to compare the effects of visual versus verbal metaphors in facilitating novices and experts in the comprehension and construction of mental models.
Keywords: comprehension; expert; mental model; novice; verbal metaphor; visual metaphor
The Effect of Tangible Pedagogical Agents on Children's Interest and Learning BIBAKFull-Text 270-277
  Jun-hee Kim; Dea-hyun Jung; Haeng-Suk Chae; Ji-Young Hong; Kwang-Hee Han
These days there are many e-learning websites for children presenting learning contents with animated pedagogical agents on screen. Therefore we investigated the effects of embodied tangible agents outside of the screen for children's interest and learning. All experiments were conducted with 6-7 year old children and stimulus was a kind of storybook-animation. As a result, with embodied agents outside of the screen, children felt higher degree of agent presence, and also a higher degree of an interest about agents and more interaction with agents. And it induced stronger persona effects in learning than with animated agents on the screen. Also children had a statistically significant increase in vocabulary learning. This study had implication about designing effective tangible agents for children.
Keywords: Tangible Agents; Embodied Agents; Pedagogical Agents; Children's Learning; Children's Interesting
An Entertainment System for Improving Motivation in Repeated Practice of Musical Instruments BIBAFull-Text 278-283
  Itaru Kuramoto; Yuya Shibata; Yu Shibuya; Yoshihiro Tsujino
Repeated practice is important to learn playing musical instruments, but it is quite boring and monotone, so many learners stop learning. MIPS (Musical Instruments Practice Supporter) is an entertainment system for improving motivation for a learner of electronic instruments such as electronic piano. In MIPS, a learner breeds his/her own character which grows up reflecting his/her amount of effort to practice an electronic instrument, and a battle game is held at weekend for all learners' characters, in which the characters fight each other. It stimulates a learner's motivation for practice. In this paper, we introduce MIPS and a method of estimating a learner's effort at learning.
What Makes Game Players Want to Play More? A Mathematical and Behavioral Understanding of Online Game Design BIBAFull-Text 284-293
  De Liu; Xun Li; Radhika Santhanam
The online game industry is a rapidly growing Internet-based business that has become very competitive in recent years. Game vendors have the option of designing online games in such a manner that they can match players against other players. Therefore, the interesting question is to identify conditions in these human-computer-human interactions that can motivate players to be engrossed and play more games and for longer periods of time. We approach this issue using a novel combination of mathematically based Tournament Theory and behaviorally oriented Flow theory to propose that when players' skills are equally matched, the challenge intensity of the game is moderate and players will play more games and for long. We also propose that individual traits such as performance goal orientation will moderate these effects. We test our ideas with a laboratory research design. Our preliminary findings provide support for our ideas.
Breaking the Traditional E-Learning Mould: Support for the Learning Preference Approach BIBAKFull-Text 294-301
  Fang Liu; Jasna Kuljis; Lorna Lines
The mismatch between 'traditional' educational model and the e-Learning has drawn the research attention on personalized instruction, one of the growing concerns in HCI. This paper presents a framework that can be used as a basis for the identification of an appropriate type of personalization. Our idea is that users who demonstrate particular learning styles, as identified in Felder-Silverman's learning style theory, require a specific e-learning environment that matches their learning preferences. In particular, the framework is formulated to investigate how the different modalities presenting e-Learning content will influence the students' learning quality and experience. The considered learning styles profile in this paper is typical for a science and technology domain student. Through this framework we expect that learning preferences of a certain type of learners could be better supported and consequently their improved learning performance.
Keywords: E-Learning; Learning style; Cognitive style; Cognitive learning style; Personalization; modality
KaLeSy-CJ: Kanji Learning System Focusing on Differences Between Chinese and Japanese BIBAFull-Text 302-311
  Sa Lu; Naoko Yamashita; Hiroyuki Tominaga; Toshihiro Hayashi; Toshinori Yamasaki
We developed a Japanese Kanji learning system, called "KaLeSy-CJ", for native Chinese learners focusing on the differences between Chinese Characters and Japanese Kanji. Considering the differences in reading, writing, and meaning between Chinese Characters and Japanese Kanji, it is important for native Chinese learners to pay attention to these differences learning Kanji. In this study, we have analyzed the crucial differences between two languages, and have proposed the way to exercise native Chinese learners. Based on our proposal, we have developed a Japanese Kanji learning system called "KaLeSy-CJ". In addition, we have evaluated our system and confirmed that KaLeSy-CJ provided suitable Kanji learning environment for Chinese speakers.
Towards an Effective Evaluation Framework for IMS LD-Based Didactic Materials: Criteria and Measures BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Carmen Luisa Padrón; Paloma Díaz; Ignacio Aedo
Evaluation is one of the most important activities in the didactic materials development process since it allows developers to check if the obtained material satisfies all requirements and it also provides developers with reliable information about material's utility, validating if the obtained material can be effective support in the achievement of the educational goals which it intends to support. Evaluation results provide valuable information for the material redesign in such cases when the requirements or educational goals are not satisfied. Nevertheless its importance, the evaluation has been often neglected in most of the approaches related to the development of didactic materials, which are more focused on issues such as interoperability or reusability. In this paper we present the MD2 evaluation framework based on a general evaluation procedure that include a set of criteria and measures for the two more important evaluation objectives of IMS LD-based didactic material: its usability and pedagogical usefulness.
Keywords: Didactic materials; Learning Objects; Units of learning; Development Methods; Evaluation; Pedagogical Usefulness; Pedagogical Utility; Usability
Mobile Game-Based Methodology for Science Learning BIBAKFull-Text 322-331
  Jaime Sánchez; Alvaro Salinas; Mauricio Sáenz
This work presents the features and results of a problem-solving collaborative game for 8th graders science classes' curriculum. Software for pocketPC was developed for this game, based on a complete framework methodology with students and teachers. From our point of view, the key to integrate mobile devices into school is the methodological framework which provides meaning; technology by itself does not contribute much to education. The evaluation study was focused on software usability and the results in the application of the methodology, observing their performance in problem-solving skills. A high degree of user satisfaction with the final product was found. They were motivated to participate actively in the proposed tasks. Results indicate that the experience contributed to the development of the student's problem-solving skills obtaining positive gains as a result of this experience.
Keywords: Children; science; PDA; pocketPC; gaming; learning
Group Collaboration and Learning Through Online Assessments: Comparison of Collaborative and Participatory Online Exams BIBAKFull-Text 332-340
  Jia Shen; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Michael Bieber
Online environments are regarded as well constructed to support collaborative and social learning. This research investigates small group collaboration and learning in the context of online exams. Incorporating constructivism and collaborative learning theories, the online Collaborative Exam features students' active participation in various phases of the exam process through small group activities. The online Participatory Exam features similar processes except that students participate in the exam individually. A large scale field experiment was conducted to compare the two exam structures in terms of learning strategies and exam outcomes. Results show that students in the collaborative exam adopted significantly higher levels of social engagement than those in the participatory exam, learned from other students, and formed a sense of learning community. Areas for future research are briefly discussed.
Keywords: Group collaboration; collaborative exam; participatory exam; online assessment
A New Framework of Usability Evaluation for Massively Multi-player Online Game: Case Study of "World of Warcraft" Game BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Seungkeun Song; Joohyeon Lee; Insun Hwang
According to traditional marketing wisdom, customers' preferences are a core issue in designing successful products, and the design process in game is crucial for guaranteeing gamers' satisfaction. This research aimed to explore critical factors for the game design based on the new framework of the usability evaluation. We examined the usability in Massively Multi-player Online Role-playing Games (MMORPGs) and reviewed literatures related to games simultaneously. We identified eighteen usability issues in MMORPG and presented its recommendation relevant to the issues. Moreover, the results of the study showed fifty four critical factors composed of game interface, game play, game narrative, and game mechanics for the game design. The research is concluded with key implications to support the early stage of the design process in game.
Keywords: MMORPG; Game Design; Design Process; Usability; Framework
A Study of Learners' Perceptions of the Interactivity of Web-Based Instruction BIBAKFull-Text 351-360
  Jui-ni Sun; Yu-chen Hsu
A well designed interaction mechanism creates a shortcut to learning. However, there is little research which analyzes learners' perceptions of the interface as they interact with WBI, especially from the human-interaction perspective. This study is therefore designed to provide a new framework to design systems with different degrees of interaction, and to examine learners' perceptions of these interaction elements. Forty-five subjects participated in the experiment. The results show that increased interactivity levels directly influence learners' perceived interactivity, perceived ease of use and usefulness, and satisfaction. It is noteworthy that the interactivity levels perceived by the designers and learners are different. We hope that designers can adopt different degrees of interactivity as suggested by the study results to design WBI systems that will best facilitate various learners' learning needs.
Keywords: Web-based instruction; Interactivity; ease of use; usefulness; satisfaction
Perceived Usefulness and Usability of Weblogs for Collaborating Learning BIBAKFull-Text 361-370
  Yin Leng Theng; Elaine Lew Yee Wan
Using a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use weblogs for learning in higher education. Sixty-eight students of a local university responded to the study. The findings suggested likely acceptance of weblog use if it is perceived to be useful for learning. The paper concludes with a discussion on implications for education.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model; perceived usefulness; perceived usability; weblogs; education; learning
Support Case-Based Authentic Learning Activities: A Collaborative Case Commenting Tool and a Collaborative Case Builder BIBAFull-Text 371-380
  Lu Xiao; John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
Cases are stories about specific activities of a real world practice with a purpose to educate. Often providing contextual background information, cases present problem situations and expert solutions. Studying cases offers students the authentic learning experience of "seeing" how experts carry out design projects in the practice. In this paper, we present our ongoing work of designing case-based authentic learning activities in usability engineering (UE) courses, and developing collaborative tools to support the activities. We describe a collaborative case commenting tool that enables students to collaboratively browse and comment on the documents from an existing usability case library both synchronously and asynchronously, and a collaborative case builder tool that provides a virtual workspace for the students to collaboratively build a case based on their authentic design project. We discuss three collaborative case commenting activities in the UE course of Spring 2006, and a collaborative case building activity in the UE course of Fall 2006.
The Practice of Combining Cinematic Narrative with 3D Gameplay BIBAFull-Text 381-390
  Charles Shih-I Yeh
Realtime 3D game director faces challenges of presenting gameplay with aesthetic and fresh visual experience to its player. Cinematic narrative in game production has been borrowed from Hollywood for several years. Cinematic camera narrative has been implemented by many published game titles. However 3D game is different from movie due to its highly interactivity. This paper presents experiences of co-developing cinematic narrative camera system with game director from film and art background for various game genres including shooter, action adventure, and sports. We also explore new possibilities to enhance cinematic experience introduced by programmable graphics hardware. Unlike most related works, we also present perspectives from game designer and director from non-technical background.
Creating Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Activities with IMS LD BIBAFull-Text 391-400
  Dan Yu; Xinmeng Chen
Nowadays more and more higher education institutes implement CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) environments to free learners of the requirement to share physical space and communicate synchronously providing a less competitive situation and promoting a more equal participation as compared to face-to-face collaboration. However in order to support effective and reusable collaborative learning design we need represent collaborative learning activities in a formal way so that they can be recognized and processed automatically by the computer. In this paper we present IMS LD, a process modelling language to formalize collaborative learning activities, and then discuss the limitations and extensions of the language in modelling collaborative learning activities.
Face to Face Communications in Multiplayer Online Games: A Real-Time System BIBAFull-Text 401-410
  Ce Zhan; Wanqing Li; Farzad Safaei; Philip Ogunbona
Multiplayer online games (MOG) bring HCI into a new era of human-human interactions in computer world. Although current MOG provide more interactivity and social interaction in the virtual world, natural facial expression as a key factor in emulating face to face communications has been neglected by game designers. In this work, we propose a real-time automatic system to recognize players' facial expressions, so that the recognition results can be used to drive the MOG's "facial expression engine" instead of "text commands". Our major contributions are the evaluation, improvement and efficient implementation of existing algorithms to build a real-time system that meets the requirements specifically imposed by MOGs. In particular, we use a smaller number of fixed facial landmarks based on our evaluation to reduce the computational load with little degradation of the recognition performance.

Part III: Health Applications

Human Factors: User Experience Design Guidelines for Telecare Services BIBAKFull-Text 413-417
  Alejandro Rodríguez-Ascaso; Bruno von Niman; Steve Brown; Torbjørn Sund
The present paper introduces user experience guidelines addressing trust, user interaction (including usability and accessibility) and service aspects applicable to the research, design, development and deployment of telecare services. The work, co-funded by the European Commission and EFTA, is performed in ETSI and is entering its final phase of development. An ETSI Guide with the above title will be published in December 2007.
Keywords: Telecare; user experience; human factors; user interaction; trust; service
Usability Issues in the Development of a User Interface for an Alerts and Reminders System for a Nursing Documentation Application BIBAKFull-Text 418-426
  José A. Borges; Néstor J. Rodríguez; Carlos Pérez; Gilberto Crespo
A clinical setting is usually a very busy place for nurses because they must deal with a relative large number of patients. Nurses' interventions with patients are critical for their health and in some cases can be a matter of life and death. Electronic medical record systems can be valuable tools for assisting nurses providing in-time quality health care to patients. In particular, an alerts and reminders system can keep nurses aware of pending interventions or procedures for patients and provide warnings on abnormal conditions or potential health hazards for them. This paper discusses the usability issues dealt with in the development of an alerts and reminders system for a nursing documentation application. It describes the conceptual framework and the evolution of the user interface through the development process. Results of a usability study of the system are presented that demonstrate that nurses understood the system very well and were very satisfied with it.
Keywords: usability engineering; usability testing; graphical user interfaces; electronic medical record systems; alerts and reminders systems
Managing Group Therapy Through Multiple Devices BIBAKFull-Text 427-436
  Luís Carriço; Marco de Sá; Luís Duarte; João Carvalho
This paper presents a couple of tool-sets that allows the management of group therapy sessions, for a single room with a large public display setting. These sessions involve several patients, a main therapist and eventually a second therapist. Information is created, exchanged and discussed between them during those sessions. All participants recur to different devices to perform their activities, from PDAs to PCs, through an interactive large display, if available. Devices are selected and tool-sets designed adequately for each setting and participant role. For the main therapist, the variant with an interactive large display, required the simultaneous usage of a complimentary devices, to cope with non-public aspects of the therapy. Preliminary evaluation rose interesting, one hand usage issues for that variant.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing; mobile devices; groupware; e-health
Challenge for Preventing Medication Errors -- Learn from Errors --: What Is the Most Effective Label Display to Prevent Medication Error for Injectable Drug? BIBAKFull-Text 437-442
  Hiroyuki Furukawa
In the medical institutions, more than 50% of the error report is related to the administration of pharmaceuticals. And the half of the report is related to the administration of injectable drug.
   By analyzing the error report, the inducing factor of medication error are not only the name similarity (sound alike) and the appearance similarity (look alike) of the preparations but also the display of the ingredient amount of the injectable drug which has 3 types ("X% YmL", "Xmg/mL YmL", and "Xmg/YmL").
   The difficulty of the calculation seems to differ in these three types of display. Comparison of the right answer in these three types of display is tried for 6 subject groups which are three health care providers (physician, nurse and pharmacist) and their students. As a result, the calculation right answer percentage was high in "Xmg/YmL", "Xmg/mL YmL" and "X% YmL" in turn.
Keywords: medication error; error inducing factor; display of the ingredient amount
A Study on Display to Improve the Visibility of PTP Sheets BIBAKFull-Text 443-449
  Akira Izumiya; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
In recent years, an increasing number of malpractice cases have been reported, more than half of which are related to drug labels or packages. Press-through package (PTP) sheets are widely used to wrap tablets especially in Japan. In this research, we report the results of experiments to establish an optimum display design for PTP sheets.
Keywords: PTP sheets; medical accident; drug label; eye-tracking system
Persuasive Interaction Strategy for Self Diet System: Exploring the Relation of User Attitude and Intervention by Computerized Systematic Methods BIBAKFull-Text 450-458
  Youngho Jeen; Jiyoun Han; Hyodong Kim; Kyungwon Lee; Peom Park
The present paper deals with the problems regarding the persuasive computational technique. While the notion of persuasion is somewhat conventional in the psychology and pedagogy, the application research in the computing system is relatively young and still establishing its basic tenets. The aim of this research is to examine the persuasive intervention type and to thereby explore the feasible strategy for motivating users to change their attitudes or behaviors related to lifestyle. To measure the degree of intervention in persuasion, an experiment was performed using the designed website with thirty-three female subjects in their twenties. Results indicate that 'Source Credibility' and a combination of the source credibility and two other interventions led to significantly better motivation than other interventions alone or together. This research has some limitations such as restricted experimental period and condition but suffice it to say that we had a meaningful experiment enough to lay a foundation for future work.
Keywords: Persuasive Technology; Interaction; Motivation; Intervention
Augmented Virtual Reality for Laparoscopic Surgical Tool Training BIBAKFull-Text 459-467
  Kanav Kahol; Jamieson French; Troy L. McDaniel; Sethuraman Panchanathan; Mark Smith
Feedback in surgical simulation has been limited to offline analysis of movement, time taken to complete simulation and in some cases a virtual playback of completed simulation tasks. In comparison to aircraft simulation, these feedback schemes are very rudimentary. Research in military simulations has shown that real time feedback significantly improves performance on the task at hand and leads to skill generalization and transfer. However, such systems have not been developed for surgical simulation. Lack of effective feedback systems also has the added effect of increasing workload of senior surgeons leading to increased costs and decreased overall efficiency. In a pilot study performed with 8 surgical residents, we tested the effect of real time feedback on movement proficiency.
Keywords: Laparoscopic training; Augmented virtual reality; CyberGlove; Polhemus; PHANTOM
Integrating Technology into the Medical Environment of a Developing African Country BIBAFull-Text 468-473
  James Katzenstein; Barbara Chrispin
After declining through the 1990s, foreign aid to poor countries has made a comeback since 2000. Africa has been a major recipient of this increased attention. This paper describes the development of an international consulting model that has been used to percolate innovation and integrate technology within the medical environment of a private hospital in Tanzania. It has several unique features that differentiate it from other foreign aid projects.
The Analysis of Near-Miss Cases Using Data-Mining Approach BIBAKFull-Text 474-483
  Masaomi Kimura; Kouji Tatsuno; Toshiharu Hayasaka; Yuta Takahashi; Tetsuro Aoto; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
We applied the data mining technique to medical near-miss cases collected by a foundation related to the Japanese Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, and extracted information such as pairs of confusing medicines, the cause of near-miss cases in some situations, which cannot be obtained by simple aggregation calculations and descriptive statistics. We also introduce the results of text mining applied to the free-description data regarding the backgrounds and causes of near-miss cases and their counter measures.
Keywords: Safety in drug use; data mining; text mining
Ergonomic Study of Medicament Packages for the Improvement of Safety in Use BIBAKFull-Text 484-488
  Akinori Komatsubara
So as to prevent the mistakes at handling soft bag type intravenous solution bags, renewal of the display of label design of fifty-seven kinds of intravenous solution bags was conducted based on the human centered design. The requirements towards the display were investigated and analyzed. The cognitive step of handling of bags was discussed and the general display design guideline was developed.
Keywords: package design; medication human errors; labels and packages design guideline
Industrial Design and Human Factors: Design Synergy for Medical Devices BIBAKFull-Text 489-498
  Merrick Kossack; Andrew Gellatly; Alice Jandrisits
Research has shown the impact design may have on apparent, as well as inherent, usability. Through collaboration, Industrial Designers and Human Factors Engineers can design medical devices that address emotional design and thus contribute to apparent usability. This collaboration must overcome challenges common in the industry including design influences and standards, business factors, and regulatory processes. Integrating the two disciplines, their tools and methods, and ensuring their incorporation in the product development process can overcome these challenges. In doing so, end users will benefit from medical devices with both improved usability and elegance.
Keywords: Medical device; design; human factors; industrial design; usability
How New Technologies Can Help Create Better UI's for Medical Devices BIBAFull-Text 499-507
  William H. Muto; Edmond W. Israelski
Since medical devices are often linked to the alarmingly high rate of medical accidents, it is speculated that newer advanced user interface related technologies might mitigate some accidents. This paper describes some positive as well as negative consequences of incorporating advanced technologies with particular emphasis on technologies that directly impact the design and usability of medical device user interfaces. Notably, some technologies open opportunities to allow users more control to manipulate devices and to more effectively be alerted to usage situations with high patient safety risk. On the other hand, some technologies offer more complexity for user interface features and therefore may increase risk levels. A sample of these advanced technologies is examined for their impact on design heuristics. The paper also examines current formal risk evaluation, analysis and control methodologies used in design. These risk management methods are applied to a variety of advanced user interface technologies used in various categories of medical devices. The advanced technologies examined for risk control advantages as well as disadvantages include: (1) improved displays, e.g. large color touchscreens; (2) improved sounds, e.g. speech synthesizers for talking AED's and talking MRI systems; (3) intelligent software, e.g. drug libraries with hard and soft limits for programming devices that deliver medications; (4) advanced drug injection systems, e.g. high pressure needle-free delivery, electronic drug delivery skin patches; (5) network connectivity, e.g. internet-aware devices that warn against dangerous drug/device interactions and medication management systems that reduce medication dispensing errors; (6) robotic innovations, e.g. remote surgery systems and automatic diagnostic assay preparation systems; (7) laparoscopic advancements, e.g. 3D video cameras; innovative mechanical devices, e.g. novel metal clip artery closure systems and beating heart suturing systems; (8) RFID tracking and monitoring systems, e.g. RFID embedded in surgical sponges to reduce accidental miscounts during surgery and (9) speech controlled medical devices, e.g. operating room table adjustments and laparoscopic video camera adjustments.
The Usability Assessment of Pharmaceutical Package BIBAKFull-Text 508-517
  Michiko Ohkura; Toshiaki Harikae; Fumito Tsuchiya
Recently, a number of medical incidents and accidents have been reported over the world. Since many are related to medicine, the importance of "Safety in the use of medicine" has attracted a lot of attention. This paper describes experiments conducted to improve the opening of the sealed partition of infusion bags and to indicate an understandable bag design that shows how to use.
Keywords: medical accident; infusion bag; partition; human error and display design
The Practices of Scenario Observation Approach in Defining Medical Tablet PC Applications BIBAKFull-Text 518-524
  Chien Yu Peng; Wei Shin Kao; You Zhao Liang; Wen Ko Chiou
There are many hospital appliance PCs, Notebooks and PDAs used in clinical but they have several limitations. Tablet PCs combine the advantages and improved disadvantages of these media, but are not widely used in the clinical. 'Scenario observation' is an approach for product development processes. Its basic theorem is 'user-orientated design (UOD)'. During the development process 'visualization' and 'actual experience' methods are employed to guide developers from the user's point of view and scenario to evaluate the maturity and 'completeness' of a product. Therefore the purpose of this study has been to use 'scenario observation' approach to define the design strategy for medical Tablet PC applications. The results of this study indicate that the 'hospitalized-placed' nurse has more demand than other medical workers. Accordingly, there are 10 proposed design demands concerning medical Tablet PCs. Current medical Tablet PCs do not fully understand or satisfy medical workers' demands therefore using user 'scenario observation' surveys will help to define better design strategies and better medical Tablet PC applications.
Keywords: Scenario observation; Medical applications; Tablet PC; Design strategy
Interfacing Safety and Communication Breakdowns: Situated Medical Technology Design BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Svetlena Taneva; Effie Law
Safety-critical medical work requires an error-minded approach for design of the technologies that support its processes. We define the requirements that such a framework should meet and propose ICAD -- an adverse-event minded design approach for high-risk eHealth applications that considers users, joint activity processes, the distributed computer-supported medical setting, and the workflow areas that allow for communication and coordination breakdowns to occur. We leverage knowledge for human error analysis during the task-modeling stages from other safety-critical domains, and expand the focus of analysis to integrate complex joint activity aspects and to account for the role of technology, both as a medium and as an interactor. The outcome of our technique is design and workflow solutions that prevent accidents, a priori.
Keywords: eHealth; task analysis; interface design; safety; medical error
Medication Errors Caused by Order Entry System and Prevention Measures BIBAKFull-Text 535-543
  Fumito Tsuchiya
Many accidents and incidents are occurred in the medical fields. The medication is related to many of these errors, and some of errors are caused by order entry system. These are concern with the drug name similarity. We developed the system that was able to judge the similarity of the drug names objectively in 2001, and through a psychological experiment, we remodeled this system. As a result, it came to be able to avoid similarity of the new drug's name. This paper summarizes how to prevent medication errors caused by order entry system.
Keywords: medication errors; order entry system; drug name similarity; objective evaluation
Motivation in Home Fitnessing: Effects of Immersion and Movement BIBAFull-Text 544-548
  Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Marko de Jager; Ronald Bonants; Marijn Bruinink; Jan van Herk; Yvonne de Kort; Wijnand IJsselsteijn; Fren Smulders
In this paper we explore how we can use technology to help people to stay motivated to do home fitnessing. Two experiments with a total of 48 participants were performed, both deploying a bicycling task in a virtual reality, one focusing of effects of immersion, the other on the intrinsic impact of movement. From the results it becomes apparent that user and technology can cooperate to achieve a optimum home fitnessing experience.
Dependability and Security in Medical Information System BIBAKFull-Text 549-558
  Xukai Zou; Yuan-Shun Dai; Bradley N. Doebbeling; Mingrui Qi
Medical Information Systems (MIS) help medical practice and health care significantly. Security and dependability are two increasingly important factors for MIS nowadays. In one hand, people would be willing to step into the MIS age only when their privacy and integrity can be protected and guaranteed with MIS systems. On the other hand, only secure and reliable MIS systems would provide safe and solid medical and health care service to people. In this paper, we discuss some new security and reliability technologies which are necessary for and can be integrated with existing MISs and make the systems highly secure and dependable. We also present an implemented Middleware architecture which has been integrated with the existing VISTA/CPRS system in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs seamlessly and transparently.
Keywords: Medical Information System (MIS); Health Information Technology (HIT); Dependability; Security; Tele-medicine

Part IV: Work and Collaboration Support

A Role-Based Multiple View Approach to Distributed Geo-Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 561-570
  Gregorio Convertino; Dejin Zhao; Craig H. Ganoe; John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
We describe a role-based multiple view approach to support sharing and coordination of knowledge in geo-collaborative planning. The software coordinates multiple unshared role-specific views with one shared team view. The rationale for this approach is that: (1) it affords clear separation between role-specific and shared knowledge; (2) it leverages experts' knowledge to filter out role-specific details; and (3) it promotes implicit sharing of strategic knowledge (i.e. about roles). We illustrate the key features implemented in a prototype to evaluate this approach, describe design requirements extracted from a paper prototype study, and discuss relevant design issues.
Keywords: Multiple Views; Collaborative Visualizations; Geo-Collaboration; Common Ground; Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
The Project Browser: Supporting Information Access for a Project Team BIBAKFull-Text 571-580
  Anita H. M. Cremers; Inge Kuijper; Peter L. M. Groenewegen; Wilfried Post
The objective of our study was to design and evaluate a user interface concept for a so-called Project Browser, following a user-centered design method. Previous work has suggested that users prefer to access project-related information instrumental to the task they have to carry out. First, a domain analysis was carried out, followed by an extensive user requirements study, eliciting input from people experienced with working in project teams. This formed the basis of a prototype user interface design of a Project Browser, which provides direct access to action points and decisions taken, irrespective of the source of the information (documents, messages or meetings). The information from meetings was extracted from digital (multi-media) recordings of meetings, through the application of automatic recognition and information processing technologies. The user interface concept was evaluated with a number of prospective users which resulted in positive and promising findings. Next, the browser will be further evaluated in a scenario-based project setting.
Keywords: user interface; meeting browser; decisions; action points; documents; messages; meetings
Design and Implementation of a Personalized Business Activity Monitoring System BIBAKFull-Text 581-590
  Hoontae Kim; Yong-Han Lee; Hongsoon Yim; Nam Wook Cho
Today's collaborative working environment requires real-time control and monitoring of business processes which involve participants with different roles and responsibilities. Therefore, a Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) system should provide personalized monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to develop a personalized BAM system. We have identified functional requirements of the system and then develop a system design. Implementation of the design is also provided on top of a commercial BAM solution.
Keywords: Business Activity Monitoring; Personalization; Dashboard
Visual Feedback: Its Effect on Teleconferencing BIBAKFull-Text 591-600
  Atsunobu Kimura; Masayuki Ihara; Minoru Kobayashi; Yoshitsugu Manabe; Kunihiro Chihara
We present shared visual feedback for supporting conversations in contingent auditory environments like teleconferences. To facilitate the initiation of conversations in such environments, it is critical that the caller be able to grasp the auditory channel between the caller's mouth and the receiver's ear, and to vocalize at the voice level proper for the receiver. To achieve this goal, feedback of the voice level as measured at the receiver's ear is needed. Our starting points were a first generation prototype that displays visual feedback on the caller's screen and a second generation prototype that projects visual feedback onto the floor in the receiver's room. To enhance the speaker's assurance and to make installation easier, a third prototype is implemented as a LED device and a microphone. An experiment is conducted on the third prototype and its effectiveness in supporting natural conversations in telecommunication sessions in daily use environments is confirmed.
Keywords: Visual feedback; voice volume; teleconferencing; daily use system
Document Management and Information Organizing Method Using RFID Tags BIBAKFull-Text 601-610
  Hiroyuki Kojima; Ken Iwata; Naoki Nishimura
Due to the progress of Internet technology and the increase of distributed information on networks, the present knowledge management has been based more and more on the performance of various experienced users. In addition to the increase of electronic documents, the use of paper documents has not been reduced because of their convenience. This paper describes a method of tracking paper document locations and contents using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This research also focused on the expression of a task process and the seamless structuring of related electronic and paper documents as a result of task knowledge formalization using information organizing. A system is proposed here that implements information organization for both Web documents and paper documents with the task model description and RFID technology. Examples of a prototype system are also presented.
Keywords: RFID; information organizing; document retrieval; knowledge sharing; cooperative work; groupware
Affordance Table -- A Collaborative Smart Interface for Process Control BIBAKFull-Text 611-619
  Jari Laarni; Leena Norros; Hanna Maria Kaarina Koskinen
The main task of operators in the modern nuclear power station is to monitor and control the processes related to power production and safety. In order to efficiently support operators' tasks the human-system interface should, e.g., support awareness of the process and collaboration with different stakeholders. In a Finnish project, Novel Affordances of Smart Environments, the aim is to develop an interaction concept and a prototype for more efficient and effective operation of complex industrial processes. The central element in this is "Affordance Table" which is equipped with innovative smart artefacts based on, e.g., tangible computing and virtual reality applications. In the present theoretical paper we first present a conceptual model and definition of Affordance Table based on James Gibson's ecological theory. After that, suggestions are made for a combination of smart tools to be applied for supporting the monitoring and control of the power process.
Keywords: Affordance; smart environments; process control
Experimental Effect Estimation of an Integrated Decision Support System to Aid Operator's Cognitive Activities for Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 620-628
  Seung Jun Lee; Poong Hyun Seong
For the advanced main control rooms (MCRs), various types of decision support systems have been developed. It is very important to design highly reliable decision support systems in order to adapt them in actual MCRs. In addition, to evaluate those support systems and validate their efficiency and reliability is as important as to design highly reliable decision support systems, because inappropriate decision support systems or automation systems can cause adverse effects. In this work, decision support systems are evaluated experimentally. The target system of this work is the integrated decision support system including an alarm system, a fault diagnosis system, a computerized procedure system, and an operation validation system. The result of the experiment showed that decision support functions reduce subjects' workload and failure probabilities.
Keywords: Decision support systems; Evaluation of decision support systems
Designing an Ergonomic Computer Console on the Ship BIBAKFull-Text 629-638
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Yung-Tsan Jou; Chih-Wei Yang; Chun-Lang Huang; Tse-Jung Chen; Ming-Zhe Tsai
This study develops a new computer console that is to be used on a ship according to ergonomics principles. The proposed design enables console operators to safely, comfortably, and efficiently operate equipment in the ship navigating environment. This study discusses human limitations to work with computer consoles in extreme motion conditions and confined workspaces that is typical of the ship environment. The system architecture, developments, and detailed design considerations are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Computer Console; Usability; Ergonomics
A Human-Centered Systems Approach to Ship Facility Design BIBAKFull-Text 639-648
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Yung-Tsan Jou; Chih-Wei Yang; Shi-Bin Lin; Yao-Hung Hsieh; Hung-Jen Chen
This paper describes a systems development study that used the human-centered approach to ship facility design. The study followed human systems engineering processes for developing facility and equipment in ships, from design, test and evaluation, to manufacture and maintenance. Ship engineering and systems development procedures are re-engineered to develop an integrated process of ship facility design that considers all aspects of optimal human operations, living, and working conditions. Use of this approach will be critical to future complex ship systems design towards an integrated system life cycle that ensures best operational safety, comfort, and performance.
Keywords: Ship facility design; Human-centered approach; Human systems engineering
UX Office. A New Software Application for User Experience Services BIBAKFull-Text 649-653
  Li Ma; Xiaowei Yuan
This paper is presenting a new software application, which supports activities for user experience professionals. We call this application "UX Office". The application is based on key learnings: 1. Many activities of user experience professionals follow a similar structure and process. 2. User experience activities are very often done in a collaborative way between clients and user experience service providers. 3. Project information is used in several stages of the project and some project information is even being reused in other project. 4. The quality of outcomes between user experience service providers varies sometimes quite a lot. The UX Office is addressing these observations and providing support for user experience professionals. The paper describes some background information and how the UX Office deals with the observations. The UX Office makes the professional life of user experience experts easier, is cost efficient, enriches the result quality of outcomes and allows collaboration between clients and service providers.
Keywords: User experience; Usability Testing; UX Office
Some Empirical Results on a Multimedia Work Support System BIBAKFull-Text 654-662
  Jarmo Makkonen; Ari Visa
This paper describes some results of a project that studied how multimedia can help the worker in an assembly task. The test case was a deep-cut assembly of a grid-anode for a cathodic protection system. A multimedia tool was implemented and compared with the conventional support method for the same task. The tool helps the worker by providing training and background information. During the task the tool acts as a guide and a set of well-defined instructions. The comparison of the methods was done by means of a field experiment. The results show that the use of the implemented tool helps to produce a slight increase to the quality of the work. However, the execution time of the work was not better when using the multimedia tool. According to a user questionnaire done in the test situation, the multimedia tool was more useful and easier to use, and gave the users more confidence than the conventional support method. It can be said that the use of multimedia support helps the worker to produce better quality in the task.
Keywords: multimedia; human-computer interaction; circles of mind
Experimenting Wearable Solutions for Workers' Training in Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 663-671
  Iñaki Maurtua; Miren Unceta; Miguel Angel Pérez
This paper presents several experiments carried out by the AmILAB research group of Tekniker in the framework of the WearIT@work project (EC IP 004216) on the use of wearable technology base solutions for the training process of workers in a manufacturing environment. The description includes both the initial work at the SKODA production facilities in Czech Republic and the experiments with local workers at Tekniker. As an introduction, the authors of this paper shortly describe current training processes at Skoda, and derive the potential benefits and risks of applying wearable computing technology.
Keywords: wearable computing; automotive production; training; task recognition
Excellence in Ease of Use with Rich Functionality How Enterprise Software Applications with Rich Functionality Can Be Built to Excel in Ease of Use BIBAKFull-Text 672-681
  Abbas Moallem
In this article, we will review the procedures and techniques used to significantly improve the ease of use of enterprise software applications in the framework of a small company with limited resources. We will present the achievements and lessons learned from applying these techniques to the development process at Tumbleweed Communications, a moderate-sized Silicon Valley company that builds secure messaging applications for enterprises. We will conclude by showing examples of screens before and after implementing our user-centered design approach.
Keywords: UI Design; UI Standards; Usability; User Experience
Perspectives on Reuse Process Support Systems for Document-Type Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 682-691
  Yukiko Morimoto; Hisao Mase; Hiroshi Tsuji
Reusing documents as intellectual assets is one way of improving productivity and quality of products and services. The reuse process is well-known to make effective use of document-type intellectual assets and consists of four parts: (1) collecting and accumulating documents, (2) searching and browsing documents, (3) extracting and identifying documents, and (4) creating new documents. We describe problems in reusing document-type knowledge and propose solutions for each problem. The most important point in reusing documents effectively is to accumulate them in an appropriate format and accurately identify them by content.
Keywords: Knowledge; Information retrieval; Information sharing; Information gathering; Information extraction; Knowledge management
ICT-Mediated Synchronous Communication in Creative Teamwork: From Cognitive Dust to Semantics BIBAKFull-Text 692-701
  Vivian Nguyen; Paul A. Swatman
A substantial amount of research has focused on small group meetings and how technology can support the meetings. Many applications and tools have resulted from such work but very few are used regularly because, we believe, they are not flexible enough to accommodate the naturally ill-structured processes of "creative teams". Our research aims at developing effective ICT-based support for such teams by understanding what is happening during creative teamwork -- at both human-human and human-technology levels -- through multimodal observational channels and providing appropriate and timely intervention. This paper describes the infrastructure for capturing ICT-mediated interactions (cognitive dust) and the approach for transforming these low-level data into meaningful and useful information (semantics), and presents the initial result of our work on transforming cognitive dust into semantics.
Keywords: creative teamwork; cognitive dust; data capture
Project Evaluation by E-Mail Communication Pattern BIBAKFull-Text 702-711
  Jugo Noda; Ryosuke Saga; Hiroshi Tsuji
A method that uses an e-mail exchange log we developed is described that evaluates the communication patterns within a project. A frequency map enables the strength of communication to be measured among members, and inner vector analysis enables clear understanding of the exact position of members directly displaying the relationships among members. Experimental analysis of a real project within an organization confirmed the effectiveness of the method, and communication patterns were clearly represented. Our method is unique in that communication patterns within a project can be identified computationally only by using the e-mail exchange log.
Keywords: E-mail; Vector Space Model; Knowledge Management; Data Mining; Organization Management
E-Stores Design: The Influence of E-Store Design and Product Type on Consumers' Emotions and Attitudes BIBAKFull-Text 712-721
  Talya Porat; Rinat Liss; Noam Tractinsky
This study examines the effect of e-store design dimensions (usability and aesthetics) on consumers' emotions and attitudes towards the store, in three different store domains. The study is based on a model of Web-store environment that describes how design aspects of Web-based stores affect the consumers' emotional states, which, in turn, influence attitudes towards the store. The present study extends a previous study by measuring emotions using bipolar (as opposed to unipolar) items, and by distinguishing stores in domains that range along the high-touch -- low-touch continuum. The results indicate that the three basic emotions -- pleasure, arousal, and dominance -- improved consumers' attitudes towards the stores. There were some differences across domains in terms of the effects of design factors on emotions, but overall it was found that expressive aesthetics influenced arousal and pleasure, whereas usability influenced dominance and pleasure.
Keywords: Aesthetics; usability; design; Web-store atmosphere; emotions
Design Discussion of the [braccetto] Research Platform: Supporting Distributed Intensely Collaborating Creative Teams of Teams BIBAFull-Text 722-734
  Claudia Schremmer; Alex Krumm-Heller; Rudi Vernik; Julien Epps
The growing ubiquity of computer processing power, storage and bandwidth has helped stimulate increased interest in computer-mediated interaction in recent years. Concurrently, many technological solutions to essentially human problems are maturing to the point where their higher socio-psychological context is becoming the limiting factor. An example of this is real time collaboration between remote team members, where new telepresence and groupware solutions continue to close the gap between remote and co-located collaboration. Here, an improved understanding of what types of cues are critical to preserve common ground, the coupling of work, and awareness between remote sites is still fundamentally required. In the HxI Initiative we are investigating, designing, developing, and evaluating Human Computer Interaction, Human Human Interaction, and Human Information Interaction for distributed teams of teams who are intensely collaborating. The mixture of co-located and remote interaction in social communication as well as interaction with a shared digital artifact provides complex research challenges in areas which address particular interaction issues such as multiple cursor support, mixed-presence communication, and action-communication disparities. We present the research platform [braccetto] that we designed as an enabler for the investigations of the above research challenges. The hardware design and setup discussed in this paper are the result of careful requirements engineering and design discussions for rapidly composable and adaptable telepresence workstations for distributed, intensely collaborating teams of teams. We also present underlying software services and components as enablers for telepresence and groupware capabilities that are deployed in our application domains.
Augmented Desk System: The Information Table of Collaborative and Cooperative (InfoTable) BIBAKFull-Text 735-741
  Cheng-Wei Shih; Shu-Feng Pan; Ming-Xian Lee; Hong-Sheng Chen
This paper presents an information exchange table. We named InfoRiver Table. The system provides users a platform that can display and manipulate information objects on its surface. It is a collaborative and cooperative information exchange device. It also allows users broadcast their information objects in different places. The system embedded several sensors in, and it can identify user and detect user's behavior on the table surface. Users can read information and transmit information on the table. The system can get data from database via network, and save data also. In advantage, the system using visual image displays that information object on the table surface. We think it is convenient to communicate for people.
Keywords: RFID; tangible interfaces; information exchange; object tracking; collaborative; interactive table; multi-user interfaces
A Framework for Mobile Services Supporting Mobile Non-office Workers BIBAKFull-Text 742-751
  Bente Skattør; Lasse Berntzen; Tore Engvig; Per Hasvold
Mobile services supporting mobile work among non-office workers have received limited attention. To support designers to map out possible mobile services supporting work among such workers, we have developed a framework that groups work into primary and secondary activities. A primary activity is directly associated with the primary, or main, objective of the work. A secondary activity has a more supportive or indirect association with the primary activity. We have used the framework in three different settings: -- nursing in hospitals, home health-care, and construction. Our research shows that even if primary activities differ considerably, we identified a set of generic, secondary activities relevant to personnel working in all three areas. Examples are communication, collaboration, coordination, reporting, handling papers, or handling logistics. Such activities are supportable by mobile services. We have found that the framework is an appropriate analysis tool for investigating the possible use of mobile services supporting non-office workers.
Keywords: mobile work; framework; non-office workers; mobile services; primary and secondary activities
Process-Oriented User Support for Workflow Applications BIBAFull-Text 752-761
  Dian Tan; Hartmut Wandke
Workflow applications (WFA) support users working in business processes. Knowledge and comprehension of the underlying processes beyond one's own task is necessary but often not readily available. We have developed a generic taxonomy of help information for all types of workflow or process applications that considers the process-orientation of these applications. Based on this classification we have designed a user support system for one WFA. With this support system the user can not only retrieve information about field entries into the interfaces, but it also provides process-related information, including information about the work done on previous tasks as well as what will transpire with the entries, their consequences and results. Our goal is to demonstrate that the user support system enhances the users' process comprehension, ensures trustworthy decisions and hence improve human performance and accelerates processing times.
Decentralized Information Aggregation and Central Control in Networked Production Environments BIBAKFull-Text 762-770
  Simon Thiel; Thomas Schlegel; Dieter Spath
In production, today's machines become increasingly intelligent. The use of embedded CPUs has become obligatory, whereas more and more machines are equipped with higher level computers. This way production machines are enabled not only to be driven via remote control but to deliver detailed status information and sensory output. To date, most of this generated information is wasted in the archives of the machines, only read in case of upcoming machine failures. New approaches like decentralized peer-to-peer production networks promise new possibilities to exploit this information and take a step beyond Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). Production Cockpits are able to assemble collected data filtered on several layers and to decide which data are important enough to be presented to the user.
Keywords: Production service bus (PSB); Smart-Connected-Control Platform (SCCP); Mobile Control System; peer-to-peer network; web-based production platform; Knowledge Repository; Ontology; sensors; production machines
With User Interface Design from Socio-Cultural Trend to a Innovative Office Phone Generation BIBAKFull-Text 771-777
  Claude Toussaint
At the beginning of each new product strategy there is a complex bunch of needs and requirements. design affairs consults socio-cultural trend research to get the needs of future users to focus all the requirements. In initialization workshops scenarios are created together with the customer. These scenarios reflect respectively single socio-cultural trends in form of narrative stories, which describe a detailed product environment. This serves as an extensive briefing for the interdisciplinary design team: Industrial, interface, color and material designers, anthropologists, psychologists and engineers. Different product concepts are developed and verified qualifiedly by different methods of testing. The top resulting ideas are developed further and culminate in first functional prototypes. They cover a predefined performance range and are subject to further international usability and acceptance tests. Also later during the specification and implementation phase rapid prototyping helps to guarantee the user centered design process and implement a common understanding in the international interdisciplinary development team. In the following this innovation process is briefly represented with the example of the development of a new office phone generation for Siemens.
Keywords: User interface design; usability engineering; product innovation process; international interdisciplinary team
Complexity in Enterprise Applications vs. Simplicity in User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 778-787
  Matthias Uflacker; Daniela K. Busse
Advanced business applications like enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) are characterized by a high degree of complexity in data, functionality, and processes. This paper examines some decisive causes and their implications on software configuration and user interaction specifically. A case study on SAP®'s R/3® Sales & Distribution module exemplifies complexity in order management systems and documents its impact on the user experience. We emphasize the need to shield users appropriately from underlying system complexity to provide a convenient and simple to use software tool. Several approaches to address this goal are discussed.
Keywords: Enterprise Applications; ERP Systems; Software Complexity; User Experience; Design
Focus+Roles: Socio-Organizational Conflict Resolution in Collaborative User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 788-796
  Davy Vanacken; Chris Raymaekers; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Collaborative workspaces are in dire need of elegant floor control policies, resolving and preventing conflicts without interrupting the dynamic workflow. Our approach employs the user's roles and focus to extend existing solutions. Roles define a user's responsibilities and privileges during a particular activity; tracking the users' focus provides a means of improving mutual awareness within a multi-user setting. Furthermore, in combination with document properties such as content type and sensitivity, roles make up an effective access control system. We apply the approach to a co-located group of users, interacting simultaneously on a collaborative shared display, which results in graceful (e.g. correct in a socio-organizational context) conflict handling and access to shared data.
Keywords: computer-supported cooperative work; multi-user interfaces; collaboration; floor control; access control
Information Complexity in Air Traffic Control Displays BIBAKFull-Text 797-806
  Jing Xing
Air traffic controllers use visual displays to interact with various automation systems. Information complexity in those systems may cause controllers to miss or misinterpret visual data, thereby reducing safety. The purpose of this study was to answer three basic questions: 1) What constitutes information complexity in automation displays? 2) How complex is "too complex" for controllers? 3) Can we objectively measure information complexity in the displays? We first developed a general framework for measuring information complexity. The framework reduces the concept of complexity into three underlying factors: quantity, variety, and the relations between basic information elements; each factor is evaluated at three generic stages of human information processing: perception, cognition, and action. We then developed nine metrics of display complexity, each measuring the effects of a complexity factor on information processing at a given stage. These metrics provide an objective method to evaluate automation displays for acquisition and design prototypes.
Keywords: Information Complexity; Display; Interface Design; Evaluation; Air Traffic Control
HOPE: Extensible System for Automatic & Periodic Diagnosis of Offshore Software Project BIBAFull-Text 807-815
  Xuan Zhang; Lei Zhang; Meiping Chai; Shigeru Miyake; Ryota Mibe
In order to support the management of the offshore projects, HOPE (Hitachi Offshore Project Examiner) is developed based on some open source tools. HOPE can automatically collect the raw project data, organize them in the database, calculate the different data granularities, analyze the project indexes, detect the exception/release information according to some specified rules, and generate the HTML reports for the offshore projects. Furthermore, HOPE can be executed periodically according to the schedule specified by the user. To ensure HOPE adapt to the different users, an extensible plug-in architecture is designed. Both the data collection and the project diagnosis are implemented by the customizable plug-ins.
Playwright Agent as Adaptive Scripts for Organization-Communication BIBAKFull-Text 816-824
  Yu-Pei Yeh; Teng-Wen Chang
Brainstorming is a commonly used method for diffusion thinking in early design stage. While the communication between two participants is blocked with isolated communication boundaries, the ideas are often transferred via a propagated interaction process among design team participants. The paper describes an organization-communication method to study the interaction between designers and design teams using act/react characteristics of role-interplay. Adapting a role-play framework called DARIS; a particular controlling agent called Playwright Agent is developed and used for implementing the adaptive scripts. Furthermore, by simulating the interconnecting process among discrete communication boundaries, the interaction and controlling mechanism of Playwright Agent is also unleashed in the paper. The mechanism and the agent implementation of proposed framework, namely DARIS+ is shown to represent the interaction as well as their consequence. An example for describing how Playwright Agent works is also shown in the paper.
Keywords: Collaborative Design; Role Playing; Organization-communication; Communication Boundary; Agent-based System
A User-Oriented Assessment of Enterprise Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 825-834
  Eun Jung Yu; Youngjoon Choi; Choon Seong Leem
Enterprises are investing a great amount to utilize information systems. These investments are expected to increase worker productivity and thus bring forth a considerable amount of profit to the enterprise. Given this situation, there are many studies being conducted on the relation between IT investment and an increase in individual productivity. This study deals with more general enterprise information systems, and has the objective of developing a model to assess the user's utilization of the enterprise information systems. Using the User competency evaluation model as the basis, the assessment model uses User's EIS basic knowledge, general application, master application, personality as the measurement areas, and utilizes a different measurement method for the different categories taking into account the characteristics of each category. Also, in order to test the validity and credibility of the assessment model, we applied a case among approximately 18,000 female employees of Korea's representative automobile companies. As a result, all of the measured categories with the exception of User's EIS Personality were proven to be valid and credible. The User's EIS Personality is an index that is more prone to be affected by the individual characteristics of the user, and thus requires further research.
The Role of Cognitive Styles in Groupware Acceptance BIBAFull-Text 835-845
  NorolHamiza Zamzuri; WanAdilah WanAdnan
This paper attempts to bring forward the idea of the role of cognitive styles in groupware acceptance. The study examines the role of cognitive styles and other TAM variables and predicts the role of cognitive styles in influencing the usage of groupware. A simple random sampling method was used in this study and 109 respondents were participated who are from Administrative staff in Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam (Uitm), Selangor. A theoretical framework from information system (Technology Acceptance Model) was based for this study and cognitive styles as external variables. The goal for studying cognitive styles in groupware acceptance is to understand how user process information and how systems can be better built to accommodate the diversity of the population. Due to this, it leads the understanding of the individual differences in groupware acceptance specifically in making a decision to change. The results indicate that cognitive styles do affect ease of use and usefulness; unfortunately it does not significant lead to the usage of the system. This result will help system designers in creating the interface design and etc. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Part V: Web-Based and Mobile Applications and Services

Effect of Physical Consistency of Web Interface Design on Users' Performance and Satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 849-858
  Ahamed AlTaboli; Mohammad Raafat Abou-Zeid
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of three selected elements (colors, fonts and locations) of physical consistency of a Website interface on performance and satisfaction of users. An experiment was conducted using an Arabic Website, where three physically inconsistent designs of the Website according to each of the selected elements of physical consistency were used as independent variables, and a consistent design was used for control. Subjects were instructed to perform a number of common Web tasks in the Websites. Two performance variables (dependent variables) were measured: tasks completion time and number of errors. Satisfaction level was also recorded. Results showed that both the fonts element and the locations element have a significant effect on number of errors. The locations element and the colors element have a subjectively significant effect on satisfaction. None of the three elements has a significant effect on completion times.
Keywords: Consistency of Web interfaces; performance and satisfaction
A Semiotic-Based Framework for the Development of Tailorable Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 859-868
  Rodrigo Bonacin; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas; Thiago Medeiros dos Santos
In face of the diversified individual and collective requirements of Web applications, we argue that the Web interfaces should be flexible enough to adapt or to be adapted to each usage context. We draw on the idea of Tailoring to design for flexibility. However, due to the additional effort to provide flexibility, usually the construction of a tailorable application results on higher costs and complex solutions. The objective of this work is to provide developers and designers with a framework to support the development of tailorable Web applications. This framework is based on a normative approach to describe the volatile requirements including social and pragmatics aspects of the system usage. In the paper we discuss the theoretical basis, describe the framework, and provide short examples of how to use it.
Keywords: Tailoring; Organisational Semiotics; Flexibility; Web
Travelling Stories: Mobile Applications for Storytellers BIBAFull-Text 869-880
  Anxo Cereijo Roibás; Nina Sabnani; Riccardo Sala
This paper discusses the outcomes of a research carried out in collaboration with the BT Mobility Research Centre and the National Institute of Design in India, aimed of understanding appropriate applications for the use of mobile phones as leisure multimedia devices for nomadic users such as commuters and travellers. This work intended to go beyond the use of mobile devices to broadcast of TV or download of music, video clips, paying special attention to the contextual usage of this media and trying to solve some unsolved issues for these interfaces as the low sociability, creativity, contextual sensitivity and interaction that so far they enable. It prospects a use of mobile interactive multimedia systems in future communication scenarios in which users can create and share self-authored & contextual digital content. Websites such as YouTube, AOL and Yahoo providing access to personal videos that have been taken using webcams, video cameras or mobile phones, evidence an emerging trend where users become authors of multimedia content. This self-authored content production is finding application in different areas: information (travel, finance, mortgages, cooking, culture, health, etc), entertainment (sports, gossips, performance, etc), government, commerce, etc. For example, BeenThere and TheWorldisnotFlat are user generated travel sites where people can share tips about places to go on holiday. Moreover, some major newspapers like The Guardian, use this content in their Travel section. Furthermore, other more structured websites link the videos to specific places -- using, for example, Google maps -- enabling users to locate the videos in a map, relating the self-authored content to a specific context. Another interesting example of self-authored content is http://www.wefeelfine.org, which is an 'exploration of human emotion on a global scale', or in other words, a navigation among different people's feelings (self-authored texts, sounds, pictures or videos) and emotions in the past few hours. These feelings are organized by the users into six formal movements titled: Madness, Murmurs, Montage, Mobs, Metrics, and Mounds. User centered design methodologies that take effectively into account peripatetic users interacting in their real contexts are crucial in order to identify realistic scenarios and applications for pervasive interactive multimedia systems that provide positive user experiences. This article supports the statement that handhelds due to intrinsic attributes such as friendly multimedia production tools (video, pictures and text mainly), ubiquitous presence, communication capabilities and nimbleness to dialog with surrounding platforms such as iTV, PCs, PDAs, in-car-navigators and smart-house deployments, are highly plausible tools to support users' creation and distribution of self-authored multimedia content in pervasive communication scenarios. This paper explores the futures 870 A. Cereijo Roibás, N. Sabnani, and R. Sala of pervasive interactive multimedia systems, and in particular the user experience related to the generation and publishing, broadcasting and narrowcasting of self-authored multimedia content through mobile devices. For this scope, it analyzes some traditional storytelling methods and tools, specially the kavaad -- that is still in use in Rajasthan, India -- in order to understand mechanisms can be the most suitable for storytelling self-production and sharing.
Analysis of Internet Users' Interests Based on Windows GUI Messages BIBAKFull-Text 881-888
  Jinhyuk Choi; Geehyuk Lee; Yonghoon Um
It is important to unobtrusively observe users' interactions on web browsers for the measurement of users' interest. Moreover, the observation should be performed on the client side in real time, because the contents of web pages are dynamically subject to change in the current Internet environment. In this paper, we suggest a simple method of inferring a user's interest for web contents by monitoring the amount of processed GUI messages while the user is reading a web page. We developed a software module that runs behind the Internet Explorer and monitors the number of processed GUI messages, the viewing time and the size of a web page. We found that the number of processed GUI messages, when properly normalized by the size of a web page, is close correlated with a user's interest for web contents.
Keywords: User interests; web browsing patterns; GUI messages
Deconstructing Web Experience: More Than Just Usability and Good Design BIBAKFull-Text 889-898
  Chandra Harrison; Helen Petrie
To design for positive web experience designers require an understanding of what factors elicit specific affective or cognitive responses. To gather user perceptions, which may offer insight for future objective exploration, an online survey asked five open ended questions regarding user perception of design aspects associated with a range of affective and cognitive states; specifically what stimulates web user's curiosity and creativity, what challenges their abilities, what surprises them and what alters their sense of time. The majority of responses can be categorized as either usability or design factors, but 17.4% cannot and warrant further exploration to determine their utility for designing optimal user experience. Results also indicate that for each of the states there are trends in the responses, suggesting that certain aspects of web interface design elicit specific reactions. These aspects should be explored and applied if designers want to encourage pleasurable website experience.
Keywords: Usability; emotional design; user experience
Report on Project to Identify Excellent Local Government Web Sites An Attempt to Educate Web Systems Developers on the Importance of Human-Centered Design Processes BIBAKFull-Text 899-905
  Seiji Hayakawa; Haruhiko Urokohara; Toshikazu Shinohara; Naoto Aizawa; Yayoi Kitamura
In 2006, the Human-centered Design Organization (HCD-Net) began advocating the utility of the HCD process for web systems developers. In this project, we focused on the "move-in/move-out" procedures services of local-government web sites and identified sites of excellent usability. This document reports on the history and findings of the project, and suggests tasks for the future.
Keywords: usability evaluations; the human-centered design process; local-government web sites; marking system; usability education
A Survey of Factors Influencing People's Perception of Information Security BIBAKFull-Text 906-915
  Ding-Long Huang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
Information security is a great concern to computer users, which is not only a technical problem, but also related to human factors. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that can influence people's perception of different threats to information security. In the survey study, 602 respondents were asked to evaluate one of 21 common threats to information security with regard to its position on each of the 20 threat-related items. An exploratory factor analysis was then conducted, and a six-factor structure modeling people's perception of different threats to information security was derived. The relations between the factors and the perceived overall danger of threats were also tested by multiple regression analyses.
Keywords: Perception; Information Security; Survey; Factor Analysis
Towards Web Services Oriented Unified Supervisory HCI BIBAKFull-Text 916-925
  Djilali Idoughi; Christophe Kolski
A lot of work & research has been done in HCI supervision-type industrial context, but mostly relative to control rooms and local supervision. However, many multi-site or extended and complex organisations are faced with some new challenges and trends such as supervisory systems integration and unified access of the different actors which have not been much considered so far. A service oriented solution is outlined and explained in the context of industrial supervision oriented towards to a unified and integrated supervisory HCI design. A representative supervisory scenario taken from a real case study which illustrates the approach is then described.
Keywords: HCI; supervision; service oriented approach; web services; operators; service integration; composite applications; unified access
Everyday Storytelling: Supporting the Mediated Expression of Online Personal Testimony BIBAKFull-Text 926-933
  Aisling Kelliher; Glorianna Davenport
Personal stories make our everyday experiences memorable over time. This paper presents 'Everyday Mediated Storytelling', a model of the casual storyteller's process of capturing, creating and sharing personal mediated narratives. Based on this model, an online authoring and publishing application for sharing everyday rich-media narratives named 'Confectionary' was developed. Results from a lengthy study with a group of committed users signify the success of the Confectionary system as an engaging everyday tool for personal storytelling that stimulated self-reflection, broadened the scope of storytelling strategies demonstrated by its users and supported active audience interpretation. The model, methodology, and system presented in this paper provide a basis for understanding how we move fluidly between our direct experiences, our cognitive and emotional reflections and our storied representations and interpretations. This paper also demonstrates how a spatial everyday authoring and publishing application advances the digital storytelling process from one of media collection to one of storied reflection.
Keywords: Everyday mediated storytelling; spatial narratives; multimedia authoring tools; participatory audiences
Chat-Robot Based Web Content Presentation Interface and Its Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 934-943
  Yumi Kikuchi; Kota Hidaka; Shinya Nakajima; Minoru Kobayashi
Our goal is an interface that allows novice users to browse and enjoy Web contents as easily as they can watch TV. Given this goal, Web page contents should be converted into fully-animated TV-like audio/visual contents, taking users' mental situation into consideration. Moreover, this paper focuses on generating adaptive Web page presentation according to the emotional parameters. To get the user's interest and attention, we utilize two robots which can speak. In order to develop conversions that take account of the user's mental situation, we performed two step surveys. First, the emotional impressions of primitive audio/visual effects were investigated. Second, the effect of the combinations of robot and primitive effects was investigated. The first experiment yielded a 'situation composition grammar;' given an emotional situation, the appropriate audio/visual effects can be selected. The second experiment suggested that presentation media components exhibit mutual interaction. We implemented a prototype and subjectively evaluated it. The results confirm the effectiveness and validity of our proposal.
Keywords: Web content; reconstruction; re-synthesis; robot; emotion
Understanding Influence of Mobile Internet Services on Life Behavior of Mobile Users BIBAKFull-Text 944-953
  Sang Min Ko; Yong Gu Ji; Dongsoo Kim
We have performed a Web-based survey to analyze a variety of services provided via mobile devices, and we studied how the usage of mobile Internet services is influencing the life behavior of mobile users. The survey was targeted to young generation users in their 20's-early 30's, who are main users of mobile Internet services. Mobile services are categorized into Entertainment, m-Commerce, and Information Service in this work. In total, 236 users participated in the survey. We reviewed the current usage status of mobile services and analyzed how each service affected users' mobile life behavior. The results of this paper illustrate that "Mobile e-mail," "Listening to music," "Travel information," and so on have a significant influence on users' mobile life behavior.
Keywords: Mobile; Mobile Life; Mobile Internet; Mobile Service; User Study
Interactive Design of Memory Sharing Applications for Families BIBAKFull-Text 954-960
  Minako Kubo; Akihiko Kodama; Etsushi Takaishi; Rikio Chiba; Keita Watanabe; Michiaki Yasumura
Previous research on ubiquitous computing in homes has tended to focus on system-oriented issues such as automated controls and sensor networks. In contrast, this paper reports on research oriented to families living in homes. Handling and sharing memories stored on external media is difficult within current homes, though sharing memories, and communicating through them is an important part of family life. Relevant data is often kept in digital storage and infrequently accessed if at all. We have established design principles and developed the following prototype interfaces within the home that increase interactions amongst family members: TimeAfterMirror; PushPull; MemoryBubbles; Asnaro. These prototypes jointly form a system for dealing with family memories. This system can be used to capture, organize, review representations of past events, and support communication. These prototypes were demonstrated within a home-like environment at an exhibition in Tokyo in November 2006.
Keywords: application platform; home; memory; ubiquitous interface
Personal Life Logger and Belonging Monitor Using Reliable ZigBee Networks BIBAKFull-Text 961-970
  KwangHee Lee; KyoungJu Noh; Changseok Bae
In this paper, we introduce a wearable and handheld Intelligent Gadget (IG). IG is a prototype system for implementing a concept of personalized smart object defined in SPOT. we design and implement a personal life logger and belonging monitor using IGN which provides interaction among IGs for supporting real-time online logging of personal life log and dynamic reconfiguration of personalized services. We also propose a reliable data transmission method within IGN based on ZigBee network, and show performance analysis through an experiment of transferring JPEG data.
Keywords: Intelligent Gadget; Intelligent Gadget Network; Smart Object; Personalized service
A Three-Level Approach for Analyzing User Behavior in Ongoing Relationships BIBAKFull-Text 971-980
  Enric Mor; Muriel Garreta Domingo; Julià Minguillón; Sheena Lewis
This paper describes a hybrid methodology to study users in ongoing relationships based on three levels of user data analysis. Most user-centered design methods are ideal for the analysis of users' needs, wants, and expectations at a specific point in time. However, nowadays, most online applications and services have recurrent users whose characteristics might vary not only over time but also depending on the task they want to accomplish and the context in which they are accomplishing it. Therefore, the common user research methods are not adequate for providing long term feedback. Our three-level approach methodology combines qualitative and quantitative data for analyzing user behavior over an extended period of time. The present study is based on an e-learning environment, which is a great example of a website with recurrent users whose behavior changes over time.
Keywords: Long-term human-computer interaction; ongoing relationships; log analysis; combining methodologies; user behavior; virtual learning environments; e-learning
Relevance Measurement on Chinese Search Results BIBAKFull-Text 981-988
  Hua Qin; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
The objective of this study is to develop a measurement of search result relevance for Chinese queries through comparing four Chinese search engines (A, B, C, D). The relevance measurement was First N method and statistical test. By blind evaluating of first 10 search results, four indexes such as average precisions within first n results (P @ n), hit rate within n results (H @ n), mean dead link rate within n results (MD @ n) and mean reciprocal rank of first relevant document (MRR1 @ n) were figured out. The results implied that except for MD @ n engine C was better, the other three indexes engine A were the best. However, by statistical analyzing, it indicated that there were no significant difference of the P @ n, H @ n and MRR1 @ n among the four engines except for the index MD @ n.
Keywords: Relevance; Chinese queries; measurement
Multiple Viewed Search Engine for an e-Journal -- A Case Study on Zoological Science BIBAKFull-Text 989-998
  Takahiro Seki; Taiki Wada; Yasuhiro Yamada; Nozomi Ytow; Sachio Hirokawa
The multiple viewed search engine presented here retrieves documents of an indicated search area and displays a matrix of the distribution of the clustering from two aspects of the retrieval result. The search engine provides a visual and semantic bird's-eye view of the entire retrieval result. In addition, the characteristic words of each cluster are displayed in the matrix, and supports narrowing of the search. Furthermore, it is possible to immediately change the analysis criteria or the number of clusters and to use a zooming function. Thus, various retrieval conditions for a query can be attempted immediately and continuously. As a case study, this paper performs several analyses on the electronic journal Zoological Science using a multiple viewed search engine.
Keywords: Multiple viewed search engine; Clustering; Characteristic word extraction; E-journal
Exploring Multi-dimensional Conceptualization of Social Presence in the Context of Online Communities BIBAKFull-Text 999-1008
  Kathy Ning Shen; Mohamed Khalifa
The recent development has suggested a multi-dimensional approach in understanding social presence. Based on environmental psychology literature and prior research on social presence, we propose three dimensions of social presence, i.e., sensory, affective and cognitive, and examine its effect on virtual community participation with a partial mediation of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The research model was empirically tested with a survey involving 430 individuals. The empirical results provided strong support for the multi-dimensional conceptualization of social presence and clarified the effects of various social presence dimensions on participation. But we did not find significant mediating effects of motivational factors. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Social Presence; Virtual Communities; Motivation
Does the Web Design Disconnect the Emotional Connection? BIBAKFull-Text 1009-1018
  Tara Shrimpton-Smith; Bieke Zaman
Recently, more and more attention is being paid to emotions in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. However, there has been little research that focuses on the relation between emotions and usability or 'web design'. In this context, we examined the correlation between the emotions of the user and the usability of the applications he or she is working with. The main findings reveal that there does not exist a connection between web design and emotions. To some extent, computer and internet experience correlate with the user's emotions. Finally, our results show that there is no significant connection between the application's content and the user's emotions.
Keywords: Usability; FaceReader; emotions
Ideas for Mobile Services Created and Explored in an Ethnographical Study BIBAKFull-Text 1019-1028
  Bente Skattør
Mobile work in an exposed physical working environment, e.g. in the building industry, challenges the design and use of mobile services. So far, we have seen little or no use of mobile technology on the building sites. This research presents and discusses ideas for mobile services that were created and explored by the workers on building sites. The ideas originate from three ethnographical studies accomplished in 2003-2006. The studies covered different phases i.e. understanding the field, prototyping in the field and deploying in the field. In total we suggest 23 ideas that cover a wide range of mobile services like building work, logistics, health and safety, quality assurance, communication and access to information. These ideas bridge the gap between the building sites and the headquarters. Further, we see a special and interesting potential of the mobile services that aim to avoid discontinuities during work and that aim to improve or replace paper-based routines.
Keywords: Mobile services; user-centered system design; ethnographical field work; creating; exploring; mobile work
The Effects of Mobile Service Quality and Technology Compatibility on Users' Perceived Playfulness BIBAKFull-Text 1029-1038
  Felix B. Tan; Jacky P. C. Chou
There is a growing body of research into Mobile Information and Entertainment Services in recent years. This study explored the effect of mobile service quality and its compatibility to mobile technology on users' perceived playfulness toward these services. Perceived Service Quality and Perceived Technology Compatibility were found to influence users' Perceived Playfulness. Furthermore, Perceived Technology Compatibility significantly mediated the relationship between Perceived Service Quality and Perceived Playfulness. This suggests that service attributes need to be aligned with mobile phone functionalities to enhance user's Perceived Playfulness. In addition, Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use and Personalization were the three most important service quality aspects that influenced Perceived Playfulness.
Keywords: Perceived Service Quality; Perceived Technology Compatibility; Perceived Playfulness; Mobile Information and Entertainment Services
Emotional Web Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 1039-1046
  Sylvia Tzvetanova; Ming-Xi Tang; Lorraine Justice
This paper presents a framework for emotional interface where a method for emotional interface evaluation is purposed and the emotion eliciting conditions in online graphic interfaces are explored. Those eliciting conditions are concerning the design elements of an online storytelling system. For the purposes of the evaluation two online storytelling interfaces are compared: a plain user friendly interface versus animated with images interface. The results are analyzed for the user's emotional responses as well as for the user's feedback on the functionality of the interfaces. It is shown that users find "positive emotion" web sites more functional, than the non emotional ones.
Keywords: usability evaluation; emotional interface; emotional design
A Successful Field Test of a Mobile and Multilingual Information Service System COMPASS2008 BIBAKFull-Text 1047-1056
  Hans Uszkoreit; Feiyu Xu; Weiquan Liu; Jörg Steffen; Ilhan Aslan; Jin Liu; Christel Müller; Bernhard Holtkamp; Manfred Wojciechowski
We will describe a field test and its evaluation of a truly novel type of mobile computer programs that will assist foreign tourists in their communication with Chinese people. The software is an electronic phrase book and a translation aid but at the same time a powerful multilingual information system connected to numerous services via the Internet. It effectively helps visitors to navigate through the streets, temples and shopping centres of the Beijing megalopolis. It was developed in the German-Chinese project COMPASS 2008, a research action within the Digital Olympics framework. The subjects of the field test were fifteen tourists from seven countries. The test concentrated on usability and acceptance. The applied methodology adapts recognized standards and widely accepted best practice to the specific application type.
Keywords: field test; multilingual; multimodal; mobile applications; context-sensitive information service; usability and acceptability evaluation
Love Dimensions on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 1057-1062
  Hannu Vanharanta; Jussi Kantola; Waldemar Karwowski
The nature of the conscious experience of love is a puzzle to people all around the world. Many of us want to understand our love in order to make it more sustainable. An application developed for this purpose is presented in this paper: Rose is a self-evaluation application that aims to help individuals evaluate and understand the many dimensions of their love. Rose is freely available on the Internet. In this paper, we summarize the results of everybody who has taken part in the on-line self-evaluation using this application.
Keywords: Love; dimensions; fuzzy logic; Circles of Mind

Part VI: Advanced Design and Development Support

A Replicated CSCW Framework for Multi-user Interaction in 3D Collaborative Design BIBAKFull-Text 1065-1074
  Fazhi He; Huajun Liu; Xiantao Cai; Shuxu Jing
In order to support fast, freedom and natural multi-user interaction, a replicated framework for collaborative design of 3D solid model is presented. The framework combines general collaborative problems with special challenges from 3D design. In consistency maintain of multi-user interaction, an extended event order of operations is studied to integrate causal order and independent order based on semantic analysis of 3D design. A special consistency problem, the name consistency, is analyzed. A collaborative naming mechanism is provided with a case study. The proposed method will constructed the footstone to take the potential advantages of replicated 3D collaborative design.
Keywords: Three-dimension; Collaborative design; Replicated architecture; Multi-user interaction; Consistency maintain; Naming mechanism
A Review of Possibilistic Approaches to Reliability Analysis and Optimization in Engineering Design BIBAFull-Text 1075-1084
  Li-Ping He; Hong-Zhong Huang; Li Du; Xu-Dong Zhang; Qiang Miao
A variety of analysis strategies and design methodologies are widely applied to accommodate uncertainties in engineering design. Generally there exist two different types of uncertainties in practice, aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty. When data and information are very limited, the probabilistic methodology may not be appropriate. Among several alternative tools, possibility theory is proved to be a computationally efficient and stable tool to handle incomplete information. In this paper, we first introduce two issues concerned with possibilistic approaches: reliability analysis and design optimization. Then the type of uncertainties in these issues are explained with emphasis on the epistemic uncertainty. After that, this paper presents both theoretical development and computational improvement of possibility theory in recent years. More details are given to reveal the capability and characteristics of quantified uncertainty from different aspects. In the end, future research directions are summarized.
An Interactive Evolutionary Design System with Feature Extraction BIBAKFull-Text 1085-1094
  Xu Jiang; Sun Shouqian; Tan Zhengyu; Shi Fuqian
In order to extraction the product form features, the Web-based feature database system was carried out and the feature cognition space was constructed. The form feature information was analysed and processed through Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), hierarchical clustering and morphological analysis technology. To enhance the efficiency of the automatic conceptual design, the interactive evolutionary design system (IEDS) based on the Orthogonal Interactive Genetic Algorithm (OIGA) in form design was advanced. With this method, the genetic convergence effects are improved and users' fatigues are alleviated by means of simplifying the solution space orthogonally, communizing the fitness evaluation and visualizing the project interface. Example results indicate the improved IEDS was more feasible and reasonable than the simple IEDS.
Keywords: conceptual design product form the interactive evolutionary design system
Verification of Development of Scenarios Method and Visual Formats for Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 1095-1101
  Haifu Lin; Masaaki Kurosu; Hideaki Takahashi; Hiroshi Kato; Takeshi Toya
This paper takes up Scenario Based Design (Rosson & Carroll, 2003) and Micro Scenario Method (Kurosu, 2006), and analyzed the both methodological scenario making processes. In Scenario Based Design, the four making steps are proposed: (1) problem scenario, (2) activity scenario, (3) information scenario, and (4) interaction scenario. In addition, Micro Scenario Method developed two steps of scenario making: (1) problem micro scenario, and (2) solution micro scenario. These methodologies are useful when we consider the human centered design for making products. However, in a pragmatic use case, especially for product designers, it is difficult to visualize the images and ideas taken from the Scenario Based Design and Micro Scenario Method. Based on our analysis, we proposed a new method that is development of scenario method and visual formats for Design Process. The feature of this method is to draw rough sketch and illustration to describe the ideas. Hence, the question which we must consider next is usefulness of this method. Here, we conduct a experiment for testing the programmatic applicability of our proposed method.
Keywords: Scenario Based Design; Micro Scenario Method; Scenario method and Visual formats for Design Process; solution; usability
A Camera-Based Multi-touch Interface Builder for Designers BIBAKFull-Text 1102-1109
  Han-Hong Lin; Teng-Wen Chang
In our daily life, human beings tend to use both hands to accomplish complex tasks, but not to computers. However, multi-touch technology allows users to control all objects on the screen with more than just one finger. Therefore, how designers can take advantage of such technology and explore its potentials? So we propose a multi-touch interface builder called MToolKit for easy and effective construction of multi-touch interface for designers. By using camera-based sensor framework, we further analyze the multi-touch examples available for the interactive patterns. With these analysis and design requirement for building up an interface builder for designers, we conduct a two-point input and implemented them into our system called MToolkit. MToolkit was implemented by java and based on processing programming environment and a video processing C++ library with java wrapper. An example of using our MToolkit is elaborated in this paper.
Keywords: Multitouch; toolkit for designers; processing; MToolkit; camera-based framework
Design of Change-Absorbing System Architecture for the Design of Robust Products and Services BIBAKFull-Text 1110-1119
  Sanghyun Oh; Beomjin Park; Shinae Park; Yoo Suk Hong
Engineering changes, whether it is desirable or undesirable, incur cost and delay in schedule. It should be avoided as much as possible and change management strategy should be chosen as to minimize the overall cost. This paper proposes a method to represent change propagation and formulate change absorbing problem into mathematical programming. Solution to the mathematical problem can lead to optimal change absorbing strategy that minimizes overall cost.
Keywords: Engineering Change Management; Change Absorbing
A Multifunctional VR-Simulator Platform for the Evaluation of Automotive User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 1120-1129
  Tony Poitschke; Markus Ablaßmeier; Stefan Reifinger; Gerhard Rigoll
This contribution presents an approach for a scientific driving simulator platform for the representation and evaluation of new driver assistance and information systems. We will give a short introduction to the used gaming engine and then present the developed components of our new driving simulation platform. For a most realistic driving behavior, we implemented an own physics-component basing on a real vehicle model. Further, the platform provides the opportunity to easily create new scenarios depending on the test setup.
Keywords: automotive; usability; driving simulation; evaluation; virtual reality
Stripe-Cache: An Efficient Cache Scheme for Building Multimedia Oriented RAID System BIBAFull-Text 1130-1139
  Qinqi Wei; Changsheng Xie; Xu Li
The design of the underlying storage subsystems for multimedia applications faces significant challenges for capability Ahigh I/O performance and availability requirements. A RAID system is defined as a storage system that distributes data redundantly across array of disks and can provide high throughput as well as higher availability. In this paper, we present a novel cache scheme (for short Stripe-cache) for building a multimedia oriented RAID system. This efficient stripe-cache has the following innovations: (1) Hierarchy architecture with different block structure according to the underlying data layout that exploits temporal locality and spatial locality (2) Timing-transfer and replacing scheme forwardly move data block in cache for special efficiency. We built up the multimedia oriented RAID system as a device driver module upon the X86-Linux platform with the stripe-cache. Evaluation results show that the system can offer much higher I/O performance in handling multimedia applications than lots of conventional storage systems.
DiFac: Digital Factory for Human Oriented Production System BIBAKFull-Text 1140-1149
  Marco Sacco; Claudia Redaelli; Carmen Constantinescu; Glyn Lawson; Mirabelle D'Cruz; Menelaos Pappas
DiFac is an IST research project (FP6-2005-IST-5-035079) funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Programme priority called "Collaborative Working Environment". The project aims to develop an innovative Collaborative Manufacturing Environment (CME) for the next generation of Digital Factory in order to support the competitiveness of SMEs. A digital factory represents a persistent hybrid community where a rich virtualised environment representing a variety of factory activities will facilitate the sharing of factory resources, manufacturing information and knowledge, and help the simulation of collaborative design, planning, production and management among different participants and departments. The DiFac CME will be used as a framework to support group work in an immersive and interactive way for three manufacturing activities: product development; factory design and analysis; and training of workers. Furthermore it will provide support for data analysis, visualization, advanced interaction and presence within the VE, ergonomics analysis and collaborative decision-making.
Keywords: Digital Factory; Ergonomics; Presence; Collaboration; Virtual Reality
INT-MANUS: Interactive Production Control in a Distributed Environment BIBAKFull-Text 1150-1159
  Thomas Schlegel; Aravind Srinivasan; Maxim Foursa; Manfred Bogen; Rejin Narayanan; David d'Angelo; Géza Haidegger; Istvan Mezgar; Joseph Canou; Damien Sallé; Fabrizio Meo; Jon Agirre Ibarbia; Anja Herrmann Praturlon
The European research project INT-MANUS embedded in the I*PROMS European network of excellence addresses the increasing demand for flexibility and adaptivity, which is summarized by rapid reconfigurations of complete factories as well as related aspects in Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Software, and Production Systems. The project's main goal is to develop a new technology for the production plants of the future, the Smart Connected Control Platform (SCCP). This platform allows controlling a factory with the help of an open distributed learning agent platform that integrates machines, robots, and human personnel.
Keywords: Production Service Bus (PSB); Smart-Connected-Control Platform (SCCP); Mobile Control System; real-time; Advanced Maintenance; Augmented Reality; Virtual Reality; Knowledge Repository; tracking system
3D Modeling and Design Supported Via Interscopic Interaction Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 1160-1169
  Frank Steinicke; Timo Ropinski; Gerd Bruder; Klaus Hinrichs
3D modeling applications are widely used in many application domains ranging from CAD to industrial or graphics design. Desktop environments have proven to be a powerful user interface for such tasks. However, the raising complexity of 3D dataset exceeds the possibilities provided by traditional devices or two-dimensional display. Thus, more natural and intuitive interfaces are required. But in order to get the users' acceptance technology-driven solutions that require inconvenient instrumentation, e.g., stereo glasses or tracked gloves, should be avoided. Autostereoscopic display environments in combination with 3D desktop devices enable users to experience virtual environments more immersive without annoying devices. In this paper we introduce interaction strategies with special consideration of the requirements of 3D modelers. We propose an interscopic display environment with implicated user interface strategies that allow displaying and interacting with both mono-, e.g., 2D elements, and stereoscopic content, which is beneficial for the 3D environment, which has to be manipulated. These concepts are discussed with special consideration of the requirements of 3D modeler and designers.
Keywords: HCI; autostereoscopic displays; 3D user interfaces; interscopic interaction techniques; 3D modeling and design
Capturing User Interface Events with Aspects BIBAKFull-Text 1170-1179
  Yonglei Tao
User interface events, resulting from the normal operations of a window-based application, provide crucial information for usability evaluation. Since user interface events are extremely voluminous and rich in detail, automated capture tools are required. With the intent to support usability evaluation in early development phases, such a tool must meet two basic criteria: acquiring relevant usability information at the desirable level of abstraction and adaptable to continuous changes in the user interface. Here, we propose an aspect-oriented approach to capturing user interface events. As the user interacts with an application through its user interface, user interface events occur in various components across the application. Aspects allow capturing select user interface events in a self-contained fashion without imposing undesirable constraints on the target application. We demonstrate in this paper that our approach is a suitable one for early usability evaluation.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Automatic Tools; Aspect-Oriented Programming
Research of Distributed Data Mining Association Rules Model Based on Similarity BIBAFull-Text 1180-1189
  Shengjun Xue; Zhengqiu Lu
With the rapid development of social information, the application of distributed database system is increasing. Distributed data mining will play an important role in data mining, because distributed database system is different from centralized database system. We need to develop special algorithm for data mining on distributed database. Although current algorithms of association rules based on apriori have been optimized to a certain extend, we still have more work to do to increase its efficiency. This paper analyzes and introduces the algorithm for mining distributed association rules, and puts forward a new method for distributed data mining based on similarity which takes the heterogenous data source well into account. Finally the experiment also proves the increased veracity of this model.
Applications of Virtual Reality in Product Design Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 1190-1199
  Jilin Ye; Saurin Badiyani; Vinesh Raja; Thomas Schlegel
Product evaluation throughout various stages of a design process is crucial to the final product's success, and this may be a costly, time consuming and logistically complex process. Currently there are limited product design evaluation tools available to provide better support to the whole product design and development process. Virtual reality (VR) has matured to become useful technology to support efficient and effective product design and development applications. This paper reports an investigation on applying VR technologies to computer aided product evaluation. The research work has concentrated on: i) investigating the potential of emerging VR based technologies such as three dimensional (3D) haptic interaction and 3D stereoscopic viewing, ii) integrating and implementing these VR based technologies into a computer aided product evaluation application and iii) exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of these VR based technologies in comparison with traditional techniques used during the product design evaluation process.
Keywords: Product evaluation; Virtual reality technologies; Human computer interaction; Product design and development; Evaluation application
Performance Evaluation for Automatic Protection Switching in a CDMA-TDD Wireless Communication System BIBAFull-Text 1200-1209
  Li Zhang; Hiroyuki Okamura; Tadashi Dohi
The CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is classified into two mainstream technologies; CDMA2000 and CDMA-TDD (Code Division Multiple Access with Time Division Duplex mode). Specifically, in China, the CDMA-TDD mode has been used as the standard of 3G mobile network system. In this paper, we investigate the performance of automatic protection switching (APS) of CDMA-TDD wireless communication system, where APS is the familiar technology to guarantee highly reliable communication networks such as an asynchronous transfer mode network. We develop a stochastic model based on a continuous-time Markov chain for the CDMA-TDD wireless communication system with APS, and derive some related quantitative performance measures in terms of Quality of Service (QoS). Throughout numerical experiments, we examine how the design of APS and network affects the performance measures quantitatively.
A Routing Algorithm for Random Error Tolerance in Network-on-Chip BIBAKFull-Text 1210-1219
  Lei Zhang; Huawei Li; Xiaowei Li
In DSM and nanometer technology, there will present more and more new fault types, which are difficult to predict and avoid. Applying fault tolerant algorithms to achieve reliable on-chip communication is one of the most important issues of Network-on-Chip (NoC). This paper reviews the main on-chip fault tolerant communication algorithms and then proposes a new routing algorithm with end-to-end feedback. The average transmission latency, power consumption and reliability are compared with other techniques. As experiments show, the proposed algorithm has lower latency, lower power consumption compared with those of others, and it can provide high reliability.
Keywords: fault tolerance; reliability; Network-on-Chip; routing; error correcting; error detecting