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HCII Tables of Contents: 03-203-303-407-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-4

HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Interacting in Various Application Domains

Fullname:HCI International 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Interacting in Various Application Domains
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5613
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02582-2 (print), 978-3-642-02583-9 (online); hcibib: HCII09-4
Papers:83
Pages:777
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 4
    1. eLearning and Education
    2. Games and Entertainment
    3. Work, Collaboration and Business
    4. Advanced Applications

HCII 2009-07-19 Volume 4

eLearning and Education

Arab Children's Reading Preference for Different Online Fonts BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Asmaa Alsumait; Asma Al-Osaimi; Hadlaa AlFedaghi
E-learning education plays an important role in the educational process in the Arab region. There is more demand to provide Arab students with electronic resources for knowledge now than before. The readability of such electronic resources needs to be taken into consideration. Following design guidelines in the e-learning programs' design process improves both the reading performance and satisfaction. However, English script design guidelines cannot be directly applied to Arabic script mainly because of difference in the letters occupation and writing direction. Thus, this paper aimed to build a set of design guidelines for Arabic e-learning programs designed for seven-to-nine years old children. An electronic story is designed to achieve this goal. It is used to gather children's reading preferences, for example, font type/size combination, screen line length, and tutoring sound characters. Results indicated that Arab students preferred the use of Simplified Arabic with 14-point font size to ease and speed the reading process. Further, 2/3 screen line length helped children in reading faster. Finally, most of children preferred to listen to a female adult tutoring sound.
Keywords: Child-Computer Interfaces; E-Learning; Font Type/Size; Human-Computer Interaction; Information Interfaces and Presentation; Line Length; Tutoring Sound
Adaptation Decisions and Profiles Exchange among Open Learning Management Systems Based on Agent Negotiations and Machine Learning Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 12-20
  Silvia Baldiris; Ramón Fabregat; Carolina Mejía; Sergio Gómez
We have developed some projects [1,2] for addressing the heterogeneity problem in open learning management systems (LMS). In [3], an independent adaptation platform to support competences development through personalization is presented. Three user characteristics (competences profile, learning style, and accessing context) are modeled by means of analyzing user interaction data in a LMS. This process is supported by the assignment of independent adaptation tasks to different JADE intelligent agents. In this paper we introduce some negotiation strategies among those intelligent agents in order to: 1) select the best types of adaptation through collaborative tasks, and 2) generate standards and exchangeable user profiles based on the inferred user characteristics, describing the mechanisms to mobilize these profiles between different LMSs. These profiles support the generation of specifics learning designs for each particular user.
Keywords: competence development; adaptation; intelligent agents; adaptive hypermedia; machine learning
Accessing e-Learning Systems via Screen Reader: An Example BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini
The evolution of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the rapid growth of the Internet have impelled the pervasive diffusion of e-Learning systems. This is a great opportunity for visually-disabled people provided that both the interactive environment, created by the Learning Management Systems, and the Learning Objects, created by teachers, are properly designed and delivered. In this paper we investigate interaction of the blind user with an open source Virtual Learning Environment (Moodle) and discuss how the use of the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) suite may improve the experience of navigation via screen reader.
Keywords: e-Learning; accessibility; usability; blind; ARIA
Using Tablet PCs and Pen-Based Technologies to Support Engineering Education BIBAKFull-Text 31-38
  Ignacio Casas; Sergio F. Ochoa; Jaime Puente
Several experiences and results of the Tablet PC adoption have been reported, mainly in American universities. Although the benefits seem to be highly interesting, it is not clear if they are replicable in developing countries. In order to try to understand the impact of Tablet PCs on engineering education in Chile, the authors conducted several experiments at the two traditional Chilean universities. This paper reports the experiences and the obtained results, comparing them with those obtained in American universities.
Keywords: Tablet PCs; Pen-based Technologies; Engineering Education; Mobile Computing
Optimal Affective Conditions for Subconscious Learning in a 3D Intelligent Tutoring System BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Pierre Chalfoun; Claude Frasson
In this paper we take a closer and in-depth look at initial results obtained from a previous novel experiment conducted with a 3D subliminal teaching Intelligent Tutoring System. Subliminal priming is a technique used to project information to a learner outside of his perceptual field. Initial results showed great promise by illustrating the positive impact of the subliminal module on the overall emotional state of the learners as well as their learning performances. Indeed, since emotion monitoring is critical in any learning context, we monitored the physiological reactions of the user while they learned and while they answered questions. We present a detailed and precise look at the optimal affective conditions that set the best learners apart. We will also explain a most surprising finding: the positive long term impact of subliminal priming on the entire learning process.
Keywords: optimal affective conditions; HCI; subconscious learning; 3D ITS
Computer-Based Learning to Improve Breast Cancer Detection Skills BIBAKFull-Text 49-57
  Yan Chen; Alastair G. Gale; Hazel J. Scott; Andrew Evans; Jonathan James
In breast cancer screening it is important both to improve and maintain cancer detection skills at their highest levels. The introduction of digital imaging enables computer-based learning to be undertaken outside breast screening centres using a range of different devices. The potential for providing computer-based interpretation training using low-cost devices is detailed. The results demonstrated that naive observers can be trained to recognise certain key breast cancer appearances using a low cost display monitor along with a range of HCI techniques.
Keywords: mammogram interpretation; training; eye movement; visualization; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
Virtual Classroom and Communicability: Empathy and Interaction for All BIBAKFull-Text 58-67
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra
We present the main empathy components in the design of interactive systems aimed at classroom and E-learning education. These components have a bidirectional relationship with communicability and usability. Each of them depicts an intersection of communication, semiotics, interface design, software engineering, usability engineering and human-computer interaction. Additionally, we present a table which can be used as a communicative quality guide. Its content is the result of 20 years of design and heuristic assessment of on-line and off-line interactive systems, mainly for Americans and European users.
Keywords: Education; Virtual Classroom; Hypermedia; Communicability; Design; Information; Empathy; Interaction; Accessibility
Communicability for Virtual Learning: Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 68-77
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Miguel Cipolla-Ficarra; Pablo M. Vera
An assessment is made of the work of design from the perspective of communicability and usability in multimedia aimed at E-learning, mainly through the off-line interactive systems (commercials) and on-line (open software). The method used is accompanied by a series of heuristic results along time to stress the validity or not of some of the design components. Besides, a novel strategy of organizing the textual content is presented for teenagers and the young: the truncated inverted pyramid. Finally, those quality attributes are mentioned that are related to the dynamic and static means, at the moment of heuristically assessing the communicability of a hypermedia system which has as its main goal college education.
Keywords: Virtual Learning; Evaluation; Content; User-Centered Design; Open Software
Attention and Motivation in Hypermedia Systems BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Miguel Cipolla-Ficarra
We present the results of a heuristic analysis of a set of multimedia off-line systems aimed at boosting the mental skills of the users through reflexes, maths, etc. To this purpose two metrics have been created to assess the motivation of the users and the degree of help implicit in the multimedia system. The metrics are based on a group of primitives aiming at increasing the communicability of commercial multimedia systems and targeted to the public at large, regardless of age and previous experience in the use of computers.
Keywords: Attention; Motivation; Hypermedia; Design; Navigation; Human-Computer Interaction; Help
A Web-Based, Interactive Annotation Editor for the eCampus Development Environment for SCORM Compliant E-Learning Modules BIBAKFull-Text 88-93
  Benedikt Deicke; Jan-Torsten Milde; Hans-Martin Pohl
The eCampus development environment was created in an interdisciplinary project at the University of Applied Sciences Fulda. Today it is a fully web-based application for the easy creation of E-Learning modules complying the SCORM standard. The webbased, interactive annotation editor for the eCampus development environment is used to both automatically and manually annotate existing OpenOffice documents in order to transform them into E-Learning modules. The editor is build using Open Source software and frameworks such as Ruby on Rails.
Keywords: E-Learning; Web; SCORM; eCampus; OpenOffice; Ruby; Ruby on Rails; JavaScript; user friendly; annotation; transformation
An Innovative Way of Understanding Learning Processes: Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 94-100
  Berrin Dogusoy; Kursat Cagiltay
This paper aims to present findings on the use of eye-tracking technology as a new approach from an educational perspective. The studies in this paper on relationship between learning and eye-movements have focused on concept-map formation, learning from multimedia materials, designing materials with different cognitive strategies, multimodal comprehension of language and graphics with and without annotation, computer games and cognitive style effects of computer based interfaces and hypertext environment. The results of the Middle East Technical University (METU) Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research group's eye-tracking based research studies presented and discussed how this approach helps educators to better understand learning processes of humans. Understanding and using this innovative approach is important for both educators and researchers in terms of comprehending learning processes deeply.
Keywords: Eye-tracking; web based learning processes; concept maps; computer games; learning from multimedia
A Set of Rules and Strategies for UNSAM Virtual Campus BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Jorge Fernández Niello; Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Mario Greco; Rodolfo Fernández-Ziegler; Silvia Bernatené; Maria Villarreal
We present a first set of strategies for the establishment of a virtual campus. Additionally, a set of pedagogic and communicative rules is established with the purpose of achieving a better diffusion of the university contents among the students. These rules are constantly updated according to the teaching supply and demand, and the requirements of the teachers and the students. Additionally the different components of interactive education are present as well as their main functions in the virtual campus.
Keywords: E-learning; Campus Virtual; Pedagogy; Design; Hypermedia; Moodle; Software; Hardware
HCI Professional Involvement in k-12 Education: On Target or Missing the Mark? BIBAKFull-Text 111-118
  Martin Jelin; Adrian Sudol; Jeffrey Damon; Douglas McCadden; David Brown
Abstract. The state of learning across geographic, socioeconomic, age, and gender boundaries can be enhanced greatly by Human-Computer Information (HCI) infusion into blended learning [1][2][3] or Course Management System (CMS) software [4][3][5]. The major thrust of this paper is to examine problematic issues examined in popular software such as Moodle™ in which the HCI community could be beneficial. By regarding the ultimate students' goal, i.e. grades, and the desirable benefit of course material understanding, one can develop an understanding of what CMS software needs and CMS software users expect on the high school level.
Keywords: blended learning; e-learning; Course Management System (CMS); Virtual Leaning Environment (VLE); Human-Computer Interaction (HCI); k-12 Education; magnet schools
A Language Learning System Utilizing RFID Technology for Total Physical Response Activities BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Harumi Kashiwagi; Yan Xue; Yi Sun; Min Kang; Kazuhiro Ohtsuki
In this paper, we present a method of integrating a CALL system with RFID tags in a classroom in order to provide the basic support for listening activities based on the concept of Total Physical Response (TPR) Approach. We designed and developed a prototype system with the function of providing corrective feedback. The prototype system has the following three features: (1) Real objects are used as the options for responding to audio questions. (2) A considerable amount of attribute information is used to increase the variation in the questions. (3) The system has a function of providing error messages and additional questions, depending on the degree of a learner's mistakes. Results from the experiment suggest that integrating real objects into the learning system by using RFID tags has a potential impact on the language learners.
Keywords: RFID; Language learning; TPR; Corrective feedback; Interaction
Promoting Metacognition in Immersive Cultural Learning Environments BIBAKFull-Text 129-139
  H. Chad Lane
Metacognition, defined as active control over cognitive processes during learning, is a critical component in the development of intercultural competence. Progression through stages of intercultural development requires self-assessment, self-monitoring, predictive, planning, and reflection skills. Modern virtual learning environments now provide a level of immersion that enable meaningful practice of cultural skills, both in terms of visual and experiential fidelity. This paper discusses their potential role in intercultural training, and the use of intelligent tutoring and experience manipulation techniques to support metacognitive and intercultural development. Techniques for adapting the behaviors of virtual humans to promote cultural learning are discussed along with the role of explicit feedback. The paper concludes with several suggestions for future research, including the use of existing intercultural development metrics for evaluating learning in immersive environments and on the balance between implicit and explicit feedback to establish optimal conditions for acquiring intercultural competence.
Keywords: intercultural competence; metacognition; intelligent tutoring systems; immersive learning environments; experience manipulation
The Application of the Flexilevel Approach for the Assessment of Computer Science Undergraduates BIBAKFull-Text 140-148
  Mariana Lilley; Andrew Pyper
This paper reports on the use of the flexilevel approach for the formative assessment of Computer Science undergraduates. A computerized version of the flexilevel was designed and developed, and its scores were compared with those of a traditional computer-based test. The results showed that the flexilevel and traditional scores were highly and significantly correlated (p<0.01). Findings from this study suggest that the flexilevel approach is a viable adaptive testing strategy, and may be a good candidate for smaller applications where IRT-based CATs may be too demanding in terms of resources.
Keywords: e-assessment; flexilevel; adaptive testing strategies
Development of Ubiquitous On-Demand Study Support Environment for Nursing Students BIBAKFull-Text 149-155
  Yukie Majima; Yumiko Nakamura; Yasuko Maekawa; Yoichiro So
We were selected to work with "Development of e-Learning Program to help enhance human resource ability based on needs," which is a government supported program of fiscal year 2005 to address modern education needs (Modern GP). The program has therefore been underway since 2005. The objectives of the program are to use e-Learning to further improve education and teaching practices qualitatively for nursing education, to supply high-level nursing practice capabilities, and provide a new environment in which students can study independently in an efficient manner. The main targets to achieve the program goals are: i) to produce e-Learning training materials that include examples of nursing to use for the study of nursing practice and support students' acquisition of problem-solving abilities during nursing operations; and ii) to construct an environment to support ubiquitous on-demand studies in which students can study for themselves easily, at any time, and anywhere on campus or on the actual practice site using this e-Learning methodology. This paper presents a report of an actual lecture class conducted in using such training materials.
Keywords: Education of nursing; Nursing practice ability; E-learning; Ubiquitous on-demand study
The Effects of Prior Knowledge on the Use of Adaptive Hypermedia Learning Systems BIBAKFull-Text 156-165
  Freddy Mampadi; Sherry Y. Chen; Gheorghita Ghinea
Prior knowledge and cognitive styles are considered important determinants in adaptive hypermedia learning systems (AHLSs) as they influence how learners select information to put into memory. However, there is a need to investigate how they influence learner performance and perceptions prior to comparing them and establishing if they can be used together to maximise learning in AHLSs. To this end, this study investigated the effects of prior knowledge on the use of AHLSs to set the foundation for the comparison. 60 students participated in this study. The results showed that, in general, adapting to prior knowledge improves learner performance and perceptions, especially for users with low prior knowledge. However, the results also indicated that the relative improvement in learner performance is significantly higher than that of perceptions when using the AHLS. The implications of the design of AHLSs are discussed by the paper.
Keywords: Learning performance; Perceptions; Novice; Experts; Evaluation; Cognitive styles; Learning styles
Supporting Learners in Adaptive Learning Environments through the Enhancement of the Student Model BIBAKFull-Text 166-175
  Luca Mazzola; Riccardo Mazza
This positional paper presents our research aimed at finding some possible research directions towards the enhancement of the use of open student models in the field of Technology Enhanced Learning and Adaptive Systems. Starting from the historical evolution of the learner model, we will describe some possible uses of learner models and propose some possible directions of enhancement. We will present 6 possible directions of research, and 11 dimensions on analysis. The 6 directions have been evaluated against the dimensions, and tentative ranking has been proposed. The result of this analysis will guide the work on open learner models which will be undertaken in the context of the European Union funded project GRAPPLE [1] aimed at building an infrastructure for adaptive learning systems that will adopt the strategy of opening learner models to the course learners and instructors.
Keywords: Technology Enhanced Learning; independent Open Learner Model; Human Computer Interaction; adaptation
The Concept of IMPRESSION: An Interactive Instruction System and Its Practice for Real-Time Distance Lessons between U.S. and Japan BIBAKFull-Text 176-185
  Takashi Mitsuishi; Fumiko Konno; Yuki Higuchi; Kentaro Go
In order to perform flexible and effective lesson, we proposed "Double Loop Instructional Design Process Model" and developed an interactive instruction system; IMPRESSION based on the proposed model. In this paper, we show the concept of IMPRESSION and also describe the real-time distance lessons we conducted continuously in the first semester of 2007 with IMPRESSION and Skype by connecting between Mountain View, CA, U.S. and Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan via the Internet. As a result of these lessons, we confirmed that although we had a little time lag and some QoS problems of video stream caused by narrow bandwidth and very long distance, we could perform flexible and effective real-time distance lessons by using IMPRESSION and a videoconference system like ordinary lessons such as chalk and talk lessons in a classroom. However, we also found some points to be improved on for continuous use of IMPRESSION.
Keywords: real-time distance lesson; interactive electronic whiteboard system; multimedia materials; instructional design process model
Improving Children's Writing Ability BIBAKFull-Text 186-195
  Joana Pereira; Luís Carriço; Carlos Duarte
This paper presents IWA, a platform to aid children when learning how to write. The proposed system offers both tutor and child a certain degree of autonomy. IWA provides tutor and child with different interfaces. The features available to the tutor allow the definition and configuration of repetition exercises comprising letters, numerals and freeform gestures. The child interface supports the child in the task of solving those exercises. The system has been evaluated in two sessions with children. From the evaluation results and the feedback provided by a school teacher we conclude this to be a very promising system towards optimizing the repetition process required for perfecting hand-writing.
Keywords: Hand-writing; Children; Education; Multimedia; Evaluation
From Paper to Module -- An Integrated Environment for Generating SCORM Compliant Moodle Courses Out of Text and Multimedia Elements BIBAKFull-Text 196-203
  Hans-Martin Pohl; Benedikt Deicke; Jan-Torsten Milde
ECampus is a project spanning all departments at the University of Fulda. It has been started to create a uniform learning environment at the university. The objective is to research and develop a user-friendly easy-to-use editor to generate SCORM 2004 conform E-Learning modules. This editor is based on Open Source software and new technologies such as XSL transformations and the Google web toolkit. The whole system is provided as a web application and embedded within the E-Learning environment of the university. Some E-Learning modules can be developed with the system immediately. These modules are now being used during the lessons with great success.
Keywords: SCORM 2004; XSLT; transformation; creation of content; E-Learning; modules; lesson; user friendly; style sheet; LOM; moodle; LMS
Development of a Simulator of Abacus: Ancient Analog Calculator on a Mobile Phone as a Teaching Material BIBAKFull-Text 204-208
  Kenta Saito; Yuki Makita; Vu Quang; Hitoshi Sasaki
Portable electric devices such as mobile phones and video game consoles are becoming high performance and they are becoming ubiquitous. And a lot of people are in situations that allow for use of these applications. On one hand, it is useful for students to study out of class if they can use teaching materials at school with a portable device. And Japanese people had widely been using an abacus until the electronic digital calculator appeared recently. Even today, the abacus is used to teach math in Japanese primary schools teaching. We are developing a simulator of abacus as one of the computerizations of the teaching materials in this research.
Keywords: abacus; android; education; teaching material; mobile phone
A Proposal for a Framework for an e-Alumni Program Using SNS BIBAKFull-Text 209-216
  Hiroshi Sano
In Japan, there has been some argument that many academic programs today are often inadequate from the viewpoint of practical education. However, it is difficult for universities to secure enough human resources to satisfy their students' needs with sufficient service. TUFS, or Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, also faces the same problem as other universities do in Japan. One proposed idea to help solve this problem is to exploit the collective intelligence of alumni who have considerable expertise and experience in the real world. This paper introduces TUFS's new development of a SNS application on academic education for the purpose of improving its services. A framework of the knowledge management of participants' collective intelligence is also suggested here. This attempt proposes a general framework of SNS application on practical education of universities.
Keywords: SNS; Implicit knowledge; Education
Supporting End-User Development of Personalized Mobile Learning Tools BIBAKFull-Text 217-225
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
Mobile devices present great features for the support of pervasive learning and content personalization. This paper presents a framework which takes advantage of these features and supports end-users while creating their customized tools for their students. Additionally, the framework comprises means for teachers to include persuasive and motivational mechanisms and hints, promoting student engagement while pursuing their learning activities. We describe the framework's architecture, its features, including the supporting guidelines and development process, and detail some of the already developed material and the results that emerged during initial trials and case studies, also stressing their contributions to the field of m-learning.
Keywords: Mobile devices; personalization; multimedia content
Didactic Models as Design Representations BIBAKFull-Text 226-235
  Chris Stary
The contribution focuses on the role of didactic knowledge when designing interactive e-learning environments. Several representational approaches for the preparation of domain content and learning support have been developed. However, for the context-sensitive design of interactive artifacts not only the representation of particular aspects of learning is essential, but rather the propagation of didactic knowledge to functional services and interaction facilities. Such an endeavor requires the explicit representation of relationships between structure and behavior elements. Model-driven design supports the distinctive representation of multiple perspectives while allowing the mutually tuned refinement of design elements. In this paper a model-based approach for self-organized e-learning is presented. It supports the design of learner-centered knowledge acquisition by specifying user roles and learning tasks. We discuss the required enrichments of traditional model-based design approaches, due to the consistent tuning of high-level design elements, and the coherent propagation of task and user information to interaction services.
Keywords: model-based design; e-learning; learning management; coherence; consistency; integrated specification
Interactive Learning Panels BIBAKFull-Text 236-245
  Ricardo Tesoriero; Habib Fardoun; José A. Gallud; María Dolores Lozano; Victor M. Ruiz Penichet
New sensing technologies, as RFID readers, are being incorporated into mobile devices to provide users with new interaction experiences. And, the combinations of these new technologies open up new challenging application scenarios. One of the areas that could exploit this potential is the design of interactive solutions for context-aware applications applied to learning environments. This article describes an m-learning environment that is enriched with new interaction features that are, or may, be provided by actual or future mobile device technologies. The proposed gesture based interface allows users to relate ideas and concepts through the improvement of traditional methods. This environment is based on the reuse of existent physical resources, such as the learning panels used in school classes. For instance maps, historical posters, timelines, and so on. These panels are improved with the low cost and widely used RFID technology that enables students to interact with them through mobile devices, encouraging the interest the students applying the constructivist education theory.
Keywords: HCI; RFID technology; mobile devices; context awareness; collaborative environment; m-learning; social software
WebELS: A Content-Centered E-Learning Platform for Postgraduate Education in Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 246-255
  Haruki Ueno; Zheng He; Jingxia Yue
This paper proposes a general purpose e-Learning platform WebELS to support higher education in engineering and science especially for PhD education. WebELS consists of three major modules, i.e., Learning for self-learning, Meeting for Internet-based on-line meeting, and Lecture for Internet-based distance lecture, as an "all-in-one" system. Using an easy-to-use authentication interface non-IT users can edit their own e-Learning contents on their personal computer as a series of slides from PPT, pdf, image and video data and upload to the WebELS server for e-Learning. Audio and cursor can be recorded onto each slide and be play-backed in a synchronized manner for helping understanding. WebELS is a Java-based server system and functioning in a low-speed Internet environment. The WebELS software is available as an open source system and is used in universities and industry in Japan and Asian countries.
Keywords: e-Learning; Internet; higher education; postgraduate education; engineering education; software platform; open source; Internet meeting; distance lecture
A Pen-Based Teaching System for Children and Its Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 256-265
  Danli Wang; Tingting Ying; Jinquan Xiong; Hongan Wang; Guozhong Dai
The computer has become more and more important in children' life and learning. Various issues exist in the application of multimedia edutainment software and courseware. Therefore, we analyze the current situation and requirement of preschool education software, and present the development of pen-based teaching system for children. Lecturing courseware, annotation, adding contents have been provided, which make targeted classroom teaching convenient, and children interactive courseware function has also been provided to arouse their learning initiative and enthusiasm. After analyzing the feedback, we design and develop the improved version of the system, and evaluate the two versions through experiments. Finally, we propose some suggestions for its modification.
Keywords: pen-based interaction; children; teaching system; usability
Development of a Visualised Sound Simulation Environment: An e-Approach to a Constructivist Way of Learning BIBAKFull-Text 266-275
  Jingjing Zhang; Beau Lotto; Ilias Bergstrom; Lefkothea Andreou; Youzou Miyadera; Setsuo Yokoyama
In this paper, the design and implementation of a visualised sound simulation environment is presented as an initial step to further laboratory experimentation. Preliminary laboratory experiments showed a positive learning curve in human auditory perception. Learning occurred when new information was processed with relevant existing knowledge in this simulation environment. While the work towards the truth of the empirical hypothesis is still under discussion, this project has been expanded beyond the scope that was originally envisaged and the developed environment showed its potential to be adopted on mobile devices for many educational purposes. This initiative not only brings scientists and educators together, but it is also hoped that it represents a possible e-approach to a constructivist way of learning.
Keywords: visualisation; simulation; constructivist; learning; mobile; visual; auditory

Games and Entertainment

Causal Links of Presence BIBAKFull-Text 279-286
  Donghun Chung; Chae-Hwan Kim
The purpose of this paper is to examine antecedent variables and an outcome variable of presence. Presence has been used to explain the extent to which technology users are immersed and involved in a technology-created experience. In video gaming, gamers frequently don't distinguish between reality and the game world, and they identify characters with themselves. This comes from a high level of presence. So what makes technology users have greater presence? The present study proposes a causal model which includes attitude and empathy as antecedent variables that lead to a degree of presence and then para-social interaction as an outcome of presence level. The results showed that path analysis of the model was successfully supported.
Keywords: Presence; Attitude; Empathy; Para-Social Interaction; Wii
Games Design Principles for Improving Social Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 287-295
  Ines Di Loreto
Most young people (at least in countries were social communication technologies are established from a long run) carry mobile devices, surf the Internet and download music. They are always connected and live in a world where the distinction between virtual and real fade. The design of new interfaces becomes, in this context, a complex activity that involves a series of methodological problems. To one side designers have to create interfaces using basic HCI principles, on the other side they have to merge them with others ICT principles able to support social aspects, bearing in mind that they are addressing the above described generation of younger. Is our opinion that designers can find useful suggestion in game design strategies. Looking at games interface design choices, in fact, can help software engineers to improve the usability of other types of -- more conventional -- applications. In order to demonstrate this we will compare two social web applications: the new Facebook website and a French online game, Hordes.
Keywords: Game Design; HCI; Social Interaction
A Multiple-Level 3D-LEGO Game in Augmented Reality for Improving Spatial Ability BIBAKFull-Text 296-303
  Trien V. Do; Jong-Weon Lee
Inspired by the real LEGO game, an Augmented Reality 3D LEGO game is introduced. With multiple levels, the game provides a tool to improve spatial ability for a wide range of ages. Through the game, users can practice many spatial skills such as analyzing a 3D model's structure, figuring out what to do to make a primitive geometry become a component of a 3D model, assembling components to create a complex model. The users mainly use their hands controlling physical makers to play the game. A user study was also carried out to evaluate the game and to compare it with the real LEGO game. The game is believed to be a useful and interesting tool to enhance not only human's spatial ability but also human's creation in 3D reconstruction.
Keywords: LEGO; Augmented Reality; Human Computer Interaction; Spatial ability; Serious Game
An Online Survey System on Computer Game Enjoyment and Personality BIBAKFull-Text 304-314
  Xiaowen Fang; Susy S. Chan; Chitra Nair
This paper discusses the development of an online survey instrument to measure the game enjoyment and player characteristics like age, gender and personality traits. A research framework of game play is proposed based on a review of prior research on computer game enjoyment, game characteristics, personality theories, effects of computer game play, and technology acceptance model. The proposed framework suggests that an appropriate fit between characteristics of the player and gaming technology will result in greater enjoyment while social influence may moderate effects of the fit. The survey will allow the researcher to establish the fit profiles between player characteristics and game play.
Keywords: computer games; game play; personality; enjoyment
Playability Testing of Web-Based Sport Games with Older Children and Teenagers BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
  Xavier Ferré; Angélica de Antonio; Ricardo Imbert; Nelson Medinilla
Playability occupies a central role in videogame design. Heuristics may help for establishing the game concept, but some testing is essential for ensuring a wide acceptance in the target user population. The experience of designing and testing a set of web-based sport videogames is described, focusing on the heuristics employed and the testing approach. The results show that an emphasis on a simple set of game controls and the introduction of humorous elements has obtained a positive response from older children and teenagers.
Keywords: videogame design; playability heuristics; testing with older children and teenagers; sport web-based games; Olympic Games
Exploring the Elements and Design Criteria of Massively-Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 325-334
  Chun-Cheng Hsu; Elvis Chih-Hsien Chen
A great many people play online games and sales of online games are considerable, but research has further shown that a major reason behind the failure of games in the market is poor user interface design or usability, highlighting even more the importance of these issues in games design. This research uses surveys and focus groups to explore the factors influencing the usability and interface design of online games. First the definition and different types of game are discussed, and then the composition and features of online game interfaces analyzed. Second, a review is made of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research literature relating to design criteria for game interfaces. Finally, in discussion with experts, this study isolates the design criteria that should be emphasized when designing each key element of an online game interface.
Keywords: Massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG); interface design; elements of game interfaces
Healthcare Game Design: Behavioral Modeling of Serious Gaming Design for Children with Chronic Diseases BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Hadi Kharrazi; Anthony Faiola; Joseph Defazio
This article introduces the design principles of serious games for chronic patients based on behavioral models. First, key features of the targeted chronic condition (Diabetes) are explained. Then, the role of psychological behavioral models in the management of chronic conditions is covered. After a short review of the existing health focused games, two recent health games that are developed based on behavioral models are overviewed in more detail. Furthermore, design principles and usability issues regarding the creation of these health games are discussed. Finally, the authors conclude that designing healthcare games based on behavioral models can increase the usability of the game in order to improve the effectiveness of the game's desired healthcare outcomes.
Keywords: Serious Gaming; Diabetes; Hypoglycemia; Behavioral Modeling; Patient Empowerment; Compliance to Treatment; Adolescent Diabetic Drivers
Analyzing Human Behaviors in an Interactive Art Installation BIBAKFull-Text 345-352
  Takashi Kiriyama; Masahiko Sato
Arithmetik Garden is an interactive art installation designed to perform arithmetic operations by using the body. Analysis of data collected during its exhibitions shows that viewers behave differently than optimal solutions generated by computer. There is also an indication that viewer's emotional changes can be detected by monitoring interactions.
Keywords: Interaction; behavior; emotion
The Effects of Quest Types and Gaming Motivations on Players' Knowledge Acquisitions in an Online Role-Playing Game Environment BIBAKFull-Text 353-358
  Jiunde Lee; Chih-Yi Chao
The study explores how the design of quest types and different players' gaming motivations might affect knowledge acquisitions in an online role-playing game environment. An experiment was conducted to collect data. The results showed that "immersion motivation" had the most significant influence on knowledge acquisitions. The bounty-collection quest significantly affected the procedure knowledge of subjects with high immersion motivation, whereas the fed express quest affected declarative knowledge of subjects with high immersion motivation.
Keywords: Online Role-Playing Games; Quest Types; Gaming Motivations; Declarative Knowledge; Procedural Knowledge
Self-movement Feeling Generation in Sports Watching with Screen Movement via Pan-Tilt Steerable Projector BIBAKFull-Text 359-367
  Hiroshi Noguchi; Kei Yoshinaka; Taketoshi Mori; Tomomasa Sato
This paper describes system displays video frame of sports broadcasting with screen movement by an active projector. Since the screen moves as the camera operator controls their camera in the stadium by automatic detection of background movement from video frames, the watchers are force to move their heads in home environment. The head movement helps the watchers to feel self-movement as if they ware located in the stadium. The experiments demonstrate that the head movement when the watchers track the moving screen with their eyes and heads generates sense of self-movement and active feeling about players.
Keywords: Active Projector; Sense of Self-Movement; Screen Movement; Sports Watching
Design of Interactive Emotional Sound Edutainment System BIBAKFull-Text 368-377
  Myunjin Park; Kyujung Kim
This paper introduces an emotional sound edutainment system for children to learn basic musical composition called as musical education sound interactive game (MESIG) employing a new type of user interface. Developed interactive game interface provides children to enjoy the game, so that they learn how to compose musical notes with touching the tangible objectives instead of using ordinary input devices. This way on experiencing and playing the computer games has been evolved to use the body and hands' movement so as to interact with the game in virtual environment, which brings out interest for the children and their learning capability becomes more effectively improved. This system introduced in this paper requires a single camera and carries out skin color model tracking function to detect hand gesture as input device for playing the game. This computer vision technique based on image processing makes possible to operate an expressive interactive musical education system. To exploit the effectiveness, evaluation and analysis works are accomplished upon the realization of sound edutainment game.
Keywords: Interactive games; edutainment; skin color model; computer vision
Understanding Online Game Addiction: Connection between Presence and Flow BIBAKFull-Text 378-386
  SungBok Park; Ha Sung Hwang
Addictive behavior in online gaming has been an important research topic since it has been one of the most popular activities in entertaining for younger people in Korea. However, despite the growing popularity of online games, empirical studies about the effects of immersion to the online game behavior are relatively rare. By applying two psychological concepts --presence and flow-the present study investigates how different types of immersion affect on online game addiction. Results show that both presence and flow play significant roles in online game addiction, however, flow mediates the relationship between presence and online game addiction. Based on these findings, implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Keywords: Presence; Flow; Online Game; Addiction; Virtual Reality
The Experience of Presence in 3D Web Environment: An Analysis of Korean Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 387-395
  SungBok Park; Ha Sung Hwang; Myungil Choi
Second Life is a 3D virtual web environment that has aspects of visualization and sense of presence, as well as text and audio interaction. The whole research aims to explore the sense of presence experienced by online users in Korean Second Life assessing with what ways online users who engage in Korean Second Life perceive a sense of presence. This research leads us to understanding possible factors creating the sense of presence in Korean Second Life as well as in 3D web environments of the near future. Instead of providing specific response from research subjects who have experienced Second Life, this paper presents the theoretical backgrounds to speculate on Second Life constructs and features for enhancing users' feeling of presence.
Keywords: Presence; 3D Web environment; Second Life; Virtual place; Avatar; Emoticons
Influence of Real-World Ten-Pin Bowling Experience on Performance during First-Time Nintendo Wii Bowling Practice BIBAKFull-Text 396-405
  Kirsten A. Peters
In order to understand if proficiency in a real-world activity influences performance or movement characteristics in a simulation of that activity, six expert real-world ten-pin bowlers, ten novice real-world ten-pin bowlers and eight expert Wii bowlers completed 3 games of Nintendo Wii Sports' bowling game. Two values were recorded for each throw: the (score) and the total range of motion (ROM) for the participant's throwing arm (using two-dimensional motion capture). Averages across the first five trials were compared to averages across the last five trials. From the first five to last five trials, there were significant increases in both the mean score and mean ROM values, when collapsing data across experience level. While there was a significant main effect of experience level on the overall ROM values, differences between each experience group's ROM values were not detected. A larger sample size is necessary to confirm if real-world ten-pin bowling experience influences score and ROM during first-time Wii bowling.
Keywords: Motor program; motor learning; motion capture; gesture-based interaction; video games; transfer of skill; real-world vs. simulation
Emotionally Adapted Games -- An Example of a First Person Shooter BIBAKFull-Text 406-415
  Timo Saari; Marko Turpeinen; Kai Kuikkaniemi; Ilkka Kosunen; Niklas Ravaja
This paper discusses a specific customization technology -- Psychological Customization -- which enables the customization of information presented on a computer-based system in real-time and its application to manipulating emotions when playing computer games. The possibilities of customizing different elements of games to manipulate emotions are presented and a definition of emotionally adaptive games is given. A psychophysiologically adaptive game is discussed as an example of emotionally adapted games.
Keywords: Customization; adaptive systems; psychological effects; emotion; games; emotionally adapted games; psychophysiological measurement; Psychological Customization
DiamondTheater: A System for Reproducing Theater and Supporting Creative Activities BIBAKFull-Text 416-425
  Tatsushi Takeuchi; Koichiro Watanabe; Tomoo Inoue; Ken-ichi Okada
This paper describes a system called DiamondTheater that supports creative activities in theater using a tabletop tangible interface. This system is used to aid in the planning of certain aspects of theater production, such as actor positioning, and sound and lighting cues. Without having some considerable experience in production, it is difficult to create a mental picture of an actual production. Thus, a miniature theatrical stage is reproduced on the tabletop surface to facilitate the user's creation of such a picture and the sharing of ideas. Users collaboratively construct a stage by placing small dolls to represent actors and many kinds of miniature stage sets. In addition, the system allows users to reproduce other aspects of theater production such as sound and lighting. We performed a user study of this system and demonstrated that DiamondTheater appears to effectively assist the user's activity in theater production design.
Keywords: collaborative work; theater; tabletop tangible interfaces

Work, Collaboration and Business

New Health Information Systems (HIS) Quality-in-Use Model Based on the GQM Approach and HCI Principles BIBAKFull-Text 429-438
  Reem Al-Nanih; Hana Al-Nuaim; Olga Ormandjieva
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is concerned with the design, evaluation, and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use. HCI is important in Health Information Systems (HIS), because misunderstandings arising because of poorly designed interfaces may lead to medical errors. This paper proposes a Quality-in-Use Model for HIS user interfaces, which identifies HIS-specific quality-in-use goals based on HCI principles, such as Mental Model, Metaphor, Visibility, Affordance, and Feedback. The Goal Question Metric (GQM) method was applied to build the new quality-in-use model applicable to most HIS systems. The resulting quality model is tailored for use in the medical field and reflects the values and viewpoints of the various user groups affected (e.g. doctors and nurses). Its qualitative and quantitative feedback can play a constructive and instructive role in medical institutions such as hospitals, and improve user productivity, satisfaction, and performance.
Keywords: Health Information System (HIS); Human Computer Interaction (HCI); Goal Question Metrics (GQM); Quality-in-Use
An Information Visualization Approach to Hospital Shifts Scheduling BIBAKFull-Text 439-447
  Carmelo Ardito; Paolo Buono; Maria Francesca Costabile; Rosa Lanzilotti; Adalberto Lafcadio Simeone
Scheduling staff shift work in a hospital ward is a well-known problem in the operation research field but, as such, it is very often studied from the algorithmic point of view and seldom from the human-computer interaction perspective. In most cases, the automatic solutions that operations research may provide do not satisfy the involved people. After discussing the inconveniences of an automatic approach with physicians, we have designed a staff scheduling system that combines an expert system with an information visualization (IV) system; in this way the schedule generated by the expert system is presented through the IV system to the schedule manager, who can modify the results if last minute changes are necessary, by directly manipulating the visualized data and obtaining immediate feedback about the changes made.
Keywords: Information Visualization; Shift Scheduling
Designed to Fit: Challenges of Interaction Design for Clothes Fitting Room Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 448-457
  Bo Begole; Takashi Matsumoto; Wei Zhang; Nicholas Yee; Juan Liu; Maurice Chu
This paper uncovers issues in the design of camera-based technologies to support retail shopping in a physical store, specifically clothes shopping. An emerging class of technology is targeting the enhancement of retail shopping, including the trying on of clothing. Designing such systems requires careful considerations of physical and electronic design, as well as concerns about user privacy. We explore the entire design cycle using a technology concept called the Responsive Mirror through its conception, prototyping and evaluation. The Responsive Mirror is an implicitly controlled video technology for clothes fitting rooms that allows a shopper to directly compare a currently worn garment with images from the previously worn garment. The orientation of images from past trials is matched to the shopper's pose as he moves. To explore the tension between privacy and publicity, the system also allows comparison to clothes that other people in the shoppers' social network are wearing. A user study elicited a number of design tradeoffs regarding privacy, adoption, benefits to shoppers and merchants and user behaviors in fitting rooms.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; pervasive; ambient intelligence; retail technologies; privacy; online social networks; fashion
Usability for Poll Workers: A Voting System Usability Test Protocol BIBAKFull-Text 458-467
  Dana Chisnell; Karen Bachmann; Sharon J. Laskowski; Svetlana Lowry
In this paper, we discuss our efforts to develop a repeatable test protocol for assessing usability for poll workers -- temporary election officials who ensure secure and private voting in voting places. The research described in this paper is part of a larger effort to develop a standard for voting systems. This is the first time that formal and substantial usability requirements as part of a standard for voting systems have been established in the United States. The standard includes requirements for poll worker usability and associated test methods to assess whether a system meets these requirements. The test method described in this paper sets up a protocol and pass/fail criteria for assessing the usability of voting system documentation for poll workers.
Keywords: usability testing; pass/fail criteria; elections
CAD and Communicability: A System That Improves the Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 468-477
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Rocío A. Rodríguez
We present an analysis of communicability methodology in CAD interactive systems, called DOQ (DObby Quality). This methodology has been under development between 2001 and 2008, obtaining excellent results in both educational and productive contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between usability and communicability of technical interfaces for the design of tissues in cotton, linen, etc., they ease the learning process of the designers who use a textile interactive system for the first time. We also present an educational prototype that can adapt easily to the real production of fabric: DobbyCAD.
Keywords: Dobby; CAD; Computer Graphics; Interfaces; Communicability; Usability; Education
A Novel Visualization Tool for Evaluating Medication Side-Effects in Multi-drug Regimens BIBAKFull-Text 478-487
  Jon Duke; Anthony Faiola; Hadi Kharrazi
The evaluation and management of medication side-effects is a common and complex task for physicians. Information visualization has the potential to increase the efficiency and reduce the cognitive load involved in this process. We describe the design and development of Rxplore, a novel tool for assessing medication side-effects. Rxplore supports simultaneous lookup of multiple medications and an intuitive visual representation of query results. In a pilot study of Rxplore's usability and utility, physicians rated the system highly for efficiency, intuitiveness, and clinical value.
Keywords: information visualization; medical informatics; adverse reactions; medications; side-effects
Design of a Web Intervention to Change Youth Smoking Habits BIBAKFull-Text 488-494
  Kim Nee Goh; Yoke Yie Chen; Emy Elyanee Mustapha; Subarna Sivapalan; Sharina Nordin
Web interventions are gaining popularity in trying to change a person's behavior. However, poorly designed intervention websites will affect the learning process of a person, what more to remember the content that they have learnt. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a web intervention using Gagne's Condition of Learning Theory and cognitive dissonance. The usage of learning theory enables the designers to develop the intervention website based on users' learning capabilities, thus placing users as priority. This ensures that users are able to maximize learning and recall of its content when faced with the decision to smoke or not. We are planning to recruit target users who are smokers, ranging from the 18 to 22 age range. Smokers will be categorized according to a baseline survey. Each category of users will go through the web intervention of different content. It is hoped that by combining the abovementioned theories, smokers are able to reduce their intake.
Keywords: Smoking; Gagne's Condition of Learning Theory; Cognitive Dissonance; Web Intervention; User Interface; HCI
Smart Makeup Mirror: Computer-Augmented Mirror to Aid Makeup Application BIBAFull-Text 495-503
  Eriko Iwabuchi; Maki Nakagawa; Itiro Siio
In this paper, we present a system that aids people in wearing makeup easily and make the process enjoyable. We call the proposed system the "Smart Makeup Mirror", which is an electronic dressing table that facilitates the process of makeup application. In this system, we place a high-resolution camera above a computer display and have added some functions such as "Automatic zoom to a specific part of the face", "Display the face from various angles", "Simulation of lighting conditions", and "Internet voting on better makeup results" to facilitate the makeup application process. People who use this device for applying makeup will obtain highly satisfactory results, while enjoying the process.
Studying Reactive, Risky, Complex, Long-Spanning, and Collaborative Work: The Case of IT Service Delivery BIBAFull-Text 504-513
  Eser Kandogan; Eben M. Haber; John H. Bailey; Paul P. Maglio
IT service delivery is challenging to study. It is characterized by interacting systems of technology, people, and organizations. The work is sometimes reactive, sometimes carefully planned, often risky, and always complex and collaborative. In this paper we describe how we've learned about IT work, using a variety of methods including naturalistic observations, contextual interviews, surveys, and diary studies. We provide examples of our study results, showing what we've learned with the different methods. We argue that to effectively study such systems, a variety of methods may be needed to complement insights and validate findings. We found that naturalistic observations were extremely time and labor intensive, yet offered us the time and space to observe unplanned events and long-lasting tasks, bringing out the full complexity and risks involved in real work. Contextual interviews and diary studies provided fewer details, yet gave a broader context to individual's work. Surveys provided an even broader picture, going beyond individual differences, yet they were limited by details and issues of sampling.
Human Computer Interaction in Virtual Standardized Patient Systems BIBAKFull-Text 514-523
  Patrick G. Kenny; Thomas D. Parsons; Albert A. Rizzo
Interactive computer generated characters can be applied to the medical field as virtual patients for clinical training. The user interface for the virtual characters takes on the same appearance and behavior as a human. To assess if these virtual patients can be used to train skills such as interviewing and diagnosis they need to respond as a patient would. The primary goal of this study was to investigate if clinicians could elicit proper responses from questions relevant for an interview from a virtual patient. A secondary goal was to evaluate psychological variables such as openness and immersion on the question/response composites and the believability of the character as a patient.
Keywords: Virtual Patients; Artificial Intelligence; Clinical Psychology
Towards Standardized Pen-Based Annotation of Breast Cancer Findings BIBAFull-Text 524-533
  Suzanne Kieffer; Annabelle Gouze; Ronald Moncarey; Christian Van Brussel; Jean-François De Wispelaere; Françoise Kayser; Benoît Macq
The development of computer technologies provides a means to support and facilitate the daily activities of potentially all users. This may be of particular importance for experts in breast cancer imaging and diagnosis. While many research efforts have been carried out separately on the implementation of task-oriented systems, much less effort has been undertaken to design and develop technologies compliant with domain standards or in accordance with end-user needs and expectations. This further suggests the need to improve both the usefulness and the usability of breast cancer-dedicated systems. This paper reports the results of a development method combining the application of user-centered design together with usability development methods. At different time frames in the life-cycle, the development method employed knowledge elicitation interviews, scenario-focused questionnaires, paper mock-ups and usability tests. Owing to its naturalness and its convenience, pen-based interaction with a graphics tablet was chosen as the modality to interact with the system. Additional innovative solutions were designed and implemented in order to facilitate and improve the visualization and the manipulation of data during the lesion characterization: namely an icon framework, a star-menu and a semi-automatic lesion detection system. The resulting user interface is a pen-based interactive tool supporting visualization, navigation, standardized lesion characterization and reporting. The usability tests suggest that it provides end-users with an efficient, reliable and usable system.
ImproV: A System for Improvisational Construction of Video Processing Flow BIBAKFull-Text 534-542
  Atsutomo Kobayashi; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
ImproV is a video compositing system for live video. It uses a dataflow diagram to represent the video processing flow and allows performers to edit the diagrams even while the video is running. Traditional live video is limited to video editing, but ImproV allows users to construct video processing flows on the fly. We present the design of ImproV and report on some actual live video performances using ImproV as preliminary evaluation in this paper.
Keywords: live performance; visual music; visual performance; visual jockey; VJ; improvisation; dataflow; visual programming; video authoring; video compositing
E-Assessment: A Suitable Alternative for Measuring Competences? BIBAKFull-Text 543-550
  Martin Kröll
More and more companies accomplish tests for the assortment of trainees to measure the aspirants competences and competence potentials. The article in hand is dedicated to the academic evaluation of the adoption of new E-Assessment methods. Thereby it has to be resolved in how far the expectations linked with the E-Assessment's assignment for example seen from the company's view or from the proband's one, can be achieved. To adopt the computer-aided diagnostic professionally, its advantages and disadvantages are to be considered.
Keywords: employability; e-assessment; self-organization; key qualification
Green Advocate in E-Commerce BIBAKFull-Text 551-557
  Ying-Lien Lee; Fei-Hui Huang; Sheue-Ling Hwang
The continuous growth of e-commerce sees waves of information explosion. Online shoppers have to confront with more information than ever when they are making purchasing decisions. Among the tools that try to reduce this burden of information overload, recommender system is one of the widely employed techniques which can be seen in stores such as Amazon.com and iTunes Store. This paper presents an approach of the interaction design of recommender system in the context of green digital products. By cultivating the field of game design, elements that make game fun and engaging are borrowed and applied to the design of the recommender system to motivate shoppers to opt for greener choices. In addition, the idea of Kansei Engineering will be employed in the system to recommend according to the perceived characteristics of products. A framework of such system will be described, along with future extensions of the framework in the realm of e-commerce.
Keywords: e-commerce; recommender system; green digital product; game design; interaction design; Kansei Engineering
Gesture-Based Sharing of Documents in Face-to-Face Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 558-566
  Alexander Loob; Christian Rathke
Many of the Electronic Meeting Systems on the market today only support sharing of electronic documents via email or a common user space. This kind of sharing enforces short work interruption and requires substantial mental effort than necessary. This contribution describes the development of a simple EMS, its shortcomings and the further development to a gesture-based EMS for sharing documents in face-to-face meetings. The system implements the concept of a "throwing" gesture for transferring documents to one or more participants. This gesture is explained and evaluated in further detail.
Keywords: Gesture-based Interaction; Document Sharing; Electronic Meeting System; face-to-face meeting; reduction of mental effort and work interruption
Developing, Deploying and Assessing Usage of a Movie Archive System among Students of Film Studies BIBAKFull-Text 567-576
  Nazlena Mohamad Ali; Alan F. Smeaton; Hyowon Lee; Pat Brereton
This paper describes our work in developing a movie browser application for students of Film Studies at our University. The aim of our work is to address the issues that arise when applying conventional user-centered design techniques from the usability engineering field to build a usable application when the system incorporates novel multimedia tools that could be potentially useful to the end-users but have not yet been practiced or deployed. We developed a web-based system that incorporates features as identified from the students and those features from our novel video analysis tools, including scene detection and classification. We deployed the system, monitored usage and gathered quantitative and qualitative data. Our findings show those expected patterns and highlighted issues that need to be further investigated in a novel application development. A mismatch between the users' wishes at the interviews and their actual usage was noted. In general, students found most of the provided features were beneficial for their studies.
Keywords: Video browsing; deployment effort; usage analysis
Using Activity Descriptions to Generate User Interfaces for ERP Software BIBAKFull-Text 577-586
  Timothy O'Hear; Yassin Boudjenane
Delivering tailor-made ERP software requires automation of screen and printed report creation to be cost effective. Screens generated directly from data structures tend to have poor usability. An approach is considered using a domain specific language to describe use cases. Paper-prototyping and usability testing results define the usability characteristics the DSL portrays. The DSL is capable of defining a variety of screen types and user interface elements including forms, lists, pivot tables, Gantt charts, calendars and graphs. This approach is currently used in production to generate an interactive "AJAX" web user interface as well as HTML, PDF and Excel reports from descriptions stored in XML files. We believe that further research could extend our results to include non-ERP type software.
Keywords: AJAX; domain specific language; DSL; ERP software; HTML; interaction design; paper-prototyping; usability; user interface
Developing a Nomenclature for EMR Errors BIBAKFull-Text 587-596
  Win Phillips; Yang Gong
Latent medical errors may occur in electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Analyses of medical errors, including the cognitive theory of action and the systems approach, are described. Key aspects of EMR systems are presented and examples are provided. A nomenclature is suggested to improve reporting and communication about EMR errors. The nomenclature uses concepts of an error state and a precipitating event. The error state comprises an error element, an error condition, and an error context. The precipitating event comprises an event agent, and event task, and an event context. The event task includes a task object, a task action, and task parameters.
Keywords: medical errors; electronic medical records; electronic health records
Mapping for Multi-source Visualization: Scientific Information Retrieval Service (SIRS) BIBAKFull-Text 597-605
  Dario Rodighiero; Matina Halkia; Massimiliano Gusmini
This paper discusses the design process of a multi-index, multi-source information retrieval system (SIRS). SIRS provides comprehensive visualization of different document types for the JRC working environment. The interface design is based on elastic window management and on the Focus+Context method to browse large amounts of information without losing its contextual relevance. Source integration was achieved by mapping techniques, on which we applied methods, degree-of-separation and closure, to provide advanced relational context for objects.
Keywords: interface design; information visualization; mapping; multiple indexes; SIRS; adaptive interface
Client-Side Visualization of Internet Forums for Information Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 606-613
  Guangfeng Song
This paper presented a method to visualize Internet forums on the client side. Enhancement to web browsing was proposed to solve problems in information retrieval from forums. Specifically, visualization of structural information provided useful overviews for web browsing. A conceptual model described forums as three-dimensional spaces with information objects as points and web browsing as movements in the spaces. A series of diagrams were proposed to provide overviews for users' web browsing movements. Implementation of the visualization system and examples of the diagrams were presented in the paper.
Keywords: Visualization; Internet Forums
Social-Technical Tools for Collaborative Sensemaking and Sketching BIBAKFull-Text 614-623
  James Sullivan; Meredith Banasiak; Christopher Messick; Raymond Rimey
Sensemaking is a deliberate effort to understand events or information, and a sketch is an exploratory graphic composition of a concept or observation. Within the architecture domain, sketching is employed during pre-design phases to create a shared understanding among clients and stakeholders. While sensemaking is highly collaborative, sketching is usually a solitary activity. This paper describes the design and evaluation of two prototype social-technical tools to support collaborative "same time, same place" sketching and sensemaking: (1) a software environment (SketchBook) that allows users to quickly generate and capture ideas; and (2) a wireless, scalable, multi-user pen interface (FireFly). When used together, these tools support simultaneous sketching, diagramming, and annotation within the same work space without traditional bottlenecks of "turn taking" by passing a single pen. This paper presents the motivation for sensemaking and sketching, and findings from a preliminary evaluation involving a design charrette with architecture students.
Keywords: design; sketching; architecture; collaborative interfaces; sensemaking
Developing Some User Interfaces of TV under Enormous Channels Environment BIBAKFull-Text 624-631
  Shumpei Tamaoki; Tomohiro Torikai; Hirohiko Mori
Multi-channel digital broadcasting is very popular among people and offers us enormous programs and the increase of the number of the channels affects our behavior in watching TV. In the case of target-oriented watching, we have already some solutions. However, in the case of non-target watching, it is getting for us difficult to find some interesting programs in a relaxed attitude. In this study, we focus on the issue of EPG and we propose the improved systems to solve it. These systems facilitate users to shortening of program search time and grasping of program contents in the relaxed attitude. From the results of the experiment to evaluate them, we showed shortening of program search time.
Keywords: Home Appliance; TV; Enormous Channels; Non-target Watching; EPG; Thumbnail
Electronic Glassboard -- Conception and Implementation of an Interactive Tele-presence Application BIBAKFull-Text 632-640
  Peter Thies; Benjamin Koehne
This work presents a conception of a novel tele-presence system with an integrated interactive component. Previous solutions in this research area mainly focus on communication and do not offer sufficient, intuitive cooperation support for distributed meeting members. The Electronic Glassboard fills this gap by integrating the video display and drawing area. This allows for cooperative sketching without losing direct eye-contact with the cooperation partner.
Keywords: tele-presence; CSCW; EMS; electronic meeting support; transparency; sketching; distributed conferencing; videoconferencing
A New Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Proposal through the Analysis of ATMs of Three Banks BIBAKFull-Text 641-650
  Serdar Yarlikas
This study tries to propose a new ATM through the analysis of automatic teller machines (ATMs) of different banks. To propose a new ATM, the ATMs of three banks in Turkey were investigated. These banks were Bank-1, Bank-2 and Bank-3. The strengths and weaknesses of the ATMs of the three banks were tried to be determined by comparing the ATMs. To determine the strengths and weaknesses of these ATMs, transaction performance analysis and a questionnaire were applied to the participants. There were 30 participants in the study. Through the transaction performance analysis and the questionnaire, strength points of ATMs were determined. The strength points of ATMs were proposed in order to adapt into the new ATM. At the end of the study, the design properties and the features of the new ATM were stated.
Keywords: ATMs; Transaction Performance Analysis; Questionnaire; New ATM

Advanced Applications

Designing Usable Bio-information Architectures BIBAKFull-Text 653-662
  Davide Bolchini; Anthony Finkelstein; Paolo Paolini
Bioinformatics websites offer to the life science large community repositories of information ranging from genes, genomes, proteins, experimental data and their integration, with the aim of supporting the elucidation of biological processes. As the bioinformatics community increasingly relies on the design, sharing and use of web-based resources, it is important to systematically address the usability of these applications and to deliver a more rewarding user experience to researchers. The bioinformatics community is also acknowledging the role that Human-Computer Interaction can play to improve the usability of these systems. In the context of a project aiming at improving the usability of large bioinformatics websites, we carried out an in-depth usability analysis and conceptual redesign of a well-known protein repository, with the aim of characterizing information architecture usability problems and providing corresponding design solutions to improve the user experience. This design has been validated and refined using interactive prototypes with users, usability experts and domain experts, and opens a new set of navigation opportunities which has the potential to improve the research work of bioinformaticians. Although being a preliminary study, the research reveals generic information architecture and navigation issues which have design implications for browsing-intensive bioinformatics repositories at large.
Keywords: usability; information architecture; navigation design; bioinformatics
Run-Time Adaptation of a Universal User Interface for Ambient Intelligent Production Environments BIBAKFull-Text 663-672
  Kai Breiner; Daniel Görlich; Oliver Maschino; Gerrit Meixner; Detlef Zühlke
The SmartFactoryKL is an arbitrarily modifiable and expandable (flexible) intelligent production environment, connecting components from multiple manufacturers (networked), enabling its components to perform context-related tasks autonomously (self-organizing), and emphasizing user-friendliness (user-oriented). This paper presents the results of a research project focusing on the run-time generation and adaptation of a universal task-oriented user interface for such intelligent production environments. It employs a Room-based Use Model (RUM) developed in the context of a continuing research project series on universal remote control devices for intelligent production environments. The SmartFactoryKL is the first ambient intelligent production environment for demonstration and development purposes worldwide. After three years of research, a first prototype has been finished that allows for controlling the production line using a single remote user interface able to adapt to varying remote devices according to the actual context of use, in a complex, model-based approach.
Keywords: MBUID; Model driven development; generating user interfaces; modeling; adaptable user interfaces
Heuristic Evaluation of Mission-Critical Software Using a Large Team BIBAKFull-Text 673-682
  Tim Buxton; Alvin Tarrell; Ann L. Fruhling
Heuristic evaluation is a common technique for assessing usability, but is most often conducted using a team of 3-5 individuals. Our project involved a team of 16 stakeholders assessing usability of a mission-critical decision support system for the US military. Data collected from so many evaluators could easily become overwhelming, so we devised a method to first filter evaluations based on agreement between evaluators, and then further prioritize findings based on their individual Frequency, Impact, and Severity scores. We termed our methodology the 'Integrated Stakeholder Usability Evaluation Process,' and believe it will be useful for other researchers conducting similar research involving heuristic evaluations with large groups.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation Methods; Heuristic Evaluation; Decision Support
Interface Development for Early Notification Warning System: Full Windshield Head-Up Display Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 683-692
  Vassilis Charissis; Stylianos Papanastasiou; George Vlachos
This paper elaborates on the development of a prototype Head-Up Display (HUD) system designed to offer crucial navigation information to the driver, under adverse weather conditions. In particular the paper presents the implementation process and evaluation of the sharp turn notification and traffic warning cues which reflect some of the most common risks that may be encountered in a collision in a motorway environment under low visibility. Additionally, emphasis was placed on the prioritisation and effective presentation of information available through vehicular sensors, which would assist, without distracting, the driver in successfully navigating the vehicle under low visibility conditions. This information which appear in the form of symbolic representations of real objects, are projected in the vehicle's windscreen and superimposed onto the real scenery. Overall the paper examines the potential benefits and occurring issues of the proposed HUD interface and presents the results of a large scale evaluation of the system on a group of forty users, as performed using a driving simulator.
Keywords: HUD; HMI; Warning systems; Simulator; Driver's Behaviour
Reflections on the Interdisciplinary Collaborative Design of Mapping the Universe BIBAKFull-Text 693-702
  Chaomei Chen; Jian Zhang; Michael S. E. Vogeley
We describe our experience of developing scientific software in an ongoing multidisciplinary research project participated by information scientists and astronomers. In particular, we reflect on how the interdisciplinary collaboration is facilitated by the development of a unique boundary object -- a hybrid map of the Universe and scientific discoveries. With reference to theories of interdisciplinary communication, we underline that information visualization serves a fundamental role in scientific software development. The impact of information visualization can go far beyond the content representation, and can facilitate communications across distinct disciplines.
Keywords: Interdisciplinary collaboration; boundary objects
Distilling Support Opportunities to Improve Urban Search and Rescue Missions BIBAKFull-Text 703-712
  Tjerk de Greef; Augustinus H. J. Oomes; Mark A. Neerincx
Current USAR missions are challenged by many factors leading to a study on how human computer interaction can provide support in this domain. Using data from a two-day observation in combination with mission reports, we applied a situated cognitive engineering design methodology to distill the operational demands, the human factors challenges, and the current and future technological design space. The operational demands result in a set of core functions that were explained in various parts of the USAR mission organization. Furthermore, an exemplary support scenario and prototype was provided in combination with claims on the envisioned effect.
Keywords: urban search and rescue; situated cognitive engineering; user-centered design; work domain analysis
A New Approach to Design an Interactive System for Molecular Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 713-722
  Mouna Essabbah; Samir Otmane; Joan Hérisson; Malik Mallem
The rapid evolution of molecule's imaging and observation's techniques has caused a growing interest in studying molecular structures. Naturally, scientists have turned to simulation and 3D modeling in order to better understand biological phenomena. Thus, several 3D modeling systems have emerged. Some of these systems are dedicated to 3D visualization, and others are interested in 3D handling. However, we observed that these systems use classical 3D interaction techniques, frequently used in virtual reality (VR). On the other hand, the biological environment is very complex and binding as well. Thus, to remain faithful to the constraints of the environment and be closer to natural behavior of molecules, we have tried to propose a 3D manipulation adapted to the domain, a bio-supervised 3D manipulation.
Keywords: 3D Manipulation; Complex Systems; Biological Constraints; Adaptability; Bio-supervisor
The Differences of Aviation Human Factors between Individualism and Collectivism Culture BIBAKFull-Text 723-730
  Wen-Chin Li; Don Harris; Lon-Wen Li; Thomas Wang
Culture is at the root of action; it underlies the manner by which people communicate and develop attitudes towards life. This research examined statistical differences in the 18 categories of Human factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS, Shappell & Wiegmann, 2003) across 523 aviation accidents in the Republic of China (a collective culture) and 119 aviation accidents in the USA (an individual culture). The result suggests that the culture of individualism seems to be superior for promoting aviation safety compared to collectivist cultures, however, factors such as the design of the aircraft, the management procedures and the nature of safety regulation all have a strong Western influence from the individualist culture. All of these factors are culturally congruent with the USA. It is essential to identify the potential causal roots for these differences from the underlying factors in these aviation mishaps, and identify what kind of factors drive people to act or react to dynamic situations that either lead to an accident help to develop an effective accident prevention strategy.
Keywords: Accident Investigation; Aviation Safety; Cross-culture; Human Factors
Web-Based Training System for Improving Aviation Maintenance Performance BIBAKFull-Text 731-740
  Guo-Feng Liang; Jhih-Tsong Lin; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Eric Min-Yang Wang; Patrick Patterson; Jiun-Fa Li
To increase aviation maintenance and inspection safety, we propose a web-based training system (WBTS) for technician training and performing maintenance tasks. Toward this goal, the risks of human errors were considered for each procedure from the perspectives of performance shaping factors (PSFs). WBTS functions include English and Chinese explanations, human error effects on human-machine system, human errors relative to serious rankings and frequency, and graphic information aid in each component removal and installation procedure. To verify the proposed platform, experiments were conducted on a JT8D engine during the inaugural flight of Boeing's 727 to compare traditional workcard and proposed WBTS in two complex teamwork tasks. The results revealed that teams' risk cognition, situation awareness, and performance have been increased by proposed WBTS comparing to that by the traditional work-card instructions.
Keywords: Human error; performance shaping factor; maintenance incidents; WBTS; situation awareness; workload
Allocating Human-System Interfaces Functions by Levels of Automation in an Advanced Control Room BIBAKFull-Text 741-750
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Chih-Wei Yang; Tzu-Chung Yenn; Lai-Yu Cheng
Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). The HSIs, those NPPs parts that personnel interact with in performing their tasks, included control switches, red, green, amber, and white indicator lights, mimic displays, lighted annunciator panels, and hand-written status boards. The advanced technology has introduced the capability of integrating information from numerous plant systems and supplying needed information to operations personnel in a timely manner. Challenges of the well-integrated computerized control room include ensuring reduced staffing does not treat with increased task complexity, achieving a consistent user interface, ensuring increased automation does not adversely affect the operator's mental model of the plant, and systems actually support the operator. This study investigated the process of the HSI functions allocation by considering which functions should be automated and to what extent, which is also called the level of automation (LOA).
Keywords: Human factors engineering; human-system interface; nuclear power plants; type of automation; level of automation
Development of an Expert System as a User Interface for an RFID Application BIBAKFull-Text 751-759
  Deok Hee Nam
The paper presents developing an expert system as a user interface program to decode radio frequency identification codes for simulation and modeling of natural disasters. The entire developed environment for the expert system is intended to integrate all subtasks as a common user interface program to simulate and report the damages due to the catastrophic disasters. To perform the simulation as a part of the entire system, the proposed expert system reads in RFID codes in order to provide the desired information about the damages due to the catastrophic disasters based upon the available fields.
Keywords: intelligent decoder; expert system; Radio Frequency Identification; user interface program
Developing a Validation Methodology for Educational Driving Simulators and a Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 760-769
  Hatice Sancar; Kursat Cagiltay; Veysi Isler; Gizem Tamer; Neslihan Ozmen; Utkan Eryilmaz
The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for validating driving simulators in terms of simulator usability. The methodology was used to validate a truck simulator designed for training truck drivers about economic fuel consumption. The participants were eight truck drivers. Interview and observation methods were used to gather data. The results of the study showed that drivers did not have difficulty to recognize the parts of the driving simulator. Also, they stated that driving the simulator was easy. However, they said that they had some difficulties to use some systems of the simulator.
Keywords: Driving Simulators; Validation; Usability
Developing a Usable Mobile Flight Case Learning System in Air Traffic Control Miscommunications BIBAKFull-Text 770-777
  Kuo-Wei Su; Keh-Yeu Lee; Po-Hsin Huang; I-Tsun Chen
Aviation's highest priority is safety. The primary risk to safety derives not from automated systems but from human factors, most notably pilots and air traffic control. We present results from development of a flight case learning system designed and aviation regulation retrieve system to operate on mobile phones used by pilots and air traffic controllers. Our system takes advantage of key ontology concepts, human-centered design strategies, and appropriate small-screen interface design protocols. A questionnaire to assess user interaction satisfaction (QUIS) was deployed for subsequent usability testing and to verify acceptance of, and satisfaction with the system. Twelve students participated in the questionnaire-based evaluation of subjective satisfaction. In addition, two flight experts served on a review panel for domain knowledge verification and acceptance of the interface design. Our results confirm that MFCLS is a suitably designed mobile learning system that can accelerate self-learning for both pilots and controllers.
Keywords: ATC communications aviation regulation; ontology; HCI (Human Computer Interaction)