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HCII Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-7

HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Towards Mobile and Intelligent Interaction Environments

Fullname:HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Towards Mobile and Intelligent Interaction Environments
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6763
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-21615-2 (print), 978-3-642-21616-9 (online); hcibib: HCII11-3
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 3
    1. Mobile Interaction
    2. Interaction in Intelligent Environments
    3. Orientation and Navigation
    4. In-Vehicle Interaction
    5. Social and Environmental Issues in HCI
    6. Emotions in HCI

HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 3

Mobile Interaction

Field to File: A Tool for Activity Documentation Work in Remote Mobility Environments BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Raúl Casillas; Alberto L. Morán
Previous studies have identified that activity documentation of mobile workers is carried out during three different documentation stages: before (pre-), during (at-) and after (post-) fieldwork activities. The first stage includes fieldwork planning and equipment preparation for the job, the second includes both an informative meeting about the activities that will take place during fieldwork and the fieldwork activities themselves, while the third and final stage includes the preparation and delivery of a report generated with the information collected during fieldwork. Based on this understanding, these studies have proposed a number of features to include in a tool that seeks to support the documentation of this type of work, including support for fixed and mobile modes of work and seamless access to information across stages and modes of work. In this paper we present the design and evaluation of a prototype tool named Field to File, which seeks to support activity documentation of workers in remote mobile environments that have not been augmented with technology.
Keywords: Activity documentation work; remote mobility environments; mobile computing; Field to File
Trends, Challenges and Promises of Rich Experience on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 13-20
  Yihsiu Chen
This article summarizes the observation of trends, methods and challenges to provide rich content interaction on mobile devices in the industry, as part of a panel discussion of usability issues related to rich-content applications. The industry and expectation of human-device interaction changes as new wireless and device technologies evolve to provide higher speed, more continuous interaction, and possibility to consume contents while user is on the move. However, the fundamental differences of user needs and ease to deploy applications to fulfill these needs will eventually determine the market between mobile applications and mobile web.
Keywords: Rich content; mobility; mobile web; mobile applications; touch screen
Finding Suitable Candidates: The Design of a Mobile Volunteering Matching System BIBAKFull-Text 21-29
  Wei-Chia Chen; Yun-Maw Cheng; Frode Eika Sandnes; Chao-Lung Lee
It can be difficult to get started with voluntary work for potential volunteers (PVs). Moreover, it is difficult to find and recruit suitable candidates for nonprofit organizations. To help solve this problem we designed a mobile matching prototype that enables an organization to actively promote ongoing volunteer activities with the need of recruitment through their bubble icons on an instant map. In the other end, PVs can easily get started by monitoring the colors of the icons and tap the ones which match their interests. This allows them to read about developing threads and browse the corresponding activities. The system is evaluated by interviewing two organization managers and three volunteers.
Keywords: Mobile Device; Communityware; Volunteering Matching; Context-awareness
The Effort of Social Networking on Social Behavior -- Integrating Twitter, Mobile Devices, and Wearable Clothing as an Example BIBAKFull-Text 30-37
  Chen-Wei Chiang; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
In this research, we proposed a new communication method system which is based on Social Network Services (SNS). As the medium, we used a T-shirt with an AR marker printed on it (AR T-shirt). User wears the AR T-shirt and has their Tweets and latest messages shown on a mobile device. Typically, SNS users exchange personal messages or information in virtual world, web site or mobile interface. Therefore in this research, we tried to establish a new system to explore users behavior. In this system we utilizes Twitter, AR T-shirt, and mobile device (iPhone) to propose a new communication method. When people use iPhone to recognize AR marker on the AR T-shirt to communicate, it will initiate a new communication method. Users can directly send and receive the latest personal messages. Thus, this system will transform virtual communication into the real world.
Keywords: Social network service; wearable clothing; mobile device
Computer Support of Team Work on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 38-47
  Hilko Donker; Malte Blumberg
In this paper we present a general concept of a mobile access to a groupware. The central aspect is how to bridge the gap between Mobile Computing and Collaborative Software. Mobile devices have limited capabilities, and therefore only few user interactions are desired. Conversely, groupware requires numerous interactions in order to make virtual collaborative work effective. First, we examine existing approaches and define our specific goal. Then, we present background on our research on user requirements. Afterwards, the general aspects of a prototype we developed are shown, including exemplary examples. After having given information about the first evaluation results, we end with a short conclusion stating our future work.
Keywords: Mobile Groupware; UI Design for mobile devices
ProJest: Enabling Higher Levels of Collaboration Using Today's Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 48-58
  Babak Forutanpour; Jianfeng Ren
In this paper, we propose a real time and robust hand gesture system called ProJest which allows the combination of a smartphone or laptop paired with a pico or standard projector to turn any wall into a highly collaborative touch-capable surface. The system comprises of 4 stages: a calibration stage, followed by hand detection, hand tracking, and a gesture recognition step. Testing of the ProJest system show it working well under a variety of challenging environments, such as when users are interacting with content that has many skin-like colors or large amounts of motion.
Keywords: marker-less hand gesture recognition; collaborative workspaces; camera-projector space
The Effect of Time Orientation and Representation of Points of Interests on the Use of Mobile Tour Guide BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
  Fei Gao; Qin Gao
This study examined the effect of users' time orientation (polychronics and monochronics) and the display of points of interests (POIs) on users' workload and satisfaction when using a mobile tour guide. The results show that individuals' time orientation has a significant effect on users' workload. People who have a tendency of polychronic perceived higher workload. The display method of POIs significantly affected users' satisfaction. Categorized display was preferred by the users. For polychronics, display method had a significant effect, and altogether display was a better choice. Based on the findings, we suggest that mobile navigation interfaces design should pay extra attention to polychronic people as they tend to manage multiple activities simultaneously, which may add to mental workload. POIs in mobile navigation services should are displayed by categories, and an overall view with all POIs should be provided as well.
Keywords: Multitasking; time orientation; mobile
The Virtual Workplace of a Mobile Employee -- How Does Vischer's Model Function in Identifying Physical, Functional and Psychosocial Fit? BIBAKFull-Text 69-75
  Ursula Hyrkkänen; Suvi Nenonen
The article examines the applicability of Vischer's model of comfort and fit for classifying the features of virtual workplaces used in mobile work. The user-centered model of comfort and fit was applied in the context of systematic literature review. The review showed that the model of environmental fit is useful for more detailed classification of virtual places and spaces. However, it seems that in virtual work the threshold of workplace usability rises from the physical level to the functional level due to accessibility demands. A mobile employee is forced to completely stop working if he/she is not able to connect. Compared to Vischer's model the necessity level of the virtual workplace ascends to cover also the demands of functional fit.
Keywords: Virtual workplace; mobile work; comfort factors of virtual workplace
CornerPen: Smart Phone Is the Pen BIBAKFull-Text 76-83
  Bong-gyu Jang; Myonghee Lee; Gerard J. Kim
The use of finger on the touchscreen is one of the most prevalent forms of input on mobile devices. However, due to the size of the finger tip, precise input is difficult and the presence of the finger on the touchscreen can often occlude the content in interaction. In this paper, we propose to install a sensor in the corner of the mobile device (e.g. smart phone) and transform the mobile device into a digital pen for making input for itself or other external devices. The system, dubbed "CornerPen" has many potential advantages in addition to those of the traditional pen-based input (vs. finger based) such as less occlusion, leveraging on tactile memory, and larger interaction surface. We have implemented and experimentally tested the CornerPen against the nominal finger-based touchscreen input system using two tasks, namely, flick-based icon browsing (search) and selection and free-form text input. Our results showed while the subjects did acknowledge the problem of occlusion with finger-based input on the touchscreen, the CornerPen approach still was not particularly effective nor preferred for the intended purpose, i.e. making precise input, and only exhibited comparable performance for simple flick/tab like input actions.
Keywords: Mobile interaction; Optical tracking; Tactile memory; Pen-based interaction; Finger touch; Icon selection; Usability
Evaluation of Continuous Practice by Mobile Learning in Nursing Practical Training BIBAKFull-Text 84-91
  Yukie Majima; Yumiko Nakamura; Yasuko Maekawa; Mizuko Hiramatsu; Yukari Nakajima; Satoshi Horii; Hifumi Aoyama
Nursing students can learn many things through practical training by experiencing actual medical practice and by coming in contact with patients. Therefore practical training is an effective learning opportunity for developing the practical nursing care ability of nursing students. Moreover, at hospitals, which are important training facilities, with regard to medical safety, the use of learning tools that produce electrical waves is not possible. So, we created a learning support environment that facilitates the imagination of nursing techniques, and enables effective preparation, review, and learning at anytime and anywhere using a portable digital assistant (PDA) device for practical training. As described in this paper, we report on the outline of the educational materials named "digital nursing dictionary" that we developed and the evaluation of the practices using it.
Keywords: Mobile Learning; Nursing Practical Training; Nursing Education; Evaluation Practice; Ubiquitous
XML in Formal Specification, Verification and Generation of Mobile HCI BIBAKFull-Text 92-100
  Ines Riahi; Meriem Riahi; Faouzi Moussa
Our work is carried out in the framework of a global approach for Human-Computer Interaction design and automatic generation. This approach is based on a formal modeling of the Human-Computer Interaction. We propose a Model Based Design Approach (MBDA). We are concerned with identifying the user tasks and requirements and further with the automatic graphical interface validation and generation. Therefore we use Petri Nets. Indeed, the Petri Nets are very efficient in formal modeling of HCI. Our research focuses on mobile HCI. It aims to analyze the ubiquitous environment using ontology described in OWL2 standard. We face difficulties in modeling ontology in XML using Petri Nets. Thus, it becomes necessary to adopt approaches for manipulation of Petri nets via XML as PNML or XML Nets.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI); Model Based Design Approach (MBDA); Ubiquitous environment; Petri Nets; Ontology; OWL2; XML; XML Nets; PNML
An Efficient Document Browsing Method with Floating Diagram Window on Mobile Device BIBAKFull-Text 101-106
  Yu Shibuya; Kazunobu Nagata; Kazuyoshi Murata
This paper proposes an efficient method to browse the document including diagrams on mobile devices equipped with touch screen. With the method, the user can pull the referenced diagram close to the referrer sentence and browse the pulled-in diagram and the document simultaneously. The pulled-in diagram is displayed in the floating window overlapping the document. Both the pulled-in diagram and the underlying document are able to be scrolled and zoomed in/out by the user independently of each other. From the experiment, it is found that the proposed method is efficient for operation on mobile devices and the method is viewed very positively by the participants.
Keywords: mobile interaction; document browsing; touch screen; human interface
Mobile Reminder for Flexible and Safe Medication Schedule for Home Users BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Pei-Hsuan Tsai; Chi-Sheng Shih; Jane W.-S. Liu
iMAT is a system of automatic medication dispenser and software tools. It is for people who take medications on long term basis at home to stay well and independent. The system helps its users to improve rigor in compliance by preventing misunderstanding of medication directions and making medication schedules more tolerant to tardiness and negligence. Medication schedule manager in iMAT can be deployed either on standalone automatic, intelligent medication dispensers, or on computers and smart phones accompanied with traditional pillboxes. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of PROMUS and the results of a user experience study. PROMUS is a medication scheduler manager and reminder for modern smart phone devices. Similar to the scheduler for the iMAT dispenser, PROMUS scheduler takes into account both user preferences and medication directions in generation of flexible medication schedules and compliance enforcement. In particular, we focus on the interactions between the user and medication schedule manager to avoid medication errors. PROMUS schedules medication events to be more flexible and friendly by grouping the medication doses to reduce the number of times medications are to be taken and allow the user longer response time. PROMUS also provides intuitive, visually appealing user interface, clear organization, and familiar terminology that can be acted upon in conformity with the original behavior of medication record keeping.
Keywords: Medication Scheduler; Smart Devices; Medication Compliance
Enabling Efficient Browsing and Manipulation of Web Tables on Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  Wenchang Xu; Yuanchun Shi
Tables are very important carriers of the vast information on the Internet and are widely used in web pages. However, most designs of web tables are only for desktop PCs and just focus on how to visually and logically show large amount of data without considering their visual effects on small-screen devices. Therefore, users suffer inconvenience when browsing web tables on smartphone. In this paper, we propose to enable efficient browsing and manipulation of web tables on smartphone in order to solve the problems of both information retrieval and content replication from web tables. We implemented a mobile web browser on Android 2.1 platform, which deals with web tables in three steps: genuine table detection, table understanding and user interface design. We conducted a user study to test the effects that users used such tool. Experimental results show that the tool increases users' browsing efficiency of web tables and the novel browsing and manipulation modes are well accepted by users.
Keywords: Web table; Table extraction; Table understanding; Table manipulation; User interface design

Interaction in Intelligent Environments

User Interface Framework for Ambient Intelligence Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 129-136
  Patricia Abril-Jiménez; Cecilia Vera-Muñoz; María Teresa Arredondo Waldmeyer; Haydee Alvarez; José R. Baragaño Galán
Nowadays, the new technological advances make possible to offer different services in a complete personalized way, covering the needs of heterogeneous user groups. In the case of elderly users, the acceptance of technology is a key aspect in their motivation to use certain services, and in consequence, the adaptability of the user interfaces is a critical requirement to achieve this goal. This paper presents the intelligent and adaptive user interfaces of a system devoted to offer AAL services, especially designed for increasing elderly users's acceptance, and developed as part of AmIVital project innovative technological platform.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence (AmI); Ambient Assisted Living (AAL); Adaptative Interfaces; elderly users; multimodal interaction
Scratchable Devices: User-Friendly Programming for Household Appliances BIBAKFull-Text 137-146
  Jordan Ash; Monica Babes; Gal Cohen; Sameen Jalal; Sam Lichtenberg; Michael L. Littman; Vukosi N. Marivate; Phillip Quiza; Blase Ur; Emily Zhang
Although household devices and home appliances function more and more as network-connected computers, they don't provide programming interfaces for the average user. We first identify the programming primitives and control structures necessary for the universal programming of devices. We then propose a mapping between the features necessary for the programming of devices and the existing functionality of Scratch, an educational programming language we use as a basic interface between the devices and the users. Using this modified version of the Scratch language, we demonstrate usage cases in which novice programmers can program appliances, increasing their functionality and ability to be customized. We also show how standardizing this programming paradigm can facilitate knowledge transfer to new devices. We conclude by discussing our experiences prototyping programmable appliances.
Keywords: educational programming; end-user programming; home automation; household devices; programming languages; scratch; ubiquitous computing; usability
Passive Identification and Control of Arbitrary Devices in Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 147-154
  Andreas Braun; Felix Kamieth
Modern smart environments are comprised of multiple interconnected appliances controlled by a central system. Pointing at devices in order to control them is an intuitive way of interaction, often unconsciously performed when switching TV stations with an infrared remote, even though it is usually not required. However, only a limited number of devices have the required facilities for this kind of interaction since it does require attaching transceivers and often results in the necessity to use multiple remote controls. We propose a system giving a user the ability to intuitively control arbitrary devices in smart environments by identifying the appliance an interaction device is pointed at and providing means to manipulate these. The system is based on identifying the position and orientation of said interaction device, registering these values to a virtual representation of the physical environment, which is used to identify the selected appliance. We have created a prototype interaction device that manipulates the environment using gesture-based interaction.
Keywords: Pointing device; gesture-based interaction; smart environments
Studying the Role of Interactivity in Museums: Designing and Comparing Multimedia Installations BIBAKFull-Text 155-164
  Pedro Campos; Miguel Campos; João Pestana; Joaquim A. Jorge
Interactive installations for museums are a particular kind of interactive systems, the design of which has been the subject of several research studies. However, the aspects of a rich, cultural experience are easily overlooked in a technologically driven system design and there are few studies that actually compare the role of different interaction styles (such as touching versus walking) on the museums visitor's experience. We present our experience of designing a cultural interactive multimedia exhibition, comprised of four sensor-based interactive installations, and two non-interactive installations. Our results were organized around usability problems detected, social interaction issues and differences between interaction styles, and suggest that the most enjoyable installations are those which facilitate collaborative activities as well as those making a creative use of sensor-based technology.
Keywords: Interactive installations; sensor-based interfaces; public settings; cultural exhibitions
ARAMIS: Toward a Hybrid Approach for Human-Environment Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 165-174
  Stefano Carrino; Elena Mugellini; Omar Abou Khaled; Rolf Ingold
In this paper we describe ARAMIS a novel hybrid approach aiming to enhance the human smart-environment interaction. We define this approach as hybrid since it is the combination of three different dichotomies: wearable and pervasive computing paradigms, virtual and real worlds, optical and non-optical sensing technologies. In order to validate the proposed approach we have designed a multimodal framework, in which gestures have been chosen as the main interaction modality. The framework design aims firstly to efficiently manage and merge information from heterogeneous, distributed sensors and secondly to offer a simple tool to connect together such devices. Finally a prototype has been developed in order to test and evaluate the proposed approach.
Keywords: Hybrid gesture recognition; pervasive computing; human-computer interaction; multimodality
Note: Best Paper Award
Express Yourself: Designing Interactive Products with Implicitness to Improve Social Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 175-184
  Huang-Ming Chang; Rung-Huei Liang
In this paper, we explore the possibility of designing interactive products that allow users to express themselves with daily behaviors to have their own special experiences, and the expression would improve their social interaction as well. Three design works were implemented. For each design, experiment was held to collect user feedback, which was mostly positive. We also see a tendency that users would be much expressive when interacting with physical objects that bear more information related to their everyday life.
Keywords: Expression; Interactive Products; Implicitness; Social Interaction
Mojo iCuisine: The Design and Implementation of an Interactive Restaurant Tabletop Menu BIBAKFull-Text 185-194
  Ting-Han Chen; Hsin-Hou Lin; Yi-Di Yen
This paper discusses the design and implementation of an interactive tabletop system for moJo iCuisine, a western restaurant in Taiwan. The restaurant has 22 interactive tables that enable diners to browse the menu, order dishes, play games, fill out opinion forms, and check their bill. The design and implementation process and findings are discussed.
Keywords: Interactive restaurant; interactive menu; tabletop; service design; ordering system
Usability of Nomadic User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 195-204
  Walter Dees
During the last decade, a number of research activities have been performed to enable user interfaces and the underlying user activities to be migrated from one device to another. We call this "Nomadic User Interfaces". The primary goal of these research activities has been to develop the technologies to enable this. However, not much is known about the usability aspects of Nomadic User Interfaces. In this paper we present the results of three different user tests that we conducted to investigate the usefulness and the usability issues of several prototype Nomadic User Interface systems that we developed.
Keywords: Nomadic User Interfaces; UI Adaptation; Migratory Interfaces; Pervasive Applications; Ubiquitous Access; Device Independence; Multi-device UI Authoring; UI Consistency; Session/Activity Migration; Session Mobility; Multimodal Interfaces; Remote User Interfaces; User Study; Usability Guidelines
Adaptive Implicit Interaction for Healthy Nutrition and Food Intake Supervision BIBAKFull-Text 205-212
  Felix Kamieth; Andreas Braun; Christian Schlehuber
The current work is going to provide you information about our solution in the challenge of nutrition and food intake supervision, which has been developed lately. We will give an overview of the system and the implemented mechanisms, which were needed for aiding users in supervising and improving their eating habits. We will show the features, which may be useful for persons who want to analyze their eating habits and try to improve those. Therefore our system provides a cooking advisor, which is able to recognize the available food and respecting those presents the user a list of recipes, which fit his available ingredients and also his nutritional needs. If he wishes, he has also the possibility to set other filter parameters. Additionally the cooked menus are logged by the system and may be subject to further analyses. For determining the available ingredients our system uses RFID technology and also provides the user some community-like features for submitting new receipts or new ingredients.
Keywords: Food; Nutrition; Supervision; RFID; Cooking Advisor; Food Intake; Healthy Nutrition
Recall and Communication Support System for Reminiscences Triggered by Humming BIBAKFull-Text 213-219
  Yusuke Kita; Yoshio Nakatani
This paper proposes an effective reminder management system involving fond memory communication. Our framework helps users to manage and recollect fond memories they have. The system pays attention to the fact that unconscious humming is deeply related to the recollection of fond memories, and proposes a fond memory recollection system utilizing it. The system identifies a hummed song, and if a fond memory is related to that song and has been registered in the data base, metadata that accompanies the music gets displayed. Moreover, the system analyzes the music that the user used to trigger a fond memory recollection, resulting in recommended music that the user would probably like, along with other people's fond memories, being displayed.
Keywords: fond memories; recollection; communication; humming
Research of Passive Mode Interaction in Pervasive Computing BIBAKFull-Text 220-229
  Yin Lu; Kejian Miao; Zhanhuai Li; Ke Wei
Two modes of HCI are discussed in this paper: Active Mode Interaction (AMI) and Passive Mode Interaction (PMI). Closed-loop processing models of each mode are created and analyzed. Contradictory propositions about how to implement spontaneous PMI are identified, and a pipeline model of information transportation in PMI is proposed for a detailed analyzation of mental activity in PMI process. Based on the analyzation, three features of interaction medium that have implications for PMI are identified and principles for PMI interface design are proposed.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction (HCI); Pervasive Computing; Passive Mode Interaction
Activity Recognition for Risk Management with Installed Sensor in Smart and Cell Phone BIBAKFull-Text 230-239
  Daisuke Honda; Nobuchika Sakata; Shogo Nishida
Smart and cell phone with self-contained sensor such as accelerometer, gyroscopic and digital magnetic compass sensor have been popular. Combining certain algorithm and those sensors, it can estimate user's activity, situation and even user's absolute position. However, estimation of user's activity, situation and user's absolute position become difficult when once sensors posture and position are changing from original position in user's motion. Also, according to stored, worn and handheld position and posture of those cell and smart phone are often changed. Therefore, we exclude estimation of user's position and we focus to only estimation of user's activity and situation for risk management. Basically, we design special classifier for detecting user's unusual behavior and apply other user's position data from internet to the results detected by the classifier which are combined wavelet transform and SVM. We assume that user's unusual activity and situation can be detected by smart and cell phone with high accuracy.
Keywords: Activity recognition; Wearable computer; SVM; nearly fall incident; cell phone and smart phone
Can Twitter Be an Alternative of Real-World Sensors? BIBAKFull-Text 240-249
  Tetsuro Takahashi; Shuya Abe; Nobuyuki Igata
Twitter is the most famous on-line microblogging service now. People can post (tweet) what they are doing in 140 characters. Since Twitter posts (tweets) reflect what people are looking, hearing, feeling and so on, we can obtain information about Real-world phenomena through the large amount of tweets. In other words, Twitter can be regarded as a sensor of Real-world phenomena including natural phenomena such as hay fever. This motivated us to investigate whether can Twitter be an alternative of Real-world Sensor. In this paper, we first describe about our system which collects and analyzes tweets in order to generates a hay fever map just like as a weather report map. There are some difficulties such as location estimation and normalization of number of tweets. Using the output of the system, we discuss the comparison with actual pollen data gathered by real sensors. The result shows that Twitter can reflect natural phenomena in some particular areas.
Keywords: Twitter; crowd knowledge; social sensor
Reacting with Care: The Hybrid Interaction Types in a Sensible Space BIBAKFull-Text 250-258
  Guo-Jhen Yu; Teng-Wen Chang
Our family members are used to interact with virtual characters than real world. One way to solve this problem is to stop using computers. The other solution is a usable communication platform that can take advantages of both worlds. With the spaces equipped with the media technology defined above, what are the enhanced interfaces for supporting family members communication? We developed the information transmission framework for the refined co-existing spaces that we called hybrid interactive co-existing spaces (HyCoe spaces). The result for implementation is tremendous due to the complex of sensible spaces and the implicit intention during the communication among family members.
Keywords: Sensible Environment; Interactive Co-existing Spaces
GoCoBa: Interactive Installation Design Applied on Combination of Context and People BIBAKFull-Text 259-267
  Jia-Xuan Zhan; Kuo-Kuang Fan
The combination of people and context is easy to be neglected in the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Context always affects unconsciously behaviors of people, and it is inessential for people. Though observing realistic environment and analysis, we aim to design a system for context, object, and space interaction in sports bar. We also search some interactive installation cases to find the related cases in order to understand the possible interactive patterns. According to case and behavior practice to design prototype, we made GoCoBa, an interactive design for bar goers to immerse in the context. To sum up, GoCoBa system using cup as physical computing and context computing help bar goers have interaction with the context.
Keywords: Interaction Design; HCI; Sports Bar

Orientation and Navigation

Behavioral Cost-Based Recommendation Model for Wanderers in Town BIBAKFull-Text 271-279
  Kenro Aihara; Hitoshi Koshiba; Hideaki Takeda
This paper proposes a new model for recommendation based on the behavioral cost of recommendees in town. The model is based on cost-benefit analysis of the information provided to the user, referring to the model of temporal discounting and preference reversal. Here we assume that behavioral cost may be regarded as time in temporal discounting. A recommender system based on this model can select information, which is located in the surrounding area (not so far away) and may be preferred by the user, if the system can estimate where the reversal phenomenon may occur. The experiments were made using an experimental social service, called "pin@clip", which is an iPhone-based social bookmarking service in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan that has been operating since December 2009. The experimental results show that the phenomenon of preference reversals might occur, even though the authors could not obtain statistically significant data.
Keywords: context-aware computing; location-based service; recommender system; behavioral cost; user modeling
A Framework for Agent-Based Simulation in Tourism Planning BIBAKFull-Text 280-287
  Dingding Chao; Kazuo Furuta; Taro Kanno
Recently, the interest of using agent-based model combined with GIS to perform simulations that seek solutions to problems in the study of tourism services and planning is expanding. However, few scientific studies or systematic methodologies in tourism research have been conducted to support the design and development of such simulations. This research intends to develop a general framework for agent-based simulations in tourism and present its possibility in practical tourism planning process. By developing an agent-based simulation combined with GIS under the protocol, planning supports to tourism bureaus and policy makers to help them assess different tourism policy scenarios and improve tourism services.
Keywords: Tourism services; planning support architecture; agent-based simulation; GIS
Safe-in-Place Awareness GPS System with Distance-Based and Duration-Based Notification Control BIBAKFull-Text 288-292
  Chi Nung Chu; Gene Chu
This paper describes the design of SIPGPS (Safe-in-Place GPS System) which is a GPS assistance environment helping track the elderly people outdoors. This environment is intended to facilitate the use of the GPS cell phones in assisting elderly people with walking safely in daily life. SIPGPS facilitates safe-in-place by assisting elderly people with emergency assistance via distance-based and duration-based notification control. The SIPGPS which provides the dedicated family easier way to locate their elderly family may expand the role of care in remote location.
Keywords: Safe-in-Place GPS System; Participatory Design
Landmarks Detection to Assist the Navigation of Visually Impaired People BIBAFull-Text 293-300
  Paulo Costa; Hugo Fernandes; Verónica Vasconcelos; Paulo Coelho; João Barroso; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
Assistive technology enables people to achieve independence in the accomplishment of their daily tasks and enhance their quality of life. Visual information is the basis for most navigational tasks, so visually impaired individuals are at disadvantage due to the lack of information or given insufficient information about their surrounding environment. With the recent advances in inclusive technology it is possible to extend the support given to people with visual disabilities during their mobility. In this context we propose a new algorithm to recognize landmarks suitably placed on sidewalks. The proposed algorithm uses a combination of Peano-Hilbert Space Filling Curves for dimension reduction of image data and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to pre-process the image, resulting on a fast and efficient recognition method and revealing a promising solution.
Interaction in Mobility: The Evaluation of Interactive Systems Used by Travellers in Transportation Contexts BIBAKFull-Text 301-310
  Christophe Kolski; Guillaume Uster; Jean-Marc Robert; Káthia Marçal de Oliveira; Bertrand David
Transportation is a rich and complex domain for studying the use of interactive systems because of the diversity of travellers, activities, systems, and contexts of use, and the challenges that mobility represents for evaluation. In this paper we examine some new perspectives on transport and mobility and their impacts on evaluation. We propose to go beyond the evaluation of system utility, compatibility, accessibility and usability, and adopt the inclusive concept of User Experience. Finally we propose the use of a model-based engineering approach to take into account the variety of interactive systems, computing platforms, and media used in transport.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Mobility; Evaluation; transportation
Evaluation of Wayfinding Performance and Workload on Electronic Map Interface BIBAKFull-Text 311-320
  Ya-Li Lin; Cheng-Han Wang
Electronic map (E-map) is important to support wayfinding, especially for finding unfamiliar routes in the current Web mapping service applications. This study examined the effects of four designing factors including Map Size, Map Type, Direction key, and Zoom function as well as the ability of sense of direction (SOD) and gender differences on the wayfinding performance for a simulated E-map interface. The results indicate that participants with a better SOD would have the faster response time in average and would lower overall workload for target task. Furthermore, participants would have higher workload as the response time is increasing. The interaction effect of SOD and map type would affect the mean response time for target and direction tasks. Participants with good SOD using mixed map have the faster mean response time than ones of poor SOD. For direction task, males with good SOD and good SOD using E-map would have faster mean response time. In addition, both males using mixed map and females using E-map would have faster mean response time.
Keywords: Electronic map (E-map); Wayfinding Performance; sense of direction; NASA-TLX Task Load Index
Implementing Effective Tactile Symbology for Orientation and Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 321-328
  Bruce Mortimer; Gary Zets; Greg Mort; Curtis Shovan
The sense of touch is an effective, but underutilized, human communication channel. In this paper we describe our research efforts towards optimizing a minimal tactile array for personal navigation and route guidance. There are several aspects to this problem. From an information transfer viewpoint, the question of tactor array size, dimension, location and display symbology requires careful consideration. Effective tactile display symbology involves providing information in an intuitive manner without adding to the cognitive loading of the user. Tactile information may be presented through spatial, temporal and signal variables. We have recently developed new wearable tactors that offer wide sensory capabilities to provide different "feeling" stimuli. These actuators are non-linear in that the salient characteristics for perception are linked to a complex drive stimulus. We have therefore developed a tactor activation design approach termed "TActions" (Tactile Actions) where patterns or sequence of individual tactile stimuli, each of which has its own characteristics and properties, are used to create tactile display symbology that a user can naturally associate with a particular function. These components provide display design frame work which we have used to demonstrate orientation and navigation.
Keywords: Tactile display; navigation; tactor
Using Sound Patterns to Enhance Directional Sound for Emergency Route Guidance BIBAKFull-Text 329-337
  Tom Plocher; Zhaoxia Janet Jin; Foong-Yeen Donny Chan
Broadband sound emitted by digital sounder devices has been shown be a useful means for guiding building occupants to the correct emergency, particularly under conditions of darkness and obscuration from smoke. Standard practice has been to place a single sounder by the emergency exit door to function as an "auditory exit sign." The current paper reports on studies conducted in full scale building environments that investigated ways in which multiple sounders could be used along a route in a building to provide emergency route guidance to building occupants. The relative effectiveness of various patterns of sounder activation patterns is described. One such pattern that uses sequential activation of sounders together with number of sound pulses to encode sounder position along the evacuation route is particularly promising.
Keywords: directional sound; guidance; audio; evacuation; buildings
A Knowledge Elicitation Study for a Speech Enabled GIS to Handle Vagueness in Communication BIBAKFull-Text 338-345
  Hongmei Wang
One of challenges toward development of usable speech enabled Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is how to handle vagueness that naturally exist in human-GIS communication. The meaning of some spatial concepts are not only fuzzy, but also context dependent. To enable the GIS to handle the vagueness problem, in particular, the context-dependency sub-problem, we propose to design a collaborative speech enabled GIS, which can emulate a human GIS operator's role and handle the vagueness problem in communication through collaborative dialogues. To emulate a human GIS operator's role, the GIS must have knowledge corresponding to a human GIS operator's knowledge involved in handling the vagueness problem. This paper describes a knowledge elicitation study that we conducted to elicit human GIS operators' knowledge about how to handle the vagueness problem through collaborative dialogues. A speech enabled GIS, Dave_G, incorporates part of the study results. This system is able to handle the vagueness problem through various collaborative dialogues.
Keywords: GIS; Knowledge elicitation study; Vagueness problems; Human-GIS Communication; Collaborative dialogue strategies
Believe What You Hear, Not What You See -- Vision Interferes with Auditory Route Guidance in Complex Environment BIBAKFull-Text 346-354
  Ying Wang; Huiting Zhang; Lu Yu; Kan Zhang; Xianghong Sun; Thomas Plocher
Auditory route guidance has a potential use for sighted people who have to conduct emergent real-world task during navigation. Despite its affordance in assisting people in the absence of vision, it may receive interference from vision under normal visual condition. The present study tested the effect of vision on auditory route guidance using different display modes. Normal sighted firefighters were instructed to navigate within a virtual building following auditory commands from a navigation aid, either under normal (high-visibility) or smoked (low-visibility) visual condition. Navigation in normal visual condition was faster but less accurate than that under low-visibility, and was characterized by unique walking patterns. Moreover, it resulted in worse spatial memory and less positive experience toward the system. These results suggest that the interaction mode of human and auditory route guidance system could be modified by vision. Clear visual inputs boost risk-taking behaviors in route following, which might lead to dangerous consequence in specific navigation tasks. Furthermore, the interference from vision was not restricted to specific display mode, indicating that it might be a general problem for auditory route guidance. As a challenging and primary human factor issue, it should attract more attention and caution in future research and design work.
Keywords: auditory route guidance; vision; firefighter; human-computer interaction; visual auditory interaction

In-Vehicle Interaction

A Study and Evaluation on Route Guidance of a Car Navigation System Based on Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 357-366
  Kengo Akaho; Takashi Nakagawa; Yoshihisa Yamaguchi; Katsuya Kawai; Hirokazu Kato; Shogo Nishida
We have developed AR-Navi, which is a car navigation system based on augmented reality technology. AR-Navi overlays computer graphics element on live video feed captured by the in-vehicle camera. In this study, we investigated and evaluated information presentation methods in intersection guidance by AR-Navi, from consideration of ease of understanding and also safety. As a result of the evaluations, we confirmed ease of understanding, safety, and the characteristics of AR-Navi in comparison with CG-Navi.
Keywords: Car navigation systems; Augmented reality; Route guidance
Evaluation of Collision Avoidance Prototype Head-Up Display Interface for Older Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 367-375
  Vassilis Charissis; Stylianos Papanastasiou; Lewis M. Mackenzie; Sachi Arafat
Spatial and situational awareness could be decreased significantly under low visibility and adverse weather conditions. This could affect exponentially the reactions of the older drivers and increase dramatically their collision probability. To this end we developed a novel Head-Up Display interface that aims to reinstate the drivers' vision which is predominantly hindered under these conditions. In particular the proposed interface entails symbolic representations of the lead vehicles and crucial road information, which effectively enhances driver's vision. The proposed system was evaluated through a comparative study against the typical instrumentation panel. The evaluation results were overall in favour of the prototype interface which improved significantly the reaction times of the older drivers and decreased the collision occurrences.
Keywords: Older drivers; Head-Up Display; HCI; Driving Simulator; low visibility; navigation system; visual interface; collision avoidance
The H-Metaphor as an Example for Cooperative Vehicle Driving BIBAKFull-Text 376-385
  Daniel Damböck; Martin Kienle; Klaus Bengler; Heiner Bubb
For quite a while the automotive industry has been working on assistance systems to improve safety and comfort of today's vehicles. In the course of this development combined with increasingly capable sensors, assistance systems have become more and more powerful. This whole development enlarges the role of the human, beginning from the actual driver of the car up to a supervisor of the automation state. On the one hand this leads to a relief in the drivers workload. On the other hand effects like out-of-the-loop and associated with that a loss of situation awareness can appear. Trying to solve this clash of objectives, the project "H-Mode" follows an idea of vehicle driving where the automation is capable of driving almost autonomous, but the driver is still kept active and in the loop by cooperating with the automation-system. The article describes the idea of cooperative driving and especially the H-Metaphor. Furthermore an example is given how this concept is used in the development of assistance and automation systems.
Keywords: highly automated driving; driver assistance; shared control; haptic feedback; cooperative control; side stick
Factors for Representing In-Vehicle Roominess BIBAKFull-Text 386-390
  Wonil Hwang; Nam-Hyo Kim; Hyeong-Joon Ahn; Hee-Seok Jung
Car drivers or passengers tend to perceive the interior space of motor vehicles as a psychological space rather than a physical space. Even though cars have the same or similar volumes of the interior space, car users may perceive different in-vehicle roominess according to the characteristics of the interior space of the cars. In this study, we aim to investigate factors that represent in-vehicle roominess as psychological dimensions. 7 experts participated in collecting 105 psychological expressions for in-vehicle roominess, and the experiments were conducted with 15 participants and 7 diverse motor vehicles. Through factor analysis and multiple linear regression, we found 10 factors and 3 most influential factors in the in-vehicle roominess: namely, 'space completeness', 'narrowness' and 'dullness'. We anticipate utilizing these factors for designing the interior space of motor vehicles in terms of psychological dimensions.
Keywords: Interior Roominess of Vehicles; Psychological Dimensions; In-vehicle Roominess Factors
Analysis of Low-Floor Bus Passengers' Behavior Patterns Using Video Observation BIBAKFull-Text 391-400
  Ji Yeon Kim; Hwan Hwangbo; Beom Suk Jin; Bong-Ha Hwang; Young Joo Moon; Yong Gu Ji
Low floor buses have regarded as a transportation which is applied to the concept of universal design. However, studies on low-floor buses in terms of universal design were rarely conducted. Moreover, passengers using low-floor buses have felt that these buses are not convenient, satisfactory and safe enough. In this study, we conducted preliminary surveys to investigate the interior design factors which affect to passengers' convenience and satisfaction. Next, we draw passengers' behavior patterns based on context of use by conducting video observation and based on these, some design suggestions were drawn to investigate the way to ensure convenience, satisfaction and safety in using low-floor buses.
Keywords: Low-floor bus; Behavior Pattern; Video Observation; Context of use; Universal design
The Effective IVIS Menu and Control Type of an Instrumental Gauge Cluster and Steering Wheel Remote Control with a Menu Traversal BIBAKFull-Text 401-410
  Seong M. Kim; Jaekyu Park; Jaeho Choe; Eui S. Jung
The present study investigated the effective IVIS menu and control type of the instrument gauge cluster and steering wheel remote control. Participants performed menu traversal tasks with a steering wheel remote control and gauge cluster display in a driving video simulation. Two steps of experiment were conducted. The first was focused on the menu type and within-subject factorial design was implemented with two levels of menu types (the spread and overlapped menu type), two levels of control types (the wheel and touch wheel controller) and two levels of menu traversal tasks. Subjective ratings of a preference (using modified Likert-type rating scale) and a menu traversal time and routing error were obtained as performance measures. ANOVA results showed that the menu type, control type and the interaction of the control and task were significantly affected by each of the independent variables. The result implied that the spread menu type and wheel controller were more effective. The second experiment was focused on the control type with the spread menu type and within-subject factorial design was implemented with two levels of control types (the wheel and 4-way directional controller) and two levels of menu traversal tasks. ANOVA results of a performance showed that the control type and task were significantly affected. The result implied that the wheel control type with the spread menu type was more effective IVIS interface alternative on a gauge cluster and steering wheel remote control.
Keywords: IVIS Interface; IVIS Menu Traversal; IVIS Menu Type and Control Type
Assessing the Effect of a Power-Flow Gauge on Driving Behaviors Affecting Energy Consumption BIBAKFull-Text 411-417
  Sang-Hwan Kim; Heramb Dandekar; Edgar Camez; Heather Harrelson
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a power-flow gauge for indicating current level of "economic" driving for a simulated electric vehicle based on drivers' acceleration and braking pedal pressing behaviors. Sixteen participants were asked to drive a driving simulator with/without integrating the power-flow gauge interface for city and highway. The mean and kurtosis (stability) of acceleration and brake pedal press positions were recorded. Results showed stable (non-aggressive) acceleration behaviors when drivers used the interface. This indicates that the presence of a power-flow gauge encouraged the drivers to maintain a relatively steady acceleration pedal position as well as how the changes in driving behavior may affect energy consumptions in forms of economic driving.
Keywords: Power-flow gauge interface; Driving behaviors; Economic-driving
In-Car Dictation and Driver's Distraction: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 418-425
  Martin Labský; Tomás Macek; Jan Kleindienst; Holger Quast; Christophe Couvreur
We describe a prototype dictation UI for use in cars and evaluate it by measuring (1) driver's distraction, (2) task completion time, and (3) task completion quality. We use a simulated lane change test (LCT) to assess driving quality while using the prototype, while texting using a cell phone and when just driving. The prototype was used in two modes -- with and without a display (eyes-free). Several statistics were collected from the reference and distracted driving LCT trips for a group of 11 test subjects. These statistics include driver's mean deviation from ideal path, the standard deviation of driver's lateral position on the road, reaction times and the amount and quality of entered text. We confirm that driving performance was significantly better when using a speech enabled UI compared to texting using a cell phone. Interestingly, we measured a significant improvement in driving quality when the same dictation prototype was used in eyes-free mode.
Driver's Experience and Behavioral Patterns through the Observation of Commercial Vehicle Driving BIBAKFull-Text 426-434
  Youngjae Lim; Sungjoon Park; Eui S. Jung; Taeil Kim
The objective of this paper was to investigate the driver's experience of commercial vehicle driving. This activity analysis was performed to account for anything that a person does in the cabin. The main user activities were classified into three groups; critical, significant and moderate. The user activities were also analyzed with respect to ergonomic approaches such as using an ergonomic checklist and an expert evaluation. The evaluation results showed that there was not enough space among the seat control buttons. In addition, the center console lacked storage facilities compared to the occupied space. The observation of behavioral patterns was conducted to guide an observer though the user environment. A total of 11 commercial vehicle drivers were recruited for this study. The 17 representative behavioral patterns were defined in terms of the frequency and severity of events. By taking advantage of observations, a variety of recommendations could be made from the user-centric perspective.
Keywords: User Experience; Observation; Behavioral patterns
Predicting the Effects of Time-Gaps for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) on Bus Driver Performance BIBAKFull-Text 435-443
  Brian Tsang-Wei Lin; Sheue-Ling Hwang
Researchers have a deal of attention to the effects on driver performance when driving with assist systems. This article describes modeling approach to simulate the effects of time-gaps for adaptive cruise control (ACC) on bus driver's performance. A concept model was built with the knowledge of modularization, parameterization, and parallel processing. By running the model, the predictions for the effects of five levels of time-gaps were collected in two measures, mean gap and minimum gap. Predictions from the model were validated by the experiment with a verified fix-based bus driving simulator in authors' previous studies. Through the modeling approach, this research provides a theoretical and accurate way to assess effects of time-gaps. To apply this approach to the evaluation on other driving assist systems (e.g. collision warning systems & navigation systems) is the next topic for authors to work on.
Keywords: Adaptive cruise control (ACC); Driver performance modeling approaches; Time-gaps
Beginner Driver Support System for Merging into Left Main Lane BIBAKFull-Text 444-451
  Yuki Nakamura; Yoshio Nakatani
On Japanese high-ways, sharp turn and merging areas are the critical points where the majority of accidents occur. A number of studies have therefore taken place to date on supporting safer driving in merge areas within a framework of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Most of these studies, however, have assumed that drivers merge into the right main lane from the left lane because it is natural for Japanese drivers to do so, and in actuality those merge areas being rather prevalent in Japan. On actual roads, due to restrictions crossroads or the geographical conditions areas where drivers merge from the right lane into left main lane are also present. Cars in Japan are right wheel drive, thus it is difficult for a driver in a right driver's seat to monitor what is behind on the left. Monitoring left rear involves the motion of turning the body to the left, and at worst, a wheel turn to the left. This may cause a collision with other cars and, even if it is does not result in an accident, a stop or a slowdown, obstructing the following traffic. Beginner drivers find it particularly difficult to merge into the left lane. In this study, we suggest some technical skills that can be of support to beginner drivers when merging into the left main lane. As future work, we discuss a new driver support system that utilizes road-to-vehicle communication equipment via CCD-camera.
Keywords: ITS; merging; main lane; driver support system
Multimodal Interface for Driving-Workload Optimization BIBAKFull-Text 452-461
  Hyesun Park; Jongwoo Choi; Hyeong-Joon Kwon; Kyong-ho Kim
Today, driving convenience has increased greatly owing to the availability of various telematics devices developed recently. However, this convenience often comes at the cost of driving safety. With the aim of achieving a balance between them, we propose a multi-modal interface for optimizing driving workload and describe an efficient design for the interface. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the interface, we use it in a simulator environment resembling real driving situations, designed to allow the interface to detect and analyze states of both the driver and the vehicle in real time. The proposed interface transfers information by optimizing the driving workload such that it within a range appropriate in view of driver safety. In the future, we intend to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed interface through multiple experiments.
Keywords: Driving-Workload Optimization; Multi-Modal Interface; Telematics Devices; Vehicle Simulator; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

Social and Environmental Issues in HCI

Proposal of a Method for Promotion of Continuous Pro-Environmental Behavior with Easy Communication BIBAKFull-Text 465-473
  Saizo Aoyagi; Tomoaki Okamura; Hirotake Ishii; Hiroshi Shimoda
In Japan, Promotion of Domestic Pro-Environmental Behavior (PEB) is one of the main challenges for energy saving. Existing studies of Promotion of PEB seldom deal with continue of PEB. Purposes of this study are proposal of a method for promotion of continuous PEB with easy communication and evaluation of the effectiveness of the method. Main part of the proposed method is an easy communication system to cause social facilitation of PEB among users. An evaluation experiment with ten participants was conducted and the result showed that the proposed method promotes domestic PEB if "feeling of joint PEB" is aroused.
Keywords: Pro-Environmental Behavior; Computer Mediated Communication; Social impact theory; Easy communication; Social stress
A Context Centric Approach to Utilize Social Media Services on Public Terminals BIBAKFull-Text 474-482
  Micha Block; Jasmin Link; Simon Thiel
The development of new technologies for touch sensitive surfaces led to a revival of touch interfaces in innovative scenarios and a wide field of application. They can now be found in a range of hardware products on the market from small handhelds and tablets, to terminals, interactive tables and walls. In combination with information and communication technologies like GPS, wireless LAN, cameras, motion and light sensors -- as most of the smart phones are already equipped with -- the way is set for modern social software to conquer these devices. The paper illustrates a context centric approach to utilize these new technologies to access social media services in public location-based contexts on "Social Terminals".
Keywords: public social terminals; touch interfaces; multitouch; context centric design; social media services; terminal development; concept evaluation
Accessibility for Older Users through Adaptive Interfaces: Opportunities, Challenges and Achievements BIBAKFull-Text 483-489
  Rob Edlin-White; Sue Cobb; Mirabelle D'Cruz; Anne Floyde; Sarah Lewthwaite; Johann Riedel
It has been widely suggested that accessibility to technology for older people could be improved by the provision of adaptive user interfaces. However there has been little practical work in the area. The MyUI project sets out to explore this area and to build infrastructure and three demonstrator applications based on interactive TV technology. This paper, looking at the project from a Human Factors perspective, explores whether accessibility for older people through dynamically adapting interfaces is a realistic goal, identifies some challenges and research questions, and provides an insight into some achievements and ongoing work in the project.
Keywords: "older people"; "adaptive interfaces"; "accessibility"
Computer Usage and User Experience in Jordan: Development and Application of the Diamond Model of Territorial Factors BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Fuad El-Qirem; Gilbert Cockton
The Diamond Model structures territorial factors of relevance to Interaction Design into five segments with objective and subjective facets. The initial structure and content was derived iteratively on the basis of a literature survey. Three field studies were then used to populate the model with Jordanian instances of cultural and other territorial variables, and to add new variables to the model. The model can act as design resource that combines concerns from HCI4D (HCI for Development) with cultural variables that extend beyond the acceptability and suitability of user interface elements. The derivation and evolution of a Jordanian instance of the model is presented, with brief suggestions on how it could be used by software development teams.
Keywords: HCI4D; Diamond model; cultural differences; geographical differences
GooGreen: Towards Increasing the Environmental Awareness of Households BIBAKFull-Text 500-509
  Ruud Mattheij; Lindsy Szilvasi; Lorraine de Beer; Kartini Rakiman; Suleman Shahid
In this paper, we present an interaction design exploration into the possibilities of using a computer application to increase the sustainability of households in an enjoyable manner. This is achieved by providing household members with personal information regarding their energy consumption and its related costs. This application also introduces a competition element that links the energy consumption in every household member's room to their personal user account in order to motivate users to compare their energy consumption with other household members. Early results show that the system indeed enhances the environmental awareness and that users are pleased with the idea of competition-based energy savings.
Keywords: Saving energy; sustainability; energy consumption; advice; control; competition element; environmental awareness
User Experience of Social Bookmarking Tools BIBAKFull-Text 510-516
  Enric Mor; Núria Ferran; Muriel Garreta Domingo; Juan Antonio Mangas Forner
Information and knowledge society brings a new context where technology enhanced tools are key elements for being able to find, evaluate, use and communicate information effectively and efficiently [1]. Bookmarking tools could be the essential tools for supporting information behaviour, specifically information managing and communication. This paper analyses the user experience of existing bookmarking and social bookmarking tools in an e-learning environment. The educational setting provides the required environment to truly study these tools, since their success is not only in the ease of storing, tagging and sharing resources at a given moment in time but in how these resources will be retrieved when needed in the future. In this paper we present a functional analysis and the usability inspection of the tools that support the management and usage of information resources both during short and long terms.
Keywords: Information society; information skills; information management; bookmarking tools; usability evaluation; e-learning

Emotions in HCI

ShoeBox: A Natural Way of Organizing Pictures According to User's Affinities BIBAKFull-Text 519-524
  Bojan Blazica; Daniel Vladusic; Dunja Mladenic
In this paper we tackle the problem of personalizing the experience of browsing through digital pictures. We address two questions: how to capture the user's personal affinity for a particular picture and how to visualize a large collection of pictures. We propose a novel approach towards organizing pictures called ShoeBox that aims for automatic capturing of the user's affinity for individual pictures.
Keywords: personal information management; digital photo collection; visualization; ranking; user-centered design
Toward Adapting Interactions by Considering User Emotions and Capabilities BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Idoia Cearreta; Nestor Garay-Vitoria
Ambient Intelligence and Affective Computing areas are working on trying to make interfaces more natural from the human side. Taking personal, device and system characteristics into account, adaptive interfaces might help to achieve a greater user satisfaction and it is expected the results can be enhanced when bearing user affectivity in mind. In this paper, an ontology that describes affective interactions has been extended in order to represent information about user's sensorial and perceptual capabilities when he/she interacts with systems. Two use cases applying ontology are presented herein.
Keywords: Affective Computing; Adaptations of Interactions; Ontology
A Haptic Emotional Model for Audio System Interface BIBAKFull-Text 535-542
  Yuki Ichiyanagi; Eric W. Cooper; Victor V. Kryssanov; Hitoshi Ogawa
The presented study deals with the problem of selecting music content in digital media, such as mp3 file collections. Usually, to select a specific music file (e.g. a song), one has to directly use some a priori data about the file content, e.g. the artist's name, genre, year of release, or the like. In many situations, however, this data is not visible, does not offer enough information, or otherwise does not provide for any immediately accessible mode for selecting the audio content. With the appropriate models of interaction, haptic output devices have a number of advantages for such selection tasks. First, as haptically enabled systems are becoming common, users are becoming more and more familiar with this modality of user-system interaction. Results of recent studies also suggest that the sense of touch may be more closely associated with moods and emotions than other modalities of interaction. Finally, the sense of touch is available without interference with visual or auditory channels. In the presented study, a model is proposed that links emotional states apparently evoked by music content to specific haptic stimuli. An experiment is conducted to verify tactile-emotive associations assumed by the model, and also to explore whether music specific characteristics, such as genre, would directly be related to haptic sensations. Experimental results obtained are discussed and used to design a novel user interface for an audio system. The envisaged interface would allow for selecting music through tactile interactions. The study's conclusions are drawn, and future work is outlined.
Keywords: User interface; music selection; haptic
Guess Who? An Interactive and Entertaining Game-Like Platform for Investigating Human Emotions BIBAKFull-Text 543-551
  Muneeb Imtiaz Ahmad; Hassan Tariq; Mehreen Saeed; Suleman Shahid; Emiel Krahmer
In this paper, we discuss the design and the development of a highly customizable interactive platform 'Guess Who', which was designed as a tool for investigating human emotions in a variety of experimental setups. In its essence, 'Guess Who?' is actually a game, which includes typical game elements (winning, loosing, scoring) and can also be played purely for entertainment purposes. The design of the game includes three major elements; 1) experimenter-friendly customizable interface, 2) single player mode-laying against an intelligent computer, 3) two player mode -- playing with a remote opponent over the internet via audio video communication channel. Early user evaluations show that Guess Who game is not only a very productive research tool for researchers, where researchers are able to record valuable data in different experimental conditions in a natural way, but also a great source of entertainment for children.
Keywords: Games; Emotions; Child-Computer Interaction; Usability
Adaptive Machine Learning Approach for Emotional Email Classification BIBAKFull-Text 552-558
  K. Karthik; R. Ponnusamy
Emotional e-mail classification is one of the important issues in the service oriented organizations. E-mails are served in a first come first serve basis. Few e-mails express the unfair treatment or dissatisfaction of service. It is essential to serve such e-mails with a high priority. In this paper an attempt is made to identify such mails which express the strong emotions of the customers / stakeholders. This system classifies the e-mails in to three categories via positive, negative and other mails. An adaptive machine learning algorithm that uses combined SVD and KNN methods is developed to solve the problem of emotional e-mail classification. Also an emotional dictionary is used as a central component of this system that serves various emotional words and phrases for classification. The system also adaptive in nature and adapts various new words and phrases that explicates the emotion.
Keywords: E-mail Classification; Emotion; Machine Learning Algorithm; Emotional Dictionary
Designing Poetic Interaction in Space BIBAKFull-Text 559-568
  Yi-Chu Lin; Huang-Ming Chang; Rung-Huei Liang
An amount of research has risen growing concern of designing aesthetics of interaction in addition to function, usability, and pleasure of it. Beyond aesthetic interaction, we propose poetic interaction as a promising design genre. Based on Bachelard's phenomenological approach, we suggest that poetic interaction design begin with imagination and expression-making of both material and computational things. The challenges include how to design successful reverberation and admiration of poetic images while one interacts and reflects. Examining spatial metaphors, we classify poetic interaction into poetic space and interactive artifacts. With gestalt psychology, we present practical guides for designing poetic interaction. Two examples illustrate the relationship between poetic images and expression-making. Finally, we implement a design work, whisper, to explore the framework, as well as validate our findings via a qualitative experiment. Participants were positively impressed that interaction could deliver experience of poetic images with artifacts and space of implicit expression.
Keywords: Interaction Design; Poetic Image; Poetic Interaction; Poetic Space; Expression-making; Gestalt; Computational Artifacts
Spectral Subtraction Based Emotion Recognition Using EEG BIBAKFull-Text 569-576
  Jin-Hong Min; Hyeong-Oh Kwon; Kwang-Seok Hong
In this paper, an EEG-based emotion database was reconstructed using spectral subtraction, and recognition performances were evaluated. For subtraction, we created two types of databases. One database included facial expression readings, and the other included both emotion and facial expression readings. A reconstructed database containing pure emotional information was achieved by spectral subtraction, and compared with the original recorded data of emotion and facial expression readings. Facial expression illustrations and the International Affective Picture System were used for inducing facial expressions and feelings. EEG data was recorded after an emotion was excited or while imitating a particular facial expression. By subtracting the database of information related to facial expressions from a database about facial expressions and emotions, pure information about emotion was created. The method used to separate emotion and expression in a database was spectral subtraction. Recognition experiments were classified into six types of emotions. Using the original database, the true emotion could be guessed from EEG readings 29.9% of the time, but using the reconstructed database resulted in an 81.7% recognition rate.
Keywords: EEG; Spectrum Subtraction; Emotion Recognition
Improving Human-Machine Interaction -- A Non Invasive Approach to Detect Emotions in Car Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 577-585
  Michael Oehl; Felix W. Siebert; Tessa-Karina Tews; Rainer Höger; Hans-Rüdiger Pfister
As cars become increasingly computerized, automatic emotion detection and affective computing provides a promising basis for future-oriented human-computer interaction (HCI) in cars. However, we are still facing severe problems when trying to detect the users' emotional state reliably. This experimental study investigated grip-strength as a new non-invasive method to detect emotions directly in an automobile context. A positive emotion (happiness) and a negative emotion (anger) were examined regarding their influence on grip-strength applied to the steering wheel. Results confirmed and extended preliminary findings: Drivers' grip-strength slightly increased while driving a car when happiness was experienced and especially decreased when anger was experienced. Implications for further research as well as for praxis are outlined.
Keywords: Emotion detection in cars; human-computer interaction; human-centered design; affective computing
Emotion Recognition Using Biological Signal in Intelligent Space BIBAKFull-Text 586-592
  Kanlaya Rattanyu; Makoto Mizukawa
In this study, we focus on emotion recognition for service robots in the living space based on Electrocardiogram (ECG). An emotional state is important information that allows a robot system to provide appropriate services in way that are more in tune with users' needs and preferences. Moreover, the users' emotional state can be feedbacks to evaluate user's level of satisfaction in the services. We apply a diagnosis method that uses both inter-beat and within-beat features of ECG. The post hoc tests in Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that our approach satisfies more confidence level of difference between emotions than conventional methods. Our system design was based on wireless and wearable biological sensor for mobility and convenience of users' daily lifestyle.
Keywords: Emotion Recognition; ECG; Intelligent Space
Intentionality in Interacting with Companion Systems -- An Empirical Approach BIBAKFull-Text 593-602
  Dietmar Rösner; Rafael Friesen; Mirko Otto; Julia Lange; Matthias Haase; Jörg Frommer
We report about a WOZ experiment with a carefully designed scenario that allows to investigate how users interact with a companion system in a mundane situation with the need for planning, re-planning and strategy change. The data collection from the experiments comprises multimodal records (audio, video, biopsychological parameters) and transcripts of the verbal interaction, and all subjects fill out a battery of well established psychometric questionnaires about various aspects especially of their personality. This will allow to correlate observed behaviour and detected affects and emotions with measured aspects of the personality of subjects and is expected to serve as a basis for defining a typology of users. In addition, a subgroup of the subjects takes part in semiformal in-depth interviews that focus on retrospective reflexion of the users' subjective experience during the experiments and especially on the intentionality that users ascribed to the system during the course of interaction.
Keywords: Intentionality; Wizard of Oz; Companion Systems; Emotion; Multimodal
Multimodal Emotion Classification in Naturalistic User Behavior BIBAFull-Text 603-611
  Steffen Walter; Stefan Scherer; Martin Schels; Michael Glodek; David Hrabal; Miriam Schmidt; Ronald Böck; Kerstin Limbrecht; Harald C. Traue; Friedhelm Schwenker
The design of intelligent personalized interactive systems, having knowledge about the user's state, his desires, needs and wishes, currently poses a great challenge to computer scientists. In this study we propose an information fusion approach combining acoustic, and bio-physiological data, comprising multiple sensors, to classify emotional states. For this purpose a multimodal corpus has been created, where subjects undergo a controlled emotion eliciting experiment, passing several octants of the valence arousal dominance space. The temporal and decision level fusion of the multiple modalities outperforms the single modality classifiers and shows promising results.