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HCII Tables of Contents: 07-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-2

HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on HCI - Posters' Extended Abstracts, Part I

Fullname:HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on HCI Posters' Extended Abstracts Part I
Note:Volume 22 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Communications in Computer and Information Science 173
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-22097-5 (print), 978-3-642-22098-2 (online); hcibib: HCII11-5
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 5
    1. Part I / Design Methods, Techniques and Knowledge
    2. Part II / Usability and User Experience
    3. Part III / Cultural, Cross-Cultural and Aesthetic Issues in HCI
    4. Part IV / Cognitive and Psychological Issues in HCI
    5. Part V / Inclusive Design and Accessibility
    6. Part VI / Social Interaction and On-line Communities
    7. Part VII / Work and Collaboration
    8. Part VIII / Access to Information and Knowledge

HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 5

Part I / Design Methods, Techniques and Knowledge

Professional Graphic Designers Approaching Visual Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 3-7
  Joanne Elizabeth Beriswill
This case study involves the redesign of the visual interface for an instructional website. Three expert designers were individually asked to redesign the interface. Through stimulated-recall sessions, the participants commented on their initial design. The data patterns indicated divergences, as well as convergences, among the participants. Participants varied from a basic linear process to successive approximations. Similarities included the primary focus on an anchor graphic, the exploration of colors and typography, and the extensive use of resources.
Co-discovery Method and Its Application with Children as Research Subjects BIBAFull-Text 8-12
  Alessandra Carusi; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
The abstract should summarize the contents of the paper and should contain at least 70 and at most 150 words. It should be set in 9-point font size and should be inset 1.0 cm from the right and left margins. There should be two blank (10-point) lines before and after the abstract. This document is in the required format.
Get Your Mobile App Out the Door BIBAKFull-Text 13-17
  Heather Cottingham; Michele Snyder
The increased speed and vast number of mobile products being released into the market has demanded that Oracle design and develop mobile products faster. These applications must be innovative to stay competitive in the market place. We will present a rapid design and research process that has been used to create a superior mobile expenses application. This process assisted in learning user requirements, validating concepts, and getting detailed usability feedback.
Keywords: mobile application; rapid design cycle; user research
Activity-Centered Design: An Appropriation Issue BIBAKFull-Text 18-22
  Yvon Haradji; Germain Poizat; Florence Motté
When designing workplace computer systems one must take human activity into account. It has become standard practice to approach this issue through user-centered design. The aim of this paper is to stimulate thought on activity-centered design and to propose the concept of appropriation as a fundamental principle of this design approach. This orientation aims to take into consideration the constituent function of tools during conception. We will take the design of computer systems dedicated to customer relations as an example.
Keywords: Activity centered-design; appropriation; customer relation
Conjoint Analysis Method That Minimizes the Number of Profile Cards BIBAKFull-Text 23-28
  Hiroyuki Ikemoto; Toshiki Yamaoka
Conjoint analysis is an effective method for use in deciding on a product concept. However, when numerous items are being surveyed, the number of profile cards shown to survey respondents increases and responding becomes more difficult. This makes it necessary to restrict the number of items being surveyed. This paper proposes a method of analysis that makes it possible to use a lower number of profile cards than that provided by the orthogonal design of experiment even when a large number of items is being surveyed. An Internet survey of 1,600 consumers using this method indicated that it generated identical analytical results to those produced when the orthogonal design of experiment was used.
Keywords: conjoint analysis; industrial design; incomplete rank ordered data
Research on the Role of the Sketch in Design Idea Generation BIBAKFull-Text 29-32
  Yuichi Izu; Koichiro Sato; Yoshiyuki Matsuoka
The purpose of this research is to solve the function achieved in the design idea generation of idea sketches. We conducted the comparative-analysis experiment on the relation between the sketch and an idea generation. We considered the relation between display technique and the design idea generation to the experimental result by the "Multispace Design Model" which shows the comprehensive viewpoint of design thinking. In conclusion, from the relation between sketch skill and the number of deployment, the following were shown about the role of the display technique in the idea generation. One is a conversion function from a keyword with the high degree of abstraction to an attribute element, and another is a deployment function from "Structure Attributes" to "Appearance Attributes" in attribute examination of form.
Keywords: Design idea generation; Idea sketches; Multispace Design Model
Initial Perspectives from Preferences Expressed through Comparisons BIBAKFull-Text 33-37
  Nicolas Jones; Armelle Brun; Anne Boyer
Rating-scales have become a popular modality for expressing our preferences, but they present several drawbacks. We have recently proposed a new modality: comparing items ("I prefer A to B"). After initial user-studies with encouraging results, we here share some initial perspectives. In particular we examine three issues illustrated with graphs of user's preferences. We discuss the adaptability of comparisons, their algorithmic complexity and incoherences introduced by transitivity.
Keywords: preference expression; comparisons; ratings
Reducing Uncertainty in a Human-Centered Design Approach: Using Actor-Network Theory Analysis to Establish Fluid Design Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 38-42
  Ryan Kirk; Anna Prisacari
When designing, it can be difficult to keep track of all of the complex and varying relationships that exist. This paper is intended to persuade designers to consider using Actor-Network Theory (ANT) in order to gain insights about the existence and the nature of complex relationships occurring within a usage scenario. ANT allows for the creation of network maps that may offer insights about future interactions that are useful for gauging the appropriateness of a particular technological intervention. Guidelines are offered for using ANT for design. Future work is being done to further establish and validate methodologies for creating ANT network maps.
Keywords: Actor-Network Theory; network; design
Verification of Centrality to Extract Proper Factors in Model Construction Process by Using Creativity Technique BIBAKFull-Text 43-47
  Kodai Kitami; Ryosuke Saga; Kazunori Matsumoto
This paper describes the verification of measure to extract factors in a factor model construction process. We have proposed a factor model construction process that uses structural equation modeling and KJ method to construct an objective factor model. KJ method is a creativity technique and a bottom-up approach which members of small group think out, refine, and organize ideas. We apply degree centrality to extract factors from a model constructed by KJ method in this process. There are several different centralities such as closeness and betweenness, which may be superior to degree centrality. Therefore, we verified a method for selecting a centrality by determining the changes in a goodness-of-fit-index and the features of a constructed model by three centralities.
Keywords: Causality analysis; Factor model construction process; SEM; KJ method; Centrality
User-Centered Approach for NEC Product Development BIBAKFull-Text 48-52
  Izumi Kohno; Hiromi Fujii
We present the work we have done on the universal design of our products, solutions, and services. We consider universal design to have three aspects: accessibility, usability, and innovation. General universal design is composed of only accessibility and usability. NEC Group universal design includes the concept of innovation, which means that our products provide new value to our customers. We use a user-centered design process to make our products more user-friendly, easy-to-use, and innovative. We present two cases in which we applied user-centered design. One is the flight information board at the international passenger terminal of Tokyo International Airport, which features high accessibility and usability. The color, font, and character size were designed to accommodate people with impaired color vision and the elderly. The design process also took into account the location and environment in which the boards were set up. The information is laid out to correspond with how important it is, so passengers can quickly find the information they need. The second case is the robust and durable laptop computer "ShieldPRO." Through observation and information sharing, we learned more about the conditions in which it is used, which enabled us to expand the market. Customers are able to use computers in new application where computers have not been used before, and they can benefit from new value: in other words, innovation. We also interviewed developers and marketers who used this design process and found that user-centered design was effective for improving development efficiency and maintenance as well as for improving sales.
Keywords: universal design concept; flight information board; durable computer
Idea Creation Method Based on Memory BIBAKFull-Text 53-57
  Nozomi Koyatsu; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The purpose of this study is to discover an idea creation method for designers based on memory. This poster focuses on how to use memories to produce new ideas. The author did the workshops based on two previous design works. Then, she proposes the approach that uses memories for designer to produce the idea. There are two different backgrounds in this study. The one is the state that the user enjoys using the tool. Secondarily, there is a reason why designers tend to use the memory to produce new ideas. Brown, R., & Kulik, J. indicated on the paper "Flashbulb memories" the event that strong emotional feelings continue to keep the memory. The author believes idea creative method based on memory helps designers to create various ideas. This research refers to the result of the research that two professors previously did. One is "Photo diary and photo essay" which is a methodology created by the Professor of the first author. Another one is "Changing Personal Memories to Group Memories: Study of a Workshop on the Expression of Personal Memories" that Prof. Nojima at Seijo University is researching. "Photo diary and photo essay" is the methodology for the designer and the developer to be the approach to obtain user information, and to conceive the idea. The photograph is used for this approach. Prof. Nojima's research is based on a study about the method of managing memories by a technological approach. The author is starting this research from the experience of the workshop done by these two previous works to visualize memories.
Keywords: memory; workshop; method for designer; idea creation
Designing Interfaces for Home Energy Users: A Preference Study BIBAKFull-Text 58-62
  Janelle LaMarche; Olga Sachs
The current study compared user-generated preferences of energy management visualizations to established principles of dashboard design and visual perception. Twenty subjects rated paper prototypes of seven energy web portals according to aesthetic and usability parameters and completed a forced-choice task on six visual pairs contrasting elements of feedback design. Questions addressed the look of the interface, understanding, usefulness, friendliness, level of visual clutter, and desire to explore. Results revealed robust differences between mean interface ratings across questions, and follow-up pairwise comparisons further revealed user data was found to be in line with a predetermined pattern of rankings. These results suggest that user-centered design is critical to the implementation and functionality of energy saving visual technologies and can inform future prototypes that maintain effective aesthetics as well as realistic cognition.
Keywords: User Experience; Home Energy Management; Feedback; Interface Design; Psychology
Exploring the Relationship between Thinking Style and Collaborative Design Outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 63-66
  Chiung-Cheng Liao; Wenzhi Chen; Hsien-Hui Tang
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the team members' thinking styles and their performance in collaborative design. 20 undergraduate industrial design students participated in the experiment. The Thinking Style Inventory was used to establish the thinking style profile. The grades of the collaborative design team members were collected. The correlation coefficient of team members' thinking styles profiles was calculated, and the Pearson's correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between project grades and team members' thinking style. The results demonstrated that the team members with difference thinking style could have better performance in the collaborative design team.
Keywords: Thinking styles; Team member; Design performance
Identifying Product Opportunity Based on Interactivity BIBAKFull-Text 67-71
  Seungwoo Maeng; Daeeop Kim; Sang-Su Lee; Kun-Pyo Lee
In the process of developing innovative product concepts, user's needs and technology has been generally regarded as a major driver of innovation [2,9]. And although interaction, being the contact point of the actual user and products or services, has a very high significance, they have been overlooked because they were considered to be dependent factors of products and technologies. The reason for this was because interactions were hard to manipulate and also because they weren't tangible [3]. Being aware of these limitations, there are ongoing researches and studies on the properties of interactivity found in interaction between UX and products [4]. Importance of interactivity and the possibility of interactivity being a driving factor of a new product development attracted attention in this study. Also, a method for extracting functional needs and new product domain was developed based on interactivity, and the effectiveness of this method was checked by using in the process of designing an organic user interface concept.
Keywords: Interactivity; Design Method; Product Concept Development
Idea Creative Method Based on Metaphor for Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 72-76
  Takuya Mitsumaru
The purpose of the research is to propose idea creative method base on metaphor. This method should be included to consider user's lifestyle. Author proposed design method was done from the analysis of the previous work concerning the metaphor and an existing product. It was thought that three patterns "form", "Concept", and "Operation" were effective in use of the metaphor. The prototype was made, and the effectiveness of the conception support method that had done the hypothesis was verified. The kitchen timer was selected this design object. To understand the feature and the improvement of the use pattern of each metaphor, the pattern of thinking that the produced prototype drew was arranged, and visualized. Moreover, the assessment experiment was done to two students who were majoring in the design to judge the improvement of the prototype and the effectiveness of the idea creative method objectively. As for the metaphor using the "Concept", it has been understood that an effective possibility to improve user's interest and curiosity is high in the use pattern of three metaphors. The following want to do the workshop using the conception support method, and to verify effectiveness.
Keywords: metaphor; HCD (Human Centered Design); idea creative method
Persona-Storyboard Fusion: A Hybrid Approach to Improving Design Artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 77-81
  Michael Stewart; Jennifer Francois; Hongbo Zhang; D. Scott McCrickard
We propose and explore a novel method for fusing personas and storyboards in iteration by novice and expert designers. Personas have been shown to provide benefits to designers in understanding their users and keeping them in mind while designing. Storyboards have been shown to facilitate the communication of process between designers and users, and between designers and developers. Our process demonstrates the power and limitations of personas and storyboards, seeking to improve the design artifacts' ability to inform the analysis of a product, and the resulting design implications. We describe the application of our process in a product design exercise. Through our study we saw the fusion of personas and storyboards facilitate the teaching of design.
Keywords: Personas; Storyboards
Studying Analysis Method for the Design Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 82-85
  Inaba Takashi; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The experience economy and the user experience of the word began to spread. And people's sense of values is changing from the thing to experience. In the company, the importance of an innovation has been recognized and the importance of a design also increased. The purpose of this research is a proposal of the analysis method for innovation. In this paper describes The author conducted three analysis method. The first is a demand value analysis. The second is KA method. The third is a method using the experience value. These analysis results were arranged. As a result, the advantage of each method and the problem were found.
Keywords: Analysis Method; Observation; Design Innovation
Balancing Trust and Automation Needs for Effective Home Energy Management BIBAKFull-Text 86-90
  Hari Thiruvengada; Pallavi Dharwada; Anand Tharanathan; Wendy Foslien; Sriharsha Putrevu; John Beane
With the increasing shortage of energy resources and the adverse impact of non-renewable fuels on the environment, there is a shift in the consumer's mindset to emphasize managing and utilizing energy efficiently, reducing green house emissions and contributing to a clean environment. This is especially true to the residential markets where a trusted Home Energy Manager (HEM) device can aid in automating and delivering effective energy management strategies in homes. Home users are often passive in their interaction and have to be engaged and reassured that a HEM device contributes positively to the goal of home energy management. The objective is to boost their trust and confidence in HEM by making information (such as energy costs, usage patterns, etc.) accessible and enabling them to act and conserve energy effectively based on the same. In this research, we explore and understand the potential factors that influence how users would engage and interact with HEM device. Some basic functions of the HEM device include: a trusted advisor that provides dynamic recommendations based on user's interaction and behavior in the home; ability to sense occupancy within the home and automatically adjust schedules without the need for explicit human intervention; deduce energy usage patterns; and adapt energy management strategies based on the user profiles derived from their behaviors and interaction with the thermostat. Using a HEM device with the proper balance of automation and user engagement can have a positive impact on reducing the global energy consumption and the sustenance of our environment.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Home Energy Manager; Sustainability; Energy Conservation; Behavior Change
Defining a Process for Cross-Product User Interface Consistency BIBAKFull-Text 91-95
  Leslie Tudor; Cheryl L. Coyle
A small team of usability analysts created, implemented, and followed a company-wide process to increase user interface consistency across products. Key ingredients to success were: an effective process; ongoing, active, involvement from stakeholders; iterative design and review cycles; and easily accessible and reusable code. This effort changed the process of cross product user interface design at SAS, providing impetus to the development of products that are more consistent. Goals, process, results, and lessons learned are described.
Keywords: Usability; consistency
Tweaking HCI Methods for m-Design BIBAKFull-Text 96-99
  Alícia Valls Saez; Muriel Garreta Domingo; Gemma Aguado; Marta López Reyes
The potentialities of mobile devices for e-learning are amazing and exciting. M-learning is a new field that needs to be defined and designed. User-centered design can provide the methods to ensure that m-learning functionalities are appropriate and effective but, in order to do so, traditional UCD settings need to be tweaked.
Keywords: m-learning; user-centered design; human-computer interaction methods; e-learning; mobile design

Part II / Usability and User Experience

Contextual Awareness as Measure of Human-Information Interaction in Usability and Design BIBAKFull-Text 103-107
  Michael J. Albers
Contextual awareness (CA) [3] provides a way of thinking about the communication quality of the human-information interaction (HII) aspects of a design [4]. Understanding information in complex situations is essentially always cognitively-based rather than physically-based (although physical interaction may be required to control the situation). Gaining that understanding within a complex situation requires mentally integrating many pieces of information, which requires the user knows the information exists, what it means, and how it is interrelated to other pieces of information. The design and testing of complex information systems and effectively interacting with them require a different approach than working with simply information [1, 11].
Keywords: contextual awareness; human-information interaction; usability
A Usability Model for Government Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 108-112
  Deborah S. Carstens; Annie Becker
A usability model is proposed for developers of government Web sites. The model is based on the findings of a study to identify potential usability barriers of state government Web sites when accessing information on government accountability. The model was then applied during a heuristic evaluation of fifty government Web sites. The model is based on four core usability components consisting of readability, reading complexity, navigation and supportability. The model is discussed in terms of its practical application for improving state government Web sites for the purposes of enhancing the usefulness and ease of use in navigating state government Web sites.
Keywords: Usability; Government Accountability; Government Web sites
Usability Analysis of Website with Unconventional Layout BIBAKFull-Text 113-117
  Ro-Han Chang; Ying-Ya Su
It is a vision that internet bandwidth will continue to expand and there is more and more interactive multimedia being applied to websites. When users browse the website quickly, they only remember the unique characteristics of the website. However, a lot of research on web design has been conducted, yet there is no new research on the technique and usability of website with unconventional layouts. When users browse a website, they may feel frustrated with the complicated content and structure. Therefore, it is a challenge to create an innovative website with fine usability. This proposal will not only analyze the technique of the innovative website with unconventional layout, but also focus on the usability. The proposal is as follows: (a.) Catalogue the technique and focus on the style from the innovative website with unconventional layout. (b.) Analyze the usability of website with unconventional layouts. (c.) Generate and discuss the feedback from the users in regards to how they feel after browsing. Basically, the research is to be conducted by studying the recorded document theories, interviewing experts, focusing on certain website users, and other results. After this research is conducted, generalizing the principle of the website with unconventional layouts will take place. The result will be referred to by future web designers working in industries where such information will be of value to them.
Keywords: Web Design; Interactive Multimedia; Layout; Usability
Methodologies for Evaluating Player Experience in Game Play BIBAKFull-Text 118-122
  Kimberly Chu; Chui Yin Wong; Chee-Weng Khong
Player experience constitutes one of the most significant factors in determining the success rate of games. Games which do not provide enormous user experience usually will not gain intense interest from players. The concept of player experience is normally interchanged with concepts such as fun, flow, fulfillment, enjoyment, engagement, satisfaction, pleasure and playability. In this paper, we reviewed, analyzed and discussed the different attributes and methodologies used to evaluate player experience for game play. We concluded the finding in a playability matrix based on an analysis of methodologies for evaluating player experience in game play. The matrix was constructed from literature analysis, which comprised of attributes consisting of qualitative and quantitative, verbal and non-verbal, empirical and non-empirical methods.
Keywords: Player experience; measurement; game play; playability
How Does This Look? Desirability Methods for Evaluating Visual Design BIBAKFull-Text 123-127
  Edward S. De Guzman; Julie Schiller
Previous studies show that traditional usability evaluation methods can be problematic for collecting feedback on visual design [1]. Desirability studies have been used by usability practitioners to collect feedback on the affective response to interactive systems, but none focus on assessing visual design. We describe the Visual Design Card Sort (VDCS), a desirability research method for collecting visual design feedback from domain experts. We also present a case study where VDCS was used to collect visual design feedback from expert users of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. Additionally, we propose a set of analyses for looking at data from desirability studies from different perspectives. Future research is needed to validate some of the assumptions made in designing VDCS and to understand how findings from VDCS compare to other desirability research methods and traditional evaluation techniques.
Keywords: Desirability; visual design; methods; usability testing
An Analysis of Usage Patterns in Utilization of Interaction Styles BIBAKFull-Text 128-132
  Martin Dostál
This paper introduces particular results on analysis of usage patterns in contemporary word processing applications. We evaluate how interaction styles are used accordingly to frequency of usage of underlying user commands or semantical categories of user commands. We show that menus are used as a prevalent interaction style and report usage patterns on toolbars and keystrokes. Furthermore, the differences in usage of toolbars and keystrokes on frequently used commands are evaluated.
Keywords: user studies; interaction styles; usage patterns; word processing
On the Differences in Usage of Word Processing Applications BIBAKFull-Text 133-137
  Martin Dostál
An analysis was conducted to evaluate the differences between users in utilization of functionality and interaction styles in word processing applications. The study evaluated 117 users of various word processing applications using a questionnaire. Results show that differences between users in used functionality are considerable. The differences in utilization of interaction styles on a common functionality was found substantial. In addition, we show that the differences in utilization of functionality do not correlate much with the differences in utilization of interaction styles, i.e., users which has similar usage patterns in utilization of functionality do not have much similar usage patters in utilization of interaction styles.
Keywords: user studies; complex software; word processing
Usability Study of TEL Recommender System and e-Assessment Tools United BIBAKFull-Text 138-142
  Beatriz Eugenia Florián Gaviria; Ramón Fabregat
The following article presents a usability study applied over a process in formal learning that involves a set of e-assessment tools for: self-assessment, peer-assessment and summative assessment and then a simulated Recommender System (RS) in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). The system is constructed using Web 2.0 technologies and the Learning Management System Moodle. First, the assessment tools collect outcomes which are saved and classified according to European Qualification Framework. Second, in several times of a course, the outcomes are analyzed to find out the competence gaps of learners, the smart indicators of this analysis are showed to the learners. Finally, the simulated recommender system produces suggestions about reinforced resources to each learner according to their competence gaps. The essence of the planned presentation has three main goals: 1. To show the results of usability study on prototypes of assessment tools and the simulated RS in formal learning 2. To provide an idea of user-centered possible responses of RS for Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems, 3. To offer an environment for testing new recommendation approaches and methods for researchers.
Keywords: Usability study; formal learning; learning outcomes; competencies; e-assessment; adaptive educational hypermedia system; TEL recommender system; Moodle
Perceived Multimedia Quality: The Impact of Device Characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 143-146
  Gheorghita Ghinea; Kyle J. Patterson
In the study reported in this paper, the research aims to tackle the question "Do the hardware characteristics of a device affect the viewer's perceived quality of the media?" Using different hardware devices and media clips that have had different frame rates the viewer's information assimilation and satisfaction of the media clip was measured. The results suggest that there is a deeper link between the user's information assimilation than just the hardware that the media is viewed on. On the other hand a user's satisfaction with clip quality is affected by the alterations in frame rate of the media rather than the device as the satisfaction levels increased regardless of the hardware characteristics.
Keywords: device; frame rate; perceived multimedia quality
Usability Testing with Children: What We Have Overlooked BIBAKFull-Text 147-150
  Hanayanti Hafit; Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak; Haryani Haron
Planning a usability testing for the children needs guidance and persistence. For this purpose, we identified an educational game for learning Arabic words to be tested for its usability and learnability aspects. We followed guidelines for usability testing with children by Hanna et. al. Thus, this paper focuses on issues that have been overlooked in performing testing with children. From the lessons learned, additional steps in conducting usability testing with children were made to help the young and novice testers who have never worked with children previously.
Keywords: Children; Educational Game; Guidelines; Usability Testing
The Usability Assessment of Web-Based Learning Systems BIBAKFull-Text 151-155
  Chen-Wei Hsieh; Hong-Xon Chen; Yung-Chi Hsu; Sherry Y. Chen
Web-based learning systems (WBLSs) allow learners to choose any learning topics according to their own needs and progress. This may be the reason why the WBLS is a popular learning tool in educational settings. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how to help learners effectively obtain their desired results. To this end, the usability evaluation of the WBLSs becomes an essential issue. To address this issue, this study assesses the usability of a WBLS with real users' opinions and heuristic evaluation. Our findings show that the results from Nielson's heuristics and those from learners' questionnaire share some commonalities but there are also differences between them. Therefore, these two approaches should be used together so that a complete set of guidelines for the design of a WBLS can be developed.
Keywords: web-based learning system; WBLS; usability
Using Pre-session Homework to Elicit More Insights during Web Usability Testing BIBAFull-Text 156-160
  Christopher Jewell; Franco Salvetti
Lab-based, web usability testing plays a central role in user-centered design. Yet time constraints, anxiety-producing conditions of testing, and a narrow focus on designs that may not align well with user needs can restrict the kinds of information obtained from users. These limitations can be addressed, in part, by assigning participants broader and more exploratory activities to be completed prior to the session that help them articulate their preferences and the processes they follow in the relevant research area. Participants are then better able to bring this awareness to their evaluation of the design being tested in the lab. Incorporating these pre-study activities into web usability testing can lead to the generation of more and a broader array of actionable recommendations.
Personalized ATMs: Improve ATMs Usability BIBAKFull-Text 161-166
  Armin Kamfiroozie; Marzieh Ahmadzadeh
Using customization in products and services is one of the important methods for obtaining customers' satisfaction. In this paper, the personalized ATMs have been introduced which as one of the objectives, using personalization and customization methods, improve the efficiency and simplicity of usage of the ATMs and enable the users to benefit from the machine commensurate with their needs. In this system, based on general information about users and the records of customers' activities in CRM system, the information and screens are displayed which are predicted to be most applicable for the customers. This system is able to provide services based on users' abilities in order to enable all the customers to acquire their needed services from the system in the shortest time duration and highest efficiency.
Keywords: ATM; Auto Teller Machine; Customization; Personalization; HCI
The Effect of Induced Priming on Product Perceived Usability BIBAKFull-Text 167-170
  Jihyun Kim; Myung Shik Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
The usability testing by users have considered as an important process in the development of a product. However, users do not always judge rationally in the context of the evaluation. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of induced priming on perceived usability evaluation. The results revealed that temporally induced affective priming affected users' usability evaluation. The present study suggests that people who engaged in the fields of usability testing or the marketing consider unexpected priming and take delicate care in handling the affective variable.
Keywords: usability; evaluation; affective priming
Who Are the People That Experience Soft Usability Problems? BIBAKFull-Text 171-175
  Chajoong Kim; Henri Christiaans
The existing taxonomy of user experience needs to be redefined because of fast technology development in consumer electronic market. Design for all seems prevalent in the field of product design. However, there are ever more doubts about a one-fits-all policy considering the increasing diversity of users and the increasing number of complaints. In our previous studies a taxonomy of 'soft' usability problems related to the use of electronic products has been made. The question posed in this paper is how people behave in the actual use of annoying user-unfriendly products. An experiment was conducted with 33 South Koreans and 23 Americans. A radio alarm clock and a MP3 player were chosen to induce soft usability problems. A questionnaire was used to measure the participants' characteristics. Overall, this study indicates that product operation and user behavior are correlated with specific user characteristics such as age, gender, and culture.
Keywords: usability; soft usability problem; user characteristics; culture
Gaze Analysis Tool for Web Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 176-180
  Takuo Matsunobe
Gaze information is obtained during Web usability evaluation -- plotting the gaze locus and estimating the gaze duration for an image on a Web page. However, the one at the position of the gaze had to specify and to specify something by the evaluator. Therefore, considerable of time is required for analysis. The proposed tool can automatically identify what an observer is viewing. Thus, using the proposed gaze analysis tool, gaze information, which was earlier analyzed qualitatively, can be analyzed quantitatively.
Keywords: gaze point; eye tracking; contents area; web design
Usability Evaluation for Software Keyboard on High-Performance Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 181-185
  Takao Nakagawa; Hidetake Uwano
Most of high-performance mobile devices called smartphone or slate computer which recently emerged uses general-purpose mobile operating system (Mobile OS) such as Android, iOS, Symbian OS, etc. These devices have two characteristics compared with previous mobile devices: 1) many of the devices have touchscreen as main user interface, hence users operate graphical user interfaces (GUIs) displayed on the screen directly by fingers or a pen and 2) different devices made by different companies have similar GUIs because the devices use the same mobile OS. Furthermore, usability evaluation and improvement for one of the mobile OS affects many devices which use same mobile OS, hence importance of the usability evaluation for mobile OS is more valuable than for previous mobile devices. In this paper, we evaluate how position of software keyboard on touchscreen affects usability of a mobile OS, Android. Software tool to record user operation history on software keyboard was developed for evaluation experience. In an experiment, three positions of software keyboard were tested. As a result, keyboard placed on top or middle of the display takes better error rate and subjective evaluation than the previous position, bottom of the display.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Mobile OS; Software Keyboard; Android
Usability Evaluation Method Employing Elements of "Thinking" and "Seeking" BIBAKFull-Text 186-190
  Nobuyuki Nishiuchi; Takehiro Ando; Mi Kyong Park
Current usability evaluation approaches are costly, time-consuming and suffer from evaluation subjectivity, and in addition, it is often difficult to acquire the operation logs of existing electrical products. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new method for usability evaluation. During the operation of either an actual product or a reproduced interface on a touch screen, the hand movements of users were recorded with a video camera. Before evaluation of the target interface, the users operated three basic interfaces, classified as "Standard", "Thinking", and "Seeking", and the users' unique elements related to hand movements, which were based on the distribution of stationary time, during operation of the "Thinking" and "Seeking" interfaces were extracted. Finally, usability was evaluated based on the amount of each element ("Thinking" and "Seeking") that was included in the target interface.
Keywords: Usability; interface; evaluation method; image processing
Software Testing Method Considering the Importance of Factor Combinations in Pair-Wise Testing BIBAKFull-Text 191-195
  Ruoan Xu; Yoshimitsu Nagai; Syohei Ishizu
Software testing bears a burden of software development, increasing its time and cost. The bugs appearing due to the combination of two factors are well known in the system test phase. The current system testing methods represented by pair-wise tests or orthogonal arrays tests generate test sets by the forms of factors and values. In this study we extract two problems in the system test phase, and propose a solution to solve the problems. The first type of the problems is a survival bugs by the combination of factors among test sets. The second type of the problems is a duplication of factors by extra test case in the test set. We propose a solution which considers combinations of important factors for these two problems.
Keywords: Software test; System test; Pair-wise test; Dependency structure matrix; Combination test

Part III / Cultural, Cross-Cultural and Aesthetic Issues in HCI

The Problematic of Beauty Performed in the Collaborative Action of Technology and Human BIBAKFull-Text 199-203
  HyunKyoung Cho
This paper proposes that the performing beauty provoked by the collaborative action of technology provides a way of knowing, in order to overcome the dichotomy reinforcing the mutual degradation between action and thought, technology and human, subject and object.
Keywords: the collaborative action of technology and human; the performing beauty; the invaginating; the dichotomy
The Politics of Collaborative Action of Technology and Human BIBAKFull-Text 204-208
  HyunKyoung Cho
This study examines the politics of collaborative action of technology and human, through the analysis of artwork using the emerging technology. It presents that the collaborative action of technology and human reconstructs the knowledge reinforcing the mutual degradation between action and thought, technology and human.
Keywords: politics; the collaborative action of technology and human; the performative; critique; desire
What Makes Difference in Mobile Application Sales in Countries? BIBAKFull-Text 209-213
  Hyeyoung Eun; Hyunsuk Kim; Sungmin Hong
Since mobile applications use expended Wi-Fi environments and smart phones user population growth, the market is expanding rapidly. These mobile applications are supplied to the same standards around the world, but the applications preference is different for each user. Because user can choose applications based their own cultural and technical backgrounds on. Download a large number of applications is assumed to have high affinity. The collection of ranking data from Apple App store analyze this data compare by each country. Accordingly, applications preference is appear differently depending on the each country. The cause of the difference in affinity that results in a measure of the nation's cultural differences and differences in levels of technology adoption, and it can be seen through the analysis.
Keywords: Mobile Application Market; Using Smart phone Application; App Store
hvMuseum: A Participatory Online Museum of Everyday Artifacts for Cultural Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 214-217
  Young-ae Hahn
The hvMuseum, an online platform for data collection and exhibition, empowers Internet users from around the world with opportunities for curatorial, contributory, and appreciatory types of museum participation. With unique, authentic and up-to-date information contributed by the locals of various countries, and displayed in a two-dimensional matrix for horizontal and vertical comparisons, the hvMuseum facilitates a viewer's inductive thinking that leads to learning opportunities and appreciation of the breadth and diversities of natural and man-made artifacts.
Keywords: online museum; user participation; inductive thinking
The Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire to Turkish BIBAKFull-Text 218-222
  Ahsen Irmak; Gonca Bumin; Rafet Irmak
The aim of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire into Turkish. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed as it is recommended in the international guidelines with the following steps: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, consolidation of translations with expert committee, and pre-testing. The pre-final version of WRFQ-TV was conducted with 40 office workers with no specific health problem. The translation process of the questionnaire was completed without any major problem. The lay out was changed because 65% of the participants did not completely understand the questionnaire. The data shows acceptable results regarding to the psychometric properties of the WRFQ-TV. Cronbach's alpha for each subscale was >0.77, except for the physical demand scale and social demand scale. This study resulted that the cross-cultural adaptation of the WRFQ-TV was successful. Future studies may focus on reliability of the WRFQ-TV.
Keywords: cross-cultural adaptation; psychometric properties; perception of difficulty; work functioning
WARAI PRODUCT: Proposal to the Design Approach Designing the Product that Causes Laughter BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Takaaki Kamei; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The purpose of this study is to propose the design approach designing the product that causes laughter. Author believes this product helps to reduce various stresses by laughter. Modern people tend to be emotionally unstable easily because of a lot of stresses like worry, the difficulty, and the financial problem and the social trouble. Moreover, laughter has able a lot of effects for man and the power to change the world. Laughter is a common language of the world. Therefore, laughter is sent to the world by the product produced in this research, and it aims at communications and the global peace. Author selected a college student as a target person on this study because student will be active in the society of the future. Author named WARAI (big smile) PRODUCT as product that causes laughter. Based on the literature study, author proposed designing method for WARAI PRODUCT such as preparing minimum two factors to cause laughter on the product. For example, one of WARAI PRODUCT have laughter factor on external design and internal design. The investigation has extracted the factor of laughter from the literature study of current laughter. The factor that looked like was made 15 groups from the factor of 62 extracted by using the KJ method. In addition, it made it to 16 factors adding the factor to which the author was paying attention. Using these 16 factors did the user investigation and the humor product investigation. Other investigations were the property investigation, the laughter investigation, and the scene investigation. The user investigation, the property investigation, and the scene investigation were done in Japan and France. Because to send the world laughter. The idea is progressed based on the result of the investigation, and the product that causes laughter named WARAI PRODUCTS is produced.
The Beauty Formation of Digital Media Projects via Sticking Jewels Techniques Applied to the Research and Education of Culture Creative Design BIBAKFull-Text 227-231
  Jhih-Wei Lee; Chun-Ming Huang
According to the Industry analysis of Design Report: As the trend of design development, the Culture Innovation is regarded as one of important development policies by government as same as Western Countries. There are two methods in trend of industry as: Keep the whole world in view, Take the all actions in locally. This is the most metropolitan territory and Internationalize through combination of Culture and Design Innovation to promote the additional value of products by local characteristic to establish the product image On the other hand, Not only Culture Innovation but additional valuable design. Design needs to combine the Arts, Culture and Science in future and reset the life style of human. According to raise talent, knowledge, technology of education spirit, combine with digital design and Aesthetic curriculums to work on "Sparkling Surprise" competition. Meanwhile, regarding creativity and Aesthetic to practice by brain storming and hand-making to stimulate young people put into the innovation, activity and vivid living. For pushing Localization and hand-made of Crafts are kinds of meaningful and valuable for nation. Besides, cultivate the culture and aesthetic of accomplishment, is good for a young people's vision career after graduation in society and Industry service. In order to go deep into Culture practice and cultivation of nation talent, combine with culture education and digital training to apply in liberal education of University.
Keywords: Culture Innovation; Value Added Design
Leveraging Card-Based Collaborative Activities as Culturally Situated Design Tools BIBAKFull-Text 232-236
  D. Scott McCrickard; DeMarcus Townsend; Woodrow W. Winchester; Tiffany Barnes
This paper describes two examples of virtual card games serving as Culturally Situated Design Tools (CSDTs) for young people. CSDTs have promise in helping people to learn by connecting principles from computing with aspects of their heritage or gender. The development and deployment of card games on two cutting-edge platforms (mobile devices and multitouch tables) revealed novel ways to display information to users and important lessons for deploying them to young people.
Keywords: culturally situated design tools; games; education; mobile; multitouch
Designing for Cultural Connections BIBAKFull-Text 237-241
  Anicia Peters; Britta E. Mennecke; José Camou; Kiraz Candan Herdem; Lei Zhang
The 2010 earthquake in Haiti not only devastated the country's infrastructure, it also left many orphaned children, which accelerated the pace of international transracial adoptions by families in the United States and other developed countries. While international adoptees such as these Haitian children are older and will therefore likely remember some aspects of their birth culture, often younger children are at risk of forgetting much of their cultural and linguistic heritage. Despite much research on international transracial adoptions, surprisingly few web-based resources are available to adoptees for exploring and connecting with their birth cultures. To address this shortcoming, we used an iterative approach of ethnographic methods, paper prototypes, usability testing and heuristic evaluations to design Synergy, a system which allows adoptees to explore and connect with their birth cultures and its people autonomously.
Keywords: Virtual culture; international transracial adoptees; virtual tour; birth culture; adoptions; avatars
Can Culture Translate to the Virtual World? BIBAKFull-Text 242-246
  Raghavi Sakpal; Dale-Marie Wilson
The United States consists of a diverse population of ethnic groups. Catering health care to such a culturally diverse population can be difficult for health care professionals. Culture plays a complex role in the development of health and human service delivery programs. Cultural Competence has emerged as an important issue to improve quality and eradicate racial/ethical disparities in health care. The Nursing Standards of proficiency for nursing education emphasize that nurses should be able to acknowledge patients cultural practices and take cultural influences into account when providing nursing care. A major challenge facing the nursing profession is educating and assisting nurses in providing culturally relevant care. To tackle this issue we have created virtual humans that will represent different cultures. These virtual humans will serve as educational tool that allow nurses to understand and handle patients from different cultures. Our first culturally-specific virtual human is a young Indian girl. In this paper we will discuss the architecture to create a culturally specific virtual patient.
Keywords: Culture; Cultural Competence; Transcultural Nursing; Virtual Humans
Product Pleasure Enhancement: Cultural Elements Make Significant Difference BIBAKFull-Text 247-251
  Tyan-Yu Wu
The aim of this paper is to examine the following arguments: 1) Products embedded with cultural elements have a greater chance to evoke a consumer's pleasure response than ones without; 2) A consumer perceiving the meaning of a cultural product in advance has a greater chance to evoke his/her pleasure than the one without perceiving; 3) Electromyography (EMG) is able to objectively assess consumers' pleasure evoked by a product. In this paper, EMG signal activity was collected as women (n=60) were exposed to three different stimuli. The results revealed that a product with cultural elements, (e.g. pictographic patterns) has a greater chance to evoke participants' pleasure than the one without. It also demonstrated that a consumer, perceiving a product's cultural meaning ahead of time have a stronger pleasure response than those without perceiving the meaning advance. The result shows that pleasant products are able to elicit greater activity over zygomaticus major.
Keywords: Emotional design; Facial Electromiography; Cultural product

Part IV / Cognitive and Psychological Issues in HCI

An Optimal Human Adaptive Algorithm to Find Action -- Reaction Word-Pairs BIBAKFull-Text 255-259
  Arpit Agarwal; Rahul Banerjee; Varun Pandey; Riya Charaya
This paper presents an efficient approach for understanding the formation of associations between random sentences spoken by humans over a period of time. The associations formed are mathematical relations (A X B) where the former is called as the "action" and the latter as the "reaction". The voice-to-text converted file is the input to the algorithm. After processing, the algorithm devises a map (Actions X Reactions). The algorithm stops only after the relation becomes surjective. The most important improvement over the previous techniques is the automatic adaptation of the machine to the ever-changing grammar of the user in real-time.
Keywords: adaptive; surjective; relations; grammar; human-behavior
Modeling Users in Web Transactional Tasks with Behavioral and Visual Exploration Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 260-264
  Areej Al-Wabil; Mashael Al-Saleh
In this paper, we describe a model of how users conduct transactional tasks on the web. In an exploratory eye tracking experiment, visual patterns of user interactions with web-based transactions were examined for verifying the model. Findings suggest viewing patterns and interactions supportive of the proposed user model and provide a good match to participants' interactions in completing transactional tasks on Arabic interfaces.
Keywords: Eye tracking; transactional tasks; visual attention; user model
Evaluating Information Visualizations with Working Memory Metrics BIBAKFull-Text 265-269
  Alisa Bandlow; Laura E. Matzen; Kerstan S. Cole; Courtney C. Dornburg; Charles J. Geiseler; John A. Greenfield; Laura A. McNamara; Susan M. Stevens-Adams
Information visualization tools are being promoted to aid decision support. These tools assist in the analysis and comprehension of ambiguous and conflicting data sets. Formal evaluations are necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of visualization tools, yet conducting these studies is difficult. Objective metrics that allow designers to compare the amount of work required for users to operate a particular interface are lacking. This in turn makes it difficult to compare workload across different interfaces, which is problematic for complicated information visualization and visual analytics packages. We believe that measures of working memory load can provide a more objective and consistent way of assessing visualizations and user interfaces across a range of applications. We present initial findings from a study using measures of working memory load to compare the usability of two graph representations.
Keywords: Information visualization; evaluation; cognitive load
A Study on Human Error in the Interaction with the Computer Systems BIBAKFull-Text 270-274
  Luiz Carlos Begosso; Maria Alice Siqueira Mendes Silva; Thiago Henrique Cortez
The term human factor is used by professionals of various fields meant for understanding the behavior of human beings at work. The human being, while developing a cooperative activity with a computer system, is subject to cause an undesirable situation in his/her task. This paper starts from the principle that human errors may be considered as a cause or factor contributing to a series of accidents and incidents in many diversified fields in which human beings interact with automated systems. We propose a simulator of performance in error with potentiality to assist the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) project manager in the construction of the critical systems.
Keywords: Computer Systems; Human Computer-Interaction; Human Error; Simulator of Performance in Error
Psycognition: Cognitive Architectures for Augmented Cognition Systems BIBAKFull-Text 275-279
  Karmen Guevara
This paper describes Psycognition, a concept and methodological approach for eliciting the subconscious processes which influence human behavior. An examination of the Psycognition methodology is drawn from research that explored the subconscious processes underlying the tactical behaviors and decision making of a sample of RAF fighter pilots. This example application illustrates how the approach can be applied to apparently random behavior in critical situations. A primary aim of the research was to explore whether the Psycognition approach could contribute to our understanding of the requirements for future cognitive adaptive aircrew systems.
Keywords: Characterologies; core beliefs; strategic behaviors; subconscious processes; fighter pilot research; cognitive architectures; predictable emotional responses; diagnostic; predictive analytic tool
A Study on the Cognitive Differences between Beginners and Experts Regarding Cooking Processes BIBAKFull-Text 280-283
  Keisuke Ishihara; Toshiki Yamaoka; Kazumi Tateyama; Chinatsu Kasamatsu
The purpose of this study is comparative studies on cognitive process between beginner and expert in cooking. The twelve elements of the cognitive process were extracted. The relationships among elements were cleared by DEMATEL. Finally, we suggested the cognitive models in cooking.
Keywords: mental models; cognitive process; cognitive model
Red for Romance, Blue for Memory BIBAKFull-Text 284-288
  Ilyung Jung; Myung Shik Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
Decades of psychological research have shown that the color could affect human's emotion and perception. However, the influence of this effect on human performance is still unknown. This study was performed to investigate and reveal the effect of the color red, blue and gray on memory through a word recognition task. When the presented video clip featured a red background, the model's attractiveness was rated statistically higher than the other condition. The blue condition video viewers and their resulting performance on the word recognition task were better than the performances of the other color condition groups. This research implicates that a specific color has an effect on human perception and memory.
Keywords: red; color; memory; attractiveness
Time: A Premise of Virtual Life BIBAKFull-Text 289-292
  Hee-Cheol Kim
Why do humans aspire for a virtual life? The answer is important, because it can explain the phenomenon that we are fond of, or even addicted to virtual worlds such as computer games, on-line communities, avatars, and so on. This paper presents an account with respect to time. Emphasizing the importance of time to understand virtuality, the paper gives an answer based on the three principles: (1) Humans exist with time, (2) Humans experience and tend to resist the finitude of time, and (3) A way of resisting it is aspiration for a virtual life.
Keywords: human existence; time; virtual life; virtual world
Extracts Cognitive Artifacts from Text through Combining Human and Machine Learning in an Iterative Fashion BIBAKFull-Text 293-297
  Ryan Kirk
The world network of information is complex and not always organized in a structure useful for human understanding. This paper investigates the need and methods for creating an artificial system that categorizing information similar to the way humans categorize. The system will use Bayesian modeling to model text sentiment. The categorization of text sentiment will be done both by machines and by humans. The hypothesis is that the resultant system will not differ significantly from the accuracy of a control group of human categorizers. This represents a non-standard approach to learning that involves the human and the machine in an iterative learning process.
Keywords: Cognition; categorization; learning; natural-language processing; sentiment analysis; machine learning
Modeling Human Behavior for Energy-Usage Prediction BIBAKFull-Text 298-302
  Anand S. Kulkarni; Karla Conn Welch; Cindy K. Harnett
We propose a system that uses a set of mobile sensors to model human behavior of energy usage. This mobile sensor suite can be fit on a keychain or ID/access badge. Data from these sensors, e.g., temperature, visible light spectrum, and 60 Hz electromagnetic field, will be used to give real-time feedback of user's energy consumption and prediction of future energy usage. Feedback of energy consumption will be displayed in an understandable manner on a user interface, e.g., smart phone. A model developed from the available data using machine learning will inform the system about energy consumption patterns and behaviors of users.
Keywords: energy-usage prediction; human behavior; green buildings; sensors
The Effect of a Visual Element on Musical Sensitivity BIBAKFull-Text 303-307
  Jieun Lee; Mitsuko Hayashi; Masashi Nosaka
This research is to review sensitivity comparisons between musical rhythm and visual rhythm focused on the kinetic typography that can be utilized as a synesthesia. According to preliminary research, kinetic typography that has visual movement can be measured by AVSM (affective value scale of music), which is one of the "emotional measures for evaluation" used for music. In this research based on the preliminary study, AVSM has been used to find out the emotional difference between music itself and a visual element with musical rhythm. The possibility of musical expression by a moving visual element has been reviewed.
Keywords: Rhythm of visual element; Rhythm; Movement; Emotional value
A Scrutinized Analysis Method of the Human Error Potential due to the Introduction of New Digital Devices to Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 308-311
  A Lee; Yong Hee
This paper describes a new method proposed for human error analysis (HEA) in case of the introduction of new digital devices to nuclear power plants (NPPs). Preventing human errors has been a main issue especially for the safety of NPPs. The hi-touch human interface must be proved to be safe before being introduced to NPPs. Although many good HEA methods are available, a scrutinized one is inevitable against to the new types of errors, for utilizing new digital devices and their human interfaces in NPPs. All possible interactions between the device and the user through the designed interfaces are investigated by the term of Interaction Segment (IS), and Error Segment (ES) is assessed by human factors criteria and their consequences to predict the human error potential (HEP). Results such as a list of ISs and ESs and their combinatorial sequences are provided to the human interface designers for qualifying the digital devices to NPPs.
Keywords: human error; human interface; digital device; nuclear power plant
Understanding Users by Their D.I.S.C. Personality through Interactive Gaming BIBAKFull-Text 312-316
  Looi Qin En; See Swee Lan; Chi Shien Tay; Gin Kee Ng
A key component of improving human-computer interaction is through the matching of users with their preferred computer interfaces and interaction styles. Understanding the users better would result in a customized gaming experience, leading to sustained user engagement. In this paper, we develop an alternative tool to aid in the measurement of the D.I.S.C. personality styles of users in the form of an interactive game. Through this game, we aim to predict the personality type of the gamer, from which invaluable insights about each type of gamer can be elicited.
Keywords: Alternative assessment tool; D.I.S.C. Personality Profiling; Interactive Gaming
Modeling Attention Allocation in a Complex Dual Task with and without Auditory Cues BIBAKFull-Text 317-321
  Brian McClimens; Derek P. Brock
Navy watch-standing operations increasingly involve information-saturated environments in which operators must attend to more than one critical task display at a time [1]. In response, the Navy is pursuing a model-based understanding of human performance in multitask settings. Empirical studies with a complex dual task and related cognitive modeling work in the authors' lab suggest that auditory cueing is an effective strategy for mediating operators' attention [2,3,4]. Characterizing the effects of widely separated displays on performance and effort is an important ancillary concern, and a series of cognitive models developed with the EPIC cognitive architecture [5] is used for this purpose. These cognitive models verify a key finding from an empirical study; namely, time spent on the primary, relatively stateless, tracking task is regulated by state information retained from the secondary, radar task. These findings suggest that in multitask settings, operators use relatively simple state information about a task they are about to leave to gauge how long they can attend to other matters before they must return.
Keywords: Cognitive modeling; EPIC architecture; head-tracking; urgency; multitasking
Relationship between Emotional State and Physiological and Psychological Measurements Using Various Types of Video Content during TV Viewing BIBAKFull-Text 322-326
  Kiyomi Sakamoto; Shigeo Asahara; Kuniko Yamashita; Akira Okada
Using 42-inch plasma screens and showing four kinds of content, we experimentally evaluated the relationship between TV viewers' emotional state and selected physiological and psychological indices. Our results indicate that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), representing nervous system activity, is a potentially useful index for evaluating emotional states that include "stressed-relaxed," "comfortable-uncomfortable," and "like-dislike." However, LF/HF and HR are affected by complex emotional states in each subject.
Keywords: Emotional states; physiological and psychological measurements; NIRS; Heart rate variability; TV viewing
Physiological Measurement Applied in Maritime Situations: A Newly Developed Method to Measure Workload on Board of Ships BIBAKFull-Text 327-331
  Wendie Uitterhoeve; Marcella Croes-Schalken; Dick Ten Hove
This article describes a method to measure the effects of workload and human performance on board of ships in navigation tasks. Physiological measurements and both objective and subjective observations were executed simultaneously. The added value in this design is the interpretation of physiological results together with the subjective and objective evaluation of experienced workload and performance. As all of the parameters separately are not indicated as absolute values to rule on workload, combining physiological information with subjective and objective observations leads to a more pronounced insight in workload. With this developed method entering a new terrain is possible, where scientific research of human performance is applied in nautical navigation.
Keywords: Workload measurements; human performance; navigation; manoeuvring simulator; physiological measurements
Physiological Correlates of Emotional State BIBAKFull-Text 332-336
  Andrea K. Webb; Meredith G. Cunha; S. R. Prakash; John M. Irvine
This study examined the relationship between emotion and physiological measures of autonomic system response. Features of electrodermal, cardiac, respiratory, movement, and oculomotor response were measured from a population of normal subjects while they were presented standard acoustic and visual stimuli designed to evoke specific emotions. The subjects' assessments of their emotional response to the stimuli (self-report) were also recorded. We present results of a preliminary analysis of the statistical relationship between the stimulus category, the physiological features and self-report. We found significant differences across stimulus categories, as well as across self-reported emotions, suggesting that a combination of features could be used to classify the emotional content of a discrete stimulus. We also examine the dependence of physiological signals on the mode of stimulus presentations.
Keywords: Affect; emotion; psychophysiology
Note: Best Poster Award
A Study on the Operator's Erroneous Responses to the New Human Interface of a Digital Device to be Introduced to Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 337-341
  Yeon Ju Oh; Yong Hee Lee; Jong Hun Yun
It is extremely difficult to investigate completely the defects in digital devices, and to prevent human errors in their interface during the design aspect of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Human interface errors have been investigated through usability studies and reliability analysis (HRA). Several methods and various programs are available for prevention of human errors. However, it is very limited to explain the detail mechanism of human errors by quantitative usability approaches. Therefore, we define Error Segment (ES) and Interaction Segment (IS) to predict a specific human error potential (HEP) in a digital device and its human interface. In this study predicted HEP is to be verified by experiments including data analysis of EEG, ECG and behavioral observations. Thus the HEP in the human interface of a digital device can be more carefully considered for preventing human errors in NPPs.
Keywords: human error; EEG; ECG; nuclear power plant; human interface
To Substitute Fast-Forward/Backward Keys for Numeric Keypad of TV Remote Controller BIBAKFull-Text 342-345
  Horng-Yi Yu; Jui-Ping Ma; T. K. Philip Hwang
This paper describes the problems of TV channel change using existing remote controller. French company Witbe (2008) have determined the average channel change takes 1.9 seconds by using the up/down button on a remote; 3.4 seconds if it's chosen directly by numeric keypad. Accordingly, the pilot study of this research revealed that the mental workload (frequency of visual focuses shifting between TV screen and remote controller) of using numeric keypad was higher than that of using up/down keys. A pair of dedicated keys were developed and located near up/down keys. The functions of dedicated keys were set as fast-forward 10 channels and fast-backward 10 channels respectively. An experiment was carried and the result indicates that mental workload of operating dedicated keys was significantly improved. The average vision focuses shifting frequency of operating numeric keypad and dedicated keys set were 2.5 times and 1.0 times respectively.
Keywords: fast-forward key; mental workload; remote controller

Part V / Inclusive Design and Accessibility

Digital Inclusion Index (DII) -- Measuring ICT Supply and Usage to Support DI Implementation Planning Policies BIBAKFull-Text 349-353
  Graziella Cardoso Bonadia; Nyvea Maria da Silva; Cristiane Midori Ogushi
In a context where efforts are being made to increase access to computers and the internet, other barriers have become more visible: besides the physical and economic barriers, psychological, cognitive and linguistic barriers have gained relevance in the debate on digital inclusion, since they can also interfere in the intensity and quality of an individual's use of these technologies. The relevance of these aspects is quite evident in our Brazilian society, due to our social-economic structure, in great part formed by people of low income, with little or no literacy, and by people with disabilities. In spite of this, a large proportion of existing indicators represent primarily physical access to ICTs and the technological aspects of producing and spreading these technologies. An assessment of the scope of the data currently collected reveals that few indicators reflect psychological, cognitive and usability/accessibility barriers. With the objective of filling the existing gaps, we have proposed a new metric for gauging digital inclusion that will delineate its most diverse aspects and thus contribute to the elaboration of government policies that will effectively stimulate the development of an information society.
Keywords: digital inclusion; index; measuring; public policies
Serious Game for Cognitive Testing of Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 354-357
  Sangwoo Byun; Changhoon Park
South Korea now has one of the lowest birth-rates in the world and one of the most rapidly aging populations. In such an aging society, the most representative disease threatening the quality of old person's life is 'Alzheimer's disease'. In this paper, we will propose a screening test based on game technology. And, this game will be designed by applying Fitts' law and Hick's law to test cognitive function.
Keywords: Screening tool; Accessibility; Cognitive function; Alzheimer's disease; Fitts' law; Hick's law
Leisure Activities for the Elderly-The Influence of Visual Working Memory on Mahjong and Its Video Game Version BIBAKFull-Text 358-362
  Chih-Lin Chang; Tai-Yen Hsu; Fang-Ling Lin; Chuen-Der Huang; I.-Ting Huang
Mahjong is not only a traditional game for recreation but an important leisure activity for elderly people in Chinese society. In this study, 8 elderly people of age 65 in average are selected as testees, their visual senses are sufficiently capable to continuously play mahjong for more than 1 hour. In addition, the testees all have more than one year of experience in playing mahjong. Also, a self-developed working memory inspection system is used to detect the influences of the working memory corrective ratio of version for elderly people under 350 Lux, the mahjong play duration as the variable. The study also may serve as a reference in designing environmental illumination and the duration for elderly people while playing mahjong.
Keywords: mahjong; working memory; entertainment; illumination
An Empathic Approach in Assistive Technology to Provide Job Accommodations for Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 363-367
  Chien-Bang Chen
When the psychologist Abraham Maslow first defined the five levels of human need in 1943, people started to realise how human needs should be fulfilled and many products have since been designed to fulfill these needs. Many researches have shown that the desire to achieve a higher level of need is no different between normal people and disabled people. However, social benefits only support a disabled person with their basic needs. To help them achieve a higher level of need, for them, finding a suitable job is the best way forward. An appropriately designed assistive technology (AT) allows the user to be more efficient at work, prevent them suffering occupational injury and enjoy a safe and comfortable work environment. It could be a good tool to help them reach their psychological needs, but designing an appropriate AT requires a designer with a high level of professional knowledge in AT, an understanding of the subject's abilities and being able to realise the task and environment that the subject needs to work in, all of which involve long term training. Additionally, the majority of designers are healthy people; it is very difficult for a healthy person to have the ability to understand the difficulties of a disabled subject, especially young designers. In this research, the researcher used a spinal injured lottery seller in Taiwan as the subject. The researcher observed and analysed his tasks and environment, collected professional suggestions from experts and, based on the user-centred design theory, compared the physical differences between the subject and healthy designers. Additionally, the results were applied to a design and an empathy tool was produced, when wearing it would allow the designers to empathise with the inconvenience of the physical conditions of the subject. The empathy tool was tested and evaluated by various product designers. The researcher designed a scenarios process and asked his participants to practice with it. The result showed that although the suit could not simulate the psychological conditions of the target user, it was, however, successful in mimicking the physical conditions of the subject and allowed the designers to realise the difficulties and problems of the subject through the simulation process. Thus, these experiences were transformed into design knowledge when designing assistive technology.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Empathic design; Disabilities
A Study on Interface Design Guidelines of Web Maps for Elder Users BIBAKFull-Text 368-372
  Chun-Wen Chen; Kevin Tseng
The aim of this research is to find out the interface design guidelines of web maps from the viewpoint of elder people's acceptance. This stage of the research is a qualitative exploration to web map user experience to find out interface design issues and problems. Web map user experience of participants was explored with methods of observation and interview. Six elder participants were taught some basic operations to use Google Maps. From the result of data analysis, this study adopts natural mapping as a core concept of proposed design guideline. The interface design guidelines of web maps for elder users are proposed: (a) compatibility of map display and cognitive map, (b) mental model of interface operation, (c) learnability of interface platforms, and (d) physical dimension of map display and operation interface.
Keywords: web map; interface design; aging
Impact of Prior Knowledge and Computer Interface Organization in Information Searching Performances: A Study Comparing Younger and Older Web Users BIBAKFull-Text 373-377
  Aline Chevalier; Paulette Rozencwajg; Benjamin Desjours
The present study addressed age-related differences in performance to find information by older and younger web users. More precisely, we determined the impact of prior domain knowledge (high level vs low level) of older and younger adults and the interface organization (taxonomical-HS vs tag-based organization-TBS) on information search performance. The main results showed that older users exhibited poorer information searching performance than the younger users only for Manga domain (for which the younger users had higher level of knowledge than the older ones). For the two domains, the TBS interface decreased age-related differences in performance. In contrast, the HS interface generated lower performances for the older adults in the two domains, especially faced to Manga domain in which older users had very lower performances than younger users.
Keywords: Information searching; aging; taxonomy organization vs tag-based organization; knowledge-domain
Sketching Haptic System Based on Point-Based Approach for Assisting People with Down Syndrome BIBAKFull-Text 378-382
  Mario Covarrubias; Monica Bordegoni; Umberto Cugini
This paper describes the 2D sketching haptic system (2DSHS) designed for the assessment and training of sketching control movements. The system has been developed for people with Down syndrome, who can use the system for drawing simple and complex sketches. These users are able to feel virtual objects by using a haptic device, which acts as a virtual guide taking advantages of its force feedback capabilities; in fact, the haptic device is driven under the user's movements and assisted through the Magnetic Geometry Effect (MGE). The 2DSHS has been used as an input device for tracking the sketching movements made by a user according to the visual feedback received from a physical template without haptic assistance. Then, the 2DSHS has been used as an output device that provides force feedback capabilities through a point-based approach. Preliminary evaluation has been performed in order to validate the system. Two different tasks have been performed -- sketching a template and hatching a surface -- with the aim to obtain more information related to the accuracy of the device. The performance has been evaluated by comparing the analysis of the tracking results.
Keywords: Haptic technology; assisted sketching; unskilled people
Helping Hands versus ERSP Vision: Comparing Object Recognition Technologies for the Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 383-388
  Marc A. Lawson; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; James R. Marston; David A. Ross
A major challenge for people with vision impairments ranging from severely low visual acuity to no light perception (NLP) is identifying or distinguishing the difference between objects of similar size and shape. For many of these individuals, locating and identifying specific objects can be an arduous task. This paper explores the design and evaluation of the "Helping Hand": A radio frequency identification (RFID) glove that audibly identifies tagged objects. In this paper we describe the design of a wearable RFID apparatus used for object identification. We evaluated the effectiveness of the glove by conducting a three-arm randomized controlled study. In our experiment, we compare a baseline (no assistive device), RFID (Helping Hand) and computer vision (ERSP Vision Software) in identifying common household objects. We also administered a questionnaire to obtain subjective data about the usability experience of the participants. Our experimental results show a reduction in the amount of time required to identify objects when using the Helping Hand glove versus the other two methods.
Keywords: object recognition; RFID; visual impairment; assistive technology; computer vision
Examining the Current State of Group Support Accessibility: An Expanded Study BIBAKFull-Text 389-393
  John G. Schoeberlein; Yuanqiong (Kathy) Wang
Group support applications are widely used in workplace to support group work. Unfortunately, persons who are blind often found it difficult to access group support applications, due to the highly graphical nature of the application; this hinders their ability to contribute to the group. As a result, persons who are blind often face problems in gaining and retaining employment. In order to expand on the knowledge gained from previous research, three additional focus group studies were conducted. The focus group studies show that accessibility and usability issues of group support applications are impeding persons who are blind from productive group work. The implications of the results from this research project are also discussed.
Keywords: Group support; accessibility; usability; blind
Verbalizing Images BIBAKFull-Text 394-398
  Lisa Tang; Jim A. Carter
Although a picture is worth a thousand words, how can you communicate its meaning and content in less than 250 words when that is all you have? Images are often used to convey information, supplement textual content, and/or add visual appeal to documents. The Usability Engineering Lab (USERLab) at the University of Saskatchewan developed an approach for generating informative alternative text for all types of images. This paper describes the approach and reports on the results of applying the approach by developers, content providers, usability and accessibility specialists, and the general public users.
Keywords: alternative text; images; description; captions
Experiencing Accessibility Issues and Options BIBAKFull-Text 399-403
  Lisa Tang; David W. Fourney; Jim A. Carter
This paper introduces a comprehensive and well structured set of accessibility demonstration experiences (ADEs) that are accessible to a wide range of users. The ADEs are designed to help students as well as software and user interface designers understand the needs and expectations of users with disabilities. They cover a wide range of issues and options in accessible computing. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned both about teaching using ADEs and making ADEs more truly accessible.
Keywords: Accessibility; demonstrations; experiences; web accessibility
Adopting User-Centered Design for the Translating of Barrier-Free Design Codes/Regulations BIBAKFull-Text 404-408
  Tsai-Hsuan Tsai; Wen-Ko Chiou; Huey-Yann Liao; Tai-Xian Tseng
Over the past few decades, barrier-free design codes/regulations have been integrated into many countries' national regulations. The existing guidelines, however, have been criticized for being too abstruse and professional for practical use by the general public. As a result, the aim of this research is to analyse the existing presentation of building codes and barrier-free design regulations, including the full variety of characteristics, behaviors and requirements, and identities of environments in order to translate the information within barrier-free design codes/regulations into suitable presentations that match the users' requirements and special needs. In addition, suggestions for the presentation of codes/regulations are provided in this study.
Keywords: barrier-free design codes/regulations; user-centered design; design for all
User Research for Senior Users BIBAKFull-Text 409-413
  Kaori Ueda; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The purpose of this research is to propose new user research method for senior users, and discover problems of user interface design, propose an idea for improvement using proposed method. Targeted user is senior user from middle 50s to late 60s, and targeted product is cellphone. The aim of proposed method is to find out more detailed problems and the intention of senior users to improve user interface design. Author conducted preparatory survey based on proposed method with the Diary method and the Ethnographical interview. The results were classified into the impact analysis table. From those result, "change main screen image" has problem the most. Author improves its user interface design based on the results.
Keywords: Cellphone; Senior users; User interface design; The Diary method; The Ethnographical interview; HCD; Cognitive science
Audio-Haptic Description in Movies BIBAKFull-Text 414-418
  Lakshmie Narayan Viswanathan; Troy L. McDaniel; Sethuraman Panchanathan
This paper proposes a methodology to enhance audio described movies (i.e., films augmented with additional narration to explain visual content to viewers who are blind or visually impaired) by providing positional information of on-screen actors through haptics. Using a vibrotactile belt, we map the location of a character across the screen to a relative location around the waist, and the relative distance of a character from the camera is mapped to a tactile rhythm. Character movement is subsequently conveyed through these two dimensions. All participants, including one visually impaired subject, felt the vibrations improved their visualization of the clips. This subject also felt that it was quite easy to combine the information received through audio and haptics, and that the vibrations were not obstructing the subject's attention to audio.
Keywords: Audio description; video description; described audio; descriptive video service; movies; tactons; tactile icons; vibrotactile belt; haptics; assistive technology

Part VI / Social Interaction and On-line Communities

Becoming Friends on Online Social Networking Services BIBAKFull-Text 421-425
  Wonmi Ahn; Borum Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
The internet has become an effective tool in communication, and SNS (Social Networking Service), such as Facebook or Twitter, that allows anyone to disclose a variety of specific personal information. The purpose of the present study is to identify which profile factors provided SNS users (or viewers) with a positive first impression. Results from study 1, the three factors -- basic information, profile picture and interests -- were derived according to priority. In study 2, we established three major profile factors extracted from surveys that are crucial factors in SNS settings. We can assumed that more self-disclosure SNS users have the more socially attractive they will be by viewers.
Keywords: Social Networking Service; Profile; First Impressions
On-line Communication as a Part of the "Symbolic Politics" BIBAKFull-Text 426-430
  Evgeniy Ishmenev
This paper analyzes the role of the "symbolic politics" in improving the design of on-line communication. Such explanations are beyond a classical paradigm as assuming the existence of various ways of supporting and an emotional involvement of users into the process of creating and consuming of political information. The concept presumes the analysis of rational forms that differ in their emotionality but can be united into symbols for creating the certain image of political world. The analysis of users' behavioral features enables to evaluate democracy condition at the moment. It is particularly essential for developing countries and countries with a transforming political system.
Keywords: symbolic politics; convergence media; political marketing; legitimacy; institute
A Displaying Method of Food Photos to Know Child's Dietary Life for Parents BIBAKFull-Text 431-434
  Kenta Iwasaki; Kazuyoshi Murata; Yu Shibuya
There are many children who live far away from parents. The parents want to know their child's dietary life because it is important for his/her healthy life. However, there are no ways for parents to know their child' dietary life without troublesome in each other. We proposed the method which extracts the information related to child's meals automatically and displays it to know the child's dietary life easily for parents.
Keywords: displaying method; automatic extraction; dietary life
Memory Makers -- The Experience of Camera Usage by Women BIBAKFull-Text 435-439
  Yu-Lung Kao; Ju-Joan Wong
This study focuses on gender perspective to explore the Taiwan married women's experience in using the camera. Unlike Western women who dominate the family photography for a long time, early family photography in Taiwan is mainly responsible by the male. Until the early '80s women had more shooting opportunities. In this study, through the interview to seven of Taiwan's middle-class women's camera usage, we focused on the impact of experience in photography for their lives. Preliminary study results indicated that: In addition to her husband's busy and rejection of photography etc. factors, women's self independent and outgoing nature make them more interested in photography. In addition, due to the computer knowledge they obtained through work and other interests, these women could be more initiatively to adopt digital photography, but they also reduced the chance to actually interact with people. According to the above, the study believes in the late industrialization countries, women are not always passive technology users, but are able to use technology to show themselves; and the future of technology in the development of photography should take a fresh look at women's ability to operate the technology, and to derive self-empowerment of each interacting process.
Keywords: Qualitative research; Camera; Feminist theories of technology; Married women; Family photography
Unique Motivation for Using Global Social Network Site in Korea BIBAKFull-Text 440-444
  Hyosun Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
This study is an attempt to connect the distinctive motivation of Korean self-expression [1] with growth of the global social network sites (SNSs) in Korea. To explore the motivation using global SNSs, we conducted in-depth interview. The result of the interviews suggests that Korean expected to look more attractive or charming when they have foreign online friends, thus leading them to seek to make such foreign friends on Facebook, a widely used SNS. In addition, a questionnaire was conducted to analyze the correlation between the offline and online tendencies of Koreans to prefer foreign friends. The results showed that the respondents perceived themselves as more attractive if he (she) had a foreign friend offline and as more attractive if he (she) was a person who had comments from foreign friends on Facebook. The above results implicate that there are various motives for using global SNSs, depending on the cultural backgrounds of the users.
Keywords: motivation; global Social Network Site; self-expression; foreign friends; rich-get-rich theory
Color Image Effect of Online Community on Age: Focusing on Self-expression BIBAKFull-Text 445-448
  Jihyun Kim; Hyeryeong Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
Online social network service prevents older adults from isolating. It can be the tool of self-expression in the social context as well as the mean of sharing information. Affiliated community itself can be a self-expressive symbol of the member sometimes. How the member feel the community can affect sense of belonging. This study investigated age difference on perceived self-expression depending on color image of online community webpage. The results indicated that two different age groups showed different perceived patterns to 'soft-hard' and 'warm-cool' image dimensions. This suggests that interface designers consider that color image of interfaces can provide different expression among different age groups.
Keywords: self-expression; color image; older adults; age; social network service; interface
Gender in the Digital Age: Women's Participation in Designing Social Software BIBAKFull-Text 449-453
  Tânia Cristina Lima; Júlio Cesar dos Reis
Women's participation in social network activities may be an essential condition for its maintenance. This article aims at presenting gender issues and their connection to information technology environment. In order to know what are the gender differences that should be considered in designing a Social Software, the process of creating a social network in the Web is discussed from a female perspective. Testimonies of various social actors and residents of a lower medium class peripheral neighborhood in the city of Campinas, Brazil, the Vila União, involved in the e-Cidadania project is analyzed making references to the paths chosen by the women during the design process, in the pursuit of technological knowledge required for this activity.
Keywords: Gender; Local Culture; Technological Environment; Inclusive Social Networks
Study of Communication Aid Which Supports Conversation Held at Railway Station BIBAFull-Text 454-458
  Kaoru Nakazono; Mari Kakuta; Yuji Nagashima
We are developing a communication aid technique called VUTE (Visual Universal Talking Environment). VUTE aids people who have difficulty in spoken communication such as elderly hard of hearing people, Deaf people and foreigners. Its unique characteristic is that it does not rely on written language but uses motion pictograms. This paper presents the overview of VUTE 2010 that can be used at railway stations and the methodology for designing VUTE 2010. The results of the evaluation experiment of VUTE 2010 will also be discussed.
Sociable Tabletop Companions at "Dinner Party" BIBAKFull-Text 459-463
  Hye Yeon Nam; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
This paper describes the challenges and processes of developing a sociable interface and presents the implementation of one sociable interface, Dinner Party, in which a participant interacts with virtual creatures while dining alone. This paper explains how mundane objects can be sociable interfaces that interact with humans on a psychological level.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Sociable interfaces; Creative and expressive art experiences
Quality of Community in Social Games BIBAKFull-Text 464-468
  Kohei Otake; Tadakazu Fukutomi; Tomofumi Uetake
With the widespread of Internet, 'Contents' on Internet are increasing. And, contents offered on Internet are transformed from a unique service into an undifferentiated service (Commodification of the Internet contents). And users' concerns may be changing from the value of contents to other in the near future. In social games, we think that the selection criteria will change from the value of contents to the value of the community. So, it is important for Social Game suppliers to offer the function to improve the quality of community. In this paper, we aim to examine how to improve the quality of community. We focus on Q&A sites that have services to improve the quality of community. We analyze the structure of the community and consider the factors to improve the quality of community.
Keywords: Social Games; Quality of Community; Commodification; Q&A service
Taiwanese Facebook Users' Motivation and the Access of Information Technology BIBAKFull-Text 469-473
  Chun-Ming Tsai; Yu-Ting Huang; Ji-Lung Hsieh
With the increasing diversity in networked information communication technology (ICTs), the question arises whether users' social, entertainment and information needs are being met. Existing research on Internet information services and traditional portal or blog sites has not been extended to a more recent study of functional community websites such as Facebook. Therefore, this study was designed to administer a questionnaire survey in order to explore the motivation of Taiwan Facebook users of ICT's by analyzing their Facebook use. The study concluded that: (1) Facebook users were attracted to Facebook mainly by social motivations, though some were attracted by the Facebook game simulation of "Farmville", highly publicized in the media. A study of background variables further found that female users who had low education level and low age were more likely motivated by the gaming platform; male users who had low education level and a higher age were likely attracted by both a high degree of social interaction and high use of game-playing; (2) Facebook users were online more often, but for most there was no significant increase in the total number of hours online; (3) Facebook users who were motivated by both game play and social interaction do actually increase their online time using Facebook. The study indicated that Facebook facilitates increased use of information technology, and further recognizes that the gender of users accounts for significant differences in motivation. The findings of this study will lead to a better understanding of the motivation of Taiwan ICT users, specifically Taiwan Facebook users.
Keywords: Access of information technologies; motivation; social networking sites
Connecting Generations: Preserving Memories with Thanatosensitive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 474-478
  Cyndi Wiley; Yun Wang; Ryan Musselman; Beverly Krumm
Hand-written letters have morphed over the past two decades from the physical realm of ink on paper to digital text displayed on a digital screen, making emails the most common digital format for letters. Old shoeboxes were used as storage spaces for hand-written letters and photographs, bound together with ribbons or rubber bands. The shoebox would then be tucked away somewhere in the house, only to see the light of day years later after a vigorous bout of house cleaning, on a special occasion or after one's death. Since email archives are not the physical artifact of a shoebox of letters and photographs, it is much more difficult to bequeath them to an heir after death. Our proposal is the development of an application named Shoebox that will connect family and friends through the bequeathing of Gmail archives, Picasa photos and YouTube videos.
Keywords: Interface design; User-centered design

Part VII / Work and Collaboration

Introducing CAPER, a Collaborative Platform for Open and Closed Information Acquisition, Processing and Linking BIBAKFull-Text 481-485
  Carlo Aliprandi; Andrea Marchetti
We introduce the CAPER project (Collaborative information, Acquisition, Processing, Exploitation and Reporting), partially funded by the European Commission. The goal of CAPER is to create a common platform for the prevention of organized crime through sharing, exploitation and linking of Open and Closed information Sources. CAPER will support collaborative multilingual analysis of unstructured and audiovisual contents, based on Text Mining and Visual Analytics technologies. CAPER will allow Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) to share informational, investigative and experiential knowledge.
Keywords: Text Mining; Natural Language Processing; Semantics; Semantic Web Interlinking; Social Web
Secure Transmission of Medical Images by SSH Tunneling BIBAKFull-Text 486-490
  Felipe Rodrigues Martinêz Basile; Flávio Cezar Amate
Given the technological advances related to Telemedicine and eHealth together with the increase of cyber attacks in the internet. We can consider that studies are necessary to improve a secure transmission of medical images. A desktop application was developed for the transmission of medical images considering a secure environment using SSH protocol and cryptographic keys. In accordance to statistical analysis using test t there isn't significant difference (p>0.05) when we compare the total time of transmission using SSH Tunneling with the total time of transmission using HTTP request, in the same way there isn't significant difference (p>0.05) when we compare the average transmission rates using SSH Tunneling with the average transmission rates using HTTP request. Finally, we can affirm that a secure transmission of medical images using SSH tunneling is highly recommended because it can provide a secure way with a level of encryption on point to point transmission between client and server, observing national and international rules for telemedicine.
Keywords: SSH; HTTP; tunneling; telemedicine; secure; medical images
Service Components for Unified Communication and Collaboration of an SOA-Based Converged Service Platform BIBAKFull-Text 491-495
  Ki-Sook Chung; Young-Mee Shin
Since there are lots of communication means and devices such as e-mail, short messaging, messengers, wired or wireless telephone and even social network services, we need some unified communication environment for the smarter work place. We introduce a converged service platform with open service components for the unified communication and collaboration in this paper. Using the converged service platform, the third party service providers can create applications easily by composing the open service components and execute their applications since the CSP covers the entire lifecycle of services. The CSP provides UCC (Unified Communication and Collaboration) components in the form of web services. The UCC components of the CSP cover basic communication functionalities as well as social collaboration functionalities and can be mashed up into various applications for the smart collaboration in a company.
Keywords: SOA; Service Component; Unified Communication
Fine-Grained Adaptive User Interface for Personalization of a Word Processor: Principles and a Preliminary Study BIBAKFull-Text 496-500
  Martin Dostál; Zdenek Eichler
We introduce novel fine-grained adaptive user interface for the OpenOffice.org Writer word processor. It provides a panel container with personalized user interface to an individual user. The personalization is provided on frequently or recently used user commands, user's preferred interaction styles and frequently used parameters to user commands. The next part of the paper describes a proof-of-concept usability study. We measured task completion times and error rates on the proposed adaptive interface, menus and toolbars on a word processing task.
Keywords: personalization; adaptive user interfaces; usability study
Development of Learning Achievement Index for Project Human Resource Management BIBAKFull-Text 501-505
  Yusuke Emori; Takuya Furusawa; Tsutomu Konosu
The problem of decline in the number of project managers and in their quality has been widely discussed. The proposed approach bases the learning goal evaluation index on the student group projects. The index uses item response theory that evaluates items regardless of the test used. Comparing the evaluation of the applied educational products with that of student retention from lecture tests and midterm and final exams resulted in nearly the same curves. The results showed that both evaluation methods test nearly the same characteristics. This study defined success as achievement of learning goal and compared the learning achievement goal with the assumed capability of the work group: approximately 32% of examinees in the 7th group work demonstrated an ability level below that required to achieve the learning goal. This study revealed that it is possible to predict whether a student will pass a lecture test before a periodic test.
Keywords: Education; Evaluation; Project Human Resource Management
Design and Development of Information Display Systems for Monitoring Overboard BIBAKFull-Text 506-509
  Tadasuke Furuya; Atsushi Suzuki; Atsushi Shimamura; Takeshi Sakurada; Yoichi Hagiwara; Takafumi Saito
Recently, the number of incidents that suspicious person boards from a small boat to a boarding ship has increased. In case of a large ship, the number of crew is especially a few against the size of the ship. Under the circumstances, we need a method to easily grasp the state not only monitoring in the bridge but also inspecting inboard and taking a rest.
Keywords: monitoring; overboard
Fault Diagnosis of Induction Motors Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Network BIBAKFull-Text 510-514
  In-Soo Lee
This paper proposes a fault diagnosis method for induction motors based on DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and artificial NN. The proposed algorithm is based on ART2 NN (adaptive resonance theory 2 neural network) with uneven vigilance parameters. Proposed fault diagnosis method consists of data preprocessing part by frequency analysis of vibration signal, and fault classifier for fault isolation by ART2 NN. Especially, the data preprocessing part which converts the sampled signals into the frequency domain by DWT is very important to improve the performance of the fault diagnosis. In this paper both rotor and bearing faults of the induction motors are considered for diagnosis. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault diagnosis method of induction motors.
Keywords: Fault diagnosis; induction motor; DWT; ART-2 NN
Study on Providing Multi-faceted Information on Technology Intelligence Service BIBAKFull-Text 515-518
  Mikyoung Lee; Seungwoo Lee; Pyung Kim; Hanmin Jung; Won-Kyung Sung
In this study, we propose an information visualization method that provides multi-faceted information about technologies, research agents and research results on technology intelligence service supporting researchers to facilitate strategic planning and decisions. We consider selecting a suitable type among existing visualization types to increase the efficiency of information delivery and then customizing it for multi-faceted information. In this manner, we select an appropriate visualization type and then add meaningful information by using additional features such as color and size of node. As further work, we would like to develop an automatic explanation module for all visualizations in the technology intelligence service.
Keywords: Multi-faceted Information; Technology Intelligence Service; Information visualization
Simulating Additional Area on Tele-Board's Large Shared Display BIBAKFull-Text 519-523
  Peter LoBue; Raja Gumienny; Christoph Meinel
Digital whiteboard systems can simulate an infinite amount of surface area on a single display; however the hardware's limited size necessitates supplementary virtual tools to navigate the area. In what ways does this less convenient setup hinder established collaborative workflows? Participants in our pilot study were asked to synthesize data on either a traditional whiteboard setup with multiple touch displays or a single display that had to be navigated virtually. Results show that working under the restrictions of a single display required slightly more time, yet workflows could continue. Users accepted the visual restriction as a condition of working with a digital system. Team members were also impelled to work more closely together, which both helped and hurt collaboration.
Keywords: CSCW; whiteboards; simulated space; shared displays; creativity support tools; design thinking
Components Based Integrated Management Platform for Flexible Service Deployment in Plant Factory BIBAKFull-Text 524-528
  Aekyung Moon; Song Li; Kyuhyung Kim
The plant factory is a facility that aid growers to make the steady production of high-quality vegetables and ornamental plants all year round by artificially controlling the cultivation environment such as indoor temperature and humidity. There are various types of plant factory such as fully artificial light-type, sunlight-type and plastic house, etc. In this paper, we propose Intelligent Greenhouse Integrated Management Platform (IGIMP) that can support a variety of plant factory type with the flexible service deployment. To optimize the environment for crop growth automatically, it gathers environmental context information from various indoor sensors as well as outdoor sensors and provides appropriate control functions using the convergence of ubiquitous computing and agriculture technologies. Finally, we introduce implementation through small plant factory prototype a kind of fully artificial light-type greenhouse.
Keywords: Environment Control; Greenhouse; Plant Factory; Context; Ubiquitous Sensor
Development of the Many Nodes Connected and Simple Operated HD Remote Lecture System by Automatic Control BIBAKFull-Text 529-533
  Takeshi Sakurada; Yoichi Hagiwara; Tadasuke Furuya
We developed new HD remote lecture systems, which connected many universities in Japan. People can use this system easily, because people should only reserve the system through the web, then a system starts in eservetion time and sets the equipment automatically. Thus, this system can reduce a burden of a user. This system is a beginning in Japan, as for the remote lecture using a high-definition picture connected Japanese universities from the north to the south. We are expanding the system and total connection nodes number is over 36. We connect rooms nearby by this system and create some virtual big room. It is useful to connect not only the remote rooms but also neighborhood rooms together.
Keywords: Tele-conference; Remote Lecture; Automated system; High-Definition System
Enhancing Flexibility of Production Systems by Self-optimization BIBAFull-Text 534-538
  Robert Schmitt; Carsten Wagels; Mario Isermann; Marcel Ph. Mayer
For establishing self-optimization in production technology, an extensive knowledge about the effects of process parameters on the product during the manufacturing processes is mandatory for the flexibility needed in complex production systems. In this regard, a controlling software that can autonomously detect this knowledge and use it for optimization is needed. Specific methods for the implementation of cognitive information processing are required. This paper focuses on the development of a self-optimizing controlling software architecture. In order to evaluate the optimization steps and simultaneously validate the rules used for it, an implementation for real production data of an automotive rear-axle-drive is described.
Do They Use Different Set of Non-verbal Language in Turn-Taking in Distributed Conferences? BIBAKFull-Text 539-543
  Hidekazu Tamaki; Suguru Higashino; Minoru Kobayashi; Masayuki Ihara
Our aim is to create an environment where we can change a speaker smoothly. To avoid speech contention, we try to investigate what is the main reason of it. In this paper, we experimented to investigate what kind and how many non-verbal information appeared in distributed conferences. The result said that, non-verbal information such as nodding and back-channel feedback appeared decreasingly, even though they did conferences with video conference, no delay.
Keywords: Distributed conferences; Turn-taking; Non-verbal language
Floating 3D Video Conference BIBAKFull-Text 544-547
  Kun-Lung Tseng; Wen-Chao Chen; Tung-Fa Liou; Kang-Chou Lin
This paper proposes an improved algorithm based on Active Appearance Models (AAM) and applies on a real-time 3D video conference system with a novel 3D display device which can pop out an avatar out of the display in the air. The proposed algorithm utilizes an improved Adaboost algorithm [1] for face detection based on skin color information. Facial feature points are then tracked based on AAM [2] and we improved the algorithm to determine the rate of closing eyelid and the rotation angle of eyeballs. The novel 3D display device projects digital images on an actual human like object as an avatar and pops out a 3D image in the air via an optical module. With the proposed system, users can interactive intuitively with a popped 3D avatar. This system provides more realistic and representative visual effect for interaction in a video conference.
Keywords: Interaction; Floating; AAM

Part VIII / Access to Information and Knowledge

User Interface Design for the Interactive Use of Online Spoken German Journalistic Texts for the International Public BIBAKFull-Text 551-555
  Christina Alexandris
A design of a user-interface for the interactive use of online spoken German journalistic texts is proposed to provide the in-context signalization of ambiguous or connotative linguistic and paralinguistic information to non-native speakers of the German language The online transcribed spoken journalistic texts are scanned by the proposed module and the User is presented with an output in the module's user-interface constituting the actual text with an in-context indication of all the instances of connotative linguistic and paralinguistic information, which are signalized according to error data obtained from European Union Projects and international MA courses for translators and journalists. The module is designed to be able to be compatible with most commercial transcription tools, some of which are available online.
Keywords: morphological processing; prosodic emphasis; paralinguistic elements
How the Shapes of School Emblems for Colleges Convey Imagery BIBAKFull-Text 556-560
  Mu-Chien Chou
School emblems express the spirit of the school, winning a sense of identification from teachers and students. We wonder if the imagery conveyed by school emblems is in agreement with how viewers feel. The following is a summary of our research results: (1) The horizontal axis in the imagery space is "fond -- hateful"; the vertical axis is "concrete -- abstract". School emblems are distributed in the space between the two axes. (2) The influences on imagery are simplified into four factors. The four factors, arranged in the order of importance, are "psychology", "shape", "times" and "strength". (3) In the design of school emblems, "circular", "club-shaped" and the like are more popular in Taiwan. In contrast, irregular forms are less welcomed and should be avoided when making emblems. (4) To give a sense of entirety, school emblems have to be closed figures. Circular and square emblems, in particular, have better completeness.
Keywords: shape of school emblem; convey imagery
Extensible CP-Based Autonomous Search BIBAKFull-Text 561-565
  Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Carlos Castro; Eric Monfroy
A main concern in Constraint Programming (CP) is to determine good variable and value order heuristics. However, this is known to be quite difficult as the effects on the solving process are rarely predictable. A novel solution to handle this concern is called Autonomous Search (AS), which is a special feature allowing an automatic reconfiguration of the solving process when a poor performance is detected. In this paper, we present a preliminary architecture for performing AS in CP. The idea is to perform an "on the fly" replacement of bad-performing heuristics by more promising ones. Another interesting feature of this architecture is its extensibility. It is possible to easily upgrade their components in order to improve the AS mechanism.
Keywords: Constraint Programming; Autonomous Search; Heuristic Search
A Hybrid Approach to User Activity Instrumentation in Software Applications BIBAKFull-Text 566-570
  Martin Dostál; Zdenek Eichler
This paper introduces novel approach to logging user activity in software applications that provide accurate high-level information about issued commands, commands parameters and user interaction styles without a need for inferring user activity from logged user interfaces events as it is required on most loggers these days. We also demonstrate the proposed approach on a prototype implementation under the OpenOffice.org suite.
Keywords: usability instrumentation; understanding the user; user commands; user interface events
Web Resource Selection for Dialogue System Generating Natural Responses BIBAKFull-Text 571-575
  Masashi Inoue; Takuya Matsuda; Shoichi Yokoyama
Using Web information in example-based dialogue systems is considered to be a good way to increase the topical relevance of system responses. However, Web content is mostly written documents, not colloquial utterances. To alleviate the discrepancy in style between written and spoken language, we suggest that the corpus should be selected subsets of the Web, viz., online bulletin boards. The naturalness provided by casual utterances is especially important when the goal of a dialogue is chatting rather than formal question answering. By appropriately selecting the information source, our text-based dialogue system can generate friendly responses to users. These characteristics were evaluated with a questionnaire.
Keywords: Naturalness; Dialogue system; Web as corpus
R&D Information System to Support Knowledge Creation BIBAKFull-Text 576-579
  Hyojeong Jin; Il Yeon Yeo; Youn-Gyou Kook; Byung-Hee Lee; Jaesoo Kim
In this paper, we introduce a web-based national Research & Development (R&D) information system that is called 'Open R&D Knowledge Service'. It is based on the SECI model of knowledge creation theory for supporting knowledge creation process on a national basis. The R&D information system gathers and shares tacit and explicit R&D knowledge through three separate services -- Open R&D encyclopedia service, Knowledge Q&A service and Precedent R&D Information service -- utilizing crowdsourcing and accumulated government-funded R&D outcomes.
   The system facilitates the conversion of individual tacit knowledge to national explicit knowledge and expands the existing national explicit knowledge.
Keywords: R&D Information system; Organizational knowledge; knowledge management; SECI model; Crowdsourcing
A New Method for Designing a Sitemap BIBAKFull-Text 580-583
  Soheila Khodaparasti; Marzieh Ahmadzadeh
Sitemap is a tool used by web designers to increase the accessibility of their site's information. The significance of sitemaps lies in providing their users with an overview of the contents of the website. In this article, a new method for designing a sitemap, which is based on different users need, is proposed. The customers of websites are usually at least one or two groups with specific information needs, needing to be provided with more help. In this proposed method, the requirements of these groups are first defined, and scenarios for moving through the site's pages are also recommended. These scenarios guide users to the right pages in a high level of quality (speed, ease of access and desirability of information). Each scenario leads to a page of website and may mark the other pages in its path. Using our designed sitemap, a proper understanding of the sitemap is expected.
Keywords: Sitemap; Website; Accessibility; Users' needs; Requirements; Scenario
On-line Handwritten Signature Verification Using Hidden Semi-Markov Model BIBAKFull-Text 584-589
  Daw-Tung Lin; Yu-Chia Liao
Handwritten signature has been extensively adopted as biometric for identity verification in daily life, as it is the most widely accepted personal authentication method. Automatic signature recognition technologies can definitely facilitate the verification process. Many research attempts and advances have occurred in this field, automatic signature verification still is a challenging and important issue. This work presents a novel and robust on-line signature verification approach using Hidden Semi-Markov Model (HSMM). The proposed system comprises three stages. First, dynamic features are extracted according to the local statistical information of velocity, acceleration, azimuth, altitude, and pressure. Next, the extracted features are normalized into unified observation length. To improve the verification accuracy, features with slight variation are clustered into the same class using K-means classification algorithm. Furthermore, the Forward-Backward algorithm is utilized to accelerate the computation of HSMM parameters. Finally, the system builds a unique HSMM for each identity and estimates the signature baseline in corresponding to the features. To assess the recognition performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments were conducted using SVC2004 signature database. Analytical results reveal that the proposed method is very promising.
Keywords: On-line handwritten signature verification; dynamic features; Hidden Semi-Markov Model; Forward-Backward algorithm
Accessing Previously Shared Interaction States through Natural Language BIBAKFull-Text 590-594
  Arthi Murugesan; Derek P. Brock; Wende K. Frost; Dennis Perzanowski
An important ambition of human-computer interaction research is to develop interfaces that employ natural language in ways that meet users' expectations. Drawing on elements of Clark's account of language use, this idealized form of human-computer interaction can be viewed as a coordination problem involving agents who work together to convey and thus coordinate their interaction goals. In the modeling work presented here, a sequence of interrelated modules developed in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture is used to implement several stages of reasoning the user of a simple video application would expect an addressee -- ultimately, the application -- to work through, were the interaction goal to locate a scene they had previously viewed together.
Keywords: natural language; coordination problem; common ground; salience; solvability; cognitive modeling; Polyscheme
Japanese Sentence Input Method Using Acceleration Sensor BIBAKFull-Text 595-599
  Masaki Sugimoto; Kazufumi Nakai; Nobuo Ezaki; Kimiyasu Kiyota
Digital pens are used for character input method without training. Some lecture support systems were developed by using pen input, because of collecting remarks of student in a real time. We proposed a lecture support system by using Wiimote for character input method. Because Wiimote has 3D acceleration sensor, a student writes a character in the air, and our system can recognize a written character. After that the recognized character is displayed on an electronic blackboard. We are using two recognition algorithms by only real-stroke. And we adopt the error correction method by using a tree search algorithm that uses word dictionary. The Japanese characters used in this paper are Hiragana (71 characters), Katakana (71 characters), Kanji (1006 characters taught elementary schools in Japanese) and numerals. The recognition accuracy was 78.9%. Also, the recognition accuracy of phrase was 91.7% by bi-gram model. We confirmed the required performance for utilization.
Keywords: Character Recognition; Wiimote; Gesture Recognition; N-gram Model
Where to Put the Search Concepts in the Search Result Page? BIBAFull-Text 600-604
  K. T. Tong; Robert W. P. Luk
This paper looks at where to put the search concepts in the search result pages by asking over 40 subjects. Four (layout) designs are used where the search concepts are placed differently, and subjects are asked to rank them. Results show that there is preference to place the search concepts near the snippets.
Kansei Modeling on Visual Impression from Small Datasets BIBAKFull-Text 605-609
  Shunsuke Uesaka; Kazuki Yasukawa; Toshikazu Kato
Large datasets are generally required for machine learning. In order to improve the efficiency of the system, our team proposes a new Kansei modeling method, which requires users to collect only a small dataset. Using our method, the small datasets can search and collect large datasets classified in detail. As a result, our method creates the well-tuned Kansei model only from small datasets without the trouble of collecting many datasets.
Keywords: Kansei Modeling; Machine Learning; Image Retrieval System
A Movie Recommendation Mechanism Based on User Ratings in the Mobile Peer-to-Peer Environment BIBAKFull-Text 610-614
  Chian Wang; Dai-Yang Lin
In this paper, a movie recommendation mechanism in the mobile peer-to-peer environment is proposed. Our idea is that users can now easily exchange information with their mobile devices. Thus, if they can have ratings of the movies that they watched, then the ratings can be used to recommendation some movies that they have not watched. When two users approach, the mechanism can determine if they have similar interests in movies by exchanging the ratings. Then, the mechanism can generate a movie recommendation list by estimating a user's ratings of the movies that he has not watched.
Keywords: recommendation systems; mobile environment; peer-to-peer applications