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HCII Tables of Contents: 09-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-314-414-5

HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on HCI, Part II: Applications and Services

Fullname:HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Applications and Services
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8005
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39262-7 hcibib: HCII13-2; ISBN: 978-3-642-39261-0 (print), 978-3-642-39262-7 (online)
Papers:74
Pages:670
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. HCII 2013-07-21 Volume 2
    1. HCI in Healthcare
    2. Games and Gamification
    3. HCI in Learning and Education
    4. In-Vehicle Interaction

HCII 2013-07-21 Volume 2

HCI in Healthcare

Software Engineering in Telehealth, an Extension of Sana Mobile Applied to the Process of a Routine Hospital BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Alfredo Veiga de Carvalho; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena; Elder José Reioli Cirilo; Paulo Henrique Cardoso Alves; Pedro Augusto da Silva e Souza Miranda; Gustavo Robichez de Carvalho; Fábio Rodrigo Lopes de Araújo; Gabriel Vial Correa Lima
The patient's medical record, containing the reasons for hospitalization, clinical evolution, laboratory tests, prescription drugs and other relevant information is of utmost importance to medical management care. Information technology plays a key role in communicating and disseminating the patient's clinical data [1]. The Sana Mobile, originally developed by MIT (the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) for mobile platform, consists of an open source electronic medical record. It has revolutionized the delivery of healthcare services in remote areas in a clear and objective way [2]. The mobile device stores Sana medical data, text files, audio and video containing patient's clinical information while transmitting data over the mobile platform to a web server, the Open Medical Record System -- OpenMRS. This system gathers information about medications, diagnoses, and others crucial data from a patient, making them available to consultations by many medical experts.
   Our tests with Sana Mobile -- OpenMRS focus on the development of an experimental extension of this mobile platform and its use in supporting education and training of medical students encompassing routine free ambulatory care and multidisciplinary research project. Participating in this study are researches and students of Software Engineering, Medicine and Design, respectively Software Engineering Lab -- LES of the Department of Informatics of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro -- PUC-Rio, the School of Medicine and Surgery of the State University of Rio de Janeiro -- UNIRIO which includes Gaffrée and Guinle University Hospital -- HUGG, Laboratory of Ergonomics and Usability -- LEUI of the Department of Arts and Design at PUC-Rio, under the coordination of LES.
Keywords: Software Engineering; Multidisciplinarity; Telemedicine; Learning; Mobility; Usability; Collaboration
Cross Cultural Design Considerations in HealthCare BIBAKFull-Text 13-19
  Joyram Chakraborty
Increasing number of health care providers are leveraging the power of technology to provide access to medical practitioners and patients on a global scale. However, there is limited research in the area of cross cultural design of the tools being used. This paper presents a work-in-progress in the area of cross cultural design of health care tools. The main interest is to outline some of the cross cultural challenges of designing and implementing healthcare tools on a global scale and some possible solutions.
Keywords: Healthcare; Cross-Cultural; User Experience; Usability
Designing Copresent Cycling Experience BIBAFull-Text 20-25
  Yun-Maw Cheng; Wei-Ju Chen; Tong-Ying Wu; Frode Eika Sandnes; Chris Johnson; Chao-Yang Yang
There has been much UbiComp research into motivating people to live more active and healthy lifestyle with sports. The idea behind these approaches is centered on social and peer effects in enhancing exercise adherence. While research of this kind has been prolific, there has very little work been done to identify factors that embody comfortable and informed accompanied exercise experience. This paper takes an increasingly attractive cycling theme as a testbed and proposes an unobtrusive and intuitive interface arrangement based on light. It can create a sense of being together with each other for distant apart cyclists. The initial results yield a good level of comprehension and motivation towards the use of the interface. The hope is that the elicited recommendations can guide the design of UbiComp technologies for social motivational physical exercises.
Achieving Electronic Health Record Access from the Cloud BIBAKFull-Text 26-35
  Brian Coats; Subrata Acharya
There is an impending requirement for healthcare providers to enable widespread access to their electronic health record systems for the patients they serve. Programs such as the Department of Health and Human Services' Meaningful Use are providing monetary incentives to providers for offering this type of access but affording virtually no guidance as to how it could be accomplished. This research proposes a solution to this challenge by creating a flexible, proven framework that sets the stage for ubiquitous patient access to electronic health records, while preserving security and privacy. Using technologies such as OpenID and federated authentication, this research establishes a standardized approach for healthcare providers to follow to bridge their EHR systems to the Cloud and offer the type of pervasive electronic access the connected world demands.
Keywords: Healthcare Information Security; Identity Assurance; OpenID; Portable Identity; Identity Management; Federated Authentication
User Requirements for the Development of Smartphone Self-reporting Applications in Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 36-45
  Michael P. Craven; Kirusnapillai Selvarajah; Robert Miles; Holger Schnädelbach; Adam Massey; Kavita Vedhara; Nicholas Raine-Fenning; John Crowe
Two case studies of the development of Smartphone self-reporting mHealth applications are described: a wellness diary for asthma management combined with Bluetooth pulse oximeter and manual peak flow measurements; and a questionnaire for ecological assessment of distress during fertility treatment. Results are presented of user experiences with the self-reporting application and the capture of physiological measurements in the case of the asthma diary project and the findings from a phone audit at an early stage of design in the case of the in vitro fertilisation (IVF) study. Issues raised by ethics committees are also discussed. It is concluded that the optimal adoption of Smartphone self-reporting applications will require a good appreciation of user and ethics panel requirements at an early stage in their development, so that the correct design choices can be made.
Keywords: mHealth; Self-monitoring; Adherence; User experience; Consumer and User; Ecological interfaces; Evaluation methods and techniques; Human Centered Design and User Centered Design; Human Factors Engineering Approach; Meaningfulness and Satisfaction; New Technology and its Usefulness
Electronic Health Records: A Case Study of an Implementation BIBAKFull-Text 46-55
  Guillaume Cusseau; Jon Grinsell; Christopher Wenzel; Fan Zhao
Since healthcare institutions have to manage efficiently many terabytes of data on their patients, they need tools that allow them to have an easy access to their data and that enable them to share their data with every specialist involved in the treatment of a patient. That's why they increasingly adopt EMR and EHR systems. As they are quite recent systems, healthcare institutions usually lack of experience to implement these systems. The purpose of this paper is to do a case study on the implementation of an EHR system in a local healthcare institution, and then to analyze this case study to give directions so as to avoid some arising issues.
Keywords: EHR; EMR; Implementation; Case Study
Healthcare Interoperability: CDA Documents Consolidation Using Transport Record Summary (TRS) Construction BIBAKFull-Text 56-65
  Philip DePalo; Kyung Eun Park; Yeong-Tae Song
Thanks to recent medical record standards and distributed technology, the exchange of medical documents has become readily available. Healthcare institutions are able to share documents with other providers; however, patients who require medical transport are still subject to rudimentary exchange of information through verbal reports and outdated hand written medical notes. An ongoing exchange of medical documents between patient transport units and the facilities they serve would help reduce medical errors. Our approach searches for available documents that are relevant to the patients' current conditions based on medical coding within these documents, clinical document architecture (CDA) documents, using HL7 message exchange mechanism in SOAP envelopes. These CDA documents are then consolidated into a single transport record summary (TRS) document to filter out redundancies and provide destination medical service provider with the most pertinent information that is readily accessible to both human and machine. In a time critical environment, access to multiple documents from difference sources is not likely feasible. For this reason, we proposes a CDA document consolidation tool, the TRS Constructor, which creates a TRS by querying and analyzing patient's multiple CDA documents. The new TRS will be registered into the Health Information Exchange (HIE) environment for cross-reference across healthcare facilities and other providers.
Keywords: Enterprise architecture; electronic health records (EHR); electronic health record; hospital IT management; health information technology; interoperability; clinical document architecture (CDA); Health Level Seven (HL7); Transport Record Summary (TRS)
Designing, Implementing and Testing a Mobile Application to Assist with Pediatric-to-Adult Health Care Transition BIBAKFull-Text 66-75
  Jeremy Dixon; Josh Dehlinger; Shannan DeLany Dixon
As development of mobile applications continues to expand, accessibility and utility for users who are differently-abled will become essential. One aspect that impacts a large portion of the differently-abled population is the process of medical transition. Medical transition for patients with chronic diseases from pediatric-based care to adult-based care is one that has been studied, developed and implemented for a number of years; recently, it has become a top priority in healthcare. Due to the complexities of the transition process, a well-designed, intuitive mobile application may improve the standardization and ease of care for these patients. This paper proposes and analyzes the design for a mobile transition navigator application (MTNA) while taking into account some of the most common considerations when working with differently-abled users. Specifically, three aspects of mobile application design are examined: (1) mobile user interfaces are different than traditional interfaces; 2. a variety of mobile platforms exist; and, 3. mobile platforms generate benefits and concerns such as the wide variety of screen sizes and resolutions.
Keywords: mobile applications; differently-abled technologies; human-computer interaction; accessibility
Study on Relationship between Foot Pressure Pattern and Hallux Valgus (HV) Progression BIBAKFull-Text 76-83
  Saba Eshraghi; Ibrahim Esat; Pooyan Rahmanivahid; Mahshid Yazdifar; Mona Eshraghi; Amir Mohagheghi; Sara Horne
Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Plantar pressure technologies are used widely for determination of biomechanical changes in foot during walking. There are already published claims relating to the pressure distribution of HV condition. However some of these claims are disputed and challenged. Although, disputed or otherwise, association of HV to sole pressure widely presented as a means of identifying such condition. Or knowing that HV exist, establishing what kind of pressure variation is expected may lead to better foot wear design for HV patients. Despite of extensive work on sole pressure patterns of patients, there has been no reported work found on conditions which leads to HV. Considering the fact that 23% of adults develop such condition during their life time, understanding HV is badly needed.
   To have better understanding of how plantar pressure patterns can be linked to the deformity progression or existence, extracting some patterns out of force and pressure measurements can be beneficial in recognising the patients with and without deformity during their gait cycle. We examined the dynamic changes of the forces that applied to the whole sole of the feet in control group and in the patients group when they walked at different speeds.
   It was observed for those with HV condition having higher forces on 2nd and 3rd metatarsal heads, and less force on the 1st metatarsal head compared to those without the condition. Although this finding was previously reported in the literature what was new was the fact that, speed of walking shown to have a significant influences on plantar force distribution. This finding in itself is significant as no sole pressure distribution given in conjunction with walking speed in the past.
   It was observed that there was significant variability of pressure distribution of the same individual from one trial to another indicating that getting consistent pressure pattern is an important hurdle to overcome. After many trials individuals' walking regulated giving consistent readings. After achieving this, it was further discovered that pressure pattern very much depended on walking speed. Considering the fact that inconsistency of pressure of unregulated (casual) walking and variability of due to speed raises doubts of validity of previously published work on HV which ignored such factors. Having said that, in our studies too, raised loading is observed on Metatarsal 2 and, 3 although it was not possible to give statistical significance to these finding. Although the loading on metatarsal 2 and 3 may indicate existence of HV, in authors' opinion, there is little chance of using pressure pattern as a predictive tool as no such pressure increase observed on those appeared to be at the start of HV condition or any individual with normal feet.
Keywords: Hallux Valgus; Force pressure pattern
A Server-Based System Supporting Motor Learning through Real-Time and Reflective Learning Activities BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Naka Gotoda; Yoshihisa Sakurai; Kenji Matsuura; Koji Nakagawa; Chikara Miyaji
This paper describes a design of training-diary system intended for motor learning regarding daily outdoor activities including sports. As for motor skill, both monitoring and advising based on the key points which are hard to obtain, are significant factors for improving such motor skills. The points comprise the timing of advice and content. Therefore, we propose a system which automatically generates coaching materials based on real-time monitoring data. It aims to become helpful in finding out such points. During training, the server provides learners and the coaches with an annotation on timeline messages of a mobile-device application by adjustable biomechanical/physiological threshold parameters while receiving the data via the mobile device with wireless sensors. After training, s/he can reflect the reconstructed annotations as diary for next training. Thus, the learners can discuss the key points with the coaches through a trial and error process concerning the threshold adjustment.
Keywords: Bio-feedback; remote coaching; wireless sensor; annotation; content management system
Usability Evaluation of a Voluntary Patient Safety Reporting System: Understanding the Difference between Predicted and Observed Time Values by Retrospective Think-Aloud Protocols BIBAKFull-Text 94-100
  Lei Hua; Yang Gong
The study evaluated the usability of a voluntary patient safety reporting system using two established methods of cognitive task analysis and retrospective think-aloud protocols. Two usability experts and ten end users were employed in two separated experiments, and predicted and observed task execution times were obtained for comparison purpose. According to the results, mental operations contributed to the major effort in reporting. The significant time differences were identified that pointed out the difficulty in human cognition as users interacted with the system. At last, the data collected by retrospective think-aloud technique, e.g. the response consistency on structured questions and the user's attitudes, revealed the frequent usability problems impeding completion of a quality report.
Keywords: patient safety; voluntary reporting; cognitive task analysis; retrospective think-aloud
Usability in RFP's: The Current Practice and Outline for the Future BIBAKFull-Text 101-106
  Timo Jokela; Juha Laine; Marko Nieminen
Studies show that healthcare and other government systems suffer from poor usability. In this research, we aim to understand the reasons and propose solutions to this problem. We conclude so far that (1) the critical phase where to address usability in government system development contracting is request for proposals (RFP), (2) the appropriate place for usability in a RFP is requirements rather than selection criteria and (3) usability requirements should based on user performance, rather than on design principles, usability guidelines, process requirements, or such. We find that defining user performance based usability requirements is a challenging task and a most relevant subject for further research.
Keywords: Usability; government systems; RFP; request for proposals; usability requirements; performance requirements; process requirements; design requirements; usability measures
Design and Interface Considerations for Web-Enabled Data Management in Civil Infrastructure Health Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  David E. Kosnik; Lawrence J. Henschen
We present principles and techniques for design of Web-enabled data aggregation, storage, and visualization software for structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure: the process of collecting and analyzing sensor data related to the condition or behavior of constructed facilities (e.g., bridges, dams, tunnels) to promote safe and efficient service at a reasonable cost. Due to widely variable user requirements and the vast range of data types and display methods required, good human-computer interfaces for engineering applications are still difficult to design and implement, and continue to be constructed in more-or-less ad hoc manners. We approach human-computer interaction in the civil engineering domain through common HCI methods, such as user interviews, use case design and analysis, representation in UML, and so on. However, this paper is focused on two special techniques that are not commonly found in HCI development: (1) a rigorous analysis of the nature of the data and how it will be used, and (2) a general method for sending data into functions for display on the user interface. The addition of two techniques like the above adds new tools to the engineering HCI toolkit and increases HCI designers' ability to meet the needs of engineers who examine large volumes of engineering data.
Empowering Young Adolescents to Choose the Healthy Lifestyle: A Persuasive Intervention Using Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  Lies Kroes; Suleman Shahid
Overweight is one of the major health problems in the Netherlands. Young adolescents with a lower socioeconomic background are especially vulnerable to overweight. This study examines the potential of mobile applications to influence the unhealthy behaviour of young adolescents. A mobile application is proposed to assist in the prevention of overweight using persuasive technology. The application encourages young adolescents to increase fruit consumption and decrease snack consumption. Results of the evaluation show that participants perceive the app as easy to use and useful. Overall, participants showed a more positive attitude and self-efficacy regarding the consumption of fruit, and a more negative attitude towards snacks, which is subsequently expected to influence their behaviour in the long term. According to participants, social influences generated by the app further contribute to this change in attitude and behaviour.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; overweight; behaviour change; attitude - social influence - efficacy model; Fogg's behaviour model; theory of change
Telemedicine and Design: Relationships that Create Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 127-133
  Carlos Alberto Pereira de Lucena; Claudia Renata Mont'Alvão; Felipe Pierantoni; Leonardo Frajhof
Every Project that involves Design in its process requires the gathering of information related to the current contexto, the technologies involved and concepts to be approached. In this research, the first step after the delimitation of the scope of the project was to develop a profound analysis of the related areas to Design. In accordance to this procedure, it became possible to start understanding the relationship between different areas. Telemedicine being the central issue of this research, it becomes necessary to limit its connections with the other areas, such as Design. To begin with, it is necessary to explain the topics of interest of the researchers: Design, HCI (Human-Computer interaction) and ergonomics. From this point on, it could be added the interest in areas such as collaborative learning and mobility, that could influence the paths of the research. Moving forward, such concepts can be explored.
Keywords: Human Centered Design; Design; Telemedicine; Collaborative Learning; Mobility
A Proposal of the New System Model for Nursing Skill Learning Based on Cognition and Technique BIBAKFull-Text 134-143
  Yukie Majima; Yasuko Maekawa; Masato Soga; Masayuki Sakoda
It is necessary to acquire not only specialized knowledge but also appropriate nursing skills in nursing education. In this paper, we propose an e-learning system model to support a high level of technique learning, such as "tacit knowledge" and "proficient art" in nursing skills, which have been heretofore learned only from experience. This e-learning system enables self-learning in addition to intellectual learning, thereby enhancing knowledge of procedures and understanding of nursing skills. The results of evaluation experiments showed that each system had learning effects. However, simultaneously, they indicated the importance of the capability of self-training with actual trial-and-error to acquire skills. For that reason, adding "check point learning" to the already developed cognitive learning support system as a new function, we made improvements to provide nursing skills training covering detailed items. Based on this, we propose step-by-step learning after completing learning in the cognitive domain through spiral learning, which is the first step (from intellectual learning support to skill learning support again to intellectual learning support), learners move on to the second step (technique learning support) in a phased manner. We think that other evaluation given by instructors by checking between the first and second steps, as well as checking self-leaning, reduces the sense of loneliness, which is a common pitfall an e-learning, and which provides satisfaction with self-learning outcomes and a motivation for additional learning development.
Keywords: Nursing skill; E-learning; Cognition; Tacit knowledge; Finger motion capture
Usability Testing for e-health Application: A Case Study for Sana/Open MRS BIBAKFull-Text 144-149
  Claudia Renata Mont'Alvão; Felipe Pierantoni; Carlos Alberto Pereira de Lucena
This paper presents the conduction of a usability test with users of Sana/ Open MRS system. These users are Medicine students that performed four tasks, using distinct scenarios. As part of a bigger research, the objective of this procedure was evaluating user's opinions and from these results, supports system developers in new interfaces.
Keywords: e-health; usability testing; user's evaluation
Introducing Emotional Interfaces to Healthcare Systems BIBAKFull-Text 150-162
  Rangarajan Parthasarathy; Xiaowen Fang
The use of healthcare websites is gaining importance in the United States. It is conceivable that when using healthcare websites, the users may not be in a happy or euphoric emotional state, and would like to be comforted. In this paper, we argue that using emotional interfaces in healthcare systems will attract users, and motivate them to stay, participate and return. We suggest a possible future state for emotional interfaces in healthcare systems. In this context, we present a review of relevant theories and research studies from Computer Science and Psychology, and a subjective ranking of some well-known healthcare websites in the United States with respect to their hedonic and emotional values. Lastly, we discuss our proposal for developing emotional interfaces for healthcare websites.
Keywords: Healthcare Websites; Hedonic Websites; Emotional Websites; Emotional Interfaces
Human Adequate Lighting in Optimal Healing Environments -- Measuring Non-visual Light Effects of a LED Light Source According to German Draft Pre-standard DIN SPEC 5031-100:2012 BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Herbert Plischke; Christoph Schierz; Peyton Paulick; Niko Kohls
Exposing human beings to natural light has many empirically and experimentally corroborated effects on health, well-being and quality of life. One important effect is the entrainment of the human "master clock" to the 24h rhythm of the solar day. In contrast, being surrounded by darkness during the night increases blood levels of melatonin, the brain derived "sleep hormone", and thus signaling other organs aside from the brain. However, in contrast to earlier times, particularly in urban areas distinct periods of the day marked by bright and dark light conditions are scarce, as modern lifestyle has changed and artificial lighting is present in cities on a 24 hour basis. In addition to the merely "visual" effects, light also exhibits non-visual, but biologically relevant (time, spatial, quality and quantity dependent) effects, that are mediated by specialized cells in the eye. These non-visual effects, such as the suppression of melatonin during nighttime may potentially be regarded as a severe risk factor to human health. Due to the discovery of the relationship of light exposure and melatonin suppression, studies have been conducted to evaluate which properties of light are most effective in suppressing melatonin.
   In 2009 a first pre-standard for determining the non-visual effects of light mediated through the eye was established by the German Institute of Standardization (DIN). In this paper we describe, according to the standard, one approach to assess melatonin suppressing potential of light sources on the basis of mathematical algorithms that can be utilized as a conceptual platform for planning visual and non-visual effective lighting for optimal healing environments.
Keywords: Natural light; artificial lighting; human eye; melanopsin; retinal ganglion cells; melatonin suppression; sleep; circadian rhythm; Irradiance; Luminance; melanopic sensitivity function; visual angle; DIN V 5031-100:2009
Discussion of Some Challenges Concerning Biomedical Ontologies BIBAKFull-Text 173-180
  Osama Rabie; Anthony F. Norcio
According to F.P. Brooks, werewolves are the most terrifying of all monsters because they are common people who are transformed into nightmares. Likewise, nothing can be more concerning than having a semantic system that produces inaccurate results due to unidentified problems in the ontology. Inaccurate medical information can have catastrophic consequences. This paper will briefly discuss some issues with existing biomedical ontologies. For instance, the part-of and has-part dilemma may lead to alternative interpretations and incompatibility among ontologies. Challenges concerning biomedical ontologies can cause inadequate mappings between data elements and contents. Therefore, causing major problems that can corrupt biomedical ontologies for large multiscale and multidomain integration. Moreover, this can result in problems with current methods used to manage biomedical ontology, and ambiguous and inconsistent relation definitions between terms.
Keywords: Meaningfulness and Satisfaction; Service Engineering; Universal Usability; Biomedical Ontology
Web Searching for Health Information: An Observational Study to Explore Users' Emotions BIBAKFull-Text 181-188
  Pallavi Rao Gadahad; Yin-Leng Theng; Joanna Sin Sie Ching; Natalie Pang
To-date, most of the research concerning online health information search has focused on how users search the Web and how they evaluate health websites. Despite the concerns raised on the impact of online health information on users, there is little research specifically exploring the problems users encounter and emotions they exhibit during the search process. In this paper, we address this gap by conducting an observational study to understand how users search the Web for health information, the problems they encounter and the emotions they express during the search process. Through eye-tracking, think-aloud and interviews, we examined users' search process holistically. Results showed that users exhibited various negative emotions during the search process especially when there are perceived health risks. Highlighting the theoretical and practical implications of this study, this paper makes recommendations for future research to delve deeper into understanding users' emotions during Web searching for health information.
Keywords: Web Search; Online Health Information; Emotion
Native Apps versus Web Apps: Which Is Best for Healthcare Applications? BIBAKFull-Text 189-196
  Kirusnapillai Selvarajah; Michael P. Craven; Adam Massey; John Crowe; Kavita Vedhara; Nicholas Raine-Fenning
Smartphone applications (Apps) provide a new way to deliver healthcare, illustrated by the fact that healthcare Apps are estimated to make up over 30% of new Apps currently being developed; with this number seemingly set to increase as the benefits become more apparent. In this paper, using the development of an In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) treatment stress study App as the exemplar, the alternatives of Native App and Web App design and implementation are considered across several factors that include: user interface, ease of development, capabilities, performance, cost, and potential problems. Development for iOS and Android platforms and a Web App using JavaScript and HTML5 are discussed.
Keywords: Web Apps; Native Apps; mHealth; Ecological Momentary Assessment; User Interface; User Experience; JavaScript; HTML5; Android; iOS
Experiences with Arthron for Live Surgery Transmission in Brazilian Telemedicine University Network BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Tatiana A. Tavares; Gustavo H. M. B. Motta; Guido Souza Filho; Erick Mello
The increasing network bandwidth capacity and the diminishing costs of related services have led to a rising number of applications in the field of Information and Communication Technology. A special case is applications based on video streaming. Telemedicine can be highlighted in some scenarios for applying this technology, such as clinical sessions, second medical opinion, interactive lessons or virtual conferences. These scenarios often imply a dedicated transmission environment. A restriction in such solutions is the inability to handle multiple video streams. Thus, this paper presents a low-cost infrastructure for video collaboration in healthcare and based on open technologies. The proposed infrastructure enables remote management of simultaneous multiple streams. We also discuss results of experiments held in the Lauro Wanderley Academic Hospital, Brazil. One of the results is the contribution for teaching experiences, particularly by allowing students to remotely regard surgical procedures and providing real-time interaction. Finally, we present new prospects for using the developed technology on other applications in Telemedicine and Telepresence.
Keywords: New Technology and its Usefulness; eHealth and Telemedicine Systems
User Experience in Public Information Service Design for Smart Life BIBAKFull-Text 207-215
  Qiong Wu; Guanshang Wu; Xin Tong
In the context of accelerated development of information technology and knowledge-based economy, smart life comes near to us. In this paper, we would talk about the design of intelligent public information service. We take the project "Beijing Electronic Health Records" as cases to analyze the problems encountered in our life, and we will analyze digitized resources and the application in the city and clarify public information needs from the user's perspective. On this basis, this paper will also include an in-depth study of urban public information service design principles and methods, and conduct cross-disciplinary research in information science, social sciences and design. Finally, we conclude three main perspectives to design and evaluate the smart public information service system: interfaces of technology-mediated mobile terminals, process of information based on advanced technology such as Mobile Cloud Computing, and a feedback mechanism to strengthen human interaction accessibility in public information service system. Not only do the three points maintain system performance, but also they play a significant part in enhancing User Experience (UX) in public information service system.
Keywords: Public Information Service; Interaction Design; User Experience
The Proposal of the Remote Consultation Service System Using the Outline Function for Consultation BIBAKFull-Text 216-225
  Hiroshi Yajima; Takuto Gotoh
Remote welfare services for caregivers have recently been offered in response to the recent increase in demand for care that has accompanied the aging of society. However, due to the often extended periods of caregiving involved, care consultations can sometimes lack cohesion unless information about the early stages of care are available. In order to address this issue, the whole history of communication between care experts and family members should be structured and visualized when remote welfare services are provided. We propose a form of remote consultation where care experts can offer coherent and efficient consultations using all available information, such as up-to-date information from "lifelogs" and past processes of care consultations obtained from the use of all historically available information.
Keywords: remote consultation; care; computer-mediated communication; care assistance

Games and Gamification

Design Guidelines for Audio Games BIBAKFull-Text 229-238
  Franco Eusébio Garcia; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
This paper presents guidelines to aid on the design of audio games. Audio games are games on which the user interface and game events use primarily sounds instead of graphics to convey information to the player. Those games can provide an accessible gaming experience to visually impaired players, usually handicapped by conventional games. The presented guidelines resulted of existing literature research on audio games design and implementation, of a case study and of a user observation performed by the authors. The case study analyzed how audio is used to create an accessible game on nine audio games recommended for new players. The user observation consisted of a playtest on which visually impaired users played an audio game, on which some interaction problems were identified. The results of those three studies were analyzed and compiled in 50 design guidelines.
Keywords: audio games; accessibility; visual impairment; design; guidelines
SWord: A Concept Application for Mitigating Internet Terminology Anxiety BIBAKFull-Text 239-248
  Santosh Kumar Kalwar; Kari Heikkinen; Jari Porras
The Internet is a dynamic, democratic, and multicultural platform where a wide range of users access sites daily. We cannot presume users on the Internet will understand every single word/term used on any given site. This paper presents a concept for assessing users' anxiety regarding commonly used words on the Internet, particularly words related to technology and computer science. The concept is highlighted by an application, called SWord, which enables users to collaborate, share, play, and mitigate with difficult words on the web.
Keywords: Wellness; human anxiety; Anxiety; Internet; Design; user experience
Extreme Motion Based Interaction for Enhancing Mobile Game Experience BIBAKFull-Text 249-257
  Youngwon Kim; Jong-gil Ahn; Gerard Jounghyun Kim
In this paper, we propose to enact interaction by "extreme" motion involving multiple body parts and thereby maximize the whole body experience. By detecting the relative movements among multiple body parts, rather than an extended motion of just a single body part, the extreme motion can be contained within the personal space (not to disturb others around). Such a scheme was tested on a simple mobile game and compared to interfaces that were based on conventional touch interface and absolute motion detection. Experimental results showed that while incorporating extreme "relative" motion resulted in higher level of excitement and user experience by involving more body parts, the control performance significantly suffered (due to the head movements).
Keywords: User Experience; Extreme motion; Whole Body Interaction; Motion Detection
Influence of Gaming Display and Controller on Perceived Characteristics, Perceived Interactivity, Presence, and Discomfort BIBAKFull-Text 258-265
  Hyunji Lee; Donghun Chung
The purpose of this study is to examine gamers' psychological experience according to the display and controller. The research used 2D and 3D as gaming display and joypad and Move as gaming controller. It examined the effects of those variables on perceived characteristics, perceived interactivity, presence, and discomfort. Sixty four participants joined the experiment and the main findings are as follows: First, the interaction effect of the display and controller was not significant for any of the variables. Second, the main effect of the display was significant in the perceived characteristics of clarity and materiality. Finally, the main effect of the controller was significant in the perceived interactivity, spatial involvement, dynamic immersion, and realistic immersion. Although the present research found significant effects of those independent variables, a follow-up study is needed to investigate why the interaction effects are not supported.
Keywords: 3D; controller; discomfort; display; game; perceived characteristics; perceived interactivity; presence
A Cross-Cultural Study of Playing Simple Economic Games Online with Humans and Virtual Humans BIBAKFull-Text 266-275
  Elnaz Nouri; David Traum
We compare the simple online economic interactions between a human and a multimodal communication agent (virtual human) to the findings of similar simple interactions with other humans and those that were run in the laboratory. We developed protocols and dialogue capabilities to support the multi modal agent in playing two well-studied economic games (Ultimatum Game, Dictator Game). We analyze the interactions based on the outcome and self-reported values of possible factors involved in the decision making. We compare these parameters across two games, and the two cultures of US and India. Our results show that humans' interaction with a virtual human is similar to when they are playing with another human and the majority of the people choose to allocate about half of the stakes to the virtual human, just as they would with another human. There are, however, some significant differences between offer distributions and value reports for different conditions (game, opponent, and culture of participant).
Keywords: Culture; Values; Decision Making; Virtual Human; Economic Games; Communicative Agents
Best Practices for Using Enterprise Gamification to Engage Employees and Customers BIBAFull-Text 276-283
  Marta Rauch
Enterprise gamification is one of the major human-computer interface trends of the 21st century. Using techniques borrowed from software games, gamification can be used to drive behavior in situations outside of games. As defined by Michael Wu, gamification "uses game attributes to drive gamelike behavior in a non-game context."[1] When implemented successfully, gamification can give enterprises an edge by increasing user motivation and achievement of goals. Gamification can also help enterprises engage employees and customers, and meet business needs. Given these benefits, it is no surprise that the move to enterprise gamification is accelerating. Enterprises of all sizes and in many industries are ramping up on products, communities, and processes based on gamification principles, and enterprise gamification is growing at an impressive rate. This rapid rate of implementation brings opportunities for enterprises that can implement gamification effectively. To adapt to this trend, professionals in the field of human-computer interaction must understand best practices, and develop expertise and skills in enterprise gamification. To meet this need, this paper looks at why enterprises benefit from gamification; provides selected examples of enterprise gamification; and lists best practices for gamification projects.
Gamifying Support BIBAKFull-Text 284-291
  Anthony Chad Sampanes
When applied with care and consideration, gamification can have significant positive effects on support. Utilizing gamification elements, such an leaderboards, levels, badges, and rewards, within a community can help engage customers and encourage them to generate support content. This allows them to self-serve and more quickly resolve their issues. Internal support engineers can also be motivated when exposed to a point system with appropriate challenges, levels, and rewards. The result can increase overall job satisfaction, increase engineer positivity, and lead to better customer service.
Keywords: Gamification; Support; Enterprise; Ticketing systems; Customer help; Leaderboards; Badging; Rewards; Motivation; Self-Help; Self-service; Community
The Motivational GPS: Would a Rat Press a Lever to Get a Badge? BIBAKFull-Text 292-298
  Kes Sampanthar
Gamification is a new industry that has blossomed around technologies that incorporate Motivational Design. This is a game design method based on creating truly engaging software that incites player motivations. There has been a lot of new research into motivation over the last decade, but to understand what we have learned about motivation we need to come back to the question about the rat and the badge, which is drawn from Skinner's classic experiment. More recent research shows that 'Wanting' is at the heart of what is considered motivation and approach behavior, while 'Liking' is the feeling of euphoria that is experienced when a challenge is overcome. Based on this research, we describe an application of The Motivational GPS framework which uses the metaphor of maps and directions related to 'Wanting' and 'Liking' to help create design artifacts that can be used to create engaging software.
Keywords: Interaction design; Human Motivation; Gamification; Game Design
Designing Serious Videogames through Concept Maps BIBAKFull-Text 299-308
  Jaime Sánchez; Matías Espinoza
The purpose of this study was to present and evaluate a new technique through the use of concept maps for the design of serious videogames using Ejemovil Editor. This was accomplished by using a method to easily transform concept maps into directed graphs, which are then used to generate the videogame sequence and the interdependencies between the various elements. With this tool teachers are able to define the storyline of the videogame, incorporating the concepts that they want to teach in a structured way. To these ends, an editor was created using this methodology that allows for the construction of mobile videogames. Teachers that currently use concept maps have evaluated the proposed methodology. Preliminary results show that the proposed methodology for the design and creation of serious videogames for education is appropriate, easy to use, generally accepted and understandable for the end users.
Keywords: Concept Maps; Serious Videogames; Videogames Editor; Videogames Design
The Business Love Triangle -- Smartphones, Gamification, and Social Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 309-315
  Lynn Rampoldi-Hnilo; Michele Snyder
Gamification is becoming popular in enterprise applications due to benefits such as motivating employees to work harder through team competition and rewards. Mobile workers are a perfect audience for gamified applications as they need to be connected to their teams and aware of important business goals. Smartphones have specific characteristics that make them an ideal medium for gamified applications. However, designing these types of applications correctly is critical in determining their success. This paper will discuss gamification in terms of mobile workers and their needs, smartphone characteristics, and five mobile gamification design principles that help mobile workers stay connected to the business goals at hand.
Keywords: Gamification; Mobile; Smartphones; Design; Social Networking
Building Internal Enthusiasm for Gamification in Your Organization BIBAKFull-Text 316-322
  Erika Noll Webb; Andrea Cantú
Gamification has become a hot topic in a variety of areas from consumer sites to enterprise software. While the concept of using game mechanics to attract and retain customers in the consumer space is now well accepted, the use of gamification in the enterprise space is still catching on. In this paper, the authors explore ways to build internal enthusiasm for gamification within an organization while maintaining good practices and processes.
Keywords: Gamification; Game Mechanics; Enterprise Software; User Experience; User-centered design; Employee Engagement
Navigation Experiences -- A Case Study of Riders Accessing an Orientation Game via Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 323-332
  Annika Worpenberg; Barbara Grüter
Usability and playability of a game are two dimensions merging into each other and affecting the experience. Within this paper we study the navigation experiences of a small rider group playing an orientation game by means of smartphones. The players are inexperienced in using smartphones and try to reach the first game station. Studying their navigation process we learned how the players adopted the game device, solved a navigation problem and entered the game world. The case study illustrates three development stages of navigational behavior of the rider group in the analyzed mobile game.
Keywords: Mobile Game; Location-based Game; Play Experience; Evaluating Mobile Games; Navigation

HCI in Learning and Education

Evaluating Engagement Physiologically and Knowledge Retention Subjectively through Two Different Learning Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 335-342
  Marvin Andujar; Josh I. Ekandem; Juan E. Gilbert; Patricia Morreale
This paper describes the findings of a replication study conducted at a different location. This study measures the engagement level of participants objectively from two learning techniques: video game and handout (traditional way of learning). This paper may help other researchers design their own Brain-Computer Interface study to measure engagement. In addition, the results of this paper shows a correlation analysis between Engagement (measured physiologically) and knowledge measurement (subjective data). Further, this paper describes briefly the limitations of the Emotiv non-invasive EEG device, which may help researchers and developers understand the device more.
Keywords: Emotions in HCI; Brain-Computer Interface; Passive BCI
A New E-learning System Focusing on Emotional Aspect Using Biological Signals BIBAKFull-Text 343-350
  Saromporn Charoenpit; Michiko Ohkura
E-learning is the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. It is widely accepted that new technologies can make a big difference in education. Although the advantages of e-learning over person to person teaching are still under debate, the latter is considered to be superior with respect to teaching effectiveness. One reasons for this advantage of human expert tutors is their ability to deal with the emotional aspects of the learner. In an e-learning system, emotions are important in the classroom. We thus proposed a new e-learning system that focuses on affective aspects. Our system equips sensors to measure biological signals and analyzes user emotions for the improvement of the e-learning system's effectiveness.
Keywords: E-learning; Emotions; Affective aspects; Biological signal
A Framework to Support Social-Collaborative Personalized e-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 351-360
  Maria De Marsico; Andrea Sterbini; Marco Temperini
We propose a comprehensive framework to support the personalization and adaptivity of courses in e-learning environments where the traditional activity of individual study is augmented by social-collaborative and group based educational activities. The framework aims to get its pedagogical significance from the Vygotskij Theory; it points out a minimal set of requirements to meet, in order to allow its implementations based on modules possibly constituted by independent e-learning software systems, all collaborating under a common interface.
Keywords: Personalized e-learning; adaptive e-learning; social collaborative elearning; zone of proximal development; reputation system
Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning BIBAKFull-Text 361-369
  Søren Eskildsen; Matthias Rehm
To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness to ensure a better experience-based learning. We present methods used to collect information about everyday activities collected by immigrants or foreigners. This information will help structuring language learning assignments presented through the context-aware mobile application.
Keywords: context-aware; experience-based learning; cultural language learning; context logging; mobile application
Usability of a Social Network as a Collaborative Learning Platform Tool for Medical Students BIBAKFull-Text 370-375
  Leonardo Frajhof; Ana Cláudia Costa Arantes; Aline Teodosio dos Santos Cardozo; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena; Carlos Alberto Pereira de Lucena; Claudia Renata Mont'Alvão
One of the fundamental characteristics of social networking platform is its versatility. Regarding to pre defined pedagogy premises it is possible to elaborate educational programs for any type of theme. Health is one of the areas that are being influenced by the possibilities offered by social networking platform. There are already many ongoing projects dedicated to the teaching of health practice and concepts of health. In this context, this paper focuses primarily on the development of a solution for teachers and students engaged on their 3rd year of undergraduate Medicine course, in the University Hospital. All the participants are enrolled in the Internal Medicine discipline, defining the student's entrance into the hospital routine. The model views for an open dialog that should allow an exchange of medical knowledge, in the sense of reaching a better solution for specific problems within each group.
Keywords: eHealth; collaboration; learning; usability
Refining Rules Learning Using Evolutionary PD BIBAKFull-Text 376-385
  Afdallyna Harun; Steve Benford; Claire O'Malley; Nor Laila Md. Noor
Using glyphs to associate digital media with physical materials has great potential to enhance learning. A key challenge, however, lies in enabling children to author their own glyphs that integrate well with their drawings. One possible solution lies in the d-touch system which uses a topological approach to structuring glyphs. Through a series of Participatory Design studies, we have explored how children can be supported in creating their own d-touch glyphs. Main highlights from our findings indicate that it is difficult for children to create glyphs following only written rules. A structured diagrammatic approach is then introduced in which colour-coded hierarchy diagrams support a mapping between their drawings and the underlying rules. We found this has significantly improved their drawing attempts. The paper then concludes with a potential to integrate the approach into more sophisticated learning experience.
Keywords: Drawing rules; visual diagrams; d-touch glyphs
Sound to Sight: The Effects of Self-generated Visualization on Music Sight-Singing as an Alternate Learning Interface for Music Education within a Web-Based Environment BIBAKFull-Text 386-390
  Yu Ting Huang; Chi Nung Chu
This paper discusses the efficacy of self-generated visualization on pitch recognition for the music sight-singing learning from the Internet. The self-generated visualization on music sight-singing learning system incorporates pitch recognition engine and visualized pitch distinguishing curve with descriptions for each corresponding stave notation on the web page to bridge the gap between singing of pitch and music notation. This paper shows the conducted research results that this web-based sight-singing learning system could scaffold cognition about aural skills effectively for the learner through the Internet.
Keywords: pitch recognition; self-generated visualization; sight-singing; music education
Evaluation of Computer Algebra Systems Using Fuzzy AHP at the Universities of Cyprus BIBAKFull-Text 391-397
  Ilham N. Huseyinov; Feride S. Tabak
The paper proposes an evaluation model based on fuzzy AHP to help users select CAS that best matches their requirements. The subjectiveness and imprecision of the evaluation process are modeled using linguistic terms. The evaluation criteria framework based on the usability and problem solving capability of CAS is developed. Fuzzy AHP is employed to determine the relative importance weights of criteria and the preference order of alternatives. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated.
Keywords: CAS; fuzzy AHP; usability; problem solving capability; linguistic evaluation
Evaluation of an Information Delivery System for Hearing Impairments at a School for Deaf BIBAFull-Text 398-407
  Atsushi Ito; Takao Yabe; Koichi Tsunoda; Kazutaka Ueda; Tohru Ifukube; Hikaru Tauchi; Yuko Hiramatsu
We have been developing IDDD (Information Delivery System for Deaf People in a Major Disaster) system [7, 8] from 2007. In 2012, we have a chance to develop new IDDD system and test it at the school for the deaf in Miyagi. In this paper, we report the results the system performance test and the users evaluation of the new IDDD based on an experiment at the school for the deaf in Miyagi. As the result, the network performance was increased and application development cost might be half of that of the old IDDD. Also, Fast-Scroll is most legible for hearing impairments people.
Examining the Role of Contextual Exercises and Adaptive Expertise on CAD Model Creation Procedures BIBAKFull-Text 408-417
  Michael D. Johnson; Elif Ozturk; Lauralee Valverde; Bugrahan Yalvac; Xiaobo Peng
As computer-aided design (CAD) tools become more integral in the product commercialization process, ensuring that students have efficient and innovative expertise necessary to adapt becomes more important. This work examines the role of adaptive expertise on CAD modeling behavior and the effect of contextual modeling exercises on the manifestation of behaviors associated with adaptive expertise in a population of student participants. A methodology comprising multiple data elicitation tools is used to examine these relationships; these tools include: survey data, model screen capture data analysis, and interviews. Results show that participants engaged in contextual exercises spent more of their modeling time engaged in actual modeling activities as opposed to planning when compared to a control group. Limited statistical support is provided for the role of contextual exercises leading to the manifestation of behaviors associated with adaptive expertise. The amount of time spent engaged in actual modeling is positively correlated with the adaptive expertise behaviors identified in the interviews.
Keywords: Adaptive Expertise; CAD; Evaluation Methods and Techniques; Modeling Processes
Personality and Emotion as Determinants of the Learning Experience: How Affective Behavior Interacts with Various Components of the Learning Process BIBAKFull-Text 418-427
  Zacharias Lekkas; Panagiotis Germanakos; Nikos Tsianos; Constantinos Mourlas; George Samaras
The aim of the present study is to develop a model that grasps the complexity of the concepts of personality and affect in a web-based learning environment. Furthermore, it presents the implications that these theoretical and empirical representations can have in an experimental setting. We are investigating the connection between personality factors, emotion regulation and cognitive processing tasks, decision making and problem solving styles. Decision-making and problem solving are cognitive processes where the outcome is a choice between alternatives. They are both an indirect way to make inferences to a person's learning pattern since learning includes continuous decision making and problem resolution. By implementing our model in the design of a web-based learning personalized setting, we provide evidence that behavior is altered by affective elements in decision making and problem solving routines as is performance in cognitive processing tasks.
Keywords: personality; affect; emotion; learning
Innovation in Learning -- The Use of Avatar for Sign Language BIBAFull-Text 428-433
  Tania Lima; Mario Sandro Rocha; Thebano Almeida Santos; Angelo Benetti; Evandro Soares; Helvecio Siqueira de Oliveira
This paper presents the steps followed in developing an avatar-interpreter of the Brazilian sign language for deaf (LIBRAS), applied to an electro technical glossary. The research was done in collaboration between The Surface Interaction and Displays Division (DSID) and The National Service for Industrial Apprenticeship (SENAI "Ítalo Bologna"), a reference center in the attendance of people having physical or mental incapability. This work makes use of advanced techniques of motion capture, treatment of images and virtualization, to produce an avatar that mimics a teacher-interpreter of the specific electro technical signs of LIBRAS during the lesson.
   The technology used in this work is a VICON system with 8 cameras that emit and capture infrared light, and the open source tools Blender and Make-Human.
A Teacher Model to Speed Up the Process of Building Courses BIBAFull-Text 434-443
  Carla Limongelli; Matteo Lombardi; Alessandro Marani; Filippo Sciarrone
Building a new course is a complex task for teachers: the entire process requires different steps, starting with the concept map building and ending with the delivery of the learning objects to students through a learning management system. Teachers have to spend a lot of time to build or to retrieve the right learning material from local databases or from specialized repositories on the web. Consequently, having a system supporting this phase is a very important challenge, considering that each teacher expresses her own pedagogy as well. Here we propose a novel Teacher Model that helps teachers to build new courses effectively. The model is based both on a didactic semantic network containing concepts and learning material and on Teaching Styles as proposed in the literature by Grasha. This framework gives teachers the possibility to share their teaching experience as well. A first experimentation of the system gives positive results.
Development of Push-Based English Words Learning System by Using E-Mail Service BIBAFull-Text 444-453
  Shimpei Matsumoto; Masanori Akiyoshi; Tomoko Kashima
At present, common e-Learning systems have been designed for positive learners whose learning habits are already established to some degree. To assist students other than the positive learners, most of who has more difficulty in learning with the usual e-Learning systems, this paper focuses on a new type of e-Learning system called "push-based e-Learning". The push-based e-Learning is for learners who cannot establish study habits or take an active part in learning, and be an essential tool for supporting self-study continuity. This study realizes push service by e-mail technology of cell-phone. The system, used in conjunction with an interactive e-mail service through cell-phones, allows users to automatically receive up to some exercise e-mails a day. For our system, this paper implemented COCET 3300, a corpus of English words, and made a trial operation of our system with several university students for training English vocabulary. This paper firstly shows the detail of system configuration, and then evaluates our implementation of push-based e-Learning with the result of the trial operation. From the trial operation, the effectiveness of our system was shown by questionnaire while the result was on the students' subjective viewpoint.
E-learning: The Power Source of Transforming the Learning Experience in an ODL Landscape BIBAKFull-Text 454-463
  Blessing Mbatha; Mbali Mbatha
This paper reports on e-learning as a transformational educational tool amongst Communication Science students at Unisa. The study targeted executive members of the Communication Science Association (COMSA) which consists of ten members and Unisa Radio employees which comprise 200 Communication Science students. A survey research design was used whereby questionnaires were administered to all COMSA executives and 50% of Unisa Radio student employees who were chosen using simple random sampling. Data was analysed through thematic categorisation and tabulation and the findings were presented descriptively. An examination of data indicates that students do not actively engage in e-learning. They use myUnisa for basic educational needs and not for the purpose that myUnisa was intended which is to bridge transactional distance in order to ensure increased engagement amongst all stakeholders. Unisa needs to examine its current e-learning policies against the backdrop of the society in which it operates.
Keywords: Open Distance Learning; e-learning; dialogue; transactional distance; ICTs in Higher Education; myUnisa
Mobile Inquiry-Based Learning BIBAKFull-Text 464-473
  Jalal Nouri; Teresa Cerrato-Pargman; Karwan Zetali
This paper presents a study on mobile learning that could be viewed as a manifestation of strong voices calling for learning in natural contexts. The study was based on a sequence of inquiry-based mobile learning activities within the domain of natural sciences and mathematics education. We questioned the effects of collaborative scaffolding, and the effects scaffolding provided by technology have on learning and performance. Based on a quantitative interaction analysis, findings suggest that low-achievement students benefit from inquiry-based mobile activities; that the use of mobile technologies bring multiple effects on students' learning, both positive and negative, and that the roles of teachers remains as crucial as before the introduction of learning technologies.
Keywords: mobile learning; scaffolding; across contexts; performance
A Comparative Evaluation of Podcasting-Based and Mobile-Based Material Distribution Systems in Foreign Language Teaching BIBAKFull-Text 474-483
  Yuichi Ono; Manabu Ishihara; Mitsuo Yamashiro
This paper examines two independent multimedia distribution systems in terms of user's impression and the download time on the basis of the two experiments which were carried out in English teaching settings in Japan. The two are the podcasting system and the mobile-based system. The results of the two studies indicated that the students feel that mobiles are more friendly and easy to operate. Although it takes them longer time to download digital materials from the server, they do not feel so much frustrated or irritated for being delayed to a certain degree. These implications imply the future possibility for blended-instruction model of foreign language teaching in Japan.
Keywords: e-learning system; podcasting; mobile device; second language acquisition
Recommendation of Collaborative Activities in E-learning Environments BIBAKFull-Text 484-492
  Pierpaola Di Bitonto; Maria Laterza; Teresa Roselli; Veronica Rossano
In distance education environments, collaborative activities such as wikis, forums and chats play an important role in the e-learning experience because they promote communication among students and so allow cooperative learning settings to be implemented. Nevertheless, it could be difficult for learners to pick out the most interesting and appropriate collaborative activities to meet their learning needs. Recommender systems integrated in e-learning platforms are usually used mainly to help learners choose teaching resources, but they can also be useful to suggest the collaborative activities that best fit their learning objectives from a pedagogical point of view. In this context, the paper presents a recommendation approach able to suggest collaborative activities such as forums, chats, wikis and blogs, that combines dynamic clustering and prediction calculus on the basis of the learners' profiles and needs.
Keywords: Recommender system; collaborative learning; dynamic clustering
Nature Sound Ensemble Learning in Narrative-Episode Creation with Pictures BIBAKFull-Text 493-502
  Kosuke Takano; Shiori Sasaki
This paper presents a Web-based nature sound ensemble learning system that allows students to create a narrative-episode with "visual", "auditory", and "experimental" effects. Main component of our system is implemented in the Web environment and can be easily introduced to PCs in a classroom for nature sound ensemble lessons among remote learners, classes, and schools. In this study, we show the feasibility of our Web-based ensemble learning system, where several learners actually participate in the remote nature sound ensemble lessons using example "narrative-episode" with pictures and nature sounds.
Keywords: music; nature sound; collaborative learning; physical expression; sensor; Web-based system; sensibility expression; sensibility education
Private Cloud Cooperation Framework for Reducing the Earthquake Damage on e-Learning Environment BIBAKFull-Text 503-510
  Satoshi Togawa; Kazuhide Kanenishi
In this research, we have built a framework of reducing earthquake and tsunami disaster for e-Learning environment. We build a prototype system based on IaaS architecture, and this prototype system is constructed by several private cloud fabrics. The distributed storage system builds on each private cloud fabric; that is handled almost like same block device such as one large file system. For LMS to work, we need to boot virtual machines. The virtual machines are booted from the virtual disk images that are stored into the distributed storage system. The distributed storage system will be able to keep running as one large file system when some private cloud fabric does not work by any troubles. We think that our inter-cloud framework can continue working for e-Learning environment under the post-disaster situation.
Keywords: e-Learning environment; inter-cloud framework; disaster reducing
Design and Evaluation of Training System for Numerical Calculation Using Questions in SPI2 BIBAKFull-Text 511-520
  Shin'ichi Tsumori; Kazunori Nishino
We are developing the training system for numerical calculation aiming at improving calculation ability. There are two main purposes of realizing this system. One is to increase students' motivation to study mathematics by using the questions in SPI2 adopted by many companies as employment examinations. The other is to support a student's learning efficiently by giving the questions according to the student's ability. In order to give an adaptive question, our system has functions to estimate each student's ability and item difficulty in the test item database. This paper reports the basic concept, the features and the experiment conducted to verify the usefulness of the system and its result.
Keywords: Training System; Numerical Calculation; SPI2; Web-Based Learning
Zoom Interface with Dynamic Thumbnails Providing Learners with Companionship through Videostreaming BIBAKFull-Text 521-528
  Takumi Yamaguchi; Haruya Shiba; Masanobu Yoshida; Yusuke Nishiuchi; Hironobu Satoh; Takahiko Mendori
We have developed the TERAKOYA learning system, which helps students study actively anywhere on a local area network (LAN) linked to multipoint remote users. However, if many students frequently sent their questions to the teacher, it is very difficult to correspond to quickly answer that for the teacher. In addition, the teacher hardly clarifies how much each student understood because he cannot watch students' face and reaction. This paper discusses the graphical user interface (GUI) system that is used a little ingenuity to prioritize students' screens through variably changing the GUI interface on the teacher's PC. The aspect of window that was displayed as thumbnails of the students' PC screen was zoomed dynamically each thumbnail by their understanding level. By sorting out their priorities on the teacher's PC screen, the teacher can timely observe the students' work and support their thinking process.
Keywords: GUI; Interactive system; Advanced Educational Environment; Ubiquitous Learning; Distance Education

In-Vehicle Interaction

WheelSense: Enabling Tangible Gestures on the Steering Wheel for In-Car Natural Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 531-540
  Leonardo Angelini; Maurizio Caon; Francesco Carrino; Stefano Carrino; Denis Lalanne; Omar Abou Khaled; Elena Mugellini
This paper presents WheelSense, a system for non-distracting and natural interaction with the In-Vehicle Information and communication System (IVIS). WheelSense embeds pressure sensors in the steering wheel in order to detect tangible gestures that the driver can perform on its surface. In this application, the driver can interact by means of four gestures that have been designed to allow the execution of secondary tasks without leaving the hands from the steering wheel. Thus, the proposed interface aims at minimizing the distraction of the driver from the primary task. Eight users tested the proposed system in an evaluation composed of three phases: gesture recognition test, gesture recognition test while driving in a simulated environment and usability questionnaire. The results show that the accuracy rate is 87% and 82% while driving. The system usability scale scored 84 points out of 100.
Keywords: Tangible gestures; smart steering wheel; in-vehicle user interface; in-car natural interaction
Reducing Speeding Behavior in Young Drivers Using a Persuasive Mobile Application BIBAKFull-Text 541-550
  Anne Bergmans; Suleman Shahid
This paper presents a solution to the problem of speeding in male young drivers. This paper outlines the design of a persuasive mobile application that aims at reducing speeding behavior by providing various incentives. The application targets both weak and strong habit drivers between the age of 18 and 26. Early results show an overall acceptance of the application, mainly due to its unique rewarding mechanism, and its ability to demonstrate the actual speeding behavior with major impact on safety, fuel costs, environment, and possible fine costs. Results further indicate a behavior change for weak habit drivers and attitude change for strong habit drivers.
Keywords: Speeding behavior; persuasive technology; mobile application; speeding behavior model; usability test; driving behavior
Auditory and Head-Up Displays in Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 551-560
  Christina Dicke; Grega Jakus; Jaka Sodnik
The aim of the user study presented in this paper was to investigate the efficiency of single and multimodal user interfaces for in-vehicle control and information systems and their impact on driving safety. A windshield projection (HUD) of a hierarchical list-based visual menu was compared to an auditory representation of the same menu and to a combination of both representations. In the user study 30 participants were observed while operating a driving simulator and simultaneously solving tasks of different complexity with the three interfaces. The variables measured in the user study were task completion times, driving performance and the perceived workload. Our study shows that the single modality auditory interface is the least efficient representation of the menu; the multimodal audio-visual interface, however, shows a strong tendency to be superior to both the auditory and visual single modality interfaces with regards to driver distraction and efficiency.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; auditory interface; head-up display; car simulator; driving performance
Anti-Bump: A Bump/Pothole Monitoring and Broadcasting System for Driver Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 561-570
  Mohamed Fekry; Aya Hamdy; Ayman Atia
This paper presents a system for bump detection and alarming system for drivers. We have presented an architecture that adopts context awareness and Bump location broadcasting to detect and save bumps locations. This system uses motion sensor to get the readings of the bump then we classify it using Dynamic Time Wrapping, Hidden Markov Model and Neural Network. We keep records for the bump location through tracking its geographic position. We developed a system that alarms the driver within appropriate profiled distance for bump occurrence. We conducted two experiments for testing the system in a street modeled architect with different kinds of bumps and potholes. The other experiment was on real street bumps. The results show that the system can detect bumps and potholes with reasonably accepted accuracy.
Keywords: Context awareness; Location awareness; Pattern Recognition
Emotion and Emotion Regulation Considerations for Speech-Based In-Vehicle Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 571-577
  Helen Harris
Speech and dialogue systems have been used in a variety of domains, from acting as human operators, to assisting those who have difficulties using other modalities, and more recently facilitating smartphone input. Speech has been more readily adopted by in-vehicle speech systems as the safest way to both communicate to the driver and to have the driver provide input to the system. Much of the work on speech dialogue systems has focused on the cognitive aspects of speech interfaces by evaluating different information architectures, e.g. [1], or comparing mixed modality interfaces, e.g., [2]. This paper argues that advanced speech-based interfaces will have the need and opportunity to be emotionally responsive.
Keywords: emotion; emotion regulation; speech dialogue systems; in-car interfaces
Adaptations in Driving Efficiency with Electric Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 578-585
  Magnus Helmbrecht; Klaus Bengler; Roman Vilimek
The results of previous MINI E field trials provided initial indications that driving electric vehicles (EV) leads to adaptations in driving behavior and might increase driving efficiency. This paper presents the methodologies to measure changes in driver characteristics by logging velocity, acceleration, and cruising range, on smartphones. In this experiment, 25 MINI E were provided as electric test vehicles for a diversified spectrum of subjects consisting of private and corporate customers. The field trial included both longitudinal and transverse components in order to assess long-term and situation specific changes. Participants operated both combustive and electric vehicles. Driving dynamics data from these vehicles was collected over a six month period time. Additionally, these same participants were required to perform a 2 hour drive, which served as a comparison drive, three times over the period of EV usage. The frequency of intermittent usage of combustion vehicles was captured by logbooks.
Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Driving Behavior; Field Trial; MINI E
In-Car Information Systems: Matching and Mismatching Personality of Driver with Personality of Car Voice BIBAKFull-Text 586-595
  Ing-Marie Jonsson; Nils Dahlbäck
Personality has a huge effect on how we communicate and interact with others. This study investigates how dominant/submissive personality match and mismatch between driver and voice of the in-vehicle system affects performance and attitude. The study was conducted with a total of 40 participants at Oxford Brookes University in the UK. Data show that drivers accurately discern the personality of the car voice, and that car voice personality affects drivers' performance. The dominant car voice results in drivers following instructions better regardless of driver personality. The matched conditions showed 2 -3 times better driving performance than the mismatched conditions. Drivers with the submissive voice in the car felt significantly less at-ease and content after driving than drivers with the dominant voice. Design implications of in-vehicle systems are discussed.
Keywords: In-car System; Driving Simulator; Driving Performance; Speech system; Attitude; Personality; Dominant and Submissive; Similarity Attraction
Subjective Ratings in an Ergonomic Engineering Process Using the Example of an In-Vehicle Information System BIBAKFull-Text 596-605
  Michael Krause; Klaus Bengler
The engineering process for a traffic light assistant system on a smartphone for use while driving as an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) was accompanied by assessment of subjective usability ratings using questionnaires, such as the System Usability Scale (SUS), AttrakDiff2 and NASA-TLX. The results during the development process are presented and discussed.
   The SUS was an easy to apply and fast instrument for the project. Nevertheless, caution should be taken when a high percentage of users are repeatedly involved in examining the same system, as this will likely increase the SUS score.
Keywords: IVIS; usability; engineering; questionnaires; SUS; AttrakDiff
Ergonomics Design on Expert Convenience of Voice-Based Interface for Vehicle's AV Systems BIBAKFull-Text 606-611
  Pei-Ying Ku; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Hsin-Chang Chang; Jian-Yung Hung; Chih-Chung Kuo
This research aimed to investigate and explore expert user interface design principle in adaptive user interface of in-vehicle full voiced-based interface. In this study, 3 stages of driving simulation experiments were established. The voice-based interface called Talking Car novice interface has been designed before. Through driving simulation experiments, subjects' behavior and response data when using voice-based interface were collected and analyzed. According to the result, the length of speech by Talking Car novice interface would be adjusted to fulfill expert users' requirements, and then switched to Talking Car expert interface. After that, a driving simulation experiment is conducted to verify the usability of the adapted interface as well as the implications on operation efficiency and traffic safety.
Keywords: in-vehicle full voice-based interface; Talking Car; driving simulation; expert user interface
The Timeframe of Adaptation to Electric Vehicle Range BIBAKFull-Text 612-620
  Stefan Pichelmann; Thomas Franke; Josef F. Krems
We explored how people learn to cope with the limited range of electric vehicles (EVs), and examined the relationship between personality traits and the amount of practice needed to achieve a maximum available range. Data from 56 participants who leased an EV in a 6-month field study were analyzed. The amount of practice needed until a participant achieved his maximum available range was assessed with four variables computed from data logger recordings: the amount of time, days, and distance the user drove the EV and the amount of days the user owned the EV. All four variables correlated strongly with each other (r ≥ .75). The results showed that an average person needs approximately three months to complete adaptation to EV range and that speedy driving style, low need for cognition, high impulsivity, and high internal control beliefs are related to a longer adaptation timeframe.
Keywords: adaptation; electric vehicle; range; practice; need for cognition; driving style; impulsivity; control beliefs
Exploring Electric Driving Pleasure -- The BMW EV Pilot Projects BIBAKFull-Text 621-630
  Jens Ramsbrock; Roman Vilimek; Julian Weber
An electric vehicle (EV) is more than just a car with an electric engine. It implies a major shift in everyday experience. Charging the vehicle at home, thinking about where this energy comes from, dealing with limited range or driving a silent vehicle without engine noise are only some aspects of a completely new ecosystem for an electric vehicle owner. Of course, EVs will only succeed in the mass market if they meet customers' expectations. With the decision to step into this unknown terrain, the BMW Group gathered data in field trials with pilot customers of the MINI E and BMW ActiveE. The field trials discovered that everyday driving does not differ significantly from conventional vehicles in the same segment. About 90% of intended trips can be realized, showing the gap that needs to be closed is manageable. In order to close it, BMW will offer innovative mobility services and charging solutions.
Keywords: Electric Vehicle; MINI E; BMW ActiveE; field trial; user study
Single-Handed Driving System with Kinect BIBAKFull-Text 631-639
  Jae Pyo Son; Arcot Sowmya
This paper proposes a Kinect-based system that can help people who have difficulties with moving one of their arms, to drive and control the vehicles with only one hand. The advantage of the system is that only the user's hands need to be visible, so that users can use the system while seated. Experiments to measure system performance have shown reasonable accuracy. This system can be broadly applied to any wheeled electronic vehicles such as an electronic wheelchair, robot or car in future.
Keywords: Assistive Technology; Kinect; Human-Computer Interaction; Hand Tracking; Driving
Mobile App Support for Electric Vehicle Drivers: A Review of Today's Marketplace and Future Directions BIBAKFull-Text 640-646
  Tai Stillwater; Justin Woodjack; Michael Nicholas
Mobile device applications (apps) are becoming an important source of information, control, and motivation for EV drivers. Here we review the current ecosystem of mobile applications that are available for EV drivers and consumers and find that apps are available in six basic categories: purchase decisions, vehicle dashboards, charging availability and payment, smart grid interaction, route planning, and driver competitions. The current range of the EV-specific mobile marketplace extends from pre-sale consumer information, charging information and control, and EV specific navigation features among other services. However, the market is highly fragmented, with applications providing niche information, and using various methodologies. In addition, we find that the barriers to more useful apps are a lack of vehicle and charger APIs (application programming interfaces), lack of data availability, reliability, format and types, and proprietary payment and billing methods. We conclude that mobile applications for EVs are a growing market that provide important direct benefits as well as ancillary services to EV owners, although the lack of uniformity and standards between both vehicle and charger systems is a serious barrier to the broader use of mobile applications for EVs.
Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Mobile Apps; Energy Feedbacks
Proposal for Driver Distraction Indexes Using Biological Signals Including Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 647-653
  Nobumichi Takahashi; Satoshi Inoue; Hironori Seki; Shuhei Ushio; Yukou Saito; Koyo Hasegawa; Michiko Ohkura
According to the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, driver inattention is a major contributor to highway crashes. Above all, driver distraction is an important factor. As a result, many studies have been performed on it. We also performed experiments on candidates for biological indexes. In this paper, we employed new biological signals (eye tracking). Then, we performed an experiment to find new candidates for biological indexes. We obtained new knowledge from the result of that experiment.
Keywords: Driver distraction; Biological signal
Ergonomics Design with Novice Elicitation on an Auditory-Only In-Vehicle Speech System BIBAKFull-Text 654-660
  Ming-Hsuan Wei; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Hsin-Chang Chang; Jian-Yung Hung; Chih-Chung Kuo
This research is aimed to design an auditory-only in-vehicle speech system, named as Talking Car Novice Mode, and provide with elicitation that even a novice can easily handle. In this study, 19 participants were asked to use radio and music functions in two kinds of in-vehicle speech systems, the original Talking Car and Talking Car Novice Mode, while driving through a virtual world. Data of secondary task performance, the amount of time spent on tasks and the times of calling help function were recorded by a camera. The annoyed score of sentences, NASA-TLX questionnaire and subjective questionnaire were completed after the test. The result indicated that there was no significant difference between driving with and without tasks on either the reaction time of slamming the brake or the times user call for help. Besides, the learning curve of Talking Car Novice Mode is steep and ensures that Talking Car Novice Mode provides enough elicitation to novices. Hence, the Talking Car Novice Mode is expected to be friendlier and safer than original Talking Car in-vehicle speech system for a novice user.
Keywords: ergonomics design; Talking Car Novice Mode; elicited design; voice user interface