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HCII Tables of Contents: 07-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-1

HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Users and Applications

Fullname:HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Users and Applications
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6764
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-21618-3 (print), 978-3-642-21619-0 (online); hcibib: HCII11-4
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 4
    1. HCI and Learning
    2. Health and Medicine Applications
    3. Business and Commerce
    4. HCI in Complex Environments
    5. Design and Usability Case Studies
    6. Children and HCI
    7. Playing Experience

HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 4

HCI and Learning

A Web-Based Learning Environment to Support Chemistry BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Candice Adams; Cheryl Seals
Increasing the use of technology is essential for the vitality of today's classroom because technology creates an environment that fosters positive attitudes toward learning and increase technologically literacy among K-12 students. Web-based applications that are centered on classroom lessons are effective at increasing literacy because it heightens students' motivation and interaction with technology. This paper will address the effect technology can have on advancing computer literacy when incorporated into the classroom through web-based learning environments. Moreover, it will take you behind the scenes from design to implementation of ChemiNet which is a web-based learning environment to support introductory Chemistry.
Keywords: Web-based Learning Environment (WLE); Human Computer Interaction; e-Learning; Instructional Design
Introducing Mobility in Serious Games: Enhancing Situated and Collaborative Learning BIBAKFull-Text 12-20
  Sébastien George; Audrey Serna
This paper explores the introduction of mobile technologies in a particular serious games subset called learning games. We focus on two main purposes where mobility turns out to be useful: situated learning and collaborative learning. The article outlines the opportunities and the remaining challenges for these learning situations. Some important issues are highlighted for immerging learners in real context. We also propose some scenarios to illustrate the benefits of mobile devices in classroom situations.
Keywords: Mobility; learning games; situated learning; collaborative learning; outdoor mobile learning; in-class mobile learning
Visualization Framework for Computer System Learning BIBAFull-Text 21-26
  Eiichi Hayakawa; Yuuki Nakagawa; Hideharu Ochiai; Masahiko Fuji; Yosuke Nishino
In this paper we describe a design of a computer system visualization framework for system software learning. It is difficult for learners to learn the behavior of computer system because of multiple layers of the system and invisibility. For the problem we developed and utilized an integrated learning environment. The results show the problem of high utilization cost of the environment and high development cost of the learning materials. We design a visualization framework based on cloud computing and a material development environment. The framework presents web based visualization component and log handling facilities. Lecturers can easily develop and provide the visualization material to utilize these facilities for building an appropriate material. In addition learner can use the visualization environment without installing because of running it on the cloud server. This leads to reduce the setup time for the lecturers.
Associating Learners' Cognitive Style with Their Navigation Behaviors: A Data-Mining Approach BIBAKFull-Text 27-34
  Yung-Chi Hsu; Sherry Y. Chen
Investigating how learners' individual differences affect their navigation behavior can help us understand learners' preferences and can be used to develop the Web-based learning system that can meet learners' needs. Among various individual differences, learners' cognitive styles need to be considered because it is concerned how users process information. There is also a need to examine the relationship between their navigation behavior and performance because such findings can be used to suggest suitable navigation tools to meet learners' real needs. To this end, the aims of this study tend to use a data mining approach to not only investigate the relationship between learners' cognitive styles and their navigation behavior but also analyze how their navigation behavior influence performance. The results indicate that holists and serialists have different navigation behavior. However, there is no direct relationship between learning performance and navigation behavior.
Keywords: Data mining; cognitive styles; navigation behavior; learning performance
The Design of Adaptive Error Feedback Music Ear-Training System with Image Cues BIBAKFull-Text 35-38
  Yu Ting Hwang; Chi Nung Chu
This paper describes the design of AEFMES (Adaptive Error Feedback Music Ear-Training System). It is an assessment analysis engine designed to provide immediate diagnostic feedback on the melodic line assessment with pitch recognition, interval recognition and rhythm recognition. The AEFMES with image cues could move learners beyond basic drill exercises to a competence that is tailored to the content of individual needs in the ear-training process. Many misconceptions of students can be cleared up through the combination of practice and immediate adaptive error feedback with image cues.
Keywords: Ear-Training; Pitch Recognition; Interval Recognition; Rhythm Recognition
Fuzzy Linguistic Modelling Cognitive / Learning Styles for Adaptation through Multi-level Granulation BIBAKFull-Text 39-47
  Ilham Huseyinov
In this study, based on fuzzy linguistic modelling and fuzzy multi level granulation an adaptation strategy to cognitive/learning styles is presented. Fuzzy if-then rules are utilized to adaptively map cognitive/learning styles of users to their information navigation and presentation preferences through natural language expressions. The important implications of this approach are that, first, uncertain and vague information is handled; second, a mechanism for approximate adaptation at a variety of granulation levels is provided; third, a qualitative linguistic model of adaptation is presented. The proposed approach is close to human reasoning and thereby lowers the cost of solution, and facilitates the design of human computer interaction systems with high level intelligence capability.
Keywords: adaptive hypermedia; fuzzy granulation; cognitive/learning styles; navigation/presentation preferences; linguistic variables
Method for Cultivating the "Inquiry-Mindset" Using the Information Access-Based Belief Bias Parameter BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Kyoko Ito; Yuki Ito; Shogo Nishida
In today's world, it is important to have an "inquiry-mindset", i.e. the disposition to access information in a critical manner. There are several previous approaches that use discussion for cultivating an "inquiry-mindset". However, it is not easy to cultivate an inquiry-mindset only by discussion. This study proposes a method for cultivating an inquiry-mindset that focuses on opening the learner's eyes to the possibility of belief bias, that is the tendency to gather only agreeable information. This is a method for the quantification of belief bias based on three factors: accessing information, deciding the degree of importance, and viewpoint. Based on the evaluation experiment in which 38 students participated, the authors observed that accessing information and viewpoint are especially important for cultivating an inquiry-mindset. This result confirms the efficacy of the model and argues in favor of its combined use with other cultivating methods.
Keywords: Inquiry-mindset; Belief bias; Information access; Critical thinking disposition; Learning support
Distance Education at the Graduate Level: A Viable Alternative? BIBAKFull-Text 58-60
  Brian M. Jones; Andrea Everard; Scott McCoy
A prior comparative study examining learning outcomes between traditional classroom and web-based education at the graduate level provided little evidence of differences in success measures between delivery methods [3]. This research explores underlying factors that may explain why little difference was found.
Keywords: distance education; on-line learning; computer based learning; education
Creating a New Context for Activity in Blended Learning Environments: Engaging the Twitchy Fingers BIBAFull-Text 61-67
  Jayne Klenner-Moore
Millennial students are used to environments that bring the information to them. iPads, iPods and Web 2.0 technologies that give today's professors the tools to interact at many levels with students. Students want to be able to do things after class time and between World of Warcraft games. This paper provides a case study of melding technology and pedagogy with learning theory to get students engaged in the learning in computer classrooms. Students way of interacting with information has changed, the way we deliver and support this exchange needs to as well. This paper will include a look at how students interact with technology and defines the types of learning objects and opportunities provided by the technology. Two levels of students were examined, middle school Hispanic computer skills learners and undergraduate students in a project management class. This paper reports on observations made during these classes.
Haptically Enhanced User Interface to Support Science Learning of Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 68-76
  Yueqing Li; Steven L. Johnson; Chang Soo Nam
The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the overall quality of haptic user interfaces designed to support various science learning activities in order to obtain usability and performance data. The result showed that haptic interface could significantly affect impaired students' user performance. Audio & Tactile interface can produce significantly better user performance than the Tactile interface. Meanwhile, the learning effect could be greatly enhanced and students enjoyed the hands-on experience very much. This study should provide invaluable empirical data and some insight for the future research.
Keywords: haptic; tactile; visual impairment; interface
Using Grounded Theory and Text Mining to Find Interesting Reading Materials for Slow EFL Learners BIBAKFull-Text 77-85
  Yuh-Chang Lin; Chia-ling Hsu; Mu-Hua Lin; Hsiao-Fang Yang; Chao-Fu Hong
Many reasons contribute to slow EFL learners. Of all the reasons which cause slow EFL learners, reading materials not appealing to learners tend to be the one to blame. In order to help teachers to find out interesting reading materials for slow EFL learners in Taiwan, this study intends to use Grounded Theory [8] and Text Mining to search for the reading materials which are appealing to slow EFL learners in Taiwan. Based on the approaches of free voluntary reading proposed by Krashen [10], and extensive reading advocated by Day and Bamford [7], the theoretical framework of this study is established. Krashen claimed that when students read for information, pleasure or problem-solving, they have acquired the essence of free voluntary reading. Day and Bamford [7] argued that extensive reading is an important way to reinforce the concept of learning to read by reading. Both of these two reading approaches put emphasis on learners' free choice of reading materials which are within their linguistic proficiency, and at the same time, are interesting to them. Eighty-three university students are the participants, who took the second-year English reading course in a summer session program in Taiwan. They failed the course in regular semesters. This is their second- or third-time taking the same course. We call them slow learners accordingly. By the employment of Grounded Theory and Text Mining, it is expected that the interesting reading materials can be discovered and provided for teachers to adopt in their instruction in classes, and to a certain extent, learners' attention to reading passages can be drawn.
Keywords: Grounded Theory; Text Mining; interesting reading materials; EFL learners; free voluntary reading; extensive reading
CAI Platform for Fundamental Geometric Training on Perspective Sketching BIBAKFull-Text 86-92
  Ding-Bang Luh; Shao-Nung Chen
For most designers, freehand sketching is the primary tool for conceptualization in the early stage of the design process. However, existing education programs on concept presentation techniques rarely emphasizes the practicing of two most fundamental geometric shapes -- cube and cylinder. Lack of correct reference and proper training, students often end up with disproportioned sketches that deviate from common visual experience which would lead to misunderstanding of original design. This research developed a computer-assisted cube sketching instruction platform for novice, with which users can practice correct cube sketching using freehand skills or digital devices for self-improvement. This platform can provide instant corrective feedback and demonstrated 19% sketch accuracy increased relative to the control group in a series of experiments. Based on the successful experience, a cylinder training program is under development. The ultimate goal of which is to develop a comprehensive CAI platform to help novice improve their skills by self learning and correction.
Keywords: CAI; Perspective sketching; Self-instruction; Geometric sketch practice
A Reading History Logger for Supporting Reading Habit Development BIBAKFull-Text 93-96
  Yasuo Miyoshi; Takaaki Oobayashi
We are developing a social networking site for the purpose of support for a reading habit development. To support the habit development, it is necessary to grasp the state of the user's reading in real time. However, letting a user register every reading history is a big burden for the user aiming at the habit development. Therefore we have developed a bookmark-style reading history logger device using Eye-Fi and PSoC. The bookmark device has a function to register the reading date/time information to any photo-sharing site. Our social networking site for a habit development can get the reading time by checking a web feed of the photo-sharing site.
Keywords: Habit Development; Reading; Logger; Peer Mentoring
A Drawing Learning Support System with Auto-evaluating Function Based on the Drawing Process Model BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Takashi Nagai; Mizue Kayama; Kazunori Itoh
The purpose of this study is to develop a drawing learning support system using a networked environment. In this paper, first, we show the outline of the online drawing learning support system. Second, we describe the drawing process model that support individual drawing learning. Finally, we show three examples of learning with our system.
Keywords: Drawing; Learning Support System; Drawing Process Model
Interactions between Human and Computer Networks: EFL College Students Using Computer Learning Tools in Remedial English Classes BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
  Ai-Ling Wang
This study aims to explore how EFL college students perceive some educational computer programs in terms of their effectiveness in learning, their user friendliness, and the role these computer programs can play in students' learning process. Online language learning was viewed from a marketing service perspective. The researcher collected data from the online remedial English classes she offered. Students taking the course are low-achieving language learners. Qualitative data were collected from online interactions between students and students and between students and the teaching assistants or the teacher, interviews with the students, questionnaires filled out and documents submitted online by the students. Data collected for the study were analyzed according to the procedure specified in the grounded theory, including data collection, note-taking, coding, memoing, sorting, and writing. Findings of this study showed that there is a gap between how low-achieving EFL college students and language teachers view computer learning programs.
Keywords: educational computer programs; online remedial English class; grounded theory
Proposal of Collaborative Learning Support Method in Risk Communications BIBAKFull-Text 113-120
  Hiroshi Yajima; Naohisa Tanabe
In this paper, we propose the supporting method of the risk communications that use the collaborative learning. Using collaborative learning, participant of risk communication can acquire not only knowledge the participant is interested in, but also the intention and knowledge of other party who do not concern the participant's concern. In the process of collaborative learning, participants of risk communication get the mutual understanding about risks. The feature of this method is to use the WD (Write Down) form and the construction drawing of the opinion understanding made from Fishbone.
Keywords: Risk Communication; Collaborative Learning; Participant
Evaluation of Online Handwritten Characters for Penmanship Learning Support System BIBAKFull-Text 121-130
  Tatsuya Yamaguchi; Noriaki Muranaka; Masataka Tokumaru
This paper proposes a method for the evaluation of online handwritten characters for a penmanship learning support system. In Japan, many people desire to write beautiful characters, as evidenced by the fact that correspondence courses on penmanship are very popular. However, correspondence courses lack real-time feedback because of the time required for sending materials, namely, the learner's copy and the teacher's correct result. Therefore, we have developed a penmanship learning support system that automatically evaluates the characters that a learner writes using a personal digital assistant (PDA). We examined the validity of our proposed character-evaluation method, and proved it to be valid.
Keywords: Penmanship; Character Evaluation; PDA; Similarity; Balance; Speed; Advice
Facial Expression Recognition for Learning Status Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 131-138
  Mau-Tsuen Yang; Yi-Ju Cheng; Ya-Chun Shih
Facial expression provides an important clue for teachers to know the learning status of students. Thus, vision-based expression analysis is valuable not only in Human-Computer Interface but also in e-Learning. We propose a computer vision system to automatically analyze learners' video to recognize nonverbal facial expressions to discover learning status of students in distance education. In the first stage, Adaboost classifiers are applied to extract candidates of facial parts. Then spatial relationships are utilized to determine the best combination of facial features to form a feature vector. In the second stage, each feature vector sequence is trained and recognized as a specific emotional expression using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The estimated probabilities of six expressions are combined into an expression vector. The last stage is to analyze the expression vector sequence to figure out the learning situation of the student. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is applied to evaluate three learning scores (Understanding, Interaction, and Consciousness) that are integrated into a status vector. Each evaluated status vector reflects the learning status of a student and is helpful to not only teachers but also students for improving teaching and learning.
Keywords: Facial expression recognition; Learning status analysis

Health and Medicine Applications

An Enriched Understanding of Why the Environment and Individual Characteristics Are Important in Understanding Technology Utilization in Healthcare: An Evolutionary Psychology Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 141-150
  Chon Abraham; Iris A. Junglas
In this research, we provide an interdisciplinary perspective intended to enrich our understanding about the individual and the environmental components of technology utilization. We do so by merging the IS utilization literature with evolutionary psychology. Using a qualitative study, we describe two cases of technology utilization in a hospital setting. These two cases were of particular interest as both employ the same technology, involve the same task, occur in the same hospital, and share the same set of users, yet yield different utilization patterns. We provide an integrated model, the Environment-to-Technology-Utilization Model, which is insightful for IS fit research and practice in comprehending varying utilization behavior across work environments.
Keywords: Utilization; fit; technology; task; individual; environment; evolutionary psychology; four drives; healthcare
A Real-Time Interactive MIDI Glove for Domicile Stroke Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 151-158
  Nizan Friedman; David J. Reinkensmeyer; Mark Bachman
Stroke is the leading cause of chronic adult disability in Western countries. After several weeks of inpatient physiotherapy, stroke patients are forced to continue unguided and monotonous therapy at home. Consequently, these patients often lose motivation to continue domicile stroke therapy and therefore do not recover to their potential. An interactive real-time MIDI-Glove was developed with the goal of engaging patients in meaningful, entertaining, and motivating domicile therapy. The MIDI-Glove can also provide a quantitative assessment of progress which provides feedback to both patient and therapist. This paper focuses on two developed MIDI-Glove applications. The first is Musiquant, a computer game which allows an individual to play a sample of a song using the glove and to receive a score based on the performance. The second application allows an individual to play along with a song using a variety of different instruments.
Keywords: Interactive real-time MIDI glove; music; stroke rehabilitation; quantitative progress measurement
What Label Design of Ampule for Injection, Do You Want? BIBAFull-Text 159-166
  Hiroyuki Furukawa
Since "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System (Institute of Medicine publication, USA, 1999)" has published, the interest to accidents which happened in medical institutions has spread to the general public in Japan. And over half number of incident reports in medical institutions is related to medication. The factors which induce medication error are look-alike of the preparations, sound-alike of preparation's trade name, calculation error of dosage and so on.
The Design of an Interactive Stroke Rehabilitation Gaming System BIBAKFull-Text 167-173
  Linda Harley; Scott Robertson; Maribeth Gandy; Simeon Harbert; Douglas Britton
There is a compelling need to create an alternative and affordable home based therapy system founded on sound rehabilitative principles, that is readily available, engaging and motivational, and can be remotely monitored by therapists. In the past two years, stroke related medical costs have increased 20%, while the number of clinical treatment sessions have declined. The purpose of this study was to develop an affordable interactive stroke rehabilitation gaming experience based on therapeutic fundamentals that can easily be used in the clinical setting or the home environment.
Keywords: rehabilitation; gaming; health; upper extremity
Therapeutic Category Improvement Method Based on the Words Appearing in Effect-Efficacy Description BIBAKFull-Text 174-181
  Hirotsugu Ishida; Keita Nabeta; Masaomi Kimura; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
Medical drugs have various efficacies, and are classified focusing on their purpose of use. In Japan, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications gives Japan standard commodity classification (JSCC) numbers to drugs. Therapeutic category numbers are decided based on three digit numbers after the head digits "87". Although the current JSCC numbers are determined based on the revised document "Japan standard commodity classification" compiled in 1990, they have not been revised for 20 years. As a result, when drugs are categorized based on this categorizing system, some drugs are not applicable to any category. As the result, the drugs have been categorized as "other categories" such as "drug for other allergy" or "drug for other cardiovascular disease." The number of such drugs is increasing. However, since it is conceivable that drugs having similar efficacy are often included in other categories, it is necessary that such drugs are classified independently from the "other categories." Therefore, in this study, we analyzed drugs information categorized as "drugs for other cardiovascular disease," and proposed a method of classifying these drugs by using clustering.
Keywords: Medical Safety; Therapeutic Category; Clustering
Clinical Communication: Human-Computer and Human-Human Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Saif Khairat; Yang Gong
In 2006, health care in the United States encompassed 14 million professionals [1]. Such a large and complex network of employees introduces many challenges and limitations to the communication process. This research is a continuation of our efforts towards further understanding clinical communication by studying previously utilized methodologies in this field and then, proposing our new approach and its innovation. Moreover, in this paper, we discuss our results from a pilot study conducted at the Pulmonary ICU at the University of Missouri Hospital. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a practical clinical communication model that identifies influencing communication factors. This model will serve as the foundation to our long term goal of building an ontology-driven educational tool that will be used to educate clinicians about miscommunication issues and as a means to improve it.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Intensive care unit; Clinical communication model
Using Pen-Based Computing in Technology for Health BIBAKFull-Text 192-201
  Hyungsin Kim; Young Suk Cho; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Advanced technologies open more possibilities to interact with computers in various different ways. Especially, pen-based computing provides people with an intuitive way to use a computer. In this paper, we present our research on developing pen-based neuropsychological assessment tools for older adults with cognitive impairment. First, we explain the background information and motivation to design technology for the aging population. Then, we describe our two applications: ClockReader and TrailMaker. We then discuss technological affordances to support medical assessment tasks and conclude that pen-based computing could contribute to increase the efficacy of a computer-based assessment tool.
Keywords: Pen-based Computing; Computerized Cognitive Assessments; Senior-Friendly Design; Health-Related Technology; Sketch Recognition; Human-Centered Design; Usability Clock Drawing Test; Trail Making Test
Using a Smart Phone for Information Rendering in Computer-Aided Surgery BIBAKFull-Text 202-209
  Gaël Le Bellego; Marek Bucki; Ivan Bricault; Jocelyne Troccaz
Computer-aided surgery intensively uses the concept of navigation: after having collected CT data from a patient and transferred them to the operating room coordinate system, the surgical instrument (a puncture needle for instance) is localized and its position is visualized with respect to the patient organs which are not directly visible. This approach is very similar to the GPS paradigm. Traditionally, three orthogonal slices in the patient data are presented on a distant screen. Sometimes a 3D representation is also added. In this study we evaluated the potential of adding a smart phone as a man-machine interaction device. Different experiments involving operators puncturing a phantom are reported in this paper.
Keywords: distant display; smart phone; physical interface
A Proposal of Contraindication Database for Medicines BIBAKFull-Text 210-218
  Ryo Okuya; Hirotsugu Ishida; Keita Nabeta; Masaomi Kimura; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
In recent years, despite various measures taken to reduce medical accidents as a result of confusions over drugs, cases of medical malpractice have occurred in Japan. As a countermeasure supported by a Health Labor Sciences Research Grant in 2009, drug information databases based on drug package inserts have been created for computer systems to prevent accidents caused by incorrect treatment of drug information [1]. However, the data in the databases remains problematic. In this study, we propose data item sets to be defined in drug information databases.
Keywords: Medical safety; Package inserts; Databases
Results of the Usability and Acceptance Evaluation of a Cardiac Rehabilitation System BIBAKFull-Text 219-225
  Cecilia Vera-Muñoz; María Teresa Arredondo; Ignacio Peinado; Manuel Ottaviano; José Manuel Páez-Borrallo; Arturo Díaz de Barrionuevo
Cardiac rehabilitation programs are extremely important during the recovery phase of patients who suffered a Myocardial Infarction (MI). Traditionally, these programs aimed at recovering the cardiovascular functioning by means of tailored exercise programs. However, during the last years, researchers and practitioners have started to consider a multi disciplinary approach for the interventions, where patient education and health behaviors changes play a central role both in rehabilitation and in secondary prevention. Nevertheless, the lack of resources and the need to have health professionals continuously involved in the patient supervision process, does not make possible to extend rehabilitation programs to all potential patients in the health care system. This paper presents the results of the usability and acceptance validation of a personalized home based cardiac rehabilitation system developed under the framework of HeartCycle, a project partially funded by the European Commission.
Keywords: Usability and acceptance evaluation; cardiac rehabilitation
Construction and Analysis of Database on Outer Cases of Medicines BIBAKFull-Text 226-231
  Hironori Yoshimi; Hiroki Muraoka; Akira Izumiya; Masaomi Kimura; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
This study reduced the burden on medical staffs by determining 37 kinds of attributes based on the outer cases of medicines collected from seven pharmacies. We constructed a database on the outer cases of medicines and analysis of it provided useful knowledge.
Keywords: Outer case; openness; medicine

Business and Commerce

Are MIS Students Learning What They Need to Land a Job? BIBAKFull-Text 235-236
  Andrea Everard; Brian M. Jones; Scott McCoy
The issue of declining IS enrollments is so troublesome that even ACM/AIS has redesigned its recommended curriculum in an attempt to reverse this trend [1]. Although all majors in most accredited Business Schools are required to take the Introduction to IS course, the real or perceived value of this course is unclear. This paper looks at the real or perceived value of the content of the Introduction to Information Systems course and the possible impact on declining enrollments.
Keywords: IS Curriculum; Foundation; Content
Promotion Project for Communication between Artisans and Consumers Supported by Media Technology BIBAKFull-Text 237-244
  Ritsuko Izuhara; Sho Yokokawa; Shinya Suzuki
In many regions of Japan, local artisans continue to make traditional handicrafts using natural materials. However, rapid decreases in consumer demand for these products and the lack of younger successors to continue the craft have become serious problems. Possible explanations for this situation include recent changes in the Japanese lifestyle and gaps between traditional crafts made by artisans and the types of products needed by consumers. To solve these problems, the present study proposes a system to connect artisans and consumers directly. For this purpose, we established a website that facilitates communication between artisans and consumers and the generation of new ideas for craft products. We also launched a promotion event including exhibits using augmented reality (AR) and projection mapping technology to raise awareness of the project among consumers.
Keywords: Craft; Promotion; AR; Projection Mapping; Local Activation
Why Virtual Job Recruitment Is Not Well Accepted by Generation Y? -- A Case Study on Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
  Eleanor T. Loiacono-Mello; Soussan Djamasbi; Bengisu Tulu; Oleg V. Pavlov
Generation Y (Gen Y) forms a sizeable workforce in today's economy. Because this generation is tech savvy, it is likely that virtual worlds would serve as an ideal medium for recruiting such employees. Our research, however, showed that the participants in our study, who were part of the Generation Y population, had very little prior knowledge about recruiting in virtual worlds. Further, very few of them were familiar with Second Life, which is the major virtual world for recruitment. Even after being introduced to and spending some time looking for job fairs and job leads in Second Life, many of the participants expressed high levels of skepticism about the effectiveness of a virtual job search. Thus, Second Life is not well-known among Gen Y. There is an overall lack of awareness and thus virtual worlds are not perceived by Gen Y to be a suitable medium for job recruitment.
Keywords: Virtual Worlds; Second Life; Employee Recruitment; Generation Y; Virtual Job Fairs
Investigating Online Advertising in Chile BIBAKFull-Text 255-256
  Scott McCoy; Cristóbal Fernández Robin; José Luis Cortés
Internet advertising continues to show signs of healthy growth despite the current economic downturn, but online advertisements are often considered undesirable by most users. In this study, we focus on the impact these online advertisements have on users in Chile. The study was conducted in a laboratory setting with 80 student subjects. Results are helpful for both researchers and practitioners.
Keywords: Online Advertising; Electronic Commerce; Attitudes; Intentions; Latin America
Analysis of Customer Satisfaction on the Stiffness of Outside Panels of Passenger Cars BIBAKFull-Text 257-265
  Ilsun Rhiu; Taebeum Ryu; Byungki Jin; Myung Hwan Yun
The purpose of this study is to analyze customers' satisfaction for the stiffness of outside panels of passenger cars. Including 'satisfaction', four affective variables were selected for rating affection of outside panel stiffness. About fifty customers evaluated the hood and trunk lid of nine midsize passenger cars with a developed questionnaire in the study. The stiffness of the hood and trunk lid for the nine vehicles was measured using stress-strain curves. It was found that customers were more satisfied as the slope of the stress-strain curves increased, and the decrease at a point in the curve had negative effects. In this study, the levels of satisfaction of outside panel stiffness were grouped by stress-strain curves, and it is likely that the affective quality of outside panel stiffness can be controlled by them.
Keywords: Stiffness of outside panel; Stress-strain curve; Passenger cars; Affective design; Affective quality control
Working toward Women's Economic Empowerment: Using Information and Communication Technology in Developing Areas to Market Traditional Crafts BIBAKFull-Text 266-273
  Melissa Secore Levis
Women face many challenges in regard to empowerment, especially economic empowerment. The United Nations (UN) has made a point in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that work still needs to be done so women can reach some of the empowerment that their male counterparts enjoy. Traditional handicrafts are a rich part of indigenous women's heritage and these women should be enabled to market these items to a worldwide audience of customers. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be used to help women accomplish this. With proper dedication, education, and training, women can reach a new level of economic empowerment, along with other benefits, by selling their items via the Internet and other ICT-based technologies.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Crafts; women's empowerment; indigenous women
Socio Economic Psycho Knowledge Based Intelligent Agents for Automated e-Commerce Negotiation BIBAKFull-Text 274-284
  P. Vijayaraghavan; R. Ponnusamy
Automated Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties with different criteria, constraints, and preferences, jointly reach an agreement on the terms of a transaction through an automated constraint satisfaction and preference selection mechanism. In practical real environment the process of negotiation is not very strictly a mechanical selection or constraint satisfaction. It is based socio economic psycho conditions. One-to-many negotiation framework is taken as the default to test this socio economic psycho knowledge incorporation. In these cases of auctions, online trading needs a greater flexibility. Therefore it needs different strategies with different opponents. In this paper, an attempt is made to incorporate the socio economic psycho knowledge in the process of negotiation. All agents working on behalf of one party negotiate individually with other parties. After each negotiation cycle, the group of these agents report back to a coordinating agent that evaluates how well each agent has done, and issues new instructions accordingly. Each individual agent conducts reasoning by using socio psycho knowledge constraint-based technique with the objective of overall profit for both sides. We outline two levels of strategies that can be exercised on two levels, the individual negotiation level, and the coordination level. In our prototype Intelligent Trading Agency (ITA), agents autonomously negotiate multi-attribute with socio economic psycho consideration terms of transactions in an e-commerce environment tested with a personal computer trading scenario.
Keywords: Automated Negotiation; Intelligent Trading Agency; Socio-economic Psycho Knowledge
Shopping Cart Interactive Program (SCIP) BIBAKFull-Text 285-293
  Cyndi Wiley; Emmanuel Saka; Stefan Tauber; Sunghyun R. Kang
The Shopping Cart Interactive Program (SCIP) application was designed to improve shoppers' connection with the grocery retail environment. Nutrition is central to human life. Eating the right foods can significantly impact one's quality of life. With the capabilities of the SCIP application to provide an interface that can display readable health information on a mobile device and tailor to the specific dietary restrictions of its users, it will enable shoppers to have a less frustrating experience when shopping for food.
Keywords: Interface design; User-centered design

HCI in Complex Environments

An Analytical Alarm Flood Reduction to Reduce Operator's Workload BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Jens Folmer; Dorothea Pantförder; Birgit Vogel-Heuser
In the domain of process control, an alarm flood is a situation when there are more alarms generated by the automation system than can be physically addressed by a single operator. To reduce alarm floods an analytical approach, so called AADA (Automatic Alarm Data Analyzer), has been developed to learn these alarm floods by itself. Finally, this behavior can be integrated into process-visualizations which illustrate only the root cause of an abnormal plant state. To increase the operator's awareness during abnormal plant states, a combined approach of the ADDA and the 3D process visualization is presented in this paper. This approach has to reduce alarm floods and to display the most important information of a plant to the operator during runtime.
Keywords: 3D Visualization; alarm flood reduction
Self Replicating Robotic Strategies as a Catalyst for Autonomous Architectural Construction BIBAKFull-Text 307-317
  Michael A. Fox
The research explores examining future trends in robotics and how they can be applied to spatial interactive architectural environments. The strategy of using modular robotics of architectural space-making demonstrates an architecture whereby adaptation becomes much more holistic and operates at a very small scale. The strategy of using self replicating strategies as a catalyst for autonomous architectural construction was very much driven by the premise of an advanced architectural design studio. This paper highlights conceptual contributions by architecture students for alternative means of Martian Colonization through means creating architecture that creates itself. The parameters of the design project had three primary considerations including: The actual trajectory issues (how to get materials to the Mars), Chemical Processing (how to make materials on the Mars) and Space Manufacturing (how to fabricate and assemble/construct things on Mars). Of these central issues explored in this studio, the focus was primarily on Manufacturing as a process carried out by small modular robotics. The premise of the approach is that rather than sending a constructed architecture to space, we send tiny robotic modules that are capable of mobility and reproduction through automated fabrication techniques using in-situ materials. The modules with embedded sensors, self-healing composites, and responsive materials were designed to construct buildings aimed at adaptation. Such buildings could potentially respond in a human-like way to counteract loads, reduce material and allow for active environmental adaptation. When enough of architecture of the colony has constructed itself -- we send humans to inhabit it. Several examples by architecture students are highlighted whereby individual modules were created within the context of a space architecture design studio and applied to scenarios of space making at various scales. The design context primarily focused on the master plan of a colony for 10,000 inhabitants. The colony is an assembly of numerous discrete yet interconnected projects that include residential, public, civil, industrial, commercial, research, healthcare, and farming etc. The environment on mars was also seriously considered including: gravity, pressure, radiation, and the mass balance of resources and waste required for sustaining human life at such a scale. Students worked in teams of two to produce complete colony designs including the detailed development and a construction/ fabrication concept for one of the buildings. Students developed scaled prototypes of the system that successfully demonstrated the robotic aspects of their project. Physical models demonstrated actual robotics, structure and materials. Biomimetic strategies were employed as a means to satisfy adaptability in terms of form, processes, and systems. Central to biomimicry within the context of the work was an understanding of the process by which organisms grow and develop including includes growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis. In terms of adaptation, the area of morphogenesis was primarily studied as a means to create an architecture that ensures a continuous turnover of cellular-like robotic modules that dynamically ensure mechanical integrity similar to that of a living, evolving system.
   The projects successfully demonstrate various strategies for mechanical design, locomotion and control.
Keywords: Modular Robotics; Architectural Construction; Space Architecture; Habitat Construction; Robotic Construction; Interactive Architecture
Development of Information Filtering Systems for Disaster Prevention BIBAKFull-Text 318-327
  Yoshinori Hijikata; Tsutomu Yamanaka; Yuya Tanaka; Shogo Nishida
Text data with spatio-temporal information are becoming common with the popularization of mobile phones with a GPS function and microblog services like Twitter. This study proposes a system supporting operators in a disaster prevention center who control an area in real-world. Our system has three functions: (i) automatic classification that classifies messages into a fixed category, (ii) clustering that aggregates similar messages and (iii) burst detection that detects an event in which messages are arising in high frequency. We asked 120 people to send text data with spatio-temporal information by cell phones in the Osaka Expo Memorial Park. We evaluated our system using the above data.
Keywords: text summarization; spatio-temporal information; clustering; burst detection
Spatial Design, Designers and Users: Exploring the Meaning of Multi-party Service Cognition BIBAKFull-Text 328-335
  Tom Hope; Mizuki Oka; Yasuhiro Hashimoto; Myeong-Hee Lee
This paper examines service cognition from the perspective of the design of public or semi-public spaces. Results are presented from a workshop with students using an approach and system we developed to engage users with the design of their communal space. The paper ends with a brief discussion of these results, which suggest that multi-party service cognition has features that must be addressed in the design of systems, particularly in the context of spatial design.
Keywords: service cognition; design; architecture; workshops; universities
Toward an Understanding of a Computerized Monitoring System Failure: An Interpretive Approach BIBAKFull-Text 336-345
  Nathan Johnson; Yibai Li; Fengchun Tang; Saonee Sarker
CMS (Computerized Monitoring Systems) are prevalent in organizations and fulfill an important role to management. Often, new CMS implementations fail. A possible aspect of failures is the perception by employees of being "watched" by CMS. Since all information systems can inherently collect data, they can all monitor employees at some level, even if it's not their primary purpose. Therefore, users might sense they are being watched, triggering panoptic perceptions. This research in progress endeavors to understand the panoptic phenomenon and resulting CMS implementation failure via Actor Network Theory (ANT). Specifically, a published case study on a CMS failure within a medical organization is revisited to investigate organizational dynamics of misaligned interests between the cast of characters. Through ANT, the reader attains a better understanding of the technological and social factors that affected the CMS implementation and the underlying processes that led to its failure. Implications and future research are discussed.
Keywords: panopticon; computer monitoring system; Actor Network Theory; interpretive understanding
Proposal of BCM Evaluation Method Based on Disaster Scenario Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 346-353
  Ryuhei Kaneko; Yoshio Nakatani
Almost 20% of big earthquakes in the world occur in Japan. It becomes impossible for private companies and governments to carry out their business if they suffer from severe damage. In this situation, BCM (Business Continuity Management) become focus of public attention. But it has not become popular enough. This is due to the fact that anti-disaster plan is difficult to be verified because companies are lack of knowledge about what situations may occur in disasters. This research proposes how situation changes in companies by using a disaster progress simulator and actual cases when disasters happen. By using this system, companies can study what situation changes and clarify problems of their BCMs. As a result, the companies can settle on more realistic BCMs and carry out business even in disasters.
Keywords: Business Continuity Management; disaster simulation
Design of Communication Field for Leading to Satisfied Understanding: Example of High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Japan BIBAFull-Text 354-359
  Hiroshi Kimura; Masashi Furukawa
A disposal of high-level radioactive waste produced by nuclear power generation is a pressing issue in Japan. Especially, the process of selecting the siting areas for the HLW geological disposal proceeds with difficulty. One of reasons of this difficulty may be that many people don't have enough knowledge about HLW disposal to evaluate the issue completely. In this research, we introduce one of communication field design in order to lead to satisfied understanding concerning HLW disposal.
Control Error Analysis of Computerized Operational Environment in Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 360-367
  Seung Jun Lee; Jaewhan Kim; Seung-Cheol Jang
The designs of advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in recently constructed or developing nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been changed by adapting digital and computer technologies. Conventional display systems and controls have been replaced with computerized displays (large display panels and computer screens) and soft controls in advanced MCRs. These different interfaces require operators to perform different tasks for operating and maintaining NPPs. The different operational environment could cause new types of human errors or can vary the possibility the errors. In this work, human errors which could occur during operation executions using soft controls were analyzed. This work suggested human error modes for soft controls and a quantification method for estimating possibilities of the human errors.
Keywords: human error; HRA; main control room; nuclear power plant
uMeeting, an Efficient Co-located Meeting System on the Large-Scale Tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 368-374
  Jie Liu; Yuanchun Shi
In this paper, we present the uMeeting system, a co-located meeting system on the large-scale tabletop. People are used to sitting around a table to hold a meeting. It is natural and intuitive. The table has a central role to support team activities. Horizontal surfaces rather than vertical ones have inherent features to support the co-located meeting. Existing tabletops aren't large enough to support more than 4 people's meeting and the display area for each person is not large enough. Thus we develop uTable, a large-scale multi-touch tabletop. Based on uTableSDK we developed earlier, we develop uMeeting system that supports co-located meeting on the large tabletop uTable.
Keywords: co-located; collaboration; meeting; large-scale tabletop
Enhanced User Experience in Managing Personal Finance BIBAKFull-Text 375-383
  Cindy Lu
This paper reviews several online personal finance management tools to understand if rich interaction designs and technologies have added values to help individuals better manage their personal finance. Goals, tasks and user experience expectations in managing personal finance are discussed. The interaction designs and impact on user experience in selected online financial management tools are summarized. Some negative impact is also noted. Finally, it discusses the challenges and suggests opportunities to user experience professionals to address in the future.
Keywords: RIA; Rich Interactions; Interaction Designs; User Experience; Personal Finance; Web Applications; Online Tools
Experimental Investigation of Misuse and Disuse in Using Automation System BIBAKFull-Text 384-393
  Akihiro Maehigashi; Kazuhisa Miwa; Hitoshi Terai; Kazuaki Kojima; Junya Morita; Yugo Hayashi
In this study, we experimentally investigated human use of automation systems and the selection strategies of such usage. We used two different types of tracking tasks. As a result, we found that the participants neither tended to misuse nor disuse the automation system. Also, we confirmed that they tended to select to use the automation system depending on their manual performance rather than the system performance. Moreover, we found that there is a relationship between the tendency to use the automation system and the selection strategy.
Keywords: Human-automation system interaction; Misuse; Disuse
Validating Video Analytics in Mission Critical Applications BIBAFull-Text 394-402
  Stephen J. Mitchell; Sukhpreet Gill; Steve Loveless; Brent Auernheimer
Video Analytics (VA) automates and aids intelligent decision making in video surveillance applications. A video security system combines sophisticated video analytics with the oversight and judgment of human operators to save lives and critical resources. The complexity of the user experience and the range of deployments of VA make testing particularly challenging. Trade-offs between functional tests and focused usability tests are used to build a case for trustworthiness. This paper describes a method for validating video analytics for use in mission critical applications.
Proposal of an Office Work Productivity Model Based on Short Pauses in Mental Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Kazune Miyagi; Show Kawano; Hong Zhe Jin; Hiroshi Shimoda; Hirotake Ishii
In this study, the authors propose a model which can explain and simulate the change of office work productivity. This model assumes office workers transit a working state and a non-working state with the probabilistic functions based on the variation of brain fatigue. Aiming to discuss the detail of the model, the authors have conducted a subject experiment in which work motivation are controlled. Comparing the results of the experimental results with the result of computer simulation based on the model, it was found that the subjects tend to concentrate the task when the remuneration is provided, and they try to keep their attention to the task and take a long break instead when the task workload is high.
Keywords: Productivity; Working State; Probabilistic Functions; Human Modeling
Restoration Support System for a Historic Textile Market Using Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Michiko Ohkura; Mizuki Konuma; Yuri Kogure; Sayaka Tanaka; Hitomi Ei; Akiko Sakai; Takashi Ishidou; Yoko Watanabe
Recently, a trend is growing to restore such traditional Japanese buildings as theaters and markets as symbols of town renovation. However, the restoration of such buildings commonly encounters difficulties, including a lack of drawings of design and different construction materials and structures between the past and the present. Thus, virtual images of a restored building are a great help in evaluating and discussing restoration plans. Therefore, we constructed a restoration support system that uses virtual environments to help with the design plan for the indoor restoration of a historic textile market in Saitama Prefecture.
Keywords: traditional building; textile market; restoration; virtual environment

Design and Usability Case Studies

Investigating the Accessibility of Program Selection Menus of a Digital TV Interface BIBAFull-Text 425-434
  Pradipta Biswas; Patrick Langdon
We have investigated the accessibility issues of the program selection menus of a digital television interface. Initially we have simulated interaction patterns of visually and mobility impaired users and based on the simulation we have made changes to the font size and layout of the existing interface. Finally we have evaluated the new interface through a user trial involving people with disabilities. The results show that the new interface reduced the average time to select a channel and number of wrong channel selections for most of the participants.
Windows Positioning System: Aural Assistance Environment for the Aging in Windows Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 435-438
  Chi Nung Chu
This study explored dual-sensory user interface designs that meet the requirements of elderly people. Eight subjects with conventional mouse and the Windows Positioning System interface processing strategies were conducted the experimental tasks where five types of applications were evaluated in different font sizes. The analysis illustrates that for the conventional mouse the difference of response time of each font size of target texts is significant by ANOVA to the five font sizes 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16. However, the difference between large font sizes of 14 and 16 was not significant except the result between font sizes of 10 and 16. But for the WPS, there is no difference of response time among the five font sizes. It showed that the effect of aural information of target texts can benefit user from computer manipulation.
Keywords: Windows Positioning System; Text-to-Speech Engine
User Interactive Design for Digital TV Web Surfing BIBAKFull-Text 439-442
  Chih-Fei Chuang; Nancy Huang; Sheue-Ling Hwang
There is no standard for website layout and design of remote control device to date, and thus this study aims at proposing evaluation and suggestion to website layout as well as designing a proper and satisfactory remote control device for Web TV through human factors methodology, thereby to meet the demand of television history. There were two experiments in this study. Experiment I focused on website layout design for Web TV, investigating the proper sizes of characters and cursor as well as finding out possible gesture control motions. On the other hand, Experiment II focused on the design of remote control device, looking for the operating function for Web TV by means of motion analysis, usability evaluation and competitive advantage analysis for five different devices. After integrating analysis of all experimental data, we proposed a default value of the size of characters and cursor for the website layout design; besides, we provide suggestions for the design of remote control device and also design a new concept remote control device.
Keywords: Interactive design; Digital TV; Web surfing
An End User and Environment Field Study for an Inclusive Design of Consumer Products BIBAFull-Text 443-452
  Thomas Fiddian; Chris Bowden; Mark Magennis; Antoinette Fennell; Joshue O. Connor; Pierre T. Kirisci; Yehya Mohamad; Michael Lawo
In this paper an approach to improve the design of every day consumer products for inclusive design with a focus on elderly people with mild to medium physical and sensory impairments is presented. As mainstream manufactures do not have a detailed understanding of the needs of this target group the idea is to use a Virtual Human Model that covers these impairments. A Virtual Laboratory with three design phases is the approach to allow designers to plan and evaluate the user interfaces of their products. The paper gives a state of the art and presents the Virtual User Model as a mixture of human and environment context. In this paper we present results of an detailed ethnographic study. The research carried out on a group of 58 elderly people from the UK, Ireland and Germany who had a range of three mild-to-medium impairments; hearing, vision and manual dexterity.
Effects of Age Groups and Distortion Types on Text-Based CAPTCHA Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 453-455
  Chih-Hsiang Hsu; Ying-Lien Lee
Completely Automatic Public Turning test to tell Computers and Humans Apart, or CAPTCHA, is a security measure that guards a system from exploitation by the discrimination between a real human being and an automated computer program via the method of presenting to the unknown user the challenges that are hard for computer yet easy for human. Focusing on text-based CAPTCHA, this study conducted an experiment to study the effect of age groups and distortion types on the CAPTCHA task. Twenty-four participants were recruited to take part in the experiment, where twelve of them were in the senior group and twelve in the young group. Participants were observed to use three general steps: recognition, rehearsal, and motor response. With the inevitability of the security measure and the increasing population of senior netizens, this study has important implications for the design of CAPTCHA systems.
Keywords: CAPTCHA; age group; distortion
Evaluating Usability of Web-Based Electronic Government: Users' Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 456-465
  Zhao Huang; Laurence Brooks
Electronic government (e-government) has been rapidly developed to increase services delivery and users' access to government information. Users' interaction with e-government is largely dependent upon how easy to use e-government websites. In this aspect, usability needs to be importantly addressed when developing e-government. As such, an empirical study is conducted to evaluate usability of current e-government websites focusing on users' perception and performance. The results indicate that a number of usability problems have been found in the target e-government websites. Furthermore, performance results show the different levels of users' interaction with the e-government websites evaluated. More significantly, a close relationship between users' perception of usability and their performance is indicated. These findings can help designers identify users' usability requirements and draw their particular attention to further develop more usable e-government websites.
Keywords: Web-based e-government; Usability; Users' perception; Users' performance
The Effects of Content Type and Presentation Style on User Experiences of Multimedia Content on a Tablet PC BIBAKFull-Text 466-475
  Kari Kallinen; Jan Kallenbach; Niklas Ravaja
The present study examined how media type, presentation style, and user characteristics moderate people's media experiences while reading on and listening to news messages. We found that content type, presentation modality and user characteristics all moderated the responses to the news messages. We found for example that (1) entertainment news were experienced as more pleasant and activating, but factual news as more interesting, important, and trustworthy, (2) Audio news with text captions elicited better memory performance and higher presence than text or audio only news, (3) fast picture presentation elicited higher activation than slow pictures among younger users whereas slow picture presentation elicited higher activation than fast pictures among older users. The results demonstrate the complex mixture of user (such as age, and level of education), presentation (such as medium, modality, speed), and content (such as fact and entertainment) characteristics in media experiences.
Keywords: eReading; multimedia; user responses; emotion; memory performance; interest; presence
Inherent Usability Problems in Interactive Voice Response Systems BIBAKFull-Text 476-483
  Hee-Cheol Kim; Deyun Liu; Howon Kim
We are often required to use interactive voice response (IVR) systems during daily life. However, users still find these systems difficult to navigate. By identifying the problems with IVR systems, we can work to make them more convenient and easier to use. Based on the results of a literature review and an experimental study, this paper identified four major problems inherent to the use of IVR systems: linearity, transience, ambiguity, and minimal feedback. These issues cannot be completely avoided within IVR systems, but by understanding how the problems arise, designers can try to minimize them.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; interactive voice response systems; usability
Effect of Aesthetic Design Elements on Tabletop Display Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 484-489
  Hyunglae Lee; Hyun-Jin Shin; Ji-Hyung Park
Recent technology developments in the field of tabletop display systems have provided new types of user experiences that were unavailable in traditional vertical displays. While substantial amount of work has been done on new technologies and usability tests for a tabletop display system, not much attention was focused on aesthetic design aspect. In this paper, we studied the effect of aesthetic design elements on tabletop display interactions, especially focusing on users' emotional satisfaction and usability. For this purpose, two different tabletop display systems, one aesthetically well designed with 5 selected design elements (color, typography, form, graphic, and sound) and the other not, were tested in an intelligent collaborative environment. The user study showed that an aesthetically well-designed tabletop system not only influenced users' emotional satisfaction but also usability by enhancing the abilities in human perception, and eventually affected overall user experience with the system.
Keywords: Aesthetic design elements; Tabletop display
Effects of Presence on Causing Cybersickness in the Elderly within a 3D Virtual Store BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Cheng-Li Liu; Shiaw-Tsyr Uang
Along with elderly society's coming, computers with an internet connection used at home can provide this population a new channel to access to information and services, and can also be used to manage internet shopping tasks. One of the primary advantages of virtual environment (VE) technology applied in web shops is its ability to provide a 3D perspective to customers for more real sense on goods and shopping environment. The presence is a great appeal for the elderly experienced in the 3D virtual store. How to improve the presence of 3D virtual store is a challenge for the shopkeepers and programmers. But, whether it is easy to produce cybersickness in the elderly when the presence is improved, or not? The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of depth perception cues and display modes on presence and incidence of cybersickness in the elderly within a 3D virtual store. The results show that participants in high level depth perception cues with 3D monitor (with circular polarized glasses) will experience greater presence than other displays (HMD and TFT-LCD). However, a feeling of presence may add to the incidence of cybersickness (r = 0.671, p = 0.000). Although the feeling of presence in TFT-LCD display is poor than 3D monitor and HMD, the symptoms of cybersickness are the slightest.
Keywords: 3D virtual stores; Elderly; Presence; Cybersickness; Depth perception cues; Stereopicture
A Development of Web-Based Player for Instructions Recorded with the Electronic Blackboard System IMPRESSION BIBAKFull-Text 500-509
  Yuichi Ohkawa; Takashi Mitsuishi
In these years, we have been developing the interactive and sharable electronic blackboard system; IMPRESSION. In this paper, we described the development of a web-based player for instructions, which are performed with IMPRESSION to conduct a lesson. By using this system, a log, which shows performed instructions in a lesson, can be used as an on-demand e-learning material. In addition, this system provides various operational functions for playback instructions and also can record learners' actions of studying with these instructions. As a result, it makes possible to a teacher to grasp learners' understanding.
Keywords: E-Learning; Electronic Blackboard; RIA; User Interface
Categorize Web Sites Based on Design Issues BIBAKFull-Text 510-519
  Amin Rasooli; Fattaneh Taghiyareh; Peter Forbrig
Interface design is one of the most important topics during web development process. The final design is a tradeoff between the owner's personal idea and the web developer's perception of what he wants. In this paper, we have proposed a new model called WLDM (Web layout design model) to cover the important components of interface design. There are three components in the WLDM, including structure, content and visual. We have selected three features for structure, two for content, and three for visual component. Thereafter, we have made a dataset using 1088 most visited web sites. Finally, applying K-means algorithm, we have clustered this dataset. According to our result, six clusters were identified. Considering WLDM, web layout designer have a blueprint to cover areas of research related to this issue. The result of this clustering can be used for recommender systems to map owner groups, which have different attitude.
Keywords: WLDM; Web design; Adaptation; Personalization; Layout; User Interface; Human-Computer Interaction; Clustering; Data mining
Interacting with Semantics and Time BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Christian Stab; Kawa Nazemi; Matthias Breyer; Dirk Burkhardt; Arjan Kuijper
Time appears in many different semantic information systems like historical databases, multimedia systems or social communities as a common attribute. Beside the temporal information, the resources in these domains are categorized in a domain-specific schema and interconnected by semantic relations. Nevertheless, the high potential of these systems is not yet exhausted completely. Even today most of these knowledge systems present time-dependent semantic knowledge in textual form, what makes it difficult for the average user to understand temporal structures and dependencies. For bridging this gap between human and computer and for simplifying the exploration of time-dependent semantic knowledge, we developed a new interactive timeline visualization called SemaTime. The new designed temporal navigation concept offers an intuitive way for exploring and filtering time-depended resources. Additionally SemaTime offers navigation and visual filtering methods on the conceptual layer of the domain and is able to depict semantic relations. In this paper we describe the conceptual design of SemaTime and illustrate its application potentials in semantic search environments.
Keywords: Information Visualization; Semantic Visualization; Timeline Visualization; Semantic Search; Time-Dependent Ontology
Investigating Drag and Drop Techniques for Older People with Cognitive Impairment BIBAKFull-Text 530-538
  Frédéric Vella; Nadine Vigouroux; Pierre Rumeau
Graphical user interfaces and interactions that involve pointing to items and dragging them are becoming more common in rehabilitation and assistive technologies. We are currently investigating interaction techniques to understand point-select-drag interactions for older people with cognitive impairment. In particular, this study reports how older perform such tasks. Significant differences in behavior between all of the interaction techniques are observed and the reasons for these differences are discussed according the Mini Mental Score.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Older subjects; dementia; evaluation

Children and HCI

An Interface for Opportunistic Discovery of Information for Young People BIBAFull-Text 541-548
  Jamshid Beheshti; Andrew Large
The exploratory study investigates a virtual reality interface for opportunistic discovery for young people. We recruited ten volunteer students, who performed a pre-assigned information search task in a VR library which consists of about 1500 web sites depicted as books organized on the shelves. We calculated a metric for opportunistic discovery of information (ODI) based on the distance of books chosen by the participants from those initially found by a conventional search. The VR interface supported ODI more than do conventional search engines.
Evaluating Leading Web Search Engines on Children's Queries BIBAKFull-Text 549-558
  Dania Bilal; Rebekah Ellis
This study compared retrieved results, relevance ranking, and overlap across Google, Yahoo!, Bing, Yahoo Kids!, and Ask Kids on 15 queries constructed by middle school children. Queries included one word, two words, and multiple words/phrases/natural language, and the results were benchmarked against Google and Yahoo Kids! top 5 and top 10 retrieved results using a new relevance ranking metric. Yahoo! and Bing yielded similar results on all queries, but their relevance ranking differed on one-word queries. Ask Kids outperformed Yahoo Kids! on all queries, and a modest percentage of results had the same relevance ranking as Google. Yahoo Kids! and Ask Kids returned unique results that were not retrieved by the other three engines on the first results page. Yahoo! and Bing produced the highest percentage in overlap with Google followed by Ask Kids. Implications are made for children and mediators concerning the use of search engines on children's queries.
Keywords: Children; queries; query construction; web search engines; evaluation; information retrieval; relevance ranking; ranking comparison; overlap; unique results; Google; Yahoo!; Bing; Yahoo Kids!; Ask Kids
How Children Can Design the Future BIBAKFull-Text 559-569
  Mona Leigh Guha; Allison Druin; Jerry Alan Fails
Over the past 15 years, children have become more integrally involved in the design of their technology. In this paper, we present the idea that design partnering methods, specifically Cooperative Inquiry, used for designing technology with children can and should now be extended into informal and formal educational settings.
Keywords: Children; Cooperative Inquiry; Design Process; Education
Effects of Print-Storybooks and E-Storybooks with Reading Comprehension Strategies on Fifth Graders' Reading Comprehension Ability BIBAKFull-Text 570-579
  Hsiu-Shuang Huang; Shang-Liang Chen; Yea-Mei Leou; Ho-Chuan Huang; Ching-Yu Yeh; Yun-Yao Chen; Chun-Lien Chen; Ya-Ying Tseng
The goal of the study was to develop the instruction module of the e-storybooks reading comprehension in the elementary school and test the effect of the instruction module of the e-storybooks reading comprehension. This study was to compare the influences of print-storybooks and the instruction module of the e-storybooks reading comprehension among the fifth graders' reading comprehension ability. The results of the study indicated that there was significant difference between the experimental group and the controlled group. The controlled group had better performances of reading comprehension than experimental group. To put it more specifically, students and teachers were busy learning how to operate the module and platform, and that resulted in greatly reduced learning effect. However, with the mastery of e-storybooks instruction module, experimental group class expressed higher motivation than controlled group class in learning activities. These data indicated that the study had the positive contribution.
Keywords: digital reading; e-storybooks; reading comprehension; reading strategies
The Interaction of Children's Concepts about Agents and Their Ability to Use an Agent-Based Tutoring System BIBAKFull-Text 580-589
  Alicia M. Hymel; Daniel T. Levin; Jonathan Barrett; Megan M. Saylor; Gautam Biswas
Computer-based teachable agents are a promising compliment to classroom instruction. However, little is known about how children think about these artificial agents. In this study, we investigated children's concepts about the intentionality of a software agent they had interacted with and tested whether these concepts would change in response to exposure to the agent. We also tested whether individual differences in concepts about agent intentionality would affect children's ability to learn from the agent. After repeated exposure to a teachable agent, students did not make more intentional attributions for the agent than a computer, but a general understanding of agency predicted success in learning from the agent. Understanding basic concepts about agency appears to be an important part of the successful design, implementation, and effectiveness of computer-based learning environments.
Keywords: learning; artificial agents; theory of mind
A Comparison of Children's and Adults' Retrieval Performances and Affective Reactions When Using a Conventional Interface and an Information Visualization Interface BIBAFull-Text 590-598
  Andrew Large; Jamshid Beheshti
Reports on an exploratory study of the performance and affective responses of children compared with adults when using a conventional tree structured interface and an information visualization interface to identify subject terms embedded in a hierarchical subject taxonomy. It is part of a larger project to investigate the efficacy of information visualization as a means to enhance web-based subject taxonomies. The study found that adults were more successful at locating terms than children, but that there was no significant difference in the times taken to complete a successful search by children and adults. It also found that the affective reactions to the conventional interface versus the information visualization interface were very similar among the children and the adults.
Following the Signs: Children's Use of Visual Cues to Facilitate Website Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 599-606
  Valerie Nesset
The paper discusses how research investigating reading strategies can inform web usability design for children by identifying visual cues or 'signposts' that facilitate reading and subsequent evaluation of websites. Using data obtained from a broader study of information-seeking behavior of third-grade students conducted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada the paper reports on the students' use of visual cues when reading and evaluating websites in their search for relevant information. It was discovered that such cues as bolded text, the chunking of textual passages, color, and the thoughtful placement of images all were factors that facilitated quick and efficient evaluation of websites.
Development of Web-Based Voice Interface to Identify Child Users Based on Automatic Speech Recognition System BIBAKFull-Text 607-616
  Ryuichi Nisimura; Shoko Miyamori; Lisa Kurihara; Hideki Kawahara; Toshio Irino
We propose a method to identify child speakers, which can be adopted in Web filtering systems to protect children from the dangers of the Internet. The proposed child identification method was developed relies on an automatic speech recognition (ASR) algorithm, that uses an acoustic hidden Markov model (HMM) and a support vector machine (SVM). To extend the proposed method for use in a Web application, we used our voice-enabled Web system (the w3voice system) as a front-end interface for a prototype system. In this paper, we present an overview of the prototype system to elucidate our proposal. We also evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method in identifying child speakers by using voices captured from real Web users.
Keywords: Child speakers; Voice-enabled Web system; HMM; SVM
Comparison of a 3-D Expression System and a Standardized IQ Test for Children BIBAKFull-Text 617-626
  Akihiro Suzuki; Masayuki Wajima; Takashi Kawakami; Tetsuo Okazaki
The objective of this paper is to analyze how children develop their spatial expression ability in 3-D space. We prepared a 3-D paint system that has "Translation-test", "Rotation-test" and "Paper-lay-out-test". As an experiment, we collected data by using our 3-D paint system for children between the ages of 4 and 6 in a pre-school in August 2009, January 2010, and August 2010. We conducted a survey on correlation between the system and WPPSI: WPPSI is an IQ test. At these experiments, we conducted 5 performance tests with WPPSI. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Children are able to recognize virtual 3-D space of the system, and are able to express images in virtual 3-D space; 2) The data shows the trend that spatial expression ability in space becomes better with advancing ages; 3) We obtained correlations between the system and WPPSI. The system can analyze some abilities that are difficult for WPPSI.
Keywords: Spatial vision; Spatial expression; Human-computer-interaction; Children
Exploring Children's Requirements for the Graphic Design of WebOPAC BIBAKFull-Text 627-636
  Tengku Siti Meriam Tengku Wook; Siti Salwah Salim
This research specifically focuses on the graphic design issues involved in a WebOPAC interface for children. Children's ideas, expectations, experiences and needs were explored through their involvement in a variety of participatory design (PD) activities. The main outcomes of these activities were lists of the children's preferences and interests, sketches of design ideas and metaphors which led to the specification of the children's requirements for the graphic design of a WebOPAC interface. This research also points out the potential of information visualization (IV) and virtual reality (VR) techniques in terms of supporting the implementation of these requirements.
Keywords: Children's requirements; graphic design and participatory design method
Influence of Gender and Age on the Attitudes of Children towards Humanoid Robots BIBAKFull-Text 637-646
  Fang-Wu Tung
This study addresses the attitudes of children toward robots displaying various degrees of anthropomorphic appearance. Understanding the means by which children perceive and evaluate robots across the spectrum of anthropomorphism is a crucial issue within the field of robotics research. This study conducted two experiments to understand children's attitudes toward robots with various degrees of realism and examine whether gender or age influences the social and physical attraction children feel toward humanoid robots. The results of the study suggest that when designing robots for children, designers need not focus on creating an authentic human-like appearance. In addition, the influence of children's age on their attitudes toward robots is less significant than that of gender. Generally, children aged from 8 to 14 years have similar attitudes to and perceptions of humanoid robots. An interesting finding is the persistent differences between boys and girls, with respect to the ratings of their social and physical attraction to robots. Particularly, girls are more accepting of human-like robots, especially female robots, than boys are.
Keywords: Human-Robot interaction; child; interaction design; humanoid robot

Playing Experience

Affective Videogames: The Problem of Wearability and Comfort BIBAKFull-Text 649-658
  Andrea Bonarini; Fiammetta Costa; Maurizio Garbarino; Matteo Matteucci; Maximiliano Romero; Simone Tognetti
The aim of this paper is to report the interaction design process followed by an interdisciplinary team to develop an innovative ICT wearable device for affective video gaming. The process follows Norman and Draper's User Centered Design principles [1] including: functional development, laboratory test of the technology with human subjects, product design, prototype realization and experimentation with final users. The functioning of the device is based on the detection of physiological parameters, e.g., Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), Temperature (T), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), through electrodes placed on the forehead of the player. These signals are aimed at detecting the emotional state of the player by means of computational intelligence algorithms. This information can be used to modify the behavior of a videogame in order to maintain the player in the desired state of subjective enjoyment. Our goal was to develop a comfortable and easy to use device to avoid disturbs on the emotional state of the player.
Keywords: Design for wearability; Affective computing; Videogame
Extraversion and Computer Game Play: Who Plays What Games? BIBAKFull-Text 659-667
  Xiaowen Fang; Miaoqi Zhu
In the last two years, our research group has been conducting online surveys on enjoyment of computer game play and player personalities. From the preliminary data we collected as of now, we observed positive relationship between the personality trait, extraversion, and players' choice of games. This paper presents a research project that attempts to explore this relationship and investigate the reasons why this relationship exists using interview method. The expected findings will likely help game designers improve interaction designs in computer games.
Keywords: Extraversion; personality; enjoyment; computer games
User Modeling Approaches towards Adaptation of Users' Roles to Improve Group Interaction in Collaborative 3D Games BIBAKFull-Text 668-677
  Johanna Renny Octavia; Anastasiia Beznosyk; Karin Coninx; Peter Quax; Kris Luyten
This paper focuses on how adaptation of users' roles based on a collaborative user model can improve group interaction in collaborative 3D games. We aim to provide adaptation for users based on their individual performance and preferences while collaborating in a 3D puzzle game. Four different user modeling approaches are considered to build collaborative user models. Through an experiment, we present the validation of these approaches for two different cases: co-located collaboration and remote collaboration. From the experiment, we learned that the Minimum total time approach, which defines the best collaboration as the one that gives the shortest total time in completing the task, works mostly effective in both situations.
Keywords: User modeling; adaptation; collaborative 3D games
MusicTagger: Exploiting User Generated Game Data for Music Recommendation BIBAFull-Text 678-687
  Hannes Olivier; Marc Waselewsky; Niels Pinkwart
The system "MusicTagger" is a game in which two players hear 30 seconds of a song, describe it independently and get points if they succeed in making the same descriptions. Additionally, it is a music recommendation system which compares songs with the help of the descriptions given in the game. MusicTagger is based on the principle of "human computation", meaning that problems (in this case, music recommendation) are solved by computers via eliciting human knowledge and making intelligent use of the aggregated information. This paper presents the design and implementation of the "MusicTagger" system together with results of an empirical lab study which demonstrates the potential of the recommendation engine.
The Influence of Social Experience in Online Games BIBAKFull-Text 688-693
  Hua Qin; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Song-feng Gao
The objective of this study is to explore the influence of social behaviors in the online games on the behaviors in the real world. Four kinds of social behaviors in the online games such as chatting, making friends, role playing, team work are proposed, which these behaviors tie virtual world and real society. Based on the data from 101 effective respondents, this study analyzes the relationship between average playing time, social behavior in the real world and social behaviors in the game world. The results find that social behaviors in the game environment change significantly players' social behavior in the real world, and also contribute largely to more behavior repetition.
Keywords: Social experience; online games
Head-Pose Recognition for a Game System Based on Nose's Relative Position BIBAKFull-Text 694-701
  Qingjie Zhao; Xiaoming Shi; Yuxia Wang
This paper proposes a head pose identification method using nose's relative position information in a face region and develops a game system based on visual head pose identification techniques to control a virtual robot walking in a virtual maze environment. Adaboost classifiers are used to detect a face and give a rough classification. A nose classifier is used to detect noses in a detected face region. The nose's relative position information is utilized to further determine a specific head pose. A method for selecting the best nose area is also proposed to solve the problem that multi-nose areas may be detected in one face region. Experiment results show that by using these techniques correct head poses can be acquired and applied in the game system.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; head pose; nose position