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HCII Tables of Contents: 09-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-314-4

HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on HCI, Part I: Human-Centred Design Approaches, Methods, Tools, and Environments

Fullname:HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Human-Centred Design Approaches, Methods, Tools, and Environments
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8004
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39232-0 hcibib: HCII13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39231-3 (print), 978-3-642-39232-0 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. HCII 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. HCI and Human Centred Design
    2. Evaluation Methods and Techniques
    3. User Interface Design and Development Methods and Environments
    4. Aesthetics and Kansei in HCI

HCII 2013-07-21 Volume 1

HCI and Human Centred Design

HCI Education in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Clodis Boscarioli; Sílvia Amélia Bim; Milene S. Silveira; Raquel Oliveira Prates; Simone Diniz; Junqueira Barbosa
HCI Education in Brazil has come a long way. Since 1999, the Brazilian Computer Society (SBC) included HCI in its reference curriculum for its Computing courses. Since then, the community has discussed the perspective of the area in our country. From 2010 to this day, we have held a series of workshops on HCI Education, called WEIHC, as a permanent discussion forum within the Brazilian HCI conference, IHC. We report here the results of the WEIHC discussions and of two surveys, conducted in 2009 and in 2012, to help us assess the status of HCI Education in Brazil. Despite the advances of the Brazilian HCI community, our surveys show that we still face some important challenges. We should curate existing teaching material to further enhance collaboration among professors, to increase the quality of our courses, and to broaden HCI awareness across all related departments.
Keywords: HCI Education; Brazilian HCI community
Semiotics of Interaction: Towards a UI Alphabet BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Jan Brejcha; Aaron Marcus
In our thinking and acting, natural language plays a central part. This language defines a structure even before we form something, and it can be regarded as the architecture of design. To be able to grasp the expression of these structures in HCI, we chose the perspective of linguistics and semiotics. The semiotics perspective in the context of HCI is increasingly popular in presenting a different approach to UX. In our paper, we take this perspective to build a set of semiotic heuristics which we then used to evaluate a complex UI example. We present a semiotic evaluation method and report the results of our in-depth investigation.
Keywords: Analysis and design methods; Evaluation methods and techniques; Interaction design; Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement and Evaluation; Semiotics
Engagingdesign -- Methods for Collective Creativity BIBAKFull-Text 22-31
  Paul Chamberlain; Claire Craig
Research often problematises issues older people face and the development of technologies for older users is regularly driven by this agenda. This paper describes a research programme that positions older people as active participants rather than passive respondents focusing on their preferences and aspirations rather than their impairments. 'Engagingdesign' is a transnational research platform developed by the authors that facilitates creative methods for engaging older people and provides a scaffold for collective creativity. Data collected through interviews and focus groups is transformed through critical artefacts that provide a forum or theatre for conversation through exhibition that in turn becomes the medium and method for further data collection.
Keywords: User-centred design methods; older users; design; co-creation; participatory design
Toward a New Design Philosophy of HCI: Knowledge of Collaborative Action of "We" Human-and-Technology BIBAKFull-Text 32-40
  HyunKyoung Cho; Joonsung Yoon
This research examines a new design philosophy of HCI in the collaborative action-based context interdependent perspective. To frame a new perspective of design philosophy of interactive technologies, the study proposes "We" human-and-technology as a response for alternative perspectives of reference in inter-active systems design and alternative ways of understanding the relationships and collaborative actions between humans and new digital technologies. It argues the problem of knowledge provoked by the collaborative action of "We" human-and-technology, through three keys: reflecting, performing, and invaginating. Its aim is to reveal that HCI design practices establish a new knowledge beyond the logic of opposition reinforcing the mutual degradation between technology and human, thought and action, subject and object.
Keywords: "We" human-and-technology; collaborative action; knowledge; reflecting; performing; invaginating; HCI design
The Link between Inclusive Design and Innovation: Some Key Elements BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Kristin Skeide Fuglerud; David Sloan
It is often said that universal design and similar approaches can be a source of innovation. In this paper key elements in inclusive design are identified, and examples of innovations related to inclusive design are presented. Then, some core elements of the inclusive design process that will help spur innovation are identified. Based on this the link between inclusive design and innovation is discussed. Finally, some recommendations for an inclusive and innovative design process are presented.
Keywords: inclusive design; accessibility; universal design; user-centered design; user diversity; user involvement; innovation
Tuning an HCI Curriculum for Master Students to Address Interactive Critical Systems Aspects BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Michel Galindo; Célia Martinie; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler; Peter Forbrig
This paper presents the need for specific curricula in order to address the training of specialists in the area of Interactive Critical Systems. Indeed, while curricula are usually built in order to produce specialists in one discipline (e.g. computer science) dealing with systems or products requires training in multiple disciplines. The area of Interactive Critical Systems requires deep knowledge in computer science, dependability, Human-Computer Interaction and safety engineering. We report in this paper how these various disciplines have been integrated in a master program at Université Toulouse III, France and highlight the carrier paths followed by the graduated students and how these carriers are oriented towards aeronautics and space application domains.
Ageing and Innovation BIBAFull-Text 61-67
  Matthias Göbel
Innovation is mostly associated with young people being open to new things and enthusiastic to try out something different. Even though an innovation might not be advantageous, most young persons are prepared to spend time to find out, and they are not disappointed if it does not work out as expected. This experience is considered as learning about different options and getting inspired, thus the innovation is rather an exploration tool to spark creativity.
Understanding User Experience and Artifact Development through Qualitative Investigation: Ethnographic Approach for Human-Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 68-76
  Ayako Hashizume; Masaaki Kurosu
In this paper, we introduce a method for utilizing qualitative investigation in the development of artifacts. In particular, we discuss ethnography principles that developers and designers need to learn in order to improve artifact quality and user experience in accordance with the principles of human-centered design (HCD). The objective of ethnographic interview in the development of artifacts is to understand users in their real environment and to build personas and scenarios based on this understanding. This objective applies to the first two steps in the HCD process, which are "Understand and specify the context of use" and "Specify the user requirements." Furthermore, the investigative process of ethnographic research for development is outlined. While it is difficult to understand users through objective observation alone, and the fact that the knowledge that comes from interaction is also vital, the application of contextual inquiry through ethnography is a valuable tool for efficient understanding of the user in a short timeframe and with a limited number of observations.
Keywords: user experience; contextual inquiry; human-centered design; ethnographic interview; context of use
User Research for Experience Vision BIBAKFull-Text 77-84
  Seiji Hayakawa; Yoshihiro Ueda; Kentaro Go; Katsumi Takahash; Koji Yanagida; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
In the "Experience Vision: Vision Proposal Design Method," the first step is to set a project target and to conduct a qualitative survey. Next, users' essential needs are identified and an idea is developed to propose a vision. On the basis of a scenario from the perspective of users' essential needs, the proposal is formed, given shape and made precise. Finally, the proposal is evaluated, and then evolves into the development of products, systems, and services. This paper presents the interview method, the photo diary method, the photo essay method, and the superior-subordinate relationship analysis method laddering) in order to gain profound insight into users and to identify their essential needs, rather than their manifest needs. In addition, on the basis of users' essential needs, it explains the method of setting a user with persona and cast to embody the target user, as a viewpoint from which to describe a value scenario, an activity scenario, and an interaction scenario. [1]
Keywords: experience vision; service design; user's needs; persona
Analyzing Varying Environmental Contexts in Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Stephan Hörold; Cindy Mayas; Heidi Krömker
The basis for user-centered design is the knowledge of users and tasks. Developing systems, e.g. mobile applications, which are used at varying locations, requires knowledge of the environmental context as well. This paper describes an approach for the analysis of varying environmental contexts in public transport. The results are presented as context templates to derive information needs of users in public transport dependent on influencing context factors and can serve as a communication tool for interdisciplinary groups.
Keywords: context analysis; public transport; passenger information
The Conceptual Model of Experience Engineering (XE) BIBAKFull-Text 95-102
  Masaaki Kurosu
The conceptual model of XE (experience Engineering) was proposed to cover both of the products and services. It was also proposed to take "U" out from "UX" so that more adequate description of the people can be possible.
Keywords: experience engineering; XE; usability; UX; service; marketing
User Centered Inclusive Design Process: A 'Situationally-Induced Impairments and Disabilities' Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 103-108
  Hyung Jun Oh; Hyo Chang Kim; Hwan Hwangbo; Yong Gu Ji
Mobile phones provide many functions to improve people's daily lives. However, there are some difficulties to apply the specialty of the mobile device on existing simple schematics of drawings and the approaches. Moreover, regarding handicapped people as special users is causing the stigma effect. Therefore, this research suggests an inclusive design process that by considering the idea of situationally-induced impairments and disabilities (SIID) for developing the product, its design is not only considered for the handicapped people, but also normal people can experience the handicapped situations.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Accessibility; Smart Device; Mobile Application
Applying Contextual Design to Multiple Teams in Emergency Management BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Tania Randall; Jacquelyn Crebolder; Gerard Torenvliet; Jeremy Leal
This paper describes a process of identifying a consolidated set of requirements for technology to support unclassified collaboration amongst emergency managers from distinct organizations, each with a role in domestic response. It describes the application and adaption of the inquiry and consolidation processes defined by the Contextual Design (CD) methodology [1] in order to generate a set of requirements that reflect the collaboration needs of the response community as a whole. This application of CD is unique in the sense that the inquiry and requirements analysis focus on a general process (collaboration) that requires flexibility in its usage, rather than a prescriptive, well-defined process or activity.
Keywords: contextual design; emergency management; work-flow models; collaboration tools
Visualization and Evaluation for Experience Vision BIBAKFull-Text 119-127
  Katsumi Takahashi; Kazuhiko Yamazaki; Seiji Hayakawa; Koji Yanagida; Kentaro Go; Yoshihiro Ueda
The "Experience Vision: Vision Centered Design Method" is a comprehensive method which makes it possible to propose new and innovative products, systems and services that are currently unavailable, as well as proposing advances for those that currently exist. It encompasses the entire HCD (Human Centered Design) process, and presents a new vision with experiential value for both user and business from an HCD viewpoint.
   In this paper I describe visualization and evaluation of structured scenario for we will implement Scenario based vision proposal design method. Only scenario will introduce visualization techniques to supplement the difficult part of the shared content. Then, the evaluation provides an example to advance to the next phase structured scenarios that are visualized.
Keywords: Experience Vision; vision centered design method; Structured Scenario-Based Design Method (SSBDM); value scenario; activity scenario; interaction scenario; scenario visualization; scenario evaluation
Confabulation in the Time of Transdisciplinarity: Reflection on HCI Education and a Call for Conversation BIBAKFull-Text 128-136
  Nicholas True; Jeroen Peeters; Daniel Fallman
As HCI becomes ever-increasingly more transdisciplinary it encounters increasingly complex problems practical, methodological, and pedagogical in natures. This paper is an introductory exploration of the influence HCI education has in bridging academia and industry as students become practitioners. We examined how design pedagogy materializes and takes shape in both work and student process/attitudes as they become professionals, suggesting there is an area of importance to the community that is overlooked. Education shapes designers, designers shape the world, which prompts the need for a dialogue on how education pedagogy shapes practitioners that embody methods, values, skills, goals, and practices. As practitioners embody their knowledge into designs there arises a discussion that ought to be had.
Keywords: Design; HCI; Education; Pedagogy; Practice
Proposal for Experience Vision BIBAKFull-Text 137-145
  Kazuhiko Yamazaki; Kentaro Go; Katsumi Takahashi; Seiji Hayakawa; Yoshihiro Ueda; Koji Yanagida
Recently, it was known the problem-solving design approach has limitation to create new business or design. And service design is focused to create new business. Based on these background, we propose vision centered design approach named "Experience Vision". Purpose of this research is to propose design approach and method to create new service design or new product design based on vision centered design approach. Experience Vision is a comprehensive design method to envision innovative services, systems and products which reflect upon potential stakeholders' experiences and company mission and vision. Core of Experience Vision is vision centered design approach based on human centered design process with business perspective. For this purpose, we developed "Frame work for vision centered design method "and "Structured Scenario-Based Design Method (SSBDM)". "Frame work for vision centered design method" is based on SSBDM and user centered design approach which is focused user and business. This frame is including "Goal setting of project", intrinsic user value, policy of business value, value scenario, activity scenario, interaction scenario, scenario visualization, scenario evaluation, planning documentation, and specification.
Keywords: experience vision; service design; scenario; scenario-based design
Collaborative User Experience Design Methods for Enterprise System BIBAKFull-Text 146-155
  Hiroko Yasu; Naoko Iwata; Izumi Kohno
The importance of user experience (UX) design has increased in enterprise field. In traditional product and service development, a division of labor between UX designers and engineers was necessary. It is, however, difficult to pursue the same development style in the enterprise field. Therefore, in this study, collaborative UX design Methods for Enterprise System between UX designers and engineers were proposed. These Methods were designed to allow UX designers and engineers to supplement each other's knowledge and experience. The first Method was UX Observation Tour, a behavioral observation method used to understand the psychological and/or physical characteristics as well as behavior patterns of target users. In this Method, UX designers and engineers shared user research experience through field work. The second Method was UX Idea Mapping. This was a method for establishing associations between the needs of target users and unique ideas that UX designers and engineers, who achieved a detailed understanding of the target users, developed together based on their expertise in systems. In this study, these two methods were applied to internal projects, and as a result, both Methods effectively promoted collaborative development of UX designs by the UX designers and engineers.
Keywords: User Experience; UX design; UX Method and UCD

Evaluation Methods and Techniques

An Estimation Framework of a User Learning Curve on Web-Based Interface Using Eye Tracking Equipment BIBAFull-Text 159-165
  Masanori Akiyoshi; Hidetoshi Takeno
This paper addresses an estimation framework of a user learning curve on Web-based interface. Recent Web-based interface has rich features such as "dynamic menu", "animation" and so forth. A user sometimes gets lost in menus and hyperlinks, but gradually improves the performance of his/her task that is to find target information during the session. This performance change is in a sense considered to be "learning curve" as to the Web-based interface. To estimate the "learning curve" is necessary to evaluate the Web-based interface from the viewpoint of a user's task achievement. Our proposed estimation framework consists of two steps; One is to identify the relationships among the processing time, eye tracking log, and Web structure. The other is to identify the estimated formula as a "learning curve". This paper reports the relationship from preliminary experiment using several Web pages and eye tracking log.
A Grounded Procedure for Managing Data and Sample Size of a Home Medical Device Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 166-175
  Simone Borsci; Jennifer L. Martin; Julie Barnett
The selection of participants for usability assessment, together with the minimum number of subjects required to obtain a set of reliable data, is a hot topic in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Albeit, prominent contributions through the application of different p estimation models argued that five users provide a good benchmark when seeking to discover interaction problems a lot of studies have complained this five-user assumption. The sample size topic is today a central issue for the assessment of critical-systems, such as medical devices, because lacks in usability and, moreover, in the safety in use of these kind of products may seriously damage the final users. We argue that rely on one-size-fits-all solutions, such as the five-user assumption (for websites) or the mandated size of 15 users for major group (for medical device) lead manufactures to release unsafe product. Nevertheless, albeit there are no magic numbers for determining "a priori" the cohort size, by using a specific procedure it is possible to monitoring the sample discovery likelihood after the first five users in order to obtain reliable information about the gathered data and determine whether the problems discovered by the sample have a certain level of representativeness (i.e., reliability). We call this approach "Grounded Procedure" (GP). The goal of this study is to present the GP assumptions and steps, by exemplifying its application in the assessment of a home medical device.
Keywords: discovery likelihood; medical device; sample size; usability testing
Usability Guidelines for Desktop Search Engines BIBAKFull-Text 176-183
  Manuel Burghardt; Tim Schneidermeier; Christian Wolff
In this article we describe a usability evaluation of eight desktop search engines (DSEs). We used the heuristic walkthrough method to gather usability problems as well as individual strengths and weaknesses of the tested search engines. The results of the evaluation are integrated into a set of 30 design guidelines for user-friendly DSEs.
Keywords: usability testing; heuristic evaluation; desktop search engines; usability guidelines
Analyzing Face and Speech Recognition to Create Automatic Information for Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Thiago Adriano Coleti; Marcelo Morandini; Fátima de Lourdes dos Santos Nunes
Observe users perform their tasks in a software is an important way to performing usability evaluation due to the reason that provides real data about the interaction between user and system. Filming and verbalization are very used techniques and they must be a concern for all designers. However, the needs of reviewing all registered data manually became these techniques slow and difficult. This paper presents an approach that uses face recognition and speech processing to generate relevant information about a system under test such as what moments the user had specific reaction and which ones. The ErgoSV software supported the experiments that were performed using an e-commerce website. The results showed that this approach allows the evaluator identify interfaces with usability problems easily and quickly as well as present information using percentages that supported the evaluator making decision.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Human-Computer Interaction; Speech Recognition; Face Recognition
Linking Context to Evaluation in the Design of Safety Critical Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 193-202
  Michael Feary; Dorrit Billman; Xiuli Chen; Andrew Howes; Richard Lewis; Lance Sherry; Satinder Singh
The rate of introduction of new technology into safety critical domains continues to increase. Improvements in evaluation methods are needed to keep pace with the rapid development of these technologies. A significant challenge in improving evaluation is developing efficient methods for collecting and characterizing knowledge of the domain and context of the work being performed. Traditional methods of incorporating domain and context knowledge into an evaluation rely upon expert user testing, but these methods are expensive and resource intensive. This paper will describe three new methods for evaluating the applicability of a user interface within a safety-critical domain (specifically aerospace work domains), and consider how these methods may be incorporated into current evaluation processes.
Keywords: Work Analysis; Evaluation; Human Performance Modeling; Human-Automation Interaction
Environmental Evaluation of a Rehabilitation Aid Interaction under the Framework of the Ideal Model of Assistive Technology Assessment Process BIBAKFull-Text 203-210
  Stefano Federci; Simone Borsci; Maria Laura Mele
Recently Federici and Scherer [1] proposed an ideal model of an Assistive Technology Assessment (ATA) process that provides reference guidelines for professionals of a multidisciplinary team of assistive technology (AT) service delivery centers to compare, evaluate, and improve their own matching models. The ATA process borrows a user-driven working methodology from the Matching Person and Technology Model [2] and it embraces the biopsychosocial model [3] aiming at the best combination of AT to promote customers' personal well-being. As Federici and Scherer [1] suggest, the multidisciplinary team, by applying the ATA process, may provide for users not only a device, but much more an assistive solution, which is the real outcome of a match process. An assistive solution is provided for the user only when the interaction dialogue between user, device, and environments of use improves the users' performances in participating in their everyday contexts. In this theoretical framework, the evaluation of the users' interaction with the AT in different kinds of environments is a key factor for the success of the ATA process, because, as Mirza, Gossett Zakrajsek, and Borsci [4] claim, the environment is antecedent to the AT and crucial for identifying how the AT works in relation to the users' needs. In the ATA process a specific Environmental Assessment (EA) model for testing the interaction of the user with the environments of use, through the AT, has been defined. The aim of this paper is to describe the EA model steps and discuss the dimensions that a practitioner has to consider for this assessment. Accessibility, universal design, and sustainability are used in the EA model as the dimensions for measuring the relationship between the AT and the environment [4]. The EA model steps and the trade-off among these dimensions are presented through a case example in which practitioners analyze the relationship between a communication aid used by a child and her classroom and home environments.
Keywords: accessibility; assistive technologies; sustainability; universal design; user-centered delivery process
Towards Ergonomic User Interface Composition: A Study about Information Density Criterion BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Yoann Gabillon; Sophie Lepreux; Káthia Marçal de Oliveira
One way to design new interactive system is to automatically compose from existing systems. An interactive system encompasses a functional core (FC) and a user interface (UI). Many studies of the software engineering community focus on design or runtime composition of FC through components or services. However, provide good quality UI is important to make the composed system acceptable to the users. To address this need, the HCI community has studied how to compose UI at different levels of granularity. The main challenge is how to choose the best composition option in order to provide UI of good quality from the user point of view. This paper presents a step towards this challenge by proposing the chosen of the best composed graphical UI considering quality ergonomic criteria that can be automatically measured. In particular, it focuses on the information density criterion. Information density concerns the users' workload from a perceptual and cognitive point of view with regard to the whole set of information presented to the users rather than each individual element or item.
Keywords: UI Composition; ergonomic; usability; criteria; metrics; measures; evaluation functions
Human-Machine Interaction Evaluation Framework BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Hans Jander; Jens Alfredson
The aim of the study reported in this paper was to use and evaluate a new methodological framework for Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) evaluation in system development for complex, high-risk and task-critical environments to assess overall HMI readiness. This has been conducted in the context of simulations in a state-of-the-art development simulator for fighter aircraft cockpit design in an industrial setting. The simulations included active and experienced military fighter pilots flying two civil navigational scenarios. The framework consists of already established evaluation methods and techniques combined with new influences inspired from risk management practices. A new HMI assessment survey has been developed and integrated into the framework. The results of the study are promising for the studied framework and also indicate some overlap when compared to existing practices regarding collected data. Applied within industry the framework can help leverage future HMI evaluations within system development.
Keywords: Usability; HCI; HMI; System evaluation; System Development
Supervisory Control Interface Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles through GEDIS-UAV BIBAKFull-Text 231-240
  Salvador Lorite; Adolfo Muñoz; Josep Tornero; Pere Ponsa; Enric Pastor
This paper reflects the state of art in the field of human factors for unmanned aerial vehicles. It describes the GEDIS-UAV guide, which is a modification of the GEDIS guide. It also shows the evaluation of the Sky-eye project graphical user interface as an example of the methodology. The analysis and evaluation method reflected in this paper may be used to improve the graphical user interface of any unmanned aerial vehicle.
Keywords: Supervisory Control; Unmanned Vehicles; Ergonomics; GEDIS
Remote Usability Evaluation of Mobile Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 241-248
  Paolo Burzacca; Fabio Paternò
Recent proliferation of mobile devices has made it important to provide automatic support for usability evaluation when people interact with mobile applications. In this paper, we discuss some specific aspects that need to be considered in remote usability of mobile Web applications, and introduce a novel environment that aims to address such issues.
Keywords: Remote Evaluation; Logging Tools; Mobile Usability
Design and Implementation of ErgoIdentifier: A Tool for Automated Identification of Websites Interaction Elements BIBAKFull-Text 249-255
  Oscar Francisco dos Santos; Marcelo Morandini
The purpose of this work focuses on the development of an environment that will is called ErgoIdentifier. This environment is responsible for performing automatic collection of websites' interaction elements and thus, support the usability evaluation process by presenting important features and routines for future usability evaluation automatic tools. The ErgoIdentifier will use the website's implementation code to automatically identify the elements of interaction of its pages. Once identified, these interaction elements must be mapped to the same key characteristics that may influence the usability as color, exact location on the page, size and format. So, this environment can also be used by the evaluator by presenting him/her initial basis for consideration. The Human Computer Interaction, or HCI, aims to provide developers ways of designing and evaluating systems in which there is interaction between user and system. Usability can be considered as a key concept within the context of HCI and is focused on creating systems that are easy to learn and use. Therefore, it is possible to assess the quality of interactive systems according to factors that define its designers as priority. The ErgoIdentifier provides overall overviews of the evaluation processes starting with an identification of the website's source code files and the web pages architecture. These information and the features of the interaction elements must be stored in a Database for presenting special reports to the evaluator. These reports should include the features of the interaction elements, number of repetition of specific ones, such as frames, icons and links. This proposed environment is composed by the following processes: (a) Website architecture definition; (b) Interaction Elements Definition; (c) Interaction Elements Visualization; and (d) XML Files Generation. So, the ErgoIdentifier will consist of a database containing information from the pages and elements of interaction that should be used in a usability evaluation process. It also contains forms for queries characteristics of pages and elements found on the website to be viewed through a terminal where the environment is installed. They can also be obtained this information using text file formats, HTML and XML that can be used as input for tools to support usability evaluation. Also, the proposition of the ErgoIdentifier is based on a stimulus for the design and development of other usability evaluation tools that would be using it as a basis for defining the website's architecture and also to have information about each webpage that are part of the website. Concerning the webpages, it is important that all of interaction elements should be automatically recognized and identified. This will allow the usability evaluation tools to be more efficient in their purpose as this task (interaction elements recognition) is no longer needed to be performed by the tool. We intend to develop specific tools that should present meaningful usability evaluation reports by using the ErgoIdentifier and also present this environment for the HCI community.
Keywords: Tools Usability and Interaction; User Interfaces; Ergonomics Criteria; Usability
A Self-Evaluation Tool for Quantitative User Research within the digital.me Project BIBAKFull-Text 256-264
  Andreas Schuller; Rafael Giménez; Fabian Hermann
For upcoming validations within the di.me project, the technical evaluation components will be an important instrument for monitoring overall key usage indicators and serve as the basis for the further analysis of usage data. Consolidated findings acquired from the evaluation components shall serve as the basis for further improvements on the developed clients and overall di.me system. This paper states a list of related requirements as well as a technical overview of the employed system.
Keywords: Quantitative user research; Self-Evaluation; User Feedback; User Research; Usability; User Experience; Requirements
Priming Categorization in a Card Sort BIBAKFull-Text 265-272
  Camie Steinhoff; Jeremiah D. Still
When using the card sorting technique, the goal of a user experience researcher is to determine the user's expected information architecture. Card sorting is a knowledge elicitation method where users are given labeled cards and are asked to place them into groups. This method is commonly used to determine a natural navigation structure for a group of users. We examine the impact of priming, an implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences response to a later stimulus, on this popular user-centered design method. A control group did the card sort only, while the experimental group watched a short presentation before performing their card sorts. The dependent measure was the percentage of agreement of each card sort against the typical sort. The primed group sort was significantly more similar to the typical response than the control group. This study provides evidence that card sorting can be modulated by priming.
Keywords: Evaluation methods and techniques; Human Centered Design and User Centered Design; Card Sorting; Priming; Knowledge elicitation

User Interface Design and Development Methods and Environments

Case Study for Experience Vision -- Application for PC BIBAFull-Text 275-280
  Kanako Ariya
In order to examine the new value of photo management software preinstalled on personal computers to develop a model for the next photo management software, I have to utilize the Experience Vision method. I will introduce the process from gathering information from the activity of novice users, structuring of their real user demands, to scenario creation.
Using the Common Industry Format to Document the Context of Use BIBFull-Text 281-289
  Nigel Bevan
V&V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog BIBAFull-Text 290-299
  Guillaume Brat; Célia Martinie; Philippe Palanque
During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakeholders) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed...in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.
Formal Pattern Specifications to Facilitate Semi-automated User Interface Generation BIBAKFull-Text 300-309
  Jürgen Engel; Christian Märtin; Christian Herdin; Peter Forbrig
This paper depicts potentialities of formal HCI pattern specifications with regard to facilitate the semi-automated generation of user interfaces for interactive applications. In a first step existing proven and well accepted techniques in the field of model-based user interface development are highlighted and briefly reviewed. Subsequently it is discussed how we combine model-based and pattern-oriented methods within our user interface modeling and development framework in order to partly enable automated user interface generation. In this context a concrete pattern definition approach is introduced and illustrated with tangible examples from the domain of interactive knowledge sharing applications.
Keywords: HCI patterns; model-based user interface development; patternbased development; formalized pattern specification; user interface generation
A Mobile Application Flow Representation for Mutual Understanding of IT and Healthcare Professionals BIBAKFull-Text 310-319
  Yusuf Nasuh Erturan; Semih Bilgen; Gul Tokdemir; Nergiz E. Cagiltay; Ekrem Yildiz; Esra Özcebe
Ever since mobile applications were developed and became popular, they have started to take part in almost every field of our lives. Healthcare is one of the most popular fields that mobile applications have become a part of. However, development of mobile healthcare applications requires an inter-disciplinary work on which people from different domains should communicate. To do so efficiently, mobile application instructions should be provided as clearly as possible so that mutual understanding can be achieved. This study, aims to provide a methodology to provide the common grounds for healthcare and IT specialists so that to improve the satisfaction level of all the stakeholders of the system from the provided IT services and the end-user interfaces. In other words, by providing a better communication medium for the stakeholders during the design phase, we believe that software development process will be improved, so do their satisfaction from the developed system.
Keywords: Mobile healthcare; Communication gap; Representation guideline
Communicating Ideas in Computer-Supported Modeling Tasks: A Case Study with BPMN BIBAKFull-Text 320-329
  Juliana Jansen Ferreira; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
The communication role of models in Software Engineering is widely acknowledged. Models tell model users what model builders propose. Computer-supported modeling (CSMod) traditionally concentrates on helping users build models with various kinds of notations. Although such focus on 'representation' is obviously important for the overall 'communication' goal, some design features in CSMod tools may be yet unexplored. This paper presents a study with the use of ARIS EXPRESS in modeling tasks with Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). We report on how we combined various methods to analyze the way in which this tool supports 'communication through models'. Our findings articulate semiotic and cognitive aspects of notations with evidence provided by study participants during tasks and interviews. Our contribution lies not only in the findings, and how CSMod design can evolve in relatively unexplored ways, but also in our methodology, which we believe can be used in similar contexts.
Keywords: Computer-supported modeling; Semiotic engineering methods; Cognitive dimensions of notations; Discourse analysis; Communication; Modeling notation; BPMN
Semantic Execution of Subject-Oriented Process Models BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Albert Fleischmann; Werner Schmidt; Christian Stary
Workflow Management Systems (WFMS) are becoming increasingly important as tools to support people involved in the execution of business processes and to automate parts of it. As business processes involve several actors with varying backgrounds, workflow engines need to offer appropriate interfaces in order to be accepted and deliver the expected benefits. In this paper we present a structural interface design based on general user interface requirements and special properties of workflow systems, in particular of a subject-oriented workflow engine.
Keywords: Business process management; workflow systems; user interface; structural design; Subject-oriented BPM
Special Challenges for Models and Patterns in Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Peter Forbrig; Christian Märtin; Michael Zaki
Smart environments aim at inferring the intention of the user and based on that information, they offer optimal assistance for the users while performing their tasks. This paper discusses the role of supportive user interfaces for explicitly interacting with the environment in such cases where implicit interactions of the users fail or the users want to get informed about the state of the environment. It will be shown by small examples how patterns help to specify the intended support with implicit and explicit interactions. A notation for presentation patterns will be introduced that allows users dynamically to change the presentation style. It will be discussed how extended task models can be combined with presentation patterns and how this information can be used in supportive user interfaces on mobile devices.
Keywords: Smart Environment; model-based design; pattern; supportive user interface; task migratability; task pattern; presentation patter
Parallel Rendering of Human-Computer Interaction Industrial Applications on Multi-/Many-Core Platforms BIBAFull-Text 350-360
  Sven Hermann; Arquimedes Canedo; Lingyun (Max) Wang
Industrial Human Computer Interaction (Industrial HCI) devices are beginning the transition from single-core to multi-/many-core technology. In practice, improving the real-time response time of graphical user interface (GUI) applications in multi-/many-core is difficult. This paper presents a novel parallel rendering approach targeted to improve the performance of Industrial HCI applications in multi-/many-core technology. This is accomplished through the identification of coarse-grain parallelism during the application design, and the exploitation of fine-grain parallelism during runtime using a dynamic scheduling algorithm and true parallel execution of GUI workloads. Using a real benchmark application, we show that response time can be reduce by up to 217% in a quad-core processor.
A Logical Design Method for User Interface Using GUI Design Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 361-370
  Ichiro Hirata; Toshiki Yamaoka
This paper presents a discussion of method for user interface design using graphical user interface (GUI) design patterns. GUI design patterns are defined as "general operation and expression of embedded system products". Purpose of this study is to develop a user interface design efficient. GUI design patterns were extracted in embedded system products. Then, interviews were conducted with students and researchers in which the practical applicability of the extracted GUI design patterns. This process allowed the number of GUI design patterns to be narrowed down to 81 patterns. 81 patterns were analyzed using the cluster analysis, between them and classifies these objects into different 7 groups. The GUI design patterns, which were composed of 7 groups, divided into 4 layers. Finally, Design method using GUI design patterns was discussed. This proposed method is based on the Human Design Technology (HDT). HDT is a logical product development and UCD method easily accessible to anyone.
Keywords: User Interface; Design Pattern; Human Design Technology
Developing Mobile Apps Using Cross-Platform Frameworks: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 371-380
  Shah Rukh Humayoun; Stefan Ehrhart; Achim Ebert
In last few years, a huge variety of frameworks for the mobile cross-platform development have been released to deliver quick and overall better solutions. Most of them are based on different approaches and technologies; therefore, relying on only one for using in all cases is not recommendable. The diversity in smart-devices (i.e. smartphones and tablets) and in their hardware features; such as screen-resolution, processing power, etc.; as well as the availability of different mobile operating systems makes the process of mobile application development much complicated. In this work, we analyze few of these cross-platform development frameworks through developing three mobile apps on each of them as well as on the native Android and iOS environments. Moreover, we also performed a user evaluation study on these developed mobile apps to judge how users perceive the same mobile app developed in different frameworks and environments, from the native to the cross-platform environment. Results indicate that these frameworks are good alternative to the native platform implementations but a careful investigation is required before deciding to check whether the target framework supports the needed features in a stable way.
Keywords: Cross-platform development; mobile apps; iOS; Android; smart-device; smartphone; tablet; user evaluation
EMIL: A Rapid Prototyping Authoring Environment for the Design of Interactive Surface Applications BIBAKFull-Text 381-390
  Johannes Luderschmidt; Nadia Haubner; Simon Lehmann; Ralf Dörner
Interactive surfaces (IS) like digital tabletop systems offer a cornucopia of input possibilities like touch gestures or interaction with physical objects. Additionally, multiple users can interact simultaneously allowing for a collaborative setting. These aspects have increased the complexity of designing such interfaces as compared to WIMP interfaces. However, existing UI design approaches fall short of taking these aspects into account and existing design approaches for IS focus on software development. We introduce the EMIL environment that allows authors of design teams to create multi-touch and tangible user interfaces. In its core, EMIL consists of a software framework that provides interaction components (for instance, widgets like images or maps as well as interaction concepts like gestures) that are especially suited for IS. Authors like UI designers collaboratively create software prototypes directly at the IS without the need to write code. For this purpose, they use and adapt the components of the software framework in an authoring application. Authors collect and retrieve information about the interaction components in a knowledge database employing a tablet computer app. In a qualitative evaluation interview, EMIL has been well received by a design team of an advertising agency.
Keywords: interactive surfaces; multi-touch; tangible user interfaces; engineering of interactive systems
Extending the Information of Activity Diagrams with a User Input Classification BIBAKFull-Text 391-400
  Cindy Mayas; Stephan Hörold; Heidi Krömker
This paper presents an extended notation of actions in activity diagrams. The suggested method combines activity diagrams with a user input classification in order to support interdisciplinary teams, particularly in the early phases of development. In this way, the user input classification serves as a communication basis for user requirements, which is adapted to the needs of software engineers. The method is evaluated within a case study in a nationwide research project for public transport.
Keywords: activity diagram; actions; user input classification; public transport
Patterns and Models for Automated User Interface Construction -- In Search of the Missing Links BIBAKFull-Text 401-410
  Christian Märtin; Christian Herdin; Jürgen Engel
This paper starts with an analysis of current or proven model and pattern-based user interface development methods and techniques. It discusses how these approaches facilitate the construction process and enhance the overall flexibility, usability and user experience of the resulting software. It is shown that HCI patterns meanwhile can contribute heavily to all development aspects of interactive systems. In order to integrate patterns, task, dialog, and object-oriented models to further automate user interface construction, the paper tightly couples these seemingly disparate development paradigms to allow a more powerful interplay. Thereby some of the missing links are identified for letting the pattern-based automated generation of complex parts of high-quality and media-rich applications become a routine job. A well-known smart phone app is examined to demonstrate some steps of the new approach.
Keywords: Model-based user interface development (MBUID); HCI patterns; task models; object-oriented models; dialog models; embedded patterns; user interface generation
Evaluation of User Interface Description Languages for Model-Based User Interface Development in the German Automotive Industry BIBAKFull-Text 411-420
  Gerrit Meixner; Marius Orfgen; Moritz Kümmerling
Developing human-machine-interfaces (HMI) in the automotive industry is a time-consuming and complex task, involving different companies (car manufacturers, suppliers, translators, designers) and teams with different backgrounds. One way to improve the current problems arising from communication and documentation deficits is to formalize the specification to make it easier to read, to structure and to analyze. The project automotiveHMI aims to create a domain-specific modeling language for HMI development in the automotive industry. As part of the project, current specification processes and artifacts as well as the related roles were analyzed. During the analysis 18 criteria which should be fulfilled by a domain-specific modeling language have been identified. The criteria are used to evaluate existing modeling languages and to set objectives for the development of a new modeling language focusing the cross-company and cross-team development of model-based HMIs in the automotive industry.
Keywords: Automotive User Interface; Model-Based User Interface Development; Task Analysis; User Roles
An Empirical Study on Immersive Prototyping Dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 421-430
  Samuel Moreira; Rui José; José Creissac Campos
Many aspects of the human experience of ubiquitous computing in built environments must be explored in the context of the target environment. However, delaying evaluation until a version of the system can be deployed can make redesign too costly. Prototypes have the potential to solve this problem by enabling evaluation before actual deployment. This paper presents a study of the design space of immersive prototyping for ubiquitous computing. It provides a framework to guide the alignment between specific evaluation goals and specific prototype properties. The goal is to understand the potential added-value of 3D simulation as a prototyping tool in the development process of ubiquitous computing environments.
Keywords: 3D environments; prototyping; ubiquitous computing
From Multicultural Agents to Culture-Aware Robots BIBAFull-Text 431-440
  Matthias Rehm
In our work on developing multicultural agents we have primarily relied on the analysis of video recordings of multimodal face to face interactions between humans, where the videos have been collected in different cultures. This posed some questions concerning the cultural biases of the analysis due to the cultural background of the annotators. For the development of culture-aware robots we have now adopted a strategy that takes this cultural bias into account as a feature of the development process by integrating the potential user groups from different cultures into this process. We exemplify this approach with a case study on affective body movements for a humanoid robot.
Note: Best paper award
Visual Interfaces Design Simplification through Components Reuse BIBAKFull-Text 441-450
  Javier Rodeiro-Iglesias; Pedro M. Teixeira-Faria
One way to simplify a visual interface creating process is to give to the interface designer the ability of reusing pre-built visual components representations. In order to avoid premature commitment to specific presentations, and leaves open the prospect of alternative visual presentations for different environments, abstract interaction objects (AIOs) can be used. One of these AIOs is the complex component, which is a component representation having similarity properties with the object-oriented paradigm. This type of component embraces the reuse concept at semantic and functional levels, which contributes to reduce the complexity in the graphical user interface design process. Further advantages of using complex components are the possibility of visual and functional customization of these components, which greatly improves the versatility of them when compared with a widget.
Keywords: Abstract Interaction Objects; Complex Components; Visual User Interface Components Reuse
Established and Innovative Facets of Interactive Prototypes -- A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 451-459
  Sebastian C. Scholz; Dieter Wallach
In this paper we highlight four facets of interactive prototypes in user-centered design approaches. After reflecting on their established role in the design and validation phases, we consider recent innovative uses of prototypes in communicating with development/bidders and also to enhance training. To illustrate our experiences, we draw upon a recent successfully completed redesign project in the field of electrical engineering.
Keywords: user-centered design; prototyping; iterative design; empirical validation; delivery; education; e-Learning; innovation; integration; case study; development support
Multi-level Communicability Evaluation of a Prototyping Tool BIBAKFull-Text 460-469
  Vinícius Segura; Fabiana Simões; Gabriel Sotero; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Semiotic engineering views human-computer interaction as a form of human communication between designers and users, mediated by a computer system. If we consider a design application, such as a prototyping tool, this communication is about the construction of a second communication, one between the user of the prototyping tool (in the role of the designer) and another user, who will interact with the system being designed. This article explores an extension to the Communicability Evaluation Method for design tools. This extension focuses not only on considering the kinds of communicability breakdowns, but also on what abstraction level they occur.
Keywords: semiotic engineering; communicability evaluation; prototyping tools
Participatory Action Research in Software Development: Indigenous Knowledge Management Systems Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 470-479
  Siang-Ting Siew; Alvin W. Yeo; Tariq Zaman
Participatory action Research In Software Methodology Augmentation (PRISMA) is a software development methodology which has been amalgamated with Participatory Action Research (PAR). This paper justifies the inclusion of PAR in software development, and describes the PRISMA methodology vis-á-vis a case study. Specifically, the case study encompasses the development of eToro, an Indigenous Knowledge Management System for the Penans, a remote and rural community in Malaysian Borneo.
Keywords: Participatory Action Research; Software Development; PRISMA; Penans; Indigenous Botanical Knowledge Management; Remote Malaysian Borneo
Enhanced 3D Sketch System Incorporating "Life-Size" and "Operability" Functions BIBAKFull-Text 480-489
  Shun'ichi Tano; Naofumi Kanayama; Xinpeng Huang; Junko Ichino; Tomonori Hashiyama; Mitsuru Iwata
We have been studying the use of "rich media" to support creative and intelligent human activities. Over the past ten years we have focused on the 3D space as one of "rich media" and have developed many sketch systems that support the design of 3D objects. However, long-term evaluation has revealed that they are not used by designers in the field on an ongoing basis. Even worse, they are treated as if they were merely attractions in an amusement park. The fundamental problem was the lack of an indispensable function that needs a 3D space. To overcome this problem, we previously developed a system that incorporates two new functions, "life-size" and "operability," to make a 3D sketch system that is indispensable to designers. We have now enhanced the system by extending these two functions to overcome problems identified in the previous system.
Keywords: 3D sketch; Life-size; Operability; Professional designer; Mixed reality
An Interface Prototyper Supporting Free Design Components Specification BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Pedro M. Teixeira-Faria; Javier Rodeiro-Iglesias
Complex components allow increasing the abstraction in a visual interface specification process, with independence of any platform or programming language to represent an user interface. In order to support this type of components a XML specification was created which allows specifying components visual appearance, composition and dialog. It provides a user interface abstraction to free design components (without any dependency of libraries of predesigned user interface components -- toolkits). All information containing in the specification allows showing what will be the user interface final visual aspect, using a handmade or a computer technique (this is the objective of this paper). Using complex components, being incrementally more complex, simplifies the user interface designing and prototyping processes. In order to demonstrate the possibility to show the visual appearance of an interface and to validate the specification, a prototype to visualize any user interface specified using UIFD was created.
Keywords: User Interface Prototyper; Visual Appearance; User Interface Free Designer
Structured Scenario-Based Design Method for Experience Vision BIBAKFull-Text 500-509
  Yoshihiro Ueda; Kentaro Go; Katsumi Takahashi; Seiji Hayakawa; Kazuhiko Yamazaki; Koji Yanagida
Experience Vision is a comprehensive design method to innovative services, systems and products which reflect upon potential stakeholders' experiences and company mission and vision. It encompasses the entire human-centered design process and presents a new vision with experiential value for both the user and business sides. It then produces users' values, activities, and interactions in scenario format as part of design activities. It finally specifies requirements specifications for the innovative services, systems and products. In this paper, we introduce a Structured Scenario-Based Design Method (SSBDM) as part of Experience Vision. SSBDM employs personas and scenarios as human-centered representations for the innovative services, systems, and products. It contains three layers of scenarios: value scenario, activity scenario, and interaction scenario. Using an example of its application in a household account book, we demonstrate how the three layers of scenarios are specified and evaluated in SSBDM.
Keywords: experience vision; service design; scenario; scenario-based design
Requirements for a Definition of Generative User Interface Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 510-520
  Stefan Wendler; Ilka Philippow
Patterns for visual GUI design propagate the specification of user interfaces with proven usability and motivate model-based development processes with increased reuse of GUI component compositions. However, a common structure, that captures all the reusability and variability demands, neither has been established for the descriptive form nor the generative kind of user interface patterns. Dedicated GUI specification languages like UIML and UsiXML fail to express pattern definitions that can be instantiated in varying contexts. Thus, model-based processes are required to introduce own media to store those patterns. With our approach, we review the state of the art for generative user interface pattern definition and derive requirements which we refine by a Global Analysis. Finally, we developed a model that accommodates primary factors and their impacts towards the concept for a more sophisticated generative user interface pattern definition.
Keywords: HCI patterns; user interface patterns; GUI generation
Characterizing Incidents Reporting Systems across Applications Domains BIBAKFull-Text 521-530
  Marco Winckler; Cédric Bach; Regina Bernhaupt
Incident reporting is a very well-known technique in application domains such as air traffic management and health, where specialized users are trained to provide detailed information about problems. Incident reporting systems are indeed complex systems that include many actors including the users reporting incidents, user's colleagues and neighbors, stakeholders, policymakers, systems integrations. Incident report systems might change (positively or negatively) the users' environment in many ways. In recent years, this kind of technique has been also been used in crisis management such as the hurricane Katrina. However, despite the fact that incident reporting systems using mobile technology are becoming more common, little is known about its actual use by the general population and which factors affect the user experience when using such system. In this paper we discuss the use of incident reporting system in critical context of use. In this paper we discuss the use of incident reporting system in several application domains. In particular we report findings in terms of dimensions that are aimed to identify social and technical aspects that can affect the design, development and use of incident reporting systems.
Keywords: Incident reporting; mobility; geo-localization; user interface patterns; m-government; e-government
Method Format for Experience Vision BIBAKFull-Text 531-539
  Koji Yanagida; Yoshihiro Ueda; Kentaro Go; Katsumi Takahashi; Seiji Hayakawa; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The "Experience Vision: Vision Centered Design Method" is a comprehensive method which makes it possible to propose new and innovative products, systems and services that are currently unavailable, as well as proposing advances for those that currently exist. It encompasses the entire HCD (Human Centered Design) process, and presents a new vision with experiential value for both user and business from an HCD viewpoint.
   This paper discusses a set of eight formats developed as a practical design tool for implementing this method. They include Goal setting of the project, Intrinsic user value, Policy of business value, Persona, Value scenario, Activity scenario, Interaction scenario and Experience vision (summary). Case studies showed effectiveness and usefulness of the formats as a design tool for this method.
Keywords: experience vision; vision centered design method; structured scenario
Case Study for Experience Vision Designing Notebook PC BIBAKFull-Text 540-546
  Der-Jang Yu; Ming-Chuen Chuang; Steven Tseng
It is challenging to do a thorough user-centered innovation process in the PC industry due to the very fast paced product development cycle and the nature of how innovations are usually technology driven. User-centered innovation activities can be held before the start of each project to overcome these challenges. And in the end, applications of technology must be able to be traced back to user insights. User Experience Innovation Process (UXIP), a three-phase innovation process is proposed in this paper. UXIP can help incorporating the Experience Vision approach into the PC industry. This process is consisted of three phases: research, create, and strategy. During the process, sets of flashcard that captures user insights and concept scenarios are used. Through the innovation tools, new user experience-based and technology-related concepts can be captured early on. UXIP was able to help companies save time and make better decisions. The results were remarkable. The company was able to lunch incredibly innovative PC products in a very short period of time since the concepts behind the product were already produced a year before hands.
Keywords: User experience; scenario-based design; product innovation

Aesthetics and Kansei in HCI

Investigating the Effects of Font Styles on Perceived Visual Aesthetics of Website Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 549-554
  Ahamed Altaboli
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of the two font styles (serif and sans-serif) on the users' perception of visual aesthetics of website interface design. Two font types were tests in this study, namely: "Time News Roman" representing the "serif" style and "Calibri" representing the "sans-serif" style. They were chosen because they are two of the widely used font types on the web and because they are the default font types of many of the most popular word processing and web developing software. Analysis of results showed that font type has a statistically significant effect on perceived visual aesthetics. The designs with the Time New Roman font was perceived as having better visual aesthetics. However, this effect was only significant on the overall perception of visual aesthetics; it wasn't significant in each of the four facets of visual aesthetics tested in this study.
Keywords: font style; font type; perceived visual aesthetics; website interface design
A Color Schemer for Webpage Design Using Interactive Mood Board BIBAKFull-Text 555-564
  Zhenyu Gu; Zhanwei Wu; Jiamin Yu; Jian Lou
In this paper, we present a web tool called Webpage Color Schemer (WCS), which enables people to easily redefine an existing webpage's color scheme. WCS can adapt the webpage's color scheme towards a new visual effect expressed nonverbally with an interactive mood board, which is actually a collage of sample images or design examples reflecting designer's preference.
   WCS is simple and fun to use. It has two major functionalities: an interactive mood board with a color quantization algorithm for extracting color themes; A genetic algorithm for generating best assignment of the theme colors from the mood board to the web page, with respect to necessary design objectives. The objectives are formulated as fitness functions for the evolutionary optimization. Our initial experiments show that three fitness functions are essential for the color scheme optimization: histogram evaluator, contrast evaluator and harmony evaluator, to make sure the scheme has a preferable color tone, legible contrast ratio and harmonious color matching, respectively. The evaluators are generally devised in the light of some well-established color design theories. Some efforts of this research, however, has moved towards using computational model to uncover design knowledge depositing in large set of design cases. WCS uses a kind of RBF network predicting proper contrast ratio of certain class of page elements, regarding its measurable features and context. The performance of the model is encouraging.
Keywords: Website color; Adaptive webpage scheme; CSS
Study on Effects of Text Decoration for a Text Based Communication Tool in Education BIBAKFull-Text 565-574
  Masateru Hishina; Katsuaki Miike; Nobutake Asaba; Satoru Murakami; Yuichi Ohkawa; Takashi Mitsuishi
In this paper, the authors have focused on effects of text decoration function on text based communication system in education. In recent years, chance of the text based communications between a teacher and students in face-to-face lessons has increased. However, there are few investigations of the effects mounting text decoration function in education. Therefore, the authors performed the experiment to investigate effects of text decoration function using text based communication system in face-to-face lessons. As a result of the experiment, it was clarified that there are a wide variety of the expressions in text messages, which made by students using text decoration function. And most of them have felt strongly the necessity of text decoration function. Furthermore, it was clarified that several in them felt "Interest for the text decoration" and "Affinity with the teacher".
Keywords: decoration; text; message; expression; necessity; interest; affinity
Ease of Icon Processing Can Predict Icon Appeal BIBAKFull-Text 575-584
  Siné McDougall; Irene Reppa
Correlations between subjective ratings of interface usability and appeal have been frequently reported. This study examined the possibility that the relationship between usability and appeal are underpinned by implicit perceptions of ease of processing which act as a heuristic in making judgments of appeal. Ease of processing was manipulated by varying the amount of experience participants gained with icons in a search task prior to judging appeal, as well as varying the familiarity and visual complexity of the icons presented. These manipulations systematically affected response times in the search task (an objective measure of usability). The effects observed in appeal judgments followed the same pattern as for search times, demonstrating that ease of processing predicts judgments of appeal. This suggests that our understanding of interface appeal needs to be predicated on an appreciation of the factors affecting the ease with which information on an interface is processed.
Keywords: Interface appeal; usability; processing fluency; icons
Basic Study on Kawaii Feeling of Material Perception BIBAKFull-Text 585-592
  Michiko Ohkura; Tsuyoshi Komatsu
In the 21st century, the importance of kansei (affective) values has been recognized. However, since few studies have focused on kawaii as a kansei value, we are researching its physical attributes of artificial products. We previously performed experiments on kawaii shapes, colors, and sizes. This article describes our experimental results on kawaii feelings in material perception using virtual objects with various visual textures and actual materials with various tactile textures.
Keywords: kansei (Affective) value; kawaii; texture; visual sensation; tactile sensation
Centrality of Visual Aesthetics in the Online Context: An Assessment and Empirical Evidence BIBAKFull-Text 593-600
  Supavich Pengnate; Rathindra Sarathy; Todd Arnold
This research investigates individual differences in the centrality of visual aesthetics (CVA) in the online context. The study examines the influence of CVA on online user responses, namely perception of website visual appeal, trust, and intention to use websites. A series of three experiments provide evidence that CVA influence user responses, especially when users' CVA is assessed by the indirect measure developed in this study. The results indicate that the impact of CVA on user responses is stronger among users with high CVA than those with low CVA, and especially when the users are exposed to website with relatively low visual appeal.
Keywords: Centrality of Visual Aesthetics; Website Design; Visual Appeal; Trust; Intention to Use
The Feeling of Kawaii Is a Function of Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 601-610
  Hisao Shiizuka
The author discusses the structure of the feeling of kawaii to clarify that it is a function of interaction. Interaction in this paper has a broader meaning, which is communication between a character and a person, while its general definition is mutual communication between a person and a person, or a person and a machine (computer). Clarification of the structure of the kawaii system is also useful in specific system structures in terms of engineering. The main outcome of this paper is a conclusion, based on a discussion of interaction and sensitivity, that interaction occurs where the recipient's sensitivity resonates with the sender's sensitivity, and consequently, its inclusive relation with the factors around kawaii is elucidated.
Keywords: Kawaii; interaction; sensitivity; visual communication
Comparison of Kansei Information between Joyful and Happy Expressions in Dance BIBAFull-Text 611-619
  Nao Shikanai; Kozaburo Hachimura
This research was designed to investigate the relationships between Kansei information and movement characteristics in dance. The purpose is to specify the parameters contributing to the perception and identification of joy and happiness from dance movements. Professional and expert dancers expressed joy and happiness without using facial expressions. For capturing and recording expressions, we used a 3D motion capture system and digital video cameras. There were 54 observers who rated 50 items of Kansei information in both expressions. The results showed the scores of Kansei information for joyful expressions -- happy, dynamic, energetic, strong, accelerated, decelerated, extended, high, asymmetrical, fast, accented, big, down, and sudden -- were higher than those for happy expressions. We calculated acceleration for kinematic features, and the results showed that acceleration in joyful expressions was higher than in happy expressions. Our findings demonstrated the differences in strength of movements and emotions between joyful and happy expressions in dance.
Study of Kawaii-ness in Motion -- Physical Properties of Kawaii Motion of Roomba BIBAKFull-Text 620-629
  Shohei Sugano; Yutaka Miyaji; Ken Tomiyama
In this paper, as the second report of the study on Kawaii-ness in motion, we investigate the relationship between physical properties of motion and Kawaii-ness using Roomba. Kawaii is one of the representative concepts of Japan-original Kansei. First, we computed parameters of seven physical properties (position, velocity, acceleration, angle, angular velocity, angular acceleration, and time) from three types of motions of Roomba used in the first study. Second, we composed 24 types of robot motions and asked the subjects to evaluate their impressions. We asked the subjects to answer the questionnaire consisting of the 20 pairing adjectives prepared according to the SD method. The extracted physical features in seven physical parameters in composed motions are correlated with the Kawaii-ness based on the result of the questionnaire. We report our findings in detail in this paper.
Keywords: Kawaii; Kansei values; Robot motion; Physical Property