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HCII Tables of Contents: 97-197-299-199-20103-103-203-303-407-107-207-307-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-4

HCI International 2007: 12th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Interaction Platforms and Techniques

Fullname:HCI International 2007: 12th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Interaction Platforms and Techniques
Editors:Julie A. Jacko
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4551
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73106-1 (print), 978-3-540-73107-8 (online); hcibib: HCII07-2
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HCII 2007-07-22 Volume 2
    1. Part 1: Graphical User Interfaces and Visualization
    2. Part 2: Mobile Devices and Mobile Interaction
    3. Part 3: Virtual Environments and 3D Interaction
    4. Part 4: Ubiquitous Interaction
    5. Part 5: Emerging Interactive Technologies

HCII 2007-07-22 Volume 2

Part 1: Graphical User Interfaces and Visualization

When Does a Difference Make a Difference? A Snapshot on Global Icon Comprehensibility BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Sonja Auer; Ester Dick
Global markets require global solutions, especially in user interface design. There are differences between cultures -- but do those differences call for different icon designs? This paper provides a snapshot on icon comprehensibility in China, the US and Germany. The icon set was derived of an actual product to enable valid results. A web-based study with 135 participants from China, the US and Germany was conducted. Icon recognition rates among the Chinese participants were significantly lower than among US and German participants. Still, the mean rating for all three countries was above 69% and thus far removed from guesswork. Practical implications for global icon design are discussed based on these findings.
Keywords: Internationalization/Localization; Icon Evaluation; Icon Design; User Interface Design; Visual Design; Quantitative Empirical User Studies
Interface and Visualization Metaphors BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Vladimir L. Averbukh; Mikhail Bakhterev; Aleksandr Baydalin; Damir Ismagilov; Polina Trushenkova
The paper is devoted to problems of computer metaphors, such as Interface metaphor and Visualization metaphor. Interface metaphor is considered as the basic idea of likening between interactive objects and model objects of the application domain. A visualization metaphor is defined as a map establishing the correspondence between concepts and objects of the application domain under modeling and a system of some similarities and analogies. This map generates a set of views and a set of methods for communication with visual objects. Some positions of the metaphor theory are discussed. Concept of metaphor action is suggested.. "Formula" of metaphor is constructed. A set of examples of metaphor was analyzed. Aprioristic quality criteria of interface and visualization metaphors are suggested. These criteria allow evaluating as existing metaphors and to search for adequate metaphors for designing new specialized systems.
Keywords: Computer Metaphor; Visualization; Interface
Displays Attentive to Unattended Regions: Presenting Information in a Peripheral-Vision-Friendly Way BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Mon-Chu Chen; Roberta L. Klatzky
This study proposes that a visual attentive user interface should present information in a peripheral-vision-friendly way, rather than degrading the display resolution for unattended areas, as is sometimes practiced. It suggests that information presented in unattended areas could advantageously be perceived by our peripheral vision without compromising the primary task performance. The paper will discuss an empirical study in which several motion-based stimuli were examined on the periphery in a dual-task scenario. A proposed new design of GPS Navigation System design will then be described to demonstrate the concept of peripheral-vision-friendliness.
Keywords: Attentive User Interface; Peripheral Vision Friendly; Dual-Task Performance; Peripheral Visual Design; GPS Navigation System
Screen Layout on Color Search Task for Customized Product Color Combination Selection BIBAKFull-Text 32-40
  Cheih-Ying Chen; Ying-Jye Lee; Fong-Gong Wu; Chi-Fu Su
This article describes experimental investigations of the effects of color name displayed and screen layout on customized product color combination selection. In the experiment, 6 interface designs were developed by systematically varying with 2 factors (interface layout type and color name type) in order to explore the relations between the interface of the massive number of product color combinations and users' performance. Results from the experiment show the layout type of itemized color chips, which is divided into some items according to the customized color module parts of product, has the best grouping type for customized product color combination selection in search time by users. Besides, users view various color combinations for products directly with or without the aid of color names, it gets important whether displayed colors are correct or not as users make judgment and choices according to the product colors on the screen.
Keywords: Screen layout; Mass customization; Product color; Color name
Experimental Comparison of Adaptive vs. Static Thumbnail Displays BIBAKFull-Text 41-48
  Pilsung Choe; Chulwoo Kim; Mark R. Lehto; Jan P. Allebach
Keyword search is a very important method to find information on Web sites along with link-based browsing. How an information retrieval system displays search results is very important because users spend most of their time in finding, reading and understanding retrieved information. As an application of information retrieval systems, a self-help print quality troubleshooting system was introduced. As a method to show search results, displaying thumbnails is very useful in print defect diagnosis because users don't have to read and understand complex information in text. This study compared static thumbnail(s) and adaptive thumbnails to display search results to diagnose print defects. Results showed that the one thumbnail static display was worse in terms of user performance and preference. However there was no significant difference between the three thumbnails static display and the adaptive display although the three thumbnails static display was better than the adaptive display on average.
Keywords: Adaptive display; static display; thumbnail display; keyword search; search; information retrieval; diagnosis; troubleshooting; print defect diagnosis
Improving Document Icon to Re-find Efficiently What You Need BIBAKFull-Text 49-52
  Changzhi Deng; Mingjun Zhou; Feng Tian; Guozhong Dai; Hongan Wang
It is common that documents are represented by document icon in graphical user interfaces. The document icon facilitates user to retrieve documents, but it is difficult to distinguish the document from a collection of documents that user have accessed to. Our paper presents a document icon on which the users can add some subjective values and mark. Then we describe a system ex-explorer that users can browser and search the extent document icon. We found that it is easy to re-find the document on which users added some annotation or mark by themselves.
Keywords: document icon; annotation; mark; subjective value
The Design of a Computer Mouse Providing Three Degrees of Freedom BIBAKFull-Text 53-62
  Daniel Fallman; Anneli Mikaelsson; Björn Yttergren
We present the design process of designing and implementing a 3DOF mouse. First, we provide a review of the current literature in the field. Then we introduce a focus group workshop activity underlying the whole design process, pointing us towards graphical design applications and 3D modeling tools. Third, we present our prototype design process in some detail, especially denoting the important role we believe product semantics plays. We argue that 3DOF mice are most useful for small but precise rotation movements. If the extra degree of freedom provided by 3DOF mice over 2DOF mice is limited to such subtle manipulation tasks, we believe users might be more willing to accept them.
Keywords: 3D Interaction; input devices; multiple degree-of-freedom; 3DOF; computer mouse
Facilitating Conditional Probability Problems with Visuals BIBAKFull-Text 63-71
  Vince Kellen; Susy S. Chan; Xiaowen Fang
In tasks such as disease diagnosis, interpretation of evidence in criminal trials and management of security and risk data, people need to process conditional probabilities to make critical judgments and decisions. As dual-coding theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML) would predict, visual representations (VRs) should aid in these tasks. Conditional probability problems are difficult and require subjects to build a mental model of set inclusion relationships to solve them. Evidence from neurological research confirms that mental model construction relies on visual spatial processing. Prior research has shown conflicting accounts of whether visuals aid in these problems. Prior research has also revealed that individuals differ in their ability to perform spatial processing tasks. Do visuals help solve these problems? Do visualization interface designers need to take into account the nuances of spatial processing and individual differences? This study uses a 3x2 factorial design to determine the relationship between subject's spatial abilities (high or low) and visual and text representations on user performance and satisfaction.
Keywords: Information visualization; Bayesian reasoning; conditional probabilities; dual-coding; cognitive theory of multimedia learning; mental models; individual differences; spatial ability
Interface Design Technique Considering Visual Cohesion-Rate by Object Unit BIBAFull-Text 72-81
  Chang-Mog Lee; Ok-Bae Chang
With the application development environment rapidly changing, the design of an interface that supports the complex interactions between humans and computers is required. In addition, profound knowledge of various fields is required to cover the requirements of different customers. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest an interface design technique that considers the cohesion-rate in each objects of user interface. To accomplish this, specific and detailed models to embody the user interface are presented on the basis of the following classification: 1) event object model, 2) task object model, 3) transaction object model, 4) form object model. If this detailed modeling work is performed, the visual cohesion of the prototype user interface can be improved and, on this basis, even unskilled designers can construct an improved user interface. Moreover, the proposed method promotes the understanding of the business process and reduces the frequency of system development.
A Color Adjustment Method for Automatic Seamless Image Blending BIBAKFull-Text 82-91
  Xianji Li; Dongho Kim
In this paper we present a stable automatic system for image composition, which can well control the color difference between two images, and produce a seamless composite image with color continuity. This is a user-friendly system that reduces the user's manual tasks. We observe that Poisson image editing written by Perez et al. [8] blends well for seamless boundary automatically. However, the color of user-selected region can be changed after applying this method. So the object loses its original color tone after blending. To solve this problem, firstly we check out the case of object color being changed rapidly. It can be done by calculating color temperatures of two input images and comparing the white balance with each other. Next, a distance ratio rule is applied to controls the pixels included in the region between the user-selected boundary and object boundary.
Keywords: image composition; Poisson Image Editing; object color; color temperatures; distance ratio rule
Interactive Visual Decision Tree Classification BIBAKFull-Text 92-105
  Yan Liu; Gavriel Salvendy
Data mining (DM) modeling is a process of transforming information enfolded in a dataset into a form amenable to human cognition. Most current DM tools only support automatic modeling, during which uses have little interaction with computing machines other than assigning some parameter values at the beginning of the process. Arbitrary selection of parameter values, however, can lead to an unproductive modeling process. Automatic modeling also downplays the key roles played by humans in current knowledge discovery systems. Classification is the process of finding models that distinguish data classes in order to predict the class of objects whose class labels are unknown. Decision tree is one of the most widely used classification tools. A novel interactive visual decision tree (IVDT) classification process has been proposed in this research; it aims to facilitate decision tree classification process regarding enhancing users' understanding and improving the effectiveness of the process by combining the flexibility, creativity, and general knowledge of humans with the enormous storage capacity and computational power of computers. An IVDT for categorical input attributes has been developed and experimented on twenty subjects to test three hypotheses regarding its potential advantages. The experimental results suggested that compared to the automatic modeling process as typically applied in current decision tree modeling tools, IVDT process can improve the effectiveness of modeling in terms of producing trees with relatively high classification accuracies and small sizes, enhance users' understanding of the algorithm, and give them greater satisfaction with the task.
Keywords: visual data mining; interactive modeling; model visualization; data visualization
Anchored Maps: Visualization Techniques for Drawing Bipartite Graphs BIBAKFull-Text 106-114
  Kazuo Misue
A method of drawing anchored maps for bipartite graphs is presented. Suppose that the node set of a bipartite graph is divided into set A and set B. On an anchored map of the bipartite graph, the nodes in A, which are called "anchors," are arranged on the circumference, and the nodes in B, which are called "free nodes," are arranged at suitable positions in relation to the adjacent anchors. This article describes aesthetic criteria that are employed according to the purpose of drawing anchored maps and indices which are used to arrange the anchors so that they satisfy the criteria. It also shows an example of taking overviews of networks by using the developed technique.
Keywords: graph drawing; anchored map; bipartite graph; knowledge mining
ParSketch: A Sketch-Based Interface for a 2D Parametric Geometry Editor BIBAKFull-Text 115-124
  Ferran Naya; Manuel Contero; Nuria Aleixos; Pedro Company
ParSketch is a software prototype to evaluate the usability and functionality of a sketching interface aimed at defining 2D parametric sections. Currently, ParSketch interprets strokes which can be recognized as geometry (line, arc, circle, ellipse, or composed entities that are automatically segmented into those basic entities), or graphic gestures representing constraints (dimension, parallel, perpendicular, tangent, concentric, horizontal or vertical). From the functionality point of view, ParSketch compares to current commercial parametric CAD applications, as it offers many of the features provided by such applications. A theoretical analysis of the efficiency component of usability is provided that justifies the potential capability of sketching interfaces to compete with classical WIMP applications. Finally, a usability study is presented, which makes special emphasis in the satisfaction component of usability.
Keywords: sketching; parametric drawing; usability of sketching interfaces
The Effects of Various Visual Enhancements During Continuous Pursuit Tracking Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 125-132
  Jaekyu Park; Sung Ha Park
The present study investigated the effects of visual enhancements in a continuous pursuit tracking task. Participants performed simulated tracking tasks and were instructed to maintain a pointer on a moving horizontal bar of an indicator display using a computer mouse. Within-subject factorial design was implemented with three levels of visual enhancement and three levels of task difficulty. Subjective ratings of workload (using modified Cooper-Harper rating scale) and tracking errors were obtained as performance measures. ANOVA results showed that the tracking error and subjective workload were significantly affected by each of the independent variables (i.e., the types of visual enhancement and task difficulties). The result implies that visual enhancement cues can provide additional visual information of target location during tracking tasks.
Keywords: Tracking Task; Visual Display; Visual Enhancement
Stylus Enhancement to Enrich Interaction with Computers BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Yu Suzuki; Kazuo Misue; Jiro Tanaka
We introduce a technique to enrich user interaction with a computer through a stylus. This technique allows a stylus to be manipulated in the air to operate applications in new ways. To translate the stylus manipulation into application behavior, we take an approach that we attach an accelerometer to the stylus. Such a stylus allows control through new operations like rolling and shaking, as well as through conventional operations like tapping or making strokes. An application can use these operations to switch modes or change parameters. We have implemented a number of applications, called the "Oh! Stylus Series," that can be used with our proposed technique.
Keywords: Stylus Enhancement; Interaction; Accelerometer; Behavior
An Experimental Evaluation of Information Visualization Techniques and Decision Style BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Rasimah Aripin
This study aims to investigate the extent to which information visualization (IV) techniques and decision style affect decision performance and user preferences in a decision support environment. The study adopted an experimental method. Findings from this study provide theoretical, empirical and practical contributions. The results showed that there were significant differences in decision performance and user preference across IV techniques and decision style. The findings have important implications for the decision support system (DSS) designers, and provide important research issues for future work.
Keywords: information visualization techniques; decision style; human computer interaction; decision support system
Enhancing the Map Usage for Indoor Location-Aware Systems BIBAKFull-Text 151-160
  Hui Wang; Henning Lenz; Andrei Szabo; Joachim Bamberger; Uwe D. Hanebeck
Location-aware systems are receiving more and more interest in both academia and industry due to their promising prospective in a broad category of so-called Location-Based-Services (LBS). The map interface plays a crucial role in the location-aware systems, especially for indoor scenarios. This paper addresses the usage of map information in a Wireless LAN (WLAN)-based indoor navigation system. We describe the benefit of using map information in multiple algorithms of the system, including radio-map generation, tracking, semantic positioning and navigation. Then we discuss how to represent or model the indoor map to fulfill the requirements of intelligent algorithms. We believe that a vector-based multi-layer representation is the best choice for indoor location-aware system.
Keywords: Location-Aware Systems; WLAN Positioning; Map Representation
Freehand Sketching Interfaces: Early Processing for Sketch Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 161-170
  Shu-xia Wang; Man-tun Gao; Le-hua Qi
Freehand sketching interfaces allow the user to directly interact with tasks without worrying about low-level commands. The paper presents a method for interpreting on-line freehand sketch and describes a human-computer interface prototype system of freehand sketch recognition (FSR) that is designed to infer designers' intention and interprets the input sketch into more exact 2D geometric primitives: straight lines, polylines, circles, circular arcs, ellipses, elliptical arcs, hyperbolas and parabolas. According to whether the stroke needs to be segmented or not, it is divided into single primitives and composite primitives correspondingly. Based on open/closed characteristic and semi-invariant, conic type and category of freehand sketch were defined for subdividing conic curve. Recognition approach for composite-primitive consists of three stages. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated preliminarily by experiments.
Keywords: Freehand sketching interface; Recognition; Segmentation; Stroke
Bilingual Mapping Visualizations as Tools for Chinese Language Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 171-180
  Jens Wissmann; Gisela Susanne Bahr
We present the approach and prototype of a system that supports the acquisition of bilingual knowledge. In this paper we focus on the domain of vocabulary acquisition for Chinese. Mapping visualizations, especially Bilingual Knowledge Maps [1], can be used to foster acquisition of word knowledge, dictionary navigation, and testing. We developed style sheets that map between knowledge representation and visualization tailored for Chinese-English bilingual data. This is on the one hand used to generate maps that visualize knowledge in a pedagogically reasonable way. On the other hand, user input and knowledge base can be queried. This more sophisticated functionality is enabled by using Semantic Web techniques. These techniques further allow us to integrate different (possibly distributed) data sources that contain relevant relationships.
The Perceptual Eye View: A User-Defined Method for Information Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 181-190
  Liang-Hong Wu; Ping-Yu Hsu
With the growing volumes of data, exploring the relationships within the huge amounts of data is difficult. Information visualization uses the human perception system to assist users in analyzing complex relationships and graphical hierarchy trees used commonly to present the relationship among the data. Conventional information visualization approaches fail to consider human factors, they only provide fixed degree of detail to different users. However, different users have different perceptions. A well-known information visualization called 'Magic Eye View' uses a three-dimensional interaction to allow the user to control the degree of detail he would like. However, it fails to consider some important focus + context features such as the smooth transition of the focus region and the global context. In this paper, we propose a novel information visualization method, called the 'Perceptual Eye View,' by which users may control the focus points three-dimensionally enabling different users to view their user-defined degree of detail of information space and to perceive based on their own knowledge and perception. The results demonstrate that our proposed method improve the 'Magic Eye View' by providing smooth transition of the focus region and the global context, which are important focus+context features that the 'Magic Eye View' fails to consider.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Information Visualization; Human Perception
A Discriminative Color Quantization Depending on the Degree of Focus BIBAKFull-Text 191-196
  Hong-Taek Yang; Doowon Paik
In this paper, we propose a discriminative color quantization algorithm depending on the degree of focus of the regions. When we take pictures, we usually focus the object that we want to emphasize. This means that focused area on the photograph contains important information. If the focused area is displayed with more colors, we can express the important information in more detail. This paper proposes a color quantization method that determines the focused area and assigns more colors for the area.
Keywords: Color quantization; focus measure; focused area detection
Getting Lost? Touch and You Will Find! The User-Centered Design Process of a Touch Screen BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Bieke Zaman; Rogier Vermaut
Recent reforms in office concepts have led to new intensification strategies that aim at more flexibility and efficiency. Hot desking is one of these new working practices that reduces office space per worker. These new office concepts however, pose new challenges and problems to solve. This paper describes the development phase of an innovative touch screen application for location based services to overcome the problematic edge effects of hot desking such as missing workspace awareness and poor communication. We followed a user-centered design (UCD) process to develop and test the interface so that it could be gradually modified and tailored to the demands and expectations of the end users. First, a methodological overview of the different phases of the UCD-process is given. Then, the results of each phase are discussed, focusing on several interface elements. Finally, the most important and striking results are summarized.
Keywords: Touch screen interface; hot desking; user-centered design process; usability testing; contextual inquiry; conceptual model; paper prototyping
CoConceptMap: A System for Collaborative Concept Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 207-213
  Mingjun Zhou; Xiang Ao; Lishuang Xu; Feng Tian; Guozhong Dai
Concept mapping is a technique for visualizing the relationships between different concepts, and collaborative concept mapping is used to model knowledge and transfer expert knowledge. Because of lacking some features, existing systems can't support collaborative concept mapping effectively. In this paper, we analysis the collaborative concept mapping process according to the theory of distributed cognition, and argue the functions effective systems ought to include. A collaborative concept mapping system should have the following features: visualization of concept map, flexible collaboration style, supporting natural interaction, knowledge management and history management. Furthermore, we describe every feature in details. Finally, a prototype system has been built to fully explore the above technologies.
Keywords: collaborative concept mapping; distributed cognition; pen-based user interface

Part 2: Mobile Devices and Mobile Interaction

User Expectations from Dictation on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 217-225
  Santosh Basapur; Shuang Xu; Mark Ahlenius; Young Seok Lee
Mobile phones, with their increasing processing power and memory, are enabling a diversity of tasks. The traditional text entry method using keypad is falling short in numerous ways. Some solutions to this problem include: QWERTY keypads on phone, external keypads, virtual keypads on table tops (Seimens at CeBIT '05) and last but not the least, automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology. Speech recognition allows for dictation which facilitates text input via voice. Despite the progress, ASR systems still do not perform satisfactorily in mobile environments. This is mainly due to the complexity of capturing large vocabulary spoken by diverse speakers in various acoustic conditions. Therefore, dictation has its advantages but also comes with its own set of usability problems. The objective of this research is to uncover the various uses and benefits of using dictation on a mobile phone. This study focused on the users' needs, expectations, and their concerns regarding the new input medium. Focus groups were conducted to investigate and discuss current data entry methods, potential use and usefulness of dictation feature, users' reaction to errors from ASR during dictation, and possible error correction methods. Our findings indicate a strong requirement for dictation. All participants perceived dictation to be very useful, as long as it is easily accessible and usable. Potential applications for dictation were found in two distinct areas namely communication and personal use.
Design Guidelines for PDA User Interfaces in the Context of Retail Sales Support BIBAKFull-Text 226-235
  Rainer Blum; Karim Khakzar
The development of an in-store sales support system that focuses on the "virtual try-on" of clothing is the main goal of the research project "IntExMa". Within this scope we investigate to what extent mobile devices can support the tasks of the retail sales staff in their daily personal sales activities. In doing so, usability is regarded as the central quality criteria. This paper addresses the resulting question, how a user-friendly design of, in our case, a PDA is characterized. We introduce a compilation of seventeen design principles and detail each with a range of exemplary rules to facilitate practical applicability.
Keywords: PDA; handheld; mobile; guidelines; interface; design
Influence of Culture on Attitude Towards Instant Messaging: Balance Between Awareness and Privacy BIBAFull-Text 236-240
  Jinwei Cao; Andrea Everard
This research-in-progress paper investigates how attitudes towards privacy and awareness mediate the relationship between culture and attitude towards Instant Messaging (IM). A conceptual model is proposed to explain the relationships between culture and attitude towards privacy and between culture and attitude towards awareness. Attitudes towards privacy and awareness are then hypothesized to affect attitude towards IM. Related research about IM, user attitudes, and cultural dimensions are reviewed and a proposed survey study is described.
Usability Evaluation of Designed Image Code Interface for Mobile Computing Environment BIBAKFull-Text 241-251
  Cheolho Cheong; Dong-Chul Kim; Tack-Don Han
Recently, image code interfaces and designed image codes, which can present visual information such as shapes, colors, text, images, and textures within the image code, have attracted increasing interest for use in mobile computing environments. In this paper, we introduce designed image codes and their basic decoding techniques; furthermore, we compare and analyze user preferences by performing a user study. We also implement a high-fidelity prototype of an image code interface based on a mobile computing environment and evaluate its usability by performing a user evaluation. From the evaluation, it is observed that the participants prefer a color-based image code, and this image code has a better merit rating.
Keywords: Image code; designed code; barcode; 2D code; color-based image code
The Effects of Gender Culture on Mobile Phone Icon Recognition BIBAFull-Text 252-259
  Shunan Chung; Chiyi Chau; Xufan Hsu; Jim Jiunde Lee
Mobile phones have rapidly become the most important communication device in our daily life. According to a recent survey of The Directorate of Telecommunications, Ministry of Transportation and Communications in 2005, the penetration rate of telecom service subscribers in the Taiwan area is 97.37%. That is, on average, almost every Taiwanese citizen owns a mobile phone. This has resulted in extremely keen competition among mobile phone vendors. When compared with others, teenagers have long been viewed as the primary users in the Taiwanese mobile phone market. Regardless of vendors' various kinds of promotion strategies such as special price discounts or newly-added fancy functions, what really matters is whether this daily communication device has been designed according to the true needs and experience of this special age group. The small screen interface design is one of the newest research focuses of the Human-Computer Interaction domain. Due to the limited screen space, icons have been deemed as the dominant mode in the operational process of a mobile phone. The present study is dedicated to exploring the icon design of the mobile phone, especially for the teenage user group in Taiwan.
Designing for Mobile Devices: Requirements, Low-Fi Prototyping and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 260-269
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
This paper describes the design process of a set of ubiquitous applications for critical scenarios (e.g., psychotherapy and education). Accordingly, we address the problems that occurred on the various design stages, particularly those that pertain to the mobility and ubiquity of the devices. Regarding these, we detail the various solutions that were adopted along the way, particularly on the data gathering and requirements' assessment, prototyping and evaluation stages. We introduce a set of dimensions to the concept of context and how it is utilized on the design of mobile applications. We describe new prototyping techniques and explain how they improve usability evaluation. Overall, we aim to share the learnt lessons and how they can be used in mobile application's design.
Keywords: low-fidelity prototyping; ubiquitous computing; mobile devices; usability evaluation
Playback of Rich Digital Books on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 270-279
  Carlos Duarte; Luís Carriço; Fernando Morgado
This paper presents the mobile version of Rich Book Player, a Digital Talking Book player for mobile devices. The mobile version is based on a desktop version with multimodal and adaptive features. The development of the mobile version tried to retain the look and feel of the desktop version and as much as possible of the features required for an advanced Digital Talking Book player. We describe how the intrinsic characteristics of mobile devices impacted the performance and interaction aspects of the application.
Keywords: Mobile devices; Digital Talking Books; Speech output; Evaluation
Using Mobile Devices to Improve the Interactive Experience of Visitors in Art Museums BIBAFull-Text 280-287
  José A. Gallud; María Dolores Lozano; Ricardo Tesoriero; Victor M. Ruiz Penichet
Many people use a PDA or a smart phone as a daily working tool. These devices allow us to communicate; to organize our life and so on. In this sense, the key question underlying this paper is if this new technology could be used to enrich our experience when we visit museums or other cultural spaces. Museums and art galleries are provided with some electronic guides in order to do more pleasant the visit to the exhibition. It is interesting to know how to use these new devices as a medium to guide and improve the visitors' experience. In this paper we describe a real system deployed in an emblematic museum in Spain, called Cutlery Museum of Albacete. Our approach uses a PDA -- offered to visitors -- that work jointly with a wireless network to show additional information about old knives, jack-knives and scissors which are showed physically in the museum. The system supports four languages and incorporates special functions for disabled people. The users' satisfaction results collected during the last 18 months demonstrate the validity of our proposal.
Model-Based Approaches to Quantifying the Usability of Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 288-297
  Dong-Han Ham; Jeongyun Heo; Peter Fossick; William Wong; Sanghyun Park; Chiwon Song; Mike Bradley
Several factors make it difficult to quantify the usability of mobile phones. Nevertheless, a quantified value of the usability could be used for several purposes, such as design innovation and benchmarking. This paper proposes three approaches (task centred, usability indicator-based, and design area-based quantification) to quantifying the usability of mobile phones on the basis of a hierarchical model of usability factors. Each of them provides process and rules for calculating the usability score of a mobile phone by applying weighting value assignment methods. Through two case studies, we could obtain empirical data to be used for determining the weighting value for quantification and confirm the usefulness of the proposed approaches.
Accelerated Rendering of Vector Graphics on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 298-305
  Gaoqi He; Baogang Bai; Zhigeng Pan; Xi Cheng
With the great development of mobile communication and devices, graphics on mobile device catches more and more attentions. Compare with static bitmap, vector graphics (VG) is more fit to mobile devices because of small file size and scalability for any display size. Emergence of OpenVG standard motivates the research of VG. This paper focuses on the time-consuming performance of VG rendering and exploits accelerated rendering algorithms. Layered implementation structure and algorithm of drawing one path are introduced firstly. According to the obtained time-consuming data of tiger sample, analysis methodologies are constructed and results are presented. Optimization directions can be concluded into three major aspects: rasterizer, stroke and tessellate. Accelerated rendering methods are discussed with experiments to validate non-uniform subdivision algorithm for Bézier curves. The tiger sample is rendered with improved performance using the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: vector graphics; OpenVG; non-uniform subdivision; rasterizer; tessellate
Pulling Digital Data from a Smart Object: Implementing the PullMe-Paradigm with a Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 306-310
  Steve Hinske
This paper presents the PullMe paradigm, an interaction technique for easily initializing and confirming the transmission of digital data using a mobile phone. The main idea and benefit is the substitution of less feasible techniques such as manually selecting or confirming a service (e.g., by entering a password) with a simple hand gesture. We describe a prototypical implementation that utilizes an acceleration sensor and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology integrated into a mobile phone. The transmission of data is realized using Bluetooth. We furthermore discuss how near-field communication (NFC) is likely to enable interaction patterns like the PullMe paradigm in the near future.
Keywords: PullMe paradigm; human-computer interaction; HCI; semantic mapping of physical and virtual action; mobile phone; acceleration sensor; radio frequency identification; RFID; near-field communication; NFC
Reading Performance of Chinese Text with Automatic Scrolling BIBAKFull-Text 311-319
  Yao-Hung Hsieh; Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Hsiao-Ching Chen; Ting-Ting Huang; James C. Chen
Auto-scrolling is useful when the reader wishes to move the text continuously to where the reader's eyes are fixated on the visual display without having to press the control button on the scrolling device all the time. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to study the effects of scroll speed in text error search tasks. The study considered three experimental factors, scroll speed, error type, and article length. Reading performance and fatigue were measured with the error search accuracy and subjective evaluation. The result indicates that scrolling at a high speed would cause a decrease in error identification, affecting the quality of reading.
Keywords: Auto-Scrolling; Error Search; Reading Efficiency; Visual Fatigue
WAP Access Methods on Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 320-325
  Zhang Hua; Cui Yoon Ping
With the development in telecommunication technology, application on Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) has dramatically increased all over the world. Users can browse the Internet anytime, anywhere, by using small mobile devices. The number of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) pages grew dramatically on the Internet. In just eight months, the number has grown from almost zero to 4.4 million WAP pages in 2000 [1].
Evaluation of Content Handling Methods for Tabletop Interface BIBAKFull-Text 326-335
  Ryoko Ishido; Keigo Kitahara; Tomoo Inoue; Ken-ichi Okada
We focused on face-to-face collaborative learning in a classroom using spatio-temporal contents, which is typically conducted after outdoor class in an elementary school. We have developed a tangible collaborative learning support system that uses physical objects and associating spatio-temporal contents. We have implemented a few methods to handle these contents. Two experiments were conducted to confirm that better information accessibility was provided by the system than conventional pen and paper method.
Keywords: CSCL; TUI; tabletop; physical objects
Interacting with a Tabletop Display Using a Camera Equipped Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 336-343
  Seokhee Jeon; Gerard Jounghyun Kim; Mark Billinghurst
Today's mobile phones have not only become the most representative device in the new ubiquitous computing era but also dramatically improved in terms of their multi-modal sensing and display capabilities. This advance makes the mobile phone an ideal candidate for a more natural interaction device in ubiquitous computing environment. This paper proposes techniques which use camera-equipped mobile phones for interacting with 2D and 3D applications on a tabletop display environment. The camera acts as the main sensor for a gesture-based interaction. Using the mobile phone with an interactive touch screen allows the use of techniques that move beyond single hand/finger input to improve task performance. The interaction performances of the proposed techniques and design guidelines are also described in this paper.
Keywords: Tabletop; Motion flow; Interaction techniques; Cell/Mobile phones
Mobile Video Editor: Design and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 344-353
  Tero Jokela; Minna Karukka; Kaj Mäkelä
Mobile phones have evolved from voice-centric communication devices to powerful personal multimedia devices. Among other multimedia features, they enable the users to capture video clips with built-in digital cameras. However, due to the continuous nature of video, it is often difficult to capture a video clip exactly as intended -- in many cases the possibility to edit the clip after capture would be useful. We describe the design of a video editor application for mobile devices. We present the main user goals for video editing in the mobile context based on a Contextual Inquiry study and an application design that supports these goals. We demonstrate that video editing on mobile devices is feasible and report a usability evaluation with encouraging results.
Keywords: Mobile devices; video editing; multimedia authoring; user interfaces; user study; contextual inquiry; interaction design; usability
Perceived Magnitude and Power Consumption of Vibration Feedback in Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 354-363
  Jaehoon Jung; Seungmoon Choi
This paper reports a systematic study on the perceived magnitude of vibrations generated from a vibration motor fastened on the user's thenar eminence and its electric power consumption. The vibration motor is widely used in mobile devices for vibration feedback due to its small size and inexpensive price. However, a critical drawback of the vibration motor is that the amplitude and frequency of vibrations generated from it are correlated due to its operating principles that allow only one control variable (applied voltage). Motivated by this fact, we have investigated a relationship between the perceived magnitude of vibrations produced by the motor and its power consumption with the applied voltage as a common parameter. The results showed that using more power does not necessarily increase the sensation magnitude, which indicates vibrations of the same perceived magnitude can be rendered while extending the life span of a mobile device battery.
Keywords: Vibration feedback; vibration motor; perceived magnitude; power consumption; mobile device
Application of a Universal Design Evaluation Index to Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 364-373
  Miyeon Kim; Eui S. Jung; Sungjoon Park; Jongyong Nam; Jaeho Choe
Universal design is considerably analogous to ergonomic design in a way that it takes the capabilities and limitations of users into consideration during the product development process. However, relatively few studies have been devoted to reflect the practical use of ergonomic principles on universal design. This research attempts to develop a universal design evaluation index for mobile phone design to quantify how well a product complies to the principles of universal design. The research also emphasizes on ergonomic principles as a basis of evaluation. A generation of the evaluation lists was done by cross-checking among the personal, activity and product components. Personal components consist of human characteristics including age, physique, perceptual capacity, life style, etc. Activity components were derived from the scenarios of mobile phone use while product components were composed of the parts to which a user interacts. A universal design index was generated systematically from the relationship matrices among the three components. The index was then used to test its suitability by applying it to the evaluation of mobile phones currently on the market. This study demonstrates a development process through which evaluations can be made possible for universal design. The research suggests an improved approach to the appraisal of how well mobile phones are universally designed based on ergonomic principles.
Keywords: Universal design; Mobile phone usability; Evaluation process
Understanding Camera Phone Imaging: Motivations, Behaviors and Meanings BIBAKFull-Text 374-383
  Grace Kim; Wilson Chan
This paper explores the range and diversity of capture and share practices associated with camera phones and camera phone images. We offer a high level usage model that illustrates some of the key relationships among consumers' behaviors, motivations and meanings and provides an initial framework for building segmentation models as well as recommendations for specific product and marketing strategies.
Keywords: camera phones; mobile phones; mobile imaging; qualitative research; user research; market research
The Design and Evaluation of a Diagonally Splitted Column to Improve Text Readability on a Small Screen BIBAFull-Text 384-393
  Yeon-Ji Kim; Woohun Lee
Most previous studies comparing paper and computer screen readability show that screens are less readable than paper. There are many factors that could affect the readability of computer screens. However, exactly what factors reduce reading performance on computer screens is not clear. Therefore, this study has tried to find an alternative way to improve the readability of screen displays. A novel suggestion is designed to give readers sense of rhythm by diagonally dividing up screen areas. The diagonal division layout was read significantly faster (24.4%) than a normal layout for 5.5 inches display of e-Book readers. For 3.5 inches display, it was read 13.0% faster. The reason why the total reading time was cut down by the diagonal division layout is that the right-upper part played a decisive role. The number of texts on each line is systematically decreased in the right-upper part. 31.6% of total reading time was shorten by the right-upper part. However, there were no significant differences in subjective satisfaction between the two layout conditions.
Development of Interactive Logger for Understanding User's Interaction with Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 394-400
  Daeeop Kim; Kun-Pyo Lee
User's mobility while using mobile devices requires new types of usability testing methods different from conventional testing methods which are static, verbal, quantitative, indoor, virtual and unnatural. Software, IMOLO (interactive mobile logger) was developed for more practical usability testing for mobile devices. IMOLO allows designers to easily convert their visual interface design of display of mobile devices into a prototype. Conversion is made interactively by simply dragging and dropping. Users can join usability testing with real products in real context. All log data is automatically transmitted to the researcher's server and is replayed exactly the same way the user interacted with mobile devices. IMOLO was found to be useful especially in the stage of validation test before product release.
Keywords: Mobile phone prototyping; Mobile usability
An Improved Model to Evaluate Menu Hierarchies for Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 401-407
  Jeesu Lee; Doowon Paik
This study presents a GOMS based model that can predict the performance time of hierarchical menu interface. In the existing GOMS based models, to predict the performance time of hierarchical menu interface, the prediction models are structured under the assumption that all tasks of selecting an item on the menu are experienced tasks. This study presents a model that can predict the performance time of experienced tasks and that of inexperienced tasks separately. When this model is applied, more accurate prediction of the performance time of hierarchical menu interface of mobile phone that include both the experienced and inexperienced tasks will be possible.
   This model is designed by measuring the performance time of actual users and the accuracy of prediction is evaluated through an experiment.
Keywords: GOMS; mobile phone; interface evaluation
Support Zooming Tools for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 408-417
  Kwang B. Lee
Mobile devices are quickly becoming powerful devices enough to run personal computers. However to control large visual information is still the critical issue for them. This paper introduces several zooming tools such as a focus zoom, a file zoom and a search zoom which are based on geometric and semantic zooming methods as new viewing methods. These zooming tools are developed to devise an efficient method for handling the viewing issue, displaying large visual information on a small size screen. In addition, the paper introduces usability testing method on mobile devices to find hidden issues in the tool, and mentions further progress to improve the usability of working on devices.
Keywords: Mobile Devices; Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs); Zoomable User Interfaces (ZUIs); Popup and Shadow Zooming; Distorted View and Non-distorted View; Geometric and Semantic Zooming
Design of a Pen-Based Electric Diagram Editor Based on Context-Driven Constraint Multiset Grammars BIBAKFull-Text 418-428
  Sébastien Macé; Éric Anquetil
This paper deals with the computer-aided design of pen-based interfaces for structured document composition. In order to take advantage of the interaction with the user, the goal is to interpret the user hand-drawn strokes incrementally, i.e. directly as the document is being drawn. We present a generic approach for such purpose: it is based on a new formalism, Context-Driven Constraint Multiset Grammars (CDCMG), and its associated incremental parser. CDCMG model how documents of a given nature are composed; they can be applied on various natures of documents. We demonstrate how it has been exploited to develop, in collaboration with a society that spreads out industrial pen-based solutions, a prototype for electric diagram composition and editing. We also present an evaluation of the system. Experimental results first emphasize the gain of time in comparison with more classical user interfaces. They also demonstrate its user-friendliness and its usability.
Keywords: Pen-based interfaces; on-line interpretation; structured document analysis; visual languages; incremental parsing; software assessing
To Effective Multi-modal Design for Ringtones, Ringback Tones and Vibration of Cell Phones BIBAFull-Text 429-437
  Taezoon Park; Wonil Hwang; Gavriel Salvendy
Multimedia content downloading service is one of the primary sources of revenue for the wireless service provider other than basic voice call. In this paper, the attitude of the consumers to the existing and newly suggested customizable ringtones, ringback tones, and vibration is explored from the result of the survey. Among the existing services, the inexperienced user showed the highest willingness to use of customizable ringtones although the experienced users are most satisfied by the personalized ringtones. The attitude to vibration services and push-type advertisement ringtones appeared to be negative. Since the attitude to new technology does not always connects to the willingness to use new services, it is needed to find the motivation which can bridge the gap between the attitude and willingness.
Automatic Word Detection System for Document Image Using Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 438-444
  Anjin Park; Keechul Jung
In the current age of ubiquitous computing age that uses high bandwidth network, wearable and hand-held mobile devices with small cameras and wireless communication will be widespread in the near future. Thus, computer vision and image processing for mobile devices have recently attracted a lot of attention. Especially, many approaches to detect image texts containing useful information for automatic annotation, indexing, and structuring of image are important for a prerequisite stage of recognition in dictionary application using mobile devices equipped with a camera. To detect image texts on the mobile devices that have limited computational resources, recent works are based on two methodologies; the image texts are detected not by automatically but by manually using stylus pen to reduce the computational resources, and the server is used to detect image texts requiring many floating-computations. The main disadvantage of the manual method is that users directly select tentative text regions, and recall and precision rates are determined by the selected regions. The second method to automatically detect the image texts is difficult to perform it in real-time, due to transmission time between the mobile device and the server. Accordingly, this paper proposes a real-time automatic word detection system without support of the server. To minimize the computational time, one word in the central region of the image is considered as a target of the system. The word region is tentatively extracted by using edge density and window transition, and the tentatively extracted region is then verified by measuring uniform distribution among sub-windows of the extracted region. In the experiments, the proposed method showed high precision rates for one word in the central region of the image, and showed fast computational time on the mobile devices.
User Customization Methods Based on Mental Models: Modular UI Optimized for Customizing in Handheld Device BIBAKFull-Text 445-451
  Boeun Park; Scott Song; Joonhwan Kim; Wanje Park; Hyunkook Jang
The ongoing conflict designers face between the Universal User Interface, focusing on general predispositions, and the Customized User Interface, adjusted to individualistic characteristics, is more prevalent than ever. One reason for this enduring conflict is that mobile devices require that user interfaces (UI) be optimized for each individual user across a global marketplace. This issue inspired us to build a conceptual model of a UI, which supports the maximization of customization and optimization by reflecting personal characteristics. This Modular (each application is defined as its own modular and can be assembled and disassembled) UI was based on four premises: what is reflected, how it was grouped, how it was provided, its affect. Usability testing of the UI was performed in three countries with 8 user groups from each country. Web surveys and FGI (Focus Group Interview) for with 8 user groups from the three countries showed that this type of modular UI can effectively optimize interactions for largely diverse groups of users. This research on customization for user experience is significant because it can generate its users with an optimum interface that aligns with their unique set of biological and cultural characteristics. This study also shows a need for additional research analyzing cultural elements of optimized UI in order to deepen our level of understanding of the influence of cultural factors on the usability of handheld device UIs.
Keywords: User Customization; Handheld Devices; Modular UI; Optimization; HCI
Fisheye Keyboard: Whole Keyboard Displayed on PDA BIBAKFull-Text 452-459
  Mathieu Raynal; Philippe Truillet
In this article, we propose a soft keyboard with interaction inspired by research on visualisation information. Our objective is to find a compromise between readability and usability on a whole character layout for a PDA soft keyboard. The proposed interactions allow displaying all keys on a small screen while making pointing easier for the user by expanding any given key as a function of its distance from the stylus.
Keywords: soft keyboard; personal digital assistant (PDA); fisheye view
Mobile Phone Video Camera in Social Context BIBAKFull-Text 460-469
  Erika Reponen; Jaakko Lehikoinen; Jussi Impiö
Video recording is becoming available in various everyday situations, thanks to the quickly spreading video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Recording decision is now often made spontaneous, as the recording devices are constantly available without explicit planning. We discuss the effect of this change in the social environment on the basis of a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their everyday life. While this new way of communicating enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust. We discuss the relation of context and video recording through a model of primary and secondary contexts. We also analyze acceptability and transparency of video recording as functions of time.
Keywords: Mobile phones; cameras; video; context; privacy
Developing a Motion-Based Input Model for Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 470-479
  Mark Richards; Tim Dunn; Binh Pham
This paper discusses a new input model for camera-equipped mobile devices which is more efficient, intuitive and intelligent. This model takes advantage of the motion captured from the camera: the general movement of both device and user. These movements are mapped to a three-dimension space and input methods are devised depending on the current situational context. Such an interface allows users to far more quickly interact with their devices, avoids navigation though nested menus and allows the device to perform natural tasks without the user having to knowingly interact with it.
Designing Input Method of Hand-Held Device with International User Studies BIBAKFull-Text 480-485
  Scott Song; Joonhwan Kim; Wanje Park; Boeun Park; Hyunkook Jang
In a small hand-held device, a common method of interaction design is expressed by metaphors. Additionally, the labeling can help to understand the meaning of metaphors. Two elements are important to express information and functions appropriately within the physically limited range of the device. For global products, the metaphors should be recognized and transmitted by a large number of users in this labeling. This study conducted a user preference test in the USA, the United Kingdom and China to find the optimal form for the arrangement of such input method design and labeling. As a result of the test, the study could figure out the effective labeling metaphor that would express the arrangement of appropriate input-buttons and their functions in the hand-held device. In addition, the metaphor would be applied to actual product.
Keywords: Hand-held Device; Input Method; International User Study; Cultural Differences; User Experience Design; Metaphor; Interface design; Button Label
Positional Mapping Multi-tap for Myanmar Language BIBAKFull-Text 486-495
  Ye Kyaw Thu; Yoshiyori Urano
This paper is an attempt to enable a practical and efficient composing of message text with Myanmar language on a mobile phone. In this paper, we propose a new idea of key mapping (Positional Mapping) for Myanmar language. Positional Mapping is the key mapping idea for mobile phones based on Myanmar language characters writing positions. We compared our new mapping idea with our proposed Multi-tap keypad layout in terms of key strokes and users tapping speed. Although key strokes requirement for typing Myanmar consonants in Positional Mapping is higher, average tapping speed is 22.5% faster than Multi-tap model. And we can also prove that our Positional Mapping idea is simple and easier to memorize for users from the user studies. Our Positional Mapping idea can be applied not only to Myanmar language but also to other similar phonetic based languages such as Khamer, Thai, Hindi and Bangla etc.
Keywords: Text Input; User Interface; Positional Mapping; Human Computer Interface in Mobile; Mobile Phone Keypad Layout; Myanmar Language
Pen-Based User Interface Based on Handwriting Force Information BIBAKFull-Text 496-503
  ZhongCheng Wu; LiPing Zhang; Fei Shen
Pen-based computing attracts many researchers recent years. Pen-computer generally uses pen tip position and pen pressure information at present. Actually, the force between the pen tip and writing plate is a three-dimensional vector, which represents more important information in the process of writing. In this paper we firstly describe an innovative force sensitive device (F-Tablet) for pen-based computing, and it can acquire three perpendicular forces and position of the pen-tip simultaneously. The second part deals with problems of Pen-User Interface design based on this tablet. Experimental results show that this pen-user interface considers context awareness and some characteristics of user cognition. Furthermore the pen-user interface can complete most functions of keyboard and mouse.
Keywords: Pen-based computing; Pen-computer; Pen-User Interface; handwriting
BetweenKeys: Looking for Room Between Keys BIBAKFull-Text 504-512
  Youngwoo Yoon; Geehyuk Lee
A conventional keyboard has a large footprint because it should serve numerous functions with independent keys. With demand for smaller keyboards, the present paper analyzes a practical method that leverages overlap of two ordinary keys and may reduce the keyboard size. By analyzing overlap frequencies and key stroke timings in normal use, we investigated whether key overlaps are practically usable. From the results, four pairs are recommended that are practically available and preferred by users. Hangul / English mode transition is described as an application.
Keywords: keyboard; chord keyboard; key overlap; key stroke timing; Hangul / English toggling
Mobile Magic Hand: Camera Phone Based Interaction Using Visual Code and Optical Flow BIBAKFull-Text 513-521
  Yuichi Yoshida; Kento Miyaoku; Takashi Satou
We propose the "Mobile Magic Hand" interface; it is an extension of our previous visual code-based interface system. Once the user acquires the visual code of interest, the user can then manipulate the related virtual object/system without having to keep the camera centered on the visual code. Our new interface does this analyzing the optical flow as captured by the camera. For example, consider a visual code that represents a 3D object, such as a dial. After selecting the code, the user can freely rotate and/or move the virtual object without having to keep the camera pointed at the code. This interface is much more user friendly and is more intuitive since the user's hand gestures can be more relaxed, more natural, and more extensive. In this paper, we describe "Mobile Magic Hand", some applications, and a preliminary user study of a prototype system.
Keywords: mobile; visual code; gestural interface
Online Chinese Characters Recognition Based on Force Information by HMM BIBAKFull-Text 522-528
  Mozi Zhu; Fei Shen; ZhongCheng Wu
Pen computing draws more and more researchers' attention. One of the most important problems is online Chinese Characters Recognition (OCCR). The information of Pen-tip position is widely used for handwritten recognition traditionally. In this paper, a new method using force information is proposed for OCCR, in which the force directions are extracted as the feature of strokes. In our method, every stroke has its own Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and the process of building stroke HMM is described in details. Handwritten Characters are recognized following the stroke tree after every stroke has been recognized as described. Finally experimental results on analysis of five persons' handwriting are presented.
Keywords: Force Information; HMM; OCCR; Stroke Recognition

Part 3: Virtual Environments and 3D Interaction

Comparative Characteristics of a Head-Up Display for Computer-Assisted Instruction BIBAKFull-Text 531-540
  Kikuo Asai; Hideaki Kobayashi
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using a head-up display (HUD) is a new way of providing information on operating complicated equipment. A head-mounted display (HMD) with a camera enables head-up interaction, presenting information related to what a user is looking at. We previously examined a practical HUD-based CAI system used to operate a transportable earth station. In our trial, participants using the HUD-based CAI system performed better than those using other media such as printed material and laptop PCs. However, it was not clear which part of the system was responsible for the improved performance. To clarify this, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which participants read articles and answers questions about them. The goals were to evaluate how readable the display of the HMD is, how easy it is to search information using the system, and how the system affects work efficiency. Participants using the HUD system found the articles faster, but took longer to read the articles and to answer the questions than participants using other media.
Keywords: CAI; HUD; HMD; user study
Flight Crew Perspective on the Display of 4D Information for En Route and Arrival Merging and Spacing BIBAKFull-Text 541-550
  Vernol Battiste; Walter W. Johnson; Nancy H. Johnson; Stacie Granada; Arik-Quang V. Dao
This paper introduces and describes a 3D Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) that includes the display of ownship and traffic, flight path intent, terrain and terrain alerting relative to current and proposed flight paths, conflict alerting and 3D weather. The primary function of the 3D CSD is to support the task of flight path management, although it is also designed to promote visual momentum and task awareness across displays. In this paper, we will discuss the approach to the design of the 3D CSD as well as describe the features of the display and their importance to traffic, terrain and general situation awareness. We will also list some of the pilot identified benefits of the 3D display. Finally, we will report on flight crew ratings of the usefulness and usability of the 3D display to support en route and arrival decision making.
Keywords: Primary Flight Display (PFD); NAV Display (ND); 2D Display; 3D display; Cockpit Situation Display (CSD); Cockpit Display Of Traffic Information (CDTI)
Designing a Direct Manipulation HUD Interface for In-Vehicle Infotainment BIBAKFull-Text 551-559
  Vassilis Charissis; Martin Naef; Stylianos Papanastasiou; Marianne Patera
This paper introduces a novel design approach for an automotive direct manipulation interface. The proposed design, as applied in a full-windshield Head-Up Display system, aims to improve the driver's situational awareness by considering information as it becomes available from various sources such as incoming mobile phone calls, text and email messages. The vehicle's windshield effectively becomes an interactive display area which allows the system to increase the quality as well as throttle the quantity of information distilled to the driver in typical driving situations by utilising the existing mobile phone network. Opting for a simplistic approach of interaction, the interface elements are based on minimalist visual representation of real objects. This paper discusses the challenges involved in the HUD design, introduces the visual components of the interface and presents the outcome of a preliminary evaluation of the system on a group of ten users, as performed using a driving simulator.
Keywords: HCI; direct manipulation; infotainment; HUD
Using Agent Technology to Study Human Action and Perception Through a Virtual Street Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 560-568
  Chiung-Hui Chen; Mao-Lin Chiu
Human activities are the foundation of the social processes that drive the urban system. The emergence of information technology provides opportunities to extend the transformation of the physical city into the digital city or virtual city. As navigation in virtual environments is evidently difficult and as many virtual worlds have been designed to be used by untrained users that explore the environment, navigation supports are critically needed. Furthermore, users or participants within the digital cities are often foreign to the environment without navigational aids. Therefore, this paper is aimed to build an agent-based system in a virtual environment to study user behaviors and interactions. The study aims to indirectly collect information about the user's desires in order to build a model of user preference and produce simulative scenarios that more closely match it.
Keywords: agent; behavior; simulation; virtual environment; street design
Visualizing Interaction in Digitally Augmented Spaces: Steps Toward a Formalism for Location-Aware and Token-Based Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 569-578
  Yngve Dahl; Dag Svanæs
Location and token-based methods of interaction form two broad sets of interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing systems. Currently there are few tools available that allow designers to pay attention to the physicality that characterizes human-computer interaction with such systems, and how users experience them. This paper reports on ongoing work that focuses on creating a visual formalism that addresses these limitations. The current approach is inspired by established storyboard techniques, and aims to complement de facto modeling formalisms such as UML.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; Modeling formalisms; Interaction design; Embodied interaction; Visual design
Assessment of Perception of Visual Warning Signals Generated Using an Augmented Reality System BIBAKFull-Text 579-586
  Marek Dzwiarek; Anna Luczak; Andrzej Najmiec; Cezary Rzymkowski; Tomasz Strawinski
One of the important measures to prevent industrial accidents consists in informing a machine operator about the appearance of hazardous situation quickly and effectively enough. The main aim of the paper is to present and discuss a methodology of proving -- by means of the perception assessment -- that the warning signals generated using the AR approach reveal the same effectiveness as standard visual signals coming from an industrial signalling device that is of common use in machinery. Twenty volunteers constituted a paid subject population for the study. In the course of experimental task execution the warning visual signals were generated using either a standard industrial signalling device or augmented reality glasses. Despite the fact that the experimental procedure has not been completed yet very promising primary results have been obtained has indicating that both the objective and subjective assessment indicators are better for the AR warning signals.
Keywords: safety of machinery; warnings; augmented reality
Force Field Based Expression for 3D Shape Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 587-596
  Xi Geng; Wenyu Liu; Hairong Liu
In this paper, we established an algorithm to obtain 3D shape descriptors based on a novel force field model. Based on this model, 3D models as surface particle sets are assumed and the force interactions between particles are computed to constitute a spherical descriptor. During the force computation, the mass of the particle is defined to maintain local information which improves the discrimination of the spherical descriptor. The experimental results show that this algorithm is valid for 3D shape matching with high efficiency.
Keywords: force field model; 3D shape retrieval; surface flatness
Comparing Two Head-Mounted Displays in Ultrasound Scanning BIBAKFull-Text 597-604
  Juha Havukumpu; Jukka Häkkinen; Eija Grönroos; Pia Vähäkangas; Göte Nyman
Head-mounted displays have been tested in various medical fields. According to some results, using a head-mounted display makes medical operations faster, more effective and accurate than using a conventional table display. In this study we aimed to examine midwives experiences of using a head-mounted display during an ultrasound scan. Our preliminary results indicate that a head-mounted display in an ultrasound scan could work better than the conventional method which is still in common use. We also noticed that the use of a monocular head-mounted display was more comfortable than a see-through display.
Keywords: Head-mounted displays; monocular display; see-through display; user experience; ultrasound scan
Evaluating the Usability of an Auto-stereoscopic Display BIBAKFull-Text 605-614
  Zhao Xia Jin; Ya Jun Zhang; Xin Wang; Thomas Plocher
A considerable number of different auto-stereoscopic display systems are available on the market. Increased resolution of flat panel displays and greatly reduced cost have made auto-stereoscopic displays practical to use in applications for games, 3D television, the military, and industrial manufacturing. However, the usability and qualitative user experience provided by auto-stereoscopic 3D display has not been widely studied. This study sought to evaluate the qualitative user experiences with auto-stereoscopic 3D displays and their potential shortcomings by testing specific user tasks and comparing the difference between a stereo 3D display and flat 3D display. The results provide a good reference for the product application developer trying to select a display system and for the user interface designer.
Keywords: Autostereoscopic; 3D display; usability; stereo user interface
Aspiring for a Virtual Life BIBAKFull-Text 615-623
  Hee-Cheol Kim
There has been a drastic change in the ways that computers are used. They have evolved from being tools for dealing with reality, e.g., for recording data and calculating complex equations, to being tools for fashioning virtuality, including virtual reality systems, on-line games, and virtual communities. This phenomenon, to some extent, stems from rapid technological development. What is more important, however, is that this phenomenon is also deeply rooted in the human longing for a virtual world. This paper argues for the importance of understanding such a desire, and discusses, in this context, how virtual reality may become a promising realm of the future, by setting out a theoretical foundation to examine it.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; mental representation; virtuality; virtual reality; virtual space
Immersive Viewer System for 3D User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 624-633
  Dongwuk Kyoung; Yunli Lee; Keechul Jung
3D user interface research is increasing rapidly as development of area in virtual environment, virtual reality and augmented reality. Recently, the 3D user interface is not favorable because it needs high cost and uses cumbersome devices. However, the 3D user interface gives a great impact to the user which motivated us to implement an immersive viewer system (Im-viewer system) to test the 3D user interface. The Im-viewer system uses a tiled display to provide an immersive image to user, and it uses the proposed 3D volume reconstruction and representation for input interface with low computational as advantage. The input interface is used to control the tiled display operation such as on/off, next/previous slide command in Im-viewer system. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques of 3D user interface perform well on the Im-viewer system.
Keywords: 3D User Interface; Tiled Display; 3D Shape Reconstruction; Gesture Recognition; Dimension Reduction
Resolving Occlusion Between Virtual and Real Scenes for Augmented Reality Applications BIBAKFull-Text 634-642
  Lijun Li; Tao Guan; Bo Ren
In this paper, we propose a method to resolve occlusion problem for tabletop AR based city plan system using stereo vision and accurate boundary depth recovery of foreground objects. Firstly, we design a color and brightness based foreground subtraction approach to avoid the negative effect of shadows. Then, we get the depth information for represent correct occlusion between virtual and real objects based on contour matching and depth interpolation. Some experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Occlusion; Stereo Vision; Epipolar Geometry; Depth Recovery
Augmented Reality E-Commerce Assistant System: Trying While Shopping BIBAKFull-Text 643-652
  Yuzhu Lu; Shana Smith
Traditional electronic commerce (e-commerce) is limited, because it cannot provide enough direct information about products to online consumers. The technology presented in this paper shows how Augmented Reality (AR) can be used to help overcome the limitations and enhance e-commerce systems. An e-commerce assistant tool was developed, using user-centered design principles. The tool was developed as an Internet plugin, so it can be used on different kinds of computers and handheld devices. A usability experiment was conducted, to compare the developed AR e-commerce assistant tool with traditional e-commerce and Virtual Reality (VR) e-commerce systems. Results show that an AR e-commerce system can provide more direct information about products than traditional or VR e-commerce systems.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Electronic Commerce; User Centered Design
RealSound Interaction: A Novel Interaction Method with Mixed Reality Space by Localizing Sound Events in Real World BIBAKFull-Text 653-662
  Mai Otsuki; Asako Kimura; Takanobu Nishiura; Fumihisa Shibata; Hideyuki Tamura
We developed a mixed reality (MR) system which merges the real and the virtual worlds in both audio and visual senses. Our new approach "RealSound Interaction" is based on the idea that the sound events in the real world can work as interaction devices with an MR space. Firstly, we developed a sound detection system which localizes a sound source. The system consisted of two types of microphone arrays, fixed type and wearable type. Secondly, we evaluated the accuracy of the system, and proposed three practical usages of the sound events as interactive devices for MR attractions.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Sound Input; Microphone Array; Sound Source Localization; Interactive Device
A New Model of Collaborative 3D Interaction in Shared Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 663-672
  Nassima Ouramdane-Djerrah; Samir Otmane; Malik Mallem
Recent advances in both Virtual Reality (VR) systems and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) technologies have resulted in the appearance of the Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) systems supporting different forms of collaboration and interaction between users. The collaboration in these systems refers to the simultaneous interaction (collaborative interaction) of multiple users on a virtual object in an immersive or semi-immersive Virtual Environment (VE). However, in some cases, the collaborative interaction is reduced to a simple communication between users. In this paper, we propose a new model of collaborative interaction that supports group interaction in CVEs. Our model defines the functional role and the functional clover of the 3D interaction. This Model is based on group awareness concepts (focus, nimbus and degree of interaction) combined with 3D interaction paradigms (navigation, selection and manipulation). The aim of our model is to manage and control the simultaneous user actions.
Keywords: 3D interaction; collaborative interaction; collaborative virtual environment; virtual reality
Multi-finger Haptic Interface for Collaborative Tasks in Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 673-680
  María Oyarzábal; Manuel Ferre; Salvador Cobos; Mary Monroy; Jordi Barrio; Javier Ortego
Haptic devices allow a high level of immersion in virtual environments by providing the sense of touch. We present a two-finger device that allows the performance of power and precision tasks in virtual environments. We have also developed a mathematical model of the human hand and a statistical procedure to identify different hand gestures. Both have been implemented in the virtual environment in order to have a mathematical model of haptic interactions, which runs in real time so as to provide contact forces and object movements depending on the manipulation commands received from the haptic device.
Keywords: haptic interface; multi-finger; collaborative task; manipulation
Measuring Presence in Mobile 3D BIBAKFull-Text 681-688
  Hyun Jong Ryu; Rohae Myung; Byongjun Lee
In this paper, we developed valid mobile presence measurements, and proposed the factor structure of the resulting scale. The measurements of items came from previously published questionnaires in the area of VR and from the experience of mobile 3D developers. We also added our concept factors. The 60 subjects experienced the mobile 3D game for about 40 mins. After finishing the mobile 3D game, they completed the questionnaire immediately. Factor analysis was performed on the data. The factors of mobile 3D presence were divided into 4 super-factors; condition factor, interface factor, attention factor, and feedback, and were further divided into 20 sub-factors.
Keywords: mobile 3D game; presence; measurement; presence factors
IMPROVE: Designing Effective Interaction for Virtual and Mixed Reality Environments BIBAFull-Text 689-699
  Pedro Santos; André Stork; Thomas Gierlinger; Alain Pagani; Bruno Araújo; Ricardo Jota; Luis Bruno; Joaquim A. Jorge; João Madeiras Pereira; Martin Witzel; Giuseppe Conti; Raffaele de Amicis; Iñigo Barandarian; Céline Paloc; Maylu Hafner; Don McIntyre
In this paper we present evaluation results of an innovative application designed to make collaborative design review in the architectural and automotive domain more effective. Within IMPROVE, a European research project in the area of advanced displays, we are combining high resolution multi-tile displays, TabletPCs and head-mounted displays with innovative 2D and 3D Interaction Paradigms to better support collaborative mobile mixed reality design reviews. Our research and development is motivated by application scenarios in the automotive domain involving FIAT Elasis from Naples, Italy and in the architectural domain involving Page/Park architects from Glasgow, Scotland. User evaluation took place at Glasgow (UK), Naples (ITA) and Darmstadt (GER), where we tested the integrated IMPROVE prototype application. The tests were conducted based on several heuristics such as ergonomics and psychomotorial factors and they were conducted based on guidelines recommended by ISO 9241 to verify whether the developed interfaces were suitable for the applications scenarios. Evaluation results show that there is a strong demand for more interactive design review systems, allowing users greater flexibility and greater choice of input and visualization modalities as well as their combination.
Evaluation of Wayfinding Aids Interface in Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 700-709
  Anna Wu; Wei Zhang; Bo Hu; Xiaolong Zhang
It is difficult for a navigator to find a way to a given target location in an unfamiliar environment. Often, wayfinding guidance such as an overview map is provided to assist the navigator. However, overview maps can only show survey knowledge at one particular scale, and cannot provide other kinds of spatial knowledge (e.g. procedure knowledge) or survey knowledge at different scales. In this study, we compared effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of three wayfinding aids, View-in-View Map (VVM), Animation Guide (AG) and Human-System Collaboration (HSC) in support of navigation in virtual reality. Our experiment results show that while an overview still outperforms AG and HSC, AG serves better for most people with ordinary spatial ability and people with superior spatial ability tends to perform better using HSC.
Keywords: Wayfinding; Virtual environments; Interactive techniques; Spatial cognition
A 3D Sketching Interacting Tool for Physical Simulation Based on Web BIBAKFull-Text 710-719
  Ziyi Zheng; Lingyun Sun; Shouqian Sun
Sketching interface, as a user-friendly means for expression and communication, is not only an important medium for inputting 3D objects, but also a significant step of visualizing user's conceptual ideas. To bring early sketching interface to network utilities, the paper defines several rules that can create and edit 3D models. These gesture schemes support both regular and freeform modeling, and can be embedded in multi-user interface through network. A brief introduction about sketch-based collaboration in client-server architecture is proposed. A tool with this sketch interface and physical simulation functionalities is presented. The experimental results show that it can explore users' ideas in aiding 3D collaboration in network environment.
Keywords: Computer aided sketching; pen-based gesture interaction; sketch-based 3D modeling; physical simulation; 3D collaboration
Visual and Auditory Information Specifying an Impending Collision of an Approaching Object BIBAKFull-Text 720-729
  Liu Zhou; Jingjiang Yan; Qiang Liu; Hong Li; Chaoxiang Xie; Yinghua Wang; Jennifer L. Campos; Hong-jin Sun
Information about the impending collision of an approaching object can be specified by visual and auditory means. We examined the discrimination thresholds for vision, audition, and vision/audition combined, in the processing of time-to-collision (TTC) of an approaching object. The stimulus consisted of a computer simulated car approaching on a flat ground towards the participants which disappeared at a certain point before collision. After the presentation of two approaching movements in succession, participants pressed a button to indicate which of the two movements would result in the car colliding with the viewpoint sooner from the moment it disappeared. The results demonstrated that most participants were sensitive to TTC information provided by a visual source, but not when provided by an auditory source. That said, auditory information provided effective static distance information. When both sources of information were combined, participants used the most accurate source of information to make their judgments.
Keywords: visual; auditory; multisensory integration; time-to-collision; motion-in-depth; looming

Part 4: Ubiquitous Interaction

Coin Size Wireless Sensor Interface for Interaction with Remote Displays BIBAKFull-Text 733-742
  Ayman Atia; Shin Takahashi; Jiro Tanaka
Human gestures are typical examples of non-verbal communication, and help people communicate smoothly [1]. However, using camera to recognizing gesture needs high processing power and suffer from delays in recognition [2]. Sometimes distance between large screen and user is a problem as for example in pen based interaction user must be attached to screen. So our main motivation is how we should design a user interface that use cookie wireless sensor [3] as an input device. In this paper we describe the interface setting, method of extracting motion and direction from 3D accelometer, using the tilting gesture. Then we proposed a method that allows users to define their own tilting positions and refer it to certain directions. Then we describe a menu selection interface that is based on pie menu for interaction with remote displays. An evaluation of the proposed interface in terms of accuracy, time and attached objects has been conducted.
Keywords: Wireless sensor; interaction with large screen display; Human computer interaction
Hit Me Baby One More Time: A Haptic Rating Interface BIBAKFull-Text 743-747
  Christoph Bartneck; Philomena Athanasiadou; Takayuki Kanda
As the importance of recommender systems increases, in combination with the explosion in data available over the internet and in our own digital libraries, we suggest an alternative method of providing explicit user feedback. We create a tangible interface, which will not only facilitate multitasking but provide an enjoyable way of completing an otherwise frustrating and perhaps tiresome task.
Keywords: explicit feedback; recommender system; tangible interface
Minimising Pedestrian Navigational Ambiguities Through Geoannotation and Temporal Tagging BIBAKFull-Text 748-757
  Ashweeni Kumar Beeharee; Anthony Steed
The increasing power and ubiquity of smart devices such as mobile phones and PDAs means that a visitor to a city now carries with them a device capable of giving location-specific guiding and routing information. Whilst there have been a number of studies on the use of photographs to supplement text and map-based guiding applications for mobile devices, in this paper we want to propose and give an initial exploratory study of a guiding system that utilises geoannotation to mark photographs. In geoannotation, each photograph is selected from a repository of photographs based on the content and its relevance to the route. The photograph itself is then geoannotated with arrows and other markers on the fly so as to give routing information. Because the photograph in the database will not be taken from the location of the visitor who needs routing information, we need to take care and design cues that are unambiguous. The main contribution of this paper is the discussion of the geoannotation technique, and some informal results from pilot trials on how it helps in addressing certain navigational ambiguities arising in the use of photographs in pedestrian navigation systems.
Keywords: Pedestrian Navigation; Design; Human Factors; Ambiguities; Geoannotation
Paper Metaphor for Tabletop Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 758-767
  Guillaume Besacier; Gaëtan Rey; Marianne Najm; Stéphanie Buisine; Frédéric Vernier
The aim of this paper is to explore new metaphors for interaction design on tabletop system. Tabletop systems are shared horizontal surface for co-located collaboration, which leads to original problems when designing interactions. We propose two metaphors based on the paper: the peeling metaphor, and the slot metaphor, and then suggest a way of using them to design new interactions for solving some of the problems of tabletop systems: documents organization, documents transmission and documents duplication.
Keywords: Tabletop; interaction design; paper metaphor
Advanced Drivers Assistant Systems in Automation BIBAFull-Text 768-777
  Caterina Calefato; Roberto Montanari; Fabio Tango
One of the current research areas in automotive field is aimed at improving driving safety with regards to the development of preventive support systems, also called ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems). These systems are able to detect a critical situation and to inform timely the driver, so that a repairing maneuver can be performed. From the human factors point of view, driving is considered as a complex cognitive task that can be summarized by four main sub-processes: perception, analysis, decision and action. To be performed, each phase presumes the achievement of the previous one, An exception occurs when humans overcome planning / decision phase and go directly from analysis / interpretation to action / execution (almost in automatic way). This paper intends to propose, following the main literature on human-centered automation, how the ADAS intervention can be designed without negative impact on driving safety. In particular, a forward collision warning has been studied. For this study, the Levels Of Automation (LOA) classified by Parasuramam and Sheridan (2000) has been used as well as the studies in the domain of the so-called Adaptive Automation (AA) (Kaber Riley, Endsley 2001; Scerbo 1996), that allow to adapt the information to the driver's workload and to the context level of dangerousness.
Implementing an Interactive Collage Table System with Design Puzzle Exploration BIBAKFull-Text 778-787
  Teng-Wen Chang; Yuan-Bang Cheng
By combining puzzles as the metaphor as well as the mechanism, design puzzles provide an interesting computational method to both design exploration and representing the design ideas via collage images. By using multi-touch technology such as FTIR, this research implements a physical controlling device called Collage Tables (CoTa) for directly manipulating the design collages, which using the mechanism developed over the years from design puzzles. By focusing on the interactive behaviours of design collage, the exploration rules as well as puzzle rules are further developed and elaborated in this paper. The exploration search mechanism and the system (CoTa) in both hardware and software part of CoTa is also evaluated and computed for the purpose of reification. A set of possible interaction is also documented in this paper.
Keywords: interactive collage table; design collage; multi-touch and sketch; design puzzle; design exploration
Designing Smart Living Objects -- Enhancing vs. Distracting Traditional Human-Object Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 788-797
  Pei-Yu Chi; Jen-hao Chen; Shih-yen Liu; Hao-Hua Chu
To realize Weiser's vision of ubiquitous computing, a popular approach has been to create so-called smart living objects, which are everyday objects in our living environment augmented with digital technology. In this paper, we survey different smart living objects and classify their design choices into different types of digital enhancement. These design choices are about choosing the relation between the object's digital enhancement and its traditional use -- (1) whether the object's digital function enhances or distracts its original function, and (2) whether the object's digital interaction matches or conflicts with its original interaction. Finally, we formulate design heuristics that new digital enhancement should consider the object's traditional function and interaction method, and avoid conflict between the digital enhancement and the traditional use.
Keywords: smart object; smart living object; smart living space; human-computer interaction; context-aware computing; ubiquitous computing
Drawing Type Tactile Presentation for Tactile Letter Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 798-807
  Ju-Hui Cho; Minsoo Hahn
Tactile displays don't disturb other people and transfer the information secretly by directly contacting with person's body. Tactile letter recognition means that the users recognize the ordinary language conveyed on the skin surface. We propose stimulus presentation of drawing type for tactile letter recognition. It is the type that is drawing the line directly to the skin with a pen instead of dot stimulus of array type. We built the prototype of drawing type device. The tracing mode was a good at recognition rate of the letters averagely than static mode in tactile letter recognition. But it was still hard to recognize special letters having same number of stroke or similar stroke style, because touch sensory is dull of localization and perception of stimulus. To improve recognition rate of confused letters, we redesigns stroke patterns to a new sequence pattern having less stroke number and unique pattern.
Keywords: Tactile letter recognition
MKPS: A Multi-level Key Pre-distribution Scheme for Secure Wireless Sensor Networks BIBAKFull-Text 808-817
  Sung Jin Choi; Hee Yong Youn
Key distribution is one of the most challenging issues for secure communication in wireless sensor networks. Even though the random key pre-distribution approach is suitable for sensor nodes of low power and resource, a shared key between a pair of nodes is not guaranteed to be found and thus they cannot communicate with each other. This paper proposes a new robust key pre-distribution scheme solving this problem while security is not compromised even though the data exchanged between the nodes are tapped by an adversary. This is achieved by using the keys assigned through LDU decomposition of the symmetric matrix of a pool of keys. A general form solution of L, D, and U matrix is also developed to minimize the time overhead of LDU decomposition. Computer simulation reveals that the proposed scheme also significantly improves the energy efficiency compared with the existing random key pre-distribution scheme.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; key pre-distribution; LDU decomposition; security; wireless sensor network
AGV Simulator and Implementer Design BIBAKFull-Text 818-826
  Qiang Huang; TianHao Pan; WenHuan Xu
Vision navigation [1] has been a significant research area in recent year for robotic industrial. Various algorithms for obstacle detection and avoidance have been developed. Successfully testing of these algorithms require implementation in a realistic robot vehicle, which demands extra effort for researcher. The developed integrated autonomous guided vehicle [2] simulator and implementer (AGV-SI) emulates the realistic robot vehicle operating environment. Researchers can develop the algorithms based on the commonly used language -- Matlab. Then simply input the algorithm and testing environment settings into the AGV-SI, an evaluation result is obtained. With the AGV-SI user can also choose to practically implement the algorithm by downloading the algorithm into a robot vehicle connected to the PC. With the support of the AGV-SI a novel algorithm was developed with the integration of adaptive median filter [3], inverse perspective map [4] and edge detection techniques. Both simulation and practical implementation validate the feasibility of the algorithm.
Keywords: AGV; computer vision; simulator; implementer; human robot interaction
Interactive Browsing of Large Images on Multi-projector Display Wall System BIBAFull-Text 827-836
  Zhongding Jiang; Xuan Luo; Yandong Mao; Binyu Zang; Hai Lin; Hujun Bao
With the precision of data acquisition increases, large images that may occupy terabytes, become common in research and industry fields. Since multi-projector display wall systems can provide higher resolution, they becomes paramount to display the large images. In this paper, we present one large image viewing system designed for display wall system. Our system need not totally downloading the whole image data to each rendering node. It enables users to browse the out-of-core images in real time using data streaming techniques. In the system, the original out-of-core raw image is compressed and represented using one hierarchical structure in multi-resolution manner. We design one proxy architecture that interactive streams data from remote data server to all rendering nodes. Our system allows users to interactively pan, and zoom the large images with versatile graphical user interface.
Wearable Healthcare Gadget for Life-Log Service Based on WPAN BIBAKFull-Text 837-844
  Sang-Hyun Kim; Dong-Wan Ryoo; Changseok Bae
The advent of ubiquitousness has been changing the uses as well as the paradigm of services, and emphasizing the importance of services being personalization. In this paper, we propose Wearable Healthcare Gadget based on Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) to gather health information of user and a new approach to life-log service using the Wearable Healthcare Gadget. It can be wearable and gather physiological information and environmental information which can provide life-log service. Also it has the processing and networking capability.
Keywords: healthcare; gadget; ECG; accelerometer; GPS
Vision Based Laser Pointer Interaction for Flexible Screens BIBAKFull-Text 845-853
  Nam Woo Kim; Seung Jae Lee; Byung-Gook Lee; Joon-Jae Lee
In recent years high quality interaction devices have become very popular in our environment. The industries are also currently undergoing rapid change and various technologies have been explored to enable these capabilities. Projection systems using beam projectors and laser pointer became the ubiquitous infrastructure for command technology. Group meetings and other non-desk situations require that people should be able to interact at a distance from a display surface. This paper presents new interaction techniques that use a laser pointer to directly interact with display on a large screen. The camera is subsequently used to detect the position of the pointing device (such as a laser pointer dot) on the screen, allowing the laser pointer to emulate the pointing actions of the mouse. The laser pointer will behave as a active point on the projected display where the user can interact. This vision-based system is augmented with a natural interface that enables the user to interactively refine the suggested rectification. This makes it very easy for users to execute fast and continuous commands. The interaction model developed behaves like a "smart interaction system." The vision based interaction system requires no special hardware and runs on a standard computer.
Keywords: Vision-based interaction; determining the mouse interaction; recognize laser spot; camera calibration; nonlinear mapping function
Implementation of Multi-touch Tabletop Display for HCI (Human Computer Interaction) BIBAKFull-Text 854-863
  Song-Gook Kim; Jang-Woon Kim; Chil-Woo Lee
In this paper, we describe the development of multi-touch tabletop display system and the classification of hand gesture commands for interacting with our system. And also, we analyze the suitability for interactive tabletop in light of the respective input and output degrees of freedom, as well as the precision and completeness provided by each. Our system is based on FTIR (Frustrated Total Internal Reflection) principle and hand gestures for necessary instructions are predefined using position sensing and tracking of multi-touch points and the number of fingertips. The system consists of two beam-projectors, diffuser film, four infrared cameras and large acrylic screen that attached infrared LED. In recognition process, gesture commands are analyzed by comparing with predefined gesture instructions according to the number of contacted fingertips, Euclidean distance and angles between two bright spots. In this paper, vision based tabletop display system that we proposed provides much advantages understanding human and computer interaction. Also the Efficiency of proposed method can be proved through controlling Google-earth.
Keywords: Multi-touch; Tabletop display; Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR); human computer interaction
End User Tools for Ambient Intelligence Environments: An Overview BIBAKFull-Text 864-872
  Irene Mavrommati; John Darzentas
New elements that are introduced by the nature of living and interacting within an Ambient Intelligence (AmI) environment lead to new HCI paradigms. While AmI User Interfaces are moving off the desktop and the GUI paradigm, and become augmented and diffused within the ubiquitous environments, a new generation of User Interface Design Tools to facilitate the design and realization of AmI applications, is emerging. Issues and specific shifts related to Human Computer Interaction in AmI environments, which affect the design of these tools, is outlined in this paper. The high level characteristics of End User Tools that facilitate users to reason as well as manipulate the behavior of the AmI environment are outlined.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Ubiquitous Computing; End User Tools; Ambient Intelligence Environments
Tangible Interaction Based on Personal Objects for Collecting and Sharing Travel Experience BIBAKFull-Text 873-882
  Elena Mugellini; Elisa Rubegni; Omar Abou Khaled
The paper presents a case study which addresses the design of a system which supports the recollection of memories and the creation of storytelling by combining physical objects with digital resources. The purpose of our research is twofold. The first aim is to investigate the experience of travelling focusing on how objects and information support human activity. The second aim is to explore the Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) framework and the enabling technology in order to support recalling and sharing of travel experience.
Keywords: human-computer interaction; tangible user interface; travel activity; personal object; souvenir; case study; RFID technology
Attentive Information Support with Massive Embedded Sensors in Room BIBAKFull-Text 883-892
  Hiroshi Noguchi; Taketoshi Mori; Tomomasa Sato
We constructed informational support system based on massive sensor data in a room. In the room, called "Sensing Room", approximate 600 sensors are distributed. Pressure sensors are embedded in a floor, a table, chairs and bed. Switch sensors and electric current sensors are attached on furniture and electric appliances. RFID tag readers are embedded into room planes. The room monitors human activities without restriction of occupants. Information support system includes steerable active projector on the ceiling. The projector displays information on all planes of the room. The occupant watch information wherever he/she exists in the room without restriction. Based on captured activities, information support system decides timing, position and contents fitting the occupants' activities. In this way, massive sensors data achieves attentive support. We demonstrate notification, decision support and navigation by informational support system.
Keywords: Smart Room; Informational Support; Active Projector; Sensing Room; Massive Embedded Sensors
A Novel Infrastructure of Digital Storytelling Theme Museums Based on RFID Systems BIBAFull-Text 893-900
  Myunjin Park; Keechul Jung
This paper suggests a storytelling service infrastructure using RFID systems for theme museums with relevant multimedia contents providing an active experience space and drawing more interest. The proposed storytelling system uses RFID tags, a wireless LAN, and a mobile device for the theme museum, and relevant technical issues involving an overall architecture of RFID system will be introduced in this paper. Therefore, the proposed storytelling service infrastructure could be further applicable for games and animation to experience the people realistic scene through providing additional story and virtual information related to each object using RFID, a wireless LAN and a remote storytelling server.
A Novel Human-Computer Interface Based on Passive Acoustic Localisation BIBAKFull-Text 901-909
  Duc Truong Pham; Ze Ji; Ming Yang; Zuobin Wang; Mostafa Al-Kutubi
This paper describes work aimed at developing new tangible computer interfaces that can be created out of almost any surface by detecting the vibrations generated when a user's finger interacts with the surface. Two modes of interaction have been considered: discrete impact and continuous scratching. Two methods for localising the point of impact have been investigated: Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and Location Template Matching (LTM). Tracking of the continuous movement of a finger scratching on a surface has been implemented by extending the TDOA method. These methods have been tested using solid objects of different materials and shapes. Experimental results have shown the potential of the presented technologies for real-time impact localisation in this new form of human-computer interfaces.
Keywords: HCI; time reversal; TDOA; Kalman filter; tangible acoustic interfaces
Inhabitant Guidance of Smart Environments BIBAFull-Text 910-919
  Parisa Rashidi; G. Michael Youngblood; Diane J. Cook; Sajal K. Das
With the convergence of technologies in artificial intelligence, human-computer interfaces, and pervasive computing, the idea of a "smart environment" is becoming a reality. While we all would like the benefits of an environment that automates many of our daily tasks, a smart environment that makes the wrong decisions can quickly becoming annoying. In this paper, we describe a simulation tool that can be used to visualize activity data in a smart home, play through proposed automation schemes, and ultimately provide guidance to automating the smart environment. We describe how automation policies can adapt to resident feedback, and demonstrate the ideas in the context of the MavHome smart home.
Application of Tangible Acoustic Interfaces in the Area of Production Control and Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 920-925
  Wolfgang Rolshofen; Peter Dietz; Günter Schäfer
This article explores how physical objects like machine housings can be transformed into natural, seamless, unrestricted touch interfaces. The objective is to design multimodal tangible acoustic interfaces (TAI) that bridge the gap between the virtual and physical worlds. The methods presented are based on the principle that interacting with a physical object modifies its surface acoustic patterns. By visualizing and characterizing such acoustic patterns, it is possible to transform almost any object (for example, a machine, wall, window, table top, giant screen, or arbitrary 3D objects) into an interactive interface. Because of their numerous advantages over other methods, acoustic-based interfaces will have potential for the whole computer and information industry, as well as manufacturing.
Keywords: Tangible Acoustic Interface; Acoustic Source Localization; Production Control; Manufacturing
Cyberwalk: Implementation of a Ball Bearing Platform for Humans BIBAFull-Text 926-935
  Martin C. Schwaiger; Thomas Thümmel; Heinz Ulbrich
This paper presents an advanced model of a treadmill using balls which are actuated by a belt on a turntable. The platform is able to run at high speeds which are close to normal walking speed and can withstand the load of a 100kg human. Several different tests have been performed to prove the principle on the one hand and to evaluate the upscalability of the system on the other hand. First, a human is walking on the platform at different speeds. The speed is increased until the unit gets instable at about 1.5 m/s. Methods for further stabilization at higher speeds are discussed. Second, a vehicle simulates the movements of a human in an urban environment at a downscaled level. The control recenters the vehicle and the resulting accelerations on the vehicle are calculated and upscaled.
   These results are compared to the preliminary results of our partner Max Planck Society Tübingen where the research about the human perception of accelerations is done.
A Huge Screen Interactive Public Media System: Mirai-Tube BIBAKFull-Text 936-945
  Akio Shinohara; Junji Tomita; Tamio Kihara; Shinya Nakajima; Katsuhiko Ogawa
We develop an interaction framework for huge public displays with multiple users in public spaces such as concourses, lobbies in buildings, and rendezvous spots. Based on this framework, we introduce an interactive system for public spaces called Mirai-Tube. This system creates a scalable interactive media space and has a scalable real-time recognizer. A Mirai-Tube system was installed in the underground concourse of Minato Mirai Station in Yokohama. We conducted a demonstration experiment from 1st Feb. to 31st Oct. 2004. This trial represents the world's first experiment in a real public space in terms of its scale and its time period. We evaluate our interactive media system from three points of view: acceptability as a public media, how much attention the public pays to it, and its understandability as an advertising media. This paper describes the features, implementation, and operation of the interactive media system and the results of the evaluation.
Keywords: interactive public displays; ambient displays; interactive advertising; pattern recognition; subtle interaction
Kitchen of the Future and Applications BIBAKFull-Text 946-955
  Itiro Siio; Reiko Hamada; Noyuri Mima
A kitchen is a place where food is prepared and education and communication activities relating to food are carried out. As it is a place that witnesses more activity when compared to the other parts of the house, there are many potential ubiquitous computing applications that can be installed in a kitchen. We are developing a computer-augmented kitchen environment, the Kitchen of the Future, that incorporates various computing elements into a standard kitchen unit. In this paper, we describe an overview of the Kitchen of the Future system and three applications, that is, recording and replaying of a cooking process, videoconferencing cooking instructions, and interactive cooking navigation.
Keywords: Kitchen of the Future; Ubiquitous computing; computer-augmented kitchen; home computing; computer-aided cooking; remote instruction
A Tangible Game Interface Using Projector-Camera Systems BIBAKFull-Text 956-965
  Peng Song; Stefan Winkler; Jefry Tedjokusumo
We designed and implemented a tangible game interface using projector-camera systems. The system offers a simple and quick setup and economic design. The projection onto a paper board held by the user provides more direct viewing as well as more natural and flexible interaction than bulky HMD's or monitor-based game interfaces. Homography calibration techniques are used to provide geometrically compensated projections on the board with robustness and accuracy.
Keywords: Projector-camera systems; projector-based display; interface design; tilt-board; homography calibration; augmented reality; tangible user interface (TUI)
Context-Aware Mobile AR System for Personalization, Selective Sharing, and Interaction of Contents in Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAKFull-Text 966-974
  Youngjung Suh; Youngmin Park; Hyoseok Yoon; Yoonje Chang; Woontack Woo
With advances in tracking and increased computing power, mobile AR systems are popular in our daily life. Researchers in mobile AR technology have emphasized the technical challenges involved in the limitations imposed from mobility. They did not consider context-aware service with user-related information annotation, even if in ubiquitous computing environment, various contexts of both a user and an environment can be utilized easily as well as effectively. Moreover, it is difficult to have access to pervasive but invisible computing resources. At the same time, the more smart appliances become evolved with more features, the harder their user interfaces tend to become to use. Thus, in this paper, we propose Context-aware Mobile Augmented Reality (CaMAR) system. It lets users interact with their smart objects through personalized control interfaces on their mobile AR devices. Also, it supports enabling contents to be not only personalized but also shared selectively and interactively among user communities.
Keywords: context-aware; mobile AR; personalization; selective sharing
Center or Corner? The Implications of Mura Locations on LCD Displays BIBAKFull-Text 975-981
  Kuo-Hao Tang; Yueh-Hua Lee; Kuo Hsun Ku
With the consideration of Mura area and contrast, SEMI Standard provides a guideline for Mura inspection. However, for an end user, due to different tasks and environments, when interacting with a computer, Mura location on the screen may be an important factor affecting a user's overall satisfaction with the LCD display. Regression analysis from this study showed that both Mura level and Mura location affect the perceived value of an LCD by a user. Further analysis showed that this perceived value may change across different Mura Level ranges. When Mura levels are high, the small correlation coefficient between markdown value of a display due to Mura and Mura location suggests that the display won't be accepted by customers regardless of Mura location. On the other hand, if the Mura level is moderate, a higher correlation can be obtained, which means customers are sensitive to the Mura location.
Keywords: Mura; User evaluation; LCD display; Mura location
A Taxonomy of Physical Contextual Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 982-989
  Philippe Truillet
In this article, we propose to introduce taxonomy of physical contextual sensors. Indeed, applications are now becoming more and more interactive, mobile and pervasive in which context is a big issue. Knowledge from the user and context in which user interacts is crucial in the design. Then, our objective is to help designers to choose best sensors to use from context thy want to collect. We extended and refined taxonomy of context by associating sensors to this taxonomy.
Keywords: physical sensors; taxonomy; design
Human-Robot Interaction in the Home Ubiquitous Network Environment BIBAFull-Text 990-997
  Hirotada Ueda; Michihiko Minoh; Masaki Chikama; Junji Satake; Akihiro Kobayashi; Kenzabro Miyawaki; Masatsugu Kidode
The situation recognition ability of the robot is enhanced by connecting a home ubiquitous network and conversational robots. The situation explanation ability of the robot is also enhanced by acquiring information through the network. The new development of the human robot interaction can be expected in total. In this paper we describe a prototype system that is developed in the experimental house based on such a concept. Then, the study of the actual proof experimental life in the house is discussed.
Measuring User Experiences of Prototypical Autonomous Products in a Simulated Home Environment BIBAKFull-Text 998-1007
  Martijn H. Vastenburg; David V. Keyson; Huib de Ridder
Advances in sensor technology, embedded processing power, and modeling and reasoning software, have created the possibility for everyday products to sense the environment and pro-actively anticipate user needs. There is however a risk of creating environments in which people experience a lack of control. The aim of this study is to explore the degree in which people are willing to delegate control to a pro-active home atmosphere control system. The findings suggest that participants are willing to delegate control to easy-to-use systems, and they do not want to delegate control to complex and unpredictable systems. It is argued that the willingness to delegate should not be considered as a fixed degree, rather system initiative might depend on the situation at hand or on changes in time. Design research on mixed initiative systems faces a methodological challenge, in terms of measuring user experience of autonomous prototypes in a controlled way, while still preserving the sense of a realistic experience. The paper describes advantages and disadvan tages of testing in a simulated home environment versus testing in the field.
Keywords: Smart environments; user studies; intelligent interfaces; mixed initiative; interaction design; user adaptivity
Evaluation of Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) for and with Children -- Methods and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 1008-1017
  Diana Yifan Xu; Janet C. Read; Emanuela Mazzone; Stuart MacFarlane; Martin Brown
In recent years, creating alternative computer environments, especially Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) for children, has become increasingly popular. However, up till now, the evaluation of tangible technologies has been rather scarce. This paper focuses on evaluating children's technologies that go beyond the desktop computer. A qualitative case study on our TUI prototype will be presented by using selected methods: Think Aloud (TA), Peer Tutoring (PT) and Drawing Intervention (DI). We found some limitations to the methods and there were lessons that were learnt when the evaluation studies were carried out with children. The research will contribute to the paradigms, such as the design and evaluation of 'the disappearing computer' and 'tangible computing'.
Keywords: Evaluation; Children; Tangible User Interface (TUI); Usability; Fun
Social Intelligence as the Means for Achieving Emergent Interactive Behaviour in Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAKFull-Text 1018-1029
  Ioannis D. Zaharakis; Achilles D. Kameas
This work introduces a framework for modelling the main actors (human, artefacts and services) in a symbiotic Ambient Intelligence environment. It, also, proposes an architectural scheme that associates the social behaviour, which is not an inherent characteristic of the participants, during interaction with the functional behaviour of the participants of a Ubiquitous Computing application. The overall approach is demonstrated by a specific example of application which illustrates its concepts through a more technical point of view.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Emergent Behaviour; Human-Computer Interaction; Social Intelligence; Ubiquitous Environments
The Research on Human-Computer Interaction in Ambient Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 1030-1039
  Yong Zhang; Yibin Hou; Zhangqin Huang; Hui Li; Rui Chen; Haitao Shang
So far the research on Ambient Intelligence (AmI) has been lunched in Europe and Human-Computer Interaction becomes an important technical aspect of it. AmI is the integration of ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous communications and the application of user interface, and its goal is to design and realize the brand-new intelligent, personalized and connective systems or services. In this paper, we put forward an experimental system, which incarnate the essential characteristics of Ambient Intelligence. The architecture and context-aware mechanisms of this system is discussed briefly and the detail of some Human-Computer-Interaction techniques is expounded. With the building of research platform, some Human-Computer-Interaction techniques are worthy of further study in the future.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Human-Computer Interaction; Context-aware; Agent; Human facial-orientation
The Universal Control Hub: An Open Platform for Remote User Interfaces in the Digital Home BIBAKFull-Text 1040-1049
  Gottfried Zimmermann; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
This paper describes the application of an international user interface standard in the digital home in a gateway-based approach: The Universal Control Hub. ISO/IEC FDIS 24752 specifies the Universal Remote Console framework, promoting a "user interface socket" and pluggable user interfaces. The Universal Control Hub implements this standard in a way that facilitates the operation of existing controlled devices and controller devices. It retrieves user interfaces for the discovered target devices from resource servers that hold registered resources from multiple parties for any target device. Thus an open platform for user interfaces in the digital home is created that decouples the user interface from the device. This approach is expected to lead to more usable and more accessible user interfaces.
Keywords: Remote user interfaces; task-based user interfaces; digital home; usability; accessibility; Universal Control Hub; Universal Remote Console

Part 5: Emerging Interactive Technologies

An Investigation of Usability Evaluation for Smart Clothing BIBAKFull-Text 1053-1060
  Haeng-Suk Chae; Ji-Young Hong; Hyun-Seung Cho; Kwang-Hee Han; Joohyeon Lee
The purpose of this paper is to develop usability evaluation for smart clothing. In this paper, we propose evaluation factor and object through user centered evaluation process. The basic idea of this paper is to know the thought from wearable user. Also, we gathered the opinion from expert group. As a result, we adopted evaluation item categories. By examining some empirical data which is obtained from Observation Evaluation (OE) and Wearability Evaluation (WE), we conclude usability evaluation of Smart Clothing. The design process in creating a successful wearable usability is no longer about providing technical success, rather about creating an optimal user experience. Their studies provide guideline on the types of limit process that can affect user's situation in wearable computing. In this paper, usability of smart clothing is described, including improving reinforces of previous studies [2], [4], [5]. In addition, we provide a framework for usability to support new types. First, we were composed of systematic experience factor structure from an extraction factor as qualitative process based on scenario. We made factor-object matrix to check usability factor and wearable object position. Second, we finished developing questions about evaluation domain. Third, we took evaluation by questionnaire as observational and wearable types. Last, we did analysis and structure evaluation. We implemented factor analysis which was possible to access theoretic structure and delete meaningless questionnaire.
Keywords: Smart Clothing; Observation Evaluation (OE); Wearability Evaluation (WE); Wearable Computer; Usability Evaluation; Comport Rate Scale (CRS); Wearability
Textile Touch Visualization for Clothing E-Business BIBAKFull-Text 1061-1069
  G. Cho; S. Jang; J. Chae; Kyeong-Ah Jeong; Gavriel Salvendy
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of textile touch visualization on e-commerce web site. Two e-commerce web sites (Gap and Anthropology) were selected and 160 female subjects took part in this study. To visualize the tactile sensation, clothing materials of each brand was measured by KES and the values were displayed in bar chart. This visualized tactile information, lightness, and washing method was added on the original web site. Each brand had two web sites (one is with original, the other is modified with added information) and 40 participants answered the questionnaire on each web site. The questionnaire was constructed with two parts which would be answered before and after touch. In results, the modified web sites showed a significant difference between 'no visual information' and 'with visual information' on most of the questions. This may indicate that the modified web sites provide enough tactile information about clothing material to customers more accurately. However, both modified web sites didn't show any significant difference between before and after touching while the original web sites showed significant difference.
Keywords: textile touch visualization; Kawabata evaluation system; mechanical property; primary hand value; converted primary hand value; tactile sensation; visual information; internal consistency; purchasability; return rate; decision making time
A Development of Design Prototype of Smart Healthcare Clothing for Silver Generation Based on Bio-medical Sensor Technology BIBAKFull-Text 1070-1077
  Hakyung Cho; Joohyeon Lee
Recently, "Smart Clothing" technology, along with a rapid change of lifestyle and customers' needs, has been studied and developed for various applications such as Entertainment, Business, and Health Care and Sports areas. Among the number of types in "Smart Clothing" technologies, "Smart Clothing" for health care is anticipated as one of the highly demanded products in future market. The demand of "Smart Clothing" based on bio-medical sensor technology will increase due to the entry of an aging society where a high demand of development in both medical industry and medical welfare rises. This trend is related to the new condition of technological and social transition built through the rapid development of Ubiquitous environment. On the view of customers' demand, "Smart Clothing" technology coincides with the macro-flow of customers' general demand on clothing product. In domestic market, however, the research and development of "Smart Clothing" based on a bio-medical sensor technology are insufficient. In this research, with a consideration in clothing suitability and prevalence rate, a prototype of "Smart Clothing" is firstly developed for diagnosing basic vital signs of cardiac disorder and respiratory disease. A prototype of smart healthcare clothing developed in this research, maintaining similar appearance to common clothing, is equipped with textile-based sensors and other devices which senses and transmits vital signs, while keeping comfortable fits of clothing. When a person having it on, sensed vital signals are transmitted to computer in hospital through wireless transaction for a real-time monitoring process. It is also designed to send back alarm command to the wearer's cellular phone when emergent condition is detected in his body. The RFID tag, equipped on the inside of "Smart Clothing," stores wearer's medical history and personal data, so that a rescuer can collect the data in emergency case and send them to hospital for faster and efficient treatment for the rescue. An evaluation on usability and comfort of the firstly derived prototype in this research were evaluated. Based on the result from evaluation on the two aspects, the design prototype of sensor-based smart healthcare clothing was revised.
Keywords: Smart clothing for health care; Design prototype; Bio-medical sensor; Vital signs; Usability
Design and Evaluation of Textile-Based Signal Transmission Lines and Keypads for Smart Wear BIBAKFull-Text 1078-1085
  Jayoung Cho; Jihye Moon; Moonsoo Sung; Keesam Jeong; Gilsoo Cho
The present paper was intended to prove the applications of surface-conductive fabrics as electronic textiles. First, we tested the electrical durability of a Cu/Ni electro-less plated fabric reinforced by PU (polyurethane) sealing. Using the fabric, we constructed textile-based signal transmission lines and textile-based keypads. For performance tests, we compared the output signals between the textile transmission lines and Cu cables and evaluated textile-based keypads by means of operation force and subjective operation feeling. PU sealing was effective to yield electrical durability for surface-conductive fabrics, thus the repeatedly-laundered fabric showed almost identical output signal with that of Cu, successfully operating an MP3 player. Subjective evaluation and operation force measurement identified that the rubber dome switch keypad was preferred due to a low operation force and less pressure on the skin when the keypad-mounted clothing is worn. The paper suggested specific applications and evaluation methods of electronic textiles as essential components for smart wear.
Keywords: electronic textiles; smart wear; electro-less metal plating; conductive fabric; electrical resistance; transmission lines; textile-based keypads; switches; operation force
Display Button: A Marriage of GUI and PUI BIBAKFull-Text 1086-1095
  Stanley Chung; Jung-Hyun Shim; Changsu Kim
GUI (graphical user interface) output and PUI (physical user interface) input are two major concepts of user interface design for commercial products. GUIs and PUIs have been normally implemented on individual devices such as a screen and sets of buttons, respectively. However, recent researches show several cases of combining GUI and PUI into one user interface module, which can display visual information and collect user inputs simultaneously. With this combination, the expressiveness and flexibility of GUI can compensate impassive face of physical buttons, and the straight-forward and intuitive way of using PUI, like pushing a button, can remedy old tradition of GUI's learnability and memorability issues. This study presents Display Button, a modular component combining GUI and PUI with least production cost increase, and surveys its characteristics and merits in several contexts of consumer appliances. Display Button modules were applied in forms of additional components of conventional display and independent components. In order to design user interfaces of mobile phone and digital camera with Display Button modules, pattern-oriented approach is used to ensure smoother migration from traditional user interface to novel use of Display Button. Display Button can be applied to various kinds of consumer electronics with many possible alternative combinations, and hence increase their market competency with both of better end-user experience and less production cost.
Keywords: graphical user interface; physical user interface; display button; usability
Construction and Validation of a Neurophysio-technological Framework for Imagery Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 1096-1105
  Andrew J. Cowell; Kelly S. Hale; Chris Berka; Sven Fuchs; Angela Baskin; David Jones; Gene Davis; Robin Johnson; Robin Fatch
Intelligence analysts are bombarded with enormous volumes of imagery, which they must visually filter through to identify relevant areas of interest. Interpretation of such data is subject to error due to (1) large data volumes, implying the need for faster and more effective processing, and (2) misinterpretation, implying the need for enhanced analyst/system effectiveness. This paper outlines the Revolutionary Accelerated Processing Image Detection (RAPID) System, designed to significantly improve data throughput and interpretation by incorporating advancing neurophysiological technology to monitor processes associated with detection and identification of relevant target stimuli in a non-invasive and temporally precise manner. Specifically, this work includes the development of innovative electroencephalographic (EEG) and eye tracking technologies to detect and flag areas of interest, potentially without an analyst's conscious intervention or motor responses, while detecting and mitigating problems with tacit knowledge, such as anchoring bias in real-time to reduce the possibility of human error.
Keywords: Augmented Cognition; electroencephalography; eye tracking; imagery analysis
A Study on the Acceptance Factors of the Smart Clothing BIBAKFull-Text 1106-1112
  Ji-Young Hong; Haeng-Suk Chae; Kwang-Hee Han
This study aims to predict user acceptance of smart clothing. The present research develops and validates new products for smart clothing. Studies suggest that further analysis of the process be undertaken to better establish properties for smart clothing, underlying structures and stability over innovative technologies. The findings reported in this paper should be useful methods which identify user needs. Such findings in now provide a way to explain technology acceptance. Both of qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to this study in order to find out user needs for smart clothing. We are writing scenarios and conducting both focused group interviews and a survey to assess the user's interest. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the importance of the functions and to evaluate the degree of the participant's feeling and attitude. Furthermore, we explore the nature and specific influences of factors that may affect the user perception and usage.
Keywords: smart clothing; wearable computing; user acceptance factor; SNFD; HCI; user needs
A Wearable Computing Environment for the Security of a Large-Scale Factory BIBAKFull-Text 1113-1122
  Jiung-yao Huang; Chung-Hsien Tsai
This paper studies the issue of using the wearable computer as a remote sensing device of a large-scale factory. The infrastructure of ubiquitous security environment to realize the remote sensing capability for the security guard is presented in this paper. This paper also scheme out a wearable computing scenario for the security guard under such a ubiquitous security environment. That is, through the help of the wearable computer, the security guard can remotely sensing the security status of each building when he is patrolling a large-scale factory. To achieve a seamless remote sensing environment, we use the wireless AP (Access Point) as the relay between static sensor networks installed inside each building and the mobile sensing device worn on the security guard. The AP enable the wearable computer to seamless receive security status of each building and upload the wearer status to the security control center at the same time. Furthermore, this research adopts the technology of embedded Linux to design a middleware for the wearable computer. The proposed architecture of the wearable computer is scalable, flexible and modular for the mobile computing system. Finally, this paper elaborates a seamless connection approach for the wearable computer within a ubiquitous security environment.
Keywords: Wearable computer; Mobile Computing; Remote sensing; Ubiquitous security environment
Modification of Plastic Optical Fiber for Side-Illumination BIBAKFull-Text 1123-1129
  Min Ho Im; Eun Ju Park; Chang Heon Kim; Moo Sung Lee
In this study, we investigated the effect of solvent etching and physical treatment on the sidelighting of POF, even qualitatively. Even though the two were effective in making sidelight POF, the tensile properties of POF were decreased as a result of surface damaged during the treatment. We also investigated how to overcoat side-illuminating POF in order not to be broken during weaving process to make side-illuminating POF fabric. In the view of clarity and interfacial adhesion with POF, AC-100 based on acrylic polymer was chosen for overcoating material. However, tensile strength of notched POF was rather decreased even after overcoating, maybe due to toluene used as diluent, which is also solvent for the core of POF, i.e., PMMA.
Keywords: plastic optical fiber; POF sidelight; overcoating
Exploring Possibilities of ECG Electrodes for Bio-monitoring Smartwear with Cu Sputtered Fabrics BIBAKFull-Text 1130-1137
  Seeun Jang; Jayoung Cho; Keesam Jeong; Gilsoo Cho
This article deals with a way of developing E-textiles using sputtering method and their possibilities as ECG electrodes for a bio-monitoring smartwear. As the market of smartwear is growing, researches toward E-textiles become more important. Among various ways of providing conductivity on textiles, we selected sputtering technology. Through the sputtering, we developed E-textiles deposited with thin Cu layer on the surface of the fabrics with thickness of about 2 micrometer. Then we measured the electrical resistances, examined their performances as ECG (electrocardiogram) electrodes and compared ECG signal measured with general AgCl electrodes. In result, ECG signals from Cu sputtered electrodes showed big potentials as textile-based electrodes by showing little difference in its signals compared with commonly used AgCl electrodes.
Keywords: bio-monitoring; smartwear; E-textiles; sputtering; Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Development of Educational Program for Quick Response System on Textile and Fashion E-Business BIBAKFull-Text 1138-1146
  Kyung-Yong Jung; Jong-Hun Kim; Jung-Hyun Lee; Young-Joo Na
It is normal to develop fashion product through predicting purchase needs of consumers in Textile and Fashion industry. If failed in the prediction, that is, if consumers would not purchase the product, there comes problems that discount sale is inevitable or stock increases tremendously. Otherwise, Quick Response System allows that the company observes the consumer's needs consistently and establishes manufacture schedule rapidly so that they could prohibit the products unnecessarily stocked. Consumer's preference is collected and analyzed through the data generated by POS system, and this is provided to the related manufacturer through network in real time, so that the manufactures could merchandise rapidly, produce and deliver the products according to the consumer's need. Thus, this study developed POS system-education program; the merchandising of apparel product by prediction and confirmation and shorten product-lead time; the cooperative system among apparel company, retailers and manufacturer, through Internet Technology in Textile and Fashion Industry.
Keywords: Quick response system; Consumer's needs; POS-educational program; Textile and fashion e-business
Preparation of Conductive Materials for Smart Clothing: Doping and Composite of Conducting Polymer BIBAKFull-Text 1147-1154
  Jooyong Kim; Nowoo Park
Polyaniline (PANI) is a conjugated conducting polymer which can be doped by either protonation with a protonic acid or by charge transfer with an oxidation agent. The p-type polyaniline was obtained by a protonic acid doping while the n-type polyanilne was produced by doping a strong reductant. The p-type polyaniline was stable in moisture at the room temperature unlike the n-type polyaniline. In spite of CNTs excellent capability in electrical and mechanical improvements, it has been repeatedly pointed out that the phase separation between the polymer matrix and CNTs leads to very limited applications. In this research, CNTs were pre-treated by a concentrated nitric acid which produced carboxylic acid groups at the defect sites for improving the dispersion ability in the PANI matrix.
Keywords: polyaniline; carbon nanotube; doping
A Feasibility Study of Sixth Sense Computing Scenarios in a Wearable Community BIBAKFull-Text 1155-1164
  Seunghwan Lee; Hojin Kim; Sumi Yun; Geehyuk Lee
We propose a communication method for more abundant interaction using a sixth sensory channel for diffusion of multimedia files in a wearable computing environment. We suggest applications connecting people with their possessing media files as the most suitable applications for introduction of the wearable computer to the public. Sixth sense computing is a name that we use for the study of new possibilities that will be enabled by a wireless multimedia channel between wearcomp users. Scenarios enabled by sixth sense computing are developed and implemented in a wearable computer platform. We demonstrate possible requirements for new types of interaction style, an interface for a wearable computer application, and dynamic variation of society by varying system parameters such as the media selection method for diffusion.
Keywords: Wearable computer; ubiquitous computing; wearable community; sixth sense computing; new interaction style
Wearable Computers IN the Operating Room Environment BIBAKFull-Text 1165-1172
  Qi Ma; Peter Weller; Gerlinde Mandersloot; Arjuna Weerasinghe; Darren Morrow
High technology is a common feature in the modern operating room. While this situation enables a wide range of patient related data to be collected and analysed, the optimal viewing of this information becomes problematic. This situation is particularly acute in a busy operating theatre or while the clinician is moving around the hospital. The WINORE (Wearable computers IN the Operating Room Environment) project is a possible solution to this dilemma. It uses wearable computers and head mounted displays to provide an enhanced delivery of patient information, wirelessly collected from a range of devices, to surgeons, anaesthetists, and supervising clinicians. A crucial dimension to the project is how the clinicians interface with the system given the restrictions of sterile conditions and reduced dexterity due to operating procedures. In this paper we present the WINORE project concept, the background ideas and some findings from our trials.
Keywords: Wearable Computer; Operating Room; Head Mounted Display
Coupling the Digital and the Physical in Therapeutic Environments BIBAKFull-Text 1173-1182
  Patrizia Marti; Leonardo Giusti
The Multi-sensory Room is an ongoing project aiming to develop non pharmacological therapeutic protocols and IT solutions for the treatment of dementia in institutionalized contexts. The project exploits the potential of ambient technologies and tangible media for developing a therapeutic environment to stimulate patients' residual cognitive, behavioral and physical abilities. The Multi-sensory room is currently used in an Italian Home Care. Initial trials and preliminary results are described in the paper.
Keywords: Ambient technologies; Tangible media; Dementia Care; Therapeutic environments
Functional Brain Imaging for Analysis of Reading Effort for Computer-Generated Text BIBAKFull-Text 1183-1192
  Erin M. Nishimura; Evan D. Rapoport; Benjamin A. Darling; Jason P. Cervenka; Jeanine Stefanucci; Dennis Proffitt; Traci H. Downs; J. Hunter Downs
This paper discusses two functional brain imaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared (fNIR) imaging, and their applications for quantitative usability analysis. This application is demonstrated through a two-phase study on reading effort required for varying degrees of font degradation. The first phase used fMRI to map cortical locations that were active while subjects read fonts of varying quality. The second phase used fNIR imaging, which showed higher levels of activity (and thus greater cognitive effort) in the visual processing area of the brain during a reading task with text presented in degraded fonts. The readability analysis techniques demonstrated in this study also generalize to applications requiring an objective analysis of interface usability.
Keywords: quantitative usability analysis; functional brain imaging; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); functional near-infrared (fNIR)
Smart Furoshiki: A Context Sensitive Cloth for Supporting Everyday Activities BIBAKFull-Text 1193-1199
  Ryo Ohsawa; Kei Suzuki; Takuya Imaeda; Masayuki Iwai; Kazunori Takashio; Hideyuki Tokuda
This paper introduces a novel system for supporting everyday activities. Recent researches have proposed the embedding of computers and sensors in user environments so as to provide assistance in certain scenarios [1]. However, it is difficult for users to make the environments. Our goal is to develop a technology that will enable novice users to create such environments easily. In order to achieve this goal, we have developed a sensorized cloth called "Smart Furoshiki."
Keywords: Furoshiki; Smart Cloth; RFID; Context Awareness
Information Display of Wearable Devices Through Sound Feedback of Wearable Computing BIBAKFull-Text 1200-1209
  Park Young-hyun; Han Kwang-hee
Functions in wearable devices came to be various and specialized during the developmental process of wearable computing. However, such surfacing of new functions made it difficult and time-consuming for the devices to display the condition of their status, such as whether they are turned on or off. Moreover, mere dependency on visual display could lead to an overload of users' visual cognition. In this research, sounds were used for relaying information feedback of the status of wearable devices. We first verified the usefulness of adding sound feedback, and next, the effect of each device-specific sound was confirmed as a sound feedback.
Keywords: wearable computing; information display; sound feedback; auditory icon; earcon
An Evaluation Framework for the Design Concepts of Tangible Interface on New Collaborative Work Support System BIBAKFull-Text 1210-1219
  Youngbo Suh; Cheol Lee; Joobong Song; Minjoo Jung; Myung Hwan Yun
This study aims to suggest a systematic evaluation framework to evaluate design concepts of a new product at the conceptual design phase based on users' requirements and tasks, development trends of relevant technologies, and the CPV. The proposed framework to evaluate design concepts of a new product consists of three phases. In phase 1, we identify and analyze users' needs, functional requirements and their expected tasks by utilizing user scenario-based analysis and hierarchical task analysis. In phase 2, by deploying a relevant technology roadmap, we investigate technology alternatives for satisfying the user needs or functional requirements. In phase 3, we evaluate the design concepts using evaluation checklist, which is based on functional requirements derived from relationships analysis, utilizing CPV attribute for a quantifiable measure. A case study was demonstrated to evaluate the design concepts of a new CSCW-based tangible interface that was recently designed to support group decision making activities.
Keywords: Conceptual Design; Concept Evaluation; CPV; Technology Trends Analysis; Scenario; HTA
The Research of Using Image-Transformation to the Conceptual Design of Wearable Product with Flexible Display BIBAKFull-Text 1220-1229
  Yung-Chin Tsao; Li-Chieh Chen; Shaio-Chung Chan
Wearable computer offers job-critical information to people whose hands must be free for other works. By adopting the flexible electronic technology, designs of such apparatus provide the features of highly mobility and durability. This paper takes the duties of the police as a case study. By analyzing the activities of the police and the problems of currently used apparatus, thirty-three problems were elicited. A Quantification Method Type IV and a cluster analysis were employed to analyze the problem's structure and six groups of problems were highlighted. The design specifications were derived from the previous studies. Four conceptual designs of wearable computers were proposed by transferring the soft and wearable images in the design processes. Developing and evaluating the experimental prototypes will be undertaken for further analysis.
Keywords: flexible display; wearable computer; image-transformation
User Interaction Design for a Wearable and IT Based Heart Failure System BIBAKFull-Text 1230-1239
  Elena Villalba; Ignacio Peinado; María Teresa Arredondo
In Europe, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the leading source of death, causing 45% of all deaths. Besides, Heart Failure, the paradigm of CVD, mainly affects people older than 65. In the current aging society, the European MyHeart Project was created, whose mission is to empower citizens to fight CVD by leading a preventive lifestyle and being able to be diagnosed at an early stage. This paper presents the design of the user interaction of a Heart Failure Management System, based on daily monitoring of Vital Body Signals, with wearable and mobile technologies, for the continuous assessment of this chronic disease. The user interaction in such systems plays a role of major importance, enabling the usage of technical solutions which motivate people to adopt healthy lifestyles.
Keywords: user interaction; usability test; wearable systems; health monitoring; personalized applications; personas; goal-oriented design
VortexBath: Study of Tangible Interaction with Water in Bathroom for Accessing and Playing Media Files BIBAKFull-Text 1240-1248
  Jun-ichiro Watanabe
We describe an interface for places where people use water, such as the kitchen, toilet, or bathroom. We developed a prototype that can be operated by users by tangibly interacting with water. It enables image files and movie files to be browsed by projecting the images onto water, it plays music files with album jacket images, and it reads out information from the Internet using speech-synthesis technology. We also describe a demonstration of how users can access their media files by tangibly interacting with water, which is different from conventional way such as pressing buttons on a remote control.
Keywords: Water interaction; ambient display; tangible interaction; content browsing