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HCII Tables of Contents: 07-409-109-209-309-411-111-211-311-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-3

HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on HCI - Posters' Extended Abstracts, Part II

Fullname:HCI International 2011: 14th International Conference on HCI Posters' Extended Abstracts Part II
Note:Volume 23 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Communications in Computer and Information Science 174
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-22094-4 (print), 978-3-642-22095-1 (online); hcibib: HCII11-6
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 6
    1. Part I / Novel Interaction Environments
    2. Part II / Virtual and Augmented Environments
    3. Part III / Gestures, Gaze and Multimodality in HCI
    4. Part IV / Touch-Based and Table-Top Interaction
    5. Part V / Brain-Computer Interfaces and Brain Monitoring
    6. Part VI / Ergonomics and Human Modelling Issues
    7. Part VII / Health and Wellbeing
    8. Part VIII / Learning, Education and Cultural Heritage

HCII 2011-07-09 Volume 6

Part I / Novel Interaction Environments

Measuring Human Interaction in Digital Television Using Profiles and Geolocation BIBAKFull-Text 3-7
  Valdecir Becker; Marcelo Knörich Zuffo
This paper presents an audience measurement system for Brazilian digital free-to-air television, with profiles and geolocation introduction. The work uses activity theory framework for analyzing the context in which the audience and the interaction occur. There are nine user and behavior profiles proposed. The geographic distribution of the audience is shown by maps.
Keywords: Audience measurement; profiles; geolocation
PC-Based Warning Mechanism System of Fall Risk in Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 8-12
  Chih-Sheng Chang; Cherng-Yee Leung; Jeih-Jang Liou
It is difficult to recognize and classify movement patterns correctly. We have developed and evaluated a method to classify movement using contact forces during sit-to-stand (STS) movement in elderly people. We used the key points of the ground reaction force (GRF) to identify the sequence of important time points in the STS movement of elderly people. The data showed that the reaction forces had three distinctive patterns: typical-modal (t-modal), multi-modal (m-modal), and incompetent-modal (i-modal). This is the first study to identify STS patterns based on objective force data and key points. The STS patterns can be used to supplement the subjective Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score to provide a more precise analysis of STS movement in the elderly.
Keywords: BBS; GRF
System of Systems for Sensor and Actuator Networks BIBAKFull-Text 13-17
  Tiffany Elise Chua; Mark Merlo; Mark Bachman
Sensor and actuator networks are often the backbone of control applications. They are used in many different fields, such as health care, home automation, and industrial control. Despite the prevalence of sensor and actuator networks, there is a lack of tools to support the rapid prototyping of sensing and control applications. We have developed a system to support a generic platform for rapid prototyping of sensing and control applications in which different sensors and actuators are brought together to perform specific functions. At the heart of the system-of-systems is the Control INterface to Devices and Instruments (CINDI), a small Linux-based box with a number of standard interfaces. The system was built with simplicity in mind and to support component reuse.
Keywords: system of systems; sensor and actuator networks; rapid prototyping; pervasive computing; ubiquitous computing
Smart Clothes Are New Interactive Devices BIBAKFull-Text 18-21
  Gi-Soo Chung; Hee-Cheol Kim
Clothes are more than wears. They are interactive wearable devices. Recently, smart clothes have gained interest among researchers and practitioners, and shown us the potential as comfortable mobile computers in a ubiquitous world. This paper presents the two cases where the digital garment that we developed have been tested and applied to: communication and video display, and healthcare. While recognizing that the garment is still insufficient for ordinary users, we hope that its problems will be gradually resolved with the technological development.
Keywords: Digital yarn; interactive device; smart clothes; wearable computing
Ebook Readers: An iPod for Your Books in the Cloud BIBAKFull-Text 22-27
  Ann-Marie Horcher; Maxine Cohen
The new way to carry books or literature is to not carry it at all. Not only have computing resources and data moved to the cloud, so has the latest novel or self-help book. The key to the acceptance of this technology is usable design that anticipates a reader's needs while still invoking a comfortable form factor -- the book [1]. Though e-book readers have been available for a decade, the latest wave of e-book readers has achieved a new level of technology acceptance. This trend and potential acceptance of future models can be understood by applying task-technology fit theory [2] to a usability study of the Barnes and Noble Nook and Amazon Kindle ebook readers.
Keywords: ebook; digital libraries; usability; task-technology fit; gender bias
The Ambient from the Young Passengers' Perception in the Carriage of Taiwan High Speed Rail BIBAFull-Text 28-30
  Jeichen Hsieh; Chan Yo Shan
To explore the Taiwan High Speed Rail passenger experience of environmental attitudes, the concept car as a potential environmental factors (Table 1) to Hershberg & Cass environmental significance of the semantic scale (Table 2) (Xu Leiqing, 2004) as Measurement tools of environmental factors in the compartment of the bipolar adjective semantic differential method is usually the number must be used about 10 to 30 is more suitable, it will be adjusted to 2to 3 group to obtain more stable reference. Online questionnaire with Taiwan High Speed Rail train running video will be a reference tool to assist measurement. The video contents directly play to compare the experience feedback of fifty passengers.
An Effective Disaster Evacuation Assist System Utilized by an Ad-Hoc Network BIBAKFull-Text 31-35
  Yasuki Iizuka; Kyoko Yoshida; Kayo Iizuka
This paper proposes a system that supports effective evacuation from danger using an original Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (DCOP) algorithm DiSTaS-Anne (Distributed Tabu Search with simulated Annealing). The use of DCOP facilitates the assisted optimization of people's evacuation timing, by estimating the location of evacuees. This system enables assistance in terms of evacuation guidance to be given to relieve congestion, by calculating evacuation routes via an ad-hoc network of evacuees' mobile devices (phones, PCs, etc.), intercommunication function and location information.
Keywords: optimization; Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem; disaster evacuation
Locating Projectors Using Intensity of Reflected Beams Based on Phong Shading Model BIBAKFull-Text 36-40
  Yukio Ishihara; Makio Ishihara
Abstract. In this work we focus on handheld projector-camera systems and discuss how to find out where and in which orientation those projectors are. We propose a way to find out them by measuring the intensities of the beams reflected on the screen. The point is that our system does not rely on fiducial markers which are usually stuck on the screen to help to locate the projector. Additionally, in our system, a laser-based projector is used, and the intensity of beams being projected and reflected on the screen is modeled based on Phong shading model. Through the evaluation, we show the potential of our system in HCI areas.
Keywords: beam intensity; Phong shading model; laser-based projector; real-time calibration; projector-camera system
Embodied Communication Support Using a Presence Sharing System under Teleworking BIBAKFull-Text 41-45
  Yutaka Ishii; Tomio Watanabe
We have proposed the concept of a presence sharing system Ghatcha [GHost Avatar on a Telework CHAir] in which the users' embodiment is not indicated by the avatars but by the chairs that suggest the presence of avatars. This system provides the same communication space for the users' embodiment, thus creating a feeling of working alongside remote workers. In this paper, we develop prototype systems using a virtual or a real environment. And the effectiveness of the virtual prototype system is confirmed in the experiment.
Keywords: Embodied Interaction; Avatar; Remote Communication; Telework; Remote Operating Chair
Visibility Experiment and Evaluation of 3D Character Representation on Mobile Displays BIBAKFull-Text 46-51
  Hiromu Ishio; Shunta Sano; Tomoki Shiomi; Tetsuya Kanda; Hiroki Hori; Keita Uemoto; Asei Sugiyama; Minami Niwa; Akira Hasegawa; Shohei Matsunuma; Masaru Miyao
In the experimental study, we measured visibility and readability of text characters presented on a small 3D liquid crystal display (LCD) and evaluated features of the 3D character representation for application to mobile devices. For the visibility evaluation, we focused on time lag for first recognition, time required for full reading, and maximum distance of 3D objects popping out from the fixed display. We also report the dependency of the results on the age of subjects in comparison with 2D and 3D representations.
Keywords: 3D character representation; liquid crystal display (LCD); mobile display
Composite Context Information Model for Adaptive Human Computing BIBAKFull-Text 52-56
  Sukyoung Kim; Eungha Kim; Youngil Choi
This study is to propose the composite context information model that provides an appropriate model depending on the situation around user. In our research, describe the definition of composite context information, propose the reuse method of the preexisted context information and design the composite context information process structure to improve performance. For developing the user-centric context-aware computing, above all important thing is, provide the high-level concept like human beings in knowledge framework and many application layers use it, don't care the inner structure for processing complex context information.
Keywords: composite context information; context-aware computing
A Framework for a User Friendly Wireless Sensor Network Configuration System BIBAFull-Text 57-61
  Julia C. Lee; Lawrence J. Henschen
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being embedded into the fabric of our everyday lives. But there design still requires expertise in computer science and engineering in addition to the expertise for the application to which the WSNs are directed, and this slows the progress towards WSN solutions to important modern-day problems. We outline a system which may ultimately allow designers with little or no computer background to design WSNs. The system is based on a well-crafted user interface combined with a knowledge base about WSN hardware and software.
FlexRemote: Exploring the Effectiveness of Deformable User Interface as an Input Device for TV BIBAKFull-Text 62-65
  Sang-Su Lee; Seungwoo Maeng; Daeeop Kim; Kun-Pyo Lee; Wonkyum Lee; Sangsik Kim; Sungkwan Jung
We tried to explore the possibility of using deformation-based interaction as a new input method to remote control. We selected eight basic commands to control TV and design deformation-based gestures for each command based on prior studies regarding organic user interface. A prototype, the FlexRemote, was made and tested by informal user study. The study showed that the users have higher preferences to the FlexRemote in comparison with the conventional input devices and the users can make intuitive interactions through physical deforms. From this positive explorative study, we are expecting that this study will present a new direction in intuitive and fun interaction method with TV in living room environments, which is gaining greater importance.
Keywords: interaction design; deformation-based interaction; organic user interface
A Study of User Needs for the 'Techno Kitchen' BIBAKFull-Text 66-71
  Martin Maguire; Colette Nicolle; Russell Marshall; Ruth E. Sims; Clare Lawton; Sheila Peace; John Percival
A project, Transitions in Kitchen Living (TiKL) has been conducted to study kitchen histories and current use by older people. A multidisciplinary team developed a common interview methodology to collect people's personal kitchen histories and their views on their current kitchen. Now and in the future ambient assistance and applied electronic technology might provide additional functionality to make kitchens easier to use for all ages. This paper relates some of these technical developments to user needs identified in the TiKL project and reports on the results of a survey to obtain older people's views on them.
Keywords: kitchen; advanced technology; older people; people with disabilities
Consideration of the Human-Computer Interface in the Operation Room in the Era of Computer Aided Surgery BIBAKFull-Text 72-75
  Kazuhiko Shinohara
Human-computer interactions in the operation room (OR) are rapidly increasing as a result of advances in endoscopic surgery and the implementation of computerized physicians order entry systems (CPOE). Not only computerized medical devices and robotics, but also various image guidance systems with augmented reality to support endoscopic surgery, are being developed and some are already widely used in the OR. While CPOE provide the surgical team with quick and wide-ranging access to individual patients' medical records and images while in the OR, essentially the procedures undertaken by surgeons and scrub nurses cannot be changed. In this study, ergonomic problems involving the human-computer interface in the operation room were investigated for the smooth uses of computers in this era of computer-aided surgery. The amount of cords, cables and medical tubing is increased between 3- and 5-fold over that used in the conventional OR, which carries latent risks for fault connections between the equipment and slipping and tripping accidents among the OR team. The use of a CPOE requires additional movement to the computer terminal during surgery. If fingerprint recognition is used as the CPOE biometrics system, surgeons and scrub nurses cannot access the CPOE themselves during operations. As countermeasures against such problems, the integration of cables and wires, improvement of the WIFI environment and electromagnetic compatibility with medical devices, and implementation of tablet PCs with voice recognition or touch screens are required. Moreover, it is essential for the human-computer interface in the OR to be further improved by accounting for OR-staff's work flow.
Keywords: computer aided surgery; operation room; human-computer interface
'STISIM-Drive' Meets 'MotorcycleSim': Using Driving Simulation Software to Develop a Unique Motorcycle Simulator for Rider Behavior Research BIBAKFull-Text 76-80
  Alex W. Stedmon; David Crundall; Elizabeth Crundall; Rose Saikayasit; Editha van Loon; Alex Irune; Patrick Ward; Neil Greig
In order to compare groups of road users who have fundamentally different skills, attitudes and behaviours, one of the first in-depth motorcycle simulation studies of its kind was conducted. The project was developed using the innovative 'MotorcycleSim' simulator designed and built at the University of Nottingham. The simulator is a research tool to investigate aspects of motorcycle ergonomics and rider human factors and is the first of its kind in the world to incorporate 'STI-SIM Drive' software that allows motorcyclists to ride a full size motorcycle and interact with a virtual riding environment (VRE). To build a simulator that was both fit for the purpose of research and provided the desired levels of fidelity associated with real world riding, a user-centred design process was adopted from the outset (based in principles of ISO:13407).
Keywords: transport simulation; motorcycles; rider behavior
AirportLogic: Usability Testing, Prototyping, and Analysis of an Airport Wayfinding Application BIBAKFull-Text 81-84
  Bennett Stone; Yun Wang
As air travel continues to be prevalent in our lives, and as the use of mobile devices designed to assist us become more common, the creation of wayfinding applications for mobile devices continues to be a challenge for both developers and interface designers. Unfortunately, many airport specific wayfinding applications do not live up to user expectations. In preliminary project phases, usability testing and evaluation of existing applications was performed, followed by prototyping and evaluation of a proposed application. Task-based user testing was performed to address two primary questions: 1) are current and proposed applications efficient for users?, and 2) is the information architecture and navigation suitable for average users? A prototype application and corresponding website were developed, and tested, with user testing confirming enhancements over previous airport way finding applications.
Keywords: user interface design; mobile application; wayfinding
Using on-Bicycle Rider Assistant Device While Cycling: A Hazard Perception Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 85-89
  Chao-Yang Yang; Cheng-Tse Wu
Technologies have been developed to assist the cyclist for precise training exercise such as monitoring their body and bicycle state. Due to the limited position placing on-bicycle rider assistant device and riding posture, it enlarges the essential view range of the chance the cyclist distracted from the road. The risks using the system have been evaluated through an interactive video-based hazard perception/reaction test in which response times were measured. 5 participants, 3 male and 2 female participated a 2-phase section including 7 traffic scenes in a 5 minutes cycling exercise with and without using on-bicycle rider assistant device. As the results, average reaction times tended to increase 0.33 seconds and average mis-maintained pushing cadence time was 31.4 seconds when cycling with the device assistance. It is concluded that cadence control assisted by the device can interfere the efficiency of hazard perception, an important safety factor of cycling.
Keywords: on-bicycle rider assistant device; hazard perception; response time

Part II / Virtual and Augmented Environments

Human-Robot Collaboration with Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 93-97
  Siam Charoenseang; Tarinee Tonggoed
This paper presents an implementation of human-robot collaboration by using augmented reality technique for providing necessary information to human operator. In this research, human operator and a robot arm share the same workspace in virtual object assembly task. The virtual objects are created in the form of 3D computer graphics that is superimposed on the real video image. While working in assembly task, the robot will assist the human operator by loading the virtual objects. Furthermore, a task planner controls all robots' operations accordingly to human actions. Using augmented reality, human operator will receive robot's task plan in the form of computer graphics during assembly task. The computer-generated information will support human operator's decision for a suitable next step action.
Keywords: Human-Robot Collaboration; Augmented Reality; Task Planning
Making Pixel Patterns Automatically for Camouflage -- Using Color Information from Their Background BIBAKFull-Text 98-101
  Woon Jung Cho; Wonmi Ahn; Myung Shik Kim; Jeeyea Park; Seungduk Kim; Kwang-Hee Han
Camouflage is an attempt to obscure a target's outline and match its background for hiding the target. Detectability of a target depends on the features of the background and changes in the surrounding. Thus, we have to consider visual information from the background and apply them to the development of an effective camouflage pattern. As dynamic environments are essential for designing an adaptive pattern, controlling digital images and making patterns automatically by use of computer can be efficient alternatives through the designing process of development and evaluation. In this study, we made the automatic pixel patterns program for the camouflage assessment. For making patterns, color information derived from background was used and pixel-dot type of pattern was considered in view of the digital pattern. Automatic stimuli-pattern maker developed in this study follows several steps; load an image, select an area, extract colors, and create a pattern. This automatic implementation has some benefits for design processes for camouflage pattern development. Further studies are needed not only for program-upgrade but also for improvement of color strategy through analyzing camouflage features.
Keywords: camouflage pattern; camouflage assessment; photosimulation; adaptive pattern
Virtual Bridge: AR-Based Mobile Interaction for Easy Multimedia Control of Remote Home Devices BIBAKFull-Text 102-106
  DongJin Eun; Taik Heon Rhee; Seonghoon Kang; Minsuk Choi; Sangil Lee; Hark-Joon Kim
This paper proposes an interaction for controlling multimedia contents of remote devices using a mobile device based on AR technology. Using a real-time object recognition method, home devices detected by the camera of a mobile device are displayed on the camera preview screen along with the thumbnails of their own multimedia contents around the recognized positions. A user may drag a multimedia content which he or she wants to play, and drop it onto another target home device which he or she wants to play the content through. The user study showed that the proposed interaction expects higher usability since once a home device is registered with its device name when registering its image shown on the mobile camera for the object recognition, this matching process is no longer necessary when a user controls the device through the mobile device.
Keywords: Mobile Interaction; Augmented Reality; Mobile AR; DLNA; Contents Sharing; Real-Time Object Recognition
Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Projected Virtual Reality System to Support Learning Processes BIBAKFull-Text 107-111
  Rodrigo Gómez; Helmuth Trefftz
Virtual Reality technologies have been successfully incorporated into the learning processes and potential new applications in education are explored continuously. We found that one of the difficulties to popularize its use in the educational context, in countries with emerging and developing economies, is the cost of hardware required to generate satisfactory immersive experience. In this work we considered virtual reality from the perspective of human-computer interaction to support learning processes. The characteristics of low-cost projected virtual reality system (PVR) proposed, combines study and integration of available technology solutions, the development of an image synchronization routine that enables the use of a single video projector and the design of a printable pattern that preserve the state of polarization on the projection screen.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; projection surface; polarization
Interface Design to Support Situation Awareness in Virtual Puppetry BIBAKFull-Text 112-115
  Keisha Harthoorn; Stephen Hughes
We propose virtual puppetry as a potential mechanism for enhancing students' presence in a virtual learning environment. To develop this style of interaction will require substantial attention to the user interface in order to promote the operator's situation awareness of both the real and virtual environments. This presentation describes the development of an initial prototype and some of the ongoing concerns for controlling virtual puppets.
Keywords: Virtual Puppetry; Interface Design; Situation Awareness; Virtual Environments; Presence; Virtual Heritage
Immersive Video Game Based on Exercise Prescription BIBAKFull-Text 116-119
  Daegun Kim; Changhoon Park
It is increasingly desirable to have good health. And, regular exercise is the most effective way to improve fitness. But, most people who repeat the exercise easily feel the boredom and tend to give up. This paper propose an immersive video game based on exercise prescription. The game is designed to ensure safety and effectiveness exercise. And, exercise intensity and time can be adjusted automatically with monitoring the player's physical status. We expect this kind of game will help people increase their interest and motivation.
Keywords: Health; Video Game; Exercise Prescription; Safety; Effectiveness
Assessing the Use of Cognitive Resources in Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 120-124
  William E. Marsh; Jonathan W. Kelly; Veronica J. Dark; James H. Oliver
Due to system limitations, interactions in virtual environments are often unnatural and this may impact performance. During learning, unnatural interactions draw from a finite pool of cognitive resources, meaning that those resources cannot be used for a concurrent, possibly more important task. Because users typically have primary objectives to accomplish in the virtual world, we argue that interaction techniques and other system design choices should account for task compatibility. We use a dual-task paradigm to study resource usage during locomotion tasks varying in their similarity to real-world locomotion. In one experiment, unnatural locomotion interfaces required additional spatial resources compared to natural movements. Some participants used unique strategies unlikely in traditional dual-task studies, possibly due to the high level of immersion.
Keywords: Virtual reality; dual-task paradigm; working memory; locomotion; cognitive resources; user interfaces
Augmented Reality Approach to Domestic Maintenance Tasks BIBAFull-Text 125-129
  Jorge Martín-Gutiérrez; Irene Inés Santos Pérez
Augmented reality technology is becoming more familiar and utilized at user level thanks to new generation of smartphones provided of webcam, big format tactile screens and internet connection. This allows creating applications which make certain human tasks nicer and more comfortable. AR technology has been applied to mechanical engineering field, concretely for assistance on repairing and maintenance tasks of complex and specific systems using expensive systems which are not very useful nor accessible for performing simple or domestic tasks. In this work we intend making this technology approachable for applications and tasks which are more common to everybody. For example, two AR technology based tools, one belonging to a smartphone platform and another using a head mounted display (HMD) glasses connected to a PC. Both allow helping user while performing installation, maintenance and adjustment of a mountain bike brakes system.
Development of AR Display System for Dental Surgical Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 130-133
  Katsuhiko Onishi; Shota Ito; Yusuke Kawamura; Hiroshi Noborio
In this paper, we describe about a display system for dental surgical simulator. The design concept of our system is that the system allows the user to learning the dental surgical methods with the real hand and body posture. Therefore our system set a display, which shows virtual teeth model and real teeth and gums, close to user's hand position and allows the user to manipulating object directly.
Keywords: dental surgical simulator; direct manipulation; augmented reality
Earthquake Disaster Prevention Support Tool -- Visualization of Prevention Effectiveness by Utilizing Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 134-138
  Kyoko Yoshida; Masahiro Urabe; Hayato Tsuchiya; Yasuki Iizuka; Kayo Iizuka
Japan has faced major problems with large-scale earthquake countermeasures due to its location in an earthquake zone. The Building Standards Act of Japan has been amended since previous major earthquake damage and new buildings have been built with a safer design than ever before. However, measures against falling or overturning of furniture, which could injure people inside buildings, are not sufficient. In this paper, the authors propose an earthquake disaster prevention support tool with which one can experience the shaking of furniture with or without earthquake disaster countermeasures using a 3DCG animation function of Augmented Reality (AR) and three applications of this tool.
Keywords: earthquake disaster prevention; Augmented Reality (AR); disaster simulated experience

Part III / Gestures, Gaze and Multimodality in HCI

A Three-Dimensional Fingertip Interface BIBAKFull-Text 141-145
  Yangkeun Ahn; Kwangmo Jung; Jiman Hong
This paper proposes a method to recognize the fingertip three-dimensionally using infrared stereo cameras. The proposed method can be used for human-computer interactions with a three-dimensional display and is designed to provide robust performance against finger trembling, kinematic errors, and sensor noise. This paper describes the proposed method in detail and also presents implementation results.
Keywords: Fingertip Recognition; Stereo Camera; Spatial Touch
Rule Based Trajectory Segmentation Applied to an HMM-Based Isolated Hand Gesture Recognizer BIBAKFull-Text 146-150
  Jounghoon Beh; David K. Han; Hanseok Ko
In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method of modeling hand drawn gestures based on their angles and curvature of the trajectories. Each gesture trajectory is composed of a unique series of straight and curved segments. In our Hidden Markov Model (HMM) implementation, these gestures are modeled as connected series of states analogous to series of phonemes in speech recognition. The novelty of the work presented here is the automated process we developed in segmenting gesture trajectories based on a simple set of threshold values in curvature and accumulated curvature angle. In order to represent its angular distribution of each separated states, the von Mises distribution is used. Likelihood based state segmentation was implemented in addition to the threshold based method to ensure that gesture sets are segmented consistently. The proposed method can separate each angular state of training data at the initialization step, thus providing a solution to mitigate ambiguity on initializing HMM. For comparative studies, the proposed automated state segmentation based HMM initialization was considered over the conventional method. Effectiveness of the proposed method is shown as it achieved higher recognition rates in experiments over conventional methods.
Keywords: Trajectory segmentation; hand gesture recognition; hidden Markov model; HMM initialization
Head-Free, Remote Eye-Gaze Detection System with Easy Calibration Using Stereo-Calibrated Two Video Cameras BIBAKFull-Text 151-155
  Yoshinobu Ebisawa; Kazuki Abo; Kiyotaka Fukumoto
The video-based, head-free, remote eye-gaze detection system based on detection of the pupil and the corneal reflection was developed using stereocalibrated two cameras. The gaze detection theory assumed the linear relationship; θ=k|r'|. Here, θ is the angle between the line of sight and the line connecting between the pupil and the camera, and |r'| indicates the size of the corneal reflection -- pupil center vector. Three novel easy calibration methods were proposed; 'automatic', 'one-point', and 'two-point'. In the 'automatic', the user does not have to fixate the specific location in the PC screen. In the 'one-point', the angular difference between the optical and visual axes of the eye was determined and used for compensation. The 'two-point' was proposed to compensate the nonlinear relationship between |r'| and θ, which occurs when θ is large. The precision of gaze detection was compared among the three methods using the developed gaze detection system.
Keywords: eye-gaze detection; pupil; corneal reflection; user calibration; head-free; infant
Eye Position Effect on Audio-Visual Fusion Involves New Proposals for Multimodal Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 156-160
  David Hartnage; Alain Bichot; Patrick Sandor; Corinne Roumes
Combination of audio and visual information is expected to ensure an efficient interface design for spatial information. Then, we focus on Audio-visual (AV) fusion referred to the perception of unity of audio and visual information despite there spatial disparity [1]. Previous experiment showed that AV fusion varied over space mainly with horizontal eccentricity [2]. As audio spatial information is coded in relation to head position and visual information is coded relative to eye position, question arises on eye position effect. The current psychophysical experiment investigates the effect of horizontal eye position shift on the variation of AV fusion over the 2D frontal space. Results showed that eye position affects AV fusion. Current data support the need for including eye position inputs when displaying redundant visual and auditory information in integrated multimodal interfaces. Results are discussed considering the probable effect of visual display structure.
A Virtual Mouse System Using Finger-Gestures of Twisting-in BIBAKFull-Text 161-165
  Takashi Kihara; Makio Ishihara
In this manuscript, we introduce the finger gesture of twisting-in to make an input device and conduct an experiment on performance. The finger gesture of twisting-in is a series of movements of a finger twisting and pushing. It gives us the feeling of twisting and pushing a button. The experiment shows that our input device has the potential to be practical and usable.
Keywords: twisting-in; finger gesture; virtual mouse; input device
Control of Five Finger of Computer Graphics Hand Using Electromyographic Signal Measured with Multi-channeled Small Laplacian Electrodes BIBAKFull-Text 166-170
  Takuya Kimura; Akinori Ueno
The authors propose a new simple method for controlling five fingers of computer graphics hand respectively using electromyograms signal. We manufactured five double-polar concentric ring electrodes, for measuring surface Laplacian electromyograms (Laplacian EMGs) from flexor muscle corresponding to each finger flexing action. Laplacian EMGs can detect the current flowing into the component that is proportional to the vertical surface current density. The experimental results shown the each manufactured electrode could measure the Laplacian EMG corresponding to each finger flexion without any interference and that the developed interface could control the CG hand in real time. These results infer that the proposed approach is promising as an EMG-based human-computer interface or human-machine interface. The next challenges to be addressed are to conduct the evaluation test for many subjects and to facilitate electrodes attachment.
Keywords: EMG; Human interface; Laplacian electrode
Kinematic Analysis of Remote Target Pointing Hand Movements in a 3D Environment BIBAKFull-Text 171-175
  Yung-Hui Lee; Shu-Kai Wu
The study investigates kinematics of target pointing hand movements in a free-hand, touchless, 3D environment. Consistent with Fitts' original information processing model, target pointing hand movement time in a 3D space increased with an increase of distance, and increased with a decrease of target size. The relative primary submovement movement time (% of total movement time) for target with depth (67.24%) was higher than that for targets without depth (64.49%). Pointing targets in the upper half of the reference framework required a lifting up of the arm to work against the gravity, and thus cost more than those in the lower half. For targets with depth, they required an even elevated upper-arm, thus result a longer "primary submovement time", a decreased "peak velocity", and a decreased relative time to peak velocity.
Keywords: Target pointing hand movement; 3D; depth perception; hand/arm kinematics
Design and Implementation of Deformation Based Gesture Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 176-179
  Wonkyum Lee; Sungkwan Jung; Sangsik Kim; Woojin Ahn; Sang-Su Lee
We present an approach of designing and implementing a novel interaction in a future flexible display. By featuring flexibility of flexible displays, deformation-based gestures are employed as input techniques for interacting with digital contents. We designed gestures for the selected tasks, commonly found in commercial device, based on our prior study investigating how users prefer to manipulate flexible displays. We devised a concept of device which use the deformation based gesture interaction and implemented a prototype based on currently available technology. Sensors mounted on the prototype enable us to recognize deformation without visual sensors which are conventional in gestural recognition. The prototype is evaluated with applications that support our interaction by participants. Evaluation results show that deformation based gesture interaction can increase intuitiveness and fun.
Keywords: interaction design; deformation-based interaction; gesture interaction; flexible display; organic user interface
The Expansibility of User Interfaces Using Peripheral Multisensory Stimulation BIBAKFull-Text 180-183
  Ju-Hwan Lee
The present study has explored the expansibility of using everyday objects for game interface to provide additional multisensory stimuli. The perceived expansibility of game interfaces was investigated by measuring user various responses such as the degree of presence, immersion, and enjoyment. Offering actual sensations assumed in the virtual environment of game could enhance user experience by effectively accessing their emotions. Participants were provided with one of four output modes: basic condition, room light stimulation, chair vibration stimulation, & both light and vibration. Consequently, tactile stimulation has resulted in higher presence and immersion than visual did. The result also suggests that a gamer could experience the expanded interfaces with additional multisensory output, bringing more enjoyment. These tendencies are especially recognized for high immersive tendency group. These findings can be applied to various fields of game interface design.
Keywords: Multisensory; Multimodal; Computer Game; User Interface; Expanded Game Interface
Use of Hands-Free Mouse for Game Control BIBAKFull-Text 184-187
  Moyen Mohammad Mustaquim
Interaction using gaze is not a new concept. It has been ready to deliver the promises to many people who suffer from severe disability and the only means of communication for them is eye or some muscle movement. The ideas proposed here construct a system that can collect gaze data, studies the oculomotor functions and capture natural human behavior. The hands-free mouse concept here is based on this idea which will provide the user to move the cursor and select object using eye, or any other muscular movement for the operation of game control. The concept of game in this study is, a tool that can help users with special needs doing exercise in an informal way. This can be helpful for patients who are under physiotherapy. A game interface can be used to show progresses of user's muscle movement using scanning technique challenging the users for advancing certain level while exercising parallel.
Keywords: Gaze; Eye Tracking; Inclusive Design; Special Need; Game
An Armband-Type Touch-Free Space Input Device for HCI BIBAKFull-Text 188-192
  Dongwan Ryoo; Junseok Park
In this paper, the design of an armband-type non-touch space input mouse for human computer interface is presented. Demand for a non-touch type input system has been increasing with the development of large-display technology. One of the non-touch type input system is a system based on gesture recognition. There is a lot of research on gesture recognition systems based on vision, but the presented device has advantages in terms of accuracy. The globe type input system is already developed, but the users do not want restrictions on finger actions. Unlike a glove type device, an armband device type does not constrain finger movements. We designed an armband-type space input mouse by using arm movement and wrist gesture actions.
Keywords: Armband; Non-touch; HCI; 3D space
Modeling of Purchasing Behavior for Application on Merchandise Display and Package Design BIBAKFull-Text 193-196
  Kotaro Suzuki; Nobuyuki Nishiuchi; Mi Kyong Park
In this study, we modeled customer purchasing behavior in a retail store using a Bayesian network-based probabilistic modeling tool to apply towards improving merchandise display and package design. The following four aspects of purchasing behavior were examined: purchasing gestures, glances made during the selection of merchandise, customer psychology concerning purchasing, and body information, including age, height, gender, eyesight, and dominant hand. To monitor purchasing behavior, three college students fitted with an eye tracker were asked to select the most appealing product among twenty-five snack food products that were displayed on five-tier shelving. Factors affecting customers' merchandise selection in the experimental retail store were then computed using a Bayesian network, and a purchasing behavior model was constructed from the results. Using the constructed model, a method of effective merchandise display based on the characteristics of retail purchasing behavior was proposed.
Keywords: Purchasing Behavior Model; Bayesian Networks; Retail Store; Eye Tracking
Decoding of Hand Shapes Based on ElectroMyoGraphic Signals during Playing Guitar Chords BIBAKFull-Text 197-200
  Hideaki Touyama; Masafumi Mizuguchi
In this paper, aiming to study on a new entertainment direction, we investigated the decoding performance of complicated hand shapes from ElectroMyoGraphic (EMG) signals during playing guitar chords. Three healthy right-handed subjects participated in this experiment. During the experiment, they played four guitar chords (The major chords of 'C', 'F', 'G', and 'A') as well as being relaxed. The EMG signals were recorded from the left forearm by using 12 surface EMG electrodes. By using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), the decoding performances could be more than 95% for all subjects. Our results will encourage the development of surface EMG based entertainment systems.
Keywords: ElectroMyoGram (EMG); Guitar Chords; Principal Component Analysis (PCA); Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA); Entertainment
Exploring Whole-Hand Gestures in a Tabletop Environment for Urban Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 201-205
  Peter Vandoren; Karel Frederix; Karin Coninx; Frank Van Reeth
Touch-based tabletop interaction with virtual environments (VEs) is a recent research interest. In particular, 3D navigation and object interaction on tabletops pose considerable research challenges given the flat, rectangular two-dimensional workspace of an interactive tabletop. This paper explores the design of whole-hand gestures for urban modeling on an interactive, tilted tabletop system. These touch-based gestures fit a hybrid 2D/3D approach for navigation and object interaction in urban city modeling. In a formal user study the proposed whole-hand gestural interface was compared to a finger-based equivalent. The evaluation results reveal appreciation for aspects of the interaction concept, also illustrating the need for further tuning of the interaction concept and the input tracking.
Keywords: interaction techniques; tabletop; gestures; touch-based interaction; navigation; urban modeling; user evaluation
Input Interface Using Fingertip BIBAKFull-Text 206-209
  Ryo Wada; Tomohiro Hase
This paper proposed an input interface that needs no keypad on small-sized portable equipment such as portable game machines. ON/OFF switches are provided on user's ten fingertips of both hands in our proposed method. Each of these fingertips is provided with one of control signals that work as binary number and so on. The combination of characters onto those fingertips is kept changeable by the user. A prototype was created to verify the proposal and evaluated whether it is effective as a user interface for data entry. This method has a feature that the needed characters can be entered if the user press user's fingertips to any part of the user's body, for example, without needing any specific key pad on the surface of a small-sized portable terminal.
Keywords: Input Interface; Fingertip; Glove; Switch
Recognition Method for Foot Written Characters BIBAKFull-Text 210-213
  Masahiro Yonezawa; Takako Nonaka; Tomohiro Hase
This paper proposed a method in which characters can be easily entered to an information device, by using the feet in place the hands. First, we determined input on the board was possible with an experimental system. Next, we confirmed recognition of characters directly write, and supported alpha-numeric characters and, symbols. Finally we confirmed the recognition rate of the system by the input experiment of ten users. The recognition rates were more than 87 percent when including a fifth characters candidate, and our proposed user interface was confirmed as effective in recognizing handwritten characters.
Keywords: Foot Written; Board; Recognition

Part IV / Touch-Based and Table-Top Interaction

Sounds in Space: 3D Audio Experiences through Tangible Navigation BIBAFull-Text 217-221
  Andrew Blakney; Sudhir Mudur
This paper presents an experiment with 3D audio design and experience through a Tangible User Interface for 3D navigation. A generic 3D navigation metaphor, Navigational Puppetry, provides the user with a graspable viewpoint that allows them to 'reach' into the virtual world. An audio expert, specializing in relationships between 'music, place, and mobility', uses an audio-enabled prototype of this metaphor -- the Navi-Teer -- to populate a soundscape with graphical representations of sound elements. As navigation occurs, the audio environment yields unusual and complex 3D audio mixtures and spatial sound interactions. The experiment showcases Navigational Puppetry's subtle interactive benefits of increased spatial orientation, tactile intimacy, easy capture of complex input and support for collaboration in a task that requires navigation to complete a larger goal.
Multi-touch Surface Table with Multi-point Tactile Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 222-226
  Siam Charoenseang; Navakun Sribang
Currently, most of multi-touch surface tables do not provide any tactile feedback to the users. In this paper, a multi-touch surface table with tactile feedback is proposed. The proposed surface table provides the users with the ability of multi-point tactile feedback with variant patterns and levels of vibrations. A webcam is used to capture all finger-touch images as system inputs using computer vision. Interactive computer graphics is generated and projected on the surface table. In addition, the multi-point tactile feedback is produced by multiple motors attached below the display surface. Hence, the user will receive tactile feedback synchronized with multi-point interactive computer graphics.
Keywords: Surface-based Display; Multi-touch Display; Tactile Feedback
Suggested Considerations on the Design of Multi-touch Interfaces for Commercial Presentation BIBAKFull-Text 227-231
  Ting-Han Chen
This paper details several design considerations derived from multi-touch projects for commercial presentation that we have conducted in the past. These considerations are suggested in the hopes that they may help future designers decide on appropriate design strategies and styles when designing a basic commercial multi-touch presentation interface.
Keywords: Presentation design; multi-touch; design considerations
A Study on the C/R Ratio of Direct-Operation Multi-touch Interface BIBAKFull-Text 232-236
  Kuan-Hung Chen; Chun-Wen Chen; Wenzhi Chen
Multi-touch interface is becoming an important part of consumer information products. Interface design should have more in-depth understanding to achieve better human-computer interaction. This study investigates the multi-touch interface's control/response ratio (C/R ratio) with rotation and moving tasks to understand the effects on participant's performance and satisfaction. The results showed that the better C/R ratio is not the same for efficiency of different operating tasks. And the user satisfaction was affected by previous experience of the participants.
Keywords: multi-touch; C/R ratio; sensibility
Multi-touch Table as Conventional Input Device BIBAKFull-Text 237-241
  Andreas Dippon; Florian Echtler; Gudrun Klinker
In order to improve the functionality of multi-touch devices, the possibility of using them as input devices for other computers needs to be reviewed. The idea is, to get rid of many different peripherals (e.g. keyboard, mouse, multi-touch pad) by using a single multi-touch display. Furthermore the display can be used as an additional monitor to show for example toolbars, which can be directly manipulated through multi-touch gestures. We implemented a prototype, which provides an adaptive keyboard that shows shortcut keys for different applications, a multi-touch pad as well as the option to drag&drop standard Windows widgets onto the multi-touch table, which can be controlled by direct touch input. A user study was conducted to test the current system and to get information about the further approach to this concept.
Keywords: multi-touch; input device; libTISCH; virtual keyboard
Properties of Shadow-Cursor for Calibrating Screen Coordinates of Tabletop Displays BIBAKFull-Text 242-246
  Makio Ishihara; Yukio Ishihara
This manuscript introduces the basic idea of a shadow-cursor for calibrating the screen coordinates of tabletop displays. The shadow-cursor is an invisible mouse cursor. We explain how the shadow-cursor works to calibrate the screen coordinates and discuss its properties of accuracy, and then show that the shadow-cursor has the potential to align the screen coordinates.
Keywords: shadow-cursor; screen calibration; pointing interfaces; tabletop displays
Emotional Expression by a Person's Grip on a Tactual Communication Tool BIBAKFull-Text 247-251
  Yasuhiro Matsuda; Tsuneshi Isomura
Tactual communication between people familiar to each other can express various emotions. But a social distance exists between unfamiliar people. The purpose of this study is the development of a tactual communication tool that conveys emotional communication during an oral conversation. In the present study, a tactual communication tool was examined, and the features of emotional expression by a person's grip on the tool were analyzed. Ten subjects expressed six emotions by their grip. As a result, surprise and joy were expressed by one grip pattern, and anger and sadness by two grip patterns. Disgust and fear were expressed by different grip patterns.
Keywords: Emotional communication; tactual communication; communication tool
Effect of Target Size and Duration of Visual Feedback on Touch Screen BIBAKFull-Text 252-256
  Jeeyea Park; Kwang-Hee Han
This study investigated performance and touching experience as a function of duration of visual feedback and target size on a touch screen. Five duration of visual feedback by three target size within-subject experiment was conducted. Relationship between performance and duration of visual feedback has an inverted-U shape trend. Performance and touching experience evaluation was worse with small targets. There was significant interaction between target size and duration of visual feedback. At the small target size condition performance was different from the other sizes. People could pay more attention to visual feedback because small size target condition was difficult. Another possible explanation is that the presented visual feedback size was very similar to small target condition. Longer lasting visual feedback might over complicate things for people and lead to confusion with the target.
Keywords: Touch screen; Visual feedback; Duration; Size; Touching experience
Development of an Economical Haptic Stimulus Device BIBAKFull-Text 257-261
  Greg Placencia; Mansour Rahimi; Behrokh Khoshnevis
Human perception of haptic information is often complex and requires devices that are expensive and difficult to operate. We see increasing attention being given to finding simpler motions in haptic research to represent more complex haptic perception on the surface of the skin. Our research has indicated that lateral motions in multiple directions may provide sufficiently useful perception for information transfer. We present a design for an economical haptic stimulation device using off-the-shelf parts that are relatively easy to obtain and assemble. Our design was configured for lateral motion, but can be modified to deliver a variety of haptic stimulations.
Keywords: Haptics; Haptic Communication Tangential Motion; Tactile Communication
Feeling Home -- Tangible Information Visualization in Smart Home Environments in Relation to the Concept of Transhumanism BIBAKFull-Text 262-266
  Florian Weingarten; Sahin Albayrak
Current trends in the area of smart and interactive environments, such as future homes, show a dramatically increasing number of networked appliances, electronic devices and sensors and a coherently rising amount of information and data flows. Instead of conveying this digital information only through a conventional graphical user interface, we propose a more subliminal way, following the human perception in the physical world. We use haptic feedback to make gathered data at home tangible for inhabitants and therefore extend their human capacities of perceiving otherwise invisible information.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Smart Environment; Smart Home; Tactile Feedback; Transhumanism

Part V / Brain-Computer Interfaces and Brain Monitoring

Calibration Time Reduction through Source Imaging in Brain Computer Interface (BCI) BIBAKFull-Text 269-273
  Minkyu Ahn; Hohyun Cho; Sung Chan Jun
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is mainly divided into two phases; calibration phase for training and feedback phase. A calibration phase is usually time-consuming, thereby, being likely to raise subjects' fatigue at the early stage. For more convenient and applicable BCI system it should be investigated to reduce such preparation (calibration) time before feedback phase. Beamformer is a source imaging technique widely used in MEG/EEG source localization problem. It passes only signals produced at the designated source point and filters out other signals such as noise. We conjecture information in source space may be consistent over well trained and good subjects. This idea facilitates to reuse existing datasets from the same or different subjects. Using IVa data in BCI competition III, we constructed a classifier from other 4 subject's training data and performance was evaluated in source domain. In this work, we observed the proposed approach worked well, resulting in relatively good accuracies (73.21%, 74.21%) for two subjects.
Keywords: Brain Computer Interface; Source imaging; Transfer learning; Zero training
How Much Features in Brain-Computer Interface Are Discriminative? -- Quantitative Measure by Relative Entropy BIBAKFull-Text 274-278
  Sangtae Ahn; Sungwook Kang; Sung Chan Jun
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) gives opportunities to control a computer or a machine by imagination of limb movement, which activates somatosensory motor region in a discriminative manner. As far as it has been concerned, it has been not well investigated how much the given (extracted) features in BCI are discriminative in the sense of information theory. For this purpose, we cast the feature spaces corresponding to given conditions into probability spaces by yielding corresponding probability distributions. Then the relative entropy (measures to estimate the difference between two probability distributions) is introduced to measure the distance between these probability distributions. Such a distance represents well how two feature spaces are separable. We compare this distance with BCI performance (classification success rate) to see their correlation.
Keywords: Brain Computer Interface; Relative Entropy; Information Theory
EEG-Based Measurement of Subjective Parameters in Evaluations BIBAKFull-Text 279-283
  Daniel Cernea; Peter-Scott Olech; Achim Ebert; Andreas Kerren
Evaluating new approaches, be it new interaction techniques, new applications or even new hardware, is an important task, which has to be done to ensure both usability and user satisfaction. The drawback of evaluating subjective parameters is that this can be relatively time consuming, and the outcome is possibly quite imprecise. Considering the recent release of cost-efficient commercial EEG headsets, we propose the utilization of electro-encephalographic (EEG) devices for evaluation purposes. The goal of our research is to evaluate if a commercial EEG headset can provide cutting-edge support during user studies and evaluations. Our results are encouraging and suggest that wireless EEG technology is a viable alternative for measuring subjectivity in evaluation scenarios.
Keywords: Evaluation techniques; Brain-Computer Interface (BCI); Electroencephalographic (EEG) interaction
Fundamental Study of the Pictogram-Scanning-BCI BIBAKFull-Text 284-288
  Hiroyuki Inada; Hisaya Tanaka
We developed a pictogram-scanning-BCI system for neurogenic patients and people with severe physical disabilities. Pictograms are applied as a means for communication. Because pictograms have meanings in pictures, the pictogram method may communicate faster than the traditional letter method. We developed a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) with nine pictograms for at-home care. We conducted comparative experiments of the pictogram-scanning method and traditional letter-scanning method to review input accuracy, input speed and bit rate. The BCI system showed nine pictograms on a 3x3 matrix to subjects, as well as 36 letters on a 6x6 matrix. A row or column of pictograms or letters was randomly flashed. As a result, the pictogram method was effective for particular communication such as the case of at-home care.
Keywords: BCI; ALS; pictogram; CA; ERP; EEG
EEG Based Comparative Measurement of Visual Fatigue Caused by 2D and 3D Displays BIBAKFull-Text 289-292
  Young-Joo Kim; Eui Chul Lee
Visual fatigue is a very important issue of display market to implementing more comfortable display device in terms of human factor. This study is performed in order to measure the visual fatigue using objective evaluation method (i.e., EEG) in 3D display environment. We performed the difference of visual fatigue using a subjective method and compared it to an objective measure. As a result, the 3D content affected the power of brain wave in the beta frequency (14-25 Hz). Beta power was more strong at the viewing the 3D contents. Also, subjective result also showed more strong visual fatigue in the 3D condition than in the 2D condition. We found that visual fatigue significantly appeared amount of power in the beta band between stereoscopic (3D) image and 2D image.
Keywords: Electroencephalogram; Visual Fatigue; Stereoscopic image
A New Design of the Multi-channels Mobile and Wireless EEG System BIBAKFull-Text 293-298
  Chin-Teng Lin; Wan-Ru Wang; I-Jan Wang; Lun-De Liao; Sheng-Fu Chen; Kevin Tseng; Li-Wei Ko
Most researchers acquired EEG by using standard measurement system like NeuroScan system, which includes AgCl electrode cap, SynAmps Amplifier and Scan software to provide good reliability for the acquisition of EEG data. However, it is still not convenient for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) application in daily life because of needing conduction gels to contact skins and being wired, expensive and heavy. Moreover, the conduction gel will trend to be drying, so it does not suitable for long-term monitoring. In this study, we developed a mobile and wireless EEG system. The system consists of frond-end 16-channel dry electrode cap, a miniature low-power wireless portable circuitry, and a back-end program receiving events and digital EEG data simultaneously. We demonstrate the recorded EEG data have high correlations between from our system and from NeuroScan system.
Keywords: EEG; Brain Computer Interface; Mobile and Wireless EEG
An Experimental Comparison of Brain Activity in Professional and Non-professional Sewers during the Use of Sewing Needles BIBAKFull-Text 299-303
  Masako Omori; Yukari Morishita; Asuka Kawakita
The purpose of this experiment is to analyze differences in brain activity of people using hand motor skills. The subjects were twelve healthy female adults with professional or non-professional sewing abilities. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to measure the brain activity of each subject related to the movement of fingers during the "needling" process. Furthermore, the finger muscle activity was measured to assist in calculating the value of the integral during the needling. "Needling" performance (number of needle stitches, needle stitch intervals, and completion time) was also recorded. The study required the subjects to sew four types of stitches in 20 second intervals. The results show that while the subjects with professional skills made a significantly higher number of needle stitches, there was no significant difference between the non-professionals. No major muscle activity occurred in either group, although there was some increase in force used by the non-professionals. An increasing tendency was found in the presence of oxy-Hb in the brain activity, which corresponded with the rhythm of the muscle activity. In the professional group it was present in the prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex during the related movement of needling. These results are similar to those found in a previous study. The findings of this study may be useful in understanding the skill level of non-expert sewers by analyzing either the brain activity or changes in the muscle activity of the fingers.
Keywords: Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS); sewing; cortical activation; muscle activity and skill level
EEG-Based Measure of Cognitive Workload during a Mental Arithmetic Task BIBAKFull-Text 304-307
  Brice Rebsamen; Kenneth Kwok; Trevor B. Penney
We collected EEG data from 16 subjects while they performed a mental arithmetic task at five different levels of difficulty. A classifier was trained to discriminate between three conditions: relaxed, low workload and high workload, using spectral features of the EEG. We obtained an average classification accuracy of 62%. A continuous workload index was obtained by low-pass filtering the classifier's output. The average correlation coefficient between the resulting workload index and the difficulty level of the task was 0.6.
Keywords: EEG; mental workload; arithmetic; cognitive state
EEG Measurements towards Brain Life-Log System in Outdoor Environment BIBAKFull-Text 308-311
  Hideaki Touyama; Kazuya Maeda
In this paper, we studied electroencephalogram during ambulatory conditions in outdoor environment. Five healthy subjects participated in this experiment. The task of the self-paced walking subjects was to count the number of appearances of the target auditory stimulus using oddball paradigm. We observed P300 evoked potentials in ambulatory conditions in outdoor environment as well as sitting conditions in indoor environment. Our results are encouraging and make new direction to promising novel applications of ambulatory BCIs.
Keywords: ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG); P300 Evoked Potentials; Ambulatory; Brain-Computer Interface (BCI); Life-Log; Outdoor Environment

Part VI / Ergonomics and Human Modelling Issues

On the Applicability of Digital Human Models for Personal Equipment Design BIBAKFull-Text 315-319
  Thomas Alexander; Jessica Conradi
Digital Human Models (DHMs) have developed from academic research into valuable engineering tools. They offer a vast amount of functionality for modeling and simulation of anthropometric dimensions, reach, vision, movement, and comfort. Today's DHMs are primarily used in automotive design. As our previous studies have shown, a simple transfer to other application domains (e.g. workplace design) may be possible but result into inaccuracies. With the following study we analyzed the applicability of two typical DHMs for the design of personal equipment and for identifying potential conflicts between different pieces of equipment. Such an application differs strongly from automotive applications, but many similar uses of DHMs can be observed in daily life. The analysis addresses different aspects: At first, the general functionality of the DHMs was screened. Required functions were either available instantly, available by workarounds, or unavailable. A subsequent verification and validation study analyzed potential shortcoming for the available functions. It consists of an empirical survey with different typical soldiers' movements. The data include maximum reach, focusing a target with a binocular or aiming with different postures. A number of motion sequences were selected for the analysis. Results show that simple movements were modeled quite accurately. But complex movements were hardly possible to model and large inaccuracies were observed. An important functional shortcoming resulted from limited possibilities to integrate virtual objects of personal equipment into the DHM. This prevented an analysis of conflicts between personal equipment.
Keywords: Digital Human Models; personal equipment; motion capture; verification & validation
Discussing Validation of 3D Character Animation Demonstrating Ushiro-Ukemi Pedagogical Progression BIBAKFull-Text 320-324
  Mauro Cesar Gurgel de Alencar Carvalho; Bruno Martins Carvalho; Felipe Leal de Paiva Carvalho; Heidi Dias Oliveira Junior; Gerson Gomes Cunha; Luiz Landau; Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas
This study was designed to verify the evidence of validity, through: 1) literature review about ushiro-ukemi pedagogical progression. 2) An expert performed the movement and it was recorded to develop the animation. 3) Finally, an evaluation of 3D character animations processes by other experts' opinions. 13 experts have evaluated three affirmatives through the Likert scale, and answered one question, also in ordinal scale, about the quality of the animation. The calculated medians for the first, second and third affirmatives were 5, 5 and 5 (fully agree), but, only for the 3rd affirmative about sitting ushiro-ukemi, the median was 4 (agree). The percentage of answers that scored higher than agree varied from 84,6 to 100%. The median of the 3D character animation was very good (4) and the percentage of acceptance was 100% (≥ good). The found definitional evidence of validity for these animations ensured their application in a learning material.
Keywords: 3D character animation; Judo; sport skill; validation
The Provision of Digital Information in the Seat Comfort of the Seat Design BIBAKFull-Text 325-329
  Kuen-Meau Chen; Siu-Tsen Shen; Stephen D. Prior
A great number of factors affect the uncomfortable of seats. Apart from external appearance, the most important is the comfort for users in designing an un-adjustable seat. A system or suggested principles which assist designers in designing the comfort of the seats to testees will benefit waist of users, and hence prevent them from potential discomfort and injuries. This study attempts to develop digital design platforms, and allows designers to measure the design scale of the comfort. We expect to find the association between seat parameter interaction and comfort. For example, when the seat height is much lower than the knee of testees, they can stretch calf forward if the space allows, so that their thighs contact the surface of the seat to share sciatic pressure in greater comfort. We believe to have changes of comfort in opposition to different seat parameter combinations. The final results will help effective reference parameters of comfort in seat design.
Keywords: Seat design; prediction model; dynamic interaction; Digital Design
The Effect of Damping in an Input Device on Human Positioning Performance BIBAKFull-Text 330-334
  Koen Crommentuijn; Dik J. Hermes
This study investigates the effect of damping in an input device on performance in a target acquisition task. In an experiment with 21 participants, five levels of damping were tested in the range of 0 to 10 Ns/m. Contrary to our expectation, the time required to acquire a target decreased as the damping value increased. The reduction in completion time was not caused by an increase in velocity, but by a decrease in the overshoot rate. It is therefore concluded that, unlike previous beliefs, some amount of damping in an input device can be beneficial to user performance.
Keywords: damping; input device; human performance; positioning task
Performance and Comfort When Using Motion-Controlled Tools in Complex Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 335-339
  Ines Ann Heber; Michael Oehl; Christine Sutter
The use of interaction tools in modern work often challenges the human motor system, especially when these tools create awkward postures and discomfort (e.g., mouse arm syndrome). The question whether the trackball is a serious alternative to the mouse was evaluated in this experimental study in terms of motor performance, usability and comfort. In an applied pointing-selection task we varied gain and task difficulty. Results showed a considerably stronger impact of gain and task difficulty on the trackball than on the mouse, especially for the high gain trackball performance slowed down. Second, usability ratings were significantly better for the mouse than for the trackball (independent of the experimental condition). Finally, while the discomfort after mouse usage rose notably, trackball usage led to an even bigger increase in perceived discomfort.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; input devices; Fitts' Law; repetitive strain injury
Pen Tip Position Estimation Using Least Square Sphere Fitting for Customized Attachments of Haptic Device BIBAFull-Text 340-344
  Masanao Koeda; Masahiko Kato
In this paper, a method for estimating the pen tip position of customized haptic device attachments is presented. Least squares sphere fitting is applied to the acquired point cloud data to estimate the radius and center of a sphere. Verification experiments were conducted and the experimental result shows that the proposed method has reasonable accuracy.
Corrected Human Vision System and the McGurk Effect BIBAKFull-Text 345-349
  Ladislav Kunc; Pavel Slavík
The McGurk effect test is a method to evaluate articulation of talking heads. Our work addresses the issue of corrected vision influence on the McGurk effect perception. We conducted an experiment to investigate this influence. Measured data shows different perception of participants with corrected vision in some cases. The results could help talking head evaluators to compare talking head implementations each other with elimination of the influence of corrected vision.
Keywords: Talking head; McGurk effect; vision correction
Facial Landmark Extraction for Lip Tracking of Patients with Cleft Lip Using Active Appearance Model BIBAKFull-Text 350-354
  Nayoung Lee; Chuck Heaston; Ada Rey; Terry Hartman; Carroll-Ann Trotman
Patients with cleft lip have trouble in communication because of facial disability resulting in both facial disfigurements and impairments in movement. Consequently, for individuals with facial functional impairments, lip tracking methods for analyzing these impairments are useful in treatment planning and diagnosis. In comparison with non-cleft control subjects, facial landmarks for lip tracking of patients with cleft lip need to be widely defined in the circumoral area in order to reflect an irregularly shaped mouth. In this paper, we discuss the idea of facial landmark extraction for lip tracking in patients with cleft lip. The idea is based on facial features, identified by using AAM (Active Appearance Model) algorithm for finding facial landmarks in the circumoral area. These landmarks are composed of the outer and inner contours of the mouth in the circumoral area. The inner contour of the mouth is represented as landmarks on the mouth. The outer contour of the mouth is divided into the upper outer contour and lower outer contour on the basis of the center line. Here, the center line is defined as an intersecting line which connects from the left corner to the right corner of the mouth. The distance from the lower lip to the jaw line in general is twice that from the bottom of the nose to the upper lip. Therefore, a set of artificial landmarks, the upper and lower outer contours, have been defined using a set of pre-determined distances. The distance from the lower lip to the lower outer contour used is twice that from the upper lip to the upper outer contour. Using these landmarks, we gathered objective measures of facial form in patients with cleft lip who have both form and functional deficits. All subjects were recruited from patients attending at the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry Craniofacial Center, Orthodontic, Pedodontic Clinics. Supported by: NIDCR GRANT #DE013814 & #DE019742.
Keywords: Facial Landmarks; AAM (Active Appearance Model); Circumoral; Cleft Lip; Lip Tracking
Kansei Evaluation of the Projection for the Approach to Universal Design: Computerization of Tactile Sensibility BIBAKFull-Text 355-359
  Miyong Lee; Kazuhiro Nishida; Yoshihiro Narita
This study focused on the projection of a shampoo container as a case of computerization of tactile sensibility. There is a projection distinguishing it from a conditioner container without having to look at the shampoo container. This study estimated the projection using Kansei evaluation about a feeling when we touch the container and aimed at investigating the characteristics of the projection. For this study, we produced two types of models that are different in the surface shape of the object. The individual models have three parameters (height/length/interval) that refer to the shape of the projection. As a result, height created the strongest impression of the three parameters of the projection. And there was hardly any difference in the impression in the plane type models and the curved type models. This study is an attempt to computerize the feeling by touching and it is expected to be useful as fundamental research of recognition of human ignorance.
Keywords: Kansei evaluation; projection; computerization; tactile sensibility; SD method
A Framework of Motion Capture System Based Human Behaviours Simulation for Ergonomic Analysis BIBAFull-Text 360-364
  Ruina Ma; Damien Chablat; Fouad Bennis; Liang Ma
With the increasing of computer capabilities, Computer aided ergonomics (CAE) offers new possibilities to integrate conventional ergonomic knowledge and to develop new methods into the work design process. As mentioned in [1], different approaches have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the ergonomic evaluation. Ergonomic expert systems, ergonomic oriented information systems, numerical models of human, etc. have been implemented in numerical ergonomic software. Until now, there are many ergonomic software tools available, such as Jack, Ergoman, Delmia Human, 3DSSPP, and Santos, etc. [2-4]. The main functions of these tools are posture analysis and posture prediction. In the visualization part, Jack and 3DSSPP produce results to visualize virtual human tasks in 3-dimensional, but without realistic physical properties. Nowadays, with the development of computer technology, the simulation of physical world is paid more attention. Physical engines [5] are used more and more in computer game (CG) field. The advantage of physical engine is the nature physical world environment simulation. The purpose of our research is to use the CG technology to create a virtual environment with physical properties for ergonomic analysis of virtual human.
Visual Perception Model for Sense of Materials BIBAFull-Text 365-368
  Wenhao Wang; Toshikazu Kato
Natural surfaces has a different materials, human can instantly feel these characteristics. For example, display of fruit on the supermarket shelves, we can determine only the eyes whether they are fresh. When shopping, we can quickly determine the quality of material goods, as well as light and heavy, soft and hard, and so on. We call this feeling "SITUKAN", it is Japanese and means sense of materials.
The Effects of Stereoscopic Display Luminance and Ambient Illumination on Visual Comfort BIBAKFull-Text 369-373
  Pei-Chia Wang; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Kuan-Yu Chen; Jinn-Sen Chen; Jinn-Cherng Yang; Hung-Lu Chang
In this paper, we investigated that display luminance and ambient illumination had significant effects on the perception of the imagery displayed, and their appropriate combination would be studied. The results showed display luminance and ambient illumination did not significantly influence on physiological fatigue. Ambient illumination statistically affected objective visual fatigue, but display luminance did not. Ambient illumination and display luminance significantly affected subjective comfort evaluation. However, the main effect of display luminance was statistically significant on visual discrimination performance, but ambient illumination was not significant. As for the combination effect of display luminance and ambient illumination, viewers felt the most comfortable and with the best visual performance in the high level of display luminance and the high level of ambient illumination. It is expected to find out the optimal condition to ensure the viewer's visual comfort. As for the future work, the dynamic image factor may be taken into account.
Keywords: display luminance; ambient illumination; visual comfort; fatigue; visual discrimination performance
Preferred Setting of Keyboard and Mouse for Using a Supine Computer Workstation BIBAKFull-Text 374-378
  Hsin-Chieh Wu; Ho-Rong Chu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in performance and muscle effort between guideline and preferred setting of keyboard and mouse when using a computer in supine posture. The guideline setting is according to the rules of standard sitting posture; and the preferred setting is freely determined by the subjects. Ten healthy adults and ten people with disabilities of the lower extremities participated in this study. The experimental tasks included typing and mouse dragging tasks. The task performances and electromyography (EMG) were collected. The participants had significantly higher performances and lower muscle effort when using the mouse under preferred setting, as compared with the guideline setting. However, little difference in typing performance was found between the guideline and preferred settings. The results of this study are helpful to designing a supine computer workstation.
Keywords: Universal design; EMG; typing posture; mouse operation

Part VII / Health and Wellbeing

An Interactive Multimedia System for Monitoring the Progressive Decline of Memory in Alzheimer's Patients BIBAKFull-Text 381-385
  Hala Al-Muhanna; Rawan Al-Wabil; Hailah Al-Mazrua; Noura Al-Fadhel; Areej Al-Wabil
This paper describes an assistive technology designed for longitudinal monitoring of memory decline for people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). While there are systems designed for rehabilitation of people with AD, supporting caregivers, and psychosocial intervention, there is a lack in technology support that provides quantitative measures of progressive memory decline that can assist physicians in clinical settings. An interactive autobiographical memory repository of images and sound recordings was developed to facilitate measuring memory recall and recognition. The system functionality and the user-centered design approach of involving geriatric psychiatry specialists and caregivers are described.
Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Memory Decline; Caregivers; Elders; User-Centered Design; Caregiver Burden
Personal Smart Spaces for Diabetics BIBAKFull-Text 386-390
  Manal AlBahlal; Jalal AlMuhtadi
The Ad hoc pervasive computing provides an attractive vision for future computing and has a great influence on many fields that need to be smart with simple digital devices interacting and sharing services seamlessly and transparently. Healthcare is a key area that can benefit from smart digital spaces, especially extending services to out-of-hospital contexts. In this poster, we describe the design of a system, called Personal Smart Space (PSS), which provides an automated method for bootstrapping a personal space. Specifically, PSS will track a person's health and handle variations that may indicate a risk. The PSS is comprised of several services; namely, discovery management, event, description, and presentation. This poster describes the implementation and verification of this PSS for diabetic patients, which is comprised of 4 devices, 5 services and a coordinator. The PSS utilizes the UPnP protocol and XML standards to describe the devices and services to provide more flexibility. The novelty of this PSS lies in how the coordinator provides an interface to components (GPS, Camera, Glucose sensor, and mobile communication devices) and integrates a notification system as well as finding a backup device in cases of faults in one of the PSS components.
Keywords: PSS; UPnP; XML; diabetic; smart devices; service components
Quality and Usability Assessment for Health Information Websites: Can Commonly Used Evaluation Criteria Be Appropriately Applied to Assess Chinese-Language Websites? BIBAKFull-Text 391-394
  Fang-Fang Chang; Chia-Hua Ku; Kung-Jeng Wang; Wei-Li Wu
Healthcare websites must be evaluated for quality of content and usability by the target population because they are influential in healthcare decision-making. Many criteria have been developed to assess the quality and usability of health related websites. Nevertheless, most of these criteria are established from English language environment. Information technology is being developed and used by diverse groups of people, including users with different language background. We would like to discuss whether common criteria developed for English language web pages could assess the Chinese language internet environment. Quality and usability assessment criteria will be extracted and summarized by systematic reference search. Afterwards, language expert will evaluate the appropriateness of selected criteria on evaluating Chinese language websites.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Health informatics; Language
Computer Interaction and the Benefits of Social Networking for People with Borderline Personality Disorder: Enlightening Mental Health Professionals BIBAKFull-Text 395-399
  Alice Good; Arunasalam Sambhanthan; Vahid Panjganj; Samuel Spettigue
This paper seeks to present the findings of a focus group and questionnaire in assessing how aware mental health professionals, who have experience with people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), are in the extent of ICT based support for people with BPD. The methods used were both qualitative and quantitative and used descriptive data. Content analysis was used to explore specific themes and results were cross-examined between the two methods. The work should be viewed as an exploratory study into the viability and likely acceptance of a virtual support community specifically designed for people with BPD. The long term aim is to provide additional support for people with BPD, especially when they are in crisis and might be at a higher risk of harm.
Keywords: Mental Health; Borderline Personality Disorder; Virtual Support; ICT; Face Book; Second Life
Design Improvement Requirements for the Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Devices in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 400-404
  Lan-Ling Huang; Chang-Franw Lee; Mei-Hsiang Chen
This study aims to survey the most frequently used upper extremity rehabilitation devices (UERD) in Taiwan and how well their design meet the practical requirements of rehabilitation therapy. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to a sample of therapists in Taiwan hospitals. Analysis of the replied questionnaires can be summarized as follows: 1) The 185 respondents consisted of 68 males (37%) and 117 females (63%), with average age 31.3 yrs and work experience 7.2 yrs. 2) Therapists thought that the better ones of the existing UERD are Vertical tower, Stacking cones, Climbing board and bar, and Incline board. These devices are mainly used to treat patients' movements of upper extremity in vertical stretching, flexion, and lifting. 3) The most common problem of the existing UERD is instability of the base. The most required improvement in design features is the adjustability of the functions.
Keywords: rehabilitation devices; occupational therapy; product design
Observation Research of Consumer Behavior for Marketing Decision Support BIBAKFull-Text 405-409
  Hideyuki Imai; Noriko Hara; Toshiki Yamaoka
The purpose of this paper is to reveal a complaint and needs, insight from a practical way of observation such as brushing teeth. In our observation treated extreme users who will be likely to have the power of expression towards using goods as participants to reveal sub-consciousness under behavior. We take the adoption of a new ethnography. This way is defined by Fetterman, that it is combined to report a practical way of observation and interpretation. The behavior was recorded on video by their family not to disturb their own natural way. Moreover, we questioned the participants and cameramen about a behavior with watching videos to clear the gap between their behavior and recognition. We analyzed to report a practical way of observation, the participant's impression and ideas from seeing video. We will discover subconscious dissatisfaction and needs. Under this approach, many participants did hard brushing every day, because they would not take artificial tooth. They have misunderstanding that the carefully brushing is strong brushing or long-time brushing. We found this approach helpful to understand customer insight that 'brushing carefully' meant 'brushing strongly' and participants relied on 'quantity' of brushing in other words. As a result, consumer discovery of insight will contribute to create more effective and efficient communication message for advertising and package, it will improve method of product and service development with high reality.
Keywords: Insight; sub-consciousness; observation; ethnography; brushing carefully; advertising
Exercise Reminder Software for Office Workers BIBAKFull-Text 410-414
  Ahsen Irmak; Rafet Irmak; Gonca Bumin
Computers are widely used instruments in workplaces. Despite the low level of physical load, computer usage requires repetitive motions and staying in same position for a long time. That's why great number of computer users may contract musculoskeletal disorders. Frequent rests can prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, but OW generally do not break their work until discomfort occurs. The rest breaks can be reminded by computer software. The purpose of this study was to develop exercise reminder software (ERS) for OW in Turkish Language. An exercise protocol was designed to prevent most common MSDs among OW. The software was designed under C# with video play, exercise description and exercise log properties and the source code is open for scientific purpose. The software is compatible with Windows XP and Vista. The developed software is the first known ERS in Turkish Language. Future studies may focus on integration of distance patient follow up systems.
Keywords: computer software; exercise reminder; office workers
Games for Health: Design Cognition-Focused Interventions to Enhance Mental Activity BIBAKFull-Text 415-419
  Hyungsin Kim; Viraj Sapre; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Older adults want to proactively protect their aging cognition with various possible ways. Cognitive intervention has been proposed as an effective way to improve memory loss problems. In this paper, we present the CogStim Game, an iPad application for older adults to exercise their memory. For example, by practicing name-face matches through the medium of a game, older adults would have a chance to stimulate their cognition. Together with the game description, we will also present our design rationale behind the game development. The CogStim Game would provide a more accessible and effective way to address our society's concerns due to an increasing aging population.
Keywords: Games for Health; Senior Friendly Design; Cognitive Stimulation; Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ADRD); Brain Exercise; Memory Enhancement Activities; Dementia
Promoting Positive Employee Health Behavior with Mobile Technology Design BIBAKFull-Text 420-424
  Hyungsin Kim; Hakkyun Kim; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
In this paper, we present an augmented mobile technology that can enhance the positive health behavior of employees, as well as companies' social welfare. Our proposed mobile technology encourages walking behaviors among employees, which are then transformed into monetary incentives or a tangible donation. We draw on two social behavior theories for our technology design and also introduce a conceptual model that provides a "step-by-step" approach to enhance employees' health and improve social welfare.
Keywords: Health management system; corporate social responsibility; consumer-driven health care; health promotion and wellness
Believable Agents, Engagement, and Health Interventions BIBAFull-Text 425-432
  Christine L. Lisetti
In this article we review some of the main contributions that the believable agents community has brought about and we review some of the main believable agent architectures existing to date. We also discuss the enormous potential that believable agents can bring in the domain of health, including health communication, health promotion, health counseling and psychotherapy. We discuss some of our work-in-progress aimed at building believable agents with dialog abilities to conduct supportive healthcare interventions for the management of chronic diseases and addiction issues.
Le-ADS: Early Learning Disability Detection System for Autism and Dyslexia BIBAKFull-Text 433-437
  Nor'ain Mohd Yusoff; Nor Syarafina Rusli; Ruhaiza Ishak
Screening test is one of common approaches to detect learning disabilities among children. The Early Learning Disability Detection System for Autism and Dyslexia (Le-AdS) is developed to help primary school teachers to recognize signs and students' behaviour. Studies and researches for the system have been done to understand these types of disorder. Research on the system architecture has also been carried out to know how the system should work based on the requirements and needs of the user. Interviews, reading and overview have been applied throughout the development process of this standalone software. This paper presents the work of Early Learning Disability Detection for Autism and Dyslexia (Le-ADS).
Keywords: Mild Autism; Dyslexia; Screening System; Learning Disability
Interaction Design of Encouraging Daily Healthcare Habit with Communication Robots BIBAFull-Text 438-442
  Jun'ichi Osada; Tomoharu Yamaguchi; Ryohei Sasama; Keiji Yamada
This paper presents interesting findings and strategies for interaction design of a health support system for seniors. The system consists of a pedometer, a terminal with touch screen and a communication robot. Users can touch buttons on the screen and data of the pedometer as inputs. Speech from the robot and text messages on screen is used for output. Because of bringing a robot as a part of the system, this system requires new features beyond existing standards of usability and accessibility. Thus, the authors redefined three key features; a) natural, b) user friendly, and c) enjoyable for a development strategy of the interaction design with a communication robot.
Can Digital Signage Help Consumers Eat Healthier? BIBAKFull-Text 443-447
  Anicia Peters; Brian E. Mennecke
Digital signage has become prevalent in public spaces, but consumers are faced with many choices from various displays with the result that consumers often ignore important information. To "recover" customer attention, various retailers have recently begun to deploy dynamic digital menu boards, which are plasma screens that combine the power of video with multimedia content. We examine the effect of these boards on healthy eating, a topic that has been on the national agenda for some time as Americans struggle with obesity. The introduction of a specialized form of dynamic digital menu boards in fast food restaurants has the potential to increase unhealthy eating if retailers were to use them to "upsell" consumers to higher margin but less healthy menu items. By the same token, these boards could also be used to influence consumers to make healthier food choices resulting in benefits to the consumer and society.
Keywords: digital dynamic menu boards; digital signage; healthy eating; consumer decision-making; vividness
Constraint-Based Nurse Rostering for the Valparaíso Clinic Center in Chile BIBAKFull-Text 448-452
  Renzo Pizarro; Gianni Rivera; Ricardo Soto; Broderick Crawford; Carlos Castro; Eric Monfroy
The nurse rostering problem consists in assigning working shifts to each nurse on each day for a certain period of time. In particular, for the Valparaíso Clinic Center, the problem comprises about 1600 assignments that must consider requirements related to minimal area or floor allocation as well as legal regulations. This planning is a difficult and time consuming task that currently is done by hand yielding often unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we provide a description of such a real-world problem and we show how it can be modeled and solved with constraint programming. Using this approach we provide an automatic generation of such rosters in a few seconds instead of by hand in some days.
Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction; Rostering
Connecting with Dysphonia: Human-Computer Interface for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients BIBAKFull-Text 453-457
  Chun-Yang Su; Ju-Joan Wong
This research studied how Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients can communicate after losing speech and typing abilities. To create a friendly and useful HCI system, this research studied the graphical user interfaces (GUI) through participant observations, to understanding how to innovate a better communication device for ALS patients and the elderly, to gaining a better quality of life.
Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); pictograph; human-computer interface (HCI); dysarthria; universal design (UD)
Assessing Health Information Websites for Inclusion of Web 2.0 Features BIBAFull-Text 458-462
  Adam Townes; Michelle Rogers
Health 2.0 is a facet of Web 2.0 that refers to special health applications where patients are able to take a more active role in their own care through the use of information communication technologies. Health 2.0 or Medicine 2.0 (used synonymously here) empowers patients not only through increased participation and interaction in online networks and communities but also enhances the user's role from health care consumer to that of collaborator and contributor. This increased cooperation between providers and patients reflects a revised service philosophy. This expanded service philosophy emphasizes greater patient autonomy and choices regarding medical care and treatment decision.
Encouraging Daily Healthcare Habit with Communication Robots BIBAFull-Text 463-466
  Tomoharu Yamaguchi; Ryohei Sasama; Jun'ichi Osada; Keiji Yamada
It is important for elderly people to be involved in local community to reduce the risk of being isolated. The authors are building a framework with communication robots for encouraging elderly people to participate in more social activities by providing local news that may be interesting. Since physical soundness is also essential for people to participate in such activities, self-monitoring of physical conditions are involved into the framework. A robot-guided interaction system is developed based on the framework so that a robot encourages the user to measure weight and blood pressure daily. The efficiency is estimated by an experiment.

Part VIII / Learning, Education and Cultural Heritage

The Evaluation of the Applicability of Distance Education in Vocational Colleges by the Students of Erzurum Vocational College, Computer Technologies Department, Erzurum, Turkey BIBAKFull-Text 469-473
  Yusuf Ziya Ayik
In order to determine the opinions of the students about the applicability of distance education in vocational education, a questionnaire was applied to the first and second year students of Erzurum Vocational College, Computer Technologies Department. The data obtained from the survey, comprising 25 questions and directed to 154 students, were evaluated by statistical methods. The data evaluated by using SPSS 16.0 statistical packet program were also subjected to factor analysis and the 25 questions asked were reduced to 7 factors. The factors determined indicate the 61.53% of total variance. According to the indications of students, 7 factors affecting the education can be listed as follow: Quality of education, cost of education, being at a permanent work, equality, accessibility, success and habits.
Keywords: Distance Education; Vocational College; Computer Technologies Department
An Evaluation of SignBright: A Storytelling Application for Sign Language Acquisition and Interpersonal Bonding amongst Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth and Caregivers BIBAKFull-Text 474-478
  Melissa Burton; Chad Harbig; Mariam Melkumyan; Lei Zhang; Jiyoung Choi
Deaf or hard of hearing children of hearing caregivers face many challenges that have been shown to adversely impact their interpersonal interactions and development. Contemporary research indicates that many of these challenges stem from environmental factors, including a lack of exposure to language concepts during early developmental stages. This study investigates an innovative solution to foster connection and understanding between Deaf or hard of hearing children and hearing. SignBright is a storytelling application designed to promote connection between parents and Deaf or hard of hearing children. SignBright allows parents and Deaf or hard of hearing children to engage in the activity of storytelling, which promotes mutual growth and understanding, teaches language skills, and enhances parent-child bonds. This study is focused on evaluating qualities of SignBright such as the ease of navigation, design, layout, motivational characteristics, and the perceived effectiveness of SignBright.
Keywords: Deaf; Children; Parent-Child Interaction; Communication; Sign Language; Educational Technology; Attachment; Child Development
Collaborative Analysis and Communities of Practice in Health Sciences BIBAKFull-Text 479-483
  A Juan Alberto Castillo M.
In the context of the information system in health sciences, the actor requires collaborative models for analysis and diagnoses process. In this purpose, we developed a learning community based on a distributed management model, the model is supported in grid development to facilitate the process of management, storage, distribution and selection of knowledge for perform process analysis, specifically in movement sciences, this project research analyzes the problems associated to learning the principles of human movement diagnoses. The study of the parameters required for the preparation of diagnostics, are presented to students to apply them in collaborative work sessions.
Keywords: Ergonomics; Motion Analysis; Simulation; Community of Practice
The Application of Interactive Media Display Technology in Environmental Science Learning BIBAKFull-Text 484-488
  Chun-Ching Chen; Chien-Ming Chen
The introduction of interactive technologies turns traditional concepts of teacher-centred teaching into student-centred learning pattern. Take environmental science learning as main subject, this study designs and develops an interactive educational device based on interactive media display technology, and to examine its acceptance. A simulated Earth is designed and embedded with interactive technologies to allow the users to interact with. System feedbacks comprise a projected animation on the ground and voice to explain the meaning of the user's action and the relation to environmental issue. The results show that most of the users can understand the purpose of the interaction and the contents of the environment issue which are introduced. It is concluded that the introduction of interactive technologies can arouse students' interests in learning and improve their motivation as it creates new learning experience, particularly for popular science education.
Keywords: interactive display technology; multimedia; environmental science
Applying User-Centered Techniques to Develop a Radiology Teaching File System BIBAFull-Text 489-493
  Marcelo dos Santos; Asa Fujino
Education and training processes in diagnostic radiology requires systematic and comprehensive study of a large knowledge base of medical images. Electronic teaching files (ETF) systems in Radiology are meant to make learning easier and also to raise its quality. However, ease of use has been recognized as a key factor in influencing users' acceptance of new technologies. Similarly, Radiology students' interaction with the ETF should be designed according to their needs instead of requiring these students to adapt to the technology. In this work is presented the development of a digital radiology teaching file system. The proposed system has been created in order to offer a set of customized services regarding to users' contexts and their informational needs. The current prototype has demonstrated the feasibility of developing a user-centered ETF system.
The Study of the Interaction of Public Art with Digital Technology BIBAKFull-Text 494-498
  Shih Yin Huang; Ming-Shean Wang
The artistic work that on the open place are must to receive the feedback massage; it is more risk than the artistic work set in the museum. While the development of technology, the digital art has become the tendency for modern art. Public art is most closed to people, and immediately to exchange the message. Use high-tech in the element of artistic work, it'll be more interactive and more fun. The element of interaction immediacy of response non-sequential access information adaptability feedback options bi-directional communication.
Keywords: Technology art; public art; interaction; digital art
Seven Wonders: An Interactive Game for Learning English as a Foreign Language in Junior High-School BIBAKFull-Text 499-503
  George Kapnas; Stavroula Ntoa; George Margetis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Although the concept of using video games in education has been present for decades, it is only lately that consistent attempts of games entering the classroom can be observed. This paper describes the process of developing a game that aims to assist Junior High-School pupils in learning English as a foreign language in class. The learning goals, the design, as well as the initial realisation of the game are described. Finally, conclusions are drawn and further development ideas are discussed.
Keywords: Educational Game; Classroom; Language Learning; Edutainment; EFL (English as a Foreign Language)
Study-Buddy: Improving the Learning Process through Technology-Augmented Studying Environments BIBAKFull-Text 504-508
  George Margetis; Stavroula Ntoa; Maria Bouhli; Constantine Stephanidis
Taking into account the potential of ICT in education and recognizing the need for smart environments and artifacts, this paper presents Study-Buddy, a context aware system aiming to augment the learning process. The system is constituted of an intelligent reading lamp that monitors students' interaction with reading material and provides appropriate information through any near computational device (e.g., tablet, notebook, etc.). Study-Buddy is accompanied by LexiMedia, an educational software targeted to language learning.
Keywords: ambient intelligence; augmented studying; education
Improving Academic Performance and Motivation in Engineering Education with Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 509-513
  Jorge Martín-Gutiérrez; Manuel Contero
In this paper, we introduce a didactic book based on augmented reality technology (Augmented book) for learning standard mechanical elements in an enjoyable way. Using shareware Build_AR (free software for non-commercial use) scenes were created containing more than 150 standard mechanical elements as well as several machines in motion for analyzing its operations. This Augmented book was included in the curriculum of engineering graphics subject in the Mechanical Engineering Degree in University of La Laguna, Spain. Twenty-five students used this augmented book for studying representation and designation of standard mechanical elements. A control group composed by twenty-two students used traditional class notes with static images for studying the same contents. We have analyzed results through an evaluation test and a usability survey. Result shows that experimental group students enjoyed studying through the use of AR technology and even obtained better results in a contents evaluation test.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Engineering Education; Mechanical Elements; Motivation
Evaluation of Robot Based Embedded System Study Environment in Technical High School BIBAKFull-Text 514-518
  Yosuke Nishino; Eiichi Hayakawa
This paper describes the modeling, the development and the evaluation of embedded system study environment using robot and a note on experiment at technical high school. This paper discusses about the following points: (1) visualizing the behavior of embedded system in synchronization with the robot's behavior, (2) integrating environment from concept based learning to implementation based learning, and (3) validating the efficiency of the system through the lecture and the evaluation at technical high school. This report is a summary of this environment, learning courseware of embedded system and research result at study of a technical high school.
Keywords: Educations; Robot; Programming
Extending Authoring for Adaptive Learning to Collaborative Authoring BIBAKFull-Text 519-523
  Dade Nurjanah; Hugh C. Davis; Thanassis Tiropanis
Research on learning systems has led to the development of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia (AEH) systems that offer students adaptive learning and free exploratory lessons. Developing learning spaces for AEH, however, requires a lot of effort due to the complexity of the learning resources, consisting of learning content, domain knowledge and pedagogical knowledge, which are completed with adaptation rules. Current authoring tools for adaptive learning present drawbacks in terms of the reusability of their output and their collaborative work features. In this paper, a proposed collaborative authoring approach for developing adaptive learning resources is presented. The advantages of the proposed approach lie in the application of a collaborative method; the use of a learning standard, IMS Learning Design, for reusability and extensibility reasons; and the repurposing of learning materials available in existing open content systems.
Keywords: collaborative work; Adaptive Educational Hypermedia (AEH); domain knowledge; pedagogical knowledge; adaptation
A Collaborative Tool for Communities of Practice to Share Best Practices BIBAKFull-Text 524-528
  Justus N. Nyagwencha; Sheryl Seals; Tony Cook
Traditionally, members of communities of practice collaborated through traditional means: word of mouth, conferences, lectures and hand written notes. However, the emergence of online environments, have led to the use e-mails and other web-based tools. However, communities of practice members have a variety of different technological skills and varied access to technology which limits novice users from expressing themselves comfortably despite their limited technological skills. This research focuses on presenting an environment that is easy to use, effective, efficient, and satisfying for all members. The webOS (cloud) tool to foster K-12 teachers and 4-H club communities provides the best framework to share best practices with easy, efficiently, and with satisfaction. The experimental portion involves a list of tasks that provides design experts an opportunity to assess the usability, usefulness, and efficiency of design. The users' post-questionnaire provides a feedback on the overall usability of the system for novice users.
Keywords: Programming; User interface; Usability; WebOS (web operating system); Communities of Practice; Computer Collaborative Work
Classic Art for Modern People BIBAKFull-Text 529-533
  Nikolaos Partarakis; Sokratis Kartakis; Margherita Antona; George Paparoulis; Constantine Stephanidis
This poster presents the usage of Ambient Intelligence for enriching the traditional functions of art. A number are presented depicting the potential usage of art for education, learning and generally for improving the quality of our lives.
Keywords: Art; Informative Art; Ambient intelligence
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Special Education System in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 534-538
  Mukhtar M. Rana; Mohammad Fakrudeen; Mahdi H. Miraz; Sufian Yousef; Alshammari Abderrahman Torqi
The focus of this paper is to study the current information and communication technology (ICT) in special education system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and reveal its issues. This research was conducted by the ministry of education (MOE), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and University of Hail. A qualitative approach was used to reveal the issues of information and communication technology and the special education system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The research was carried out by direct observations of a focus group, conducted during one-to-one sessions. The multiple case-study approach was adopted to increase the reliability of data, with the help of a team of researchers and tutors to reduce bias. In this study we have randomly selected 4 public secondary schools for boys having special education classes in Hail region in the KSA. In this study 50 special students 11 to 15 years old, 10 special educators and 4 special education administrators participated. Study revealed that special students (focused group) are facing huge amount of problems during their study and the ICT is not being used in full extent to help them to get education in order to live independently in future life.
Keywords: Information and Communication Technology and Special Education
ICT Training of Maestros of Primary Schools Located in Barrios Carenciados in Argentina. A Twofold Challenge: How They Can Master New ICT Technologies and Transform the Way They Teach BIBAKFull-Text 539-543
  C. Osvaldo Rodriguez
Internet access is becoming available in many schools of Argentina's educational infrastructure. This represents a challenge for the primary school teachers. They have to teach children digitally motivated, visually stimulated and socially connected yet most teachers have been exposed very little to ICT technologies.
   An important task is how to train these teachers that not only need to master the new ICT tools in very short time but also transform the way they teach, guide their students and interact with their communities.
   Schools in poor neighborhoods (barrios carenciados) unfortunately do not receive the full capacity that today's technology can provide, nor in resources or support. This makes the challenge particularly difficult and their training should prepare them for this situation.
   In this paper we describe the work of two years in Escuela 502, where we have implemented state of the art multimedia laboratory in order to research possible alternative training methodologies. We describe results from the innovative experiences obtained and point that online learning technologies can serve as a powerful and cost effective tool to carry out teachers training.
Keywords: ICT4D; FOSS; Online training; Teachers training
The Design of the Satellite Spaces for Informal Learning and Its Validity Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 544-548
  Syoko Shimora; Kazuyoshi Yamauch; Natsuko Ohtake
A project of developing new environment for university students was carried out, whose aim is to make them study in the informal settings. The environment was designed and managed as a system which consists of the learning center and a variety of the satellite spaces. Five satellite spaces were placed apart from the learning center. A set of survey, observation and interviews revealed how students use these places. Each place encouraged students to perform the intended behaviors to a certain extent.
Keywords: design research; learning environment; informal learning; learning commons; satellite spaces; learning styles
Window Control Interface to Attract Teacher's Gaze Area for Watching a Reaction of Remote Learners BIBAKFull-Text 549-553
  Takumi Yamaguchi; Haruya Shiba; Naohisa Matsuuchi; Yusuke Nishiuchi; Kazunori Shimamura; Takahiko Mendori
We have developed the TERAKOYA learning system, which helps students study actively anywhere on a local area network (LAN) linked to multipoint remote users. However, if many students frequently sent their questions to the teacher, it is very difficult to correspond to quickly answer that for the teacher. In addition, the teacher hardly clarifies how much each student understood because he cannot watch students' face and reaction. This paper discusses the graphical user interface (GUI) system that is used a little ingenuity to prioritize students' screens through variably changing the GUI interface on the teacher's PC. The aspect of window that was displayed as thumbnails of the students' PC screen was zoomed dynamically each thumbnail by their understanding level. By sorting out their priorities on the teacher's PC screen, the teacher can timely observe the students' work and support their thinking process.
Keywords: GUI; Interactive system; Active learning; Remedial education