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HCII Tables of Contents: 11-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-314-414-515-115-215-315-415-5

HCI International 2014: 16th International Conference on HCI, Part III: Applications and Services

Fullname:HCI International 2014: 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Applications and Services
Note:Volume 3 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8512
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07227-2 hcibib: HCII14-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-07226-5 (print), 978-3-319-07227-2 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2014-06-22 Volume 3
    1. Interacting with the Web
    2. Mobile Interaction
    3. HCI for Health, Well-Being and Sport
    4. Mobility, Transport and Environment
    5. Interacting with Games
    6. Business, Sustainability and Technology Adoption

HCII 2014-06-22 Volume 3

Interacting with the Web

CORPUS: Next-Generation Online Platform for Research Collaborations in Humanities BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Yuan Jia; Xi Niu; Reecha Bharali; Davide Bolchini; André De Tienne
Two major research resources for humanities scholars are manuscripts and scholarly editions (rigorously reconstituted standard texts of seminal writers and thinkers). However, most of these resources either have not been digitized or are not easy to access online [1]. Consequently, scholars frequently need to spend unnecessary time and effort to find and manage different versions of materials (physical or digital) from different sources. To solve this problem, we propose an online platform called CORPUS -- a Collaborative Online Research Platform for Users of Scholarly edition -- to support scholarly research online in an efficient manner. CORPUS aims to integrate different types of research materials in the humanities (manuscripts, scholarly editions, online publications, and personal notes) and aggregate different versions of the same texts. In addition, it enhances collaboration among scholars while also providing them with a peer-review-based incentive to share and publish their research work.
Keywords: Contextual Inquiry; Digital Humanities; User Study; Design; Prototype
B2C Websites' Usability for Chinese Senior Citizens BIBAKFull-Text 13-20
  Liang Kang; Hua Dong
As E-commerce develops fast in Chinese market, so grows the need for online shopping of Chinese senior users. However, The senior users are still the niche market and they tend to be excluded from the "target users". To design a usability test on existing B2C websites based on the Chinese context, we integrated the User Centered Design into the whole process. A preliminary study with 48 Chinese seniors helped to get insights into the Chinese senior users, which directly guided the development of the usability test protocol. Then we conducted usability tests with 16 participants selected from the preliminary study. According to the results of the usability test, the overall usability performance of the mainstream Chinese B2C websites is concluded and whether the "user-driven usability test" has brought a different perspective is discussed.
Keywords: Usability test; E-commerce; Chinese senior citizens; B2C websites
Intelligent Interface for Web Information Retrieval with Document Understanding BIBAKFull-Text 21-31
  Rahul S. Khokale; Mohammad Atique
Web Based Information Retrieval (WBIR) is becoming an integral part of the daily activities of computer users. In the present computing world, people are highly accustomed to the use of web for acquiring any kind of information. However, retrieval of useful documents with high degree of relevance is an important problem. There is a need of an intelligent interface for WBIR to alleviate efforts of information seekers. In this paper, an intelligent interface for web based information retrieval with document understanding is proposed. The aim of intelligent interface for WBIR is to control the underlying information retrieval system, by directly interacting with the user, and allowing him to retrieve relevant information without the help of human intermediary. The interface helps users to formulate query by using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Also, it is capable of retrieving documents with respect to order of relevance.
Keywords: Web Based Information Retrieval; Document understanding; Natural Language Processing; Intelligent Interface
Data Preloading Technique using Intention Prediction BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Seungyup Lee; Juwan Yoo; Da Young Ju
Various smart devices provide fast response time and ubiquitous web-environment to users for better user experiences (UXs). However, high device performance that users perceive is not always promised because there should be limited network bandwidth, and computation capabilities. When the network and computation capabilities are overloaded, users experience buffering and loading time to accomplish a certain task. We, therefore, propose data preloading technique [1], which predicts user intention and preloads the web and local application data to provide better device performance in spite of poor network conditions and outdated hardware. We also design intention cognitive model to predict user intention precisely. Four user intention prediction algorithms, which are applicable to various conventional input methods, are described and compared each performance in both user's and device's aspects.
Keywords: Preloading algorithm; intention prediction; hovering state; input device
Textual Emotion Communication with Non-verbal Symbols in Online Environments BIBAKFull-Text 42-48
  Eunice Njeri Mwangi; Stephen Kimani; Michael Kimwele
Recently computer mediated communication became a popular way of interaction. Unfortunately nonverbal elements are normally absent in these online communications. This paper describes the results of a study carried out to determine the use of textual symbols/patterns to provide nonverbal cues and to express emotions in online text based environments. The focus is on the use of online textual symbols/patterns of vocalics (e.g. the use of capitals and use of punctuation "!" and "!!s!" or "?" and "???", length of response e.t.c), and those of chronemics (e.g. time to respond to an email or to a chat message) to communicate emotions in text. The study forms a basis for the development of an affect recognition model that is able to recognize emotions from written language and especially in environments where informal styles of writing are used.
Keywords: Emotions; non-verbal symbols (Vocalics & Chronemics); Textual symbols; Computer Mediated communication (CMC); social presence; affective computing; emotion recognition from text
A Preliminary Study of Relation Induction between HTML Tag Set and User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Azusa Nakano; Asato Tanaka; Masanori Akiyoshi
This paper addresses a preliminary study for relation identification between the HTML tag set and user experience. Today's Web technologies such as "HTML5" and "Ajax" enable content providers to design rich Web pages, sometimes complicated and not ease-of-use. On the other hand, "user experience" is getting more and more significant as everyone from young to elder people uses the Web. The design principle seems not to be established from "user experience" viewpoints, because it includes user practical activities. Therefore our approach is to collect user operations and user impressions as to the target Web pages, then induce relation between user impression and such collected data by mining technologies. This paper reports a preliminary experimental results towards such systematic analysis.
Keywords: Web interface; user experience; relation induction
Analysis of Demographical Factors' Influence on Websites' Credibility Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 57-68
  Maria Rafalak; Piotr Bilski; Adam Wierzbicki
The paper presents results of an experiment conducted in 2013 via Amazon Mechanical Turk Platform (www.mturk.com) aimed at creating a classifier predicting online content credibility evaluation misjudgement tendencies. The rough sets based module processes demographic variables describing each participant and predicts his/her misjudgement tendency. Data collection method, data-set preparation are described in detail. Next the rough set methodology is introduced explaining the process of training and validating using available data. Experimental results are presented in detail showing the classification accuracy for various configurations of rough-sets algorithms. The analysis of importance of subsequent demographic variables on prediction efficiency is discussed as well. The paper is concluded with future prospects and future applications of implemented methodology.
Keywords: Demographic variables; rough sets; classification; artificial intelligence; credibility assessment
Drivers for the Actual Usage of Cloud Services: An Examination of Influencing Factors for Digital Natives BIBAKFull-Text 69-79
  Mark Stieninger; Dietmar Nedbal
Cloud Computing has been gaining significant relevance throughout the business as well as the private environment. With several factors responsible for this adoption, this paper explores the influence of the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust, costs and age on the actual usage of Cloud services. The focus is set on the group of digital natives whereat attitudinal differences amongst them are examined in a survey. Correlation analyses show that the factors perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust and age influence the actual usage of Cloud services, whereas the factor costs has no statistically significant relationship with the actual usage.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; cloud services; digital natives; technology acceptance model; influencing factors; technology adoption
Proposals for an Assessment Method of Accessibility and Usability in Web Software BIBAKFull-Text 80-89
  Edson Corrêa Teracine; Fabíola Calixto Matsumoto
Nowadays, applications hosted in the Internet face the challenge to serve a wider range of end users with a potential variety of disabilities that has to be taken into account in the process of Web designing and programming. In this context, the research and development of assessment methods to validate software accessibility have grown in importance. The present document shows a comparative study of methods applied for assessment of the characteristics accessibility and usability in a complementary way, in order to collaborate with the improvement of assessment methods in the implementation of accessibility in Websites and Web applications.
Keywords: Assessment Methods of Accessibility and Usability of Software; Assessment of the Characteristics Accessibility and Usability in Web Software
The Correlation between Visual Complexity and User Trust in On-line Shopping: Implications for Design BIBAKFull-Text 90-99
  Kai-Ti Tseng; Yuan-Chi Tseng
Perceived visual aesthetics of a web site positively affects a user's credibility assessment of the site and less visual complex web page is associated with more favorable attitudes toward the page. Here we further investigate whether the visual complexity of a web site affects its aesthetic preference and as a consequence is associated with the users' credibility. Two experiments with on-line payment scenario were conducted. Experiment 1 shows users trust pages with higher text-based complexity more. Experiment 2 shows perceived image-based complexity is negatively correlated with credibility. Our results show text-based complexity and image-based complexity have different effects on the credibility of on-line shopping site. Designers can decrease image-based complexity of a web site to increase users' aesthetic preference and trust. This work can serve as the fundament to develop an automatic evaluation tools to predict the users' trust and preference of a web page based on the visual complexity computation.
Keywords: Credibility; Aesthetics; Complexity; E-commerce; Visual Design

Mobile Interaction

Digital Love Letter: A Handwriting Based Interface for Non-instant Digital Messenger BIBAKFull-Text 103-113
  So Jung Bang; Yoonji Song; Jae Dong Kim; Kiseul Suh; Chung-Kon Shi; Graham Wakefield; Sungju Woo
The instant messenger has developed as an important communication media platform. However, because of the nature of instant communication, instant messenger services place many limitations on communicating with nuance. We believe that the easy nature of digital communications tends to weaken serious aspects of personal communication such as patience and commitment. On the basis of critical perspectives, we designed the digital messenger 'Digital Love Letter' (DLL)': a mobile messenger in which the expressive process of interaction is more important than the final output. The main concept of DLL is to share the process of communication using a non-instantaneous and non-multitasking interface, so that users can share their time with some similar nuances to face-to-face communication. Both writing and reading messages require concentrated attention. Thus, this paper suggests a new system of digital messenger, that is also a new method of computer-mediated communication (CMC).
Keywords: Affective Messenger; Computer Mediated Communication (CMC); Social Presence; Instant Messaging
Evaluation Based Graphical Controls: A Contribution to Mobile User Interface Early Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 114-123
  Selem Charfi; Houcine Ezzedine; Christophe Kolski
In this paper, we present a set of graphical controls intended for the coupling between the design and the evaluation of mobile user interfaces. It is a contribution to user interface early evaluation. The presented controls include mechanisms aiming to inspect their consistency according to a predefined set of ergonomic guidelines. We also report on the proposed approach current implementation, and an example of application.
Keywords: User interface evaluation; mobile user interface; early evaluation; graphical control; ergonomic guideline; usability
Smartphone Input Using Its Integrated Projector and Built-In Camera BIBAKFull-Text 124-133
  Sergiu Dotenco; Timo Götzelmann; Florian Gallwitz
Touch input on modern smartphones can be tedious, especially if the touchscreen is small. Smartphones with integrated projectors can be used to overcome this limitation by projecting the screen contents onto a surface, allowing the user to interact with the projection by means of simple hand gestures. In this work, we propose a novel approach for projector smartphones that allows the user to remotely interact with the smartphone screen via its projection. We detect user's interaction using the built-in camera, and forward detected hand gestures as touch input events to the operating system. In order to avoid costly computations, we additionally use built-in motion sensors. We verify the proposed method using an implementation for the consumer smartphone Samsung Galaxy Beam equipped with a deflection mirror.
Keywords: Mobile computing; user interfaces; small screen; fat finger problem; touch input; fingertip detection; projector smartphone; DLP projector
Touchscreen Mobile Phones Virtual Keyboarding for People with Visual Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 134-145
  Agebson Rocha Façanha; Windson Viana; Mauro Cavalcante Pequeno; Márcia de Borba Campos; Jaime Sánchez
This paper presents the design and initial evaluation of a Braille virtual keyboard which allows text input on touchscreen devices such as smartphones and tablets. The virtual keyboard, called LêBraille, is a metaphor of the Braille writing system that uses audio and vibration feedbacks to promote accessibility for people with visual disabilities. We integrated this keyboard into two mobile applications and implemented an initial usability evaluation with nine people with visual disabilities. The evaluation comprised activities including a comparison of text input in three types of keyboards (physical keyboard, alpha numeric virtual keyboard, and LêBraille). Initial results indicates that writing activities can be as fast as a virtual keyboard depending on the Braille expertise of the user and the degree of blindness, however, the writing pace with a virtual keyboard is lower than the writing pace with a physical keyboard.
Keywords: Accessibility; Mobile Computing; Braille
Comparison Test of Website Use with Mobile Phone and Laptop Computer BIBAKFull-Text 146-154
  Martin Maguire; Min Tang
The study compared user performance and subjective ratings between a mobile phone and laptop computer for accessing the internet. Twenty four participants were required to carry out two equivalent sets of 5 tasks, one set of tasks with a mobile phone and the other set with a laptop. It was found that the task times for the mobile phone were higher than those of the laptop for all tasks but only significantly different for two of the task pairs. The most important reason for this result seemed to be the difference in size of the screens on each device. Participants were also asked to rate the difficulty of each task performed on both laptop and phone. Interestingly, participants did not rate the difficulty of using the mobile phone significantly higher than for the laptop. This seemed to be because of lower expectations when using the mobile phone, good dexterity in zooming in and out of the screen, and spending less time reviewing each page on the phone than on the laptop before moving on another page.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Website; Mobile phone; Laptop
A Study of Emoticon Use in Instant Messaging from Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 155-165
  Tae Woong Park; Si-Jung Kim; Gene Lee
Instant messaging (IM) has become one of the most popular modes of instantaneous electronic communication mediums throughout the world for users. A unique feature of IM on the smartphone is its choice of text-based, graphical or animated emoticons that express emotion and intentions. Many studies have been conducted on computer mediated communication (CMC), IM and emoticons, but little is known specifically about the study of emoticons in IM on the smartphone. The goal of this study was to understand how emoticons are used in IM on the smartphone and to investigate the inconsistent results of previous research. Thus, this study explored the frequency and variety of emoticon usage as well as the user traits based on emoticon types, relationships between users, availability of computer keyboards, and user emotional states in IM on the smartphone. The corresponding suggestions provided by this study would help to increase the understanding of emoticon usage and the designing of future emoticons in IM on the smartphone.
Keywords: Emoticon; Emotion; Instant Messaging (IM); Smartphone; Computer mediated communication (CMC)
Mobile Users Are More Vigilant Than Situated Users BIBAKFull-Text 166-177
  M. Giles Phillips
With the rapid growth of mobile device usage, daily life offers much empirical evidence that users frequently and persistently interact with mobile devices while doing other things. These users might be highly engaged within a mobile experience or unfulfilled by their real world experience; but significantly, their frequent usage could also be a form of vigilant behavior. This research seeks to understand whether or not mobile usage leads to an increased prevalence of user vigilance, first by establishing criteria that can be used to determine if a specific session of use is vigilant, and then applying these criteria to analyze observed sessions of use for two distinct cohorts: mobile users and situated users. In the analysis, it was found that everyday vigilant usage scenarios are fairly prevalent, and also that mobile users were 3 times more vigilant than situated users. These initial findings need further validation, but may prove significant to interaction design: optimizing a software interface to better support vigilant usage requires an opposing set of considerations when compared to traditional consumer product design. These design considerations are discussed, in addition to the limitations of the study, and guidance for future work.
Keywords: Mobile; User Interface Design; Vigilance; Attention
Heuristic Evaluation of Mobile Usability: A Mapping Study BIBAKFull-Text 178-188
  André de Lima Salgado; André Pimenta Freire
The mobile devices market has grown substantially, along with significant developments in mobile interactive technologies. Devices such as tablets, smartphones and others have increasingly become more popular and helped improve the way people interact and exchange information. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic mapping of the literature regarding the use of heuristic evaluation methods applied on mobile applications. The aims of this research were twofold: analysing what are the most used sets of usability heuristics on usability evaluations of mobile devices, providing a common base to improve mobile design and usability evaluation; analysing details of how usability inspections of mobile applications have been conducted. The results show that different heuristics have been reported in research papers to evaluate usability of mobile devices. The study identified a total of 9 different heuristics sets means of the literature mapping. The traditional set of heuristics proposed by Nielsen and Molich was still the most used set of heuristics in heuristic usability evaluations of mobile devices, but the proposal of new specific heuristics for mobile interfaces has grown substantially.
Keywords: mobile usability; heuristic evaluation; usability inspection
Where Is Mobile Projection Interaction Going? The Past, Present and Future of the Mobile Projected Interface BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  Yun Zhou; Tao Xu; Bertrand David; René Chalon
With the rapid development of portable projection technologies and the miniaturization of sensors, the magnitude mobile projector system provides an alternative access to mobile interaction and communication. In this review, we survey and discuss the mobile projected interactions that enable seamless integration of techniques into real world tasks. We first briefly describe the background of emerging projection interaction from past to present. Then we conduct a statistic literature review by collecting data from top tier conferences in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We next present our two applications corresponding to the new affordances of mobile projectors. We finally conclude with a discussion of the challenges, ranging from hardware issues, social issues, device and sensor fusion in the context, input gesture design and usability, as well as the opportunities provided by mobile projected interfaces.
Keywords: Mobile projectors; Ubiquitous computing; Mobility; Affordance; Projection interaction; Context; Literature review; Pico-projector
Do Gender and Age Matter? A User Study on Differences in Photo Collection Management BIBAKFull-Text 199-207
  Angelina de C. A. Ziesemer; Francine B. Bergmann; Isabel H. Manssour; João B. S. de Oliveira; Milene S. Silveira
The low cost and ubiquitousness of digital cameras allow users to collect large amounts of photos. Although storage is not usually a problem, selection of content for presentation requires time and work. Thus, we intend to investigate how users currently deal with the tasks of organizing and presenting their photos. A survey was conducted with 100 participants pointing out their preferences and differences related to age and gender in this subject. The research methodology, the experiment and the statistical results are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: photo albums; digital photos; user experience
Tool to Help the Communication for Autists BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Janaina Cintra Abib; Luciana Rodrigues; Reginaldo Gotardo
Communication is the main skill to interact in society, regardless of ability or level of cognitive development. Through the process of communication people can share feelings, desires, actions, thoughts and experiences. The communication process does not need to be expressed only through verbal language, but can happen with gestures, glances, body movements, signs and symbols. People with disabilities can use different forms of communication and some technological resources to facilitate the communication process. Inclusion of computational tools in school's environment facilitates social relations between autistic and others in their learning environment enabling the use of appropriated educational software and communication techniques becoming part of natural process of social interaction. The goal of this research is the development of a medium fidelity prototype software to facilitate the learning and communication of students with autism in school, understanding their differences in learning, processing and organize information and everything should be conducted through the establishment of a daily routine.
Keywords: communication process; autists; communication tool

HCI for Health, Well-Being and Sport

An Exergame for Encouraging Martial Arts BIBAKFull-Text 221-232
  Connsynn Chye; Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima
In this paper, we developed a game-based learning system for martial arts with the aid of a Kinect sensor, stressing the importance of providing the player with immediate feedback, clear goals and challenges that are matched to his/her skill level. We have conducted an experiment on 6 university students. The influences of punching gloves on a player's psychological processes were evident in the experiment results. As well, we found that punching gloves exhibit the potential to govern game-based learning process. We posit that the reality tool is essential in the future exergame learning system due to its virtual reality impact on a player's feeling. The game-based learning model discussed in this paper can be extended to other sports, especially those required sports equipment such as racquet, golf club, baseball bat and etc for high excitement, fun and interactive learning achievement.
Keywords: Game-based learning; augmented reality; exergaming; enclothed cognition
Exploring B-Learning Scenarios Using Fuzzy Logic-Based Modeling of Users' LMS Quality of Interaction in Ergonomics and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Academic Courses BIBAKFull-Text 233-243
  Sofia B. Dias; José A. Diniz; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
The multidisciplinary field of human-computer interaction can be seen as an open-ended concept used to refer to the understanding of different relationships between people (users) and computers. The pedagogical planning within the blended learning environment with the users' quality of interaction (QoI) with the Learning Management System (LMS) is explored here. The required QoI (both for professors and students) is estimated by adopting a fuzzy logic-based modeling approach, namely FuzzyQoI, applied to LMS Moodle data from two undergraduate courses (i.e., Ergonomics and Psychomotor Rehabilitation) offered by a public higher education institution. In order to facilitate the understanding of the learning context and curricula organization of the both courses, the MindMup tool from the i-Treasures Pedagogical Planner (www.i-treasures.eu) is employed. The results presented can inspire LMS administrators to include the measure of QoI and reflect upon issues like system-quality, system-use and user-satisfaction into their current evaluation techniques of LMS based b-learning systems efficiency.
Keywords: Blended-Learning Scenarios; LMS Moodle; Quality of Interaction; Fuzzy Logic-Based modelling; Ergonomics and Psychomotor Rehabilitation courses; Human-Computer Interaction; Pedagogical Planning; i-Treasures
User Interfaces of Mobile Exergames BIBAKFull-Text 244-255
  Tim Dutz; Sandro Hardy; Martin Knöll; Stefan Göbel; Ralf Steinmetz
Exergames are video games that require the player to be physically active. They can be roughly grouped into two categories, namely indoor exergames that are usually being played in the confines of one's living room, and mobile exergames, which run on a user's smartphone and can be played outside. While indoor exergames have been able to establish themselves as a popular type of video game, mobile exergames are still far and few between. An explanation for this phenomenon may lie in the difficulty of designing user interfaces for mobile exergames. This contribution analyzes the user interfaces of various existing mobile exergames and fitness applications, and proposes a methodology for the creation of such games.
Keywords: Serious Games; Exergames; Mobile Games; User Interfaces
AwareCycle: Application for Sports Visualization Using an Afterimage Display Attached to the Wheel of a Bicycle BIBAKFull-Text 256-264
  Azusa Kadomura; Yoko Ichioka; Koji Tsukada; Jun Rekimoto; Itiro Siio
In this study, we define a method that allows the real-time presentation of a sportsman's physical status to an audience as the AwareSports concept. In particular, we focus on cycling to illustrate the AwareSports concept and develop an AwareCycle system to show the sportsman's status on the wheel, which has not been utilized previously as a display area for presenting the sportsman's status in real-time to the audience. We also implement an iPhone software application that is connected to the wheel component in order to monitor and display the sportsman's heart rate.
Keywords: Afterimage display; Bicycle; Cycling; Heart rate; Physical information; Sport-Augmented; Wheel
Refreshing Quantification and other Ploys to Give Up the Habit BIBAKFull-Text 265-276
  Stefania Matei; Cosima Rughinis; Razvan Rughinis
In this paper we analyze 26 smoking cessation applications on Android OS focusing on how they address their implied users. We identify 'refreshing quantification' as a main method, which endorses a portrait of the users as myopic in risk perception, but heroic in their individual pursuit to reach the non-smoker identity. App-created relationships and identities give rise to a temporal order based on contemplating the past and anticipating the future. Users are guided towards an autonomy-centered identity project, which renders them accountable for success or failure in smoking cessation. Users' experience of smoking cessation is co-constructed in their interaction with the app-coach and with peers. Apps and peers offer diagnoses, advice, labels that populate the world in which the would-be ex-smokers pursue their project.
Keywords: Smoking Cessation; Implied User; Android Applications; Refreshing Quantification; Rhetorical Device
Eliciting Accessibility Requirements for People with Hearing Loss: A Semantic and Norm Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 277-288
  Marta Angélica Montiel Ferreira; Rodrigo Bonacin
The barriers for people with hearing loss to access the Web go beyond the perceptual ones, i.e., the use of audio based content. Many people with hearing loss have difficulty writing and interpreting long or complex texts on the Web. In this study, we analyzed the semantic and normative aspects of Web content production and consumption by means of participatory studies with 29 deaf users. These studies resulted in the elicitation of 121 key problems, and the respective high level design recommendations. The recommendations aim to transform the Web into an inductor of learning. They also include design solutions that demand further research on assistive technologies.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Universal Design; Organizational Semiotics; Universal Usability
Can a Theory-Informed Interactive Animation Increase Intentions to Engage in Physical Activity in Young People with Asthma? BIBAKFull-Text 289-300
  Jennifer Murray; Brian Williams; Gaylor Hoskins; Silje Skar; John McGhee; Dylan Gauld; Gordon Brown; Shaun Treweek; Falko Sniehotta; Linda Cameron; Aziz Sheikh; Suzanne Hagen
A theoretically-informed interactive animation was developed, using themes drawn from psychology, sociology, applied health research, and narrative theory, which aimed to encourage young people with asthma to engage in physical activity. The animation was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A web-based Interactive Modelling Experiment was used to evaluate whether the animation was effective in three key areas: knowledge about asthma, inhaler use, and intention to increase physical activity. One-to-one interviews and focus groups were used to evaluate the acceptability of the animation and whether the theoretical basis was effective. Preliminary qualitative findings indicate good acceptability and perceived effectiveness. The quantitative findings are less clear, with a change in simulated activity and inhaler use being found, but with no clear association between these changes and the animation itself. Future work will be carried out to established whether these levels of acceptability and perceived effectiveness are actually translated into behaviour change.
Keywords: Asthma; interactive animation; wIME; theory-informed; multidisciplinary
Mapping Graceful Interaction Design from Dance Performance BIBAKFull-Text 301-311
  Nor Laila Md Noor; Wan Norizan Wan Hashim; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Fauzi Mohd Saman
Graceful interaction is one of the several forms of aesthetic interaction that have been proposed to enrich the quality of user experience. In this paper we discuss the refinement of the concept of graceful interaction by mapping physical dance movement into graceful interaction. We argued that graceful interaction has deep roots in organic bodily rhythms and the social conditions which help structure them. To gain a further understanding of graceful interaction we compared physical dance movement with the conception of graceful interaction. We conducted a literature analysis on pertinent aesthetic concepts used in interface design, followed by an interview with an art performance expert to gain an understanding of pertinent graceful concepts in art performance. An interpretive analysis was then conducted to produce mappings of graceful interaction concepts from art performance to graceful interaction features based on an interaction quality framework.
Keywords: aesthetic experience; movement interaction; graceful interaction design; HCI
Understanding the Interaction Support for Mobile Work in an Emergency Room BIBAKFull-Text 312-322
  Sergio F. Ochoa; Alvaro Monares; Nicolás Ochoa; Ramón Hervás; José Bravo
Typically mobile and ubiquitous software applications provide services to mobile workers to help them increase their performance, effectiveness and eventually the satisfaction while doing their jobs. These services are directly related to the characterization of the activities to be supported. Based on such a characterization the designers of these solutions can envision the services that should be provided by the new system. Few guidelines are available to characterize mobile activities from an IT support point of view, therefore the designers have to guess the services to be embedded in these solutions. This paper provides a first step to address such a problem, identifying the context variables that characterize the mobile activities. Moreover, an ontology of activity characteristics and some design guidelines are provided to determine which supporting services can be used to address activities according to their characteristics. This proposal was conceived based on the empirical observation of the work performed by the medical personnel at an emergency room of a public hospital. Further analysis is required to generalize this proposal, in order to address mobile work in other scenarios.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; mobile computing; mobile work; activity characterization; context-aware information delivery; design guidelines
Sweat Sensing Technique for Wearable Device Using Infrared Transparency BIBAKFull-Text 323-331
  Masa Ogata; Masahiko Inami; Michita Imai
Wearable devices that are worn on the hand and display information are rapidly becoming pervasive. However, acquiring and displaying a user's own data, such as the amount of sweat flowing and the required amount of water for a particular activity, on a wearable device remains difficult. We propose a technique that senses the amount of sweat flowing from the human body. The technique, which is implemented in a wearable device, utilizes infrared transparency via a sponge that can hold the sweat. We selected sponge as the material to hold the sweat because it enables repeated measurement of the amount of sweat flowing from the human body. Consequently, we also outline the development and testing of a prototype device that actualizes the proposed technique and discuss its efficacy and feasibility.
Keywords: Sweat; Wearable device; Sensing; Photo transparency
Collaborative Digital Sports Systems That Encourage Exercise BIBAFull-Text 332-340
  Ayaka Sato; Anna Yokokubo; Itiro Siio; Jun Rekimoto
Although the importance of health and exercising as a way to maintain fitness and physical wellbeing is widely recognized, it is often difficult for people to persist with a regular workout schedule. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem through "Collaborative Digital Sports." This is a digital sports environment where participants are given a shared goal. Through the use of body motion sensors and video projection feedback, this environment works as a fitness playground that requires physical movements by participants. This environment is adaptable to the fitness levels of the participants, as its sensor-feedback loop is digital and unencumbered by real sports equipment. Based on this concept, we designed and implemented two collaborative digital sporting activities. The "Group Jump Rope Orchestra" is a simulated jump rope environment where people are required to synchronize jumping over a projected rope as it periodically swings by. The "How Many Legged Race!?" is a variation of the three-legged race that can accommodate any number of participants as they synchronize their steps. We tested these sports environments with numerous participants and discovered that the cooperative nature of these digital sports helps motivate the players and fosters a shared sense of caring among them.
Design Implications to Systems Supporting Informal Caregivers' Daily Life BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Susanne Schinkinger; Hilda Tellioglu
This paper is about studying informal caregivers to understand their exhausting life. Our aim is to define design requirements for any kind of information and communication technology to support them. Based on ethnographic studies we gathered information about our users' needs, possibilities, constraints, and challenges. After a brief introduction to the related research on current technology solutions we introduce our methodology. Then we present two of our user cases in detail. We point out areas in which we can really provide technology support for our users. We also describe what qualities and features the technology should have to meet these requirements. We summarize our findings before we conclude the paper.
Keywords: User interfaces; ethnography and field work; interaction design; informal caregivers
A Multi-disciplinary Approach in the Development of a Stroke Rehabilitation Tool BIBAKFull-Text 351-362
  Marie Sjölinder; Maria Ehn; Inga-Lill Boman; Mia Folke; Pär Hansson; Disa Sommerfeld; Stina Nylander; Jörgen Borg
This work describes a method used in the development of a stroke rehabilitation tool. The method was based on three key elements. The first key element was iterations between the use of broad groups with different professionals/stakeholders and small hands-on working groups with users from the same profession. The second key element was movement between understanding differences between different organizations and professionals and understanding of specific needs within the different organizations. The final key element was including implementation aspects from the very start of the work.
Keywords: Design methods; participatory design; multi-disciplinary approach
Snappy App: A Mobile Continuous Performance Test with Physical Activity Measurement for Assessing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder BIBAKFull-Text 363-373
  Zoe Young; Michael P. Craven; Maddie Groom; John Crowe
A Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was incorporated into a smartphone application (App) to measure three symptom domains associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The App was pilot tested on 11 healthy adults over three testing sessions. No differences in performance were found between testing sessions suggesting good test consistency. A decrement in performance over time was only found for one measure of attention and on one testing session. The CPT showed some sensitivity to ADHD-related symptoms where self-reported impulsive behaviour was related to the CPT measures of impulsivity and activity. User acceptability was good although some design improvements were suggested. Further pilot testing of the App in a clinical population is needed.
Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Continuous Performance Test; m-Health; Ecological interfaces; New technology and its usefulness; Psychological application for user interface; Qualitative and quantitative measurement and evaluation

Mobility, Transport and Environment

TellEat: Sharing Experiences on the Move BIBAFull-Text 377-388
  Elisa Chiabrando; Roberto Furnari; Silvia Likavec; Francesco Osborne; Claudia Picardi; Daniele Theseider Dupré
In a context where, due to the proliferation of mobile devices, virtual social environments on the Web are taking up a very concrete role in the way people experience their surroundings, the Future Internet seems to be headed toward a mixture of Social Web, Semantic Web and Augmented Reality. As a part of a larger project that aims at building a social network of both people and things, we designed and developed TellEat, an iPhone-based application that allows users in mobility to share facts concerning people or objects that participate in the social network, and to discover pertinent events that have been told by others. In this paper we discuss both the client application, with the interaction model and interface metaphors that have been designed to make the experience as playful as possible for users, and the server-side services that provide the necessary knowledge and reasoning mechanisms. We also present the results of preliminary tests with users.
The Youth of Today Designing the Smart City of Tomorrow BIBAKFull-Text 389-400
  Simon Himmel; Barbara S. Zaunbrecher; Wiktoria Wilkowska; Martina Ziefle
Sustainable energy supply, mobility concepts, a healthy city climate -- the next generations will face vital urban challenges. The views of the citizens of tomorrow, today's youth, are therefore especially important when designing concepts for future urban areas that incorporate those demands. We therefore explored young pupils' attitude to these three research areas in an empirical approach. 21 students (17-24 years) participated in a workshop. First, they answered a questionnaire on their attitudes towards technology and urban environment. Afterwards, they were divided into focus groups in which they discussed and developed solutions to the three key challenges for future cities. Besides innovative ideas of how younger persons wish to live in urban environments, results reveal a rather uninformed and naïve view on the complex situation. Overall, we conclude that urban challenges should be integrated into the school education to provide a deeper understanding of the complex interaction of energy, mobility and user requirements.
Keywords: User diversity; urban development; attitude towards technology; mobility; energy; city climate
Evidence-Based Error Analysis: Supporting the Design of Error-Tolerant Systems BIBAKFull-Text 401-412
  Becky L. Hooey; Marco Aurisicchio; Robert Bracewell; David C. Foyle
This paper proposes an evidence-based process and engineering design tool for linking human error identification taxonomies, and human error prevention and mitigation design principles with the system engineering design process. The process synthesizes the design evidence generated and used during the design and analysis process to clearly demonstrate that credible error threats have been identified and considered appropriately in the design of the system. In doing so, it supports the designer in managing design solutions across the entire design process, leaves a design trace that is transparent and auditable by other designers, managers, or certification experts, and manages the complex interactions among other systems and sub-systems.
Keywords: error-tolerant design; human error; design rationale; designVUE
Authority and Level of Automation BIBAKFull-Text 413-424
  Anders Jansson; Patrik Stensson; Ida Bodin; Anton Axelsson; Simon Tschirner
Motor vehicles and drivers' relationship with them will change significantly in the next decades. Still, most driving tasks are likely to involve humans behind the wheel, emphasizing the design of in-vehicle assistance systems. A framework for distribution of control between human beings and technology is presented, as well as a model to be used in analysis, design, development, and deployment of decision support systems. The framework and the model are applied in a project aiming for design of in-vehicle systems for future long-haul vehicles. The empirical investigations conducted support the design-as-hypotheses approach. The search for improvements of design concepts and levels of automation leads to a shift away from abstract ideas of autonomous cars to empirical issues such as how to support the driver. The need to discuss authority in relation to levels of automation is recognized, emphasizing the fact that human-machine interaction takes place on two distinct levels.
Keywords: Automation; Autonomy; Authority; Decision-making
Developing a Location-Aware Mobile Guide System for GLAMs Based on TAPIR Sound Tag: A Case Study of the Lee Ungno Museum BIBAKFull-Text 425-433
  Jimin Jeon; Gunho Chae; Woon Seung Yeo
With the emergence of new mobile media, Galleries, Libraries, Archives, and Museums (GLAMs) have paid attention to interactive context-aware mobile guide systems that can provide visitors with a customized experience based on their location and movement. However, existing location-aware guide systems using GPS, Wi-Fi, QR Code, NFC, RFID, etc. tend to overlook the special conditions of GLAM environments, often require additional hardware, and have shortcomings like inaccurate identification, high cost, and low usability. This project aims to develop a novel location-aware mobile guide system for GLAMs that can overcome such limitations and offer visitors a tailored experience. To this end, we utilize "Theoretically Audible but Practically Inaudible Range (TAPIR)" sound tag-based data communication and location detection using audio signals within the human hearing range (typically between 18 to 22 kHz). This paper describes the TAPIR sound tag-based mobile guide system, and it discusses the first user evaluation result of the guide we developed for Lee Ungno Museum.
Keywords: TAPIR; Sound Tag; Indoor Positioning; Museum; Mobile guide; Lee Ungno Museum
An Adaptive Semantic Mobile Application for Individual Touristic Exploration BIBAKFull-Text 434-443
  Christine Keller; Rico Pöhland; Sören Brunk; Thomas Schlegel
Expectations towards information access are rising as technology is increasingly pervasive in public spaces. Information for tourists such as on sights, transportation options or lodging is instantly available on mobile phones or public displays. However, it is still mostly up to the users to query different sources for information, find information suitable to their situation and to combine that information afterwards in order to reach their goal. In this paper, we present an approach that provides integrated and situational information on different tourism-related topics. We introduce our adaptation concept based on semantic descriptions of user context and integrated information sources and we describe the prototype implementing our concept. We evaluate our approach in a user study and discuss starting points for future work.
Keywords: Adaptation; Context-Awareness; Semantic Web; Mobile Application
Memory-Sharing Support Tool for Improving Local Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 444-453
  Yusuke Kurosaki; Tomoko Izumi; Yoshio Nakatani
The goal of this paper is to improve communication between local residents. To achieve this goal, we propose a memory-sharing system for use by local residents. This system focuses on memories relating to the local area, because providing a common subject to talk about is important for the promotion of communication between people who are not acquaintances. In our system, the residents input their memories into a digital map and talk about the memories. The results of an evaluation experiment show that while awareness of connections with neighbors had been low, after using the system this awareness increased, and the residents were beginning to feel more interested in each other.
Keywords: Memory-sharing system; local communities; local area memories
Finding Directions to a Good GPS System BIBAKFull-Text 454-465
  James Landy; Tatiana Lopez; Nkemjika Ndee; Pimpisa Predaswad; Eyobin Lozano; Patricia Morreale
GPS devices have become commonplace today, almost as common as cell phones, especially for the developed and emerging economies. In this research paper, the development of a predictive model for selecting a GPS system for use based on the analysis of the interface design is described. The research presents subjective data from user interaction surveys, and objective data using the Keystroke Level Model (KLM). After comparison, inferences or predictions are made based on the analysis of available data. The research makes valid contributions to the GPS interface design field, and the GPS market. A higher level of accuracy can be achieved with data from a larger user survey group, and use of additional models, and an automated tool such as CogTool.
Keywords: GPS; Garmin; TomTom; Magellan; GoogleMaps; DeLorme Street Atlas; KLM; user survey; predictive model
A Geo-collaborative Recommendation Tool to Help Urban Mobility BIBAKFull-Text 466-472
  Erick López-Ornelas; Rocío Abascal-Mena; J. Sergio Zepeda-Hernández
Geo-collaboration appears when individuals or groups work together to solve spatial decision-making problems facilitated by geospatial information technologies. In this paper we focus on current developments in geo-collaboration to help urban mobility. This work shows a collaborative mobile prototype that help people to take some decisions and share knowledge from a city. The main prototype recommends a better route to users in order to promote "walkability", in our case, Mexico City. The system not only takes on account the user profile, but the time, the date, the recommendation of other users and their spatial activity in order to give the best route.
Keywords: geo-collaborative; urban mobility; recommendation; user interface contextual design; "walkability"
Influence of Cultural, Organizational and Automation Factors on Human-Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Engineers and Developmental History BIBAKFull-Text 473-484
  David J. Niedober; Nhut T. Ho; Gina Masequesmay; Kolina Koltai; Mark Skoog; Artemio Cacanindin; Walter Johnson; Joseph B. Lyons
This paper examines the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation in the context of an extended case study of the US Air Force Automatic Ground Collisions Avoidance System (Auto-GCAS). The paper focuses on the analyses of the system's developmental history and the perspectives of engineers involved in its development. Key findings indicate that the success of the system was a result of the innovative solutions developed; and a strong alignment between the engineering and experimental test pilot cultures. The findings suggest that the Auto-GCAS system was designed and tested in such a way as to promote effective trust calibration. A summary of the foundational lessons about how trust is influenced by cultural and organizational factors, implications of this research for adding to the body of knowledge on human-automation trust, and future research avenues, are also discussed.
Keywords: Trust; automation; reliance; F-16; military organization; engineer culture; extended case study methodology; automatic ground collision avoidance
Adaptive Warning Strategies from Multiple Systems: A Simulator Study with Drivers with Different Reaction Times BIBAKFull-Text 485-493
  Evangelia Portouli; Vassilis Papakostopoulos
Adaptive interfaces are being developed to avoid drivers' overload and distraction. 24 drivers, assigned in two groups according to their braking reaction time, participated in a driving simulator study experiencing incidents of concurrent warnings by two support systems. Warnings were provided either independently or via an adaptive interface in which one audio warning was intensified and the other was suppressed. The driving behaviour of the two groups was different, drivers with longer reaction times should be specifically considered when designing adaptive interfaces. The employed adaptive strategy caused changes in the driving behaviour of participants with shorter reaction time, another adaptive strategy, possibly generating warnings earlier, may be more appropriate for drivers with longer reaction times. The metrics that were more sensitive in identifying changes in driving behaviour are mean speed during incident, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position and minimum time headway to lead vehicle.
Keywords: driving support systems; adaptive interfaces; driving behaviour; evaluation; metrics
Tourist Evacuation Guidance Support System for Use in Disasters BIBAKFull-Text 494-501
  Toshiki Sato; Tomoko Izumi; Yoshio Nakatani
Japan is a country that is affected by many disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons. The Japanese populace fears the occurrence of a major earthquake, such as an earthquake caused by the Nankai Trough and an earthquake in the Tokyo metropolitan region, which are expected to occur with a high probability within 30 years. For these reasons, seismic countermeasures have attracted considerable attention from Japanese people, and the Japanese government is taking various measures against earthquakes. Accordingly, this paper proposes a disaster information provision system using Wi-Fi access points, which gives evacuees disaster information and evacuation routes based on the user's location. We assume users of our system to be tourists, both domestic and from overseas. This system has two main functions, the first of which is to provide tourists with information about the disaster, public transportation, and evacuation areas. By using our system, it is anticipated that smooth evacuation can be realized at an early stage. In addition, as the second main function, our system aims to prevent the concentration of evacuees at the main transport terminal by guiding them to each evacuation space.
Keywords: Disaster information; evacuation support system; tourist; bus stop
Evaluating Novel User Interfaces in (Safety Critical) Railway Environments BIBAFull-Text 502-512
  Anselmo Stelzer; Isabel Schütz; Andreas Oetting
In this paper we present a research facility for railway operations, the Eisenbahnbetriebsfeld Darmstadt (EBD) as simulation environment. Here, new operational and dispatching software for a safety critical environment can be thoroughly evaluated. In three expert and two user evaluations it could be shown that the EBD is a well-suited environment for testing as an extension to traditional methods. On the one hand, implementing software in the EBD can be done in a timely manner and at relatively low costs. Also, it is possible to trigger certain disruptions and malfunctions at will which would be impractical in real operations. On the other hand, studies have shown that users are really keen on testing in the EBD and that their mood is constantly good all along.
Identification of User Requirements for Mobile Applications to Support Door-to-Door Mobility in Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 513-524
  Ulrike Stopka
The mobility service market has changed rapidly in the last decade. Innovative solutions like bike-, car- and ridesharing complete the classic individual car and public transport. The integration of these different transport modes to intermodal mobility solutions can be supported very effectively by the features and services of modern smartphones. The development of augmented mobility apps requires a continuous acquisition and evaluation of the public transport user needs and preferences. The paper describes the influencing factors for these demands and overviews different clustering and investigation approaches from practical projects and scientific studies. Finally the results of an own empirical study at the TU Dresden based on a focus group interview are presented. Appropriate recommendations for action are derived.
Keywords: intermodal mobility; public transport; mobility services; mobile applications; user requirements; preferences; habit; focus group; usability
Fighting Technology Dumb Down: Our Cognitive Capacity for Effortful AR Navigation Tools BIBAKFull-Text 525-536
  James Wen; Agnes Deneka; William S. Helton; Andreas Dünser; Mark Billinghurst
By overlaying virtual guidance information directly over the surrounding environment, Augmented Reality (AR) is seen as an easy alternative to maps for pedestrians navigating in unfamiliar urban environments. It is hypothesized, however, that easing navigation tasks would result in weaker cognitive maps, leaving users more vulnerable to becoming lost should their navigation device fail. We describe an outdoor navigation study that highlighted the gap between theoretical expectations and real world testing with navigation tools. We addressed the issues by creating a simulation system for testing navigation tools and report on the results of a study comparing AR with maps. We then extended the system to support simultaneous secondary tasks to assess relative workload. We present this as a way of objectively measuring relative cognitive effort expended on navigation tool use. Our findings are helpful in the design of mobile pedestrian navigation tools seeking to balance navigational efficiency with mental map formation.
Keywords: pedestrian navigation; augmented reality; maps; cognitive load; virtual environment; spatial knowledge acquisition
Model of Mobility Oriented Agenda Planning BIBAKFull-Text 537-544
  Tobias Wienken; Cindy Mayas; Stephan Hörold; Heidi Krömker
Today people have a wide range of choices in their means of transportation and their mobility options that it offers. Usability and flexibility are paramount in the application to individualized lifestyles. At the same time however, the provision of information and the planning process has become more complex and the users must collect information from a wide range of different systems. In order to reduce the workload of the planning processes, the task structures of different system must be analyzed and tried to combine. This paper describes how the mobility planning process can be integrated into the agenda planning process.
Keywords: public transport; mobility information; agenda planning
The Challenges of Developing an Online Tool to Measure the Quality of the Passenger Experience in a PanEuropean Context BIBAKFull-Text 545-555
  Andree Woodcock; Panagiotis Petridis; Fotis Liotopoulos; Apostolos Georgiadis; Liam Brady
METPEX is a 3 year, FP7 project which aims to develop a PanEuropean tool to measure the quality of the passenger's experience of multimodal transport. Initial work has led to the development of a comprehensive set of variables relating to different passenger groups, forms of transport and journey stages. This paper addresses the main challenges in transforming the variables into usable, accessible computer based tools allowing for the real time collection of information, across multiple journey stages in different EU countries. Non-computer based measurement instruments will be used to gather information from those who may not have or be familiar with mobile technology. Smartphone-based measurement instruments will also be used, hosted in two applications. The mobile applications need to be easy to use, configurable and adaptable according to the context of use. They should also be inherently interesting and rewarding for the participant, whilst allowing for the collection of high quality, valid and reliable data from all journey types and stages (from planning, through to entry into and egress from different transport modes, travel on public and personal vehicles and support of active forms of transport (e.g. cycling and walking). During all phases of the data collection and processing, the privacy of the participant is highly regarded and is ensured.
Keywords: Adaptive and personalized interfaces; Entertainment and game user interface; Human Centered Design and User Centered Design; Internationalization and Localization; New technology and its usefulness; Qualitative and quantitative measurement and evaluation; Universal usability; transport

Interacting with Games

From Screens to Devices and Tangible Objects: A Framework Applied to Serious Games Characterization BIBAKFull-Text 559-570
  Julian Alvarez; Sylvain Haudegond; Clémentine Havrez; Christophe Kolski; Yoann Lebrun; Sophie Lepreux; Aurélien Libessart
The accelerated progress being made with interactive devices (such as screens, cameras, joysticks and tangible objects) has triggered the development of new interaction methods for applications (e.g., body language, haptic feedback, etc.). Video games and Serious Games are being played on increasingly innovative peripherals (e.g., Kinect, Wii Balance Board). These devices have generated new, intuitive forms of Human-Computer Interaction that are completely changing our usages. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of gaming technologies and suggest a framework for characterizing the role that screens play in these devices. This framework differentiates between the various gaming elements (the gamers, the interactive devices and the entertaining and gamified applications). This framework is a tool to analyze the effects of device choice and configuration. This paper presents an evaluation of the characterization of 15 serious games. This evaluation will provide a glimpse of the potentialities of the framework with respect to suggested criteria as well as of the trends and potential developments in interactive media.
Keywords: Tangible objects; screens; devices; video game; serious game; characterization
Assembling the Collective Experience of a Serious Game Mediation as an Interactional Practice BIBAKFull-Text 571-580
  Alain Bovet; Marc Relieu
Public installation settings provide a great opportunity to study how various participants orient to one or several screens. In this paper, we explore how visitors use the central tactile menu of a serious game installation with the assistance of a mediator. To study this interactional organization, we conducted a video-based analysis of co-participants' practices. We focus on the close analysis of two distinct configurations of talk and bodily activities, which connect participants to the artefact through various embodied practices.
Keywords: ethnomethodology; embodied interaction; video-based studies; serious game; public interfaces
Bet without Looking: Studying Eyes-Free Interaction during Live Sports BIBAFull-Text 581-592
  Pedro Centieiro; Teresa Romão; A. Eduardo Dias; David Furió
This paper presents a comparison study of three different interaction methods for an eyes-free interaction with a second screen application while watching a TV broadcast. These interaction methods were used in WeBet, a touch-based mobile game that prompts users to bet if a goal is about to happen during a football match. WeBet is one of the prototypes we have been developing to increase the remote users' emotional levels during live sports broadcasts, so that they feel like if they were scoring a goal with their team. However, that can only be achieved the second screen application does not require the users' attention when a goal (key moment) is just about to happen, otherwise they would be frustrated to miss that exciting moment. To this end, we conducted user tests that allowed us to determine the usage patterns and users' preferences regarding three different interaction methods, as well as to identify important refinements to be considered in future developments.
Interface Design Strategies and Disruptions of Gameplay: Notes from a Qualitative Study with First-Person Gamers BIBAKFull-Text 593-603
  Suely Fragoso
This paper presents the results of a study about how first-person players perceive and describe their gameplay experience, what type of interface representations they consider disruptive and why. The intention to unveil fine-grained information by giving voice to players required the adoption of qualitative methods. In qualitative research, the size of the sample is less important than its adequacy. We worked with an information-rich sample of seven male volunteers, ages 16 to 40, which took part in an experiment composed by a profiling questionnaire, a two-step individual gaming session with DICE's Battlefield 3 and semi-structured interviews. Results indicate that the integration of interface elements to the gameworld can be disruptive even when it does not compromise usability or efficiency. Smooth gameplay experience requires (a) careful balance of the level of information available at any given point and (b) aesthetical and functional coherence, internally and in relation to the gameworld.
Keywords: Entertainment and game user interface; Experience design; Graphical user interface; Interaction design; qualitative methods
Proposal for a New Entertainment System That Connects Real Life and Net Excitement BIBAKFull-Text 604-613
  Kazuma Hidaka; Katsuhiko Ogawa
This paper describes a new entertainment system that enables sharing the experiences of concert halls audiences on the Web with the use of a penlight and Smartphone application. This system captures the audience's excitement and mood during a concert and then uses that data to annotate a video of the concert. Other users can relate to the audience experience in synch to the video. This system consists of a LED light stick attached to a Smartphone waved by the audience and annotates with emoticons timestamped on each particular moment. Further, the test to extract problems of usability of this system and the brief test to evaluate the user experiment of the whole system was carried out. By these test, it was suggested that this system could make a positive change to the experience of the concert.
Keywords: Annotation System; Penlight; Smartphone Application; Entertainment System
Distance Effect: Where You Stand Determines How Promptly You Interact with Game BIBAKFull-Text 614-621
  Xiaolong Lou; Andol Xiangdong Li; Ren Peng
Interaction efficiency is an important concern in game playing, due to that it reflects the degree of how promptly users respond and dominates user experience. To understand the relationships between interaction efficiency and distance in motion-sensing games, this paper conducted empirical studies to assess user performance (mostly hand gesture movements) at various interaction distances. The results identify the existence of 'low point' at which users responded less efficiently, the range of 'low point' values was much smaller than that of usual distances as we selected though. Beyond that, interaction efficiency recovered quickly to a steadily high level with distance increase. The results implied the distance's direct influence on interaction efficiency in motion-sensing game playing, and it also shows new avenues to address the interaction efficiency in game playing according to standing distances. Furthermore, guidelines were provided to assist game developers to fully consider the role of distance.
Keywords: Interaction efficiency; game interface; hand track; distance effect; game balance
Narrative Control and Player Experience in Role Playing Games: Decision Points and Branching Narrative Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 622-633
  Christopher Moser; Xiaowen Fang
This paper reports an experimental study that investigated two research problems: first, how does narrative structure mediate the phenomenological experience(s) of role-playing games (RPGs)? Does branching narrative feedback heighten the experience of role-playing in terms of Flow and character identification? And second, what are the effects of salient decision points (narrative controls) on the player perception of narrative structure and complexity as well as control over the player-character? Does higher perceived complexity lead to heightened effectence and Flow? To what extent are these effects context-dependent in terms of narrative feedback mechanisms and overall structure? Two hypotheses were developed based on prior research: 1. Branching narrative in an RPG leads to improved game play experiences compared to linear narrative and 2. Presence of salient decision points in a RPG leads to improved experiences of game play. A 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted to test these hypotheses.
Keywords: role playing; RPG; interactive narrative; branching narrative; narrative structure
Prototyping for Digital Sports Integrating Game, Simulation and Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 634-642
  Yasuto Nakanishi
Recent advances in sensor technology has made technology support for sports and physical exercise commonplace. Sports played along with mobile devices or robots are actively studied; however, most of these systems utilize only one device or robot. Iterative prototyping with several devices requires incurs additional costs for gathering test players or conducting field tests. We have proposed hybrid prototyping using both virtual and miniature spaces for prototyping spatial interactive systems to cope with problems similar to those. This paper discusses a prototyping trial for a soccer training system using physical and virtual mobile cone robots. We propose a new form of hybrid prototyping that unifies game, simulation, and visualization.
Keywords: design; hybrid; prototyping; digital sports
Improving In-game Gesture Learning with Visual Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 643-653
  Matthias Schwaller; Jan Kühni; Leonardo Angelini; Denis Lalanne
This paper presents a research work on gesture recognition and feedback to reduce the learning time of new gestures and to augment user performance in a game application. A Wiimote controlled space shooter game, GeStar Wars, has been developed. The player controls a spaceship through the buttons in the controller, while forearm gestures can be used to perform special actions. Gesture strokes are mapped in a 3x3 grid and are differentiated according to the path of the covered grid cells. In-game visual feedback displays to the user the current gesture path and which cells were covered after the gesture is performed. The novelty of this research resides in the correlated gesture recognition methodology and feedback which helps the user to learn and correct the gestures. The evaluation, conducted with 12 users, showed that the users performed significantly better if feedback was provided.
Keywords: Gestural interfaces; User evaluation; In-game Feedback; Accelerometer
Haptic User Interface Integration for 3D Game Engines BIBAKFull-Text 654-662
  Gokhan Sengul; Nergiz Ercil Çagiltay; Erol Özçelik; Emre Tuner; Batuhan Erol
Touch and feel senses of human beings provide important information about the environment. When those senses are integrated with the eyesight, we may get all the necessary information about the environment. In terms of human-computer-interaction, the eyesight information is provided by visual displays. On the other hand, touch and feel senses are provided by means of special devices called "haptic" devices. Haptic devices are used in many fields such as computer-aided design, distance-surgery operations, medical simulation environments, training simulators for both military and medical applications, etc. Besides the touch and sense feelings haptic devices also provide force-feedbacks, which allows designing a realistic environment in virtual reality applications.
   Haptic devices can be categorized into three classes: tactile devices, kinesthetic devices and hybrid devices. Tactile devices simulate skin to create contact sensations. Kinesthetic devices apply forces to guide or inhibit body movement, and hybrid devices attempt to combine tactile and kinesthetic feedback. Among these kinesthetic devices exerts controlled forces on the human body, and it is the most suitable type for the applications such as surgical simulations.
   The education environments that require skill-based improvements, the touch and feel senses are very important. In some cases providing such educational environment is very expensive, risky and may also consist of some ethical issues. For example, surgical education is one of these fields. The traditional education is provided in operating room on real patients. This type of education is very expensive, requires long time periods, and does not allow any error-and-try type of experiences. It is stressfully for both the educators and the learners. Additionally there are several ethical considerations. Simulation environments supported by such haptic user interfaces provide an alternative and safer educational alternative. There are several studies showing some evidences of educational benefits of this type of education (Tsuda et al 2009; Sutherland et al 2006). Similarly, this technology can also be successfully integrated to the physical rehabilitation process of some diseases requiring motor skill improvements (Kampiopiotis & Theodorakou, 2003).
   Hence, today simulation environments are providing several opportunities for creating low cost and more effective training and educational environment. Today, combining three dimensional (3D) simulation environments with these haptic interfaces is an important feature for advancing current human-computer interaction. On the other hand haptic devices do not provide a full simulation environment for the interaction and it is necessary to enhance the environment by software environments. Game engines provide high flexibility to create 3-D simulation environments. Unity3D is one of the tools that provides a game engine and physics engine for creating better 3D simulation environments. In the literature there are many studies combining these two technologies to create several educational and training environments. However, in the literature, there are not many researches showing how these two technologies can be integrated to create simulation environment by providing haptic interfaces as well. There are several issues that need to be handled for creating such integration. First of all the haptic devices control libraries need to be integrated to the game engine. Second, the game engine simulation representations and real-time interaction features need to be coordinately represented by the haptic device degree of freedom and force-feedback speed and features.
   In this study, the integration architecture of Unity 3D game engine and the PHANToM Haptic device for creating a surgical education simulation environment is provided. The methods used for building this integration and handling the synchronization problems are also described. The algorithms developed for creating a better synchronization and user feedback such as providing a smooth feeling and force feedback for the haptic interaction are also provided. We believe that, this study will be helpful for the people who are creating simulation environment by using Unity3D technology and PHANToM haptic interfaces.
Keywords: Surgical simulation; haptic devices; game engines; interaction

Business, Sustainability and Technology Adoption

Situating a Design Space for Sustainable Software Appropriation BIBAKFull-Text 665-673
  Arman Arakelyan; David Lamas
This paper describes work in progress aimed at considering temporal aspects of the appropriation process for prolonging the use of software artifacts with enabling design choices. A model of appropriation from the Information Systems domain is applied to understand the stages of appropriation as a process. The model is complemented by proposing a design space for introducing appropriation-enabling options at each stage towards prolonged use of software solutions.
Keywords: Software Sustainability; Sustainable Software Appropriation
A Model of Web-Based Follow-Up to Reduce Assistive Technology Abandonment BIBAKFull-Text 674-682
  Stefano Federici; Maria Laura Mele; Salvatore Agostino Romeo; Walter Didimo; Giuseppe Liotta; Simone Borsci; Fabio Meloni
The abandonment of assistive technology (AT) is strictly related to the subjective quality of the service delivery regarding the whole AT assignation process. Starting from this consideration, the aim of this work is to show the design of a Web-based follow-up model (WFM) aimed at overcoming the hearing aid abandonment in the Italian Umbria Region AT service delivery system. The WFM model described here is developed in two phases: an implementation phase, and an experimental evaluation which is still under development. The model meets the current objective of the Umbria Region's Units of Local Health Service to digitize their services in order to easily monitor the quality of the delivery service and evaluate the post-provision outcome.
Keywords: Assistive technology abandonment; assistive technology system delivery; assistive technology outcome; follow-up
Designing for Online Collaborative Consumption: A Study of Sociotechnical Gaps and Social Capital BIBAKFull-Text 683-692
  Ali Gheitasy; José Abdelnour-Nocera; Bonnie Nardi; Dimitrios Rigas
This study attempts to investigate sociotechnical gaps in online collaborative consumption (OCC) to improve user experience and provide better design requirements. A new approach is proposed to evaluate usability and sociability of the OCC communities. The formation of social capital within OCC will also be studied to gain insights into design requirements. Due to its features as a community where OCC takes place, ETSY will be the focus of this study.
Keywords: Online Collaborative Consumption (OCC); Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW); sociotechnical gap; social capital; usability; sociability and user experience (UX)
Getting the Most from CRM Systems: Data Mining in SugarCRM, Finding Important Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 693-699
  Qamir Hussain
An automated approach to business intelligence can help improve key performance indicators (KPIs) for businesses using SugarCRM. Data mining techniques will be used to analyze and present recommendations in a meaningful way to users of SugarCRM. One of the important outputs of the data mining process will be recommendations made to the user that effect KPIs of the business. Data mining can also be used to give users a better understanding of the dynamics of their own business and industry as predictable patterns can emerge from CRM datasets. While the approach and conclusions are general, the proposed strategies in this paper and the implementation are based on a SugarCRM installation. Predictive analytics in conjunction data mining has the potential to further improve reporting mechanisms from SugarCRM.
Keywords: CRM; Data mining; Patterns; Predictive Analytics
Humanization of Work and Environmental Protection in Activity of Enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 700-709
  Aleksandra Kawecka-Endler; Beata Mrugalska
Industrial production is an integrated process where a human plays the most crucial and vital role. The employees' ability to perform tasks at shift contributes to a significant loading of health. Thus, providing them good working conditions is necessary. In order to achieve it, safe and environmental friendly systems of work should be assured. In this paper the results of the survey considering safety work and working conditions in Polish enterprises are shown. They indicate that respect for safety and health regulations is essential and in most cases poor working conditions are due to the lack of safety supervision and control.
Keywords: green job; humanization; safety; working conditions
The Gap between What a Service Provider Shows Off and What Users Really Watch BIBAKFull-Text 710-720
  Dongjin Kim; Jaehyun Choi
We identified watching behaviors on the first IPTV established with Google OS in the world. Log analysis method was taken because actual usage behaviors could be understood. Log data that forty eight users used the IPTV service were collected by the application embedded in the IPTV. As a result of the log data analysis, the frequency of zapping channels by channel up & down button was more than that of changing channels by recommendation or searching. It was indicated that users did not access VOD contents by recommendation. However, a search was used to find YouTube contents.
Keywords: watching behavior; IPTV; U + tv G; Google OS; log analysis
Design Artefacts as Business Decision Prompts: Tackling the Design and Business Values Gap BIBAKFull-Text 721-730
  Joanna Kwiatkowska; Agnieszka Szóstek; David Lamas
This paper focuses on ways of supporting business in staying focused on the identified design values throughout the entire product or service development process. Based on literature review we propose design artefacts as business decision prompts. This consideration is used to structure and discuss probes artefacts as business decision prompts.
Keywords: design artefacts; probes; User-Centered Design; prompts; design values; business values
Home Networking: Smart but Complicated BIBAKFull-Text 731-741
  Abbas Moallem
Internet connection at home has fundamentally changed the way that appliances are designed in the same way that the invention of electricity did. Having efficient and reliable home networking is the key to any modern home. The number of devices that need to be connected to a home networking system increases every day. Computers, televisions, tablets, gaming devices and sound systems are just some of the many appliances that need that connection. Despite the improvements to the hardware of networking devices, re-search shows that the software to set up networking devices along with their configuration are extremely complicated. This paper presents the results of several usability investigations on home networking devices including: a comparative study of different product brands, two series of user surveys, and empirical observations. The results of these investigations show that all of the major brands of home networking appliances use a complex, feature-oriented, rudimentary user interface (UI) design with terms that are understood by a very small percentage of people.
Keywords: Smart Device; Home Networking; Routers User Interface; Wi-Fi Network
A Systematic Review of Sustainability and Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 742-753
  Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris; Kamila Rios da Hora Rodrigues; Renata Firmino Lima
Sustainability is the term employed for the practice of ensuring that goods and services are produced in ways that do not use resources that cannot be replaced. This practice has been in focus on several different research agendas. In the area of Human-Computer Interaction, studies devoted to works investigating this matter began to appear eight years ago. It is a timely moment to look back and see how much the community has achieved. This paper provides the results of a Systematic Review carried out in four scientific databases. The selected papers were grouped considering the topics they present, the methodological approach adopted and the kind of outcomes that emerged. The results suggest that among the different methodological approaches adopted, literature reviews and criticism still form the main basis to underpin the outcomes. Moreover, climate change and energy savings were found to be the specific areas that were most researched. The results obtained make it possible to suggest opportunities for further research.
Keywords: Sustainability; Systematic Review; Human-Computer Interaction
Issues of ERP Upgrade in Public Sectors: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 754-763
  Tanja Scheckenbach; Fan Zhao; Erik Allard; Jermaine Burke; Kevin Chiwaki; Sean Marlow
As more organizations seek to upgrade their ERP systems to take advantage of continuing technological innovations, effective technology implementations are increasingly important. This study tried to provide a deeper understanding of ERP upgrade in public sectors industry. Three issues were found in the study: problems left from ERP implementation, choice between customization and fully adoption, and organizational culture related issues. Lessons and implications were discussed.
Keywords: ERP Upgrade; Public Sectors; Case Study
The Willingness to Adopt Technologies: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Influence of Technical Self-efficacy on Acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 764-775
  Barbara S. Zaunbrecher; Sylvia Kowalewski; Martina Ziefle
Possible explanations for the acceptance or rejection of technological innovations have become a crucial topic in research. Depending on the type of technology, a variety of factors affect acceptance motives. This paper looks into the influence of technical-self efficacy (TSE) on acceptance of technology infrastructure. An empirical study (n=137 participants) was conducted to study effects of TSE on approval, discomfort, and resistance towards technology infrastructure, using electricity pylons, mobile phone masts, and wind power plants as examples. Overall, it was corroborated that TSE is a key variable for explaining users' acceptance of technology infrastructure. The individual technical self-confidence contributed to the explanation of approval and discomfort, whereas resistance was largely based on place of residence. Acceptance differences between technologies were based on different influential user factors. Our research provides valuable insights for stakeholders and contributes to the research on acceptance of energy infrastructures by providing a cross-sectional view.
Keywords: energy infrastructure; technology acceptance; technical self-efficacy; user diversity; renewable energies
The Impact of Culture Differences on Cloud Computing Adoption BIBAKFull-Text 776-785
  Fan Zhao; Hans-Jürgen Scheruhn; Mark von Rosing
To cut cost, while increasing competitiveness, more and more small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are considering cloud computing technology for supporting their business processes. However, initial cost, possible long term cost, security, accessibility and transformation issues are concerned by the organizations. By adopting LEADing Practices and Hofstede [16] national culture dimensions, this study provides substantive conclusions about the transformation effects of national culture dimensions on cloud computing acceptance in organizations.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; National Culture; Acceptance; ERP
Just Rate It! Gamification as Part of Recommendation BIBAKFull-Text 786-796
  Angelina de C. A. Ziesemer; Luana Müller; Milene S. Silveira
In attempt to help users in filtering available products, recommender systems are being used by e-commerce systems to try to predict users' preferences and suggest them new products. Some recommender systems are based in previous ratings and evaluations provided by users to purchased items. When new users or new items join in recommender systems they can suffer by the so called cold-start problem. However, do you rate the products that you bought? This question and other ones were made to 367 participants by an online survey that aims to identify customer profiles and motivations. Also, we investigated user engagement in gamified systems and the effects of tangible and intangible rewards in their behavior. This work presents a theoretical framework that provides basis for defining how gamification can be used to encourage ratings and improve user engagement in tasks that benefit user reputation, item reliability and to overcome cold-start problem.
Keywords: gamification; recommendation; e-commerce