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Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Adjunct Proceedings of CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Interact, Inform, Inspire
Editors:Robin Jeffries; Gary M. Olson
Location:Montreal, Canada
Dates:2006-Apr-22 to 2006-Apr-27
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM Order Number: 608061; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI06-2
Papers:343
Pages:1890
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2006-04-22 Volume 2
    1. Panels
    2. Invited research overviews
    3. Experience reports
    4. Interactivity
    5. HCI overviews
    6. alt.chi
    7. SIGs
    8. Work-in-progress
    9. Workshops
    10. Doctoral consortium
    11. Student design competition

CHI 2006-04-22 Volume 2

Panels

Usability from the CIO's perspective BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  James Euchner; Todd Thompson; Keith McGarr; Ron Blitstein; Jim Roche
There is significant frustration among business leaders and CIOs concerning the success of their systems in the field. There is an equal frustration among HCI professionals at the marginalized role that usability often plays in systems development efforts. These frustrations are, to a large extent, two sides of the same coin. This panel will consider how CIOs manage the apparently competing challenges of faster/better/cheaper systems and the time and money required for developing highly usable systems. They will discuss the strategies and techniques that they use to integrate usability into systems design and development.
Managing international user research BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Alexandra Mack; Susan Dray; Patrick Larvie; Tracey Lovejoy; Girish Prabhu; Christian Sturm
The desire to extend product development success internationally and understand users in the countries in which a product will be marketed has extended user methods overseas. While the practice of international research has become common, approaches have been varied depending on the needs of the project as well as corporate constraints. Many corporate researchers spend a great deal of their time traveling the globe to meet and study consumers, while others look to partner with other researchers or outsource the work entirely. Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages. This panel will explore these diverse approaches, how and why choices are made, the issues and challenges faced, and lessons learned based on past experiences.
Innovative design within the lines: an expert critique of the Xbox 360 design process BIBAFull-Text 9-12
  Russ Glaser; Paolo Malabuyo
This panel session is a real-world critique of the design process and the results of a large design project. A team of outside experts from academia and industry will openly critique and discuss with the audience the lessons that can be learned and theories that can be applied to their own work. The primary example will be the Xbox 360, whose team will be describing and showing the intimate details of their work.
   The goal is to provide audience members a behind-the-scenes look into the actual process used to solve design problems behind the Xbox 360, to hear expert critique of the process and results, and to engage in an open and entertaining question & answer session.
Putting personas to work BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  Tamara Adlin; John Pruitt; Kim Goodwin; Colin Hynes; Karen McGrane; Aviva Rosenstein; Michael J. Muller
Personas for use in interaction and interface design have generated a great deal of interest, but the method is still relatively new. This panel brings together professionals who have used personas to solve real business problems. The panelists will describe the methods they have developed to put personas to work in their organizations and how the use of personas has impacted their products and their organizations.
Institutionalizing HCI: what do i-schools offer? BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  John M. Carroll; Paul Dourish; Batya Friedman; Masaaki Kurosu; Gary M. Olson; Alistair Sutcliffe
I-schools (schools of information, of informatics, of information studies, and of information sciences) have emerged as a new academic home for university programs in HCI. This panel will discuss the significance of i-schools in US universities, related international university-level education movements and trends, the role and possible trajectory of HCI within i-schools, and how the SIGCHI community can play a role in contributing to this development.
Managing deviant behavior in online communities BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  Amy Bruckman; Catalina Danis; Cliff Lampe; Janet Sternberg; Chris Waldron
Wherever groups of people gather, norms for appropriate behavior emerge, and some people chose to violate those norms. What is an exercise of free speech to one person, to another is disruptive, harassing, racist, or worse. For groups that communicate online, a range of technical and social mechanisms are available to help create a climate conducive to meeting the group's stated mission. How do designers of online systems decide what kind of conduct is acceptable? How are these expectations communicated to members? How can designers help prevent and manage deviant behavior? What are the implications of corporate control of content for ideals of free expression? This panel brings together experts from media theory, computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), and online entertainment to explore current issues in this complex research area.
Building user value into the business case BIBAFull-Text 25-27
  Austin Henderson; Ann Bradt
Concepts that are of great value to users are an important part of making great products. However, unless the concepts make sense for businesses, they will never become products, no matter how good they might be for users. This panel looks at this harsh reality from the point of view of product managers. It addresses the question of what makes business sense and how user value plays in making that case. Product managers with experience in making such cases will discuss the practical realities of making effective business cases, the role of user value, and what HCI professionals can do to help managers in making a mutually satisfying case. (See also the companion panel: "The Route to the Sea.".
Service innovation and design BIBAFull-Text 28-31
  Jeanette Blomberg; Shelley Evenson
This panel introduces the CHI community to a growing area of innovation and business development that leverages new technology platforms, namely service design. This topic is explored through a series of case studies of service design in a diverse set of industries and contexts from healthcare delivery to internet-based services.
Agile development: opportunity or fad? BIBAFull-Text 32-35
  Helen Sharp; Robert Biddle; Phil Gray; Lynn Miller; Jeff Patton
The importance of integrating software engineering and HCI methods has been recognised for many years. Agile development is a new approach to software engineering that explicitly champions an active role for the customer. Indeed, eXtreme Programming (XP), one of the most popular agile development methods, strives to include a real user(s) in the team who is located 'on-site' with software developers.
   In this panel we will debate whether or not agile software development provides an opportunity to integrate HCI and software engineering concerns. The panel members represent a wide cross-section of experiences in this area and will consider how agile development can help improve the current situation, consider specific example scenarios provided by the audience, and, with the audience's help, will decide whether agile development is an opportunity not to be missed, or just another fad that will pull the two communities further apart.
Why do tagging systems work? BIBAFull-Text 36-39
  George W. Furnas; Caterina Fake; Luis von Ahn; Joshua Schachter; Scott Golder; Kevin Fox; Marc Davis; Cameron Marlow; Mor Naaman
The panel will explore the relevance of the emerging tagging systems (Flickr, Del.icio.us, RawSugar and more). Why do they seem to work? What kinds of incentives are required for users to participate? Will tagging survive and scale to mass adoption? What are the behavioral, economic, and social models that underlie each tagging system? What are the dynamics of those systems, and how are they derived from the specific application's design and affordances? We will demand answers to these questions and others from some of the pioneering practitioners and academics in the field. Bring your wireless laptop to participate in a live tagging experiment! The experiment results will be shown and discussed at the end of the panel. To add to the fun, parts of the discussion will be motivated by short video segments.
Making a difference: integrating socially relevant projects into HCI teaching BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Ben Shneiderman; Ann Bishop; Batya Friedman; Jonathan Lazar; Gary Marsden; Cliff Nass
Enriching courses on human-computer interaction with socially-relevant projects provides a compelling opportunity for students to improve their education and make socially beneficial contributions. By having clearly defined user communities outside the classroom, students have the chance to practice their interview, observation, and usability testing skills, while developing projects that continue beyond the semester. These projects often give students life-changing exposure to genuine needs and impressive results to include in their portfolio when seeking employment. Educators will present their strategies for arranging, supervising, and grading these projects. Students will describe their experience and how it influenced them.
Does think aloud work?: how do we know? BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Judith Ramey; Ted Boren; Elisabeth Cuddihy; Joe Dumas; Zhiwei Guan; Maaike J. van den Haak; Menno D. T. De Jong
The think aloud method is widely used in usability research to collect user's reports of the experience of interacting with a design so that usability evaluators can find the underlying usability problems. However, concerns remain about the validity and usefulness of think aloud in usability studies. In this panel we will present current studies of the think aloud method, examine and question its usage in the field, discuss the possible pitfalls that may threaten the validity of the method, and provide comments/suggestions on the application of the method. Panel participants will discuss results drawn from both applied research and basic research.
   We believe that this panel discussion will be useful for HCI designers and usability practitioners in that it will acquaint them with concerns that people have about the think aloud method and provide them with suggestions for improved use of the method. For HCI or usability researchers, this panel discussion will address the importance of formally investigating currently used or newly designed usability methods.
Design communication BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  Scott Jenson; Harry Sadler; Charlie Hill; Carlo DiSalvo
Why is design communication so hard? We've all been in the situation: a room full of people, a usability test with clear problems and obvious outcomes. Yet the team can't agree on a design solution. Why does this happen? How can intelligent people disagree so strongly when looking at the same data? This panel approaches a problem that has not been discussed much at CHI: the social interaction of the design process.
   Each of the four panelists, who have broad industry experience in consulting, in-house design centers, and academics, will each take a different position on this problem. Is this simply a matter of vocabulary, process, experience, or competence? This panel will start off with brief statements by each panel member and then spend the majority of the session debating each panelists position. The last third of the session will be opened up to audience questions.
The route to the sea for user value BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Austin Henderson; Lisa Anderson; Jeremy Ashley; Patrik Heuman; Janice Rohn
HCI managers with experience in delivering user value in shipping products that make good businesses will discuss the hazards that the product development process holds, and what it takes for HCI managers to ensure that user value remains in the products throughout that process. (See also the companion panel: "Building User Value into the Business Case.").
Real HCI: what it takes to do HCI engineering for disasters, driving, disruption, and distributed work BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Stuart K. Card; Robin Murphy; John D. Lee; Judy Olson; William Newman
The current dependence of HCI practice on feature-level design and defect-oriented usability evaluation is hindering it from addressing persistent societal problems such as disaster search and rescue, driver distraction and communication failures. HCI has much to offer here in helping apply information technologies in effective, usable ways. But a fundamental issue in solving these persistent problems is ensuring that steady progress is made, and HCI can play a role here too, by characterizing the task, helping define the metrics for progress, providing the interfaces on which progress hinges, and assessing the likely effect of design choices. These cases can benefit from taking an engineering approach and from using HCI as a part of that activity. Speakers will present cases that involve variations on this theme. Their presentations will provide a basis for a lively discussion of HCI's potential to make an impact on social problems in the future and the methods effective in realizing this potential.
The state of tangible interfaces: projects, studies, and open issues BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Oren Zuckerman; Brygg Ullmer; Lars Erik Holmquist; Hiroshi Ishii; George Fitzmaurice; Yvonne Rogers; Wendy Mackay; Tom Rodden
In recent years, the CHI community has seen growth in projects that involve tangible user interfaces and tangible interaction. But, many researchers feel that this emerging field lacks in justifying research, industry adoption, and conceptual frameworks. This panel gathers pioneers and active researchers in the field, in an effort to understand the bigger picture of the TUI field. The panelists will focus on discussion rather than presentations, and will answer questions regarding projects, findings, and the field at large. We hope to review the open issues in the field, and help interested researchers to better direct their future research efforts.
   The panel will have three moderators and six panelists. The panelists will start with very short introductions, and then quickly shift to discussion led by the moderators, and to a Q&A session with the audience.
"It's about the information stupid!": why we need a separate field of human-information interaction BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  William Jones; Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card; Raya Fidel; Nahum Gershon; Peter Morville; Bonnie Nardi; Daniel M. Russell
The past few years have seen increasing discussion of the need for, even the inevitability of, a field of human-information interaction (HII) -- as either a major sub-branch of human-computer interaction (HCI) or as a separate field altogether. The "I" in HII implies a focus on information and not computing technology. But what does this mean? Is there any way to focus on information without also considering the supporting tools, applications, and gadgets that are enabled by computing technology? The panel will explore both the pros and cons in favor of a separate field of HII. Panelists provide a diversity of perspectives from several disciplines and research traditions including cognitive modeling and the study of human cognition, information science, information architecture, personal information management, ethnography and anthropology.

Invited research overviews

Large display research overview BIBAFull-Text 69-74
  Mary Czerwinski; George Robertson; Brian Meyers; Greg Smith; Daniel Robbins; Desney Tan
As large displays become more affordable, researchers are investigating their effects on productivity, and techniques for making the large display user experience more effective. Recent work has demonstrated significant productivity benefits, but has also identified numerous usability issues with current software design not scaling well. Studies show that larger displays enable users to create and manage many more windows, as well as to engage in more complex multitasking behavior. In this overview, various usability issues, including problems around accessing windows and icons at a distance, window management, and task management, will be discussedSeveral novel interaction techniques that address these issues and make users more productive across multiple sizes of displays will be explored.
Invited research overview: end-user programming BIBAFull-Text 75-80
  Brad A. Myers; Andrew J. Ko; Margaret M. Burnett
In the past few decades there has been considerable work on empowering end users to be able to write their own programs, and as a result, users are indeed doing so. In fact, we estimate that over 12 million people in American workplaces would say that they "do programming" at work, and almost 50 million people use spreadsheets or databases (and therefore may potentially program), compared to only 3 million professional programmers. The "programming" systems used by these end users include spreadsheet systems, web authoring tools, business process authoring tools such as Visual Basic, graphical languages for demonstrating the desired behavior of educational simulations, and even professional languages such as Java. The motivation for end-user programming is to have the computer be useful for each person's specific individual needs. While the empirical study of programming has been an HCI topic since the beginning the field, it is only recently that there has been a focus on the End-User Programmer as a separate class from novices who are assumed to be studying to be professional programmers. Another recent focus is on making end-user programming more reliable, using "End-User Software Engineering." This paper gives a brief summary of some current and past research in the area of End-User Programming.

Experience reports

No IM please, We're testing BIBAFull-Text 81-86
  Richard Boardman
This paper discusses the use of instant messaging (IM) as a communication tool during usability studies -- primarily between the interview and observation rooms. The benefits and challenges associated with providing an IM link are discussed, based on feedback from a survey of study moderators and observers. Observers were much more positive about the use of IM than the moderators. A key concern to moderators was the potential distraction to themselves, participants and observers. In contrast, observers greatly welcomed the opportunity to ask questions and help deal with buggy prototypes. Guidelines are outlined for the effective use of IM within a usability context, and contexts outlined when an IM link is most appropriate.
Influences of personal preference on product usability BIBAFull-Text 87-92
  Shinyoung Park; Akira Harada; Hiroya Igarashi
This study intended to demonstrate experimentally that user trust or affection for a brand affects the results of usability tests. For the experimental method, experimentees were exposed to products made by companies they preferred and did not preferred, and these products were then tested with a group of tasks for each product. For the test assessments, NASA-TLX was utilized to measure the mental and physical demands on the experimentees, along with the measure of error rate and time of product operation.
   The results were that, even though the experimentees performed the same tasks, they had decreased mental and physical demands operating products that they preferred. That is, it was shown that an individual's psychological state greatly influences the usability of a product and that, for a usability test, the user's image of the product's brand is also an important variable.
Growing bloom: design of a visualization of project evolution BIBAFull-Text 93-98
  Bernard Kerr; Li-Te Cheng; Timothy Sweeney
In this paper we describe the design behind the Bloom Diagram, a tool to visualize the evolution of individual participants' code and comment contributions to open source software projects. The design blends techniques such as concentric pie charts, animation, motion trails, and social proxies to produce a compact presentation of the large scale dynamics around software development. We also briefly present some preliminary findings using data gathered from SourceForge, a popular open source project hosting site, and discuss future directions for this work.
Scalability in system management GUIs: a designer's nightmare BIBAFull-Text 99-104
  Andreas Dieberger; Eser Kandogan; Cheryl A. Kieliszewski
As Information Technology (IT) advances, traditional concerns over performance are being overtaken by concerns over manageability and scalability in system management interfaces [1]. Designing effective interactions and representations of large complex systems with intricate relationships among components is a formidable challenge. In this paper we describe the design of a topology viewer application for enterprise-scale storage systems. A key issue in this design effort was to create a graphical topology viewer that would scale to the complexity of typical storage environments and support administrators effectively in various activities. Our approach to address these issues was to use semantic zooming and progressive information disclosure techniques extensively; thus essentially shifting the scalability challenge from purely visual design to mostly interaction design.
The experience engineering framework applied in two contexts BIBAFull-Text 105-110
  Rick Spencer; Monty Hammontree; Donna Wallace
Analysis of existing User-centered Design methods revealed an underlying common framework consisting of three components and three principles. The components are (1) a multi-faceted view of experience, (2) a set of goal driven phases, and (3) a repository of best practices for navigating those phases. The principles are (1) team-based design, (2) facilitation of divergence and then convergence of ideas, and (3) alignment of teams and phases. We call this framework the Experience Engineering Framework (EEF) and use it to construct a UCD process tailored for each project or design problem by using the right components and principles for that project. This abstract briefly presents two applications of the EEF in two very different contexts.
Theatre as an intermediary between users and CHI designers BIBAFull-Text 111-116
  A. F. Newell; M. E. Morgan; P. Gregor; A. Carmichael
We have investigated the possibilities of using theatre, including professional actors, scriptwriters and artistic directors, within requirements gathering, and usability testing, and for communicating the results of such work to the design community, or individual designers. The research on which we will report focuses on older people, but we believe that a consideration of the issues involved in designing for this group highlights many of the challenges found in CHI research more generally, and the techniques can apply to usability testing, and to communicating the findings of such research and testing to designers.
Phases of use: a means to identify factors that influence product utilization BIBAFull-Text 117-122
  Karin den Bouwmeester; Edward Bosma
In usability research and design much emphasis is placed on creating products that are easy to learn and efficient to use. This does not guarantee however that the product is actually being used in an optimal way. This article describes utilization of a new product as a process with different phases. A product will only be optimally used if all these phases are successfully gone through. Based on the experience of the authors in product development, a model is created that helps product development, sales, marketing and support to develop a product that is not only easy to use, but also creates awareness, motivates people to use it and helps people to imbed the product in their daily lives.
Cafe life in the digital age: augmenting information flow in a cafe work-entertainment space BIBAFull-Text 123-128
  Elizabeth F. Churchill; Les Nelson; Gary Hsieh
In this report we detail our experience of designing and installing a large-screen public, interactive community board, the eyeCanvas, in a neighbourhood cafe and art gallery in San Francisco. Features of the community board include the ability to display content related to the cafe, including menus, nightly events and artists' work; the possibility of signing up for the cafe's email newsletter; and a touch-screen, "finger scribble" application that allows comments to be left. We describe the cafe, the eyeCanvas interactive display, the contents that are posted to the display comment on the adoption, use and impact of the eyeCanvas display.
The design of a tangible interaction device to alleviate anxiety and pain in paediatric burns patients BIBAFull-Text 129-134
  Sam Bucolo; Jonathan Mott; Roy Kimble
This paper presents a case study on the design of a unique tangible media device to alleviate anxiety and pain in paediatric burns patients. The multidisciplinary interaction design approach used throughout the study is presented together with the hardware and content design solution. Results of an initial study are presented which qualify the use of the device within a clinical trial. The paper concludes with a reflection on the process undertaken leading to suggestions for undertaking successful collaborative projects which span medical science, computer science and design disciplines.
Use of keyboard for mouseless data entry in UI design BIBAFull-Text 135-140
  Rachel Nilsson; Sam Racine
The Web relies on a "point and click" mentality that becomes greatly impaired when no pointing or clicking medium is available. In the airline industry, mouseless operation is a standard form of User Interface design: in fact, it is a requirement. Unfortunately, technical constraints for software design require that airline employees, commonly known as agents, manipulate long lists of data records by first selecting the records from a larger list, consolidating them into a smaller list, and then choosing from another list an action to perform against them. This paper describes our design solution which relies on a particular configuration of commands mapped to specific keys of the keyboard to provide efficient and memorable operation of the UI that allows for quick selection, consolidation, and applied action.
Web tool for health insurance design by small groups: usability study BIBAFull-Text 141-146
  Laurie Kantner; Susan Dorr Goold; Marion Danis; Mike Nowak; Lesa Monroe-Gatrell
This Experience Report describes the challenges of evaluating the usability of a Web-based collaborative health insurance benefits planning application. The application was created by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and the University of Michigan.
Applying contextual design to ERP system implementation BIBAFull-Text 147-152
  Inka Vilpola; Kaisa Vaananen-Vainio-Mattila; Taru Salmimaa
The aim of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems is to integrate a company's information systems and to make the company's business processes more efficient. ERP systems are commercial-off-the-shelf products (COTS) that seldom totally fit into the company's existing business processes. Contextual design (CD) can be used to model the context of use of an ERP system. Three cases demonstrate that the application of CD supports the selection of a suitable system and helps the organization and people adjust their tasks to the new ERP system's processes.
Making oracle behave BIBAFull-Text 153-158
  Sofie Vanophem; Kris Vanstappen
In this paper, we describe a software development project in which usability experts fought an unusual battle against the limitations of Oracle Designer. Based on this specific case, we give tips and tricks for usability experts who face the challenge of designing user interfaces by making use of counteracting development tools.
Managing international usability projects: cooperative strategy BIBAFull-Text 159-164
  Lada Gorlenko; Sven Krause
Multi-national projects face many challenges, such as finding and coordinating resources, managing logistics in different countries, defining research methodology, controlling project cost, and dealing with cross-cultural issues. Project managers can choose among different approaches to such ventures: centralized, decentralized and cooperative. We discuss our experience in managing international usability teams using the cooperative strategy. With four participating countries and three languages used for conducting user studies, bringing the project together becomes both a challenge and a valuable lesson. The report details the strategy applied and specifically addresses the setup and data analysis stages. We reflect on our experience from two viewpoints: of the global project manager and of a local coordinator. For others to draw on our learning, we summarize both positive and negative project lessons.
When design is not the problem: better usability through non-design means BIBAFull-Text 165-170
  Luke Kowalski; Jeremy Ashley; Misha W. Vaughan
When it comes to shipping quality software, design is not the hard part. Methods and techniques to study users, best practices for creating iterative designs, and tools to validate them are all very well documented. Unfortunately, in chaotic and complex ecosystems very few of the designs actually end up making it through the user-centered design (UCD) process. Interaction designers' input is either ignored or interpreted through a development/business lens and considerable fidelity is lost. As a result, designers too often throw up their hands and blame the technology or the organizations. These barriers can be overcome if designers broaden their roles and better understand other stakeholders' charters. Successful collaboration with other disciplines that make up the software development lifecycle is the key to success. Practical case studies will be discussed where usability, attractiveness, and good design were achieved through non-design means. Poor information architecture, screen layout, and task flows were not the barriers to usability. Design impact was made instead through overcoming barriers in technology, organizational structure, legal, marketing, documentation / quality assurance (QA), and development tools.
In search of end-users BIBAFull-Text 171-176
  Rachel K. E. Bellamy; Tracee Vetting Wolf; Rhonda Rosenbaum
Learning from end-users is essential to participatory design, but before we can learn from them we must first find them. This search can be the hardest part of a project, however. What pro-active steps can be taken? In this paper we describe our search for end-users to work with on one particular design project. We reflect on why we were often unsuccessful, and how in the end we found end-users who were eager to collaborate with us to design a Risk and Compliance visualization.
Developing user interface guidelines for DVD menus BIBAFull-Text 177-182
  Karin Kappel; Martin Tomitsch; Thomas Koltringer; Thomas Grechenig
Watching DVDs can be a frustrating experience, because DVD menus often miss out on usability and are complex and difficult to navigate through. Similar to the early years of web development, there is a lack of design standards. In this paper, we show the development of user interface guidelines for DVD menus. These guidelines can be used to design and evaluate DVD menus. We built a prototype according to the guidelines, conducted usability tests with the prototype and evaluated other movie DVDs using the guidelines to show the applicability, utility and usability of the guidelines.
Scaling the card sort method to over 500 items: restructuring the Google AdWords help center BIBAFull-Text 183-188
  Yelena Nakhimovsky; Rudy Schusteritsch; Kerry Rodden
In this paper we describe the method we used to redesign the information architecture of the Google AdWords Help Center. We adapted the card sorting method to accommodate over 500 items, and produced a new Help Center structure that enables users to find information faster and with fewer errors, as verified in a formal experiment. Our process can be used as a model by those faced with organizing or reorganizing a large body of information, where conducting a traditional card sort would not be practical.
Understanding users in consumer electronics experience design BIBAFull-Text 189-194
  Joonhwan Kim; Sanghee Lee; SungWoo Kim
Designing a user experience is a multi-disciplinary field. While different points of view and diverse approaches are recommended due to the variety of its nature, understanding a user is important in ensuring quality outcomes in all approaches. In this paper, we describe practical user research approaches that we applied in our user experience design process for consumer electronics, approaches that can be performed with limited time and resources. These techniques have been applied in major user experience design stages including understanding user requirements, establishing design strategy, and conducting usability evaluations.
Evaluating web lectures: a case study from HCI BIBAFull-Text 195-200
  Jason Day; Jim Foley
We present research using web lectures to enhance the classroom learning experience in an introductory HCI course. By using web lectures to present lecture material before class, more in-class time can be spent engaging students with hands-on learning activities. A quasi-experiment was conducted over a 15-week semester with 46 students in two sections of the same course: one section using web lectures and one using traditional lectures. Many control measures were in place, including each section being taught by the same instructor and blind grading. The web lecture section's grades were significantly higher than the traditional lecture section, and web lecture students reported increasingly strong positive attitudes about the intervention. Our twofold contribution is a novel use of existing technology to improve learning, and a longitudinal study of its use within the context of HCI education.
Practical service learning issues in HCI BIBAFull-Text 201-206
  Jennifer Mankoff
We explore the practical difficulties of adding service learning to a regularly taught undergraduate HCI course. We explore ways to minimize instructor workload, particularly with regard to recruiting partner organizations. None of these approaches we describe was entirely satisfactory, however overall, student recruitment of organizations seemed to proceed most smoothly and have more positive outcomes for students, and required the least instructor workload. We also address issues pertinent to managing partner expectations in the absence of fully working interfaces.
HCI Techniques from idea to deployment: a case study for a dynamic learning environment BIBAFull-Text 207-212
  John C. Thomas; Robert Farrell
Ihis paper describes the plan and execution HCI techniques that were used in the iterative design and evaluation of a "Dynamic Learning Environment." This system is now operational for IBM software group employees and is being extended to other venues and audiences.
Combining multiple gaming interfaces in epidemic menace BIBAFull-Text 213-218
  Irma Lindt; Jan Ohlenburg; Uta Pankoke-Babatz; Wolfgang Prinz; Sabiha Ghellal
This paper presents the multiple gaming interfaces of the crossmedia game Epidemic Menace, including a game board station, a mobile assistant and a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) system. Each gaming interface offers different functionality within the game play. We explain the interfaces and describe early results of an ethnographic observation showing how the different gaming interfaces were used by the players to observe, collaborate and interact within the game.
Discovering design drivers for mobile media solutions BIBAFull-Text 219-224
  Akseli Anttila; Younghee Jung
We conducted user studies in 2000 and 2004 into digital media use, and discovered a number of constant findings even though the studies were separate both in geographically and chronologically. These constant findings, which we call design drivers, represent high level user benefits and constraints which are not likely to change quickly. We feel that knowledge of these constant drivers is beneficial in designing key features of mobile media devices. On the other hand, findings specific to a particular environment, variable design drivers, help to identify potential enablers and obstacles of product adoption.
Mobile blogging: experiences of technologically inspired design BIBAFull-Text 225-230
  Russell Beale
We discuss the details of the architecture, design, and acceptability of a system created to support mobile blogging, called SmartBlog. The process of blogging is often an instant-response mode of writing that provides its own challenges for systems that aim to support it.
   SmartBlog was developed from a technologically inspired design approach towards creating new artifacts, which we outline.

Interactivity

Feedback management in the pronunciation training system ARTUR BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Olov Engwall; Olle Balter; Anne-Marie Oster; Hedvig Kjellstrom
This extended abstract discusses the development of a computer-assisted pronunciation training system that gives articulatory feedback, and in particular the management of feedback given to the user.
Enhancing interactivity in webcasts with VoIP BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Ron Baecker; Melanie Baran; Jeremy Birnholtz; Clarence Chan; Joe Laszlo; Kelly Rankin; Russ Schick; Peter Wolf
This Interactivity demonstration presents a novel coupling of webcasting (streaming) with audioconferencing in which Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communication is used in webcasts to enhance interactivity, engagement, and the sense of presence among viewers and presenters.
VoiceCode: an innovative speech interface for programming-by-voice BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Alain Desilets; David C. Fox; Stuart Norton
In this paper we describe VoiceCode, a system for programming-by-voice. With VoiceCode, programmers can dictate code in an easy to pronounce syntax, which the system translates to native syntax in the current programming language. We illustrate how this approach addresses most of the usability issues for programming-by-voice.
Age invaders: social and physical inter-generational family entertainment BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Eng Tat Khoo; Shang Ping Lee; Adrian David Cheok; Sameera Kodagoda; Yu Zhou; Gin Siong Toh
This paper introduces Age Invaders (AI), a novel interactive intergeneration social-physical game which allows the elderly to play harmoniously together with children in physical space while parents can participate in the game play in real time remotely through the internet.
mSpace mobile: a UI gestalt to support on-the-go info-interaction BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Max Wilson; Alistair Russell; m. c. schraefel; Daniel A. Smith
mSpace Mobile Interaction presents a UI gestalt of 7 techniques for mobile/on-the-move information retrieval and assessment that enables multiple views of the information within a persistent focus+context viewer. It uses the web but breaks the web page paradigm to support effective rapid triage.
Poultry.Internet: a remote human-pet interaction system BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Keng Soon Teh; Shang Ping Lee; Adrian David Cheok
Poultry.Internet leverages on the reach of the Internet to connect humans and pets at different locations. This system has a tangible interface encompassing both visual and tactile modes of communication. It allows humans to interact remotely with pets anytime, anywhere. The pet owner views the real time movement of the pet in the form of a pet doll sitting on a mechanical positioning system. Meanwhile, the real pet wears a special jacket, which is able to reproduce the touching sensation. The pet owner can tangibly touch the pet doll, sending touch signals to the pet far away. Also, the pet owner receives a haptic feedback from the movement of the pet.
Magic Asian art BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Eunkwang Park; Byeongsoo Kim; William Salim; Adrian David Cheok
Throughout history, paintings have had a static perspective, as determined by the artist. Nowadays, viewers are not passive anymore. This proposal focuses on dynamic painting, and active audiences. Magic Asian Art allows viewers to enjoy dynamic Asian painting, and furthermore, each audience recreates the same painting according to their personal preference or the impression of a painting. It is quite similar that conductor conducts an orchestra for the same music differently. We extract viewer's intension based on the emotional status or impression of the painting by using gaze tracker and the painting will be more dynamic and fun. Magic Asian Art is neither movies by cinematographer, nor video games by an algorithm, but novel interactive painting media by each user.
iSymphony: an adaptive interactive orchestral conducting system for digital audio and video streams BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Eric Lee; Henning Kiel; Saskia Dedenbach; Ingo Grull; Thorsten Karrer; Marius Wolf; Jan Borchers
We present iSymphony, an interactive orchestral conducting system for digital audio and video that adaptively adjusts to the user's conducting style. Using a digital baton, users may control the tempo, volume, and instrument emphasis of a digital audio and video recording of an orchestra. The system adaptively recognizes three gesture profiles: the four-beat neutral-legato pattern, an up-down pattern, and random gestures. The system uses an audio time-stretching algorithm we developed that allows the playback speed of a digital audio recording to be arbitrarily adjusted without changing its pitch. iSymphony is an example of how computers can enable more people to experience an interaction style normally limited to a few people (conductors), and is installed as part of the It's Artastic! exhibit at the Betty Brinn Children's Museum in Milwaukee, USA.
Virtual rap dancer: invitation to dance BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  D. Reidsma; A. Nijholt; R. Poppe; R. Rienks; H. Hondorp
This paper presents a virtual rap dancer that is able to dance to the beat of music coming in from music recordings, beats obtained from music, voice or other input through a microphone, motion beats detected in the video stream of a human dancer, or motions detected from a dance mat. The rap dancer's moves are generated from a lexicon that was derived manually from the analysis of the video clips of rap songs performed by various rappers. The system allows for adaptation of the moves in the lexicon on the basis of style parameters. The rap dancer invites a user to dance along with the music.
MultiVis: improving access to visualisations for visually impaired people BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  David K. McGookin; Stephen A. Brewster
This paper illustrates work undertaken on the MultiVis project to allow visually impaired users both to construct and browse mathematical graphs effectively. We start by discussing the need for such work, before discussing some of the problems of current technology. We then discuss Graph Builder, a novel tool to allow interactive graph construction, and Sound Bar which provides quick overview access to bar graphs.
A haptic memory game using the STRESS2 tactile display BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Qi Wang; Vincent Levesque; Jerome Pasquero; Vincent Hayward
A computer implementation of a classic memory card game was adapted to rely on touch rather than vision. Instead of memorizing pictures on cards, players explore tactile graphics on a computer-generated virtual surface. Tactile sensations are created by controlling dynamic, distributed lateral strain patterns on a fingerpad in contact with a tactile display called STRESS2. The tactile graphics are explored by moving the device within the workspace of a 2D planar carrier. Three tactile rendering methods were developed and used to create distinct tactile memory cards. The haptic memory game showcases the capabilities of this novel tactile display technology.
Memory-rich clothing BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Joanna Berzowska; Marcelo Coelho
This paper describes a series of reactive body-worn artifacts that display their history of use and communicate physical (or embodied) memory. These electronically enhanced garments strive to promote touch, physical proximity, and human-to-human interaction. We explored distinct input, mapping, and output methodologies that deal with different models of autonomy, memory, and interruption granularity.
   The pieces described are part of a larger research project called Memory Rich Clothing. By concentrating on garments that reflect more subtle, playful, or poetic aspects of our identity and history, our enquiry attempts to redefine some of the assumptions that technology designers traditionally make under financial and cultural constraints about how people interact and communicate with each other.

HCI overviews

UCD of financial services at the smart internet technology centre BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Supriya Singh
In this paper I describe the experience of contributing sociological and anthropological perspectives to the user-centered design of financial services in the Smart Internet Technology Cooperative Research Centre in Australia.
COST294-MAUSE: a pan European usability research community BIBAFull-Text 283-286
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Ebba Thora Hvannberg
COST294-MAUSE is a usability research community. Its ultimate goal is to bring more science to bear on usability evaluation and being realized through scientific activities of four Working Groups. The community's hitherto achievements and future working plans are described.
The HTI lab @ ftw: user research for telecom systems BIBAFull-Text 287-290
  Peter Frolich; Lynne Baillie; Peter Reichl; Raimund Schatz; Florian Hammer; Georg Niklfeld
This paper presents the Human-Telecom Systems Interaction Laboratory (HTI lab) at the Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (FTW). The current setup of the HTI Lab and its contributions to related application-oriented projects at ftw are described.
Games in Asia project BIBAFull-Text 291-294
  Vivian Hsueh-hua Chen; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Beth Kolko; Leo Sang-Min Whang; Michael Ching-Hui Fu
The new technologies associated with computer games have more than an entertainment component; they also bring tremendous changes in human life at both the individual and societal level. Since Asia is the largest market for game consumption around the globe, this project seeks to understand the social, cultural, psychological, economic and educational implications of game playing in different Asian regions. Besides investigating the social impacts of gaming in respective countries, comparison among different countries is also of interest.
The ChiCI group BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Janet C. Read; Stuart MacFarlane; S. Rebecca Kelly; Emanuela Mazzone; Matthew Horton
This paper describes the work, the vision, and the approach of the Child Computer Interaction (ChiCI) group at the University of Central Lancashire in the UK. This group, formed four years ago, has grown to become one of the leaders in its field whilst maintaining a democratic structure, an open mind, and an invigorating message. The paper describes the group's creation, outlines its current activities, and contemplates its future.
HCI for older and disabled people in the Queen Mother Research Centre at Dundee University, Scotland BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Alan F. Newell; Peter Gregor; Norman Alm
This paper describes research carried out within the Queen Mother Research Centre for Information Technology to support older and disabled people and how this led to the development of an approach to research into accessibility and usability which is instantiated in the facilities of the new building.

alt.chi

A new playground experience: going digital? BIBAFull-Text 303-308
  Susanne Seitinger; Elisabeth Sylvan; Oren Zuckerman; Marko Popovic; Orit Zuckerman
We explore how an interactive pathway impacts children's play patterns in outdoor playgrounds. The paper describes our experience designing and testing the prototype at various stages of development with twenty children age three to five enrolled in a preschool childcare center. We provide examples of the children's diverse play patterns and conclude with initial reflections on the design of responsive playground elements.
Tokyo youth at leisure: towards the design of new media to support leisure planning and practice BIBAFull-Text 309-314
  Diane J. Schiano; Ame Elliott; Victoria Bellotti
An extensive research project was performed to characterize leisure planning and practice for Tokyo youth. Findings will aid in the design of new media to support leisure outings.
RoomBugs: simulating insect infestations in elementary classrooms BIBAFull-Text 315-320
  Michael Barron; Tom Moher; Jeff Maharry
This paper presents research on a collaborative learning environment in an urban elementary science classroom. The application, called RoomBugs, simulates a dynamic ecosystem of insects within the physical space of a classroom. Using table-mounted tablet computers as "sand traps" that capture the foot-prints of virtual bugs walking across the screen, participants take on the role of scientists attempting to track and control the imagined insects that exist within their classroom walls. The simulation is designed to create authentic phenomenon without requiring heavy instrumentation.
The orbital browser: composing ubicomp services using only rotation and selection BIBAFull-Text 321-326
  Nicolas Ducheneaut; Trevor F. Smith; James Bo Begole; Mark W. Newman; Chris Beckmann
Most ubiquitous computing environments are designed as collections of highly distributed and heterogeneous services. In this paper we describe a user interface, the Orbital Browser, which reduces the complexity of ubicomp service composition to two simple end-user operations: rotation and selection. We discuss the design requirements imposed by service composition and how we addressed them with our system.
Quill: a narrative-based interface for personal document retrieval BIBAFull-Text 327-332
  Daniel Goncalves; Joaquim A. Jorge
The ways to manage and retrieve documents have changed little in recent years. Browsing is increasingly unpractical and search still is fairly simple, relying mostly on keywords. The wide range of autobiographic information that users remember about their documents cannot be used. We present a new interaction paradigm, narrative-based interfaces, especially well suited for document retrieval. Stories make remembering information easier since it appears contextualized in a coherent whole. We describe the Quill system, a narrative-based query-formulation interface for personal document retrieval, explaining the user studies and results that led to its design in a sound and effective way. Its evaluation confirms that stories can be told naturally, containing the desired information about documents.
Snapshots from a study of context photography BIBAFull-Text 333-338
  Maria Hakansson; Sara Ljungblad; Lalya Gaye; Lars Erik Holmquist
We developed context photography to provide an alternative photographic experience. Sensors gather real-time context information which visually affects a photograph as it is taken. In an exploratory study, we investigated how people would experience, use and understand a context camera and how it differs from regular digital photography. We here present an extract of the study, where one participant experienced context photography as being "more real" than post-hoc image manipulation and that it added a new dimension to picture taking.
TinyMotion: camera phone based interaction methods BIBAFull-Text 339-344
  Jingtao Wang; John Canny
This paper presents TinyMotion, a pure software approach that detects the movements of cell phones in real time by analyzing image sequences captured by the built-in camera. Typical movements that TinyMotion detects include -- horizontal and vertical movements, rotational movements and tilt movements. In contrast to earlier work, TinyMotion does not require additional sensors, special scenes or backgrounds and can run on today's main-stream camera phones without hardware modification. We describe the design and implementation of TinyMotion and analyze the potential interactions that can leverage TinyMotion. Three applications and two games were created to test TinyMotion. Benchmarking results and usability study show that TinyMotion can detect camera movement reliably under most background and illumination conditions.
Virtual information piles for small screen devices BIBAFull-Text 345-350
  QianYing Wang; Tony Hsieh; Meredith Ringel Morris; Andreas Paepcke
We describe an implementation that has users 'flick' notes, images, audio, and video files onto virtual piles beyond the display of small-screen devices. This scheme allows PDA users to keep information close at hand without sacrificing valuable screen real estate. Our approach takes advantage of human spatial memory capabilities. It also obviates the need to browse complex folder trees during a working session. The system also allows co-located individuals with PDAs to share and organize information items (e.g., photos, text, sound clips, etc.) by placing them in shared, imaginary off-screen piles. We also introduce an extension that allows PDA owners to transfer information piles to and from a shared tabletop display.
Z-agon: mobile multi-display browser cube BIBAFull-Text 351-356
  Takashi Matsumoto; Daisuke Horiguchi; Shihori Nakashima; Naohito Okude
Z-agon is a multimedia computer with six cubic multi-displays. This device operated by physical movements of the cube to change channels of contents. This device is used as a network-based multimedia player. Users browse many kinds of contents such as Blogs, Web news, Movies, Music Videos and so on. This concept of Z-agon has been envisioned by design studies.
   Now product design requires knowledge from many fields such as hardware, software, infrastructures, social networks and revenue models. Sometimes technologies have not entered the stage to satisfy user needs. However, envisioning the concept based on design adequacy is an important attitude to break an innovation into a product. In this paper, an integrated design of Z-agon is introduced.
CarCoach: a polite and effective driving coach BIBAFull-Text 357-362
  Ernesto Arroyo; Shawn Sullivan; Ted Selker
This paper describes the design and evaluation on the road of a context aware driving advisor designed to promote better driving behavior. CarCOACH takes the information gathered from various sensors in the car and identifies common driving mistakes to appropriately commenting on driving behavior. The system presents scheduled feedback controlled in terms of quantity of total feedback and feedback with regards to a specific stimulus, and driver current state. Its goal is to reduce driver's stress while maximizing the effectiveness of the feedback presented.
I just clicked to say I love you: rich evaluations of minimal communication BIBAFull-Text 363-368
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
Virtual Intimate Objects are low bandwidth devices for communicating intimacy for couples in long-distance relationships. VIOs were designed to express intimacy in a rich manner over a low bandwidth connection. VIOs were evaluated using a logbook which included open-ended questions designed to understand the context within which the VIO was used. Users constructed a complex, dynamically-changing understanding of the meaning of each interaction, based on an understanding of their and their partner's context of use. The results show that users had rich and complex interpretations of this seemingly simple communication, which suggests the necessity of exploring context of use to understand the situated nature of the interactions as an intrinsic part of an evaluation process for such technologies.
ComSlipper: an expressive design to support awareness and availability BIBAFull-Text 369-374
  Chun-Yi Chen; Jodi Forlizzi; Pamela Jennings
In our increasingly decentralized world, demands to maintain relationships over long distances continue to increase. It is more and more difficult to maintain a sense of connection with others, to communicate with others in an emotionally rich way, and to know whether one is available for initiating a conversation in an appropriate context.
   This paper describes the design process and our solution to this challenge. The ComSlipper is a lightweight yet expressive sensible slipper that enhances the quality of computer-mediated relationships. The ComSlipper was developed using a human-centered design approach to better understand user behaviors and needs. The ComSlipper empowers the wearer to create a sense of connection to others. The wearer uses body gesture and tactile manipulation to feel and express emotions and availability to distant loved ones. The ComSlipper provides a natural and intimate way of communicating, and facilitates the development of intimate relationships.
Lover's cups: drinking interfaces as new communication channels BIBAFull-Text 375-380
  Hyemin Chung; Chia-Hsun Jackie Lee; Ted Selker
This paper shows how computer interfaces can enhance common activities and use them as communication method between people. In this paper, the act of drinking is used as an input of remote communication with the support of computer interfaces. We present Lover's Cups which enable people to share the time of drinking with someone they care about in different places. Using a wireless connection, an otherwise ordinary pair of cups becomes a communication device, amplifying the social aspect of drinking behavior.
AuraOrb: social notification appliance BIBAFull-Text 381-386
  Mark Altosaar; Roel Vertegaal; Changuk Sohn; Daniel Cheng
One of the problems with notification appliances is that they can be distracting when providing information not of immediate interest to the user. In this paper, we present AuraOrb, an ambient notification appliance that deploys progressive turn taking techniques to minimize notification disruptions. AuraOrb uses eye contact sensing to detect user interest in an initially ambient light notification. Once detected, it displays a text message with a notification heading visible from 360 degrees. Touching the orb causes the associated message to be displayed on the user's computer screen.
   We performed an initial evaluation of AuraOrb's functionality using a set of heuristics tailored to ambient displays. Results of our evaluation suggest that progressive turn taking techniques allowed AuraOrb users to access notification headings with minimal impact on their focus task.
Dance your work away: exploring step user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 387-392
  Brian Meyers; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Steven Drucker; Marc A. Smith; Mary Czerwinski
While applications are typically optimized for traditional desktop interfaces using a keyboard and mouse, there are a variety of compelling reasons to consider alternative input mechanisms that require more physical exertion, including promoting fitness, preventing Repetitive Strain Injuries, and encouraging fun. We chose to explore physical interfaces based on foot motion and have built two applications with Step User Interfaces: StepMail and StepPhoto. Both support working with email and photos using the dance pad made popular by the Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) game. Results of a formative evaluation with ten participants suggest that the interactions are intuitive to learn, somewhat enjoyable, and cause participants to increase their level of exertion over sitting at a desk. Our evaluation also revealed design considerations for Step User Interfaces, including balancing effort across the body, avoiding needless exertion, and choosing target applications with care.
The affective remixer: personalized music arranging BIBAFull-Text 393-398
  Jae-woo Chung; G. Scott Vercoe
This paper describes a real-time music-arranging system that reacts to immediate affective cues from a listener. Data was collected on the potential of certain musical dimensions to elicit change in a listener's affective state using sound files created explicitly for the experiment through composition/production, segmentation, and re-assembly of music along these dimensions. Based on listener data, a probabilistic state transition model was developed to infer the listener's current affective state. A second model was made that would select music segments and re-arrange ('re-mix') them to induce a target affective state. We propose that this approach provides a new perspective for characterizing musical preference.

SIGs

International usability evaluation SIG: issues and strategies BIBAFull-Text 399-401
  Emilie W. Gould; Aaron Marcus; Apala Lahiri Chavan
Applications, interfaces, and devices are increasingly customized to appeal to users with vastly different needs, desires, and values. In the past, products were built on the basis of technical proficiency, education, and age; now, product designers are embracing culture.
   How can human factors professionals support this work? This SIG will examine issues and strategies to be considered when evaluating product interfaces in two or more countries or cultures.
   A panel of practitioners will review some of the problems they faced in selecting and customizing methods for international usability design. SIG participants will then be invited to brainstorm and contribute their own "war stories" and experiences.
   It is expected that this SIG will generate 1) a range of case studies and 2) a reference list of people working in different countries and cultures who can help one another do international usability evaluation.
Producing human-centered, usability-sensitive, and HCI-competent managers, CIOs, and CEOs BIBAFull-Text 403-406
  Ping Zhang
Taking a collaborative and multi-disciplinary perspective, we discuss issues and opportunities in college education so that our future managers, CIOs, and CEOs are inherently and intrinsically human-centered, usability-sensitive, and HCI-competent.
Mobile iTV: new challenges for the design of pervasive multimedia systems BIBAFull-Text 407-410
  Anxo Cereijo Roibas; David Geerts; Licia Calvi; Akseli Anttila; Owen Daly-Jones
This SIG will stimulate informal debate around the futures of interfaces for pervasive multimedia systems such as mobile and ubiquitous iTV with special attention to the new contextual usage of this media in entertainment, work and government contexts.
   It aims to create a provocative framework to uncover future usage scenarios and generate debate about novel processes for creation, sharing, and consumption of digital content that match the nomadic lifestyles of mobile users and about related new applications and original interaction models that support social use. Likewise it intends to discuss possible controversial evolutions and trends of this prospected scenario such as 'an utterly controlled society' (as in Aldous Huxley's book 'Brave New World'), applications in nano and biotechnology, etc.
Current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIBAFull-Text 411-413
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators' list of topics, augmented by attendees' suggestions.
How can rhetoric and argumentation help us make the case for UCD? BIBAFull-Text 415-418
  Colleen Pettit Jones; Susan J. Robinson; Nick Sabadosh; David Bishop; Sanjay Koyani
When making the case for user-centered design (UCD), the HCI field tends to rely on an objective approach, such as cost justification, to speak for itself. However, this approach may not be enough to garner support for decisions ranging from implementing a certain design to adhering to a UCD process. Promising sources for enhancements to an objective approach are rhetoric and argumentation. One purpose of this SIG is to explore how rhetoric and argumentation can help advance the case for UCD on organizational and project levels in various contexts and organizations. As a catalyst for discussion among SIG attendees, this abstract describes examples of using rhetoric and argumentation in three contexts: boutique consultancy, in-house consultancy for large corporation, and research-oriented federal agencies. Another purpose of this SIG is to establish a community of people interested in using rhetoric and argumentation to augment their communication approach when making the case for UCD.
Designing interactive environments for outdoors gaming and play BIBAFull-Text 419-422
  Oren Zuckerman; Narcis Pares; Steve Benford; Henrik Hautop Lund
Recent years have seen an increase in the design of outdoor interactive environments. In this SIG we want to discuss the key points in the design of an outdoor interactive environment, including interaction techniques, appropriate technologies, usage patterns, robustness, and safety. The SIG organizer and presenters are researchers from four universities around the world, who are actively designing and building interactive environments. The three presenters represent state-of-the-art work in distinct areas of the field. The SIG will focus on design process, challenges, implementation, and real-world evaluation, to be followed by an open discussion about the state-of-the-art and critical design factors in the field. Since CHI is the premier conference on human-computer interaction, it is the most suitable venue to discuss these issues, the results achieved so far, compare with other groups around the world, and discuss potential collaboration. We hope that this SIG can serve as a starting point to form a community of researchers and practitioners interested in interactive environments for outdoor gaming and play.
The engineering community SIG BIBAFull-Text 423-426
  Bonnie E. John; William Newman
The Engineering Community may be the least populated and the least understood of the new communities at CHI, perhaps because so many definitions of engineering exist (as evidenced by the quotes in the margins). This SIG will provide a forum for people interested in bringing the best of the field of engineering to the field of HCI.
The CHI management community BIBAFull-Text 427-429
  Austin Henderson; James A. Euchner
This SIG will provide those interested in the interplay between management and HCI the opportunity to explore this subject and the ongoing development of the Management Community at the CHI conferences.
CHI design community SIG BIBAFull-Text 431-434
  David Gilmore; Kristina Höök
While most of the HCI literature can be seen as part of an engineering-science practice (with an emphasis on the acquisition and interpretation of 'facts'), the CHI2006 Design Community focuses on how arts and engineering come together in the construction, study and interpretation of created objects (maybe more like the study of literature and criticism).
CHI education community SIG BIBAFull-Text 435-436
  James Foley; Jenny Preece
The purpose of this SIG is to ask "What can the CHI Education Community do for you at CHI conferences?" and to discuss criteria for CHI Education Experience Reports.
Tips and tricks for better usability test recommendations BIBAFull-Text 437-440
  Rolf Molich; Kyle Pero; Neha Modgil; Will Schroeder
In this SIG experienced usability professionals will share tips and tricks for useful and usable recommendations resulting from usability tests. The discussion will be based on carefully analyzed, real-world examples.
Usability community: past, present, and future BIBAFull-Text 441-443
  Janice Rohn; Stephanie Rosenbaum
This SIG is sponsored by the CHI 2006 and CHI 2007 Usability Community chairs to collect feedback and discuss how CHI can best serve the Usability Community, both at the annual conference and in other activities. If you're a practitioner or a researcher interested in usability, please join us and contribute your ideas!.
Online health communities BIBAFull-Text 444-447
  Lisa Neal; Gitte Lindgaard; Kate Oakley; Derek Hansen; Sandra Kogan; Jan Marco Leimeister; Ted Selker
Online health communities provide a means for patients and their families to learn about an illness, seek and offer support, and connect with others in similar circumstances. They are supported by a variety of technologies (e.g., email lists, forums, chat rooms) and are hosted by patients, advocacy groups, medical organizations, and corporations. They raise difficult design challenges because of the wide variability of members' medical expertise, the severity of problems due to misinformation, and the need for emotional support. The importance of on-line health communities is evidenced by their popularity, as well as the significant impact they have on the lives of their members. This Special Interest Group (SIG) will explore current trends in online health communities, as well as discuss the socio-technical design challenges and opportunities that they afford.

Work-in-progress

The effect of miscommunication rate on user response preferences BIBAFull-Text 448-453
  Hua Ai; Thomas Harris; Carolyn Penstein Rose
We report results from a small Wizard-of-Oz study investigating user responses to miscommunications in speech dialogue systems. We explore the separate and joint effects of miscommunication rate and system response to miscommunications on the likelihood that users choose to resort to direct manipulation, to repeat, or to rephrase. While we predicted that users would be more likely to resort to direct manipulation as miscommunication rate increased, our surprising finding was that users were most likely to resort to direct manipulation where communication success was least predictable, i.e., in the middle of the range, rather than at either extreme.
Wizard of Oz for participatory design: inventing a gestural interface for 3D selection of neural pathway estimates BIBAFull-Text 454-459
  David Akers
This paper describes a participatory design process employed to invent an interface for 3D selection of neural pathways estimated from MRI imaging of human brains. Existing pathway selection interfaces are frustratingly difficult to use, since they require the 3D placement of regions-of-interest within the brain data using only a mouse and keyboard. The proposed system addresses these usability problems by providing an interface that is potentially more intuitive and powerful: converting 2D mouse gestures into 3D path selections. The contributions of this work are twofold: 1) we introduce a participatory design process in which users invent and test their own gestural selection interfaces using a Wizard of Oz prototype, and 2) this process has helped to yield the design of an interface for 3D pathway selection, a problem that is known to be difficult. Aspects of both the design process and the interface may generalize to other interface design problems.
Biasing response in Fitts' Law tasks BIBAFull-Text 460-465
  Emory Al-Imam; Edward Lank
Fitts' law, relating the time to acquire a target to the target size and the distance from the target, is an effective and widely used predictor of performance in feedback controlled human motor targeting tasks. Beyond target size, however, movement time also varies according to a subject controlled mental trade-off between speed and accuracy for a given task. To adjust for this trade-off, researchers often use the "effective target width", the target width normalized for variations in movement speed, as a predictor of movement time. In this paper, we describe on-going work on analyzing factors affecting the speed-accuracy tradeoff for Fitts' tasks in subjects, exploring both incentives and penalties to manipulate subject accuracy. We also describe our work on measurable parameters of motion that correlate with the speed-accuracy trade-off.
PhotoArcs: a tool for creating and sharing photo-narratives BIBAFull-Text 466-471
  Morgan Ames; Lilia Manguy
The PhotoArcs interface aims to enable easy and fun creation and manipulation of photo-narratives to encourage sharing and interaction. PhotoArcs leverages the benefits of existing sharing habits both online and face-to-face. We describe our design of the PhotoArcs interface, report on the results of an exploratory low-fidelity usability study with five participants, and outline future directions.
3D and sequential representations of spatial relationships among photos BIBAFull-Text 472-477
  Mahoro Anabuki; Hiroshi Ishii
This paper proposes automatic representations of spatial relationships among photos for structure analysis and review of a photographic subject. Based on camera tracking, photos are shown in a 3D virtual reality space to represent global spatial relationships. At the same time, the spatial relationships between two of the photos are represented in slide show sequences. This proposal allows people to organize photos quickly in spatial representations with qualitative meaning.
Child-user abstractions BIBAFull-Text 478-483
  Alissa N. Antle
Interactive technologies are becoming ubiquitous in many children's lives. This work-in-progress paper briefly describes and illustrates a new approach for creating user abstractions of children. The technique is based on a theoretically and empirically grounded framework for creating child-personas. It is expected to reduce designer's assumptions about children. A preliminary assessment of this claim based on engagement, complexity and realism concludes this work in progress.
Usability tool for analysis of web designs using mouse tracks BIBAFull-Text 484-489
  Ernesto Arroyo; Ted Selker; Willy Wei
This paper presents MouseTrack as a web logging system that tracks mouse movements on websites. The system includes a visualization tool that displays the mouse cursor path followed by website visitors. It helps web site administrators run usability tests and analyze the collected data. Practitioners can track any existing webpage by simply entering its URL. This paper includes a design case that shows the tool's value for teaching interaction design concepts.
Active CyberCode: a directly controllable 2D code BIBAFull-Text 490-495
  Yuji Ayatsuka; Jun Rekimoto
Many augmented reality (AR) applications which overlay computer graphics on a real image have been developed. One of the limitations of such applications is that a user has to control CG objects, invoked by a realworld condition, using a traditional input device like a keyboard or mouse. We developed a directly controllable 2D code called Active CyberCode. A user can give commands by putting his/her finger on a printed button beside the code. The code has fixed and variable parts, and the variable part is recognized as the same as the fixed part. It allows a computer to recognize commands without the need for expensive methods like finger recognition.
Making memories: applying user input logs to interface design and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 496-501
  Tamara Babaian; Wendy Lucas; Heikki Topi
In this paper, we describe our approach to designing interface components that automate the logging of user input. These recorded logs of user-system interactions can serve as a basis for usability assessment, and we present here the usability measures that can be automatically derived from this logged data. Making user logs an integral component of the system data model extends their usefulness beyond providing information on user behavior. In our prototype, logs are used for creating a more collaborative interface by increasing the system's contextual awareness of user interactions.
Usability and learning in a speech-enabled reading tutor: a field study BIBAFull-Text 502-507
  Paula M. Bach; Jennifer Lai
In this paper we discuss outcomes of a field study conducted to evaluate usability and learning associated with a speech-enabled reading tutor application for adults. The evaluation compared learning outcomes and usability measures between two versions of the software, as well as with traditional classroom instruction. Findings indicate small usability improvements and no significant difference in learning between versions, and equivalent learning levels between the groups who used the software exclusively and those that had a teacher cover the material instead. We discuss these results and how challenges associated with the field evaluation may have impacted the findings.
The impact of structure and medium on choice and recall in profile assessment BIBAFull-Text 508-513
  Sameer Bajaj; Lee S. Sproull
Electronic expert-finder systems routinely store expert information in profile format. A user can view these profiles to choose the expert he/she wants to work with. In this paper we examine how profile attributes affect a user's choice of an expert. We report the results of an exploratory study in which we manipulated the structure of profiles and the medium of presentation, and measured participant behavior in an IT-Helpdesk recruitment task. We found that the presence of structure in profiles decreases, while the electronic medium (compared to paper) increases the probability of choosing the most qualified candidate.
PygmyBrowse: a small screen tree browser BIBAFull-Text 514-519
  Zvi Band; Ryen W. White
We present PygmyBrowse, a browser that allows users to navigate a tree data structure in a limited amount of display space. A pilot evaluation of PygmyBrowse was conducted, and results suggest that it reduces task completion times and increases user satisfaction over two alternative node-link tree browsers.
Evaluating the effect of technology on note-taking and learning BIBAFull-Text 520-525
  Aaron Bauer; Kenneth Koedinger
Current note-taking applications have been shown to affect the way students take notes. The impact on learning has not been studied. In this paper, we describe a project aimed at addressing how specific features of note-taking tools impact both behavior and performance. We describe our initial results evaluating copy-paste functionality, their implication for design, and future studies. We believe this work has relevance not only for the design of note-taking tools, but for a broader CHI audience.
Interface agents as social models: the impact of appearance on females' attitude toward engineering BIBAFull-Text 526-531
  Amy L. Baylor; Rinat B. Rosenberg-Kima; E. Ashby Plant
This experimental study investigated the impact of interface agent appearance (age, gender, "coolness") on enhancing undergraduate females' attitudes toward engineering. Results revealed that participants reported more positive stereotypes of engineers after interacting with a female agent. In contrast, participants interacting with a male agent reported that engineering was more useful and engaging. An interaction of "coolness" and age indicated that agents who were young and "cool" (i.e., peer-like; similar to participants) and agents who were old and "uncool" (stereotypical engineers) were both most effective on enhancing self-efficacy toward engineering.
Communicating more than nothing BIBAFull-Text 532-537
  Tony Bergstrom; Karrie Karahalios
Strong social connections permeate one's daily life. With the numerous means available, these connections can easily dominate one's communications, though one only wants to convey and have a sense of presence in each other's lives. Portal Frame fosters this feeling of connection between individuals while keeping the amount of active communication that must take place to a minimum. Individuals are provided a means to glimpse the lives of intimate friends through a well known and established physical medium, the picture frame.
SMOKS: the memory suits BIBAFull-Text 538-543
  Joanna Berzowska; Marcelo Coelho
This paper describes SMOKS, a pair of electronically enhanced suits that acts as an experimental platform for constructing individual and collective memories, for creating and nurturing social networks, and for personal communication and intimacy.
   The suits combine and overlay different interaction methodologies explored in our larger research project called Memory Rich Clothing. Moreover, rather than deploying a single social electronic artifact, we created garments in pairs, balancing the interaction affordances between users and creating conditions for the emergence of playful social networks surrounding the body.
   By capturing physical memories, representing traces of human touch, recording and playing sounds, and by providing hiding places for physical mementoes, the SMOKS use fashion and our interactions through clothing to accumulate and display traces of physical memory in personal and playful ways.
Modalities for building relationships with handheld computer agents BIBAFull-Text 544-549
  Timothy Bickmore; Daniel Mauer
In this paper we describe the design of a relational agent interface for handheld computers and the results of a study exploring the effectiveness of different user-agent interaction modalities. Four different agent output modalities-text only, static image plus text, animated, and animated plus nonverbal speech-are compared and their impact on the ability of the agent to establish a social bond with the user, the perceived credibility of information delivered, and user acceptance is evaluated. Subjects ranked the two animated versions of the system higher on all measures.
The comforting presence of relational agents BIBAFull-Text 550-555
  Timothy Bickmore; Daniel Schulman
In this paper we describe an on-going experiment on the calming effects of a relational agent on users following a social bonding interaction. Applications to a range of health care problems are discussed.
DJogger: a mobile dynamic music device BIBAFull-Text 556-561
  Jacob T. Biehl; Piotr D. Adamczyk; Brian P. Bailey
Maintaining motivation during exercise can be difficult for people engaged in individual workout routines. A common method for maintaining pace and staying motivated is the introduction of a musical soundtrack. The pace of the music and selection of songs influences the workout by suggesting how one should adjust their effort, or help with the timing of a precise regimen. To explore the impact of music on pace and motivation in exercise, we present our work so far on DJogger. DJogger builds a model of a runner's pace and uses this information along with a workout plan to dynamically adjust the musical soundtrack. DJogger contributes a compelling application of HCI to fitness, and explores methods for real world wearable evaluation.
Entity quick click: rapid text copying based on automatic entity extraction BIBAFull-Text 562-567
  Eric A. Bier; Edward W. Ishak; Ed Chi
Retyping text phrases can be time consuming. As a result, techniques for copying text from one software application to another, such as copy-and-paste and drag-and-drop are now commonplace. However, even these techniques can be too slow in situations where many phrases need to be copied. In the special case where the phrases to be copied represent syntactically identifiable entities, such as person names, company names, telephone numbers, or street addresses, much faster phrase copying is possible. We describe entity quick click, an approach that reduces both the amount of cursor travel and the number of button presses needed to copy a phrase.
Broken expectations in the digital home BIBAFull-Text 568-573
  Sara Bly; Bill Schilit; David W. McDonald; Barbara Rosario; Ylian Saint-Hilaire
As part of an ongoing effort to understand ease of use of digital home technologies, we undertook an exploratory study of people who use their home networks for more than just broadband Internet access. In particular, we wanted to understand the overhead, or problem-time, people spent with their home network devices. As expected, we saw issues of broken hardware and broken software. We also found that problems are often caused by broken expectations, a mismatch between what a person expects to be able to do and specific device capabilities. In this paper we explore broken expectations in the digital home with examples from our study. These observations suggest further research into the ways user expectations and activities shape the digital home experience.
PlayPals: tangible interfaces for remote communication and play BIBAFull-Text 574-579
  Leonardo Bonanni; Cati Vaucelle; Jeff Lieberman; Orit Zuckerman
PlayPals are a set of wireless figurines with their electronic accessories that provide children with a playful way to communicate between remote locations. PlayPals is designed for children aged 5-8 to share multimedia experiences and virtual co-presence. We learned from our pilot study that embedding digital communication into existing play pattern enhances both remote play and communication.
TapTap: a haptic wearable for asynchronous distributed touch therapy BIBAFull-Text 580-585
  Leonardo Bonanni; Cati Vaucelle; Jeff Lieberman; Orit Zuckerman
TapTap is a wearable haptic system that allows nurturing human touch to be recorded, broadcast and played back for emotional therapy. Haptic input/output modules in a convenient modular scarf provide affectionate touch that can be personalized. We present a working prototype informed by a pilot study.
Using an adaptive display for the treatment of emotional disorders: a preliminary analysis of effectiveness BIBAFull-Text 586-591
  C. Botella; R. Banos; B. Rey; M. Alcaniz; V. Guillen; S. Quero; A. Garcia-Palacios
A preliminary study on the use of an adaptive display for treating emotional disorders is presented. This adaptive display (named EMMA) varies the contents that are presented depending on the emotions of the user at each moment. The application has been designed to help in the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Adjustment Disorder (AD). The specific objective of the present work is to test the effectiveness of this adaptive display, specifically the acceptance of the treatment by patients. EMMA's tools are compared with the standard of care for PTSD and AD. Results showed differences only for the variable aversiveness. Participants in the EMMA condition evaluated the treatment less unpleasant at post treatment, compared to participants in the traditional condition.
A comparative study of map use BIBAFull-Text 592-597
  Niels Olof Bouvin; Christina Brodersen; Susanne Bødker; Allan Hansen; Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video recordings of the situations, and this paper will give examples of the handling of the three kinds of physical devices.
An evaluation of the integrated use of a multimedia storytelling system within a psychotherapy intervention for adolescents BIBAFull-Text 598-603
  Eileen Brosnan; Carol Fitzpatrick; John Sharry; Richard Boyle
This paper describes a study currently being conducted with adolescents attending the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) at the Mater Hospital Dublin, Ireland measuring the effectiveness of a therapeutic groupwork intervention for adolescents experiencing depression, anxiety and other mental health issues. The intervention is essentially a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programme that uses an animated story building system in combination with a series of short movie vignettes to help clients develop their own coping skills, express their experiences creatively and increase their ability to communicate their emotions effectively.
Feel who's talking: using tactons for mobile phone alerts BIBAFull-Text 604-609
  Lorna M. Brown; Topi Kaaresoja
While the sense of touch is capable of processing complex stimuli, the vibration feedback used in mobile phones is generally very simple. Using more complex vibrotactile messages would enable the communication of more information through phone alerts, however it has been suggested that phone vibration motors are not capable of presenting complex messages. This paper reports a study investigating the use of Tactons (tactile icons), presented using a standard mobile phone vibration motor, to represent mobile phone alerts. The recognition rate of 72% achieved for Tactons encoding two pieces of information is comparable to results achieved in a previous experiment with a high specification transducer, indicating that it is possible to communicate multi-dimensional information in mobile phone alerts. These results will help designers to understand the possibilities offered by standard phone vibration motors for communicating complex information.
Tactile crescendos and sforzandos: applying musical techniques to tactile icon design BIBAFull-Text 610-615
  Lorna M. Brown; Stephen A. Brewster; Helen C. Purchase
Tactile icons (Tactons) are structured vibrotactile messages which can be used for non visual information display. Information is encoded in Tactons by manipulating vibrotactile parameters. This research investigates the possibilities of applying musical techniques to tactile icon design in order to define such parameters. Tactile versions of musical dynamics were created by manipulating the amplitude of vibrations to create increasing, decreasing, and level stimuli and an experiment was carried out to test perception of these stimuli. Identification rates of 92%-100% indicate that these tactile dynamics can be identified and distinguished from each other, and that tactile dynamics could be used in Tacton design.
A new perspective on "community" and its implications for computer-mediated communication systems BIBAFull-Text 616-621
  Amy Bruckman
Scholars have long argued about the nature of "community," and the growth of Internet-based communication and "online communities" has intensified this debate. This paper argues that a new perspective on the concept "community" can shed light on the subject. Ideas from cognitive science, particularly category theory, can help. I suggest that community can be viewed as a prototype-based category. Prototype-based categories are defined not by simple rules of inclusion and exclusion, but instead by their prototypical members -- a robin is a better example of a bird than an emu or a penguin. Items in a category are better or worse examples of the category depending on their degree of similarity to the prototypical members. I will argue that these theoretical insights can help resolve debates about the nature of community, and also can help guide designers of computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems.
VACA: a tool for qualitative video analysis BIBAFull-Text 622-627
  Brandon Burr
In experimental research the job of analyzing data is an extremely slow and laborious process. In particular, video and audio data of human behavior are particularly difficult to analyze, as this type of information does not lend itself to automation. Here we present VACA, an open source tool for qualitative video analysis. VACA presents video annotations on a timeline interface and integrates external sensor data to improve the rate at which analysis can be performed. A comparative study is run against traditional video analysis tools, and results are reported.
Instant messaging comprehension with non-keyboard composition BIBAFull-Text 628-633
  Jeffrey D. Campbell; Christine Naclerio
A comparison of the accuracy of comprehension of Instant Messaging (IM) messages composed using a keyboard, handwriting recognition and speech recognition was performed. The participants in the study were shown text messages either containing no errors or having errors caused by typing, handwriting or speech recognition. They demonstrated their understanding of the messages by correcting the errors as they retyped the messages. The time to correct typographical errors was not significantly different from the time to type messages without errors. Speech and handwriting recognition errors in the text took significantly longer to correct than typographical errors, and the results were significantly less accurate. Interestingly, participants expressed slightly higher confidence in their understanding of messages containing speech recognition errors than handwriting, but the accuracy results from those two categories were not significantly different.
Rubber shark as user interface BIBAFull-Text 634-639
  Andrew Carvey; Jim Gouldstone; Pallavi Vedurumudi; Adam Whiton; Hiroshi Ishii
This paper presents a simple means to tag real world physical objects with digital information and functions. The system is low-cost and easily distributable to allow the general public outside the laboratory and academic environments to explore and experiment with physical-digital object couplings as an interface. The system is a tool to test out conceptual physical-digital mapping and metaphor and to prototype elements of Tangible User Interface. It can simply enhance the Graphical User Interface experience.
Integrating isometric joysticks into mobile phones for text entry BIBAFull-Text 640-645
  Duen Horng Chau; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Brad A. Myers; Brandon Rothrock
We are investigating a new gestural text entry method for mobile phones that uses an isometric joystick and therefore consumes very little physical space. We have created a high-fidelity mobile phone prototype with two embedded isometric joysticks, one on the front for use with the thumb, and another on the back for use with the index finger. The joysticks can be used to enter text using a special version of the EdgeWrite text entry method. In our proposed studies, we would like to investigate the performance of using the joysticks as text input devices in stationary and mobile situations. With our prototype, the authors were able to write at 12 wpm with the front joystick, and 7 wpm with the back joystick. These numbers are sure to improve as further refinements are made.
An educational digital library for human-centered computing BIBAFull-Text 646-651
  Edward Clarkson; Jason A. Day; James D. Foley
Digital libraries have great potential to improve the educational experience. As a result, there are a wide variety of such repositories, especially those that focus specifically on education. But relatively few focus on topics as specific as Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human-Centered Computing (HCC). In addition, support for browsing behavior, with a few exceptions, is both weak and not suitable for user needs. This paper presents our work to create a repository of educational materials for a relatively narrowly-targeted field (HCC/HCI), including our requirements gathering methods and results. Finally, we discuss the HCC Education Digital Library (HCC EDL) as a platform for investigating broader digital library research questions, such as exploring alternative designs for content browsing mechanisms.
Improving interface designs to help users choose better passwords BIBAFull-Text 652-657
  Richard M. Conlan; Peter Tarasewich
Conventional wisdom seems to have concluded that traditional passwords are inherently insecure. The argument is usually that users choose bad passwords and cannot be expected to remember strong passwords. We feel that these conclusions are premature and that this argument is flawed. At present most password selection mechanisms are not designed according to basic HCI principles and we believe that this is highly responsible for the above conclusions. Our current research is reexamining the problem of password selection and memorability through the exploration of password selection mechanisms with novel interface designs. The goal of this research is develop both principles and designs that help users to choose passwords that are both memorable and secure.
Board-based collaboration in cross-cultural pairs BIBAFull-Text 658-663
  Gregorio Convertino; Brian Asti; Yang Zhang; Mary Beth Rosson; Susan Mohammed
This work in progress reports a study of cross-cultural collaboration mediated by board-based collaborative systems. American-Chinese and American-American pairs performed collaborative design tasks either face-to-face or remotely. Survey data, video recording, and design products were collected to examine the impact of culture (American-American vs. American-Chinese), medium (face-to-face vs. remote), and system (Mimio vs. SMART Board) on the process and outcomes of collaboration. Results from the survey showed significant effects of these variables on several reliable measures of common ground, cognitive consensus building, perceived performance, and satisfaction. The effects on perceived performance were robust. American-Chinese pairs reported a significantly lower level of consensus when using a system that supports uni-directional (Mimio) rather than bi-directional interaction on the board.
Experiences from the design of a ubiquitous computing system for the blind BIBAFull-Text 664-669
  Vlad Coroama
This paper presents the user interface experiences we had while developing an assistive system for the blind and visually impaired based on ubiquitous computing technology, the Chatty Environment. After introducing the system, it describes several issues encountered during user interface design and the chosen solutions. It then shortly presents the results of a conducted user survey.
Kids as data: using tangible interaction in a science exhibit BIBAFull-Text 670-675
  Murray Crease
This paper describes the design and implementation of a science exhibit aimed at giving children an understanding of the different factors that can affect the speed of a computer. The exhibit uses tangible interaction engaging visitors in a way that would not be possible using standard interaction techniques such as a keyboard and mouse. An informal evaluation of the initial prototype has indicated that the exhibit is successful at informing the users of the concepts being presented.
Two-handed navigation in a haptic virtual environment BIBAFull-Text 676-681
  Andrew Crossan; Stephen Brewster
This paper describes the initial results from a study looking at a two-handed interaction paradigm for tactile navigation for blind and visually impaired users. Participants were set the task of navigating a virtual maze environment using their dominant hand to move the cursor, while receiving contextual information in the form of tactile cues presented to their non-dominant hand. Results suggest that most participants were comfortable with the two-handed style of interaction even with little training. Two sets of contextual cues were examined with information presented through static patterns or tactile flow of raised pins. The initial results of this study suggest that while both sets of cues were usable, participants performed significantly better and faster with the static cues.
TimeZoom: a flexible detail and context timeline BIBAFull-Text 682-687
  Raimund Dachselt; Markus Weiland
In this paper we present TimeZoom, an interactive timeline widget to be combined with a tabular display of data in calendar, e-mail, project planning, or other applications. Different time levels are vertically stacked and can be smoothly zoomed, permitting arbitrary granularity of time units. In addition, single or multiple focus regions with various levels of detail can be defined to allow the display and comparison of time-dependent data, while preserving the overall context.
Household indicators: design to inform and engage citizens BIBAFull-Text 688-693
  Janet Davis
Urban simulation systems can be a powerful tool for helping to understand the complex, long-term consequences of urban planning decisions. Simulation results are summarized and reported using indicators, aggregate measures such as population density or total minutes of vehicle delay. To citizens, these indicators may seem abstract and unfamiliar. This extended abstract presents design work in progress on Household Indicators, a new form of indicator designed especially for citizens. Accessed through a web-based interface, Household Indicators are intended to inform citizens by relating simulation results to citizens' life experiences, and to engage citizens by addressing the question, "How will this decision affect me?"
Low-fi prototyping for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 694-699
  Marco de Sa; Luis Carrico
This paper introduces a set of concepts for user-centered design methodologies that apply to mobile and multi-device applications. It ranges from initial data gathering and specification processes to the creation of low-fidelity prototypes and their evaluation. The focus is given to usability issues of ubiquitous, context and ambient intelligent applications. The paper's main contributions are (1) the description of our findings on how to engage on the early stage prototyping process, involving mobility; (2) a set of details that need to be taken into consideration so that the design and prototyping process is successful; (3) a set of guidelines on how to evaluate mobile applications on their context of use at an early design stage and (4) a rapid prototyping framework which allows designers to quickly move from their hand-drawn sketches to semi-functional software prototypes, particularly for PDAs and Smart phones.
Using perceptual grouping for object group selection BIBAFull-Text 700-705
  Hoda Dehmeshki; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Modern graphical user interfaces support the direct manipulation of objects and efficient selection of objects is an integral part of this user interface paradigm. For the selection of object groups most systems implement only rectangle selection and shift-clicking. This paper presents an approach to group selection that is based on the way human perception naturally groups objects, also known as the "Gestalt" phenomenon. Based on known results from perception research, we present a new approach to group objects by the Gestalt principles of proximity, curve-linearity, and closure. We demonstrate the results with several examples.
Using visualizations to review a group's interaction dynamics BIBAFull-Text 706-711
  Joan Morris DiMicco; Katherine J. Hollenbach; Walter Bender
We present a visualization system for reviewing the turn-taking patterns in a face-to-face meeting. Without the need to directly observe a group, a user can use the system to gain insight into the interaction dynamics of a meeting. We evaluated the visualizations by asking outside observers to make qualitative judgments about the individuals represented visually, and then compared their assessments to our own, made from direct observation of the meetings.
Limestick: designing for performer-audience connection in laptop based computer music BIBAFull-Text 712-717
  Justin Donaldson
This paper describes a design argument and a prototype for a performance interface for laptop musicians geared towards improving audience interaction and engagement with the performer. Limestick, the prototype interface presented in this paper, is an attempt to address and improve characteristics of current conventional laptop performance that are negative to audience enjoyment.
The Korean twiddler: one-handed chording text entry for Korean mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 718-723
  Myungcheol Doo; Kent Lyons; Thad Starner
We present a text entry method using the Twiddler one-handed chording keyboard to input Hangul, the Korean alphabet, on mobile phones. After estimating keystrokes of various text entry methods, we found that our Twiddler 3 Bul keymap has the fewest keystrokes needed among the methods evaluated.
Sound intensity gradients in an ambient intelligence audio display BIBAFull-Text 724-729
  Milena Droumeva; Ron Wakkary
This paper describes the prototype of a real-time responsive audio display for an ambient intelligent game named socio-ec(h)o. The audio display relies on a gradient response to represent and anticipate player action. We describe the audio display schema, and discuss results of our current experimentation in guiding player actions through types of audio feedback, for creating sound recognition, perceptions of change and sound intensity.
How much do we understand when skim reading? BIBAFull-Text 730-735
  Geoffrey B. Duggan; Stephen J. Payne
The World Wide Web and other technological advances have meant rapid reading or "skimming" of text is increasingly common in our information-rich time-limited society. This study investigates the effectiveness of skimming as a strategy for understanding a text. A replication and extension of Masson's (1982) work found that recognition of important, unimportant and inferable information declined equally when readers were required to skim rather than read text normally. This indicates that readers struggle to focus on important information when skimming. Moreover, a response bias suggests skimmers are more likely to over-interpret complicated information as consistent with the text. Thus, designers including large amounts of text should be aware that skimming is a limited strategy for achieving understanding.
PersonalSoundtrack: context-aware playlists that adapt to user pace BIBAFull-Text 736-741
  Greg T. Elliott; Bill Tomlinson
This paper describes a mobile music player, PersonalSoundtrack, that makes real-time choices of music based on user pace. Standard playlists are non-interactive streams of previously chosen music, insensitive to user context and requiring explicit user input to find suitable songs. The context-aware mobile music player described here works with its owner's library to select music in real-time based on a taxonomy of attributes and contextual information derived from an accelerometer connected wirelessly to a laptop carried under the arm. We are in the process of evaluating this prototype with 25 users who will compare the system's context-sensitive playlist to random shuffle. On the basis of user feedback and analysis, a hand-held device will be implemented for testing in less constrained mobile scenarios. PersonalSoundtrack allows users to experience their music with both mind and body, providing a unique embodied experience of their personal music library. In mobile environments where attention is a limited resource, users can spend less time deciding what music to enjoy and more time enjoying it.
Social visualization in software development BIBAFull-Text 742-747
  Jason Ellis; Catalina Danis; Christine Halverson; Wendy Kellogg
Most software development tools focus on supporting the primary technical work -- writing code, managing requirements, filing bugs, etc. Yet with large teams, managing the social aspects of a project can be as complex as managing code. Here, we discuss the iterative design of a visualization that helps developers better understand the social aspects of their work.
A study of hand shape use in tabletop gesture interaction BIBAFull-Text 748-753
  Julien Epps; Serge Lichman; Mike Wu
Although manual gesture has long been suggested as an intuitive method of input for horizontal human-computer systems, little research has been conducted into observing user preferences for tabletop gesture interaction. This is particularly the case for computer vision-based gesture input, where the recognition of different hand shapes opens up a new vocabulary of interaction. In this paper, results from an observational study of manual gesture input for a tabletop display are discussed. Implications for tabletop gesture interaction design include suggestions for the use of different hands shapes for input, the desirability of combined touch screen and computer vision gesture input, and possibilities for flexible two-handed interaction.
A discourse model for interaction design based on theories of human communication BIBAFull-Text 754-759
  Jurgen Falb; Hermann Kaindl; Helmut Horacek; Cristian Bogdan; Roman Popp; Edin Arnautovic
Most current models of interaction design build on scenarios and task analysis. We think that interaction design should be more along the lines of communication between humans. With this motivation, our paper presents a new approach to modeling interaction design based on insights from theories of human communication. From such discourse models, we aim for automated generation of user interfaces.
Availability bars for calendar scheduling BIBAFull-Text 760-765
  Andrew Faulring; Brad A. Myers
Calendar scheduling is a difficult task for people who have overbooked calendars with many constraints. Currently, calendar applications do not allow users to specify scheduling constraints such as how preferable a free time is for scheduling a new meeting or to what extent an existing meeting can be rescheduled. This paper introduces the "availability bar," an interaction and visualization technique for complex calendar scheduling constraints. Availability bars, embedded in calendar applications, can help users who manually schedule meetings. Availability bars can also mediate communication with calendar scheduling agents that gather availability constraints, search for times that satisfy the constraints, and negotiate with invitees when no satisfactory time is found for the constraints.
visiBabble for pre-speech feedback BIBAFull-Text 767-772
  Harriet Fell; Joel MacAuslan; Jun Gong; Cynthia Cress; Tom Salvo
The visiBabble system processes infant vocalizations in real-time. It responds to the infant's syllable-like productions with brightly colored animations and auditory feedback. It saves an audio recording and its acoustic-phonetic analysis. The system reinforces the production of syllabic utterances that are associated with later language and cognitive development. We are developing both a toy and a clinical/research tool.
Foundations of a pattern language based on Gestalt principles BIBAFull-Text 773-778
  Karl Flieder; Felix Modritscher
Traditionally, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a highly interdisciplinary field bridging the research between psychological research and computer science. This paper places great emphasis on a new pattern language based on Gestalt principles, among which Pragnanz is regarded as the fundamental one. Psychological findings, pattern methodology and linguistic categories consequently form the basis of our work. The proposed pattern language, not yet finished, is intended to support visual design [11] in a user-centered way by providing comprehensive information about Gestalt principles.
Incompatible BLOCK: wonders accompanied interface BIBAFull-Text 779-784
  Jun Fujiki; Taketoshi Ushiama; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
For interface design, improving user curiosity is important, as is intuitiveness and intelligibility. We think the wonder of 2D property input becoming 3D, as expected by the user, in the range of matching will be effective for enhancing not only curiosity but also availability. In this study, we developed the 3D modeling software "Incompatible BLOCK" with an interface of such wonders. This paper describes the four wonders of the interface of Incompatible BLOCK, introduces the mechanism, and discusses the usefulness of a wonders-accompanied interface from user evaluations.
BashoCam: collective photographic sequencing in wireless P2P networks BIBAFull-Text 785-790
  Lalya Gaye; Svante Hermansson; Lars Erik Holmquist
Wireless peer-to-peer network technology enables new types of collaborative practices among people in public space and across multiple locations. BashoCam is an on-going project that designs for a collective aesthetic practice across wireless peer-to-peer social networks. It aims at enabling users connected by a social network to create collaborative narratives by juxtaposing rhythmic sequences of photographs taken on the spot. These narratives evolve as they spread throughout the network. We describe the concept of BashoCam, the user interaction and our current implementation.
LifeSource: two CVS visualizations BIBAFull-Text 791-796
  Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios
We present LifeSource, two visualizations of CVS code repositories, one file-centric and one author-centric. CodeConnections, the file-centric visualization, pulls out the overall structure of a large body of interacting code and authors. CodeConnections scales well and reveals large trends in the code base at a glance. CodeSaw, the author-centric visualization, compares authors' code and project mail contributions over the course of one year. CodeSaw reveals trends in authors' lives, exposing peaks and valleys of productivity. Both visualizations uncover deep details about the life of a code project to developers and onlookers.
Seeing fit: visualizing physical activity in context BIBAFull-Text 797-802
  Elizabeth Goodman; Brooke E. Foucault
This paper describes the results of a three month study of physical fitness in the United States. Using a literature review, blog readings, interviews, and diary studies, the authors identify key challenges and opportunities for technology to support fitness behaviors. Results focus on implications for the design and implementation of personal health visualization software.
Usability error classification: qualitative data analysis for UX practitioners BIBAFull-Text 803-808
  Lada Gorlenko; Paul Englefied
Usability evaluations generate large amounts of poorly structured qualitative data, but traditional methods of analysis are often impractical for use by industry practitioners. To address this, we developed a classification of usability issues covering cause, effect, task impact and business impact. In a design project, this has several applications, such as a) enabling practitioners to analyze qualitative data quickly and reliably; b) ensuring that findings can be systematically compared across studies; c) presenting results to clients in terms of potential business impact and its causes; and d) offering recommendations to designers in terms of design errors and their cost. We continue refining the model as we test it in our projects.
Three robot-rooms: the AWE project BIBAFull-Text 809-814
  K. E. Green; I. D. Walker; L. J. Gugerty; J. C. Witte
We describe innovative new work in the development of an "animated architecture." Specifically, we describe our early research aimed at the creation of intelligent, programmable, physical spaces supporting working life. Our research takes advantage of recent developments in HCI and continuum robotics to enable humans to exploit emerging technologies and adaptively alter both the ambience and functionality of their environments.
Individual differences in internet search outcomes and processes BIBAFull-Text 815-820
  Leo Gugerty; Craig Treadaway; James S. Rubinstein
A study was conducted, with 180 participants, to evaluate whether individual differences in basic cognitive abilities (i.e., spatial and verbal ability), attitudes towards computers, and prior experience with computers influence peoples' ability to search for and find information on the internet. Spatial and verbal ability, as well as attitudes towards computers, influenced the accuracy and speed of internet search. Current analyses are focusing on whether cognitive abilities and attitudes influence component search processes, as well as overall accuracy and speed.
JamSpace: a networked real-time collaborative music environment BIBAFull-Text 821-826
  Michael Gurevich
The motivation, design, implementation and analysis of a networked environment for real-time music collaboration are presented. JamSpace provides a simple hardware and software interface that allows novices to play music together anonymously from isolated locations connected by a local network. The low-latency conditions of a local network allow for real-time rhythmic collaboration. This in turn facilitates satisfaction of the design requirements of accessibility to novices as well as privacy and anonymity.
From the personal to the profound: understanding the blog life cycle BIBAFull-Text 827-832
  David Gurzick; Wayne G. Lutters
This ongoing research project investigates the changes that occur to weblogs (blogs) throughout their lifespan. It examines both the markers that indicate a particular phase of its existence in our emerging life cycle model and the drivers that move the community through those cycles. Emphasis is placed on identifying likely causes for abandonment at each phase. Implications of this research are both social, promoting the health of the blogosphere in general, and technical, appropriately mapping tools to correct life cycle stages.
An examination of user perception and misconception of internet cookies BIBAFull-Text 833-838
  Vicki Ha; Kori Inkpen; Farah Al Shaar; Lina Hdeib
Proper cookie management methods have long been the source of frustration to consumers and researchers alike. A primary reason for this challenge is the ability for cookies to be both beneficial and malicious. Because of this duality, a subjective component is required to appropriately deal with cookies. In this paper, we present results from focus group sessions we conducted to explore problems of cookie management. Based on some of our observations from this work, we discuss social and technical considerations and conclude that an increase in awareness is the best partial solution to privacy problems associated with cookies.
Effects of alphanumerical display formatting on search time among Chinese and American users BIBAFull-Text 839-844
  Songmei Han
In this paper, we examine whether a design guideline derived from studies with American users can be generalized to Chinese users. The effects of alphanumerical display formatting on search time among Chinese and American college student were measured. Users searched for a target word among a list of words in alphabetical order. The list was either displayed horizontally in rows or vertically in columns. The formatting of the list on the screen affected American users significantly with the vertical display leading to faster response. The formatting of the list on the screen had no significant effect on the response time among Chinese users. The significance of this founding in terms of cross-cultural usability was discussed.
Use your head: exploring face tracking for mobile interaction BIBAFull-Text 845-850
  Thomas Riisgaard Hansen; Eva Eriksson; Andreas Lykke-Olesen
In this paper we present how face tracking can be implemented on mobile devices. Our main contribution is to present how face tracking on mobile systems can be used as a multi-dimensional input technique and to demonstrate how this can be used in different mobile applications. We present at set of different applications based on the tracking, and discuss current and future advantages, challenges and problems with face tracking as input device for mobile systems.
A sense of spatial semantics BIBAFull-Text 851-856
  Matthew Hockenberry; Ted Selker
This paper describes an approach to the semantic analysis of location information. The system gathers verified natural language input and uses a ranking system to produce semantically meaningful tags. These associations are tied to precise spatial locations allowing a viewer to get the sense of a space.
Crossmodal icons for information display BIBAFull-Text 857-862
  Eve E. Hoggan; Stephen A. Brewster
This paper describes a novel form of display using crossmodal output. A crossmodal icon is an abstract icon that can be instantiated in one of two equivalent forms (auditory or tactile). These can be used in interfaces as a means of non-visual output. This paper discusses how crossmodal icons can be constructed and the potential benefits they bring to mobile human computer interfaces.
Fly: an organic presentation tool BIBAFull-Text 863-868
  David Holman; Predrag Stojadinovic; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
In this paper, we present Fly, a prototype presentation system that adds a visual structure to presentations. Current presentation software, like PowerPoint, structure slides in a linear sequence. The Fly design introduces a spatial organization that is based on Mind Maps. Using colour associations, spatial relations, and fluid movement, we show how presentation software can structure a meaningful overview of the underlying content.
Tangible programming in the classroom: a practical approach BIBAFull-Text 869-874
  Michael S. Horn; Robert J. K. Jacob
This paper introduces Quetzal, a tangible programming language for children to use in educational settings. Quetzal features inexpensive, durable parts with no embedded electronics or power supplies. Children create programs in offline settings -- on their desks or on the floor -- and carry their programs to a scanning station when they are ready to compile. We argue that a language like Quetzal could offer an appealing and practical alternative to conventional languages for introducing programming concepts in the classroom. This paper discusses the motivations for the Quetzal project and describes the design and implementation of the language. We also outline several key questions that are guiding our research with Quetzal.
"Girls don't waste time": pre-adolescent attitudes toward ICT BIBAFull-Text 875-880
  Weimin Hou; Manpreet Kaur; Anita Komlodi; Wayne G. Lutters; Lee Boot; Shelia R. Cotten; Claudia Morrell; A. Ant Ozok; Zeynep Tufekci
Relying on naturalistic observation, via video self-documentaries, contextual interviews, and focus groups, we explored gender differences in the information and communication technology (ICT) perception and use of United States middle school students. Our study revealed four key dimensions which foreground the significant gender differences in how students of this age approach and interact with technology. These differences should be considered when developing age appropriate technology and education programs. Our later research will explore the relationship among ICT use, self-efficacy, and career choices through a large-scale survey.
Tap or touch?: pen-based selection accuracy for the young and old BIBAFull-Text 881-886
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Theresa R. Berkel
The effect of the decline in cognitive, perceptive, and motor abilities on older adults' performance with input devices has been well documented in several experiments. None of these experiments, however, have provided information on the challenges faced by older adults when using pens to interact with handheld computers. To address this need, we conducted a study to learn about the performance of older adults in simple pen-based tasks with handheld computers. The study compared the performance of twenty 18-22 year olds, twenty 50-64 year olds, and twenty 65-84 year olds. We found that for the most part, older adults were able to complete tasks accurately. An exception occurred with the low accuracy rates achieved by 65-84 year old participants when tapping on targets of the same size as the standard radio buttons, checkboxes, and icons on the PocketPC. An alternative selection technique we refer to as "touch" enabled 65-84 year olds to select targets more accurately. This technique did not negatively affect the performance of the other participants. If tapping to select, making standard-sized targets 50 percent larger provided 65-84 year olds with similar advantages to switching to "touch" interactions. The results suggest that "touch" interactions need to be further explored to understand whether they will work in more realistic situations.
Bridging the gap: fluidly connecting paper notecards with digital representations for story/task-based planning BIBAFull-Text 887-892
  Tom Hurlbutt; Scott R. Klemmer
Programmers use both paper and digital artifacts to aid in the process of software planning. This paper presents a prototype of a system that uses digital pen technology to integrate paper notecards and digital task plan representations, allowing programmers to utilize the affordances provided by both techniques. Through an ethnography of programmers who practice planning using both physical and digital artifacts, we discovered common actions performed by the programmers included card creation, card augmentation, card combining, and scheduling of card for completion. We designed interaction techniques to facilitate these actions and conducted a usability study (n=10) to evaluate the techniques. Through the study, we discovered that the initial prototype provided both positive and negative experiences for the user, providing insightful design implications for the future.
Exploring user experience in "blended reality": moving interactions out of the screen BIBAFull-Text 893-898
  David F. Huynh; Yan Xu; Shuo Wang
Video game players often learn to map their physical actions (e.g., pressing buttons) onto their on-screen avatars' actions (e.g., wielding swords) in order to play. We explored the experience resulted from eliminating this mapping by modeling the screen as a "window" through which virtual objects enter the player's physical space, and the player interacts with them directly without the mediation of an avatar. We define this interaction as "Blended Reality" (BR). We designed, developed, and evaluated a BR game prototype called "Apple Yard" in which the player was to use a wand to hit apples flying out of the screen. A camera was used to track the positions of the player's eyes and wand, and the 3D game scene was rendered accordingly to create the illusion of looking through a window. A user tests experiment conducted on this prototypes indicated BR's potential in camera-based entertainment.
No more isolated files: managing files as social artifacts BIBAFull-Text 899-904
  Indratmo Indratmo; Julita Vassileva
People manage and use their files/documents in social settings. However, current file systems do not consider social interactions that happen around files. For example, files that have been sent to many people are displayed in the same way as those that have never been sent. We argue that by capturing user activities around files, we can enhance user experience in managing their documents. In particular, presenting activity traces can help users comprehend their document collections better and recall the context of their documents. In this paper, we discuss our approach to providing a context-rich environment for document management.
Communication service design by interhuman interaction approach BIBAFull-Text 905-910
  Yoshihiro Itoh; Asami Miyajima; Kenji Ogura; Hidetoshi Tatemichi; Takumi Watanabe; Yuichi Fujino; Kaori Fujimura; Hitomi Sato
This paper describes a new communication service that supports all communication environments for healthy elderly people. This service was designed based on the interhuman interaction approach, and the acceptability of this system was verified by a field test.
Towards computer-supported face-to-face knowledge sharing BIBAFull-Text 911-916
  Sho Iwasaki; Yasufumi Hirakawa; Harumi Mase; Eiji Tokunaga; Tatsuo Nakajima
Although a lot of systems provide co-located collaboration support, few existing technologies provide support for fluid knowledge sharing. To fluidly share our knowledge in co-located environments, each person's digital experience should be merged and presented on a collaborative display device such as a face-to-face tabletop display. For capturing concrete requirements for such face-to-face fluid knowledge sharing, we built a prototype system that presents merged multi-users' Web browsing histories on a tabletop display. We experimented with our prototype in an exhibition and collected over 100 filled questionnaires and informal observations.
The effectiveness of social agents in reducing user frustration BIBAFull-Text 917-922
  Nada Jaksic; Pedro Branco; Peter Stephenson; L. Miguel Encarnacao
A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of social agents in reducing user frustration. The particular type of agent studied reacted to users' facial expressions while they browsed through a shopping website. While highly frustrated users reported that the agent often increased their frustration, those experiencing a moderate level of frustration stated that it somewhat reduced their frustrations.
Do we need eye trackers to tell where people look? BIBAFull-Text 923-928
  Sune Alstrup Johansen; John Paulin Hansen
We investigated the validity of two low-cost alternatives to state-of-the-art eye tracking technology: 1) prompting users to report from memory on their own eye movements, and 2) asking experienced web designers to predict the eye movements of a typical user. Users could reliably remember 70% of the web elements they had actually seen. Web designers could only predict 46% of the elements typically seen. Users were not particularly good at remembering the order of their fixations. We discuss how to further improve the validity of self-reported gaze patterns and suggest new areas that it may be used in.
Tailoring virtual reality technology for stroke rehabilitation: a human factors design BIBAFull-Text 929-934
  Younbo Jung; Shih-Ching Yeh; Jill Stewart
In this paper we introduce an interdisciplinary project to develop a virtual reality enhanced stroke rehabilitation system (VRSRS). In particular, we propose a human factors design in developing a VRSRS for improving the functional recovery rate of stroke patients' upper extremities.
Geospatial intelligence analysis via semantic lensing BIBAFull-Text 935-940
  Nikhil Kalghatgi; Aaron Burgman; Erika Darling; Chris Newbern; Kristine Recktenwald; Shawn Chin; Howard Kong
Geospatial displays typically contain many data layers ranging in type and level of detail that often result in dense, occluded, and cluttered map displays. We investigated a localized, "detail on-demand" filtering strategy called semantic lensing that in certain situations provides a more efficient and desirable approach than global filtering for mitigating clutter and occlusion.
   An initial formal user study with these semantic lenses has shown their significant value, expediency, and desirability in aiding decision making during real-world tasks. Completion times of geospatial analyses are significantly faster when using lenses and workloads are significantly lower. The research suggests that using lenses may also improve analysts' accuracy when completing complex time-critical geospatial intelligence analyses. Continued work will evaluate additional features and task-specific applicability. Successful evaluation will propose the distribution of such a lens tool to geospatial intelligence analysts.
Castaway: a context-aware task management system BIBAFull-Text 941-946
  Angela Kessell; Christopher Chan
This paper describes the development of Castaway, a context-aware task management system. Specifically, we describe a three-week field study with thirty-five participants, the results of which illuminate the nature of people's recorded tasks. We further describe in detail iterations made to our task management interface, including a map-based view, and the insights gained that will inform future design and development.
Non-visual overviews of complex data sets BIBAFull-Text 947-952
  Johan Kildal; Stephen A. Brewster
This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of an interface to obtain overview information from complex numerical data tables non-visually, which is something that cannot be done with currently available accessibility tools for the blind and visually impaired users. A sonification technique that hides detail in the data and highlights its main features without doing any computations to the data, is combined with a graphics tablet for focus+context interactive navigation, in an interface called TableVis. Results from its evaluation suggest that this technique can deliver better scores than speech in time to answer overview questions, correctness of the answers and subjective workload.
Cherish: smart digital photo frames for sharing social narratives at home BIBAFull-Text 953-958
  Jeong Kim; John Zimmerman
The introduction and rapid acceptance of digital cameras has fundamentally changed the way people take and share images. When displaying and interacting with images in the home, people still print out the photos as if they had been taken on a film camera. Although sharing occurs on computer monitors or even on TV, the digital photo hasn't made complete circle in being represented digitally in a home environment. This research explores the display and social interaction with digital photos in the home.
   To find design opportunities we used a user-centered approach and studied how people currently display and interact with photos at home. Observed needs were used to generate concept scenarios that were validated with representative users during a concept validation session. Out of this has emerged the design of Cherish, a system for organizing and displaying photos in the home.
Task difficulty as a predictor and indicator of web searching interaction BIBAFull-Text 959-964
  Jeonghyun Kim
This study explored how the perception of task difficulty affects information searching interaction. We analyzed how the relationship between perceived task difficulty and information searching interaction varies by different types of tasks. These types were factual task, interpretive task, and exploratory task. The implications of the results are twofold. In the first place, we can illuminate some general agreement about the relationship between task difficulty and actual searching behavior. Considering the statistical significance of differences in task difficulty and searching behavior measures enables this. We can also explain the disagreement of relationship, if any, by analyzing factors identified as underlying the difficulty of a task.
CookieFlavors: easy building blocks for wireless tangible input BIBAFull-Text 965-970
  Hiroaki Kimura; Eiji Tokunaga; Yohei Okuda; Tatsuo Nakajima
We present CookieFlavors, a TUI prototyping tool that provides a set of physical input primitives realized by coin-size Bluetooth wireless sensors named Cookie. Developers can attach CookieFlavors on any physical objects and examine the suitability of tangible input in a TUI prototype phase. We have built a map viewer application and projected it in an experimental room that contains various physical objects and several CookieFlavors. We asked the focus group to manipulate the map viewer application by augmenting CookieFlavors into physical objects. In this paper we present the interesting result of their perception and activities regarding this intuitive TUI, CookieFlavors.
Effect of latency of response on life-like communication using a dog-like robot BIBAFull-Text 971-976
  Kiritani Yoshie; Mizobuchi Sachi; Ohhashi Hideki
Using a dog-like robot, the effectiveness of latency of response for life-like communication was examined. The participant touched the robot's head, it lifted up the head, and he/she evaluated its from the point of living and intention. As results, the effect of latency of response was not clear because of a variety of life-like impressions. The life-like response seemed to be emotional, but at least two kinds of emotions could be perceived. Negative emotion was seen in shorter latency as well as in longer latency. Life-like impression was not the same as perceptual intention. These findings should be investigated in the situation properly simulated the communication, not in a simple and single reaction.
Collaborative simulation interface for planning disaster measures BIBAFull-Text 977-982
  Kazue Kobayashi; Atsunobu Narita; Mitsunori Hirano; Ichiro Kase; Shinetsu Tsuchida; Takaharu Omi; Tatsuhito Kakizaki; Takuma Hosokawa
We introduce a disaster simulation system that supports collaborative planning of disaster measures. While several simulation tools are available for examination and evaluation of disaster prevention plans, they are limited to use on traditional computers and displays, and rarely used in collaborative planning sessions. To address this issue, we have designed and prototyped a tabletop tangible user interface for disaster simulation. This paper describes the design and implementation of our prototype and reports our preliminary user observations and their feedback. The results show that our system can effectively support collaborative emergency planning tasks by a group of users and that users can easily learn how to use our system.
Targeted steering motions BIBAFull-Text 983-988
  Sergey Kulikov; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
In this paper we investigate targeted steering motions. Fitts' law is a very successful model to explain human targeting behavior, while the Steering law has been used to model steering motions. Dennerlein et al. combined these two models to explain targeted steering motions, but this combination introduces additional parameters. In this paper, we present a new, simpler, model that can be used to predict targeted steering motions.
A study of the use of mobile phones by older persons BIBAFull-Text 989-994
  Sri Kurniawan; Murni Mahmud; Yanuar Nugroho
This paper reports on issues related to the use of mobile phones by older people. This study uses triangulation, a mixed method of qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (online questionnaire) approaches. Usage patterns, problems, perceived benefits and desired and unwanted features were covered in this study.
User-centered design in the context of large and distributed projects BIBAFull-Text 995-1000
  Esko Kurvinen; Andy Aftelak; Annakaisa Haryrynen
User-centered design (UCD) is a research and product development orientation that utilizes end user or customer information for making better (efficient, usable, enjoyable etc.) and thus commercially successful products. In practice, this is achieved by involving the end user early on, and maintaining this orientation throughout the developmental project.
   This paper presents lessons learned in EU IST project MobiLife about the management of user-centered design. We reflect best practices of UCD in a setting consisting of complex technological problems being solved by large coalition of geographically distributed partners.
Using an intergenerational communications system as a 'light-weight' technology probe BIBAFull-Text 1001-1006
  Geoff Langdale; Judy Kay; Bob Kummerfeld
A problem with the technology probe [1] approach is the substantial time required to gain results. For prototype technological systems, a further problem is the requirement that systems are deployed into non-technical end-user's homes, where they are comparatively hard to maintain. Even a robust system may be vulnerable to unavoidable problems in these kinds of environment (for example, bandwidth outages in a communications device). We introduce a light-weight procedure that sacrifices some of the realism associated with technology probes in favor of ease of deployment and speed of information gathering.
   We apply our methods to the "Keep in Touch" (KiT) intergenerational communications system, and describe some preliminary results that we have obtained.
Attention meter: a vision-based input toolkit for interaction designers BIBAFull-Text 1007-1012
  Chia-Hsun Jackie Lee; Chiun-Yi Ian Jang; Ting-Han Daniel Chen; Jon Wetzel; Yang-Ting Bowbow Shen; Ted Selker
This paper shows how a software toolkit can allow graphic designers to make camera-based interactive environments in a short period of time without experience in user interface design or machine vision. The Attention Meter, a vision-based input toolkit, gives users an analysis of faces found in a given image stream, including facial expression, body motion, and attentive activities. This data is fed to a text file that can be easily understood by humans and programs alike. A four day workshop demonstrated that some Flash-savvy architecture students could construct interactive spaces (e.g. TaiKer-KTV and ScreamMarket) based on body and head motions.
PmEB: a mobile phone application for monitoring caloric balance BIBAFull-Text 1013-1018
  Gunny Lee; Chris Tsai; William G. Griswold; Fred Raab; Kevin Patrick
In this paper, we present PmEB, an application for mobile phones that allows users to monitor their caloric balance as a part of weight management. PmEB allows users to track their caloric balance by recording food intake and physical activity on their mobile phones. Daily reminder messages are sent via SMS messages to encourage compliance. Collected data is sent automatically every 24 hours to a central server where it can be analyzed in detail. PmEB was designed as a tool for both users to self-monitor and manage their food consumption and physical activity and primary health care providers to study behavioral patterns in overweight patients. Formative evaluation with seven health-intervention experts and a week-long user study with six clinically overweight, non-expert participants have shown PmEB to have promising potential for improving self-efficacy in dietary and exercise behavior.
Understanding how bloggers feel: recognizing affect in blog posts BIBAFull-Text 1019-1024
  Gilly Leshed; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
One of the goals of affective computing is to recognize human emotions. We present a system that learns to recognize emotions based on textual resources and test it on a large number of blog entries tagged with moods by their authors. We show how a machine-learning approach can be used to gain insight into the way writers convey and interpret their own emotions, and provide nuanced mood associations for a large wordlist.
The role of the interaction designer in an agile software development process BIBAFull-Text 1025-1030
  Matthew A. Lievesley; Joyce S. R. Yee
In this paper we describe observations of a contrast in thinking styles between a user-interface design team and a software engineering team developing a new software product. Presented in case study form, it is a first hand account by the interaction designers of work-in-progress. It concludes by identifying some key roles for the interaction designer working in an agile software development environment.
Designing appropriate affordances for electronic photo sharing media BIBAFull-Text 1031-1036
  Sian Lindley; Andrew Monk
In contrast to printed photos, practices for sharing digital photos are yet to become well established. Consequently, they have received relatively little attention in the literature. Six individuals from four households were interviewed to understand how the co-present use of different digital media might affect people's perceptions and enjoyment of photo sharing. A number of observations made by the participants were identified that have implications for design and for further work. Primarily, new display technologies need to: (i) allow people to interact facing one another in comfortable surroundings, and (ii) afford easy control of the presentation by both photographer and audience.
Affective diary: designing for bodily expressiveness and self-reflection BIBAFull-Text 1037-1042
  Madelene Lindstrom; Anna Stahl; Kristina Höök; Petra Sundstrom; Jarmo Laaksolathi; Marco Combetto; Alex Taylor; Roberto Bresin
A diary provides a useful means to express inner thoughts and record experiences of past events. In re-readings, it also provides a resource for reflection, allowing us to re-experience, brood over or even shed the thoughts and feelings we've associated with events or people. To expand on the ways in which we creatively engage in diary-keeping, we have designed an affective diary that captures some of the physical, bodily aspects of experiences and emotions -- what we refer to as "affective body memorabilia". The affective diary assembles sensor data, captured from the user and uploaded via their mobile phone, to form an ambiguous, abstract colourful body shape. With a range of other materials from the mobile phone, such as text and MMS messages, photographs, etc., these shapes are made available to the user. Combining these materials, the diary is designed to invite reflection and to allow the user to piece together their own stories.
Informal communication in collaboratories BIBAFull-Text 1043-1048
  Airong Luo; Judith S. Olson
Recent years have seen an increasing use of collaboratories in distributed scientific work. This study examines the role of collaboratories in informal scientific communication. Hypotheses relating to potential opportunities for informal communication afforded by collaboratories are tested with data from in-depth interviews.
Telebuddies: social stitching with interactive television BIBAFull-Text 1049-1054
  Kris Luyten; Kristof Thys; Steven Huypens; Karin Coninx
In this paper we report on our work to enable "laid-back" social interactions using television as a primary interaction medium. By integrating semantic web techniques with interactive television we were able to create smart applications that can run as extensions of television shows and stimulate groups of users to communicate. Groups are based on the shared characteristics that can be found for subsets of spectators. Communication between spectators is brought about at two levels: direct communication like instant messaging and indirect communication like cooperating in a team to win a quiz. Our system does not necessarily require a new television format, but is able to reuse existing television shows and to "socialize" them so they can be re-broadcasted with support for group interaction.
Preliminary evaluation of a synchronous co-located educational simulation framework BIBAFull-Text 1055-1060
  Leilah Lyons; Joseph Lee; Christopher Quintana; Elliot Soloway
We designed the MUSHI (Multi-User Simulation with Handheld Integration) framework to address two educational needs: (1) to help students learn about complex, multi-scalar systems, and (2) to help students collaborate with one another in small groups. The MUSHI system provides each student with a handheld computer that is wirelessly synchronized with a simulation running on a tablet PC computer. A group of students can interact with small-scale elements of the simulation via their personal handhelds, and can observe large-scale elements on the shared computer. Because this is a novel combination of devices, we conducted use trials with middle school students to explore issues surrounding multi-device representations, small-group collaboration, and equitable computing.
Measuring multiple components of emotions in interactive contexts BIBAFull-Text 1061-1066
  Sascha Mahlke; Michael Minge; Manfred Thuring
The study of users' emotional behavior in HCI has been receiving increasing attention for the last few years. This paper focuses on emotions as an important part of a user's overall experience when interacting with a system. Based on the multi-component approach to emotions proposed by Scherer [15], different aspects of emotions in an interactive context were investigated: subjective feelings, physiological activation, motor expression, cognitive appraisals, and behavioral tendencies. To induce different emotional states, two versions of an interactive system were employed which differed with respect to quality of use. The results suggest that systems of high usability lead to more positive emotions than systems with usability flaws. Differences were detected for a number of emotional components by using a variety of methods: rating scales for subjective feelings, EMG for facial muscles, heart rate, EDA, performance data and questionnaires on cognitive appraisals. We suggest that this combination provides a comprehensive basis for analyzing emotions in HCI.
Technology for design education: a case study BIBAFull-Text 1067-1072
  Heidy Maldonado; Brian Lee; Scott Klemmer
We present results of the first longitudinal study of physical and digital technology hybrids for design education. Through deployment in an introductory HCI class, we have instrumented and analyzed traditional design practices with newer technological components. In particular, we show that hybrid Idea Logs that maintain the flexibility of paper notebooks can successfully implement the fluidity needed between teammates in design projects, and between the digital and physical world. Our preliminary analysis of questionnaires, performance data, and student design notebooks support our hypothesis that this hybrid of technologies may effectively address the needs of this domain, and suggest that basic digital affordances such as export and sharing of design content can improve the educational experience.
Full-time wearable headphone-type gaze detector BIBAFull-Text 1073-1078
  Hiroyuki Manabe; Masaaki Fukumoto
A headphone-type gaze detector for a full-time wearable interface is proposed. It uses a Kalman filter to analyze multiple channels of EOG signals measured at the locations of headphone cushions to estimate gaze direction. Evaluations show that the average estimation error is 4.4° (horizontal) and 8.3° (vertical), and that the drift is suppressed to the same level as in ordinary EOG. The method is especially robust against signal anomalies. Selecting a real object from among many surrounding ones is one possible application of this headphone gaze detector.
Engaging with a situated display via picture messaging BIBAFull-Text 1079-1084
  Karen Martin; Alan Penn; Lesley Gavin
We outline initial investigations into how choices of spatial configuration, input devices and display technologies influence action and interaction in hybrid electronic and physical spaces. Joe Blogg is a socially situated public display for receiving MMS and SMS messages and we describe our first installation of this system, giving an account of the rationale of the design concept, the installation and observations on the outcome.
Neurophysiologically driven image triage: a pilot study BIBAFull-Text 1085-1090
  Santosh Mathan; Stephen Whitlow; Deniz Erdogmus; Misha Pavel; Patricia Ververs; Michael Dorneich
Effective analysis of complex imagery is a vital aspect of important domains such as intelligence image analysis. As technological developments lower the cost of gathering and storing imagery, the cost of searching through large image sets for important information has been growing substantially. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using neurophysiological signals associated with early perceptual processing to identify critical information within large image sets efficiently. Brain signals called evoked response potentials, detected in conjunction with rapid serial presentation of images, show promise as a human computer interaction modality for screening high volumes of imagery accurately and efficiently.
Design of a role-playing game to study the trajectories of health care workers in an operating room BIBAFull-Text 1091-1096
  Elisa Mattarelli; Kelly J. Fadel; Suzanne P. Weisband
Drawing on an ethnographic study of hospital work in an operating room, we present the design and implementation of a web-based role-playing application of a master schedule. We show how we simulate the coordination mechanisms and trajectories of hospital personnel as they move patients in and out of OR. Experiments are proposed to show how active and passive notification systems (interruptions) are expected to affect trajectory management and performance over time.
Being accurate is not enough: how accuracy metrics have hurt recommender systems BIBAFull-Text 1097-1101
  Sean M. McNee; John Riedl; Joseph A. Konstan
Recommender systems have shown great potential to help users find interesting and relevant items from within a large information space. Most research up to this point has focused on improving the accuracy of recommender systems. We believe that not only has this narrow focus been misguided, but has even been detrimental to the field. The recommendations that are most accurate according to the standard metrics are sometimes not the recommendations that are most useful to users. In this paper, we propose informal arguments that the recommender community should move beyond the conventional accuracy metrics and their associated experimental methodologies. We propose new user-centric directions for evaluating recommender systems.
Making recommendations better: an analytic model for human-recommender interaction BIBAFull-Text 1103-1108
  Sean M. McNee; John Riedl; Joseph A. Konstan
Recommender systems do not always generate good recommendations for users. In order to improve recommender quality, we argue that recommenders need a deeper understanding of users and their information seeking tasks. Human-Recommender Interaction (HRI) provides a framework and a methodology for understanding users, their tasks, and recommender algorithms using a common language. Further, by using an analytic process model, HRI becomes not only descriptive, but also constructive. It can help with the design and structure of a recommender system, and it can act as a bridge between user information seeking tasks and recommender algorithms.
subjEQt: controlling an equalizer through subjective terms BIBAFull-Text 1109-1114
  Sebastian Mecklenburg; Jorn Loviscach
Equalizing is one of the most important tasks in audio engineering. It also is a task that requires technical and auditory training to achieve the desired results. We propose to simplify the use of an equalizer by providing a visual arrangement of subjective terms such as 'warm', 'present', 'boomy' instead of the standard controls that closely correspond to the underlying technology.
CHI2006: design research abstract BIBAFull-Text 1115-1120
  Agata Michalska
This paper will outline the design methodology for a random pattern derivation based on phenomenology and choice of movement and its subsequent application to computer assisted weaving.
Evaluating e-commerce environments: approaches to cross-disciplinary investigation BIBAFull-Text 1121-1126
  Shailey Minocha; Marian Petre; Ekaterini Tzanidou; Geke van Dijk; Dave Roberts; Nick Gassman; Nicola Millard; Barry Day; David Travis
In our on-going e-commerce research programme, we are employing techniques from HCI, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and marketing and adapting them to investigate customer behaviour with e-commerce environments. Our aim is to investigate the influencing factors beyond the usability of the website that shape the customer's expectations and subsequent experience with e-commerce. In this paper, we propose an empirically-grounded model of customer's purchase and consumption behaviour (derived as a part of our research) that supports systematic choice of techniques for the customer-centred design and evaluation of e-commerce environments. Our aim is not to provide a handbook of techniques but to share experiences of applying complementary techniques for investigating different facets of customer behaviour with e-commerce. This paper is meant to serve as a resource for researchers and practitioners who are involved in research, design and evaluation of e-commerce environments.
Supporting children's rhythm learning using vibration devices BIBAFull-Text 1127-1132
  Sosuke Miura; Masanori Sugimoto
In this paper, a rhythm instruction tool for school children using vibration devices is discussed. The proposed system called T-RHYTHM is for supporting individual children in playing musical instruments or singing, in solo or ensemble situations. T-RHYTHM provides each child with rhythm patterns of musical pieces through tactile senses, and supports her so that she can recognize her own rhythm without being confused by other children's performances or singing voices. The rhythm of the music given to individual children is determined based on a performance by an accompanist and transmitted to their own vibration devices via a wireless communication. We have evaluated T-RHYTHM in a music class in a Japanese elementary school and gained initial feedback from children and their teacher.
Airhockey over a distance BIBAFull-Text 1133-1138
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Luke Cole; Shannon O'Brien; Wouter Walmink
In modern society, people increasingly lack social interaction, although beneficial to work and personal life. Airhockey Over a Distance addresses this issue by recreating the social experience facilitated by physical game play in a distributed environment. We networked two airhockey tables and augmented them with a videoconference. Concealed mechanics on each table allow for a physical puck to be shot back and forth between the two locations. Supporting the hitting of a fast-moving, tangible puck between the two players creates a compelling social game experience which was confirmed by about 30 players. Our preliminary findings suggest that our casual physical game supports social interactions and contributes to an increased connectedness between people who are geographically apart.
The traveling cafe: a communication encouraging system for partitioned offices BIBAFull-Text 1139-1144
  Toshihiko Nakano; Keita Kamewada; Jun Sugito; Yoshiyuki Nagaoka; Kanayo Ogura; Kazushi Nishimoto
In this paper we illustrate the "Traveling Cafe" that provides opportunities for informal communication by encouraging people to serve coffee to each other. This system consists of "sensor-equipped coasters," "a coffee pot with a supersonic wave oscillator," and "an LCD monitor and a light to display user situations." For two weeks we conducted pilot experiments to evaluate the system's effects and found that it triggered communication even in partitioned offices.
Disruption of meetings by laptop use: is there a 10-second solution? BIBAFull-Text 1145-1150
  William Newman; Ethan L. Smith
We have conducted a study of meetings to gain an understanding of the sources of disruption when laptops are present. We videotaped five workplace meetings in which over 600 information tasks were performed by participants using paper or laptops. We saw evidence that people preferred task durations not to exceed approximately 10 seconds. Tasks performed by laptop users were more likely to exceed this limit, and this could contribute to disruptions. We suggest that laptop software may need to assist users in keeping tasks within 10 seconds' duration.
Whisper: analysis and design for a community event service BIBAFull-Text 1151-1156
  Jennifer Ng; Jonathan Terleski; Jason Hong
We present an analysis of what we call the community event space, looking at how social events are planned and organized. Based on a series of interviews, field studies, and a focus group, we introduce a framework outlining six phases of events: proposition, polling, participation, parting, perpetuation, and persuasion. We also present the design of Whisper, a web-based event service that addresses the planning and organizational challenges identified in this framework. This analysis and design serves as a blueprint for existing and future community event services.
Cues in the environment: a design principle for ambient intelligence BIBAFull-Text 1157-1162
  Christoph Obermair; Bernd Ploderer; Wolfgang Reitberger; Manfred Tscheligi
The aim of this paper is to propose design principles for ambient intelligence (AmI) environments. The question we are investigating is how these environments can be designed to support a group to be able to carry out common goal-oriented activities. The approach we are taking in answering this question is informed by the concept of collective intelligence (CI). We are applying the concept of CI to AmI as we have found it works well in biological and social systems. Examples from nature demonstrate the power of CI stimulated by implicit cues in the environment. We use these examples to derive design principles for AmI environments. By applying these design principles to a concrete scenario, we are able to propose ways to help decrease environmental pollution within urban areas.
ChaTEL: a voice communication system for facilitating multithreaded conversation BIBAFull-Text 1163-1168
  Kanayo Ogura; Kazushi Nishimoto
In this paper we describe a novel voice communication system named "ChaTEL" that achieves multithreaded voice communication. We confirmed that ChaTEL facilitates multithreaded conversations based on user studies.
Aggregate pointers to support large group collaboration using telepointers BIBAFull-Text 1169-1174
  Noritaka Osawa
Aggregate pointers, a new type of telepointer, can be used to support the collaboration of many people in interactive environments. An aggregate pointer can make it easy for people to understand the overall direction of others' intentions or interests, and help achieve a group decision or build consensus. Moreover, aggregation can make distracting behavior or noise less disruptive. Aggregate pointers prevent such problems from disturbing collaborative work. We conducted experiments to show that people are not good at accurately locating the focus that is reflected by multiple telepointers, and that aggregate pointers help people share more accurate aggregation and complement individual telepointers.
Quantifying interpersonal influence in face-to-face conversations based on visual attention patterns BIBAFull-Text 1175-1180
  Kazuhiro Otsuka; Junji Yamato; Yoshinao Takemae; Hiroshi Murase
A novel measure for automatically quantifying the amount of interpersonal influence present in face-to-face conversations is proposed based on the visual-attention patterns of the participants as inferred from video sequences. First, we focus on the gaze of the participants as an indicator of addressing / listening behavior and build a probabilistic conversation model for inferring the gaze directions and conversation structures like monologue and dialogue, from observed utterances and head directions measured with image-based head trackers. Next, based on the estimates, the amount of influence is defined based on the amount of attention paid to speakers in monologues and to persons with whom the participants interact with during the dialogues. Experiments confirm that the proposed measures reveal some aspects of interpersonal influence in conversations.
A study of reviews and ratings on the internet BIBAFull-Text 1181-1186
  Muzaffer Ozakca; Youn-Kyung Lim
Many online sites use rating and review systems to attract new users by providing diverse opinions from their users. However, there is not much research on how to design these types of systems better. In this research, we explore how people perceive reviews and ratings on the Internet in order to inform the design of rating and review systems. In this ongoing project, we have conducted preliminary user studies to uncover the ways people use and perceive reviews and ratings on the Internet. Our initial findings show some interesting insights about different personal interpretation and utilization of ratings and reviews in different contexts. We conclude by listing recommendations for designers of online rating and review systems.
Privacy and self-disclosure online BIBAFull-Text 1187-1192
  Carina Paine; Adam N. Joinson; Tom Buchanan; Ulf-Dietrich Reips
In this paper we present early results from a study which provides a detailed examination of the interaction between people's willingness to disclose personal information online and their privacy concerns and behaviors. An online survey was administered to participants in two parts using an Internet based surveying system. Part 1 of the survey measured participants' privacy concerns and behaviors. Part 2 measured participants' willingness to provide information using behavioral and dispositional measures of self-disclosure. Structural equation modeling identified two different types of privacy processes contributing to disclosure: a state process (trust and perceived privacy) and a trait process (privacy attitudes and behaviors), which were found to act independently on self disclosure. The results provide a valuable insight into people's privacy concerns and the disclosure of personal information to web sites.
Designing an immersive tour experience system for cultural tour sites BIBAFull-Text 1193-1198
  Doyun Park; Tek-Jin Nam; Chung-Kon Shi
Along with the change in tour paradigm, tourists are increasingly seeking for new and meaningful experiences. However, most cultural tour sites today still maintain a conventional form of tour that is static and information centered. To reflect the new needs of tourists, the concept of immersive tour experience has been investigated. Immersive tour experience refers to a type of tour where the tourist lively experiences the historical scenes that occurred at the tour site, as if the tourist had traveled to the past. A system named "Immersive Tour Post" was designed to realize this concept. This system is in a post form and uses of audio and video Augmented Reality to provide the immersive experience. Through an experiment conducted at an actual tour site, this application proved to increase the interest level as well as facilitate understanding of the content. Through this research, the potential of immersive tour experience in improving the quality of tour for cultural tour sites was verified. Moreover, a new user experience was developed by implementing HCI technology in a new context. With further development, the proposed system is expected to become a useful application that attracts tourists and create greater value for our cultural assets.
Sharable digital TV: relating ethnography to design through un-useless product suggestions BIBAFull-Text 1199-1204
  Jisoo Park; Mark Blythe; Andrew Monk; David Grayson
The results presented here are part of an in depth study of current digital TV usage carried out for a manufacturer of domestic appliances. A systematic review of the literature revealed a set of issues that informed the design of an ethnographic study of five households of differing type. The concerns identified were then further explored through sketch-based conceptual designs, four of which are reported here. They are: (i) putting the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) onto a mobile phone to facilitate personalisation and to allow one person to use it while another is watching a programme; (ii) family voting to make explicit certain power relationships in the family and perhaps democratise them; (iii) using the TV for other purposes when not watching programs (e.g., as a message board or electronic picture frame) to avoid the ugliness of a blank TV screen, and (iv) multi-channel hopping to facilitate idly flicking through the channels. These suggestions are not fully worked designs but provocative concepts to relate the concerns identified to design. In this sense they are "un-useless" and draw on the playful and provocative tradition of chindogu.
An interactive speech interface for summarizing agile project planning meetings BIBAFull-Text 1205-1210
  Shelly Park; Jorg Denzinger; Frank Maurer; Ehud Sharlin
In this paper we present an autonomous meeting summarizer that transcribes an agile planning meeting and produces a textual summary of the discussion. We explore the issues involved in designing a speech-based interactive system that communicates with humans in a natural language. The inherent nature of ambiguity in conversational speech is overcome by suggesting a list of possible phrases to listen for. The system interacts with users in an interview-style dialogue for data collections. This is possible because we used the highly constrained structure and terminologies of agile planning meetings to make the approach successful.
Glume: exploring materiality in a soft augmented modular modeling system BIBAFull-Text 1211-1216
  Amanda Parkes; Vincent LeClerc; Hiroshi Ishii
We introduce Glume, a modular scalable building system with the physical immediacy of a soft and malleable material. The Glume system consists of soft and translucent augmented modules, which communicate capacitively to their neighbors to determine a network topology and are responsive to human touch. Glume explores a unique area of augmented building materials by combining a discrete internal structure with a soft and organic material quality to relax the rigidity of structure and form in previous tangible building block approaches. We envision Glume as a tool for constructing and manipulating models, visualizations and simulations of organically based three dimensional data sets.
Gameplay issues in the design of spatial 3D gestures for video games BIBAFull-Text 1217-1222
  John Payne; Paul Keir; Jocelyn Elgoyhen; Mairghread McLundie; Martin Naef; Martyn Horner; Paul Anderson
We describe preliminary tests that form the first phase of research into issues involved with the design of spatial 3D gestures for video games. Early research on 3D gesture and spatial interaction was largely the domain of Virtual Reality (VR) [1]. More recent work looks at 3D gestures for mobile devices [2] and pervasive computing [3]. We are investigating issues affecting usability and fun [4] in the context of 3D gestures and spatial movement in video games where emotion, immediacy and immersion are more important than breadth of functionality and user task efficiency. These tests use our 3motion system, a wireless inertial motion tracking device and gesture SDK. This enables a range of gesture types from tight, precise movements to whole arm gestures, and from direct mapping of movement to recognition of 3D symbolic gestures. Four game scenarios using different spatial gesture characteristics were used to identify gameplay issues that have an impact on the design of 3D interaction.
Presentation discovery: building a better icon BIBAFull-Text 1223-1228
  Philip R. O. Payne; Justin Starren
Icons have become an inseparable part of Graphical User Interfaces. There is well-developed literature describing novel applications of icons and methods for evaluating existing icons. However, there has been comparatively little research into the processes necessary to design effective new icons. This paper will introduce a novel design methodology for developing graphical interface components, including icons, called Presentation Discovery. The method is grounded in Semiotics and Personal Construct Theory, and adapts Knowledge Acquisition approaches to the graphical domain. A pilot study applying Presentation Discovery in a biomedical domain is presented.
Universal design for mobile phones: a case study BIBAFull-Text 1229-1234
  Ornella Plos; Stephanie Buisine
In this paper we describe a case study of Universal Design applied to mobile phone physical devices. Using a user-centered design process, we tried to integrate visually-impaired, hearing-impaired and elderly peoples' needs to design mock-ups adapted in terms of usability and design style.
Collaborative multimedia learning environments BIBAFull-Text 1235-1240
  Scott Pobiner
I use the term "collaborative", to identify a way that enables conversation to occur in, about, and around the digital medium, therefore making the "digital artifacts" contributed by all individuals a key element of a conversation as opposed to consecutive, linear presentations used by most faculty at the Design School.
   Installations of collaborative multimedia in classrooms at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design show an enhancement of the learning process via shared access to media resources and enhanced spatial conditions within which these resources are engaged. Through observation and controlled experiments I am investigating how the use of shared, collaborative interfaces for interaction with multiple displays in a co-local environment enhances the learning process. The multiple spatial configurations and formats of learning mandate that with more effective interfaces and spaces for sharing digital media with fellow participants, the classroom can be used much more effectively and thus, learning and interaction with multimedia can be improved.
D20: interaction with multifaceted display devices BIBAFull-Text 1241-1246
  Ivan Poupyrev; Henry Newton-Dunn; Olivier Bau
In this paper we investigate the principles for designing multifaceted displays and their potential interfaces. D20 is a prototype of a handheld digital device which has an icosahedron shape. Each face of the device is a triangular display, the entire surface of the device forms one continuous multisided display. The user interacts with the device by manipulating it. The principles that we develop can be applied to other non-rectilinear multifaceted displays.
Voronoi diagrams, vectors and the visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 1247-1252
  Christopher Power; Dawn Gill; Mark Daley
We describe an algorithm for the detection of targets which will be encountered by a visually impaired user while exploring a two dimensional diagram. A user test examining the success of this algorithm during a targeted search task is described. We discuss the implications of this work on interface design for the visually impaired, including the planned inclusion of this algorithm in a multi-modal document browser.
PreSenseII: bi-directional touch and pressure sensing interactions with tactile feedback BIBAFull-Text 1253-1258
  Jun Rekimoto; Carsten Schwesig
This paper introduces a new input device called "PreSenseII" that recognizes position, touch and pressure of a user's finger. This input device acts as a normal touchpad, but also senses pressure for additional control. Tactile feedback is provided to indicate the state of the user interface to the user. By sensing the finger contact area, pressure can be treated in two ways. This combination enables various user interactions, including multiple hardware button emulation, map scrolling with continuous scale change, and list scrolling with pressure-based speed control.
Unfolding the user experience in new scenarios of pervasive interactive TV BIBAFull-Text 1259-1264
  Anxo Cereijo Roibas; Stephen Johnson
This paper presents a research carried out at the BT IT Mobility Research Centre starting in August 2004 with the aim of uncovering the user experience in future scenarios of mobile and pervasive iTV, paying special attention to the new contextual usage of this media within the entertainment, work and government environments. It uses innovative ethno-methodologies, collaborative design approaches and advanced evaluation techniques in order to unveil feasible and relevant future communications scenarios for mobile and pervasive iTV, that is, the use of handhelds as interfaces to extend and enhance the TV experience outside the home boundaries.
Tableau machine: an alien presence in the home BIBAFull-Text 1265-1270
  Mario Romero; Zachary Pousman; Michael Mateas
We present Tableau Machine, a non-human social actor for the home. The machine senses, interprets and reports abstract qualities of human activity through the language of visual art. The goal of the machine is to serve as a strange mirror of everyday life, open unusual viewpoints and generate engaging and long lasting conversations and reflections. We introduce new models for sensing, interpreting, and reporting human activity and we describe results of our formative evaluation which suggest reflection and social engagement among participants.
Unified associative information storage and retrieval BIBAFull-Text 1271-1276
  Brandon Rothrock; Brad A. Myers; Sophie H. Wang
We present a novel system for performing information management in a unified manner. Users currently must manage large amounts of data which may be fragmented across file formats and applications. Our system, called Iolite, attempts to consolidate this information by automatically discovering associations within the data. Iolite uses these associations to provide a unified interface to navigate and operate on this information space.
Put a grammar here: bi-directional parsing in multimodal interaction BIBAFull-Text 1277-1282
  Frank Rudzicz
Despite over two decades of research, no dominant paradigm has yet emerged to generically represent language in multimodal interaction (MMI). A commonality amongst many divergent approaches, however, is an apparent reluctance to treat multimodal language as a unique linguistic phenomenon, which results in computational models retrofitted to older approaches, and integration engines tied to their application. In this paper we present the GS Algorithm -- a new grammar-based unification parser for MMI, and discuss its implications and ongoing analysis.
Supporting telepresence by visual and physical cues in distributed 3D collaborative design environments BIBAFull-Text 1283-1288
  Kyung Sakong; Tek-jin Nam
We present new interaction techniques for supporting telepresence in distributed 3D collaborative design environments. Synchronized turntables enhance physicality in manipulation of virtual 3D objects and provide physical cues for awareness of others. Virtual shadows, visualization of hand movements of remote partners, imply not only location and activities of others but also indicate pointing and gestures toward 3D objects. Aspects of Augmented Reality are employed to maximize spatiality in the 3D workspace. Preliminary studies show that users found the system useful with regard to intuitive manipulation and heightening telepresence by visual and physical cues conveyed via the turntables and shadows. This led to rapid and efficient remote collaboration.
RFID assistance system for faster book search in public libraries BIBAFull-Text 1289-1294
  Lalatendu Satpathy; Anijo Punnen Mathew
This paper presents a comprehensive overview and study of a proposed RFID Assistance System that uses existing technology and devices to enable faster book search, information overlay, and check out in a public library. The proposed system uses an interactive graphic interface contrary to the conventional alpha numeric character systems used in the Dewey Decimal or the Library of Congress system currently used in public libraries.
   For the user study, we set up an analog version of the proposed system to compute accessibility as well as response times. The survey also lists responses to the usability of such a system for library search and check out.
Utilizing mobile phones as ambient information displays BIBAFull-Text 1295-1300
  Albrecht Schmidt; Jonna Hakkila; Richard Atterer; Enrico Rukzio; Paul Holleis
Mobile phones have become a ubiquitous technology and for many people a daily companion, primarily used for communication and information access. The fact that the phone is accompanying the user makes it an interesting platform for building applications that utilize the phone as an ambient display. We explore the domain of ambient displays and persuasive technology with regard to communication. In this paper we first analyze the technical capabilities of mobile phones that can support the collection of information. Then we present designs of how the screen saver on a phone can raise users' awareness of their personal communication behavior.
Usability of interaction patterns BIBAFull-Text 1301-1306
  Katarina Segerstahl; Timo Jokela
Interaction patterns are becoming an important method for bridging the gap between analysis and design in user-centered design. Recent studies, however, have indicated problems in their usability. Our overall research goal is to improve the usability of interaction patterns. In the first part of the research -- discussed in this paper -- we have empirically evaluated the usability of interaction patterns and outline proposals for improvements.
The whereabouts clock: early testing of a situated awareness device BIBAFull-Text 1307-1312
  Abigail Sellen; Rachel Eardley; Shahram Izadi; Richard Harper
We describe the initial deployment of a prototype device to support awareness of people's location and activities in an office environment. This is a first step toward the design and testing of a related device for the home. Findings from this workplace trial show its value in helping people have a virtual presence, in locating people, and in fostering a sense of group belonging. However, the results also suggest how the design could be made more flexible and expressive which we will explore in the upcoming home trial.
SMMAPS: scenario-based multimedia manual authoring and presentation system and its application to a disaster evacuation manual for special needs BIBAFull-Text 1313-1318
  Hideaki Shimada; Muneo Kitajima
When a disaster strikes, people must make important survival decisions. They must clearly understand the situation and decide what to do immediately. A well-designed disaster preparedness manual would facilitate making the best choices. This paper begins by specifying drawbacks with currently available manuals from the standpoint of people with disabilities or the elderly; these drawbacks include communication or physical accessibility problems and content accessibility or the person's ability to comprehend the situation. We propose a system for producing a disaster evacuation manual equipped with accessible, versatile materials to address various needs and a variety of disastrous situations. We describe its prototype implementation using the preliminary results of a field test.
A history-centric approach for enhancing web browsing experiences BIBAFull-Text 1319-1324
  Yoshinari Shirai; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Kumiyo Nakakoji
Browsing Web pages, which plays an important part of our daily creative knowledge work, often includes purposefully revisiting pages we have browsed before. Many of the existing tools and approaches for revisitation clearly distinguish the use of history from Web browsing. The approach presented in this paper blurs the distinction between browsing the Web and visiting stored pages in a personal Web browsing history database. The HCB (History-Centric Browsing) system allows a user to browse a previously visited Web page stored in the history database in the same way as browsing a page on the Web. The system associates pages from the database to the currently displayed page through three types of relevancies: temporal sequence, URL/location-based proximity, and content similarity. The HCB-stat, HCB-vis, and HCB-tempo components use the associations to enrich the current page-viewing experience.
Mobile interaction using paperweight metaphor BIBAFull-Text 1325-1330
  Itiro Siio; Hitomi Tsujita
Conventional scrolling methods for small sized display in PDAs or mobile phones are difficult to use when frequent switching of scrolling and editing operations are required, for example, browsing and operating large sized WWW pages.
   In this paper, we have proposed a new user-interface method to provide seamless switching of scrolling / zooming mode and editing mode, based on a "Paperweight Metaphor". A sheet of paper that has been placed on a slippery table is difficult to draw on. Therefore, in order to write or draw something on the sheet of paper, a person must secure the paper with his/her palm to avoid the paper from moving. This will be a good metaphor to design switching operation of scroll and editing modes.
   We have made a prototype system by placing a touch sensor under a PDA screen where user's palm will be hit. We also have developed an application program to switch scrolling / editing mode by the sensor output and assessed our method.
Changes in online health usage over the last 5 years BIBAFull-Text 1331-1336
  Elizabeth Sillence; Pam Briggs; Peter Harris; Lesley Fishwick
This paper describes changes in the use of e-health services over a 5-year period. It compares findings from two large-scale questionnaire studies undertaken in 2000 and 2005. Key changes in usage and trust practices are noted with patients "acting as scientists" using web sites to test out theories regarding their health. Future analyses regarding trust and identity markers are discussed.
PaperSpace: a system for managing digital and paper documents BIBAFull-Text 1343-1348
  Jeff Smith; Jeremy Long; Tanya Lung; Mohd M. Anwar; Sriram Subramanian
Here we present PaperSpace a computer vision based document management system that allows users to combine paper and digital documents. Using PaperSpace users can locate paper copies of printed digital documents, retrieve digital versions of paper documents and fluidly move between digital and paper documents. The system works by tracking 2D identity and operation codes printed in the margins of each page of the document. Users can activate commands by selecting the command from the command bar at the bottom of each document. Through an informal evaluation we found that all users felt our system would be valuable in helping them organize their cluttered desk and manage digital and paper documents better.
Multimodal spatial reference in mediated environments: users' preferences and the pragmatics of pointing and talking BIBAFull-Text 1349-1354
  Anna Spagnolli; Luciano Gamberini
This paper describes the current results and future developments of a project on multimodal spatial reference in mediated environments. The database consists of video-recorded sessions, with 120 participants in three experimental designs, contrasting types of pointing (No Pointing, Natural Pointing, Mediated Pointing), types of co-presence (Mediated versus Natural) and type of task (Locative versus Descriptive). The project investigates which verbal and non-verbal resources participants prefer to use in the different conditions, and which integration strategies they adopt. The goal, relevant to people interested in communication with/through technologies, or in multimodal communication in general, is to clarify the pragmatic meaning of the different resources. So far, the analysis of the data has focused on the verbal resources; further analysis will focus on the pointing strategies, and their integration with verbal spatial reference.
Minnesang: speak medieval German BIBAFull-Text 1355-1360
  Daniel Spelmezan; Jan Borchers
We present a prototype of the Minnesang exhibit that translates visitors' utterances into medieval German in their own voice. This lets visitors experience how they would have spoken in medieval times. The project illustrates new variants of voice conversion and their use in human-computer interaction.
Transition relevance place: a proposal for adaptive user interface in natural language dialog management systems BIBAFull-Text 1361-1366
  Osamuyimen Stewart; Juan M. Huerta
In this paper, we describe how users transfer language behavior commonly associated with directed dialog to natural language systems: they respond to the initial prompt with a single word (holophrase) instead of the naturally occurring unit of conversation (a sentence). We evaluate two solutions to this problem and offer a conversational turn-taking method together with a discourse clause tutorial as the effective way to get repeat callers to adapt to the natural language dialog style.
Waypointing and social tagging to support program navigation BIBAFull-Text 1367-1372
  Margaret-Anne Storey; Li-Te Cheng; Ian Bull; Peter Rigby
As the "software space" of source code, documentation, models, and other programming artifacts continue to grow in size and complexity, programmers face the challenge of navigating this space, as well as documenting and sharing their journeys for other developers and future successors. Current navigational structures are either closely tied to the semantics of the software or are constructed in a constrained top-down fashion to match the architecture or requirements of the system. In this paper, we introduce the notion of combining waypoints from geographical positioning and social tagging from shared bookmark systems to allow programmers to create shared, tagged points in software space. We report preliminary progress on our prototype (tagSEA), and discuss our future plans.
Gender differences in trust perception when using IM and video BIBAFull-Text 1373-1378
  Xiaoning Sun; Qiping Zhang; Susan Wiedenbeck; Thippaya Chintakovid
The effect of gender information on trust building in virtual settings is an important yet unexplored area in HCI. In this paper we empirically investigate gender differences in trust perception in two media, video and Instant Messaging (IM), while performing negotiation and brainstorming tasks. Participants who did not previously know each other were recruited to form homogeneous pairs, male-male and female-female. Each pair carried out a task via computer-mediated communication using either video or IM. Our preliminary results uncover a significant gender difference in trust perception, with female pairs perceiving higher levels of trust than male pairs when gender information about the partner is explicitly provided before using the IM channel. The results also show that both female and male pairs perceive higher levels of trust in the brainstorming task than in the negotiation task.
Factors defining face-to-face interruptions in the office environment BIBAFull-Text 1379-1384
  Agnieszka Matysiak Szostek; Panos Markopoulos
This paper presents an on-going investigation on interruptions in the office caused by face-to-face interactions between knowledge workers. The study aims to identify opportunities for interactive solutions that will support both, the interrupters and the interrupted. The study involves contextual interviews and observations of how administrative assistants manage interruptions.
nReader: reading news quickly, deeply and vividly BIBAFull-Text 1385-1390
  Taifeng Wang; Nenghai Yu; Zhiwei Li; Mingjing Li
In this paper we present our design of a novel system, named nReader, to help people read online news. According to researches on news recommendation and a newly deployed survey on user's feeling and requirement about current news reading style, we build our system by adding extra feature to the framework of the popular RSS (Rich Site Summary) system.
   We designed corresponding views in our reading tools to support browsing mode and intensively reading mode. After a preliminary user testing, the feedback is encouraging. A wider and more delicate user study will be performed to boost our system and interface to give user a more convenient and comfortable online news reading experience.
Trust as an underlying factor of system administrator interface choice BIBAFull-Text 1391-1396
  Leila Takayama; Eser Kandogan
System administrators are the unsung heroes of the information age, working behind the scenes to configure, maintain, and troubleshoot the computer infrastructure that underlies much of modern life. While Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are being offered as system administration tools, they mostly continue to use Command-Line Interfaces (CLIs). Based on an extensive survey of system administrators, we provide insights regarding this preference, analyze why many of these power users perceive CLIs as more effective than GUIs, and discuss findings as supported by observations from our parallel field studies. Our analysis indicates that cognition-based trust and monitoring play major roles in the interface preference for CLIs vs. GUIs. We also propose next steps for further exploration of trust in human-computer interfaces.
Estimating human interruptibility in the home for remote communication BIBAFull-Text 1397-1402
  Yoshinao Takemae; Takehiko Ohno; Ikuo Yoda; Shinji Ozawa
This paper presents a method for automatically estimating human interruptibility in home environments. To make online remote communication smoother, determining if it is appropriate to interrupt the remote partner is critical. As a first step in achieving this goal, several audio-visual features, extracted from data streams provided by a camera and a microphone, are correlated to human interruptibility. Based on these features, the level of interruptibility is estimated using the trained Support Vector Regression (SVR) technique. Finally, we discuss the potential of our method based on the results of several experiments.
New findings on pupil response in gazing to flashed divided displays BIBAFull-Text 1403-1408
  Shun'ichi Tano; Masaru Ogawa; Mitsuru Iwata; Tomonori Hashiyama
We show that the pupil responds to the small area being gazed when it is flashed. The experiments revealed that the pupil reacts to the brightness of the small area being gazed at. Surprisingly, the resolution is 1.6 degrees at the viewing angle. This is equivalent to the spatial resolution of a 21 x 16 mm area at a distance of 60 cm. Finally, the feasibility of the new findings is demonstrated by applying it to character input.
Protecting private data in public BIBAFull-Text 1409-1414
  Peter Tarasewich; Jun Gong; Richard Conlan
Current technologies allow users to access information in virtually any public setting. This creates situations where sensitive information, both organizational and personal in nature, can be seen and captured by nearby people and technology. Therefore, methods are necessary to ensure the privacy and security of information displayed in public spaces. The authors have developed Web browser privacy blinders, which hide sensitive information from view while leaving other information unobscured. Results of two pilot studies supported the viability and potential usefulness of the privacy blinder concept, and have set the stage for continued development of the technique through large-scale controlled studies and field tests.
How people recall search result lists BIBAFull-Text 1415-1420
  Jaime Teevan
People commonly interact with lists of information -- incoming emails are listed in a person's Inbox, search engines return lists of results, news stories appear as lists on newspaper Web sites, and people navigate file systems by listing directory contents. While the changes that occur to a list can be interesting -- a new search result is interesting to the person searching for new information -- changes are often secondary to the primary goal of using information. New search results are inconsequential when a person wants to summarize a set of results or return to a previously viewed Web page. This paper presents a study of which aspects of a list are memorable and thus are likely to be noticed when they change, and which are not memorable and thus are unlikely to be missed if changed. The study shows that what people remember about a list item is a function of their interaction with the item and the item's location in the list.
Comparisons of keystroke-level model predictions to observed data BIBAFull-Text 1421-1426
  Leonghwee Teo; Bonnie E. John
Comparison of model prediction against observed data is an investigative step used in cognitive modeling research for human-computer interaction. In this paper we describe comparisons between Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) predictions and user behavior by total duration, aggregated events and Cohen's Kappa. Our preliminary investigations support the validity of KLM mental preparation duration and placement rules in modeling interaction with handheld devices but suggest changing a previously-published parameter.
Does habituation affect fingerprint quality? BIBAFull-Text 1427-1432
  Mary Theofanos; Ross Micheals; Jean Scholtz; Emile Morse; Peter May
Interest in the environmental factors that affect biometric image quality is increasing as biometric technologies are currently being implemented in various business applications. This study aims to determine, through repeated trials, the effects of various external factors on the image quality and usability of prints collected by an electronic reader. These factors include age and gender but also the absence or presence of immediate feedback. A key factor in biometric systems that will be used daily or routinely is habituation. The user's behavior could potentially change as a result of acclimatization; one's input might increase in quality as one learns how to use the system better, or decrease in quality since comfort with the system could translate into carelessness.
Beyond just the facts: transforming the museum learning experience BIBAFull-Text 1433-1438
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli; Kirsten Boehner; Geri Gay; Helene Hembrooke
We present Museum Detective, a handheld system designed for use by school children to encourage guided learning through paired discovery of one object in an art museum. Initial analysis showed that children were able to use the devices cooperatively and exhibited longer-term retention of information about the artifacts in the gallery. We propose that the design of the Museum Detective interface can be refined to further encourage students to actively transform their museum learning experience.
Shaping user input in speech graffiti: a first pass BIBAFull-Text 1439-1444
  Stefanie Tomko; Roni Rosenfeld
Speech Graffiti is a standardized interaction protocol for spoken dialog systems designed to address some common difficulties with ASR. We have proposed a strategy of shaping to help users adapt their interaction to match what the system understands best, thereby reducing the chance for misunderstandings and improving interaction efficiency. In this paper we report on an evaluation of our initial implementation of shaping in Speech Graffiti, noting that our baseline strategy was not as powerful as expected, and discussing proposed changes to improve its effectiveness.
The EcoRaft project: a multi-device interactive graphical exhibit for learning about restoration ecology BIBAFull-Text 1445-1450
  Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Eric Baumer; Sara Goetz; Lynn Carpenter; Riley Pratt; Kristin Young; Calen May-Tobin
The EcoRaft Project, an interactive installation designed to help children learn about restoration ecology, allows participants to engage physically with animated agents via a natural and intuitive interface. This physical engagement occurs when the agents transfer seamlessly from stationary computers to mobile devices, on which the agents are realized as quasi-physical manifestations. Utilizing tablet PCs to act simultaneously as objects in the physical world and as mobile virtual spaces, the system incorporates embodied mobile agents that increase levels of engagement. The project has been publicly shown at several venues, where over 2000 participants interacted with the system. This paper presents initial evaluation results based on interviews with participants indicating that the embodied, physical interaction in this installation leads to participant engagement and collaboration, and enhanced educational effectiveness.
Usable browsers for ontological knowledge acquisition BIBAFull-Text 1451-1456
  Alicia Tribble; Carolyn Rose
In this paper we compare the usability of several presentation formats for ontological knowledge of events. The goal is to support further work in knowledge acquisition from informants who are not necessarily experienced with knowledge representations. This work investigates the question: How can we present detailed ontological information to such informants, in a format that is easy to understand, modify, and augment? We compare three formats: two commonly-used diagram styles and one lisp-like list of knowledge axioms. Ongoing work on this topic will expand the investigation into a study of the role of natural language in knowledge acquisition.
Multi-channel consumer behavior: online and offline travel preparations BIBAFull-Text 1457-1462
  Geke van Dijk; Shailey Minocha; Angus Laing
Elaborating on the first stage in the User-Centered Design (UCD) process, understanding the user, this study questions whether it is sufficient to look at the use of interactive systems in isolation. Starting from the assumption that consumers often use the Internet in combination with other channels (telephone, high street, mail order), this paper discusses a study on how consumers move between online and offline channels during the preparations for leisure travel. The theoretical framework was informed by literature from the fields of HCI, marketing and social sciences. The results of the first stage of this work-in-progress indicate that multi-channel use is a day-to-day reality for many consumers.
Interview viz: visualization-assisted photo elicitation BIBAFull-Text 1463-1468
  Nancy A. Van House
This paper describes a novel variation on an established social science research method, photo elicitation. We developed two visualizations of large numbers of cameraphone images, by time and sharing partner. The result was much richer and more detailed interviews than would have been possible otherwise. This method may be appropriate for other user studies where photo diaries are useful, and can be implemented using available photo organizing applications.
Introducing human-centered research to game design: designing game concepts for and with senior citizens BIBAFull-Text 1469-1474
  Veronika A. Vanden Abeele; Veerle Van Rompaey
This paper introduces a human-centered methodology for innovating gameplay, based on ethnographic principles and participatory design. This methodology was applied in a project for designing game concepts for and with senior citizens. The research started off by observing and probing senior citizens in their 'natural habitat', researching what positive experiences occur in their daily life. These observed passions then became the input for brainstorm sessions. Seniors and researchers generated game-ideas and, consequently, co-designed the selected ideas into game concepts.
   The results of this methodology are inspiring game concepts, directly grafted on the passions and desires of the senior. But more important than the actual game concepts, we conceived a model of passions in elderly life. This model provides game designers with an understanding of the ingredients that are fundamental to 'meaningful play' in elderly life.
A magic box for understanding intergenerational play BIBAFull-Text 1475-1480
  Frank Vetere; Hilary Davis; Martin R. Gibbs; Peter Francis; Steve Howard
This paper explores the nature of intergenerational play and opportunities for technologies to mediate playful activities. We report on a cultural probe study of four extended families and introduce the Magic Box as a new probe for understanding playful engagement at a distance.
My MDE: configuring virtual workspaces in multi-display environments BIBAFull-Text 1481-1486
  Vicki Ha; Jim Wallace; Ryder Ziola; Kori Inkpen
A low fidelity study was conducted to investigate how users envision configuring their virtual workspace in a multiple display environment (MDE). The results of a low-fidelity prototyping study revealed two primary virtual workspace organisation patterns: Environment-centric and User-centric workspaces. These depict different ways in which users conceived they would configure multiple displays into a single cohesive virtual workspace. The paper then discusses future design implications, specifically the need for the support of multiple user preferences in collaborative MDEs.
Swordfish: user tailored workspaces in multi-display environments BIBAFull-Text 1487-1492
  Vicki Ha; Kori Inkpen; Jim Wallace; Ryder Ziola
This paper presents a novel interaction metaphor for Multiple Display Environments (MDEs) called lightweight personal bindings. This approach enables users to easily bind edges from one display to another and move seamlessly between displays. The goal of this work is to support collocated collaboration in a dynamic multi-display environment while accommodating users' personal preferences. With lightweight personal bindings, each user can choose their own display connections and create a personalized MDE. This approach also helps manage changes in the environment as devices enter, move, or leave.
End-user place annotation on mobile devices: a comparative study BIBAFull-Text 1493-1498
  Jingtao Wang; John Canny
Advances in Location-Based Services (LBS) are opening opportunities for using the location of people, places, and things to augment or streamline interaction. While computers work with physical locations like latitude and longitude directly, people usually think and speak in terms of places, which adds personal, environmental and social meaning to a location. To address this conceptual mismatch, location-aware applications must incorporate the notion of place to achieve their full potential. In this paper, we investigate four techniques for collecting end-user place annotations interactively using cell phones. The results from a usability study suggest that while all the four methods receive similar preference ratings in understandability, the "photo memo plus offline editing" method is the most favorite approach in ease of use. In addition, users indicated their desire to adopt more than one place annotation method in location-aware applications.
Public social private design (PSPD) BIBAFull-Text 1499-1504
  Andrew Warr; Eamonn O'Neill
We present a computer-based tool for the support of collaborative sketching activities in design: Public Social Private Design (PSPD). We provide an overview of the empirical studies that have informed the development of PSPD. We present the current version of PSPD, briefly report an initial evaluation and highlight future developments and studies.
Visual resonator: interface for interactive cocktail party phenomenon BIBAFull-Text 1505-1510
  Junji Watanabe; Hideaki Nii; Yuki Hashimoto; Masahiko Inami
We present Visual Resonator (VR), an auditory interface that promises to provide an interactive realization of the Cocktail Party Phenomenon. The wearer of this interface can hear a voice or auditory information only from the direction in which he/she is facing, and can send his/her voice only in the direction towards which he/she is facing. In addition, individuals who are within sight of each other can have a conversation, even if they are not close enough to talk directly, since an infrared signal is used to transmit the auditory information.
Audio tools for sports fan interaction BIBAFull-Text 1511-1516
  Matt Weldon
In this paper we describe the process of conceptualizing, testing and designing an audio-based online chat system for a virtual community of sports fans.
User experiences with sharing and access control BIBAFull-Text 1517-1522
  Tara Whalen; Diana Smetters; Elizabeth F. Churchill
The sharing of network-based information is a key component of recreational and professional interaction, from email attachments to P2P networks. However, people need to accommodate technical challenges in successful and secure content sharing. In particular, people have to manage access control policies that are both social and technical: deciding what to share and who to share it with, and how to technically effect their decisions. In this paper, we focus on the usability of access control: how people manage file sharing among various groups, organizations, and tasks. We present survey and interview data regarding content sharing and content protection, and discuss the implications for the design of networked collaboration tools.
The message center: enhancing elder communication BIBAFull-Text 1523-1528
  Jennifer Wiley; Ja-young Sung; Gregory Abowd
The Message Center is a home-based communication solution specifically designed for elders. Our research indicates that insufficient communication amongst elders causes several challenges in their daily activities such as loneliness, social isolation, and decreased appetite. The biggest cause of these challenges is that elders are increasingly removed from communication technology including email, text messaging, and mobile phones due to cognitive and physical difficulties. To overcome this problem, we incorporate a familiar pen and paper based interaction that allows instantaneous messaging via digital network. By designing the Message Center, we strive to create an easier venue for more active cross-generational communication between elders and younger family members who are often the caregivers. This paper demonstrates a User Sensitive Inclusive Design process from the generation of user needs to the evaluation of prototypes. A key theme of the Message Center project is to show how usable and emotional design derived from a user inclusive design process can encourage elders to adopt new communication technology.
Exploring wearable ambient displays for social awareness BIBAFull-Text 1529-1534
  Amanda Williams; Shelly Farnham; Scott Counts
Mobile phones represent not only a means of communication, but an increasingly omnipresent computing platform, enabling diverse modes of communication including ambient displays that are tied to bodies and social groups, rather than physical environments. As an example of such a display, we present Damage, a prototype device for mobile ambient awareness of a social group, and discuss design considerations for such devices.
HotWire: an apparatus for simulating primary tasks in wearable computing BIBAFull-Text 1535-1540
  Hendrik Witt; Mikael Drugge
In this paper we present a novel apparatus for simulating real world primary tasks typically found in wearable computing. Additionally, we report on a preliminary interruption study using the new apparatus in a laboratory experiment and compare its results with previous work to show its applicability for research in human-computer interaction for wearable computers.
Marmite: end-user programming for the web BIBAFull-Text 1541-1546
  Jason Hong; Jeffrey Wong
A tremendous amount of semi-structured data is available today on the web but is not necessarily in a form which is suitable for a user's tasks. For example, a website may show a listing of local events but a user wants to filter out those which are too far from him. To address this problem, we are developing a tool called Marmite that helps users extract data from web pages and create new applications using a dataflow architecture in a manner similar to Unix pipes. In this paper, we describe formative user studies, some evaluations of low-fidelity prototypes, and a set of design recommendations for this tool.
Visualization techniques for collaborative trajectory management BIBAFull-Text 1547-1552
  Yan Xiao; Melissa Strader; Peter Hu; Matin Wasei; Peter Wieringa
We developed a set of visualization techniques to portray multiple threads or trajectories of events and activities to provide awareness support. Visualizing the historical and projected temporal patterns of trajectories may provide support to collaborating workers and promote anticipatory behaviors.
Sheep and wolves: test bed for human-robot interaction BIBAFull-Text 1553-1558
  Min Xin; Ehud Sharlin
This paper presents a dynamic experimental test bed for exploring and evaluating human-robot interaction (HRI). Our system is designed around the concept of playing board games involving collaboration between humans and robots in a shared physical environment. Unlike the classic human-versus-machine situation often established in computer-based board games, our test bed takes advantage of the rich interaction opportunities that arise when humans and robots play collaboratively as a team. To facilitate interaction within a shared physical environment, our game is played on a large checkerboard where human and robotic players can be situated and play as game pieces within the game. With meaningful interaction occurring within our confined setup, various aspects of human-robot interaction can be easily explored and evaluated such as interface methods. We also present the results of a user evaluation which shows the sensitivity of our system in assessing robotic behaviours.
Gaze estimation model for eye drawing BIBAFull-Text 1559-1564
  Alvin W. Yeo; Po-Chan Chiu
This paper describes a model that can be employed in eye drawing software applications. Unlike most of the existing interfaces for eye typing, eye drawing focuses on small target selection and moves the cursor to a precise location. This is made possible by a proposed Gaze Estimation Model which interprets users' interest when they want to draw new objects in a particular position.
Emoticons convey emotions without cognition of faces: an fMRI study BIBAFull-Text 1565-1570
  Masahide Yuasa; Keiichi Saito; Naoki Mukawa
In this paper, we describe the brain activities that are associated with emoticons by using functional MRI (fMRI). In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. In particular, when we see some abstract faces, we feel that they are more vivid and lively than photorealistic faces. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. In this research, we conducted an experiment by using fMRI for the most abstract faces?emoticons. The experimental results show that emoticons convey emotions without the cognition of faces. This result is very important in order to promote an understanding of how abstract faces affect our behaviors.
A usability evaluation method for e-learning: focus on motivation to learn BIBAFull-Text 1571-1576
  Panagiotis Zaharias
In this paper the development of a questionnaire-based usability evaluation method for e-learning applications is described. The method aims at extending the current practice by proposing intrinsic motivation to learn as a new usability measure to evaluate e-learning designs. The method was developed according to an established methodology in HCI research and relied upon a conceptual framework that combines web and instructional design parameters and associates them with a main affective learning dimension, intrinsic motivation to learn. Two large empirical studies were conducted in order to test the method. Results provide significant evidence for reliability of the method. Further work focuses on validation process so that usability practitioners can use it with confidence when evaluating the design of e-learning applications.
Imlooking: image-based face retrieval in online dating profile search BIBAFull-Text 1577-1582
  Leizhong Zhang; Qiong Yang; Ta Bao; Dave Vronay; Xiaoou Tang
Textual search, the approach used by the majority of existing online dating sites, successfully covers a variety of attributes, such as age range and gender, but falls short when searching for facial features. Meanwhile, by using images as the query in a search, current image-based face-retrieval applications ease the challenge of textual description from users, but only focus on finding the same person. We believe there is a gap that needs to be filled in image-based face retrieval to further support the interpersonal search scenarios on Internet dating sites. Therefore, we are introducing a profile search prototype -- ImLooking -- using an augmented image-based face retrieval filter. First, we present a prototype design and offer technical support. In a user study, participants quickly felt at home in user interface and acclimatized to the way the prototype operates. In addition, they reported they enjoyed the interaction process.
The design of an interactive and dynamic representation of the firm BIBAFull-Text 1583-1588
  Lin Zhao; Julia Grant; Fred Collopy
Interpretation and audit of financial information is a significant undertaking that must rest on a fuller understanding of the firm and its operations. A pictorial representation of firm activity offers promise for supporting this requirement. After reviewing the literature related to visualizations, we describe the design of an interactive animated version of the cycle model. Business Animator assists users in developing an intuitive sense about the cycle model itself, while exploring and visualizing how firms at various stages of growth, sustenance, and decay are affected by specific operating decisions. Principles and findings from the accounting and information systems literatures were used to drive the design of the representation and software used to control it. This resulting system adds depth to traditional accounting representations by conveying information about the momentum of the firm's activities, the rate of change at which various activities are occurring. The animation facilitates identification of backlogs or breaks in operating processes, thus increasing understanding of the firm's financial health.
Exploratory inspection: a learning model for improving open source software usability BIBAFull-Text 1589-1594
  Luyin Zhao; Fadi P. Deek
We contend that overcoming the lack of usability expertise within the open source software community will further its competitiveness. Motivated by the unique user-driven model, we propose an exploratory learning method for assisting non-expert users in contributing to open source usability inspection. This method emphasizes providing usability knowledge during usability inspection and explores the impact of the "fading-out/phasing-in" method on the inspection effectiveness. The results of a pilot study we conducted through a Web-based inspection system are provided.
BodyBeats: whole-body, musical interfaces for children BIBAFull-Text 1595-1600
  Jamie Zigelbaum; Amon Millner; Bella Desai; Hiroshi Ishii
This work in progress presents the BodyBeats Suite -- three prototypes built to explore the interaction between children and computational musical instruments by using sound and music patterns. Our goals in developing the BodyBeats prototypes are (1) to help children engage their whole bodies while interacting with computers, (2) foster collaboration and pattern learning, and (3) provide a playful interaction for creating sound and music. We posit that electronic instruments for children that incorporate whole-body movement can provide active ways for children to play and learn with technology (while challenging a growing rate of childhood obesity). We describe how we implemented our current BodyBeats prototypes and discuss how users interact with them. We then highlight our plans for future work in the fields of whole-body interaction design, education, and music.
Whither or whether HCI: requirements analysis for multi-sited, multi-user cyberinfrastructures BIBAFull-Text 1601-1606
  Ann Zimmerman; Bonnie A. Nardi
Cyberinfrastructures bring together distributed resources to support scientific discoveries. Cyberinfrastructures currently under development are intended to enable the cooperative work of diverse users over long periods of time. We analyze the challenges that cyberinfrastructures present to existing methods of user requirements analysis.
Navigating persistent audio BIBAFull-Text 1607-1612
  Aaron Zinman; Judith Donath
This paper gives an overview of RadioActive, a large-scale asynchronous audio messaging platform for mobile devices. It supports persistent chat spaces that allow users to engage in discussion on demand. Our goal is to allow users to easily navigate and participate in large audio-based discussions with minimal cognitive overhead. RadioActive attempts to eliminate problems that habitually plague audio-only designs by using a novel combined visual and audio interface.
A new approach of a context-adaptive search agent for automotive environments BIBAFull-Text 1613-1618
  Markus Ablassmeier; Tony Poitschke; Gerhard Rigoll
The progress in electronic devices and therefore the growing amount of information in cars implicates the development of new strategies to cope with this amount of information for drivers. An intelligent search agent can help with navigation in deep hierarchies and in huge databases, and consequently has a high potential to increase the concentration on the primary driving task. The evaluation shows that a search agent concept reached a high user acceptance and the objective data proved observably acceleration in handling compared to deep hierarchical menu navigation.
Tamil market: a spoken dialog system for rural India BIBAFull-Text 1619-1624
  Madelaine Plauche; Madhu Prabaker
In this paper, we describe the design process, results, and observations from a pilot user study for Tamil Market, a speech-driven agricultural query system, conducted in community centers in rural India. The primary users were rural villagers of varying degrees of literacy from three districts of Tamil Nadu. Preliminary findings from a Wizard-of-Oz field study show that rural villagers are able to navigate through a dialog system using their voice, regardless of literacy level and previous experience with technology. Traditional user study techniques, however, favor literate users and are ill-suited to research in developing regions.
Jadoo: a paper user interface for users unfamiliar with computers BIBAFull-Text 1625-1630
  Aditya Chand; Anind K. Dey
In this paper we look at how socialization in a community can be used to help computer illiterate users start using computers and internet in a few minutes. We describe a prototype system, Jadoo, which can be used by computer literates to create and distribute paper user interfaces. This paper interface can then be used by computer illiterates to access online information. We tested Jadoo with our target audience, people living in rural India, and iterated the design to fit their needs.

Workshops

Privacy-enhanced personalization BIBAFull-Text 1631-1634
  Alfred Kobsa; Ramnath K. Chellappa; Sarah Spiekermann
Consumer surveys show that online users value personalized content [5]. At the same time, providing personalization on websites seems quite profitable for web vendors [2, 6-8]. This win-win situation is however marred by privacy concerns since personalizing people's interaction entails gathering considerable amounts of data about them. As numerous recent surveys have consistently demonstrated, computer users are very concerned about their privacy on the Internet. Moreover, the collection of personal data is also subject to legal regulations in many countries and states. Both user concerns and privacy regulations impact frequently-used personalization methods. This workshop will explore the potential of research on "privacy-enhanced personalization," which aims at reconciling the goals and methods of user modeling and personalization with privacy constraints imposed by individual preferences, conventions and laws.
Designing technology for people with cognitive impairments BIBAFull-Text 1635-1638
  Joanna McGrenere; Jim Sullivan; Ronald M. Baecker
Cognitive impairments, assistive technologies, design and evaluation methodologies, accessibility, inclusive design, universal usability.
The many faces of consistency in cross-platform design BIBAFull-Text 1639-1642
  Kai Richter; Jeffrey Nichols; Krzysztof Gajos; Ahmed Seffah
This workshop addresses the role consistency plays in the design of applications and services that span several different computing devices. We will discuss the benefits and limitations of consistency, and methods to support the design and evaluation of consistent multi-device applications.
Information visualization and interaction techniques for collaboration across multiple displays BIBAFull-Text 1643-1646
  Lucia Terrenghi; Richard May; Patrick Baudisch; Wendy MacKay; Fabio Paterno; Jim Thomas; Mark Billinghurst
This two day workshop looks at the challenges and issues associated with supporting collaborative analytical reasoning tasks over a range of displays and interaction environments. The focus is not only on visualization and interaction, but also on perception, cognition, and sense-making in collaborative settings.
Misuse and abuse of interactive technologies BIBAFull-Text 1647-1650
  Antonella De Angeli; Sheryl Brahnam; Peter Wallis; Alan Dix
The goal of this workshop is to address the darker side of HCI by examining how computers sometimes bring about the expression of negative emotions. In particular, we are interested in the phenomenon of human beings abusing computers. Such behavior can take many forms, ranging from the verbal abuse of conversational agents to physical attacks on the hardware. In some cases, particularly in the case of embodied conversational agents, there are questions about how the machine should respond to verbal assaults. This workshop is also interested in understanding the psychological underpinnings of negative behavior involving computers. In this regard, we are interested in exploring how HCI factors influence human-to-human abuse in computer-mediated communication. The overarching objective of this workshop is to sketch a research agenda on the topic of the misuse and abuse of interactive technologies that will lead to design solutions capable of protecting users and restraining disinhibited behaviors.
Entertainment media at home: looking at the social aspects BIBKFull-Text 1651-1654
  Louise Barkhuus; Jennifer Rode; Genevieve Bell
Keywords: domestic technologies, home media, ubiquitous computing
Workshop on SIGCHI public policy BIBAFull-Text 1655-1657
  Benjamin B. Bederson; Jonathan Lazar; Jeff Johnson; Harry Hochheiser; Clare-Marie Karat
In this paper we describe the goals of a one-day workshop to be held at CHI 2006 whose goal is to form an action plan for the SIGCHI U.S. Public Policy committee for the next year.
Investigating new user experience challenges in iTV: mobility & sociability BIBAFull-Text 1659-1662
  Anxo Cereijo Roibas; David Geerts; Elizabeth Furtado; Licia Calvi
This workshop is a discussion platform to unfold the design of future interactive television (iTV) scenarios characterized by pervasive communications in contexts of entertainment, work and government, with special attention to the social character of the usage of these media and the implications for interface design. In particular, it will focus on the use of handhelds and other advanced interfaces (e.g. Interactive Public Displays, spectacles) to extend the iTV social experience outside the home boundaries and to enhance users' communication in diverse contexts. The workshop will look at how innovative ethno-methodologies, collaborative design approaches and advanced evaluation techniques can lead to the creation and representation of feasible and relevant future communications scenarios that are characterized by a strong collaboration and interaction between users such as mobile iTV. Workshop organizers will also open up a debate around how to identify suitable applications for the above scenarios as well as related new forms of content and novel interaction models that support social use.
About face interface: creative engagement in the new media arts and HCI BIBAFull-Text 1663-1666
  Pamela Jennings; Elisa Giaccardi; Magda Wesolkowska
By promoting divergent thinking and creative visions, new media art practices present HCI research with a platform that emphasizes creative engagement as a locus for innovative design and evaluation methods. The workshop goal is to identify attributes of a conceptual framework that positions creative engagement as a hub for future transdisciplinary research and incorporates practices and theories from the new media arts, HCI, and computer science research.
Social visualization: exploring text, audio, and video interaction BIBAFull-Text 1667-1670
  Karrie G. Karahalios; Fernanda B. Viegas
In this workshop, we address the importance and uses of social visualizations. In particular, we explore visualizations of text, audio, and visual interaction data to uncover social connections and interaction patterns in online and physical spaces. We stress the need to move beyond typical visualizations to date and explore new design approaches for creating social visualizations. Finally, we address the need for comparing and evaluating the effectiveness of social visualizations and the approaches used to create them.
HCI and the face BIBAFull-Text 1671-1674
  Michael J. Lyons; Christoph Bartneck
The workshop aims at a general assessment of facial information processing in HCI. We will discuss why certain areas of face-based HCI, such as facial expression recognition and robotic facial display, have lagged others, such as eye gaze tracking, facial identity recognition, and conversational characters. Our goal is to collectively identify research strategies to bring the more slowly developing areas up to speed.
Usability research challenges for cyberinfrastructure and tools BIBAFull-Text 1675-1678
  Rob Procter; Christine Borgman; Geof Bowker; Marina Jirotka; Gary Olson; Cherri Pancake; Tom Rodden; m. c. schraefel
We summarize the motivation and aims for this workshop on usability research challenges for cyberinfrastructure and tools, and outline workshop preparations and program.
Reality testing: HCI challenges in non-traditional environments BIBAFull-Text 1679-1682
  Gisele Bennett; Gitte Lindgaard; Bruce Tsuji; Kay H. Connelly; Katie A. Siek
Non-traditional environments often change rapidly without forewarning, are difficult or impossible to control, and have other environmental and operational constraints that cannot easily be modeled in a laboratory, partly because the necessary level of ecological validity is almost impossible to achieve in the artificial lab environment. Current in situ field study evaluation techniques are insufficient in these environments. Furthermore, it is often difficult or impossible to ascertain which behavioral data are needed to answer questions about user requirements, interface design, and user acceptance. In this workshop, we will use case studies to create and explore frameworks for future non-traditional field study evaluations.
Reflective HCI: articulating an agenda for critical practice BIBAFull-Text 1683-1686
  Phoebe Sengers; John McCarthy; Paul Dourish
Reflective HCI is a style of HCI research that integrates technical practice with ongoing critical reflection. In the last thirty years, HCI researchers and practitioners have expanded their interests from aspects of cognitive ergonomics concerned with individuals using desktop computers at work to include concern for social and communal aspects of technology use and for affective and aesthetic aspects of design. This has been accompanied by the appropriation of a variety of disciplinary practices, concepts, and methodologies by HCI. In terms of the development and coherence of the discipline, it is timely to take a critical look at the assumptions, values, and traditions of each of these positions, their implications for HCI research agendas, and to try to understand the historical, cultural, and political emergence of HCI as a discipline itself. The main aim of this workshop will be to develop a systematic research agenda for reflective HCI.
Reinventing trust, collaboration and compliance in social systems BIBAFull-Text 1687-1690
  Jens Riegelsberger; Asimina Vasalou; Philip Bonhard; Anne Adams
The objective of this paper is to set the research agenda for a workshop focusing on novel approaches to supporting trust, collaboration, and compliance in social systems. Suggested approaches are: self-awareness, reparative and social recommender mechanisms.
Theory and method for experience centered design BIBAFull-Text 1691-1694
  Mark Blythe; Peter Wright; John McCarthy; Olav W. Bertelsen
There is currently much interest in notions of experience-centered design in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). A great deal of the research and practice in this area is at the boundaries of arts, design and sciences. However, there has not been enough critical discussion of how these disciplines can work together. In this one-day workshop we will bring together practitioners and researchers to explore the state of the art in the theory and practice of experience-centered design.
Sexual interactions: why we should talk about sex in HCI BIBAFull-Text 1695-1698
  Johanna Brewer; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Amanda Williams; Susan Wyche
Within the CHI community there is growing interest in moving beyond cognition and expanding into the social, emotional, and bodily aspects of the human-computer experience. Sexuality Sex lies at the intersection of these concerns, and indeed outside of HCI, has become a central topic for anthropology, behavioral sciences, and other areas of intellectual inquiry. Examining sex and themes related to it has benefited these disciplines and we intend to understand how it can contribute to HCI. There is a tendency to desexualize technology, despite the presence of sex and sexuality in a variety of interactions, including the use of the internet for viewing pornography, building online communities, and facilitating intimacy. By rendering these interactions sexless, we risk gaining only a marginal understanding of technology's role in day-to-day life.
The next step: from end-user programming to end-user software engineering BIBAFull-Text 1699-1702
  Margaret Burnett; Brad Myers; Mary Beth Rosson; Susan Wiedenbeck
Is it possible to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to end users? End users create software when they use spreadsheet systems, web authoring tools and graphical languages, when they write educational simulations, spreadsheets, and dynamic e-business web applications. Unfortunately, however, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. A growing number of researchers and developers are working on ways to make the software created by end users more reliable. This workshop brings together researchers who are addressing this topic with industry representatives who are deploying end-user programming applications, to facilitate sharing of real-world problems and solutions.
Mobile social software: realizing potential, managing risks BIBAFull-Text 1703-1706
  Scott Counts; Henri ter Hofte; Ian Smith
Given recent hardware, platform development, and internet connectivity gains, mobile devices are quickly becoming key outlets for social software. Bringing social software into the physical social world raises a number of critical research questions, including issues of changes to the ways people socialize, the potentially sweeping impact of location services, how physical world context should be captured and incorporated, and a host of privacy concerns. This workshop seeks to address these and other key issues around the proliferation of social software on mobile devices. Additionally, the workshop focuses on research tools and approaches for studying these questions, projected future directions for social software on mobile devices, and the role of related technologies, such as hardware and communication protocols.
What is the next generation of human-computer interaction? BIBKFull-Text 1707-1710
  Robert J. K. Jacob
Keywords: next-generation interfaces, non-WIMP interfaces, reality-based interfaces, tangible interfaces, ubiquitous computing, virtual reality
IT@Home: unraveling complexities of networked devices in the home BIBAFull-Text 1711-1713
  David W. McDonald; Bill N. Schilit; Sara Bly
The home is becoming a complex and hard to manage collection of computers and digital lifestyle devices. The work to setup and maintain a network of digital living devices in the home is similar to the work of IT professionals. Indeed the growing complexity of interconnected digital devices results in more and more time spent solving problems with those devices and their configurations, an important part of computer use that we call "IT@Home". This workshop explores the complexity of framing the right problems, methods for studying those problems, and designing to support users' IT@Home.
"Sketching" nurturing creativity: commonalities in art, design, engineering and research BIBAFull-Text 1715-1718
  Kumiyo Nakakoji; Atau Tanaka; Daniel Fallman
The workshop seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners from diverse creative practices such as interaction design, industrial design, architectural design, media art, music, programming, writing, and scholarly work, to gain insight into the creative process. Each of these disciplines has established ways to nurture a creative impulse through to a concrete result. This is done in part by fostering a continuing internal dialog between creative instinct and external representations. Sketching is an activity common to these practices that is exercised during such creative refinement. By sketching, we mean not only hand-drawing on paper using a pencil, but also rapid, undetailed, brief, light, informal representations that practitioners produce and interact with. By investigating the sketching process in each practice, we expect to find commonalities that will to point out essential elements for designing tools to support the creative process.
Privacy and HCI: methodologies for studying privacy issues BIBAFull-Text 1719-1722
  Sameer Patil; Natalia Romero; John Karat
This workshop aims to reflect on methodologies to empirically study privacy issues related to advanced technology. The goal is to address methodological concerns by drawing upon both theoretical perspectives as well as practical experiences.
Getting a measure of satisfaction from eyetracking in practice BIBAFull-Text 1723-1726
  J. A. Renshaw; J. Finlay; N. Webb
Eyetracking is now an almost standard offering from commercial HCI analysts. However, what are the best ways to exploit the strengths and minimise the weaknesses of this technique? This workshop aims to gather individuals who have an interest in using eyetracking for the evaluation and design of digital interfaces such as websites, games, iTV, mobile phones and more. There are two expected outcomes from this workshop. One is to define best practice, suggest answers to continuing areas of doubt and highlight unanswered questions about eyetracking in both the scientific and commercial environment. The other is to explore how best to measure the satisfaction element of the ISO 9241 definition of usability through eye movement analysis especially in the genre of display cited above.
   Please note interactive eyetracking such as eye typing is not within the focus of this workshop.
Designing for collective remembering BIBAFull-Text 1727-1730
  Corina Sas; Alan Dix
This paper outlines the rationale for the workshop topic and offers an overview of its objectives.
Player-centred game design BIBAFull-Text 1731-1734
  Jonathan Sykes; Melissa Federoff
Videogames are not your typical software application. They are often designed to elicit a negative emotional response, such as frustration or fear, the antithesis of usability. However, this is not to suggest that HCI has little to offer the game design community. Indeed, the exact opposite appears to be true. A number of user-centred design techniques have evolved which can support each stage of the game design process, from concept through to post-production. However, there is currently no archive of appropriate techniques showing how they might be applied to videogame design. Given the differences in goals from these products to traditional software, this is clearly necessary. The purpose of this workshop is to identify those techniques appropriate to game design, and elicit practitioners' experience when applying such methodologies. The intended result is a prescriptive process which demonstrates how user-centred methodologies can best be applied to game design.

Doctoral consortium

Video and image-based reflective learning tools for professional training environments BIBAFull-Text 1735-1738
  L. Amaya Becvar
I am interested in the learning processes that go on in hands-on professional training domains, and how to design digital technology to help people acquire professional skills. In my dissertation research, I am conducting a multi-year ethnography-for-design project at a local dental hygiene training program looking at how new students develop expertise in instrumentation skills during hands-on training in a clinical laboratory. I have helped the school design a new clinical training laboratory, equipped with a variety of digital media technology, such as embedded monitors and overhead cameras. I am investigating how digital imaging and video technology affect how novices develop the complex skill set (perceptual, manual and conceptual) required of expert dental hygienists. In order to create successful technology for teaching expert skills, it is important to understand the learning effects of certain kinds of representations, media, and instructional strategies. Research methods are informed by ethnography-for-design and contextual design [11], situated in a framework provided by distributed cognition theory [12].
Transference of dance knowledge through interface design BIBAFull-Text 1739-1742
  Natalie Ebenreuter
This research is for a doctoral project to develop LabanAssist as a prototype application. When completed this application will provide dancers, choreographers, artistic directors, choreologists, students and educators with a tool designed to make Labanotation more accessible to the dance community and as a result enhance dance literacy. The research considers the characteristics of various styles of interactions, the function they serve in structuring information and the design of the interface to facilitate the accurate documentation of dance notation.
Providing a tailored overview of program source code BIBAFull-Text 1743-1746
  J. Louise Finlayson
One very important aspect of computer programming is reading source code. Even relatively small programs can consist of thousands of lines of code, and navigating through all this information can be time consuming and difficult. Whilst this can be considered a minor nuisance for sighted persons, for blind computer programmers the problem is more severe.
   The main aim of this research is to improve access to programming for any user unable or unwilling to use a visual system. The hypothesis is that providing a glance at the source code using a tailored, auditory overview will improve the reader's understanding of the program. It is hoped that these findings could also facilitate code reading and comprehension for all users.
Integrating models of human-computer visual interaction BIBAFull-Text 1747-1750
  Tim Halverson
Predicting visual search behavior in human-computer interaction is a challenging problem. It is important for predictive modeling of human-computer interaction to integrate the visual search strategies identified in individual models in order to predict users' visual interaction with a variety of complex, real-world layouts. Individual research efforts have done well in developing models that predict users' visual search behavior for a single well-defined task. Considering the large variety of visual layouts users can encounter, many visual search strategies can come into play during visual search. This dissertation investigates principles for integrating strategies of visual search. These principles will be used to integrate four models of visual search from HCI literature.
Knowledge sharing, maintenance, and use in online support communities BIBAFull-Text 1751-1754
  Derek L. Hansen
Widespread adoption of collaborative authoring tools (such as Wikis) by online communities has fostered new ways of storing, sharing, maintaining, and using community knowledge. My dissertation research examines the effect and potential use of these shared knowledge repositories within online technical and medical support communities using short-term ethnography (including content analysis and interviews), surveys, and quantitative analysis of behavior traces. I characterize the key technological mechanisms, and the processes and social norms at play. I then use this knowledge to propose best practices and novel social and technical designs.
Assessing the attractiveness of interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 1755-1758
  Jan Hartmann
Qualities beyond usefulness and traditional usability are increasingly being recognised as important in HCI. A common understanding of which factors affect the overall user experience and how they interrelate is still to be established. In a theory-led approach, users' perceptions of qualities that together contribute to the overall 'attractiveness' of a system are investigated. An empirical study with three live websites from Stanford University demonstrates a halo effect of aesthetics on perceptions of usability and content. However, the perception and impact of aesthetics are significantly affected by users' backgrounds and tasks.
Documenting and understanding everyday activities through the selective archiving of live experiences BIBAFull-Text 1759-1762
  Gillian R. Hayes
The goal of this research is to build upon the work of capturing data in structured and planned settings to develop socially appropriate ways to archive important life experiences during unexpected, unstructured, and sometimes informal situations. This work involves three significant phases: formative studies to understand the data capture needs of particular populations of users in these situations; design and development of a technical architecture for capture and access in these settings coupled with design and development of applications for two specific domain problems; and evaluation of this solution as it pertains to these domain problems.
An examination of user behaviour during web information tasks BIBAFull-Text 1763-1766
  Melanie Kellar
The goal of this work is to gain a greater understanding of user behaviour during web information tasks in order to better support users on the Web. We have completed a field study examining information seeking behaviour on the Web and propose two further studies: an exploration of monitoring behaviour on the Web through semi-structured interviews and the development and validation of recommendations for the design of future web browser tools.
Embracing agile development of usable software systems BIBAFull-Text 1767-1770
  Jason Chong Lee
The interdisciplinary nature of system design can lead to communication problems between developers in different fields. This is becoming evident in the emerging field of agile software development which has largely ignored or been unable to address usability. This work presents a development process and toolset that draws on extreme programming -- an agile software development process, and scenario-based design -- a usability engineering process. This approach will allow developers in both fields to better communicate and work together to efficiently design usable systems.
Sharing everyday places I go while preserving privacy BIBAFull-Text 1771-1774
  Pamela J. Ludford
Several new location-based information applications reveal sets of places that an individual frequently visits. This practice gives rise to related privacy questions and new interface needs. For example, while electronic system users want to be in control of private data and know how those who have it will employ it [10], there are no design guidelines for garnering informed consent for using place-based information. In addition, the set of places a person frequents may reveal information such as: 1) when they are likely to go to a place, or 2) within close proximity, where they live. If a user considers this information private, they may still inadvertently disclose it: humans have difficulty comprehending aggregate effects of their actions [1]. A system could therefore deliver benefit by identifying notable risks and informing the user. This research plan will address these key issues and will ultimately inform privacy interface design.
Multi-touch interaction BIBAFull-Text 1775-1778
  Tomer Moscovich
Many everyday activities rely on our hands' ability to deftly control the physical attributes of objects. Most graphical interfaces only use the hand's position as input. For my dissertation, I study how multi-touch input lets us make better use of our dexterity.
Making sense of social networks BIBAFull-Text 1779-1782
  Adam Perer
Social network analysis has emerged as a powerful method for understanding the importance of relationships among interacting units in a variety of domains. However, interactive exploration of social networks is challenging because: (1) it is difficult to comprehend the characteristics and structure of networks when there are many edges and nodes, and (2) current systems are often a medley of statistical methods and overwhelming visual output which leaves many analysts uncertain about how to explore in an orderly manner. This results in exploration that is largely opportunistic. The contributions of our work are principles and an interface to support systematic analysis of social networks. We believe our approach will enable users to better understand the structure of networks and the social groups within.
Test methodologies for pedestrian navigation aids In old age BIBAFull-Text 1783-1786
  Michael Schellenbach
Assistive Technology offers great promise for improving the quality of aging, if the design of the devices is adapted to the needs of the user. In this paper we describe a test environment and first studies to evaluate mobile navigation systems in respect of the usability for elderly people.
Residential mobility, technology & social ties BIBAFull-Text 1787-1790
  Irina Shklovski
This research uses the disruption associated with residential mobility, to develop a deeper theoretical understanding of the role of communication technology in the initiation, maintenances and dissolution of social relationships. Residential mobility is a common yet stressful event. It represents a natural experiment, because it puts people in a situation where some of their previous face-to-face interactions must stop or decline, leaving mediated communication as a way to retain contact. Recent movers, who relocate to unfamiliar locations, also face the sometimes daunting task of meeting new people. This research is focused on understanding how movers use the Internet to cope with these changes in their physical and social environments and the effect such changes have on their psychological well-being.
Physical-digital ensembles for mobile interaction BIBAFull-Text 1791-1794
  Ron B. Yeh
We describe ensemble interactions, which bridge the gap between the physical and digital worlds, enabling users to leverage paper tools and computers in tandem. Our projects (e.g., see Figure 1) serve as test beds for these interactions. This research will inform mobile and tangible computing, where integrated paper-electronic interfaces will have great impact.

Student design competition

Fitster: social fitness information visualizer BIBAFull-Text 1795-1800
  Noor Ali-Hasan; Diana Gavales; Andrew Peterson; Matthew Raw
We present Fitster, a social visualization interface that supports fitness motivation among busy people struggling to exercise. Among our pilot group of busy graduate students, we found that a popular time-saving strategy is to recast exercise in terms of everyday, informal activities. Fitster employs pedometer data to support activity tracking, goal setting, and motivation through virtual competitions and teamwork. It contributes to the human-computer interaction (HCI) and health domains by identifying a new facet of exercise behavior and by offering a lightweight social interface to promote fitness motivation and enjoyment.
Health view: a simple and subtle approach to monitoring nutrition BIBAFull-Text 1801-1806
  Jesse Beach; Christian Briggs; Sam Shahrani; Craig Elliott
Young adults today often lack the knowledge and skills necessary to manage a nutritious eating pattern. Monitoring nutritional intake can provide the stimulus to change unhealthy patterns. To this end we introduce Health View, a web-based nutrition monitoring system that subtly integrates with the current habits of today's young adults. Health View leverages already-existing grocery store savings card accounts to pull the necessary data into the system automatically. By managing grocery lists and providing a repository for recipes, Health View enables the conditions for monitoring the nutrition of users while they go about their usual tasks. When the current nutrition status is known, Health View can then make simple suggestions for improving the consumption habits of the users.
Reflecting on health: a system for students to monitor diet and exercise BIBAFull-Text 1807-1812
  Brandon Brown; Marshini Chetty; Andrea Grimes; Ellie Harmon
Using an iterative design process, we designed and evaluated a system for college students to encourage the development and maintenance of healthy diet and exercise habits. The system has three components: a camera phone application to support photographic diet and exercise journaling, an automatic workout tracking application for exercise machines in the gym, and a visualization application to support users as they reflect on their diet and exercise activities.
Balance pass: service design for a healthy college lifestyle BIBAFull-Text 1813-1818
  Aditya Chand; Monica Gonzalez; Julian Missig; Purin Phanichphant; Pen Fan Sun
This paper describes the design of a service that provides nutritional feedback to female college freshmen. A variety of background research methods -- food journals, competitive product analyses, and ethnographic interviews -- led to the design of a service that integrates into existing university systems with little effort.
AVIVA: a health and fitness monitor for young women BIBAFull-Text 1819-1824
  Rachel Gockley; Michael Marotta; Carin Rogoff; Adrian Tang
In this paper we describe AVIVA, a prototype health and fitness monitor for young women. The device helps and encourages the user to balance the many aspects of attaining good health, including nutrition, exercise, and the social aspects of health. We describe the process used in developing the AVIVA monitor as well as our final design.
PEDdo: steps to a healthy lifestyle BIBAFull-Text 1825-1830
  Visda Goudarzi; Stanislav Tomic
Studies show that 14-to-40 year olds are spending more time at the computer and less time exercising. Using Contextual Design, our group tackled the challenge of motivating people in that demographic group to exercise more. The result is the "PEDdo" (Latin ped: foot, Persian do: two) -- a device which encourages physical activity of its users in an entertaining way and reinforces positive exercise habits.
NutriStat: tracking young child nutrition BIBAFull-Text 1831-1836
  Victor Hanson-Smith; Daya Wimalasuriya; Andrew Fortier
Our childhood eating patterns strongly affect our lifelong health. Recently, type II diabetes emerged as a national health crisis in America that can be prevented almost entirely by improving the quality of child nutrition. In this paper, we describe the scenario-based design process used to build NutriStat, a system for tracking young child nutrition for children with multiple caregivers. NutriStat empowers parents to collaboratively monitor a young child's diet and consequently provide more well-rounded nutrition.
A responsive and persuasive audio device to stimulate exercise and fitness in children BIBAFull-Text 1837-1842
  Jeffrey Hartnett; Pearl Lin; Lillian Ortiz; Lindsay Tabas
Designing to stimulate health and fitness in children proposes particular challenges because children lack direct control over their environment. Additionally, children respond more to activities emphasizing recreation over education. This paper details the design and development process for children, highlighting design choices with research from industry, parents and children. The end product is a responsive and persuasive audio player that controls and varies music tempo based on measured activity level. This device makes use of music's natural ability to fuel activity, and it gives children a way to directly control some portion of their environment. Additionally, it delivers increased exercise under the disguise of fun and recreation. This paper contributes to the HCI design process for children by showing how to develop persuasive technologies to implicitly succeed a specific goal without explicitly addressing an existing problem.
myPyramid: increasing nutritional awareness BIBAFull-Text 1843-1848
  Eunhyung Kim; Benjamin Koh; Jennifer Ng; Ray Su
A major challenge that new college students face is the establishment of healthy habits that will affect their long-term health. Focusing on this difficult task is myPyramid: a dining hall service to support the development of healthy eating habits for busy and impressionable students. It offers an integrated student environment that builds basic nutrition and cooking skills in a fun and social manner while addressing unique student needs. In the myPyramid dining hall, students customize and cook meals that are tailored with the advice and recommendations of an "intelligent shopping basket". This intelligent basket offers personalized advice based on the USDA Dietary Guidelines to ensure proper nutrition based on students' eating history. By teaching students basic cooking skills and educating them about how foods affect their dietary balance, myPyramid empowers students with knowledge and skills to establish long-term healthy nutritional habits [10].
RoutePlanner BIBAFull-Text 1849-1854
  Marek Kudlacz; Robert (Yu-Sheng) Tan; Jon Prindiville; Marc Peters
This paper discusses the RoutePlanner, a portable personal training and motivational aide, which displays real-time statistical and locational data. We focus on the iterative design techniques associated with developing requirements and functionality, while looking at the role user testing and feedback played in the refinement of our design.
NutraStick: portable diet assistant BIBAFull-Text 1855-1860
  Barry Mulrooney; Mairead McDermott; Nick Earley
This paper describes the design of a programmable barcode scanner (the NutraStick) that aims to revolutionize the way people on any kind of diet shop. The NutraStick uses barcode scanning technology alongside an onboard ingredient/nutritional information database to give feedback (Red or Green light) as to whether a particular food item is suitable or not for a person on a specific diet. Usability engineering protocols were used in the design process including feasibility testing and a user orientated interface design process. The use of this methodology allowed for a user friendly, simple, effective, and innovate design.
My health, my life: a web-based health monitoring application BIBAFull-Text 1861-1866
  Paul Nuschke; Tara Holmes; Yaseen Qadah
Using a handwritten journal to track meals, exercise, and weight is a common practice in the dieting and exercise industry. However, one major problem with using these journals is that they do not simplify the laborious process of calculating the nutritional content of a meal. In addition, the journals are difficult to share with other people, especially asynchronously. The "My Health, My Life" web application helps users reach their goals by simplifying the data entry process, while also connecting the user with professionals and people who have similar interests and goals.
Promoting a healthy lifestyle through a virtual specialist solution BIBAFull-Text 1867-1872
  Juan M. Silva; Selene Zamarripa; Elisa B. Moran; Monica Tentori; Leonardo Galicia
As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), malnutrition is a health problem faced by many nations around the world. In Mexico around 50% of adult population is obese; this in turn situates people on risk of contracting other diseases such as diabetes, and hypertension. To address this problem, one of the main institutes of health in Mexico has implemented a program for preventing diseases related to bad feeding and physical activity habits. In our aim to provide a technological solution to help people with such problems, we conducted a field study around this program to envision and inform our design. We propose a Virtual Specialist (VS) that stays with the patient and advice him at all times on issues related to keeping diet and exercise programs. We argue that patients that use this solution would feel more motivated to keep working on their programs, since they get a feeling of being personally attended.
Chick clique: persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise BIBAFull-Text 1873-1878
  Tammy Toscos; Anne Faber; Shunying An; Mona Praful Gandhi
We are developing a preventative health cell phone application that helps motivate teenage girls to exercise by exploiting their social desire to stay connected with their peers. We targeted girls because they are more likely to become less active throughout adolescence and are more likely to use dangerous techniques for losing weight. The intent of Chick Clique is to provide information at opportune times in order to modify the behaviors of girls and ultimately lead to improved health habits. Our study investigated how collecting, sharing and comparing personal fitness information impacts activity level and health awareness.
Food information network: informed shopping for healthier living BIBAFull-Text 1879-1884
  Jiawei Rong; Leo Ochoa; Lee Ritter; Erik Brown
The Food Information Network is a system designed to help people make better choices about the food products they purchase. The system will have access to a large amount of data and will allow such activities as finding alternative food products and the products available at different grocery stores. The system has also been designed to try to encourage people to prepare their own meals by helping them spend less time shopping for healthier food and showing them that it is neither so difficult nor time-consuming to cook at home. The system also encourages users to share nutritional recipes with friends.
   The design process followed a scenario-based design methodology, which included field studies, writing activity scenarios, and early user testing with a paper-based prototype. A portion of the system was then implemented and additional user testing was done with the system running on a cell phone and a Palm simulator.