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CHI Tables of Contents: 04-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-1

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceeding of the twenty-seventh international conference on Human factors in computing systems
Note:Digital Life New World
Editors:Saul Greenberg; Scott E. Hudson; Ken Hinkley; Meredith Ringel Morris; Dan R. Olsen, Jr.
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:2009-Apr-04 to 2009-Apr-09
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-60558-246-8, 978-1-60558-246-7; ACM Order Number: 608083; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI09-1
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2009-04-04 Volume 1
    1. Understanding information
    2. Designing for other cultures
    3. Expertise/people finding
    4. Design methods
    5. Navigation
    6. New tabletop input and output methods
    7. Robots
    8. Online relationships
    9. Education and science
    10. Personal information management
    11. Clicking on buttons
    12. Privacy and trust
    13. Accessibility/special needs
    14. Sustainability 1
    15. Creating thought and self-improvement
    16. Telepresence and online media
    17. Learning challenges
    18. Tangibles on tables
    19. Computer mediated communication 1
    20. Non-traditional interaction techniques
    21. In the living room
    22. Information foraging
    23. Prototyping and interaction
    24. Understanding UI 1
    25. Metrics
    26. Cross culture CMC
    27. Scientometric analysis of the CHI proceedings
    28. User experience
    29. In the home
    30. Q&A systems
    31. Looking at videos
    32. Art creation
    33. Programming tools and architectures
    34. The status of ethnography in systems design
    35. Security
    36. Techniques for mobile interaction
    37. Social networking sites
    38. Software developers and programmers
    39. Large displays/multi-display environments
    40. Sustainability 2
    41. Tabletop gestures
    42. Visualization 1
    43. Design theory
    44. New media experiences 1
    45. Classifying and recommending content
    46. Using tabletops for education, science, and media
    47. Helping out users with "extreme jobs"
    48. Visualization 2
    49. User studies and design
    50. Cognitive modeling and assessment
    51. Finding info online
    52. Pointing and cursor techniques
    53. The beauty dilemma
    54. New media experiences 2
    55. Personal and online information
    56. Studying Wikipedia
    57. Multimodal mobile interaction
    58. New gaming experiences
    59. Software development
    60. Usability methods
    61. Studying cell phone use
    62. Desktop techniques
    63. Designing for senior citizens
    64. Photos and life logging
    65. Mobile applications for the developing world
    66. Social search and sensemaking
    67. Understanding UI 2
    68. Supporting blind users
    69. Advanced web scenarios
    70. Enhancing reality
    71. New mobile interactions
    72. Technology for museums
    73. Security and privacy
    74. Web searching and browsing
    75. Hospitals
    76. Social software in office
    77. Studying intelligent systems
    78. Tabletops and single display groupware
    79. Systems for children
    80. New input modalities
    81. Reflecting on design
    82. Tactile UI
    83. Gesture UIs
    84. Understanding graphs
    85. Computer mediated communication 2
    86. Informed design

CHI 2009-04-04 Volume 1

Understanding information

Correlating low-level image statistics with users -- rapid aesthetic and affective judgments of web pages BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Xianjun Sam Zheng; Ishani Chakraborty; James Jeng-Weei Lin; Robert Rauschenberger
In this paper, we report a study that examines the relationship between image-based computational analyses of web pages and users' aesthetic judgments about the same image material. Web pages were iteratively decomposed into quadrants of minimum entropy (quadtree decomposition) based on low-level image statistics, to permit a characterization of these pages in terms of their respective organizational symmetry, balance and equilibrium. These attributes were then evaluated for their correlation with human participants' subjective ratings of the same web pages on four aesthetic and affective dimensions. Several of these correlations were quite large and revealed interesting patterns in the relationship between low-level (i.e., pixel-level) image statistics and design-relevant dimensions.
Keywords: aesthetic judgments, computer vision, empirical methods, image statistics, low-level features, user interface design
Exploring the analytical processes of intelligence analysts BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  George, Jr. Chin; Olga A. Kuchar; Katherine E. Wolf
We present an observational case study in which we investigate and analyze the analytical processes of intelligence analysts. Participating analysts in the study carry out two scenarios where they organize and triage information, conduct intelligence analysis, report results, and collaborate with one another. Through a combination of scenario-based analysis, artifact analysis, role-playing, interviews, and participant observations, we explore the space and boundaries in which intelligence analysts work and operate. We also assess the implications of our findings on the use and application of key information technologies.
Keywords: artifact analysis, collaboration, homeland security, intelligence analysis, national security, participant observation, participatory design, work practices, work-oriented design
What do you see when you're surfing?: using eye tracking to predict salient regions of web pages BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Georg Buscher; Edward Cutrell; Meredith Ringel Morris
An understanding of how people allocate their visual attention when viewing Web pages is very important for Web authors, interface designers, advertisers and others. Such knowledge opens the door to a variety of innovations, ranging from improved Web page design to the creation of compact, yet recognizable, visual representations of long pages. We present an eye-tracking study in which 20 users viewed 361 Web pages while engaged in information foraging and page recognition tasks. From this data, we describe general location-based characteristics of visual attention for Web pages dependent on different tasks and demographics, and generate a model for predicting the visual attention that individual page elements may receive. Finally, we introduce the concept of fixation impact, a new method for mapping gaze data to visual scenes that is motivated by findings in vision research.
Keywords: eye tracking, web design

Designing for other cultures

Designing digital games for rural children: a study of traditional village games in India BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Matthew Kam; Akhil Mathur; Anuj Kumar; John Canny
Low educational levels hinder economic empowerment in developing countries. We make the case that educational games can impact children in the developing world. We report on exploratory studies with three communities in North and South India to show some problems with digital games that fail to match rural children's understanding of games, to highlight that there is much for us to learn about designing games that are culturally meaningful to them. We describe 28 traditional village games that they play, based on our contextual interviews. We analyze the mechanics in these games and compare these mechanics against existing videogames to show what makes traditional games unique. Our analysis has helped us to interpret the playability issues that we observed in our exploratory studies, and informed the design of a new videogame that rural children found to be more intuitive and engaging.
Keywords: developing world, digital divide, games, traditional games
Non-universal usability?: a survey of how usability is understood by Chinese and Danish users BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Olaf Frandsen-Thorlacius; Kasper Hornbæk; Morten Hertzum; Torkil Clemmensen
Most research assumes that usability is understood similarly by users in different cultures, implying that the notion of usability, its aspects, and their interrelations are constant across cultures. The present study shows that this is not the case for a sample of 412 users from China and Denmark, who differ in how they understand and prioritize different aspects of usability. Chinese users appear to be more concerned with visual appearance, satisfaction, and fun than Danish users; Danish users prioritize effectiveness, efficiency, and lack of frustration higher than Chinese users. The results suggest that culture influences perceptions of usability. We discuss implications for usability research and for usability practice.
Keywords: culture, questionnaire, usability
A comparative study of speech and dialed input voice interfaces in rural India BIBAKFull-Text 51-54
  Neil Patel; Sheetal Agarwal; Nitendra Rajput; Amit Nanavati; Paresh Dave; Tapan S. Parikh
In this paper we present a study comparing speech and dialed input voice user interfaces for farmers in Gujarat, India. We ran a controlled, between-subjects experiment with 45 participants. We found that the task completion rates were significantly higher with dialed input, particularly for subjects under age 30 and those with less than an eighth grade education. Additionally, participants using dialed input demonstrated a significantly greater performance improvement from the first to final task, and reported less difficulty providing input to the system.
Keywords: DTMF, ICTD, India, isolated word, rural development, semi-literate, speech interface, voice user interface
Sacred imagery in techno-spiritual design BIBAKFull-Text 55-58
  Susan P. Wyche; Kelly E. Caine; Benjamin K. Davison; Shwetak N. Patel; Michael Arteaga; Rebecca E. Grinter
Despite increased knowledge about how Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) are used to support religious and spiritual practices, designers know little about how to design technologies for faith-related purposes. Our research suggests incorporating sacred imagery into techno-spiritual applications can be useful in guiding development. We illustrate this through the design and evaluation of a mobile phone application developed to support Islamic prayer practices. Our contribution is to show how religious imagery can be used in the design of applications that go beyond the provision of functionality to connect people to the experience of religion.
Keywords: HCI, design, mobile computing, spiritual computing

Expertise/people finding

Expert recommender systems in practice: evaluating semi-automatic profile generation BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
  Tim Reichling; Volker Wulf
Expert recommender systems (ERS) are considered a promising technology in knowledge management. However, there are very few studies which evaluated their appropriation in practice. In this paper, we present results of a case study of expert recommender technology in a large European industrial association. Unlike existing expert recommender approaches, the system involves users in selecting textual documents for semi-automatic profile generation. Our study focuses on the appropriation of this functionality and discusses impacts from an organizational perspective.
Keywords: expertise recommender system, knowledge management, second wave
Making sense of strangers' expertise from signals in digital artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  N. Sadat Shami; Kate Ehrlich; Geri Gay; Jeffrey T. Hancock
Contemporary work increasingly involves interacting with strangers in technology-mediated environments. In this context, we come to rely on digital artifacts to infer characteristics of other people. This paper reports the results of a study conducted in a global company that used expertise search as a vehicle for exploring how people interpret a range of information available in online profiles in evaluating whom to interact with for expertise. Using signaling theory as a conceptual framework, we describe how certain 'signals' in various social software are hard to fake, and are thus more reliable indicators of expertise. Multi-level regression analysis revealed that participation in social software, social connection information, and self-described expertise in the corporate directory were significantly helpful in the decision to contact someone for expertise. Qualitative analysis provided further insights regarding the interpretations people form of others' expertise from digital artifacts. We conclude with suggestions on differentiating various types of information available within online profiles and implications for the design of expertise locator/recommender systems.
Keywords: expertise search, signaling, social networks, social software
An exploration of social requirements for exercise group formation BIBAKFull-Text 79-82
  Mike Wu; Abhishek Ranjan; Khai N. Truong
Exercising is often a social activity performed with other people, yet finding compatible exercise partners is difficult in practice. To gain a better understanding of the social requirements involved with forming exercise groups, we conducted a two-phased exploratory study involving an online web questionnaire with 96 respondents and two focus groups. Our results highlight various aspects of collaborating with exercise partners, but also indicate the limited utility of currently available systems to support such collaborations. We discuss implications for collaborative technologies supporting exercise group formation.
Keywords: collaboration, exercise, exercise partners, social interaction
Team analytics: understanding teams in the global workplace BIBAKFull-Text 83-86
  Jan H. Pieper; Julia Grace; Stephen Dill
Many medium and large companies maintain internal employee directories. Unfortunately, most directories only allow the lookup of individual profiles, one profile at a time. Team Analytics is a novel application that integrates information from disparate enterprise tools for groups of people. Besides accelerating the lookup process, Team Analytics also displays information that is only available in the group context, such as an organizational chart and time zone awareness. We present the Team Analytics application, its integration with our corporate email client, and results from a user survey that evaluates various aspects of the application.
Keywords: directory, distributed teams, situational application, visualization, white pages

Design methods

Getting inspired!: understanding how and why examples are used in creative design practice BIBAKFull-Text 87-96
  Scarlett R. Herring; Chia-Chen Chang; Jesse Krantzler; Brian P. Bailey
The use of examples serves a critical role in creative design practice, but details of this process remain an enigma. This is problematic for both the understanding of design activity as well as for developing more effective design tools. In this paper, we report results of a study that understands and compares how designers (N=11) utilize, manage, and share examples to support the creative design process. The domains studied were Web, graphic, and product design. Our study shows that examples are a cornerstone of creative practice and are utilized for many reasons throughout the design process. Since examples are pivotal to the success of a project, more effective tools that support retrieval, storage, and dissemination of examples are needed. This paper contributes understanding of the benefits and roles of examples in the design process and implications for the design of more effective tools that support example usage.
Keywords: case-based design, design, examples, graphic design, industrial design, product design, web design
Using improvisation to enhance the effectiveness of brainstorming BIBAKFull-Text 97-104
  Elizabeth Gerber
Group brainstorming is a popular ideation method for design teams, yet brainstorming outcomes vary greatly. The method depends on individuals working collectively to generate ideas, and so group dynamics determine whether the method succeeds or fails. This paper explores how interaction designers used techniques from theatrical improvisation, or improv, to adhere to the rules of brainstorming thereby enhancing group interactions while collaborating. The usefulness of improvisation for brainstorming stems from the similarity of the goals of improvisation and brainstorming, the similarity of the recurrent problems that actors and designers encounter when collaborating, and the distinctness of the ways each have devised to resolve the problems that block the group's performance. This paper reflects on the individual- and group-level outcomes for design students and practitioners while brainstorming.
Keywords: brainstorming, collaboration, creativity support tools, design methods, improvisation
Interactivity attributes: a new way of thinking and describing interactivity BIBAKFull-Text 105-108
  Youn-kyung Lim; Sang-Su Lee; Kwang-young Lee
We propose a new perspective, seeing interactivity that is the immaterial part of an interactive artifact as something concretely describable and perceivable as we do with physical materials. In order to examine the validity of this proposal, we extracted a set of interactivity attributes to be used as a design language for thinking and describing interactivity in a new way, and conducted an online survey with 14 Flash prototypes representing pairs of values of 7 interactivity attributes we extracted. The result showed that all the interactivity attributes were significant, and participants experienced distinctive and meaningful emotional effects for different interactivity attributes.
Keywords: design language, emotion, interaction design, interactivity
PrintMarmoset: redesigning the print button for sustainability BIBAKFull-Text 109-112
  Jun Xiao; Jian Fan
In this paper, we discuss some unique challenges of sustainable interaction design (SID) and present our work that aims to reduce paper waste from web printing. We conducted a two-month field study of current behaviors and attitudes around printing, and the results confirmed the affordances of paper, but also revealed many problems associated with printing web content. We then designed and implemented a browser extension, PrintMarmoset, that targets these problems while simultaneously addressing user needs and environmental responsibility. It allows users to effortless select or remove web content for printing. We have also incorporated a data sharing mechanism into our solution to assist in the adoption of the tool and created visualizations to encourage user reflection and exploration.
Keywords: information vissualization, qualitative studies, sustainability


Design, implementation and evaluation of a novel public display for pedestrian navigation: the rotating compass BIBAKFull-Text 113-122
  Enrico Rukzio; Michael Müller; Robert Hardy
Important drawbacks of map-based navigation applications for mobile phones are their small screen size and that users have to associate the information provided by the mobile phone with the real word. Therefore, we designed, implemented and evaluated the Rotating Compass -- a novel public display for pedestrian navigation. Here, a floor display continuously shows different directions (in a clockwise order) and the mobile phone informs the user when their desired direction is indicated. To inform the user, the mobile phone vibrates in synchronization with the indicated direction. We report an outdoor study that compares a conventional paper map, a navigation application running on a mobile device, navigation information provided by a public display, and the Rotating Compass. The results provide clear evidence of the advantages of the new interaction technique when considering task completion time, context switches, disorientation events, usability satisfaction, workload and multi-user support.
Keywords: mobile navigation, public displays, synchronized displays
EyeSpy: supporting navigation through play BIBAKFull-Text 123-132
  Marek Bell; Stuart Reeves; Barry Brown; Scott Sherwood; Donny MacMillan; John Ferguson; Matthew Chalmers
This paper demonstrates how useful content can be generated as a by-product of an enjoyable mobile multiplayer game. In EyeSpy, players tag geographic locations with photos or text. By locating the places in which other players' tags were created and 'confirming' them, players earn points for themselves and verify the tags' locations. As a side effect of game-play, EyeSpy produces a collection of recognisable and findable geographic details, in the form of photographs and text tags, that can be repurposed to support navigation tasks. Two user trials of the game successfully produced an archive of geo-located photographs and tags, and in a follow-up experiment we compared performance in a navigation task using photographs from the game, with geo-referenced photos collected from the Flickr website. Our experiences with EyeSpy support reflection upon the design challenges presented by 'human computation' and the production of usable by-products through mobile game-play.
Keywords: RF fingerprinting, human computation, mobile multiplayer games, mobile photography, navigation
Simulated augmented reality windshield display as a cognitive mapping aid for elder driver navigation BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  SeungJun Kim; Anind K. Dey
A common effect of aging is decline in spatial cognition. This is an issue for all elders, but particularly for elder drivers. To address this driving issue, we propose a novel concept of an in-vehicle navigation display system that displays navigation information directly onto the vehicle's windshield, superimposing it on the driver's view of the actual road. An evaluation of our simulated version of this display shows that it results in a significant reduction in navigation errors and distraction-related measures compared to a typical in-car navigation display for elder drivers. These results help us understand how context-sensitive information and a simulated augmented reality representation can be combined to minimize the cognitive load in translating between virtual/information spaces and the real world.
Keywords: augmented reality, cognitive mapping, in-vehicle navigation system, senior drivers, windshield-based display

New tabletop input and output methods

PenLight: combining a mobile projector and a digital pen for dynamic visual overlay BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Hyunyoung Song; Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice; François Guimbretière; Azam Khan; Ramtin Attar; Gordon Kurtenbach
Digital pen systems, originally designed to digitize annotations made on physical paper, are evolving to permit a wider variety of applications. Although the type and quality of pen feedback (e.g., haptic, audio, and visual) have a huge impact on advancing the digital pen technology, dynamic visual feedback has yet to be fully investigated. In parallel, miniature projectors are an emerging technology with the potential to enhance visual feedback for small mobile computing devices. In this paper we present the PenLight system, which is a testbed to explore the interaction design space and its accompanying interaction techniques in a digital pen embedded with a spatially-aware miniature projector. Using our prototype, that simulates a miniature projection (via a standard video projector), we visually augment paper documents, giving the user immediate access to additional information and computational tools. We also show how virtual ink can be managed in single and multi-user environments to aid collaboration and data management. User evaluation with professional architects indicated promise of our proposed techniques and their potential utility in the paper-intensive domain of architecture.
Keywords: digital pen input, mobile projector, multi-layer interaction, spatially-aware display
To move or not to move: a comparison between steerable versus fixed focus region paradigms in multi-resolution tabletop display systems BIBAKFull-Text 153-162
  Chuan-Heng Hsiao; Li-Wei Chan; Ting-Ting Hu; Mon-Chu Chen; Jane Hsu; Yi-Ping Hung
Previous studies have outlined the advantages of multi-resolution large-area displays over their fixed-resolution counterparts, however the mobility of the focus region has up until the present time received little attention. To study this phenomenon further, we have developed a multi-resolution tabletop display system with a steerable high resolution focus region to compare the performance between steerable and fixed focus region systems under different working scenarios. We have classified these scenarios according to region of interest (ROI) with analogies to different eye movement types (fixed, saccadic, and pursuit ROI). Empirical data gathered during the course of a multi-faceted user study demonstrates that the steerable focus region system significantly outperforms the fixed focus region system. The former is shown to provide enhanced display manipulation and proves especially advantageous in cases where the user must maintain spatial awareness of the display content as is the case in which, within a single session, several regions of the display are to be visited.
Keywords: input and interaction technologies, multi-resolution tabletop interaction, user study, visualization
Transparent 2-D markers on an LCD tabletop system BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Hideki Koike; Wataru Nishikawa; Kentaro Fukuchi
Tabletop systems are currently being focused on and many applications using these systems are being developed. In such tabletop systems, how to recognize real objects on the table is an essential and important issue. In existing tabletop systems, 2-D markers have been often used. However, their black-and-white pattern, which means nothing to humans, spoils the appearance of the object. We developed transparent markers on a liquid crystal display (LCD) tabletop system by using the polarization features of the LCD and optical lms. In particular, through experiments with various kinds of optical films, we found that two halfwave plates make the markers rotation invariant. By using the transparent markers, tangible transparent Magic Lenses(TM) applications were developed.
Keywords: LCD, augmented reality, magic lenses, marker, polarization, tabletop, tangible user interface, vision-based HCI


Magic cards: a paper tag interface for implicit robot control BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Shengdong Zhao; Koichi Nakamura; Kentaro Ishii; Takeo Igarashi
Typical Human Robot Interaction (HRI) assumes that the user explicitly interacts with robots. However, explicit control with robots can be unnecessary or even undesirable in certain cases, such as dealing with domestic services (or housework). In this paper, we propose an alternative strategy of interaction: the user implicitly controls a robot by issuing commands on corresponding real world objects and the environment. Robots then discover these commands and complete them in the background. We implemented a paper-tag-based interface to support such implicit robot control in a sensor-augmented home environment. Our initial user studies indicated that the paper-tag-based interface is particularly simple to use and provides users with flexibility in planning and controlling their housework tasks in a simulated home environment.
Keywords: domestic service, implicit human robot interaction, magic cards, paper-tag-based interface
The VoiceBot: a voice controlled robot arm BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Brandi House; Jonathan Malkin; Jeff Bilmes
We present a system whereby the human voice may specify continuous control signals to manipulate a simulated 2D robotic arm and a real 3D robotic arm. Our goal is to move towards making accessible the manipulation of everyday objects to individuals with motor impairments. Using our system, we performed several studies using control style variants for both the 2D and 3D arms. Results show that it is indeed possible for a user to learn to effectively manipulate real-world objects with a robotic arm using only non-verbal voice as a control mechanism. Our results provide strong evidence that the further development of non-verbal voice controlled robotics and prosthetic limbs will be successful.
Keywords: motor impairment, robotics, speech recognition, voice-based interface
"Pimp My Roomba": designing for personalization BIBAKFull-Text 193-196
  JaYoung Sung; Rebecca E. Grinter; Henrik I. Christensen
We present a study of how householders personalize their domestic vacuuming robot, iRobot's Roomba". In particular, we build on Blom and Monk's [3] theory of personalization that argues that personalization does not only occur naturally but can also be induced by design choices. In this study, we created a personalization toolkit, which allowed people to customize their Roomba's appearance and distributed it to 15 households. Our observations of these households provide empirical support that personalization can facilitate positive experiences with a Roomba, and having materials to hand can increase the odds of customization. We conclude by discussing design implications for personalization.
Keywords: domestic robot, personalization, qualitative study
Sketch and run: a stroke-based interface for home robots BIBAKFull-Text 197-200
  Daisuke Sakamoto; Koichiro Honda; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi
Numerous robots have been developed, and some of them are already being used in homes, institutions, and workplaces. Despite the development of useful robot functions, the focus so far has not been on user interfaces of robots. General users of robots find it hard to understand what the robots are doing and what kind of work they can do. This paper presents an interface for the commanding home robots by using stroke gestures on a computer screen. This interface allows the user to control robots and design their behaviors by sketching the robot's behaviors and actions on a top-down view from ceiling cameras. To convey a feeling of directly controlling the robots, our interface employs the live camera view. In this study, we focused on a house-cleaning task that is typical of home robots, and developed a sketch interface for designing behaviors of vacuuming robots.
Keywords: home robot, human robot interaction, sketching interface, stroke gesture, stroke-based interface

Online relationships

Make new friends, but keep the old: recommending people on social networking sites BIBAKFull-Text 201-210
  Jilin Chen; Werner Geyer; Casey Dugan; Michael Muller; Ido Guy
This paper studies people recommendations designed to help users find known, offline contacts and discover new friends on social networking sites. We evaluated four recommender algorithms in an enterprise social networking site using a personalized survey of 500 users and a field study of 3,000 users. We found all algorithms effective in expanding users' friend lists. Algorithms based on social network information were able to produce better-received recommendations and find more known contacts for users, while algorithms using similarity of user-created content were stronger in discovering new friends. We also collected qualitative feedback from our survey users and draw several meaningful design implications.
Keywords: friend, recommender system, social networking
Predicting tie strength with social media BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios
Social media treats all users the same: trusted friend or total stranger, with little or nothing in between. In reality, relationships fall everywhere along this spectrum, a topic social science has investigated for decades under the theme of tie strength. Our work bridges this gap between theory and practice. In this paper, we present a predictive model that maps social media data to tie strength. The model builds on a dataset of over 2,000 social media ties and performs quite well, distinguishing between strong and weak ties with over 85% accuracy. We complement these quantitative findings with interviews that unpack the relationships we could not predict. The paper concludes by illustrating how modeling tie strength can improve social media design elements, including privacy controls, message routing, friend introductions and information prioritization.
Keywords: relationship modeling, sns, social media, social networks, tie strength, ties
My Dating Site Thinks I'm a Loser: effects of personal photos and presentation intervals on perceptions of recommender systems BIBAKFull-Text 221-224
  Shailendra Rao; Tom Hurlbutt; Clifford Nass; Nundu JanakiRam
Receiving poor results from a personalized recommendation system is frustrating. When users try to compensate by putting on a "different face" and game the system, the results can be even more frustrating. This paper investigates how to improve the user experience of such systems by: 1) adding personal photos to increase self-awareness, and 2) providing recommendations interspersed with personal questions. A 2x2 web experiment (N=56) within the context of an online dating match recommendation system was used to assess these two effects. Displaying a person's photo stabilized both response strategies and liking of a recommender's poor suggestions. Additionally, presenting all of the results together at the end was less frustrating than spreading them out. These results demonstrate that simple interface design decisions can have profound effects on user behaviors and attitudes with personalized recommendation systems.
Keywords: face-work, impression management, online dating, personal photos, personalization, presentation of self, recommendation intervals, recommendation systems, recommenders
The application of forgiveness in social system design BIBAKFull-Text 225-228
  Asimina Vasalou; Jens Riegelsberger; Adam Joinson
When an offence occurs, the victim and offender can overcome the harm done through forgiveness. This paper demonstrates how forgiveness can be supported in social system design. We first describe what forgiveness is, how it is motivated and what benefits follow from forgiveness. Based on this theoretical analysis, we propose five provisions to guide designers who want to encourage reparation in social systems.
Keywords: emotions, forgiveness, online offences, reparation

Education and science

Friend or foe?: examining CAS use in mathematics research BIBAKFull-Text 229-238
  Andrea Bunt; Michael Terry; Edward Lank
Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) provide sophisticated functionality to assist with mathematical problem solving. Despite their widespread adoption, however, little work in the HCI community has examined the extent to which these computational tools support domain experts. In this paper, we report findings from a qualitative study investigating the work practices and tools of nine mathematicians in a research setting. Counter to our expectations, our data suggests that computational tools play only a minor role in their workflow, with the limited use of CAS owing primarily to four factors: (1) the need for transparency in CAS's reasoning to explain computed results; (2) the problem of rigidity and formality in CAS's input/output style dialogue; (3) the need for 2D input to support a wide range of annotations, diagrams, and in-place manipulation of objects of interest; and (4) the need for collaboration, particularly in early stages of problem solving. While grounded in the study of mathematicians, these findings (particularly the first) have implications for the design of computational systems intended to support complex problem solving.
Keywords: computer algebra systems, mathematical problem solving
Pathfinder: an online collaboration environment for citizen scientists BIBAKFull-Text 239-248
  Kurt Luther; Scott Counts; Kristin B. Stecher; Aaron Hoff; Paul Johns
For over a century, citizen scientists have volunteered to collect huge quantities of data for professional scientists to analyze. We designed Pathfinder, an online environment that challenges this traditional division of labor by providing tools for citizen scientists to collaboratively discuss and analyze the data they collect. We evaluated Pathfinder in a sustainability and commuting context using a mixed methods approach in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Our results showed that citizen scientists preferred Pathfinder to a standard wiki and were able to go beyond data collection and engage in deeper discussion and analyses. We also found that citizen scientists require special types of technological support because they generate original research. This paper offers an early example of the mutually beneficial relationship between HCI and citizen science.
Keywords: citizen science, online collaboration, online communities, social computing, social data analysis, sustainability, wiki
The TeeBoard: an education-friendly construction platform for e-textiles and wearable computing BIBAKFull-Text 249-258
  Grace Ngai; Stephen C. F. Chan; Joey C. Y. Cheung; Winnie W. Y. Lau
The field of wearable computing and e-textiles has recently attracted much interest from the research and general community. Recent developments in this field raises the possibility of e-textile construction kits for hobbyists and novices alike. The unique nature of wearable computing and e-textiles also gives it a lot of potential as an educational computing topic, as it allows students to exercise their creativity and imagination while learning about computing and technology.
   However, there are numerous difficulties involved in deploying existing technology in an educational environment. Current state of the art technology and techniques are not yet robust or reliable enough to stand up to the demands of educational computing, and they require a high level of skill from the user. In this paper, we present the TeeBoard, a constructive platform for e-textiles and wearable computing that is designed specifically to "lower the floor" for the integration of e-textiles into educational computing.
Keywords: construction kits, e-textiles, educational computing, electronic textiles, teeboard, wearable computing

Personal information management

It feels better than filing: everyday work experiences in an activity-based computing system BIBAKFull-Text 259-268
  Stephen Voida; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Activity-based computing represents an alternative to the dominant application- and document-centric model at the foundation of most mainstream desktop computing interfaces. In this paper, we present in-depth results from an in situ, longitudinal study of an activity-based computing system, Giornata. We detail the ways that the specific features of this system influenced the everyday work experiences of a small cohort of knowledge workers. Our analysis provides contributions at several levels of granularity-we provide concrete design recommendations based on participants' reactions to the particular features of the Giornata system and a discussion about how our findings can provide insight about the broader understanding of knowledge work and activity within HCI.
Keywords: activity-based computing, collaboration, deployment study, giornata, knowledge work, multitasking, tagging
It's not that important: demoting personal information of low subjective importance using GrayArea BIBAKFull-Text 269-278
  Ofer Bergman; Simon Tucker; Ruth Beyth-Marom; Edward Cutrell; Steve Whittaker
Users find it hard to delete unimportant personal information which often results in cluttered workspaces. We present a full design cycle for GrayArea, a novel interface that allows users to demote unimportant files by dragging them to a gray area at the bottom of their file folders. Demotion is an intermediate option between keeping and deleting. It combines the advantages of deletion (unimportant files don't compete for attention) and keeping (files are retrieved in their folder context). We developed the GrayArea working prototype using thorough iterative design. We evaluated it by asking 96 participants to 'clean' two folders with, and without, GrayArea. Using GrayArea reduced folder clutter by 13%. Further, 81% of participants found it easier to demote than delete files, and most indicated they would use GrayArea if provided in their operating systems. The results provide strong evidence for the demotion principle suggested by the user-subjective approach.
Keywords: demotion, files, personal information management, subjective importance, user-subjective
Lightweight tagging expands information and activity management practices BIBAKFull-Text 279-288
  Gerard Oleksik; Max L. Wilson; Craig Tashman; Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues; Gabriella Kazai; Gavin Smyth; Natasa Milic-Frayling; Rachel Jones
Could people use tagging to manage day-to-day work in their personal computing environment? Could tagging be sufficiently generic and lightweight to support diverse ways of working and, perhaps, support new and efficient practices for managing applications and accessing documents? We investigate these issues by implementing the TAGtivity system that enables users to tag resources in the context of their ongoing work. We deployed TAGtivity and studied users' tagging practices in their actual work places over a three week period. Our analysis of interviews and logs reveals that affordances of the TAGtivity system supported users in a variety of information and activity management tasks. These include new practices for managing emerging activities and ephemeral information and accessing documents across application data silos.
Keywords: activity management, information management, tagging, user evaluation

Clicking on buttons

Motion-pointing: target selection using elliptical motions BIBAKFull-Text 289-298
  Jean-Daniel Fekete; Niklas Elmqvist; Yves Guiard
We present a novel method called motion-pointing for selecting a set of visual items such as push-buttons without actually pointing to them. Instead, each potential target displays a rhythmically animated point we call the driver. To select a specific item, the user only has to imitate the motion of its driver using the input device. Once the motion has been recognized by the system, the user can confirm the selection to trigger the action. We consider cyclic motions on an elliptic trajectory with a specific period, and study the most effective methods for real-time matching such a trajectory, as well as the range of parameters a human can reliably reproduce. We then show how to implement motion-pointing in real applications using an interaction technique we call move-and-stroke. Finally, we measure the throughput and error rate of move-and-stroke in a controlled experiment. We show that the selection time is linearly proportional to the number of input bits conveyed up to 6 bits, confirming that motion-pointing is a practical input method.
Keywords: alternative input, harmonic motion, oscillatory motion
Providing dynamically changeable physical buttons on a visual display BIBAKFull-Text 299-308
  Chris Harrison; Scott E. Hudson
Physical buttons have the unique ability to provide low-attention and vision-free interactions through their intuitive tactile clues. Unfortunately, the physicality of these interfaces makes them static, limiting the number and types of user interfaces they can support. On the other hand, touch screen technologies provide the ultimate interface flexibility, but offer no inherent tactile qualities. In this paper, we describe a technique that seeks to occupy the space between these two extremes -- offering some of the flexibility of touch screens, while retaining the beneficial tactile properties of physical interfaces.
   The outcome of our investigations is a visual display that contains deformable areas, able to produce physical buttons and other interface elements. These tactile features can be dynamically brought into and out of the interface, and otherwise manipulated under program control. The surfaces we describe provide the full dynamics of a visual display (through rear projection) as well as allowing for multitouch input (though an infrared lighting and camera setup behind the display). To illustrate the tactile capabilities of the surfaces, we describe a number of variations we uncovered in our exploration and prototyping. These go beyond simple on/off actuation and can be combined to provide a range of different possible tactile expressions. A preliminary user study indicates that our dynamic buttons perform much like physical buttons in tactile search tasks.
Keywords: barometric, dashboard, dynamic buttons, eyes-free, haptic, input, multitouch, physical interfaces, pneumatic, pressure, programmatically controlled, rear projection, shape displays, tactile
The performance of touch screen soft buttons BIBAKFull-Text 309-318
  Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai
The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments include: a comparison of soft button and hard button performance; the impact of audio and vibrato-tactile feedback; the impact of different types of touch sensors on use, behavior, and performance; a quantitative comparison of finger and stylus operation; and an assessment of the impact of soft button sizes below the traditional 22 mm recommendation as well as below finger width.
Keywords: buttons, feedback, finger, input, keyboard, mobile, stylus, tangible interface, touch screen

Privacy and trust

Timing is everything?: the effects of timing and placement of online privacy indicators BIBAKFull-Text 319-328
  Serge Egelman; Janice Tsai; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Alessandro Acquisti
Many commerce websites post privacy policies to address Internet shoppers' privacy concerns. However, few users read or understand them. Iconic privacy indicators may make privacy policies more accessible and easier for users to understand: in this paper, we examine whether the timing and placement of online privacy indicators impact Internet users' browsing and purchasing decisions. We conducted a laboratory study where we controlled the placement of privacy information, the timing of its appearance, the privacy level of each website, and the price and items being purchased. We found that the timing of privacy information had a significant impact on how much of a premium users were willing to pay for privacy. We also found that timing had less impact when users were willing to examine multiple websites. Finally, we found that users paid more attention to privacy indicators when purchasing privacy-sensitive items than when purchasing items that raised minimal privacy concerns.
Keywords: mental models, privacy, privacy policies, timing, usable privacy and security, website indicators
Designing trustworthy situated services: an implicit and explicit assessment of locative images-effect on trust BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
  Vassilis Kostakos; Ian Oakley
This paper examines a visual design element unique to situated, hot-spot style, services: locativeness. This is the extent to which the media representing a service relates to its immediate physical environment. This paper explores the effect of locativeness on trust with two studies assessing user attitudes in depth. The first is an implicit, or preconscious, test and the second an explicit test based on voiced value judgments. To provide a richer context, the second study contrasts locativeness with other traditional aspects of design: branding and quality. The results indicate users have a strong implicit association between locative images and trust, and that this is partially reflected in their explicit choices. This is an important interface aspect that designers should consider in order to create trustworthy situated services.
Keywords: empirical evaluation, phishing, situated services, trust
Social computing privacy concerns: antecedents and effects BIBAKFull-Text 333-336
  Oded Nov; Sunil Wattal
Social computing systems are increasingly a part of people's social environment. Inherent to such communities is the collection and sharing of personal information, which in turn may raise concerns about privacy. In this study, we extend prior research on internet privacy to address questions about antecedents of privacy concerns in social computing communities, as well as the impact of privacy concerns in such communities. The results indicate that users' trust in other community members, and the community's information sharing norms have a negative impact on community-specific privacy concerns. We also find that community-specific privacy concerns not only lead users to adopt more restrictive information sharing settings, but also reduce the amount of information they share with the community. In addition, we find that information sharing is impacted by network centrality and the tenure of the user in the community. Implications of the study for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Flickr, photo sharing, privacy concerns, social computing, trust

Accessibility/special needs

An enhanced musical experience for the deaf: design and evaluation of a music display and a haptic chair BIBAKFull-Text 337-346
  Suranga Nanayakkara; Elizabeth Taylor; Lonce Wyse; S. H. Ong
Music is a multi-dimensional experience informed by much more than hearing alone, and is thus accessible to people of all hearing abilities. In this paper we describe a prototype system designed to enrich the experience of music for the deaf by enhancing sensory input of information via channels other than in-air audio reception by the ear. The system has two main components-a vibrating 'Haptic Chair' and a computer display of informative visual effects that correspond to features of the music. The Haptic Chair provides sensory input of vibrations via touch. This system was developed based on an initial concept guided by information obtained from a background survey conducted with deaf people from multi-ethnic backgrounds and feedback received from two profoundly deaf musicians. A formal user study with 43 deaf participants suggested that the prototype system enhances the musical experience of a deaf person. All of the users preferred either the Haptic Chair alone (54%) or the Haptic Chair with the visual display (46%). The prototype system, especially the Haptic Chair was so enthusiastically received by our subjects that it is possible this system might significantly change the way the deaf community experiences music.
Keywords: assistive technology, deaf, haptic, music visualisation
Longitudinal study of people learning to use continuous voice-based cursor control BIBAKFull-Text 347-356
  Susumu Harada; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Jonathan Malkin; Jeff A. Bilmes; James A. Landay
We conducted a 2.5 week longitudinal study with five motor impaired (MI) and four non-impaired (NMI) participants, in which they learned to use the Vocal Joystick, a voice-based user interface control system. We found that the participants were able to learn the mapping between the vowel sounds and directions used by the Vocal Joystick, and showed marked improvement in their target acquisition performance. At the end of the ten session period, the NMI group reached the same level of performance as the previously measured "expert" Vocal Joystick performance, and the MI group was able to reach 70% of that level. Two of the MI participants were also able to approach the performance of their preferred device, a touchpad. We report on a number of issues that can inform the development of further enhancements in the realm of voice-driven computer control.
Keywords: longitudinal study, motor impairment, pointer control, speech recognition, voice-based interface
Fast gaze typing with an adjustable dwell time BIBAKFull-Text 357-360
  Päivi Majaranta; Ulla-Kaija Ahola; Oleg Spakov
Previous research shows that text entry by gaze using dwell time is slow, about 5-10 words per minute (wpm). These results are based on experiments with novices using a constant dwell time, typically between 450 and 1000 ms. We conducted a longitudinal study to find out how fast novices learn to type by gaze using an adjustable dwell time. Our results show that the text entry rate increased from 6.9 wpm in the first session to 19.9 wpm in the tenth session. Correspondingly, the dwell time decreased from an average of 876 ms to 282 ms, and the error rates decreased from 1.28% to .36%. The achieved typing speed of nearly 20 wpm is comparable with the result of 17.3 wpm achieved in an earlier, similar study with Dasher.
Keywords: gaze input, gaze typing, longitudinal study, text entry
How well do visual verbs work in daily communication for young and old adults? BIBAKFull-Text 361-364
  Xiaojuan Ma; Perry R. Cook
In this paper we study how verbs are visually conveyed in daily communication contexts for both young and old adults. Four visual modes are compared: a single static image, a panel of four static images, an animation, and a video clip. The results reveal age effects, as well as performance differences introduced by lexical verb properties and visual cues. We also suggest guidelines for visual verb creation.
Keywords: age effects, verb visualization, visual communication

Sustainability 1

A sustainable identity: the creativity of an everyday designer BIBAKFull-Text 365-374
  Ron Wakkary; Karen Tanenbaum
In this paper we explore sustainability in interaction design by reframing concepts of user identity and use in a domestic setting. Building on our own work on everyday design and Blevis's Sustainable Interaction Design principles, we present examples from an ethnographic study of families in their homes which illustrate design-in-use: the creative and sustainable ways people appropriate and adapt designed artifacts. We claim that adopting a conception of the user as a creative everyday designer generates a new set of design principles that promote sustainable interaction design.
Keywords: appropriation, design-in-use, domestic, ethnography, everyday design, sustainability, users
A vehicle for research: using street sweepers to explore the landscape of environmental community action BIBAKFull-Text 375-384
  Paul M. Aoki; R. J. Honicky; Alan Mainwaring; Chris Myers; Eric Paulos; Sushmita Subramanian; Allison Woodruff
Researchers are developing mobile sensing platforms to facilitate public awareness of environmental conditions. However, turning such awareness into practical community action and political change requires more than just collecting and presenting data. To inform research on mobile environmental sensing, we conducted design fieldwork with government, private, and public interest stakeholders. In parallel, we built an environmental air quality sensing system and deployed it on street sweeping vehicles in a major U.S. city; this served as a research vehicle by grounding our interviews and affording us status as environmental action researchers. In this paper, we present a qualitative analysis of the landscape of environmental action, focusing on insights that will help researchers frame meaningful technological interventions.
Keywords: air quality sensing, environmental justice, environmental science, mobile participatory sensing, street sweepers
Nourishing the ground for sustainable HCI: considerations from ecologically engaged art BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  Carl DiSalvo; Kirsten Boehner; Nicholas A. Knouf; Phoebe Sengers
Sustainable HCI is now a recognized area of human-computer interaction drawing from a variety of disciplinary approaches, including the arts. How might HCI researchers working on sustainability productively understand the discourses and practices of ecologically engaged art as a means of enriching their own activities? We argue that an understanding of both the history of ecologically engaged art, and the art-historical and critical discourses surrounding it, provide a fruitful entry-point into a more critically aware sustainable HCI. We illustrate this through a consideration of frameworks from the arts, looking specifically at how these frameworks act more as generative devices than prescriptive recipes. Taking artistic influences seriously will require a concomitant rethinking of sustainable HCI standpoints -- a potentially useful exercise for HCI research in general.
Keywords: art, design, reflective HCI, sustainable HCI

Creating thought and self-improvement

Designing for the self: making products that help people become the person they desire to be BIBAKFull-Text 395-404
  John Zimmerman
Product attachment theory describes how people learn to love certain possessions through a process of meaning making. It provides a rich and as yet untapped source of inspiration for driving the practice of experience design. However, there are currently no guidelines that describe how to apply this theory in design practice. Taking a research through design approach, I made many different products with the goal of helping people become the person they desire to be through their product interactions. Then, in order to better understand how the different design teams applied attachment theory, I created a set of design patterns that document the application of product attachment theory to the interaction design of each product. I clustered the patterns based on similarities across the different artifacts, and this produced six framing constructs, which work as specific perspectives designers can take when applying product attachment theory in an experience design project.
Keywords: attachment, designing for the self, experience design, loved objects, product attachment
Theory-driven design strategies for technologies that support behavior change in everyday life BIBAKFull-Text 405-414
  Sunny Consolvo; David W. McDonald; James A. Landay
In this paper, we propose design strategies for persuasive technologies that help people who want to change their everyday behaviors. Our strategies use theory and prior work to substantially extend a set of existing design goals. Our extensions specifically account for social characteristics and other tactics that should be supported by persuasive technologies that target long-term discretionary use throughout everyday life. We used these strategies to design and build a system that encourages people to lead a physically active lifestyle. Results from two field studies of the system -- a three-week trial and a three-month experiment -- have shown that the system was successful at helping people maintain a more physically active lifestyle and validate the usefulness of the strategies.
Keywords: behavior change, design strategies, everyday life, lifestyle, mobile phone, persuasive technology, physical activity
(Perceived) interactivity: does interactivity increase enjoyment and creative identity in artistic spaces? BIBAKFull-Text 415-418
  Amy L. Gonzales; Thomas Finley; Stuart Paul Duncan
The HCI community often operates under the assumption that interactivity enhances the user experience. In this study we are particularly interested in whether interactivity enhances an artistic experience by either promoting or constraining an audience's enjoyment and creative identity. The goal of the study was to test two research questions in an experimental context: 1.) How does interactive art impact user satisfaction, and 2.) How does interactive art shape the self-concept of the user as creative? Participants interacted with the system in the Interaction (34 pairs) or No Interaction (37 pairs) condition. Findings reveal that perceptions of interactivity correlate with user satisfaction, but do not influence user identity.
Keywords: creativity, identity, interactive art, music installation, user enjoyment
Learning from IKEA hacking: I'm not one to decoupage a tabletop and call it a day. BIBAKFull-Text 419-422
  Daniela Rosner; Jonathan Bean
We present a qualitative study based on interviews with nine IKEA Hackers -- people who go online to share the process of repurposing IKEA products to create personalized objects. Whether they were making a self-conscious artistic statement or simply modifying a towel rack to fit in a small bathroom, IKEA hackers illuminate an emergent practice that provides insights into contemporary changes in creativity. We discuss the motivations for IKEA hacking and explore the impact of information technology on do-it-yourself culture, design, and HCI.
Keywords: DIY, Ikea, creative tools, design

Telepresence and online media

More than face-to-face: empathy effects of video framing BIBAKFull-Text 423-432
  David T. Nguyen; John Canny
Video conferencing attempts to convey subtle cues of face-to-face interaction (F2F), but it is generally believed to be less effective than F2F. We argue that careful design based on an understanding of non-verbal communication can mitigate these differences. In this paper, we study the effects of video image framing in one-on-one meetings on empathy formation. We alter the video image by framing the display such that, in one condition, only the head is visible while, in the other condition, the entire upper body is visible. We include a F2F control case. We used two measures of dyad empathy and found a significant difference between head-only framing and both upper-body framing and F2F, but no significant difference between upper-body framing and F2F.
   Based on these and earlier results, we present some design heuristics for video conferencing systems. We revisit earlier negative experimental results on video systems in the light of these new experiments. We conclude that for systems that preserve both gaze and upper-body cues, there is no evidence of deficit in communication effectiveness compared to face-to-face meetings.
Keywords: empathy, oneness, video conferencing
Movable cameras enhance social telepresence in media spaces BIBAKFull-Text 433-442
  Hideyuki Nakanishi; Yuki Murakami; Kei Kato
Media space is a promising but still immature technology to connect distributed sites. We developed a simple additional function that moved a remote camera forward when a local user approached a display so that the approach was amplified by a remote person's expanding image accompanied by motion parallax. We conducted an experiment in which we observed that a movable camera enhanced social telepresence, which is the feeling of facing a remote person in the same room. Despite the camera's movement, subjects believed that the camera did not move and a zoom-in function expanded the image. Surprisingly, a zoom-in camera that expanded the image as the movable camera did, however, was ineffective probably because of a lack of motion parallax. Although we explained nothing about the camera, most subjects noticed that their walking caused the view's expansion. If a remote person initiated the camera's movement, social telepresence could not be enhanced.
Keywords: media space, motion parallax, telepresence
NewsCube: delivering multiple aspects of news to mitigate media bias BIBAKFull-Text 443-452
  Souneil Park; Seungwoo Kang; Sangyoung Chung; Junehwa Song
The bias in the news media is an inherent flaw of the news production process. The resulting bias often causes a sharp increase in political polarization and in the cost of conflict on social issues such as Iraq war. It is very difficult, if not impossible, for readers to have penetrating views on realities against such bias. This paper presents NewsCube, a novel Internet news service aiming at mitigating the effect of media bias. NewsCube automatically creates and promptly provides readers with multiple classified viewpoints on a news event of interest. As such, it effectively helps readers understand a fact from a plural of viewpoints and formulate their own, more balanced viewpoints. While media bias problem has been studied extensively in communications and social sciences, our work is the first to develop a news service as a solution and study its effect. We discuss the effect of the service through various user studies.
Keywords: aspect-level browsing, media bias, news, news distribution service

Learning challenges

Creating a spoken impact: encouraging vocalization through audio visual feedback in children with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 453-462
  Joshua Hailpern; Karrie Karahalios; James Halle
One hallmark difficulty of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) centers on communication and speech. Research into computer visualizations of voice has been shown to influence conversational patterns and allow users to reflect upon their speech. In this paper, we present the Spoken Impact Project (SIP), an effort to examine the effect of audio and visual feedback on vocalizations in low-functioning children with ASD by providing them with additional means of understanding and exploring their voice. This research spans over 12 months, including the creation of multiple software packages and detailed analysis of more than 20 hours of experimental video. SIP demonstrates the potential of computer generated audio and visual feedback to encourage vocalizations of children with ASD.
Keywords: accessibility, autism, children, speech, visualization, vocalization
Autism online: a comparison of word usage in bloggers with and without autism spectrum disorders BIBAKFull-Text 463-466
  A. Taylor Newton; Adam D. I. Kramer; Daniel N. McIntosh
The Internet has become a place of refuge for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular, weblogs are a popular option for personal expression via the Internet. Perhaps this means of communication is well suited to bypassing deficits in social interaction and communication that characterize ASD. Using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) dictionaries [10], we compared blogs of individuals with ASD to the writing of neurotypical (NT) bloggers. We found that rates of word usage were nearly identical in the two groups with one exception -- there was more variation in the use of social words in ASD compared to NT blogs. This similarity in language between ASD and NT authors suggests that communication deficits routinely found in people with ASD may be due to the social context in which their communication skills are tested, and that the affordances of asynchronous computer-mediated communication may offer alternative means of testing and expression.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, blogs, comparative text analysis, liwc, unobtrusive methodology, word usage
Design of haptic interfaces for therapy BIBAKFull-Text 467-470
  Cati Vaucelle; Leonardo Bonanni; Hiroshi Ishii
Touch is fundamental to our emotional well-being. Medical science is starting to understand and develop touch-based therapies for autism spectrum, mood, anxiety and borderline disorders. Based on the most promising touch therapy protocols, we are presenting the first devices that simulate touch through haptic devices to bring relief and assist clinical therapy for mental health. We present several haptic systems that enable medical professionals to facilitate the collaboration between patients and doctors and potentially pave the way for a new form of non-invasive treatment that could be adapted from use in care-giving facilities to public use. We developed these prototypes working closely with a team of mental health professionals.
Keywords: haptics, health care, psychotherapy, tangible user interfaces, touch therapy, wearable computing

Tangibles on tables

Dynamic mapping of physical controls for tabletop groupware BIBAKFull-Text 471-480
  Rebecca Fiebrink; Dan Morris; Meredith Ringel Morris
Multi-touch interactions are a promising means of control for interactive tabletops. However, a lack of precision and tactile feedback makes multi-touch controls a poor fit for tasks where precision and feedback are crucial. We present an approach that offers precise control and tactile feedback for tabletop systems through the integration of dynamically re-mappable physical controllers with the multi-touch environment, and we demonstrate this approach in our collaborative tabletop audio editing environment. An observational user study demonstrates that our approach can provide needed precision and feedback, while preserving the collaborative benefits of a shared direct-manipulation surface. Our observations also suggest that direct touch and physical controllers can offer complementary benefits, and that providing both allows users to adjust their control strategy based on considerations including precision, convenience, visibility, and user role.
Keywords: interactive tabletops, surface computing
SLAP widgets: bridging the gap between virtual and physical controls on tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 481-490
  Malte Weiss; Julie Wagner; Yvonne Jansen; Roger Jennings; Ramsin Khoshabeh; James D. Hollan; Jan Borchers
We present Silicone iLluminated Active Peripherals (SLAP), a system of tangible, translucent widgets for use on multitouch tabletops. SLAP Widgets are cast from silicone or made of acrylic, and include sliders, knobs, keyboards, and buttons. They add tactile feedback to multi-touch tables, improving input accuracy. Using rear projection, SLAP Widgets can be relabeled dynamically, providing inexpensive, battery-free, and untethered augmentations. Furthermore, SLAP combines the flexibility of virtual objects with physical affordances. We evaluate how SLAP Widgets influence the user experience on tabletops compared to virtual controls. Empirical studies show that SLAPWidgets are easy to use and outperform virtual controls significantly in terms of accuracy and overall interaction time.
Keywords: augmented virtuality, dynamic relabeling, multi-touch, tabletop interaction, tangible user interfaces, toolkit, transparent widgets
Touch and toys: new techniques for interaction with a remote group of robots BIBAKFull-Text 491-500
  Cheng Guo; James Everett Young; Ehud Sharlin
Interaction with a remote team of robots in real time is a difficult human-robot interaction (HRI) problem exacerbated by the complications of unpredictable real-world environments, with solutions often resorting to a larger-than-desirable ratio of operators to robots. We present two innovative interfaces that allow a single operator to interact with a group of remote robots. Using a tabletop computer the user can configure and manipulate groups of robots directly by either using their fingers (touch) or by manipulating a set of physical toys (tangible user interfaces). We recruited participants to partake in a user study that required them to interact with a small group of remote robots in simple tasks, and present our findings as a set of design considerations.
Keywords: human-robot interaction, robot teams, tabletop computing, tangible user interfaces, touch interfaces

Computer mediated communication 1

Butler lies: awareness, deception and design BIBAKFull-Text 517-526
  Jeff Hancock; Jeremy Birnholtz; Natalya Bazarova; Jamie Guillory; Josh Perlin; Barrett Amos
Instant messaging (IM) is a common and popular way for co-workers, Friends, and family to stay in touch, but its always-on properties can sometimes lead people to feel overexposed or too readily available to others for conversation. This, in turn, may lead people to deceive others about their actual status or availability. In this paper, we introduce the notion of the "butler lie to describe lies that allow for polite initiation and termination of conversations. We present results from a field study of 50 IM users, in which participants rated each of their messages at the time of sending to indicate whether or not it was deceptive. About one tenth of all IM messages were rated as lies and, of these, about one fifth were butler lies. These results suggest that butler lies are an important social practice in IM, and that existing approaches to interpersonal awareness, which focus on accurate assessment of availability, may need to take deception and other social practices into account.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, deception, instant messaging, interpersonal awareness
In CMC we trust: the role of similarity BIBAKFull-Text 527-536
  Lauren E. Scissors; Alastair J. Gill; Kathleen Geraghty; Darren Gergle
This paper examines how different forms of linguistic similarity in a text-chat environment relate to the establishment of interpersonal trust. Sixty-two pairs played an iterative social dilemma investment game and periodically communicated via Instant Messenger (IM). Novel automated and manual analysis techniques identify linguistic similarity at content, structural and stylistic levels. Results reveal that certain types of content (some positive emotion words, task-related words), structural (verb tense, phrasal entrainment), and stylistic (emoticons) similarity characterize high trusting pairs while other types of similarity (e.g., negative emotion words) characterize low trusting pairs. Contrary to previous literature, this suggests that not all similarity is good similarity.
Keywords: instant messaging (IM), language, lexical entrainment, linguistic similarity, social dilemma, trust
Visualizing real-time language-based feedback on teamwork behavior in computer-mediated groups BIBAKFull-Text 537-546
  Gilly Leshed; Diego Perez; Jeffrey T. Hancock; Dan Cosley; Jeremy Birnholtz; Soyoung Lee; Poppy L. McLeod; Geri Gay
While most collaboration technologies are concerned with supporting particular tasks such as workflows or meetings, many work groups do not have the teamwork skills essential to effective collaboration. One way to improve teamwork is to provide dynamic feedback generated by automated analyses of behavior, such as language use. Such feedback can lead members to reflect on and subsequently improve their collaborative behavior, but might also distract from the task at hand. We have experimented with GroupMeter -- a chat-based system that presents visual feedback on team members' language use. Feedback on proportion of agreement words and overall word count was presented using two different designs. When receiving feedback, teams in our study expressed more agreement in their conversations and reported greater focus on language use as compared to when not receiving feedback. This suggests that automated, real-time linguistic feedback can elicit behavioral changes, offering opportunities for future research.
Keywords: cmc, cscw, feedback visualization, linguistic analysis, peripheral displays, teamwork

Non-traditional interaction techniques

Fly: a tool to author planar presentations BIBAKFull-Text 547-556
  Leonhard Lichtschlag; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
Modern presentation software is still built around interaction metaphors adapted from traditional slide projectors. We provide an analysis of the problems in this application genre that presentation authors face and present Fly, a presentation tool that is based on the idea of planar information structures. Inspired by the natural human thought processes of data chunking, association, and spatial memory, Fly explores authoring of presentation documents.
   Evaluation of a paper prototype showed that the planar UI is easily grasped by users, and leads to presentations more closely resembling the information structure of the original content, thus providing better authoring support than the slide metaphor. Our software prototype confirmed these results, and outperformed PowerPoint in a second study for tasks such as prototyping presentations and generating meaningful overviews. Users reported that this interface helped them better to express their concepts, and expressed significant preference for Fly over the traditional slide model.
Keywords: authoring, planar user interfaces, presentation software, slideware, zoomable user interfaces
Hand occlusion with tablet-sized direct pen input BIBAKFull-Text 557-566
  Daniel Vogel; Matthew Cudmore; Géry Casiez; Ravin Balakrishnan; Liam Keliher
We present results from an experiment examining the area occluded by the hand when using a tablet-sized direct pen input device. Our results show that the pen, hand, and forearm can occlude up to 47% of a 12 inch display. The shape of the occluded area varies between participants due to differences in pen grip rather than simply anatomical differences. For the most part, individuals adopt a consistent posture for long and short selection tasks. Overall, many occluded pixels are located higher relative to the pen than previously thought. From the experimental data, a five-parameter scalable circle and pivoting rectangle geometric model is presented which captures the general shape of the occluded area relative to the pen position. This model fits the experimental data much better than the simple bounding box model often used implicitly by designers. The space of fitted parameters also serves to quantify the shape of occlusion. Finally, an initial design for a predictive version of the model is discussed.
Keywords: hand occlusion, pen input, tablet pc
Text entry performance of state of the art unconstrained handwriting recognition: a longitudinal user study BIBAKFull-Text 567-570
  Per Ola Kristensson; Leif C. Denby
We report on a longitudinal study of unconstrained handwriting recognition performance. After 250 minutes of practice, participants had a mean text entry rate of 24.1 wpm. For the first four hours of usage, entry and error rates of handwriting recognition are about the same as for a baseline QWERTY software keyboard. Our results reveal that unconstrained handwriting is faster than what was previously assumed in the text entry literature.
Keywords: handwriting, handwriting recognition, software keyboard
Wetpaint: scraping through multi-layered images BIBAKFull-Text 571-574
  Leonardo Bonanni; Xiao Xiao; Matthew Hockenberry; Praveen Subramani; Hiroshi Ishii; Maurizio Seracini; Jurgen Schulze
We introduce a technique for exploring multi-layered images by scraping arbitrary areas to determine meaningful relationships. Our system, called Wetpaint, uses perceptual depth cues to help users intuitively navigate between corresponding layers of an image, allowing a rapid assessment of changes and relationships between different views of the same area. Inspired by art diagnostic techniques, this tactile method could have distinct advantages in the general domain as shown by our user study. We propose that the physical metaphor of scraping facilitates the process of determining correlations between layers of an image because it compresses the process of planning, comparison and annotation into a single gesture. We discuss applications for geography, design, and medicine.
Keywords: large screen, restoration, tangible user interface, touch interface, visualization

In the living room

Computer usage in daily life BIBAKFull-Text 575-584
  Thomas Beauvisage
In this paper we explore the use of computer at home. This work is based on the automatic recording of application focus data in natural situation from a wide representative panel of 661 households with 1,434 users at home over 19 months. To process these large-scale data, we build a two-level classification of PC applications describing the whole PC use. At the household level, we worked on computer usage temporality: we observed two strategies of PC usage reflecting a tension between synchronous and asynchronous usage profiles. At the individual level, we found out that software preferences and usage intensity are rather independent; therefore, we distinguished five specific profiles of users reflecting strong routine behaviors of computer usage at home. These observations tend to show the strength of routine behaviors in computer usage.
Keywords: computer usage, representative panel, user generated events, user profiles
Of social television comes home: a field study of communication choices and practices in tv-based text and voice chat BIBAKFull-Text 585-594
  Elaine M. Huang; Gunnar Harboe; Joe Tullio; Ashley Novak; Noel Massey; Crysta J. Metcalf; Guy Romano
Social television applications have emerged as a potentially valuable convergence of media and communication, but questions remain about the utility and nature of the communication experiences they will provide. We present our study of STV3, an application that adds freeform text and voice chat capabilities to the conventional television-viewing experience. We conducted an in-depth field study of STV3 to understand how friends integrate communication through social television into their lives. Our results reveal users' choices of communication modality, their topics of conversation, and the sense of connectedness that was fostered through their use of STV3. Our findings indicate that participants overwhelmingly preferred text chat to voice chat, and that they often communicated about topics unrelated to the television content.
Keywords: cmc, communication, field studies, interactive television, social television
Supporting the social uses of television: sociability heuristics for social tv BIBAKFull-Text 595-604
  David Geerts; Dirk De Grooff
Various social television systems and applications, enabling remote communication and interaction between viewers, are currently in development. Although usability guidelines exist for interactive television to ensure a usable system, there are no sociability guidelines for designing or evaluating the social interaction these systems enable. In this paper we present twelve sociability heuristics for evaluating social TV, based on several user studies with social TV systems.
Keywords: evaluation, heuristics, sociability, social television

Information foraging

An elementary social information foraging model BIBAKFull-Text 605-614
  Peter Pirolli
User interfaces and information systems have become increasingly social in recent years, aimed at supporting the decentralized, cooperative production and use of content. A theory that predicts the impact of interface and interaction designs on such factors as participation rates and knowledge discovery is likely to be useful. This paper reviews a variety of observed phenomena in social information foraging and sketches a framework extending Information Foraging Theory towards making predictions about the effects of diversity, interference, and cost-of-effort on performance time, participation rates, and utility of discoveries.
Keywords: social information foraging theory
Remembrance of things tagged: how tagging effort affects tag production and human memory BIBAKFull-Text 615-624
  Raluca Budiu; Peter Pirolli; Lichan Hong
We developed a low-effort interaction method called Click2Tag for social bookmarking. Information foraging theory predicts that the production of tags will increase as the effort required to do so is lowered, while the amount of time invested decreases. However, models of human memory suggest that changes in the tagging process may affect subsequent human memory for the tagged material. We compared (1) low-effort tagging by mouse-clicking (Click2Tag), (2) traditional tagging by typing (type-to-tag), and (3) baseline, no tagging conditions. Our results suggest that (a) Click2Tag increases tagging rates, (b) Click2Tag improves recognition of facts from the tagged text when compared to type-to-tag, and (c) Click2Tag is comparable to the no-tagging baseline condition on recall measures. Results suggest that tagging by clicking strengthens the memory traces by repeated readings of relevant words in the text and, thus, improves recognition.
Keywords: information foraging theory, memory, social bookmarking, tagging
Signpost from the masses: learning effects in an exploratory social tag search browser BIBAKFull-Text 625-634
  Yvonne Kammerer; Rowan Nairn; Peter Pirolli; Ed H. Chi
Social tagging arose out of the need to organize found content that is worth revisiting. A significant side effect has been the use of social tagging sites as navigational signposts for interesting content. The collective behavior of users who tagged contents seems to offer a good basis for exploratory search interfaces, even for users who are not using social bookmarking sites. In this paper, we present the design of a tag-based exploratory system and detail an experiment in understanding its effectiveness. The tag-based search system allows users to utilize relevance feedback on tags to indicate their interest in various topics, enabling rapid exploration of the topic space. The experiment shows that the system seems to provide a kind of scaffold for users to learn new topics.
Keywords: exploratory interfaces, exploratory search, information seeking, social search, social tagging

Prototyping and interaction

The people-prototype problem: understanding the interaction between prototype format and user group BIBAKFull-Text 635-638
  Katherine M. Sellen; Micheal A. Massimi; Danielle M. Lottridge; Khai N. Truong; Sean A. Bittle
When gathering feedback about an envisioned system, prototypes communicate design ideas to user groups. However, it is unclear how user responses are affected by prototype format. We conducted a 2x2 quasi-experiment (video /storyboard format x older and younger user groups) to test for an interaction between prototype format and user group. We found a significant interaction between prototype format and responses across user groups. Our results indicate that differences in user responses can be misinterpreted as the result of user group characteristics. We advise using multiple prototype formats to counteract a 'media effect'. Alternatively, we advise using storyboards for a smaller 'media effect'.
Keywords: eldercare, prototyping, scenario based design, storyboard, video

Understanding UI 1

Accounting for diversity in subjective judgments BIBAKFull-Text 639-648
  Evangelos Karapanos; Jean-Bernard Martens; Marc Hassenzahl
In this paper we argue against averaging as a common practice in the analysis of subjective attribute judgments, both across and within subjects. Previous work has raised awareness of the diversity between individuals' perceptions. In this paper it will furthermore become apparent that such diversity can also exist within a single individual, in the sense that different attribute judgments from a subject may reveal different, complementary, views. A Multi-Dimensional Scaling approach that accounts for the diverse views on a set of stimuli is proposed and its added value is illustrated using published data. We will illustrate that the averaging analysis provides insight to only 1/6th of the total number of attributes in the example dataset. The proposed approach accounts for more than double the information obtained from the average model, and provides richer and semantically diverse views on the set of stimuli.
Keywords: multi-dimensional scaling, quantitative methods, repertory grid, subjective judgments, user experience


A survey of software learnability: metrics, methodologies and guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 649-658
  Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice; Ramtin Attar
It is well-accepted that learnability is an important aspect of usability, yet there is little agreement as to how learnability should be defined, measured, and evaluated. In this paper, we present a survey of the previous definitions, metrics, and evaluation methodologies which have been used for software learnability. Our survey of evaluation methodologies leads us to a new question-suggestion protocol, which, in a user study, was shown to expose a significantly higher number of learnability issues in comparison to a more traditional think-aloud protocol. Based on the issues identified in our study, we present a classification system of learnability issues, and demonstrate how these categories can lead to guidelines for addressing the associated challenges.
Keywords: evaluation, learnability, learning, question-suggestion, software, think-aloud, usability
Undo and erase events as indicators of usability problems BIBAKFull-Text 659-668
  David Akers; Matthew Simpson; Robin Jeffries; Terry Winograd
One approach to reducing the costs of usability testing is to facilitate the automatic detection of critical incidents: serious breakdowns in interaction that stand out during software use. This research evaluates the use of undo and erase events as indicators of critical incidents in Google SketchUp (a 3D-modeling application), measuring an indicator's usefulness by the numbers and types of usability problems discovered. We compared problems identified using undo and erase events to problems identified using the user-reported critical incident technique [Hartson and Castillo 1998]. In a within-subjects experiment with 35 participants, undo and erase episodes together revealed over 90% of the problems rated as severe, several of which would not have been discovered by self-report alone. Moreover, problems found by all three methods were rated as significantly more severe than those identified by only a subset of methods. These results suggest that undo and erase events will serve as useful complements to user-reported critical incidents for low cost usability evaluation of creation-oriented applications like SketchUp.
Keywords: critical incidents, erase, google sketchup, undo, usability testing, user-reported critcial incident technique

Cross culture CMC

Cultural difference and adaptation of communication styles in computer-mediated group brainstorming BIBAKFull-Text 669-678
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Susan F. Fussell; Leslie D. Setlock
Supporting creativity via collaborative group brainstorming is a prevalent practice in organizations. Today's technology makes it easy for international and intercultural group members to brainstorm together remotely, but surprisingly little is known about how culture and medium shape the underlying brainstorming process. In a laboratory study, we examined the influences of individual cultural background (American versus Chinese), group cultural composition (same- versus mixed-culture groups), and communication medium (text-only versus video-enabled chatrooms) on group brainstorming conversations. Cultural differences and adaptation in conversational talkativeness and responsiveness were identified. The text-only medium reduced cultural differences in talkativeness. Working in a mixed-culture group led to cultural adaptation in the communication style of Chinese but not American participants. We discuss implications for international group brainstorming.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, cross-cultural communication, group brainstorming, group creativity
Difficulties in establishing common ground in multiparty groups using machine translation BIBAKFull-Text 679-688
  Naomi Yamashita; Rieko Inaba; Hideaki Kuzuoka; Toru Ishida
When people communicate in their native languages using machine translation, they face various problems in constructing common ground. This study investigates the difficulties of constructing common ground when multiparty groups (consisting of more than two language communities) communicate using machine translation. We compose triads whose members come from three different language communities -- China, Korea, and Japan -- and compare their referential communication under two conditions: in their shared second language (English) and in their native languages using machine translation. Consequently, our study suggests the importance of not only grounding between speaker and addressee but also grounding between addressees in constructing effective machine-translation-mediated communication. Furthermore, to successfully build common ground between addressees, it seems important for them to be able to monitor what is going on between a speaker and other addressees.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, grounding, machine translation
Resilience through technology adoption: merging the old and the new in Iraq BIBAKFull-Text 689-698
  Gloria J. Mark; Ban Al-Ani; Bryan Semaan
Citizen response to disaster has begun to receive attention in the CHI community but little attention has so far been given to how citizens use technology to adapt when their country is at war. We report on an ethnographic interview study of how technology was adopted and used by citizens to be resilient during wartime. We interviewed 45 Iraqi citizens experiencing the current Iraq war. Based on our data we identified properties of resilience: reconfiguring social networks, self-organization, redundancy, proactive practices, and repairing trust in information. Technology supported people in being resilient by enabling them to control identity, to collaborate in travel, to create an organizational memory, and to provide alternative sources of news and information. As people adopted and used technology to be resilient we found a merging of old and new cultural practices. We discuss these systemic changes and describe implications for how technology can support people in being resilient in disrupted environments.
Keywords: culture, disrupted environments, resilience, technology adoption

Scientometric analysis of the CHI proceedings

Scientometric analysis of the CHI proceedings BIBAKFull-Text 699-708
  Christoph Bartneck; Jun Hu
The CHI conference has grown rapidly over the last 26 years. We present a quantitative analysis on the countries and organizations that contribute to its success. Only 7.8 percent of the countries are responsible for 80 percent of the papers in the CHI proceedings, and the USA is clearly the country with most papers. But the success of a country or organization does not depend only on the number of accepted papers, but also on their quality. We present a ranking of countries and organizations based on the h index, an indicator that tries to balance the quantity and quality of scientific output based on a bibliometric analysis. The bibliometric analysis also allowed us to demonstrate the difficulty of judging quality. The papers acknowledged by the best paper award committee were not cited more often than a random sample of papers from the same years. The merit of the award is therefore unclear, and it might be worthwhile to allow the visitor to the conference to vote for the best paper.
Keywords: bibliometrics, chi, g index, h index, history, quality

User experience

From interaction to trajectories: designing coherent journeys through user experiences BIBAKFull-Text 709-718
  Steve Benford; Gabriella Giannachi; Boriana Koleva; Tom Rodden
The idea of interactional trajectories through interfaces has emerged as a sensitizing concept from recent studies of tangible interfaces and interaction in museums and galleries. We put this concept to work as a lens to reflect on published studies of complex user experiences that extend over space and time and involve multiple roles and interfaces. We develop a conceptual framework in which trajectories explain these user experiences as journeys through hybrid structures, punctuated by transitions, and in which interactivity and collaboration are orchestrated. Our framework is intended to sensitize future studies, help distill craft knowledge into design guidelines and patterns, identify technology requirements, and provide a boundary object to connect HCI with Performance Studies.
Keywords: collaboration, cultural applications, games, museums, performance, role, space, time, trajectory, user experience
Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: a survey approach BIBAKFull-Text 719-728
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Virpi Roto; Marc Hassenzahl; Arnold P. O. S. Vermeeren; Joke Kort
Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic, context-dependent, and subjective. With respect to the more controversial issues, the authors propose to delineate UX as something individual (instead of social) that emerges from interacting with a product, system, service or an object. The draft ISO definition on UX seems to be in line with the survey findings, although the issues of experiencing anticipated use and the object of UX will require further explication. The outcome of this survey lays ground for understanding, scoping, and defining the concept of user experience.
Keywords: definition, iso, survey, usability, user experience
User experience over time: an initial framework BIBAKFull-Text 729-738
  Evangelos Karapanos; John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi; Jean-Bernard Martens
A recent trend in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research addresses human needs that go beyond the instrumental, resulting in an increasing body of knowledge about how users form overall evaluative judgments on the quality of interactive products. An aspect largely neglected so far is that of temporality, i.e. how the quality of users' experience develops over time. This paper presents an in-depth, five-week ethnographic study that followed 6 individuals during an actual purchase of the Apple iPhone". We found prolonged use to be motivated by different qualities than the ones that provided positive initial experiences. Overall, while early experiences seemed to relate mostly to hedonic aspects of product use, prolonged experiences became increasingly more tied to aspects reflecting how the product becomes meaningful in one's life. Based on the findings, we promote three directions for CHI practice: designing for meaningful mediation, designing for daily rituals, and designing for the self.
Keywords: day reconstruction method, ethnography, experience-centered design, qualitative methods, user experience

In the home

Computer help at home: methods and motivations for informal technical support BIBAKFull-Text 739-748
  Erika Shehan Poole; Marshini Chetty; Tom Morgan; Rebecca E. Grinter; W. Keith Edwards
Prior research suggests that people may ask their family and friends for computer help. But what influences whether and how a "helper" will provide help? To answer this question, we conducted a qualitative investigation of people who participated in computer support activities with family and friends in the past year. We describe how factors including maintenance of one's personal identity as a computer expert and accountability to one's social network determine who receives help and the quality of help provided. We also discuss the complex, fractured relationship between the numerous stakeholders involved in the upkeep of home computing infrastructures. Based on our findings, we provide implications for the design of systems to support informal help-giving in residential settings.
Keywords: help-giving, help-seeking, home computing, identity management, social networks
Extraordinary computing: religion as a lens for reconsidering the home BIBAKFull-Text 749-758
  Susan P. Wyche; Rebecca E. Griner
We present results from a study examining how American Protestant Christians' faith affects their domestic life. There are two contributions of this work for the HCI community. First, we provide empirical evidence demonstrating how topics of interest to HCI researchers (e.g., material artifacts, routines, and ICT use) are used for religious purposes. Our findings show how Christians distinguish these aspects of domestic life from their secular counterparts. Second, we use our findings to reflect on current directions of future domestic ICT applications. Specifically, we critically evaluate the "problem solving approaches dominating the design of future technologies, and present extraordinary computing or systems that promote and honor the special value accorded to some aspects of domestic life.
Keywords: domestic technologies, religion

Q&A systems

Facts or friends?: distinguishing informational and conversational questions in social Q&A sites BIBAKFull-Text 759-768
  F. Maxwell Harper; Daniel Moy; Joseph A. Konstan
Tens of thousands of questions are asked and answered every day on social question and answer (Q&A) Web sites such as Yahoo Answers. While these sites generate an enormous volume of searchable data, the problem of determining which questions and answers are archival quality has grown. One major component of this problem is the prevalence of conversational questions, identified both by Q&A sites and academic literature as questions that are intended simply to start discussion. For example, a conversational question such as "do you believe in evolution?" might successfully engage users in discussion, but probably will not yield a useful web page for users searching for information about evolution. Using data from three popular Q&A sites, we confirm that humans can reliably distinguish between these conversational questions and other informational questions, and present evidence that conversational questions typically have much lower potential archival value than informational questions. Further, we explore the use of machine learning techniques to automatically classify questions as conversational or informational, learning in the process about categorical, linguistic, and social differences between different question types. Our algorithms approach human performance, attaining 89.7% classification accuracy in our experiments.
Keywords: Q&A, machine learning, online community
mimir: a market-based real-time question and answer service BIBAKFull-Text 769-778
  Gary Hsieh; Scott Counts
Community-based question and answer (Q&A) systems facilitate information exchange and enable the creation of reusable knowledge repositories. While these systems are growing in usage and are changing how people find and share information, current designs are inefficient, wasting the time and attention of their users. Furthermore, existing systems do not support signaling and screening of joking and non-serious questions. Coupling Q&A services with instant and text messaging for faster questions and answers may exacerbate these issues, causing Q&A services to incur high interruption costs on their users.
   In this paper we present the design and evaluation of a market-based real-time Q&A system. We compared its use to a similar Q&A system without a market. We found that while markets can reduce wasted resources by reducing the number of less important questions and low quality answers, it may also reduce the socially conducive questions and usages that are vital to sustaining a Q&A community.
Keywords: market, q&a, question and answer, synchronous
Questions in, knowledge in?: a study of Naver's question answering community BIBAKFull-Text 779-788
  Kevin Kyung Nam; Mark S. Ackerman; Lada A. Adamic
Large general-purposed community question-answering sites are becoming popular as a new venue for generating knowledge and helping users in their information needs. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of knowledge generation and user participation behavior in the largest question-answering online community in South Korea, Naver Knowledge-iN. We collected and analyzed over 2.6 million question/answer pairs from fifteen categories between 2002 and 2007, and have interviewed twenty six users to gain insights into their motivations, roles, usage and expertise. We find altruism, learning, and competency are frequent motivations for top answerers to participate, but that participation is often highly intermittent. Using a simple measure of user performance, we find that higher levels of participation correlate with better performance. We also observe that users are motivated in part through a point system to build a comprehensive knowledge database. These and other insights have significant implications for future knowledge generating online communities.
Keywords: online community, question-answering

Looking at videos

SmartPlayer: user-centric video fast-forwarding BIBAKFull-Text 789-798
  Kai-Yin Cheng; Sheng-Jie Luo; Bing-Yu Chen; Hao-Hua Chu
In this paper we propose a new video interaction model called adaptive fast-forwarding to help people quickly browse videos with predefined semantic rules. This model is designed around the metaphor of scenic car driving, in which the driver slows down near areas of interest and speeds through unexciting areas. Results from a preliminary user study of our video player suggest the following: (1) the player should adaptively adjust the current playback speed based on the complexity of the present scene and predefined semantic events; (2) the player should learn user preferences about predefined event types as well as a suitable playback speed; (3) the player should fast-forward the video continuously with a playback rate acceptable to the user to avoid missing any undefined events or areas of interest. Furthermore, our user study results suggest that for certain types of video, our SmartPlayer yields better user experiences in browsing and fast-forwarding videos than existing video players' interaction models.
Keywords: adaptive fast-forward, predefined event detection, undefined event preserving, video playback
Videolyzer: quality analysis of online informational video for bloggers and journalists BIBAKFull-Text 799-808
  Nicholas Diakopoulos; Sergio Goldenberg; Irfan Essa
Tools to aid people in making sense of the information quality of online informational video are essential for media consumers seeking to be well informed. Our application, Videolyzer, addresses the information quality problem in video by allowing politically motivated bloggers or journalists to analyze, collect, and share criticisms of the information quality of online political videos. Our interface innovates by providing a fine-grained and tightly coupled interaction paradigm between the timeline, the time-synced transcript, and annotations. We also incorporate automatic textual and video content analysis to suggest areas of interest for further assessment by a person. We present an evaluation of Videolyzer looking at the user experience, usefulness, and behavior around the novel features of the UI as well as report on the collaborative dynamic of the discourse generated with the tool.
Keywords: computational journalism, information quality, video analysis
What's next?: emergent storytelling from video collection BIBAKFull-Text 809-818
  Edward Yu-Te Shen; Henry Lieberman; Glorianna Davenport
In the world of visual storytelling, narrative development relies on a particular temporal ordering of shots and sequences and scenes. Rarely is this ordering cast in stone. Rather, the particular ordering of a story reflects a myriad of interdependent decisions about the interplay of structure, narrative arc and character development. For storytellers, particularly those developing their narratives from large documentary archives, it would be helpful to have a visualization system partnered with them to present suggestions for the most compelling story path.
   We present Storied Navigation, a video editing system that helps authors compose a sequence of scenes that tell a story, by selecting from a corpus of annotated clips. The clips are annotated in unrestricted natural language. Authors can also type a story in unrestricted English, and the system finds possibilities for clips that best match high-level elements of the story. Beyond simple keyword matching, these elements can include the characters, emotions, themes, and story structure. Authors can also interactively replace existing scenes or predict the next scene to continue a story, based on these characteristics. Storied Navigation gives the author the feel of brainstorming about the story rather than simply editing the media.
Keywords: emergent storytelling, interactive storytelling, storied navigation

Art creation

Musink: composing music through augmented drawing BIBAKFull-Text 819-828
  Theophanis Tsandilas; Catherine Letondal; Wendy E. Mackay
We focus on the creative use of paper in the music composition process, particularly the interaction between paper and end-user programming. When expressing musical ideas, composers draw in a precise way, not just sketch. Working in close collaboration with composers, we designed Musink to provide them with a smooth transition between paper drawings and OpenMusic, a flexible music composition tool. Musink's built-in recognizers handle common needs, such as scoping and annotation. Users can also define new gestures and associate them with their own or predefined software functions. Musink supports semi-structured, delayed interpretation and serves as a customizable gesture browser, giving composers significant freedom to create their own, individualized composition languages and to experiment with music, on-paper and on-line.
Keywords: creativity, end-user programming, gesture interfaces, interactive paper, musical interfaces, participatory design
Passive photography from a creative perspective: "If I would just shoot the same thing for seven days, it's like... What's the point?" BIBAKFull-Text 829-838
  Sara Ljungblad
This paper aims to contribute with an understanding of meaningful experiences of photography, to support reflection upon the design of future camera devices. We have conducted a study of a passive camera device called Sensecam, which previously has been investigated as a memory aid, a combination of life-logging and memory tool and as a resource for digital narratives. We take a creative perspective and show that even if a camera is designed to be forgotten in use (i.e. is worn as a necklace and takes pictures automatically) it can still be part of an engaging or active photographic experience. Because Sensecam is different from film cameras, camera phones and other digital cameras, it involves a different type of photographic experience, for example when moving through different social contexts and how the resulting pictures are appreciated. The findings stem from people who used the camera for a week. This is complemented with reflections from the researcher, who has been using the camera for a month.
Keywords: creative photography, experience-centred design, sensecam
Urban pixels: painting the city with light BIBAKFull-Text 839-848
  Susanne Seitinger; Daniel S. Perry; William J. Mitchell
Urban environments are increasingly filled with digital display systems that are inflexible, flat, bounded, high-resolution, and unresponsive. In this paper, we explore the potential of physically instantiated pixels that enable flexible, reconfigurable, unbounded, low-resolution, and responsive urban displays. Urban Pixels are nodes in a wireless network of physical pixels for urban spaces. Each pixel unit includes a microcontroller, RF transceiver (433 MHz), LED module (ten bright, white LEDs), rechargeable Li-Ion battery pack, IR sensor and renewable energy source such as photo-voltaic cells. Two acrylic half-spheres (4-inch diameter) protect the components from the elements. No additional wiring is needed for communication and the units can be mounted individually to any surface. A small-scale prototype network of fifty Urban Pixels was displayed on a façade of Eden Court Theater in Inverness, Scotland from June 1 - June 7, 2008. The public was encouraged to change display patterns via SMS or to interact with individual units via flashlights. We observed and informally interviewed theater guests and passers-by interacting with the façade for several nights. Based on these results, we outline an exciting problem space for designing displays and lighting systems in cities.
Keywords: ambient media, interaction design, lighting, ubiquitous computing, urban computing, urban display

Programming tools and architectures

ESPranto SDK: an adaptive programming environment for tangible applications BIBAKFull-Text 849-858
  Robert van Herk; Janneke Verhaegh; Willem F. J. Fontijn
This paper describes the ESPranto Software Development Kit, which supports the development of sensor/actuator based applications, most notably educational toys and games. It enables non-technical users, such as parents, teachers, game developers and psychologists, to specify applications by themselves. The SDK allows them to start off quickly with developing simple applications. Then, as their programming skills increase with experience, the SDK supports them to create more complex applications. This is achieved by offering a complete tool chain with one, consistent programming paradigm. Each link is a separate tool offering a tailored amount of flexibility and complexity. To ensure that users can understand the feedback the SDK provides them, it is given in terms of the tool currently used. Furthermore, by preventing runtime errors, a user can be sure a program will work correctly if it compiles. We validated the ESPranto SDK partially by tests, but mainly by monitoring users applying the SDK. In practice the ESPranto SDK indeed proved to meet its design goals for all of its intended users.
Keywords: end-user programming, reactive programming, software development kit, tangible interaction
Support for context-aware intelligibility and control BIBAKFull-Text 859-868
  Anind K. Dey; Alan Newberger
Intelligibility and control are important user concerns in context-aware applications. They allow a user to understand why an application is behaving a certain way, and to change its behavior. Because of their importance to end users, they must be addressed at an interface level. However, often the sensors or machine learning systems that users need to understand and control are created long before a specific application is built, or created separately from the application interface. Thus, supporting interface designers in building intelligibility and control into interfaces requires application logic and underlying infrastructure to be exposed in some structured fashion. As context-aware infrastructures do not provide generalized support for this, we extended one such infrastructure with Situations, components that appropriately exposes application logic, and supports debugging and simple intelligibility and control interfaces, while making it easier for an application developer to build context-aware applications and facilitating designer access to application state and behavior. We developed support for interface designers in Visual Basic and Flash. We demonstrate the usefulness of this support through an evaluation of programmers, an evaluation of the usability of the new infrastructure with interface designers, and the augmentation of three common context-aware applications.
Keywords: context-aware computing, control, design support, intelligibility, toolkits
VIGO: instrumental interaction in multi-surface environments BIBAKFull-Text 869-878
  Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
This paper addresses interaction in multi-surface environments and questions whether the current application-centric approaches to user interfaces are adequate in this context, and presents an alternative approach based on instrumental interaction. The paper presents the VIGO (Views, Instruments, Governors and Objects) architecture and describes a prototype implementation. It then illustrates how to apply VIGO to support distributed interaction. Finally, it demonstrates how a classical Ubicomp interaction technique, Pick-and-Drop, can be easily implemented using VIGO.
Keywords: instrumental interaction, interaction paradigm, multi-surface interaction, ubiquitous computing, ui architecture

The status of ethnography in systems design

Ethnography considered harmful BIBAKFull-Text 879-888
  Andrew Crabtree; Tom Rodden; Peter Tolmie; Graham Button
We review the current status of ethnography in systems design. We focus particularly on new approaches to and understandings of ethnography that have emerged as the computer has moved out of the workplace. These seek to implement a different order of ethnographic study to that which has largely been employed in design to date. In doing so they reconfigure the relationship ethnography has to systems design, replacing detailed empirical studies of situated action with studies that provide cultural interpretations of action and critiques of the design process itself. We hold these new approaches to and understandings of ethnography in design up to scrutiny, with the purpose of enabling designers to appreciate the differences between new and existing approaches to ethnography in systems design and the practical implications this might have for design.
Keywords: ethnography, ethnomethodology, systems design


A comprehensive study of frequency, interference, and training of multiple graphical passwords BIBAKFull-Text 889-898
  Katherine M. Everitt; Tanya Bragin; James Fogarty; Tadayoshi Kohno
Graphical password systems have received significant attention as one potential solution to the need for more usable authentication, but nearly all prior work makes the unrealistic assumption of studying a single password. This paper presents the first study of multiple graphical passwords to systematically examine frequency of access to a graphical password, interference resulting from interleaving access to multiple graphical passwords, and patterns of access while training multiple graphical passwords. We find that all of these factors significantly impact the ease of authenticating using multiple facial graphical passwords. For example, participants who accessed four different graphical passwords per week were ten times more likely to completely fail to authenticate than participants who accessed a single password once per week. Our results underscore the need for more realistic evaluations of the use of multiple graphical passwords, have a number of implications for the adoption of graphical password systems, and provide a new basis for comparing proposed graphical password systems.
Keywords: authentication, graphical passwords, usable security
Real life challenges in access-control management BIBAKFull-Text 899-908
  Lujo Bauer; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Robert W. Reeder; Michael K. Reiter; Kami Vaniea
In this work we ask the question: what are the challenges of managing a physical or file system access-control policy for a large organization? To answer the question, we conducted a series of interviews with thirteen administrators who manage access-control policy for either a file system or a physical space. Based on these interviews we identified three sets of real-world requirements that are either ignored or inadequately addressed by technology: 1) policies are made/implemented by multiple people; 2) policy makers are distinct from policy implementers; and 3) access-control systems don't always have the capability to implement the desired policy. We present our interview results and propose several possible solutions to address the observed issues.
Keywords: access control, policy creation
Awareness, training and trust in interaction with adaptive spam filters BIBAKFull-Text 909-912
  Henriette S. M. Cramer; Vanessa Evers; Maarten W. van Someren; Bob J. Wielinga
Even though adaptive (trainable) spam filters are a common example of systems that make (semi-)autonomous decisions on behalf of the user, trust in these filters has been underexplored. This paper reports a study of usage of spam filters in the daily workplace and user behaviour in training these filters (N=43). User observation, interview and survey techniques were applied to investigate attitudes towards two types of filters: a user-adaptive (trainable) and a rule-based filter. While many of our participants invested extensive effort in training their filters, training did not influence filter trust. Instead, the findings indicate that users' filter awareness and understanding seriously impacts attitudes and behaviour. Specific examples of difficulties related to awareness of filter activity and adaptivity are described showing concerns relevant to all adaptive and (semi-)autonomous systems that rely on explicit user feedback.
Keywords: adaptivity, autonomy, filters, spam, trainable systems
Vibrapass: secure authentication based on shared lies BIBAKFull-Text 913-916
  Alexander De Luca; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Heinrich Hußmann
Authentication in public spaces is a risky task. Frauds on cash machines (ATMs) are not uncommon nowadays. The biggest group of attacks is observation attacks, which focus on recording the input done by the users. In this work, we present VibraPass, a system created to be resilient against observation attacks using tactile feedback provided by the users' own mobile devices. In this way, secret information is shared between the terminal and the users to add an over-head of 'lies' to the input which makes it hard for attackers to steal the real PIN or password. We present an evaluation, which shows that VibraPass has the potential to replace current authentication systems due to increased security combined with reasonable input speed and error rates.
Keywords: authentication, lie input, public terminals, security

Techniques for mobile interaction

Graspables: grasp-recognition as a user interface BIBAKFull-Text 917-926
  Brandon T. Taylor; V. Michael, Jr. Bove
The Graspables project is an exploration of how measuring the way people hold and manipulate objects can be used as a user interface. As computational ability continues to be implemented in more and more objects and devices, new interaction methods need to be developed. The Graspables System is embodied by a physical set of sensors combined with pattern recognition software that can determine how users hold a device. The Graspables System has been implemented in two prototypes, the Bar of Soap and the Ball of Soap. Applications developed for these prototypes demonstrate the effectiveness of grasp-recognition as an interface in multiple scenarios.
Keywords: grasp, user interface
MicroRolls: expanding touch-screen input vocabulary by distinguishing rolls vs. slides of the thumb BIBAKFull-Text 927-936
  Anne Roudaut; Eric Lecolinet; Yves Guiard
The input vocabulary for touch-screen interaction on handhelds is dramatically limited, especially when the thumb must be used. To enrich that vocabulary we propose to discriminate, among thumb gestures, those we call MicroRolls, characterized by zero tangential velocity of the skin relative to the screen surface. Combining four categories of thumb gestures, Drags, Swipes, Rubbings and MicroRolls, with other classification dimensions, we show that at least 16 elemental gestures can be automatically recognized. We also report the results of two experiments showing that the roll vs. slide distinction facilitates thumb input in a realistic copy and paste task, relative to existing interaction techniques.
Keywords: gestures, interaction, microroll, mobile devices, one-handed, rolling/sliding gestures, rollmark, rolltap, selection techniques, thumb interaction, touch-screen
Unravelling seams: improvoing mobile gesture recognition with visual feedback techniques BIBAKFull-Text 937-940
  Sven Kratz; Raphael Ballagas
Gesture recognition is emerging as an engaging interaction technique in mobile scenarios, and high recognition rates promote user acceptance. Several factors influence recognition rates including the nature of the gesture set and the suitability of the gesture recognition algorithm. This work explores how seamfulness in gesture stroke visualization affects recognition rates. We present the results of a user evaluation of a gesture recognition system that shows that raw (seamful) visualization of low-delity gesture stroke data has recognition rates comparable to no feedback. Providing filtered (seamless) stroke visualization to the user, while retaining the un-filtered input data for recognition, resulted in a 34.9% improvement in gesture recognition rate over raw stroke data. The results provide insights into the broader design space of seamful design, and identifies areas where seamlessness is advantageous.
Keywords: gesture recognition, mobile phones, seamful design
Where to locate wearable displays?: reaction time performance of visual alerts from tip to toe BIBAKFull-Text 941-944
  Chris Harrison; Brian Y. Lim; Aubrey Shick; Scott E. Hudson
Advances in electronics have brought the promise of wearable computers to near reality. Such systems can offer a highly personal and mobile information and communication infrastructure. Previous research has investigated where wearable computers can be located on the human body -- critical for successful development and acceptance. However, for a location to be truly useful, it needs to not only be accessible for interaction, socially acceptable, comfortable and sufficiently stable for electronics, but also effective at conveying information. In this paper, we describe the results from a study that evaluated reaction time performance to visual stimuli at seven different body locations. Results indicate that there are numerous and statistically significant differences in the reaction time performance characteristics of these locations. We believe our findings can be used to inform the design and placement of future wearable computing applications and systems.
Keywords: ambient information, design research, reaction time, smart clothes, visual alerts, wearable computing

Social networking sites

Feed me: motivating newcomer contribution in social network sites BIBAKFull-Text 945-954
  Moira Burke; Cameron Marlow; Thomas Lento
Social networking sites (SNS) are only as good as the content their users share. Therefore, designers of SNS seek to improve the overall user experience by encouraging members to contribute more content. However, user motivations for contribution in SNS are not well understood. This is particularly true for newcomers, who may not recognize the value of contribution. Using server log data from approximately 140,000 newcomers in Facebook, we predict long-term sharing based on the experiences the newcomers have in their first two weeks. We test four mechanisms: social learning, singling out, feedback, and distribution.
   In particular, we find support for social learning: newcomers who see their friends contributing go on to share more content themselves. For newcomers who are initially inclined to contribute, receiving feedback and having a wide audience are also predictors of increased sharing. On the other hand, singling out appears to affect only those newcomers who are not initially inclined to share. The paper concludes with design implications for motivating newcomer sharing in online communities.
Keywords: SNS, distribution, feedback, motivating contribution, online communities, production incentives, sharing, singling out, social learning, social network sites
'Helpfulness' in online communities: a measure of message quality BIBAKFull-Text 955-964
  Jahna Otterbacher
Online communities displaying textual postings require measures to combat information overload. One popular approach is to ask participants whether or not messages are helpful in order to then guide others to interesting content. Adopting a well-established framework for assessing data quality, we examine the nature of "helpfulness."We study consumer reviews at Amazon.com, deriving 22 measures quantifying their textual properties, authors' reputations and product characteristics. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals five underlying quality dimensions representing reviewers' reputations in the community, the topical relevancy of the reviews, the ease of understanding them, their believability and objectivity. A correlation and regression analysis confirms that these dimensions are related to the helpfulness scores assigned by community participants. However, it also uncovers a strong relationship between the chronological ordering of reviews and helpfulness, which both community participants and designers should keep in mind when using this method of social navigation.
Keywords: information overload, information quality, online community, product reviews, social navigation
The problem of conflicting social spheres: effects of network structure on experienced tension in social network sites BIBAKFull-Text 965-974
  Jens Binder; Andrew Howes; Alistair Sutcliffe
We propose that a fundamental property of human psychology, the need to maintain independent social spheres, imposes constraints on the use of social network sites (SNS). We particularly focus on the consequences of visibility of communications across social spheres, and we hypothesize that technological features of SNS may bring social spheres in conflict, thus leading to increased levels of online social tension. A survey study among Facebook users was conducted to test this hypothesis. Results showed that diversity of the Facebook network predicted online tension. Moreover, the number of kin in a Facebook network was a crucial component because it predicted online tension whereas number of work and social contacts did not. Further, evidence was found to support the idea that tension might impose an upper limit on network size. We conclude with a discussion of these findings and describe how they support the thrust of recent modifications to SNS designs.
Keywords: SNS, network diversity, online tension, social spheres

Software developers and programmers

Comparing the use of tangible and graphical programming languages for informal science education BIBAKFull-Text 975-984
  Michael S. Horn; Erin Treacy Solovey; R. Jordan Crouser; Robert J. K. Jacob
Much of the work done in the field of tangible interaction has focused on creating tools for learning; however, in many cases, little evidence has been provided that tangible interfaces offer educational benefits compared to more conventional interaction techniques. In this paper, we present a study comparing the use of a tangible and a graphical interface as part of an interactive computer programming and robotics exhibit that we designed for the Boston Museum of Science. In this study, we have collected observations of 260 museum visitors and conducted interviews with 13 family groups. Our results show that visitors found the tangible and the graphical systems equally easy to understand. However, with the tangible interface, visitors were significantly more likely to try the exhibit and significantly more likely to actively participate in groups. In turn, we show that regardless of the condition, involving multiple active participants leads to significantly longer interaction times. Finally, we examine the role of children and adults in each condition and present evidence that children are more actively involved in the tangible condition, an effect that seems to be especially strong for girls.
Keywords: children, education, informal science education, museums, programming languages, tangible user interfaces, tern
Designers wanted: participation and the user experience in open source software development BIBAKFull-Text 985-994
  Paula M. Bach; Robert DeLine; John M. Carroll
We present design concepts and related mockups that support the user experience for projects hosted on CodePlex, an open source project hosting website. Rationale for the design concepts is grounded in the open source literature and a thirteen-week study with the CodePlex team. We propose that fostering ways to build trust, providing opportunities for merit, supporting crossover of work activities, and supporting user experience (UX) best practices in CodePlex will help dismantle the social and technological barriers for UX and encourage UX designer participation. We address UX designer motivation as a challenge for participation and conclude that the mockups presented are a first step in furthering the user experience in open source software development.
Keywords: codeplex, communities of practice, design, open source software, software development, user experience
Understanding how and why open source contributors use diagrams in the development of Ubuntu BIBAKFull-Text 995-1004
  Koji Yatani; Eunyoung Chung; Carlos Jensen; Khai N. Truong
Some of the most interesting differences between Open Source Software (OSS) development and commercial co-located software development lie in the communication and collaboration practices of these two groups of developers. One interesting practice is that of diagramming. Though well studied and important in many aspects of co-located software development (including communication and collaboration among developers), its role in OSS development has not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we report our investigation on how and why Ubuntu contributors use diagrams in their work. Our study shows that diagrams are not actively used in many scenarios where they commonly would in co-located software development efforts. We describe differences in the use and practices of diagramming, their possible reasons, and present design considerations for potential systems aimed at better supporting diagram use in OSS development.
Keywords: diagramming, open source software (oss), software development, visual representation

Large displays/multi-display environments

Comparing usage of a large high-resolution display to single or dual desktop displays for daily work BIBAKFull-Text 1005-1014
  Xiaojun Bi; Ravin Balakrishnan
With the ever increasing amount of digital information, users desire more screen real estate to process their daily computing work, and might well benefit from using a wall-size large high-resolution display instead of a desktop one. Unfortunately, we know very little about users' behaviors when using such a display for daily computing. We present a week-long study that investigates large display use in a personal desktop computing context by comparing it with single and dual desktop monitor use. Results show users' unanimous preference for using a large display: it facilitates multi-window and rich information tasks, enhances users' awareness of peripheral applications, and offers a more immersive experience. Further, the data reveals distinct usage patterns in partitioning screen real estate and managing windows on a large display. Detailed analysis of these results provides insights into designing interaction techniques and window management systems more suited to a large display.
Keywords: large display, personal desktop work
DICE: designing conference rooms for usability BIBAKFull-Text 1015-1024
  Gene Golovchinsky; Pernilla Qvarfordt; Bill van Melle; Scott Carter; Tony Dunnigan
One of the core challenges now facing smart rooms is supporting realistic, everyday activities. While much research has been done to push forward the frontiers of novel interaction techniques, we argue that technology geared toward widespread adoption requires a design approach that emphasizes straightforward configuration and control, as well as flexibility. We examined the work practices of users of a large, multi-purpose conference room, and designed DICE, a system to help them use the room's capabilities. We describe the design process, and report findings about the system's usability and about people's use of a multi-purpose conference room.
Keywords: smart environments, ubiquitous computing, usability
Arrow tag: a direction-key-based technique for rapidly selecting hyperlinks while gazing at a screen BIBAKFull-Text 1025-1028
  Atsuhiko Maeda; Hirohito Inagaki; Masanobu Abe
Television sets and video game consoles equipped with a web browser have appeared, and we are now able to browse web pages on television screens. However, existing navigation techniques are too difficult in this situation. In this paper, we propose Arrow Tag, a new link selection technique for web browsers on TV. In this technique, sequences of arrow signs called Arrow Tags are assigned to the links of the web pages, so users can select the links by pushing the four direction keys a few times, while keeping her/his gaze fixed on the television screen. User studies show that Arrow Tag significantly outperforms the conventional techniques of Focus Move and Number Tag. Moreover, most participants preferred Arrow Tag over either Focus Move or Number Tag.
Keywords: direction keys, target selection, tv, web browser
What's "this" you say?: the use of local references on distant displays BIBAKFull-Text 1029-1032
  Patti Bao; Darren Gergle
This study explores how the design of visual display configurations relates to linguistic expressions. Twenty-five participants performed a series of object identification and narrative Description tasks on either a large wall-sized or small desktop display. Results revealed that during the Description tasks, large display users produced significantly greater rates of local deictic references than small display users, but in the identification tasks, the rates were similar for both large and small display users. Implications for the design of interactive technologies are discussed.
Keywords: discourse, field of view, language, large display

Sustainability 2

It's not easy being green: understanding home computer power management BIBAKFull-Text 1033-1042
  Marshini Chetty; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Brian R. Meyers; Paul Johns
Although domestic computer use is increasing, most efforts to reduce energy use through improved power management have focused on computers in the workplace. We studied 20 households to understand how people use power management strategies on their home computers. We saw computers in the home, particularly desktop computers, are left on much more than they are actively used suggesting opportunities for economic and energy savings. However, for most of our participants, the economic incentives were too minor to motivate them to turn off devices when not in use, especially given other frustrations such as long boot up times. We suggest research directions for home computer power management that could help users be more green without having to dramatically change their home computing habits.
Keywords: home computer use, power management, sustainability
UbiGreen: investigating a mobile tool for tracking and supporting green transportation habits BIBAKFull-Text 1043-1052
  Jon Froehlich; Tawanna Dillahunt; Predrag Klasnja; Jennifer Mankoff; Sunny Consolvo; Beverly Harrison; James A. Landay
The greatest contributor of CO2 emissions in the average American household is personal transportation. Because transportation is inherently a mobile activity, mobile devices are well suited to sense and provide feedback about these activities. In this paper, we explore the use of personal ambient displays on mobile phones to give users feedback about sensed and self-reported transportation behaviors. We first present results from a set of formative studies exploring our respondents' existing transportation routines, willingness to engage in and maintain green transportation behavior, and reactions to early mobile phone "green" application design concepts. We then describe the results of a 3-week field study (N=13) of the UbiGreen Transportation Display prototype, a mobile phone application that semi-automatically senses and reveals information about transportation behavior. Our contributions include a working system for semi-automatically tracking transit activity, a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing green transportation, and the results of our studies, which have implications for the design of future green applications.
Keywords: ambient displays, mobile phones, sensing, sustainability, transportation, ubicomp
Understanding why we preserve some things and discard others in the context of interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 1053-1062
  William Odom; James Pierce; Erik Stolterman; Eli Blevis
This paper takes up the problem of understanding why we preserve some things passionately and discard others without thought. We briefly report on the theoretical literature relating to this question, both in terms of existing literature in HCI, as well as in terms of related literatures that can advance the understanding for the HCI community. We use this reading to refine our frameworks for understanding durability in digital artifice as an issue of sustainable interaction design in HCI. Next, we report in detail on our ongoing work in collecting personal inventories of digital artifice in the home context. We relate our prior and most current personal inventories collections to the framework that owes to our reading of the theoretical literature. Finally, we summarize the theoretical implications and findings of our personal inventories work in terms of implications for the design of digital artifice in a manner that is more durable.
Keywords: design theory, personal inventories, sustainability, sustainable interaction design

Tabletop gestures

Empirical evaluation for finger input properties in multi-touch interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1063-1072
  Feng Wang; Xiangshi Ren
Current multi-touch interaction techniques typically only use the x-y coordinates of the human finger's contact with the screen. However, when fingers contact a touch-sensitive surface, they usually approach at an angle and cover a relatively large 2D area instead of a precise single point. In this paper, a Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) based multi-touch device is used to collect the finger imprint data. We designed a series of experiments to explore human finger input properties and identified several useful properties such as contact area, contact shape and contact orientation which can be exploited to improve the performance of multi-touch selecting and pointing tasks. Based on the experimental results, we discuss some implications for the design of human finger input interfaces and propose several design prototypes which incorporate these implications. A set of raw data and several concrete recommendations which are useful for the research community are also presented.
Keywords: area, empirical evaluation, finger input property, multi-touch technique, orientation, shape
The design and evaluation of multi-finger mouse emulation techniques BIBAKFull-Text 1073-1082
  Justin Matejka; Tovi Grossman; Jessica Lo; George Fitzmaurice
We explore the use of multi-finger input to emulate full mouse functionality, such as the tracking state, three buttons, and chording. We first present the design space for such techniques, which serves as a guide for the systematic investigation of possible solutions. We then perform a series of pilot studies to come up with recommendations for the various aspects of the design space. These pilot studies allow us to arrive at a recommended technique, the SDMouse. In a formal study, the SDMouse was shown to significantly improve performance in comparison to previously developed mouse emulation techniques.
Keywords: mouse emulation, multi-finger input, multi-touch displays
User-defined gestures for surface computing BIBAKFull-Text 1083-1092
  Jacob O. Wobbrock; Meredith Ringel Morris; Andrew D. Wilson
Many surface computing prototypes have employed gestures created by system designers. Although such gestures are appropriate for early investigations, they are not necessarily reflective of user behavior. We present an approach to designing tabletop gestures that relies on eliciting gestures from non-technical users by first portraying the effect of a gesture, and then asking users to perform its cause. In all, 1080 gestures from 20 participants were logged, analyzed, and paired with think-aloud data for 27 commands performed with 1 and 2 hands. Our findings indicate that users rarely care about the number of fingers they employ, that one hand is preferred to two, that desktop idioms strongly influence users' mental models, and that some commands elicit little gestural agreement, suggesting the need for on-screen widgets. We also present a complete user-defined gesture set, quantitative agreement scores, implications for surface technology, and a taxonomy of surface gestures. Our results will help designers create better gesture sets informed by user behavior.
Keywords: gesture recognition, gestures, guessability, referents, signs, surface, tabletop, think-aloud

Visualization 1

Improving visual search with image segmentation BIBAKFull-Text 1093-1102
  Clifton Forlines; Ravin Balakrishnan
People's ability to accurately locate target objects in images is severely affected by the prevalence of the sought objects. This negative effect greatly impacts critical real world tasks, such as baggage screening and cell slide pathology, in which target objects are rare. We present three novel image presentation techniques that are designed to improve visual search. Our techniques rely on the images being broken into image segments, which are then recombined or displayed in novel ways. The techniques and their underlying design reasoning are described in detail, and three experiments are presented that provide initial evidence that these techniques lead to better search performance in a simulated cell slide pathology task.
Keywords: image presentation, rsvp, segmentation, visual search
PhotoScope: visualizing spatiotemporal coverage of photos for construction management BIBAKFull-Text 1103-1112
  Fuqu Wu; Melanie Tory
PhotoScope visualizes the spatiotemporal coverage of photos in a photo collection. It extends the standard photo browsing paradigm in two main ways: visualizing spatial coverage of photos, and indexing photos by a combination of spatial coverage, time, and content specifications. This approach enables users to browse and search space- and time-indexed photos more effectively. We designed PhotoScope specifically to address challenges in the construction management industry, where large photo collections are amassed to document project progress. These ideas may also apply to any photo collection that is spatially constrained and must be searched using spatial, temporal, and content criteria. We describe the design choices made when developing PhotoScope and the results of user evaluation.
Keywords: construction management, photo browser, spatiotemporal coverage, visualization
Graph sketcher: extending illustration to quantitative graphs BIBAKFull-Text 1113-1116
  Robin Stewart; m.c. schraefel
Scientists, engineers, and educators commonly need to make graphs that quickly illustrate quantitative ideas yet are not based on specific data sets. We call these graphs quantitative concept diagrams (QCDs). Existing charting and illustration programs make it possible to produce such graphs, but they are so time-consuming that users tend to sketch the graphs by hand instead. To reduce the cost of creating QCDs, we developed Graph Sketcher, a quantitative graphing tool that deeply integrates the data plotting capabilities of charting programs with the direct manipulation techniques of illustration programs. We show that our integrated interface substantially reduces the time needed to create QCDs, and we further show that real Graph Sketcher users both enjoy and take advantage of the interface improvements to create QCDs in a wide range of fields.
Keywords: charting, constraint-based layout, illustration, information visualization, planar map coloring, quantitative concept diagrams, snap-dragging
SiteLens: situated visualization techniques for urban site visits BIBAKFull-Text 1117-1120
  Sean White; Steven Feiner
Urban designers and urban planners often conduct site visits prior to a design activity to search for patterns or better understand existing conditions. We introduce SiteLens, an experimental system and set of techniques for supporting site visits by visualizing relevant virtual data directly in the context of the physical site, which we call situated visualization. We address alternative visualization representations and techniques for data collection, curation, discovery, comparison, manipulation, and provenance. A real use scenario is presented and two iterations of evaluation with faculty and students from the Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation provide directions and insight for further investigation.
Keywords: augmented reality, data curation, mobile computing, site visits, situated visualization, urban design, urban planning

Design theory

Design research as explanation: perceptions in the field BIBAKFull-Text 1121-1130
  Steven R. Haynes; John M. Carroll; Thomas G. Kannampallil; Lu Xiao; Paula M. Bach
We report results from interviews with HCI design researchers on their perceptions of how their research relates to the more traditional scientific goal of providing explanations. Theories of explanation are prominent in the physical and natural sciences, psychology, the social sciences, and engineering. Little work though has so-far addressed the special case of how results from reflective design of interactive systems can help provide explanations. We found conceptions of explanation in design research to be broader and more inclusive than those commonly found in the philosophy of science. We synthesized concepts from the interviews into a framework which may help researchers understand how their contributions relate to both classical and emergent conceptions of explanation.
Keywords: design research, design science, theories of explanation
Framing design in the third paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 1131-1140
  Salu Ylirisku; Virtu Halttunen; Johanna Nuojua; Antti Juustila
This paper develops vocabulary to discuss the phenomena related to the new design paradigm, which considers designing as a situated and constructive activity of meaning making rather than as problem solving. The paper studies how design projects proceed from the fuzzy early phases towards the issues of central relevance to designing. A central concept is framing, and it is elaborated with examples from two case studies. Several aspects of framing are explicated, exploratory, anticipatory and social framing, and related concepts of 'focusing', 'priming', and 'grounding' are explained. The paper concludes that understanding designing as a situated and constructive making of meaning has bearings on how designing needs to be supported.
Keywords: design framing, reflective practice, user-centered design, user-driven innovation
Values as lived experience: evolving value sensitive design in support of value discovery BIBAKFull-Text 1141-1150
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; Erika Shehan Poole; Susan P. Wyche
The Value Sensitive Design (VSD) methodology provides a comprehensive framework for advancing a value-centered research and design agenda. Although VSD provides helpful ways of thinking about and designing value-centered computational systems, we argue that the specific mechanics of VSD create thorny tensions with respect to value sensitivity. In particular, we examine limitations due to value classifications, inadequate guidance on empirical tools for design, and the ways in which the design process is ordered. In this paper, we propose ways of maturing the VSD methodology to overcome these limitations and present three empirical case studies that illustrate a family of methods to effectively engage local expressions of values. The findings from our case studies provide evidence of how we can mature the VSD methodology to mitigate the pitfalls of classification and engender a commitment to reflect on and respond to local contexts of design.
Keywords: empirical methods, fieldwork, methodology, photo elicitation, value sensitive design, values

New media experiences 1

Body and mind: a study of avatar personalization in three virtual worlds BIBAKFull-Text 1151-1160
  Nicolas Ducheneaut; Ming-Hui Wen; Nicholas Yee; Greg Wadley
An increasingly large number of users connect to virtual worlds on a regular basis to conduct activities ranging from gaming to business meetings. In all these worlds, users project themselves into the environment via an avatar: a 3D body which they control and whose appearance is often customizable. However, considering the prevalence of this form of embodiment, there is a surprising lack of data about how and why users customize their avatar, as well as how easy and satisfying the existing avatar creation tools are. In this paper, we report on a study investigating these issues through a questionnaire administered to more than a hundred users of three virtual worlds offering widely different avatar creation and customization systems (Maple Story, World of Warcraft, and Second Life). We illustrate the often-surprising choices users make when creating their digital representation and discuss the impact of our findings for the design of future avatar creation systems.
Keywords: avatars, customization, personality, virtual worlds
Capturing and sharing memories in a virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 1161-1170
  Carman Neustaedter; Elena Fedorovskaya
Virtual worlds (VWs) such as Second Life (SL) contain a rich social culture where people engage in a multitude of experiences much like real life. With this comes the need to capture and share memories with others. To understand what tools people use to accomplish this and what limitations they may face, we conducted interviews with participants in SL. Our results identify two clusters of users -- Casuals and Lifers -- who differed in the ways in which they captured and shared memories. Here we describe the use of photos, landmarks, friend lists, and conversation logs. We also show how a lack of real life physical and social constraints in the VW affects user routines, and, in some cases, how it does not. This suggests design directions for memory tools in the VW and also real life that break the bounds of current everyday practice.
Keywords: memories, photo sharing, second life, virtual worlds
In support of city exploration BIBAKFull-Text 1171-1180
  Ben Bedwell; Holger Schnädelbach; Steve Benford; Tom Rodden; Boriana Koleva
The novel experience Anywhere allowed participants to explore an urban area, tying together information not normally available, new points of views and interaction embedded into physical places. Guided by 'unseen', on-the-street performers in an ongoing conversation maintained over mobile phones, they gained access to locative media and staged performances. Our analysis demonstrates how Anywhere produced engaging and uniquely personalised paths through a complex landscape of content, negotiated by the performer-participant pair around various conflicting constraints. We reflect our analysis through the lens of the key characteristics exhibited by mechanisms that support city exploration, before focussing on possible extensions to the technological support of teams of professional and amateur guides.
Keywords: city guide, locative experiences, performance

Classifying and recommending content

Input-agreement: a new mechanism for collecting data using human computation games BIBAKFull-Text 1197-1206
  Edith Law; Luis von Ahn
Since its introduction at CHI 2004, the ESP Game has inspired many similar games that share the goal of gathering data from players. This paper introduces a new mechanism for collecting labeled data using "games with a purpose." In this mechanism, players are provided with either the same or a different object, and asked to describe that object to each other. Based on each other's descriptions, players must decide whether they have the same object or not. We explain why this new mechanism is superior for input data with certain characteristics, introduce an enjoyable new game called "TagATune" that collects tags for music clips via this mechanism, and present findings on the data that is collected by this game.
Keywords: games with a purpose, human computation, tagging
Matchin: eliciting user preferences with an online game BIBAKFull-Text 1207-1216
  Severin Hacker; Luis von Ahn
Eliciting user preferences for large datasets and creating rankings based on these preferences has many practical applications in community-based sites. This paper gives a new method to elicit user preferences that does not ask users to tell what they prefer, but rather what a random person would prefer, and rewards them if their prediction is correct. We provide an implementation of our method as a two-player game in which each player is shown two images and asked to click on the image their partner would prefer. The game has proven to be enjoyable, has attracted tens of thousands of people and has already collected millions of judgments. We compare several algorithms for combining these relative judgments between pairs of images into a total ordering of all images and present a new algorithm to perform collaborative filtering on pair-wise relative judgments. In addition, we show how merely observing user preferences on a specially chosen set of images can predict a user's gender with high probability.
Keywords: human computation, preference elicitation, web games
Mixing it up: recommending collections of items BIBAKFull-Text 1217-1226
  Derek L. Hansen; Jennifer Golbeck
Recommender systems traditionally recommend individual items. We introduce the idea of collection recommender systems and describe a design space for them including 3 main aspects that contribute to the overall value of a collection: the value of the individual items, co-occurrence interaction effects, and order effects including placement and arrangement of items. We then describe an empirical study examining how people create mix tapes. The study found qualitative and quantitative evidence for order effects (e.g., first songs are rated higher than later songs; some songs go poorly together sequentially). We propose several ideas for research in this space, hoping to start a much longer conversation on collection recommender systems.
Keywords: automatic playlist generation, collaborative filtering, collection recommender systems, collections, mix tape, music, playlist, recommender systems

Using tabletops for education, science, and media

Tabletop displays for small group study: affordances of paper and digital materials BIBAKFull-Text 1227-1236
  Anne Marie Piper; James D. Hollan
In this paper we compare the affordances of presenting educational material on a tabletop display with presenting the same material using traditional paper handouts. Ten pairs of undergraduate students used digital or paper materials to prepare for exams during four one-hour study sessions over the course of a term. Students studying with the tabletop display solved problems on their own before resorting to answer keys and repeated activities more often than students studying with paper documents. We summarize study activities and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each medium.
Keywords: affordance, collaboration, education, paper, study, tabletop
WeSpace: the design development and deployment of a walk-up and share multi-surface visual collaboration system BIBAKFull-Text 1237-1246
  Daniel Wigdor; Hao Jiang; Clifton Forlines; Michelle Borkin; Chia Shen
We present WeSpace -- a collaborative work space that integrates a large data wall with a multi-user multi-touch table. WeSpace has been developed for a population of scientists who frequently meet in small groups for data exploration and visualization. It provides a low overhead walk-up and share environment for users with their own personal applications and laptops. We present our year-long effort from initial ethnographic studies, to iterations of design, development and user testing, to the current experiences of these scientists carrying out their collaborative research in the WeSpace. We shed light on the utility, the value of the multi-touch table, the manifestation, usage patterns and the changes in their workflow that WeSpace has brought about.
Keywords: collocated collaboration, horizontal display, multi-monitor interfaces, shared-display groupware
CThru: exploration in a video-centered information space for educational purposes BIBAKFull-Text 1247-1250
  Hao Jiang; Alain Viel; Meekal Bajaj; Robert A. Lue; Chia Shen
We present CThru, a self-guided video-based educational environment in a large multi-display setting. We employ a video-centered approach, creating and combining multimedia contents of different formats with a story-telling education video. With the support of new display form factors in the environment, viewing a sequential educational video thread is replaced by the immersive learning experience of hands-on exploration and manipulation in a multi-dimensional information space. We demonstrate CThru with an animation clip in cellular biology, supplementing visible objects in the video with rich domain-specific multimedia information and interactive 3D models. We describe CThru's design rationale and implementation. We also discuss a pilot study and what it revealed with respect to CThru's interface and the usage pattern of the tabletop and the associated large wall display.
Keywords: multi-display environment, self-exploration, video-centered information space
Turning the tables: an interactive surface for vjing BIBAKFull-Text 1251-1254
  Stuart Taylor; Shahram Izadi; David Kirk; Richard Harper; Armando Garcia-Mendoza
In this paper we describe VPlay, a multi-touch tabletop application that allows users to mix and manipulate multiple video streams in real-time. Our aim is to explore how such an interactive surface can support and augment practices around VJing -- a form of video performance art that is becoming increasingly popular in nightclubs and other music events. We conclude with observations from a field deployment, which highlight some initial thoughts and reflections on our design rationale.
Keywords: collaboration, interactive surface, tabletop, tangible interface, vjing

Helping out users with "extreme jobs"

An experimental study of field dependency in altered Gz environments BIBAKFull-Text 1255-1264
  Marc A. Le Pape; Ravi K. Vatrapu
Failure to address extreme environments constraints at the human-computer interaction level may lead to the commission of critical and potentially fatal errors. This experimental study addresses gaps in our current theoretical understanding of the impact of ±Gz accelerations and field dependency independency on task performance in human-computer interaction. It investigates the effects of ±Gz accelerations and field dependency independency on human performance in the completion of perceptual-motor tasks on a personal digital assistant (PDA). We report the results of a controlled experiment, conducted in an aerobatic aircraft under multiple ±Gz conditions, showing that cognitive style significantly impacts latency and accuracy in target acquisition for perceptual-motor tasks in altered ±Gz environments and propose design guidelines as countermeasures. Based on the results, we argue that developing design requirements taking into account cognitive differences in extreme environments will allow users to execute perceptual-motor tasks efficiently without unnecessarily increasing cognitive load and the probability of critical errors.
Keywords: comparative informatics, extreme environments, mobile devices, perceptual style, target acquisition
Taking the time to care: empowering low health literacy hospital patients with virtual nurse agents BIBAKFull-Text 1265-1274
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Laura M. Pfeifer; Brian W. Jack
Ninety million Americans have inadequate health literacy, resulting in a reduced ability to read and follow directions in the healthcare environment. We describe an animated, empathic virtual nurse interface for educating and counseling hospital patients with inadequate health literacy in their hospital beds at the time of discharge. The development methodology, design rationale, and two iterations of user testing are described. Results indicate that hospital patients with low health literacy found the system easy to use, reported high levels of satisfaction, and most said they preferred receiving the discharge information from the agent over their doctor or nurse. Patients also expressed appreciation for the time and attention provided by the virtual nurse, and felt that it provided an additional authoritative source for their medical information.
Keywords: embodied conversational agent, health literacy, patient education, relational agent, universal access
Evaluation of a tool-mounted guidance display for computer-assisted surgery BIBAKFull-Text 1275-1278
  Kevin Kassil; A. James Stewart
We attached a small LCD display and video camera to a surgical drill. The LCD shows the tool position with respect to a planned trajectory, overlaid on video captured by the camera. We performed a user study to determine whether such a tool-mounted guidance display yields faster and more accurate tool placement than the conventional guidance display on a separate computer monitor. Our study showed that the tool-mounted display provides better positional and angular accuracy than the conventional display but that the video camera provides no significant improvement in error.
Keywords: hand-held displays, surgical guidance interfaces, tool guidance
Towards human-centered support for indoor navigation BIBAKFull-Text 1279-1282
  Leonardo Ramirez; Sebastian Denef; Tobias Dyrks
This paper presents a new perspective for the design of indoor navigation support. In contrast to technology oriented approaches coming from Context Awareness research, we argue for a wider focus that complements the technical question of providing precise indoor location with the development of more effective navigation practices based on technology available today. Starting from research on indoor navigation conducted with the Paris Fire Brigade, we present two design concepts aimed at supporting firefighters in creating and finding their own paths, together with some of the design strategies that informed the creation of these concepts.
Keywords: firefighting, indoor navigation, ubiquitous computing

Visualization 2

EnsembleMatrix: interactive visualization to support machine learning with multiple classifiers BIBAKFull-Text 1283-1292
  Justin Talbot; Bongshin Lee; Ashish Kapoor; Desney S. Tan
Machine learning is an increasingly used computational tool within human-computer interaction research. While most researchers currently utilize an iterative approach to refining classifier models and performance, we propose that ensemble classification techniques may be a viable and even preferable alternative. In ensemble learning, algorithms combine multiple classifiers to build one that is superior to its components. In this paper, we present EnsembleMatrix, an interactive visualization system that presents a graphical view of confusion matrices to help users understand relative merits of various classifiers. EnsembleMatrix allows users to directly interact with the visualizations in order to explore and build combination models. We evaluate the efficacy of the system and the approach in a user study. Results show that users are able to quickly combine multiple classifiers operating on multiple feature sets to produce an ensemble classifier with accuracy that approaches best-reported performance classifying images in the CalTech-101 dataset.
Keywords: caltech-101, ensemble classifiers, interactive machine learning, object recognition, visualization
FacetLens: exposing trends and relationships to support sensemaking within faceted datasets BIBAKFull-Text 1293-1302
  Bongshin Lee; Greg Smith; George G. Robertson; Mary Czerwinski; Desney S. Tan
Previous research has shown that faceted browsing is effective and enjoyable in searching and browsing large collections of data. In this work, we explore the efficacy of interactive visualization systems in supporting exploration and sensemaking within faceted datasets. To do this, we developed an interactive visualization system called FacetLens, which exposes trends and relationships within faceted datasets. FacetLens implements linear facets to enable users not only to identify trends but also to easily compare several trends simultaneously. Furthermore, it offers pivot operations to allow users to navigate the faceted dataset using relationships between items. We evaluate the utility of the system through a description of insights gained while experts used the system to explore the CHI publication repository as well as a database of funding grant data, and report a formative user study that identified usability issues.
Keywords: facets, interactive visualization, relationships, sensemaking, trends
Sizing the horizon: the effects of chart size and layering on the graphical perception of time series visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 1303-1312
  Jeffrey Heer; Nicholas Kong; Maneesh Agrawala
We investigate techniques for visualizing time series data and evaluate their effect in value comparison tasks. We compare line charts with horizon graphs -- a space-efficient time series visualization technique -- across a range of chart sizes, measuring the speed and accuracy of subjects' estimates of value differences between charts. We identify transition points at which reducing the chart height results in significantly differing drops in estimation accuracy across the compared chart types, and we find optimal positions in the speed-accuracy tradeoff curve at which viewers performed quickly without attendant drops in accuracy. Based on these results, we propose approaches for increasing data density that optimize graphical perception.
Keywords: graphical perception, horizon graphs, line charts, time series, visualization

User studies and design

Call browser: a system to improve the caller experience by analyzing live calls end-to-end BIBAKFull-Text 1313-1322
  Bernhard Suhm; Pat Peterson
This paper describes a system that empowers practitioners to substantially improve the user experience with call center automation and agents. Unlike other approaches we analyze the caller experience in live calls end-to-end, from dialing to hangup. A web-based solution, the Call Browser provides access to hundreds or thousands of live end-to-end calls, and empowers usability practitioners and call-center analysts to systematically and efficiently evaluate the caller experience and identify usability issues. Case studies from our consulting practice illustrate how this approach reveals issues that remain hidden to traditional methods, such as log analyses, lab user studies, focus groups, and design guidelines.
Keywords: call center analytics, caller experience, interactive voice response (IVR), speech recognition, voice user interfaces (VUI)
Finding canonical behaviors in user protocols BIBAKFull-Text 1323-1326
  Walter C. Mankowski; Peter Bogunovich; Ali Shokoufandeh; Dario D. Salvucci
While the collection of behavioral protocols has been common practice in human-computer interaction research for many years, the analysis of large protocol data sets is often extremely tedious and time-consuming, and automated analysis methods have been slow to develop. This paper proposes an automated method of protocol analysis to find canonical behaviors -- a small subset of protocols that is most representative of the full data set, providing a reasonable "big picture" view of the data with as few protocols as possible. The automated method takes advantage of recent algorithmic developments in computational vision, modifying them to allow for distance measures between behavioral protocols. The paper includes an application of the method to web-browsing protocols, showing how the canonical behaviors found by the method match well to sets of behaviors identified by expert human coders.
Keywords: protocol analysis, sequential data analysis, web browsing
Reduced empathizing skills increase challenges for user-centered design BIBAKFull-Text 1327-1330
  William Hudson
User-Centered Design is surprisingly difficult. One of the biggest issues, certainly for those with no HCI or usability experience, is a lack of appreciation of how users think and work. Their assumption is that users will approach and solve problems in the same way as the designers and developers of an interactive solution. Extreme examples of this self-as-user outlook is the belief that interaction problems are either the direct fault of users or the failure of users to follow instructions (the 'RTFM' syndrome [9]).
   This paper explores a psychological explanation of the self-as-user outlook through Empathizing-Systemizing theory, including a large-scale study (n = 441) of men and women working in the Information Technology field. The study found that men whose role was technological had significantly lower empathizing scores. The results of the study help to explain the self-as-user outlook and how it needs to be overcome in the design process.
Keywords: designer behavior, empathy, social issues, user-centered design

Cognitive modeling and assessment

An intuitive model of perceptual grouping for HCI design BIBAKFull-Text 1331-1340
  Ruth Rosenholtz; Nathaniel R. Twarog; Nadja Schinkel-Bielefeld; Martin Wattenberg
Understanding and exploiting the abilities of the human visual system is an important part of the design of usable user interfaces and information visualizations. Good design enables quick, easy and veridical perception of key components of that design. An important facet of human vision is its ability to seemingly effortlessly perform "perceptual organization; it transforms individual feature estimates into perception of coherent regions, structures, and objects. We perceive regions grouped by proximity and feature similarity, grouping of curves by good continuation, and grouping of regions of coherent texture. In this paper, we discuss a simple model for a broad range of perceptual grouping phenomena. It takes as input an arbitrary image, and returns a structure describing the predicted visual organization of the image. We demonstrate that this model can capture aspects of traditional design rules, and predicts visual percepts in classic perceptual grouping displays.
Keywords: contour integration, gestalt, good continuation, grouping, perceptual organization, proximity, similarity
Development of decision rationale in complex group decision making BIBAKFull-Text 1341-1350
  Helena M. Mentis; Paula M. Bach; Blaine Hoffman; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
This study explores the characteristics of rationale development in a complex group decision making task and considers design implications for better supporting rationale development in group decision making. Twelve three-person, multi-role teams performed three instances of a collaborative decision making task with physical maps. We used rhetorical structure theory to analyze the structure of their decision making discourse. We found that groups begin their reasoning processing by stating and relating information and finish their reasoning through a point-counterpoint discussion. We also found that established groups reduced their need to analyze information during the last moments of a decision. Implications for the design of group decision support systems to encourage rationale development are presented.
Keywords: cscw, decision making, rationale, rst
Learning to predict information needs: context-aware display as a cognitive aid and an assessment tool BIBAKFull-Text 1351-1360
  Bradley C. Love; Matt Jones; Marc T. Tomlinson; Michael Howe
We discuss the problem of assessing and aiding user performance in dynamic tasks that require rapid selection among multiple information sources. Motivated by research in human sequential learning, we develop a system that learns by observation to predict the information a user desires in different contexts. The model decides when the display should be updated, which is akin to the problem of scene segmentation, and then selects the situationally relevant information display. The model reduces the cognitive burden of selecting situation-relevant displays. We evaluate the system in a tank video game environment and find that the system boosts user performance. The fit of the model to user data provides a quantitative assessment of user behavior, which is useful in assessing individual differences and the progression from novice- to expert-level proficiency. We discuss the relative benefits of adopting a learning approach to predicting information preferences and possible avenues to reduce the negative consequences of automation.
Keywords: adaptive display, context-aware computing, event segmentation

Finding info online

backchan.nl: integrating backchannels in physical space BIBAKFull-Text 1361-1370
  Drew Harry; Joshua Green; Judith Donath
In this paper, we describe backchan.nl, a web based backchannel system that focuses on providing greater audience participation during question and answer sessions. The system allows audience members to use a web-based service to propose questions and comments, and to vote on the questions of others. Top rated submissions are projected into the presentation space where audience members, moderators, and panelists can see them. We discuss the results of deploying this system at many different kinds of conferences and relate those results to the particular design of our system, demonstrating how backchannel systems can be more than just shared chat rooms. From our experience with this work, we discuss the broader implications of configurable mediated social spaces and how subtle design decisions can influence user experience.
Keywords: backchannel, computer supported cooperative work, presentation tools
Learning how: the search for craft knowledge on the internet BIBAKFull-Text 1371-1380
  Cristen Torrey; Elizabeth F. Churchill; David W. McDonald
Communicating the subtleties of a craft technique, like putting a zipper into a garment or throwing a clay pot, can be challenging even when working side by side. Yet How-To content -- including text, images, animations, and videos -- is available online for a wide variety of crafts. We interviewed people engaged in various crafts to investigate how online resources contributed to their craft practice. We found that participants sought creative inspiration as well as technical clarification online. In this domain, keyword search can be difficult, so supplemental strategies are used. Participants sought information iteratively, because they often needed to enact their knowledge in order to evaluate it. Our description of people learning how allows us to elaborate existing understandings of information-seeking behavior by considering how search originates and is evaluated in knowledge domains involving physical objects and physical processes.
Keywords: craft, diy, expertise locating, hobbies, how-to, informal learning, information seeking, search usability, social search, tutorial
Resonance on the web: web dynamics and revisitation patterns BIBAKFull-Text 1381-1390
  Eytan Adar; Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais
The Web is a dynamic, ever-changing collection of information accessed in a dynamic way. This paper explores the relationship between Web page content change (obtained from an hourly crawl of over 40K pages) and people's revisitation to those pages (collected via a large scale log analysis of 2.3M users). We identify the relationship, or resonance, between revisitation behavior and the amount and type of changes on those pages. By coupling our large scale log analysis with a complementary user study we explore the intent behind the revisitation behavior we observed. Using the notion of resonance to identify the likely content of interest, we describe a number of ways interaction with changing and revisited information can be better supported. We illustrate how understanding the association between change and revisitation might improve browser, crawler, and search engine design, and present a specific example of how knowledge of both can enable relevant content to be highlighted.
Keywords: change, re-finding, resonance, revisitation, web behavior, web log analysis, web page dynamics

Pointing and cursor techniques

DynaSpot: speed-dependent area cursor BIBAKFull-Text 1391-1400
  Olivier Chapuis; Jean-Baptiste Labrune; Emmanuel Pietriga
We present DynaSpot, a new technique for acquiring targets based on the area cursor. DynaSpot couples the cursor's activation area with its speed, behaving like a point cursor at low speed or when motionless. This technique minimizes visual distraction and allows pointing anywhere in empty space without requiring an explicit mode switch, thus enabling users to perform common interactions such as region selections seamlessly. The results of our controlled experiments show that the performance of DynaSpot can be modeled by Fitts' law, and that DynaSpot significantly outperforms the point cursor and achieves, in most conditions, the same level of performance as one of the most promising techniques to date, the Bubble cursor.
Keywords: Fitts' law, area cursor, bubble cursor, dynaspot
The angle mouse: target-agnostic dynamic gain adjustment based on angular deviation BIBAKFull-Text 1401-1410
  Jacob O. Wobbrock; James Fogarty; Shih-Yen (Sean) Liu; Shunichi Kimuro; Susumu Harada
We present a novel method of dynamic C-D gain adaptation that improves target acquisition for users with motor impairments. Our method, called the Angle Mouse, adjusts the mouse C-D gain based on the deviation of angles sampled during movement. When angular deviation is low, the gain is kept high. When angular deviation is high, the gain is dropped, making the target bigger in motor-space. A key feature of the Angle Mouse is that, unlike most pointing facilitation techniques, it is target-agnostic, requiring no knowledge of target locations or dimensions. This means that the problem of distractor targets is avoided because adaptation is based solely on the user's behavior. In a study of 16 people, 8 of which had motor impairments, we found that the Angle Mouse improved motor-impaired pointing throughput by 10.3% over the Windows default mouse and 11.0% over sticky icons. For able-bodied users, there was no significant difference among the three techniques, as Angle Mouse throughput was within 1.2% of the default. Thus, the Angle Mouse improved pointing performance for users with motor impairments while remaining unobtrusive for able-bodied users.
Keywords: control-display gain, cursor control, dynamic gain adjustment, mouse pointing, pointing facilitation, pointing techniques, target acquisition
Disambiguating ninja cursors with eye gaze BIBAKFull-Text 1411-1414
  Kari-Jouko Räihä; Oleg Spakov
Ninja cursors aim to speed up target selection on large or multiple monitors. Several cursors are displayed on the screen with one of them selected as the active cursor. Eye tracking is used to choose the active cursor. An experiment with 13 participants showed that multiple cursors speed up the selection over long distances, but not over short distances. Participants felt the technique was fastest with 4 cursors per monitor, but still preferred to have only 1 cursor per monitor for their own use.
Keywords: eye gaze, multiple cursors, ninja cursors, selection
Rake cursor: improving pointing performance with concurrent input channels BIBAKFull-Text 1415-1418
  Renaud Blanch; Michaël Ortega
We investigate the use of two concurrent input channels to perform a pointing task. The first channel is the traditional mouse input device whereas the second one is the gaze position. The rake cursor interaction technique combines a grid of cursors controlled by the mouse and the selection of the active cursor by the gaze. A controlled experiment shows that rake cursor pointing drastically outperforms mouse-only pointing and also significantly outperforms the state of the art of pointing techniques mixing gaze and mouse input. A theory explaining the improvement is proposed: the global difficulty of a task is split between those two channels, and the sub-tasks could partly be performed concurrently.
Keywords: Fitts' law, multi-channel pointing, rake cursor

The beauty dilemma

The "Beauty Dilemma": beauty is valued but discounted in product choice BIBAKFull-Text 1419-1426
  Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl
The empirical study of aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is concerned with -- among other topics -- the relationship between beauty and usability and the general impact of beauty on product choice and use. Specifically, the present paper explores the notion of a "beauty dilemma" -- the idea that people discount beauty in a choice situation, although they value it in general (i.e., they are not choosing what makes them happy). We explored this idea in three studies with a total of over 600 participants. Study 1 revealed a reluctance to pay for beauty due to its hedonic nature (i.e., associated with luxury etc.). Study 2 showed that people prefer a more beautiful product, but justify their choice by referring to spurious advantages in usability. Finally, Study 3 revealed that a choice situation which requires a trade-off between beauty and usability, and which offers no further way to justify choosing beauty, leads to a sharp increase in the preference of usability. The underlying reasons for this "beauty dilemma" and further implications are discussed.
Keywords: aesthetics, beauty, beauty dilemma, product choice, user experience

New media experiences 2

Enhancing remote participation in live auctions: an 'intelligent' gavel BIBAKFull-Text 1427-1436
  Christian Heath; Paul Luff; Dirk Vom Lehn; Jun Yamashita; Hideaki Kuzuoka
Auctions, both traditional and electronic, are a pervasive social organisation for the valuation and exchange of goods and services. Despite the long-standing interest in integrating internet contributions into the more traditional auction such initiatives have remained problematic. We consider the organization of interaction of sales of fine art and antiques and develop a prototype 'intelligent' gavel system that is designed to enhance remote participation and ease the flexible ways in which internet contributions are legitimately integrated into live auctions. We present the findings of a quasi-naturalistic experiment involving the use of the system by auctioneers and its consequences for the general development of technologies to support internet participation in live co-located events.
Keywords: auctions, mundane artefacts, social interaction, trust
Revealing gauguin: engaging visitors in robot guide's explanation in an art museum BIBAKFull-Text 1437-1446
  Keiichi Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki; Mai Okada; Yoshinori Kuno; Yoshinori Kobayashi; Yosuke Hoshi; Karola Pitsch; Paul Luff; Dirk vom Lehn; Christian Heath
Designing technologies that support the explanation of museum exhibits is a challenging domain. In this paper we develop an innovative approach -- providing a robot guide with resources to engage visitors in an interaction about an art exhibit. We draw upon ethnographical fieldwork in an art museum, focusing on how tour guides interrelate talk and visual conduct, specifically how they ask questions of different kinds to engage and involve visitors in lengthy explanations of an exhibit. From this analysis we have developed a robot guide that can coordinate its utterances and body movement to monitor the responses of visitors to these. Detailed analysis of the interaction between the robot and visitors in an art museum suggests that such simple devices derived from the study of human interaction might be useful in engaging visitors in explanations of complex artifacts.
Keywords: computer vision, conversation analysis, guide robot, human-robot interaction, interaction analysis, museum
Social immersive media: pursuing best practices for multi-user interactive camera/projector exhibits BIBAKFull-Text 1447-1456
  Scott S. Snibbe; Hayes S. Raffle
Based on ten years' experience developing interactive camera/projector systems for public science and culture exhibits, we define a distinct form of augmented reality focused on social interaction: social immersive media. Our work abandons GUI metaphors and builds on the language of cinema, casting users as actors within simulated narrative models. We articulate philosophical goals, design principles, and interaction techniques that create strong emotional responses and social engagement through visceral interaction. We describe approaches to clearly communicate cultural and scientific ideas through the medium. And we demonstrate how practitioners can design interactions that promote specific social behaviors in users.
Keywords: animation, augmented reality, camera-based interaction, cinema, computer vision, embodied interaction, learning, social computing

Personal and online information

Contextual web history: using visual and contextual cues to improve web browser history BIBAKFull-Text 1457-1466
  Sungjoon Steve Won; Jing Jin; Jason I. Hong
While most modern web browsers offer history functionality, few people use it to revisit previously viewed web pages. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of Contextual Web History (CWH), a novel browser history implementation which improves the visibility of the history feature and helps people find previously visited web pages. We present the results of a formative user study to understand what factors helped people in finding past web pages. From this, we developed CWH to be more visible to users, and supported search, browsing, thumbnails, and metadata. Combined, these relatively simple features outperformed Mozilla Firefox 3's built-in browser history function, and greatly reduced the time and effort required to find and revisit a web page.
Keywords: re-finding, revisitation, web browser, web history
Critical methods and user generated content: the iPhone on YouTube BIBAKFull-Text 1467-1476
  Mark Blythe; Paul Cairns
Sites like YouTube offer vast sources of data for studies of human computer interaction. However, they also present a number of methodological challenges. This paper offers an example study of the initial reception of the iPhone 3G through YouTube. It begins with a quantitative account of the overall shape of the most frequently viewed returns for an iPhone 3G" search. A content analysis of the first hundred videos then explores the returns categorized by genre. Comments on the most popular video "Will It Blend" are analysed using grounded theory. It is argued that social science methods are not sufficient for a rich understanding of such material. The paper concludes with an analysis of "Will it Blend" that draws on cultural and critical theory. It is argued that a multi-methodological approach is necessary to exploit such data and also to address the challenges of next generation Human Computer Interaction (HCI).
Keywords: YouTube, critical theory, green HCI, iPhone, user experience, user generated content
Note to self: examining personal information keeping in a lightweight note-taking tool BIBAKFull-Text 1477-1480
  Max G. Van Kleek; Michael Bernstein; Katrina Panovich; Gregory G. Vargas; David R. Karger; MC Schraefel
This paper describes a longitudinal field experiment in personal note-taking that examines how people capture and use information in short textual notes. Study participants used our tool, a simple browser-based textual note-taking utility, to capture personal information over the course of ten days. We examined the information they kept in notes using the tool, how this information was expressed, and aspects of note creation, editing, deletion, and search. We found that notes were recorded extremely quickly and tersely, combined information of multiple types, and were rarely revised or deleted. The results of the study demonstrate the need for a tool such as ours to support the rapid capture and retrieval of short notes-to-self, and afford insights into how users' actual note-keeping tendencies could be used to better support their needs in future PIM tools.
Keywords: information scraps, note-taking, personal information management
What's mine is mine: territoriality in collaborative authoring BIBAKFull-Text 1481-1484
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli; Dan R. Cosley; Geri Gay
Territoriality, the expression of ownership towards an object, can emerge when social actors occupy a shared social space. In the case of Wikipedia, the prevailing cultural norm is one that warns against ownership of one's work. However, we observe the emergence of territoriality in online space with respect to a subset of articles that have been tagged with the Maintained template through a qualitative study of 15 editors who have self-designated as Maintainers. Our participants communicated ownership, demarcated boundaries and asserted their control over artifacts for the sake of quality by appropriating existing features of Wikipedia. We then suggest design strategies to support these behaviors in the proper context within collaborative authoring systems more generally.
Keywords: Wikipedia, authorship, collaboration, ownership, territoriality

Studying Wikipedia

Coordinating tasks on the commons: designing for personal goals, expertise and serendipity BIBAKFull-Text 1485-1494
  Michel Krieger; Emily Margarete Stark; Scott R. Klemmer
How is work created, assigned, and completed on large-scale, crowd-powered systems like Wikipedia? And what design principles might enable these federated online systems to be more effective? This paper reports on a qualitative study of work and task practices on Wikipedia. Despite the availability of tag-based community-wide task assignment mechanisms, informants reported that self-directed goals, within-topic expertise, and fortuitous discovery are more frequently used than community-tagged tasks. We examine how Wikipedia editors organize their actions and the actions of other participants, and what implications this has for understanding, and building tools for, crowd-powered systems, or any web site where the main
   force of production comes from a crowd of online participants. From these observations and insights, we developed WikiTasks, a tool that integrates with Wikipedia and supports both grassroots creation of site-wide tasks and self-selection of personal tasks, accepted from this larger pool of community tasks.
Keywords: Wikipedia, crowdsourcing, social software, task management
Coordination in collective intelligence: the role of team structure and task interdependence BIBAKFull-Text 1495-1504
  Aniket Kittur; Bryant Lee; Robert E. Kraut
The success of Wikipedia has demonstrated the power of peer production in knowledge building. However, unlike many other examples of collective intelligence, tasks in Wikipedia can be deeply interdependent and may incur high coordination costs among editors. Increasing the number of editors increases the resources available to the system, but it also raises the costs of coordination. This suggests that the dependencies of tasks in Wikipedia may determine whether they benefit from increasing the number of editors involved. Specifically, we hypothesize that adding editors may benefit low-coordination tasks but have negative consequences for tasks requiring a high degree of coordination. Furthermore, concentrating the work to reduce coordination dependencies should enable more efficient work by many editors. Analyses of both article ratings and article review comments provide support for both hypotheses. These results suggest ways to better harness the efforts of many editors in social collaborative systems involving high coordination tasks.
Keywords: Wiki, Wikipedia, collective intelligence, coordination, social collaboration, social computing
So you know you're getting the best possible information: a tool that increases Wikipedia credibility BIBAKFull-Text 1505-1508
  Peter Pirolli; Evelin Wollny; Bongwon Suh
An experiment was conducted to study how credibility judgments about Wikipedia are affected by providing users with an interactive visualization (WikiDashboard) of article and author editing history. Overall, users who self-reported higher use of Internet information and higher rates of Wikipedia usage tended to produce lower credibility judgments about Wikipedia articles and authors. However, use of WikiDashboard significantly increased article and author credibility judgments, with effect sizes larger than any other measured effects of background media usage and attitudes on Wikiepedia credibility. The results suggest that increased exposure to the editing/authoring histories of Wikipedia increases credibility judgments.
Keywords: Wikidashboard, Wikipedia, credibility
What's in Wikipedia?: mapping topics and conflict using socially annotated category structure BIBAKFull-Text 1509-1512
  Aniket Kittur; Ed H. Chi; Bongwon Suh
Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia which has undergone tremendous growth. However, this same growth has made it difficult to characterize its content and coverage. In this paper we develop measures to map Wikipedia using its socially annotated, hierarchical category structure. We introduce a mapping technique that takes advantage of socially-annotated hierarchical categories while dealing with the inconsistencies and noise inherent in the distributed way that they are generated. The technique is demonstrated through two applications: mapping the distribution of topics in Wikipedia and how they have changed over time; and mapping the degree of conflict found in each topic area. We also discuss the utility of the approach for other applications and datasets involving collaboratively annotated category hierarchies.
Keywords: Wikipedia, annotation, conflict, distributed collaboration, mapping, social computing, visualization, wiki

Multimodal mobile interaction

Auditory icon and earcon mobile service notifications: intuitiveness, learnability, memorability and preference BIBAKFull-Text 1513-1522
  Stavros Garzonis; Simon Jones; Tim Jay; Eamonn O'Neill
With an ever increasing number of mobile services, meaningful audio notifications could effectively inform users of the incoming services while minimising undesired and intrusive interruptions. Therefore, careful design of mobile service notification is needed. In this paper we evaluate two types of audio (auditory icons and earcons) as mobile service notifications, by comparing them on 4 measures: intuitiveness, learnability, memorability and user preference. A 4-stage longitudinal evaluation involving two lab experiments, a field study and a web-based experiment indicated that auditory icons performed significantly better in all measures. Implications for mobile audio notification design are presented.
Keywords: auditory icons, earcons, intuitiveness, learnability, memorability, mobile audio notifications, mobile services
Bezel swipe: conflict-free scrolling and multiple selection on mobile touch screen devices BIBAKFull-Text 1523-1526
  Volker Roth; Thea Turner
Zooming user interfaces are increasingly popular on mobile devices with touch screens. Swiping and pinching finger gestures anywhere on the screen manipulate the displayed portion of a page, and taps open objects within the page. This makes navigation easy but limits other manipulations of objects that would be supported naturally by the same gestures, notably cut and paste, multiple selection, and drag and drop. A popular device that suffers from this limitation is Apple's iPhone. In this paper, we present Bezel Swipe, an interaction technique that supports multiple selection, cut, copy, paste and other operations without interfering with zooming, panning, tapping and other pre-defined gestures. Participants of our user study found Bezel Swipe to be a viable alternative to direct touch selection.
Keywords: crossing, cut paste, gesture, handheld, iphone, mobile device, mode change, multiple selection, small display, study, swipe, touch interaction, zoomable, zooming
Exploring the potential of audio-tactile messaging for remote interpersonal communication BIBAKFull-Text 1527-1530
  Lorna M. Brown; Abigail Sellen; Renan Krishna; Richard Harper
Shake2Talk is a mobile messaging system that allows users to send sounds and tactile sensations to one another via their mobile phones. Messages are created through gestures and then sent to the receiver's phone where they play upon arrival. This paper reports a study of the Shake2Talk system in use by six couples, and begins to uncover the types of messaging practices that occur, and the values and meanings that users ascribe to these messages.
Keywords: audio, gesture, haptics, messaging, mobile phones
Gravity sphere: gestural audio-tactile interface for mobile music exploration BIBAKFull-Text 1531-1534
  Jaakko Keränen; Janne Bergman; Jarmo Kauko
Current solutions for managing music in mobile contexts are inconvenient as they require considerable effort and visual attention. We describe a novel system for exploring music and generating playlists in mobile contexts, and present findings from our formative usability evaluations. The system provides audio-tactile feedback and is controlled by manipulating a device's orientation. The system plays songs associated with the current orientation. A spatial gesture or other command is then used to lock the orientation into a playlist. We evaluated two iterations of a prototype of the system and found that users were successful in exploring music and generating playlists with the system. We found that certain orientations are more common than others. Also, manipulating the prototype felt more natural while walking than sitting. Personalization of the music mapping was requested by users and seen as beneficial for usability.
Keywords: audio-tactile feedback, interaction techniques, mobile music, non-visual interaction, spatial gestures
TouchBall: a design and evaluation of a hand-held trackball based touch-haptic interface BIBAKFull-Text 1535-1538
  Minwoo Choi; Gerard Jounghyun Kim
In this paper, we present a design and an evaluation of a hand-held trackball based touch-haptic interface, named "TouchBall." Using a trackball mechanism, the device provides flexibility in terms of directional degrees of freedom. It also has an advantage of a direct transfer of force feedback through frictional touch (with high sensitivity), thus requiring only relatively small amount of inertia. This leads to a compact hand-held design appropriate for mobile and 3D interactive applications. The device is evaluated for the detection thresholds for directions of the force feedback and the perceived amount of directional force. The refined directionality information should combine with other modalities with less sensory conflict, enriching the user experience for a given application.
Keywords: directional navigation, hand-held, haptic, interface, mobile, touch

New gaming experiences

Design influence on social play in distributed exertion games BIBAKFull-Text 1539-1548
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere
Exertion games are an emerging form of interactive games that require players to invest significant physical effort as part of the gameplay, rather than just pressing buttons. These exertion games have potential health benefits by promoting exercise. It is also believed that they can facilitate social play between players and that social play can improve participation in exertion games. However, there is currently a lack of understanding of how to design games to support these effects. In this paper, we present a qualitative case study that illustrates how networked environments support social play in exertion games and how this can help to gain an understanding of existing games and support the design of future games. This work offers a preliminary analytical and descriptive account of the relationship between exertion and social play in such a game and highlights the influence of design with the aim of utilizing the attributed benefits of exertion and social play.
Keywords: active, design space, exergaming, exertion interface, exhausting, interaction, physical, social, sports, tangible, team spirit, videoconferencing
The three-sixty illusion: designing for immersion in pervasive games BIBAKFull-Text 1549-1558
  Annika Waern; Markus Montola; Jaakko Stenros
Pervasive games are staged in reality and their main attractiveness is generated by using reality as a resource in the game. Yet, most pervasive games that use mobile and location-based technology use reality only in a weak sense, as the location for a computerized game.
   In this article we analyze two game practices, Nordic style live action role-playing (larp) and alternate reality games (ARG), that instead use reality as their main game resource. We analyze how they go about creating a believable game world and encourage the players to actively take part in this world. We present two example games that do the same with the support of technology, effectively realizing an immersive game world through a combination of physical play and technology-supported play.
Keywords: immersion, mobile game, pervasive game, role-play
Wii all play: the console game as a computational meeting place BIBAKFull-Text 1559-1568
  Amy Voida; Saul Greenberg
In this paper, we present results from a qualitative study of collocated group console gaming. We focus on motivations for, perceptions of, and practices surrounding the shared use of console games by a variety of established groups of gamers. These groups include both intragenerational groups of youth, adults, and elders as well as intergenerational families. Our analysis highlights the numerous ways that console games serve as a computational meeting place for a diverse population of gamers.
Keywords: PS2, PS3, Playstation, Wii, XBox360, computational meeting place, console games, digital hearth, gamecube, video games

Software development

Finding causes of program output with the Java Whyline BIBAKFull-Text 1569-1578
  Andrew J. Ko; Brad A. Myers
Debugging and diagnostic tools are some of the most important software development tools, but most expect developers choose the right code to inspect. Unfortunately, this rarely occurs. A new tool called the Whyline is described which avoids such speculation by allowing developers to select questions about a program's output. The tool then helps developers work backwards from output to its causes. The prototype, which supports Java programs, was evaluated in an experiment in which participants investigated two real bug reports from an open source project using either the Whyline or a breakpoint debugger. Whyline users were successful about three times as often and about twice as fast compared to the control group, and were extremely positive about the tool's ability to simplify diagnostic tasks in software development work.
Keywords: debugging, instrumentation, slicing, whyline
Fisheyes in the field: using method triangulation to study the adoption and use of a source code visualization BIBAKFull-Text 1579-1588
  Mikkel Rønne Jakobsen; Kasper Hornbæk
Information visualizations have been shown useful in numerous laboratory studies, but their adoption and use in real-life tasks are curiously under-researched. We present a field study of ten programmers who work with an editor extended with a fisheye view of source code. The study triangulates multiple methods (experience sampling, logging, thinking aloud, and interviews) to describe how the visualization is adopted and used. At the concrete level, our results suggest that the visualization was used as frequently as other tools in the programming environment. We also propose extensions to the interface and discuss features that were not used in practice. At the methodological level, the study identifies contributions distinct to individual methods and to their combination, and discusses the relative benefits of laboratory studies and field studies for the evaluation of information visualizations.
Keywords: evaluation methodology, experience sampling, field study, fisheye view, information visualization, interviews, logging, programming, thinking aloud
Two studies of opportunistic programming: interleaving web foraging, learning, and writing code BIBAKFull-Text 1589-1598
  Joel Brandt; Philip J. Guo; Joel Lewenstein; Mira Dontcheva; Scott R. Klemmer
This paper investigates the role of online resources in problem solving. We look specifically at how programmers -- an exemplar form of knowledge workers -- opportunistically interleave Web foraging, learning, and writing code. We describe two studies of how programmers use online resources. The first, conducted in the lab, observed participants' Web use while building an online chat room. We found that programmers leverage online resources with a range of intentions: They engage in just-in-time learning of new skills and approaches, clarify and extend their existing knowledge, and remind themselves of details deemed not worth remembering. The results also suggest that queries for different purposes have different styles and durations. Do programmers' queries "in the wild" have the same range of intentions, or is this result an artifact of the particular lab setting? We analyzed a month of queries to an online programming portal, examining the lexical structure, refinements made, and result pages visited. Here we also saw traits that suggest the Web is being used for learning and reminding. These results contribute to a theory of online resource usage in programming, and suggest opportunities for tools to facilitate online knowledge work.
Keywords: copy-and-paste, opportunistic programming, prototyping

Usability methods

Comparison of three one-question, post-task usability questionnaires BIBAKFull-Text 1599-1608
  Jeff Sauro; Joseph S. Dumas
Post-task ratings of difficulty in a usability test have the potential to provide diagnostic information and be an additional measure of user satisfaction. But the ratings need to be reliable as well as easy to use for both respondents and researchers. Three one-question rating types were compared in a study with 26 participants who attempted the same five tasks with two software applications. The types were a Likert scale, a Usability Magnitude Estimation (UME) judgment, and a Subjective Mental Effort Question (SMEQ). All three types could distinguish between the applications with 26 participants, but the Likert and SMEQ types were more sensitive with small sample sizes. Both the Likert and SMEQ types were easy to learn and quick to execute. The online version of the SMEQ question was highly correlated with other measures and had equal sensitivity to the Likert question type.
Keywords: external validity, post-task ratings, satisfaction measures, sensitivity, usability evaluation
Correlations among prototypical usability metrics: evidence for the construct of usability BIBAKFull-Text 1609-1618
  Jeff Sauro; James R. Lewis
Correlations between prototypical usability metrics from 90 distinct usability tests were strong when measured at the task-level (r between .44 and .60). Using test-level satisfaction ratings instead of task-level ratings attenuated the correlations (r between .16 and .24). The method of aggregating data from a usability test had a significant effect on the magnitude of the resulting correlations. The results of principal components and factor analyses on the prototypical usability metrics provided evidence for an underlying construct of general usability with objective and subjective factors.
Keywords: correlation, fa, factor analysis, pca, principal components analysis, usability measurement, usability metrics
Let your users do the testing: a comparison of three remote asynchronous usability testing methods BIBAKFull-Text 1619-1628
  Anders Bruun; Peter Gull; Lene Hofmeister; Jan Stage
Remote asynchronous usability testing is characterized by both a spatial and temporal separation of users and evaluators. This has the potential both to reduce practical problems with securing user attendance and to allow direct involvement of users in usability testing. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we systematically compared three methods for remote asynchronous usability testing: user-reported critical incidents, forum-based online reporting and discussion, and diary-based longitudinal user reporting. In addition, conventional laboratory-based think-aloud testing was included as a benchmark for the remote methods. The results show that each remote asynchronous method supports identification of a considerable number of usability problems. Although this is only about half of the problems identified with the conventional method, it requires significantly less time. This makes remote asynchronous methods an appealing possibility for usability testing in many software projects.
Keywords: asynchronous testing, empirical study, remote testing, usability testing

Studying cell phone use

Focus on driving: how cognitive constraints shape the adaptation of strategy when dialing while driving BIBAKFull-Text 1629-1638
  Duncan P. Brumby; Dario D. Salvucci; Andrew Howes
We investigate how people adapt their strategy for interleaving multiple concurrent tasks to varying objectives. A study was conducted in which participants drove a simulated vehicle and occasionally dialed a telephone number on a mobile phone. Experimental instructions and feedback encouraged participants to focus on either driving or dialing. Results show that participants adapted their task interleaving strategies to meet the required task objective, but in a manner that was nonetheless intricately shaped by internal psychological constraints. In particular, participants tended to steer in between dialing chunks of digits even when extreme vehicle drift implied that more reactive strategies would have generated better lane keeping. To better understand why drivers interleaved tasks at chunk boundaries, a modeling analysis was conducted to derive performance predictions for a range of dialing strategies. The analysis supported the idea that interleaving at chunk boundaries efficiently traded the time given up to dialing with the maintenance of a central lane position. We discuss the implications of this work in terms of contributions to understanding how cognitive constraints shape strategy adaptations in dynamic multitask environments.
Keywords: handheld devices and mobile computing, multitasking, transport, user and cognitive models
At home and with computer access: why and where people use cell phones to access the internet BIBAKFull-Text 1639-1642
  Stina Nylander; Terés Lundquist; Andreas Brännström
We conducted a diary and interview study to investigate where and why people use cell phones to access the Internet. In more that 50% of the cases, our participants chose a phone even though they had access to a computer, and the most frequent location for cell phone Internet access was the home.
Keywords: cell phones, location, mobile internet use, motivation, user study
Bringing design considerations to the mobile phone and driving debate BIBAKFull-Text 1643-1646
  Leila Takayama; Jo Ann G. Sison; Brian Lathrop; Nicholas Wolfe; Abe Chiang; Alexia Nielsen; Clifford Nass
Though legislation is increasingly discouraging drivers from holding on to their mobile phones while talking, hands-free devices do not improve driver safety. We offer two design alternatives to improve driver safety in the contexts of voice-based user interfaces and mobile phone conversations in cars' side tones (auditory feedback used in landline phones) and location of speakers. In a 2 (side tone: present vs. not) x 2 (location of speakers: headphones vs. dashboard) between-participants experiment (N=48), we investigated the impact of these features upon driver experience and performance on a simulated mobile phone conversation while driving. Participants became more verbally engaged in the conversation when side tones were present, but also experienced more cognitive load. Participants drove more safely when voices were projected from the dashboard rather than from headphones. Implications for driver user interface design are discussed.
Keywords: driver safety, driver user interfaces, side tones, speaker location, voice user interfaces
Can i borrow your phone?: understanding concerns when sharing mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 1647-1650
  Amy K. Karlson; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Stuart Schechter
Mobile phones are becoming increasingly personalized in terms of the data they store and the types of services they provide. At the same time, field studies have reported that there are a variety of situations in which it is natural for people to share their phones with others. However, most mobile phones support a binary security model that offers all-or-nothing access to the phone. We interviewed 12 smartphone users to explore how security and data privacy concerns affected their willingness to share their mobile phones. The diversity of guest user categorizations and associated security constraints expressed by the participants suggests the need for a security model richer than today's binary model.
Keywords: mobile phone sharing, phone privacy, phone security
Social responses in mobile messaging: influence strategies, self-disclosure, and source orientation BIBAKFull-Text 1651-1654
  Dean Eckles; Doug Wightman; Claire Carlson; Attapol Thamrongrattanarit; Marcello Bastea-Forte; B. J. Fogg
This paper reports on a direct test of social responses to communication technologies theory (SRCT) with mobile messaging. SRCT predicts that people will mindlessly respond to computers in social ways that mirror their responses to humans. A field experiment (N=71) using participants' own mobile phones compared three influence strategies (direct request, flattery, and social norms) in the context of asking intimate questions of participants. These messages came from either an ostensibly human or computer sender. Flattery significantly increased self-disclosure when ostensibly sent by a human, but not when from a computer. The interaction effect for sender and influence strategy is inconsistent with SRCT's predictions. Implications for theories of source orientation, research methods, and future research are discussed.
Keywords: field experiments, flattery, mobile messaging, mobile phones, persuasive technology, self-disclosure, social influence, social responses to communication technologies, source orientation

Desktop techniques

Ephemeral adaptation: the use of gradual onset to improve menu selection performance BIBAKFull-Text 1655-1664
  Leah Findlater; Karyn Moffatt; Joanna McGrenere; Jessica Dawson
We introduce ephemeral adaptation, a new adaptive GUI technique that improves performance by reducing visual search time while maintaining spatial consistency. Ephemeral adaptive interfaces employ gradual onset to draw the user's attention to predicted items: adaptively predicted items appear abruptly when the menu is opened, but non-predicted items fade in gradually. To demonstrate the benefit of ephemeral adaptation we conducted two experiments with a total of 48 users to show: (1) that ephemeral adaptive menus are faster than static menus when accuracy is high, and are not significantly slower when it is low and (2) that ephemeral adaptive menus are also faster than adaptive highlighting. While we focused on user-adaptive GUIs, ephemeral adaptation should be applicable to a broad range of visually complex tasks.
Keywords: abrupt visual onset, adaptive interfaces, interaction techniques, menu design, personalization, user study
Revisiting read wear: analysis, design, and evaluation of a footprints scrollbar BIBAKFull-Text 1665-1674
  Jason Alexander; Andy Cockburn; Stephen Fitchett; Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
In this paper, we show that people frequently return to previously-visited regions within their documents, and that scrollbars can be enhanced to ease this task. We analysed 120 days of activity logs from Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader. Our analysis shows that region revisitation is a common activity that can be supported with relatively short recency lists. This establishes an empirical foundation for the design of an enhanced scrollbar containing scrollbar marks that helps people return to previously visited document regions. Two controlled experiments show that scrollbar marks decrease revisitation time, and that a large number of marks can be used effectively. We then design an enhanced Footprints scrollbar that supports revisitation with several features, including scrollbar marks and mark thumbnails. Two further experiments show that the Footprints scrollbar was frequently used and strongly preferred over traditional scrollbars.
Keywords: document revisitation, read wear, scrolling
Power tools for copying and moving: useful stuff for your desktop BIBAKFull-Text 1675-1678
  Guillaume Faure; Olivier Chapuis; Nicolas Roussel
Copy and move operations have long been supported by interactive desktops through various means. But the growing number of on-screen objects makes these means harder to use. In this note, we present new tools and techniques to enhance the existing ones: a selection, copy and drag history manager; two techniques to expose the user's desk and leaf through stacks of overlapping windows; and a technique that integrates the previous two with conventional drag-and-drop.
Keywords: copy-and-paste, cut-and-paste, drag-and-drop
WikiFolders: augmenting the display of folders to better convey the meaning of files BIBAKFull-Text 1679-1682
  Stephen Voida; Saul Greenberg
Hierarchical file systems and file browsers offer powerful capabilities for managing and organizing folders and files. Yet they lack robust tools for annotating and documenting these files-individually or collectively-with descriptive text. In contrast, Web pages and wikis make it easy to create rich and meaningful narratives around digital artifacts, allowing files to be embedded within explanatory text and images. Unfortunately, considerable effort is required to manage files stored on Web servers and to ensure that the published content remains up-to-date. In this note, we describe WikiFolders, a hybrid system for annotating file folders that draws upon the strengths of both the hierarchical file system and wikis.
Keywords: annotation, folders, hierarchical file systems, personal information management, semantic organization, wikifolders, wikis

Designing for senior citizens

Adaptive information search: age-dependent interactions between cognitive profiles and strategies BIBAKFull-Text 1683-1692
  Jessie Chin; Wai-Tat Fu; Thomas Kannampallil
Previous research has shown that older adults performed worse in web search tasks, and attributed poorer performance to a decline in their cognitive abilities. We conducted a study involving younger and older adults to compare their web search behavior and performance in ill-defined and well-defined information tasks using a health information website. In ill-defined tasks, only a general description about information needs was given, while in well-defined tasks, information needs as well as the specific target information were given. We found that older adults performed worse than younger adults in well-defined tasks, but the reverse was true in ill-defined tasks. Older adults compensated for their lower cognitive abilities by adopting a top-down knowledge-driven strategy to achieve the same level of performance in the ill-defined tasks. Indeed, path models showed that cognitive abilities, health literacy, and knowledge influenced search strategies adopted by older and younger adults. Design implications are also discussed.
Keywords: age differences, cognitive abilities, cost-benefit analysis, health literacy, ill-defined task, search strategies, web search
Desiring to be in touch in a changing communications landscape: attitudes of older adults BIBAKFull-Text 1693-1702
  Siân E. Lindley; Richard Harper; Abigail Sellen
This paper offers an exploration of the attitudes of older adults to keeping in touch with people who are important to them. We present findings from three focus groups with people from 55 to 81 years of age. Themes emerging from the findings suggest that older adults view the act of keeping in touch as being worthy of time and dedication, but also as being something that needs to be carefully managed within the context of daily life. Communication is seen as a means through which skill should be demonstrated and personality expressed, and is understood in a very different context to the lightweight interaction that is increasingly afforded by new technologies. The themes that emerged are used to elicit a number of design implications and to promote some illustrative design concepts for new communication devices.
Keywords: asymmetry, communication, connectedness, distance, effort, elder, heavyweight, intergenerational, intimacy, old age, reflection, senior, slow messaging
Knocking on elders' door: investigating the functional and emotional geography of their domestic space BIBAKFull-Text 1703-1712
  Chiara Leonardi; Claudio Mennecozzi; Elena Not; Fabio Pianesi; Massimo Zancanaro; Francesca Gennai; Antonio Cristoforetti
The domestic environment is more than a place where to live. It is a territory of meaning, a place where pleasure, affect and aesthetics are deeply interwoven with the functional and utilitarian dimensions. With the aging process, the home is progressively invested with new meanings and functions, and becomes the emotional center of older people's life.
   This paper presents a user study based on cultural probes on how domestic spaces are managed and perceived by older adults, uncovering some of the complex interrelations among the daily activities, objects and meanings revolving around the home. The findings provide suggestions on how the dimensions of remembrance, perception of safety and environmental stability may affect the design of domestic technology for elderly people.
Keywords: aging, cultural probes, design of domestic technology

Photos and life logging

Baby steps: evaluation of a system to support record-keeping for parents of young children BIBAKFull-Text 1713-1722
  Julie A. Kientz; Rosa I. Arriaga; Gregory D. Abowd
Parents of young children often want to keep a variety of records on their children's early years, for the purposes of preservation of memories or at the request of their pediatrician. However, time constraints, motivation, and forgetfulness may hinder their ability to keep consistent records. We developed a system, Baby Steps, which is designed to improve the record-keeping process. In this paper, we present the results of a 3-month deployment study of this technology with 8 families and their pediatricians. The study showed that when compared to a control condition, experimental design features of Baby Steps encouraged parents to more frequently collect and review records, provided higher confidence in reporting, and improved parent-pediatrician communication.
Keywords: children, decision support, developmental delay, families, field trial, health, real world deployment
Making history: intentional capture of future memories BIBAKFull-Text 1723-1732
  Daniela Petrelli; Elise van den Hoven; Steve Whittaker
Lifelogging' technology makes it possible to amass digital data about every aspect of our everyday lives. Instead of focusing on such technical possibilities, here we investigate the way people compose long-term mnemonic representations of their lives. We asked 10 families to create a time capsule, a collection of objects used to trigger remembering in the distant future. Our results show that contrary to the lifelogging view, people are less interested in exhaustively digitally recording their past than in reconstructing it from carefully selected cues that are often physical objects. Time capsules were highly expressive and personal, many objects were made explicitly for inclusion, however with little object annotation. We use these findings to propose principles for designing technology that supports the active reconstruction of our future past.
Keywords: autobiographical memory, cultural probes, fieldwork, lifelogs
Getting sidetracked: display design and occasioning photo-talk with the photohelix BIBAKFull-Text 1733-1736
  Otmar Hilliges; David Shelby Kirk
In this paper we discuss some of our recent research work designing tabletop interfaces for co-located photo sharing. We draw particular attention to a specific feature of an interface design, which we have observed over an extensive number of uses, as facilitating an under-reported but none-the-less intriguing aspect of the photo-sharing experience -- namely the process of 'getting sidetracked'. Through a series of vignettes of interaction during photo-sharing sessions we demonstrate how users of our tabletop photoware system used peripheral presentation of topically incoherent photos to artfully initiate new photo-talk sequences in on-going discourse. From this we draw implications for the design of tabletop photo applications, and for the experiential analysis of such devices.
Keywords: photo-talk, photoware, randomness, sidetracking, tabletop
Reflections of everyday activities in spending data BIBAKFull-Text 1737-1740
  Julia Schwarz; Jennifer Mankoff; H. Scott Matthews
In this paper we show that financial information can be used to sense many aspects of human activity. This simple technique gives people information about their daily lives, is easily accessible to many at no extra cost, requires little setup, and does not require the manufacture of any external devices. We will focus on how financial data can be used to show users where they spend their time, when they accomplish certain habits, and what the impact of their activities is on the environment. We validate our idea by implementing three demonstration applications intended for personal use. Finally, this paper discusses limitations of sensing using financial data and possible solutions.
Keywords: context-aware computing, ubiquitous computing

Mobile applications for the developing world

A comparison of mobile money-transfer UIs for non-literate and semi-literate users BIBAKFull-Text 1741-1750
  Indrani Medhi; S. N. Nagasena Gautama; Kentaro Toyama
Due to the increasing penetration of mobile phones even into poor communities, mobile payment schemes could bring formal financial services to the "unbanked". However, because poverty for the most part also correlates with low levels of formal education, there are questions as to whether electronic access to complex financial services is enough to bridge the gap, and if so, what sort of UI is best.
   In this paper, we present two studies that provide preliminary answers to these questions. We first investigated the usability of existing mobile payment services, through an ethnographic study involving 90 subjects in India, Kenya, the Philippines and South Africa. This was followed by a usability study with another 58 subjects in India, in which we compared non-literate and semi-literate subjects on three systems: text-based, spoken dialog (without text), and rich multimedia (also without text). Results confirm that non-text designs are strongly preferred over text-based designs and that while task-completion rates are better for the rich multimedia UI, speed is faster and less assistance is required on the spoken-dialog system.
Keywords: illiteracy, mobile banking, mobile interfaces
Comparing semiliterate and illiterate users' ability to transition from audio+text to text-only interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1751-1760
  Leah Findlater; Ravin Balakrishnan; Kentaro Toyama
Multimodal interfaces with little or no text have been shown to be useful for users with low literacy. However, this research has not differentiated between the needs of the fully illiterate and semiliterate -- those who have basic literacy but cannot read and write fluently. Text offers a fast and unambiguous mode of interaction for literate users and the exposure to text may allow for incidental improvement of reading skills. We conducted two studies that explore how semiliterate users with very little education might benefit from a combination of text and audio as compared to illiterate and literate users. Results show that semiliterate users reduced their use of audio support even during the first hour of use and over several hours this reduction was accompanied by a gain in visual word recognition; illiterate users showed no similar improvement. Semiliterate users should thus be treated differently from illiterate users in interface design.
Keywords: accessibility, development, ict4d, inclusive design, literacy, semiliteracy
StoryBank: mobile digital storytelling in a development context BIBAKFull-Text 1761-1770
  David M. Frohlich; Dorothy Rachovides; Kiriaki Riga; Ramnath Bhat; Maxine Frank; Eran Edirisinghe; Dhammike Wickramanayaka; Matt Jones; Will Harwood
Mobile imaging and digital storytelling currently support a growing practice of multimedia communication in the West. In this paper we describe a project which explores their benefit in the East, to support non-textual information sharing in an Indian village. Local audiovisual story creation and sharing activities were carried out in a one month trial, using 10 customized cameraphones and a digital library of stories represented on a village display. The findings show that the system was usable by a cross-section of the community and valued for its ability to express a mixture of development and community information in an accessible form. Lessons for the role of HCI in this context are also discussed.
Keywords: development, digital library, digital storytelling, india, mobile

Social search and sensemaking

CoSense: enhancing sensemaking for collaborative web search BIBAKFull-Text 1771-1780
  Sharoda A. Paul; Meredith Ringel Morris
Making sense of the information found during an investigational Web search task can be daunting. With the recent emergence of tools to support collaborative Web search, the associated sensemaking task has become even more complex, requiring sense to be made not only of the products of a search (i.e., results found) but of the process, as well (i.e., group division of labor and decision-making).
   We present the findings of a formative study illustrating the sensemaking challenges posed by collaborative search tools. Based on these findings, we created CoSense, a system that supports sensemaking for collaborative Web search tasks by providing several rich, interactive views of a group's search activities. We describe an evaluation of CoSense, reflecting on how its features supported different aspects of sensemaking, and how future collaborative search systems can benefit from these findings.
Keywords: awareness, collaborative search, sensemaking, trajectories
PlayByPlay: collaborative web browsing for desktop and mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 1781-1790
  Heather Wiltse; Jeffrey Nichols
Collaborative web browsing tasks occur frequently, such as one user showing another how to use a web site, several users working together on a search task, or even one user sending an interesting link to another user. Unfortunately, tools for browsing the web are commonly designed for a single user. PlayByPlay is a general purpose web collaboration tool that uses the communication model of instant messaging to support a variety of collaborative browsing tasks. PlayByPlay also supports collaborative browsing between mobile and desktop users, which we believe is useful for on-the-go scenarios. We conducted user studies of the desktop and mobile versions of PlayByPlay and found the system to be usable and effective.
Keywords: co-browsing, collaboration, collaborative browsing, coscripter, design, mobile, web
Annotate once, appear anywhere: collective foraging for snippets of interest using paragraph fingerprinting BIBAKFull-Text 1791-1794
  Lichan Hong; Ed H. Chi
A common practice in work groups is to share links to interesting web pages. Moreover, passages in these web pages are often cut-and-pasted, and used in various other contexts. In this paper we report how we explore the idea of paragraph fingerprinting to achieve the goal of annotate once, appear anywhere in a social annotation system called SparTag.us. This work was motivated by the prominence of redundant contents with different URLs on the Web and shared documents that are read and re-read within enterprises. Our technique attaches users' annotations to the contents of paragraphs, enabling annotations to move along with the paragraphs within dynamic live pages and travel across page boundary to other pages as long as the paragraph contents remain intact. We also describe how we use paragraph fingerprinting to facilitate the social sharing of information nuggets among our users.
Keywords: content-based annotation, paragraph fingerprint, social computing, social information foraging
With a little help from my friends: examining the impact of social annotations in sensemaking tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1795-1798
  Les Nelson; Christoph Held; Peter Pirolli; Lichan Hong; Diane Schiano; Ed H. Chi
In prior work we reported on the design of a social annotation system, SparTag.us, for use in sensemaking activities such as work-group reading and report writing. Previous studies of note-taking systems have demonstrated behavioral differences in social annotation practices, but are not clear in the actual performance gains provided by social features. This paper presents a laboratory study aimed at evaluating the learning effect of social features in SparTag.us. We found significant learning gains, and consider implications for design and for understanding the underlying mechanisms in play when people use social annotation systems.
Keywords: social annotation systems, social sensemaking, user studies

Understanding UI 2

Self-interruption on the computer: a typology of discretionary task interleaving BIBAKFull-Text 1799-1808
  Jing Jin; Laura A. Dabbish
The typical information worker is interrupted every 12 minutes, and half of the time they are interrupting themselves. However, most of the research on interruption in the area of human-computer interaction has focused on understanding and managing interruptions from external sources. Internal interruptions -- user-initiated switches away from a task prior to its completion -- are not well understood. In this paper we describe a qualitative study of self-interruption on the computer. Using a grounded theory approach, we identify seven categories of self-interruptions in computer-related activities. These categories are derived from direct observations of users, and describe the motivation, potential consequences, and benefits associated with each type of self-interruption observed. Our research extends the understanding of the self-interruption phenomenon, and informs the design of systems to support discretionary task interleaving on the computer.
Keywords: attention, interruption, multi-tasking, self-interruption, task-switching, work fragmentation, work spheres
The problem of consistency in the design of Fitts' law experiments: consider either target distance and width or movement form and scale BIBAKFull-Text 1809-1818
  Yves Guiard
An intriguing anomaly of the usual way of designing Fitts' law experiments in experimental psychology and HCI is exposed: experiments are traditionally designed so as to carefully balance two ancillary factors, target distance D and target width W, but not task difficulty, the factor unanimously thought to be crucial. Troubling factor confounds and hence quantitative estimation errors result from this inconsistency. The problem, it is suggested, may be fixed if the equivocalness of the fractional expression D/W that appears on the right-hand side of Fitts' law equations is acknowledged. This two-degree-of-freedom expression can be taken to specify either D and W or the form F and the scale S of the movement task. The paper ends up with practical recommendations for the design of consistent Fitts' law experiments. In most cases eliminating one factor will allow a safer estimation of Fitts' law parameters, while simplifying the experimental work.
Keywords: Fitts' law, experimental design, methodology, movement amplitude, movement difficulty, movement form, movement scale, movement shape, target distance, target tolerance, target width, theory
Toward a unified theory of the multitasking continuum: from concurrent performance to task switching, interruption, and resumption BIBAKFull-Text 1819-1828
  Dario D. Salvucci; Niels A. Taatgen; Jelmer P. Borst
Multitasking in user behavior can be represented along a continuum in terms of the time spent on one task before switching to another. In this paper, we present a theory of behavior along the multitasking continuum, from concurrent tasks with rapid switching to sequential tasks with longer time between switching. Our theory unifies several theoretical effects -- the ACT-R cognitive architecture, the threaded cognition theory of concurrent multitasking, and the memory-for-goals theory of interruption and resumption -- to better understand and predict multitasking behavior. We outline the theory and discuss how it accounts for numerous phenomena in the recent empirical literature.
Keywords: attention, cognitive architecture, interruption, multitasking

Supporting blind users

Evaluating existing audio CAPTCHAs and an interface optimized for non-visual use BIBAKFull-Text 1829-1838
  Jeffrey P. Bigham; Anna C. Cavender
Audio CAPTCHAs were introduced as an accessible alternative for those unable to use the more common visual CAPTCHAs, but anecdotal accounts have suggested that they may be more difficult to solve. This paper demonstrates in a large study of more than 150 participants that existing audio CAPTCHAs are clearly more difficult and time-consuming to complete as compared to visual CAPTCHAs for both blind and sighted users. In order to address this concern, we developed and evaluated a new interface for solving CAPTCHAs optimized for non-visual use that can be added in-place to existing audio CAPTCHAs. In a subsequent study, the optimized interface increased the success rate of blind participants by 59% on audio CAPTCHAs, illustrating a broadly applicable principle of accessible design: the most usable audio interfaces are often not direct translations of existing visual interfaces.
Keywords: audio captcha, blind users, non-visual interfaces
On the audio representation of distance for blind users BIBAKFull-Text 1839-1848
  Martin Talbot; William Cowan
This study examines methods for displaying distance information to blind travellers using sound, focussing on abstractions of methods currently used in commercial Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs). Ten blind participants assessed three sound encodings commonly used to convey distance information by ETAs: sound frequency (Pitch), Ecological Distance (ED), and temporal variation or Beat Rate (BR). Response time and response correctness were chosen for measures.
Keywords: assistive technology, blind users, distance perception, evaluation, guidelines, sound visualization

Advanced web scenarios

Amplifying community content creation with mixed initiative information extraction BIBAKFull-Text 1849-1858
  Raphael Hoffmann; Saleema Amershi; Kayur Patel; Fei Wu; James Fogarty; Daniel S. Weld
Although existing work has explored both information extraction and community content creation, most research has focused on them in isolation. In contrast, we see the greatest leverage in the synergistic pairing of these methods as two interlocking feedback cycles. This paper explores the potential synergy promised if these cycles can be made to accelerate each other by exploiting the same edits to advance both community content creation and learning-based information extraction. We examine our proposed synergy in the context of Wikipedia infoboxes and the Kylin information extraction system. After developing and refining a set of interfaces to present the verification of Kylin extractions as a non primary task in the context of Wikipedia articles, we develop an innovative use of Web search advertising services to study people engaged in some other primary task. We demonstrate our proposed synergy by analyzing our deployment from two complementary perspectives: (1) we show we accelerate community content creation by using Kylin's information extraction to significantly increase the likelihood that a person visiting a Wikipedia article as a part of some other primary task will spontaneously choose to help improve the article's infobox, and (2) we show we accelerate information extraction by using contributions collected from people interacting with our designs to significantly improve Kylin's extraction performance.
Keywords: community content creation, information extraction, mixed-initiative interfaces
Attaching UI enhancements to websites with end users BIBAKFull-Text 1859-1868
  Michael Toomim; Steven M. Drucker; Mira Dontcheva; Ali Rahimi; Blake Thomson; James A. Landay
We present reform, a step toward write-once apply-anywhere user interface enhancements. The reform system envisions roles for both programmers and end users in enhancing existing websites to support new goals. First, a programmer authors a traditional mashup or browser extension, but they do not write a web scraper. Instead they use reform, which allows novice end users to attach the enhancement to their favorite sites with a scraping by-example interface. reform makes enhancements easier to program while also carrying the benefit that end users can apply the enhancements to any number of new websites. We present reform's architecture, user interface, interactive by-example extraction algorithm for novices, and evaluation, along with five example reform enabled enhancements.
Keywords: end-user programming, mashups, programming by example, web data extraction
User-created forms as an effective method of human-agent communication BIBAKFull-Text 1869-1878
  John Zimmerman; Kathryn Rivard; Ian Hargraves; Anthony Tomasic; Ken Mohnkern
A key challenge for mixed-initiative systems is to create a shared understanding of the task between human and agent. To address this challenge, we created a mixed-initiative interface called Mixer to aid administrators with automating tedious information-retrieval tasks. Users initiate communication with the agent by constructing a form, creating a structure to hold the information they require and to show context in order to interpret this information. They then populate the form with the desired results, demonstrating to the agent the steps required to retrieve the information. This method of form creation explicitly defines the shared understanding between human and agent. An evaluation of the interface shows that administrators can effectively create forms to communicate with the agent, that they are likely to accept this technology in their work environment, and that the agent's help can significantly reduce the time they spend on repeated information-retrieval tasks.
Keywords: agents, information retrieval, interaction design, mixed-initiative

Enhancing reality

Designable visual markers BIBAKFull-Text 1879-1888
  Enrico Costanza; Jeffrey Huang
Visual markers are graphic symbols designed to be easily recognised by machines. They are traditionally used to track goods, but there is increasing interest in their application to mobile HCI. By scanning a visual marker through a camera phone users can retrieve localised information and access mobile services.
   One missed opportunity in current visual marker systems is that the markers themselves cannot be visually designed, they are not expressive to humans, and thus fail to convey information before being scanned. This paper provides an overview of d-touch, an open source system that allows users to create their own markers, controlling their aesthetic qualities. The system runs in real-time on mobile phones and desktop computers. To increase computational efficiency d-touch imposes constraints on the design of the markers in terms of the relationship of dark and light regions in the symbols. We report a user study in which pairs of novice users generated between 3 and 27 valid and expressive markers within one hour of being introduced to the system, demonstrating its flexibility and ease of use.
Keywords: UI toolkits, fiducial recognition, mobile HCI, mobile devices, user studies, visual marker design, visual marker recognition
Like bees around the hive: a comparative study of a mobile augmented reality map BIBAKFull-Text 1889-1898
  Ann Morrison; Antti Oulasvirta; Peter Peltonen; Saija Lemmela; Giulio Jacucci; Gerhard Reitmayr; Jaana Näsänen; Antti Juustila
We present findings from field trials of MapLens, a mobile augmented reality (AR) map using a magic lens over a paper map. Twenty-six participants used MapLens to play a location-based game in a city centre. Comparisons to a group of 11 users with a standard 2D mobile map uncover phenomena that arise uniquely when interacting with AR features in the wild. The main finding is that AR features facilitate place-making by creating a constant need for referencing to the physical, and in that it allows for ease of bodily configurations for the group, encourages establishment of common ground, and thereby invites discussion, negotiation and public problem-solving. The main potential of AR maps lies in their use as a collaborative tool.
Keywords: augmented reality
Going my way: a user-aware route planner BIBAKFull-Text 1899-1902
  Jaewoo Chung; Chris Schmandt
Going My Way is a mobile user-aware route planner. The system collects GPS data of a user's everyday locations and provides directions from an automatically selected set of landmarks that are close to the destination, informed by the user's usual travel patterns. In this paper, we present a brief description of the system, the results of a preliminary experiment in memory and recognition of landmarks, in addition to the results of a user evaluation of the system.
Keywords: context awareness, direction, gps, location awareness, mobile computing, navigation, personal landmarks, personalized information
Inferring player engagement in a pervasive experience BIBAKFull-Text 1903-1906
  Joel E. Fischer; Steve Benford
We investigate the prediction of player engagement to address temporal issues arising from the long-term character of pervasive experiences such as interruptibility, mutual player state awareness, disengagement and synchronization on re-engagement. We introduce a model that operationalizes engagement in terms of the elapsed and response time in game messages. We designed and conducted an experiment based on the experience-sampling method to evaluate our model on the basis of a long-term SMS-based game called Day of the Figurines. Statistical analysis supports the hypothesis that player engagement can be predicted by the continuous data properties elapsed time and response time. Our findings point towards further research towards the adaptation of pervasive experiences to the player's temporal context.
Keywords: context-awareness, engagement, experience-sampling method, pervasive experience

New mobile interactions

Back-of-device interaction allows creating very small touch devices BIBAKFull-Text 1923-1932
  Patrick Baudisch; Gerry Chu
In this paper, we explore how to add pointing input capabilities to very small screen devices. On first sight, touchscreens seem to allow for particular compactness, because they integrate input and screen into the same physical space. The opposite is true, however, because the user's fingers occlude contents and prevent precision.
   We argue that the key to touch-enabling very small devices is to use touch on the device backside. In order to study this, we have created a 2.4" prototype device; we simulate screens smaller than that by masking the screen. We present a user study in which participants completed a pointing task successfully across display sizes when using a back-of device interface. The touchscreen-based control condition (enhanced with the shift technique), in contrast, failed for screen diagonals below 1 inch. We present four form factor concepts based on back-of-device interaction and provide design guidelines extracted from a second user study.
Keywords: back-of-device interaction, input devices, lucidtouch, mobile devices, nanotouch, pointing, touch
Codex: a dual screen tablet computer BIBAKFull-Text 1933-1942
  Ken Hinckley; Morgan Dixon; Raman Sarin; François Guimbretière; Ravin Balakrishnan
The Codex is a dual-screen tablet computer, about the size of a 4"x 6 day planner, with a self-supporting binding and embedded sensors. The device can be oriented in a variety of postures to support different nuances of individual work, ambient display, or collaboration with another user. In the context of a pen-operated note taking application, we demonstrate interaction techniques that support a fluid division of labor for tasks and information across the two displays while minimizing disruption to the primary experience of authoring notes.
Keywords: collaboration, dual screen, mobility, pen, sensors, tablet
Tilt techniques: investigating the dexterity of wrist-based input BIBAKFull-Text 1943-1952
  Mahfuz Rahman; Sean Gustafson; Pourang Irani; Sriram Subramanian
Most studies on tilt based interaction can be classified as point-designs that demonstrate the utility of wrist-tilt as an input medium; tilt parameters are tailored to suit the specific interaction at hand. In this paper, we systematically analyze the design space of wrist-based interactions and focus on the level of control possible with the wrist. In a first study, we investigate the various factors that can influence tilt control, separately along the three axes of wrist movement: flexion/extension, pronation/supination, and ulnar/radial deviation. Results show that users can control comfortably at least 16 levels on the pronation/supination axis and that using a quadratic mapping function for discretization of tilt space significantly improves user performance across all tilt axes. We discuss the findings of our results in the context of several interaction techniques and identify several general design recommendations.
Keywords: tilt input, tilt-based interaction, wrist dexterity, wrist input

Technology for museums

A tag in the hand: supporting semantic, social, and spatial navigation in museums BIBAKFull-Text 1953-1962
  Dan Cosley; Jonathan Baxter; Soyoung Lee; Brian Alson; Saeko Nomura; Phil Adams; Chethan Sarabu; Geri Gay
Designers of mobile, social systems must carefully think about how to help their users manage spatial, semantic, and social modes of navigation. Here, we describe our deployment of MobiTags, a system to help museum visitors interact with a collection of "open storage" exhibits, those where the museum provides little curatorial information. MobiTags integrates social tagging, art information, and a map to support navigation and collaborative curation of these open storage collections. We studied 23 people's use of MobiTags in a local museum, combining interview data with device use logs and tracking of people's movements to understand how MobiTags affected their navigation and experience in the museum. Despite a lack of social cues, people feel a strong sense of social presence -- and social pressure -- through seeing others' tags. The tight coupling of tags, item information, and map features also supported a rich set of practices around these modes of navigation.
Keywords: experience, mobile tagging, museum, navigation, presence
Familial collaborations in a museum BIBAKFull-Text 1963-1972
  Tom Hope; Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Toru Takahashi; Atsushi Nobayashi; Shota Fukuoka; Masahiro Hamasaki; Takuichi Nishimura
Studies of interactive systems in museums have raised important design considerations, but so far have failed to address sufficiently the particularities of family interaction and co-operation. This paper introduces qualitative video-based observations of Japanese families using an interactive portable guide system in a museum. Results show how unexpected usage can occur through particularities of interaction between family members. The paper highlights the necessity to more fully consider familial relationships in HCI.
Keywords: actor-networks, conversation analysis, families, museums, video analysis
Supporting the creation of hybrid museum experiences BIBAKFull-Text 1973-1982
  Boriana Koleva; Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Holger Schnädelbach; Kevin Glover; Chris Greenhalgh; Tom Rodden; Martyn Dade-Robertson
This paper presents the evolution of a tool to support the rapid prototyping of hybrid museum experiences by domain professionals. The developed tool uses visual markers to associate digital resources with physical artefacts. We present the iterative development of the tool through a user centred design process and demonstrate its use by domain experts to realise two distinct hybrid exhibits. The process of design and refinement of the tool highlights the need to adopt an experience oriented approach allowing authors to think in terms of the physical and digital "things" that comprise a hybrid experience rather than in terms of the underlying technical components.
Keywords: authoring tools, hybrid physical-digital artifacts, museum applications, prototyping

Security and privacy

It's not what you know, but who you know: a social approach to last-resort authentication BIBAKFull-Text 1983-1992
  Stuart Schechter; Serge Egelman; Robert W. Reeder
Backup authentication mechanisms help users who have forgotten their passwords regain access to their accounts-or at least try. Today's systems fall short in meeting both security and reliability requirements. We designed, built, and tested a new backup authentication system that employs a social-authentication mechanism. The system employs trustees previously appointed by the account holder to verify the account holder's identity. We ran three experiments to determine whether the system could (1) reliably authenticate account holders, (2) resist email attacks that target trustees by impersonating account holders, and (3) resist phone-based attacks from individuals close to account holders. Results were encouraging: seventeen of the nineteen participants who made the effort to call trustees authenticated successfully. However, we also found that users must be reminded of who their trustees are. While email-based attacks were largely unsuccessful, stronger countermeasures will be required to counter highly-personalized phone-based attacks.
Keywords: privacy, security, usability testing and evaluation
"When I am on Wi-Fi, I am fearless": privacy concerns & practices in everyday Wi-Fi use BIBAKFull-Text 1993-2002
  Predrag Klasnja; Sunny Consolvo; Jaeyeon Jung; Benjamin M. Greenstein; Louis LeGrand; Pauline Powledge; David Wetherall
Increasingly, users access online services such as email, e-commerce, and social networking sites via 802.11-based wireless networks. As they do so, they expose a range of personal information such as their names, email addresses, and ZIP codes to anyone within broadcast range of the network. This paper presents results from an exploratory study that examined how users from the general public understand Wi-Fi, what their concerns are related to Wi-Fi use, and which practices they follow to counter perceived threats. Our results reveal that while users understand the practical details of Wi-Fi use reasonably well, they lack understanding of important privacy risks. In addition, users employ incomplete protective practices which results in a false sense of security and lack of concern while on Wi-Fi. Based on our results, we outline opportunities for technology to help address these problems.
Keywords: Wi-Fi, privacy, security, user study, wireless networks
Who's viewed you?: the impact of feedback in a mobile location-sharing application BIBAKFull-Text 2003-2012
  Janice Y. Tsai; Patrick Kelley; Paul Drielsma; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Jason Hong; Norman Sadeh
Feedback is viewed as an essential element of ubiquitous computing systems in the HCI literature for helping people manage their privacy. However, the success of online social networks and existing commercial systems for mobile location sharing which do not incorporate feedback would seem to call the importance of feedback into question. We investigated this issue in the context of a mobile location sharing system. Specifically, we report on the findings of a field deployment of Locyoution, a mobile location sharing system. In our study of 56 users, one group was given feedback in the form of a history of location requests, and a second group was given no feedback at all. Our major contribution has been to show that feedback is an important contributing factor towards improving user comfort levels and allaying privacy concerns. Participants' privacy concerns were reduced after using the mobile location sharing system. Additionally, our study suggests that peer opinion and technical savviness contribute most to whether or not participants thought they would continue to use a mobile location technology.
Keywords: context-awareness, information disclosure, mobile location sharing technology, mobile social, privacy

Web searching and browsing

Exploring websites through contextual facets BIBAKFull-Text 2013-2022
  Yevgeniy Medynskiy; Mira Dontcheva; Steven M. Drucker
We present contextual facets, a novel user interface technique for navigating websites that publish large collections of semi-structured data. Contextual facets extend traditional faceted navigation techniques by transforming webpage elements into user interface components for filtering and retrieving related webpages. To investigate users' reactions to contextual facets, we built FacetPatch, a web browser that automatically generates contextual facet interfaces. As the user browses the web, FacetPatch automatically extracts semi-structured data from collections of webpages and overlays contextual facets on top of the current page. Participants in an exploratory user evaluation of FacetPatch were enthusiastic about contextual facets and often preferred them to an existing, familiar faceted navigation interface. We discuss how we improved the design of contextual facets and FacetPatch based on the results of this study.
Keywords: contextual facets, decision-making, faceted navigation
Visual snippets: summarizing web pages for search and revisitation BIBAKFull-Text 2023-2032
  Jaime Teevan; Edward Cutrell; Danyel Fisher; Steven M. Drucker; Gonzalo Ramos; Paul André; Chang Hu
People regularly interact with different representations of Web pages. A person looking for new information may initially find a Web page represented as a short snippet rendered by a search engine. When he wants to return to the same page the next day, the page may instead be represented by a link in his browser history. Previous research has explored how to best represent Web pages in support of specific task types, but, as we find in this paper, consistency in representation across tasks is also important. We explore how different representations are used in a variety of contexts and present a compact representation that supports both the identification of new, relevant Web pages and the re-finding of previously viewed pages.
Keywords: refinding, revisitation, semantic zoom, thumbnails, visual snippets, web browsing, web search
From x-rays to silly putty via Uranus: serendipity and its role in web search BIBAKFull-Text 2033-2036
  Paul André; Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais
The act of encountering information unexpectedly has long been identified as valuable, both as a joy in itself and as part of task-focused problem solving. There has been a concern that highly accurate search engines and targeted personalization may reduce opportunities for serendipity on the Web. We examine whether there is the potential for serendipitous encounters during Web search, and whether improving search relevance through personalization reduces this potential. By studying Web search query logs and the results people judge relevant and interesting, we find many of the queries people perform return interesting (potentially serendipitous) results that are not directly relevant. Rather than harming serendipity, personalization appears to identify interesting results in addition to relevant ones.
Keywords: partially relevant results, personalization, serendipity, web search
Semantically structured tag clouds: an empirical evaluation of clustered presentation approaches BIBAKFull-Text 2037-2040
  Johann Schrammel; Michael Leitner; Manfred Tscheligi
Tag clouds have become a frequently used interaction technique in the web. Recently several approaches to present tag clouds with the tags semantically clustered have been proposed. However, it remains unclear whether the expected gains in performance and advantages in interaction actually can be realized as no empirical evaluations of such approaches are available yet. In this paper we describe a series of experiments designed to evaluate the effects of semantic versus alphabetical and random arrangements of tags in tag clouds. The results of our work indicate that semantically clustered tag clouds can provide improvements over random layouts in specific search tasks and that they tend to increase the attention towards tags in small fonts compared to other layouts. Also, semantically structured tag clouds were preferred by about half of the users for general search tasks. Tag cloud layout does not seem to influence the ability to remember tags.
Keywords: clustering, folksonomy, tag clouds, visualization


A mobile voice communication system in medical setting: love it or hate it? BIBAKFull-Text 2041-2050
  Charlotte Tang; Sheelagh Carpendale
Hospital work coordination and collaboration often requires mobility for acquiring proper information and resources. In turn, the spatial distribution and the mobility of clinicians can curtail the opportunities for effective communications making collaboration difficult. In this situation, a mobile hands-free voice communication system, Vocera, was introduced to enhance communication. It supports quick and impromptu conversations among coworkers for work coordination and collaboration anytime and anywhere. We study this deployment and present our findings concerning the impact of this communication system on the information flow. Our information flow framework's communication strategies help contrast the information processes before and after the deployment of Vocera.
Keywords: communication strategy, healthcare, information flow, mobile, observational study, vocera, voice communication
Clinical evaluations and collaborative design: developing new technologies for mental healthcare interventions BIBAKFull-Text 2051-2060
  David Coyle; Gavin Doherty
Ethical requirements, severe constraints on access to end users and the necessity of real-world clinical evaluations represent significant challenges to designers of new technologies in mental healthcare (MHC) settings. This paper describes the collaborative approaches, incorporating HCI methods with input for MHC professionals and MHC theory, which were applied in the development of Personal Investigator (PI), a 3D computer game developed to support adolescent mental health interventions. Different stages in the evaluation of PI are discussed and the lessons learned through a multi-site clinical evaluation are presented. This evaluation has provided strong initial evidence that games such as PI offer the potential to improve adolescent engagement in talk-based interventions. It has also provided an insight into factors which should be considered in future designs in the MHC domain, e.g. the need to incorporate high levels of adaptability in future systems. Based on the difficulties encountered and lessons learned critical aims for future research are outlined.
Keywords: clinical evaluations, collaborative design, computer gaming, mental health
I just don't know why it's gone: maintaining informal information use in inpatient care BIBAKFull-Text 2061-2070
  Xiaomu Zhou; Mark S. Ackerman; Kai Zheng
We conducted a field-based study examining informal nursing information. We examined the use of this information before and after the adoption of a CPOE (Computerized Provider Order Entry) system in an inpatient unit of a large teaching hospital. Before CPOE adoption, nurses used paper working documents to detail psycho-social information about patients; after the CPOE adoption, they did not use paper or digital notes as was planned. The paper describes this process and analyses how several interlocked reasons contributed to the loss of this information in written form. We found that a change in physical location, sufficient convenience, visibility of the information, and permanency of information account for some, but not all, of the outcome. As well, we found that computerization of the nursing data led to a shift in the politics of the information itself -- the nurses no longer had a cohesive agreement about the kinds of data to enter into the system. The findings address the requirements of healthcare computerization to support both formal and informal work practices, respecting the nature of nursing work and the politics of information inherent in complex medical work.
Keywords: cpoe, cscw, electronic patient records, informal information, medical informatics, medical records, organizational memory, psychosocial information, shift change

Social software in office

Blogging at work and the corporate attention economy BIBAKFull-Text 2071-2080
  Sarita Yardi; Scott A. Golder; Michael J. Brzozowski
The attention economy motivates participation in peer-produced sites on the Web like YouTube and Wikipedia. However, this economy appears to break down at work. We studied a large internal corporate blogging community using log files and interviews and found that employees expected to receive attention when they contributed to blogs, but these expectations often went unmet. Like in the external blogosphere, a few people received most of the attention, and many people received little or none. Employees expressed frustration if they invested time and received little or no perceived return on investment. While many corporations are looking to adopt Web-based communication tools like blogs, wikis, and forums, these efforts will fail unless employees are motivated to participate and contribute content. We identify where the attention economy breaks down in a corporate blog community and suggest mechanisms for improvement.
Keywords: attention economy, blog readers, blogging, social computing, workplace
Learning by seeing: photo viewing in the workplace BIBAKFull-Text 2081-2090
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli; David R. Millen
In this paper, we focus on the role that photo viewing plays within a large distributed enterprise. We describe the results of an analysis of users' viewing behavior through log activity and semi-structured interviews with respect to a photo sharing application embedded within an internal social networking site. Specifically, we investigate how these forms of expression can assist in the transmission of the norms and values associated with the culture of the organization through impression formation. We conclude by discussing how photos might act as a resource for newcomers to learn about the various aspects of the organizational culture and offer design suggestions for photo viewing systems within organizations.
Keywords: acculturation, organizational culture, photo viewing, social software
Exploring awareness needs and information display preferences between coworkers BIBAKFull-Text 2091-2094
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; Brian R. Meyers; James Scott; Gina Venolia
Technology makes it possible to share many different types of information with coworkers. We conducted a large-scale survey (N=549) to better understand current sharing among coworkers, how people stay aware of collocated and remote coworkers, and whether their willingness to share different types of awareness information changes based on the location in which the information is displayed. Contrary to our expectations, the display location did not greatly affect what respondents were willing to share. Our results also suggest considerations for researchers building situated displays, as respondents had concerns about unintended viewers and encouraging people to visit their personal space when they were not present.
Keywords: CSCW, awareness, privacy, situated display
Yours, mine and (not) ours: social influences on group information repositories BIBAKFull-Text 2095-2098
  Emilee Rader
Group information repositories are systems for storing and organizing files in a central location all group members can access. The functionality and capabilities of these systems are essentially the same as the desktop metaphor of personal information management (PIM) systems. Using a case study of a group information repository, I argue that social factors affect the information structure of the repository, and how it grows and evolves over time. Users restrict their activities to files they own, are reluctant to delete files that might be useful to others, dislike the clutter that results, and can become demotivated if no one views files they uploaded.
Keywords: desktop metaphor, group memory, information management, information producers and consumers

Studying intelligent systems

I'm sorry, Dave: I'm afraid I won't do that: social aspects of human-agent conflict BIBAKFull-Text 2099-2108
  Leila Takayama; Victoria Groom; Clifford Nass
As computational agents become more sophisticated, it will frequently be necessary for the agents to disagree with users. In these cases, it might be useful for the agent to use politeness strategies that defuse the person's frustrations and preserve the human-computer relationship. One such strategy is distancing, which we implemented by spatially distancing an agent's voice from its body. In a 2 (agent disagreement: none vs. some) x 2 (agent voice location: on robotic body vs. in control box) between-participants experiment, we studied the effects of agent disagreement and agent voice location in a collaborative human-agent desert survival task (N=40). People changed their answers more often when agents disagreed with them and felt more similar to agents that always agreed with them, even when substantive content was identical. Strikingly, people felt more positively toward the disagreeing agent whose voice came from a separate control box rather than from its body; for agreement, the body-attached voice was preferred.
Keywords: disagreement, distancing, human-agent interaction, human-robot interaction, spatial audio, throwing voices
Machine intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 2109-2118
  Alex S. Taylor
Under certain conditions, we appear willing to see and interact with computing machines as though they exhibited intelligence, at least an intelligence of sorts. Using examples from AI and robotics research, as well as a selection of relevant art installations and anthropological fieldwork, this paper reflects on some of our interactions with the kinds of machines we seem ready to treat as intelligent. Broadly, it is suggested that ordinary, everyday ideas of intelligence are not fixed, but rather actively seen and enacted in the world. As such, intelligence does not just belong to the province of the human mind, but can emerge in quite different, unexpected forms in things. For HCI, it is proposed this opens up a new set of possibilities for design; examining the ways intelligence is seen and enacted gives rise to a very different way of thinking about the intersection between human and machine, and thus promotes some radically new types of interactions with computing machines.
Keywords: intelligence, intelligent machines
Why and why not explanations improve the intelligibility of context-aware intelligent systems BIBAKFull-Text 2119-2128
  Brian Y. Lim; Anind K. Dey; Daniel Avrahami
Context-aware intelligent systems employ implicit inputs, and make decisions based on complex rules and machine learning models that are rarely clear to users. Such lack of system intelligibility can lead to loss of user trust, satisfaction and acceptance of these systems. However, automatically providing explanations about a system's decision process can help mitigate this problem. In this paper we present results from a controlled study with over 200 participants in which the effectiveness of different types of explanations was examined. Participants were shown examples of a system's operation along with various automatically generated explanations, and then tested on their understanding of the system. We show, for example, that explanations describing why the system behaved a certain way resulted in better understanding and stronger feelings of trust. Explanations describing why the system did not behave a certain way, resulted in lower understanding yet adequate performance. We discuss implications for the use of our findings in real-world context-aware applications.
Keywords: context-aware, explanations, intelligibility

Tabletops and single display groupware

An evaluation of coordination techniques for protecting objects and territories in tabletop groupware BIBAKFull-Text 2129-2138
  David Pinelle; Mutasem Barjawi; Miguel Nacenta; Regan Mandryk
Indirect input techniques allow users to quickly access all parts of tabletop workspaces without the need for physical access; however, indirect techniques restrict the available social cues that are seen on direct touch tables. This reduced awareness results in impoverished coordination; for example, the number of conflicts might increase since users are more likely to interact with objects that another person is planning to use. Conflicts may also arise because indirect techniques reduce territorial behavior, expanding the interaction space of each collaborator. In this paper, we introduce three new tabletop coordination techniques designed to reduce conflicts arising from indirect input, while still allowing users the flexibility of distant object control. Two techniques were designed to promote territoriality and to allow users to protect objects when they work near their personal areas, and the third technique lets users set their protection levels dynamically. We present the results of an evaluation, which shows that people prefer techniques that automatically provide protection for personal territories, and that these techniques also increase territorial behavior.
Keywords: awareness, collaboration, coordination techniques, groupware, interaction techniques, tabletop
Territorial coordination and workspace awareness in remote tabletop collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 2139-2148
  Philip Tuddenham; Peter Robinson
There is growing interest in tabletop interfaces that enable remote collaboration by providing shared workspaces. This approach assumes that these remote tabletops afford the same beneficial work practices as co-located tabletop interfaces and traditional tables. This assumption has not been tested in practice. We explore two such work practices in remote tabletop collaboration: (a) coordination by territorial partitioning of space; and (b) transitioning between individual and group work within a shared task. We have evaluated co-located and remote tabletop collaboration. We found that remote collaborators did not coordinate territorially as co-located collaborators did. We found no differences between remote and co-located interfaces in their ability to afford individual and group work. However, certain interaction techniques impaired the ability to transition fluidly between these working styles. We discuss causes and the implications for the design and future study of these interfaces.
Keywords: coupling, fluidity, remote tabletop interfaces, territoriality
Fighting for control: children's embodied interactions when using physical and digital representations BIBAKFull-Text 2149-2152
  Paul Marshall; Rowanne Fleck; Amanda Harris; Jochen Rick; Eva Hornecker; Yvonne Rogers; Nicola Yuill; Nick Sheep Dalton
Tabletop and tangible interfaces are often described in terms of their support for shared access to digital resources. However, it is not always the case that collaborators want to share and help one another. In this paper we detail a video-analysis of a series of prototyping sessions with children who used both cardboard objects and an interactive tabletop surface. We show how the material qualities of the digital interface and physical objects affect the kinds of bodily strategies adopted by children to stop others from accessing them. We discuss how children fight for and maintain control of physical versus digital objects in terms of embodied interaction and what this means when designing collaborative applications for shareable interfaces.
Keywords: children, collaboration, embodied interaction
Measuring the impact of third place attachment on the adoption of a place-based community technology BIBAKFull-Text 2153-2156
  Shelly D. Farnham; Joseph F. McCarthy; Yagnesh Patel; Sameer Ahuja; Daniel Norman; William R. Hazlewood; Josh Lind
CoCollage is a placed-based community technology that leverages the power of online social networking to facilitate awareness and face-to-face interactions in a third place. We adapted standardized measures of place attachment, social networks and psychological sense of community to provide a framework grounded in the social science literature for studying real world adoption of place-based community technologies. We found the standardized measures of place attachment and psychological sense of community meaningfully predicted likelihood of technology adoption and usage in a café. We discuss some lessons learned from our initial deployment of CoCollage in a real-world setting to support a nascent place-based community.
Keywords: community, online social newtorks, physical spaces, place, place-based community, proactive displays, social media, third places, ubiquitous computing

Systems for children

A mischief of mice: examining children's performance in single display groupware systems with 1 to 32 mice BIBAKFull-Text 2157-2166
  Neema Moraveji; Kori Inkpen; Ed Cutrell; Ravin Balakrishnan
Mischief is a system for classroom interaction that allows multiple children to use individual mice and cursors to interact with a single large display [20]. While the system can support large groups of children, it is unclear how children's performance is affected as group size increases. We explore this question via a study involving two tasks, with children working in group sizes ranging from 1 to 32. The first required reciprocal selection of two on-screen targets, resembling a swarm pointing scenario that might be used in educational applications. The second, a more temporally and spatially distributed pointing task, had children entering different words by selecting characters on an on-screen keyboard. Results indicate that performance is significantly affected by group size only when targets are small. Further, group size had a smaller effect when pointing was spatially and temporally distributed than when everyone was concurrently aiming at the same targets.
Keywords: children, large displays, mice, single display groupware
Mobile media in the social fabric of a kindergarten BIBAKFull-Text 2167-2176
  Jaana Näsänen; Antti Oulasvirta; Asko Lehmuskallio
At first blush, mobile media may appear a promising solution to the problem arising from the fact that parents in the present-day kindergarten institution rely almost solely on teachers' retrospective reports on their child's daily activities. However, a kindergarten is a delicate social fabric that mixes professional roles (the teachers') with socio-emotional relationships (parenting and caring) and involves stakeholders who are dependent on adults in the use of technology (the children). To date, no studies have been reported that critically examine the boundary conditions for successful mobile media applications in such settings. We present a study of Meaning, a one-button capture-and-push-to-Web solution that was used by a Finnish kindergarten for a month. Interviews and the amount of media sent suggest that the intervention was a success, and we report on seven uses of media. However, all uses were critically affected by the users' social fabric, in which the teachers were the nexus. We conclude by discussing various ways in which the heterogeneity of the user group affected mobile media use.
Keywords: intervention, kindergarten, mobile media, power
Designing with children with severe motor impairments BIBAKFull-Text 2177-2180
  Anthony J. Hornof
Children with severe motor impairments such as with disabilities resulting from severe cerebral palsy benefit greatly from assistive technology, but very little guidance is available on how to collaborate with this population as partners in the design of such technology. To explore how to facilitate such collaborations, a field-based participant observation study, as well as structured and unstructured interviews, were conducted at a home for children with severe disabilities. Team-building collaborative design activities were pursued. Guidelines are proposed for how to collaborate with children with severe motor impairments.
Keywords: accessibility, children, design, participant observation
HeartBeat: an outdoor pervasive game for children BIBAKFull-Text 2181-2184
  Remco Magielse; Panos Markopoulos
This paper reports the design of a pervasive game for children to demonstrate the design vision of Head-Up games, a genre of pervasive games that puts outdoors play center stage, combining the benefits of traditional outdoor games with the opportunities for richer experiences and innovation offered by new media. The design of the game, called HeartBeat, explores the use of physiological sensing and more specifically heart rate measurement as input to the game and as an approach to enhance the pervasive gaming experience. Evaluation with 32 children outdoors showed how the game promotes physical activity and social interaction between children in ways one would expect from traditional outdoor games.
Keywords: head up games, interaction design and children, pervasive games, physiological sensing

New input modalities

Brain measurement for usability testing and adaptive interfaces: an example of uncovering syntactic workload with functional near infrared spectroscopy BIBAKFull-Text 2185-2194
  Leanne M. Hirshfield; Erin Treacy Solovey; Audrey Girouard; James Kebinger; Robert J. K. Jacob; Angelo Sassaroli; Sergio Fantini
A well designed user interface (UI) should be transparent, allowing users to focus their mental workload on the task at hand. We hypothesize that the overall mental workload required to perform a task using a computer system is composed of a portion attributable to the difficulty of the underlying task plus a portion attributable to the complexity of operating the user interface. In this regard, we follow Shneiderman's theory of syntactic and semantic components of a UI. We present an experiment protocol that can be used to measure the workload experienced by users in their various cognitive resources while working with a computer. We then describe an experiment where we used the protocol to quantify the syntactic workload of two user interfaces. We use functional near infrared spectroscopy, a new brain imaging technology that is beginning to be used in HCI. We also discuss extensions of our techniques to adaptive interfaces.
Keywords: brain, evaluation, syntactic, workload
O' game, can you feel my frustration?: improving user's gaming experience via stresscam BIBAKFull-Text 2195-2204
  Chang Yun; Dvijesh Shastri; Ioannis Pavlidis; Zhigang Deng
One of the major challenges of video game design is to have appropriate difficulty levels for users in order to maximize the entertainment value of the game. Game players may lose interests if a game is either too easy or too difficult. This paper presents a novel methodology to improve user's experience in computer games by automatically adjusting the level of the game difficulty. The difficulty level is computed from measurements of the facial physiology of the players at a distance. The measurements are based on the assumption that the players' performance during the game-playing session alters blood flow in the supraorbital region, which is an indirect measurement of increased mental activities. This alters heat dissipation, which can be monitored in a contact-free manner through a thermal imaging-based stress monitoring and analysis system, known as StressCam.
   In this work, we investigated on two primary objectives: (1) the feasibility of utilizing the facial physiology in automatically adjusting the difficulty level of the game and (2) the capability of the automatic difficulty level adjustment in improving game players' experience. We employed and extended a XNA video game for this study, and performed an in-depth, comparative usability evaluation on it. Our results show that the automatic difficulty adjustable system successfully maintains game players' interests and substantially outperforms traditional fixed-difficulty mode games. Although a number of issues of this preliminary study remain to be investigated further, this research opens a new direction that utilizes non-contact stress measurements for monitoring and further enhancing a variety of user-centric, interactive entertainment activities.
Keywords: game difficulty adjustment, human-computer interaction, stress monitoring, thermal imaging, video games
A performance model of selection techniques for p300-based brain-computer interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 2205-2208
  Jean-Baptiste Sauvan; Anatole Lécuyer; Fabien Lotte; Géry Casiez
In this paper, we propose a model to predict the performance of selection techniques using Brain-Computer Interfaces based on P300 signals. This model is based on Markov theory and can compute both the time required to select a target and the number of visual flashes needed. We illustrate how to use this model with three different interaction techniques to select a target. A first experimental evaluation with three healthy participants shows a good match between the model and the experimental data.
Keywords: brain-computer interface, interaction technique, markov chains, p300 evoked potential
Discriminating the relevance of web search results with measures of pupil size BIBAKFull-Text 2209-2212
  Flavio T. P. Oliveira; Anne Aula; Daniel M. Russell
The overwhelming amount of information on the web makes it critical for users to quickly and accurately evaluate the relevance of content. Here we tested whether pupil size can be used to discriminate the perceived relevance of web search results. Our findings revealed that measures of pupil size carry information that can be used to discriminate the relevance of text and image web search results, but the low signal-to-noise ratio poses challenges that need to be overcome when using this technique in naturalistic settings. Despite these challenges, our findings highlight the promise that pupillometry has as a technique that can be used to assess interest and relevance in web interaction in a non-intrusive and objective way.
Keywords: pupil dilation, relevance, web search results

Reflecting on design

Anatomy of a failure: how we knew when our design went wrong, and what we learned from it BIBAKFull-Text 2213-2222
  William Gaver; John Bowers; Tobie Kerridge; Andy Boucher; Nadine Jarvis
In this paper, we describe the failure of a novel sensor-based system intended to evoke user interpretation and appropriation in domestic settings. We contrast participants' interactions in this case study with those observed during more successful deployments to identify 'symptoms of failure' under four themes: engagement, reference, accommodation, and surprise and insight. These themes provide a set of sensitivities or orientations that may complement traditional task-based approaches to evaluation as well as the more open-ended ones we describe here. Our system showed symptoms of failure under each of these themes. We examine the reasons for this at three levels: problems particular to the specific design hypothesis; problems relevant for input-output mapping more generally; and problems in the design process we used. We conclude by noting that, although interpretive systems such as the one we describe here may succeed in a myriad of different ways, it is reassuring to know that they can also fail, and fail incontrovertibly, yet instructively.
Keywords: failure, home, interpretation, ubiquitous computing
Getting there: six meta-principles and interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 2223-2232
  Gilbert Cockton
Principled knowledge is a mark of any established disciplinary practice. Its derivation and validation of varies across disciplines, but HCI has tended towards posthoc ('a posteriori') syntheses. We present an alternative a priori approach that is relatively compact and open to inspection. We use John Heskett's position on the origins of design outcomes to derive six metaprinciples for all design processes: receptiveness, expressivity, committedness, credibility, inclusiveness and improvability. Although very abstract, these meta-principles generate critical insights into existing HCI approaches, identifying gaps in suitability and coverage. Practical value is increased by progressive instantiation of meta-principles to create first craft-specific, and ultimately project-specific, Interaction Design principles. A worth-centred approach is adopted to illustrate progressive instantiation towards a framework of adapted and novel HCI approaches. The internal coherence of the six metaprinciples is shown to provide direct effective support for synergistic progressive instantiation.
Keywords: axiology, design approaches, evaluation, meta-principles, worth-centred development frameworks
On being supple: in search of rigor without rigidity in meeting new design and evaluation challenges for HCI practitioners BIBAKFull-Text 2233-2242
  Katherine Isbister; Kristina Höök
In this paper, we argue that HCI practitioners are facing new challenges in design and evaluation that can benefit from the establishment of commonly valued use qualities, with associated strategies for producing and rigorously evaluating work. We present a particular use quality 'suppleness' as an example. We describe ways that use qualities can help shape design and evaluation process, and propose tactics for the CHI community to use to encourage the evolution of bodies of knowledge around use qualities.
Keywords: embodiment, evaluation, games, mobile, prototyping, suppleness, use qualities

Tactile UI

Tactile motion instructions for physical activities BIBAKFull-Text 2243-2252
  Daniel Spelmezan; Mareike Jacobs; Anke Hilgers; Jan Borchers
While learning new motor skills, we often rely on feedback from a trainer. Auditive feedback and demonstrations are used most frequently, but in many domains they are inappropriate or impractical. We introduce tactile instructions as an alternative to assist in correcting wrong posture during physical activities, and present a set of full-body vibrotactile patterns. An initial study informed the design of our tactile patterns, and determined appropriate locations for feedback on the body. A second experiment showed that users perceived and correctly classified our tactile instruction patterns in a relaxed setting and during a cognitively and physically demanding task. In a final experiment, snowboarders on the slope compared their perception of tactile instructions with audio instructions under real-world conditions. Tactile instructions achieved overall high recognition accuracy similar to audio instructions. Moreover, participants responded quicker to instructions delivered over the tactile channel than to instructions presented over the audio channel. Our findings suggest that these full-body tactile feedback patterns can replace audio instructions during physical activities.
Keywords: motor skills, physical activities, real-time instructions, sports training, vibrotactile feedack
Audio or tactile feedback: which modality when? BIBAKFull-Text 2253-2256
  Eve Hoggan; Andrew Crossan; Stephen A. Brewster; Topi Kaaresoja
When designing interfaces for mobile devices it is important to take into account the variety of contexts of use. We present a study that examines how changing noise and disturbance in the environment affects user performance in a touchscreen typing task with the interface being presented through visual only, visual and tactile, or visual and audio feedback. The aim of the study is to show at what exact environmental levels audio or tactile feedback become ineffective. The results show significant decreases in performance for audio feedback at levels of 94dB and above as well as decreases in performance for tactile feedback at vibration levels of 9.18g/s. These results suggest that at these levels, feedback should be presented by a different modality. These findings will allow designers to take advantage of sensor enabled mobile devices to adapt the provided feedback to the user's current context.
Keywords: auditory feedback, crossmodal interaction, mobile touchscreen interaction, tactile feedback
Tactile feedback for predictive text entry BIBAKFull-Text 2257-2260
  Mark D. Dunlop; Finbarr Taylor
Predictive text entry provides a fast way to enter text on phones and other small devices. Early work on predictive text entry highlighted that the reaction time for checking the screen dominates text entry times. Improving accuracy of predictions brings a downside: as prediction gets better, users will drop the slow operation of checking the screen and will thus miss prediction errors and system feedback/suggestions. In this note, we present an experiment into the use of vibration to alert the user when word completion is likely to aid them, using a dynamic approach based on their current typing speed, and when there are no dictionary matches to their entry. Results show significantly faster entry rates for users with vibration alerts, raising speeds from 20wpm to 23wpm once practiced.
Keywords: mobiles, tactile feedback, text entry
Texture displays: a passive approach to tactile presentation BIBAKFull-Text 2261-2264
  Chris Harrison; Scott E. Hudson
In this paper, we consider a passive approach to tactile presentation based on changing the surface textures of objects that might naturally be handled by a user. This may allow devices and other objects to convey small amounts of information in very unobtrusive ways and with little attention demand. This paper considers several possible uses for this style of display and explores implementation issues. We conclude with results from our user study, which indicate that users can detect upwards of four textural states accurately with even simple materials.
Keywords: fabrics, inexact and inattentive interaction, passive, persistent, smart materials, tactile, textiles, texture displays
TypeRight: a keyboard with tactile error prevention BIBAKFull-Text 2265-2268
  Alexander Hoffmann; Daniel Spelmezan; Jan Borchers
TypeRight is a new tactile input device for text entry. It combines the advantages of tactile feedback with error prevention methods of word processors. TypeRight extends the standard keyboard so that the resistance to press each key becomes dynamically adjustable through software. Before each keystroke, the resistance of keys that would lead to a typing error according to dictionary and grammar rules is increased momentarily to make them harder to press, thus avoiding typing errors rather than indicating them after the fact. Two user studies showed that TypeRight decreases error correction rates by an average of 46%.
Keywords: adopting input device, error prevention, haptic, tactile feedback, text entry

Gesture UIs

GestureBar: improving the approachability of gesture-based interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 2269-2278
  Andrew Bragdon; Robert Zeleznik; Brian Williamson; Timothy Miller; Joseph J., Jr. LaViola
GestureBar is a novel, approachable UI for learning gestural interactions that enables a walk-up-and-use experience which is in the same class as standard menu and toolbar interfaces. GestureBar leverages the familiar, clean look of a common toolbar, but in place of executing commands, richly discloses how to execute commands with gestures, through animated images, detail tips and an out-of-document practice area. GestureBar's simple design is also general enough for use with any recognition technique and for integration with standard, non-gestural UI components. We evaluate GestureBar in a formal experiment showing that users can perform complex, ecologically valid tasks in a purely gestural system without training, introduction, or prior gesture experience when using GestureBar, discovering and learning a high percentage of the gestures needed to perform the tasks optimally, and significantly outperforming a state of the art crib sheet. The relative contribution of the major design elements of GestureBar is also explored. A second experiment shows that GestureBar is preferred to a basic crib sheet and two enhanced crib sheet variations.
Keywords: approachability, disclosure, gestures, learning, pen
Lean collaboration through video gestures: co-ordinating the production of live televised sport BIBAKFull-Text 2279-2288
  Mark Perry; Oskar Juhlin; Mattias Esbjörnsson; Arvid Engström
This paper examines the work and interactions between camera operators and a vision mixer during an ice hockey match, and presents an interaction analysis using video data. We analyze video-mediated indexical gestures in the collaborative production of live sport on television between distributed team members. The findings demonstrate how video forms the topic, resource and product of collaboration: whilst it shapes the nature of the work (editing), it is simultaneously also the primary resource for supporting mutual orientation and negotiating shot transitions between remote participants (coordination), as well as its end product (broadcast). Our analysis of current professional activities is used to develop implications for the design of future services for live collaborative video production.
Keywords: live tv collaboration communication indexical gestures mobile technology video production sport
Using strokes as command shortcuts: cognitive benefits and toolkit support BIBAKFull-Text 2289-2298
  Caroline Appert; Shumin Zhai
This paper investigates using stroke gestures as shortcuts to menu selection. We first experimentally measured the performance and ease of learning of stroke shortcuts in comparison to keyboard shortcuts when there is no mnemonic link between the shortcut and the command. While both types of shortcuts had the same level of performance with enough practice, stroke shortcuts had substantial cognitive advantages in learning and recall. With the same amount of practice, users could successfully recall more shortcuts and make fewer errors with stroke shortcuts than with keyboard shortcuts. The second half of the paper focuses on UI development support and articulates guidelines for toolkits to implement stroke shortcuts in a wide range of software applications. We illustrate how to apply these guidelines by introducing the Stroke Shortcuts Toolkit (SST) which is a library for adding stroke shortcuts to Java Swing applications with just a few lines of code.
Keywords: gesture, shortcuts, stroke, toolkit

Understanding graphs

A user study on visualizing directed edges in graphs BIBAKFull-Text 2299-2308
  Danny Holten; Jarke J. van Wijk
Graphs are often visualized using node-link representations: vertices are depicted as dots, edges are depicted as (poly)lines connecting two vertices. A directed edge running from vertex A to B is generally visualized using an arrow representation: a (poly)line with a triangular arrowhead at vertex B. Although this representation is intuitive, it is not guaranteed that a user is able to determine edge direction as quickly and unambiguously as possible; alternative representations that exhibit less occlusion and visual clutter might be better suited. To investigate this, we developed five additional directed-edge representations using combinations of shape and color. We performed a user study in which subjects performed different tasks on a collection of graphs using these representations and combinations thereof to investigate which representation is best in terms of speed and accuracy. We present our initial hypotheses, the outcome of the user studies, and recommendations regarding directed-edge visualization.
Keywords: curves, directed edges, graphs, information visualization, lines, user studies
Path selection: a novel interaction technique for mapping applications BIBAKFull-Text 2309-2318
  Michael Ludwig; Reid Priedhorsky; Loren Terveen
Many online mapping applications let users define routes, perhaps for sharing a favorite bicycle commuting route or rating several contiguous city blocks. At the UI level, defining a route amounts to selecting a fairly large number of objects -- the individual segments of roads and trails that make up the route. We present a novel interaction technique for this task called path selection. We implemented the technique and evaluated it experimentally, finding that adding path selection to a state-of-the-art technique for selecting individual objects reduced route definition time by about a factor of 2, reduced errors, and improved user satisfaction. Detailed analysis of the results showed path selection is most advantageous (a) for routes with long straight segments and (b) when objects that are optimal click targets also are visually attractive.
Keywords: bubble cursors, bubble targets, path selection, routing, selection techniques
Topology-aware navigation in large networks BIBAKFull-Text 2319-2328
  Tomer Moscovich; Fanny Chevalier; Nathalie Henry; Emmanuel Pietriga; Jean-Daniel Fekete
Applications supporting navigation in large networks are used every days by millions of people. They include road map navigators, flight route visualization systems, and network visualization systems using node-link diagrams. These applications currently provide generic interaction methods for navigation: pan-and-zoom and sometimes bird's eye views.
   This article explores the idea of exploiting the connection information provided by the network to help navigate these large spaces. We visually augment two traditional navigation methods, and develop two special-purpose techniques. The first new technique, called "Link Sliding", provides guided panning when continuously dragging along a visible link. The second technique, called "Bring & Go", brings adjacent nodes nearby when pointing to a node. We compare the performance of these techniques in both an adjacency exploration task and a node revisiting task. This comparison illustrates the various advantages of content-aware network navigation techniques. A significant speed advantage is found for the Bring & Go technique over other methods.
Keywords: content-aware, document navigation, graph visualization, interaction techniques

Computer mediated communication 2

Sharing empty moments: design for remote couples BIBAKFull-Text 2329-2338
  Danielle Lottridge; Nicolas Masson; Wendy Mackay
Many couples are forced to live apart, for work, school or other reasons. This paper describes our study of 13 such couples and what they lack from existing communication technologies. We explored what they wanted to share (presence, mood, environment, daily events and activities), how they wanted to share (simple, lightweight, playful, pleasant interaction), and when they wanted to share ('empty moments' such as waiting, walking, taking a break, waking up, eating, and going to sleep). 'Empty moments' provide a compelling new opportunity for design, requiring subtlety and flexibility to enable participants to share connection without explicit messages. We designed MissU as a technology probe to study empty moments in situ. Similar to a private radio station, MissU shares music and background sounds. Field studies produced results relevant to social science, technology and design: couples with established routines were comforted; characteristics such as ambiguity and 'movable' technology (situated in the home yet portable) provide support. These insights suggest a design space for supporting the sharing of empty moments.
Keywords: ambient, computer mediated communication, domestic routines, empty moments, field trials, intimacy, intimate technology, presence, reflective design, remote couples
Supporting content and process common ground in computer-supported teamwork BIBAKFull-Text 2339-2348
  Gregorio Convertino; Helena M. Mentis; Mary Beth Rosson; Aleksandra Slavkovic; John M. Carroll
We build on our prior work with computer-supported teams performing a complex decision-making task on maps, where the distinction between content and process common ground is proposed. In this paper we describe a distributed geo-collaboration software prototype. The system design rationale was gleaned from fieldwork, literature on team cognition, and an earlier lab study introducing a reference task with face-to-face teams. We report on a controlled experiment that evaluates this design rationale. Distinct sets of measures show that the prototype supported both content and process common ground, offsetting the costs imposed by the distributed setting. We interpret the results in relation to prior work on common ground and draw implications for moving beyond current models of sharing and coordination.
Keywords: common ground, cscw, design, prototype
Conversation clusters: grouping conversation topics through human-computer dialog BIBAKFull-Text 2349-2352
  Tony Bergstrom; Karrie Karahalios
Conversation Clusters explores the use of visualization to highlight salient moments of live conversation while archiving a meeting. Cheaper storage and easy access to recording devices allows extensive archival. However, as the size of the archive grows, retrieving the desired moments becomes increasingly difficult. We approach this problem from a socio-technical perspective and utilize human intuition aided by computer memory. We present computationally detected topics of conversation as visual summaries of discussion and as reference points into the archive. To further bootstrap the system, humans can participate in a dialog with the visualization of the clustering process and shape the development of clustering models.
Keywords: clustering, meeting archival, visualization
Effects of real-time transcription on non-native speaker's comprehension in computer-mediated communications BIBAKFull-Text 2353-2356
  Yingxin Pan; Danning Jiang; Michael Picheny; Yong Qin
We performed an empirical study to understand the relative contributions of real-time transcription to a non-native speaker's comprehension in audio/video meetings. 48 participants were assigned to 2 presentation modes (audio, audio+video) and 3 transcription modes (no transcript, real-time transcripts in the streaming mode, transcripts with all past records) in a 3x2 factorial experimental design. The results suggest that comprehension can be significantly improved for both audio and audio+video conditions when real-time transcription is provided. Also, the participants reported positive subjective responses to the presence of real-time transcription in terms of usefulness, preference, and willingness to use such a feature if provided. No cognitive load issues were reported by the participants in the ability to synthesize across modalities. Implications for system development and design, as well as future work utilizing automation speech recognition to provide the transcripts are discussed.
Keywords: cmc, experiment, multimodal, non-native speakers, real-time transcription

Informed design

Interaction criticism and aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 2357-2366
  Jeffrey Bardzell
As HCI becomes more self-consciously implicated in culture, theories from cultural studies, in particular aesthetics and critical theory, are increasingly working their way into the field. However, the use of aesthetics and critical theory in HCI remains both marginal and uneven in quality. This paper explores the state of the art of aesthetics and critical theory in the field, before going on to explore the role of these cultural theories in the analysis and deployment of the twin anchors of interaction: the user and the artifact. In concludes with a proposed mapping of aesthetics and critical theory into interaction design, both as a practice and as a discipline.
Keywords: aesthetics, critical theory, cultural theory, hci, interaction criticism, interaction design
Understanding knowledge management practices for early design activity and its implications for reuse BIBAKFull-Text 2367-2376
  Moushumi Sharmin; Brian P. Bailey; Cole Coats; Kevin Hamilton
Prior knowledge is a critical resource for design, especially when designers are striving to generate new ideas for complex problems. Systems that improve access to relevant prior knowledge and promote reuse can improve design efficiency and outcomes. Unfortunately, such systems have not been widely adopted indicating that user needs in this area have not been adequately understood. In this paper, we report the results of a contextual inquiry into the practices of and attitudes toward knowledge management and reuse during early design. The study consisted of interviews and surveys with professional designers in the creative domains. A novel aspect of our work is the focus on early design, which differs from but complements prior works' focus on knowledge reuse during later design and implementation phases. Our study yielded new findings and implications that, if applied, will help bring the benefits of knowledge management systems and reuse into early design activity.
Keywords: contextual inquiry, design, knowledge, reuse