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CHI Tables of Contents: 98-2d99-199-200-100-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:New Horizons
Location:Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA
Dates:2003-Apr-05 to 2003-Apr-10
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-637-4 ACM Order Number 608035; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI03-2
Papers:226
Pages:618-1069
Links:Conference Home Page
Summary:1983: The first CHI called CHI - computers just processed data and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) just supported users in their work tasks.Twenty years on, broadband servers and mobile devices now outnumber desktop office machines. With them come joy, persuasion, outrage, delight, faith, campaigns, satire, fun, learning, identity, communities, and passion. Now, increasingly, we interact to be, not just to do. Interaction no longer just changes things, it changes people. HCI is headed for New Horizons.CHI 2003 recognised this sea of change in HCI and addressed all forms of interactive digital communication, with a focus on three special areas: mass communication and interaction, e-learning, and emotion. Many presentations addressed these special areas. Still, CHI 2003 has not abandoned established HCI for New Horizons! Everything you'd expect to find in a CHI conference is still here.These Conference Proceedings contain the papers accepted for presentation at CHI 2003. Competition was fierce. 470 submissions were received, and 75 were accepted. Many of these accepted papers address the challenge of supportive effective and enjoyable communication via interactive digital media.A CD containing the extended abstracts for short talks, demonstrations, design and usability in practice papers, special interest group descriptions, interactive posters, student posters and doctoral consortiumpresentations accompanies these proceedings. Video figures and demonstrations are provided on an additional DVD. These complete the record of CHI 2003 as the meeting place for an inclusive community, The CHI conference is the annual gathering of the world's HCI community. There is something for everyone. Students, researchers, professionals, and educators are spoiled for choice.
  1. CHI 2003-04-05 Volume 2
    1. Demos
    2. Design & Usability Session Papers
    3. Doctoral Consortium Submissions
    4. Panels
    5. Short talks-Specialized section: interaction techniques for handheld devices
    6. Short talks-Specialized section: domesticated design
    7. Short talks-Specialized section: trust, security & safety
    8. Short talks-Specialized section: emotion
    9. Short talks-Specialized section: usability of large scale public systems
    10. Short talks-Specialized section: peripheral and ambient displays
    11. Short talks-Specialized section: Fitts' law & text input
    12. Short talks-Specialized section: editing and coordinating
    13. Short talks-Specialized section: gaze & information navigation
    14. Short talks-Specialized section: issues in software development
    15. Short talks-Specialized section: collaborative systems
    16. Short talks-Specialized section: brains, eyes and ears
    17. Short talks-Specialized section: tangible interfaces
    18. Short talks-Specialized section: world wide web
    19. Short talks-Specialized section: understanding the context of use
    20. Short talks-Specialized section: information visualization & navigation
    21. Short talks-Specialized section: recommender systems and social computing
    22. Short talks-Specialized section: haptic interfaces
    23. Special interest group
    24. Interactive posters: e-learning
    25. Interactive posters: emotion
    26. Interactive posters: mass communication
    27. Interactive posters: personal media
    28. Interactive posters: computer-mediated communication
    29. Interactive posters: input and interaction
    30. Interactive posters: gaze interaction
    31. Interactive posters: tangible interfaces
    32. Interactive posters: computers everywhere
    33. Interactive posters: intelligent interfaces
    34. Interactive posters: supporting design
    35. Workshops

CHI 2003-04-05 Volume 2

Demos

A fisheye calendar interface for PDAs: providing overviews for small displays BIBAFull-Text 618-619
  Benjamin B. Bederson; Aaron Clamage; Mary P. Czerwinski; George G. Robertson
DateLens is a novel calendar interface for PDAs. It supports users in performing planning and analysis tasks by using a fisheye representation of dates coupled with compact overviews, user control over the visible time period, and integrated search. This enables users to see overviews and to easily navigate the calendar structure, and to discover patterns and outliers.
Gesture + play: full-body interaction for virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 620-621
  Tollmar Konrad; David Demirdjian; Trevor Darrell
Navigating virtual environments usually requires a wired interface, game console, or keyboard. The advent of perceptual interface techniques allows a new option, the passive and untethered sensing of users' pose and gesture to allow them maneuver through virtual worlds. We show new algorithms for passive, real-time articulated tracking with standard cameras and personal computers. Several different interaction styles are compared, based on an analysis of the space of possible perceptual interface abstractions for full-body navigation and the results of a wizard-of-oz study of user preferences. In this demo we show our prototype system with users guiding avatars through a series of 3-D virtual game worlds.
PENPETS: a physical environment for virtual animals BIBFull-Text 622-623
  Shaun O'Mahony; John A. Robinson
Personal universal controllers: controlling complex appliances with GUIs and speech BIBAFull-Text 624-625
  Jeffrey Nichols; Brad A. Myers; Michael Higgins; Joseph Hughes; Thomas K. Harris; Roni Rosenfeld; Kevin Litwack
We envision a future where each person will carry with them a personal universal controller (PUC), a portable computerized device that allows the user to control any appliance within their environment. The PUC has a two-way communication channel with each appliance. It downloads a specification of the appliance's features and then automatically generates an interface for controlling that appliance (graphical, speech, or both). In this demonstration we present a working PUC system that automatically generates graphical and speech interfaces, and controls real appliances, including a shelf stereo and a Sony camcorder.
Fusion: interactive coordination of diverse data, visualizations, and mining algorithms BIBAFull-Text 626-627
  Chris North; Nathan Conklin; Kiran Indukuri; Varun Saini; Qiang Yu
Fusion is a web-based system that enables end-users to rapidly and dynamically construct personalized visualization workspaces without programming. Users first use advanced data schemas to link diverse data sources. Then they use visualization schemas to coordinate visualization components and data-mining algorithms according to the unique needs of their data and tasks. They create a custom interactive visualization workspace that can be published on the web. This is accomplished through the Fusion model and user interface that is based on schema concepts that are easy to learn and simple to use.
SILVER: simplifying video editing with metadata BIBAFull-Text 628-629
  A. Chris Long; Juan Casares; Brad A. Myers; Rishi Bhatnagar; Scott M. Stevens; Laura Dabbish; Dan Yocum; Albert Corbett
Digital video is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. However, editing video remains difficult for several reasons: it is a time-based medium, it has dual tracks of audio and video, and current tools force users to work at the smallest level of detail. Based on interviews with professional video editors, we developed a video editor, called Silver, that uses metadata to make digital video editing more accessible to novices. To help users visualize video, Silver provides multiple views with different semantic content and at different levels of abstraction, including storyboard, editable transcript, and timeline views. Silver offers smart editing operations that help users resolve the inconsistencies that arise because of the different boundaries in audio and video.
A tool supporting capture and analysis of field research data using the contextual design methodology BIBAFull-Text 630-631
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Field research techniques generate large amounts of unstructured data about users: their work practice, attitudes, strategies, motivations, and so forth. Managing, organizing, communicating, and making sense of this complex and rich data is an ongoing problem for HCI researchers. InContext performs field research and design for its clients, so we have experienced these problems in our business. This presentation demonstrates the software tools we built to manage our own research and design projects, showing how such tools can support a heavily team-based process, and how they can enhance the human thought process inherent in research and design.
Streaming format software for usability testing BIBAFull-Text 632-633
  Michael Lister
Audio and video capture for qualitative usability testing requires multiple video sources to be synchronized for subsequent playback along with any required test data. Windows Media Player 9 is limited to playing only single video streams. This paper describes the architecture of a software system that has been developed to overcome the single stream of video and allow multiple synchronized audio, video and data streams suitable for usability testing. Post processing and the practical application of using multi-stream software tool in usability testing are then discussed with example qualitative testing situations.
Sparrow web: group-writable information on structured web pages BIBAFull-Text 634-635
  Eric Bier; Ken Pier
Sparrow Web is a server-based software tool that supports the creation and customization of group-writable Web pages. Templates in each page define the data schema and layout of that page's group-editable data items. Using different templates, page authors produce Web pages that support many tasks, including task lists, co-authored documents, bibliographies, home pages, faculty directories, and project lists. While lacking the rich UI of dedicated information-sharing applications, it is successful at supporting a variety of groups and tasks because it integrates information-sharing into Web pages, leveraging the affordances of the Web for supporting group work.
Interaction techniques and applications for peephole displays BIBAFull-Text 636-637
  Ka-Ping Yee
This demonstration presents several interaction techniques enabled by Peephole Displays, an interface metaphor based on situating information in physical space and providing a movable window on the space. Using a Peephole Display, it is possible to browse a large map using one hand, to draw objects larger than the screen, and to perform drag-and-drop in 3-D. Example applications that exploit these techniques are shown.

Design & Usability Session Papers

Designing an on-line map tool for Dutch farmers BIBAFull-Text 638-639
  Karin van der Hiele; Rob van der Haar; Raghu Kolli
This paper describes our real life experience in designing an on-line map user interface for the Dutch farmers. The project challenge was to design a simple user interface for advanced mapping technology in a critical schedule. The domain involved understanding of several technical and legal constraints. We studied the context of use, designed the user interface concept, evaluated a prototype and provided the developers with detailed specifications during a four week period.
An interactive poster exhibit puts visitors in the picture, in real time BIBAFull-Text 640-641
  Kevin Walker
This describes the usability and interaction challenges in creating a unique museum exhibit which utilizes real-time compositing, and hides complex computational tasks behind a simple user interface.
A lost cause: the ever-improving developer's map BIBAFull-Text 642-643
  Mette Kjaersgaard; Jesper Pedersen; Tom Djajadiningrat
In this paper we describe our work in the Danfoss User Centred Design Group on the design for a frequency converter, a device which controls the speed of an electric motor. A significant part of this project lies in getting to know often unfamiliar users and use contexts. We feel that developers often look at the user's problems through developers eyes rather than through the user's eyes. Having researched and actively used ethnographic field methods over the past few years, we argue that it is necessary to create an awareness of this perspective issue, its consequences for how we interpret field sessions and its influence on product development. We present a collection of existing methods that can be applied to challenge our perspective as developers and to shift our view to that of the users. To illustrate how these methods may lead to a deeper understanding we start with a portrait of one of our informants. We present two prototypes to show how we try to incorporate the users' perspective in our design solutions. Finally, we reflect on the interaction language which products speak and argue that usability studies without awareness of the perspective issue make products more clear for the developers only.
A tenant interface for energy and maintenance systems BIBAFull-Text 644-645
  Clifford Federspiel; Luis Villafana
We describe the design of a user interface for energy and maintenance systems in commercial buildings. The user interface is for use by occupants (tenants) of commercial buildings. Our hypothesis is that by allowing tenants access to information from the energy and maintenance systems and by giving them some control over these systems, energy and maintenance performance can be improved. We used interviews with potential users and existing energy and maintenance databases to guide the design.
Designing a mobile terminal for horse aficionados BIBAFull-Text 646-647
  Kaisa Still; Minna Isomursu; Pekka Isomursu; Mika Mustonen; Jari Ijas
In this paper we describe the development and use of a novel, practical approach to the design of a mobile multimedia terminal for a virtual community. The specific design goal was a dedicated mobile terminal concept for horse aficionados who belong to the virtual stables community. We had to use a creative approach since the design was for a device of non-existent type, and to be used in a virtual environment by an atypical and challenging user segment. Using this approach we were able to get valuable contribution from the potential users to the design of the new terminal.
A user-centered approach to designing home network interfaces BIBAFull-Text 648-649
  Kook Hyun Chung; Kyoung Soon Oh; Cheong Hyun Lee; Jae Hyun Park; Sunae Kim; Soon Hee Kim; Beth Loring; Chris Hass
This case study describes our approach to enhancing the way family members may interact with each other -- and their homes -- in the near future. Samsung Electronics and American Institutes for Research worked together to show how the user-centered design of network technology in the home could best enhance a family's ability to communicate, play, and live harmoniously. We conducted user research in South Korea and in the U.S., held fast-paced collaborative design sessions, and created interaction design guidelines to inform the development of an innovative line of home networked products. The final user interface was prototyped on Samsung's Home Network Control PDA and showcased at the 2002 Consumer Electronics Show.
Using ethnography to design a mass detection tool (MDT) for the early discovery of insurance fraud BIBAFull-Text 650-651
  Thomas Ormerod; Nicola Morley; Linden Ball; Charles Langley; Clive Spenser
We describe a Mass Detection Tool (MDT) for early detection of insurance fraud. Ethnography was used to specify needs and process, capture expertise, and design an interface for triggering fraud indicators while capturing unexpected anomalies detected by claims handlers. The MDT uses a dynamic Bayesian Belief Network of fraud indicators, whose weights are determined by how predictive each indicator is of specific types of fraud. The system uses automated knowledge updating to keep pace with dynamically changing fraud, adding new indicators that emerge from patterns of repeated anomalies.
Ethnographic interviews guide design of ford vehicles website BIBAFull-Text 652-653
  Lori Anschuetz; Stephanie Rosenbaum
This case study describes ethnographic interviews with vehicle buyers to learn how they make purchase decisions. The research was conducted for J. Walter Thompson (JWT), the digital design agency of the Ford Division of the Ford Motor Company; the authors faced challenges of tight schedule, limited budget, and difficulties in finding suitable participants. We nevertheless obtained valuable data that helped JWT refine the Ford Vehicles website.
Using converging methods across disciplines to guide the redesign of a large, information-rich web site BIBAFull-Text 654-655
  Susan J. Robinson; Bradford W. Hesse; Abdul R. Shaikh; Mike Coss; Carol Crawford
This paper summarizes how differing research methodologies were sequenced during formative evaluation of a large-scale government Web site in order to generate consensus for site redesign and a clear typology of users. Each method was selected by an interdisciplinary research team to bring to the study a convergence of approaches across the fields of human computer interaction, information science, health communication, and social marketing. Researchers can use the study framework in optimizing their own program of organizational and user research, particularly if they are designing and testing large-scale information-rich sites with varied content accessed by a diverse set of users.
MiTAP for real users, real data, real problems BIBAFull-Text 656-657
  Laurie Damianos; Steve Wohlever; Robyn Kozierok; Jay Ponte
The MiTAP system was developed as an experimental prototype using human language technologies for monitoring disease outbreaks. The system provides timely, multi-lingual, global information access to analysts, medical experts and individuals involved in humanitarian assistance. Thousands of articles from electronic information sources spanning multiple languages are automatically captured, translated, tagged, summarized, and presented to users in a variety of ways. Real users access MiTAP daily to solve real problems. The successful adoption of MiTAP is attributed to its user-focused design that accommodates the imperfect component technologies and allows users to interact with the system in familiar ways. We will discuss the problem, design process, and implementation from the perspective of services provided and how these services support system capabilities that satisfy user requirements.
Designing the user interface of a data collection instrument for the consumer price index BIBAFull-Text 658-659
  Jean Fox
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects data for a variety of economic indicators. To make data collection more efficient, BLS has been developing Computer-Assisted Data Collection (CADC) instruments for many of these indicators. We recently deployed a CADC instrument for the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The CPI is the most widely used measure of inflation and a leading economic indicator in the U.S. This paper describes the development process we used and how we overcame the challenges we faced.
Developing an airline freight management system: meeting airline and end-user challenges BIBAFull-Text 660-661
  Sam J. Racine; John P. Curtin
A commercial freight management application for airlines must address the business concerns of airlines as well as offer limited job interference for end-users whose primary occupation is to move cargo. Discussion includes usability challenges and interactive design solutions, methodology for quick development in a time- and resource-constrained budget, and compromises required for commercial success.

Doctoral Consortium Submissions

Cellular phone manuals: users' benefit from spatial maps BIBAFull-Text 662-663
  Susanne Bay
Manuals of technical devices are often not very helpful to the user. This study investigates the influence of spatial instructions versus conventional linear step-by-step manuals on inexperienced users' performance handling cellular phones. Results show a significant interaction between user age and manual. Middle aged users profit more from the spatial information given in the manual that contains the phone's menu tree than from the step-by-step instruction, whereas subjects older than 50 show no improvement. It is concluded that manufacturers should consider the inclusion of spatial information on the cellular phones' menu structure in their manuals, as the majority of users would benefit.
Mobile information re-finding as a continuing dialogue BIBAFull-Text 664-665
  Robert G. Capra
Mobile users have many needs to re-find information across a variety of computing devices, locations, and situations. My research explores two areas to support mobile information re-finding. First, I am investigating how users re-find information first found on the web: how people approach re-finding, what information they recall when trying to re-find, and how they converse about re-finding. Second, I am examining how shared context can be established and utilized between a user and a computer system to improve future re-finding interactions. In this paper, I present two efforts to explore these areas. I briefly describe a prototype system to support mobile information re-finding through a telephone-based voice interface, and then present preliminary results from a study of how people converse when engaging in collaborative information refinding tasks with another person. The results of this study suggest that context plays an important role in re-finding.
The digital set-top box as a virtual channel provider BIBAFull-Text 666-667
  Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
This research is based on the realization that the desktop computing paradigm is not appropriate for television, because it is adapted to fundamentally different user aspirations and activities. Instead, the virtual channel is a model that aids the organization and dynamic presentation of digital television programming from a combination of live broadcasts, prerecorded content and Internet resources at each set-top box. The goal is to design the respective framework of user interface patterns that consider the affective nature of television usability and facilitate the diversity of viewing situations.
Personal media exploration with semantic regions BIBAFull-Text 668-669
  Hyunmo Kang
Computer users deal with large amount of personal media data and they often face problems in managing and exploring them. The paper presents an innovative approach, Semantic Regions that are rectangular regions directly drawn on 2D space with semantics so that their layout can form users' various mental models toward the personal media data. A prototype personal media exploring application, MediaFinder, based on the concept of Semantic Regions is presented. Usability tests will be conducted to evaluate the Semantic Regions as a personal media management model including organization, search, navigation, indexing, meaning extraction, and distribution.
Cultural usability: a localization study of mobile text messaging use BIBAFull-Text 670-671
  Huatong Sun
The success of mobile text messaging poses many questions for usability studies. Considering the inherent usability weaknesses of mobile phones such as the small display, poor input methods, the moving environment, and noisy surroundings, this success is hard to explain with traditional usability theories that ignore the social-cultural context. A new model -- cultural usability -- is proposed for studying the intriguing processes of how cultural factors and contextual issues affect the consumption of mobile text messaging in contexts of use.
Social regulation in virtual spaces BIBAFull-Text 672-673
  Jack Muramatsu
The described dissertation focuses on social regulation of user behavior within virtual social spaces. A multi-year field study of two fantasy-based game MUDs (multi-user dungeons) was conducted to gain a detailed understanding of the work involved in regulating behavior in these virtual environments. This field study examines the work and techniques employed by game administrators (immortals) to maintain social regulation over their respective game MUDs. One key feature of social regulation in such virtual spaces is the use and possible use of specialized software routines to regulate specific behaviors. Ongoing analysis of the field study data is expected to provide an understanding of how aspects of the virtual world affect the manner in which social regulation is performed.
Interpersonal cues and consumer trust in e-commerce BIBAFull-Text 674-675
  Jens Riegelsberger
E-commerce stretches interactions over space and time, and thus requires more trust than traditional shopping. Current approaches to trust-building in e-commerce focus on cognitive trust. Human trust decisions, however, are also based on affective reactions, which can be triggered by interpersonal cues. This research investigates the effect of visual interpersonal cues on users' trust in e-commerce. First results indicate that visual interpersonal cues in the form of photographs have an effect on users' decision-making. This effect, however, strongly depends on context variables, as well as individual differences. A further issue under investigation is the potential negative effect of interpersonal cues on task performance. Thus, in a next stage, this research will combine eye-tracking with physiological measurements to investigate effects on task performance and user cost.
Emotional interaction BIBAFull-Text 676-677
  Pedro Branco
This paper discusses the association of emotions as an underlying component of everyday human-computer interaction. It presents the ongoing work in the design of an experiment to help understand the role that cognitive or appraisal theory of emotions might have in shaping the human-computer dialogue.
ClearPen: improving the legibility of handwriting BIBAFull-Text 678-679
  Timothy S. Butler
We describe the application of a pen model, and sub-pixel addressing (ClearPen), to render handwriting on an LCD display. This technique is shown to improve the legibility of handwriting. ClearPen can increase the viability of working with handwriting on a computer. This has direct significance to TabletPC applications such as note taking or annotating documents.
Modeling command selection for speech-based applications BIBAFull-Text 680-681
  Jinjuan Feng
Command selection is an important problem in human computer interaction. We are applying a decision-making approach to model the process by which users select commands when multiple alternatives exist. Our initial focus is on speech-based systems, but the underlying approach is applicable to a wide range of interaction styles. Two empirical studies that provide a foundation for this research are complete and an initial decision model is proposed which specifies the factors that influence the command selection decisions and the relationships between those factors. Empirical studies are planned to investigate users' perceptions of individual model components and to validate the complete model.
Partitioning cursor movements in "point and click" tasks BIBAFull-Text 682-683
  Faustina Hwang
Studies of cursor trajectories can help explain performance differences in "point and click" tasks. As users can have different difficulties with moving the cursor to a point on the screen, as compared with pressing a button to select an object, it is helpful to study the two stages of the interaction separately. This paper proposes a method of partitioning a cursor trajectory into a travel and a select phase. The movements of motion-impaired users are studied to show that, by analyzing the two phases separately, it is possible to capture aspects of movement that may otherwise be lost.
The gateway: a navigation technique for migrating to small screens BIBAFull-Text 684-685
  Bonnie MacKay
Displaying and navigating information on a large screen can be a challenge and has resulted in a variety of techniques such as text summarization and fisheye. An additional challenge is how to organize information on small screens in a format that can be understood in its context and facilitates navigation within the inherent constraints of these devices. We introduce a navigation model, the Gateway, to decrease transitional volatility introduced by migration of web pages to the smaller screen.
Modelling cyclic interaction: an account of feedback BIBAFull-Text 686-687
  Hokyoung Ryu
This paper reports an empirical study of the effectiveness of different kinds of feedback to signal that a goal has been successfully completed. Participants had to make setting changes to a simulated cell phone while at the same time dealing with incoming messages. One group had only implicit feedback that the setting had been changed so that success had to be inferred from the lack of an error message. The other groups had explicit feedback for a set period of 1, 2 or 5 seconds. The implicit feedback group were significantly less likely to complete the task than the explicit feedback groups. There is also evidence that the one second timed explicit feedback condition was less effective in inducing participants to eliminate their current subgoal than the two and five second explicit feedback conditions. A notation is introduced to explain these findings.
Utilizing mobile devices to capture case stories for knowledge management BIBAFull-Text 688-689
  Jia Shen
This study examines how the increasing number of new mobile devices that enable rich in situ information capture can be utilized to improve knowledge management practices. An ethnographic study is being conducted of a heating and cooling services company focusing on the exchange of case stories. With knowledge gained from this study a prototype system is being built that allows in situ multi-media data capture, and retrieval via the Internet. The proposed field study of this system will extend our understanding of how to effectively design for in situ multi-media data capture so that it is integrated in organizational processes.
Understanding and enhancing call centre computer BIBAFull-Text 690-691
  Anette Steel
There are many interactions that take place at a call centre; between the customer and agent, the agent and computer, and indirectly between the customer and computer. This paper proposes areas of research, eg auditory feedback and human-human communication, which could provide insight and possible improvement to the interaction. The paper also describes studies that have been carried out, as well as studies that are being planned.

Panels

Post-cognitivist HCI: second-wave theories BIBAFull-Text 692-693
  Victor Kaptelinin; Bonnie Nardi; Susanne Bødker; John Carroll; Jim Hollan; Edwin Hutchins; Terry Winograd
Historically, the dominant paradigm in HCI, when it appeared as a field in early 80s, was information processing ("cognitivist") psychology. In recent decades, as the focus of research moved beyond information processing to include how the use of technology emerges in social, cultural and organizational contexts, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been proposed as candidate theoretical foundations for "second-wave" HCI and CSCW. The purpose of this panel is to articulate similarities and differences between some of the leading "post-cognitivist" theoretical perspectives: language/ action, activity theory, and distributed cognition.
Politics and usability: test your skills against the experts BIBAFull-Text 694-695
  Rolf Molich; Kara Pernice Coyne; Ron Perkins; Deborah J. Mayhew
In this highly interactive panel we will present and discuss a Usability Business Case for professional self-assessment dealing with the Politics of Usability. A usability business case is a hypothetical but realistic scenario that serves to illustrate points of great importance to usability professionals. Our usability business case will focus on the politics of usability: The fundamental rules that apply when attempting to sell or even evangelize usability in an organization. This panel is particularly important since preliminary tests of our business case with experienced usability professionals shows that the general familiarity with our key points is limited.
Use of research-based guidelines in the development of websites BIBAFull-Text 696-697
  Sanjay Koyani; Susan Allison
The Communication Technologies Branch at the National Cancer Institute has been working for the past two years to identify research related to web design and usability and to translate that research into web design guidelines. This effort has resulted in a set of approximately 200 guidelines that have strength of evidence and relative importance ratings. Panel members vary in their opinions on how and when to make the best use of guidelines in the development of websites. They will discuss issues related to translating research to guidelines, validation of guidelines, usability of guidelines themselves, and how to handle conflicting research.
The "magic number 5": is it enough for web testing? BIBAFull-Text 698-699
  Nigel Bevan; Carol Barnum; Gilbert Cockton; Jakob Nielsen; Jared Spool; Dennis Wixon
Common practice holds that 80% of usability findings are discovered after five participants. Recent findings from web testing indicate that a much larger number of participants is required to get results and that independent teams testing the same web-based product do not replicate results. How many users are enough for web testing?
Voting: user experience, technology and practice BIBAFull-Text 700-701
  Ted Selker; Eric A. Fischer; Benjamin B. Bederson; Conny Mccormack; Clifford Nass
This panel brings together usability and voting experts to discuss voting user experience in American governmental elections. Technological improvements and voting debacles have made this a special time for improving voting user experience. Can technologists improve the confidence citizens have in the voting system? What are the roles of teaching materials, registration processes, ballot design, polling place practices, equipment manufacturer relationships, and other human computer interaction processes in elections? Voting officials and politicians are eager for improvements in voting. This panel includes speakers from government and the CHI community to present legislative perspective, usability evaluation approach, administrators' view and behavioral science's suggestions for voting interface evaluation, design and deployment.
Culture issues and mobile UI design BIBAFull-Text 702-703
  Emilie W. Gould; Pia Honold; Masaaki Kurosu; Jay Melican; Aaron Marcus; Li Anne Yu
Culture anthropologists have identified fundamental dimensions of world cultures. UIs designers have identified basic components of UIs. Mobile devices must map these dimensions to components to cope with global product and service development. Ultimately, tools may emerge to facilitate tuning designs per culture.
Evaluating globally: how to conduct international or intercultural usability research BIBAFull-Text 704-705
  Laurie Roshak; Jared Spool; Vanessa Evers; Rolf Molich; Colleen Page; Ann-Byrd Platt
This panel will educate the audience on the methods and tools available for conducting international or intercultural usability research. The panel will also address the challenges of conducting international or intercultural usability research and provide tips on how to overcome these challenges.
Spam, spam, spam, spam: how can we stop it BIBAFull-Text 706-707
  Jenny Preece; Jonathan Lazar; Elizabeth Churchill; Hans de Graaff; Batya Friedman; Joseph Konstan
How do we keep our channels of electronic communication, both individual and group, open, while keeping out inappropriate and unrelated materials, such as spam? Does someone other than the intended recipient have the right to control what electronic mail users see? Might this lead to censorship? If others DO have the right to control what e-mail users see, how should this filtering or censorship occur? Are users aware of this filtering? If others are NOT controlling what users receive, what can users themselves do to control their environments to limit the amount of incoming spam? These are some of the topics that this CHI panel will address.
The next revolution: vehicle user-interfaces and the global rider/driver experience BIBAFull-Text 708-709
  Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Aaron Marcus; Paul Allan Green; Hideki Hada; David Wheatley
The driver/rider experience is a major development in mobile user-interface (UI) design worldwide, similar in scale to the first introduction of personal computers to the desktop. Most automobile manufacturers seeking to develop smart cars have relatively little experience with advanced software-based UIs and information visualization (IV). This panel introduces essential issues of vehicle UI design to the CHI community and offers competing views about the most important issues affecting usability, safety, appeal, functionality, information, and entertainment.

Short talks-Specialized section: interaction techniques for handheld devices

Shared freeform input for note taking across devices BIBAFull-Text 710-711
  Laurent Denoue; Patrick Chiu; Tohru Fuse
Shared freeform input is a technique for facilitating note taking across devices during a meeting. Laptop users enter text with a keyboard, whereas PDA and Tablet PC users input freeform ink with their stylus. Users can quickly reuse text and freeform ink already entered by others. We show how a new technique, freeform pasting, allowed us to deal with a variety of design issues such as quick and informal ink sharing, screen real estate, privacy and mixing ink-based and textual material.
Typing in thin air: the canesta projection keyboard -- a new method of interaction with electronic devices BIBAFull-Text 712-713
  Helena Roeber; John Bacus; Carlo Tomasi
Canesta Keyboard is a novel interface to electronic devices that consists of a projection system and a sensor module instead of the mechanical switches of a traditional keyboard. Users input text by pressing keys on a projected image of a keyboard. This paper describes the advantages and drawbacks of this interface compared to existing input methods for mobile devices in terms of data entry speed, error rate, user satisfaction and physical size as revealed through usability testing.

Short talks-Specialized section: domesticated design

Effects of voice vs. remote on U.S. and Japanese user satisfaction with interactive HDTV systems BIBAFull-Text 714-715
  Garry Tan; Scott Brave; Clifford Nass; Masaru Takechi
A between-participants (N=60) experiment explores the effect of input modality (voice with 100% recognition vs. remote) and culture (US vs. Japan) on user's opinions of an Interactive High Definition Television System (iHDTV). There was a significant interaction: Japanese participants completed tasks more easily and thought the interface was better with a remote control. Conversely, United States participants completed tasks more easily and thought the interface was better with voice control. Participants from both cultures liked content more and felt more uncomfortable when using voice control.
On natural living room communication with "ComAdapter": adapting to the differences in room structure BIBAFull-Text 716-717
  Kazuyuki Iso; Takashi Yagi; Minoru Kobayashi; Satoshi Iwaki; Satoshi Ishibashi
Aiming at rich and useful communication in our daily home life, we propose a novel communication concept, "ComAdapter", in which people can mutually share their intention and emotion by exchanging their spontaneous behavior. ComAdapter can create shared space communication that allow us to communicate with another party in a remote location as though other party has entered our room. To achieve this, ComAdapter offsets the differences in the configurations of the rooms. In a simple preliminary system, body motions are successfully adapted and transmitted between two rooms with different layout. The success of the experiment confirms the validity and potential of ComAdapter.

Short talks-Specialized section: trust, security & safety

Interpersonal trust and empathy online: a fragile relationship BIBAFull-Text 718-719
  Jinjuan Feng; Jenny Preece; Jonathan Lazar
An empirical study was conducted focusing on the effect of empathic accuracy and response type on online interpersonal trust in textual IM. The results suggest both empathic accuracy and response type have significant influence on online interpersonal trust. However, the interaction between empathic accuracy and response type is the dominant factor on interpersonal trust. The results also imply an interesting relationship between general trust attitude and online interpersonal trust.
Identity disclosure and the creation of social capital BIBAFull-Text 720-721
  David R. Millen; John F. Patterson
In this paper, we describe the identity policy decisions for a community network outside of Boston, Massachusetts. To promote trust and accountability, a member's online identity is their real-world identity; there is no anonymity. We conclude, based on analysis of the online interaction that this identity policy: bridged and enriched online and face-to-face interactions, promoted accountability in support of local commerce, and fostered a social norm of polite conversation.
Prominence-interpretation theory: explaining how people assess credibility online BIBAFull-Text 722-723
  B. J. Fogg
Four years of research has led to a theory that describes how people assess the credibility of Web sites. This theory proposes that users notice and interpret various Web site elements to arrive at an overall credibility assessment. Although preliminary, this theory explains previous research results and suggests directions for future studies.
Who wants to know what when? privacy preference determinants in ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 724-725
  Scott Lederer; Jennifer Mankoff; Anind K. Dey
We conducted a questionnaire-based study of the relative importance of two factors, inquirer and situation, in determining the preferred accuracy of personal information disclosed through a ubiquitous computing system. We found that privacy preferences varied by inquirer more than by situation. That is, individuals were more likely to apply the same privacy preferences to the same inquirer in different situations than to apply the same privacy preferences to different inquirers in the same situation. We are applying these results to the design of a user interface for managing everyday privacy in ubiquitous computing.
Safe & sound: a wireless leash BIBAFull-Text 726-727
  Natalia Marmasse; Chris Schmandt
Safe & Sound uses location-aware mobile phones to create a "virtual leash"; a secure zone beyond which a child may not travel. If the child leaves this zone, both child and parent receive audible alerts, and the parent can communicate with the child by voice over the phone. The peer-to-peer transmission of location, and the accepted role of responsibility by care-givers, reduce the privacy concerns which often arise with location-aware systems.
Cell phone communication and driver visual behavior: the impact of cognitive distraction BIBAFull-Text 728-729
  Patricia Trbovich; Joanne L. Harbluk
With the advent of new technology in vehicles, drivers can access information in many different forms (email, address books, Web pages) and from many information sources (cell phones, PDAs, driver support systems). With these new information sources finding their way into cars comes increasing concern about the potential adverse effects resulting from drivers' interactions with such multi-function devices. This paper examines the disruptive impact of complex, interactive, hands-free cell phone communications upon the visual awareness of drivers proceeding through high volume intersections. The present study documents changes in driver visual behavior, resulting from cognitive distraction of speech-based interactions, that may contribute to intersection crashes. The results of this research raise significant HCI implications for the design of interactive Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) within the automotive sector.

Short talks-Specialized section: emotion

Co-experience: the social user experience BIBAFull-Text 730-731
  Katja Battarbee
This paper presents a critical view of existing models of user experience. These models view experience as the subjective response in the individual's mind. While designers and developers have to try to provide a satisfying user experience, the means to do so remain limited. This paper presents a missing aspect of user experience. Experience can be seen as an individual's reaction, but also as something constructed in social interaction. Designed artifacts, especially personal communication and digital media products, environments and systems can facilitate this kind of use. "Co-experience" is the experience that users themselves create together in social interaction.
Affective gaming: measuring emotion through the gamepad BIBAFull-Text 732-733
  Jonathan Sykes; Simon Brown
In search of suitable methods for measuring the affective state of video-game players, this study investigates the hypothesis that the player's state of arousal will correspond with the pressure used to depress buttons on a gamepad. A video game was created that would detect the force of each button press during play. It was found that as the difficulty level of the game increased, players would hit the gamepad buttons significantly harder.
Measurement of user frustration: a biologic approach BIBAFull-Text 734-735
  Richard Hazlett
This paper describes the use of facial EMG to provide a continuous measure of the user's emotional state. Facial EMG was recorded while female users performed five tasks to one of two web sites. Frustration index scores were developed from the corrugator EMG data by calculating a percentage score of a pre-task baseline. As predicted, the frustration index was greater for (1) novices as compared to experienced users, (2) incorrect as compared to correct answered tasks, and (3) for the web site that was rated more difficult. The frustration index was able to provide important information on web page performance.
User recalled occurrences of usability errors: implications on the user experience BIBAFull-Text 736-737
  Helena Mentis; Geri Gay
Usability testing determines what problems thwart goal attainment, but what problems shape the user experience? This study gathered users recalled instances of frustration from using various technologies and categorized those frustrating incidents with the User Action Framework, an adaptation of Norman's seven stages of action for classifying usability problems. We found that many of the recalled frustrating incidents occurred while the user was in the Outcome phase and that most of those incidents were intrusive in the user's cognitive flow.
Predicting user satisfaction from subject satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 738-739
  Margaret B. Swan; Mark Notess
In this paper, we describe work-in-progress in comparing user satisfaction ratings after user tests with ratings obtained following actual use of a digital music library software. We identify some of the variables that hamper prediction, and we reflect on the utility of surveys for predicting user/subject gaps in satisfaction.
Visualizing the affective structure of a text document BIBAFull-Text 740-741
  Hugo Liu; Ted Selker; Henry Lieberman
This paper introduces an approach for graphically visualizing the affective structure of a text document. A document is first affectively analyzed using a unique textual affect sensing engine, which leverages commonsense knowledge to classify text more reliably and comprehensively than can be achieved with keyword spotting methods alone. Using this engine, sentences are annotated using six basic Ekman emotions. Colors used to represent each of these emotions are sequenced into a color bar, which represents the progression of affect through a text document. Smoothing techniques allow the user to vary the granularity of the affective structure being displayed on the color bar. The bar is hyperlinked in a way such that it can be used to easily navigate the document. A user evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method for visualizing and navigating a document's affective structure facilitates a user's within-document information foraging activity.

Short talks-Specialized section: usability of large scale public systems

Conversation thumbnails for large-scale discussions BIBAFull-Text 742-743
  Martin Wattenberg; David Millen
We present a new interface for large-scale online conversations. Our technique, the Conversation Thumbnail, differs from existing discussion interfaces in two respects. First, it employs a focus+context visualization technique that exploits message-level metadata to provide an easily navigable overview of a discussion. Second, it helps reduce conversational redundancy and improve coherence via a fast automatic search mechanism that highlights related messages during message composition. The Conversation Thumbnail Viewer is currently implemented as a Java applet that can be applied to a variety of discussion data sources.
Communities of design practice in electronic government BIBAFull-Text 744-745
  Richard Halstead-Nussloch; Doris Konneh; Robert Woodruff
As we move towards more online governmental services-electronic government or e-government-our information technology (IT) and human-computer interaction (HCI) designs must both broaden and deepen. In Georgia, we have fostered communities of design practice (CDPs) that focus on IT and HCI design at the statewide enterprise level through the Georgia Digital Academy (GDA). In this study, we utilized observational methods and a participatory analysis of the CDP formation in the GDA. Our findings and conclusions converge with the growing body of knowledge on HCI communities of practice. We report our results and recommendations on how CDPs might be utilized to build effective e-government.

Short talks-Specialized section: peripheral and ambient displays

AttrActive windows: dynamic windows for digital bulletin boards BIBAFull-Text 746-747
  Laurent Denoue; Les Nelson; Elizabeth Churchill
In this paper we describe AttrActive Windows, a novel interface for presenting live, interactive, multimedia content on a network of public, digital, bulletin boards. Implementing a paper flyer metaphor, AttrActive Windows are paper-like in appearance and are attached to a virtual corkboard by virtual pushpins. Windows can therefore appear in different orientations, creating an attractive, informal look. Attractive Windows can also have autonomous behaviors that are consistent with the corkboard metaphor, like fluttering in the wind. We describe the AttrActive Windows prototype, and offer the results of an initial evaluative user study.
Information voyeurism: social impact of physically large displays on information privacy BIBAFull-Text 748-749
  Desney S. Tan; Mary Czerwinski
A common observation when working on physically large displays, such as wall-sized projection, is that a certain amount of information privacy is lost. A common explanation for this loss in privacy is the higher legibility of information presented on large displays. In this paper, we present a novel paradigm for measuring whether or not a user has read certain content. We show that, even with constant visual angles and legibility, visitors are still more likely to glance over a user's shoulder to read information on a large wall-projected display than on a smaller traditional desktop monitor. We assert that, in addition to legibility, there are more subtle social factors that may contribute to the loss of privacy on physically large displays. Implementing hardware and software ideas for mitigating this loss of privacy remains future research.

Short talks-Specialized section: Fitts' law & text input

Interface with pre-typing visual feedback for touch-sensitive keyboard BIBAFull-Text 750-751
  Roman Ilinski
In this paper, a method is described that detects and displays what key a user has touched with his fingertip before the key is pressed. The proposed method is based on the use of a touch-sensitive cover on a pushbutton key set. The identity of the touched key is displayed exactly at the point where the I-beam pointer indicates at the inputting string, so that correct data entry will be made simpler without looking at the keyboard or needing training.
Combined model for text entry rate development BIBAFull-Text 752-753
  Poika Isokoski; I. Scott MacKenzie
We combine the power law of learning and theoretical upper limit predictions to describe the development of text entry rates from users' first contact to asymptotic expert usage. The combined model makes comparing text entry methods easier. We present the rationale for the model and two candidate implementations. The first is a simple regression model with a reasonable fit to the data. The second fits measured data better, but is more complicated.
Phrase sets for evaluating text entry techniques BIBAFull-Text 754-755
  I. Scott MacKenzie; R. William Soukoreff
In evaluations of text entry methods, participants enter phrases of text using a technique of interest while performance data are collected. This paper describes and publishes (via the internet) a collection of 500 phrases for such evaluations. Utility programs are also provided to compute statistical properties of the phrase set, or any other phrase set. The merits of using a pre-defined phrase set are described as are methodological considerations, such as attaining results that are generalizable and the possible addition of punctuation and other characters.
Evaluation of thumbwheel text entry methods BIBAFull-Text 756-757
  Peter Tarasewich
Text entry becomes increasingly complex as devices shrink in size. This paper presents the findings of a comparison study of two thumbwheel text entry methods for mobile devices. In the first method, the character set (letters, numbers, punctuation) was implemented as a continuous loop. In the second method, characters were arranged in a two-level menu structure. Thumbwheel methods provide a viable and realistic alternative to keyboard, keypad, stylus, or voice text entry on ultra-small mobile devices.
Scroll ring performance evaluation BIBAFull-Text 758-759
  Elaine Wherry
This study compares a touchpad scroll ring to a mouse scroll wheel and touchpad scroll zone using a Fitts' Law testing methodology. Time, error, and subjective results reveal that the scroll ring offers the most performance advantages over the scroll wheel and scroll zone.
Card, English, and Burr (1978): 25 years later BIBAFull-Text 760-761
  I. Scott MacKenzie; R. William Soukoreff
We revisit the Fitts' law model published 25 years ago by Card, English, and Burr. Their research was important because it was the first comparative evaluation of the mouse, and also the first use of Fitts' law in HCI. For the mouse, they reported MT = 1.03 + 0.096 ID, with throughput reported as the slope reciprocal: TP = 1 / 0.96 = 10.3 bps. We re-analyse their data in view of ISO9241-9, the new standard for evaluating pointing devices. The reanalysis yields a throughput of 2.65 bps, or 4.32 bps including a nominal adjustment for the time for the hand to adjust its grip on the mouse. These values are closer to recently published ISO-conforming values for the mouse.

Short talks-Specialized section: editing and coordinating

When one isn't enough: an analysis of virtual desktop usage strategies and their implications for design BIBAFull-Text 762-763
  Meredith Ringel
Screen space is a limited resource for computer users-multiple monitors are one means of workspace expansion, and "virtual desktops" are yet another way to increase screen real-estate. We present a taxonomy of organization strategies based on our observations during a series of interviews with virtual desktop users. Additionally, we explore causes of varying user preferences for physical versus virtual means of screen-space expansion. Finally, we discuss the design implications of our findings.
MediaFinder: an interface for dynamic personal media management with semantic regions BIBAFull-Text 764-765
  Hyunmo Kang; Ben Shneiderman
Computer users deal with large amounts of personal media often face problems in managing and exploring it. This paper presents Semantic Regions, rectangular regions that enable users to specify their semantics or mental models, and the MediaFinder application, which uses Semantic Regions as the basis of a personal media management tool.

Short talks-Specialized section: gaze & information navigation

Auditory and visual feedback during eye typing BIBAFull-Text 766-767
  Paivi Majaranta; I. Scott MacKenzie; Anne Aula; Kari-Jouko Raiha
We describe a study on how auditory and visual feedback affects eye typing. Results show that the feedback method influences both text entry speed and error rate. In addition, a proper feedback mode facilitates eye typing by reducing the user's need to switch her gaze between the on-screen keyboard and the typed text field.
Where do helpers look?: gaze targets during collaborative physical tasks BIBAFull-Text 768-769
  Susan R. Fussell; Leslie D. Setlock; Elizabeth M. Parker
This study used eye-tracking technology to assess where helpers look as they are providing assistance to a worker during collaborative physical tasks. Gaze direction was coded into one of six categories: partner's head, partner's hands, task parts and tools, the completed task, and instruction manual. Results indicated that helpers rarely gazed at their partners' faces, but distributed gaze fairly evenly across the other targets. The results have implications for the design of video systems to support collaborative physical tasks.
EyePliances: attention-seeking devices that respond to visual attention BIBAFull-Text 770-771
  Jeffrey S. Shell; Roel Vertegaal; Alexander W. Skaburskis
We present EyePliances: appliances and devices that detect and respond to human visual attention using eye contact sensors. EyePliances receive implicit input from users, in the form of eye gaze, and respond by opening communication channels. By allowing devices to recognize the attentional cues people already provide, requests for explicit input from users can be reduced. Further, eye contact sensing gives devices a mechanism to determine whether a user is available for interruption, and can provide the missing environmental context to improve speech recognition.
Gaze- vs. hand-based pointing in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 772-773
  Nathan Cournia; John D. Smith; Andrew T. Duchowski
This paper contributes to the nascent body of literature on pointing performance in Virtual Environments (VEs), comparing gaze- and hand-based pointing. Contrary to previous findings, preliminary results indicate that gaze-based pointing is slower than hand-based pointing for distant objects.
Isometric pointer interfaces for wearable 3D visualization BIBAFull-Text 774-775
  David M. Krum; Rob Melby; William Ribarsky; Larry Hodges
3D visualizations will soon be important wearable computer applications. However, 3D interaction can be problematic, especially in a wearable computing environment. We evaluated four 3D interaction methods using isometric joysticks common to wearable computing. Subjective and objective results favor a two-handed, aircraft-like interface mapping.
"This is a lot easier!": constrained movement speeds navigation BIBAFull-Text 776-777
  Susanne Jul
This paper reports on an experiment comparing constrained and unconstrained movement in a 2D zooming environment. Results showed a significant reduction in time on task when movement was constrained, accompanied by considerable decreases in mouse movement activity. Detailed analysis suggests that subjects were calmer, more confident in their actions and experienced less spatial disorientation, indicating that judiciously constrained movement can reduce both mechanical and cognitive demands of navigation.

Short talks-Specialized section: issues in software development

Paper prototyping -- what is it good for?: a comparison of paper- and computer-based low-fidelity prototyping BIBAFull-Text 778-779
  Reinhard Sefelin; Manfred Tscheligi; Verena Giller
This study investigated the differences between computer-based and paper-based low-fidelity prototypes. It researched whether subjects confronted with these two kinds of prototypes differ in their willingness to criticize a system and to give suggestions for its improvement. The chosen approach was an empirical study including test sessions using both kinds of prototypes. Quantitative and qualitative methods were applied to measure and to explain possible differences.
PRESPE: participatory requirements elicitation using scenarios and photo essays BIBAFull-Text 780-781
  Kentaro Go; Yasuaki Takamoto; John M. Carroll; Atsumi Imamiya; Hisanori Masuda
We describe our ongoing investigation of the PRESPE (Participatory Requirements Elicitation using Scenarios and Photo Essays) method. PRESPE enables participants to reflect upon their personal experiences when using systems and create photo-essays based on this reflection. The participants can then analyze these experiences by forming design concepts, envision scenarios by imagining contexts of use, and create artifacts by sketching these scenarios. Our case study showed that PRESPE enabled participants, even those with no prior design education, to create novel ideas regarding system development.

Short talks-Specialized section: collaborative systems

Activity rhythm detection and modeling BIBAFull-Text 782-783
  Rosco Hill; James Begole
We present an algorithm for detecting and modeling rhythmic temporal patterns in the record of an individual's computer activity, or online "presence." The model is both predictive and descriptive of temporal features and is constructed with minimal a priori knowledge.
AwarenessMaps: visualizing awareness in shared workspaces BIBAFull-Text 784-785
  Tom Gross; Wido Wirsam; Wolfgang Graether
In cooperative activity users require information about their cooperative environment. AwarenessMaps provide the members of shared workspaces with an overview of users and shared documents: the PeopleMap shows an array of pictures of active users fading out over time; and the DocumentMap provides a schematic overview of the structure of a shared workspace and indicates recent changes.
Coordinating communication: awareness displays and interruption BIBAFull-Text 786-787
  Laura Dabbish; Robert Kraut
In this paper, we describe a laboratory experiment to determine whether peripheral awareness information about a remote collaborator's workload aids in timing interruptive communication. Our results indicate that a display with an abstract representation of a collaborator's workload is best in that it leads to better timing of interruptions without overwhelming the interrupter.
Assessing the value of a cursor pointing device for remote collaboration on physical tasks BIBAFull-Text 788-789
  Susan R. Fussell; Leslie D. Setlock; Elizabeth M. Parker; Jie Yang
This study assessed the value of a cursor pointer that allows remote collaborators to point to locations in a partner's workspace via a shared video feed. We compared performance with the cursor pointer with that in video-only and side-by-side conditions. Results indicated that participants found the cursor pointer of value for referring to objects and locations in the work environment, but that the pointer did not improve performance time over video-only. We conclude that cursor pointing is valuable for collaboration on physical tasks, but that additional gestural support will be required to make performance using video systems as good as performance working side-by-side.
The effectiveness of multiscale collaboration in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 790-791
  Xiaolong Zhang; George W. Furnas
Adding multiscale capabilities to collaborative virtual environments can potentially help people work on very large electronic worlds. Our experiment shows that the user performance on cross-scale tasks is indeed improved.
Avatar proxies: configurable informants of collaborative activities BIBAFull-Text 792-793
  Umer Farooq; Con Rodi; John M. Carroll; Philip Isenhour
In the physical world, every user exists at one and only one place, but in a collaborative virtual environment (CVE), other paradigms are achievable such as a user existing at more than one place at a time. In a collaborative environment, a user is typically engaged with one primary activity at a time. As the number of collaborative activities increases, users are unable to maintain focal attention on all activities, and must offload some cognitive effort to a peripheral attention sphere. This delegation of attention-the movement of primary activities as focal attention to secondary activities as non-focal attention-requires that users remember certain parameters of context switching, such as what the secondary activities are, and more importantly, when to switch their focal attention to these activities. Keeping track of these context-switching parameters is itself a cognitive load that often degenerates focal attention on primary activities. Our goal is to augment users' cognition by delegating the work of remembering context-switching parameters to other entities in a collaborative environment. We call these entities avatar proxies because our implementation is in a CVE in which users are iconified as avatars, but the techniques and results are general to a broader range of collaborative environments. Avatar proxies notify users when they are required to switch their focal attention to secondary activities.

Short talks-Specialized section: brains, eyes and ears

"Unvoiced speech recognition using EMG -- mime speech recognition" BIBAFull-Text 794-795
  Hiroyuki Manabe; Akira Hiraiwa; Toshiaki Sugimura
We propose unvoiced speech recognition, "Mime Speech Recognition". It recognizes speech by observing the muscles associated with speech. It is not based on voice signals but electromyography (EMG). It will realize unvoiced communication, which is a new communication style. Because voice signals are not used, it can be applied in noisy environments; it also supports people without vocal-cords and aphasics. In preliminary experiments, we try to recognize the 5 Japanese vowels. EMG signals from the 3 muscles that contribute greatly to the utterance of Japanese vowels are input to a neural network. The recognition accuracy is over 90% for the three subjects tested.
The neurally controllable internet browser (BrainBrowser) BIBAFull-Text 796-797
  Ope Tomori; Melody Moore
The Internet has become an important part of our daily lives, with browsers serving as the main tool of navigation. For users with severe disabilities, access to the Internet can be crucial to quality of life, providing a myriad of services and opportunities. The GSU BrainLab is researching methods of controlling computer interfaces directly with brain signals, to assist users who are completely paralyzed and have no other means of interaction. Adapting a web browser for neural control provides us a unique opportunity to study navigation issues for assistive technology. The Neural Internet BrainBrowser project is currently exploring new human computer interaction paradigms, web usability concepts, and interface serialization techniques.
AudioBattleship: blind learners collaboration through sound BIBAFull-Text 798-799
  Jaime Sanchez; Nelson Baloian; Tiago Hassler; Ulrich Hoppe
A growing number of audio-based applications for blind learners have being produced in the last few years. Many of them focus on the development of 3D audio interfaces to map the entire surrounding space. Other studies center on the impact of sound interaction on cognition by evaluating the usability of these applications. No previous work has centered on using spatialized sound to develop collaborative skills in blind learners. This ongoing research study introduces AudioBattleShip, an interactive audio-based environment to enhance collaboration and cognition in blind learners. AudioBattleship mimics the traditional game battleship for sighted people but without visual cues. A preliminary pilot study has been implemented showing that blind children collaboration can be enhanced through the interaction with spatialized sound.

Short talks-Specialized section: tangible interfaces

A tangible interface for IP network simulation BIBAFull-Text 800-801
  Kazue Kobayashi; Mitsunori Hirano; Atsunobu Narita; Hiroshi Ishii
We present the IP Network Design Workbench which supports collaborative network design and simulation by a group of experts and customers. This system is based on a tangible user interface platform called "Sensetable," which can wirelessly detect the location and orientation of physical pucks. Using this system, users can directly manipulate network topologies, control parameters of nodes and links using physical pucks on the sensing table, and simultaneously see the simulation results projected onto the table in real-time.
On interfaces projected onto real-world objects BIBAFull-Text 802-803
  Mark Podlaseck; Claudio Pinhanez; Nancy Alvarado; Margaret Chan; Elisa Dejesus
This paper describes preliminary results of research on the perception and usability of interfaces projected onto real-world objects. Using a projector setup that enables us to compare users' color preferences, we show that the objects onto which colors are projected influence a user's choices. We also observe that many users are unable to recall and/or were unaware of the objects onto which the color interface was projected. These results suggest that there may be complex interactions affecting the use of interfaces that integrate the virtual and the real world.
FantasyA and SenToy BIBAFull-Text 804-805
  Kristina Höök; Adrian Bullock; Ana Paiva; Marco Vala; Ricardo Chaves; Rui Prada
FantasyA is a role-playing game where emotions are part of the game logic. SenToy is a tangible interface device [2], used to influence emotional behaviour in FantasyA. Players in the game FantasyA have to master SenToy and exhibit a particular set of emotions and perform a set of actions in order to evolve in the game [3]. A study was undertaken to gauge the success of the overall gaming experience, as well as the individual components, the FantasyA game with its emotional content and the SenToy control device with its gestural input.
EEWWW!!: tangible interfaces for navigating into the human body BIBAFull-Text 806-807
  Edward De Guzman; F. Wai-ling Ho-Ching; Tara Matthews; Tye Rattenbury; Maribeth Back; Steve Harrison
Tangible interfaces have the potential to support learning for non-expert users, ease 3D navigation, and foster collaboration. We developed two physical devices aimed at school children for navigating a 3D virtual model of the human body. Results from a 40-subject user study suggest that these devices can encourage collaboration and improve the learnability of a navigational interface.
Super cilia skin: an interactive membrane BIBAFull-Text 808-809
  Hayes Raffle; Mitchell W. Joachim; James Tichenor
In this paper we introduce Super Cilia Skin, a new approach for integrating haptic and visual communication. Super Cilia Skin is conceived as a computationally enhanced membrane coupling tactile input with tactile and visual output. We present the design of our prototype, an array of individual actuators (cilia) that use changes in orientation to display images or physical gestures. We discuss ongoing research to develop tactile input capabilities and we present examples of how it can enrich interpersonal communication and children's learning.
A physical interface for system dynamics simulation BIBAFull-Text 810-811
  Oren Zuckerman; Mitchel Resnick
We present the System Blocks, a new physical interactive system that makes it easier for kids to explore dynamic systems. A set of computationally enhanced children blocks, made of wood and electronics, the System Blocks can assist K-12 educators to teach the complex concepts of system dynamics and causalities. System dynamics and system thinking are methods for studying the world around us. They deal with understanding how complex systems change over time, and how structure influences behavior. In this paper we will show how the System Blocks enable young children (as early as four years old) to create and interact with systems that simulate real-life dynamic behavior such as a bank account; population growth; or the delicate equilibrium of an ecosystem. The System Blocks gives young children a hands-on environment to learn about complex behavior and encourage new ways of thinking.

Short talks-Specialized section: world wide web

Mr.Web: an automated interactive webmaster BIBAFull-Text 812-813
  Andrea Lockerd; Huy Pham; Taly Sharon; Ted Selker
This paper describes a system, Mr.Web, designed to interact with users over email to create and update Web pages. Our goal is that users interact with Mr.Web as if it were a human Webmaster. We collected 325 examples of people writing email requests to a Webmaster, and used this to generate the semantics of Mr.Web's email parser. The results of the survey indicate that the limited context of a Webmaster gives us a reasonable subset of the natural language processing (NLP) problem. This paper explains the system design, user study results, and plans for future work.
Two methods for auto-organizing personal web history BIBAFull-Text 814-815
  Scott LeeTiernan; Shelly Farnham; Lili Cheng
Two methods for automatically organizing personal web history were developed and evaluated, and compared to the Internet Explorer history. One method grouped visited web pages based on similarity of root URL and time co-occurrence. The second method started with the similarity ratings and further associated or dissociated web pages using an associative learning rule. In a preliminary experiment, participants reported that both methods organized their web history significantly more like their own mental organization of their web history than did IE history. Participants were also faster to revisit web pages using both organizations than when using IE history.
Exploring the distribution of online healthcare information BIBAFull-Text 816-817
  Suresh K. Bhavnani; Renju T. Jacob; Jennifer Nardine; Frederick A. Peck
Motivated by the importance of retrieving comprehensive healthcare information, we analyzed how information about 12 concepts related to a widely available healthcare topic is distributed across 145 high-quality webpages. The analysis reveals that the distribution of the concepts follows a power law where a few pages contain many concepts, while the majority contains less than half the concepts. The analysis also reveals the existence of general, specialized, and sparse pages, in addition to the large number of pages that users must visit before they have access to all the concepts. These results provide insights into expert search procedures, and motivate the design of future search systems that guide users in the retrieval of comprehensive information.
Looks good to me BIBAFull-Text 818-819
  Linda Roberts; Leigh Rankin; Edward Silver; Darryl Moore; Stephanie Plunkett; David Washburn; Brenda Wilch-Ringen
Our primary goal was to assess users' reactions to web sites and to better understand why they respond more favorably to some web sites than to others. In the present study, we replicated earlier research [1] in which participants performed tasks on 12 different web sites and subsequently rated each of the sites along 14 dimensions. As occurred in the earlier research, reliable differences were observed in the ratings of the web sites. However, in contrast to the earlier study where organization was the primary predictor of overall ratings, attractiveness was the strongest predictor of their overall impression of the sites. It may be that the differing results were due either to different stimulus sets or to different subject populations.

Short talks-Specialized section: understanding the context of use

Investigating police patrol practice for design of IT BIBAFull-Text 820-821
  Urban Nulden
This paper describes an ongoing research project aiming to find design implications for information technology supporting police patrol work. A field study of approximately 300 hours over a twelve-month period has been conducted. Tentative findings are structured as three design dimensions that are used to discuss a possible IT design.
Extending ubiquitous computing to vineyards BIBAFull-Text 822-823
  Jenna Burrell; Tim Brooke; Richard Beckwith
In this paper, we describe how an ethnographic approach led to novel interface and system designs for vineyard management and discuss the lessons learned from it.
Design considerations for a financial management system for rural, semi-literate users BIBAFull-Text 824-825
  Kaushik Ghosh; Tapan S. Parikh; Apala Lahiri Chavan
In this paper, we describe the design process, results, and general observations obtained in designing a user interface for managing community-based micro-finance institutions in rural India. The primary users studied were semi-literate village women. We discuss our contextual study observations and conclude by presenting a grounded design approach that best leverages the existing learning patterns of the users.
Imagery saystems for enhanced crewmember habitability, performance and productivity on ISS BIBAFull-Text 826-827
  Mihriban Whitmore; Vicky Byrne
In this paper, a description is provided for the process of determining the functional and technical requirements for an Imagery System onboard the International Space Station (ISS). With the advent of the ISS and the experience of Russian, European, and US crewmembers on Mir, the importance of the psychological element in long duration missions is increasingly recognized. An Imagery System could enhance the habitability, performance, and productivity for long term stays in space. Because this is type of system is a new concept for space, functional and technical requirements need to be explored.
What is a place?: allowing users to name and define places BIBAFull-Text 828-829
  Petra Fagerberg; Fredrik Espinoza; Per Persson
From working with location-based information systems we know that positioning is problematic. A different approach was tested, where users themselves were allowed to name and define the places they wanted to use. The question was if they would do so, and if they would understand the notion of "place". In a user study, 78 users created 84 place labels. The user study also gave us some unexpected input to the users' perception of place: not only physical, but also virtual places were created.
Persona development for information-rich domains BIBAFull-Text 830-831
  Rashmi Sinha
Designing information architecture for complex websites requires understanding user information needs and mental models in that domain. Personas, or user archetypes, created for such domains should also reflect types of information needs, and usage of information set. We have created a statistical technique to identify important underlying groupings of information needs. In a preliminary study, we show how designers can use this information in conjunction with data from interviews and observations to generate and refine personas.

Short talks-Specialized section: information visualization & navigation

SeismoSpin: a physical instrument for digital data BIBAFull-Text 832-833
  Mark McKelvin; Ragnhild Nestande; Leticia Valdez; Ka-Ping Yee; Maribeth Back; Steve Harrison
SeismoSpin is a novel interactive instrument that uses a Disc-Jockey-mixer analogy to give seismologists a quick and powerful way to explore Northern California earthquake data. The custom-built interface and display maps earthquake data to responsive, user-determined windows of time and geographical areas. Testers (seismologists) found that SeismoSpin provided a greater control and understanding of the dataset than current tools.
Dynamic query sliders vs. brushing histograms BIBAFull-Text 834-835
  Qing Li; Xiaofeng Bao; Chen Song; Jinfei Zhang; Chris North
Dynamic queries facilitate exploration of information through real-time visual display of both query formulation and results. Dynamic query sliders are linked to the main visualization to filter data. A common alternative to dynamic queries is to link several simple visualizations, such as histograms, to the main visualization with a brushing interaction. Selecting data in the histograms highlights that data in the main visualization. We compare these two approaches in an empirical experiment on DynaMaps, a geographic data visualization tool. Dynamic query sliders resulted in better performance for simple range tasks, while brushing histograms was better for complex comparison, tradeoff, and pattern tasks. Participants preferred brushing histograms for understanding relationships between attributes.
Efficient user interest estimation in fisheye views BIBAFull-Text 836-837
  Jeffrey Heer; Stuart K. Card
We present a new technique for efficiently computing Degree-of-Interest distributions to inform the visualization of graph-structured data. The technique is independent of the interest distribution used and enables fluid interaction with very large data sets (over 100,000 nodes).
City lights: contextual views in minimal space BIBAFull-Text 838-839
  Polle T. Zellweger; Jock D. Mackinlay; Lance Good; Mark Stefik; Patrick Baudisch
City Lights are space-efficient fisheye techniques that provide contextual views along the borders of windows and subwindows that describe unseen objects in all directions. We present a family of techniques that use a range of graphical dimensions to depict varied information about unseen objects. City Lights can be used alone or in conjunction with scrollbars, 2D overview+detail, and interaction techniques such as zoomable user interfaces.
Are there benefits in seeing double?: a study of collaborative information visualization BIBAFull-Text 840-841
  Gloria Mark; Keri Carpenter; Alfred Kobsa
We conducted an empirical study to better understand colla-borative information visualization. We found that a system that offered fewer options for visualizations yielded more correct responses faster. Groups were more accurate but slower in solving problems than individuals. We identified different stages in visual discovery and found that collaboration benefits are from validating results and not from planning and system use. Tools to help translate and confirm the visualization would be of great benefit.
Experimental study of cockpit displays of traffic information for pilot self-spacing in congested airspace BIBAFull-Text 842-843
  Kirk Benson; Glenn Dean; Geoffrey Kuhlmann; Brian Sperling; Amy R. Pritchett; Julie A. Jacko
An experimental study examined cockpit displays of traffic information for pilot self-spacing in congested airspace. Results demonstrate that pilots have the capability to benefit from additional traffic information and take over some additional control responsibility. Additionally, this experiment shows that pilots benefit from the presentation of velocity and closure rate, and from range spacing arcs.

Short talks-Specialized section: recommender systems and social computing

Evaluating social trails BIBAFull-Text 844-845
  Martin Svensson; Kristina Höök; Rickard Coster
We performed a 6-month study of a food recommender system to determine the influence of social trails on users choice of recipes. To measure the impact of the recommender functionality, we choose to avoid predictive accuracy metrics, and opted for contextualised subjective measures, comparing recommendations to searching and browsing. 18% of the selected recipes came from the list of recommended recipes. In addition, users liked and understood the recommendation functionality.
Designing visualizations of social activity: six claims BIBAFull-Text 846-847
  Thomas Erickson
In this paper, we describe a set of claims that have evolved from our work in designing visual representations of groups in online environments. We argue that these claims can serve as a good starting point for design work, and can drive critical discussions amongst design stakeholders.

Short talks-Specialized section: haptic interfaces

Tangible search for stacked objects BIBAFull-Text 848-849
  Kensaku Fujii; Jun Shimamura; Kenichi Arakawa; Tomohiko Arikawa
The goal of Tangible Search is to more effectively support the user in physically locating one of a number of stacked objects. It consists of two operations -- automatic logging of stacked objects and direct annotation; image processing is used to determine the heights of the stack and of the user's finger. Tangible Search offers stable and accurate 3D analysis since it uses our previously proposed method. It employs a single camera with a compound half-mirror; this configuration also allows the top and side views of the stack to be captured simultaneously. Our approach is to make it easier for the user to handle stacks of items; it will enhance the tabletop metaphor for intuitive interaction in real-world environments where stacks are very common.
SmartPad: a finger-sensing keypad for mobile interaction BIBAFull-Text 850-851
  Jun Rekimoto; Haruo Oba; Takaaki Ishizawa
This paper introduces SmartPad, a new input device for mobile computers that is an enhanced physical keypad by a finger position sensor. This input device acts as a normal keypad for mobile devices, such as cellular phones, and also recognizes finger position on the keypad be before the user presses the key. This feature is used to recognize finger gesture on the keypad, and can also be used to give preview information to the user before the user actually pressing the key. This previewable function helps users to predict the effect of the action, and it is also helpful when the key definitions are frequently changed according to the context, such as in the case of universal commanders.
ThumbSense: automatic input mode sensing for touchpad-based interactions BIBAFull-Text 852-853
  Jun Rekimoto
While manipulating the touchpad, a user's hand position must be away from the keyboard's home position. This effect hinders smooth switching between text entry and pointer manipulation, and is considered to be the one of the major drawback of the touchpad against to the trackpoint. This paper introduces ThumbSense, a new input technique aims to solve this problem by automatically sensing users' input mode based on finger contact to the touchpad. A key on the keyboard, such as the F key, transparently acts both as a normal key as well as a mouse button. This technique is implemented by using the sensor feature of the touchpad, and is possible to apply most of currently available portable computers without requiring any additional hardware/sensors.
Tactile virtual buttons for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 854-855
  Andrew Nashel; Sharif Razzaque
This paper presents a technique to add the tactile cues of real buttons to virtual buttons displayed on mobile devices with touch screens. When the user's finger is on the display, tactile feedback coveys a feeling of button location and activation. We describe two implementations of the technique, using a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a pressure sensitive tablet.
Designing effective haptic interaction: inverted damping BIBAFull-Text 856-857
  Jason Williams; Georg Michelitsch
In this paper, we describe a new force-feedback technique termed "inverted damping", which aids users in manually selecting specific items from within a range of possible choices. Typically, the identity of the goal item is not known beforehand by the system. The technique therefore infers users' intentions from the type of movements carried out and increases the amount of resistance provided as the speed of the user's movements decreases. Although the technique might initially sound counter-intuitive, the results of the experiment, reported in this paper, confirm the effectiveness of this approach. We believe that this new technique is likely to have beneficial and wide-ranging applicability across a wide range of devices in everyday life.
Assessing haptic properties for data representation BIBAFull-Text 858-859
  Steven A. Wall; Stephen A. Brewster
This paper describes the results of a series of forced choice design experiments investigating the discrimination of material properties using a PHANToM haptic device. Research has shown that the PHANToM is effective at displaying graphical information to blind people, but the techniques used so far have been very simple. Our experiments showed that subjects' discrimination of friction was significantly better than that of stiffness or the spatial period of sinusoidal textures, over the range of stimuli investigated. Thus, it is proposed that graphical data could be made more easily accessible to blind users by scaling the data values to friction rather than shape or size, as in traditional bar charts.

Special interest group

Meeting the challenge of measuring return on investment for user centered development BIBAFull-Text 860-861
  Thomas M. Graefe; Susan L. Keenan; Karen C. Bowen
To demonstrate return on investment (ROI), usability organizations must measure their impact on business-wide metrics such as quality, innovation, cost, and customer satisfaction. Although much work has focused on calculating costs and benefits of specific projects, demonstrating ROI of a usability program remains a difficult task. To build a successful measurement program for ROI, a framework is needed in which value can be explored, measured, and analyzed from different perspectives. SIG attendees will explore the foundations of such a framework by exchanging information on the challenges they face as they demonstrate ROI, suggesting possible solutions and measures, and identifying important business-wide goals.
Making customer-centered design work in the real world of organizations BIBAFull-Text 862-863
  Karen Holtzblatt; Joerg Beringer
The goal of this SIG is to provide a discussion area for those interested in overcoming the challenges of introducing-and then successfully establishing-customer-centered design techniques in organizations. SIG participants will share the challenges they've faced in trying to initiate customer-centered design and share possible solutions to the challenges. After the SIG, the discussion will be moved to CHIplace, where the conversation can continue.
Challenges in teaching user interface design for telephones and cell phones BIBAFull-Text 864-865
  James A. Larson; Juan E. Gilbert; Michael McTear
Participants in this SIG will identify issues and suggest solutions for teaching user interface design for telephones and cell phones. Specifically, speech user interface development environments, implementation languages, unique problems of speech interfaces, and additional resources will be examined. Participants will include educators who teach web development, and web developers interested in developing speech applications.
Consultants' forum: successful adaptation during tough economic times BIBAFull-Text 866-867
  Carolyn Snyder; Verena Giller; Chauncey Wilson; Aaron Marcus
This SIG focuses on the challenges specific to HCI consultants, whether independent or those working in larger consultancies. Those considering an HCI consulting career are also welcome. There will be four main discussion topics: Marketing, Collaboration/Partnerships, Consultants' Knowledge Base/FAQ, and the Future of HCI Consulting.
Current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIBAFull-Text 868-869
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
This SIG is the thirteenth annual forum on human factors in information design. It addresses the usability of information, an increasingly central issue in achieving successful websites and web-enabled products and services, as well as more traditional electronic and print-based documentation. Attendees will discuss three to five methodology questions and issues (selected at the beginning of the session), volunteering research and practice experiences to share with colleagues.
eLearning SIG BIBAFull-Text 870-871
  Lisa Neal; Ken Korman
Many CHI attendees are involved in eLearning as a student, teacher, or developer of online courses or technologies. However, to date there has been insufficient focus on designing and facilitating a good learner experience. This SIG builds upon the well-attended eLearning SIGs from CHI 2001 and 2002 by examining in greater depth the issues and needs of the eLearning and HCI communities and fostering better communication and collaboration between these communities. eLearning is a Special Area for CHI 2003, and there will be an invited session on eLearning, focusing, like the SIG, on bringing the lessons from HCI to eLearning.
Design of usable multi-platform interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 872-873
  Fabio Paterno; Manfred Tscheligi
Recent years have seen the introduction of many types of computers and devices. In this SIG we want to discuss how to provide developers with tools, methods and languages able to support both the development of single interactive applications for multiple platforms and the dynamic execution of these applications in a changing environment while preserving usability. Since CHI is the most important conference on human-computer interaction, it is the most suitable place where to discuss such issues, the results achieved so far, compare them with other results obtained by other groups in the world and discuss the opportunity provided by joining efforts.
Toward a unified universal remote console standard BIBAFull-Text 874-875
  Gottfried Zimmermann; Toby Nixon; Marney Beard; Eran Sitnik; Bill LaPlant; Shari Trewin; Sharon Laskowski; Gregg Vanderheiden
Wireless communication technologies make it feasible to remotely control devices and services from virtually any mobile and stationary device. However, there is no standard available today which would allow manufacturers to define an abstracted user interface for their product whose functionality can be instantiated and presented in different ways and modalities on a wide variety of controller technologies, such as, phones, PDAs, and computers. Such a standard could also facilitate usability, natural language agents, internationalization, and accessibility. Participants in this SIG will present and discuss requirements and current activities that could contribute to the development of a 'Universal Remote Console' standard. The goal of this SIG is to gather requirements, identify related research, development, commercial, and other activities, and to initiate an ongoing effort developing a unified Universal Remote Console standard in the future.
HCI and the arts: a conflicted convergence? BIBAFull-Text 876-877
  Phoebe Sengers; Chris Csikszentmihalyi
A potential convergence is arising between HCI and the interactive arts. The goal of this SIG is to develop a conversation on the potential role of the arts in the HCI community, based on the soon-to-be released US National Academies National Computer Science and Telecommunications Board's report on Information Technology (IT) and creative practices [2]. What kinds of activities are taking place that combine serious creative artwork with HCI issues? What kinds of topics should HCI study to support interactive art? How could HCI benefit from a deep engagement with the arts, and what would such an engagement likely entail? What kinds of challenges might engagement between HCI and the arts present for the self-conception of each field? What institutions are available or should be created for interdisciplinary work between the arts and HCI? In what forums can this work be exchanged and discussed.
New tips and tricks for a better usability test BIBAFull-Text 878-879
  Rolf Molich; Chauncey E. Wilson
In this SIG, experienced usability testers will exchange tips and tricks for practical usability testing.

Interactive posters: e-learning

VirtualCase: a tool for online collaborative learning BIBAFull-Text 866-867
  Gina Cherry; Mark Alway; Daniel Parshall
In this paper we describe the design and use of a web-based tool that enables teachers to create integrated online workspaces for collaborative case-based and problem-based learning. We discuss how this tool has been used in a variety of ways other than those originally intended by the designers. We discuss our classroom-based studies of two of these uses, and describe how these studies are influencing the redesign of the tool.
Interaction patterns with a classroom feedback system: making time for feedback BIBAFull-Text 880-881
  Richard Anderson; Tammy VanDeGrift; Steven A. Wolfman; Ken Yasuhara; Ruth Anderson
In this paper, we describe two novel patterns of interaction that arose in a study of a computer-mediated feedback system for the university classroom. In both patterns, students gave feedback through the system that they would not have given aloud for lack of an appropriate moment-either because the feedback would be premature or tardy. We describe the patterns themselves and how awareness of the patterns can inform pedagogy and system-building.
Combining handhelds with a whole-class display to support the learning of scientific control BIBAFull-Text 882-883
  Tom Moher; Xun Ding; Jennifer Wiley; Syeda Hussain; Preeti Singh; Vasisht Srinivasan; Diane Conmy
Third grade students used wireless handhelds and a large shared display to discover strategies for control of variables in scientific experiments. The technology suite supported activity requirements including synchronous individual control, face-to-face discourse, and instantaneous display updates. In an empirical study, students demonstrated learning in both original and transfer domains.
Learners on the back-end: students contributing to web-based information systems BIBAFull-Text 884-885
  Gina Cherry; William Washington; Janice Fournier; Kristen Shuyler
What happens when students, instead of merely drawing from online information resources, organize and populate such resources? In this paper we discuss how collaboratively creating web-based information resources might contribute to learning. We are currently studying two communities that are creating such resources using a prototype system we've designed.
Supporting engagement in asynchronous education BIBAFull-Text 888-889
  Scott LeeTiernan; Jonathan Grudin
A key challenge for software that supports asynchronous distance education is to engage and guide students who are not interacting in real-time. We describe a first study of two approaches to adding interactive exercises to the viewing of videotaped lectures. We found individual differences, but a surprising tendency to prefer more intrusive exercises. We conclude with possible next steps.
Annotation in the wild: benefits of linking paper to digital media BIBAFull-Text 890-891
  Silvia Gabrielli; Andy Law
This work presents the design of ALT, a prototype system that supports learning activities on the move by enabling users to annotate and sketch on paper in collaboration with a remote peer. Initial observations of learners interacting with ALT during an informal learning event show that paper annotation combined with synchronous communication technology shifts learners to use annotation as a basis for discussion and more personal interpretation of the information available.
Designing an integrated review sheet for an electronic textbook BIBAFull-Text 892-893
  Neema Moraveji; Abigail Travis; Maura Bidinost; Matthew Halpern
In this paper, we present findings and design decisions arisen while designing a review sheet within the confines of a pre-existing digital textbook, AdaptiveBook. Through user studies, we found that instructors and students cited a lack of both context and integration as the major problems in current high-tech teaching and studying tools. Because research on electronic books indicates that metaphors "reduce users' cognitive load when navigating and acquiring information" [1], our design aims to address the lack of context and integration by creating an intuitive review sheet metaphor while leveraging the power of a digital medium.
Kana no senshi (kana warrior): a new interface for learning Japanese characters BIBAFull-Text 894-895
  Kristen Stubbs
This paper presents the design and testing of Kana Warrior, a new interface for basic Japanese character recognition based on a game-style user interface. Kana Warrior is a game designed to help Japanese students learn to read characters quickly. A small pilot study has been conducted with very encouraging results. These results support the idea that game-style interfaces may be of benefit to users outside of the realm of entertainment programs.

Interactive posters: emotion

PhotoPhone entertainment BIBAFull-Text 896-897
  Johan Thoresson
This paper introduces PhotoPhone Entertainment (PPE), applications for mobile and wireless devices with camera functionality, and describes a number of design examples of such applications. The applications are designed for people waiting for a few minutes at a bus stop and do all encourage some form of social interaction such as collaboration with, or competition against, other users at the bus stop.

Interactive posters: mass communication

MyInfo: a personal news interface BIBAFull-Text 898-899
  John Zimmerman; Nevenka Dimitrova; Lalitha Agnihotri; Angel Janevski; Lira Nikolovska
We present a novel interface design for MyInfo, a personal news application that processes and combines content from TV and the web. MyInfo provides personalized content selectable by topic such as weather or traffic. In addition, users can play back a personal news program as a TV show, leaving themselves free to complete tasks such as making breakfast. We detail our design process from concept generation to focus group exploration to final design. The main design challenges include (i) understanding what kinds of TV/Web applications people want, and (ii) developing an interface that fits people's lifestyles.
Breakingstory: visualizing change in online news BIBAFull-Text 900-901
  Jean Ann Fitzpatrick; James Reffell; Moryma Aydelott
BreakingStory is an interactive system for visualizing change in online news. The system regularly collects the text from the front pages of international daily news web sites. It allows users to search over the collection and view the frequency of occurrence of keywords in graphic, tabular, and full text formats. Results from the system are shown over time, and can be filtered geographically. The system was developed using a user-centered design process that included rapid prototyping and informal user testing. It provides a new way of viewing the news that incorporates a sense of history.

Interactive posters: personal media

Supporting notable information in office work BIBAFull-Text 902-903
  Christopher Campbell; Paul Maglio
This paper reports a study examining how current electronic technology (e.g., PDAs, e-mail, laptops, cellphones) and classic paper-based tools (e.g., post-its, notepads, scrap paper) are used to manage to-do lists, appointments, and other types of notable information. Many of the users interviewed report that notes need to be temporary, viewable, mobile, postable, transferable, short, easy to create and destroy. Paper-based tools are clearly preferred over electronic for managing notable information, and are used much more often. PDAs are almost never used for notable information because they lack high-resolution screens, are bulky, and require too much time to enter new information. E-mail is the most used electronic tool and is commonly given dedicated screen space so that it was always visible. Design recommendations for electronic office technology are presented.
Practices for capturing short important thoughts BIBAFull-Text 904-905
  Gillian Hayes; Jeffrey S. Pierce; Gregory D. Abowd
In this paper we describe a user study designed to understand current practices for recording and utilizing information in everyday life. We describe a subset of the results that suggest that improving on current practices will require physical and digital artifacts, flexibility, multi-modality, and ubiquity.
A sensemaking-supporting information gathering system BIBAFull-Text 906-907
  Yan Qu
This paper introduces a sensemaking-supporting information gathering system (SSIGS), which provides a workspace with features that not only facilitate information search but also the representation search and representation shift which are crucial for sensemaking tasks.
Designing to support communication on the move BIBAFull-Text 908-909
  Jacqueline Brodie
We investigated what mobile workers do when they are mobile to achieve their communication goals, using contextual interviews and ethnographically inspired observations in a variety of settings. Implications for the design of mobile technology were extracted from the raw data collected in the fieldwork using such novel design techniques as 'Day in the Life' vignettes, affinity diagrams, and consolidated artefact models from Contextual Design. Our findings are being using to generate software prototypes for supporting mobile activities.
Amigo -- wireless image based instant messaging for handheld computers BIBAFull-Text 910-911
  Helena Fabersjo; Elisabeth Windt; Ylva Wridell; Johan Sanneblad
We introduce Amigo -- an Instant Messaging (IM) client for handheld computers. Amigo allows free-form images as well as handwriting to be sent between people, taking advantage of the touch sensitive display of mobile devices. Amigo differs from other IM clients in that the text written by the user never has to be translated into ASCII data. Twenty students used Amigo for two weeks. Preliminary use results show that Amigo functions well as an IM client for handheld computers, and also introduces new ways for people to interact using IM: mixed text/image sessions, collaborative drawings and instant gaming.
What's in a barcode? informed consent and machine scannable driver licenses BIBAFull-Text 912-913
  Jennifer Hagman; Ann Hendrickson; Amanda Whitty
Drawing on theory and methods of Value Sensitive Design [2] we investigated the social and value implications of the addition of barcodes to machine scannable driver licenses. In particular, we focused on the value of informed consent, user knowledge, and understanding. Twelve Washington state driver license holders were interviewed. Results indicate that participants in this study were largely unaware of the nature of the information in the barcode, and the potential uses of such information. Moreover, with increasing knowledge, participants developed a sense of concern regarding the potential misuse of information. In our discussion, we focus on the importance of informed consent and design suggestions for machine scannable driver licenses.
Kinetic typography-based instant messaging BIBAFull-Text 914-915
  Kerry Bodine; Mathilde Pignol
Kinetic Typography, text whose appearance changes over time, is emerging as a new form of expression due to its ability to add emotional content to text. We explored the potential for kinetic typography to improve the way people communicate over the Internet using Instant Messaging (IM). Our Kinetic Instant Messenger (KIM) builds upon applications for rendering and editing kinetic typography effects and addresses several design issues that spring from integrating kinetic typography and IM.
Desktop aksi: virtual workspace concept integrating personal social communication and task management BIBAFull-Text 916-917
  Abhijit Rao
A virtual workspace assists users to organize information on the desktop better. With such an intention, a virtual workspace concept named Desktop Aksi is proposed which accommodates three important aspects of desktop management i.e., finding and reminding, task-switching and spatial proximity to personal social communication. On realization of this workspace, users will be able to bring meaning and context to their task at hand. With the help of focus+context technique based on Hyperbolic Geometry users can navigate the information space.
Mobile ADVICE: an accessible device for visually impaired capability enhancement BIBAFull-Text 918-919
  Robert Amar; Steven Dow; Richard Gordon; Muhammad Raafay Hamid; Chad Sellers
The visually impaired have limited access to the world of mobile devices. Our goal was to design a handheld mobile device to overcome limitations such as reliance on visual display and lack of audio and tactile feedback. We built a prototype handheld device using a combination of tactile feedback and auditory display based on preliminary research and testing. Our hypothesis was that this device would provide users with an interface with which they would be able to access advanced functions of a mobile device. This prototype was evaluated by both blind and sighted users. Based on both quantitative and qualitative measures, the results suggest that such a device can enhance the capabilities of visually impaired users of handheld mobile devices.

Interactive posters: computer-mediated communication

'Today' messages: lightweight group awareness via email BIBAFull-Text 920-921
  A. J. Brush; Alan Borning
'Today' messages are short daily status emails sent by members of a project team to each other. Their original purpose was to take the place of status updates at meetings. However, they had the unexpected additional effect of increasing group task awareness at very low cost. We present the results of a small study of 'today' messages and their effect on group dynamics.
PHEmail: designing a privacy honoring email system BIBAFull-Text 922-923
  David Nguyen; Khai Truong
Controlling one's personal and private information could help alleviate one of the greatest harms facing the Internet today -- the loss of attention due to the over abundance of unsolicited email (spam). If one could control the dissemination and usage of one's email address, one could eliminate spam. We introduce a privacy honoring email system that leverages the user's social network to provide access control to the user's email.
Marked for deletion: an analysis of email data BIBAFull-Text 924-925
  Laura Dabbish; Gina Venolia; JJ Cadiz
What characteristics of an email message make it more likely to be discarded? Statistical analyses of a set of deleted and non-deleted messages revealed several factors that were important in predicting the fate of a message. After controlling for the owner of the particular message, four factors turned out to be most important: history of communication with the sender (messages sent to and messages received from), intra-organizational vs. external sender, and size of the recipient group.
Reality instant messaging: injecting a dose of reality into online chat BIBAFull-Text 926-927
  Mei Chuah
Online chat technologies such as instant messaging and SMS have become extremely popular. Online chat environments, however, are missing a key ingredient that we take for granted in physical world chat -- reality. When we socialize in the physical world we are surrounded by colorful and interesting events, e.g. a sporting event, a music concert, or an interesting drama on television. These events become conversational devices that play a crucial role in driving and facilitating social interaction. The Reality Instant Messaging project injects these reality events back into online chat. In this way we enhance the reality streams by tying them to a social context, and at the same time we enhance the social environment by giving people something to talk about.
TelMeA2003: social summarization in online communities BIBAFull-Text 928-929
  Toru Takahashi; Yasuhiro Katagiri
We propose the concept of social summarization as an alternative to the content-based technology for summarization, report on its use in the community system TelMeA2003 implemented and employed to investigate techniques for social summarization, and discuss its effectiveness in supporting collaborative activities in online communities.
Leaders leading? a shift in technology adoption BIBAFull-Text 930-931
  Jonathan Grudin
In the past, most early hands-on users of interactive software in organizations were individual contributors. Managers as early adopters is a new trend with significant implications for design and use. Although managers and executives have always been involved in acquisition decisions, they generally delegated use to support staff. Only later if at all did they become hands-on users. This is changing as new generations of managers and technology come to the fore. Examples and implications are presented.

Interactive posters: input and interaction

Developing a car gesture interface for use as a secondary task BIBAFull-Text 932-933
  Micah Alpern; Katie Minardo
Existing gesture-interface research has centered on controlling the user's primary task. This paper explores the use of gestures to control secondary tasks while the user is focused on driving. Through contextual inquiry, ten iterative prototypes, and a Wizard of Oz experiment, we show that a gesture interface is a viable alternative for completing secondary tasks in the car.
Investigation of subjective preferences in multiple degrees-of-freedom inputs BIBAFull-Text 934-935
  Sriram Subramanian; Frank Dijkstra; Bernard Champoux
With the rapid proliferation of a wide range of input devices, there are many choices in designing or selecting a 6DOF input device. User perception of the devices is an important aspect of design. We complement existing literature on the influence of grip of dominant hand on performance times with our experiments on the influence of grip of non-dominant hand on perceived ease-of-use, control and fatigue. Our results show that for the non-dominant hand, the finger grip is perceived as being easy to use, less fatiguing and more controllable.
A reference model for multimodal input interpretation BIBAFull-Text 936-937
  Anurag Gupta
This paper proposes a reference model for multimodal input interpretation to understand multimodal input in multimodal interactive systems. The paper gives details of the functionality of each of the layers within the model and suggests its validity through development of multiple multimodal systems with same architecture.
Reassessing current cell phone designs: using thumb input effectively BIBAFull-Text 938-939
  Nambu Hirotaka
The physical form of cell phones has changed little from conventional landline phones. However, added features such as text input capabilities make cell phone usage very different from that of conventional phones. This paper reviews the emergence of text input on current cell phones. Then a new design optimized for text input is proposed.
Containers: a new hierarchical model for browser interfaces BIBAFull-Text 940-941
  Chad Owens
The development of a low bandwidth, high error tolerant neural browser, called the BrainBrowser, has raised new navigational issues. With this paradigm shift of two-dimensional spatial organization and navigation, one possible solution is to serialize the interface. Due to the inherent complexity of this paradigm, new methods of hierarchical spatial organization can help to relieve the sense of a labyrinthine structural organization that a user must overcome when using this method of browser navigation. This issue has created the opportunity to explore the possibility of incorporating "containers" as an additional navigational capability that will allow the resulting serial interface to be organized hierarchically. This ultimately will increase the user's navigational "sense of place" as well as minimizing the user's cognitive burden.
The benefits of physical edges in gesture-making: empirical support for an edge-based unistroke alphabet BIBAFull-Text 942-943
  Jacob Wobbrock
People with motor impairments often cannot use a keyboard or a mouse. Our previous work showed that a handheld device, connected to a PC, could be effective for computer access for some people with motor impairments. But text entry was slow, and the popular unistroke methods like Graffiti proved difficult for some people with motor control problems. We are now investigating how physical edges can provide stability for stylus gestures, and we are designing a unistroke alphabet whose letter-forms are defined along the edges of a small plastic square hole. This paper presents data on the benefits of physical edges in making gestures. It then describes EdgeWrite, a new unistroke alphabet designed to leverage physical edges for greater stability in text entry.

Interactive posters: gaze interaction

Self reflection can substitute eye contact BIBAFull-Text 944-945
  Osamu Morikawa; Ryoichi Hashimoro; Juli Yamashita
In video communication systems, gaze is an important topic and is widely being studied. Unlike other studies, displaying user's reflections on the video screen we stopped imitating the gazes during face-to-face conversation but tries to solve the problem by providing an environment that enables other expressions to substitute for the roles of gazes during conversation. The relative positioning of their self reflections among other reflections (RPAR) serves as gaze and helps smooth communication, which was experimentally verified.
AuraMirror: artistically visualizing attention BIBAFull-Text 946-947
  Alexander W. Skaburskis; Jeffrey S. Shell; Roel Vertegaal; Connor Dickie
We present AuraMirror, a system that visualizes virtual windows of attention: the commodity of visual attention people exchange during interactions in small groups. AuraMirror acts as a dynamic 'painting' that passively gathers and displays attentional data by superimposing auras over each viewer's head in a real time video mirror. This permits users to see how they distribute their attention in group interactions, and the effect of interruption on this process. Finally, we describe how AuraMirror can be extended to model attention among both participants and ubiquitous devices.
Establishing remote conversations through eye contact with physical awareness proxies BIBAFull-Text 948-949
  Baha Jabarin; James Wu; Roel Vertegaal; Lenko Grigorov
We present a mechanism for initiating mediated conversations through eye contact. An eyePHONE is a physical proxy of a remote individual that senses and conveys attention using an eye tracking device and a pair of actuated eyeballs. Users may initiate calls by jointly looking at each other's eyePHONE. We discuss how this allows participants to implement some of the basic social rules of face-to-face conversations in mediated conversations.
Just blink your eyes: a head-free gaze tracking system BIBAFull-Text 950-951
  Takehiko Ohno; Naoki Mukawa; Shinjiro Kawato
We propose a head-free, easy-setup gaze tracking system designed for a gaze-based Human-Computer Interaction. Our system enables the user to interact with the computer soon after catching the user's eye blinks. The user can move his/her head freely since the system keeps tracking the user's eye. In addition, our system only needs a 10 second calibration procedure at the very first time of use. An eye tracking method based on our unique eye blink detection and a sophisticated gaze estimation method using the geometrical eyeball model realize these advantages.
Reciprocal eye contact as an interaction technique BIBAFull-Text 952-953
  John A. Kembel
Modeled on how humans use eye contact to engage one another, the interaction technique presented here enables users to effectively engage devices in ubiquitous computing contexts. Equipping devices to reciprocate eye contact enables users to effectively address devices, infer device attention, and target control actions.

Interactive posters: tangible interfaces

Gummi: user interface for deformable computers BIBAFull-Text 954-955
  Carsten Schwesig; Ivan Poupyrev; Eijiro Mori
We show interaction possibilities and a graphical user interface for deformable, mobile devices. WIMP (windows, icons, mouse, pointer) interfaces are not practical on mobile devices. Gummi explores an alternative interaction technique based on bending of a handheld device.
Integrating hardware and software: augmented reality based prototyping method for digital products BIBAFull-Text 956-957
  Tek-Jin Nam; Woohun Lee
For digital products, the relationship between the hardware and the software is important but their integration is largely achieved in the later phase of the design process. This paper presents new prototyping methods that allow digital product designers to effectively integrate the hardware and the software of the products from the early phase of the design process. The integration is accomplished by accurately overlaying a virtual display onto a quickly made functional hardware prototype using two augmented reality techniques; 1) using a video see through HMD and 2) using video projection. The results of the preliminary evaluation suggest that the early integrated prototypes are effective for design development and user studies.
Creating an enhanced reality user interface -- ERSolitaire BIBAFull-Text 958-959
  Jim Parker; Mark Baumback
An enhanced reality user interface uses aspects of the real world and simulated computer perception to yield a simplified.
A spatially-aware tangible interface for computer-aided design BIBAFull-Text 960-961
  Lee Chia-Hsun; Ma Yu-Pin; Jeng Taysheng
This paper presents a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) platform for designers to navigate and construct 3D model intuitively through Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs). We suggest that 3D geometry can be inspected and modified in real-time through manipulating physical tokens on horizontal and vertical projected referential planes. A semi-transparent tablet as vertical display can be dynamically placed on the horizontal projected plane that triggers displaying spatially-contiguous 3D section images of the 3D CAD model. Our approach explores the spatially-aware tangible interface that couples the fragmented viewpoints with physical constraints to enhance the visual and spatial qualities of 3D representation to CAD designers.
CHI-ball, an interactive device assisting martial arts education for children BIBAFull-Text 962-963
  Heberlein Markus; Hayashi Takafumi; Nashold Sarah; Teeravarunyou Sakol
In this paper, we discuss the output of a student project about the design of a physically interactive system to assist the education of martial arts to children. The conceptual scope of the project included interactions and activities designed into a system of re-configurable devices for both of the major areas of martial arts training: form practice, and sparring. Using micro-controller-based prototyping, we developed a physical, interactive model that can simulate variations of a game designed to help teach controlled sparring between two children.
Nostalgia: an evocative tangible interface for elderly users BIBAFull-Text 964-965
  Magnus Nilsson; Sara Johansson; Maria Hakansson
Nostalgia is a prototype which users can use for listening to old news and music from the twentieth century. The design of Nostalgia is an attempt to design an artefact that in a seamless and simple way can trigger the memory of past events both individually and in the company of others. Nostalgia has been developed in collaboration with elderly people from an old people's home. A preliminary evaluation with the target group showed that Nostalgia could be an appreciated artefact in their every day lives.
Alternative "vision": a haptic and auditory assistive device BIBAFull-Text 966-967
  Daniel Morris; Neel Joshi
We have used two cameras and a SensAble Technologies "Phantom" force-feedback haptic display to haptically render a three-dimensional surface that represents key aspects of a visual scene. In addition to rendering depth and contour information with the Phantom, we capture optic flow and present this to the user using sound cues. We propose that with further development, this system could be used as an assistive device that would allow visually impaired individuals to explore the "visual" world.

Interactive posters: computers everywhere

Ubiquitous computing: by the people, for the people BIBAFull-Text 968-969
  Ali Ndiwalana; C. M. Chewar; Jacob Somervell; D. Scott McCrickard
One of the challenges in building and evaluating ubiquitous computing systems emanates from the fact that they generally have been built to showcase technological innovation without considering how to foretell whether and how people will eventually accept them in their lives. In this study, participants are introduced to the notion of ubiquitous computing via a scenario-centric presentation including basic everyday objects imbued with some computational power to convey information. Through a detailed survey, participants provide feedback relating to their impressions, rating the performance of each interface on a number of metrics and making comparisons between the ubiquitous and desktop interfaces. We inspire them to think of new ways to use existing ubiquitous interfaces to support their current and possible information needs, as well as better interfaces that can convey this information.
Analyzing usage of location based services BIBAFull-Text 970-971
  Assaf Burak; Taly Sharon
FriendZone, a suit of mobile location-based community services has been launched. FriendZone's social services include Instant Messenger and Locator (IM&L), Location-based Chat, and Anonymous IM, with supporting Privacy Management. We describe the findings of a 16 months usage survey of 40,000 users, most of them young adults. The results indicate that Anonymous IM is the most popular service, more than IM&L, with lower use of Location-based Chat that was introduced last.
A context-aware experience sampling tool BIBAFull-Text 972-973
  Stephen S. Intille; John Rondoni; Charles Kukla; Isabel Ancona; Ling Bao
A new software tool for user-interface development and assessment of ubiquitous computing applications is available for CHI researchers. The software permits researchers to use common PDA mobile computing devices for experience sampling studies. The basic tool offers options not currently available in any other open-source sampling package. However, the tool also has new functionality: context-aware experience sampling. This feature permits researchers to acquire feedback from users in particular situations that are detected by sensors connected to a mobile computing device.
iCAP: an informal tool for interactive prototyping of context-aware applications BIBAFull-Text 974-975
  Timothy Sohn; Anind Dey
iCAP is a system that assists users in prototyping context-aware applications. iCAP supports sketching for creating input and output devices, and using these devices to design interaction rules, which can be prototyped in a simulated or real context-aware environment. We were motivated to build our system by the lack of tools currently available for developing rich sensor-based applications. We iterated on the design of our system using paper prototypes and obtained feedback from fellow researchers, to develop a robust system for prototyping context-aware applications.
Ubiquitous display for dynamically changing environment BIBAFull-Text 976-977
  Yasuhisa Tokuda; Shinsuke Iwasaki; Yoichi Sato; Yasuto Nakanishi; Hideki Koike
This paper proposes a novel method for ubiquitous displays using projectors in indoor environments. In particular, our method consists of two distinct features: automatic scene modeling of a dynamically changing indoor environment, and automatic selection of surfaces onto which various contents are displayed by taking into account both geometric and photometric properties. As a result, our method can be applied to dynamically changing scenes such as a meeting room where furniture and other objects are moved frequently.
Augmenting a retail environment using steerable interactive displays BIBAFull-Text 978-979
  Noi Sukaviriya; Mark Podlaseck; Rick Kjeldsen; Anthony Levas; Gopal Pingali; Claudio Pinhanez
This paper describes a prototype retail environment in which information interactions occur in situ, within the actual space of the merchandise. By combining a steerable projected display and recognition of user gestures and actions, and user position tracking through peripheral cameras, we have developed several innovative interaction techniques designed to augment the reality of a retail store.
Total recall: in-place viewing of captured whiteboard annotations BIBAFull-Text 980-981
  Lars Erik Holmquist; Johan Sanneblad; Lalya Gaye
Total Recall introduces a new way to view captured whiteboard annotations. To digitize drawings we used a modified commercial system. However, instead of displaying the annotations on a separate computer screen, Total Recall shows the annotations at the place on the board where they were actually made. The user holds a hand-held computer to the board and moves it to reveal the desirable portion of the captured annotations. By using ultra-sonic positioning and optimized graphics, we achieve a high frame-rate (30 fps), allowing for very smooth panning and interaction. We argue that this way of viewing captured whiteboard annotations is more natural and intuitive than current desktop-based systems.
Finding objects in "strata drawer" BIBAFull-Text 982-983
  Itiro Siio; Jim Rowan; Elizabeth Mynatt
Looking for a document in a stack of papers is a difficult job. If the "strata" of the drawer contents is known, then locating will be much easier. Strata Drawer is a camera-enhanced cabinet used for storage. This cabinet has a single, deep drawer equipped with a camera, a depth-sensor and a computer. When a user places an object in the drawer and closes it, a photograph is automatically taken, and the height of the contents is measured by a laser beam. A user can browse pictures of strata in the drawer's contents, with timestamps and height information.
ShownPass: an easy access control with a displayed password BIBAFull-Text 984-985
  Yuji Ayatsuka; Michimune Kohno; Jun Rekimoto
Access control is one of the most important issue with ubiquitous networking environment. Traditional access control methods are mainly considering authentication of registered user or device. Therefore, it is troublesome to allow a visitor to use a networked resource in an office, without accessibility to other resources. We propose a new access control method using frequently changing passwords displayed beside a resource. This method can be implemented without any special hardware like a sensor.
You're in control: a urinary user interface BIBAFull-Text 986-987
  Dan Maynes-Aminzade; Hayes Raffle
The You're In Control system uses computation to enhance the act of urination. Sensors in the back of a urinal detect the position of impact of a stream of urine, enabling the user to play interactive games on a screen mounted above the urinal.
An unencumbering, localized olfactory display BIBAFull-Text 988-989
  Yasuyuki Yanagida; Haruo Noma; Nobuji Tetsutani; Akira Tomono
Olfaction is considered to be an important sensory modality in next-generation virtual reality (VR) systems. We currently focus on spatiotemporal control of odor, rather than capturing and synthesizing odor itself. If we simply diffused the odor into the atmosphere, it would be difficult to clean it away in a short time. Several olfactory displays that inject the scented air under the nose through tubes have been proposed to realize spatiotemporal control of olfaction, but they require the user to wear something on one's face. Here, we propose an unencumbering olfactory display, by conveying a clump of scented air from a certain remote place to the user's nose. To implement this concept, we used an "air cannon" that generates toroidal vortices of the scented air. We conducted a preliminary experiment to examine the possibility of this method's ability to display scent to a restricted space. The result shows that we could successfully display incense to the target user.
Attitudes towards technology use in public zones: the influence of external factors on ATM use BIBAFull-Text 990-991
  Linda Little
This study used a Grounded theory approach to find factors that influence current and future use of technological systems in public zones. Fifteen participants who were either frequent or non-frequent automated teller machine (ATM) users were interviewed. They were asked their opinions, views, feelings and any other issues that they felt were important to them when using an ATM and that effected their use. From the themes and concepts that emerged from the data a conceptual model of ATM use was constructed. The model builds on ideas from the Technology Acceptance Model but additionally postulates that external factors such as perception of privacy exert an effect on attitude to use.
Are designers ready for ubiquitous computing?: a formative study BIBAFull-Text 992-993
  Sara Ljungblad; Tobias Skog; Lalya Gaye
Ubiquitous computing is increasingly becoming reality, even for people outside of research. A group that will have to face the challenges of this new technology is product and industrial designers. To get a designer's view of ubiquitous computing, we demonstrated the Smart-Its ubiquitous computing prototyping platform to 16 product designers and collected their impressions during a workshop. Our results show that the way designers approach technology differs from that of researchers, which indicates the need for more comprehensive workshops.
Discovery point: enhancing the museum experience with technology BIBAFull-Text 994-995
  Marianne Berkovich; Jenna Date; Rachael Keeler; Marti Louw; Maureen O' Toole
The Discovery Point prototype allows art museum visitors to hear stories about a work of art without burdening them with lengthy commentary. It is simple and compact; it has only four buttons and can be worn around the neck. It is a nearly invisible addition to the museum experience, but one that fills the need to deliver the right amount of information to visitors. To develop this concept, we observed and interviewed visitors, constructed a prototype, and then evaluated that prototype through two rounds of user tests at the museum.
Hands on cooking: towards an attentive kitchen BIBAFull-Text 996-997
  Jeremy S. Bradbury; Jeffrey S. Shell; Craig B. Knowles
To make human computer interaction more transparent, different modes of communication need to be explored. We present eyeCOOK, a multimodal attentive cookbook to help a non-expert computer user cook a meal. The user communicates using eye-gaze and speech commands, and eyeCOOK responds visually and/or verbally, promoting communication through natural human input channels without physically encumbering the user. Our goal is to improve productivity and user satisfaction without creating additional requirements for user attention. We describe how the user interacts with the eyeCOOK prototype and the role of this system in an Attentive Kitchen.
Preferences for unfavorable external representations in interaction with ATMs and multimedia BIBAFull-Text 998-999
  Martin Bergling
Security codes accompany almost every new multimedia device. The codes are commonly represented in the form of symbolic numbers. The relative usefulness of symbolic and visuo-spatial representations of codes was investigated, using ATM-codes as an enlightening example. Visuo-spatial representations lead to higher performance on an immediate recall test. This suggests that explicit visuo-spatial representations in multimedia design may enhance usability. In spite of these results people showed preferences for the more frequently used numerical representations.
The toilet entertainment system BIBAFull-Text 1000-1001
  Par Stenberg; Johan Thoresson
A toilet is not only a place where people answer calls of nature. It is also a place for contemplation and reflection -- and a place where people read information. But bringing things to read into a public toilet is not always socially accepted and it might be embarrassing to be discovered. We have chosen to address this problem by printing information such as news directly onto the disposable toilet paper. The project described here is an attempt to question the nat-uralness of having ubiquitous computers, cause reflections concerning what kind of problems ubiquitous computing really are solving and to indicate that there might be places where computation is not desirable.
Intuitive visualizations for presence and recency information for ambient displays BIBAFull-Text 1002-1003
  Jaroslav Tyman; Elaine M. Huang
The Semi-Public Displays project utilizes public displays to assist in the interactions of small groups. This paper describes a set of visualizations for presence information of group members designed for the displays. Here we show that visual mappings of such information can be intuitive. Through our interviews, we also identify data usage, data ambiguity, and data recording as issues influencing how comfortable participants were with privacy in relation to semi-public displays of such information.

Interactive posters: intelligent interfaces

The impact of automated assistance on the information retrieval process BIBAFull-Text 1004-1005
  Bernard J. Jansen; George K. Kroner
Advanced information retrieval systems providing automated assistance offer the opportunity to greatly enhance the effectiveness of the information retrieval process. One issue in designing such systems is determining the effect that the automated assistance has on the tasks and sequence of tasks within this process. Using verbal protocol data and transaction log analysis, we present a taxonomy of tasks when utilizing information retrieval systems with automated assistance, along with a temporal analysis of when interaction with the automated assistance occurs. Results indicate that there is a predictable pattern of user interaction with automated assistance with implications for the design of information retrieval systems.
The role of context in question answering systems BIBAFull-Text 1006-1007
  Jimmy Lin; Dennis Quan; Vineet Sinha; Karun Bakshi; David Huynh; Boris Katz; David R. Karger
Despite recent advances in natural language question answering technology, the problem of designing effective user interfaces has been largely unexplored. We conducted a user study to investigate the problem and discovered that overall, users prefer a paragraph-sized chunk of text over just an exact phrase as the answer to their questions. Furthermore, users generally prefer answers embedded in context, regardless of the perceived reliability of the source documents. When users research a topic, increasing the amount of text returned to users significantly decreases the number of queries that they pose to the system, suggesting that users utilize supporting text to answer related questions. We believe that these results can serve to guide future developments in question answering user interfaces.
Robotic wheelchair looking at all people BIBAFull-Text 1008-1009
  Yoshinori Kuno; Akio Nakamura
Although several robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed recently, they consider friendliness only to their users. Machines like wheelchairs interact various people other than their users. They must consider friendliness to all these people. This paper presents a robotic wheelchair that cares for all relevant people: users, pedestrians, and caregivers, by looking at these people. It looks at the user's face, observing its direction. The user can turn it by looking in his/her desired direction. It looks at pedestrians and changes the way of avoidance against them depending on whether or not their noticing it. In addition, it looks at the caregiver when he/she is with it and keeps moving with him/her.
Usability and CMMI: does a higher maturity level in product development mean better usability? BIBAFull-Text 1010-1011
  Timo Jokela; Tuomo Lalli
The new process improvement model, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is analytically examined from the point of view of usability. The results show that a development organization even at the high levels of maturity may produce products with usability problems. The challenge for the field of HCI is to develop universal usability measures for the high maturity levels of CMMI.

Interactive posters: supporting design

Take it to the next stage: the roles of role playing in the design process BIBAFull-Text 1012-1013
  Kristian T. Simsarian
Using role play at every stage of the design process has been a vital tool for IDEO in working with clients and users. With the dual properties of bringing participants into the moment and making shared activities physical rather than just mental, role playing techniques make the process more experiential and creatively generative. Role playing is complimentary to traditional design techniques providing additional team dynamics and insights that bring the process and designs to another level. This paper describes how we have used role-playing in our design process and how it can be integrated into any HCI project.
Design concept to promote both reflective and experimental cognition for creative design work BIBAFull-Text 1014-1015
  Shun'ichi Tano
We discuss the disadvantages of the current design support systems that arise from a poor understanding of the human-cognitive characteristics, such as the reflective and experimental modes, and the selection of a suitable media for use in the creative design process. Then we demonstrate the current prototype system called "Godzilla" that supports the creative design especially for the car exterior designer. The designers can draw the concept image on a 2D pad (tablet with an LCD). When they grasp it and put it in midair, the shape of the 2D sketch is automatically recognized and appears as 3D sketch on a 3D pad (stereovision TV). They can sketch, modify, and observe from different viewpoints in both 2D and 3D. Note that 3D images are not displayed as a beautiful CG image, but a 3D sketch that consists of many 3D-cursive lines produced by mimicking the designer's pen touch in order to keep the designers in the reflective cognitive mode and to provide them with rich stimuli for their creative activities.
An hour in the life: towards requirements for modelling multiple task work BIBAFull-Text 1016-1017
  Peter J. Wild; Peter Johnson; Hilary Johnson
It is accepted that changes in technology, work practices and the general socio-economic environment affect the way we plan and perform tasks. Support, opportunity and pressure for people to 'multitask' has increased. We cannot assume that because an IT is designed well for a single-user single-task perspective, that it will effectively support multitasking. Some work has been undertaken into understanding these phenomena in a HCI context, but with little permeation into mainstream HCI methods. This paper provides an interim report into work into multiple task phenomena within the Task Knowledge Structures task analysis approach.
Evaluating a sketch environment for novice programmers BIBAFull-Text 1018-1019
  Beryl Plimmer; Mark Apperley
This paper describes the evaluation of an electronic sketch interface design tool for novice programmers. A comparative study was undertaken with small groups using two different shared space environments; a conventional informal design environment and the pen based digital whiteboard. The students reacted positively to the electronic environment, where they worked informally with their design ideas and checked them more carefully.
Administrative assistants as interruption mediators BIBAFull-Text 1020-1021
  Laura A. Dabbish; Ryan S. Baker
When designing automated systems that make decisions about when to allow or deny interruptions, the methods of professional interruption mediators are an important source of information. Administrative assistants are, by the nature of their jobs, expert interruption mediators. They make decisions every day about whether to allow interruptions to the person they support. We have conducted a series of interviews with administrative assistants whose ability has been publicly recognized. Based on their responses, we present a production-rule model of the decision process they use when deciding whether to deliver interruptions to the person they support.
Dating example for information architecture BIBAFull-Text 1022-1023
  Ray Henderson; TaRan Wilson; Miyuki Shimbo
This paper provides the documented explanations of our submitted poster to CHI 2003 about the process of Information Architecture (IA). The general theme of CHI 2003 was to deliver an innovative way of presenting IA in order to better the IA community through a given theme or use of a metaphor. Our poster, IA Dating Example for Information Architecture, explains how IA is related to everyone's daily lives. In this document, we describe the similarities of IA in the web field and in dating in each step of the IA process.
Emotional expressiveness in visual-sonic integration: a framework for multimedia design BIBAFull-Text 1024-1025
  Kritsachai Somsaman
A review of studies from psychology, music and cognitive science suggests that emotional expressiveness from the perception of visual and sonic information is comprised of two dimensions -- valence and activation. These two dimensions can be used as a framework to guide design for emotional expressiveness in multimedia. This paper discusses the formation of this theoretically derived framework.
Dynamic viewpoint tethering: enhancing control performance in virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 1026-1027
  Wenbi Wang
In this study, we focus on investigating users' navigational performance with respect to the display frame of reference. Dynamic viewpoint tethering is proposed as a means to increase user control and reduce the need for mental rotations, thus facilitating the acquisition of configurational knowledge about the virtual space. The concept of dynamic viewpoint tethering is explained and recent research findings are presented. Twelve volunteers participated in an experiment in which they were instructed to control an aircraft-shaped cursor flying through a set of virtual tunnels and to answer questions about the environment. Experimental results showed that neither the loose dynamic tether nor the rigid tether supported the best control performance. Rather, optimal tether configuration lies at the centre of the rigidity continuum. The research results provide useful guidelines for the design of navigational system interfaces.
You're getting warmer!: how proximity information affects search behavior in physical spaces BIBAFull-Text 1028-1029
  Leila Takayama; Lawrence Leung; Xiaodong Jiang; Jason I. Hong
This paper describes the results of a Wizard of Oz study of people's search behavior using BuddySystem, a proximity-sensing system designed to help end-users locate people, places, and things. BuddySystem uses distance estimation based on signal strength alone, since direction is difficult to obtain in ad-hoc radio-based systems. Overall findings indicate that the BuddySystem changed people's search behavior to reduce walking area, but may increase search times if the system demands too much of the user's attention, suggesting that reducing distractions and adjusting search strategies could improve search effectiveness of proximity-based tracking systems in physical spaces.
Paper or interactive?: a study of prototyping techniques for ubiquitous computing environments BIBAFull-Text 1030-1031
  Linchuan Liu; Peter Khooshabeh
We studied the effects of varying the fidelity and automation levels of a Ubicomp application prototype. Our results show that the interactive prototype captured the same usability issues that the paper prototype studies did and more. We found that paper prototyping is insufficient for supporting unique Ubicomp requirements, such as scalability, but a prototype with higher fidelity and automation levels can enhance the quality of interaction data available for evaluation.
Framework for evaluating application adaptivity BIBAFull-Text 1032-1033
  Marika Tahti
In the future, ubiquitous applications, services and environments will need adaptivity and context awareness in order to adapt to their users' requirements and needs. Before these kinds of applications can be developed, we need to know when adaptivity is at an adequate level. This article introduces a framework (dimensions and degrees) for evaluating application adaptivity, showing how it can be used when evaluating commercial applications.
Location learning in Chinese versus English menu selection BIBAFull-Text 1034-1035
  Kin Pou Lie
The orthography of Chinese is remarkably different from that of English. Does it have implications for human-computer interaction? This paper presents an empirical study in which location learning of Chinese menu items and location learning of English menu items were compared. Participants using a Chinese menu learned the locations of menu items to a less extent, compared with participants using an equivalent English menu.
A contextual inquiry of expert programmers in an event-based programming environment BIBAFull-Text 1036-1037
  Andrew Jensen Ko
Event-based programming has been studied little, yet recent work suggests that language paradigm can predict programming strategies and performance. A contextual inquiry of four expert programmers using the Alice 3D programming environment was performed in order to discover how event-based programming strategies might be supported in programming environments. Various programming, testing, and debugging breakdowns were extracted from observations and possible programming environment tools are suggested as aids to avoid these breakdowns. Future analyses and studies are described.
Interface design for metadata creation BIBAFull-Text 1038-1039
  Abe Crystal
The rapid growth of the Web has increased the importance of decentralized metadata creation. Resource authors must create their own metadata to enable enhanced information seeking and retrieval, and they need effective interfaces to support their work. This paper reports a baseline study of author interactions with a metadata system and draws implications for the design of future interfaces.

Workshops

Designing personalized user experiences for eCommerce: theory, methods, and research BIBAFull-Text 1040-1041
  Clare-Marie Karat; Jan Blom; John Karat
The present workshop aims to form a community of individuals interested in exploring the user implications of personalized eCommerce applications. People working in industry, academia, and government are welcomed to participate. The aim of the two-day workshop is to access the current state of theory, methods, and research in this area and to create a theoretical framework on personalization of the user experience in eCommerce to help identify critical questions and guide future research.
Designing for learning BIBKFull-Text 1042-1043
  Susanne Jul; Chris Quintana
Keywords: design, design guidelines, design problem analysis, design theory, learning
Perspectives on HCI patterns: concepts and tools BIBAFull-Text 1044-1045
  Sally Fincher; Janet Finlay; Sharon Greene; Lauretta Jones; Paul Matchen; John Thomas; Pedro J. Molina
This workshop will explore a diversity of perspectives on Patterns and Patterns Languages for HCI as well as the requirements for software tools needed to improve the effectiveness of both pattern creation and pattern use. Through discussion of conceptual and methodological issues of why (and how) patterns are identified and in what circumstances they are useful in the design process we hope to map out the conceptual landscape of HCI patterns. By moving closer and examining pattern-related behavior and experiences we hope to identify the requirements for tools to make progress through that landscape.
Scenarios in practice BIBAFull-Text 1046-1047
  John Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson; Paul McInerney
This one-day workshop focuses on how scenarios are being used in industrial projects effectively and efficiently. The scope includes the overlapping concerns of: (1) deployment (2) method integration (3) craft and quality, and (4) tailing to various project contexts.
Perspectives on end user development BIBAFull-Text 1048-1049
  Henry Lieberman; Fabio Paterno; Alexander Repenning; Volker Wulf
The goal of the workshop is to bring about a coherent research agenda in the field of end user development. We seek contributors concerned with: adaptability, adaptivity, tailoring of system functionality and user interfaces, the use of annotations for individuals and user groups, and use of effective visual and multimedia representations.
Humor modeling in the interface BIBAFull-Text 1050-1051
  Anton Nijholt; Oliviero Stock; Alan Dix; John Morkes
Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science humor research aims at modeling humor in a computationally tractable way. Having computational models of humor allows interface designers to have the computer generate and interpret humor when interacting with users. In different studies it has been shown that humans respond in the same way to computers as they do to persons with respect to psychosocial phenomena such as personality, politeness, flattery, and in-group favoritism. Making use of this paradigm we may investigate a similar role to be played in human-computer interaction for various types of humor use and we can see whether the regulating and social-psychological aspects of humor can play positive roles in human-computer interaction.
Best practices and future visions for search user interfaces: a workshop BIBAFull-Text 1052-1053
  Misha W. Vaughan; Helmut Degen; Marc Resnick; Peter Gremett
This one-day workshop will create a roadmap of current best practices and future needs for search user interface design. It will provide an interactive forum for participants to actively discuss submitted papers, industry trends, and gaps in our knowledge. Participants will come away with new research findings, key contacts, and identified opportunities for research. Participants will be both practitioners and academics to balance the discussion between theory and application.
Supporting intercultural computer-mediated discourse: methods, models, and architectures BIBAFull-Text 1054-1055
  Fahri Yetim; Elaine M. Raybourn
We use the term "intercultural" instead of "cultural" to emphasis the dialogical relationship of at least two participants from different cultures in computer-mediated communication and cooperation contexts. Supporting intercultural computer-mediated communication (I-CMC) requires, on the one hand, the understanding of both enabling and constraining aspects (barriers) of such a dialogical situations, and calls for, on the other hand, new ideas for tools, architectures, etc., which may support, promote or enable computer-mediated intercultural communication and cooperation. This workshop explores the challenges in the intercultural computer-mediated communication and cooperation environments and will provide a platform for discussing empirical insights into the intercultural communication barriers and practical and theoretical works for new designs, tools and architectures that aims at overcoming them and enabling computer-mediated intercultural communication and cooperation.
HCI and security systems BIBAFull-Text 1056-1057
  Andrew S. Patrick; A. Chris Long; Scott Flinn
This workshop will seek to understand the roles and demands placed on users of security systems, and explore design solutions that can assist in making security systems usable and effective. In addition to examining end-users, this workshop will also examine the issues faced by security system developers and operators. The goal of the workshop is to build a network of interested people, share research activities and results, discuss high priority areas for research and development, and explore opportunities for collaboration.
Principles for multimodal user interface design BIBAFull-Text 1058-1059
  James A. Larson; Sharon Oviatt
The goal of this workshop is to identify ten guiding principles for designing multimodal user interfaces. Researchers will use these principles to identify topics requiring further research. Practitioners will use these principles to generate guidelines for designing multimodal user interfaces.
Comparative expert reviews BIBAFull-Text 1060-1061
  Rolf Molich; Robin Jeffries
In this workshop we will try to obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the expert review and heuristic inspection methods. We will do this by comparing results of independent expert reviews, heuristic inspections and usability tests of the same state-of-the-art website carried out by participating expert usability professionals.
Designing culturally situated technologies for the home BIBAFull-Text 1062-1063
  Genevieve Bell; Mark Blythe; Bill Gaver; Phoebe Sengers; Peter Wright
As digital technologies proliferate in the home, the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) community has turned its attention from the workplace and productivity tools towards domestic design environments and non-utilitarian activities. In the workplace, applications tend to focus on productivity and efficiency and involve relatively well-understood requirements and methodologies, but in domestic design environments we are faced with the need to support new classes of activities. While usability is still central to the field, HCI is beginning to address considerations such as pleasure, fun, emotional effect, aesthetics, the experience of use, and the social and cultural impacts of new technologies. These considerations are particularly relevant to the home, where technologies are situated or embedded within an ecology that is rich with meaning and nuance. The aim of this workshop is to explore ways of designing domestic technology by incorporating an awareness of cultural context, accrued social meanings, and user experience.
Subtle expressivity for characters and robots BIBAFull-Text 1064-1065
  Noriko Suzuki; Christoph Bartneck
People, both consciously and unconsciously, use subtle expressions to indirectly communicate their emotions and intentions through variations of the gaze direction, voice tone and gesture speed. People also perceive changes in the internal states of others from subtle changes in their expressivities while interacting with them. Subtle expressivity plays the supporting part to the leading role of explicit expressivity, such as contents of speech or category of facial expressions. However, subtle expressivity plays an important role to give moderate effects or gently regulate the relationship among the participants through a continuous interaction. These subtle expressivities are little focused on the design of interactive media in the context of software products and computers. Only in the area of computer games in which pre-designed animated characters are used, the full potential of subtle expressivity is fully understood and used. Although the general interest of the human-computer interaction research community in life-likeness and personality as a goal of software design is growing for reducing cognitive load [1,2], we are far from having coherent understanding of what subtle expressivity actually is and how products and processes can address it. We might question whether designing for subtle expressivity will result in gentle emotional effects on people and whether the processes and topics involved differ in any significant way from designing for believability or personality.
Providing elegant peripheral awareness BIBAFull-Text 1066-1067
  JJ Cadiz; Mary Czerwinski; Scott McCrickard; John Stasko
In a one-day workshop, we strive to build community in this emerging research area, specifically targeting interfaces that are designed to provide awareness in a peripheral and elegant manner. We focus on improving consensus of basic and fundamental issues and developing a structural framework -- critical parameters, design themes, and evaluation procedures -- for research on these types of user interfaces.
System administrators are users, too: designing workspaces for managing internet-scale systems BIBAFull-Text 1068-1069
  Rob Barrett; Yen-Yang Michael Chen; Paul P. Maglio
The people who run large-scale computer systems deserve the attention of the HCI community. These professionals work with increasingly diverse and complex hardware and software, large systems often characterized as "unknowable" by a single person. Relying on relatively crude tools, these professionals keep the technological world running. By improving the system administration work environment, the cost of computing and risk of downtime will be decreased while the deployment of complex, beneficial systems will increase. This one-day workshop will focus on the HCI problems of system administrators, specifically management of scale and diversity, problem solving, and system monitoring and notification. Our goal is to bring together (1) HCI researchers, (2) middleware user interface software developers, and (3) real-world system administrators to form a cross-disciplinary community around this topic.