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CHI Tables of Contents: 06-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems
Editors:Desney Tan; Saleema Amershi; Bo Begole; Wendy A. Kellogg; Manas Tungare
Location:Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Dates:2011-May-07 to 2011-May-12
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-4503-0268-8, 978-1-4503-0268-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI11-2
Papers:402
Pages:2456
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2011-05-07 Volume 2
    1. Workshops
    2. SIG
    3. Panel
    4. alt.chi: emotions, ethics, and civics
    5. Health 1: technology challenges
    6. Research methods
    7. Sex & Bodies
    8. SIG
    9. Panel
    10. Gestures
    11. Meetings & interaction spaces
    12. Facebook
    13. SIG
    14. Panel
    15. alt.chi: playing well with others
    16. Human-Robot Interaction
    17. Interactivity 1
    18. Interactivity 2
    19. Interactivity 1
    20. Interactivity 2
    21. SIG
    22. Panel
    23. SIG
    24. Human-Robot Interaction
    25. alt.chi: ... and I just can't take it anymore!
    26. SIG
    27. Panel
    28. SIG
    29. Panel
    30. SIG
    31. Panel
    32. Evaluation and/or design based on many users
    33. Video night presentations
    34. SIG
    35. Panel
    36. alt.chi: look! up in the sky!
    37. Learning
    38. Time/animations
    39. SIG
    40. Panel
    41. Home automation
    42. Sustainability 1
    43. New approaches to usability
    44. Panel
    45. Decision making & the web
    46. Sustainability 2
    47. Text entry & typing
    48. SIG
    49. Panel
    50. Innovation & design
    51. SIG
    52. Panel
    53. Tabletop synchronous collaboration
    54. alt.chi: is there a designer in the house?
    55. Empowering users in developing regions
    56. SIG
    57. Panel
    58. Reading & writing
    59. Software development & product support
    60. SIG
    61. Student research competition
    62. Student design competition
    63. Doctoral consortium
    64. Interactivity 2
    65. Interactivity special performances
    66. Interactivity 2
    67. Interactivity special performances
    68. Interactivity 2
    69. Interactivity 1
    70. Interactivity 2
    71. Interactivity 1
    72. Works-in-progress
    73. Video night presentations
    74. Interactivity special performances
    75. Workshops

CHI 2011-05-07 Volume 2

Workshops

Feminism and interaction design BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Shaowen Bardzell; Elizabeth Churchill; Jeffrey Bardzell; Jodi Forlizzi; Rebecca Grinter; Deborah Tatar
This workshop is aimed at exploring the issues at the intersection of feminist thinking and human computer interaction. Both feminism and HCI have made important contributions to social science in the past several decades, but though their potential for overlap seem high, they have not engaged each other directly until recently. In this workshop we will explore diverse -- and contentious -- ways that feminist perspectives can support user research, design ideation and problem framing, sketching and prototyping, and design criticism and evaluation. The workshop will include fast-moving mini-panels and hands-on group exercises emphasizing feminist interaction criticism and design ideation.
Workshop on embodied interaction: theory and practice in HCI BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Alissa N. Antle; Paul Marshall; Elise van den Hoven
For over ten years researchers in human-computer interaction (HCI) have explored an embodied perspective that seeks to describe and explain the fundamental role played by the physical body in how we experience, interact with and understand computation in the world we live in. Recently, such a perspective has been used to discuss human actions and interactions with a range of computational applications including tangibles, mobiles, wearables, tabletops and interactive environments. This workshop aims to enable participants to critically explore the different approaches to incorporating an embodied perspective in HCI research, and to develop a shared set of understandings and identification of differences, similarities and synergies between our research approaches.
Everyday practice and sustainable HCI: understanding and learning from cultures of (un)sustainability BIBAFull-Text 9-12
  James Pierce; Hronn Brynjarsdottir; Phoebe Sengers; Yolande Strengers
Within the CHI community we have witnessed a broadening of concerns to include various everyday contexts such as the domestic, rural and urban, as well as diverse, underrepresented, and marginalized communities. Such everyday contexts have also emerged as key areas of focus for sustainable HCI. Not only is everyday life a critical area in which material resources are exchanged, transformed, consumed and disposed, but everyday life is a site for the formation of values, attitudes, routines and habits. This workshop will bring together individuals interested in everyday practice as both a critical site and a critical lens for sustainable HCI research and professional practice. The focus of the workshop is exploring and investigating how descriptions and theories of everyday practice can be employed in order to critically and creatively rethink how HCI frames research and design issues of sustainability -- both collectively as a field and individually in participants' own work.
PINC: persuasion, influence, nudge & coercion through mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  Parisa Eslambolchilar; Max Wilson; Ian Oakley; Anind Dey
This workshop will provide a focal point for research and technology dedicated to supporting behaviour change through Persuasion, Influence, Nudge and Coercion (PINC). A particular focus is on pervasive and mobile technologies and the unique opportunities they present in this domain (e.g. in terms of data-capture and timely intervention). Although much isolated research takes place tackling particular aspects of this problem space (e.g. persuasion), this workshop will be the first venue to provide a forum that discusses meta-issues that apply to behaviour change and pervasive technology, irrespective of how it is achieved. These issues include: (a) What novel opportunities do pervasive technologies provide? (b) When is the appropriate time to begin, reduce or end intervention? (c) Are PINC methods ethical? and (d) How can we extend the scale of intervention?Participants are invited to contribute to the workshop with examples of PINC technologies, and the event will focus on mapping the conceptual space, creating novel ideas and interactive applications and discussing future opportunities. Ultimately, the workshop aspires to establish a community dedicated to this topic.
Social game studies at CHI 2011 BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Ben Kirman; Staffan Björk; Sebastian Deterding; Janne Paavilainen; Valentina Rao
"Social games", defined as games played and distributed on Social Networks, have become a digital gaming phenomenon. The most popular games boast tens of millions of users each month, employing simple mechanics to reach a vast new audience that was apparently under-served by traditional digital games. Their enormous success raises important academic questions about game design, interface design, psychology and the social power of online networks. Social Game Studies at CHI 2011 is a one-day workshop at CHI 2011 that will bring together the CHI community with an inter-disciplinary mix of researchers and practitioners to share findings and explore the issues surrounding this emerging area of research into social games, and highlight the key questions, opportunities and challenges for future academic study.
Mobile and personal projection (MP2) BIBAFull-Text 21-23
  Raimund Dachselt; Matt Jones; Jonna Häkkilä; Markus Löchtefeld; Michael Rohs; Enrico Rukzio
The emergence of mobile and personal projection devices promises new ways to display and interact with content while the user is mobile, and offer new opportunities and challenges for HCI. This workshop aims to formulate fundamental research questions around this emerging field and provides a venue for discussion for researchers and practitioners working in this area. We will focus on new interaction techniques, applications, personal projection devices, interaction design, multi-user aspects, multi-modal user interfaces and social implications. Our aim is to foster the evolution of a mobile and personal projection community.
Data collection by the people, for the people BIBAFull-Text 25-28
  Christine Robson; Sean Kandel; Jeffrey Heer; Jeffrey Pierce
Data Collection by the People, for the People is a CHI 2011 workshop to explore data from the crowd, bringing together mobile crowdsourcing & participatory urbanism researchers with data analysis and visualization researchers. The workshop is two-day event beginning with day of field work in the city of Vancouver, trying out mobile crowdsourcing applications and data analysis tools. Participants are encouraged to contribute applications and tools which they wish to share. Our goal is to provoke discussion and brainstorming, enabling both data collection researchers and data manipulation/analysis researchers to benefit from mutually learned lessons about crowdsourced data.
Managing user experience teams: lessons from case studies, establishing best practices BIBAFull-Text 29-31
  Janice Rohn; Dennis Wixon
This workshop focuses on managing cross-disciplinary user experience teams to achieve product and corporate success. The workshop brings together a diverse group of leaders in order to create a set of case studies to illuminate challenges and success factors. Emphasis is placed on cross-disciplinary teams, corporate culture and environment, organizational structure, and international considerations. The goal of the workshop is to develop a set of contingent, specific, and applicable guidelines for managing user experience teams in a variety of circumstances based on case studies.
Analytic provenance: process+interaction+insight BIBAFull-Text 33-36
  Chris North; Remco Chang; Alex Endert; Wenwen Dou; Richard May; Bill Pike; Glenn Fink
Visual analytics is the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. One key aspect that separates visual analytics from other related fields (InfoVis, SciVis, HCI) is the focus on analytical reasoning. While the final products generated at from an analytical process are of great value, research has shown that the processes of the analysis themselves are just as important if not more so. These processes not only contain information on individual insights discovered, but also how the users arrive at these insights. This area of research that focuses on understanding a user's reasoning process through the study of their interactions with a visualization is called Analytic Provenance, and has demonstrated great potential in becoming a foundation of the science of visual analytics. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from academia, national labs, and industry to share methods for capturing, storing, and reusing user interactions and insights. We aim to develop a research agenda for how to better study analytic provenance and utilize the results in assisting users in solving real world problems.
Appropriation and creative use: linking user studies and design BIBAFull-Text 37-40
  Antti Salovaara; Kristina Höök; Keith Cheverst; Michael Twidale; Matthew Chalmers; Corina Sas
Appropriation refers to the ways that technologies are ÿadapted and repurposed to new purposes of use by individuals, groups or communities. This workshop brings together researchers interested in appropriation from CSCW and design. Until now, these communities have been working separately, despite their converging interests. The workshop is based on roundtable discussions that bring the participants' qualitative observations and theoretical viewpoints in contact with practical design efforts that support user creativity and appropriation.
Dynamic accessibility: accommodating differences in ability and situation BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Amy Hurst; Krzysztof Gajos; Leah Findlater; Jacob Wobbrock; Andrew Sears; Shari Trewin
Human abilities and situations are idiosyncratic and may change frequently. Static one-size-fits-many accessibility solutions miss the opportunities that arise from careful consideration of an individual's abilities and fail to address the sometimes dynamic aspect of those abilities, such as when a user's activity or context causes a "situational impairment." The goal of this workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners in accessibility, mobile HCI, and interactive intelligent systems who are pursuing agile, data-driven approaches that enable interactive systems to adapt or become adapted to the needs and abilities of a particular individual in a particular context.
The user in flux: bringing HCI and digital arts together to interrogate shifting roles in interactive media BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Tuck W. Leong; Lalya Gaye; Atau Tanaka; Robyn Taylor; Peter C. Wright
With the advent of interactive digital media, people are no longer simply 'users'. They actively shift between various roles: author, collaborator, and even performer. We coin the term "user in flux" to problematize static definitions of "the user" and highlight how people's roles and practices switch and evolve when engaged in such interactions. Drawing from participatory practices and seeking inspiration from interactive artists, this workshop explores the "user in flux" with an aim to establish directions and approaches that can revitalize the HCI community's understanding of the user and inform the design of technologies used for interacting with digital media, and promote a new research agenda.
Performative interaction in public space BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  Lone Koefoed Hansen; Julie Rico; Giulio Jacucci; Stephen Brewster; Daniel Ashbrook
Building on the assumption that every human action in public space has a performative aspect, this workshop seeks to explore issues of interactions with technology in public settings. More and more interfaces are used in public on an everyday basis. Simultaneously, metaphors from performance and theatre studies find their way into research on these interfaces, addressing how interaction with technology can be understood in a performative sense. However, the term 'performativity' is rarely addressed in ways that accentuate its nuances and its analytic power, and this is the focus of the workshop. We will examine the design of performative technologies, the evaluation of user experience, the importance of spectator and performer roles, and the social acceptability of performative actions in public spaces.
Crowdsourcing and human computation: systems, studies and platforms BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Michael Bernstein; Ed H. Chi; Lydia Chilton; Björn Hartmann; Aniket Kittur; Robert C. Miller
Crowdsourcing and human computation are transforming human-computer interaction, and CHI has led the way. The seminal publication in human computation was initially published in CHI in 2004 [1], and the first paper investigating Mechanical Turk as a user study platform has amassed over one hundred citations in two years [5]. However, we are just beginning to stake out a coherent research agenda for the field. This workshop will bring together researchers in the young field of crowdsourcing and human computation and produce three artifacts: a research agenda for the field, a vision for ideal crowdsourcing platforms, and a group-edited bibliography. These resources will be publically disseminated on the web and evolved and maintained by the community.
Bridging practices, theories, and technologies to support reminiscence BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Dan Cosley; Maurice Mulvenna; Victoria Schwanda; S. Tejaswi Peesapati; Terence Wright
Reminiscence is a valuable human activity; this one-day workshop explores how HCI practice and research can understand and support people in their reminiscing. The workshop has two main goals. First, it hopes to bring together academics and practitioners from both social and technical perspectives who are interested in studying and supporting reminiscence. Second, it hopes to explore key issues around current and potential uses of technology to support reminiscence, including 1) understanding people's current practices around reminiscing, 2) using empirical studies and theories of memory to inform technology designs, 3) evaluating existing technologies for reminiscence, 4) exploring ways that technology might support new reminiscing practices, and 5) supporting social aspects of reminiscence. We are particularly interested in bringing people from outside the CHI community into the workshop to add new perspectives and foster new collaborations around the work. A series of discussion-focused panels organized around the key topics identified by participants will lead to thoughtful examinations of these topics informed by multiple viewpoints. Our tangible planned outputs will be a set of recommendations for further research in this area and an outline plan for grant and book proposals at the intersection of reminiscing and technology.
Transnational HCI: humans, computers, and interactions in transnational contexts BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Janet Vertesi; Silvia Lindtner; Irina Shklovski
This workshop will consider the implications for conducting research and technology design within and across global and networked sites of technology production and use. In particular, we focus on transnational practices: that is, seeing technology use beyond a single country or culture, but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope to broaden the conversation around the impact of technology in global processes by bringing together scholars from HCI and from related humanities, media arts and social sciences disciplines.
Brain and body interfaces: designing for meaningful interaction BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  Stephen H. Fairclough; Kiel Gilleade; Lennart E. Nacke; Regan L. Mandryk
The brain and body provide a wealth of information about the physiological, cognitive and emotional state of the user. There is increased opportunity to use these data in computerised systems as forms of input control. As entry level physiological sensors become more widespread, physiological interfaces are liable to become more pervasive in our society (e.g., through mobile phones). While these signals offer new and exciting mechanisms for the control of interactive systems, the issue of whether these physiological interfaces are appropriate for application and offer the user a meaningful level of interaction remains relatively unexplored. This workshop sets out to bring together researchers working in the field of psychophysiological interaction to discuss the issue of how to design physiological interactions that are meaningful for users.

SIG

Engineering automation in interactive critical systems BIBAFull-Text 69-72
  Regina Bernhaupt; Guy Boy; Michael Feary; Philippe Palanque
This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability and fault-tolerance are as important as usability or user experience. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on these aspects and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those more and more prominent issues of interfaces for interactive critical systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

Panel

CHI 2011 sustainability community invited panel: challenges ahead BIBAFull-Text 73-76
  Azam Khan; Lyn Bartram; Eli Blevis; Carl DiSalvo; Jon Froehlich; Gordon Kurtenbach
As part of a new CHI Sustainability Community, focused on environmental sustainability, this panel will discuss specific ways in which HCI research will be critical in finding solutions to this global challenge. While research to date has primarily focused on the end consumer, the panel will be challenged with enlarging the discussion to include the designer as a target user and to consider interfaces and interactions that support sustainable design and sustainable manufacturing, as well as sustainable consumption. Specifically, to make real progress, we seek to enumerate ways that HCI needs to grow, as well as to find ways that can help more HCI researchers to become involved.

alt.chi: emotions, ethics, and civics

Does it matter if a computer jokes BIBAFull-Text 77-86
  Peter Khooshabeh; Cade McCall; Sudeep Gandhe; Jonathan Gratch; James Blascovich
The goal here was to determine whether computer interfaces are capable of social influence via humor. Users interacted with a natural language capable virtual agent that told persuasive information, and they were given the option to use information from the dialogue in order to complete a problem-solving task. Individuals interacting with an ostensibly humorous virtual agent were influenced by it such that those who judged the agent unfunny were less likely to be persuaded and departed from the agent's suggestions. We discuss the implications of these results for HCI involving natural language systems and virtual agents.
StoryFaces: children exploring emotional expressions in storytelling with video BIBAFull-Text 87-96
  Kimiko Ryokai; Robert Kowalski; Hayes Raffle
We introduce StoryFaces, a new composition and storytelling tool for children to explore the role of emotional expressions in children's narrative. StoryFaces invites children to record emotional expressions and then automatically composes these recordings in storybook illustrations. After children watch their faces bring a story to life, they can "go backstage" to play with the story by rearranging the videos and altering the story text. This paper presents our exploratory prototype, a design rationale that focuses on supporting children's emotional growth through storytelling play and reflection, and reports on a formative evaluation with two children ages 4-6. Results from the evaluation suggest that children ages 4-6 are engaged in the activity, are excited to create a variety of emotional expressions, find the narratives funny yet clear, and work to re-craft and reinterpret story meanings through iterative editing and play with both video and textual content. Our goal is to provoke new ideas about how pretend play with digital tools can empower young children in a narrative process.
Web workers unite! addressing challenges of online laborers BIBAFull-Text 97-106
  Benjamin B. Bederson; Alexander J. Quinn
The ongoing rise of human computation as a means of solving computational problems has created an environment where human workers are often regarded as nameless, faceless computational resources. Some people have begun to think of online tasks as a "remote person call". In this paper, we summarize ethical and practical labor issues surrounding online labor, and offer a set of guidelines for designing and using online labor in ways that support more positive relationships between workers and requesters, so that both can gain the most benefit from the interaction.
Design principles for a new generic digital habitat BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Olli-Pekka Pohjola
Our digital habitat, which today consists of desktops, applications and web pages, should be based on the same abstract concepts -- habitats, spaces, information, objects and mechanisms -- as our physical habitat. This enables people to feel safe, in control, capable and social, in contrast to the widespread feeling of frustration in the today's digital society. This paper presents the key principles for designing such a continuum of the physical and digital habitats in which people perform their everyday activities, to which other systems connect and which developers extend with new concepts like ones that current digital habitats do not support.
HappinessCounter: smile-encouraging appliance to increase positive mood BIBAFull-Text 117-126
  Hitomi Tsujita; Jun Rekimoto
As William James stated, and confirmed by several psychological studies, the act of smiling positively affects on our mental status -- we become happier when we laugh. In this paper, we propose a new digital appliance that naturally encourages the act of smiling in our daily lives. This system is designed mainly for people living alone, who may have difficulty realizing when they are in low spirits and/or difficulty in making themselves smile. Our HappinessCounter combines visual smile recognition, user feedback, and network communication. We installed this system in a home with a single occupant, and the system had positive effects on the user's mood.
The gas mask: a probe for exploring fearsome interactions BIBAFull-Text 127-136
  Joe Marshall; Brendan Walker; Steve Benford; George Tomlinson; Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Stuart Reeves; Patrick Brundell; Paul Tennent; Jo Cranwell; Paul Harter; Jo Longhurst
We introduce an interface for horror-themed entertainment experiences based on integrating breath sensors and WiFi into gas masks. Beyond enabling the practical breath control of entertainment systems, our design aims to heighten the intensity of the experience by amplifying the user's awareness of their breathing, as well as their feelings of isolation, claustrophobia and fear. More generally, this interface is intended to act as a technology probe for exploring an emerging research agenda around fearsome interactions. We describe the deployment of our gas masks in two events: as a control mechanism for an interactive ride, and to enhance a theme park horror maze. We identify six broad dimensions -- cultural, visceral, control, social, performance and engineering -- that frame an agenda for future research into fearsome interactions.

Health 1: technology challenges

Identification of pointing difficulties of two individuals with Parkinson's disease via a sub-movement analysis BIBAFull-Text 137-140
  Guarionex Salivia; Juan Pablo Hourcade
We present a study of the sub-movement characteristics of two individuals with Parkinson's disease completing pointing tasks. We describe the performance of the two individuals and we compare it with that of young children and older able-body adults. The analysis suggests that we need new strategies that incorporate an individual assessment of difficulties, and provide personalized methods of assistance.

Research methods

From basecamp to summit: scaling field research across 9 locations BIBAFull-Text 141-144
  Jens Riegelsberger; Audrey Yang; Konstantin Samoylov; Elizabeth Nunge; Molly Stevens; Patrick Larvie
In this case study we discuss the mechanics of running a complex field research project within one week: 32 field visits, 4 countries, 9 locations, 10+ researchers, 30+ observers. We outline the goals that lead to this project plan, and the tools and processes we developed to succeed under the constraints given. We discuss in particular (1) the role of ongoing in-field analysis and data sharing, (2) the role of basecamp as a centralized mission control center and real-time analysis hub, and (3) the added value of running the study and initial analysis in such a compressed time frame. We close with a reflection on the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, as well as ideas for future improvements.

Sex & Bodies

Self-evidence: applying somatic connoisseurship to experience design BIBAFull-Text 145-160
  Thecla Schiphorst
This design case study examines and illustrates the concept of self-evidence by applying somatic connoisseurship to experience design. It invites a re-thinking of the process of design for technology, one that includes design for the experience of the self. Supported by concepts of somatic phenomenology and discourse surrounding 'felt-life' within HCI, this case study articulates the concept of self-evidence through the application of somatic body-based practices as a framework for technology design within HCI. The case study utilizes examples from the design process of the interactive, networked wearable art installation called whisper. Concepts of somatic connoisseurship are exemplified throughout all phases of an interdisciplinary artist-led design process.

SIG

Touching the 3rd dimension (T3D) BIBAFull-Text 161-164
  Frank Steinicke; Hrvoje Benko; Florian Daiber; Daniel Keefe; Jean-Baptiste de la Rivière
In recent years interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas. However, current user interfaces often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. Touch interaction has received considerable attention for 2D interfaces, and more recently for 3D interfaces. Many touch devices now support multiple degrees of freedom input by capturing multiple 2D contact positions on the surface as well as varying levels of pressure and even depth. There is, therefore, great potential for multi-touch interfaces to provide the traditionally difficult to achieve combination of natural 3D interaction without any instrumentation. When combined with a stereoscopic display of 3D data as well as 3D depth cameras, we believe that multi-touch technology can form the basis for a next generation of intuitive and expressive 3D user interfaces. Several research groups have begun to explore the potential, limitations, and challenges of this and other 3D touch environments, and first commercial systems are already available. The goal of the SIG "Touching the 3rd Dimension (T3D)" is to address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The meeting will provide a common forum to attract groups of conference attendees who share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and visualization by taking advantage of the strengths of advanced multi-touch computing.
UX research: what theoretical roots do we build on -- if any? BIBAFull-Text 165-168
  Marianna Obrist; Effie Law; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Virpi Roto; Arnold Vermeeren; Kari Kuutti
User Experience (UX) research focusing on the emotional and experiential aspects of system usage is of highly recognized relevance for the CHI community. A lot of work has been conducted with different goals: investigating a common definition and understanding of UX, creating appropriate concepts, frameworks and models for supporting design and development processes, and developing methods and techniques for evaluating UX. However, there is still a lack of in-depth discussions on the theoretical roots and foundations for all of these UX activities in academia and industry. In this SIG we will explore the state of the art in the theory of UX research in order to lay the fundament for further advancements of the UX field. We will also discuss how the theoretical viewpoints can benefit, and be influenced by the UX practitioners' work.

Panel

World of Warcraft as a global artifact BIBAFull-Text 169-172
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Bonnie Nardi
The goal of the panel is to engage a group of distinguished scholars from the social sciences and humanities to consider how World of Warcraft, as a virtual world and as a sociotechnical system, creates and sustains a global community, as well as the nature of that community. Panelists will discuss the interlocking human and technical agencies at play in World of Warcraft, the complex social ecology that has evolved around the game, and research strategies that scale to a world of 12 million players.

Gestures

Natural activation for gesture recognition systems BIBAFull-Text 173-183
  Mathieu Hopmann; Patrick Salamin; Nicolas Chauvin; Frédéric Vexo; Daniel Thalmann
Gesture recognition is becoming a popular way of interaction, but still suffers of important drawbacks to be integrated in everyday life devices. One of these drawbacks is the activation of the recognition system -- trigger gesture -- which is generally tiring and unnatural. In this paper, we propose two natural solutions to easily activate the gesture interaction. The first one requires a single action from the user: grasping a remote control to start interacting. The second one is completely transparent for the user: the gesture system is only activated when the user's gaze points to the screen, i.e. when s/he is looking at it. Our first evaluation with the 2 proposed solutions plus a default implementation suggests that the gaze estimation activation is efficient enough to remove the need of a trigger gesture in order to activate the recognition system.

Meetings & interaction spaces

BISi: a blended interaction space BIBAFull-Text 185-200
  Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Kenton O'Hara
Distributed collaboration has been enhanced in recent years by sophisticated new video conferencing setups like HP Halo and Cisco Telepresence, improving the user experience of distributed meeting situations over traditional video conferencing. The experience created can be described as one of "blending" distributed physical locations into one shared space. Inspired by this trend, we have been exploring the systematic creation of blended spaces for distributed collaboration through the design of appropriate shared spatial geometries. We present early iterations of our design work: the Blended Interaction Space One prototype, BISi, and the lessons learned from its creation.

Facebook

The talking poles public art based in social design BIBAFull-Text 201-209
  Vicki Moulder; Lorna Boschman; Ron Wakkary
This case study provides insights for artists, designers, and technologists working with community-generated media in the domain of public art. The authors document their recent public artwork, the Talking Poles, and discuss the adaptation of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) design methods to the project. Community-generated public art has a direct relationship to the field of HCI through the technology that underlies both social computing and quotidian digital documentation. When acknowledging 'citizen action' as a component of public art, consideration must also be given to the preservation of the work as representative of an emergent and shared digital world culture.

SIG

The future of natural user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Jhilmil Jain; Arnold Lund; Dennis Wixon
This SIG is a forum to advance an integrated approach to multi-modal Natural User Interfaces. Up until now the research and design of NUI interfaces for various modalities (speech, touch, gesture) has proceeded independently. We propose having an integrated discussion with both academics and practitioners to stimulate the exchange of knowledge about the various modalities and how they might be fruitfully combined, and identifying key areas of future research and design that make the case for multi-modal NUIs. The goal is to not only create a vision of synthetic applications of NUI by connecting researchers but to also discuss ways to make the vision a reality.
Standards and policy SIG BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Arnie Lund; Jonathan Lazar; Volker Wulf
The Standards and Policy SIG will provide an opportunity for SIGCHI communities and others to share activity in the standards and policies relevant to HCI in their respective areas. There are two goals for the SIG. One is to collect a list of resources that may be useful for SIGCHI researchers and practitioners. The other is to identify new opportunities for SIGCHI to provide leadership in the standards and policy area; and to uncover areas where SIGCHI should be coordinating with other societies in areas that impact HCI standards and policies.

Panel

Designing for user experience: academia & industry BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Elizabeth Buie; Jettie Hoonhout; Kristina Höök; Virpi Roto; Scott Jenson; Peter Wright
As the importance of user experience (UX) has grown, so too have attempts to define, delimit, categorize and theorize about it. In particular, there have been emerging lines of tension in User Experience that parallel the tensions in the larger field of HCI research, particularly between approaches that emphasize the need for representations and understandings of user experience that are precise, comparable, and generalizable, and third-wave approaches that emphasize the richness of situated actions, the inseparability of mind and body, and the contextual dependency of experiences. At the same time, there are tensions between the needs of industry for immediately useful and applicable techniques and methods, and academics' emphasis on verifiable, repeatable, and theoretically grounded work. In this panel, we bring together a number of these threads to discuss the necessity of designing for user experience. How can we connect the different threads of UX work, without erasing the differences between them? Is there any value in theory of UX, and if so, to whom? What actually works in designing for a user experience?

alt.chi: playing well with others

RopePlus: bridging distances with social and kinesthetic rope games BIBAFull-Text 223-232
  Lining Yao; Sayamindu Dasgupta; Nadia Cheng; Jason Spingarn-Koff; Ostap Rudakevych; Hiroshi Ishii
Rope-based games such as jump rope, tug-of-war, and kite-flying promote physical activity and social interaction among people of all ages and especially in children during the development of their coordination skills and physical fitness. Our RopePlus system builds on those traditional games by enabling players to participate remotely through interacting with ropes that connect physical and virtual spaces. The RopePlus platform is centered around the rope as a tangible interface with various hardware extensions to allow for multiple playing modes. In this paper, we present two games that have been implemented in detail: a kite-flying game called Multi-Fly and a jump-rope game called Multi-Jump. Our work aims to expand tangible interface gaming to real time social playing environments.
Communiclay: a modular system for tangible telekinetic communication BIBAFull-Text 233-242
  Hayes Raffle; Ruibing Wang; Karim Seada; Hiroshi Ishii
We introduce Communiclay, a modular construction system for tangible kinetic communication of gesture and form over a distance. Users assemble a number of Communiclay nodes into unique configurations, connect their creations to each others' Communiclay creations on a network, and then physically deform one creation to synchronously output those same gestures on the other networked creations. Communiclay builds on trends in tangible interfaces and explores the ways in which future actuated materials can enable a variety of tangible interfaces. We present applications that stem from past research in tangible media, and describe explorations that address ways in which people make meaning of remote communication through gesture and dynamic physical form. Our hypothesis is that current research in programmable matter will eventually converge with UI research; Communiclay demonstrates that we can begin to explore design and social issues with today's technologies.
The Magic Sock Drawer project BIBAFull-Text 243-252
  Daniel Gooch; Leon Watts
In this paper we describe the design of a intimate communication system, the Magic Sock Drawer. The system allows close friends to send drawn or typed digital notes to one another which are then automatically printed at the other end. The system allows us to investigate a number of design decisions that will have an impact on how communication systems create feelings of closeness between remote partners. The four design concepts explored include 1-to-1 communication, personalization, tangibility and location. We present the results of a 6-week pilot study using the system and the impact it has had on the study participants' relationship.
Predicting personality with social media BIBAFull-Text 253-262
  Jennifer Golbeck; Cristina Robles; Karen Turner
Social media is a place where users present themselves to the world, revealing personal details and insights into their lives. We are beginning to understand how some of this information can be utilized to improve the users' experiences with interfaces and with one another. In this paper, we are interested in the personality of users. Personality has been shown to be relevant to many types of interactions; it has been shown to be useful in predicting job satisfaction, professional and romantic relationship success, and even preference for different interfaces. Until now, to accurately gauge users' personalities, they needed to take a personality test. This made it impractical to use personality analysis in many social media domains. In this paper, we present a method by which a user's personality can be accurately predicted through the publicly available information on their Facebook profile. We will describe the type of data collected, our methods of analysis, and the results of predicting personality traits through machine learning. We then discuss the implications this has for social media design, interface design, and broader domains.
Inventive leisure practices: understanding hacking communities as sites of sharing and innovation BIBAFull-Text 263-272
  Tricia Wang; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
Hacking, tinkering, DIY, and crafts are increasingly popular forms of leisure that have also become growing sites of study in HCI. In this work we take a wide view of the similarities and differences between these practices. We explore a broad spectrum of such activities, which we collectively describe as inventive leisure practices (ILP). We ask how members of various hacking communities make sense of their practice and involvement, and discuss 8 themes we found in common in hackers' practices. We conclude by proposing a working definition for ILPs.
Technologies and social learning in an urban after-school center BIBAFull-Text 273-282
  Louise Barkhuus; Robert Lecusay
In this paper we explore this relationship between social learning environments and the technological ecologies that practitioners, learners, and researchers develop to sustain them. Through an examination of ethnographic research conducted at an urban after-school learning program we gain insight into social, technological and power infrastructures that influence learning and interaction in this setting. Adopting a holistic approach we examine how technologies are integrated into activities in this program to support the learning of the after-school youth. We emphasize both positive and negative infrastructures that contribute to the learning environment and discuss how identifying these infrastructures are one of the first steps towards understanding and informing technology design in informal learning settings.

Human-Robot Interaction

The shape of Simon: creative design of a humanoid robot shell BIBAFull-Text 283-298
  Carla Diana; Andrea L. Thomaz
In the study of human-robot interaction, the aesthetic design of socially active machines is a relatively new endeavor, and there are few precedents on which to rely for guidance. Whereas some of the early social robots such as Kismet [1] had expressive body characteristics such as eyeballs, eyelids and ears, the form was not unified into a holistic design. That is, features varied from one another in aesthetic characteristics, and the overall form still gave the impression of being a metal frame to which a series of parts were affixed. As subsequent social robots have been developed, they have varied wildly in terms of overall aesthetic creative direction. In the development of Simon, a humanoid robot currently in progress at the Georgia Institute of Technology, the authors sought to give industrial design an important role, and included creative direction at the very start of the project. Mechanical design, AI development and industrial design were all explored in tandem. The shell design, particularly for the head, was not looked upon as an external layer that would sheath the underlying mechanisms, but rather a core means for defining the robot's entire movement and behavioral characteristics.

Interactivity 1

ChronoViz: a system for supporting navigation of time-coded data BIBAFull-Text 299-304
  Adam Fouse; Nadir Weibel; Edwin Hutchins; James D. Hollan
We present ChronoViz, a system to aid annotation, visualization, navigation, and analysis of multimodal time-coded data. Exploiting interactive paper technology, ChronoViz also integrates researcher's paper notes into the composite data set. Researchers can navigate data in multiple ways, taking advantage of synchronized visualizations and annotations. The goal is to decrease the time and effort required to analyze multimodal data by providing direct indexing and flexible mechanisms to control data exploration.
i*Chameleon: a scalable and extensible framework for multimodal interaction BIBAFull-Text 305-310
  Wai Wa Tang; Kenneth W. K. Lo; Alvin T. S. Chan; Stephen Chan; Hong Va Leong; Grace Ngai
i*Chameleon is a multimodal interaction framework that enables programmers to readily prototype and test new interactive devices or interaction modes. It allows users to customize their own desktop environment for interaction beyond the usual KVM devices, which would be particularly useful for users with difficulty using the keyboard and mouse, or for systems deployed in specialized environments. This is made possible with the engineering of an interaction framework that distills the complexity of control processing to a set of semantically-rich modal controls that are discoverable, composable and adaptable. The framework can also be used for developing new applications with multimodal interactions, for example, distributed applications in collaborative environments or robot control.

Interactivity 2

INVISQUE: intuitive information exploration through interactive visualization BIBAFull-Text 311-316
  William Wong; Raymond Chen; Neesha Kodagoda; Chris Rooney; Kai Xu
In this paper we present INVISQUE, a novel system designed for interactive information exploration. Instead of a conventional list-style arrangement, in INVISQUE information is represented by a two-dimensional spatial canvas, with each dimension representing user-defined semantics. Search results are presented as index cards, ordered in both dimensions. Intuitive interactions are used to perform tasks such as keyword searching, results browsing, categorizing, and linking to online resources such as Google and Twitter. The interaction-based query style also naturally lends the system to different types of user input such as multi-touch gestures. As a result, INVISQUE gives users a much more intuitive and smooth experience of exploring large information spaces.

Interactivity 1

Tactile display for the visually impaired using TeslaTouch BIBAFull-Text 317-322
  Cheng Xu; Ali Israr; Ivan Poupyrev; Olivier Bau; Chris Harrison
TeslaTouch is a technology that provides tactile sensation to moving fingers on touch screens. Based on TeslaTouch, we have developed applications for the visually impaired to interpret and create 2D tactile information. In this paper, we demonstrate these applications, present observations from the interaction, and discuss TeslaTouch's potential in supporting communication among visually impaired individuals.
MudPad: tactile feedback for touch surfaces BIBAFull-Text 323-328
  Yvonne Jansen; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
MudPad is a system enriching touch surfaces with localized active haptic feedback. A soft and flexible overlay containing magnetorheological fluid is actuated by an array of electromagnets to create a variety of tactile sensations. As each magnet can be controlled individually, we are able to produce feedback in realtime locally at arbitrary points of interaction.
Snaplet: using body shape to inform function in mobile flexible display devices BIBAFull-Text 329-334
  Aneesh P. Tarun; Byron Lahey; Audrey Girouard; Winslow Burleson; Roel Vertegaal
With recent advances in flexible displays, computer displays are no longer restricted to flat, rigid form factors. In this paper, we propose that the physical form of a flexible display, depending on the way it is held or worn, can help shape its current functionality. We propose Snaplet, a wearable flexible E Ink display augmented with sensors that allow the shape of the display to be detected. Snaplet is a paper computer in the form of a bracelet. When in a convex shape on the wrist, Snaplet functions as a watch and media player. When held flat in the hand it is a PDA with notepad functionality. When held in a concave shape Snaplet functions as a phone. Calls are dropped by returning its shape to a flat or convex shape.
Ubiquitous voice synthesis: interactive manipulation of speech and singing on mobile distributed platforms BIBAFull-Text 335-340
  Nicolas d'Alessandro; Robert Pritchard; Johnty Wang; Sidney Fels
Vocal production is one of the most ubiquitous and expressive activities of people, yet understanding its production and synthesis remains elusive. When vocal synthesis is elevated to include new forms of singing and sound production, fundamental changes to culture and musical expression emerge. Nowadays, Text-To-Speech (TTS) synthesis seems unable to suggest innovative solutions for new computing trends, such as mobility, interactivity, ubiquitous computing or expressive manipulation. In this paper, we describe our pioneering work in developing interactive voice synthesis beyond the TTS paradigm. We present DiVA and HandSketch as our two current voice-based digital musical instruments. We then discuss the evolution of this performance practice into a new ubiquitous model applied to voice synthesis, and we describe our first prototype using a mobile phone and wireless embodied devices in order to allow a group of users to collaboratively produce voice synthesis in real-time.

Interactivity 2

RayMatic: ambient meter display with facial expression and gesture BIBAFull-Text 341-346
  Ray Yun; Mark D. Gross
We present an experimental thermostat display that moves beyond a conventional, number-based interface. It explores an approach to engaging and emotional human-computer interaction through facial expression and gesture. Using sensors and touch technology, an ordinary picture frame becomes an interactive meter and conveys environmental information as an ambient display.

SIG

CHI 2011 sustainability community invited SIG: framework & agenda BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Azam Khan; Eli Blevis; Daniela Busse
This special interest group meeting will bring together human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers who are interested in applying their knowledge and skills to the environmental goals of sustainable production and sustainable consumption. Those new to HCI for sustainability will learn which support and opportunities there are for their contributions, while HCI researchers already working in this area will discover which activities are occurring within and outside the HCI community. A conceptual framework will be presented together with a call to action, followed by a review of past and current HCI activities surrounding sustainability. Finally, an open discussion will develop a reformulation of HCI sustainability research for future CHI meetings.

Panel

Games and HCI: perspectives on intersections and opportunities BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  Regina Bernhaupt; Katherine Isbister; John Buchanan; Daniel Cook; Dave Warfield
What can HCI practitioners learn from what game designers do? How have games influenced technology interfaces and experiences in the past, and how might this unfold in the future? Is the recent trend toward 'gamification' of everyday computer-supported activities a fruitful approach? This panel will tackle these and other related questions about how games and HCI connect. The panel is an invited event of the newly established Games and Entertainment Community.
User experience management post mergers and acquisitions BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Janaki Kumar; Dan Rosenberg; Michael Arent; Anna Wichansky; Madhuri Kolhatkar; Esin Kiris; Russell Wilson; Arnold Lund
This panel will discuss the prominent trend of business consolidations in the enterprise software industry and proffer best practice management techniques for user experience teams following a successfully achieved merger or acquisition. Our panelists are UX managers who have experienced multiple mergers or acquisitions and will represent both the acquiring and acquired companies' perspectives. This panel builds on the success of a SIG organized at CH 2010. It will focus in on the UX management aspect post M&A, since this was most interesting to our audience. We will discuss design and technical challenges such as multiple UI technologies and platforms, navigation paradigms and menu structures, interaction behaviors, visual designs, as well as cultural and organizational challenges such as different maturity levels of UX teams, User Centered Design practices, job titles, talent management, geographical distribution and other cultural differences. Our goal is to explore best practice solutions that could help other UX managers facing similar challenges.

SIG

Designing for whole systems and services in healthcare BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Peter Jones; David Cronin; Dean Karavite; Ross Koppel; Prudence Dalrymple; Kai Zheng; Michelle Rogers; Bob Schumacher
This CHI 2011 SIG provides a workshop for collective problem finding and community identification. The goal is to initiate a working group to coordinate systemic design research issues across practitioner communities. This SIG addresses the insufficiency of user-centered design and informatics research to design for system and service-level innovations in healthcare. The SIG seeks to coordinate communications and participation across design practice, research disciplines, and areas of health practice for service system innovation.

Human-Robot Interaction

Art loop open: designing for the intersection of art and technology in an urban public exhibition BIBAFull-Text 373-387
  Anijo P. Mathew
In this case study, we explore the design and implementation of Art Loop Open, a city-wide art exhibition with a cutting edge technologically mediated experience. The case study will enumerate the design process, the collaboration between different decision making entities, as well as the technology layer and the experience design of the exhibition.

alt.chi: ... and I just can't take it anymore!

The trouble with social computing systems research BIBAFull-Text 389-398
  Michael S. Bernstein; Mark S. Ackerman; Ed H. Chi; Robert C. Miller
Social computing has led to an explosion of research in understanding users, and it has the potential to similarly revolutionize systems research. However, the number of papers designing and building new sociotechnical systems has not kept pace. We analyze challenges facing social computing systems research, ranging from misaligned methodological incentives, evaluation expectations, double standards, and relevance compared to industry. We suggest improvements for the community to consider so that we can chart the future of our field.
Form and materiality in interaction design: a new approach to HCI BIBAFull-Text 399-408
  Heekyoung Jung; Erik Stolterman
This paper is motivated by the increasing significance of form in design and use of interactive artifacts. The objective of this paper is to conceptualize what we mean by form in the context of interaction design and HCI research and how we can approach it in regard to emerging type of digital materiality. To do this, we first examine conceptual dimensions of form in interactive artifacts through the lens of three existing perspectives with their respective focus on: material, meaning, and making. We then apply these perspectives in our analysis of specific forms of interactive artifacts. Based on this analysis, we suggest a model of four different types of forms: the cognitive, embodied, expressive, and exploratory forms. Reflecting on this model, we propose form-driven interaction design research with its epistemological and methodological implications.
How can we support users' preferential choice? BIBAFull-Text 409-418
  Anthony Jameson; Silvia Gabrielli; Per Ola Kristensson; Katharina Reinecke; Federica Cena; Cristina Gena; Fabiana Vernero
Users of computing technology are constantly making choices about how to use the technology which are "preferential" in the sense that there is no correct or incorrect option. We argue that HCI should devote more attention to helping users to make better preferential choices, tapping into the vast pool of relevant psychological research. After offering a quick high-level overview of this research, we introduce four general strategies for exploiting it in interaction design and illustrate these strategies with reference to examples. Looking at selected other paradigms that involve influencing preferential choice, we explain how our framework can lead to greater coverage and conceptual clarity.
Of course I wouldn't do that in real life: advancing the arguments for increasing realism in HCI experiments BIBAFull-Text 419-428
  Letitia Lew; Truc Nguyen; Solomon Messing; Sean Westwood
We offer a nuanced examination of the way that realism can impact internal and external validity in HCI experiments. We show that if an HCI experiment lacks realism across any of four dimensions -- appearance, content, task and setting -- the lack of realism can confound the study by interacting with the treatment and weakening internal or external validity. We argue furthermore, that realism can be increased while still maintaining control: analogue experiments allow researchers to conduct experiments in more ecologically valid environments and online experiments bridge the gap between the cleanroom and field. While increasing the level of realism in an experiment can introduce noise, technological developments have made it easier to collect rich analytics on behavior and usage.
GoSlow: designing for slowness, reflection and solitude BIBAFull-Text 429-438
  Justin Cheng; Akshay Bapat; Gregory Thomas; Kevin Tse; Nikhil Nawathe; Jeremy Crockett; Gilly Leshed
We are surrounded by technologies that fuel a fast-paced, at-the-moment, connected life. In contrast, GoSlow is a mobile application designed to help users slow down, contemplate, and be alone. Through serendipWe are surrounded by technologies that fuel a fast-paced, at-the-moment, connected life. In contrast, GoSlow is a mobile application designed to help users slow down, contemplate, and be alone. Through serendipitous moments of pause and reflection, GoSlow offers simple ways for users to cut back and relax, provides an outlet for contemplation and reminiscence, and helps them disconnect and get away. Our user study reveals that GoSlow encourages introspective reflection, slowing down, and can help reduce stress with minimal intervention.itous moments of pause and reflection, GoSlow offers simple ways for users to cut back and relax, provides an outlet for contemplation and reminiscence, and helps them disconnect and get away. Our user study reveals that GoSlow encourages introspective reflection, slowing down, and can help reduce stress with minimal intervention.

SIG

(invited) games and entertainment at CHI: towards forming a robust and ongoing community BIBAFull-Text 439-442
  Regina Bernhaupt; Katherine Isbister
The community of games and entertainment includes researchers and practitioners focusing on player-centered development and evaluation of all forms of games and applications that focus on entertainment. Games and entertainment have been represented in all CHI venues including workshops, tutorials, papers, and notes; in fact this community at CHI is already present, but as yet only loosely connected and defined as such. This year Games and Entertainment was selected as a Special Community at CHI -- this SIG is meant to explore how we can build a robust and ongoing community around this topic at CHI.

Panel

Facebook for health: opportunities and challenges for driving behavior change BIBAFull-Text 443-446
  Margaret E. Morris; Sunny Consolvo; Sean Munson; Kevin Patrick; Janice Tsai; Adam D. I. Kramer
Obesity, mood, and associated behaviors spread within social networks [1]. Facebook, the primary representation of these networks, shapes our perceptions of social norms and the expectations we set for ourselves. As such, Facebook holds potential to influence health behaviors of individuals and improve public health. This panel explores that potential from a variety of perspectives including psychology, public health, privacy, and design innovation. Panelists include: Margie Morris and Sunny Consolvo, researchers at Intel who have created novel mobile health and Facebook applications; Sean Munson, a social computing researcher at University of Michigan; Kevin Patrick, of UCSD, who is investigating social media for preventing and reducing weight gain in young adults; and Janice Tsai, from Microsoft, who focuses on privacy implications of Facebook. This panel will identify opportunities for health interventions on Facebook to have a broad social impact, challenges to implementing effective interventions on this dynamic platform, appropriate research methods, and considerations related to privacy and ethics.

SIG

Geographic human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 447-450
  Brent Hecht; Johannes Schöning; Thomas Erickson; Reid Priedhorsky
Researchers and practitioners in human-computer interaction are increasingly taking geographic approaches to their work. Whether designing novel location-based systems, developing natural user interfaces for maps, or exploring online interactions over space and time, HCI is discovering that geographic questions, methods, and use cases are becoming integral to our field. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, there have been no direct efforts to unite members of the community exploring geographic HCI. The goal of this forum is to bring together researchers from a variety of areas to provide a summary of what has been done thus far and to discuss options for developing a more formal geographic HCI community. We will also highlight the troublesome lack of communication between scholars in geography and HCI and the opportunities that will result from increased collaboration between the two fields.

Panel

Re-engineering health care with information technology: the role of computer-human interaction BIBAFull-Text 451-454
  Keith Butler; Thomas Payne; Ben Shneiderman; Patricia Brennan; Jiajie Zhang
There is critical, nation-wide need to improve health care and its cost. Health information technology has great promise that is yet to be realized. In this panel four noted experts will discuss key issues that should drive health IT, and the challenges for the CHI community to play a leading role.

SIG

CHI design community 2011 (invited) BIBAFull-Text 455-458
  Scott G. Pobiner; Carla Diana
Each year scholars and practitioners from institutions, organizations, and corporations around the world gather for one week to discuss their work and see the work of others from across the wide range of practices that compose the SIGCHI community. The scale and diversity of this gathering offers an opportunity that is special and only available during the short, intense week. During the conference there is a session dedicated to the discussion of priorities for us as members of a community, and for the community itself as a part of the fabric of SIGCHI. For the Design Community this is a rather complex endeavor because our constituents are and our fellow communities understand the pursuit of design in a variety of ways. But this embodies the valuable asset that our community has become as one part of SIGCHI. So let's discuss these topics.
Applying the NSF broader impacts criteria to HCI research BIBAFull-Text 459-462
  Juan E. Gilbert; Margaret Burnett; Richard E. Ladner; Mary Beth Rosson; Janet Davis
Broader impacts emerged as a major concern in a recent evaluation of the Division of Computer and Network Systems (CNS) at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Evaluators found that the intellectual merit contributions from the CNS investigators were strong, but broader impacts could (and should) be improved [10]. As a result, a summit was held in Washington, D.C., to clarify and strengthen the broader impacts criteria for computing research [4]. In this SIG meeting, we will discuss the outcomes of this summit, with particular attention to broader impacts in human-computer interaction research.

Panel

RepliCHI -- CHI should be replicating and validating results more: discuss BIBAFull-Text 463-466
  Max L. Wilson; Wendy Mackay; Ed Chi; Michael Bernstein; Dan Russell; Harold Thimbleby
The replication of research findings is a cornerstone of good science. Replication confirms results, strengthens research, and makes sure progress is based on solid foundations. CHI, however, rewards novelty and is focused on new results. As a community, therefore, we do not value, facilitate, or reward replication in research, and often take the significant results of a single user study on 20 users to be true. This panel will address the issues surrounding replication in our community, and discuss: a) how much of our broad diverse discipline is 'science', b) how, if at all, we currently see replication of research in our community, c) whether we should place more emphasis on replication in some form, and d) how that should look in our community. The aim of the panel is to make a proposal to future CHI organizers (2 are on the panel) for how we should facilitate replication in the future.

Evaluation and/or design based on many users

Why context is important when gathering design feedback: an e-commerce case study BIBAFull-Text 467-482
  Michael Katz
Sellers on eBay today can use a variety of web page designs to distinguish their items from similar merchandise sold by other sellers. While such inconsistency in information display may lead certain items to be more memorable than others, it was also hypothesized to make it more difficult for buyers to compare items when making a purchase decision. To investigate this hypothesis, eBay gathered user feedback on a more consistent page design using two survey approaches that yielded markedly different results. The first approach involved presenting the new design in isolation, while the second approach involved presenting the new design in the context of a larger task flow. Respondents in the first approach tended to focus on specific design aspects and the inconvenience they might face in acclimating to a new design, whereas respondents in the second approach were better able to appreciate the benefits to overall shopping efficiency. This case study underscores the importance of context when gathering user feedback about designs, especially when such designs are intended to provide more holistic real-world benefits.

Video night presentations

SandCanvas: new possibilities in sand animation BIBAFull-Text 483
  Rubaiat Habib Kazi; Kien Chuan Chua; Shengdong Zhao; Richard Davis; Kok-Lim Low
Sand animation is a performance art technique in which an artist tells stories by creating animated images with sand. Inspired by this medium, we have developed a new multi-touch digital artistic medium named SandCanvas that simplifies the creation of sand animations. The elegance of sand animation lies in the seamless flow of expressive hand gestures that cause images to fluidly evolve, surprising and delighting audiences. While physical sand animation already possesses these properties, SandCanvas enhances them. SandCanvas's color and texture features enable faster, more dramatic transitions, while its mixed media and gesture recording features make it possible to create entirely new experiences. Session recording and frame capture complement these capabilities by simplifying post-production of sand animation performances.
Six-Forty by Four-Eighty: an interactive lighting installation BIBAFull-Text 485
  Jamie Zigelbaum; Marcelo Coelho
Six-Forty by Four-Eighty is an interactive lighting installation composed of an array of magnetic, physical pixels. Individually, pixel-tiles change their color in response to touch and communicate their state to each other by using a person's body as the conduit for information. When grouped together, the pixel-tiles create patterns and animations that can serve as a tool for customizing our physical spaces.
Cube-U: exploring the combination of the internet of things and elearning BIBAFull-Text 487-488
  Muriel Garreta-Domingo; Juan Antonio Mangas Forner
Cube-U is an initial prototype that explores the combination of the Internet of Things (IOT) and eLearning. Following a user-centered design process, the powerful possibilities opened by the Internet of Things (IOT) are being included to eLearning in order to enhance the learning experience. IOT is a new field based on the connection of common objects to the internet. So far, it has mainly been applied in industrial environments. Introducing IOT in eLearning will allow for the expansion of the virtual learning experience, currently mostly centered around a computer and paper.
Layered elaboration BIBAFull-Text 489
  Greg Walsh; Allison Druin; Mona Leigh Guha; Elizabeth Foss; Evan Golub; Leshell Hatley; Elizabeth Bonsignore; Sonia Franckel
In this video we describe Layered Elaboration techniques and their use in the cooperative inquiry method.
PeR: designing for perceptive qualities BIBAFull-Text 491
  Eva Deckers; Stephan Wensveen; Kees Overbeeke
In this video we show PeR, short for 'Perception Rug'. The design is created as part of our research on how to design for perceptive qualities in objects. This research is conducted around the educational and research theme 'Wearable Senses' and has a theoretical departure in the 'phenomenology of perception' and 'ecological psychology'. The integration of conductive and optic fibers, respectively enable PeR to sense the touch of a person and to let a body of light behave within the surface of the rug. The design can be used as a platform for the exploration of perceptive behavior. Different design characteristics, like the size of the light body, the speed by which the body moves, its shape, focus and direction, can be adjusted in order to design behavior.
RWal BIBAFull-Text 493
  Nivedhitha Giri; Anthony Threatt; Ian D. Walker; Keith Evan Green
This video features a scaled prototype of RWal (Reactive Wall) that was built based upon the floor plan of Hilton San Francisco Union Sq. Continental Ballroom. The RWal is a continuum surface intelligent system that is commissioned in a conference area. It can sense occupancy in different session areas and change its shape dynamically so that it provides more space for a session that is crowded at the expense of reducing the room space for a session that is sparsely populated. Temperature sensors are used to monitor occupancy and the walls are manipulated by tendons driven by servo motors and controlled by an Arduino ATMega328 microcontroller. The wall is actuated (actively and passively) at different points and is designed in such a way that it encloses a constant volume space. The key idea is to manage the available floor area to prevent congestion. This will be a practical option in any conference where there are typically boring as well as interesting speakers and an unavoidable movement of attendees from one session to another.
Why buttons go bad BIBAFull-Text 495
  Philipp Hund; Lucy Hughes; Alistair Wood; Jesper Garde; Tianbo Xu
This video explains in 100 seconds the importance of studying how humans interact with technology. The idea revolves around the evolution of the button and proposes that the design of modern buttons can go wrong when user-centered design is neglected. This was a winning video developed by five MSc students at the UCL Interaction Centre (UCLIC). It was produced as part of a public engagement challenge: to make a digital story that explains what HCI is to young adults. The roles within the video are intentionally caricatured to simplify its message. The video has been used to promote HCI to a wider audience and mark World Usability Day 2010.
Microwave racing BIBAFull-Text 497
  Dominic Furniss
This video engages a broad audience through the theme of 'Microwave Racing' -- a title aimed to intrigue. The film is a fun take on a usability testing scenario where four users/riders have to use a microwave for a simple task, and they race against each other. However, there is a serious point which challenges the audience: if we struggle to design for simple everyday things then what about more serious things like medical devices. We think this could challenge a CHI audience and might sit nicely between videos on the latest entertainment and interaction techniques -- for juxtaposition. It is a reminder that there is important work to be done in the healthcare domain and that safety-critical HCI can save lives.
EasyPointer: what you pointing at is what you get BIBAFull-Text 499-502
  Gang Pan; Haoyi Ren; Weidong Hua; Qian Zheng; Shijian Li
This extended abstract presents a natural pointing system using gyroscope MEMS, which could achieve what you pointing at is what you get. It enables screen interaction via physical pointing. The system only needs a phone with built-in gyroscope, camera, and wireless communication, e.g. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, without any other hardware. To achieve sensing of the screen position where user is physically pointing, we also develop easy calibration methods. The prototype system, called EasyPointer, is built upon iPhone 4/iPod 4. It can serve as a laser pointer, a presentation controller, a game controller, and a drawing pen.
Interactive snow sculpture painting BIBAFull-Text 503-504
  Jürgen Scheible
This video shows the live-painting of snow sculptures with dabs of digital paint, deploying a mobile phone (virtual spray can) with accelerometer, a PC and a video projector -- creating 100% recyclable art. The technology used is called MobiSpray, which has been reported by the author at SIGGRAPH 2009 in the Art papers track. Using a mobile phone in this context allows the painter to roam freely (walk, stand, lie) around the target object, far or near in real physical space, while looking directly at its surface to see how the painting appears in real time. The phone's keyboard keys are used for controlling the drawing tools such as spraying colors or spraying intensity.
Scenario-based persona: introducing personas through their main contexts BIBAFull-Text 505
  Alicia Valls Saez; Muriel Garreta Garreta Domingo
The present work introduces a new way of conveying the results of a user analysis study. Personas are a well established user-centered design methodology; however they are not always well-understood or used by non-experts. By explaining our personas based on their main contexts we wanted to 1) reduce the bias that a face can generate by representing silhouettes instead; 2) combine the concepts of personas and scenarios; 3) foster understanding of our users by showing their main contexts (which are becoming more important with the increase of mobile devices); and 4) create a playful and more permanent artefact to hold all this information.
LifeFlow: visualizing an overview of event sequences (video preview) BIBAFull-Text 507-510
  Krist Wongsuphasawat; John Alexis Guerra Gómez; Catherine Plaisant; Taowei Wang; Meirav Taieb-Maimon; Ben Shneiderman
Event sequence analysis is an important task in many domains: medical researchers may study the patterns of transfers within the hospital for quality control; transportation experts may study accident response logs to identify best practices. In many cases they deal with thousands of records. While previous research has focused on searching and browsing, overview tasks are often overlooked. We introduce a novel interactive visual overview of event sequences called LifeFlow. LifeFlow is scalable, can summarize all possible sequences, and represents the temporal spacing of the events within sequences. In this video, we show an example of patient transfer data and briefly demonstrate how to analyze them with LifeFlow. Please see [11] or visit http:www.cs.umd.eduhcillifeflow for more detail.
Don't touch: social appropriateness of touch sensor placement on interactive lumalive e-textime shirts BIBAFull-Text 511
  Sylvia Cheng; Connor Dickie; Andreas Hanewich-Hollatz; Roel Vertegaal; Justin Lee
In this video, we discuss the design of an e-textile shirt with an interactive Lumalive display featuring a touch-controlled image browser. To determine where to place touch sensors, we investigated which areas of the Lumalive shirt users would be comfortable touching or being touched based on how often participants would opt out of touches. For both touchers and touchees, opt-outs occurred mostly in the upper chest. On the front, the upper chest and lower abdominal zones were the least comfortable. Findings suggest participants were less comfortable with touches on the upper chest, the lower abdomen, and the lower back. We conclude that the most appropriate areas for touch sensors on a shirt are on the arms, shoulders, and upper back.
Energy house BIBAFull-Text 513
  Greg Walsh; Allison Druin; Elizabeth Foss; Evan Golub; Mona Leigh Guha; Leshell Hatley; Elizabeth Bonsignore
In this video we describe Energy House. Energy House is a game designed with the Cooperative Inquiry Method through the Layered Elaboration technique. Children power items in a virtual house by jumping up and down.
BiebBeep: an interactive screen for supporting public Library 2.0 information and social services BIBAFull-Text 515
  Marije Kanis; Wouter Meys; Mettina Veenstra; Maarten Groen; Wout Slakhorst
This video presents BiebBeep, an interactive touchscreen system that has been developed with the aim to support information and social services for the New Library in Almere, The Netherlands. The constantly updated information displayed on the interactive screen concerns not only the library itself, but also features happenings in the local area. The system's distinctive feature is that people can add information to the screen themselves, such as tweets, photos, local and cultural news announcements, so that the library and its visitors can inform and connect with each other. Over the course of almost one year, several studies were conducted, including focus group, interview- and observation-based studies that have motivated the functionality, and particularly the user-generated and localized content the system supports. Consequently, the services and functionality the system offers are aimed towards supporting Library 2.0, the next generation library.
Accessible voting: one machine, one vote for everyone BIBAFull-Text 517-518
  Juan E. Gilbert; Joshua I. Ekandem; Shelby S. Darnell; Hanan Alnizami; Aqueasha M. Martin; Wanda Johnson
The video for Accessible Voting shows a novel technology that allows private and secure voting to people with disabilities who have previously not had the same access to voting equipment as the common voter. Since the inception of elections and election technologies, all segments of the voting population have never been granted equal access, privacy and security when voting. Voting technology today has not addressed the issues that disabled voters are confronted with at the polls. Because approximately 17% of the voting population is disabled, their issues should be handled with a solution geared towards their needs. Disabled voters need to be able to cast their vote without the assistance of others. The Prime III multimodal voting system addresses these issues. The video illustrates the use of the Prime III system and how it allows disabled voters to use the same system as those without disabilities.

SIG

Interactive technologies for health special interest group BIBAFull-Text 519-522
  Helena M. Mentis; Harold Thimbleby; Julie A. Kientz; Gillian R. Hayes; Madhu Reddy
Health and how to support it with interactive computer systems, networks, and devices is a global and, for many countries, an explicit national priority. Significant interest in issues related to interactive systems for health has been demonstrated repeatedly within SIGCHI. A community focused on health started in 2010, fostering collaboration and dissemination of research findings as well as bridging with practitioners. As part of this community's on-going efforts, we will hold a special interest group session during ACM CHI 2011 to discuss, prioritize, and promote some of these most pressing issues facing the community.
Interactions magazine BIBAFull-Text 523-526
  Ron Wakkary; Erik Stolterman
In this SIG paper we invite members of CHI to join us for a meeting to discuss interactions magazine. We describe the vision of the new editorial team for interactions and describe new features. We also introduce the forums, forum editors and other regular contributors to the magazine.

Panel

Managing global UX teams BIBAFull-Text 527-530
  Jhilmil Jain; Catherine Courage; Jon Innes; Elizabeth Churchill; Arnie Lund; Daniel Rosenberg
In this interactive session a panel of experts from industry, consultancy and research labs will discuss emerging issues and unique challenges related to managing global user experience teams, and how these differ from other disciplines such as marketing, sales, engineering etc.

alt.chi: look! up in the sky!

Things that hover: interaction with tiny battery-less robots on desktop BIBAFull-Text 531-540
  Takashi Miyaki; Yong Ding; Behnam Banitalebi; Michael Beigl
This paper presents computationally and physically augmented desktop objects -- "Things that hover" -- that is capable of moving autonomously on desktop, and discusses about technical mechanisms, future possible interaction styles and applications based on this architecture. A goal of the design is to create self-moving robotic modules on top of a flat surface. Integrating lightweight piezoelectric air-blow actuators and contact-less power providing technology from desktop surface, tiny robots can hover and control the direction of movement without any battery, which illustrates that our approach is practically feasible.
Floating avatar: telepresence system using blimps for communication and entertainment BIBAFull-Text 541-550
  Hiroaki Tobita; Shigeaki Maruyama; Takuya Kuzi
We developed a floating avatar system that integrates a blimp with a virtual avatar to create a unique telepresence system. Our blimp works as an avatar and contains several pieces of equipment, including a projector and a speaker as the output functions. Users can communicate with others by transmitting their facial image through the projector and voice through the speaker. A camera and microphone attached to the blimp provide the input function and support the user's manipulation from a distance. The user's presence is dramatically enhanced compared to using conventional virtual avatars (e.g., CG and images) because the avatar is a physical object that can move freely in the real world. In addition, the user's senses are augmented because the blimp detects dynamic information in the real world. For example, the camera provides the user with a special floating view, and the microphone catches a wide variety of sounds such as conversations and environmental noises. This paper describes our floating avatar concept and its implementation.
3D remote interface for smart displays BIBAFull-Text 551-560
  ByungIn Yoo; Jae-Joon Han; Changkyu Choi; Hee-seob Ryu; Du Sik Park; Chang Yeong Kim
The paper presents a novel user interface combining bare hands and the line of sight (LoS) by using a depth camera from far distance without any handheld devices; as well as a 3D GUI providing both stereoscopy and motion parallax for smart displays. The proposed user interface provides a precise and convenient manipulation which is applicable to browsing thousands of channels andor media files. Especially, the combined interaction methods of the two modalities achieve 120(x) × 70(y) × 5(z) manipulation resolution. And then various user tasks were performed so as to assess the proposed user interface.
Flying eyes: free-space content creation using autonomous aerial vehicles BIBAFull-Text 561-570
  Keita Higuchi; Yoshio Ishiguro; Jun Rekimoto
Highly effective 3D-camerawork techniques that do not have physical limitations have been developed for creating three-dimensional (3D) computer games. Recent techniques used for real-world visual content creation, such as those used for sports broadcasting and motion pictures, also incorporate cameras moving in 3D physical space to provide viewers with a more engaging experience. For such purpose, wired cameras or mechanically controlled cameras are used, but they require huge and expensive infrastructure, and their freedom of motion is limited. To realize more flexible free-space camerawork at reasonable cost, we propose a system called "Flying Eyes" based on autonomous aerial vehicles. Flying Eyes tracks target humans based on vision processing, and computes camera paths by controlling the camera position and orientation.
ChairMouse: leveraging natural chair rotation for cursor navigation on large, high-resolution displays BIBAFull-Text 571-580
  Alex Endert; Patrick Fiaux; Haeyong Chung; Michael Stewart; Christopher Andrews; Chris North
Large, high-resolution displays lead to more spatially based approaches. In such environments, the cursor (and hence the physical mouse) is the primary means of interaction. However, usability issues occur when standard mouse interaction is applied to workstations with large size and high pixel density. Previous studies show users navigate physically when interacting with information on large displays by rotating their chair. ChairMouse captures this natural chair movement and translates it into large-scale cursor movement while still maintaining standard mouse usage for local cursor movement. ChairMouse supports both active and passive use, reducing tedious mouse interactions by leveraging physical chair action.

Learning

Using community-based service projects to enhance undergraduate HCI education: 10 years of experience BIBAFull-Text 581-588
  Jonathan Lazar
While community-based service projects are utilized in many different fields of study at universities, there is little documentation on how to implement community-based projects in undergraduate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) courses. This case study provides information on the benefits and drawbacks of community-based service projects, provides a few different examples of community-based learning in undergraduate HCI classes, discusses successes and failures, and provides a set of 7 success factors, all based on 10 years of experience at a single university.

Time/animations

Interactive sparklines: a dynamic display of quantitative information BIBAFull-Text 589-604
  Leo D. Frishberg
Initially proposed by Edward Tufte, 'sparklines' present hundreds of data points in the space of a word or two. Tufte originally designed sparklines to be embedded in a sentence. Today they have moved off the printed page into websites, online applications, smart phone screens and interactive documents. Sparklines display hundreds of data points over time: stock prices or sports statistics for the prior year, for example. But how well do they perform with millions of data points acquired in microseconds? What if users capture these data every couple of minutes? How well do sparklines, primarily designed for static display of historical data, fare in the context of an interactive application? In this case study, the author describes interactive sparklines his team designed and developed to assist electronic engineers debugging their electronic circuits. The case study presents an iterative user-centered design process from the initial proposal of sparklines through to their refinement after several releases. The study concludes with reflections about future improvements to interactive sparklines.

SIG

CHI 2011 engineering community SIG: the role of engineering work in CHI BIBAFull-Text 605-607
  Keith Butler; Ruven Brooks
The Engineering Community faces a number of serious challenges around its role in the larger CHI community and its contribution to CHI-sponsored conferences. This SIG is its forum to report progress on key issues for 2011, identify objectives for 2012, and develop plans to address them.
Digital arts and interaction (invited) BIBAFull-Text 609-612
  David England; Ernest Edmonds; Jennifer G. Sheridan; Scott Pobiner; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Peter Wright; Michael Twidale; Carla Diana
This SIG proposal, sponsored by the CHI Design Community, looks at the intersection and cross-fertilization between HCI, and Digital and Performance Arts. We consider how the exploration of engaging and meaningful artistic experience can further push the boundaries of HCI research and practice and how tool use and models of evaluation can be explored to assist the development of creative enterprises. We consider how artists' early experiments with technology can inform mainstream design thinking, and how theories and practice in aesthetics can feed into User Experience.

Panel

HCI for peace: from idealism to concrete steps BIBAFull-Text 613-616
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Natasha E. Bullock-Rest; Batya Friedman; Mark Nelson; Ben Shneiderman; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This panel will contribute diverse perspectives on the use of computer technology to promote peace and prevent armed conflict. These perspectives include: the use of social media to promote democracy and citizen participation, the role of computers in helping people communicate across division lines in zones of conflict, how persuasive technology can promote peace, and how interaction design can play a role in post-conflict reconciliation.

Home automation

Speech@home: an exploratory study BIBAFull-Text 617-632
  A. J. Brush; Paul Johns; Kori Inkpen; Brian Meyers
To understand how people might use a speech dialog system in the public areas of their homes, we conducted an exploratory field study in six households. For two weeks each household used a system that logged motion and usage data, recorded speech diary entries and used Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) to prompt participants for additional examples of speech commands. The results demonstrated our participants' interest in speech interaction at home, in particular for web browsing, calendaring and email tasks, although there are still many technical challenges that need to be overcome. More generally, our study suggests the value of using speech to enable a wide range of interactions.

Sustainability 1

With a little help from a friend: a shower calendar to save water BIBAFull-Text 633-646
  Matthias Laschke; Marc Hassenzahl; Sarah Diefenbach; Marius Tippkämper
This design case presents and discusses the Shower Calendar, a "persuasive" concept for reducing the consumption of water for showering. It starts from a discussion of different types of feedback employed by earlier design cases. Based on this, we designed the Calendar concept as an ambient, persistent and individualized feedback. A field study with two families (6 individuals) revealed that the Calendar fosters goal setting, comparison, competition, and communication. In addition, quantitative data showed one family to have been more successful in translating the Calendar's offer into actual behavior change, i.e., saving water. This highlights that change is not achieved by the product itself (as in automation or regulation), but by the people involved.

New approaches to usability

Assisted collection and organization for laddering interview data BIBAFull-Text 647-650
  Stephanie Deutsch; Genc Begolli; Martin Lugmayr; Manfred Tscheligi
Today several narrative techniques for acquiring subjective information from users are widely applied in HCI Research. As an emerging technique in this field, the laddering approach is widely used in marketing research contexts to learn more about personal values and customer behaviors. However, the method is in search of serious improvement in terms of ensuring objectivity and reliability of the resulting data. In this paper we propose a tool that supports the collection and organization of qualitative data from narrative laddering interviews. We describe how LadderAssist supports the interviewer by preventing errors in data acquisition and saving time in data organization and processing.

Panel

Transferability of research findings: context-dependent or model-driven BIBAFull-Text 651-654
  Ed H. Chi; Mary Czerwinski; David Millen; Dave Randall; Gunnar Stevens; Volker Wulf; John Zimmermann
In this panel we will explore two distinct approaches to reach transferability currently prevailing in the HCI community. We will discuss epistemological differences and the strengths and criticisms of each approach. Importantly, we will discuss the implications for HCI research practice given this diversity of methodological approaches.

Decision making & the web

Does 'Letting Go of the Words' Increase Engagement: a traffic study BIBAFull-Text 655-667
  Martin Colbert; Angela Boodoo
This case study explores the effects of written online content on user engagement, and describes the challenges of conducting experiments on live web sites. It compares two versions of a website about bicycle maintenance and repair. One version complied with the guidelines for written online content in "Letting Go of the Words" (Redish, 2007), the other version did not. Web metrics suggested visitors were more engaged with the guideline-compliant version in some respects. Visitors appeared to spend longer on the compliant site, and were more likely to revisit the compliant site, but they were not tempted to explore it further. Conducting this traffic study presented several challenges -- notably, how to profile visitors, and how to demonstrate statistical significance.

Sustainability 2

Flo: raising family awareness about electricity use BIBAFull-Text 669-672
  Paul Shrubsole; Tine Lavrysen; Maddy Janse; Hans Weda
In this case study, we designed a family game to explore whether this could be an effective and fun approach for raising the awareness of family members towards their energy use and, in the long run, to provide an effective tool for affecting their habits regarding sustainable behavior. The design of the family game implemented the metaphor of electricity as flowing liquid, fostered fun experiences and supported competitive and social elements. Dutch families with children, aged 5-11 years, participated in the design and evaluation of the concept. We obtained valuable insights into the use and understanding of electricity by the families, how the families looked at responsible behaviors around their usage and how a game could integrate into the family context in a fun way.

Text entry & typing

Using the keystroke-level model for designing user interface on middle-sized touch screens BIBAFull-Text 673-686
  Evgeniy Abdulin
The Keystroke-Level Model was developed to predict accurately task execution time for mouse-and-keyboard systems. Middle-sized touch screens are becoming much more popular so it is important to determine whether KLM can provide useful predictions for these interfaces as well. The KLMs were created using special software CogTool for three touch screen interfaces for integrated control systems and were compared to experimental data. The results showed that the KLM prediction error for middle-sized touch screens reached less than 5%. This conclusion is that KLM has acceptable accuracy level in this environment for making predictions for the task execution times.

SIG

CHI 2011 user experience community SIG: the role of UX work in SIGCHI BIBAFull-Text 687-688
  Elizabeth A. Buie; Jhilmil Jain
This SIG will discuss the ongoing work of the UX Community in SIGCHI and will talk about what the Community can do for UX practitioners and UX researchers. We will discuss the new "practitioner's takeaways" instituted for CHI 2011, discuss an idea for an "idea market" session at upcoming CHI conferences, and explore other ideas for making the SIGCHI UX Community work.
Child computer interaction invited SIG: IDC remixed, CCI remapped BIBAFull-Text 689-691
  Janet C. Read; Juan Pablo Hourcade; Panos Markopoulos; Allison Druin
Over the past fifteen years, the discipline of Child Computer Interaction has been steadily growing. As the community matures and as methods and processes are refined, and become situated, there is an urgent need to start to develop a theory around CCI that can be used with some confidence by the research community. The CCI Community SIG at CHI is supporting this process by looking at the influences on the community. In a lively debate that will include presentations and discussion, this SIG will bring the community together in a discussion that will impact on the way the community proceeds.

Panel

The future of child-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 693-696
  Allison Druin; Gary Knell; Elliot Soloway; Daniel Russell; Elizabeth Mynatt; Yvonne Rogers
In this panel, academic, non-profit, and industry professionals will ask, what does the future hold for "child-computer interaction?" Panelists will explore such issues as how new mobile, social, and ubiquitous technologies change children's future patterns of searching, exploration, and expression of information; how learning environments will be ever-changing because of new technologies; and the challenges and opportunities of designing for child-computer interaction.

Innovation & design

Measuring the effectiveness of social media on an innovation process BIBAFull-Text 697-712
  Lester Holtzblatt; Mary Lou Tierney
Incorporating social media into the Enterprise is a key opportunity as well as critical challenge facing many organizations today. Tantamount in decision-making about social media implementation is the question of 'value'. Our research examines the deployment of an online innovation management platform to execute an annual research and development proposal competition over two cycles of usage. Our findings suggest strategies for monitoring and measuring the effectiveness of social media's impact to an existing innovation process within the context of a business strategy.
HCI and innovation BIBAFull-Text 713-728
  David M. Frohlich; Risto Sarvas
The user-centered design (UCD) process in HCI has recently been criticized for not delivering breakthrough innovations in technology. In this paper we consider this critique through a literature review and two case studies of innovation. Our conclusions suggest that there is nothing wrong with the attitude of user-centered design which has probably been present in all major innovations down the centuries. Rather, the practice of UCD in HCI lacks attention to business factors and long term uptake of technology in society. This compromises its impact on products and should be incorporated into the study of HCI itself.
Leading change with collaborative design workshops BIBAFull-Text 729-739
  Jim Nieters; Eric Bollman
Numerous companies have demonstrated that game-changing design can differentiate them competitively. FastCompany[1] and BusinessWeek[2] magazines show examples weekly. At the same time, as difficult as coming up with a new idea that differentiates a company's product from those of its competitors can be, just coming up with the idea itself sometimes seems easy compared to the challenge of getting an organization to accept and act on it. Enabling User Experience Research and Design teams to deliver design solutions that change market dynamics often requires changes to culture and process. It also requires improving the political positioning of the User Experience organization. This case study highlights a method one UX team used to bring key stakeholders, including UX, Engineering, and Product Management, to the strategy table, and enable such strategic design. This UX team introduced collaborative design workshops to enable them to collaboratively generate great ideas and align their multidisciplinary product team around them. Such workshops enabled integrative thinking[3] to enable teams to arrive at the optimal solution. They also fostered trust, promoted free expression, and quietly created a new strategy table, where UX led the discussion about product strategy, introducing design as a key differentiator. In this example, such workshops provided a venue for engaging a cross-functional team in brainstorming and creative ideation, filtering a large set of ideas, collaborating on design, rapidly gathering user feedback and iterating designs, and getting the consensus the team needed to drive innovative products to market.

SIG

Using eye tracking for interaction BIBAFull-Text 741-744
  Anneli Olsen; Albrecht Schmidt; Paul Marshall; Veronica Sundstedt
The development of cheaper eye trackers and open source software for eye tracking and gaze interaction brings the possibility to integrate eye tracking into everyday use devices as well as highly specialized equipment. Apart from providing means for analyzing eye movements, eye tracking also offers the possibility of a natural user interaction modality. Gaze control interfaces are already used within assistive applications for disabled users. However, this novel user interaction possibility comes with its own set of limitations and challenges. The aim of this SIG is to provide a forum for Designers, Researchers and Usability Professionals to discuss the role of eye tracking as a user interaction method in the future as well as the technical and user interaction challenges that using eye tracking as an interaction method brings.

Panel

Increasing legal requirements for interface accessibility BIBAFull-Text 745-748
  Dan Goldstein; Eve Hill; Jonathan Lazar; Alice Siempelkamp; Anne Taylor; David Lepofsky
There is increasing legal activity, requiring accessibility for people with disabilities, across a number of categories of digital content -- government information, corporate web sites, electronic hiring processes, and e-book readers. The purpose of this panel at CHI 2011 is to inform the interaction design community about these legal changes, and discuss strategies for successful implementation of accessibility regulations in design.

Tabletop synchronous collaboration

Prezi meeting: collaboration in a zoomable canvas based environment BIBAFull-Text 749-752
  Laszlo Laufer; Peter Halacsy; Adam Somlai-Fischer
We are introducing a zoomable, canvas based editor called Prezi, in which multiple users can collaborate synchronously, and share a common workspace for various purposes. They can develop a presentation together, create a mindmap, a storyline or do brainstorming. In this paper we would like to describe our key ideas, when designing the user experience of the collaboration function. We are arguing that the use of avatars in zoomable user interfaces are providing a uniquely efficient environment for collaboration in productivity applications. This kind of representation in a ZUI collaboration environment is raising group awareness, articulation work, and also gamifies presentation editing, facilitating casual interaction between the participants.

alt.chi: is there a designer in the house?

Welcome to the jungle: HCI after dark BIBAFull-Text 753-762
  Christine Satchell; Marcus Foth
The transformation of urban spaces that occurs once darkness falls is simultaneously exhilarating and menacing, and over the past 20 months we have investigated the potential for mobile technology to help users manage their personal safety concerns in the city at night. Our findings subverted commonly held notions of vulnerability, with the threat of violence felt equally by men and women. But while women felt protected because of their mobile technology, men dismissed it as digital Man Mace. We addressed this macho design challenge by studying remote engineers in outback Australia to inspire our personal safety design prototype MATE.
Action role design and observations in a gestural interface-based collaborative game BIBAFull-Text 763-772
  Wooi-Boon Goh; A Fitriani; Chun-Fan Goh; Jacquelyn Tan; Monica Menon; Libby Cohen
This paper explores the design of action roles for children playing an animal character-based collaborative game with gestural-sensitive tangible user interfaces. Based on trial runs with two inclusive groups of participants with mixed age and learning abilities, we report preliminary case study observations of the collaborative play behaviors solicited by the different interaction design patterns associated with the manner in which the action roles were distributed and coupled.
TaPS Widgets: tangible control over private spaces on interactive tabletops BIBAFull-Text 773-780
  Max Möllers; Ray Bohnenberger; Stephan Deininghaus; Patrick Zimmer; Karin Herrmann; Jan Borchers
Private areas are important in multi-user tabletop systems, but hard to implement with current technology. Existing approaches usually involve wearable devices such as shutter glasses or head-mounted displays that are cumbersome to wear. We present TaPS, lightweight transparent widgets that only pass light coming from a particular direction to shield the content beneath them from other users, creating Tangible Private Spaces. TaPS widgets use low-cost hardware to provide tangible privacy controls to interactive tabletops. Informal studies indicate that TaPS widgets enable users to successfully move documents between public and private tabletop spaces without compromising privacy.
Design considerations of expressive bidirectional telepresence robots BIBAFull-Text 781-790
  Ji-Dong Yim; Chris D. Shaw
Telepresence is an emerging market for everyday robotics, while limitations still exist for such robots to be widely used for ordinary people's social communication. In this paper, we present our iterative design approach toward an interactive bidirectional robot intermediaries along with application ideas and design considerations. This study also surveys recent efforts in HCI and HRI that augment multimodal interfaces for computer mediated communication. We conclude by discussing the key lessons we found useful from the system design. The findings for bidirectional telepresence robot interfaces are of: synchronicity, robot's role, intelligence, personalization, and personality construction method.
On ethical problem solving in user-centered research: an analysis BIBAFull-Text 791-798
  Zarla Ludin
User researchers are tasked with discovering, defining, and validating behaviors and needs with the goal of improving people's experiences. In practice, it may be easy to forget that research participants are in fact what academics would call "human subjects." Fields, in which research with humans is done, like Anthropology and Psychology, use procedural ethical codes to guide the research process in the spirit of "first do no harm". The purpose of this paper is to present the foundation of ethical problem solving in user research in order to engage and maintain a discussion amongst practitioners.

Empowering users in developing regions

Designing an e-solution for linking informal self-help groups in Africa: a case study BIBAFull-Text 799-814
  Mokeira Masita-Mwangi; Faith Ronoh-Boreh; Nyambura Kimani; Nancy Mwakaba; Grace Kihumba; Imelda Mueni; Jussi Impio
In this paper we describe the process of designing an e-solution for linking informal self-help groups in Africa as a case study. As in many parts of the developing world, participation in these groups in Africa is very popular. Also loosely referred to as Merry-Go-Rounds (MGRs) these are groups of people who come together for either or all of: sharing knowledge, news, ideas, tradition, supporting one another in times of need (social welfare), saving and borrowing together in a rotational manner (informal banking), and carrying out local income generating or self / community development projects. In Africa majority of MGRs are geographically isolated particularly those in rural areas hence interaction between different groups in different regions is minimal yet linking the groups could benefit them in various ways as described in this paper. Worthy of consideration is the implementation of linkages through e-solutions that would help overcome the geographical dispersion of groups. The MGR Solution designed by Nokia Research Center (NRC) Africa is one such tool. It is a mobile solution for self-help groups to better manage their group activities and link them to other groups thus creating financial and social synergy. It provides for various functions to support internal group activities (administrative, financial and projects), group to group activities (e.g. sharing news, ideas, and assets, pooling finances, collaborating on projects) and other external functions (organizations that desire to be linked to and work with groups). To satisfy this, the prototype developed includes a website for the MGR service designed to be accessed from a mobile phone based on the limited screen size and a website that can be accessed from a Personal Computer (PC) as it has more features as compared to the strip down version for mobile phones. The solution also includes a mobile client for the internal group management activities, ability to access MGR web services via the mobile client, and use of SMS for communication by the MGR service. This paper examines the design process of the MGR Solution through ethnographic research, concept development and implementation, and generated user feedback, and hence related Human Computer Interaction (HCI) circumstances, consequences and opportunities. A virtual platform for sharing and exchange provides a good opportunity for growth and development of self-help groups due to increased access to information. It mitigates the geographical hurdle and other related socio-cultural and cost challenges. However certain things may need to be taken into account. These include possible language barriers and how to overcome these e.g. through translations, low literacy levels hence potential to explore audio technologies such as speech to text and text to speech, and elements that can be incorporated on the virtual platform to help build and increase trust amongst the users so that they are able to interact successfully. For example, groups using the system need to be able to verify authenticity of other groups, have some kind of guarantee or mitigation of risks associated to resource sharing with other groups and control and ownership of the shared content.

SIG

Managing UX teams BIBAFull-Text 815-817
  Janice Rohn; Dennis Wixon; Jim Nieters; Carola Thompson
This SIG will serve two purposes: as a forum to share the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
From slacktivism to activism: participatory culture in the age of social media BIBAFull-Text 819-822
  Dana Rotman; Sarah Vieweg; Sarita Yardi; Ed Chi; Jenny Preece; Ben Shneiderman; Peter Pirolli; Tom Glaisyer
Social networking sites (e.g. Facebook), microblogging services (e.g. Twitter), and content-sharing sites (e.g. YouTube and Flickr) have introduced the opportunity for wide-scale, online social participation. Visibility of national and international priorities such as public health, political unrest, disaster relief, and climate change has increased, yet we know little about the benefits -- and possible costs -- of engaging in social activism via social media. These powerful social issues introduce a need for scientific research into technology mediated social participation. What are the actual, tangible benefits of "greening" Twitter profile pictures in support of the Iranian elections? Does cartooning a Facebook profile picture really raise awareness of child abuse? Are there unintended negative effects through low-risk, low-cost technology-mediated participation? And, is there a difference -- in both outcome and engagement level -- between different types of online social activism? This SIG will investigate technology mediated social participation through a critical lens, discussing both the potential positive and negative outcomes of such participation. Approaches to designing for increased participation, evaluating effects of participation, and next steps in scientific research directions will be discussed.

Panel

Quality control: a panel on the critique and criticism of design research BIBAFull-Text 823-826
  Jodi Forlizzi; Carl DiSalvo; Jeffrey Bardzell; Ilpo Koskinen; Stephan Wensveen
Design research is an emerging area in design that has increasing relevance to the field of HCI. While we have made advances in integrating design research methods, approaches, and outcomes in HCI, we still have a way to go. This is due to fundamental differences in the development of design knowledge as compared to scientific knowledge and knowledge about human theories of behavior. We call together this panel at CHI 2011, comprised of leading HCIdesign researchers, to explore ways to develop and refine critical discussions of design research within the HCI community.

Reading & writing

Bells, whistles, and alarms: HCI lessons using AJAX for a page-turning web application BIBAFull-Text 827-840
  Juliet L. Hardesty
This case study describes creating a version of METS Navigator, a page-turning web application for multi-part digital objects, using an AJAX library with user interface components. The design for this version created problems for customized user interactions and accessibility problems for users, including those using assistive technologies and mobile devices. A review of the literature considers AJAX, accessibility, and universal usability and possible steps to take moving forward to correct these problems in METS Navigator.

Software development & product support

Benefit analysis of user assistance improvements BIBAFull-Text 841-850
  Erika Noll Webb; Ray Matsil; Jeff Sauro
In this paper, we describe a study conducted to examine the impact of changes to our user assistance model in our enterprise software systems. In this study, we examined both a traditional user assistance model, as well as our new user assistance model.
   In the traditional user assistance model, users of a general ledger prototype were given inline error messages and access to a PDF version of the help manual from a help icon at the top of the page. In the new user assistance model, error messages appeared in pop-up windows with links to specific areas where users could correct the errors. Fields that needed to be changed were highlighted with a red border and when clicked, a description of the required change would appear. When users needed help, they could select from lists of relevant help topics available at different levels based on where they were working in the system.
Orchestration of ux methods as critical success factor in large scale software developments BIBAFull-Text 851-862
  Edmund Eberleh; Fazlul Hoque
Large scale software development in a technically layered environment and with multiple teams poses the challenge of information acquisition and communication of information across the stakeholders. This paper discusses our experiences on UI Design by applying well-established design methods in a context of large and distributed development teams. The case study reveals some characteristics of the task and development context accounting for issues we faced in the design process. We are discussing design assumptions and approaches which didn't work effectively and provide recommendations for more appropriate design processes that can be suitable for such contexts.
Evaluating eXtreme scenario-based design in a distributed agile team BIBAFull-Text 863-877
  Jason Chong Lee; Tejinder K. Judge; Donald Scott McCrickard
Enterprise-level organizations, which often rely on distributed development teams, are increasingly interested in finding ways to adopt agile and usability-focused methods. Agile usability researchers at Virginia Tech have partnered with Meridium, Inc. to look at how eXtreme Scenario-based Design (XSBD), an agile usability approach developed at Virginia Tech, can be used in a distributed environment. We report on the use of this XSBD approach in a distributed team at Meridium and how it addresses the challenges of an integrated approach through streamlined usability and development practices and clearly defined communication and information sharing practices.

SIG

Designing for the user experience of sociability in massively multiplayer online games BIBAFull-Text 879-882
  Georgios Christou; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Chee Siang Ang; Effie Lai-Chong Law
The emergence of MMOGs has led to new ways of socializing with friends. Nowadays a good online game is also associated with the pleasure of socializing and interacting with other players. One cannot play a game solitarily in a meaningful sense without interacting with the other players. However, there are still no integrated ways of designing and evaluating the inherent sociability of MMOGs, nor are there methods or guidelines for evaluating social user experiences. Designers of MMOGs are often left to use their intuition and experience, many times leading to design failures. This SIG aims to further the understanding of the challenges relating to the design of the social interactions that users experience, and the way these manifest and are supported in Massively Multi-player Online Games (MMOGs). The goal is to examine the ways that sociability manifests in MMOGs and the way that design affects these manifestations.
Accessible games SIG BIBAFull-Text 883-886
  Arnold Lund; Annuska Perkins; Sri Kurniawan; Lennart Nacke
Video games are early adopters of emerging technologies and introduce them to the mainstream market. Increasingly work-related applications follow the lead of entertainment systems. Yet with the growing importance and complexity of 3D technologies and virtual worlds, motion and gesture interfaces, more barriers are being raised that prevent people with disabilities from using or fully enjoying them. These new gaming experiences often require more control than current assistive technologies can support, even when the architectures themselves are designed to be accessible. The Accessible Games SIG will provide an opportunity for people working in the area of accessible games and entertainment or who can bring value to the area to meet and network, and to discuss future community building activities. A goal is to stimulate more collaboration in the accessible games area. In addition to sharing current work and identifying areas of common interest, a scenario focused exercise will be held that imagines a fully accessible networked virtual world game in order to uncover opportunities for research and innovation.

Student research competition

Exploring technological opportunities for cognitive impairment screening BIBAFull-Text 887-892
  Hyungsin Kim
In this paper, I present continuous research on developing a novel computerized screening tool for people with cognitive impairment. With the quickly growing aging population, more effectively accessible screening tools need to be developed. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the possible technological opportunities, I conducted clinical practice observations, surveys, and interviews with older adults, as well as medical practitioners, such as neurologists and neuropsychologists. Based on the analysis results, I identify several issues in the current practice. I then present an ongoing progression of the development in order to solve the issues with future directions.
How user reviews influence older and younger adults' credibility judgments of online health information BIBAFull-Text 893-898
  Vera Liao
A laboratory study was conducted to explore whether user reviews, a common Web 2.0 feature on healthcare website, would have differential influence on younger and older adults' judgment of information credibility. We found that when credibility cues in user reviews were consistent with those in Website contents, older adults benefited more from this supplementary information than younger adults, which allowed older adults to make better credibility judgments. When credibility cues in user reviews were inconsistent with those in Website contents, older adults were less influenced by the user reviews. Results have important implications on how user reviews may facilitate credibility judgment of online health information by older adults.
Send me bubbles: multimodal performance and social acceptability BIBAFull-Text 899-904
  Julie Rico Williamson
The use of performance as the focus of interaction provides the opportunity for exploratory and individual experiences but can also put users in an uncomfortable position. This paper presents an initial user study of a mobile remote awareness application in which users can control their own fish in a virtual fish tank using multimodal input from an external sensing device, where the input styles are created and performed by participants in an open ended sensing model. The study was designed in order to better understand the issues of performance when audience members are both casual passersby and familiar others watching remotely. Additionally, this study investigated the creation of performances and the effects of props when used in different social settings. The study involved pairs of participants interacting with the system in both public and private locations over repeated sessions. The results of this study show how users created and interpreted performances as well as how their consideration of passersby influenced their experiences.
Frankenstein and human error: device-oriented steps are more problematic than task-oriented ones BIBAFull-Text 905-910
  Maartje Ament
Most errors in routine procedures are merely annoying, but they can have severe consequences in safety-critical systems such as medical devices. The current work investigates whether errors are more likely to occur on device-oriented steps (those concerned only with the operation of the device) than on task-oriented ones (those that help the user achieve their main task goal). Error rates were recorded on a routine toy task, with several carefully controlled device- and task-oriented steps. Results show that error rates are substantially higher on device-oriented steps, and step times are longer. The findings demonstrate that a step's relevance to the task goal plays an important role in the occurrence of slip errors. They further highlight the problems associated with device-oriented steps, and make a strong case for avoiding them as much as possible in interface design.
A scalable and tiling multi-monitor aware window manager BIBAFull-Text 911-916
  Joona Antero Laukkanen
The design of a prototypical scalable and tiling multi-monitor aware window manager is described that may overcome some of the layout management problems encountered with tiling window managers. The system also features a novel approach to monitor configuration in which monitors are treated as independent movable viewports to the large virtual desktop. This approach is expected to address a number of distal access and monitor configuration problems. In particular, it will enable many uses of multiple monitors that require dynamic or flexible monitor configurations.
Sharing stories "in the wild": a mobile storytelling case study BIBAFull-Text 917-922
  Elizabeth Bonsignore
Today's mobile devices are natively equipped with multimedia means for children to capture and share their daily experiences. However, designing authoring tools that effectively integrate the discrete media-capture components of mobile devices to enable rich expression remains a challenge. We report results of a study on the observed use of StoryKit, a mobile application that integrates multimodal media-capture tools to support the creation of multimedia stories on the iPhoneiPod TouchiPad. The primary objectives of the study were to explore the ways in which StoryKit enables individuals to create and share personal stories; and to investigate how the created stories themselves might inform the design of mobile storytelling applications. Its results suggest that StoryKit's relatively simple but well-integrated interface enables the creation of vibrant, varied narratives. Further, genre analysis of the types of stories created revealed a surprising volume and diversity of use in educational contexts.
Trusting experience oriented design BIBAFull-Text 923-928
  Aisling Ann O'Kane
Although trust and affective experiences have been linked in HCI research, a connection between traditional trust research for automation and experience design has not be made. This paper aims to start this discussion by showing the connection between experience-oriented HCI design and trust in automation through an experimental study of the Lega, a companion device for enriching experiences in museums. An experience-oriented HCI design approach was used to create this device and although it is not traditional automation, this study presents the links found between this approach and the bases of trust in automation, performance, process, and purpose, with regards to experience qualities of transparency, ambiguity, and usefulness, respectively.
Code Gestalt: a software visualization tool for human beings BIBAFull-Text 929-934
  Christopher Kurtz
Programmers are often faced with the necessity to visualize source code and grasp its structure. In a survey we studied how developers deal with this task. Based on our findings, we present the software visualization tool Code Gestalt, which assists programmers in quickly creating class diagrams. We evaluated and refined our concept using two prototypes. As a result, Code Gestalt introduces the tag overlay and thematic relations. These augmentations to class diagrams display similarities in the vocabulary used in the underlying source code. This simple, yet effective toolset empowers the user to explore and visualize software systems. The preliminary results of a user study investigating Code Gestalt indicate good usability.
Cultural difference in image searching BIBAFull-Text 935-940
  Wei Dong
Previous studies suggested that people from Eastern and Western cultural origins tagged digital images in different ways due to cultural difference in attentional patterns [2]. This study was conducted to examine whether Easterners and Westerners also exhibited different behavioral patterns when searching for digital images. European Americans (EA) and Chinese were asked to general search keywords and to draw ideal target images for image searching tasks. Consistent with previous studies, results showed that Chinese were more likely to generate search keywords describing the overall properties of the target images than EA. When drawing ideal target images, EA assigned more space to the main objects than Chinese. The findings provided significant implications for designing cultural-sensitive tools to facilitate image search.
The influence of grids on spatial and content memory BIBAFull-Text 941-946
  Svenja Leifert
In this paper we present an experiment that aims at understanding the influence that (visual) grid-based structuring of user interfaces can have on spatial and content memory. By the term grid we refer to two different aspects. On the one hand, this relates to the structured alignment, the layout of objects on a canvas. On the other hand, a grid can also be indicated visually by inserting lines that form an array which divides a canvas into smaller fields. In both cases we detected a strong positive influence on spatial memory. On content memory, however, grids have a less beneficial influence. Only if grid lines are visible, the structured alignment has a positive effect. On the other hand, the visibility of grid lines always leads to worse results in content memory performance, independent of the spatial arrangement.
Digital commemoration: surveying the social media revival of historical crises BIBAFull-Text 947-952
  Sophia B. Liu
Social media has facilitated coordination efforts to help save lives, but are people using social media after the emergency phase? To answer this question, the author conducted a study surveying the social media revival of 111 crisis events that occurred over the past 50 years to examine if social media is being used to commemorate historical crises. Quantitative and qualitative social media metrics on each event were collected to determine their social media presence. The findings show that people are using social media to sustain the living record of past crises as an attempt to prevent disasters and strengthen resilience to future crises. Technological and social hazards that occurred before the social media age tended to exhibit a higher social media presence than natural hazards. Also, the revival of past crises typically occurred when they were linked to recent crises that exhibited similar causes, effects, and vulnerabilities. Issues in the construction and implementation of the survey inform the development of sociotechnical systems designed to collect, manage, and analyze historical events through the cyberinfrastructure.

Student design competition

Face-back: who is the illiterate again? BIBAFull-Text 953-958
  Hoda A. Hamouda; Mariam M. Hussein; Mohamed H. Sharaf-El-Deen; Nermeen M. Abdel-Aziz; Shady M. Hanna
Mutual respect and appreciation are the keys for integrating different groups into the society. We address in our work the special case of illiterate craftsmen in Egypt. Our research has shown that due to the illiteracy, they are excluded from the social mainstream, while paradoxically, we felt as illiterates in their world. Current solutions and services do not provide a two-way communication between illiterate and literate people that would help closing the gap. Face-back is a service that aims at bringing both worlds together by taking away the anonymity that leads to stereotypical ways of thinking.
Entrust: connecting low-income HIV+ individuals with health care providers BIBAFull-Text 959-964
  Clifford Gentry; Marisol Martinez Martinez Escobar; Philip Vander Broek; Douglas Choi; Stefan Ganchev
Individuals infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) face numerous stigmatizations and challenges, specifically with the maintenance and adherence to their medical regimen. This situation is further complicated when individuals lack monetary resources to maintain their overall wellbeing. This paper presents Entrust, a service that provides low-income HIV positive individuals (clients) with cellphones to communicate with their health care providers. The cellphone is used to foster consistent and effective communication between clients and case managers, and client compliance is motivated by free phone minutes. In this way, Entrust facilitates a higher quality of life for low-income HIV positive individuals.
Cowabunga!: a system to facilitate multi-cultural diversity through couchsurfing BIBAFull-Text 965-970
  Sujoy Kumar Chowdhury; Jody Wynn
Many organizations endeavor to promote diversity through their ideals and goals. Couchsurfing.org (CS) has a large presence in that realm. They have made it their mission to "create inspiring experiences: cross-cultural encounters that are fun, engaging and illuminating". However, even in this presumably open-minded community the participants are often advised by experienced couchsurfers (CSers) to filter their couch-searches within homogenous members to increase response rates. It is human nature to interact with people similar in values and belief systems. We propose Cowabunga!, a mobile application which augments multi-cultural exchanges instigated by CS. By facilitating chance meetings that would not happen otherwise, our solution is helping people get spontaneous exposure to others with whom they may have nothing in common except their CS membership.
ViTu: a system to help the Mexican people to preserve and celebrate their culture BIBAFull-Text 971-976
  Mónica Isabel González; Emilio Sánchez; Edgar de los Santos
ViTu is the entire development of a system focused on appreciating and highlighting the culture and traditions of native Mexican communities. It also contributes towards preserving and regaining the lost Mexican roots of the Mexican-Americans living in the United States. To achieve this, a culture, customs and traditions storage device of the Mexican village of San Jeronimo Silacayoapilla, was created. The main objective of this system is to encourage people to love and be proud of their cultural roots through technology. We are confident that this project will not only highlight the lifestyle of the native communities in Mexico but it will raise awareness on the importance of sharing, celebrating and appreciating our differences.
SignBright: a storytelling application to connect deaf children and hearing parents BIBAFull-Text 977-982
  Chad Harbig; Melissa Burton; Mariam Melkumyan; Lei Zhang; Jiyoung Choi
Deaf children of hearing parents face many unique challenges that have been shown to adversely impact their interpersonal interactions and development. Contemporary research indicates that many of these challenges stem from environmental factors, including a lack of exposure to language concepts during early developmental stages. In this paper, we will present an innovative solution to foster connection and understanding between deaf children and hearing parents, SignBright. In addition, SignBright promotes acquisition of sign language skills by hearing parents and deaf children, providing greater opportunities for interfamilial dialogue and bonding, and promoting development of social and linguistic competencies.
DiversIT: inspiring communication about individuals' differences BIBAFull-Text 983-988
  Timothy Ekl; Kenny Gao; Sarah Jabon; Joseph Salisbury; Eric Stokes
The world is a mosaic of unique individuals. It is easy, however, to take people's differences for granted. Many people have stereotypes and perceptions of others that conceal the truth about differences between them. In order to help people appreciate differences about one another, we designed DiversIT, which facilitates communication between all people by leveraging the power of the Internet. By centering discussion on a daily question, DiversIT establishes common ground through which people can begin interacting. This increased communication can lead to an improved understanding of each other. DiversIT was developed with user-centered design processes, incorporating potential users into every part of the design process.
Interactive therapy gloves: reconnecting partners after a stroke BIBAFull-Text 989-994
  James Hallam; Vanessa Whiteley
This paper explores the challenges that affect long-term partners after one of them suffers from a stroke, and offers a design solution as part of the CHI 2011 Student Design Competition. The challenge posed was to create a design that would help us to appreciate and celebrate our differences through the novel use of technology. We examined the changes that both partners go through during the recovery period after a stroke. We then designed an interactive glove as part of the rehabilitation process. The intent was to foster acceptance of each partner's contribution and to help them reconnect. This paper details the iterative design process involved.
TimeCapsule: connecting past BIBAFull-Text 995-1000
  Yikun Liu; Haidan Huang
Our world is changing at an ever-growing rate. The tide of urbanization and globalization has resulted in population migration that consequentially separates people from what is familiar to them. To combat this issue, we propose TimeCapsule. TimeCapsule is a social networking community intending to reserve, organize, share and utilize personal and collective memories by members of the community contributing location-related digitalized materials. Two clients will be designed to meet two kinds of usage: Mobile and Desktop. The mobile application will provide real-time old and new street view fusion in order to facilitate the user experience of appreciating the change in one location. The desktop client will help users organize and share personal and group memories. Special consideration for seniors will be addressed. By utilizing a connection to our past, we hope this initiative will help us to position ourselves to better appreciate the disparity between cultures and generations, thus unifying us.
Lingua: cultural exchange through language partnerships BIBAFull-Text 1001-1006
  Caitlin Holman; Jane Leibrock; Jose Jimenez; Daniel Greitzer; Tom Haynes
Language barriers prevent people from communicating directly and are often a reflection of larger cultural divisions that hinder connection. Exposure to foreign languages and cultures through travel can help bridge this divide, but is not always feasible given time and monetary constraints. Language exchange partnerships are an excellent way to learn a new language, but are often difficult to maintain due to lack of common ground between partners and the absence of supporting materials. We present Lingua, a system to connect individuals with different linguistic backgrounds, and provide them a digital space tailored to support language learning through conversation with a partner. Their dialogue is driven in part by the application's support for using shared multimedia to offer examples of their respective cultures.
Sharing the knowledge BIBAFull-Text 1007-1012
  Dustin York; Zhengxin Xi
Sharing the Knowledge is a community literacy learning system for implementation in the isolated regions of a developing nation. The project is a set of designed interactions that enables a collaborative social effort in creating and understanding educational materials, as means of compensation for the general lack of access to formal education and trained educators. The user-generated media is used for mobile learning applications and for creating social gaming incentives.
The design process of iConnect: social advice application BIBAFull-Text 1013-1018
  Shane Wachirawutthichai; Nisha Singh; Ramji Enamuthu; Yun Zhou
With Google [9] having established itself as the de-facto standard for document search and retrieval, the focus has shifted recently to the domain of social search. Morris et al. [12] define social search as "the process of finding information online with the assistance of social resources such as friends or unknown persons". A number of online services [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] have been created to enable social search. But most of these are not useful when a person is mobile and offline and when the information need is highly context-specific. To enable social search in such situations, we introduce iConnect, the social advice application for mobile phones. iConnect is designed to enable a unique kind of social search, where an iConnect user is connected to other iConnect users in the same geographic region or locality. This would help people to solve their daily information needs. This paper illustrates the design process that we employed to conceptualize and prototype this application.
Foodmunity: designing community interactions over food BIBAFull-Text 1019-1024
  Shad Gross; Austin Toombs; Jeff Wain; Kevin Walorski
Communities contain a rich diversity of backgrounds, personal experiences, and viewpoints. Fortunately, online social networks can make it even easier for people within a community to meet each other. This leads to an opportunity space for exposing people to the differences of their neighbors through mutual interaction. Our study presents Foodmunity, a social networking site that facilitates the organization of food-related events by members of a community. Meeting over a meal provides a more comfortable environment for experiencing new ideas, new people, and new viewpoints. Foodmunity utilizes themed events based on personal experiences its users have with food. This serves as both a cultural representation of those individuals and as a method of bonding between neighbors. By encouraging its users to reflect on the experiences they want to share and the experiences they have attending others' events, our system facilitates the growth of communities and a deeper understanding of the differences within.

Doctoral consortium

Informing design of systems for intelligence analysis: understanding users, user tasks, and tool usage BIBAFull-Text 1025-1028
  Youn-ah Kang
Although intelligence analysts are one of the main target users of visual analytics systems, we still do not understand their work practices and methodologies well. The lack of understanding about how intelligence analysts work and how they can benefit from visual analytics systems has created a gap between tools being developed and real world practices. I argue that we need a better understanding of these analysts and their tool usage to build systems that better support their tasks and add utility to their current work practices. By characterizing the analysis process and identifying leverage points for systems through empirical studies, I ultimately seek to develop a set of design guidelines and implications that can be used for building visual analytics systems for intelligence analysis.
Designing for movement experience BIBAFull-Text 1029-1032
  Aaron M. Levisohn
The contribution of the phenomenological aspects of movement to the construction of user experience is relatively unknown. A better understanding of the characteristics of movement experience has the potential to transform the quality of interaction and to assist in the development of alternative interaction methods for ubiquitous and tangible computing systems. The research presented in this paper integrates methods from a diverse range of disciplines including design, social science, and somatics to identify design principles that can guide the development of systems that incorporate aspects of movement experience.
Proxemic interactions in ubiquitous computing ecologies BIBAFull-Text 1033-1036
  Nicolai Marquardt
An important challenge in ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is to create techniques that allow people to seamlessly and naturally connect to and interact with the increasing number of digital devices. I propose to leverage the knowledge of people's and devices' spatial relationships -- called proxemics -- in ubicomp interaction design. I introduce my work of proxemic interactions that consider fine-grained information of proxemics to mediate people's interactions with digital devices, such as large digital surfaces or portable personal devices. This research includes the design of development tools for programmers creating proxemic-aware systems, and the design and evaluation of such interactive ubicomp systems.
Modeling users of intelligent systems BIBAFull-Text 1037-1040
  Stephanie Rosenthal
While many devices today increasingly have the ability to predict human activities, it is still difficult to build accurate personalized machine learning models. As users today will become responsible for helping to train their own models, we are interested in ways for applications to request labeled data from their users in a non-invasive way. This work focuses on opportunities for intelligent systems to ask their users for help through interactions over an extended period of time in order to improve their machine learning models. We focus on trading off the expected increase in accuracy with the potential interruptions that the questions may cause to improve the usability of such systems.
Understanding multitasking as an adaptive strategy selection process BIBAFull-Text 1041-1044
  Christian P. Janssen
The promotion of mobile devices within the field of HCI makes it necessary to better understand how these devices are used in multitasking contexts, so as to prevent accidents. In these contexts, users must choose how to allocate their attention to the tasks that they are engaged in. Using computational cognitive models, I demonstrate why users interleave tasks in particular patterns: to comply with priority objectives and to optimize performance. In future work, I will investigate how users learn to perform in optimum ways, so as to be able to predict performance during a first encounter with novel situations and interfaces.
Visual histories of decision processes for creative collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1045-1048
  Karine Kozlova
Collaborative decision making (CDM) is a key aspect of collaboration in both its importance to the process and its internal complexity. In my PhD research I focus on such decision making and its support through the use of history visualization and reconstruction. The goal of this research is to explore the role of history in collaborative activities and to provide a specific set of design guidelines and concepts for technological support of CDM through history capture, recall, review and revision.
Socialising presence BIBAFull-Text 1049-1052
  Daniel Gooch
Long distance relationships are not well supported by current communication technologies. Although these technologies are superb at communicating facts, they lack an emotional element which I argue is necessary for people who care about one another and yet who must live apart. My PhD aims to address this problem by examining social presence in technologically mediated relationships. Thus far I have built a number of teletangible devices to mimic human actions across a distance. I will deploy these systems within a number of long-distance relationships. I expect my research to result in new understanding which will lead to communication technologies with higher levels of social presence, thus supporting long-distance relationships.
The songs of our past: working with listening histories BIBAFull-Text 1053-1056
  Dominikus Baur
Music listening histories are portraits of a person's taste in music. In my research I am exploring this type of data and how user interfaces can be enhanced with it. In this Doctoral Consortium paper I describe my approach towards this goal: Statistical analysis and casual information visualizations can help in finding relevant patterns and aspects in listening histories. Making them available to regular users and asking what they learnt about themselves gives us the chance to find out more about their listening on the minute level of songs. Contextual information such as photos or calendar entries can help trigger memories. In this paper I describe the motivation and goals of my research and my current status. In the end, both the HCI community and end users can benefit from more convenient and sophisticated interfaces for this type of data.
Self-disclosure in social media BIBAFull-Text 1057-1060
  Javier Velasco-Martin
Computer mediated communication tools have multiplied the possibilities to stay in touch and interact with the people in our social network. The dynamics of use for these tools suggest changes in the context of self-disclosure. Although research has explored online self-disclosure of students (who are expressing large breaches in previous norms of privacy regulation), much less attention has been paid to disclosure behavior of older, and particularly experienced users. A mixed-method approach will be used to explore different aspects of this complex phenomenon, including a survey, interviews and experience sampling. Results of this project should reveal the most salient drivers for online Self-Disclosure for this group.
Distributed participatory design BIBAFull-Text 1061-1064
  Greg Walsh
Children who are not co-located with system developers because of geographic location or time zone difference have ideas that are just as important and valid as children who are easily "available". This problem is the motivation for my thesis work. I propose to design, develop, and research a computer-mediated, geographically distributed, asynchronous tool to facilitate intergenerational participatory design.
Physical activity with digital companions BIBAFull-Text 1065-1068
  Lorna Rae Boschman
While a majority of adults in industrialized countries do not exercise frequently enough to sustain physical health, games with an exertive interface -- exergames -- have been proposed as vehicles to increase activity levels. After a brief discussion of my background, I report on fundamental findings from studies conducted by interaction designers, social and computer scientists, and medical professionals whose work has responded to the crisis in physical activity levels. I give an overview of my proposed mixed methods research design, and discuss how I can both contribute and learn from approaches that can successfully support strong study findings.
Technology design for pediatric asthma management BIBAFull-Text 1069-1072
  Tae-Jung Yun
Asthma affects a significant number of children, families, and health care systems. In this work, I discuss the challenges that these stakeholders may face, and present system that may help address some of these challenges. Finally, I highlight the expected contributions of this work.
Using language-retrieved pictures to support intercultural brainstorming BIBAFull-Text 1073-1076
  Hao-Chuan Wang
Group brainstorming is a commonly practiced technique to enhance creative outcomes. Cultural differences in knowledge and perspectives are valuable sources for diversity essential to creative outcomes, while cultural discrepancy in communication and language may impede idea sharing. My dissertation research aims to reconcile the tension between the benefits and obstacles of intercultural brainstorming. The design approach is to augment conversational brainstorming with language-retrieved pictures. Pictures may provide rich stimulation and mediate concepts in a relatively language-independent manner, which may complement the still imperfect machine translation, and make inter-cultural and multi-lingual idea sharing more feasible.
Designing an interface for multimodal narrative creation BIBAFull-Text 1077-1080
  Katy Howland
Many young people struggle with developing writing skills, and computer game creation is a motivating activity with potential in this area. Existing software allows young people to design 3D areas and add game objects, but provides little or no interface support for writing and structuring narratives. This research explores the support required to create 3D multimodal narratives, adopting user-centred methods to design, build and evaluate a suite of dynamic representational tools. A key interface design challenge is developing representations that foster writing skills without losing the motivational immediacy of the activity.
Modeling places for interactive media and entertainment applications BIBAFull-Text 1081-1084
  Rui Nóbrega
Taking advantage of the multitude of cameras now available and capable of recording all aspects of our lives, this work explores the notion of virtualizing a physical place using cameras and sharing the resulting model with others. This social sharing would create new forms of relationship and common space discovery that would enhance video chats and virtual visiting of physical places. Furthermore, the research will consider the possible interactive applications, from games to augmented reality, which can take advantage of the created spatial and temporal models.
Pervasive negabehavior games for environmental sustainability BIBAFull-Text 1085-1088
  Joel Ross
Pervasive games -- games that expand into everyday life -- offer a potentially powerful method of promoting social good by encouraging people to perform new, positive actions. However, achieving some desired social goals (such as environmental sustainability) may also require people to stop performing undesirable actions -- a form of behavior change that contrasts with common framings of pervasive game-play. I propose to create "Negabehavior Games" -- games that encourage players to adopt "negabehaviors" (a manner of conducting oneself that supplants undesirable actions). This research offers a novel approach to designing pervasive games and other interactive experiences, as well as the potential to encourage people to live more environmentally sustainable lives.

Interactivity 2

COCO: the therapy robot BIBAFull-Text 1089-1094
  Katharina Tran phuc; Torsten Racky; Florian Roth; Iris Wegmann; Mara Pilz; Christoph Busch; Katharina Horst; Claudia Söller-Eckert
This paper describes the idea of Coco, a therapeutic robot designed for elderly people in nursing homes or other care facilities. It includes a description of the conducted research, followed by the concept of the prototype which was implemented and successfully tested by a focus group.
Touch and copy, touch and paste BIBAFull-Text 1095-1098
  Pranav Mistry; Suranga Nanayakkara; Pattie Maes
SPARSH explores a novel interaction method to seamlessly transfer data between digital devices in a fun and intuitive way. The user touches whatever data item he or she wants to copy from a device. At that moment, the data item is conceptually saved in the user. Next, the user touches the other device he or she wants to pastepass the saved content into. SPARSH uses touch-based interactions as indications for what to copy and where to pass it. Technically, the actual transfer of media happens via the information cloud.
Mouseless: a computer mouse as small as invisible BIBAFull-Text 1099-1104
  Pranav Mistry; Pattie Maes
Mouseless is a novel input device that provides the familiarity of interaction of a physical computer mouse without requiring a real hardware mouse. It consists of an IR laser beam and an IR camera, both of which are embedded in a computer. Mouseless proposes a number of novel additional gestural interactions while supporting all the conventional computer mouse interactions. In this short paper, we present the design and implementation of various Mouseless prototype systems.
Obfuscating authentication through haptics, sound and light BIBAFull-Text 1105-1110
  Andrea Bianchi; Ian Oakley; Dong-Soo Kwon
Sensitive digital content associated with or owned by individuals now pervades everyday life. Mediating accessing to it in ways that are usable and secure is an ongoing challenge. This paper briefly discusses a series of five PIN entry and transmission systems that address observation attacks in public spaces via shoulder surfing or camera recording. They do this through the use of novel modalities including audio cues, haptic cues and modulated visible light. Each prototype is introduced and motivated, and its strengths and weaknesses are considered. The paper closes with a general discussion of the relevance of this work and the upcoming issues it faces.
Blinky blocks: a physical ensemble programming platform BIBAFull-Text 1111-1116
  Brian T. Kirby; Michael Ashley-Rollman; Seth Copen Goldstein
A major impediment to understanding programmable matter is the lack of an existing system with sufficiently many modules of sufficient capabilities. In this paper we describe the requirements of physically distributed ensembles and discuss the use of the distributed programming language Meld to program ensembles of these units. We demonstrate a new system designed to meet these requirements called Blinky Blocks and discuss the hardware design we used to create 100 of these modules.

Interactivity special performances

humanaquarium: exploring audience, participation, and interaction BIBAFull-Text 1117-1122
  Robyn Taylor; Guy Schofield; John Shearer; Jayne Wallace; Peter Wright; Pierre Boulanger; Patrick Olivier
humanaquarium is a movable performance space designed to explore the dialogical relationship between artist and audience. Two musicians perform inside the cube-shaped box, collaborating with participants to co-create an aesthetic audio-visual experience. The front wall of the humanaquarium is a touch-sensitive FTIR window. MaxMSP is used to translate the locations of touches on the window into control data, manipulating the tracking of software synthesizers and audio effects generated in Ableton Live, and influencing a Jitter visualization projected upon the rear wall of the cube.

Interactivity 2

Tangible 3D haptics on touch surfaces: virtual compliance BIBAFull-Text 1123-1128
  Johan Kildal
Suitability of current haptic three-dimensional user interface (3D-UI) technologies is low for mobile interaction. 3D-Press in reviewed in this paper: a technique to create the haptic illusion that when pressing on a rigid surface is feels compliant. The fact that the illusion is intramodal (haptics only involved in creating it), and that the technology required is simple and with low energy demands, makes it ideal for mobile use. The parameters used in the implementation of 3D-Press influence the characteristics of the illusion. A research agenda is proposed to understand this relationship, as well as to learn how to integrate 3D-Press in multimodal interfaces for constantly-changing mobile use contexts.

Interactivity special performances

Graffito: crowd-based performative interaction at festivals BIBAFull-Text 1129-1134
  Jennifer Sheridan; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Stuart Reeves; Joe Marshall; Giles Lane
Crowd-based events are generating new forms of crowd-based performative interaction. Nightclubs and festivals are at the cutting edge of crowd-based interaction with ubiquitous computing. The social capital of crowd-based interaction is not well understood and is usually limited to one-off events. Our intention is to explore the possibility for generating a lifelong contextual footprint of crowd-based performative interaction. In this paper, we present and discuss two case studies of designing applications for crowd-based performative interaction at two large-scale festivals and reflect on their implications for design.

Interactivity 2

Galvanic skin response-derived bookmarking of an audio stream BIBAFull-Text 1135-1140
  Matthew K. X. J. Pan; Gordon Jih-Shiang Chang; Gokhan H. Himmetoglu; AJung Moon; Thomas W. Hazelton; Karon E. MacLean; Elizabeth A. Croft
We demonstrate a novel interaction paradigm driven by implicit, low-attention user control, accomplished by monitoring a user's physiological state. We have designed and prototyped this interaction for a first use case of bookmarking an audio stream, to holistically explore the implicit interaction concept. A listener's galvanic skin conductance (GSR) is monitored for orienting responses (ORs) to external interruptions; our research prototype then automatically bookmarks the media such that the user can attend to the interruption, then resume listening from the point he/she is interrupted.
MediaDiver: viewing and annotating multi-view video BIBAFull-Text 1141-1146
  Gregor Miller; Sidney Fels; Abir Al Hajri; Michael Ilich; Zoltan Foley-Fisher; Manuel Fernandez; Daesik Jang
We propose to bring our novel rich media interface called MediaDiver demonstrating our new interaction techniques for viewing and annotating multiple view video. The demonstration allows attendees to experience novel moving target selection methods (called Hold and Chase), new multi-view selection techniques, automated quality of view analysis to switch viewpoints to follow targets, integrated annotation methods for viewing or authoring meta-content and advanced context sensitive transport and timeline functions. As users have become increasingly sophisticated when managing navigation and viewing of hyper-documents, they transfer their expectations to new media. Our proposal is a demonstration of the technology required to meet these expectations for video. Thus users will be able to directly click on objects in the video to link to more information or other video, easily change camera views and mark-up the video with their own content. The applications of this technology stretch from home video management to broadcast quality media production, which may be consumed on both desktop and mobile platforms.

Interactivity 1

TagURit: a proximity-based game of tag using lumalive e-textile displays BIBAFull-Text 1147-1152
  Sylvia H. Cheng; Kibum Kim; Roel Vertegaal
We present an electronic game of tag that uses proximity sensing and Lumalive displays on garments. In our game of tag, each player physically represents a location-tagged Universal Resource Indicator (URI). The URIs, one chaser and two target players, wear touch-sensitive Lumalive display shirts. The goal of the game is for the chaser to capture a token displayed on one of the Lumalive shirts, by pressing a touch sensor located on the shirt. When the chaser is in close proximity to the token player, the token jumps to the shirt of the second closest player, making this children's game more challenging for adult players. Our system demonstrates the use of interactive e-textile displays to remove the technological barrier between contact and proximity in the real world, and the seamless representation of gaming information from the virtual world in that real world.

Interactivity 2

Frictional widgets: enhancing touch interfaces with programmable friction BIBAFull-Text 1153-1158
  Vincent Levesque; Louise Oram; Karon MacLean; Andy Cockburn; Nicholas Marchuk; Dan Johnson; J. Edward Colgate; Michael Peshkin
Touch interactions occur through flat surfaces that lack the tactile richness of physical interfaces. We explore the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar applications -- an alarm clock, a file manager, a game, and a text editor -- demonstrate tactile effects that improve touch interactions by enhancing physicality, performance, and subjective satisfaction.
SnowGlobe: a spherical fish-tank VR display BIBAFull-Text 1159-1164
  John Bolton; Kibum Kim; Roel Vertegaal
In this paper, we present a spherical display with Fish-Tank VR as a means for interacting with three-dimensional objects. We implemented the spherical display by reflecting a projected image off a hemispherical mirror, allowing for a seamless curvilinear display surface. Diffuse illumination is used for detecting touch points on the sphere. The user's head position and the position of the sphere are also tracked using a Vicon motion capture device. Users can perform multi-touch gestures to interact with 3D content on the spherical display. Our system relies on the metaphor of a snow globe. Users can walk around a display while maintaining motion parallax corrected viewpoints of the object on the display. They can interact with the 3D object using multitouch interaction techniques, allowing for rotating and scaling of the 3D model on the display.
ZeroTouch: a zero-thickness optical multi-touch force field BIBAFull-Text 1165-1170
  Jon Moeller; Andruid Kerne; Sashikanth Damaraju
We present zero-thickness optical multi-touch sensing, a technique that simplifies sensor/display integration, and enables new forms of interaction not previously possible with other multi-touch sensing techniques. Using low-cost modulated infrared sensors to quickly determine the visual hull of an interactive area, we enable robust real-time sensing of fingers and hands, even in the presence of strong ambient lighting. Our technology allows for 20+ fingers to be detected, many more than through prior visual hull techniques, and our use of wide-angle optoelectonics allows for excellent touch resolution, even in the corners of the sensor. With the ability to track objects in free space, as well as its use as a traditional multi-touch sensor, ZeroTouch opens up a new world of interaction possibilities.

Interactivity 1

Immersive VR: a non-pharmacological analgesic for chronic pain? BIBAFull-Text 1171-1176
  Diane Gromala; Meehae Song; Ji-Dong Yim; Tyler Fox; Steven J. Barnes; Mark Nazemi; Chris Shaw; Pam Squire
This paper describes the research work being carried out by the Transforming Pain Research Group -- the only group whose work is entirely focused on the use of immersive VR for chronic pain management. Unlike VR research for acute or short-term pain, which relies on pain "distraction," this research posits a new paradigm for the use of VR. In addition to providing an overview of our work, the present paper also describes one of our current works in detail: the Virtual Meditative Walk.

Works-in-progress

Low cost vs. high-end eye tracking for usability testing BIBAFull-Text 1177-1182
  Sune Alstrup Johansen; Javier San Agustin; Henrik Skovsgaard; John Paulin Hansen; Martin Tall
Accuracy of an open source remote eye tracking system and a state-of-the-art commercial eye tracker was measured 4 times during a usability test. Results from 9 participants showed both devices to be fairly stable over time, but the commercial tracker was more accurate with a mean error of 31 pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests that low cost eye tracking can become a viable alternative, when usability studies need not to distinguish between, for instance, particular words or menu items that participants are looking at, but only between larger areas-of-interest they pay attention to.
A crowdsourcing model for receiving design critique BIBAFull-Text 1183-1188
  Anbang Xu; Brian P. Bailey
Designers in many domains are increasingly turning to online communities to receive critiques of early design ideas. However, members of these communities may not contribute an effective critique due to limited skills, motivation, or time, and therefore many critiques may not go beyond "I (don't) like it". We propose a new approach for designers to receive online critique. Our approach is novel because it adopts a theoretical framework for effective critique and implements the framework on a popular crowdsourcing platform. Preliminary results show that our approach allows designers to acquire quality critiques in a timely manner that compare favorably with critiques produced from a well-known online community.
Touch-Bookmark: a lightweight navigation and bookmarking technique for e-books BIBAFull-Text 1189-1194
  Dongwook Yoon; Yongjun Cho; Kiwon Yeom; Ji-Hyung Park
The navigation function of an e-book significantly influences its usability. In this paper, we introduce Touch-Bookmark (TB), a multitouch navigation technique for e-books. TB enables users to bookmark a page in a casual manner and return to it quickly when required. Moreover, the users can flip between two remote pages by using simple gestures. In a usability test conducted to evaluate our prototype, users found the technique easy to learn, natural to use, and useful for navigation. Analysis of the patterns of interaction gestures helped identify human factors that should be considered when designing touch interfaces for e-books. The factors include navigation strategies, patterns of interaction gestures, types of books, and motor memory.
Understanding email communication of persons with aphasia BIBAFull-Text 1195-1200
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Jean-Bernard Martens
An email program has been developed by the Aphasia Union Netherlands (AVN) to enhance communication between aphasics mutually and with their therapists. In this paper we report intermediate evaluation results of the AVN email program. We evaluated the email program in two ways: a. by analyzing the AVN email server logs and b. by collecting subjective responses through questionnaires. Our results indicate that both aphasics and therapists find the email program useful, despite the fact that they expressed several criticisms about its usability. Therefore, some changes are required to make the program better useable and more widely accessible for the target group.
A context-sensitive device to help people with autism cope with anxiety BIBAFull-Text 1201-1206
  Marziya Mohammedali; Dinh Phung; Brett Adams; Svetha Venkatesh
We describe a smartphone application that helps people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cope with anxiety attacks. Our prototype provides a one-touch interface for indicating a panic level. The device's response -- to instruct, soothe, and/or contact carers -- is sensitive to the user's context, consisting of time, location, ambient noise, and nearby friends. Formative evaluation unearths a critical challenge to building assistive technologies for ASD sufferers: can regimented interfaces foster flexible behaviour? Our observations suggest that a delicate balance of design goals is required for a viable assistive technology.
The effects of screen-size and communication modality on psychology of mobile device users BIBAFull-Text 1207-1212
  Ki Joon Kim; S. Shyam Sundar; Eunil Park
Does screen-size matter in mobile devices? There appears to be a move toward larger screens, with recent launches of Apple's iPad and Samsung's Galaxy Tab, but do these devices undercut the perceived mobility and affect user attitudes toward the technology? To answer these and related questions, the present study examines the effects of screen-size and communication modality (text vs. video) on mobile device users' perception of mobility and content as well as attitudes toward technology acceptance. Preliminary data from a between-subjects experiment show that smaller screen-size elicited greater perceived mobility while larger screen-size was key to greater enjoyment. News story in video format played a crucial role in providing greater enjoyment and newsworthiness of the news story while news in text format was perceived to be easier to use on a mobile device. Design implications and limitations are discussed, as we prepare for a constructive replication.
On the use of pervasive computing to support patients with obsessive compulsive disorder BIBAFull-Text 1213-1218
  Vassilis-Javed Khan; Panos Markopoulos; Nynke Spijksma
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder affecting 2% to 3% of world population. Patients having this disorder engage in repetitive and discomforting behaviors usually linked to controlling or cleaning. The potential of technical solutions trying to support both patients and therapists has been to a limited extent explored with some encouraging results. However, the use of a mobile phone application has not yet been explored. We present a study of a distributed application, partly running on mobile phone and partly on a website, with four patients suffering from OCD and their therapist. Our qualitative evaluation yields encouraging conclusions for practitioners and developers of such applications.
Living with pain, staying in touch: exploring the communication needs of older adults with chronic pain BIBAFull-Text 1219-1224
  Jessica M. David; Alison Benjamin; Ronald M. Baecker; Diane Gromala; Jeremy Birnholtz
For older adults with chronic pain, maintaining social ties can be difficult. Both chronic pain and social isolation compound each other and are associated with poor health outcomes. Our research explores how technology can be used to facilitate communication and support for older adults with chronic pain. We report on preliminary results of field research with 20 participants and deployment of a digital communicating picture frame prototype. We found that chronic pain introduces unique barriers to synchronous contact and that our prototype seemed to fit the needs of these individuals by supporting meaningful asynchronous communication with the possibility for adjustable reciprocity.
Ambient displays: influencing movement patterns BIBAFull-Text 1225-1230
  Tasos Varoudis; Sheep Dalton; Katerina Alexiou; Theodore Zamenopoulos
Ambient displays are gradually augmenting the principal static elements of architecture, such as walls, transforming space into a dynamic and ever-changing environment. Does the addition of such digital elements influence people's perception and understanding of space around them? If so, do ambient displays lead to behavioral changes like people's movement in such environments? In this particular study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate public interior spaces with embedded ambient displays. The findings are then presented showing how the presence of an ambient display through its visual depth affects and changes movement patterns. This study discusses the ability of an ambient display to refine navigation paths and suggests that its visual depth can enhance its effectiveness.
A tactile friend sense for keeping groups together BIBAFull-Text 1231-1236
  Martin Pielot; Benjamin Poppinga; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Visiting crowded places at night in a group of friends is a common leisure activity in many parts of the world. However, the chaotic nature of such place makes it difficult to keep the group together. Constantly watching out for the others or frequent use of technology (e.g. phone calls or Google Latitude) may be contradictory to the idea of having a jolly night out. We therefore designed FriendSense, a mobile application that acts as a pervasive anchor to one of the friends. Beyond existing solutions it allows to continuously sense the anchored friend's location through vibro-tactile feedback. In a preliminary field study we investigated how this added sense affects a night out at an Oktoberfest-like festival. We found evidence that FriendSense users were more confident and less stressed with keeping the group together.
Recompose: direct and gestural interaction with an actuated surface BIBAFull-Text 1237-1242
  Matthew Blackshaw; Anthony DeVincenzi; David Lakatos; Daniel Leithinger; Hiroshi Ishii
In this paper we present Recompose, a new system for manipulation of an actuated surface. By collectively utilizing the body as a tool for direct manipulation alongside gestural input for functional manipulation, we show how a user is afforded unprecedented control over an actuated surface. We describe a number of interaction techniques exploring the shared space of direct and gestural input, demonstrating how their combined use can greatly enhance creation and manipulation beyond unaided human capability.
Make a trip an experience: sharing in-car information with passengers BIBAFull-Text 1243-1248
  Ohad Inbar; Noam Tractinsky
Current in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) are designed for use by a single entity -- the driver. In this paper we propose that the benefits of IVIS can increase if we also consider the needs of passengers and their potential contribution as additional information handlers who buffer the driver from information overload. The benefits these "incidental users" of IVIS can reap from having trip-related information shared with them include reduced boredom, increased trust and a sense of inclusion. Drivers' benefits include less distraction caused by questions previously aimed at them as the exclusive owners of the trip-related information, and reduced information load by allowing passengers to actively control selected in-car systems.
Effects of different types of artifacts on interpretations of artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) BIBAFull-Text 1249-1254
  Takanori Komatsu; Seiji Yamada; Kazuki Kobayashi; Kotaro Funakoshi; Mikio Nakano
So far, we already confirmed that the artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) from a robot could convey its internal states to participants accurately and intuitively. In this paper, we investigated whether the ASEs from an on-screen artifact could also convey the artifact's internal states to participants in order to confirm whether the ASEs can be interpreted consistently for various types of artifacts. The results clearly showed that the ASEs' interpretations from on-screen artifact were consistent with the ones from robotic agent.
Adaptive eye-gaze-guided interfaces: design & performance evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1255-1260
  Oleg Komogortsev; Corey Holland; Jose Camou
This paper considers the effects of user interface adaptation based on regional eye tracker accuracy to improve user performance and satisfaction in an eye-gaze-guided application. We objectively and subjectively evaluated the differences between an adaptive interface, in which navigational elements were placed in regions of highest accuracy, and its inverted counterpart, in which navigational elements were placed in regions of lowest accuracy. The results indicate that by accounting for regional accuracy the adaptive interface was able to provide a significant improvement in user performance, though this effect had little bearing on user satisfaction.
RegionalSliding: enhancing target selection on touchscreen-based mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1261-1266
  Wenchang Xu; Chun Yu; Yuanchun Shi
Target selection on mobile devices with touchscreens usually gets users into trouble due to the occlusion of the target by the user's finger and ambiguity about which part of the finger generates the result point. In this paper, we propose a novel technique to enhance target selection on touchscreen-based mobile devices, named RegionalSliding, which selectively renders the initially "selected" target as well as its "surrounding" targets in a non-occluded area when users press down on the screen and enables users to complete the selection with sliding gestures according to the visual feedback from the rendered area. A preliminary user study shows that RegionalSliding increases the selection accuracy and brings good user experience.
Why not use mobile phones: an observational study of medical work BIBAFull-Text 1267-1272
  So Young Lee; Sun Young Park; Yunan Chen
Previous studies suggest that mobile phones could prevent many communication and information breakdowns that commonly occur in a hospital environment. However, the actual benefits of mobile phones in medical work remain unexplored. We studied mobile phone usage among nurses in an Emergency Department (ED). Surprisingly, mobile phones were not favored by our study participants. We found that mobile phones do not support essential characteristics of nursing work in ED because they lack support for group awareness, informative interruption, and role-based calling. The findings suggest that the design of mobile devices should support nurses' share of work responsibilities and the need for information transparency.
Enhancing outdoor navigation systems through vibrotactile feedback BIBAFull-Text 1273-1278
  Dominik Bial; Dagmar Kern; Florian Alt; Albrecht Schmidt
While driving many tasks compete for the attention of the user, mainly via the audio and visual channel. When designing systems depending upon providing feedback to users (e.g., navigation systems), it is a crucial prerequisite to minimize influence on and distraction from the driving task. This becomes even more important when designing systems for the use on motorbikes; space for output devices is scarce, as people are wearing helmets visual feedback is often difficult due to lighting conditions, and audio feedback is limited. In a first step we aimed at creating an understanding as to how information could be communicated in a meaningful way using vibrotactile signals. Therefore, we investigated suitable positions of actuators on the hand, appropriate length of the vibration stimulus, and different vibration patterns. We built a first prototype with 4 vibration actuators attached to the fingertips and asked 4 participants to test our prototype while driving. With this work we envision to lay the foundations for vibrotactile support in navigation systems.
Us'em: motivating stroke survivors to use their impaired arm and hand in daily life BIBAFull-Text 1279-1284
  Luuk Beursgens; Freek Boesten; Annick Timmermans; Henk Seelen; Panos Markopoulos
Stroke leaves the majority of its survivors with an impairment of the upper extremity that seriously reduces their quality of life and their ability to live independently. Rehabilitation research has shown that extensive usage of the impaired arm in everyday life can improve arm-hand performance, even in chronic stages after stroke. Such usage though is difficult for patients who need some help to be reminded and motivated for using the impaired arm. This paper presents the user centered design and initial evaluation of Us'em, a watch-like device that provides feedback to patients regarding the usage of their impaired arm-hand in relation to their non-affected upper extremity in order to motivate them to use their affected arm more.
Duet for solo piano: MirrorFugue for single user playing with recorded performances BIBAFull-Text 1285-1290
  Xiao Xiao; Hiroshi Ishii
MirrorFugue is an interface that supports symmetric, real-time collaboration on the piano using spatial metaphors to communicate the hand gesture of collaborators. In this paper, we present an extension of MirrorFugue to support single-user interactions with recorded material and outline usage scenarios focusing on practicing and self-reflection. Based on interviews with expert musicians, we discuss how single-user interactions on MirrorFugue relate to larger themes in music learning and suggest directions for future research.
OpenID-enabled browser: towards usable and secure web single sign-on BIBAFull-Text 1291-1296
  San-Tsai Sun; Eric Pospisil; Ildar Muslukhov; Nuray Dindar; Kirstie Hawkey; Konstantin Beznosov
OpenID is an open and promising Web single sign-on solution; however, the interaction flows provided by OpenID are inconsistent, counter-intuitive, and vulnerable to phishing attacks. In this work, we investigated the challenges web users face when using OpenID for authentication, and designed a phishing-resistant, privacy-preserving browser add-on to provide a consistent and intuitive single sign-on user experience for the average web users.
Children may expect drag-and-drop instead of point-and-click BIBAFull-Text 1297-1302
  Wolmet Barendregt; Mathilde M. Bekker
In this paper we present evidence from a pilot study that children may have started to expect the drag-and-drop interaction style. This is in contrast with probably the most cited paper on this topic from 2001, stating that point-and-click is the most appropriate interaction style for children between 6 and 12 years old. Instead of providing children with information on the interaction style expected we developed two point-and-click interfaces and let children explore those interfaces themselves. Children consistently tried to apply the drag-and-drop interaction style both initially and after having discovered the point-and-click style, resulting in problems in interacting with the interfaces. This was especially clear for the type of action having a natural mapping to holding down the mouse-button, such as cutting or drawing lines. In summary, it appears that children have begun to expect the drag-and-drop interaction style and that deviating from this standard may result in serious usability problems.
SoloFind: chains of interactions with a mobile retail experience system BIBAFull-Text 1303-1308
  Alexander Wiethoff; Gregor Broll
This paper presents SoloFind, a mobile retail experience system for large consumer electronic stores that helps users to retrieve product information. A tangible user interface (TUI) allows customers to collect product information via a simple, Near Field Communication (NFC) based interaction. This data can be customized, reviewed and compared at an interactive kiosk. The simple, touch-like interaction with NFC provides a seamless user experience for customers. This paper focuses on the design of SoloFind, its features and their preliminary evaluation with an experience prototype.
Squeeze vs. tilt: a comparative study using continuous tactile feedback BIBAFull-Text 1309-1314
  Eve Hoggan; Dari Trendafilov; Teemu Ahmaniemi; Roope Raisamo
This paper presents an investigation into the performance of squeezing as a manipulative interaction technique in comparison to tilting with an aim to answer two questions: is squeezing an effective input technique for mobile devices and can tactile feedback improve performance? The experiment results show that both input methods are viable but squeezing is significantly faster and more sustainable than tilting (with and without tactile feedback).
Evaluating an automatic rotation feature in collaborative tabletop workspaces BIBAFull-Text 1315-1320
  Gianluca Schiavo; Giulio Jacucci; Tommi Ilmonen; Luciano Gamberini
Tabletops are commonly used for collaboration but would benefit from features that help orient objects to individual users disposed around the display. We propose an approach of automatic orientation based on fingers and hand detection as a proxy to determine the position of the user. To contribute to the discussion of the relevance of automatic rotation, we present a comparison study of pairs of participants engaged in both loosely and tightly coupled tasks. We collected performance measures, questionnaires and analyze interactions from video recordings. The results show that automatic rotation is more suitable when the collaboration is loosely coupled. Conversely, in tightly coupled tasks performance are worse and user ratings low when automatic rotations are enabled. We conclude that features such as automatic orientation on tabletop are important and promising but that they need to be critically assessed with respect to their effects on collaboration in both tightly and loosely coupled tasks.
Participatory sensing for community building BIBAFull-Text 1321-1326
  Michael Whitney; Heather Richter Lipford
In this research, we explore the viability of using participatory sensing as a means to enhance a sense of community. To accomplish this, we are developing and deploying a suite of participatory sensing applications, where users explicitly report on the state of their environment, such as the location of the bus. In doing so, community members become reliant on each other for valuable information about the community. By better understanding the relationship between participatory sensing and community, we inform the design and research of similar participatory sensing, or crowd-sourced sensing applications.
Towards user-centered mashups: exploring user needs for composite web services BIBAFull-Text 1327-1332
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Minna Wäljas
The Web contains a vast amount of services supporting users in various facets of life. In mashup or composite Web services, elements from various services are combined to create a service which suits users' needs. Our goal was to explore what kind of composite services users would need. We conducted semi-structured interviews with nine Web service users to investigate their experiences of service composition and expectations to future services. We also asked the participants to sketch their ideal composite service UI for both PC and mobile device. Our results indicate that service users do not yet have much experience of mashups but there is a need to merge functionality and data from different services to achieve the customized, integrated Web service. This work contributes to the development of future Web services and mashup tools.
Five strategies for supporting healthy behavior change BIBAFull-Text 1333-1338
  Yevgeniy Medynskiy; Svetlana Yarosh; Elizabeth Mynatt
There is an ongoing search for theoretical foundations and design principles for interactive systems that support healthy behavior change. In this work-in-progress, we present several behavior change strategies that are currently used in effective health self-management interventions. We then discuss how these strategies can be used in applications that support behavior change in the healthwellness domain.
Interaction and rendering techniques for handheld phantograms BIBAFull-Text 1339-1344
  Finn Ericsson; Alex Olwal
We present a number of rendering and interaction techniques that exploit the user's viewpoint for improved realism and immersion in 3D applications on handheld devices. Unlike 3D graphics on stationary screens, graphics on handheld devices are seldom regarded from a fixed perspective. This is particularly true for recent mobile platforms, where it is increasingly popular to use device orientation for interaction. We describe a set of techniques for improved perception of rendered 3D content. Viewpoint correct anamorphosis and stereoscopy are discussed along with ways to approximate the spatial relationship between the user and the device.
Puchi Planet: a tangible interface design for hospitalized children BIBAFull-Text 1345-1350
  Shinsuke Akabane; Johnson Leu; Hiromi Iwadate; Jae Won Choi; Chin Ching Chang; Saori Nakayama; Madoka Terasaki; Hala Eldemellawy; Masa Inakage; Susumu Furukawa
This paper describes the concept, design and prototype of a tangible user interface (TUI) based toy set for the purpose to bring fun into the lives of hospitalized children. The objective is to encourage children to interact with others and satisfy their curiosity of the outside world. This prototype takes the form of a play set that provides the experience of taking a jet tour and seeing different scenes around the world.
CapWidgets: tangile widgets versus multi-touch controls on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1351-1356
  Sven Kratz; Tilo Westermann; Michael Rohs; Georg Essl
We present CapWidgets, passive tangible controls for capacitive touch screens. CapWidgets bring back physical controls to off-the-shelf multi-touch surfaces as found in mobile phones and tablet computers. While the user touches the widget, the surface detects the capacitive marker on the widget's underside. We study the relative performance of this tangible interaction with direct multi-touch interaction and our experimental results show that user performance and preferences are not automatically in favor of tangible widgets and careful design is necessary to validate their properties.
Me hates this: exploring different levels of user feedback for (usability) bug reporting BIBAFull-Text 1357-1362
  Florian Heller; Leonhard Lichtschlag; Moritz Wittenhagen; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
User feedback for deployed software systems ranges from simple one-bit-feedback to full-blown bug reports. While detailed bug reports are very helpful for the developers to track down problems, the expertise and commitment required from the user is high. We analyzed existing user report systems and propose a flexible and independent hard- and software architecture to collect user feedback. We report our results from a preliminary two-week user study testing the system in the field and discuss challenges and solutions for the collection of multiple levels of user feedback through different modalities.
TOK: a tangible interface for storytelling BIBAFull-Text 1363-1368
  Cristina Sylla; Pedro Branco; Clara Coutinho; Eduarda Coquet; David Skaroupka
We present the design of the first prototype of TOK -- a tangible interface for children to create their own stories. Based on data collected with two groups of five years old preschoolers we present our findings regarding the interaction design of the system. The picture cards have shown to generate ideas, acting as input for the creation of stories, promoting creativity while proposing a framework that supports and guides the construction of logical structures. This is a first step in an effort to build a toolkit of tangible interfaces allowing children and teachers to build their own digital enhanced learning activities.
Collision avoidance in virtual environments through aural spacial awareness BIBAFull-Text 1369-1374
  Christian Afonso; Steffi Beckhaus
In this paper we describe a new technique to make users aurally aware of walls surrounding them in a Virtual Environment (VE). This Collision Avoidance (CA) technique improves upon familiar Collision Notification (CN) feedback by constantly informing the user of his proximity to his surroundings through the playback of directional sounds. To render the aural CA feedback we use spatial sound played over surround loudspeakers, in addition to haptic feedback from a vibrating sound floor to signify collisions.
Evaluating the embodiment benefits of a paper-based tui for educational simulations BIBAFull-Text 1375-1380
  Tia Shelley; Leilah Lyons; Moira Zellner; Emily Minor
Many claims have been made regarding the potential benefits of Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs). Presented here is an experiment assessing the usability, problem solving, and collaboration benefits of a TUI for direct placement tasks in spatially-explicit simulations for environmental science education. To create a low-cost deployment for single-computer classrooms, the TUI uses a webcam and computer vision to recognize the placement of paper symbols on a map. An authentic green infrastructure urban planning problem was used as the task for a within-subjects with rotation experiment with 20 pairs of participants. Because no prior experimental study has isolated the influence of the embodied nature of the TUI on usability, problem solving, and collaboration, a control condition was designed to highlight the impact of embodiment. While this study did not establish the usability benefits suggested by prior research, certain problem solving and collaboration advantages were measured.
The "life frame": responding to the elderly people's need of remembering BIBAFull-Text 1381-1386
  Sabina Giorgi; Alessandra Talamo; Barbara Mellini
The paper describes the research project "The Life frame" which aims to investigate the added value of digitizing memories for elderly people. It reports the ethnographic research undertaken in order to develop a framework including both devices and services. Data were gathered on the use of mementos in the homes of 241 elderly people and on the technologies that they used, the purpose being to identify the different psychological functions that mementos perform in the homes of this specific target group and to understand the potential use of digital technologies. In the paper we discuss our findings and initial insights for the design of the Life Frame, a device integrated with services for enhancing elderly people's personal memories.
Framework for measuring social affinity for CSCW software BIBAFull-Text 1387-1392
  Michael A. Oren; Stephen B. Gilbert
Using surveys as a means for assessing group common ground has the possibility of social desirability bias where the results may suggest a higher team affinity rating than may actually exist. To evaluate efforts to improve affinity within interdisciplinary design teams, we developed an empirical measurement of affinity based on behavior and conversation in order to compare affinity differences between workgroups more precisely. This methodology can be used for remote or co-located teams and offers HCI researchers a more powerful method of evaluating group affinity.
Move-it: interactive sticky notes actuated by shape memory alloys BIBAFull-Text 1393-1398
  Kathrin Probst; Thomas Seifried; Michael Haller; Kentaro Yasu; Maki Sugimoto; Masahiko Inami
A lot of people still rely on pen and paper for taking short notes. Post-Its® are still the most popular paper media for informal note taking. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of Move-It, a system that combines the affordances of note taking on paper with the capabilities of computer systems. Furthermore, we present how common Post-It® notes can be actuated by shape memory alloys, thus become interactive sticky notes giving active physical feedback.
Child-robot interaction: playing alone or together? BIBAFull-Text 1399-1404
  Suleman Shahid; Emiel Krahmer; Marc Swerts
In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate child-robot interaction, by asking whether playing a game with a state-of-the-art social robot is more similar to playing this game alone or with a friend. Subjective fun scores suggest that children have more fun playing with the robot than playing alone, but have more fun still when playing with a friend. A perception test of selected fragments indicates that children are more expressive when playing with the robot than they are when playing alone, but less expressive than when playing with a friend. Taken together these results show that playing a game together with a state-of-the-art social robot is more fun than playing alone, and approaches playing with a friend, although more work needs to be done to achieve the latter level.
Topicality, time, and sentiment in online news comments BIBAFull-Text 1405-1410
  Nicholas Diakopoulos; Mor Naaman
In this paper we examine the relationships between news comment topicality, temporality, sentiment, and quality in a dataset of 54,540 news comments. Initial observations indicate that comment sentiments, both positive and negative, can be useful indicators of discourse quality, and that aggregate temporal patterns in positive sentiment exist on comment threads.
Children's drawing and telling of sustainability in the home BIBAFull-Text 1411-1416
  Audrey Desjardins; Ron Wakkary
This paper describes a pilot study about children's perspective on environmental sustainability in the home through the drawing-telling technique. We utilize the drawing-telling technique as described by Susan Wright [6] for interviewing children about issues related to sustainability. The participants (children from age 10 to 13) were asked to draw two houses (current and ideal) and then describe their drawings in terms of sustainable actions and features. This pilot study is an initial step to investigate if there are opportunities to develop eco-visualizations (EVs) with children in mind and shows that the drawing-telling technique is useful in researching sustainability and children.
MusEEGk: a brain computer musical interface BIBAFull-Text 1417-1422
  Yee Chieh (Denise) Chew; Eric Caspary
We present a novel integration of a brain-computer interface (BCI) with a music step sequencer composition program. Previous BCIs that utilize EEG data to form music provide users little control over the final composition or do not provide enough feedback. Our interface allows a user to create and modify a melody in real time and provides continuous aural and visual feedback to the user, thus affording them a controllable means to achieve creative expression.
TableCross: exuding a shared space into personal spaces to encourage its voluntary maintenance BIBAFull-Text 1423-1428
  Kazushi Nishimoto; Akari Ikenoue; Koji Shimizu; Tomonori Tajima; Yuta Tanaka; Yutaka Baba; Xihong Wang
A shared space should be cooperatively maintained by all users. However, due to social loafing, often nobody maintains it and its condition worsens. We propose exudation of a shared space. Part of a shared space is exuded into personal workspaces so that office workers are forced to subjectively experience the atmosphere of the shared space, even while they remain at their personal workspaces. This paper illustrates the first prototype named "TableCross," which reflects the degree of disorder of a table in a shared space to the desktop of each worker's PC. We also report some results of our pilot user study.
Interactivity sketcher: crafting and experiencing interactivity qualities BIBAFull-Text 1429-1434
  Jong-bum Woo; Da-jung Kim; Suin Kim; Jaesung Jo; Youn-kyung Lim
In this paper, we introduce the Interactivity Sketcher, which is an interactivity designing tool that can visualize and experience invisible interactivity in a tangible way by controlling Interactivity Attributes(IAs). The Interactivity Sketcher is composed of the IA application, input devices, output devices, and IA controllers. The Interactivity Sketcher can help to explore various qualities of interactivity by visualizing and manipulating the relationship between an input and an output through the IA controllers and the IA application. We expect that this tool will enable interaction designers to visualize their own thoughts of interactivity qualities so that they will be able to create their design as if they had 'sketched' it.
Predictive error behavior model of on-screen keyboard users BIBAFull-Text 1435-1440
  Siddharth Jain; Samit Bhattacharya
On-screen keyboards are becoming ubiquitous with increasing use in mobile devices and touch-screens. In this work, we present a novel predictive error model which relates accuracy of an on-screen keyboard user to a given layout using the distance between keys. The model is developed from empirical data with the aim to predict the error rate of a user from the layout specification alone. Our proposed model can be combined with the existing quantitative design approaches for designing keyboards having high text-entry speed and accuracy.
Weak inter-rater reliability in heuristic evaluation of video games BIBAFull-Text 1441-1446
  Gareth R. White; Pejman Mirza-babaei; Graham McAllister; Judith Good
Heuristic evaluation promises to be a low-cost usability evaluation method, but is fraught with problems of subjective interpretation, and a proliferation of competing and contradictory heuristic lists. This is particularly true in the field of games research where no rigorous comparative validation has yet been published. In order to validate the available heuristics, a user test of a commercial game is conducted with 6 participants in which 88 issues are identified, against which 146 heuristics are rated for relevance by 3 evaluators. Weak inter-rater reliability is calculated with Krippendorff's Alpha of 0.343, refuting validation of any of the available heuristics. This weak reliability is due to the high complexity of video games, resulting in evaluators interpreting different reasonable causes and solutions for the issues, and hence the wide variance in their ratings of the heuristics.
guitAR: supporting guitar learning through mobile projection BIBAFull-Text 1447-1452
  Markus Löchtefeld; Sven Gehring; Ralf Jung; Antonio Krüger
The guitar is one of the most widespread instruments amongst autodidacts, but even though a huge amount of learning material exists, it is still hard to learn especially without a guitar teacher. In this paper we propose an Augmented Reality application called guitAR that assists guitar students mastering their instrument using a projector phone. With the projector phone mounted at the headstock of the guitar, the fret board and the strings of the guitar are in the field of projection of the phone. By projecting instructions directly onto the strings of the guitar the user is easily able to realize where the fingers have to be placed on the fretboard (fingering) to play a certain chord or a tone sequence correctly.
Emotion faces: the design and evaluation of a game for preschool children BIBAFull-Text 1453-1458
  Lynne Humphries; Sharon McDonald
We describe the design and initial evaluation of an interactive game that enables preschool children to practise a basic social skill: emotion recognition. Users construct faces to represent 5 basic emotions through the manipulation of individual face parts. An iterative user-centred design process was used to gather image and sound data for the game. A field evaluation revealed that the children (7 boys and 4 girls) enjoyed playing the game and were able to match facial expression to emotions. Girls employed a different approach to game play than boys and achieved a higher success rate but made fewer overall attempts. Affective and co-operative activity was evident with the children showing joint attention and mirroring of emotions during play.
Exploring trust in group-to-group video-conferencing BIBAFull-Text 1459-1464
  Petr Slovák; Peter Novák; Pavel Troubil; Petr Holub; Erik C. Hofer
Previous work has shown that supporting trust via computer-mediated communication can be a challenge, especially among strangers. In this paper, we report on an experiment comparing two group-to-group video-conferencing environments and face-to-face communication in their ability to support trust and mutual cooperation in a social dilemma task. There are pronounced differences in participant behaviour between the two video-conferencing designs, indicating higher mutual trust in one of the video-conferencing conditions. The decisive factor seems to be a discrepancy in the type of group identity that develops during the game. Moreover, our results suggest that a combination of personal displays and a unique video-stream of each participant present in the better video-conferencing condition contributed to this result.
From dance to touch: movement qualities for interaction design BIBAFull-Text 1465-1470
  Sarah Fdili Alaoui; Baptiste Caramiaux; Marcos Serrano
In this paper we address the question of extending user experience in large scale tactile displays. Our contribution is a non task-oriented interaction technique based on modern dance for the creation of aesthetically pleasant large scale tactile interfaces. This approach is based on dance movement qualities applied to touch interaction allowing for natural gestures in large touch displays. We used specific movements from a choreographic glossary and developed a robust movement quality recognition process. To illustrate our approach, we propose a media installation called A light touch, where touch is used to control a light spot reacting to movement qualities.
The diversity donut: enabling participant control over the diversity of recommended responses BIBAFull-Text 1471-1476
  David Wong; Siamak Faridani; Ephrat Bitton; Björn Hartmann; Ken Goldberg
Most online discussion interfaces organize textual responses using linear lists. Such lists do not scale to the number of responses and cannot convey the diversity of the participants who have contributed. The Opinion Space system is designed to address these issues. In this paper, we augment Opinion Space with two features. The first is a new user interface tool and recommendation system: the Diversity Donut (Figure 1). While the Diversity Donut did not establish a statistical advantage over other recommendation methods, participant self-reported data suggested that participants found the Diversity Donut to yield the most diverse set of comments. The second contribution is a new dimensionality reduction technique in Opinion Space: Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Our analysis suggests that CCA is a better algorithm for opinion visualization than Principal Component Analysis (PCA).
Beyond pointing and clicking: how do newer interaction modalities affect user engagement? BIBAFull-Text 1477-1482
  S. Shyam Sundar; Qian Xu; Saraswathi Bellur; Jeeyun Oh; Haiyan Jia
Modern interfaces offer users a wider range of interaction modalities beyond pointing and clicking, such as dragging, sliding, zooming, and flipping through images. But, do they offer any distinct psychological advantages? We address this question with an experiment (N = 128) testing the relative contributions made by six interaction modalities (zoom-in/out, drag, slide, mouse-over, cover-flow and click-to-download) to user engagement with identical content. Data suggest that slide is better at aiding memory than the other modalities, whereas cover-flow and mouse-over generate more user actions. Mouse-over, click-to-download, and zoom-in/out tend to foster more favorable attitudes among power users, whereas cover-flow and slide generate more positive attitudes among non-power users. Design implications are discussed.
BiCEP: bimanual color exploration plugin BIBAFull-Text 1483-1488
  Berto Gonzalez; Celine Latulipe
In this paper we describe a bimanual color exploration plugin (BiCEP) that allows a user to choose colors along three dimensions: hue, saturation, and brightness without mode switching between these dimensions. The plugin differs from other color selection tools by allowing users to simultaneously change all three dimensions utilizing a laptop trackpad with multi-touch tracking capabilities. We believe this methodology will improve the range of color exploration by allowing users to more easily explore a wider range of colors.
MultiPress: releasing keys for multitap segmentation BIBAFull-Text 1489-1494
  Seunghwan Lee; Jaehyun Han; Geehyuk Lee
While MultiTap is one of the most popular text entry methods for mobile phones, it has a fundamental weakness known as MultiTap segmentation problem. Based on the observation that the thumb does not leave the keys between tapping actions, we designed a MultiTap segmentation method where the release action of the thumb is used to indicate input completion. A user study using a touch-sensing keypad prototype to explore the feasibility of the idea and a comparison test to access its benefit revealed promising results supporting the effectiveness of the proposed segmentation method.
Arrange-A-Space: tabletop interfaces and gender collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1495-1500
  Daniel Richert; Ammar Halabi; Anna Eaglin; Matthew Edwards; Shaowen Bardzell
Collaborative technologies, such as shared tabletop interfaces, are becoming increasingly pervasive. Meanwhile, social dynamics have long been a major area of inquiry in HCI and CSCW. With a few notable exceptions, little has been done that addresses the roles gender identities play in shaping collaborative work. In this paper, we make the case for a deeper consideration of gender in our field through a study that investigates issues surrounding gendered collaboration around a tabletop interface. We report our findings and conclude with recommendations for future work in this area.
Informed consent and users' attitudes to logging in large scale trials BIBAFull-Text 1501-1506
  Alistair Morrison; Owain Brown; Donald McMillan; Matthew Chalmers
The HCI community has begun to use 'app store'-style software repositories as a distribution channel for research applications. A number of ethical challenges present themselves in this setting, not least that of gaining informed consent from potential participants before logging data on their use of the software. We note that standard 'terms and conditions' pages have proved unsuccessful in communicating relevant information to users, and explore further means of conveying researchers' intent and allowing opt-out mechanisms. We test the hypothesis that revealing collected information to users will affect their level of concern at being recorded and find that users are more concerned when presented with a personalised representation of recorded data, and consequently stop using the application sooner. Also described is a means of allowing between-groups experiments in such mass participation trials.
Gathering text entry metrics on android devices BIBAFull-Text 1507-1512
  Steven J. Castellucci; I. Scott MacKenzie
We developed an application to gather text entry speed and accuracy metrics on Android devices. This paper details the features of the application and describes a pilot study to demonstrate its utility. We evaluated and compared three mobile text entry methods: QWERTY typing, handwriting recognition, and shape writing recognition. Handwriting was the slowest and least accurate technique. QWERTY was faster than shape writing, but we found no significant difference in accuracy between the two techniques.
Mobile phones and information capture in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 1513-1518
  Amrita Thakur; Michael Gormish; Berna Erol
Smartphones (mobile phones with downloadable applications) are being used for far more than making calls and reading email. We investigated the use of phones for information capture for work purposes through interviews, multiple free response surveys, and two multiple choice surveys. While we expected and found taking pictures to be useful for work, we were surprised at the extent of audio, video, and note taking done on the phone, and the impact on other devices. Our work also suggests future mobile information capture for work will increase more due to cultural changes than technological improvements.
Phone-based motion control in VR: analysis of degrees of freedom BIBAFull-Text 1519-1524
  Amal Benzina; Marcus Toennis; Gudrun Klinker; Mohamed Ashry
We introduce a one-handed travel technique for virtual environments (VE), we call Phone-Based Motion Control. The travel technique uses a mobile phone with integrated sensors as a 3D spatial input device. We benefit from the touch capability to change the viewpoint translation in the VE, while the orientation of the viewpoint in the VE is controlled by the built-in sensors. The travel interaction clearly distinguishes between translation (touch based translation control) and rotation (steer based rotation control), putting each set of degrees of freedom to a separate interaction technique. This work examines how many degrees of freedom are needed to perform the travel task as easy as possible. It also investigates different mapping functions between the user's actions and the viewpoint reactions in the VR. For that purpose, four metaphors are developed for the steer based rotation control technique. The results of the user study indicate the trend that 4 DOF metaphors perform best, and that the usage of a mobile roll to control the viewpoint is the desired mapping.
Crowdsourcing suggestions to programming problems for dynamic web development languages BIBAFull-Text 1525-1530
  Dhawal Mujumdar; Manuel Kallenbach; Brandon Liu; Björn Hartmann
Developers increasingly consult online examples and message boards to find solutions to common programming tasks. On the web, finding solutions to debugging problems is harder than searching for working code. Prior research introduced a social recommender system, HelpMeOut, that crowdsources debugging suggestions by presenting fixes to errors that peers have applied in the past. However, HelpMeOut only worked for statically typed, compiled programming languages like Java. We investigate how suggestions can be provided for dynamic, interpreted web development languages. Our primary insight is to instrument test-driven development to collect examples of bug fixes. We present Crowd::Debug, a tool for Ruby programmers that realizes these benefits.
Video summarization via crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 1531-1536
  Shao-Yu Wu; Ruck Thawonmas; Kuan-Ta Chen
Although video summarization has been studied extensively, existing schemes are neither lightweight nor generalizable to all types of video content. To generate accurate abstractions of all types of video, we propose a framework called Click2SMRY, which leverages the wisdom of the crowd to generate video summaries with a low workload for workers. The framework is lightweight because workers only need to click a dedicated key when they feel that the video being played is reaching a highlight. One unique feature of the framework is that it can generate different abstraction levels of video summaries according to viewers' preferences in real time. The results of experiments conducted to evaluate the framework demonstrate that it can generate satisfactory summaries for different types of video clips.
I don't like crumbs on my keyboard: eating behaviors of World of Warcraft players BIBAFull-Text 1537-1542
  Natalie DeWitt; David Lohrmann
Computer gamers are often categorized as being unhealthy due to lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. This mixed methods study revealed that computer gamers, specifically World of Warcraft players, are highly conscious of their food choices and eating decisions either because they value their health or because certain foods impede game play. In order to facilitate healthy behaviors in the game, researchers must consider the reasons why gamers choose certain foods to consume during game play.
Investigating Phicon feedback in non-visual tangible user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1543-1548
  David McGookin; Stephen Brewster
We investigated ways that users could interact with Phicons in non-visual tabletop tangible user interfaces (TUIs). We carried out a brainstorming and rapid prototyping session with a blind usability expert, using two different non-visual TUI scenarios to quickly explore the design space. From this, we derived a basic set of guidelines and interactions that are common in both scenarios, and which we believe are common in most non-visual tabletop TUI applications. Future work is focused on validating our findings in a fully functioning system.
VisualWikiCurator: a corporate Wiki plugin BIBAFull-Text 1549-1554
  Nicholas Kong; Gregorio Convertino; Benjamin Hanrahan; Ed Chi
Knowledge workers who maintain corporate wikis face high costs for organizing and updating content on wikis. This problem leads to low adoption rates and compromises the utility of such tools in organizations. We describe a system that seeks to reduce the interactions costs of updating and organizing wiki pages by combining human and machine intelligence. We then present preliminary results of an ongoing evaluation of the tool.
Descriptive analysis of physical activity conversations on Twitter BIBAFull-Text 1555-1560
  Logan Kendall; Andrea Hartzler; Predrag Klasnja; Wanda Pratt
This paper explores how people are using Twitter.com to manage and share information about health-promoting physical activity. We analyzed archived posts, called "tweets", from Twitter.com to learn about the range, patterns, and captured metadata associated with muscle-strengthening, aerobic, and flexibility-enhancing physical activities. The content analysis describes how people are using Twitter to post about their health-related fitness activities. These findings can support the design of supportive tools and applications connected with the social media platform.
Social yoga mats: reinforcing synergy between physical and social activity BIBAFull-Text 1561-1566
  Karl Maybach; Arun Nagargoje; Tomas Sokoler
This paper discusses our early research into the design space for digital technologies that extend the existing synergistic relationship between physical and social activity from fitness centers to the home. We focus on yoga activity for senior citizens and explore the concept of social yoga mats, which spread awareness of individuals' exercise activities within a peer group. We describe the concept, hardware sketches, exploratory co-design process and discuss our findings and early reflections into this design space.
Understanding and designing cool technologies for teenagers BIBAFull-Text 1567-1572
  Janet Read; Daniel Fitton; Benjamin Cowan; Russell Beale; Yukang Guo; Matthew Horton
This paper describes how initial principles for the designs of an interactive application were informed from a study of 'coolness' with two different ages of teenagers. The study used drawings to examine how teenagers might design their environments and these were then analysed by the research team based on a set of characteristics of cool that were drawn from the literature. Results from the teenagers' drawings demonstrate some change in emphasis between the younger and older age groups and between the genders. A design space around innovation and rebellion is implicated in the findings.
Automatically adapting web pages to heterogeneous devices BIBAFull-Text 1573-1578
  Chinmay Eishan Kulkarni; Scott R. Klemmer
Smartphones and other handheld devices have become popular and powerful Internet access devices, yet the Web is still largely optimized for the desktop. We describe a system that automatically transforms desktop-optimized pages to ones better suited to the target device. The system leverages existing platform-customized sites as examples of good design, identifies consistent components across these sites, and renders the desktop page into these components.
Leveraging trust relationships in digital backchannel communications BIBAFull-Text 1579-1584
  Syavash Nobarany; Mona Haraty; Sidney S. Fels; Brian D. Fisher
Discussions during lecture can clarify lecture points for audience members and help them deepen their understanding. However, the fast-pace of lectures and the large number of attendees can make these discussions impossible. Although digital backchannels have been used to address this problem, they present some drawbacks such as increasing distractions and not providing valuable information. We suggest incorporating audience members' levels of trust in the knowledge of other members into the design of backchannel communication systems. Based on this approach, we present methods and design considerations to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of the previous backchannel communication systems.
Promoting a physical security mental model for personal firewall warnings BIBAFull-Text 1585-1590
  Fahimeh Raja; Kirstie Hawkey; Steven Hsu; Kai-Le Wang; Konstantin Beznosov
We used an iterative process to design personal firewall warnings in which the functionality of a firewall is visualized based on a physical security mental model. We performed a study to determine the degree to which our proposed warnings are understandable for our participants, and the degree to which they convey the risks and encourage safe behavior as compared to warnings based on those from a popular personal firewall. Initial results show that our warnings facilitate the comprehension of warning information, better communicate risk, and increase the likelihood of safe behavior. Moreover, they provided participants with a better understanding of both the functionality of a personal firewall and the consequences of their actions.
The role of commitment devices and self-shaping in persuasive technology BIBAFull-Text 1591-1596
  Neema Moraveji; Ryo Akasaka; Roy Pea; B. J. Fogg
We examine the role of self-shaping and commitment devices in persuasive systems. Self-shaping refers to the practice of taking purposeful action in modifying one's environment in order to shape or influence one's own future behavior. We present results from a survey of 23 users that assessed the role self-shaping plays in their use of persuasive technologies. A second survey elicited 65 self-shaping designs from 41 expert users, finding the Fogg Behavior Model describes how the designs were indeed persuasive. We then reviewed 85 tools based on this model to show the two dimensions that can be used to organize persuasive devices: (1) salience of a tool's self-shaping features and (2) their intended flexibility. The resulting four categories of tools are useful for researchers and designers of persuasive systems.
Trust-aware privacy control for social media BIBAFull-Text 1597-1602
  Na Li; Maryam Najafian Razavi; Denis Gillet
Due to the huge exposure of personal information in social media, a challenge now is to design effective privacy mechanisms that protect against unauthorized access to social data. In this paper, a trust model for social media is first presented. Based on the trust model, a trust-aware privacy control protocol is proposed, that exploits the underlying inter-entity trust information. The objective is to design a fine-grained privacy scheme that ensures a user's online information is disclosed only to sufficiently trustworthy parties.
Four factors of change: adaptations of everyday design BIBAFull-Text 1603-1608
  Ron Wakkary; Leah Maestri
This paper is a follow up study of a 2005-2006 study of everyday design. This follow-up study is an opportunity to gain insights into the social evolution of everyday design systems in the home. We report on changes to five systems and discuss how these changes occurred over the last four to five years. We identify four factors related to the changes 1) shared intent 2) mutual intelligibility, 3) materiality-substitutability, and 4) fit.
Designing flexible EMR systems for recording and summarizing doctor-patient interactions BIBAFull-Text 1609-1614
  Kyle Larkin; Aisling Kelliher
Electronic Medical Records (EMR) are increasingly transitioning from desktop systems to mobile devices. This innovation presents challenges to medical practitioners in terms of doctor-patient interaction, patient record integrity and continuing reliance on paper-based annotation schemas. We describe findings from a pilot study of EMR use by physicians in a family medical clinic and propose guidelines for the design of mobile EMR systems. These guidelines seek to fuse the dynamic capabilities of digital systems with the immediacy and personal nature of paper-based records.
intangibleCanvas: free-air finger painting on a projected canvas BIBAFull-Text 1615-1620
  Jon Moeller; Nic Lupfer; Bill Hamilton; Haiqiao Lin; Andruid Kerne
With the advent of new sensing technologies, precision free-air interaction is becoming viable as a contender for the next generation of expressive, embodied interaction modalities. ZeroTouch [5], a novel multi-touch sensor that allows for free-air multi-finger, multi-object sensing, is one example of this next generation of free-air interfaces. We develop its use in a digitally-projected finger painting application, placing the see-through multitouch sensor in direct line-of-sight between an artist and a remote canvas. This allows the artist to reach through the sensor and paint on the intangibleCanvas as if it were directly in front of them. An iPad is employed as a multimodal workspace for color selection. We evaluate the system through an informal walk-up-and-play installation and comparative study, developing implications for interaction design using this type of precision free-air interface.
Evaluating software for communities using social affordances BIBAFull-Text 1621-1626
  Ben Hanrahan; Sameer Ahuja; Manuel Perez-Quinones; Andrea Kavanaugh
In this paper we discuss the problems faced when building software for communities. In particular, we introduce the formative evaluation method that emerged while developing two social network sites (SNSs). We acknowledge that the success of software for communities is due, in part, to the network effect, which is difficult to predict. We also acknowledge that traditional usability (e.g., individual user performance) is required, but not sufficient, for the success of a social network. We hypothesize that a missing piece of current evaluations are the social affordances provided by the system and how well they encourage users into social action. In this paper we present the rationale behind our evaluation, two examples of the evaluation, and discuss the evaluation's utility and future work.
Pupillary response based cognitive workload index under luminance and emotional changes BIBAFull-Text 1627-1632
  Jie Xu; Yang Wang; Fang Chen; Ho Choi; Guanzhong Li; Siyuan Chen; Sazzad Hussain
Pupillary response has been widely accepted as a physiological index of cognitive workload. It can be reliably measured with video-based eye trackers in a non-intrusive way. However, in practice commonly used measures such as pupil size or dilation might fail to evaluate cognitive workload due to various factors unrelated to workload, including luminance condition and emotional arousal. In this work, we investigate machine learning based feature extraction techniques that can both robustly index cognitive workload and adaptively handle changes of pupillary response caused by confounding factors unrelated to workload.
Heuristics for evaluating IT security management tools BIBAFull-Text 1633-1638
  Pooya Jaferian; Kirstie Hawkey; Andreas Sotirakopoulos; Konstantin Beznosov
The usability of IT security management (ITSM) tools is hard to evaluate by regular methods, making heuristic evaluation attractive. However, ITSM occurs within a complex and collaborative context that involves diverse stakeholders; this makes standard usability heuristics difficult to apply. We propose a set of ITSM usability heuristics that are based on activity theory and supported by prior research. We performed a study to compare the use of the ITSM heuristics to Nielsen's heuristics for the evaluation of a commercial identity management system. Our preliminary results show that our new ITSM heuristics performed well in finding usability problems. However, we need to perform the study with more participants and perform more detailed analysis to precisely show the differences in applying the ITSM heuristics as compared to Nielsen's heuristics.
Who needs energy management BIBAFull-Text 1639-1644
  Daniela K. Busse
In this Work-in-Progress report, research into the potential target users for an Industrial Energy Management solution is being discussed with reference to both on-site and remote user interviews conducted in 2010 with Energy Managers of several US companies in high energy-intensity manufacturing industries.
Supporting visually impaired navigation: a needs-finding study BIBAFull-Text 1645-1650
  Pablo-Alejandro Quinones; Tammy Greene; Rayoung Yang; Mark Newman
In this paper, we investigate the requirements for designing systems to support wayfinding for visually impaired individuals. We report the results of an interview study with 20 individuals with visual impairments, asking about their way-finding tools, techniques, and obstacles. Our findings provide an account of the practices followed when navigating familiar, unfamiliar, and dynamic environments, and common breakdowns encountered during the wayfinding process. The findings from this study suggest ways of implementing a location-based system to assist in the recovery from various obstacles.
Beyond drunk texting: investigating recorded media sharing at parties BIBAFull-Text 1651-1656
  Gavin Elster; Lawrence Gabriel; Anton Grobman
We conducted field observations and interviews of college-aged users at parties to understand how they share recorded media. We collected 36 observations from seven private parties and conducted semi-structured follow-up interviews with six selected participants observed at the parties. Three different sharing themes emerged from our data which we term participatory, personal, and open sharing. The type of sharing used in a particular instance was strongly influenced by the context of the environment and the content of the media being shared.
DARLS: differencing and merging diagrams using dual view, animation, re-layout, layers and a storyboard BIBAFull-Text 1657-1662
  Loutfouz Zaman; Ashish Kalra; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
We present a new system for visualizing and merging differences in diagrams. It uses animation, dual views, a storyboard, relative re-layout, and layering to visualize differences. The system is also capable of differencing UML class diagrams. An evaluation produced positive results for animation and dual views with difference layer.
Audience visualization influences disclosures in online social networks BIBAFull-Text 1663-1668
  Kelly Caine; Lorraine G. Kisselburgh; Louise Lareau
One of the major concerns about online social networks (OSNs) is privacy. We introduce visualization and numeric audience information as potential interface solutions to the problem of privacy behaviors that are misaligned with privacy preferences. Findings from a large experiment with participants of all ages and from a broad range of backgrounds suggest that for both current and potential users, augmenting an interface with a visualization or numeric display of the audience helps people disclose in a way that is more in line with their own preferences. We conclude by proposing that audience visualization and quantification tools have the potential to assist users in achieving their privacy goals while using OSNs and have the potential to enhance privacy in other information systems as well.
Shepherding the crowd: managing and providing feedback to crowd workers BIBAFull-Text 1669-1674
  Steven Dow; Anand Kulkarni; Brie Bunge; Truc Nguyen; Scott Klemmer; Björn Hartmann
Micro-task platforms provide a marketplace for hiring people to do short-term work for small payments. Requesters often struggle to obtain high-quality results, especially on content-creation tasks, because work cannot be easily verified and workers can move to other tasks without consequence. Such platforms provide little opportunity for workers to reflect and improve their task performance. Timely and task-specific feedback can help crowd workers learn, persist, and produce better results. We analyze the design space for crowd feedback and introduce Shepherd, a prototype system for visualizing crowd work, providing feedback, and promoting workers into shepherding roles. This paper describes our current progress and our plans for system development and evaluation.
Postcolonial language and culture theory for HCI4D BIBAFull-Text 1675-1680
  Samantha Merritt; Shaowen Bardzell
As technology design spreads to less technologically developed countries, issues of cultural identity, language, and values manifest in the form of methodological and ethical challenges for HCI4D designers. We offer a new theoretical perspective, in the context of HCI4D design, to advance the HCI postcolonial critique and highlight fundamentally Western design practices. Application of Thiong'o's language and culture theory provides a tool for designers and researchers to face assumptions, cultural communication, and the potential repercussions in cross-cultural design. Upon future development, this postcolonial orientation could be used to create responsible, successful designs and create awareness of inadvertent Western language culture embedded in HCI4D design.
Better brain interfacing for the masses: progress in event-related potential detection using commercial brain computer interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1681-1686
  Mick Grierson; Chris Kiefer
Event-Related Potential (ERP) techniques are commonly used by researchers from a range of disciplines including psychology and medicine to stimulate meaningful ERP signals from the brain and interpret them through Electroencephalography (EEG). ERP signals are in most cases able to reliably reflect cognitive processes, and are widely used in Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research. We present work in progress towards the application of these techniques to emerging consumer-grade BCI technology. Our approach has an impact on the reliability and usability of consumer Brain Computer Interfaces in commercial contexts, and is already being adopted by our industry partners in the games and entertainment sector. It could also significantly reduce the cost and complexity of certain types of large scale ERP research. This work is being undertaken by the Embodied AudioVisual Interaction (EAVI) group at Goldsmiths, University of London, and is supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
Does it know I'm not maintaining good posture?: an in-home play study of wii fit BIBAFull-Text 1687-1692
  Lindsay Reynolds; Steven Ibara; Victoria Schwanda; Dan Cosley
Persuasive technologies designed to improve the health and fitness of users are becoming increasingly popular. One example is Nintendo's Wii Fit, which has achieved commercial success. Despite this success, many people ultimately abandon this technology. Past work explored reasons for leaving, but retroactively. This study examines the reactions of first-time users of Wii Fit, through a one-time interview pilot study as well as an in-depth, month-long study in which participants used Wii Fit in their homes. We briefly present themes from the pilot study, as well as case studies from two month-long study participants, which shows how opinions and behaviors changed over time.
The role of dynamic digital menu boards in consumer decision making BIBAFull-Text 1693-1698
  Anicia Peters; Brian Mennecke
Digital Signage has become a common-place feature in many public spaces and retail establishments; yet, only limited research has been reported to date on these technologies. For example, questions such as their effect on decision-making, cognitive load, and purchase behavior have yet to be examined. In an effort to attract more attention and increase effectiveness, venders of digital signage are rapidly enhancing features and capabilities for these displays. For example, displays are moving from simple 2d screens to 3d auto-stereoscopic screens, screens featuring multimodal forms of interaction are replacing static displays, and display-only screens are being replaced by displays capable of recognizing user characteristics. An important "new" type of display is the dynamic digital menu board, which combines digital signage with the power of video. Surprisingly, despite its increasingly common use in areas as diverse as education and retail, only limited academic research on digital signage has been conducted in areas such as marketing with little attention coming from the HCI field. Our research is focused on addressing this shortcoming by applying theories from HCI, marketing, and information systems to investigate the role of video and dynamic digital menu board display characteristics on consumer decision-making. We hypothesize that each consumer decision-making stage will be affected by the "vividness" of video in dynamic digital menu boards.
CalmMeNow: exploratory research and design of stress mitigating mobile interventions BIBAFull-Text 1699-1704
  Pablo Paredes; Matthew Chan
This paper describes design explorations for stress mitigation on mobile devices based on three types of interventions: haptic feedback, games and social networks. The paper offers a qualitative assessment of the usability of these three types of interventions together with an initial analysis of their potential efficacy. Social networking and games show great potential for stress relief. Lastly, the paper discusses key findings and considerations for long-term studies of stress mitigation in HCI, as well as a list of aspects to be considered when designing calming interventions.
Using gaze patterns to study and predict reading struggles due to distraction BIBAFull-Text 1705-1710
  Vidhya Navalpakkam; Justin Rao; Malcolm Slaney
We analyze gaze patterns to study how users in online reading environments cope with visual distraction, and we report gaze markers that identify reading difficulties due to distraction. The amount of visual distraction is varied from none, medium to high by presenting irrelevant graphics beside the reading content in one of 3 conditions: no graphic, static or animated graphics. We find that under highly-distracting conditions, a struggling reader puts more effort into the text -- she takes a longer time to comprehend the text, performs more fixations on the text and frequently revisits previously read content. Furthermore, she reports an unpleasant reading experience. Interestingly, we find that whether the user is distracted and struggles or not can be predicted from gaze patterns alone with up to 80% accuracy and up to 15% better than with non-gaze based features. This suggests that gaze patterns can be used to detect key events such as user strugglefrustration while reading.
Facilitating photographic documentation of accessibility in street scenes BIBAFull-Text 1711-1716
  Marynel Vázquez; Aaron Steinfeld
We present two interactive approaches for assisting users with visual impairments during photographic documentation of transit accessibility. We are working on an application for camera-enabled mobile devices that drives image composition towards highlighting visual information that is expected to be most relevant. In one interaction modality the user is guided trough small device motions that are expected to center the estimated region of interest in street photographs. In the other modality, the user captures the scene while pictures are processed, and the system alerts when enough data has been collected. The image that best aligns with our attention-getting composition model is then selected for documentation purposes. The specific design of these interactions is evolving to promote small motion behaviors by the user. Future work includes user studies.
Places in spaces: common ground in virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 1717-1722
  N. Sadat Shami; Thomas Erickson; Wendy Kellogg; David Levine
Virtual worlds can allow conversational participants to achieve common ground in situations where the information volume and need for clarification is low. We argue in favor of this assertion through an examination of a semi-structured activity among hundreds of users held in a virtual world. Through the idea of 'implicit grounding', we argue that the affordances of contextualized space can allow users to achieve common ground in a low information volume, low clarification need activity. We use the success of the event to re-examine and extend Clark and Brennan's work on grounding in communication.
Open source interface politics: identity, acceptance, trust, and lobbying BIBAFull-Text 1723-1728
  Roshanak Zilouchian Moghaddam; Michael Twidale; Kora Bongen
A study of the Drupal open source project shows the problematic status of usability designers with respect to the larger developer community. Issues of power, trust, and identity arise and affect the way that usability recommendations are acted on or ignored. Making a straightforward case for a particular interface design can be insufficient to convince developers. Instead various additional lobbying strategies may be employed to build up support for the design.
Multi-jump: jump roping over distances BIBAFull-Text 1729-1734
  Lining Yao; Sayamindu Dasgupta; Nadia Cheng; Jason Spingarn-Koff; Ostap Rudakevych; Hiroshi Ishii
Jump roping, a game in which one or more people twirl a rope while others jump over the rope, promotes social interaction among children while developing their coordination skills and physical fitness. However, the traditional game requires that players be in the same physical location. Our 'Multi-Jump' jump-roping game platform builds on the traditional game by allowing players to participate remotely by employing an augmented rope system. The game involves full-body motion in a shared game space and is enhanced with live video feeds, player rewards and music. Our work aims to expand exertion interface gaming, or games that deliberately require intense physical effort, with genuine tangible interfaces connected to real-time shared social gaming environments.
Privacy in domestic environments BIBAFull-Text 1735-1740
  Peter J. Radics; Denis Gracanin
While there is a growing body of research on privacy, most of the work puts the focus on information privacy. Physical and psychological privacy issues receive little to no attention. However, the introduction of technology into our lives can cause problems with regard to these aspects of privacy. This is especially true when it comes to our homes, both as nodes of our social life and places for relaxation. This paper presents the results of a study intended to capture a part of the phenomenology of privacy in domestic environments.
Supporting children's creativity through tangible user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1741-1746
  Allen Bevans; Ying-Ting Hsiao; Alissa Antle
We outline a preliminary research approach intended to explore the potential of tangible user interfaces (TUI's) in supporting children's creative problem solving activities, specifically those requiring the generation of divergent solutions. Our approach is grounded in theoretical notions taken from psychology, neuroscience, and developmental cognition. We detail a TUI currently in development called the Invention Workbench, and summarize how theoretical considerations have shaped the design of the interface.
The role of modality in virtual manipulative design BIBAFull-Text 1747-1752
  Seungoh Paek; Dan Hoffman; Antonios Saravanos; John Black; Charles Kinzer
The current study examines aspects of multimedia design in virtual learning environments. It compares touch and mouse input methods in conjunction with audio and visual feedback in an effort to improve young children's math learning. Fifty-nine (N=59) second grade students played Puzzle Blocks (PBs), a virtual manipulative designed to introduce students to the concept of multiplication through repetitive addition. All participants showed significant learning outcomes after playing PBs for five sessions. The results show that having auditory feedback is a more influential factor than input method. Implications are discussed.
Line following: a path to spatial thinking skills BIBAFull-Text 1753-1758
  Megen E. Brittell
Encoding cursor position and directional information in synthesized audio feedback facilitates line following. This technique will aid interpretation and spatial understanding of irregularly shaped line features (e.g. rivers, state boundaries) making maps more accessible to users who are blind or visually impaired.
IDEAS: an interface design experience for the autistic spectrum BIBAFull-Text 1759-1764
  Laura Benton; Hilary Johnson; Mark Brosnan; Emma Ashwin; Beate Grawemeyer
Designing products and services to meet the specific requirements of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be difficult due to their wide ranging and individual needs. Participatory Design (PD) is a design method that could be used to better meet these needs, by giving this population an opportunity to directly contribute to software designed for their use. Researchers have begun to involve children with ASD in the design process, but there is not yet a design method specifically adapted to support the potential difficulties this group may experience during PD sessions. This paper presents a new design method, IDEAS, which attempts to fulfill this need. The development of this method is described along with an initial pilot undertaken to determine the feasibility of using this method with an ASD population. The results indicate that the majority of children with ASD were able to produce a successful final design using this method, and have the potential to be involved in PD sessions as part of a design team.
Enhancing blog readability for non-native English readers in the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 1765-1770
  Chen-Hsiang Yu; Jennifer Thom-Santelli; David Millen
Blogs are an important platform for people to access and share information, particularly in corporate settings where users rely on these systems for their work. However, because a global enterprise is multilingual, not all employees can understand the shared information in these systems easily if the content is written in a user's non-native language. As a result, this research focuses on enhancing the readability of blogs in enterprise social software for this group of users. The pilot user study of Japanese and Chinese bloggers suggest there are two main challenges: finding an interesting blog post to read and encountering difficulties in reading blog posts as currently rendered. Based on these findings, we designed and implemented a Firefox extension, Clearly, which uses web customization techniques to improve these two levels of readability issues.
Interactive surface technology for a mobile command centre BIBAFull-Text 1771-1776
  Victor Cheung; Nader Cheaib; Stacey D. Scott
In this paper, Contextual Inquiry is used to analyze the work inside a mobile command centre of a volunteer group, which provides specialized services and equipment to support events ranging from community-sponsored events to emergency incidents. The suitability and feasibility of utilizing interactive surface technology to support collaboration and coordination, using the mobile command centre as a hub for multiple agencies, are examined. Findings and lessons learned from this work can also inform the design of such technology for more general event organization and emergency response settings.
Mobile SoundAR: your phone on your head BIBAFull-Text 1777-1782
  Syed Naseh Hussaini
Sound localization plays an important role in providing a believable sound based augmented reality. Human auditory system uses several cues for sound localization and thus it is important to render these cues in virtual environment as well. Though all cues complement each other, head motion is one cue that can work individually to help locate the direction of sound source. Affixing sensors on the head of the user have been used previously by researchers to reintroduce head motion in virtual soundscape and study it. Modern smart phones with motion detecting sensors are becoming highly pervasive in today's society. Such smart phones open up possibilities for early prototyping and testing of ideas, that previously required high fi gadgetry. Wearing the phone on head can track the head movement using gyroscope and accelerometer. This paper discusses development of prototypes to provide head tracking using iPhone4 to provide a believable sound augmentation.
Enhancing mobile browsing and reading BIBAFull-Text 1783-1788
  Chen-Hsiang Yu; Robert C. Miller
Although the web browser has become a standard interface for information access on the Web, the mobile web browser on the smartphone does not hold the same interest to mobile users. A survey with 11 mobile users shows that only 18% of the participants like mobile web browsers, whereas 82% of them like other mobile applications. This research focuses on understanding mobile users' difficulties and proposes innovative ideas to enhance mobile web browsing. This research enhances mobile browsing and reading in three directions: (1) dynamically generating mobile web sites for browsing (2) using orientation sensor information to detect natural interactions and text-to-speech (TTS) to continue reading between different activities, and (3) providing a speech interface to ease web navigation and supporting dialog programming for repetitive tasks. The Read4Me Browser is a prototype system built to demonstrate the proposed ideas.
Can users remember their pictorial passwords six years later BIBAFull-Text 1789-1794
  Thomas S. Tullis; Donna P. Tedesco; Kate E. McCaffrey
Previous research had shown that pictorial passwords, where users recognize their target images among distractors, have potential for improving the usability of authentication systems. A method using personal photos provided by the users as their targets, shown among highly similar distractors, showed the most promise for both accuracy and security. But the longest time period that had been tested between successive login attempts was only about one month. We wanted to see what happens when six years have elapsed. We recruited some of the same participants from the previous study and tested their ability to select their target photos six years later. We found that 12 of 13 participants successfully authenticated themselves. The overall accuracy rate was 95.6%, demonstrating that most users can remember these pictorial passwords even over long periods of time.
ReHandle: towards integrating physical rehabilitation in everyday life BIBAFull-Text 1795-1800
  Naveen Bagalkot; Tomas Sokoler
In this paper we present ReHandle, an emerging design space currently inhabited and shaped by three different design sketches. We describe how the three sketches point to three possible dimensions for exploring the role of digital technology in facilitating self-monitoring; aimed at promoting an integration of the rehab activities with the everyday activities of senior citizens. We expect that our articulation of the emerging ReHandle design space will be informative and inspirational for the interaction design and HCI community exploring the role of digital technology for successful rehabilitation of senior citizens.
CrowdForge: crowdsourcing complex work BIBAFull-Text 1801-1806
  Aniket Kittur; Boris Smus; Robert Kraut
Micro-task markets such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk represent a new paradigm for accomplishing work, in which employers can tap into a large population of workers around the globe to accomplish tasks in a fraction of the time and money of more traditional methods. However, such markets typically support only simple, independent tasks, such as labeling an image or judging the relevance of a search result. Here we present a general purpose framework for micro-task markets that provides a scaffolding for more complex human computation tasks which require coordination among many individuals, such as writing an article.
WaveForm: remote video blending for VJs using in-air multitouch gestures BIBAFull-Text 1807-1812
  Amartya Banerjee; Jesse Burstyn; Audrey Girouard; Roel Vertegaal
We present WaveForm, a system that enables a Video Jockey (VJ) to directly manipulate video content on a large display on a stage, from a distance. WaveForm implements an in-air multitouch gesture set to layer, blend, scale, rotate, and position video content on the large display. We believe this leads to a more immersive experience for the VJ user, as well as for the audience witnessing the VJ's performance during a live event.
The adoption of online self-service technology (SST) as a gradual learning process BIBAFull-Text 1813-1818
  A Cälin Gurau
Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, this study attempts to identify the main phases of customer-SST system interaction. The findings reinforce the interpretation of SST adoption as a gradual process of learning that presents different challenges for various types of customers, depending on their level of online experience.
Sympathetic guitar: can a digitally augmented guitar be a social entity? BIBAFull-Text 1819-1824
  Jay Vidyarthi; Alissa N. Antle; Bernhard E. Riecke
Previous work suggests that people treat interactive media as if they were social entities. By drawing a parallel between socio-cognitive theory and interface design, we intend to experimentally determine whether deliberate design decisions can have an effect on users' perception of an interactive medium as a social entity. In this progress report, we describe the theoretical underpinnings and motivations which led to the design and implementation of the Sympathetic Guitar: a guitar interface which supplements standard acoustic sound with a spatially-separate audio response based on the user's hand positions and performance dynamics. This prototype will be used for investigating user response to a specific, socially-relevant design decision.
Aiding usability evaluation via detection of excessive visual search BIBAFull-Text 1825-1830
  Oleg Komogortsev; Corey Holland; Dan Tamir; Carl Mueller
This paper presents an objective evaluation of several methods for the automated classification of excessive visual search, a technique which has the potential to aid in the identification of usability problems during software usability testing. Excessive visual search was identified by a number of eye movement metrics, including: fixation count, saccade amplitude, convex hull area, scanpath inflections, scanpath length, and scanpath duration. The excessive search intervals identified by each algorithm were compared to those produced by manual classification. The results indicate that automated classification can be successfully employed to substantially reduce the amount of recorded data reviewed during usability testing, with relatively little loss in accuracy.
ConsiderIt: improving structured public deliberation BIBAFull-Text 1831-1836
  Travis Kriplean; Jonathan T. Morgan; Deen Freelon; Alan Borning; Lance Bennett
We designed, built, and deployed ConsiderIt to support the Living Voters Guide, a website where any voter could participate in writing a voters' guide for the 2010 election in Washington. ConsiderIt is a new method of integrating the thoughts of many into a coherent form, while nudging people to consider tradeoffs of difficult decisions with an intuitive interface.
Sex toys and designing for sexual wellness BIBAFull-Text 1837-1842
  Anna Eaglin; Shaowen Bardzell
Sexual health encompasses physical, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. In this paper, we argue that designing for sexual health is an important aspect of the Wellness Informatics agenda, and that research on sex toys, which is underdeveloped in HCI, has the potential to contribute to this agenda substantively. We summarize our user research and present a set of design principles to further the agenda of designing for sexual wellness.
Designing a personal visualization projection of online social identity BIBAFull-Text 1843-1848
  Mandy Leung; Martin Tomitsch; Andrew Vande Moere
In this paper, we report on the design, implementation and evaluation of a personal visualization projection, which provides onlookers with a real-time view of the online social identity of the wearer. The wearable system was developed as a novel means of electronic self-expression, and for catalyzing increased social interaction between the wearer and onlookers with similar or complementary personality characteristics. The interactive prototype, driven by a handheld "pico" projector, was evaluated with two groups of four participants each. Based on a case study analysis followed by focus groups, we present our findings according to a contextual evaluation model, which includes aspects of environment, usability, privacy, ambientness, social interaction, and insight.
Customization for games: lessons from variants of Texas Hold'em BIBAFull-Text 1849-1854
  Gifford K. Cheung
System designers who build customization into games ought to consider how players think about adjustments. The distinctiveness of gaming contexts suggests that closer inspection of customization in games is warranted and will inform the design of customizable game systems. Presented here is an analysis of 82 collected reports about variations to the rules of the poker game Texas Hold'em. A theory of "necessity" in rule adoption is developed and the systematic perspective of rule-changing in games is discussed.
Canary in a coal mine: monitoring air quality and detecting environmental incidents by harvesting Twitter BIBAFull-Text 1855-1860
  Henricus Smid; Patrick Mast; Maarten Tromp; Andi Winterboer; Vanessa Evers
We present an application that facilitates environmental monitoring by and for the general public. 'Canary in a Coal Mine' (CIACM) gathers and analyses pollution-related tweets in real-time from the micro-blogging platform Twitter and visualizes temporal and spatial characteristics of the data. CIACM allows citizens to keep track of the environmental quality of their region and empowers users to contribute to this public environmental monitoring system.
My own-style interaction: exploring individuals' preferences to interactivity BIBAFull-Text 1861-1866
  Da-jung Kim; Youn-kyung Lim; Hyeon-Jeong Suk
There have been studies about users' preferences on different physical styles of interactive products, but the exploration of interactivity preferences and the value of customizing its expressions have not been emphasized much yet. In this paper, we conducted a three-phase user study in order to investigate individual preferences to different qualities of interactivity and its relationship with individual differences. The results showed that people have diverse preferences for several attributes of interactivity, similar to the case for appearances of products, and there are close relationships between individual differences such as human personality traits. Based on these results, we discussed their implications for designing attractive interaction.
From the lab to the world: lessons from extending a pointing technique for real-world use BIBAFull-Text 1867-1872
  Alex Jansen; Leah Findlater; Jacob O. Wobbrock
We present the Pointing Magnifier as a case study for understanding the issues and challenges of deploying lab-validated pointing facilitation techniques into the real world. The Pointing Magnifier works by magnifying the contents of an area cursor to allow for selection in a magnified visual and motor space. The technique has been shown in prior lab studies to be effective at reducing the need for fine pointing for motor-impaired users. We highlight key design and technical challenges in bringing the technique, and such techniques in general, from the lab to the field.
LoOkie -- it feels like being there BIBAFull-Text 1873-1878
  Talya Porat; Inbal Rief; Rami Puzis; Yuval Elovici
In this paper, we describe an interaction design process and the challenges encountered during the development of LoOkie, a social mobile application, which enables members to request and receive live videos or pictures of desired locations from people who are present at the scene. The paper describes, from a human-computer interaction perspective, the development of the application from the birth of the idea through the design process encountered up to the point of the launch of the application for Beta at the beginning of 2011.
Input observer: measuring text entry and pointing performance from naturalistic everyday computer use BIBAFull-Text 1879-1884
  Abigail Evans; Jacob O. Wobbrock
In this paper we describe the Input Observer, a background application that will be capable of measuring a user's text entry and pointing abilities from everyday computer use "in the wild." The application runs quietly in the background of the user's computer and utilizes global Windows Hooks to observe the text entry input stream and use of the mouse, and will yield data equivalent to results from lab-based measures of text entry and target acquisition. A major challenge is the lack of a task model from which researchers can know the intent of the user at every moment. We describe our approach to handling this issue for both text entry and mouse pointing.
Wriggle: an exploration of emotional and social effects of movement BIBAFull-Text 1885-1890
  Katherine Isbister; Ulf Schwekendiek; Jonathan Frye
Wriggle is a research prototype game that can be played either with or without movement as input. We conducted an experiment to see whether movement adds emotional impact and increases social connectedness. We found effects on arousal and results approaching significance for social connection, demonstrating the potential for this approach to help us better understand the impact of movement on user experience.
Text highlighting improves user experience for reading with magnified displays BIBAFull-Text 1891-1896
  Tersia Gowases; Roman Bednarik; Markku Tukiainen
We report on two studies of how magnified views affect the lives of users with low vision and how simple interventions can improve their user experience. In the first study we observed three low vision users with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) as they interacted with computing devices. We found that AMD users rely on the screen magnification, but the same magnified view not only makes it impossible to read longer texts independently, but also causes a loss of context. We then designed an enhancement of the conventional Windows 7 screen magnification tool by providing line-level text highlighting. We conducted an experiment in which 21 participants, with normal vision, read text from a webpage using one of three conditions: no enhancement, highlighting, and highlighting + cursor routing. We recorded the eye-movement patterns, performance, cognitive workload, and user experience. The results provide design implications and guidelines for visual aids for interaction with magnified displays.
Mobile augmented reality: video prototyping BIBAFull-Text 1897-1902
  Marco de Sá; Judd Antin; David Shamma; Elizabeth F. Churchill
As mobile devices become more powerful, new features and user experiences become possible. A good example of such experiences is Augmented reality (AR). Achieved through the combination of current smart-phones processing capabilities and their embedded cameras, AR is a growing trend that offers an interesting approach for a wide variety of applications. However, coupling this new approach to the already demanding design process that characterizes mobile devices, further extends challenges to designers and developers. In this paper we present a preliminary study on prototyping and evaluation techniques for mobile AR. A short experiment within the context of an ongoing design project and initial results are presented along with some resulting guidelines.
Transparency in mobile navigation BIBAFull-Text 1903-1908
  David McGookin; Inti Herteleer; Stephen Brewster
We investigated the usefulness transparency can play in increasing the display space of mobile devices in navigation scenarios. Two different systems that used transparency to display a map and image of a point of interest (POI) were compared to a control. Significant variations were identified in the strategies employed, with a strong user preference towards the transparency conditions. Significant variations in time or distance taken were not identified between conditions, although results indicate strong avenues for future investigation.
A collective map to capture human behavior for the design of public spaces BIBAFull-Text 1909-1914
  Mizuki Oka; Tom Hope; Yasuhiro Hashimoto; Ryoko Uno; Myeong-Hee Lee
This paper explores potential uses of publicly created behavioral data for spatial (re)design. The widespread use of mobile devices and access to the Internet has made spontaneous sharing of information about one's life increasingly common. These emerging trends of pervasive life logging and sensing in communal space provoke new opportunities for designers and architects. This paper reports on work in progress, introducing a set of tools to support spatial design via the collection and analysis of human behavior using Twitter, and presents the result of a workshop using the tools in a university library in Japan. We offer ways to analyze and visualize the data and discuss what we can observe from the collected data that may be useful for designing such communal spaces.
Force gestures: augmented touch screen gestures using normal and tangential force BIBAFull-Text 1909-1914
  Seongkook Heo; Geehyuk Lee
Similar sliding gestures may have different meanings when they are performed with changing intensity. Touch screens, however, fail to properly distinguish those intensities due to their inability to sense variable pressures. Enabled by distinguishing normal and tangential forces, we explore new possibilities for gestures on a touch screen. We have implemented a pressure-sensitive prototype and have designed a set of gestures that utilize alterable forces. The gestures' feasibility has been tested through a simple experiment. Finally, we discuss the new possibility of touch interactions that are sensitive to pressure.
WATER alert!: disseminating drinking water quality information to South Africans BIBAFull-Text 1915-1920
  Deana S. Brown; Gary Marsden; Melissa Loudon
Drinking water quality, especially in many parts of South Africa, is far below acceptable standards. With an annual estimate of 43,000 deaths from diarrheal diseases, 3 million cases of illness, and treatment costs of over half a billion US dollars, the impact is critical [4]. This research addresses the challenge of reporting complex and critical water quality information in a way that is accessible to all South Africans as required by law. In a country with high illiteracy rates, 11 official languages and limited-to-no access to technology in many areas, this is no easy feat. We describe the details of WATER Alert!, a prototype mobile phone application designed to alert and report critical water quality information to consumers who subscribe to it. Our initial evaluation of this design with users suggests that such an application would help to improve consumers' understanding of water quality information. The symbol-based messages make critical water quality information more accessible to illiterate or low-literate users, or non-native English or Afrikaans speakers. Additionally, the use of a tool and interface design most of our users are familiar with (the mobile phone) lowers the learning curve.
Dual-space drawing: designing an interface to support creative and reflective drawing experiences BIBAFull-Text 1921-1926
  Jee Yeon Hwang; Henry Holtzman; Mitchel Resnick
Dual-Space Drawing is an interface that enables children to express their drawing ideas in both the digital and real worlds. It supports creative and reflective drawing experiences using two layers: a transparent layer and a screen layer. The interface takes a user's drawing movements on the transparent display unobtrusively and then projects the movements on the screen display while presenting the user-selected multimedia components. Dual-Space Drawing lets users interact with motion graphics on a mirror-like display. In the process of designing the self-projected scenes and creating digital contents, children can express themselves and embody their ideas. While designing a digital object, a user's response to the object creates a new relationship to the object in connection with the user's self-reflection/projection. In this way, Dual-Space Drawing integrates the user's drawing activity with expressive interaction.
Comparative evaluation of recommender system quality BIBAFull-Text 1927-1932
  Paolo Cremonesi; Franca Garzotto; Sara Negro; Alessandro Papadopoulos; Roberto Turrin
Several researchers suggest that the Recommendation Systems (RSs) that are the "best" according to statistical metrics might not be the most satisfactory for the user. We explored this issue through an empirical study that involved 210 users and considered 7 RSs using different recommender algorithms on the same dataset. We measured user's perceived quality of each RS, and compared these results against measures of statistical quality of the considered algorithms as they have been assessed by past studies in the field, highlighting some interesting results.
Generalizing email messages digests BIBAFull-Text 1933-1938
  Romain Vuillemot; Jean-Marc Petit; Mohand-Said Hacid
An email digest is a message that results from the combination of other messages. Mailing list management systems implement digests to let subscribers reduce their email messages frequency. In this paper we address the issue of generalizing this digest technique for any message (i.e. not only issued from mailing lists). By generalizing we mean creating new message combinations while 1) keeping an email centric approach, and 2) generating a compact visualization to assist a user task. We implemented a preliminary prototype as a webmail and we will describe a series of digests providing users multiple visualizations in the context of a meeting planning by email.
Visualizing meetings as a graph for more accessible meeting artifacts BIBAFull-Text 1939-1944
  Yurdaer Doganata; Mercan Topkara
This paper focuses on capturing, correlating and visualizing the execution of meetings from the recorded data using a business process management approach. Relevant artifacts that are utilized or generated during a meeting as well as meeting activities are mapped onto a generic meeting data model. The execution of a meeting is then captured as a graph where generated meeting artifacts, participants and meeting tasks are connected. The graph enables faster and structured access to meeting data and gives better insight to the users about the meeting through visualization capability.
Engaging energy saving through motivation-specific social comparison BIBAFull-Text 1945-1950
  Petromil Petkov; Felix Köbler; Marcus Foth; Richard Medland; Helmut Krcmar
Comparison is widely used in research projects and commercial products whose goal is to motivate energy saving at home. This research builds on fundamental theories from social psychology in an attempt to shed light on how to motivate consumers to conserve energy by providing relevant people for social comparison depending on consumer's motivation to compare. To support the research process, the mobile application EnergyWiz was developed through a theory-driven design approach. Along with other features EnergyWiz provides users with three types of social comparison -- normative, one-on-one and ranking. The results of interviews with prospective users are used to derive design suggestions for relevant people for comparison (comparison subjects).
AnalyzeThis: unobtrusive mental health monitoring by voice BIBAFull-Text 1951-1956
  Keng-hao Chang; Matthew K. Chan; John Canny
Mental illness is one of the most undertreated health problems worldwide. Previous work has shown that there are remarkably strong cues to mental illness in short samples of the voice. These cues are evident in severe forms of illness, but it would be most valuable to make earlier diagnoses from a richer feature set. Furthermore there is an abstraction gap between these voice cues and the diagnostic cues used by practitioners. We believe that by closing this gap, we can build more effective early diagnostic systems for mental illness. In order to develop improved monitoring, we need to translate the high-level cues used by practitioners into features that can be analyzed using signal processing and machine learning techniques. In this paper we describe the elicitation process that we used to tap the practitioners' knowledge. We borrow from both AI (expert systems) and HCI (contextual inquiry) fields in order to perform this knowledge transfer. The paper highlights an unusual and promising role for HCI -- the analysis of interaction data for health diagnosis.
MouseHints: easing task switching in parallel browsing BIBAFull-Text 1957-1962
  Luis A. Leiva
We present a technique to help users regain context either after an interruption or when multitasking while performing web tasks. Using mouse movements as an indicator of attention, a browser plugin records in background the user's interactions (including clicks, dwell times, and DOM elements). On leaving the page, this information is stored to be rendered as an overlay when the user returns to such page. The results of a short study showed that participants resumed tasks three times faster with MouseHints and completed their tasks in about half the time. Related applications and further research are also envisioned.
Active progress bars: facilitating the switch to temporary activities BIBAFull-Text 1963-1968
  Christophe Hurter; Audrey Girouard; Nathalie Riche; Catherine Plaisant
In this paper, we seek to find a better way of effective task management when a progress bar interrupts user's primary activity. We propose to augment progress bars with user controlled functionalities facilitating the switch to temporary activities. We detail a taxonomy of waiting period contexts and possible temporary tasks, then report on 5 participatory design, and a follow-up survey of 96 respondents. Finally we describe an early prototype of active progress bars, and report on initial use.
PLink: paper-based links for cross-media information spaces BIBAFull-Text 1969-1974
  Jürgen Steimle; Nadir Weibel; Simon Olberding; Max Mühlhäuser; James D. Hollan
PLink is a system for integrating physical and computer desktops by creating paper links to digital resources. PLink leverages diverse formats of physical paper, ranging from tiny stickers that can be easily incorporated into traditional paper media to very large deskpad sheets that make the physical desktop partially interactive. We present PLink and initial results from a multi-week field study.
Adding haptic feedback to mobile tv BIBAFull-Text 1975-1980
  Jason Alexander; Mark T. Marshall; Sriram Subramanian
With the abundance of large-screen displays, mobile device users currently have little motivation to stream video content and TV broadcasts to their device -- the desire to watch content 'on the move' does not currently outweigh the necessity of viewing this content on a miniaturised screen. However, the value and appeal of mobile TV broadcasts can be increased by the addition of a haptic-feedback channel to supplement the traditional video and audio streams. This paper discusses the development of mobile haptic TV systems. It describes the design constraints for these systems and presents one concept implementation, UltraTV. UltraTV is a mobile device that provides mid-air, multi-point, back-of-device ultrasonic haptic feedback to enhance the mobile TV experience (see Figure 1). The paper concludes with a look at avenues for further exploration within the realm of mobile haptic TV.
PowerSocket: towards on-outlet power consumption visualization BIBAFull-Text 1981-1986
  Florian Heller; Jan Borchers
Power consumption is measured in W and Wh, but what do these units mean? Water consumption can easily be understood, as we all know what a liter of water looks like. Common power meters, however, rely on the physical units or their translation to costs as display. We classified existing displays and ambient visualizations in a taxonomy that focuses on the characteristics of power consumption displays. We adapted representatives of the different categories of displays to an on-outlet display and compared these using a combination of soft- and hardware prototyping. Results indicate that ambient visualizations make it easier to understand power consumption.
SketchSpace: designing interactive behaviors with passive materials BIBAFull-Text 1987-1992
  David Holman; Hrvoje Benko
This paper presents SketchSpace, a system that allows designers to interactively sketch [3] device's interactive behaviors by imbuing digital functionality to passive materials. SketchSpace requires no augmentation of the device itself, but instead it uses a depth-sensing Kinect camera to simulate the use of hardware sensors by using depth information to infer an object's three-dimensional position, motion, proximity, shape, deformations, and touch events on its surface. A designer can map these inputs to desktop applications in real-time and thus experiment with different interactions. We showcase how SketchSpace can be used to prototype two devices: from tilt sensitive mice to bendable displays. In general, we discuss how this simplifies the process of generating an interactive device sketch and supports rapid exploration of design solutions.
Paper interface design for classroom orchestration BIBAFull-Text 1993-1998
  Sébastien Cuendet; Quentin Bonnard; Frédéric Kaplan; Pierre Dillenbourg
Designing computer systems for educational purpose is a difficult task. While many of them have been developed in the past, their use in classrooms is still scarce. We make the hypothesis that this is because those systems take into account the needs of individuals and groups, but ignore the requirements inherent in their use in a classroom. In this work, we present a computer system based on a paper and tangible interface that can be used at all three levels of interaction: individual, group, and classroom. We describe the current state of the interface design and why it is appropriate for classroom orchestration, both theoretically and through two examples for teaching geometry.
Communication by change in taste BIBAFull-Text 1999-2004
  Hiromi Nakamura; Homei Miyashita
In this paper, we discuss the possibilities and enjoyment of communication by changes in taste, as well as the concept of expanding the sense of taste. When the tongue is electrically stimulated, it senses a characteristic taste. We developed various apparatuses to change the taste of food and drinks based on this effect [1]. An apparatus for drinks, comprising two electrically conducting straws, is used to change the taste of the drink by the formation of an electrical circuit inside the mouth only when drinking by holding both straws in the mouth. In the case of two persons each having one straw in their mouths, shaking hands causes electricity to flow, resulting in the change in taste. With a chopsticks/fork type of apparatus, the taste changes by the electric current that flows through the human body when one person helps the other to eat. In the case of both types of apparatuses, it is possible to control the voltage by a PWM (pulse width modulation) and the pattern by a relay, and a variety of tastes can be produced by a personal computer.
The effects of spatial layout and view control on cognitive processing BIBAFull-Text 2005-2010
  Eric D. Ragan; Alex Endert; Doug A. Bowman; Francis Quek
This study explores how spatial layout and view control impact learning. We performed a controlled experiment using a learning activity involving memory and comprehension of a visually represented story. We present our preliminary results comparing performance between a slideshow-type presentation on a single monitor and a spatially distributed presentation among multiple monitors, and method of view control (automatic and interactive). With the distributed layout, participants maintained better memory of the associated locations where information was presented. However, performance scores were significantly better for the slideshow presentation than for the distributed layout for the learning task.
Initial results from a study of the effects of meditation on multitasking performance BIBAFull-Text 2011-2016
  David M. Levy; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Alfred W. Kaszniak; Marilyn Ostergren
This paper reports initial results from a study exploring whether training in meditation or relaxation can improve office workers' ability to multitask on a computer more effectively andor with less stress. Human resource (HR) personnel were given 8 weeks of training in either mindfulness meditation or body relaxation techniques, and were given a stressful multitasking test both before and after training. (A third group, a control group, received no intervention during the 8-week period but was tested both before and after this period.) Results indicate that overall task time and errors did not differ significantly among the three groups. However, the meditation group reported lower levels of stress and showed better memory for the tasks they had performed; they also switched tasks less often and remained focused on tasks longer.
VORTEX: design and implementation of an interactive volumetric display BIBAFull-Text 2017-2022
  Abhijit Karnik; Archie Henderson; Andrew Dean; Howard Pang; Thomas Campbell; Satoshi Sakurai; Guido Herrmann; Shahram Izadi; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Sriram Subramanian
True 3D display systems like volumetric displays allow generation of autostereoscopic, multi-view 3D content that has real physical dimensions. However their uptake as a research tool within the HCI community is limited largely due to difficulties in buying or building such displays. The choice of commercially available systems is limited and constrains the flexibility of their use in terms of interaction capabilities, display features and integration with multi-display environments (MDEs). In this paper we describe the steps involved in creating custom volumetric display from easily available components. By building a touch-enabled volumetric display we walk-through the steps involved in the process. This will enable us to explore various interactive systems, associated techniques and challenges related to integration of the device into a MDE.
Socially-interactive dressing room: an iterative evaluation on interface design BIBAFull-Text 2023-2028
  Jasy Suet Yan Liew; Elizabeth Kaziunas; JianZhao Liu; Shen Zhuo
This paper explores the formative user interface design of a socially-interactive dressing room. The socially-interactive dressing room allows shoppers to talk to their friends in real time for opinions on their garment purchasing decisions. Our work is motivated by the observation that shoppers who lack fashion sense often rely on their friends' opinions when making garment purchasing decisions. Using the iterative user interface design methodology, we conducted a mini focus group and interviews among male and female shoppers to refine the user interface design. Our findings suggest that an iterative approach proves to be useful in uncovering and addressing usability, aesthetics, and trust issues that arise from incorporating a socially-interactive system within a dressing room context.
Next step in electronic brainstorming: collaborative creativity with the web BIBAFull-Text 2029-2034
  Lassi A. Liikkanen; Kai Kuikkaniemi; Petri Lievonen; Pauli Ojala
Brainstorming is an essential technique in creative group work. Research literature indicates the strengths of electronic brainstorming over face-to-face work. Despite this evidence, the old practice dominates. We believe that this is due to the inadequate integration of new tools to existing practices and the tendency to focus on idea production alone. This paper explores how to augment traditional, collocated Brainstorming and make electronic brainstorming feasible and accessible with web-based technology. We introduce an electronic brainstorming application prototype and justify its design principles. Our system aimed at facilitating conceptual design and we present design insights from a pilot study with the prototype used by 27 design students. The paper argues that by structuring the generative group process with a low-cost tool, users can sprint through a creative process, from problem definition to defining a solution.
ViewSer: a tool for large-scale remote studies of web search result examination BIBAFull-Text 2035-2040
  Dmitry Lagun; Eugene Agichtein
Web search behavior studies, including eye-tracking studies of search result examination, have resulted in numerous insights to improve search result quality and presentation. Yet, these studies have been severely restricted in scale, due to the expense and effort required. We propose a novel methodology for crowdsourcing web search behavior studies -- specifically focusing on performing large-scale studies of result examination behavior. We present a viewport-based examination interface (ViewSer), which enables remotely tracking searcher examination behavior, without requiring eye tracking equipment. We show that ViewSer induces similar viewing and clickthrough behavior, compared to in-lab users monitored with eye tracking, in a study with over 100 remote participants. ViewSer is a first step towards large-scale behavioral evaluation of web search, which would help improve web search result presentation, result ranking, and ultimately improve the web search experience overall.
Who said monitoring is boring BIBAFull-Text 2041-2046
  Pradeep Buddharaju; Dvijesh Shastri; Anitha Mandapathi; Swati Vaidya; Ioannis Pavlidis
In this article, we extend our previous work [1], which blended gaming in monotonous security tasks to increase operator engagement and enjoyment. Specifically, we expand from a single game presented in [1] to an assortment of games that appeal to different tastes. These include a shooting game, a racket game, and two puzzle games. All games are designed in a way that attracts instead of detracting attention to the monitoring screens. In addition to the game set, we also include a web browser capability symbiotic to the monitoring task. All these applications are tested in a quite realistic pilot experiment, where subjects are monitoring live security feeds. This is in contrast to the experiment on a pre-recorded video feed reported in [1]. The results demonstrate that subject engagement and enjoyment is significantly higher when the monitoring task is multiplexed with imaginative interactive options. This improvement in job satisfaction is achieved without sacrificing performance, as measured by detection of suspicious activities.
SoundVision: graphic communication method for blind users BIBAFull-Text 2047-2052
  Chaochao Chen
Parallel visual data acquisition is not available to blind. Yet, sequential tactile scanning (e.g. white cane) allows them to form mental concepts of their surroundings, albeit slower. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that acoustic serial scanning of graphical objects allows a blind user to form mental concepts and to reproduce these objects graphically. Moreover, this system is designed to enable blind users to obtain graphic information and express their visual ideas graphically through sound.
Turkomatic: automatic recursive task and workflow design for mechanical turk BIBAFull-Text 2053-2058
  Anand P. Kulkarni; Matthew Can; Bjoern Hartmann
Completing complex tasks on crowdsourcing platforms like Mechanical Turk currently requires significant up-front investment into task decomposition and workflow design. We present a new method for automating task and workflow design for high-level, complex tasks. Unlike previous approaches, our strategy is recursive, recruiting workers from the crowd to help plan out how problems can be solved most effectively. Our initial experiments suggest that this strategy can successfully create workflows to solve tasks considered difficult from an AI perspective, although it is highly sensitive to the design choices made by workers.
My mobile story: therapeutic storytelling for children BIBAFull-Text 2059-2064
  Mark Matthews; Gavin Doherty
This paper describes the design, evaluation and rationale behind a multimedia message service (MMS) based therapeutic system for adolescents attending therapy. The mobile phone is used to assist clients in engaging with therapy through the completion of structured therapeutic tasks. Content is gathered by the client with the phone, and browser-based software is then used to structure the content during a face-to-face therapeutic session. We discuss initial findings including the potential for engaging clients in remote therapeutic activities and the importance of client control over access to their content. We also consider several practical issues concerning the design and evaluation of software to be used in clinical settings.
A long-term study of user experience towards interaction designs that support behavior change BIBAFull-Text 2065-2070
  Sang-Su Lee; Youn-kyung Lim; Kun-pyo Lee
Many researches on interaction design that supports users' behavior change in everyday life are studied recently especially in the domain of pervasive technology. However, not much attention has been paid to long-term effects on users in such cases. This paper presents our initial work of a long-term (8 month) study of users' self-report of experiences with an ambient dashboard feedback system in an automobile called Eco-driving system. It was notable that user satisfaction changed positively following active self-efforts made by users to understand the system after the negative shift due to initial disappointment. This work will be a first step to build a framework of how users accept systems designed to persuade them to change behavior over time.
Bridging the gap: implementing interaction through multi-user design BIBAFull-Text 2071-2076
  Tom Bartindale; Rachel Clarke; John Shearer; Madeline Balaam; Peter Wright; Patrick Olivier
We describe an interactive museum installation designed to extend visitor participation through personal reflection and contribution. The case study describes design approaches, which focused on multiple individual simultaneous use, which we describe as multi-user design. These approaches were deployed to support the visitor moving from viewer to contributor in a temporary museum exhibition. We present the anticipated use and early analysis of some of the data from actual use of the system. We outline our initial findings for the opportunities and limits in designing for personalised user-generated content through such approaches within museums and suggest areas of future work on qualities of participation and visitor contribution.
Informing design by recording tangible interaction BIBAFull-Text 2077-2082
  Augusto Esteves; Ian Oakley
Evaluating tangible user interfaces is challenging. Despite the wealth of research describing the design of tangible systems, there is little empirical evidence highlighting the benefits they can confer. This paper presents a toolkit that logs the manipulation of tangible objects as a step towards creating specific empirical methods for the study of tangible systems. The paper argues that the data derived from toolkit can be used in three ways. Firstly: to compare tangible interaction with other interaction paradigms. Secondly: to compare among different tangible interfaces performing the same tasks. Thirdly: via integration into a structured design process. This paper focuses on this last topic and discusses how detailed data regarding object use the data could be integrated into classifications and frameworks such as the Shaer's et al's TAC paradigm.
Effect of levels of automation on emotional experience in intelligent products BIBAFull-Text 2083-2088
  Moon-Hwan Lee; Tek-Jin Nam; Hyeon-Jeong Suk
Many scientists and engineers have researched how to apply automation technology to intelligent products. Emotional experiences in products have been considered as important factors for users' satisfaction as well. With users' emotions in mind, it is necessary to consider whether automated products indeed provide humans with emotionally satisfying experiences. In this paper, we investigated how different levels of automations affect users' experiences from an emotional point of view. Through experiments, effects of cognitive automation and motor automation were explored. The paper concludes with recommendations for applying automation technologies to intelligent products.
A cultural knowledge-based method to support the formation of homophilous online communities BIBAFull-Text 2089-2094
  Junia C. Anacleto; Fernando C. Balbino; Gilberto Astolfi; Sidney Fels; Andre O. Bueno
We propose a three-step method to identify people in social networks sites (SNS) who are talking about the same topics, even though they may be from different cultural backgrounds. Our method uses a cultural knowledge base from the OMCS-Br project to normalize cultural differences and find common interest among users based on statements they make various topics in a SNS. We evaluated three initial phrases that were used to search for sentences in a large social network using the cultural translation; we found that 81% of the retrieved sentences were judged to be related to the initial phrases. Thus, we have evidence that cultural normalization can support finding people talking about the same topic in a SNS even when they have different ways of saying the same thing. We believe that these culturally translated similarities can be used in a recommender system to contribute to the formation of homophilous online communities.
Listening to the community: social media monitoring tasks for improving government services BIBAFull-Text 2095-2100
  Cecile Paris; Stephen Wan
We present a preliminary analysis of the tasks and information needs of users performing social media monitoring to improve government services. In general, our aim is to explore how text analysis tools can support a social media monitoring task in the government context. We find that, in this context, social media monitoring is a complex activity. Social media monitors not only perform traditional media monitoring tasks, but they also take specific actions to provide an improved service, predominantly by checking and vetting information contributed by the wider online community. In our analysis, we found a number of specific information-based actions performed in order to determine how one should respond to a particular social media post.
Introducing VERO: visual experiential requirements organizer BIBAFull-Text 2101-2106
  Agnieszka Szostek; Evangelos Karapanos
Crucial to the advancement of the User Experience field is the ability to understand product qualities as perceived by users. Therefore we would like to introduce VERO (Visual Experiential Requirements Organizer), an online tool for the structured elicitation of users' perceptions of a given stimulus such as a product, a system or a concept. Contrary to the existing elicitation methods, VERO aims to enable users to freely express opinions about qualities relevant for a given stimulus; to indicate the importance of each quality without imposing a hierarchical order and to cluster related qualities according to users' own perception regarding the strength of the link between them. In this paper we also motivate our approach in developing VERO and sketch our research agenda regarding its validation and application in the field of User Experience.
The online privacy paradox: a social representations perspective BIBAFull-Text 2107-2112
  Marie Caroline Oetzel; Tijana Gonja
In this paper we present early results from a study, which aims at understanding the privacy paradox from a social representations perspective. After identifying adequate stimulus words with the help of a preliminary study, we conducted the main study using an online questionnaire. Participants were instructed to associate freely to the given stimulus words. The results of the polarity and sequence analysis of the associations provide a first valuable insight into the social representations of online privacy.
Investigating syntactic alignment in spoken natural language human-computer communication BIBAFull-Text 2113-2118
  Benjamin R. Cowan; Russell Beale; Holly P. Branigan
This paper describes planned experiment-based research observing the existence of syntactic alignment in natural language computer interactions. This research will achieve this through using a computer-human version of the confederate communication task commonly used in psycholinguistic research observing syntactic alignment in human-human dialogue. The motivations of the work lie in observing the existence of syntactic alignment in human-computer dyads and how the naturalness of interaction affects the appearance of such a linguistic phenomenon. The work will also aim to identify how such a linguistic effect links to users' satisfaction and quality judgments of interaction.
Mixing psychology and HCI in evaluation of augmented reality mental health technology BIBAFull-Text 2119-2124
  Maja Wrzesien; Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Mariano Alcañiz Raya; Cristina Botella
Recent studies present Augmented Reality Exposure Therapy (ARET) as a potentially effective technology in the Mental Health (MH) field. This study evaluates the ARET system applied to treatment of cockroach phobia in a clinical setting. The results seem to show that the ARET system is useful in helping the therapist construct a therapeutic relationship with the client. ARET also produces a visible reduction in the clients' clinical measures. Possible implications in terms of future design and evaluation methodologies are discussed.
A Fitt of distraction: measuring the impact of distracters and multi-users on pointing efficiency BIBAFull-Text 2125-2130
  Denis Lalanne; Agnes Lisowska Masson
This paper presents the results of an experiment aimed at measuring the impact of the number of distracters and of co-located users on individual pointing efficiency. The experiment, performed with 20 users, is a variation of a Fitts' Law test in which we incrementally augmented the number of distracters on the screen and the number of co-located users. The results show that the number of distracters clearly influences users' pointing performance. Further, it shows that users are more efficient at pointing items when they share the display with co-located users than when they are alone.
What do you see when you interact with friends online?: face, hand, or canvas? BIBAFull-Text 2131-2136
  Kyle Koh; Hyunjoo Song; Daekyoung Jung; Bohyoung Kim; Jinwook Seo
People use plethora of interactive remote conference tools for various tasks ranging from collaborative works to entertainment needs. The tasks are often distinguishable in terms of their types and users' usage patterns. We present a preliminary user study designed to explore the different usage patterns derived by performing different types of tasks. In this study, 18 people used an interactive remote conference tool for three types of tasks; Collaborative Creation, Cooperative Problem Solving, and Competitive Game Play with different screen configurations. We analyzed usage patterns using an eye-tracker as well as the result from post experimental questionnaire. We found that different tasks resulted in different gaze patterns. We also present an interesting finding on how users mistakenly report the use of the tool by contrasting the result with the questionnaire and eye-tracking log.
Digital mind mapping: innovations for real-time collaborative thinking BIBAFull-Text 2137-2142
  Honray Lin; Haakon Faste
This paper explores the development of a new digital mind mapping tool for future research on interactive knowledge management systems, specifically with regard to real-time collaborative thinking. We have evaluated numerous existing mind mapping software applications, and performed ethnographic research with a variety of users, to develop a framework of principles to guide the design of future idea generation and management systems. Our findings indicate a rich opportunity space for digital mind mapping tools, particularly in the areas of facilitating collaboration and information storage and retrieval.
Design your room: adding virtual objects to a real indoor scenario BIBAFull-Text 2143-2148
  Rui Nóbrega; Nuno Correia
This paper presents an interior design application that uses photos from real indoor spaces and rooms as input. The user is encouraged to take a picture of a certain place and virtually reshape it with furniture, different colors, textures and materials. The system analyses the still image of the physical space through image processing and computer vision algorithms to detect the world orientation relative to the camera. Knowing this, it is possible to create a natural interface where objects are laid on the floor and pushed around as in real life.
Programming on the move: design lessons from IPRO BIBAFull-Text 2149-2154
  Matthew Berland; Taylor Martin; Tom Benton; Carmen Petrick
Computer programming is often a stationary, solitary task; such tasks do not work well for most novices. This work describes the IPRO project that uses our 'Programming Standing Up' framework (PSU) to reframe programming as a mobile, social game. IPRO is a programming and simulation environment for iOS in which a learner programs a virtual robot to play soccer in a virtual space shared with her cohort. This work presents examples of secondary school students learning with IPRO. We then connect the examples to PSU design principles and evaluate those principles in terms of the examples.
PMRI: development of a pictorial mood reporting instrument BIBAFull-Text 2155-2160
  Martijn Vastenburg; Natalia Romero Herrera; Daniel Van Bel; Pieter Desmet
Mood capturing techniques are being used in research settings (e.g., lab evaluation and experience sampling) and to facilitate mood communication in mediated interaction (e.g., instant messaging and blogging). Instruments currently available tend to be either limited in expression or overly demanding. In this paper we describe our work-in-progress on the development of PMRI, a rich and easy-to-use pictorial mood-reporting instrument.
Evaluating a social media application for sustainability in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 2161-2166
  David Lehrer; Janani Vasudev
The goal of this research is to investigate the benefits of using a web-based social network to promote energy awareness, and influence energy-saving behavior of typical office workers. We propose that a social network integrated into the workplace environment -- allowing people to track their own energy-related activities, to share this information, and to view and react to peers' activities -- can take advantage of social influence to positively affect behavior. We are currently developing a prototype of such an application through iterative design. In the final phase of this work we will conduct experiments with a large number of subjects to test the ability of this application to influence attitudes and behaviors of office workers, and for providing a platform for commercial building operators to better communicate with occupants.
Constructing scientific arguments with user collected data in nomadic inquiry BIBAFull-Text 2167-2172
  Alex Kuhn; Brenna McNally; Clara Cahill; Chris Quintana; Elliot Soloway
Mobile devices now enable students to engage in nomadic inquiry as they collect large amounts of data from the environment to answer scientific questions. To support them with constructing scientific arguments, we created CogniBits: a system designed for tablet devices that scaffolds students through creating scientific arguments with user-collected data. The system was iteratively designed with two students and seeks to address the additional challenges these opportunities bring to science inquiry.
Constructing virtual 3D models with physical building blocks BIBAFull-Text 2173-2178
  Ricardo Jota; Hrvoje Benko
Constructing virtual 3D models typically requires specialized desktop modeling tools (e.g., CAD tools), which, while very powerful, tend to require a lot of precision, time, and expertise from the user. We present StereoBlocks, a system that combines a Kinect depth camera with 3D stereoscopic projector to allow the user to build complex virtual 3D models from available physical objects. By treating the camera information as a continuous 3D digitizer, we are able to capture the details of the real world and re-project virtual objects side-by-side to real objects. The user is able to visualize such mixed reality model through stereoscopic projected imagery tightly aligned with the real world. In our system, it is literally possible to build the entire virtual castle, using only a single physical brick piece. We discuss our prototype implementation and report on early feedback from the four users that evaluated our system.
Senior wellness: practices of community senior centers BIBAFull-Text 2179-2184
  Young Seok Lee; Santosh Basapur; Shirley Chaysinh; Crysta Metcalf
In the U.S., approximately 15,000 community senior centers provide a broad spectrum of programs for seniors to increase their overall health and wellness in their community. Although previous studies reported on the various benefits of participation in such programs, little research has been conducted to understand how technology can support this practice. We initiated a research study to understand the current practices of senior centers and their potential technology needs. In this article, we describe findings from our literature review as well as a field study with nine senior centers located in urban and suburban areas of Chicago, IL, and Tampa, FL. Based on the preliminary results, we share design implications for future technology development.
Effect of MobileASL on communication among deaf users BIBAFull-Text 2185-2190
  Joy Kim; Jessica J. Tran; Tressa W. Johnson; Richard Ladner; Eve Riskin; Jacob O. Wobbrock
MobileASL, a software program enabling sign-language video on mobile devices over conventional U.S. cellular networks, was evaluated in a three-week field study during the summer of 2010. Through a series of interviews, questionnaires, and a focus group, we asked participants about their behavior with and perceptions of MobileASL. In addition, we used on-device experience sampling and usage logging to observe how MobileASL was used. Initial results indicate that although participants felt that MobileASL's short battery life limited its use, participants took advantage of the mobility of the technology and used it for in-the-moment information gathering in places like buses, restaurants, and shopping areas.
Towards a psychographic user model from mobile phone usage BIBAFull-Text 2191-2196
  Rodrigo de Oliveira; Alexandros Karatzoglou; Pedro Concejero Cerezo; Ana Armenta Lopez de Vicuña; Nuria Oliver
Knowing the users' personality can be a strategic advantage for the design of adaptive and personalized user interfaces. In this paper, we present the results of a first trial conducted with the aim of inferring people's personality traits based on their mobile phone call behavior. Initial findings corroborate the efficacy of using call detail records (CDR) and Social Network Analysis (SNA) of the call graph to infer the Big Five personality factors. On-going work includes a large-scale study that shall refine the accuracy of the models with a reduced margin of error.
Mourning tree: space interaction design for the commemoration ceremony BIBAFull-Text 2197-2202
  Jihwan Kim; Seyong Kim; Jinju Yu; Sangsup Yoon; Sangki Han
The aim of this project is to improve the current culture of cherishing the memory of a deceased person through a new approach over the traditional, a cyber commemoration method. Through a preliminary research, we defined two major problems of current commemoration ceremony: separation between traditional cherish and cyber cherish, immaturity of cyber cherish method. Therefore, we focused on making a new way of commemoration, 'Mourning Tree'. Mourning Tree is a digital tree which is displayed by holographic technology, and the tree can receive messages from the cherisher in the many ways (SNS, SMS, e-mail). The message is displayed as a leaf of the tree, and the more messages this tree receives, the larger and more meaningful the tree becomes. Because of the exhibition of Mourning Tree in actual cherishing area, it can not only physically interact but virtually interact with the cherisher. We developed a prototype of the Mourning Tree and conducted an examination.
Medical record privacy: is it a facade? BIBAFull-Text 2203-2208
  Aubrey Baker; Laurian Vega; Tom DeHart; Steve Harrison
Part of the job of healthcare providers is to manage patient information. Most is routine, but some is sensitive. For these reasons physicians' offices provide a rich environment for understanding complex, sensitive information management issues as they pertain to privacy and security. In this paper we present findings from interviews and observations of 15 offices in rural-serving southwest Virginia. Our work demonstrates how the current socio-technical system fails to meet the security needs of the patient. In particular, we found that the tensions between work practice and security, and between electronic and paper records resulted in insecure management of files.
Behavioral science-informed technology interventions for change in residential energy consumption BIBAFull-Text 2209-2214
  Matthew Crowley; Aurélia Heitz; Annika Matta; Kevin Mori; Banny Banerjee
Behavior change represents an important new approach to addressing the energy crisis. Utility companies and private companies are deploying sensor-based power meters and related residential electricity monitoring technologies with the view that monitoring energy use will eventually result in a reduction in energy consumption. The success of these technologies depends largely on homeowners responding to the data with appropriate changes in their consumption behavior. Most energy feedback interfaces, however, have not been designed through a human-centered process and display data in ways that are unlikely to change behavior. Our proposal is to design interactive interfaces that combine a deeply human-centered process with insights from behavioral economics to reduce residential energy consumption. This paper describes our current research to develop and evaluate interactive interfaces based on three motivational categories: cognitive, social, and affective.
Technology-mediated parent-child intimacy: designing for Ecuadorian families separated by migration BIBAFull-Text 2215-2220
  Marisol Wong-Villacres; Shaowen Bardzell
This study explores the role technology plays in supporting long-distance relationships of migrant parents and left-behind children in developing countries such as Ecuador, in order to inform the design of technology that better suits their affective needs and their context's constraints. We derived three design principles based on our fieldwork in Ecuador: shared experience, the empowerment of children to self-express and children's need to safely build a private communication channel with their parents. We report our research findings and propose a set of design concepts for future work.
Power ballads: deploying aversive energy feedback in social media BIBAFull-Text 2221-2226
  Derek Foster; Conor Linehan; Shaun Lawson; Ben Kirman
This paper reports on the pilot evaluation of "Power Ballads", an evocative social media application which displays aversive feedback based on excessive household energy usage. Work by other researchers in persuasive technologies has previously suggested the use of aversive feedback should be avoided as it leads to a lack of engagement by users. This work evaluates whether punishment of non-desirable behaviour discourages users from engaging with a persuasive application. To this end we recruited 9 households to use the Power Ballads application over a period of 4 weeks. We found the use of aversive feedback did not act as a deterrent to regularly interacting with the application through evaluating user engagement.
Interpersonal informatics: making social influence visible BIBAFull-Text 2227-2232
  Elizabeth Bales; William Griswold
Recent research in social network science has found that what we do and say flows through our social network, impacting our friends, our friends' friends, and beyond. Likewise, our own personal choices are also the influenced by the social networks we participate in. We introduce the area of interpersonal informatics, a class of tools that allows groups of people to collect, aggregate, analyze, and share personally relevant information. The goal of interpersonal informatics is to help people gain awareness of how those around them affect their habits, beliefs, and health.
Evoked friction on a smooth touch device BIBAFull-Text 2233-2238
  Johan Kildal
Creating realistic virtual friction forces requires using complex hardware setups. In simpler mobile systems, friction is often suggested by mimicking textures with vibration, based on the position on the screen. Even in the simplest implementations, this paper proposes that force sensing should also be used to modulate vibration. In this way, Coulomb's model of friction can be better emulated and it can lead to conclude more easily that friction is the origin of the vibration. A proof-of-concept prototype is described, which received positive first impressions regarding improved user experience. A follow up study is warranted.
Robotic wheelchair moving with caregiver collaboratively depending on circumstances BIBAFull-Text 2239-2244
  Yoshinori Kobayashi; Yuki Kinpara; Erii Takano; Yoshinori Kuno; Keiichi Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki
This paper introduces a robotic wheelchair that can automatically move alongside a caregiver. Because wheelchair users are often accompanied by caregivers, it is vital to consider how to reduce a caregiver's load and support their activities, while simultaneously facilitating communication between the caregiver and the wheelchair user. Moreover, it has been pointed out that when a wheelchair user is accompanied by a companion, the latter is inevitably seen by others as a caregiver rather than a friend. To address this situation, we devised a robotic wheelchair able to move alongside a caregiver or companion, and facilitate easy communication between them and the wheelchair user. To confirm the effectiveness of the wheelchair in real-world situations, we conducted experiments at an elderly care center in Japan.
How revealing are eye-movements for understanding web engagement in young children BIBAFull-Text 2251-2256
  Stacey Birkett; Adam Galpin; Simon Cassidy; Lynne Marrow; Sarah Norgate
This paper presents a critical review of eye tracking as a research approach and evaluates its potential for usability testing in pre-school children. We argue that eye-tracking data is useful for assessing web engagement in this age-group, but only if triangulated against other usability methods. Recommendations for potential usability methods to use in tandem with eye-tracking are presented as part of a work in progress within a joint partner project between the University of Salford (UK) and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) exploring best-fit methodologies for understanding web engagement in young children.
NICU-2-HOME: supporting the transition to home from the neonatal intensive care unit using a mobile application BIBAFull-Text 2257-2262
  Young Seok Lee; Craig Garfield; Noel Massey; Shirley Chaysinh; Sana Hassan
Parenting a Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) premature infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and transitioning this infant home can be very stressful for parents. Few studies, however, examined the needs of parents of VLBW infants during the transition to home; moreover, even less is known about information and communication technology strategies to support parents during the transition period. To address this knowledge gap, we are conducting a study that aims to develop a mobile applicationservice to support the parents of VLBW infants by enhancing communication with the NICU staff and access to information resources. We report findings from our preliminary study using contextual inquiry and phone interviews and discuss implications for system development.
STORIFY: a tool to assist design teams in envisioning and discussing user experience BIBAFull-Text 2263-2268
  Berke Atasoy; Jean-Bernard Martens
Design is changing into an experience-oriented discipline; consequently designers need appropriate tools and methods to incorporate experiential aspects into their designs. A story is a crafted experience and storytelling is the craft. Therefore, understanding the structural strategies behind storytelling and learning how to incorporate them into a design process is relevant for designers when they want to envision, discuss and influence user experiences. In this paper we introduce STORIFY, a multi-modal tool to provide design teams with an experiential approach towards designing interactive products by incorporating dramaturgical techniques from film and sequential art.
Context stamp: a topic-based content abstraction for visual concordance analysis BIBAFull-Text 2269-2274
  VinhTuan Thai; Siegfried Handschuh
Concordance analysis supports users in studying how terms are used in a document vs. another by investigating their usage contexts. As current approaches usually present a large set of contexts in their full text form or as a large frequency-based word cloud, they still require a lot of effort from users to make sense of the underlying complex and dynamic semantic dimensions of contexts. To address this limitation, we propose Context Stamp as a visual representation of the gist of a term's usage contexts. To abstract away the textual details and yet retain the core facets of a term's contexts for visualization, we blend a statistical topic modeling method with a combination of the treemaps and Seesoft visual metaphors. This paper provides a high level description of the text analysis method and outlines the visual design of Context Stamps.
The effects of walking and control method on pressure-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 2275-2280
  Graham Wilson; Stephen A. Brewster; Martin Halvey
Pressure-based interactions have largely been limited to static scenarios; very few have focused on its use on mobile devices and even fewer have investigated the use of pressure while the user is in motion (i.e. walking). Pressure input is well suited to mobile interaction as mobile devices almost universally adopt touch and gestural input. This paper presents the initial results of research looking into the effects of walking on the application of pressure during linear targeting. Positional and rate-based (velocity) control methods are compared in order to determine which allows for more stable and accurate selections. Results suggest that rate-based control is superior for both mobile (walking) and static (sitting) linear targeting and that mobility significantly increases errors, selection time and subjective workload. These results will influence the design of a second part of the study, which will evaluate user ability to control the same application using only audio feedback.
Flick-and-brake: finger control over inertial/sustained scroll motion BIBAFull-Text 2281-2286
  Mathias Baglioni; Sylvain Malacria; Eric Lecolinet; Yves Guiard
We present two variants of Flick-and-Brake, a technique that allows users to not only trigger motion by touch-screen flicking but also to subsequently modulate scrolling speed by varying pressure of a stationary finger. These techniques, which further exploit the metaphor of a massive wheel, provide the user with online friction control. We describe a finite-state machine that models a variety of flicking interaction styles, with or without pressure control. We report the results of a preliminary user study that suggests that for medium to long distance scrolling the Flick-and-Brake techniques require less gestural activity than does standard flicking. One of the two variants of the technique is faster, but no less accurate, than state-of-the-art flicking. Users also reported they preferred Flick-and-Brake over the standard flick and judged it more efficient. We indicate some pending issues raised by the results of this preliminary investigation.
Retirees on Facebook: can online social networking enhance their health and wellness? BIBAFull-Text 2287-2292
  S. Shyam Sundar; Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch; Jon Nussbaum; Richard Behr
An individual's social network has a strong impact on his or her mental and physical health. This is of particular consequence for senior citizens who are at greater risk of social isolation after retirement, due to loss of spouse, mobility issues, and recent emphasis on aging in place, i.e., in smart homes. Can online social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook help alleviate social isolation of aging alone by enabling seniors to maintain high-quality social interactions? How can we make senior-friendly design improvements to SNSs? A preliminary national survey (N =168) of adults over 55 revealed that for those who had joined an SNS, the primary motivation cited for signing up was persuasion by a friend or family member, while non-users cited a strong lack of interest rather than a lack of knowledge or skill, with implications for theory and design of SNS technology for senior citizens.
Multimodal video annotation for contemporary dance creation BIBAFull-Text 2293-2298
  Diogo Cabral; Urândia Carvalho; João Silva; João Valente; Carla Fernandes; Nuno Correia
This paper presents a video annotator that supports multimodal annotation and is applied to contemporary dance as a creation tool. The prototype, developed for Tablet PCs, explores bimanual interaction, using pen and touch input interfaces. This combination can be more natural and familiar than the traditional input interfaces (keyboard or mouse). Contemporary dance is a domain where this type of flexible interaction with video material is relevant in order to augment and improve the rehearsal and creative processes. Motion tracking is used to define the dynamic behavior of the annotations and voice input complements the other modalities. The paper describes the design decisions done by the multidisciplinary development team and the current status of the tool.
Blink: observing thin slices of behavior to determine users' expectation towards task difficulty BIBAFull-Text 2299-2304
  Nuno Branco; João Pedro Ferreira; Marta Noronha e Sousa; Pedro Branco; Nuno Otero; Nelson Zagalo; Manuel João Ferreira
This work aims to address the following question: is it possible to infer the users' expectations regarding task difficulty by watching them just before the actual start? We present a study where people acting as evaluators determined users' expectations based on non-linguistic social signals in a 20 seconds video clip. The evaluations were performed using a five-point scale and the average error of the evaluations was of one point. Preliminary results suggest what type of signals was used by the evaluators to determine the users' expected difficulty with the task.
CheMO: mixed object instruments and interactions for tangible chemistry experiments BIBAFull-Text 2305-2310
  Kyohyun Song; Gunhee Kim; Inkyu Han; Jeongyoung Lee; Ji-Hyung Park; Sungdo Ha
In this paper, we present CheMO, a system for tangible chemistry experiments where users can interact with Mixed Object (MO) instruments that consist of a graspable physical part in the real world and a digital part in a virtual world. When used for an experiment, MO instruments enable users to employ tangible interaction methods inherited from real experience and to be given digital information similar to a physical expression arising from an actual experiment. The goal of our research is to enhance the sense of reality in a virtual experiment and to enable users to learn experimental procedures effectively and easily.
TweetSpiration: leveraging social media for design inspiration BIBAFull-Text 2311-2316
  Scarlett R. Herring; Christina M. Poon; Geoffrey A. Balasi; Brian P. Bailey
We present TweetSpiration, a Web-based application that leverages social media to inspire new search directions on the Web. TweetSpiration can be used at any time, but it is particularly beneficial when designers have difficulty developing new search terms or are looking for new search directions. By visualizing socially derived word associations, designers may develop new search directions based on others comments or thoughts on the search topic. In an initial study, users reported that TweetSpiration helps develop new search directions and provides new perspectives on the design problem.
An investigation of search behaviour in a tactile exploration task for sighted and non-sighted adults BIBAFull-Text 2317-2322
  Luca Brayda; Claudio Campus; Ryad Chellali; Guido Rodriguez; Cristina Martinoli
In this work in progress we propose a new method for evaluating objectively the process of performing a tactile exploration with a visuo-tactile sensory substitution system. Both behavioral and neurophysiological cues are considered to evaluate the identification process of virtual objects and surrounding environments. Our experiments suggest that both sighted and visually impaired users integrated spatial information and developed similar behavioural and neurophysiological patterns. The proposed method could also serve as a tool to evaluate touch-based interfaces for application in orientation and mobility programs.
Information used and perceived usefulness in evaluating web source code search results BIBAFull-Text 2323-2328
  Rosalva E. Gallardo-Valencia; Susan E. Sim
Software developers frequently search for source code on the Web to solve problems. Their ability to correctly evaluate the matches returned by a source code search engine is key to the success of the search, and in turn the project. We conducted a laboratory experiment to gain understanding on the kinds of information used and their usefulness during the evaluation process. We found that the most used information was not perceived as the most useful information. We also identified three patterns for relationships among the frequency of information use, the likelihood of selecting the best match, and the time to complete a task.
Tangible and body-based interaction with auditory maps BIBAFull-Text 2329-2334
  Andrew P. Milne; Alissa N. Antle; Bernhard E. Riecke
Blind people face a significant challenge navigating through the world, especially in novel environments. Maps, the most common of navigational aids, are of little use to the blind, who could benefit greatly from the information they contain. Recent work in auditory maps has shown the potential for delivering spatial information through sound. Users control their position and orientation on a digitally enhanced map and listen for the location of important landmarks. Orientation control is important because sound localization cues can sometimes be ambiguous, especially when in front of and behind a listener. Previous devices have used a tangible interface, in which users manipulate a small motion tracked object, to allow users to control their position and orientation on a map. Motivated by research that has identified the importance of body-based cues, from the joints, muscles and vestibular system in spatial perception, we expanded on previous interfaces by constructing an auditory map prototype that allows users to control their orientation through natural head movements. A pilot study was conducted to compare the head-movement-based interface to a tangible interface.
ScaleMirror: a pervasive device to aid weight analysis BIBAFull-Text 2335-2340
  Andrew J. Younge; Vinod Periasamy; Mohammed Al-Azdee; William Hazlewood; Kay Connelly
As today's fast paced environment continually encourages poor dietary habits and a lack of exercise, there is a growing need to properly monitor and control weight gain. With the advent of pervasive and ubiquitous computing, there are new opportunities to help promote personal wellness that was previously unobtainable. This work describes the novel design and creation of ScaleMirror; a prototype pervasive device to help users monitor their weight. This awareness is achieved through an accurate scale system, detailed statistics with historical data, and an intuitive design seamlessly embedded into a user's existing daily routine. The goal is to help a wide array of people concentrate on obtaining and maintaining a proper weight to promote a healthy and fulfilling lifestyle.
CAESSA: visual authoring of context-aware experience sampling studies BIBAFull-Text 2341-2346
  Mirko Fetter; Maximilian Schirmer; Tom Gross
In this paper we present a toolkit that enables HCI practitioners to visually author and setup Context-Aware Experience Sampling studies -- CAESSA (Context-Aware Experience Sampling Study Authoring).
Integrating touch and near touch interactions for information visualizations BIBAFull-Text 2347-2352
  Aras Balali Moghaddam; Jeremy Svendsen; Melanie Tory; Alexandra Branzan Albu
This paper proposes a novel interaction paradigm for multi-touch interfaces, that integrates both touch and near-touch interactions. The paper describes the hardware prototype that we have built, as well as the computer vision approach that we propose for real-time hand tracking and differentiation between near-touch and touch events. We also present a case study showing how near-touch and touch interactions can be successfully integrated in an information visualization application.
Supporting greater access to pre- and post-natal information and services for women in rural Kenya BIBAFull-Text 2353-2358
  Jakita Thomas; Yolanda Rankin; Matthew Tuta; Eric Mibuari
We present initial findings of on-going work, which examine pre- and post-natal services available to women in rural Laare, Kenya as well as cell phone appropriation by service providers and consumers as initial steps in service design for access.
Data type based security alert dialogs BIBAFull-Text 2359-2364
  Max-Emanuel Maurer; Alexander De Luca; Heinrich Hussmann
Making users aware of insecure situations and behavior while browsing the Internet is a highly discussed and still difficult task. Both, passive and active warnings have their own specific disadvantages. While active warnings interrupt the current task and annoy the user, passive approaches often fail since they go unnoticed. In this work, we present first results of a concept displaying data type based alert dialogs whenever a user enters critical information into an online form. Such contextual dialogs appear right in the users' field of view representing a hybrid approach between active and passive warnings. An initial user study was conducted that showed a significant improvement of security awareness by participants that used the tool.
Towards context-sensitive support of vitality in old-age BIBAFull-Text 2365-2370
  Dominik Jednoralski; Michael Schellenbach
Over the last century, the average lifespan extended remarkably. The economic and social implications of living longer are vast, and include offering new prospects to make latent potential in old age accessible both to senior citizens and to society. Growing evidence suggests that the brain retains its capability to change from experience into old age, a finding that encourages targeting the elderly for interventions such as physical activity which is known to impact cognitive and neural decline. In this work we suggest intervening on the basis of these findings by means of intelligent assistive technology. Therefore, we propose a system architecture for a mobile context-aware cognitive assistant (CACA) to assess and enhance cognitive functioning of older individuals. In our view, tailored context-aware assistance can activate latent physical and cognitive potential through a combination of challenge and support, aimed at enhancing individual motivation to pursue a sustainable lifestyle.
What would the parents like to know about children but are afraid to ask?: designing reports about child development in online games BIBAFull-Text 2371-2376
  Karolina Chmiel; Agnieszka Matysiak Szostek
Nowadays educational games constitute a large part of the learning environment. These interactive forms of education enable children to develop various competencies and also provide feedback depicting their strengths and shortcomings. Currently, portals offering educational games provide such feedback mainly to children. Surprisingly, a parent, who is responsible for a proper development and education of a child, is usually not included as a recipient of information about the child's results tested through games. Therefore, the goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the informational needs of the parents that can be applied to educational online games for children of age 6-9.
Gathering requirements for a personal health management system BIBAFull-Text 2377-2382
  James Milewski; Hector Parra
Applications are being designed to make health information available to the healthcare consumer. However, little is known about the support people need in using health information. We conducted semi-structured interviews to find out how people use health information to manage the chronic illness type-2 diabetes. We found that diabetics want to be motivated to treat the disease seriously and that the patient's social network takes on additional work that is unrelated to their existing social role to support the patient's health-related activities. Based on our findings, we propose a set of formative requirements to be included in the design of a personal health management system.
Tag clouds and keyword clouds: evaluating zero-interaction benefits BIBAFull-Text 2383-2388
  Mathew J. Wilson; Max L. Wilson
Tag clouds are typically presented so that users can actively utilize community-generated metadata to query a collection. This research investigates whether such keyword clouds, and other interactive search metadata, also provide measureable passive support for users who do not directly interact with them. If so, then objective interaction-based measurements may not be the best way to evaluate these kinds of search user interface features. This paper discusses our study design, and the insights provided by a pilot study that led to a series of improvements to our study design.
Causal temporal order in HCI BIBAFull-Text 2389-2394
  Adam Darlow; Gideon Goldin
This paper proposes applying principles of human causal reasoning to graphical interface design to make interfaces more intuitive. In particular, we present a design guideline for making graphical interfaces consistent with causal temporal order and demonstrate its effectiveness in an experiment where participants solve a puzzle with a novel interface. We also present preliminary results of its application to a text formatting task and propose several other causal principles that are directly applicable to interface design.
Multi-touch screens for navigating 3D virtual environments in participatory urban planning BIBAFull-Text 2395-2400
  Emma Chow; Amin Hammad; Pierre Gauthier
Global trends have seen a strong push for more effective participatory planning in democratic societies. Effective communication and universal accessibility are underpinning principles of successful participatory planning. Virtual environments (VEs) have proven to significantly improve public understanding of 3D planning data. This paper will evaluate multi-touch screens as a 3D VE navigation device for the general public in a participatory planning context. The interactivity of multi-touch technology may better engage participants and improve their understanding of planning policies and proposed projects. With the recent proliferation of multi-touch technology in the personal device market, there is great potential for expanding accessibility of participatory planning applications.

Video night presentations

SAMM: driving assistance system for the senior citizen BIBAFull-Text 2401
  Víctor M. González; Roberto Lapuente Romo; Luis Eduardo Pérez Estrada
Within a frame of possible ubiquitous urban applications this research explores ways to support the mobility of senior citizens in vehicles by finding efficient routes to reach their destination and managing their time. Our solution is called SAMM and operates following a context-aware and crowdsourcing model where data used by the system to optimize routes is both, taken from user's agenda and received from other users in real time. This allows older adults to optimize their trips by doing several things without leaving a main route, and to be aware of traffic jams long before other media report it. It is expected that a ubiquitous urban application like SAMM will be of great benefit for elderly people by increasing trip efficiency and avoiding the problems associated with spending excessive time sitting in a vehicle as well as encouraging them to take an active and independent role in society.

Interactivity special performances

Performance: what does a body know? BIBAFull-Text(duplicate link) 2403-2407
  Bob Pritchard; Sid Fels; Nicolas d'Alessandro; Marguerite Witvoet; Johnty Wang; Cameron Hassall; Helene Day-Fraser; Meryn Cadell
What Does A Body Know? is a concert work for Digital Ventriloquized Actor (DiVA) and sound clips. A DiVA is a real time gesture-controlled formant-based speech synthesizer using a Cyberglove®, touchglove, and Polhemus Tracker® as the main interfaces. When used in conjunction with the performer's own voice solos and "duets" can be performed in real time.

Workshops

HCI, politics and the city: engaging with urban grassroots movements for reflection and action BIBAFull-Text 2409-2412
  Stacey Kuznetsov; William Odom; Vicki Moulder; Carl DiSalvo; Tad Hirsch; Ron Wakkary; Eric Paulos
Grassroots initiatives enable communities of stakeholders to transform urban landscapes and impact broader political and cultural trajectories. In this two-day workshop, we present opportunities to engage HCI research with activist communities in Vancouver, the city hosting CHI'11. Working directly with local activist organizations, we explore the processes, materials, challenges, and goals of grassroots communities. Our bottom-up approach, including explorations of urban spaces and activist headquarters, participatory design sessions, reflection, critique and creative design of political artifacts will bring together a diverse group of HCI researchers, activists and artists. The workshop will result in concrete strategies for bottom-up activism and serve to inform the design of future interactive systems in the domain of political computing.
Visible -- actionable -- sustainable: sustainable interaction design in professional domains BIBAFull-Text 2413-2416
  Leonardo Bonanni; Daniela K. Busse; John C. Thomas; Eli Blevis; Marko Turpeinen; Nuno Jardim Nunes
The growing body of sustainable HCI shows that new interfaces may increase awareness and motivate action for environmental impact. Most of this research has been aimed at consumer decision-making, leaving out many professional domains. This workshop broadens the scope of HCI research to consider new user groups including professional users, educators, designers and engineers, governments and NGO's. We propose a broad approach to sustainable HCI for emerging domains: visible -- actionable -- sustainable. In order to effect sustainable change, new interfaces need to make issues visible in order to promote actionable decisions towards socially and environmentally sustainable ends. These approaches can support sustainable decision-making in product design and a variety of sectors. This workshop will gather interdisciplinary case studies to help identify emerging domains of where sustainable interaction design could provide important social and environmental benefit. The expected outcome is the start of a pattern language for sustainability solutions to the most promising application domains. Patterns are named solutions to recurring problems with enough flexibility to be applied in new contexts. Pattern languages have been developed for architecture and urban planning, object-oriented programming, change management, HCI, and pedagogy. We choose to structure the workshop around the concepts and techniques of pattern languages because because they focus the attention of the community on creating and sharing expertise on what works in general and in a form and format that is useful to designers who are working on specific solutions for specific contexts. The workshop will consider submissions to inform a pattern language from a number of potential application domains for sustainable interaction design including professional users, education, food and drink, marketing and sales, governments, NGOs, designers and engineers.
Personal informatics and HCI: design, theory, and social implications BIBAFull-Text 2417-2420
  Ian Li; Anind Dey; Jodi Forlizzi; Kristina Höök; Yevgeniy Medynskiy
Personal informatics is a class of systems that help people collect personal information to improve self-knowledge. The development of personal informatics applications poses new challenges in human-computer interaction and creates opportunities for collaboration between diverse disciplines, including design, ubiquitous computing, persuasive technology and information visualization. This workshop will continue the conversation from the CHI 2010 workshop and extend the discussion of personal informatics to include behavioral theories that can guide the development of such systems, as well as the social implications of self-tracking.
Ethics, logs and videotape: ethics in large scale user trials and user generated content BIBAFull-Text 2421-2424
  Matthew Chalmers; Donald McMillan; Alistair Morrison; Henriette Cramer; Mattias Rost; Wendy Mackay
As new technologies are appropriated by researchers, the community must come to terms with the evolving ethical responsibilities we have towards participants. This workshop brings together researchers to discuss the ethical issues of running large-scale user trials, and to provide guidance for future research. Trials of the scale of 10s or 100s of thousands of participants offer great potential benefits in terms of attracting users from vastly different geographical and social contexts, but raise significant ethical challenges. The inability to ensure user understanding of the information required to provide informed consent and problems involved in making users aware of the implications of the information being collected all beg the question: how can researchers ethically take advantage of the opportunities these new technologies afford?
Gamification. using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts BIBAFull-Text 2425-2428
  Sebastian Deterding; Miguel Sicart; Lennart Nacke; Kenton O'Hara; Dan Dixon
"Gamification" is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement. The recent introduction of 'gamified' applications to large audiences promises new additions to the existing rich and diverse research on the heuristics, design patterns and dynamics of games and the positive UX they provide. However, what is lacking for a next step forward is the integration of this precise diversity of research endeavors. Therefore, this workshop brings together practitioners and researchers to develop a shared understanding of existing approaches and findings around the gamification of information systems, and identify key synergies, opportunities, and questions for future research.
Distributed user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2429-2432
  Jose A. Gallud; Ricardo Tesoriero; Jean Vanderdonckt; María Lozano; Victor Penichet; Federico Botella
This document exposes the most relevant issues regarding the development of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs) to present the specific features that are not covered by traditional development processes. A transversal approach to tackle these new aspects is also proposed. Therefore, the goal of this workshop is to promote the discussion about the emerging topic of distributed user interfaces, answering a set of key questions: what, when, how, why distribute a user interface among different devices.
Large displays in urban life -- from exhibition halls to media facades BIBAFull-Text 2433-2436
  Uta Hinrichs; Nina Valkanova; Kai Kuikkaniemi; Giulio Jacucci; Sheelagh Carpendale; Ernesto Arroyo
Recent trends show an increasing prevalence of large interactive displays in public urban life. For example, museums, libraries, public plazas, or architectural facades take advantage of interactive technologies that present information in a highly visual and interactive way. Studies confirm the potential of large interactive display installations for educating, entertaining, and providing evocative experiences. This workshop will provide a platform for researchers and practitioners from different disciplines to exchange insights on current research questions in the area. The workshop will focus on how to design large interactive display installations that promote engaging experiences that go beyond playful interaction, and how to evaluate their impact. The goal is to cross-fertilize insights from different disciplines, establish a more general understanding of large interactive displays in public urban contexts, and to develop an agenda for future research directions in this area.
Video interaction -- making broadcasting a successful social media BIBAFull-Text 2437-2440
  Oskar Juhlin; Erika Reponen; Frank Bentley; David Kirk
Video has slowly been gaining popularity as a social media. We are now witnessing a step where capture and live broadcasts is released from the constraints of the desktop computer, which further accentuate issues such as video literacy, collaboration, hybridity, utility and privacy, that needs to be addressed in order to make video useful for large user groups.
Privacy for a Networked World: bridging theory and design BIBAFull-Text 2441-2444
  Airi Lampinen; Fred Stutzman; Markus Bylund
As our lives are more commonly mediated by IT, an interactional perspective of privacy [7] is increasingly applicable to the study of how people find and construct privacy in socio-technical interactions. This perspective has received increasing attention within the HCI research community in recent years. While the interactional perspective has proven effective as a starting point for theoretical and empirical studies of privacy in relation to everyday use of IT, there remain important open questions regarding how to translate results based on this perspective into design practice. Addressing these questions requires a greater sensitivity to when interactional privacy is applicable, a better understanding of suitable research methods, and more effective means for communicating results to the research and practitioner communities.
Child computer interaction: workshop on UI technologies and educational pedagogy BIBAFull-Text 2445-2448
  Edward Tse; Johannes Schöning; Jochen Huber; Lynn Marentette; Richard Beckwith; Yvonne Rogers; Max Mühlhäuser
Given the growth of Child Computer Interaction research, next generation HCI technologies play an important role in the future of education. Educators rely on technology to improve and adapt learning to the pedagogical needs of learners. Hence, this community needs to understand how current technology concepts match with current pedagogical paradigms. The classroom is a high stakes environment for experimentation, thus new interaction techniques need to be validated to prove their pedagogical value in the educational setting. This workshop provides a forum to discuss key HCI issues facing next generation education. With a particular focus on child computer interaction, these issues comprise inter alia the interaction with whole class interactive whiteboards, small group interactive multi-touch tables, and individual personal response systems (e.g. mobile devices) in the classroom.
Designer experience: exploring ways to design in experience BIBAFull-Text 2449-2452
  Mika P. Nieminen; Mikael Runonen; Marko Nieminen; Mari Tyllinen
User-Centered Design (UCD) under the umbrella of user experience (UX) has gained momentum as the de facto standard to produce successful products and services. Use of products is seen as a highly personal and context-sensitive balancing act that derives its uniqueness from the actions and emotions of the users. While the definition of UX is still in the making, it is hoped to extend the designing of products beyond functionality toward users' perceptions and emotions. As the practices for designing UX are emerging, we would like to address the UCD challenge from a different perspective. Therefore, in this paper we introduce designer experience (DX) as a means to design products at an experiential level, that of beyond contextual or empathic design. We welcome critical discussion on the existence and feasibility of DX, seek out available methodology to reliably invoke it, and collect practical future uses for DX.
Designing interaction for the cloud BIBAFull-Text 2453-2456
  David England; Martin Randles; Azzelarabe Taleb-Bendiab
Cloud computing is moving from a buzzword to a set of useful services which promise the benefits of Computing as a utility, removing the responsibility for infrastructure and software application management from end users and organizations. However, the full implications of moving to a cloud-based platform on the user experience are not clear. In this workshop we intend to bring together researchers and practitioners from various fields where cloud computing is becoming an issue. We wish to examine the impact of cloud computing on the design of the user experience at the individual and organizational level.