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CHI Tables of Contents: 99-200-100-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson; Manfred Tscheligi
Location:Vienna, Austria
Dates:2004-Apr-24 to 2004-Apr-29
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-703-6; ACM Order Number: 608045; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI04-2
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2004-04-24 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations
    2. Design expo case studies
    3. Development consortium
    4. Doctoral consortium
    5. HCI Overviews
    6. Late breaking result papers
    7. Late breaking posters
    8. Panels
    9. Special interest groups
    10. Student competition papers
    11. Workshops

CHI 2004-04-24 Volume 2


Ambient agoras: InfoRiver, SIAM, Hello.Wall BIBAFull-Text 763-764
  Thorsten Prante; Richard Stenzel; Carsten Rocker; Norbert Streitz; Carsten Magerkurth
This demonstration reports results from the EU-funded project Ambient Agoras, investigating future applications of ubiquitous and ambient computing in workspaces. Instead of presenting underlying system technologies or evaluation findings, this demonstration will focus on three running prototypes that emerged from the project: InfoRiver, SIAM, and Hello.Wall. The systems are meant to support work-related processes in office buildings while at the same time fostering informal communication. The InfoRiver implements the information river metaphor for information flow through a building or an organization. SIAM is a task-management system enriched with collaboration support to foster group communication and awareness. Hello.Wall is a new ambient display that can "borrow" mobile artefacts. All prototypes are multi-user and multi-device systems enabling coherent and engaging interaction experiences with a variety of sensor-enhanced smart artefacts.
Browsing through an information visualization design space BIBAFull-Text 765-766
  Thomas Baudel
ILOG Discovery is an information visualization editor, which allows browsing the visualization design space of data sets. This editor relies on the definition of data-linear visualizations, which are a very large class of visualizations that are defined from a relatively small number of parameters. Visualizations that can be produced by the editor encompass histograms, parallel coordinates, treemaps, as well as mixes of those representation types, such as a parallel histogram embedded in a treemap, all with one single unified model.
Explorations in an activity-centric collaboration environment BIBAFull-Text 767-768
  Beth Brownholtz; Werner Geyer; Michael J. Muller; Eric Wilcox; David R. Millen
This demonstration presents a new hybrid collaboration technology that partakes of selected qualities of informal, ad hoc, easy-to-initiate collaborative tools, and more formal, structured, and disciplined collaborative applications. Our approach focuses on the support of lightweight, informally structured, opportunistic activities featuring heterogeneous threads of shared objects with dynamic membership as well as blended synchronous and asynchronous collaboration. We will introduce the system, and then invite audience members to use it in several exercises.
Eye contact sensing glasses for attention-sensitive wearable video blogging BIBAFull-Text 769-770
  Connor Dickie; Roel Vertegaal; Jeffrey S. Shell; Changuk Sohn; Daniel Cheng; Omar Aoudeh
We present ECSGlasses: eye contact sensing glasses that report when people look at their wearer. When eye contact is detected, the glasses stream this information to appliances to inform these about the wearer's engagement. We present one example of such an appliance, eyeBlog, a conversational video blogging system. The system uses eye contact information to decide when to record video from the glasses'; camera.
The future of signs: interactive information, inexpensively! BIBAFull-Text 771-772
  Aradhana Goel; Michael Higgins; Mickey McManus; Marc Peterson
We present an inexpensive, interactive ubiquitous computing system that supports information presentation on demand using a novel "card reading" interaction style. We've deployed this system in our office as a means of supporting wayfinding, sales presentations, project context sharing, and notification (e.g., is there any free food in the kitchen?). However, since the system is essentially an information appliance embedded in our physical space, it also enables people to navigate through our information space-a much more challenging and exciting.
Genres as a tool for understanding and analyzing user experience in games BIBAFull-Text 773-774
  Zhan Ye
HCI has profoundly changed the way people work with computers, it also has the potential to help shape the way people entertain in the digital age. As a popular entertainment form, games are poised to become the next frontier for HCI research. However, the broader HCI community only has limited knowledge of games. The intent of this demo is to paint a broad picture of today's games. We employ genre theory, which has been widely used in film study, as a framework to introduce a variety of games, analyze different interface metaphors and user experiences of games, and present innovative interaction techniques and devices used in games.
Gustbowl: technology supporting affective communication through routine ritual interactions BIBAFull-Text 775-776
  Wouter van der Hoog; Ianus Keller; Pieter Jan Stappers
The Gustbowl enables parents and out-of-house children to bring back the feeling of coming home and allow for low-threshold, uncomplicated communication through using an aesthetically pleasing product. Technology is used to reconnect mother and grown-up son, by anchoring communication in routine daily actions. Prototypes were tested over longer periods of time to develop and evaluate both the intended routine use and improvised focused use of the bowl.
Haystack: a user interface for creating, browsing, and organizing arbitrary semistructured information BIBAFull-Text 777-778
  David R. Karger; Dennis Quan
Much past HCI research has examined the usability concerns of information management software for specific domains such as object-oriented software design, e-mail, and the Web. We believe that many of the results uncovered by these studies are applicable across multiple domains but that more broadly-scoped experiments require a system that can integrate multiple data sources. Haystack is a general-purpose information management environment designed to attack this very problem. Haystack's user interface, which incorporates capabilities from previous research such as context-specific visualization paradigms and attribute-based categorization, is built upon a highly expressive semistructured data model and data integration capabilities. In our demonstration we show how combination of a direct-manipulation-based UI paradigm and an expressive, federated data model can begin to address many of the information management problems plaguing general desktop computing today and can serve as a basis for further, yet unexplored, crossover information interaction experiments.
Human pacman: a wide area socio-physical interactive entertainment system in mixed reality BIBAFull-Text 779-780
  Adrian David Cheok; Kok Hwee Goh; Farzam Farbiz; Wei Liu; Yu Li; Siew Wan Fong; Xubo Yang; Sze Lee Teo
Human Pacman is a novel mixed reality interactive entertainment system that ventures to embed the natural physical world seamlessly with a fantasy virtual playground by capitalizing on infrastructure provided by wearable computer, mixed reality, and ubiquitous computing research. We have progressed from the old days of 2D arcade Pacman on screens, with incremental development, to the popular 3D game home console Pacman, and the recent mobile online Pacman. Finally with our research system Human Pacman, we have a physical role-playing computer fantasy together with real human-social and mobile-gaming that emphasizes on collaboration and competition between players in a wide outdoor area that allows natural wide-area human-physical movements. Pacmen and Ghosts are now human players in the real world experiencing computer graphics fantasy-reality by using the wearable computers on them. Virtual cookies and actual tangible physical objects are incorporated into the game play to provide unique experiences of seamless transitions between real and virtual worlds. We believe Human Pacman is pioneering a new form of gaming that anchors on physicality, mobility, social interaction,and ubiquitous computing.
IDeixis: image-based Deixis for finding location-based information BIBAFull-Text 781-782
  Tom Yeh; Konrad Tollmar; Trevor Darrell
We demonstrate an image-based approach to specifying location and finding location-based information from camera-equipped mobile devices. We introduce a point-by-photograph paradigm, where users can specify a location simply by taking pictures. Our technique uses content-based image retrieval methods to search the web or other databases for matching images and their source pages to find relevant location-based information. In contrast to conventional approaches to location detection, our method can refer to distant locations and does not require any physical infrastructure beyond mobile internet service. We have developed a prototype on a camera phone and conducted user studies to demonstrate the efficacy of our approach compared to other alternatives.
Measuring presence in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 783-784
  Rod McCall; Shaleph O'Neil; Fiona Carroll
This demonstration presents findings from two studies on presence that use a new technology for developing photo-realistic virtual environments. Our studies have used a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures, and in doing so have pointed to the importance of exploring place as part of presence. The demonstration explores issues of presence in such environments and the range of data capture methods we used and methodological issues found..
Nodding in conversations with a robot BIBAFull-Text 785-786
  Christopher Lee; Neal Lesh; Candace L. Sidner; Louis-Philippe Morency; Ashish Kapoor; Trevor Darrell
In this demo we describe our ongoing efforts to build a robot that can collaborate with a person in hosting activities. We illustrate our current robot's conversations, which include gestures of various types, and report on extensions to the robot's existing gestural abilities to be able to recognize nodding in conversations.
Non-visual information display using tactons BIBAFull-Text 787-788
  Stephen A. Brewster; Lorna M. Brown
This paper describes a novel form of display using tactile output. Tactons, or tactile icons, are structured tactile messages that can be used to communicate message to users non visually. A range of different parameters can be used to construct Tactons, e.g.: frequency, amplitude, waveform and duration of a tactile pulse, plus body location. Tactons have the potential to improve interaction in a range of different areas, particularly where the visual display is overloaded, limited in size or not available, such as interfaces for blind people or on mobile and wearable devices.
A portable system for anywhere interactions BIBAFull-Text 789-790
  Noi Sukaviriya; Rick Kjeldsen; Claudio Pinhanez; Lijun Tang; Anthony Levas; Gopal Pingali; Mark Podlaseck
Interactions have taken off from the confinement of a single screen into various personal devices. Projected an interface onto different parts of a physical environment is an escape beyond traditional display devices. Imagine that any walls or floors can turn into a direct manipulation space without a lot of effort. This demonstration of ED-lite, a combination of a laptop, custom software, off-the-shelf digital camera and projector, shows projected interfaces with interactions on any surfaces including those not necessarily perpendicular to the projector. ED-lite is a derivation of our previous work on Everywhere Displays (ED) and steerable interfaces. This portable version has an automatic calibration feature that makes applications usable on any surfaces in a drop. More importantly, it is now possible to be taken on the road for demonstrations.
ReMail: a reinvented email prototype BIBAFull-Text 791-792
  Steven L. Rohall; Dan Gruen; Paul Moody; Martin Wattenberg; Mia Stern; Bernard Kerr; Bob Stachel; Kushal Dave; Robert Armes; Eric Wilcox
The Collaborative User Experience Research group has been investigating how people use email and how we might design and build a better email system. In this demonstration, we will show a prototype email client developed as part of a larger project on "reinventing email." Among other new capabilities, this integrated prototype incorporates 1) novel visualizations of the documents within mail databases to aid understanding and navigation, 2) advanced text analysis of the content of email messages, and 3) several unique features for helping users manage their attention.
TERESA: a transformation-based environment for designing and developing multi-device interfaces BIBAFull-Text 793-794
  Silvia Berti; Francesco Correani; Giulio Mori; Fabio Paterno; Carmen Santoro
The ever-increasing availability of new types of devices raises a number of issues for user interface designers and interactive software developers. We have designed and developed a model-based authoring environment (TERESA), which provides support when designing and developing interfaces accessible through various device types in Web-based environment.

Design expo case studies

360 degrees of usability BIBAFull-Text 795-809
  Michael Morgan; Laura Borns
Global usability testing and gathering ongoing user feedback from initial concept through post launch was critical to the project success. Several different methodologies were deployed during the process. During pre launch, surveys were used to gather high-level feature preference assessments; live baseline usability testing determined areas of the flow that were difficult for users to comprehend and complete. Data from the surveys and baseline usability tests was incorporated into the redesign of the feature and page flow. Iterative prototype testing of the redesign focused on identifying major usability issues and updating the design after each round of testing to solidify and finalize the design direction. Community involvement using regular focus groups and a live, interactive preview helped inform the community and soften reaction to the change. During post launch, community feedback was leveraged to gather feedback on feature enhancements while additional rounds of iterative prototype testing tested the flow efficacy. The enhancements were presented to focus groups to ensure community needs were addressed, thus completing the usability feedback loop.
Creating an educational digital library: GROW a national civil engineering education resource library BIBAFull-Text 810-824
  Janice Lodato
The GROW (Geotechnical, Rock and Water Engineering) project (http://www.grow.arizona.edu) is the first iteration of a National Civil Engineering Education Resource Library (NCERL). This educational digital library uses precise coding and metadata to integrate fully with the National Sciences Digital Library (NSDL) and to meet the learning, teaching, and research needs of audience groups consisting of K-12, higher education, engineering professionals, and the community at large. GROW is a portal to reviewed Civil Engineering resources throughout the World Wide Web and interactive, multimedia learning objects created by GROW team members. Through this project we demonstrate how to create an educational digital library that is flexible enough to meet the needs of a diverse audience and innovative enough to provide interactive self-contained learning objects.
Designing a multimedia conversation aid for reminiscence therapy in dementia care environments BIBAKFull-Text 825-836
  Gary Gowans; Jim Campbell; Norm Alm; Richard Dye; Arlene Astell; Maggie Ellis
As world populations grow older the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementia related illnesses increases (approximately 18 million sufferers worldwide). One particularly devastating effect of AD is the loss of short-term memory, which radically impairs the sufferer's ability to communicate. People with dementia, however, often retain a facility for long-term memory that can function strongly given appropriate stimulation.Project CIRCA (Computer Interactive Reminiscence and Conversation Aid), utilizes interactive multimedia (including audio, video, animation and QuickTime VR environments) to stimulate long-term memory to prompt verbal and non-verbal communication. We will demonstrate how - through good design practice, interdisciplinary collaboration and a user-centred approach to design - we can invest reminiscence therapy with technology-led solutions to assist our participating test groups (30+ people with dementia and 40 carers) in conversational settings. We will demonstrate how this adaptable, expansive, immediate and engaging tool can contribute significantly to 'quality of life' in dementia care environments.
Keywords: animation, benefit analysis, cognitive psychology, concept design, content strategy & creation, graphic design, interaction design, multidisciplinary design / interdisciplinary design, participatory design, user experience, user interface design, user research, user-centred design / human-centred design, visual design, visual systems
Designing remail: reinventing the email client through innovation and integration BIBAFull-Text 837-852
  Bernard Kerr; Eric Wilcox
The Remail design team defined a specification for an innovative and integrated email client. This design-lead effort tackled three key problems that email researchers have discovered: lack of context, co-opting of email, and keeping track of too many things. Based on earlier design and research explorations, we conceived of a client from the ground up that attacked these problems in an integrated fashion. Our solutions were based on three constructs: showing message context, marking email, and selective display. A small team of programmers implemented much of the design in a functional prototype. This experimental client continues to allow researchers to expand and explore these concepts.
Designing tangible interfaces for children's collaboration BIBAFull-Text 853-868
  Diana Africano; Sara Berg; Kent Lindbergh; Peter Lundholm; Fredrik Nilbrink; Anna Persson
This paper presents the development of a design concept for an interactive play system and learning tool for children. The concept was illustrated with Ely the Explorer, an accessible and robust multi-user unit, set of tangible tools, and software application, designed for the school environment. This work examines the design of interfaces for co-present collaboration from an interaction design perspective. This paper also presents results from the concept evaluation in a school environment. The results showed that the system supported collaboration and interactivity and that the children enjoyed, and were engaged in the play. This indicates to us that the concept can make a positive contribution to the existing array of learning tools.
Disneyworld.com redesign BIBAFull-Text 869-884
  Shilpa Sood; Rhonda Gilligan; Chris Chandler; Shelley Slack
Disneyworld.com has recently been redesigned from the ground up. This paper discusses the challenges facing the design team given the enormous and unique physical aspects of the property, a very challenging business climate for the travel industry in the post-911 world, and the need to uphold the magical imperative of the world's pre-eminent entertainment brand.Our solution needed to address two very specific and disparate groups of users: "Intenders" and "Repeaters". It needed to enfranchise new back-end systems and commerce processes. And it needed to tie into Walt Disney World's overarching CRM initiative.The design solution is a holistic and scalable experience, allowing Guests to navigate via geographic and/or experience-based facets, incorporating a vast array of multimedia assets. Although the site has only been live for a little over a month, the early results are overwhelmingly positive.
The drift table: designing for ludic engagement BIBAFull-Text 885-900
  William W. Gaver; John Bowers; Andrew Boucher; Hans Gellerson; Sarah Pennington; Albrecht Schmidt; Anthony Steed; Nicholas Villars; Brendan Walker
The Drift Table is an electronic coffee table that displays slowly moving aerial photography controlled by the distribution of weight on its surface. It was designed to investigate our ideas about how technologies for the home could support ludic activities-that is, activities motivated by curiosity, exploration, and reflection rather than externally-defined tasks. The many design choices we made, for example to block or disguise utilitarian functionality, helped to articulate our emerging understanding of ludic design. Observations of the Drift Table being used in volunteers' homes over several weeks gave greater insight into how playful exploration is practically achieved and the issues involved in designing for ludic engagement.
Flexible interface/application design for online awards catalog BIBAFull-Text 901-911
  Ellisun Wolterstorff; James Mattson; Martin Tschofen; Larisa L. Gieneart
A catalog of merchandise used for incentive programs has been in the Carlson Companies product line for 65 years. This is a direct outgrowth of the Gold Bond Stamp incentive program our company was founded on.In 2002, we decided to improve the user experience for the Online Awards Catalog and solve application maintenance issues as there grew to be more than 50 iterations of the catalog interface and numerous versions of application code. The old interfaces proved to be inflexible, time consuming to maintain, and could no longer meet client's needs.Therefore, the goal of our redesign project was to create a flexible interface and application framework that would improve the online catalog's user experience, mimic the client's corporate style guides to allow better integration with the client's own web properties, and provide a better approach for adding new functionality and maintaining existing awards catalog sites.
From tools to tasks: discoverability and Adobe Acrobat 6.0 BIBAFull-Text 912-927
  Ron Mendoza; Kaari Peterson
The Adobe Acrobat 6.0 user interface represents the outcome of a research and design effort to make the most important functionality in the product discoverable, easier to learn, and easier to use. One of the challenges facing the Acrobat 6.0 team was the legacy of the existing Acrobat 5.0 product, which had presented users with many tools and little context to explain when or how to use them. The Review and Comment feature area was a business priority for Acrobat 6.0, and a usability study on 5.0 revealed discoverability problems with the commenting tool.Acrobat 6.0 introduced task buttons that provide access to tools and instructional text relevant to accomplishing common tasks. The Review and Comment solution leverages the task button framework and proactively presents UI elements to reviewers when they need them. Iterative user feedback sessions were invaluable for identifying and resolving usability issues early in the product cycle.
Keylekh: a keyboard for text entry in indic scripts BIBAFull-Text 928-942
  Anirudha Joshi; Ashish Ganu; Aditya Chand; Vikram Parmar; Gaurav Mathur
Typing in an Indian language is currently not an easy task. Significant training is required before one can achieve an acceptable speed and only professional typists make the investment. Part of the complexity arises due to the structure of Indic scripts and large number of characters in each script. Solutions to input text in Indic languages have been around for a while, but none of these are usable enough to emerge as the de-facto standard. Here we describe the design of a new keyboard based on the structure of the Indic alphabet. The project went through cycles of design, prototyping and user evaluation. The evaluation was done by multiple techniques - usability tests, informal demonstrations, road shows and a typing competition. We particularly found the road shows and the competition useful for gathering feedback for this type of products.
Matching user and business goals BIBAFull-Text 943-958
  Dana Chisnell; Meredith Brown
Got constraints? We did. Not only were we concerned with schedule and costs - the usual constraints - but also a company organization unused to cooperating among business units and a vendor "solution" that met business requirements but missed usability requirements. To cope on our portal redesign project, we matched the needs of the business and the needs of our key user group by innovating user-centered design practices and negotiating priorities with the project's sponsors. Our user experience research took both the user experience and the company's needs into account, creating a set of needs and constraints that made it more likely to produce a successful site for both the users and the business. This case describes our process, the design evolution, and the result.
MSN 9: new user-centered desirability methods produce compelling visual design BIBAFull-Text 959-974
  Don Williams; Gavin Kelly; Lisa Anderson
The MSN User Experience Team developed new user-centered methods to provide structured user input on the visual design of the newly-released MSN Explorer, an integrated software package. In the final product, users rated "appearance" above all of the product's features. This case describes how the MSN User Experience Team derived a design direction to set the most appropriate pace of visual change for millions of users with widely variant preferences. It discloses how these new methods maximized the product's visual appeal to the widest segment of the potential user base. The methods included design mark-up, a semantic design-description task, a statement rating task, a semantic desirability group card sort task, and a modified focus group discussion. This case documents the value of these new methods in predicting user reaction to visual design. Lessons learned from this collaboration are discussed from three perspectives: user experience management, design and usability.
The palm zire 71 camera interface BIBAFull-Text 975-989
  Ron Fernandez
In late summer of 2002, the Palm Human Interface (HI) Team was given four months to design a digital camera interface for the Palm Zire 71 handheld computer. The project required an unusual amount of coordination between HI, product management, engineering, and hardware industrial design (ID) to find ways to extend digital photography conventions into the context of the Palm OS and the not very camera-like form factor of the typical Palm device. This case study shows the evolution of the camera interface over the entire development period, placing design decisions in context with larger product developments. Discovery was minimal, user testing nonexistent, and there are no published results. In other words, this case study describes how an elegant human interface design gets created under real (i.e. unreasonable) deadlines and with typical (i.e. nonexistent) resources.
User-centered eService design and redesign BIBAFull-Text 990-1003
  Esin Kiris
As telecom service providers struggle under the financial pressures associated with the continuing sluggish economy, plans to trim operational expenses and grow margins have been fundamental parts of their business models. Key among these expense-cutting efforts has been the redirection of cost-intensive customer services communications to significantly less-costly web site portal interactions, such as online bill presentment and payment web services. However, the telecom industry survey results showed that expense savings and competitive differentiation should not be the only reason for developing these web services in order to ensure high use rate of these eServices [1]. These web services should be developed to enhance customer experience with these services. This paper presents how the user experience engineering techniques and usability test results were applied to redesign online bill presentment application to ensure the high rate of positive customer experience, and high percentage of use and adoption of these eServices. The online bill presentment application, one of eServices, has been developed for AT&T's business customers.
Wi-Fi and handhelds: perfect synergy BIBAFull-Text 1004-1018
  Sce Y. Pike; Paul Osborne
Consumers assume when they make a purchase of a Wi-Fi handheld they will have to spend all day to set up and get it connected. When palmOne Inc. decided to produce a Wi-Fi product, we wanted to create a handheld that users could turn on and go. The goal was to give the users a simple and elegant experience with Wi-Fi, unlike competitive products that were hard to use, and often intimidated the users.palmOne had an opportunity to branch out the product line with Wi-Fi and position the company as mobile broadband product providers. The challenge was to create a solid Wi-Fi user experience that connected users seamlessly in various locations without taking away the control of the handheld from the user.We introduced a simple wizard that stepped users through the initial connection process then automatically connected in different locations and simplified configuration of hidden or encrypted networks.

Development consortium

Building website credibility: a prospective solution to e-Commerce in Poland BIBAFull-Text 1019-1020
  Igor Garnik
The paper presents main problems concerning e-commerce development in Poland and other countries in Eastern Europe, in particular links between consumer's trust and cultural background in the region. The paper presents also a model proposal, describing relations and factors affecting creation of consumer's trust toward an on-line supplier.
HCI and usability in Russia BIBAFull-Text 1021-1022
  Ivan Burmistrov; Alexey Kopylov; Platon Dneprovsky; Yaroslav Perevalov
This paper presents the "bird's-eye-view" of the development and growth of HCI and usability within academia and industry in Russia. The paper also highlights the challenges facing Russian HCI and usability community.
A historical perspective of HCI development in Romania BIBAFull-Text 1023-1024
  Costin Pribeanu; Cristina Chisalita
In this paper, we are presenting the HCI development in Romania from a historical perspective. After a brief introduction in the historical context, we outline the main HCI programs in the Romanian universities. Then we present some key activities of RoCHI (the Romanian CHI group), which are supposed to promote HCI in our country, and we propose some directions for the cooperation of RoCHI with other sigs.
Indo-European partnership to promote HCI and usability issues in the indian IT industry and academia BIBAFull-Text 1025-1026
  Kaushik Ghosh; Andy Smith
The Indo European Systems Usability Partnership (IESUP) is a European Commission funded project under Asia IT & C initiative, jointly supported by British Computer Society / British HCI Group, Computer Society of India and other European academic institutions, to facilitate collaboration between European and Indian academics and industry practitioners interested in the disciplines of usability and human-computer interaction (HCI). IESUP enables Europe and India to collaborate in issues relating to the design of usable interactive IT systems that support people in their everyday and working lives through activities that include seminars / workshops in India, visits from India to Europe, building virtual communities and other methods of larger scale communication and networking.
Interaction design in India: past, present and future BIBAFull-Text 1027-1028
  Anirudha Joshi
In many parts of the world, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) emerged as an interdisciplinary activity between the fields of Computer Science, Cognitive Psychology and / or Human Factors. Elsewhere, the field of Information Sciences gave birth to the discipline now recognized as Information Architecture (IA). In India however, it emerged as Interaction Design, largely based in the field of Design. In this paper, I talk about this experience, give a summary of current status in industry and research and suggest an agenda for the future, particularly for interaction design education.
Introducing HCI in Technical University of Szczecin, Poland BIBAFull-Text 1029-1030
  Marcin Wichary
With a couple of noble exceptions, in Polish academic world the issues of HCI, usability and user-centered development are still nonexistent. The following paper describes author's efforts to introduce HCI in Technical University of Szczecin, Poland, along with lessons learned and suggestions on how the efforts can be improved in the future.
Opportunities and barriers in implementing e-Services for citizens in Poland BIBAFull-Text 1031-1032
  Marcin Sikorski
This paper presents current issues relevant to building information society in Poland in relevance to complying European Union regulations on public information access.

Doctoral consortium

The affective connection: how and when users communicate emotion BIBAFull-Text 1033-1034
  Lesley Axelrod
Affective computer systems which recognize human emotions or use emotion in their displays have potential to enhance human-computer interaction (HCI). Wizard-of-Oz (WOZ) methods and experimental design have enabled recording, analysis and comparison of emotional interaction of participants with an apparently 'emotional' machine and a standard 'non-emotional' version. Early results suggest participants use subtle emotional displays during HCI, for example through posture, body movement, sounds and facial expression. Further analysis will confirm if they show more emotion when they believe the system recognises their emotions, or when the system varies its behaviour in response to their emotional expression. This will contribute to HCI knowledge of affective computing by emphasizing the user's perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of WOZ techniques, and raising questions about future directions of affective computing.
Barriers to inclusive design in the UK BIBAFull-Text 1035-1036
  Hua Dong
This research combines a systematic approach to engineering design and technical communication to address industry barriers to inclusive design. The barriers were investigated from design consultancies, manufacturers and retailers, using a variety of methods such as interview, observation, survey and case studies. Three different types of barriers were identified, namely: perception barriers, technical barriers and organizational barriers. A toolkit has been developed to address the barriers identified and is undergoing industry testing. The initial test results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the toolkit as a technical communication vehicle for inclusive design.
Connecting with the absent presence: pervasive technology use and effects on community BIBAFull-Text 1037-1038
  Lisa Kleinman
This research investigates how the pervasive use of technology by an individual in the physical presence of group members affects community level. When technology use occurs, the individual can become an absent presence to the group-removing themselves from the context of shared group behaviors to become involved in a virtual world that is not available to those around them. Depending on group norms, this individual use of technology signals a particular social message and has implications for how the group interacts. Community is used as the measure of interest because of its relationship with other variables such as social trust, decision-making ability, and learning.
Connecting bridges across the digital divide BIBAFull-Text 1039-1040
  William D. Tucker
Connecting people across the Digital Divide is as much a social effort as a technological one. We are developing a community-centered approach to learn how interaction techniques can compensate for poor communication across the Digital Divide. Preliminary trials have yielded interfaces that deal with poor quality by adapting Instant Messaging techniques for multiple modalities, providing improved semi-synchronous communication. Lessons learned suggest new ways to design user interfaces specifically for the developing world.
Designing interfaces that influence group processes BIBAFull-Text 1041-1042
  Joan Morris DiMicco
The goal of this research is to build and evaluate collaborative tools that persuade behavior change over a group of individuals. Preliminary work in this area is presented and future directions are discussed.
Designing smooth connections between worlds BIBAFull-Text 1043-1044
  Daniela Gorski Trevisan
Currently there is a lack of explicit theories and few detailed guidelines to support the development of Mixed Reality (MR) technology and its varied applications. This research focuses on this lack by supporting the design, development and evaluation of MR lifecycle phases. The discussed methodology is based on the model-based approach for the design support and on analysis of continuous interaction properties to measure interaction techniques.
Factors affecting the utility of technology-mediated collaboration in science and engineering BIBAFull-Text 1045-1046
  Jeremy Birnholtz
There is significant interest in scientific and industrial collaboration and the CSCW technologies to support it. What is missing, however, is a means for systematic assessment of prospective users, in order to determine what tools are needed and how organizational factors encourage or discourage collaboration. This study proposes development and deployment of a survey instrument measuring social and organizational factors that will likely affect the utility of collaboration for scientists in 3 fields. Results will drive the design of other types of tools for assessing group needs, and specific recommendations about tools likely to be useful under different conditions.
How do people organize their desktops? BIBAFull-Text 1047-1048
  Sarah Henderson
Knowledge workers today have a lot of digital documents to manage, and most employ some sort of organizational system or scheme to help them. Most commonly used software provides the ability to create a hierarchical organization, but the appropriateness of this structure for personal digital document management has not been established. This research aims to understand how people currently organize their documents, identify the strengths and weaknesses of current systems and explore the usefulness of other information structures. This should provide insight into how personal digital document management systems can be made more usable.
Interactivity and conceptual learning in virtual environments for children BIBAFull-Text 1049-1050
  Maria Roussou
The topic of this doctoral research is to investigate user interaction in Virtual Environments (VEs), focusing on the role of interactivity in learning through Virtual Reality (VR) technology. The intention is to examine how interaction and conceptual learning are related in the context of virtual environments developed in informal educational settings. In order to study this, a set of exploratory studies was carried out with children aged 7-12. The children were asked to complete tasks, such as the assembly of ancient columns from parts, which were designed to promote constructivist learning. Their interaction in the VE was analyzed using an Activity Theory framework [1],[2]. The result of this analysis has informed the design of the main studies, which is currently underway.
MAPS: creating socio-technical environments in support of distributed cognition for people with cognitive impairments and their caregivers BIBAFull-Text 1051-1052
  Stefan Carmien
Individuals with cognitive disabilities are often unable to live independently due to their inability to perform daily tasks. By providing socio-technical environments to increase their independence, they can have richer, fuller lives. MAPS (Memory Aiding Prompting System), provides a simple effective prompting system with an interface for caregivers designed to affect high rates of integration into daily life. MAPS contributes the base upon which a distributed support system can provide mobile, context-aware error detection and repair. The process of designing and evaluation of the MAPS system utilizes and extends HCI frameworks, such as distributed cognition, situated action and end-user programming.
Modeling analyst performance for usability inspection BIBAFull-Text 1053-1054
  Alan Woolrych
This research takes an analyst-centred approach to improving Usability Inspection Methods. The research approach adopts novel instruments and methods, especially manipulation and monitoring of analyst's knowledge resources during usability inspection. The research aims to develop and validate a predictive model of analyst performance that supports improvement of usability inspection, resulting in a positive impact on design quality.
Nonprogrammer web application development BIBAFull-Text 1055-1056
  Jochen Rode
We propose to investigate the feasibility of nonprogrammer web application development. The main target audience for this research is webmasters without programming experience - a group likely to be interested in building web applications. We choose a subset of web applications as the target for our analysis: basic web-based data collection, storage & retrieval applications. We propose to study the mental models of our target audience, collect requirements for a sufficiently powerful end-user programming tool, evaluate new programming paradigms, and implement a proof-of-concept prototype using participatory design techniques.
Objectively evaluating entertainment technology BIBAFull-Text 1057-1058
  Regan Lee Mandryk
Emerging technologies offer new ways of using entertainment technology to foster interactions between players and connect people. Evaluating entertainment technology is challenging because success isn't defined in terms of productivity and performance, but in terms of enjoyment and interaction. Current subjective methods of evaluating entertainment technology aren't robust. This research uses previous literature and empirical results to create a methodology for objective evaluation of entertainment technology. By gathering physiological data in the context of game play, we intend to correlate physiological responses with subjective reports and with game events. This framework would be a powerful tool used by designers, developers, and researchers to inform their design and evaluate their decisions.
Supporting professional readers of online documents BIBAFull-Text 1059-1060
  Mark Melenhorst
Reading online documents for professional purposes such as formulating a piece of advice is the subject of a 4 year PhD project. A first study in this project indicated that readers who had to write a piece of advice based on electronic sources had a superficial task conception. Interacting with the online environment (note-taking, and the retrieval of information) played an important role during reading. Readers frequently copied citations from the source documents. These citations were evaluated only during advice writing. Based on these observations, we set up a second study that addresses note-taking in a writing-from-sources task. We compare the benefits of an advanced annotation tool with the benefits of a basic annotation tool. The preliminary results of this study will be available at the time of the conference. In the future we will evaluate the benefits of navigational tools.
VRMath: knowledge construction of 3D geometry in virtual reality microworlds BIBAFull-Text 1061-1062
  Andy Yeh
Because of the complexity of 3D geometry (e.g., 3D transformations) and the constraints in our real environments (e.g., body movement and manipulation of objects), most young children have difficulty in learning 3D geometry concepts and processes. Therefore, in order to address this issue, a prototype virtual reality learning environment (VRLE) named VRMath that set out to enable children to move in, manipulate objects, and construct programs to create objects in a 3D environment was designed and evaluated. The design of the HCI components of VRMath was influenced by educational semiotics [2, 5], which connect mathematical meanings with multiple semiotic resources. The evaluation, which involved six children, focused on both the design of VRMath and the learning within VRMath. Many new ways about thinking and doing 3D geometry and issues about the usability of VRMath were identified during the evaluation. These have implications for learning within and design of VRLEs.

HCI Overviews

24/7 or bust: designing for the challenges of global UCD BIBAFull-Text 1063-1064
  Dan Rosenberg; Uday Gajendar
The globalization of Oracle's development organization, customer base, and product lines has had an ongoing impact on the evolution of the Oracle UI Group (OUI). It has changed not only the product and user requirements to be met via the UCD process but also the nature of that process. This overview describes some of the internal and external challenges inherent to the globalization of enterprise software and how OUI has attempted to address them by creating deep connections with both its user and developer communities.
About interaction group BIBAFull-Text 1065-1066
  SungWoo Kim
This paper gives an overview of the HCI group I belong to. Research domain and focus, history and mission, research activities, published outcomes and current issue are described.
Advanced studies and research in information and communication technologies & society: The ICT&S-Center BIBAFull-Text 1067-1068
  Manfred Tscheligi; Regina Bernhaupt
The Center for advanced studies and research in information and communication technologies and society (ICT&S) was established in March 2003 at the University of Salzburg (www.icts.sbg.ac.at). The special focus of research is best expressed in three concepts: user experience, acceptance and social embeddedness providing a structure for ICT related research in various fields. A prominent field of investigation is the new European research focus Ambient Intelligence in all its interdisciplinary dimensions.
Collaborating on ethnography & design research: center for ethnography & contextual innovation at HFI BIBAFull-Text 1069-1070
  Kaushik Ghosh; Apala Lahiri Chavan
Human Factors International Inc. (HFI) is a 100 people, $13 million user-centered systems integration company, with a mission to improve the interactions that people have with computers and other digital systems. HFI offers end-to-end solutions for Web/Intranet and Internet-based applications, Software Applications, IVR Systems, Handheld Devices, Telemetric, Public Service Networks, Medical and Automation Equipments and help make our clients' existing offerings more user centric, optimized and efficient. In the wake of the recent interest of research and development for business innovations for the emerging markets and products & services for new markets, we are in the process of establishing ethnography and design research as a service area along with the existing areas of activities & services. HFI's interest in this area is reflected through a few successful collaborations with research initiatives launched by global corporate as well as academic institutions, e.g. HP Labs, Nokia Research, NCR, Media Lab Asia [6] etc.In this extended abstract we will elaborate on some key issues regarding successful research collaborations. We will also discuss the lessons learnt about carrying out such collaborations and jointly leading a multidisciplinary research team with early participation in the overall project planning.
CREATE: center for research and education on aging and technology enhancement BIBAFull-Text 1071-1072
  Wendy A. Rogers; Sara J. Czaja
In this paper we describe the interdisciplinary and cross-university Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE). This center is a consortium of the University of Miami (UM), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Florida State University (FSU). It is a multidisciplinary (psychology and engineering), collaborative Center, funded by the National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Aging), dedicated to solving problems of aging and computer technology use.
CUHTec: the Centre for Usable Home Technology BIBAFull-Text 1073-1074
  Andrew Monk; Julia Brant; Peter Wright; John Robinson
CUHTec is a joint venture initiated by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and the University of York in September 2003. CUHTec promotes a user-centred approach to the development of appropriate information and communication technology for use in the home. Within this broad focus consideration will be given to technology to enable people with disabilities and the elderly to live independently. CUHTec draws on research skills in Psychology, Computer Science and Electronics. An important part of the Centre will be the Responsive Home, a fully-equipped house that will be used for both the development and the demonstration of new products and systems.
Designing between borders: the distributed UI design team at Adobe BIBAFull-Text 1075-1076
  Katja Rimmi; Jonathan Rath; Lynn Shade
The User Interface Team at Adobe has members in 8 (soon to be 9) national and international sites including Germany, Canada, and India. What does it mean to have a centralized UI team with so many remote members? In this paper we discuss how our locations came into being, challenges and issues encountered, and steps we've taken to build a cohesive team identity. We also discuss the vision driving plans for growing teams in India and Japan.
HCI group of the department of ergonomics and psychology at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics BIBAFull-Text 1077-1078
  Lajos Izso; Karoly Hercegfi
Our HCI group developed mutually useful relationships with industrial partners, like MATAV Hungarian Telecom, Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Graphisoft, Nokia, EuroControl, etc., successfully accomplishing various R&D projects in very different fields.We apply a variety of evaluation methods, including a complex methodology called INTERFACE developed by us. This system is based on the continuous and simultaneous recording of heart period variability, time data of keystroke and mouse events, video images of users' behaviour and screen content.
IBM Almaden's user sciences & experience research lab BIBAFull-Text 1079-1080
  Daniel M. Russell; Steve B. Cousins
The IBM research division is roughly 3,000 people strong, located at 8 sites worldwide. This paper outlines the history and work of the User Sciences & Experience Research (USER) lab at IBM's Almaden Research Center in Silicon Valley. The USER lab has long been the focus for a number of pivotal developments in input devices for IBM personal computers. More recently, the lab has been extending its research activities to include new kinds of input methods, as well as fundamental work in collaboration technologies and sensemaking.
Laboratory for automation psychology and decision processes BIBAFull-Text 1081-1082
  Kent L. Norman
The Laboratory for Automation Psychology and Decision Processes (LAPDP) focuses on the cognitive/psychological aspects of human/computer interaction and does both basic and applied research in this area. It is housed in the Department of Psychology and is affiliated with the Human/Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) in the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS).
Professional usability in open source projects: GNOME, OpenOffice.org, NetBeans BIBAFull-Text 1083-1084
  Calum Benson; Matthias Muller-Prove; Jiri Mzourek
Working as a usability professional in the open source arena is a challenging task. The decentralized and engineering-driven approach of open source projects can be at odds with corporate processes and usability engineering methodologies. Nonetheless, there is great potential for large corporations to contribute to open source projects. Providing usability know-how that leads to usable and useful products is a win-win situation for developers, the corporations, and -- most importantly -- the users.
The rise of intrusive online advertising and the response of user experience research at Yahoo! BIBAFull-Text 1085-1086
  Christian Rohrer; John Boyd
Over the past five years, online advertising has shifted dramatically toward much greater levels of intrusiveness in an effort to increase advertising effectiveness. Advances in user experience through good design or improvements in usability in many products have been tarnished by forms of online advertising that have become increasingly annoying to users. Since advertising is often the primary source of revenue for many products, user experience design and research teams have had to accept online advertising as a "design constraint," with little influence on the advertising format selected. Here, we describe the emergence of a new user experience research role and our ongoing effort at Yahoo! to understand the nature and negative impacts of online advertising on user experience, with the goal of feeding this knowledge into the decision making process for ad formats, ad characteristics, and where ads are best placed within the Yahoo! network.
User centered design at European patent office BIBAFull-Text 1087-1088
  Alard Weisscher; Josine van de Ven; Raghu Kolli; Ged Owens
This paper describes how a large organisation implemented a user centered design process initiative to meet the business goals of minimising training for users.
User centered technologies research institute BIBAFull-Text 1089-1090
  Guido Kempter; Miglena Dontschewa; Philipp von Hellberg; Karl-Heinz Weidmann
In this paper we describe the User Centered Technologies Research Institute at University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg. We illustrate the perspectives on HCI efforts concerning analogous communication in multi-modal HCI as well as our research and development services for enterprises in order to support user centered design. We also describe current research and development activities of User Centered Technologies Research Institute, the policies, and organizational background. The mission of this research institute aims to advance the level of usability of human computer interfaces within EC FP6 idea of European Research Area.
User-driven innovation in the future applications lab BIBAFull-Text 1091-1092
  Lars Erik Holmquist
User-driven innovation regards users as a resource in the innovation process. Taking prototypes of novel technology as a starting point, a dialogue with users becomes a springboard to generate new ideas. The user group is often highly specialized, and not necessarily the intended end users of the technology. The Future Applications Lab has successfully used this approach in several recent projects. In Pin&Play, we pushed the development of novel surface-based networking in collaboration with the staff of a film festival. In context photography we engaged a group of photographers with a unique outlook on the process of picture taking.
What's my method?: a game show on games BIBAFull-Text 1093-1094
  Nicole Lazzaro; Kevin Keeker
What's My Method? is the game show that asks the question, "How do you user-test games?" The goal of this session is to highlight important differences between user research methods for games and productivity software in an instructive and engaging format. Emotion measurement scenarios are presented to the contestants and audience as questions in a fictional game show. Three games researchers "compete" to propose the best methodology to research thorny questions from real games. The audience acts as the judge, deciding how many points to award contestants for their answers.

Late breaking result papers

3Book: a scalable 3D virtual book BIBAFull-Text 1095-1098
  Stuart K. Card; Lichan Hong; Jock D. Mackinlay; Ed H. Chi
This paper describes the 3Book, a 3D interactive visualization of a codex book as a component for digital library and information-intensive applications. The 3Book is able to represent books of almost unlimited length, allows users to read large format books, and has features to enhance reading and sensemaking.
Active eye contact for human-robot communication BIBAFull-Text 1099-1102
  Dai Miyauchi; Arihiro Sakurai; Akio Nakamura; Yoshinori Kuno
Eye contact is an effective means of controlling communication for humans, such as starting communication. It seems that we can make eye contact if we look at each other. However, this alone cannot complete eye contact. In addition, we need to be aware of being looked by each other. We propose a method of active eye contact for human-robot communication considering both conditions. The robot changes its facial expressions according to the observation results of the human to make eye contact. Then, we present a robot that can recognize hand gestures after making eye contact with the human to show the effectiveness of eye contact as a means of controlling communication.
Affective sensors, privacy, and ethical contracts BIBAFull-Text 1103-1106
  Carson Reynolds; Rosalind Picard
Sensing affect raises critical privacy concerns, which are examined here using ethical theory, and with a study that illuminates the connection between ethical theory and privacy. We take the perspective that affect sensing systems encode a designer's ethical and moral decisions: which emotions will be recognized, who can access recognition results, and what use is made of recognized emotions. Previous work on privacy has argued that users want feedback and control over such ethical choices. In response, we develop ethical contracts from the theory of contractualism, which grounds moral decisions on mutual agreement. Current findings indicate that users report significantly more respect for privacy in systems with an ethical contract when compared to a control.
All together now: visualizing local and remote actors of localized activity BIBAFull-Text 1107-1110
  Scott Lederer; Jeffrey Heer
We present All Together Now (ATN), a tool for visualizing localized activities involving both local and remote actors. ATN presents each user with a webpage containing a common view of a shared virtual space modeled after the physical locus of the activity. Actors signal socially meaningful behavior by manipulating the spatial positions of their representations in this space. Local actors' positions are acquired automatically using computer vision. Remote actors indicate their positions with a mouse. Actors are not expressly identified. ATN exploits people's culturally established notions of spatial position to help them convey contextually relevant social cues to each other. Conveying just enough spatial and identity information helps optimize-without needlessly eliminating-the awareness asymmetries intrinsic to localized distance work
American sign language of the web BIBAFull-Text 1111-1114
  Deborah I. Fels; Jan Richards; Jim Hardman; Sima Soudian; Charles Silverman
The development of non-western character encodings has empowered linguistic communities all over the world to create their own on-line Webs. However, in the case of sign languages, which convey meaning by gestures moving in time and space, the static and textual nature of the WWW medium has, until now, continued to prevent the development of on-line Webs by signing linguistic communities. The challenge then is to enable web designers to create on-line, linked Webs based on moving gestures and signs without the need to use static image or text-based equivalents. We have developed a mechanism, signlinks, that facilitates the development of such Webs, without requiring any degree of bilingualism with a written language for the user. Signlinks use a special form of hyperlinking within video material to enable web browsing without written language.
Anthropomorphic visualization: a new approach for depicting participants in online spaces BIBAFull-Text 1115-1118
  Ethan Perry; Judith Donath
Anthropomorphic visualization is a new approach to presenting historical information about participants in online spaces using the human form as the basis for the visualization. Various data about an individual's online behavior are mapped to different parts of a "body", resulting in an abstract yet humanoid representation of a person. We explain the details of the approach and make some initial observations about the visualization in use. We also discuss broader issues relating to presenting data that has been mined from individuals' messages, using the human form to depict this data, and evaluating visualizations used for social purposes.
Applying user testing data to UEM performance metrics BIBAFull-Text 1119-1122
  Jarinee Chattratichart; Jaqueline Brodie
The lack of standard assessment criteria for reliably comparing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) is an important gap in HCI knowledge. Recently, metrics for assessing thoroughness, validity, and effectiveness of UEMs, based on user data, have been proposed to bridge this gap. This paper reports our findings of applying these proposed metrics in a study that compared heuristic evaluation (HE) to HE-Plus (an extended version of HE). Our experiment showed better overlap among the HE-Plus evaluators than the HE evaluators, demonstrating greater reliability of the method. When evaluation data, from testing the usability of the same website, was used in calculating the UEM performance metrics, HE-Plus was found to be a superior method to HE in all assessment criteria with a 17%, 39%, and 67% improvement in the aspects of thoroughness, validity, and effectiveness, respectively. The paper concludes with a discussion concerning the limitations of the effectiveness of the UEM from which the real users' data was obtained.
Appropriateness of foot interaction for non-accurate spatial tasks BIBAFull-Text 1123-1126
  Toni Pakkanen; Roope Raisamo
This paper describes alternative methods for manipulating graphical user interfaces with a foot. Feet are used in many real world tasks together with the rest of the body, but in computer environments they are almost completely put aside as an interaction possibility. One of the major problems in choosing input methods for different tasks in user interfaces is determining what kind of method is appropriate for a certain task. Feet could easily be used as a supportive input method in interaction with computers together with the traditional mouse. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using foot input in different non-accurate spatial tasks, and the efficiency and usability experience the users have of foot interaction compared with a traditional hand-based interface with the same input device. The aim is to find out how well foot interaction suits for non-accurate spatial tasks.
Attentive display: paintings as attentive user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1127-1130
  David Holman; Roel Vertegaal; Changuk Sohn; Daniel Cheng
In this paper we present ECS Display, a large plasma screen that tracks the user's point of gaze from a distance, without any calibration. We discuss how we applied ECS Display in the design of Attentive Art. Artworks displayed on the ECS Display respond directly to user interest by visually highlighting areas of the artwork that receive attention, and by darkening areas that receive little interest. This results in an increasingly abstract artwork that provides guidance to subsequent viewers. We believe such attentive information visualization may be applied more generally to large screen display interactions. The filtering of information on the basis of user interest allows cognitive load associated with large display visualizations to be managed dynamically.
Augmenting icons for deaf computer users BIBAFull-Text 1131-1134
  Helen Petrie; Wendy Fisher; Kurt Weimann; Gerhard Weber
Tooltips (TTs) can be used to make icons more understandable to users. However, text-based tooltips will not assist users with print disabilities. Four types of TTs to assist deaf and hearing impaired users were implemented: Sign Language, Picture (an enlarged icon and text explanation of the function), Human Mouth and Digital Lips (the last two to assist in lip reading). An evaluation of 16 TTs of each type with 15 deaf users found that the Sign Language and Picture TTs were very positively rated on satisfaction and understanding and would be used again, but that Human Mouth and Digital Lips were of no assistance in their current implementation to deaf users in lip reading the names of icons.
Automatic support for web user studies with SCONE and TEA BIBAFull-Text 1135-1138
  Hartmut Obendorf; Harald Weinreich; Torsten Hass
This paper describes the concepts of TEA, a flexible tool that supports user tests by automating repetitive tasks and collecting data of user inputs and actions. TEA was specifically designed for user studies in the World Wide Web and is able to interact with a web browser. Building on a web intermediary (WBI) and a framework for web enhancement tools (SCONE), TEA can be applied in a range of test settings - providing either a controlled laboratory environment or a quick tool for collecting informal data.
Banner ads hinder visual search and are forgotten BIBAFull-Text 1139-1142
  Moira Burke; Nicholas Gorman; Erik Nilsen; Anthony Hornof
Banner ads persist on the Internet in spite of evidence against their efficacy. Many ads include animation in an attempt to increase their attentional capture. An experiment was conducted to examine how various banner ads affect the visual search of news headlines on the Web, and whether participants could recall the ads they saw. The results both support and contradict the notion of "banner blindness," the idea that people ignore banner ads. Participants could not recall the ads that they saw, but those ads did distract the users and significantly increased search times. The most surprising result is that recall was especially bad for animated banners. This paper examines issues of attentional capture in an applied domain and provides guidance for web designers.
Blogging by the rest of us BIBAFull-Text 1143-1146
  Diane J. Schiano; Bonnie A. Nardi; Michelle Gumbrecht; Luke Swartz
Weblogs (or blogs) are frequently updated webpages with posts typically in reverse-chronological order. Blogging is the latest form of online communication to gain widespread popularity and it is rapidly becoming mainstream. Media attention tends to focus on "heavy-hitting" blogs devoted to politics, punditry and technology, but it has recently become apparent that vast majority of blogs are written by ordinary people for much smaller audiences, and on largely personal themes. Surprisingly little is known about this "blogging by the rest of us", especially from the blogger's point of view. This paper presents the preliminary results of an ethnographic study of blogging as a form of personal expression and communication. We characterize a number of blogging practices, and then consider blogging as personal journaling. We find blogging to be a surprisingly versatile medium, with uses similar to an online diary, personal chronicle or newsletter, and much more. The next few years should provide a fascinating opportunity for research and design as blogging tools improve and blog usage evolves and flourishes.
CareView: analyzing nursing narratives for temporal trends BIBAFull-Text 1147-1150
  Lena Mamykina; Stuart Goose; David Hedqvist; David V. Beard
In a study of home-healthcare practitioners, we found that temporal trends contained in patients' clinical records form one of the most critical pieces of information when selecting and administering appropriate treatment. However, these records are comprised of quantitative and qualitative data, and recorded as a narrative. This format makes the extraction of historical trends difficult and time-consuming. To address this limitation, we introduce CareView, a system that utilizes a set of visualization techniques to increase the visibility of temporal trends in clinical narratives. Specifically, our system focuses on integrated temporal visualizations of numeric and qualitative records; a visualization to facilitate rapid comparison of a patient's condition against previously established care goals; and the ability to immediately visualize data as it is entered. Two experiments comparing the market-leading tabular interface with CareView revealed a significant reduction in the time required to identify trends in patients' conditions. However, interviews with nurses highlighted the importance of preserving the integrity of the holistic narrative and suggested extending the design space.
Catalyzing social interaction with ubiquitous computing: a needs assessment of elders coping with cognitive decline BIBAFull-Text 1151-1154
  Margaret Morris; Jay Lundell; Eric Dishman
This paper describes design directions for ubiquitous computing to facilitate social interaction. The study focuses on elders coping with cognitive decline and their caregivers, but it is expected that the concepts will have much broader applicability. Social needs and barriers were examined in a qualitative study of 45 households across the U.S. Directions for ubiquitous computing concepts are outlined to address these social needs and barriers. Two example concepts, an ambient display to facilitate joint activity and a social memory aid, are described in detail. An underlying principal of these design directions and concepts is the use of computing technologies as catalysts rather than substitutes for human relationships. These concepts are part of an integrated system of home health technologies under development in a multiyear "aging in place" study.
A cognitive meta-analysis of design approaches to interruptions in intelligent environments BIBAFull-Text 1155-1158
  Antti Oulasvirta; Antti Salovaara
Minimizing interruptions to users is a crucial and acknowledged precondition for the adoption of new intelligent technologies such as ubiquitous and proactive computing. This paper takes a step toward achieving a consensus among the numerous existing approaches addressing the challenge posed by interruptions. We start by explicating why interruptions are considered important. We then reveal similarities and differences among the approaches from a cognitive viewpoint. It appears that the approaches draw from different assumptions about human cognition. Some of the approaches contain inconsistencies. The cognitive analysis also inspires directions for future work.
Collections: flexible, essential tools for information management BIBAFull-Text 1159-1162
  David R. Karger; Dennis Quan
While collections-aggregation mechanisms such as folders, buddy lists, photo albums, etc.-clearly play a central role in information management, the potential benefits of true first class support for collections are masked by disparate implementations that force users to pay attention to technological distinctions such as application, format, and protocol. We argue that systems should expose a single unified concept of collection and that concepts such as portals, cross-application projects, customized menus, and e-mail-task unification come about naturally as a result of our abstraction. In addition, uniform support for collections brings about a new set of capabilities for supporting creative processes. We discuss a prototype implementation of this abstraction in our Haystack system, give several examples of why we believe our abstraction is useful in everyday information management, and present some preliminary results from user studies that support our hypotheses.
A commonsense approach to predictive text entry BIBAFull-Text 1163-1166
  Tom Stocky; Alexander Faaborg; Henry Lieberman
People cannot type as fast as they think, especially when faced with the constraints of mobile devices. There have been numerous approaches to solving this problem, including research in augmented input devices and predictive typing aids. We propose an alternative approach to predictive text entry based on commonsense reasoning. Using OMCSNet, a large-scale semantic network that aggregates and normalizes the contributions made to Open Mind Common Sense (OMCS), our system is able to show significant success in predicting words based on their first few letters. We evaluate this commonsense approach against traditional statistical methods, demonstrating comparable performance, and suggest that combining commonsense and statistical approaches could achieve superior performance. Mobile device implementations of the commonsense predictive typing aid demonstrate that such a system could be applied to just about any computing environment.
Common sense investing: bridging the gap between expert and novice BIBAFull-Text 1167-1170
  Ashwani Kumar; Sharad C. Sundararajan; Henry Lieberman
In this paper, we describe Common Sense Investing (CSI), an interactive investment tool that uses a knowledge base of common sense statements in conjunction with domain knowledge to assist personal investors with their financial decisions, primarily asset-allocation. In interfaces that provide expert advice, one key problem is elicitation - how to ask questions that enable the expert model to make decisions, and at the same time, are understandable to the novice. The second problem is explanation - how to explain rationale behind expert decisions in terms that the user can understand. Many programs already encode expert models, but few have good models of novice knowledge, especially where broad knowledge of everyday life might bear on the subject. OMCSNet, a semantic network representation of the OpenMind Common Sense Knowledge Base, is the source of a wide range of facts about day-to-day life. CSI maps the user's goals, expressed in concepts from OMCSNet, to the expert's goals, expressed in technical financial terms. Instead of asking "What is your tolerance for risk?" where the user might not understand the concept of risk tolerance, we can ask, "Do you usually have a lot of credit card debt?" Aligning the expert's questions and decisions with common sense knowledge pertinent to the user increases the user's confidence in the ability of the system to meet their needs.
Communicating emotions in online chat using physiological sensors and animated text BIBAFull-Text 1171-1174
  Hua Wang; Helmut Prendinger; Takeo Igarashi
We present a chat system that uses animateddynamic text associated with emotional information to show the affective state of the user. The system obtains the affective state of a chat user from a physiological sensor attached to the user's body. This paper describes preliminary experiments and provides examples of possible applications of our chat system. Observations from informal experiments comparing our animated chat system with a conventional system suggest that an online interface that conveys emotional information helps online users to interact with each other more efficiently.
Comparing the immediate usability of graffiti 2 and virtual keyboard BIBAFull-Text 1175-1178
  Thomas Koltinger; Thomas Grechenig
This paper presents the results of an empirical study on the input system of the most frequent PDA operating system, PalmOS from Palm Inc. In an experiment with novice users we compared the stroke based alphabet Graffiti 2 with the Virtual Keyboard and the predictive add-on WordComplete from CIC Software for Graffiti 2. We found that although text input with Graffiti 2 was significantly slower and generated a higher error rate (9 wpm; 19%) than text input with the Virtual Keyboard (13 wpm; 4%), there was no significant difference in usability and task load rating. WordComplete for Graffiti 2 had no significant impact on performance but enhanced user comfort.
A comparison of synchronous remote and local usability studies for an expert interface BIBAFull-Text 1179-1182
  A.J. Bernheim Brush; Morgan Ames; Janet Davis
Synchronous remote usability studies can be a convenient and cost-effective alternative to conventional local usability studies. Although they are common in the field, there has been little research comparing synchronous remote usability studies with local studies. In our comparison of remote and local studies of an expert interface, the primary differences were in the participant's and facilitator's qualitative experience. The remote and local studies agreed closely (with no significant differences) in terms of the number of usability issues found, their type, and their severity. While our comparison focuses on an expert interface and more work is needed to understand remote studies in general, our experience suggests that evaluators of expert interfaces will have comparable success identifying usability issues with either remote or local studies.
Computerized self-administered questionnaires on touchscreen kiosks: do they tell the truth? BIBAFull-Text 1183-1186
  P.J. Blignaut
A computerized self-administered questionnaire (CSAQ) was implemented on a touchscreen-based information kiosk. Because of the voluntary nature thereof and uncontrolled circumstances in which respondents could complete the survey, it was essential to determine whether the feedback could be regarded as representing the true feelings of kiosk users. Respondents were categorized according to the number of items completed and the internal consistency of responses within each category was examined. Results from the CSAQ were compared with those from a paper-based survey. It was found that results of a CSAQ can be trusted if they are analyzed correctly.
Conference state estimation by biosignal processing: observation of heart rate resonance BIBAFull-Text 1187-1190
  Masamichi Hosoda; Akira Nakayama; Minoru Kobayashi; Satoshi Iwaki
This paper discusses a conference state estimation method that uses only biosignal processing; linguistic understanding is avoided. In conventional dialogue communication research, the physiological characteristic of "entrainment" between the participants has been already reported. We extend "entrainment" to introduce the concept of "resonance" to grasp the relationship between attendees. We then propose a method which estimates the conference state from "resonance". First, using a multimedia conference system, we record conference data including time-series records of the participants' heart rates. By observing and analyzing the conference data, we assess the "resonance" phenomenon among the talkers. Using the "resonance correlation matrix", a newly proposed index based on the correlation of the heart rate data, conference participative state can be successfully estimated.
Context photography: modifying the digital camera into a new creative tool BIBAFull-Text 1191-1194
  Sara Ljungblad; Maria Hakansson; Lalya Gaye; Lars Erik Holmquist
Context photography consists of capturing context when taking a picture, by sensing physical input in addition to light and representing it visually in real time. By developing this concept, we explore alternative potentials of digital cameras as everyday creative tools. We have developed two prototypes and tested them in user workshops. Based on the results of this process, we present implications of such modifications of underlying characteristics of a still camera.
Dealing with mobile conversations in public places: some implications for the design of socially intrusive technologies BIBAFull-Text 1195-1198
  Steve Love; Mark Perry
In this paper we describe the results of a study investigating the behaviour and views of bystanders in response to a proximal mobile telephone conversation by a third party. Analysis of the data revealed that despite varied expressed views on embarrassment, discomfort and rudeness, patterns of behaviour were remarkably similar. Mechanisms of disengagement were employed by all of the participants so that they were demonstrably not attending; yet all of them were able to report on the precise content of the overheard calls. Other social mechanisms were used by the bystanders to diffuse the perceived intrusiveness of the call and to grant "permissions" for these intrusions. Implications are drawn from the study for the design of mobile and ubiquitous computing applications.
Designing visual notification cues for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1199-1202
  Christopher S. Campbell; Peter Tarasewich
Mobile and wearable devices place enormous constraints on input and display form factors as well as on user attention. The key to designing micro-displays is knowing what sizes and configurations are viable for keeping users informed, what flexibility different micro-displays provide for different types of messages, and the learning requirements on the user. An experiment was performed to measure user learning and comprehension of increasing amounts of information on a simulated three-light visual display. Users were required to learn five sets of messages of increasing information and complexity using the small display. Results show that micro-displays can transmit detailed, information-rich messages up to 6.75 bits with minimal training (i.e., few trials and short time frames).
Devices for sharing thoughts and affection at a distance BIBAFull-Text 1203-1206
  Khai N. Truong; Heather Richter; Gillian R. Hayes; Gregory D. Abowd
Interpersonal communication involves more than just words. Many forms of communication involve physical acts showing warm thoughts and affection, such as giving flowers or displaying photos. Yet these forms of personal communication are difficult at a distance. In this paper, we describe the concept of devices for communicating affection and thoughts from a distance. We detail two devices that we are exploring to support many of these physical interpersonal interactions-an augmented candy dispenser and a digital picture frame-and discuss design issues we have encountered as we investigate this interesting application space.
Digital graffiti: public annotation of multimedia content BIBAFull-Text 1207-1210
  Scott Carter; Elizabeth Churchill; Laurent Denoue; Jonathan Helfman; Les Nelson
Our physical environment is increasingly filled with multimedia content on situated, community public displays. We are designing methods for people to post and acquire digital information to and from public digital displays, and to modify and annotate previously posted content to create publicly observable threads. We support in-the-moment and on-site "person-to-place-to-people-to-persons" content interaction, annotation, augmentation and publication. We draw design inspiration from field work observations of how people remove, modify and mark up paper postings. We present our initial designs in this arena, and some initial user reactions.
Document co-organization in an online knowledge community BIBAFull-Text 1211-1214
  Harris Wu; Michael D. Gordon; Kurt DeMaagd
We introduce the concept of "document co-organization" and describe such a system. By document co-organization we mean that individuals are allowed to hierarchically organize documents personally and share their hierarchies with others, while the system generates a "consensus" hierarchy from these personal hierarchies, which provides a full, common, and emergent view of all documents. By allowing users to retrieve documents from their own organization (hierarchy), another user's, the consensus hierarchy, or a time-based hierarchy, we provide access corresponding to different characteristics of knowledge tasks: they are personal, collective, social, and time-sensitive. In a class website experiment, we show that for a complex knowledge task, hierarchies are used more frequently than search. One surprising finding is how often students use others' personal hierarchies.
Does it matter if you don't know who's talking?: multiplayer gaming with voiceover IP BIBAFull-Text 1215-1218
  John Halloran; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Yvonne Rogers; Paul Marshall
Voiceover IP (VoIP) now makes it possible for people in distributed online multiplayer games to talk to each other. This might not only influence game performance, but also social interaction. However, using VoIP in multiplayer games can often make it hard to know who is talking, an issue that other researchers have found to be problematic. In a 10-week study of a fixed group of adult gamers, we found that not knowing who is talking affects game performance differently according to the type of game. In team-based war games, it can have a negative effect both on learning and coordination, but in race games, where individual rather than teams compete, it appears generally not to matter. In contrast, the impact of not knowing who is talking on social interaction is the same regardless of game type: while the social experience can be highly enjoyable, it is difficult for gamers to get to know each other. We consider the design implications for enhancing both game performance and social interaction.
Don't blame me I am only the driver: impact of blame attribution on attitudes and attention to driving task BIBAFull-Text 1219-1222
  Ing-Marie Jonsson; Clifford Nass; Jack Endo; Ben Reaves; Helen Harris; Janice Le Ta; Nicholas Chan; Sean Knapp
Key concerns of automobile interface designers are driving performance and safety. As cars include voices for telematics, command and control, warning messages, etc., these voices become an opportunity to affect drivers and their performance. In this experimental study, participants (N=36) spent 20 minutes in a driving simulator. The car presented randomly interspersed warnings about the driver's performance while they were driving. There were three conditions: Driver blame (e.g., "You are driving too fast"), Driver and Car blame ("We are driving too fast"), or Environment blame ("The road is easy to handle at low speeds"). Results indicate that warnings associated with the environment works best. Drivers felt most at-ease, they liked the system, they rated the quality of the car higher, and their measured attention to the road was better than the other conditions. Implications for in-car interaction systems are discussed.
eBooks with indexes that reorganize conceptually BIBAFull-Text 1223-1226
  Ed H. Chi; Lichan Hong; Julie Heiser; Stuart K. Card
Subject indexes were an important step forward for books because they enabled the comparison and correlations of information without extensive reading, re-reading and memorization. In this short paper, we focus on the user interaction and usage scenario of a new system called ScentIndex that enhances the subject index of an eBook by conceptually reorganizing it to suit particular information needs. Users first enter information needs via keywords describing the concepts they are trying to retrieve and comprehend. ScentIndex then computes what index entries are conceptually related, and reorganizes and displays these index entries on a single page.
The effects of background music on using a pocket computer in a cafeteria: immersion, emotional responses, and social richness of medium BIBAFull-Text 1227-1230
  Kari Kallinen
The focus of the present paper was to examine the effects of background music on using a pocket computer (i.e., reading entertainment news and making notes) in a noisy cafeteria environment. Music listening, as compared to using PDA without listening to music, prompted higher overall user satisfaction and immersion in media use, less boredom and more pleasure, and higher perceived social richness of the medium in terms of personality, liveliness, and emotionality. It was also found that PDA user experience and personality (i.e., impulsive-sensation seeking [ImpSS]) moderated some of these responses. The results are of importance given that the modern technology make it possible (1) to use computers in various everyday environments (e.g., in cafeterias and on business trips), and (2) to adapt the information and/or interfaces to fit the individual characteristics of the user.
Electronic privacy, trust and self-disclosure in e-recruitment BIBAFull-Text 1231-1234
  Jennifer Nickel; Heike Schaumburg
The present study extends the research on user trust in e-commerce to the area of e-recruitment, focusing specifically on the importance of perceived privacy to evoke user trust and self-disclosure. Two websites of a fictitious online recruitment site were compared, which differed only in their level of perceived privacy. It was found that an interface conveying a high level of privacy significantly increased user trust. Although users with high trust scores also disclosed more and more sensitive information than users with low trust scores, this could not be attributed solely to the perceived privacy of the online job bank.
Email task management styles: the cleaners and the keepers BIB 1235-1238
  Jacek Gwizdka
'Ensemble': playing with sensors and sound BIB 1239-1242
  Kristina Andersen
Examining mobile phone text legibility while walking BIB 1243-1246
  Terhi Mustonen; Maria Olkkonen; Jukka Hakkinen
Exploring the design and use of peripheral displays of awareness information BIB 1247-1250
  Edward S. De Guzman; Margaret Yau; Anthony Gagliano; Austin Park; Anind K. Dey
EyeDraw: a system for drawing pictures with the eyes BIB 1251-1254
  Anthony Hornof; Anna Cavender; Rob Hoselton
Eye gaze interaction with expanding targets BIB 1255-1258
  Darius Miniotas; Oleg Spakov; I. Scott MacKenzie
Facilitating mobile communication with multimodal access to email messages on a cell phone BIB 1259-1262
  Jennifer Lai
FingerPrint: supporting social awareness in a translucent sensor-mediated cue-based environment BIB 1263-1266
  Cristian Bogdan; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
FingerSense: augmenting expressiveness to physical pushing button by fingertip identification BIB 1267-1270
  Jingtao Wang; John Canny
Finger talk: collaborative decision-making using talk and fingertip interaction around a tabletop display BIB 1271-1274
  Yvonne Rogers; William Hazlewood; Eli Blevis; Youn-Kyung Lim
Focus+Context sketching on a pocket PC BIB 1275-1278
  Edward Lank; Son Phan
Friendster and publicly articulated social networking BIB 1279-1282
  danah michele boyd
From mental effort to perceived usability: transforming experiences into summary assessments BIB 1283-1286
  Marc Hassenzahl; Nina Sandweg
From quality in use to value in the world BIB 1287-1290
  Gilbert Cockton
Giveaway wireless sensors for large-group interaction BIB 1291-1292
  Mark Feldmeier; Joseph A. Paradiso
Gooey interfaces: an approach for rapidly repurposing digital content BIB 1293-1296
  Les Nelson; Elizabeth F. Churchill; Laurent Denoue; Jonathan Helfman; Paul Murphy
A grounded investigation of game immersion BIB 1297-1300
  Emily Brown; Paul Cairns
HabilisDraw DT: a bimanual tool-based direct manipulation drawing environment BIB 1301-1304
  Colin G. Butler; Robert St. Amant
Haptic chameleon: a new concept of shape-changing user interface controls with force feedback BIB 1305-1308
  G. Michelitsch; J. Williams; M. Osen; B. Jimenez; S. Rapp
Haptic feedback for pen computing: directions and strategies BIB 1309-1312
  Ivan Poupyrev; Makoto Okabe; Shigeaki Maruyama
HIM: a framework for haptic instant messaging BIB 1313-1316
  A.F. Rovers; H.A. van Essen
How do users think about ubiquitous computing? BIB 1317-1320
  Khai N. Truong; Elaine M. Huang; Molly M. Stevens; Gregory D. Abowd
Human-robot speech interface understanding inexplicit utterances using vision BIB 1321-1324
  Zaliyana Mohd Hanafiah; Chizu Yamazaki; Akio Nakamura; Yoshinori Kuno
ICARE: a component-based approach for the design and development of multimodal interfaces BIB 1325-1328
  Jullien Bouchet; Laurence Nigay
IdeaKeeper notepads: scaffolding digital library information analysis in online inquiry BIB 1329-1332
  Chris Quintana; Meilan Zhang
Impact of video editing based on participants' gaze in multiparty conversation BIB 1333-1336
  Yoshinao Takemae; Kazuhiro Otsuka; Naoki Mukawa
INTERACTING with sketched interface designs: an evaluation study BIB 1337-1340
  Beryl Plimmer; Mark Apperley
Interactive therapy with instrumented footwear BIB 1341-1343
  Joseph A. Paradiso; Stacy J. Morris; Ari Y. Benbasat; Erik Asmussen
Interviewing over instant messaging BIB 1344-1347
  Amy Voida; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg
IN-Visible: perceiving invisible urban information through ambient media BIB 1348-1350
  Panagiotis Chatzitsakyris; Goncalo Ducla-Soares; Alejandro Zulas
Keeping in touch with the family: home and away with the ASTRA awareness system BIB 1351-1354
  Panos Markopoulos; Natalia Romero; Joy van Baren; Wijnand IJsselsteijn; Boris de Ruyter; Babak Farshchian
Learner articulation in an immersive visualization environment BIB 1355-1358
  Joan M. Mazur; Cindy H. Lio
Lessons learned using ubiquitous sensors for data collection in real homes BIB 1359-1362
  Jennifer Beaudin; Stephen Intille; Emmanuel Munguia Tapia
Letting every pupil learn Japanese hand alphabets with VIUAL interfaces BIB 1363-1366
  Miki Namatame; Yasushi Harada; Fusako Kusunoki; Takao Terano
Link colors guide a search BIB 1367-1370
  Tim Halverson; Anthony J. Hornof
MiniMedia surfer: browsing video segments on small displays BIB 1371-1374
  Maryam Kamvar; Patrick Chiu; Lynn Wilcox; Sandeep Casi; Surapong Lertsithichai
More than just fun and games: assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom BIB 1375-1378
  Jeremy Lee; Kathleen Luchini; Benjamin Michael; Cathie Norris; Elliot Soloway
Mouse ether: accelerating the acquisition of targets across multi-monitor displays BIB 1379-1382
  Patrick Baudisch; Edward Cutrell; Ken Hinckley; Robert Gruen
MouthType: text entry by hand and mouth BIB 1383-1386
  Michael J. Lyons; Chi-Ho Chan; Nobuji Tetsutani
Not just intuitive: examining the basic manipulation of tangible user interfaces BIB 1387-1390
  Chen-Je Huang
Older adults and web usability: is web experience the same as web expertise? BIB 1391-1394
  Ann Chadwick-Dias; Donna Tedesco; Tom Tullis
Online personals: an overview BIB 1395-1398
  Andrew T. Fiore; Judith S. Donath
Passwords you'll never forget, but can't recall BIB 1399-1402
  Daphna Weinshall; Scott Kirkpatrick
Photo annotation on a camera phone BIB 1403-1406
  Anita Wilhelm; Yuri Takhteyev; Risto Sarvas; Nancy Van House; Marc Davis
Pointing without a pointer BIB 1407-1410
  John Williamson; Roderick Murray-Smith
Preschool children's use of mouse buttons BIB 1411-1412
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Benjamin B. Bederson; Allison Druin
A process for creating the business case for user experience projects BIB 1413-1416
  Jeff Herman
Production of pace as collaborative activity BIB 1417-1420
  Areti Galani; Matthew Chalmers
Project massive: a study of online gaming communities BIB 1421-1424
  A. Fleming Seay; William J. Jerome; Kevin Sang Lee; Robert E. Kraut
Recent developments in text-entry error rate measurement BIB 1425-1428
  R. William Soukoreff; I. Scott MacKenzie
A reduced QWERTY keyboard for mobile text entry BIB 1429-1432
  Nathan Green; Jan Kruger; Chirag Faldu; Robert St. Amant
Reconditioned merchandise: extended structured report formats in usability inspection BIB 1433-1436
  Gilbert Cockton; Alan Woolrych; Mark Hindmarch
Regressions re-visited: a new definition for the visual display paradigm BIB 1437-1440
  James A. Renshaw; Janet E. Finlay; David Tyfa; Robert D. Ward
Release, relocate, reorient, resize: fluid techniques for document sharing on multi-user interactive tables BIB 1441-1444
  Meredith Ringel; Kathy Ryall; Chia Shen; Clifton Forlines; Frederic Vernier
Remarkable computing: the challenge of designing for the home BIB 1445-1448
  Marianne Graves Petersen
Robotic pets in the lives of preschool children BIB 1449-1452
  Peter H., Jr. Kahn; Batya Friedman; Deanne R. Perez-Granados; Nathan G. Freier
Search result exploration: a preliminary study of blind and sighted users' decision making and performance BIB 1453-1456
  Melody Y. Ivory; Shiqing Yu; Kathryn Gronemyer
Sensing GamePad: electrostatic potential sensing for enhancing entertainment oriented interactions BIB 1457-1460
  Jun Rekimoto; Hua Wang
Single-handed interaction techniques for multiple pressure-sensitive strips BIB 1461-1464
  Gabor Blasko; Steven Feiner
Social interaction in 'there' BIB 1465-1468
  Barry Brown; Marek Bell
A tangible architecture for creating modular, subsumption-based robot control systems BIB 1469-1472
  Tim Gorton; Bakhtiar Mikhak
Tangible interface for collaborative information retrieval BIB 1473-1476
  Alan F. Blackwell; Mark Stringer; Eleanor F. Toye; Jennifer A. Rode
Task-evoked pupillary response to mental workload in human-computer interaction BIB 1477-1480
  Shamsi T. Iqbal; Xianjun Sam Zheng; Brian P. Bailey
Techniques for researching and designing global products in an unstable world: a case study BIB 1481-1484
  Brooke E. Foucault; Ryan S. Russell; Genevieve Bell
Text analysis as a tool for analyzing conversation in online support groups BIB 1485-1488
  Adam D. I. Kramer; Susan R. Fussell; Leslie D. Setlock
Towards caring machines BIB 1489-1492
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Rosalind W. Picard
Two-handed interaction on a tablet display BIB 1493-1496
  Ka-Ping Yee
Ubiquitous computing design principles: supporting human-human and human-computer transactions BIB 1497-1500
  Tony Salvador; Steve Barile; John Sherry
Use of mobile appointment scheduling devices BIB 1501-1504
  Thad E. Starner; Cornelis M. Snoeck; Benjamin A. Wong; R. Martin McGuire
A user interface framework for kinetic typography-enabled messaging applications BIB 1505-1508
  Gregor Mphler; Martin Osen; Heli Harrikari
Using heuristics to evaluate the playability of games BIB 1509-1512
  Heather Desurvire; Martin Caplan; Jozsef A. Toth
Using mental load for managing interruptions in physiologically attentive user interfaces BIB 1513-1516
  Daniel Chen; Roel Vertegaal
Viewing and annotating media with MemoryNet BIB 1517-1520
  Rakhi Rajani; Alex Vorbau
Wideband displays: mitigating multiple monitor seams BIB 1521-1524
  Jock D. Mackinlay; Jeffrey Heer
WinCuts: manipulating arbitrary window regions for more effective use of screen space BIB 1525-1528
  Desney S. Tan; Brian Meyers; Mary Czerwinski
Z-Tiles: building blocks for modular, pressure-sensing floorspaces BIB 1529-1532
  Bruce Richardson; Krispin Leydon; Mikael Fernstrom; Joseph A. Paradiso

Late breaking posters

Accessing services: dumb clients in a smart classroom BIB 1533
  Edward Lank; Amy Ichnowski; Shahid Khatri
Ambient urban interludes: passing glances BIB 1534
  Catherine Vaucelle; Katherine Moriwaki; Linda Doyle; Sven Anderson; Glorianna Davenport
Apeer: a peripheral interface to improve social awareness of brief topical discussions BIB 1535
  Neema Moraveji; Chad Thornton; Patrick Barry; Kevin Shiue
Assessing visitor behavior and attitudes in the medien.welten exhibition BIB 1536
  Otmar Moritsch; Eva Hornecker; Matthias Stifter
Believability in multi-agent computer games: revisiting the turing test BIB 1537
  W. Joseph MacInnes
BumpList: developing beneficial email list structures BIB 1538
  Jonah Brucker-Cohen; Michael Bennett; Stefan Agamanolis; Fred Cummins; Linda Doyle
Depth- and breadth-first processing of search result lists BIB 1539
  Kerstin Klockner; Nadine Wirschum; Anthony Jameson
Design guidelines for improved human-robot interaction BIB 1540
  Jill L. Drury; Dan Hestand; Holly A. Yanco; Jean Scholtz
Developing tangible interaction and augmented reality in director BIB 1541
  Ji-Dong Yim; Tek-Jin Nam
Effective interaction techniques for moving cursor using a remote control BIB 1542
  Soo Chul Lim; Ji Hyea Han; Min Young Jo; Eun Mi Jeon; Woo Sik Choi; Chang Geun Song; Song Yong Sim; Sung Woo Kim
The efficacy of psychophysiology for realising affective computing BIB 1543
  Louise Venables; Jennifer Allanson; Stephen Fairclough
Emotion in a ticket BIB 1544
  Apala Lahiri Chavan; Sushmita Munshi
Evaluating the comprehension of ambient displays BIB 1545
  Lars Erik Holmquist
Hands-on learning of computer programming in introductory stage using a model railway layout BIB 1546
  Haruo Noma; Nobuji Tetsutani; Hirokazu Sasamoto; Yuichi Itoh; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino
In-car concepts to support working parents BIB 1547
  Rachel Eardley; Jenny Hyams; Abigail Sellen
An interaction and product design of gesture based TV remote control BIB 1548
  Sang-Hwan Kim; Joonho Ok; Hyun Joo Kang; Min-Chul Kim; Mijeong Kim
Interaction design for electronic musical interfaces BIB 1549
  Bert Schiettecatte
Joystick text entry with date stamp, selection keyboard, and EdgeWrite BIB 1550
  Jacob O. Wobbrock; Brad A. Myers; Htet Htet Aung
The keep-in-touch phone: a persuasive telephone for maintaining relationships BIB 1551
  Scott A. Golder
Kick-up menus BIB 1552
  Volker Paelke; Christian Reimann; Dirk Stichling
Lovelet: a heartwarming communication tool for intimate people by constantly conveying situation data BIB 1553
  Hidenori Fujita; Kazushi Nishimoto
Making recipes in the kitchen of the future BIB 1554
  Itiro Siio; Noyuri Mima; Ian Frank; Tetsuo Ono; Hillel Weintraub
Managing icon abundance on eBay BIB 1555
  Maureen Fan; Kathleen Ko
Measuring gaze point on handheld mobile devices BIB 1556
  Kristian Lukander
Measuring visual appeal of web pages BIB 1557
  Ronald L. Boring; Gary J. Fernandes
MetaCrystal: visual interface for meta searching BIB 1558
  Anselm Spoerri
Office window of the future?: two case studies of an augmented window BIB 1559
  Batya Friedman; Nathan G. Freier; Peter H., Jr. Kahn
Tele-biographies: data collection techniques to capture the ways people interact with digital TV BIB 1560
  Mark Blythe; Jisoo Park; Andrew Monk
Telling stories to computers for document retrieval BIB 1561
  Daniel Gonsalves; Joaquim A. Jorge
Testing visual notification cues on a mobile device BIB 1562
  Peter Tarasewich; Tashfeen Bhimdi; Myra Dideles
Toward a method for privacy vulnerability analysis BIB 1563
  Carlos Jensen
"Readness": a design exploration of personal document management in historical and collaborative context BIB 1564
  Michael J. Muller
Reengineering planning process guided by usability evaluation BIB 1565
  Junior Sergio Luisir Discola; Junia Coutinho Anacleto Silva
Robotic walker interface: designing for the elderly BIB 1566
  Irina Shklovski; Yuan-Chou Chung; Rob Adams
Story lifecycle in a product development organization BIB 1567
  Majie Zeller; Sandra L. Kogan; Michael J. Muller; Merry Morse
SWIM: fostering social network based information search BIB 1568
  Jun Zhang; Marshall Van Alstyne
Using monetary incentives and auctions to elicit user preferences between usability and aesthetics BIB 1569
  Tamar A. Ben-Bassat; Joachim Meyer; Noam Tractinsky
Visual, attractive, and luminous: learning Japanese hand alphabets for elementary school pupils BIB 1570
  Yasushi Harada; Fusako Kusunoki; Miki Namatame; Takao Terano
Well-integrated needs-oriented recommender components regarded as helpful BIB 1571
  Markus Stolze; Fabian Nart
What you see is where you go: preliminary findings in situated way-finding research BIB 1572
  Nicola J. Bidwell; Christopher P. Lueg
Who's my daddy?: an approach to decentralized information architecture BIB 1573
  Abe Crystal; Jesse Wilbur


Connecting with large market customers: can we still call it usability? BIB 1574-1575
  Misha W. Vaughan; Janice Rohn; Catherine Courage; Chris Nodder; Simon Herd
How to trust robots further than we can throw them BIB 1576-1577
  David Bruemmer; Douglas Few; Michael Goodrich; Donald Norman; Nilanjan Sarkar; Jean Scholtz; Bill Smart; Mark L. Swinson; Holly Yanco
Interfaces, autonomy, & interactions in automobile driving BIB 1578-1579
  Erwin R. Boer; Michael A. Goodrich
Technology: a means for enhancing the independence and connectivity of older people BIB 1580-1581
  Herman Bouma; Sara J. Czaja; Hiroyuki Umemuro; Wendy A. Rogers; Richard Schulz; Sri Hastuti Kurniawan
Trading design spaces: exchanging ideas on physical design environments BIB 1582-1583
  Wendy Ju; Margot Brereton; Michael Haller; Amanda Parkes; Scott Klemmer; Brian Lee; Dan Rosenfeld
Video visions of the future: a critical review BIB 1584-1585
  Eric Bergman; Arnold Lund; Hugh Dubberly; Bruce Tognazzini; Stephen Intille

Special interest groups

Asynchronous learning networks: priorities for software development BIB 1586-1587
  Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Maryam Alavi; Donna Dufner
Context-sensitive design and human-centered interactive systems BIB 1588-1589
  Keiichi Sato; Ken Douros
eLearning and fun BIB 1590-1591
  Lisa Neal; Ray Perez; Diane Miller
End users creating effective software BIB 1592-1593
  Brad A. Myers; Margaret Burnett
Evaluating interactive information retrieval systems: opportunities and challenges BIB 1594-1595
  Nicholas Belkin; Susan Dumais; Jean Scholtz; Ross Wilkinson
Including accessibility as a component of web-related research: ensuring that the fruits of your work will be usable by all BIB 1596-1597
  Markku T. Hakkinen; Carlos A. Velasco
Personal information management BIB 1598-1599
  Ofer Bergman; Richard Boardman; Jacek Gwizdka; William Jones
Safety-critical interaction: usability in incidents and accidents BIB 1600-1601
  Philippe Palanque; Floor Koornneef; Chris Johnson; Gerd Szwillus; Peter Wright
Special interest group on current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIB 1602-1603
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Dana Chisnell
Techniques for designing mobile applications with customer data BIB 1604-1605
  Karen Holtzblatt; Pekka Ketola; Thea Turner
Tips and tricks for a better international usability test BIB 1606-1607
  Rolf Molich; Susan Dray; David Siegel
Universal remote console standard: toward natural user interaction in ambient intelligence BIB 1608-1609
  Gottfried Zimmermann; Gregg Vanderheiden; Matthew Ma; Maribeth Gandy; Shari Trewin; Sharon Laskowski; Mark Walker
The untapped world of video games BIB 1610-1611
  Kevin Keeker; Randy Pagulayan; Jonathan Sykes; Nicole Lazzaro

Student competition papers

2004 Athens 'Diskos': Olympic voting kit BIB 1612-1616
  Paul Yong; Per Arlander; Marie Begovich; William Blomstrand
Be a judge!: wearable wireless motion sensors for audience participation BIB 1617-1621
  Wolfgang Aigner; Martin Tomitsch; Miruna Stroe; Reinhard Rzepa
Design of an audience voting system for the Olympic games BIB 1622-1625
  Ramon Schalleck; Marcin Bober; Heiko Drewes
Development of an Olympic audience judging system BIB 1626-1630
  Mathew Mason; Tim Sherwood; Mohammad Rahman; Miroslava Vomela
DOVE: digital Olympic voting environment BIB 1631-1635
  Justin Donaldson; Alla Genkina; Scott MacArthur; Muzaffer Ozakca; Amanda Stephano
eyeVox: a collaborative scoring process BIB 1636-1640
  Elizabeth Akers; Ric Edinberg; Jenny Fan; Yi Leng Lee; Glenn Steinberg
From cookies to puppies to athletes: designing a visual audience voting system BIB 1641-1645
  Kirstie Hawkey; Melanie Kellar; Bonnie MacKay; Karen Parker; Derek Reilly
Global garden: a vision of the universal scoring device BIB 1646-1650
  Christopher Drackett; Victoria Fong; Judy Ko; Saki Tanaka; Salma Ting
iVo: interactive voting for the Olympics BIB 1651-1655
  Steve Aboud; Michael Albers; Tyler Nemes
I-Vote: an audience voting system BIB 1656-1660
  M. Cameron Jones; Karen E. Medina; Abhijit Rao; Dinesh Rathi; Vandana Singh
KONEKT: connecting the audience through judging at the Olympic games BIB 1661-1665
  Jeremy Canceko; Bradley Caraway; Shung Pak; Ko Nakatsu
Olympic voting system proposal BIB 1666-1669
  Seamus Costello; Kari Kubala; Matt Turley; Mehmet Uzer
PHOTOVOTE: Olympic judging system BIB 1670-1674
  Pontus Unger; Karl Forsberg; Jacob Hyldal Jacobsen
Shake it! BIB 1675-1679
  Muriel G. Domingo; Gahgene Gweon; Jordan Kanarek; Jenica Rangos
SoMo: an automatic sound & motion sensitive audience voting system BIB 1680-1684
  Marcelle van Beusekom; Jakob Bignert; Ozgur Tasar
System for audience participation in event scoring at the 2004 Olympic Games BIB 1685-1689
  William A. Daley; Isaac J. Gabriel
uJudge: a voting system for audience members of the 2004 Olympics BIB 1690-1694
  Hui-Wen Wang; Yu-Hsiu Li
The voice of the people: a system for enriching Olympic experiences BIB 1695-1699
  Christopher Thomas; Greg Fogel; Sonia Wendorf; Kristen Jones
WeINteract: a pervasive audience participation system BIB 1700-1704
  V. Chandrasekaran; S. Mohan; O. Pathipaka; S. Saxena


Ambient intelligence for scientific discovery BIB 1705-1706
  Yang Cai; Judith Klein-Seetharaman
Considering trust in ambient societies BIB 1707-1708
  Stephen Marsh; Pamela Briggs; Waleed Wagealla
Cross-dressing and border crossing: exploring experience methods across disciplines BIB 1709-1710
  Ron Wakkary; Thecla Schiphorst; Jim Budd
Designing for reflective practitioners: sharing and assessing progress by diverse communities BIB 1711-1712
  Gerhard Fischer; Anders Morch; Kumiyo Nakakoji; David Redmiles
Forecasting presence and availability BIB 1713-1714
  Joe Tullio; James Bo Begole; Eric Horvitz; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
HCI and homecare: connecting families and clinicians BIB 1715-1716
  Lena Mamykina; Jakob E. Bardram; Ilkka Korhonen; Elizabeth Mynatt; Wanda Pratt
Helping users to use help: improving interaction with help systems BIB 1717-1718
  Garett Dworman; Stephanie Rosenbaum
Home technologies to keep elders connected BIB 1719-1720
  Jay Lundell; Margaret Morris; Stephen Intille
Human-computer-human interaction patterns: workshop on the human role in HCI patterns BIB 1721-1722
  Till Schummer; Jan Borchers; John C. Thomas; Uwe Zdun
Identifying gaps between HCI, software engineering, and design, and boundary objects to bridge them BIB 1723-1724
  Bonnie E. John; Len Bass; Rick Kazman; Eugene Chen
Lost in ambient intelligence? BIB 1725-1726
  Anton Nijholt; Thomas Rist; Kees Tuijnenbreijer
Reflective HCI: towards a critical technical practice BIB 1727-1728
  Paul Dourish; Janet Finlay; Phoebe Sengers; Peter Wright
"Scientists, designers seek same for good conversation": a workshop on online dating BIB 1729-1730
  Andrew T. Fiore; Jeana Frost; Judith S. Donath
Shaping human-robot interaction: understanding the social aspects of intelligent robotic products BIB 1731-1732
  Christoph Bartneck; Jodi Forlizzi
Social learning through gaming BIB 1733-1734
  Elaine M. Raybourn; Annika Wærn
The temporal aspects of work for HCI BIB 1735-1736
  Peter J. Wild; Peter Johnson; Chris Roast; Mary Czerwinski
Time design BIB 1737-1738
  Michael Hildebrandt; Alan Dix; Herbert A. Meyer
User profiling BIB 1739-1740
  Johan Schuurmans; Boris de Ruyter; Harry van Vliet
Workshop on the relationship between design and HCI BIB 1741-1742
  John Zimmerman; Shelley Evenson; Konrad Baumann; Peter Purgathofer