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CHI Tables of Contents: 98-2b98-2c98-2d99-199-200-100-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Changing our world, changing ourselves
Editors:Loren Terveen; Dennis Wixon
Location:Minneapolis, Minnesota
Dates:2002-Apr-20 to 2002-Apr-25
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-454-1 ACM Order Number 608025; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI02-2
Papers:216
Pages:462
Links:Conference Home Page
Summary:Interactive technologies have changed - and continue to change - our world. We are living in an era of transformation driven by the Internet, hand-held computing, digital photography, interactive entertainment, and wireless communication technologies. But such transformations are nothing new. Adoption of many technologies has transformed our work, play, communication, and thought. It has also transformed our research and practice in the HCI community.CHI 2002 explores transforming technologies, looking back to the past and forward to the future. First, by reflecting on past (and current) technologies, we seek a better understanding of questions like: Why do some technologies succeed where others fail? How have economic and work conditions and leisure been changed? What roles have technologists, entrepreneurs, legislators, lawyers, and citizens played? We examine these issues especially as they relate to HCI, a young field that will celebrate its 20th anniversary at CHI 2002.Second, we look forward, examining emerging technologies and involving us all in shaping their progress. Profound HCI issues are raised as computer and communications technologies progress from portable to wearable to implantable, as the power and speed of technology increases and the cost decreases, and as the standard desktop graphical interface is augmented by mobile devices, tangible and mixed reality interfaces. In response, we ask: What role should HCI professionals play in the development and deployment of such profoundly transformative devices and the socio-technical systems surrounding them? How can we ensure usability and a regard for personal privacy? What is the role of the legal and political system can they "keep up" with technology, or do sufficiently compelling technologies simply push them aside.Third, in addition to looking outward, CHI 2002 has looked inward to the practices of our community. We used some new technologies to nudge the CHI conference in the direction of greater interactivity, turning attendees into participants. CHIplace.org, our interactive online forum, enables people to exchange ideas, offer suggestions, and preview conference content. As part of CHIs increasing emphasis on issues of interest to designers and usability practitioners, CHI 2002 features the Practitioners Special Track. Professional and student designers present portfolios of their work, and usability professionals reflect on the experiences they have gained with usability methods in practice. CHI 2002 also is proud to feature a two-day forum, the CHI 2002|AIGA Experience Design Forum. Held in collaboration with the Experience Design Group of AIGA, the American Institute of Graphic Arts, this forum serves as an in-depth, interdisciplinary exploration of issues in design and human-computer interaction.
  1. CHI 2002-04-20 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations
    2. Development Consortium
    3. Doctoral Consortium
    4. Invited Discussions
    5. Interactive Posters
    6. Panels
    7. Short Talks
    8. Student Posters
    9. Usability in Practice Session
    10. Workshops

CHI 2002-04-20 Volume 2

Demonstrations

Focus plus context screens: displays for users working with large visual documents BIBAFull-Text 492-493
  Patrick Baudisch; Nathaniel Good
Users working with documents that are too large and detailed to fit the user's screen (e.g. chip designs) have the choice of zooming or applying appropriate visualization techniques. In this demonstration, we will present focus plus context screens-wall-size low-resolution displays with an embedded high-resolution display region. They allow users to view details of a document up close, while simultaneously seeing peripheral parts of the document in lower resolution. Unlike overview plus detail, focus plus context screens do not require users to visually switch between multiple views. Unlike fisheye views, focus plus context screens do not introduce distortion.
An automated approach and virtual environment for generating maintenance instructions BIBAFull-Text 494-495
  Russell S. Blue; Jeff Wampler; G. Bowden Wise; Louis J. Hoebel; Boris Yamrom; Christopher R. Volpe; Bruce Wilde; Pascale Rondot; Ann E. Kelly; Anne Gilman; Wesley Turner; Steve Linthicum; George Ryon
Maintenance of complex machinery such as aircraft engines requires reliable and accurate documentation, including illustrated parts catalogs (IPCs), exploded views, and technical manuals describing how to remove, inspect, repair and install parts. For new designs, there are often time constraints for getting a new engine to the field, and the available documentation must go with it. Authoring technical manuals is a complex process involving technical writers, engineers, as well as domain experts (mechanics and designers). Often, several revisions are required before a manual has correct IPC figures and maintenance instructions. Compounding this problem is that technical writers often perform tasks better suited for computers, leading to increased costs and error. In this demonstration, we describe a new framework to generate maintenance instructions from solid models (Computer Aided Design/CAD data) and then validate these instructions in a haptics-enabled virtual environment. Our approach utilizes natural language processing techniques to generate a presentation-independent logical form, which can be transformed for display within the virtual environment. During the development of the system, task analyses, human models, usability studies, and domain experts were used to gain insights. The end result is a more integrated and human-centered process for developing technical manuals, providing higher quality documents with less cost.
LAPIS: smart editing with text structure BIBKFull-Text 496-497
  Robert C. Miller; Brad A. Myers
Keywords: LAPIS, PBD, automated text editing, pattern matching, programming-by-demonstration, search-and-replace
Hunter gatherer: a collection making tool for the web BIBAFull-Text 498-499
  M. C. Schraefel; Yuxiang Zhu
Task analysis of how users collect information from within Web pages indicates that while capturing information within-Web-page is a common task, it is not a frequent one. Tool support for this interaction is poor: users must move between browsers for copying and editors for pasting content They must also name the components captured and remember to copy and add the URL from the source. These subtasks force users away from their primary focus of information gathering and into information management. Hunter Gatherer is a browser-based tool designed to address the specific problems of forced divided attention in information gathering smaller-than-Web-page sized components.
KidPad: collaborative storytelling for children BIBAFull-Text 500-501
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Benjamin B. Bederson; Allison Druin; Gustav Taxen
Collaborative storytelling occurs frequently when children play, but few efforts have been made to support it with computers. This demonstration presents KidPad, a collaborative storytelling tool that supports children creating hyperlinked stories in a large two-dimensional zoomable space. Through the use of local tools, KidPad provides children with advanced interaction techniques in a collaborative environment.
Groupspace: a 3D workspace supporting user awareness BIBAFull-Text 502-503
  Jeff Dyck; Carl Gutwin
Real-time distributed groupware must support awareness of other users if collaborators are to work together effectively. Several techniques have been developed for enhancing awareness in two-dimensional shared workspaces, but less is known about how to support awareness in 3D workspaces. The Groupspace system incorporates several types of awareness techniques (embodiment enhancements, participant list enhancements, and the Grand Tour) to help users maintain awareness of others' locations and perspectives, even when they are distant or out of view.
Interaction in a collaborative augmented reality environment BIBAFull-Text 504-505
  Holger T. Regenbrecht; Michael T. Wagner
In this paper we describe an Augmented Reality (AR) system which allows multiple participants to interact with two- and three-dimensional data using tangible user interfaces. Interactively controllable 2D and 3D information is seamless integrated into the system.
Roomware: the second generation BIBAFull-Text 506-507
  Norbert Streitz; Thorsten Prante; Christian Muller-Tomfelde; Peter Tandler; Carsten Magerkurth
In this paper, we describe our 'Formal Demonstration Presentation' and provide background information on the video published in the video proceedings. The presentation provides an account of the development of the second generation of roomware components based on our experiences with the first generation. The redesign, resp. new design and implementation resulted in a comprehensive environment consisting of several different roomware components and software facilitating new forms of human computer interaction and cooperation. We present the second generation consisting of: DynaWall, InteracTable, CommChairs, ConnecTable, and the Passage mechanism, together with the corresponding software BEACH, PalmBeach, and MagNets.
E-windshield: a study of using BIBAFull-Text 508-509
  Ted Selker; Winslow Burleson; Ernesto Arroyo
The E-Windshield is a study in augmenting information with external knowledge as well as automobile relevant information. A prototype projection windshield is used to demonstrate 4 scenarios for using imagery on automobile windshields. Scenarios are subdivided into two conditions: Driving and Non-driving. In the first condition it demonstrates the use of annotation to draw drivers attention to objects. In the second condition the system presents an interface the size of the windshield providing a multimedia experience to the user. When a car is not occupied, it can be used as a public information board, showing information concerning time, things that are around it or simply presenting advertising. This display can also be used in collaboration with other displays to form a large screen array.
Prototype implementations for a universal remote console specification BIBAFull-Text 510-511
  Gottfried Zimmermann; Gregg Vanderheiden; Al Gilman
A 'Universal Remote Console' (URC) is a personal device that can be used to control any electronic and information technology device (target device/service), such as thermostats, TVs, or copy machines. The URC renders the user interface (UI) of the target device in a way that accommodates the user's preferences and abilities. This paper introduces the efforts of user groups, industry, government and academia to develop a standard for 'Alternate Interface Access' within the V2 technical committee of the National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS). Some preliminary design aspects of the standard in work are discussed shortly.
SearchKids: a digital library interface for young children BIBAFull-Text 512-513
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Allison Druin; Lisa Sherman; Benjamin B. Bederson; Glenda Revelle; Dana Campbell; Stacey Ochs; Beth Weinstein
As more information resources become accessible using computers, our digital interfaces to those resources need to be appropriate for all people. However, digital library interfaces have typically been designed for older children or adults. In this demonstration, we present SearchKids, a digital library interface developmentally appropriate for young children (age 5-10 years old). SearchKids offers a graphical interface for querying, browsing and reviewing search results.
Video browsing interfaces for the open video project BIBAFull-Text 514-515
  Gary Geisler; Gary Marchionini; Barbara M. Wildemuth; Anthony Hughes; Meng Yang; Todd Wilkens; Richard Spinks
The Open Video Project is an on-going effort to develop an open source digital video collection that can be used by the research community and ultimately serve an even broader audience. The initial collection contains video or metadata for more than 1600 digitized video segments comprising nearly half a terabyte of content. Our primary goals for this project are to provide free digital video content to people doing a wide variety of research, to develop a collaborative research environment for people interested in digital video, and to provide a testbed for our own video browsing interface work. Each of these goals fit within a broader mission to understand how people think about, seek, and use digital video. This demonstration summarizes the current status of the project through a brief tour of the Open Video web site, describes our current work in developing surrogates to preview video segments, and shows an innovative video browsing interface we are developing.
A model-based tool for interactive prototyping of highly interactive applications BIBAFull-Text 516-517
  Remi Bastide; David Navarre; Philippe Palanque
We present a model-based case tool dedicated to the prototyping of highly interactive (also called post-WIMP) applications. Such applications are challenging to model and to prototype, since they require the use of non-standard widgets and interaction techniques and exhibit a complex dynamic behavior. The tool, called PetShop, embodies the results of several years of research about the formal modeling of interactive systems, and its main application domain is safety-critical interactive applications such air-traffic control or military command and control systems. PetShop stands apart from most formal-based tools since it supports and promotes an iterative and user-centered design process, and also stands apart from most model-based tools since it goes beyond WIMP interfaces and does not sacrifice the formal validation of models.
NetRaker suite: a demonstration BIBAFull-Text 518-519
  Doug van Duyne; James A. Landay; Matthew Tarpy
This demonstration will show the application of a unique approach to collecting and analyzing usability data from the users of Web sites and software applications. The NetRaker Suite supports researchers in conducting usability research remotely, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data, reducing administration overhead and project cost. It provides several different types of interaction with test participants, including email invitations and Web page intercepts. Researchers can also participate in real-time screen sharing sessions with test participants, and view streaming videos of previous screen sharing sessions. The suite of tools offers an easy-to-use Web-based interface that supports the entire team collaborating on a Web site design. Its built-in research templates and online analysis tools makes the task of starting a new research project, as well as collecting and analyzing the resulting data, something that can be accomplished in hours rather than days or weeks.
SHriMP views: an interactive environment for information visualization and navigation BIBAFull-Text 520-521
  Margaret-Anne Storey; Casey Best; Jeff Michaud; Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu; Mark Musen
The SHriMP (Simple Hierarchical Multi-Perspective) visualization technique was designed to enhance how people browse and explore complex information spaces. SHriMP uses a nested graph view to present information that is hierarchically structured. It introduces the concept of nested interchangeable views to allow a user to explore multiple perspectives of information at different levels of abstraction. SHriMP combines a hypertext following metaphor with animated panning and zooming motions over the nested graph to provide continuous orientation and contextual cues for the user. In this demo, we show how these ideas are proving useful in the areas of software visualization, knowledge management and flow diagram visualization.
A dynamic query interface for finding patterns in time series data BIBAFull-Text 522-523
  Harry Hochheiser; Ben Shneiderman
Identification of patterns in time series data sets is a task that arises in a wide variety of application domains. This demonstration presents the timebox model of rectangular regions that specify constraints for dynamic queries over time series data sets, and the TimeSearcher application, which uses timeboxes as the basis of an interactive query tool.

Development Consortium

Directions in HCI education, research, and practice in Southern Africa BIBAFull-Text 524-525
  Paula Kotze
This paper focuses on the current status and directions of human-computer interaction (HCI) education, research, and practice in Southern Africa.
Comprehension and usability variances among multicultural web users in South Africa BIBAFull-Text 526-527
  Lizette de Wet; Pieter Blignaut; Andries Burger
A usability test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web site in terms of language-use by multicultural users. The results indicated that South African web site developers should take cognisance of the fact that Afrikaans-speaking people find it easier to search for information in Afrikaans (in contrast to English). It seems, however, that there is no need to translate web sites into an African language.
Using digital technology to access and store African art BIBAFull-Text 528-529
  Gary Marsen; Katherine Malan; Edwin Blake
In this paper, we describe the challenges in creating, and providing access to, a database of African cultural artifacts. The submission is targeted at the setion 2 int he consortium -- how HCI research is being used to support the African Renaissance.
'Visual literacy' as challenge to the internationalisation of interfaces: a study of South African student web users BIBAFull-Text 530-531
  Marion Walton; Vera Vukovic; Gary Marsden
Following a social semiotic approach, this paper questions the Western cultural assumptions underpinning the web's evolving navigational conventions, and investigates to what extent a group of South African students command the currently dominant Western conventions. South African students (both novices and experienced web users) completed a series of visual exercises, where they interpreted a set of interface and conceptual conventions in common use on the web. Conceptual questions attempted to address to what extent students were familiar with and able to reproduce the conventional Western visual design resources for representing classificational taxonomies or 'tree structures' and various other visual devices for the implicit portrayal of hierarchical information structures (Kress and van Leeuwen 1996). Interface questions probed student recognition of common web icons. Some broadly cultural factors were found to explain at least some of the variation in the group. Finally, we consider the implications of our study for training, design, and the diverse range of South African representational resources.
A field computer for animal trackers BIBAFull-Text 532-533
  Edwin H. Blake
The field computer system has been developed to gather complex data on animal behaviour that is observed by expert animal trackers. The system is location aware using the satellite Global Positioning System. The system has been designed to empower semi-literate trackers. User testing showed that trackers were easily able to master the interface. They benefit from greater recognition, while the wider community gains from access to the knowledge of the trackers on animal behaviour.
Implementation of an electronic report viewing application for multi-cultural users BIBAFull-Text 534-535
  Diane Norton
It is necessary to customise computer interfaces for South African users from different cultural groups who work on the same computer system in a corporate environment? This question is addressed by a combination of a literature review and testing the ideas in a case study in South African financial institution. Both Components of the study suggest that customized user interfaces may not be necessary for users of the same computer based systems in South African businesses.

Doctoral Consortium

Direct manipulation interface for architectural design tools BIBAFull-Text 536-537
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu
The early architectural design stage is a typical example where traditional design tools such as sketching on paper still dominate over computer-assisted tools. Augmented reality is presented as a promising approach towards developing interaction techniques that preserve the naturalness of the traditional way of designing, while at the same time providing access to new media. Based on the analysis of user requirements and requirements for a natural user interface, a working prototype of a new interaction platform for architectural design was created.
Personal information geographies BIBAFull-Text 538-539
  Daniel Bauer
We need increasingly better tools to help us manage today's flood of information. This research explores the use of visual maps as workspaces which help us both to organize new material and to relocate past resources. In particular, visual workspaces can facilitate the process of sensemaking, the gradual evolution of an inquiry through our repeated interaction with information. This interaction can serve as an organizing structure for personally meaningful information geographies: map-like workspaces which accumulate 'trails' of our activity, which evolve over time but remain stable enough to provide the same fluency that we have with maps of physical places.
A theory of personalized recommendations BIBAFull-Text 540-541
  Jan Blom
35 Internet users were assigned to one of seven discussion groups where they expressed views on interacting with a recommendation system (RS). Grounded theory analysis of the data yielded a theory that highlights factors affecting an individual's decision to use personalized predictions.
Annotating digital documents: anchoring, educational use, and notification BIBAFull-Text 542-543
  A. J. Bernheim Brush
Annotating is a very common activity. People often highlight and make notes while reading. Increasingly documents exist primarily in digital form. Supporting annotation of digital documents both for personal use and for asynchronous collaboration has many challenges. By building software prototypes and deploying them in laboratory and field studies, this work investigates three issues: robustly anchoring annotations on modified documents to meet user expectations, using annotations in an educational setting to enhance interaction outside of class, and providing appropriate notification mechanisms to support asynchronous collaboration around documents. Although the primary focus of this research is digital document annotation many of the findings may generalize to other media types including images and video.
User performance and haptic design issues for a force-feedback sound editing interface BIBAFull-Text 544-545
  Lonny L. Chu
This paper describes current work on the design and development of haptic interfaces for use with digital sound editing software. Current systems rely on computer keyboards, mice, and sometimes passive knobs for user input and graphics and audio for feedback. The addition of haptic feedback will improve the user experience because of the additional mode of feedback received through touch. This work is focused on using a design methodology, including need finding, user observations, prototyping, and user testing to develop haptic sensations effective for manipulating sound.
Supporting the collaborative meeting place BIBAFull-Text 546-547
  Craig Ganoe
The combination of an interactive large screen display and wireless handheld devices in a meeting room setting can augment and enhance collaborative activities. This work examines the issues in developing applications to support such a collaborative meeting place.
Staying in the flow with zoomable user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 548-549
  Lance Good
This research aims to investigate a collection of interactions in 2D workspaces with the goal of helping users stay in the flow of their activity. These interactions will be explored in the context of two software tools designed to support information work. The first tool, Niagara, addresses the early phases of this work that involve organization and synthesis. CounterPoint, the second tool, targets the later stages of this work that concern the authoring, delivery, and understanding of presentations.
Reinventing the inbox: supporting the management of pending tasks in email BIBAFull-Text 550-551
  Jacek Gwizdka
Email was originally designed as a tool for asynchronous communication. However, its current usage goes far beyond that. One of the most commonly performed activities in email is the management of pending tasks. This research focuses on how to support this activity in email and explores alternative solutions that use different external representations of messages and associated tasks.
Interactive querying of time series data BIBAFull-Text 552-553
  Harry Hochheiser
Identification of patterns in time series data sets is a task that arises in a wide variety of application domains [4]. This paper presents a user interface for the timebox query model of rectangular regions that specify constraints over time series data sets. A prototype application based on timeboxes is presented. Collaborations with potential users will guide the design of enhanced functionality. Usability tests and controlled experiments will be conducted to evaluate the timebox query model.
The context fabric: an infrastructure for context-aware computing BIBAFull-Text 554-555
  Jason I. Hong
Despite many sensor, hardware, networking, and software advances, it is still quite difficult to build effective and reliable context-aware applications. We propose to build a context infrastructure that provides three things to simplify the task of building context-aware applications: a context data store for modeling, storing, and distributing context data; a context specification language for declaratively stating and processing context needs; and protection mechanisms for safeguarding privacy needs.
An ethnographic study of an online, mutual-aid health community: group dynamics, roles, and relationships BIBAFull-Text 556-557
  Diane Maloney-Krichmar
The research project will examine a fairly well studied, long established, and thriving online health bulletin board through a multi level, in-depth analysis. Ethnographic research methods will be used in combination with social network analysis and an examination of issues related to usability. The purpose of the research is to document the role the online community plays in the lives of its members; define the patterns of interaction within the group; compare group dynamics in the online community to those in face to face mutual aid groups, and examine the impact of usability issues on group process.
Understanding meeting capture and access BIBAFull-Text 558-559
  Heather Richter
Meeting capture has been a common subject of research in the ubiquitous computing community for the past decade. However, the majority of the research has focused on technologies to support the capture but not enough on the motivation for accessing the captured record and the impact on everyday work practices based on extended authentic use of a working capture and access system. Our long-term research agenda is to build capture services for distributed workgroups that provide appropriate motivation and to further understand how access of captured meetings impacts work practices. To do this, we have developed a testbed for meeting capture as part of a larger distributed work system called TeamSpace. We will put this system into real use in a variety of settings.
Multiple perspectives for collaborative navigation in CVE BIBAFull-Text 560-561
  Huahai Yang
Drawn from empirical studies on spatial cognition, this work explores ways of dynamically integrating others' perspectives and incorporating different views into a single interface for a 3D CVE user. It also designs an empirical study to test the effectiveness of different perspective displays on collaborative navigation performance.
Visualizing a computer mediated communication (CMC) process to facilitate knowledge management BIBAFull-Text 562-563
  Bin Zhu
The archive of a computer-mediated communication (CMC) process contains knowledge shared and implicit information about participants' behavior patterns during discussion. However, most CMC systems focus only on organizing the content of discussions. On the other hand, the social visualization research has developed techniques to depict human behaviors during a process of CMC but has not been integrated in any organizational memory system yet. In addition, the impacts of the graphical representations created by social visualization techniques have seldom been studied. The dissertation thus proposes a two-phase research to address those issues. The first phase proposes a prototype system that integrates a social visualization technique with various information analysis technologies to graphically summarize both the content and behavior of a CMC process. The second phase proposes to adopt the "de-featuring" approach used by previous interface evaluation studies to evaluate how the graphical interface developed affects users' information acquisition and evaluation process.

Invited Discussions

Interacting with identification technology: can it make us more secure? BIBAKFull-Text 564-565
  Jean Scholtz; Jeff Johnson; Ben Shneiderman; Peter Hope-Tindall; Marcus Gosling; Jonathon Phillips; Alan Wexelblat
The September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon changed the world, profoundly and permanently. Government, military, economic, and religious leaders around the globe have launched dramatic initiatives that will continue for years. The changes wrought by the attacks are neither complete nor entirely predictable: their effects will continue to propagate and reverberate through the world's societies, economies, institutions, and infrastructures.
   The question for CHI 2002 is: How will these changes change us -- the public -- the people who make up the societies and institutions, and who design and rely upon the infrastructures? What is CHI's role in the changes that will be made? Some of our members have already been called upon to advise policymakers regarding technologies for identifying people and enhancing security. CHI professionals therefore need an understanding of these technologies and the issues they raise. What new lines of research could members of the CHI community engage in to ensure that technologies contribute to our security and liberties and not endanger either? What new user-interface technologies and evaluation methods will practitioners will need to design user interfaces for identification systems?
Keywords: biometrics, civil liberties, face recognition, national id card, privacy, security
What's SIGCHI's role in strengthening communities? BIBAFull-Text 566-567
  Jenny Preece; Paul Resnick; Doug Schuler; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
On September 11 we saw how a tightly knit group worked together to penetrate the US and carry out a carefully orchestrated attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. We also saw how citizens spontaneously organized themselves to care for victims and their families, and support each other. How can the CHI community build on its knowledge of computer-mediated communication and socio-technical systems design to build a more cooperative society? The aim of this discussion is to develop a research and action agenda for CHI that strengthens communities locally, nationally and internationally. The underlying premise is that such socio-technical systems can be assessed and improved so that they more effectively facilitate information exchange, emotional support, and consensus building.

Interactive Posters

A different kind of information appliance: fridge companion BIBAFull-Text 568-569
  Marc Boohler
A prototype device is described that allows a user to understand and contemplate the inner workings of a common home appliance, the refrigerator. The device monitors select physical properties of its host and displays scheduled graphic presentations on the host's principles of operation. Fridge Companion is a device designed to make domestic life not easier but deeper.
DERIVE: a distributed platform for mixed reality interaction BIBAFull-Text 570-571
  Hauke Ernst; Martin Faust
This article describes a concept for and the realization of a distributed mixed reality platform. It allows to freely connect real and virtual components which can be located all over the world, integrating them into a homogeneous environment. In the project DERIVE, this is applied to technical training. Within this scope, the components of interest are electro-pneumatic parts like valves and cylinders, being connected by tubes and wires. Using the idea of swapping/merging real and virtual elements, the concept is supposed to support new demands for the training of multi-skilled technicians.
Spinner, using non sequential and contextual functions for early learners BIBAFull-Text 572-573
  Henry Newton Dunn; James Gibson
Spinner is a media collection, interaction and sharing device for early learners that promotes play and exploration using a novel set of interactive techniques and designs based around a non sequential, contextual physical interface [2] and a graphical user interface (GUI).
LAFCam: Leveraging affective feedback camcorder BIBAFull-Text 574-575
  Andrea Lockerd; Florian Mueller Mueller
If a video camera recognizes and records affective data from the camera operator, this data can help determine which sequences will be interesting to the camera operator at a later time. In the case of home videos, the camera operator is likely to also be the editor and narrator of the final video. LAFCam is a system for recording and editing home video. We facilitate the process of browsing and provide automatic editing features by indexing where the camera operator laughed and visualizing the skin conductivity and facial expressions in the editing session.
Mental models of robotic assistants BIBAFull-Text 576-577
  Sara Kiesler; Jennifer Goetz
If robotic assistants are to be successful, people will need appropriate mental models of what these robots can do and how they operate. We are developing techniques for measuring people's mental models of interactive robots and social agents. We aim to measure the content of these models -- if they are anthropomorphic or mechanistic -- and the richness of these models (how elaborate or sparse they are; how much confidence people have in them). We report progress here.
Cooperation with a robotic assistant BIBAFull-Text 578-579
  Jennifer Goetz; Sara Kiesler
Robotic assistants soon will serve many assistive roles in our everyday lives. It is important to understand how these robots can interact with users, not just as tools, but also as social agents. In a controlled laboratory experiment, we examined cooperation in an effortful task with a robot that displayed one of two personalities. We found that a serious, caring robot induced more compliance than a playful, ejoyable robot on this task. We propose possible explanations and further research.
Chameleon tables: using context information in everyday objects BIBAFull-Text 580-581
  Ted Selker; Ernesto Arroyo; Win Burleson
The Chameleon Table project created a set of hexagonal tables. They are modular and are able to snap together. The design portrays some goals that can be achieved by having a table that is aware of changes in its surroundings and includes this as part of its technology. By creating this infastructure, we have been able to make several scenarios including musical instruments, sending messages between tables, and menus that change with apparent use in a food scenario. This paper also shows the use of a network for broadcasting context information.
Peek-a-drawer: communication by furniture BIBAFull-Text 582-583
  Itiro Siio; Jim Rowan; Elizabeth Mynatt
Peek-A-Drawer is a new communication device that uses furniture to support lightweight communication between people. It provides virtual shared drawers that connect family members who are located at a distance. When a user puts something in the upper drawer and closes it, a photograph is taken automatically and the image appears in the lower drawer at a distant place. The operation is as simple as using a drawer, allowing even children to communicate with their grandparents. As the camera only takes pictures of objects inside the drawer, privacy is assured.
Layered touch panel: the input device with two touch panel layers BIBAFull-Text 584-585
  Yujin Tsukada; Takeshi Hoshino
We developed Layered Touch Panel that expands the interaction techniques of touch panel. Layer Touch Panel has two touch panel layers, so that it is able to distinguish two touch states such as "finger on screen" and "finger above screen". With the structure, Rollover effect and Pick & Drop that are not available in normal touch panel are available in Layered Touch Panel. As the result of a usability test, 88% of test users answered that Layered Touch Panel is more usable than normal touch panel. Therefore, we consider that Layered Touch Panel is useful for the products that have touch panel.
Free head motion eye gaze tracking without calibration BIBAFull-Text 586-587
  Carlos H. Morimoto; Arnon Amir; Myron Flickner
This paper introduces a novel technique for remote eye gaze tracking and detection of point of regard that is specially designed for wide use in HCI. It addresses and eliminates two of the major problems of commercial remote eye gaze tracking, namely the need for user calibration before each session and of accuracy degradation with head movement. The new technique uses a single calibrated camera, several light sources with known positions and a physical model of the eye to estimate the 3D position of the eye and its gaze direction. Simulation results using ray tracing are used to study the accuracy and robustness of the system, and demonstrate its operability.
What is that?: gesturing to determine device identity BIBAFull-Text 588-589
  Colin Swindells; Kori M. Inkpen
Computing devices can seamlessly recognize one another as they join and leave a wireless network, but users often experience difficulty identifying a desired device from a continuously changing list of devices surrounding them. This paper describes our custom implementation of a stylus and tags that enable users to rapidly identify devices in dynamic environments. Our system utilizes a natural pointing gesture to identify a device, and subsequently transfer data over a wireless network.
Communication by neural control BIBAFull-Text 590-591
  Karen Carroll; Cynthia Schlag; Omur Kirikci; Melody Moore
People who are completely paralyzed are able to control a computer using technology which harnesses brain signals. This paper describes research in developing a system to allow such a person to communicate. We gathered and analyzed data on the communicative needs of our users, finding that style and content of interactions vary according to the role of the person with whom the user is communicating.
Automated message prioritization: making voicemail retrieval more efficient BIBAFull-Text 592-593
  Meredith Ringel; Julia Hirschberg
Navigating through new voicemall messages to find messages of interest is a time-consuming task, particularly for high-volume users. When checking messages under a time constraint (e.g., during a brief meeting break), users need to identify those messages requiring urgent action since not all messages can be processed in limited time. For these users, it would be useful if messages of greater urgency can be played first. For other users, distinguishing personal from business voicemail is a pressing need, to separate their home and business lives. We have successfully applied machine-learning techniques to lexical, acoustic, and contextual features of voicemail in order to sort messages based on urgency and on business-relevance.
Teen use of messaging media BIBAFull-Text 594-595
  Diane J. Schiano; Coreena P. Chen; Ellen Isaacs; Jeremy Ginsberg; Unnur Gretarsdottir; Megan Huddleston
Teenagers compromise a large proportion of our population, and their technology use is a bellwether of future trends. Today's teens are coming of age with the rapid development of advanced communication and media tools. This paper describes a study exploring teen communication media usage patterns and their design implications.
Perceptions of proximity in video conferencing BIBAFull-Text 596-597
  David Grayson; Anne Anderson
Proximity is used as a non-verbal signal in face-to-face interaction. It is unknown whether similar information may exist during desktop video conferencing and if so what factors may regulate it. An experiment was conducted to compare the relative impact of image size and the scope of the image on users' impressions of proximity. The results demonstrate that participants felt that changing the focal length (zoom) of the camera could make the remote person appear closer or further away. Participants appeared to use the image size of the remote person per se to determine their apparent proximity, rather than the proportion of the image taken by their face.
Helping users determine video quality of service settings BIBAFull-Text 598-599
  Ronald L. Boring; Robert L. West; Stephen Moore
In this paper, we present a method to assist users in selecting quality parameters for streaming video. Constrained scaling, a method for calibrating users' subjective judgements to a naturalistic scale is introduced. An experiment in which participants judged the fluidity of sample videos across different frame rates demonstrates the effectiveness of constrained scaling.
An ordering of secondary task display attributes BIBAFull-Text 600-601
  David Tessendorf; C. M. Chewar; Ali Ndiwalana; Jon Pryor; D. Scott McCrickard; Chris North
We found that established display design guidelines for focal images cannot be extended to images displayed as a secondary task in a dual-task situation. This paper describes an experiment that determines a new ordering guideline for secondary task image attributes according to human cognitive ability to extract information. The imperative for alternate guidelines is based on the difference in an image's ability to convey meaning, which decreases when moved from a focal to a secondary task situation. Secondary task attribute ordering varies with the level of degradation in the primary task.
Matrix browser: visualizing and exploring large networked information spaces BIBAFull-Text 602-603
  Jurgen Ziegler; Christoph Kunz; Veit Botsch
We present a new approach for visualizing and exploring large networked information structures which may represent, for instance, linked information resources or metadata structures such as ontologies. An interactive matrix display is used for showing relations between concepts and concept hierarchies displayed along the two axes of a matrix. Initial user testing shows performance advantages as well as reduced visual search in comparison to conventional graph representations.
SpiraClock: a continuous and non-intrusive display for upcoming events BIBAFull-Text 604-605
  Pierre Dragicevic; Stephane Huot
In this paper, we present SpiraClock, a new visualization technique for nearby events. SpiraClock fills a gap between static calendar displays and pop-up reminders by giving the user a continuous and non-intrusive feedback on nearby events. Events are displayed inside an analog clock that can be used as a regular computer clock. We used SpiraClock for displaying bus schedules, and collected user feedback.
Visualizing health practice to treat diabetes BIBAFull-Text 606-607
  Jeana Frost; Brian Smith
This research is about how to help diabetics reflect upon and improve their own health practice by collecting and visualizing health related information. We introduced a new type of data collection to diabetics, photography, to complement the data they usually collect, blood sugar levels. Diabetics shoot pictures of meals, exercise, work, play and anything else they feel impacts health. We combine the quantitative glucose measurements with qualitative portraits of action into unified data visualizations. In doing so, we hope to make the relationship between physiology and behavior an object for discussion and reflection. More so, we hope that diabetics who viewed these data will begin to develop new interpretations of their lifestyles that will ultimately lead to healthier activities.
Exposing profiles to build trust in a recommender BIBAFull-Text 608-609
  John Zimmerman; Kaushal Kurapati
This paper describes a method for increasing trust in a TV show recommender. We look for people in common between programs users watch and new programs that are highly rated by our TV show recommender. We then present these to users in a conversational sentence, helping them decide if they want to try the new show. This method has been implemented in our current TV show recommender interface and will be tested in the near future.
Domain-specific search strategies for the effective retrieval of healthcare and shopping information BIBAFull-Text 610-611
  Suresh K. Bhavnani
An increasing number of users are performing searches on the Web in unfamiliar domains such as healthcare. However, because many users lack domain-specific search knowledge, their searches are often ineffective. An important remedy is to make domain-specific search knowledge in these new domains explicit and available. Towards that goal, healthcare and online shopping experts were observed while they performed search tasks within and outside their domains of expertise. The study: (1) identified domain-specific search strategies in each domain; (2) demonstrated that such knowledge is not automatically acquired from using general-purpose search engines. These results suggest that users should benefit from Strategy Portals that provide domain-specific knowledge to perform searches in unfamiliar domains.
AltarNation: interface design for meditative communities BIBAFull-Text 612-613
  Michelle Hlubinka; Jennifer Beaudin; Emmanuel Munguia Tapia; John S. An
AltarNation allows physically isolated individuals to participate in communities of meditation and tailor their own meditative practices. By lighting candles, users enter a shared virtual community of users represented by a field of stars, each associated with a sound sample of a prayer, song, joy, or concern of another user. Existing practices of individual meditation and candlelight vigils inform this work. This paper describes implementation and design approaches of the AltarNation system.
Users' conceptions of risks and harms on the web: a comparative study BIBAFull-Text 614-615
  Batya Friedman; David Hurley; Daniel C. Howe; Helen Nissenbaum; Edward Felten
In this study, we analyzed Web users concerns about potential risks and harms from Web use to themselves and to society at large. In addition, we assessed how strongly users felt something should be done to address their concerns. Seventy-two individuals, 24 each from a rural community in Maine, a suburban professional community in New Jersey, and a high-technology community in California, participated in an extensive (2-hour) semistructured interview about Web security. Results show that Web users were primarily concerned about risks to Information, and secondarily about risks to People and Technology. Different sets of concerns were identified among the rural, suburban, and high-technology communities. Our discussion focuses on implications for interface design and information policy.
The penguin: using the web as a database for descriptive and dynamic grammar and spell checking BIBAFull-Text 616-617
  Daniel Fallman
In consequence of emergent limitations of traditional spell and grammar checkers, the Penguin prototype system has been designed to be a descriptive and dynamic tool for computer based writing. Rather than relying on a static dictionary, the web is used as a database to handle language artifacts out of the ordinary, such as idioms, colloquialisms, names, and slang expressions; a common source of concern especially for second language speakers.
Sketching annotations in a 3D web environment BIBAFull-Text 618-619
  Thomas Jung; Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Collaborative design review is an important part of architectural design work. The Space Pen system supports annotation and drawing on (and inside) 3D VRML/Java models using a regular Web browser to exchange text and sketched annotations for review.
Transient visual cues for scrolling: an empirical study BIBAFull-Text 620-621
  Victor Kaptelinin; Timo Mantyla; Jan Astrom
The paper reports an empirical study, in which regular scrolling was compared with a novel scrolling technique featuring transient visual cues (TVC), that is, visual cues temporarily presented on a page to help the user locate new contents. An advantage of scrolling supported with TVC over traditional scrolling was found.
What should it do?: key issues in navigation interface design for small screen devices BIBAFull-Text 622-623
  Inger Ekman; Petri Lankoski
One important application area for location-aware mobile devices is offering navigational support. This paper summarizes the results of preliminary user tests with different navigation interfaces designed for small screens. We focus on the effectiveness vs. likeability of the interface and explore how these two aspects can be combined to support the navigational task of the user. Our research shows, that offering rich contextual information can support the navigational task by providing the user with a feeling of familiarity and perceived credibility. At the same time it can be a source of distraction, and cause misinterpretations. We propose the use of a rotating route-model to provide the user with a navigational guidance system both effective and likeable.
Visible or invisible links? BIBAFull-Text 624-625
  Isabelle De Ridder
This paper reports on experimental research that compares two interfaces in software designed for foreign language reading: one with visible and one with invisible links. The links lead to dictionary definitions and translations. The study focussed on differences in consulting behaviour, learning outcomes (vocabulary and comprehension) and on a possible interaction effect of condition and task. The results indicate that the two interfaces mainly differ in the users' willingness to consult the additional information. Differences in learning outcomes and a combined effect of condition and task could not be established.
Predictive targeted movement in electronic spaces BIBAFull-Text 626-627
  Susanne Jul
The lodestones and leylines interaction technique simplifies navigation in electronic spaces by coordinating physical and conceptual movement-gently constraining motion to follow automatically computed paths to predicted destinations. This approach simplifies physical movement, ensures that movement leads to interesting locations and supports navigation to locations not visible from the current location. It is illustrated in a spatial multiscale environment where pilot data show reliable performance improvements.
Hierarchical faceted metadata in site search interfaces BIBAFull-Text 628-629
  Jennifer English; Marti Hearst; Rashmi Sinha; Kirsten Swearingen; Ka-Ping Yee
One of the most pressing usability issues in the design of large web sites is that of the organization of search results. A previous study on a moderate-sized web site indicated that users understood and preferred dynamically organized faceted metadata over standard search. We are now examining how to scale this approach to very large collections, since it is difficult to present hierarchical faceted metadata in a manner appealing and understandable to general users. We have iteratively designed and tested interfaces that address these design challenges; the most recent version is receiving enthusiastic responses in ongoing usability studies.
Effects of structure and label ambiguity on information navigation BIBAFull-Text 630-631
  Craig S. Miller; Roger W. Remington
We present experimental results showing that search for target items in a three-tiered categorization structure (approximately 8 links per page) is faster than a comparable two-tiered structure provided that the category labels are clear and unambiguous. For items in ambiguous categories, search is faster in the two-tiered structure.
"I care about him as a pal": conceptions of robotic pets in online AIBO discussion forums BIBAFull-Text 632-633
  Peter H., Jr. Kahn; Batya Friedman; Jennifer Hagman
In this study, we analyzed people's conceptions of AIBO, a robotic pet, through their spontaneous postings in online AIBO discussion forums. Results showed that AIBO psychologically engaged this group of participants, particularly by drawing forth conceptions of essences (79%), agency (60%), and social standing (59%). However, participants seldom attributed moral standing to AIBO (e.g., that AIBO deserves respect, has rights, or can be held morally accountable for action). Our discussion focuses on the societal implications of these results.
Exploring design through wearable computing art(ifacts) BIBAFull-Text 634-635
  Angela Garabet; Steve Mann; James Fung
Usability is taken into account in design, however analysis of underlying technological values (such as trust, privacy, security) might become overlooked. In this paper, we illustrate how performance art can be used to elicit information about device design and usage. Wearable computing devices or art(ifacts) were used to spark behavior and debate. It was found that the degree of acceptability of the design was related to the perceived control the wearer had over the device. We suggest that what is learned from performance art can be incorporated into future design.
MetaMuse: a novel control metaphor for granular synthesis BIBAFull-Text 636-637
  Ashley Gadd; Sidney Fels
Traditional musical instruments have a direct connection between the way they are played or controlled and the properties of the sound produced. This connectedness has, in general, been lacking in computer-based musical instruments. We present a prop-based synthesis controller that uses a metaphor to create a connection between the control and the sound. Specific to granular synthesis, the metaphor is one of falling particles striking a surface to create a sound. The concept is extensible to other metaphors and other synthesis techniques.
LMNKui: overlaying computer controls on a piano controller keyboard BIBAFull-Text 638-639
  Farhan Mohamed; Sidney Fels
We introduce the Look Ma No Keyboard user interface, an ergonomic and intuitive method for controlling music sequencing software from a piano controller by adding a momentary foot switch. After describing the current practices and the design of our system, we discuss the results of user testing, comparing the conventional input device with ours.
False prophets: exploring hybrid board/video games BIBAFull-Text 640-641
  Regan L. Mandryk; Diego S. Maranan
In order to develop technology that promotes social interaction rather than isolation, we are exploring the space between board games and video games. We created a hybrid game that leverages the advantages of both physical and digital media. A custom sensor interface promotes physical interaction around the shared public display while the un-oriented tabletop display encourages players to focus on each other rather than on the interface to the game. The ensuing social interactions define the course that the game takes, while the computer enhances the gaming experience by completing the menial tasks and providing dynamic, exciting environments. Our hybrid board/video game has the potential to enhance natural and enjoyable recreational interaction between friends.
Estimating communication context through location information and schedule information: a study with home office workers BIBAFull-Text 642-643
  Yasuto Nakanishi; Noriko Kitaoka; Katsuya Hakozaki; Minoru Ohyama
We have developed a communication support system that estimates the situation of a person by using the location information of a PHS (Personal Handy phone System) and the schedule information. The system supports communication among dispersed and mobile individuals by using the estimated situation. In this paper, we describe it and a study with a small group of home office workers.
TouchEngine: a tactile display for handheld devices BIBAFull-Text 644-645
  Ivan Poupyrev; Jun Rekimoto; Shigeaki Maruyama
In this paper we describe the design of a haptic display for mobile handheld devices, including the development of a new miniature actuator, the construction of a haptic display using this actuator and prototypes of early applications.
Designing attentive cell phone using wearable eyecontact sensors BIBAFull-Text 646-647
  Roel Vertegaal; Connor Dickie; Changuk Sohn; Myron Flickner
We present a prototype attentive cell phone that uses a low-cost EyeContact sensor and speech analysis to detect whether its user is in a face-to-face conversation. We discuss how this information can be communicated to callers to allow them to employ basic social rules of interruption.
Promoting awareness of work activities through peripheral displays BIBAFull-Text 648-649
  Elaine M. Huang; Joe Tullio; Tony J. Costa; Joseph F. McCarthy
The globalization of the workforce, growing prevalence of dynamic project-oriented teams, increasing flexibility in work times and places is beneficial to companies and workers. However, they contribute to the fragmentation of the workforce, reducing awareness of colleagues' activities. These awareness "gaps" result in missed opportunities for collaboration and sharing of relevant knowledge, as well as a diminished sense of community. We have conducted a user study to better understand these gaps in one particular workgroup, and designed a system to promote stronger awareness of workplace activities using peripheral displays.
Evaluating look-to-talk: a gaze-aware interface in a collaborative environment BIBAFull-Text 650-651
  Alice Oh; Harold Fox; Max Van Kleek; Aaron Adler; Krzysztof Gajos; Louis-Philippe Morency; Trevor Darrell
We present "look-to-talk", a gaze-aware interface for directing a spoken utterance to a software agent in a multi-user collaborative environment. Through a prototype and a Wizard-of-Oz (Woz) experiment, we show that "look-to-talk" is indeed a natural alternative to speech and other paradigms.
Email archive overviews using subject indexes BIBAFull-Text 652-653
  Paula S. Newman
Archived discussion lists are becoming significant reference sources. This paper describes a new type of overview for such lists, using a back-of-the-book style index containing headwords selected from subject lines and subentries derived from their subject-line-contexts.
AR Pad: an interface for face-to-face AR collaboration BIBAFull-Text 654-655
  D. Mogilev; K. Kiyokawa; M. Billinghurst; J. Pair
The AR Pad is a handheld display with a Spaceball and a camera, which can be used to view and interact with Augmented Reality models in collaborative setting.
VideoTable: a tangible interface for collaborative exploration of video material during design sessions BIBAFull-Text 656-657
  Tomas Sokoler; Hakan Edeholt; Martin Johansoon
In this paper our VideoTable and VideoCards. The VideoTable is an augmented meeting table enabling collaborative exploration of video material through a multi-user tangible interface. The VideoCards are paper card representations of video snippets. Playback of video is initiated by a pushbutton permanently attached to a VideoCard. VideoCards can be manipulated alongside other physical design artifacts present on the VideoTable. Preliminary observations of use indicate that the physical embodiment of digital video provided by our VideoCards enables the seamless mix of video with other physical design artifacts that we are aiming for. Our implementation is based on modified passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.
Technology biographies: field study technques for home use product development BIBAFull-Text 658-659
  Mark Blythe; Andrew Monk; Jisoo Park
The technology biography combines and adapts a number of qualitative data collection techniques to focus on past, present and possible future domestic technologies. Processes, concerns and problems of domestic life are identified in order to develop illustrative product suggestions to inspire or provoke designers.
Teaching and learning ubiquitous CHI (UCHI) design: suggestions from the Bauhaus Model BIBAFull-Text 660-661
  Rich Halstead-Nussloch; William Carpenter
We describe a design pedagogy under development. It is a) interdisciplinary, b) inspired by success in teaching architectural design, c) motivated by the rapid maturation of CHI design and computing, d) directly connected to what we call ubiquitous-computer-human interaction or UCHI, and e) based on learning design by building. We have brainstormed about how we might merge significant aspects of our disciplines (architecture and HCI) into a joint design course; we both agree that Gropius' 1922 [3,4] pedagogical model for the Bauhaus applies to learning architecture and UCHI design. We invite feedback, ideas, and collaboration from the HCI community on this work in progress.
Usability inspections by groups of specialists: perceived agreement in spite of disparate observations BIBAFull-Text 662-663
  Morten Hertzum; Niels Ebbe Jacobsen; Rolf Molich
Evaluators who examine the same system using the same usability evaluation method tend to report substantially different sets of problems. This so-called evaluator effect means that different evaluations point to considerably different revisions of the evaluated system. The first step in coping with the evaluator effect is to acknowledge its existence. In this study 11 usability specialists individually inspected a website and then met in four groups to combine their findings into group outputs. Although the overlap in reported problems between any two evaluators averaged only 9%, the 11 evaluators felt that they were largely in agreement. The evaluators perceived their disparate observations as multiple sources of evidence in support of the same issues, not as disagreements. Thus, the group work increased the evaluators' confidence in their individual inspections, rather than alerted them to the evaluator effect.
Evaluating pattern languages in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 664-665
  Andy Dearden; Janet Finlay; Liz Allgar; Barbara McManus
We present an evaluation of pattern languages as tools for participatory design, based on three criteria, derived from the work of Christopher Alexander: empowering users, generative design and life-enhancing outcomes. Our results suggest that pattern languages can be used to enable users to participate in design, but that the role of facilitator and the form and physical presentation of the pattern language are factors in success.
A new technique for adjusting distraction moments in multitasking non-field usability tests BIBAFull-Text 666-667
  Gregor McGlaun; Frank Althoff; Bjorn Schuller; Manfred Lang
Evaluating errors that result from user interactions with in-car applications, it has to be considered that the user is permanently involved with driving the car. Reproducing this driving workload in non-field usability tests, it showed that the driving simulation demanded each test subject in a different way because of individual precognitions and properties. To ensure an identical driving workload for each test subject, it becomes necessary to individually adapt the degree of difficulty (DOD) of the driving task. We present a new technique in which, concerning the driving performance, each test participant is pre-classified in a baseline investigation before the main trial. In this context, a special measurement for objectively validating the driving performance of the subjects is being introduced.
The living memory box: function, form and user centered design BIBAFull-Text 668-669
  Molly Stevens; Florian Vollmer; Gregory D. Abowd
The Living Memory Box project examines how to research and design user-centered system to support the collection, archiving and sharing of moments from a child's life. This research has provided us with details of key features to enhance our user-centered design and encompass all aspects of the system. We plan to use these findings to influence the development of ubiquitous capture and access methods. It is our contention that this method of design can yield a strong foundation for the development of user-centered design throughout all aspects of the system.
Using task models to generate multi-platform user interfaces while ensuring usability BIBAFull-Text 670-671
  Mir Farooq Ali; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones
The widespread emergence of new computing devices and associated interaction metaphors has necessitated new ways of building User Interfaces (UIs) for these devices. In this paper, we describe our approach of using a Task Model in conjunction with the User Interface Markup Language (UIML) to drive generation of Multi-Platform User Interfaces. We also discuss briefly how current usability engineering practices have to be modified to accommodate the development of multi-platform UIs.
Simplifying video editing with SILVER BIBAFull-Text 672-673
  Juan Casares; A. Chris Long; Brad Myers; Scott Stevens; Albert Corbett
Digital video is becoming more ubiquitous. Unfortunately, editing videos remains difficult for several reasons. It has dual tracks of audio and video and may require working at the smallest level of detail. Silver is an authoring tool that uses video metadata to overcome these problems. It provides multiple views with different content types and at different levels of abstraction. This paper focuses on Silver's smart selection and editing operations, which work at a high semantic level and handle different boundaries in audio and video. Our research suggests several ways in which video editing tools can assist users in the composition and reuse of video.
Increasing transaction processing efficiency by automating an asynchronous processor BIBAFull-Text 674-675
  Rick Gross; Suzanne Ryanstrati; John Ims
Moving simple yet highly repetitive manual tasks to an asynchronous automated validation process increased data processing productivity. Contextual analysis of manual processing actions revealed opportunities for timesaving.
User interface guidelines for enhancing usability of airline travel agency e-commerce web sites BIBAFull-Text 676-677
  Craig Chariton; Min-Hyung Choi
Specific user interface guidelines are described to increase the usability of airline travel e-commerce Web sites. Although previous guidelines address the usability issue from the perspective of the sale of tangible products that can be described and depicted, less attention has been given to the usability issues for the sale of services. Service industries have different requirements for communicating with customers, specifically regarding their product offerings. This is prominent in the air travel industry, where Web site usability is known to be poor. We examine how the current guidelines are inadequate for Web sites providing air travel information. We propose specific guidelines for those sites that will enhance their usability.
Interacting with the big screen: pointers to ponder BIBAFull-Text 678-679
  Duncan Cavens; Florian Vogt; Sidney Fels; Michael Meitner
In large screen projection environments, inexpensive wireless input devices can not match the performance of standard desktop interactive devices. We added buttons and a radio transmitter to a standard laser pointer to match the functionality of a standard mouse. User testing revealed that the device performed as well as a standard mouse and significantly better than standard presentation input devices. Devices that used visible laser light performed significantly better than those with invisible near-infrared lasers.
Ears and hair: what headsets will people wear? BIBAFull-Text 680-681
  Rebecca E. Grinter; Allison Woodruff
Many different audio headsets are commercially available. To choose a headset for a short-term use environment, we conducted a pilot study to elicit end-user criteria for headsets. We discovered a number of severe end-user issues with less traditional designs, and concluded that a minor variant of a traditional design is more appropriate for our application than many of the more exotic options that have recently become available.
Pre-emptive shadows: eliminating the blinding light from projectors BIBAFull-Text 682-683
  Desney S. Tan; Randy Pausch
Users interacting with front-projected displays often work between the projector and the display surface. This causes undesirable projection on the user as well as temporary blindness from looking into the bright light of the projector. In this paper, we present pre-emptive shadows, a technique that uses a camera-projector system to detect and turn off pixels that would otherwise be needlessly cast upon users' bodies, especially their faces. We present measurements that show that system reduces the brightness of the blinding light by about a factor of 5.
The impact of human-centered features on the usability of a programming system for children BIBAFull-Text 684-685
  John F. Pane; Brad A. Myers
HANDS is a new programming system for children that was designed for usability. This paper examines the effectiveness of three features of HANDS: queries, aggregate operations, and data visibility. The system is compared with a limited version that lacks these features. In the limited version, programmers can achieve the same results but must use more traditional programming techniques. Children using the full-featured HANDS system performed significantly better than their peers who used the limited version. This provides evidence that usability of programming systems can be improved by including these features.
PegBlocks: a learning aid for the elementary classroom BIBAFull-Text 686-687
  Ben Piper; Hiroshi Ishii
In this paper we describe the implementation of PegBlocks -- an educational toy that can be used to illustrate some basic physics principles to elementary students.

Panels

CHI@20: fighting our way from marginality to power BIBAFull-Text 688-691
  Ben Shneiderman; Stuart Card; Donald A. Norman; Marilyn Tremaine; M. Mitchell Waldrop
The Special Interest Group on Computer Human Interaction (SIGCHI) has had a successful history of 20 years of growth in its numbers and influence. To help guide the continued evolution of the academic discipline and professional community, we invite several senior members to offer their visions for what the field of CHI actually accomplished over the past several decades, and what do we still need to accomplish? What do we need to do differently/ better/smarter? What haven't we tried because the technology, the money or the will wasn't there in the past, but perhaps is now. The CHI field is more than just technology. We understand that our work can have a profound effect on individuals, families, neighborhoods, corporations, and countries. We know that we can influence education, commerce, healthcare, and government. How can we contribute to bridging the digital divides in developed and developing countries? What agendas can we offer for the academic, research, industrial, and civic spheres for the next 20 years? How can we be more ambitious? How can we truly serve human needs.
The world of wireless and kids BIBAFull-Text 692-693
  Allison Druin; Erik Strommen; Matt Barranca; Heiko Sacher; Deborah G. Tatar; Elliot Soloway
In this panel, we will explore the impact that emerging new wireless technologies have on the way children learn, communicate and play. The challenge of interface design for children's wireless technologies will be discussed along with the opportunities these new technologies afford for social learning experiences. Panelists will discuss a range of issues based on their diverse perspectives as ethnographers, researchers, and product developers. Panelists will be asked questions not only from the audience, but also from a diverse group of discussants: three CHIkids (ages 7-11), one K-12 teacher and one parent of a child who uses wireless technologies.
"When i'm sixty-four...": are there real strategies for providing universal accessibility for the elderly BIBAFull-Text 694-695
  Laura Leventhal; Mary Zajicek; Joaquim Jorge; Krista Coleman; Robert J. K. Jacob; Pedro Branco; David Novick; Julio Abascal; Elizabeth Mynatt
In this panel we will present four strategies for providing computing for the elderly. We hope to generate discussion and ideas of the plusses and minuses of these strategies.
New issues in teaching HCI: pinning a tail on a moving donkey BIBAFull-Text 696-697
  Jonathan Lazar; Jenny Preece; Jean Gasen; Terry Winograd
As technology changes, so does the area of human-computer interaction. HCI education must continuously change to meet the new challenges to user interaction. The World Wide Web and other distributed networks, hand-held devices, and embedded computing all present new challenges for user-centered design methods, usability testing, and other forms of evaluation. In addition, as more people use technology, the diversity of users increases, requiring increased attention to concepts such as accessibility and universal usability. This panel will address the challenges of keeping HCI education up-to-date and offer approaches that have been successfully used. The four major topics addressed by the panel will be 1) the challenge of rapidly changing technology, 2) new methods for user-centered design, 3) student involvement with users, and 4) balancing HCI theory and HCI practice.
Future interfaces: social and emotional BIBAFull-Text 698-699
  Rosalind W. Picard; Alan Wexelblat; Clifford I. Nass
This panel addresses 'science fact' for future social-emotional interfaces. We discuss new theory and upcoming interface technologies that enable or augment social-emotional interaction between people and computers, and between people via new forms of computers. The theme is rooted in: (1) findings that human-computer interaction is social and emotional even when interfaces are not designed with such interaction as a goal, and (2) advances in technology, enabling computers to recognize, express, and respond to emotional and social information. The panelists will describe the guiding theory for this research, show examples of emerging technologies including new wearable, implantable, and robotic interfaces, and discuss the implications of social-emotional interaction for interface development, design, and testing.
Design Expo 2 BIBAFull-Text 700-701
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Jonathan Arnowitz; Jared Braiterman; John Skidgel; Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson; Shelley Evenson
In this panel, we explore four sets of designs with different objectives and audiences. We discuss design approach, design goals, and design results, and how these designs might be different had they employed different design approaches and criteria for success. This panel builds on the Design Expo of CHI2001 to explore approaches to design through the display and discussion of design artifacts.
Focus groups in HCI: wealth of information or waste of resources? BIBAFull-Text 702-703
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Gilbert Cockton; Kara Coyne; Michael Muller; Thyra Rauch
Many HCI professionals frown on focus groups, while some believe focus group methodology can be successfully applied to collect usability data. This panel features interaction among HCI professionals with very different experiences and opinions.
The world of wireless and kids BIBAFull-Text 704-705
  Allison Druin; Erik Strommen; Matt Barranca; Heiko Sacher; Deborah G. Tatar; Elliot Soloway
In this panel, we will explore the impact that emerging new wireless technologies have on the way children learn, communicate and play. The challenge of interface design for children's wireless technologies will be discussed along with the opportunities these new technologies afford for social learning experiences. Panelists will discuss a range of issues based on their diverse perspectives as ethnographers, researchers, and product developers. Panelists will be asked questions not only from the audience, but also from a diverse group of discussants: three CHIkids (ages 7-11), one K-12 teacher and one parent of a child who uses wireless technologies.
What the best usability specialists are made of BIBAFull-Text 706-707
  Danielle Gobert; Virginia Howlett; Carolyn Snyder; Howard Tamler; Thomas S. Tullis; Chauncey Wilson
Many usability specialists practicing today have not had the benefit of formal education in the field, instead bringing unique value from their various backgrounds. This panel will address how (if at all) individuals' backgrounds contribute to their approach to usability. The panel will also investigate potential career paths and connections between a usability practitioner's background and his or her self-defined successes in usability groups positioned in different organizational structures.
Getting real about speech: overdue or overhyped? BIBAFull-Text 708-709
  Frankie James; Jennifer Lai; Bernhard Suhm; Bruce Balentine; John Makhoul; Clifford Nass; Ben Shneiderman
Speech has recently made headway towards becoming a more mainstream interface modality. For example, there is an increasing number of call center applications, especially in the airline and banking industries. However, speech still has many properties that cause its use to be problematic, such as its inappropriateness in both very quiet and very noisy environments, and the tendency of speech to increase cognitive load. Concerns about such problems are valid; however, they do not explain why the use of speech is so controversial in the HCI community. This panel would like to address the issues underlying the controversy around speech, by discussing the current state of the art, the reasons it is so difficult to build a good speech interface, and how HCI research can contribute to the development of speech interfaces.

Short Talks

Medium preference and medium effects in person-person communication BIBAFull-Text 710-711
  Trond Schliemann; Trude Asting; Asbjorn Folstad; Jan Heim
How does user's media preference vary with communication situation, and does media preference in a certain situation, and does media preference in a certain situation predict actual performance? Preference study shows that user's choice of communication medium seems to follow a common pattern, relatively independent of the communication task at hand - Video being most preferred, text chat the least. Parallel effect studies of person-person communication show, however, that actual task outcome varies with the type of task performed.
Taming of the ring: context specific social mediation for communication devices BIBAFull-Text 712-713
  Celine Pering
Taming of the Ring is an interactive system that lessens the problems of social disturbance caused by cell phone communication. As cell phone usage levels increase, social disturbance becomes an increasingly important issue. Callers and receivers have a need to discretely handle phone communication in delicate social situations. Early cell phone usage observations led to an interaction model hypothesis. A functional prototype was created to test the concept in the field. Preliminary results indicate that both calling and receiving users want more responsibility and control when placing phone calls, and that two remotely-mediated options, "hold" and "meeting," were enough to fill this communication need in the majority of situations.
The effects of spatial and temporal video distortion on lie detection performance BIBAFull-Text 714-715
  Daniel B. Horn; Lana Karasik; Judith S. Olson
In various types of interactions, individuals may attempt to determine whether their communication partners are being honest or deceptive. Judgments of honesty rely, in part, on assessments of nonverbal behavior. With the increased use of videoconferencing technology, many traditionally face-to-face interactions now take place over sub-optimal video connections. In these connections, reduced spatial and temporal video quality may affect the ability to detect whether others are lying or telling the truth. In the current study we examined the effects of varying levels of temporal and spatial distortion on lie detection performance. Consistent with earlier work, we found that a slight distortion of video signal impaired lie detection performance. Surprisingly, performance improved when the video was severely spatially degraded.
Camera angle affects dominance in video-mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 716-717
  Wei Huang; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson
Physical proximity and appearance guide people to interact with each other in different ways [1,6]. However, in Video-Mediated Communications (VMC), these are distorted in various ways. Monitors and camera zooms make people look close or far, monitors and camera angles can be high or low making people look tall or short, volume can be loud or soft, making people sound assertive or submissive, -- all independent of the true physical characteristics or intentions of the participants. Here we test the apparent height of a person on how dominant they are in a group decision-making task. We found that the artificially tall people had more influence in the group decision than the artificially short people.
Decreasing online 'bad' behavior BIBAFull-Text 718-719
  John P. Davis; Shelly Farnham; Carlos Jensen
'Bad' behavior is a serious problem in many online social situations, such as chat rooms. One potential reason is that social norms for 'proper' interpersonal behavior are not invoked in these situations as they are in face-to-face interactions. We describe a game we developed to explore good and bad behavior in computer-mediated situations. We found that increasing the 'social' nature of the interaction through voice communication between game partners decreased aversive behavior, but having profile information about the other person had little impact.
Characterizing instant messaging from recorded logs BIBAFull-Text 720-721
  Ellen Isaacs; Candace Kamm; Diane J. Schiano; Alan Walendowski; Steve Whittaker
Most studies about instant messaging (IM) are based on self-report data. We logged thousands of real IM conversations and examined them to find characteristic patterns of IM use in the workplace. Frequent IMers have longer, faster-paced interactions than do infrequent users, with shorter turns, more threading, and more multitasking. Pairs who IM with each other often have longer interactions with more threading than do rare partners. In contrast to previous characterizations, IM is used only occasionally to set up interactions in other media.
A musical instrument for facilitating musical expressions BIBAFull-Text 722-723
  Kazushi Nishimoto; Chika Oshima; Yohei Miyagawa; Takashi Shirosaki
In this paper, we propose a new musical instrument that allows people to concentrate on controlling indiscrete elements so that they can directly create their musical expressions. We describe a prototype musical instrument and demonstrate two applications of the prototype to show its effectiveness.
The sound of one hand: a wrist-mounted bio-acoustic fingertip gesture interface BIBAFull-Text 724-725
  Brian Amento; Will Hill; Loren Terveen
Two hundred and fifty years ago the Japanese Zen master Hakuin asked the question, "What is the Sound of the Single Hand?" This koan has long served as an aid to meditation but it also describes our new interaction technique. We discovered that gentle fingertip gestures such as tapping, rubbing, and flicking make quiet sounds that travel by bone conduction throughout the hand. A small wristband-mounted contact microphone can reliably and inexpensively sense these sounds. We harnessed this "sound in the hand" phenomenon to build a wristband-mounted bio-acoustic fingertip gesture interface. The bio-acoustic interface recognizes some common gestures that state-of-the-art glove and image-processing techniques capture but in a smaller, mobile package.
Keywords for a universal speech interface BIBAFull-Text 726-727
  Stefanie Shriver; Roni Rosenfeld
In this paper, we describe an internet survey conducted to help choose keywords for a universal speech interface. We present the background of and motivation for this study, and discuss its results and implications for our project.
Out of many, one: reliable results from unreliable recognition BIBAFull-Text 728-729
  Henry Lieberman
Recognition technologies such as speech recognition and optical recognition are still, by themselves, not reliable enough for many practical uses in user interfaces. However, by combining input from several sources, each of which may be unreliable by itself, and with knowledge of a specific task and context that the user is engaged in, we might achieve enough recognition to provide useful results. We describe a preliminary experiment to assist the user in giving directions for urban navigation by combining partial results from unreliable speech recognition and unreliable visual recognition.
Transparent hearing BIBAFull-Text 730-731
  Florian Mueller; Matthew Karau
This paper describes what we call Transparent Hearing: the use of microphone equipped headphones for augmented audio. It provides a framework for experiments like real-time audio alteration, multi-modal sensory integration and collaborative listening experiences. We attach high-quality microphones to headphones and send the signal through a computer to these headphones. We have built headphones that stop the music if somebody wants to talk to you, a pseudophone, and collaborative I hear What You Hear headphones that are triggered by eye-contact.
Passive acoustic knock tracking for interactive windows BIBAFull-Text 732-733
  Joseph A. Paradiso; Che King Leo; Nisha Checka; Kaijen Hsiao
We describe a novel interface that locates and characterizes knocks and taps atop a large glass window. Our current setup uses four contact piezoelectric pickups located near the sheet's corners to record the acoustic wavefront coming from the knocks. A digital signal processor extracts relevant characteristics from these signals, such as amplitudes, frequency components and differential timings, which are used to estimate the location of the hit and provide other parameters, including the rough accuracy of this estimate, the nature of each hit (e.g., knuckle knock, metal tap, or fist bang), and the strike intensity. This system requires only simple hardware, needs no special adaptation of the glass pane, and allows all transducers to be mounted on the inner surface, hence it is quite easy to deploy as a retrofit to existing windows. This opens many applications, such as an interactive storefront, with projected content controlled by knocks on the display window.
Gaze behavior of talking faces makes a difference BIBAFull-Text 734-735
  Ivo van Es; Dirk Heylen; Betsy van Dijk; Anton Nijholt
We present the results of an experiment investigating the effects of a talking head's gaze behavior on the user's quality assessment of the interface. We compared a version that used life-like rules for gazing with a version that would keep its eyes fixed on the visitor most of the time, and a random version. We found significant differences between these gaze algorithms in terms of ease of use, efficiency and other quality factors.
GAZE-2: an attentive video conferencing system BIBAFull-Text 736-737
  Roel Vertegaal; Ivo Weevers; Changuk Sohn
GAZE-2 is an attentive video conferencing system that conveys whom users are talking to by measuring whom a user looks at and then rotating his video image towards that person in a 3D meeting room. Attentive Videotunnels ensure a parallax-free image by automatically broadcasting the feed from the camera closest to where the user looks. The system allows attentive compression by reducing resolution of video and audio feeds from users that are not being looked at.
Eliciting user preferences using image-based experience sampling and reflection BIBAFull-Text 738-739
  Stephen Intille; Charles Kukla; Xiaoyi Ma
Determining requirements for any design project involves identifying and ranking user needs and preferences. User needs are typically elicited via personal or focus group interviews, site visits, and photographic and video analysis. Often, however, users know more than they say in a single or even several interviews [1]. We propose a methodology for assisting a user who is interested in learning about his or her own preferences using a process we call image-based experience sampling and reflection. We describe the methodology using a storyboard example from the domain of architectural redesign of home environments.
Cross-cultural applicability of user evaluation methods: a case study amongst Japanese, North-American, English and Dutch users BIBAFull-Text 740-741
  Vanessa Evers
This paper describes the findings for an international user study investigating cultural applicability of user evaluation methods. The case study evaluates cultural differences in understanding of a virtual campus website across four culturally different user groups by using the same methods for each group. Findings suggest that some user evaluation methods are less applicable than others are for a culturally diverse user base.
Face it -- photos don't make a web site trustworthy BIBAFull-Text 742-743
  Jens Riegelsberger; M. Angela Sasse
Use of staff photographs is frequently advocated as a means of increasing customer confidence in an e-shop. However, these claims are not conceptually or empirically grounded. In this paper we describe a qualitative study, which elicited customer reactions towards an e-commerce site that displayed staff photographs and links to richer media. The results suggest that employing social and affective cues, particularly in the form of photos, can be a risky strategy. To be effective they should be combined with functionality and targeted specifically at the user types we identified.
Interactive 3D presentations and buyer behavior BIBAFull-Text 744-745
  Gerald Haubl; Pablo Figueroa
This paper shows preliminary results on how interactive 3D product presentations affect buyer behavior in e-commerce applications over the Internet. We conducted two experiments involving simulated online shopping trips, in which subjects saw some products with 3D presentations and made product choices. The results show that the availability of interactive 3D product presentations instead of still images may affect some important aspects of buyer behavior, including the amount of time spent examining products and purchase likelihood.
Users' conceptions of web security: a comparative study BIBAFull-Text 746-747
  Batya Friedman; David Hurley; David C. Howe; Edward Felten; Helen Nissenbaum
This study characterizes users' conceptions of web security. Seventy-two individuals, 24 each from a rural community in Maine, a suburban professional community in New Jersey, and a high-technology community in California, participated in an extensive (2-hour) semi-structured interview (including a drawing task) about Web security. The results show that many users across the three diverse communities mistakenly evaluated whether a connection is secure or not secure. Empirically-derived typologies are provided for (1) conceptions of security based on users' verbal reasoning, (2) the types of evidence users depend upon in evaluating whether a connection is secure, and (3) conceptions of security as portrayed in users' drawings. Design implications are discussed.
A picture says more than a thousand words: photographs as trust builders in e-commerce websites BIBAFull-Text 748-749
  Ulrike Steinbruck; Heike Schaumburg; Sabrina Duda; Thomas Kruger
Virtual re-embedding, i.e., adding social cues to a website, has been suggested as a possible strategy to increase consumer trust in online-vendors. Numerous online retailers meanwhile incorporate this strategy, for example by adding photographs and names of customer service agents or by creating chat and callback opportunities. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of virtual re-embedding. The present study examined the effectiveness of a comparably simple strategy, the inclusion of photograph in an e-bank's website and found a significant positive effect on perceived trustworthiness of the examined website. It is suggested that virtual re-embedding is an effective way to increase customer trust and that it does not even have to be costly to implement.
Tangibly simple, architecturally complex: evaluating a tangible presentation aid BIBAFull-Text 750-751
  Elizabeth F. Churchill; Les Nelson
In this paper, we describe an evaluation of the Palette, a presentation tool that was reported at CHI '99. The Palette allows presenters to quickly access digital presentations using physical cards that have unique barcodes printed on them. The Palette has been in use in our lab for over three years, and has been released as a product in Japan. Our evaluation consists of an analysis of usage logs, an expert walkthrough review, and observations and interviews with users, non-users and the system administrator. The findings reveal benefits and drawbacks of the technology, and offers design ideas for further work on tangible tools of this kind.
Navigational blocks: tangible navigation of digital information BIBAFull-Text 752-753
  Ken Camarata; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; Mark D. Gross; Brian R. Johnson
Navigational Blocks provide a tangible user interface for applications such as information kiosks. Orientation, movement, and relative position of electronically and microprocessor augmented physical blocks support visitor querying, retrieving, understanding, navigation and exploration of an historical information database.
Using a gestural interface toolkit for tactile input to a dynamic virtual space BIBAFull-Text 754-755
  Thecla Schiphorst; Robb Lovell; Norman Jaffe
In this paper, we describe the development of a gesture interface toolkit that has been applied to an application of tactile gesture recognition within an artificial life environment. The goal is to design a gestural semantics of caress, in which qualitative attributes of gesture are expressed as a function of tactility. A touch-sensitive tablet capable of detecting multiple simultaneous contacts was used to provide a source of tactile gestures (stroking, pressing, tapping, wrapping, spreading, pinching, nudging) which were then interpreted by the software as events to be sent to the active creature in the environment. Participants could observe the creature reactions within a three-dimensional immersive display system.
CUBIK: a bi-directional tangible modeling interface BIBAFull-Text 756-757
  Surapong Lertsithichai; Matthew Seegmiller
We present CUBIK, a bi-directional tangible modeling interface used to aid architects and designers in the process of creating and manipulating 3D models with the computer. CUBIK consists of a wire frame cube structure and an interactive virtual cube as its user interfaces. When activated users can manipulate a 3D model from either interface physically or virtually. Any one interface can change its configuration according to manipulations from the other interface, enabling designers to directly assemble and manipulate tangible objects as an aid in designing 3D models. This can improve the interaction between designers and computer-aided design systems.
Multiscale pointing: facilitating pan-zoom coordination BIBAFull-Text 758-759
  Frederic Bourgeois; Yves Guiard
In a laboratory experiment on multiscale pointing, we compared one-handed vs. two-handed input for two zoom-control devices, a wheel vs. a mini-joystick with an all or none response. Using a recent method of quantifying multiple degree-of-freedom (DOF) input coordination to evaluate pan-zoom parallelism, we confirm previous work [1] showing that multiscale pointing performance strongly depends on the degree of pan-zoom parallelism. The new finding is that two-handed input and a constant zoom speed allow more input parallelism, thereby increasing performance speed.
Two-handed drawing on augmented desk BIBAFull-Text 760-761
  Hideki Koike; Chen Xinlei; Yasoto Nakanishi; Kenji Oka; Yoichi Sato
This paper describes a two-handed drawing tool on Enhanced Desk. Through the experiments, our tool showed better performance when drawing simple figures than traditional drawing tools. The subjects also reported that it was easier to learn the usage of the tool.
A tool-based interactive drawing environment BIBAFull-Text 762-763
  Robert St. Amant; Thomas E. Horton
Graphical user interfaces rely heavily on the tool metaphor. In most drawing systems, for example, functions are organized as they might be on a workbench; buttons associated with drawing modes for lines or rectangles are called line-drawing or rectangle-drawing tools; etc. Despite the similarities, however, there remain many differences between software tools and physical tools. This paper gives a concise account of tool use in general, and describes a drawing application, called HabilisDraw, that relies on a detailed correspondence to physical tool behavior.
The KITE geometry manipulator BIBAFull-Text 764-765
  Sviataslau Pranovich; Jarke J. van Wijk; Kees van Overveld
We introduce a new geometry manipulator, a tool for 2D geometrical object manipulations in drawing packages. The manipulator is an extended combination of two standard approaches. We performed an experiment, where users tested three types of manipulator. We evaluated the manipulators on perceived flexibility, efficiency of use, and subjective satisfaction. Our new manipulator scored high on all aspects.
Understanding how to improve the accessibility of computers through cursor control studies BIBAFull-Text 766-767
  Simeon Keates; P. John Clarkson; Peter Robinson
People with motion-impairments often find it difficult to perform many of the actions required to interact with a computer. This paper presents the results of an on-going series of experiments designed to understand how using force feedback affects interaction for motion-impaired users. Point and click tasks were analyzed using new cursor control measures. The results showed significant improvement in throughput for all users with force-feedback and the cursor control measures were effective in capturing the differences between the conditions.
The use of auditory feedback in call centre CHHI BIBAFull-Text 768-769
  Anette Steel; Matt Jones; Mark Apperley; Tristan Jehan
Initial investigations have been carried out to evaluate issues of the computer-human-human interaction (CHHI) commonly found in call centre scenarios. These investigations suggest some benefits in the use of auditory icons and earcons.
A generic approach for augmenting tactile diagrams with spatial non-speech sounds BIBAFull-Text 770-771
  Rameshsharma Ramloll; Stephen Brewster
Blind or visually impaired users typically access diagrams in the tactile medium. This paper describes TouchMelody, a system designed for augmenting such existing diagrams with 3D spatial auditory information to increase their usefulness, information content and reduce tactile clutter. The motivation for this system, an overview of its development and early experiences are presented. The two major technologies used are the Polhemus FASTRAK and the LakeDSP CP4 to facilitate the creation of a directly manipulated dynamic 3D spatial soundscape.
Constructing moving pictures eyes-free: an animation tool for the blind BIBAFull-Text 772-773
  Hesham M. Kamel; James A. Landay
Visually impaired people constantly interpret moving phenomena in the real world; they do not lack the skills to understand the meaning of what is portrayed in an animation. However, today there is no method that allows them to create computer-based animation. We have extended IC2D, a drawing tool for the blind, to allow users to construct animation based on their drawings by defining rotation, swing, and path motions.
Tangible programming elements for young children BIBAFull-Text 774-775
  Peta Wyeth; Helen C. Purchase
Tangible programming elements offer the dynamic and programmable properties of a computer without the complexity introduced by the keyboard, mouse and screen. This paper explores the extent to which programming skills are used by children during interactions with a set of tangible programming elements: the Electronic Blocks. An evaluation of the Electronic Blocks indicates that children become heavily engaged with the blocks, and learn simple programming with a minimum of adult support.
Dolltalk: a computational toy to enhance children's creativity BIBAFull-Text 776-777
  Catherine Vaucelle; Tristan Jehan
This paper presents a novel approach and interface for encouraging children to tell and act out original stories. Dolltalk is a toy that simulates speech recognition by capturing the gestures and speech of a child. The toy then plays back a child's pretend-play speech in altered voices representing the characters of the child's story. Dolltalk's tangible interface and ability to retell a child's story may enhance a child's creativity in narrative elaboration.
Pet Pals: a game for social mediation BIBAFull-Text 778-779
  Celine Pering
Pet Pals is a game that facilitates social interaction in a real world group context. Early user research of pre-teens indicated that children establish a social hierarchy through sharing and trading. The needs revealed in the study led to a game design to mediate peer interaction through trade. A functional prototype was developed to test the game on two groups of users. Pet Pals is a game of trading that globally monitors who is participating in real-time by tracking the exchange of objects and dynamically altering each object's value to encourage those not participating to interact with each other, in part by making their objects more valuable to others. Through both and negative reinforcement, the system promotes face-to-face communication.
Camping in the digital wilderness: tents and flashlights as interfaces to virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 780-781
  Jonathan Green; Holger Schnadelbach; Boriana Koleva; Steve Benford; Tony Pridmore; Karen Medina; Eric Harris; Hilary Smith
A projection screen in the shape of a tent provides children with a shared immersive experience of a virtual world based on the metaphor of camping. RFID aerials at its entrances sense tagged children and objects as they enter and leave. Video tracking allows multiple flashlights to be used as pointing devices. The tent is an example of a traversable interface, designed for deployment in public spaces such as museums, galleries and classrooms.
Experimental evaluation of user errors at the skill-based level in an automative environment BIBAFull-Text 782-783
  Frank Althoff; Karla Geiss; Gregor McGlaun; Bjorn Schuller; Manfred Lang
Concentrating on the lowest performance level of Reason's error model, in this work we evaluated the potential of user errors in an automative environment. Thereby the test subjects had to operate various in-car devices while primarily fulfilling a simulated 3D driving task. The study clearly showed that special error types are related to special distraction effects and that most of the operation errors are not critical and can be resolved by the user himself.
Simulator sickness and presence in a high field-of-view virtual environment BIBAFull-Text 784-785
  A. Fleming Seay; David M. Krum; Larry Hodges; William Ribarsky
This paper describes a study that investigated the effect of field-of-view, display type, and user role on the experience of simulator sickness and presence in users of a virtual environment. Though it interacted with the other experimental factors, field-of-view was found to be the major determinant of both simulator sickness and presence.
Small screen access to digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 786-787
  Gary Marsden; Robert Cherry; Alan Haefele
This paper looks at the possibilities of taking existing digital library technology and using it for educating those who do not normally have access to the Internet. We have built a system which allows WAP devices to access an HTML based digital library. Whilst building such a system is technically possible, our work has shown that there are a wide range of usability issues which need to be tackled. We investigate these problems, suggest improvements and outline where future research needs to take place.
Towards the design of multimodal interfaces for handheld conversational characters BIBAFull-Text 788-789
  Timothy Bickmore
This paper presents a study of individuals having conversations with animated characters on PDAs, and characterizes their use of natural nonverbal behavior compared to behavior exhibited in similar conversations with another person. The study finds that most people use the same nonverbal behavior in conversation handheld characters that they use in conversations with people, although the frequency is somewhat lower in the handheld case. These results can inform the design of new PDA input modalities which leverage the natural nonverbal behavior observed.
In-car cell phone use: mitigating risk by signaling remote callers BIBAFull-Text 790-791
  Punitha Manalavan; Asad Samar; Mike Schneider; Sara Kiesler; Dan Siewiorek
Research has linked in-car cell phone use with automobile accidents. We explore a signaling method that could mitigate that risk. We show in a first experiment how remote cell phone callers were induced to speak less during critical driving periods, and, in a second experiment, how driving performance in a simulator improved when callers reduced conversation levels during critical driving periods.
Scaffolding in the small: designing educational supports for concept mapping on handheld computers BIBAFull-Text 792-793
  Kathleen Luchini; Chris Quintana; Joe Krajcik; Chris Farah; Nayan Nandihalli; Kyle Reese; Adam Wieczorek; Elliot Soloway
Handheld computers offer the flexibility and mobility to be "ready at hand" tools that can facilitate learning anytime, anywhere. Applying the principles of Learner Centered Design [2], we have developed Pocket PiCoMap to support students engaged in complex concept mapping activities using handheld computers. Pocket PiCoMap uses scaffolds to address specific student needs; for instance, a color scaffold was provided to address students' difficulty organizing and understanding information displayed on small screens. Pocket PiCoMap was piloted for six weeks with 33 eighth grade students in mid-Michigan classrooms, and our preliminary results suggest that scaffolds are both useful and viable for handheld educational software.
Shared text input for note taking on handheld devices BIBAFull-Text 794-795
  Laurent Denoue; Patrick Chiu; Tohru Fuse
Shared text input is a technique we implemented into a note taking system for facilitating text entry on small devices. Instead of writing out words on the tedious text entry interfaces found on handheld computers, users can quickly reuse words and phrases already entered by others. Sharing notes during a meeting also increases awareness among note takers. We found that filtering the text to share was appropriate to deal with a variety of design issues such as screen real estate, scalability, privacy, reciprocity, and predictability of text location.
In the lab and out in the wild: remote web usability testing for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 796-797
  Sarah Waterson; James A. Landay; Tara Matthews
In this paper we discuss a pilot usability study using wireless Internet-enabled personal digital assistants (PDAs). We compared usability data gathered in traditional lab studies with a proxy-based clickstream logging and analysis tool. We found that this remote testing technique can more easily gather many of the content-related usability issues, but device-related issues are more difficult to capture.
Automatic text reduction for changing size constraints BIBAFull-Text 798-799
  Lance Good; Mark Stefik; Patrick Baudisch; Benjamin B. Bederson
This paper introduces a technique for viewing text objects under changing size constraints in 2D environments. Our approach automatically combines font size reduction and content reduction to preserve legibility of key words. Unlike traditional semantic zooming, our approach creates intermediate representations and transitions automatically. The main benefit is that it provides more meaningful views for different object sizes without additional authoring effort.
Breakdown visualization: multiple foci polyarchies of values and attributes BIBAFull-Text 800-801
  Sandeep Prabhakar; Nathan Conklin; Chris North; Muthukumar Thirunavukkarasu; Anusha Dandapani; Ganesh Panchanathan
Breakdown analysis involves decomposing data into sub-groups to allow for comparison and identification of problem areas. Good analysis requires the ability to group data based on attributes or values. Breakdown Visualization provides a mechanism to support this analysis through user guided decomposition and exploration of tabular data with a polyarchy structure. This is useful in domains such as sports statistics and corporate financial reports. Breakdown Visualization utilizes a spreadsheet format for comparison of adjacent visualizations.
QuickSpace: new operations for the desktop metaphor BIBAFull-Text 802-803
  Dugald Ralph Hutchings; John Stasko
The explosion of information available to everyday users has resulted in numerous applications that allow users to access this information. Fundamental desktop operations fail to assist the user efficiently display all of the information available in these applications. We propose a number of new window and space management techniques that attempt to solve this problem.
Interactive 3D flow visualization using a streamrunner BIBAFull-Text 804-805
  Robert S. lramee
Flow visualization in 3D is challenging due to perceptual problems such as occlusion, lack of directional cues, lack of depth cues, and visual complexity. In this paper we present an interaction technique that addresses these special problems for 3D flow visualization. The feature we present, a streamrunner, games the user interactive control over the evolution of streamlines from the time they are seeds until they reach their full length. The interactive streamrunner control minimizes occlusion and visual complexity and maximizes directional and depth cues for 3D flow visualization tools, the streamrunner gives a brand new level of control to the user investigating the vector field.
Kinesthetic cues aid spatial memory BIBAFull-Text 806-807
  Desney S. Tan; Randy Pausch; Jeanine K. Stefanucci; Dennis R. Proffitt
We are interested in building and evaluating human computer interfaces that make information more memorable. Psychology research informs us that humans access memories through cues, or "memory hooks," acquired at the time we learn the information. In this paper, we show that kinesthetic cues, or the awareness of parts of our body's position with respect to itself or to the environment, are useful for recalling the positions of objects in space. We report a user study demonstrating a 19% increase in spatial memory for information controlled with a touchscreen, which provides direct kinesthetic cues, as compared to a standard mouse interface. We also report results indicating that females may benefit more than males from using the touchscreen device.
Design of force feedback utilizing air pressure toward untethered human interface BIBAFull-Text 808-809
  Yuriko Suzuki; Minoru Kobayashi; Satoshi Ishibashi
In order to apply VR technologies to tools for everyday life, it is necessary to develop human interface technologies that do not constrain the users' activities. To achieve this goal, we propose a new force feedback method that utilizes air pressure to provide a force sensation to users. This force feedback system does not constrain users by an arm or a wire that connected with devices, and allows users to move their bodies and hands freely. This paper introduces the concept and the initial implementation of the air-pressure-based force feedback system.
'TSUNAGARI' communication: fostering a feeling of connection between family members BIBAFull-Text 810-811
  Yoshihiro Itoh; Asami Miyajima; Takumi Watanabe
Families in Japan increasingly have one or more members living outside of the family household, but many people don't want to lose the bond between family members when they live apart. We have developed a concept called 'Tsunagari' communication aimed at fostering a feeling of connection between people and maintaining their social relationships. A system based on this concept, called the Family Planter system, was also developed for family use. We have field tested this system with family members living apart, and our interviews of users have shown that the users' family relationships tend to be slightly improved by use of this system.
From personal to shared annotations BIBAFull-Text 812-813
  Catherine C. Marshall; A. J. Bernheim Brush
Preliminary results obtained by comparing personal annotations on paper with shared annotations made on-line show that only a small fraction of personal annotations are used in initiating and responding to related on-line discussions. The personal annotations that are shared tended to correspond to explicit marginalia; much effort is still put into rendering both the content and anchors of these annotations intelligible to others.
Supporting articulation with the reconciler BIBAFull-Text 814-815
  Gloria Mark; Victor Gonzalez; Marcello Sarini; Carla Simone
A problem in distributed collaboration is the difficulty in resolving different perspectives. We conducted an experiment to test the Reconciler, a system designed to aid communicating partners in developing and using negotiated meanings of terms in text-based online communication. We found that with the system, groups used fewer clarifications and explanations for technical terms, which suggests that the system aided the memory of negotiated meanings. The results suggest that technology use can benefit articulation.
Social net: using patterns of physical proximity over time to infer shared interests BIBAFull-Text 816-817
  Michael Terry; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Kathy Ryall; Darren Leigh
We describe Social Net, a novel interest-matching application that uses patterns of collocation, over time, to infer shared interests between users. Social Net demonstrates new possibilities and methods for using the capabilities of mobile devices equipped with RF-communications.
Supporting collaboration through passing informal notes to peripheral displays BIBAFull-Text 818-819
  Andreas Dieberger
DropNotes is a note-passing system for informal sharing of information within a small group or for posting notes to oneself. Its goal is to improve collaboration by increasing awareness through peripheral displays. DropNotes typically appear on peripheral displays placed in the work environment, such as a door panel, a peripheral display near the phone, a group board in a break room or a PDA. The design of DropNotes focuses both on making note creation easy and on minimizing interruptions. As such, DropNotes supports informal information sharing and peripheral awareness rather than messaging.
The effect of tangible interfaces on children's collaborative behaviour BIBAFull-Text 820-821
  Danae Stanton; Victor Bayon; Camilla Abnett; Sue Cobb; Claire O'Malley
The physical nature of the classroom means that children are continually divided into small groups. The present study examined collaboration on a story creation task using technologies believed to encourage and support collaborative behaviour. Four children used tangible technologies over three sessions. The technology consisted of a large visual display in which they could input content (using Personal Digital Assistants (Pda) and a scanner), record sounds (using RF-ID tags) and navigate around the environment using an arrangement of sensors called 'the magic carpet'. The children could then retell their story using bar-coded images and sounds. The three sessions were video recorded and analysed. Results indicate the importance of immediate feedback and visibility of action for effective collaboration to take place.
Gesture navigation: an alternative 'back' for the future BIBAFull-Text 822-823
  Michael Moyle; Andy Cockburn
This paper describes the evaluation of a gesture-based mechanism for issuing the back and forward commands in web navigation. Results show that subjects were able to navigate significantly faster when using gestures compared to the normal back button. They were also extremely enthusiastic about the technique, with several expressing their wish that "all browsers should support this".
Towards time design: pacing of hypertext navigation by system response times BIBAFull-Text 824-825
  Herbert A. Myer; Michael Hildebrandt
Two experiments investigated the effects of system response time (SRT) on hypertext navigation. Dependent variables were residence time, emotional strain and memory performance. A synchronization between human and computer response time was observed.
Hunter gatherer: within-web-page collection making BIBAFull-Text 826-827
  m. c. schraefel; Daniel Wigdor; Yuxiang Zhu; David Modjeska
Hunter Gatherer is a tool that lets Web users carry out three main tasks: (1) collect components from within Web pages; (2) represent those components in a collection; and (3) edit those collections. We report on the design and evaluation of the tool and contextualize tool use in terms of our research goals to investigate possible shifts in information interaction practices resulting from tool use.
Exploring web browser history comparisons BIBAFull-Text 828-829
  Mark Bilezikjian; John C. Tang; James Bo Begole; Nicole Yankelovich
This work explores how comparing web navigation histories between two people and presenting the results to them might allow them to gain insight about each other. We developed a prototype that presents web matches sorted according to frequency, recency, and web site. Interviews with users of the prototype suggest that common interests and preferences can be inferred from these comparisons.
The role of transparency in recommender systems BIBAFull-Text 830-831
  Rashmi Sinha; Kirsten Swearingen
Recommender Systems act as a personalized decision guides, aiding users in decisions on matters related to personal taste. Most previous research on Recommender Systems has focused on the statistical accuracy of the algorithms driving the systems, with little emphasis on interface issues and the user's perspective. The goal of this research was to examine the role of transparency (user understanding of why a particular recommendation was made) in Recommender Systems. To explore this issue, we conducted a user study of five music Recommender Systems. Preliminary results indicate that users like and feel more confident about recommendations that they perceive as transparent.
WebQuests: changing the way we teach online BIBAFull-Text 832-833
  Brenda Hopkins-Moore; Susan Fowler
This paper introduces WebQuests as potential teaching tools for HCI and software design educators. Based on our daylong observations of a high-school class, we believe that WebQuests can be adapted for use in online as well as classroom-based education and for use with adults as well as children. The WebQuest model offers three advantages for HCI educators. One is that the students construct their own knowledge and meaning, and thereby learn the material more thoroughly. Another is that a WebQuest, if done correctly, takes advantage of more learning styles. We observed aural, kinesthetic, and visual learning styles, for example. The third advantage is that, since WebQuests are team projects, students learn to work in teams.

Student Posters

Effect of an external viewpoint on therapist performance in virtual reality exposure therapy BIBAFull-Text 834-835
  Martijn Schuemie
In Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy, therapist are usually only supplied with the same viewpoint of the Virtual Environment (VE) as the patient. This paper investigates the effect of an external viewpoint on the performance of therapists in a VE. Results show that even though this second viewpoint increases the precision with which the therapist can align real and virtual objects, subjects navigate through the VE in a less efficient manner.
Will it be upper-case or will it be lower-case: can a prompt for text be a mode signal? BIBAFull-Text 836-837
  Hokyoung Ryu
The new forms of interaction being devised for small mobile devices have required designers to re-visit basic principles for user interface design. One of these is the notion of mode. For example, when a key is pressed how will the user know whether the letter displayed will be in upper- or lower-case. An experiment is described in which users have to learn to use a new device where this is an issue. Results show that users are influenced by the case of letters in the prompt.
Hocman: supporting mobile group collaboration BIBAFull-Text 838-839
  Mattias Esbjornson; Mattias Ostergren
We introduce the Hocman prototype, supporting mobile group collaboration among motorcyclists. The design is based on findings from a field study. The motorcyclists are a group with a strong social commitment, however their mobile practice creates collaborative problems. They deal with it by using a website on the Internet, but collaborative issues still remains. For this purpose we have developed a prototype, based on web technology. The prototype is built for handheld computers and wireless communication, allowing the users to share rich content when being in the vicinity of each other.
A flexible 3d sound system for interactive applications BIBAFull-Text 840-841
  Lalya Gaye
We have developed a 3D sound system for headphones that allows real-time sound source and user displacement in a virtual acoustic environment. Because of a flexible design that uses different sets of pre-selected, physically modeled filters, the complexity level of simulation can be chosen, making the system adaptable both to available CPU power and to application requirements. No extensive signal processing knowledge is required in order to select the appropriate simulation complexity. A preliminary evaluation involving 4 users showed that the system provides a satisfying localization of sounds and users (even with limited memory and CPU power) while also giving access to low-level control over simulation complexity.
A study of cursor trajectories of motion-impaired users BIBAFull-Text 842-843
  Faustina Hwang
This paper describes a study of the cursor trajectories of motion-impaired users in "point and click" interactions. A characteristic of cursor movement is proposed that aims to capture the spatial distribution of cursor movement about a target. This characteristic indicates that users often exhibit increased cursor movement in the vicinity of the target, have more difficulty performing the "clicking" part of the interaction as compared to the navigation part, and tend to navigate directly toward the target during the middle portion of the cursor trajectory. The implications of these characteristic behaviours on interface design are discussed.
Improving speech-based navigation during dictation BIBAFull-Text 844-845
  Jinjuan Feng
This research focuses on understanding the failures of speech-based navigation as it exists in state-of-the-art speech recognition software. A detailed analysis of failure rates, reasons commands fail, and consequences of these failures in the allowed for the identification of three specific improvements to speech-based navigation. Results from a follow-up study are reported, indicating that each of the three improvements reduced failure rates.
Factors influencing the experience of website usage BIBAFull-Text 846-847
  Sascha Mahlke
The present study examines the role of subjectively perceived factors of the experience of website usage in forming an intention to use a website. An integrative research model is presented and tested empirically. It includes the following four aspects of experience: perceived usefulness, ease of use, hedonic quality and visual attractiveness. The two main research questions are: (1) Are these aspects four subjectively independently perceived aspects of website interaction? and (2) Is the intention to use formed by combining and weighting these four experience aspects and if so, which weights are assigned to the respective aspects. The results suggest that all four aspects of experience can be independently perceived by the user and contribute all with different weights to the intention to use the website.
Designing sound canvas: the role of expectation and discrimination BIBAFull-Text 848-849
  Priscilla Chueng
In this paper, expectation and discrimination are identified as two important constructs to be considered in ecological sound design to achieve a sense of presence in virtual environments. Research to investigate the extent of this is described and the results obtained are discussed. Future avenues for research, on the basis of these results, are indicated.
Using a tree view metaphor to visualize hardware simulation for testing BIBAFull-Text 850-851
  Per Jacobsson
This papers suggests the use of a tree view metaphor as a suitable way of visualizing simulated hardware elements in a graphical user interface (GUI) for testing purposes. The prospective users declared a few comprehensive demands regarding the desired application -- such as maximal availability of desktop space and ease of configuring and reconfiguring the hardware simulations. An application was prototyped and evaluated through interviews and an accompanying usability test. Preliminary evaluation shows that using the new GUI with the tree metaphore makes the task of configuration faster and saves desktop space.
What makes people trust online gambling sites? BIBAFull-Text 852-853
  Bhiru Shelat; Florian N. Egger
A validated model of trust was used as a framework for an empirical study to identify on- and offline factors that influence gamblers' perception of an online casino's trustworthiness. The results suggest that the quality with which casino's address gamblers' trust concerns by providing appropriate content is the prime factor. However, designing for trust must be part of consistent strategy that also involves customer service usability.
Backseat gaming: exploaration of mobile properties for fun BIBAFull-Text 854-855
  Liselott Brunnberg
This paper presents a prototype developed as part of the Backseat gaming project. The aim of the project is to explore how to make use of mobile properties for developing compelling and fun game experiences. The prototype is developed for use in a highly mobile situation, that of a car passenger and is realized by the use of mobile devices and the users physical location during speed to merge the virtual content and surrounding road context into an augmented reality game.
Evaluating images of virtual agents BIBAFull-Text 856-857
  Karen Wilson
This study examined the perceived attributes of virtual agents, based on their appearance. The aim was to determine the nature of the psychological processes that influence judgements. It was expected that many of the usual characteristics of stereotypical judgements would influence attributions made with regard to computer agents. Fourteen agents from a population of 150 were used to obtain similarity judgements, preference data, dimensional analysis, and personality judgements. Multidimensional Scaling analysis suggested that computer agents were categorized according to 2 main dimensions (gender and anthropomorphism). The clustering of agents were across dimensions predicted attributions made, with more positive attributions made to female agents, less positive to cartoon agents, and the most negative responses to male agents.
Head orientation and gaze direction in meetings BIBAFull-Text 858-859
  Rainer Stiefelhagen; Jie Zhu
Detecting who is looking at whom during multiparty interaction is useful for various tasks such as meeting analysis. There are two contributing factors in the formation of where a person is looking at: head orientation and eye orientation. In this poster, we present an experiment aimed at evaluating the potential of head orientation estimation in detecting who is looking at whom, because head orientation can be estimated accurately and robustly with non-intrusive methods while eye orientation can not. Experimental results show that head orientation contributes 68.9% on average to the overall gaze direction, and focus of attention estimation based on head orientation alone can get an average accuracy of 88.7% in a meeting application scenario with four participants. We conclude that head orientation is a good indicator of focus of attention in human computer interaction applications.
A collaborative foraging approach to web browsing enrichment BIBAFull-Text 860-861
  Stephen J. Schultze
As the amount of Web content grows and diversifies, traditional organizational structures such as keyword search engines and static directories become less useful and comprehensive, requiring more user effort to find relevant information. Information foraging theory [4] and collaborative filtering [6] address this problem in different but compatible ways. This paper introduces an approach called collaborative foraging that applies the biological metaphors of information foraging to the cooperative filtering. The approach assumes that humans best pursue relevant Web content according to optimal foraging behavior, collaborating with communities of like-minded foragers. This paper gives preliminary results of a limited implementation.
A framework for locomotional design: toward a generative design theory BIBAFull-Text 862-863
  Susanne Jul
Generative design theories are needed to bridge the gaps between pure scientific knowledge, individual ("point") designs and systematic generation of viable design alternatives. This papers suggests a framework for locomotional design that uses knowledge of navigation and spatial cognition to inform design. Examples of the implications of two such pieces of knowledge are sketched out, suggesting how this framework might lead to a generative design theory.
Informing automatic generation of remote control interfaces with human designs BIBAFull-Text 864-865
  Jeffrey Nichols
Embedded processors are making it possible for common appliances, such as cable boxes, microwaves, and fax machines, to provide even more functionality. Unfortunately, as these appliances become more complex, their interfaces are also becoming harder to use. At the same time, more people are carrying hand-held computerized devices that can communicate. We envision a future in which people will use their handhelds to communicate with and control common appliances in their environment. This work describes the design of a specification language and the construction of an automatic interface generator, using lessons learned from analyzing manually created interfaces.
In your own words: using full sentences as feedback BIBAFull-Text 866-867
  Jacob O. Wobbrock
Many applications have cluttered dialogs that require users to make complicated settings. Some settings even determine the availability and state of other settings, creating interdependencies that can be hard to discern. Most affordances, although they aid the use of individual widgets, provide no feedback about overall configurations. Here I present a technique for providing feedback in configuration tools using grammar-generated sentences that update instantly as the user acts. Experimental results confirm the technique has promise.
Doodling our way to better authentication BIBAFull-Text 868-869
  Joseph Goldberg; Jennifer Hagman; Vibha Sazawal
Password security often fails in practice because users select predictable passwords. We conducted a study to explore the use of hand-drawn doodle password ("passdoodle"). Our findings show that users could recall all visual elements of the doodle as well as they could recall alphanumeric passwords, but most could not perfectly redraw their selected doodles. Users perceive passdoodles as easier to remember than alphanumeric passwords; however, they prefer whichever authentication method they perceive to be more secure.
Applying HCI to music-related hardware BIBAFull-Text 870-871
  Gary Fernandes; Cassandra Holmes
The application of usability techniques to the development of music-related hardware is rarely discussed in the HCI literature. This is in spite of the fact that such devices could potentially be improved by employing usability methods during their development. This paper documents a case study of an existing electric guitar pre-amplifier. The ease of use of its user interface was investigated using the traditional HCI methods of heuristic evaluation and usability testing. The user interface was sunsequently modified, and a follow-up usability test confirmed improvements to ease of use. These findings demonstrate that HCI methods can and should be used to enhance the usability of music-related hardware.
A comparison of information visualization methods BIBAFull-Text 872-873
  Korin Werner
Large hierarchies of information (such as maps, graphs, and web pages) that must be fit onto small areas are present everywhere. The size restriction prevents the user from viewing the entire structure at once, which causes the context of the information to be lost. Conversely, if the entire structure is visible all at once, the details are too small to read and specific information is lost to the user. The present research studies different visualization techniques that present detailed specific information from large hierarchies on a single screen, while preserving the information's context within the global structure. Results show that Internet Explorer supported superior user performance in both time and accuracy when compared to three other methods of information visualization.
Multimodal theater: extending low fidelity paper prototyping to multimodal applications BIBAFull-Text 874-875
  Corey D. Chandler; Gloria Lo; Anoop K. Sinha
Low-fidelity paper prototyping has proven to be a useful technique for designing graphical user interfaces [1]. Wizard of Oz prototyping for other input modalities, such as speech, also has a long history [2]. Yet to surface are guidelines for low-fidelity prototyping of multimodal applications, those that use multiple and sometimes simultaneous combination of different input types. This paper describes our recent research in low fidelity, multimodal, paper prototyping and suggest guidelines to be used by future designers of multimodal applications.
User activity histories BIBAFull-Text 876-877
  Etienne Pelaprat; R. Benjamin Shapiro
Current software interfaces fail to incorporate historical data from user interaction into their design. While some systems exhibit a minimalist use of history in the form of undo and redo, selective menu items, and other static elements, there has been a lack of use of history in the dynamic elements of interaction. We propose a more widespread use of historical data from user-software interaction to augment the desktop and application environment. We believe the use of historical data can improve the user's experience at many different levels. Our approach begins by assuming that everything the user is doing on the desktop is important to them, and that it will be important again in the future.
Bridging physical and electronic media for distributed design collaboration BIBAFull-Text 878-879
  Scott Klemmer; Katherine Everitt
Current software interfaces fail to incorporate historical data from user interaction into their design. While some systems exhibit a minimalist use of history in the form of undo and redo, selective menu items, and other static elements, there has been a lack of use of history in the dynamic elements of interaction. We propose a more widespread use of historical data from user-software interaction to augment the desktop and application environment. We believe the use of historical data can improve the user's experience at many different levels. Our approach begins by assuming that everything the user is doing on the desktop is important to them, and that it will be important again in the future.

Usability in Practice Session

Usability in practice: field methods evolution and revolution BIBAFull-Text 880-884
  Dennis R. Wixon; Judy Ramey; Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer; JoAnn Hackos; Stephanie Rosenbaum; Colleen Page; Sari A. Laakso; Karri-Pekka Laakso
Field Methods are a collection of tools and techniques for conducting studies of users, their tasks, and their work environments in the actual context of those environments. The promise of such methods is that they help teams design products that are both useful and usable by providing data about what people really do. Participants in this forum will address:
  • the origins and framework of Contextual Design
  • the application of field methods to task analysis
  • a review of ways to adapt these methods to practical constraints
  • a discount approach to field studies
  • Usability in practice: formative usability evaluations -- evolution and revolution BIBAFull-Text 885-890
      Janice (Ginny) Redish; Randolph G. Bias; Robert Bailey; Rolf Molich; Joe Dumas; Jared M. Spool
    The adoption of user experience methods within companies has followed a similar evolution over the past two decades. Typically organizations originally institute formative lab-based evaluations, and then add field studies and other user experience methods to their repertoire. This evolution typically occurs because the organization recognizes the need for more data on customer profiles, feature requirements, and task flows, along with the ability to iterate quickly among various design ideas and directions. These methods that fall outside of the categories of formative usability evaluations and field studies are addressed in this paper. Although there are a wide variety of methods within this 'alternative' category, a few representative samples will be discussed in more detail here. In actuality, these methods are not 'alternatives,' rather, they are additions to the toolkit of user experience methods that should be used in conjunction with formative usability studies and field studies.
    Usability in practice: alternatives to formative evaluations-evolution and revolution BIBAFull-Text 891-897
      Janice A. Rohn; Jared Spool; Mayuresh Ektare; Sanjay Koyani; Michael Muller; Janice (Ginny) Redish
    The adoption of user experience methods within companies has followed a similar evolution over the past two decades. Typically organizations originally institute formative lab-based evaluations, and then add field studies and other user experience methods to their repertoire. This evolution typically occurs because the organization recognizes the need for more data on customer profiles, feature requirements, and task flows, along with the ability to iterate quickly among various design ideas and directions. These methods that fall outside of the categories of formative usability evaluations and field studies are addressed in this paper. Although there are a wide variety of methods within this 'alternative' category, a few representative samples will be discussed in more detail here. In actuality, these methods are not 'alternatives,' rather, they are additions to the toolkit of user experience methods that should be used in conjunction with formative usability studies and field studies.
    Usability in Practice: user experience lifecycle -- evolution and revolution BIBAFull-Text 898-903
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Chauncey E. Wilson; Timo Jokela; Janice A. Rohn; Trixi B. Smith; Karel Vredenburg
    The practice of usability and user-centered design must integrate with many other activities in the product development lifecycle. This integration requires political savvy, knowledge of a wide variety of methods, flexibility in using methods, inspiration, and innovation. The speakers and their colleagues have met these requirements and describe their experience fitting various methods into design and development efforts. This forum highlights their successes and setbacks.

    Workshops

    Workshop: Creating and refining knowledges, identities, and understandings in on-line communities BIBAFull-Text 905
      Michael J. Muller; David R. Millen
    This two-day workshop examines the ways that on-line communities create and refine their shared resources, including both the formal and observable artifacts (documents, chats, threads) and the less tangible conventions, roles, and identities in the community.
    Automatically evaluating the usability of web sites BIBKFull-Text 906-907
      Tom Brinck; Erik Hofer
    Keywords: HTML validation, automatic usability evaluation, instrumented browsers, task analysis, web site usability, web usability standards, website usage data
    Patterns in practice: a workshop for UI designers BIBAFull-Text 908-909
      Martijn van Welie; Kevin Mullet; Paul McInerney
    This one-day workshop focuses on how UI designers are using patterns today. The scope includes the two overlapping areas of concern to design practitioners: (1) writing valid and useful patterns and (2) using patterns effectively in a design assignment.
    Cognitive models of programming-like activity BIBKFull-Text 910-911
      Alan Blackwell; Peter Robinson; Chris Roast; Thomas Green
    Keywords: abstraction, domestic computing, programming
    Physiological computing BIBAFull-Text 912-913
      Jennifer Allanson; Gillian M. Wilson
    Applications involving the measurement of human physiological responses to environment are becoming increasingly popular in HCI. This is due in part to the increasing availability of low-cost, high-specification sensing technologies. Areas such HCI evaluation, affective computing and biofeedback-based brain-computer interaction are all benefiting from the rich data source physiological sensing technologies make available. However, guidelines on the gathering and analysis of these measurements are virtually non-existent, which makes it difficult for new researchers to practise in this area. This timely workshop will bring together both practising and potential researchers using this method to gather knowledge on the techniques, technologies and applications of physiological computing.
    Robustness in speech based interfaces: sharing the tricks of the trade BIBKFull-Text 915
      Jennifer Lai; Nils Dahlback; Arne Jonsson
    Keywords: interaction design, robustness, speech-based interfaces
    Relationships among speech, vision, and action in collaborative physical tasks BIBAFull-Text 916-917
      Susan R. Fussell; Robert E. Kraut; Jane Siegel; Susan E. Brennan
    This workshop focuses on the relationships among speech, gaze and action in collaborative physical tasks. We address three key challenges: characterizing the nature of collaborative physical tasks, understanding how people coordinate their activities during collaborative physical tasks, and designing technology to support these tasks.
    The philosophy and design of socially adept technologies BIBAFull-Text 918-919
      Stephen Marsh; Lucy Nowell; John F. Meech; Kerstin Dautenhahn
    To the "person on the street," it is an accepted truth that computers are hard to use and that "that's the way things are." It is unfortunate that an entire generation (or more) of people has this conception -- ultimately it would seem that as HCI practitioners we have failed in our self-appointed task of promoting and advancing ease of use. It may also seem that this generation is lost to us. Both of these attitudes are at best defeatist, and at worst, dangerous. We must strive to bring these people into the fold of comfortable computer use, sensible options when they use the systems they use, and harmonious relationships with the technology they rely on day to day.
       The workshop will examine and discuss the state of the art in advances that see the user-computer interaction process as a relationship between user and machine (or technology per se) such that the use of a system becomes an ongoing adaptive relationship with that system.
    Workshop: teaching interaction design BIBAFull-Text 921
      Scott Berkun
    A full day workshop focused on the practice and philosophies involved with teaching interaction design to students and professionals. The format involved teachers expressing their approaches to the challenges of design education, and group discussion and sharing of ideas and stories from their experiences.
    Automatic capture, representation, and analysis of user behavior BIBAFull-Text 922-923
      Sharon J. Laskowski; James A. Landay; Mike Lister
    The goal of this workshop is to explore the implications of automated capture and analysis of user behaviors on HCI and UE research.
    Funology: designing enjoyment BIBAFull-Text 924-925
      Andrew Monk; Marc Hassenzahl; Mark Blythe; Darren Reed
    Pleasure, enjoyment and fun are fundamental to life. As the greek philosopher Epicurus wrote in his Letter to Menoeceus: "We recognise pleasure as the first good innate in us, and from pleasure we begin every act of choice and avoidance, and to pleasure we return again, using the feeling as the standard by which we judge every good."
       Fun and enjoyment are qualities only rarely called for in the context of software products and computers. Jordan [11] noted that "usability as a concept does not seem to include [positive] feelings such as, e.g. pride, excitement or surprise." He concluded that caring about positive emotions is "not reflected in traditional human factor practices" (p. 26).
    HCI & IA: information, interaction, interface and usability architects share deliverables BIBKFull-Text 927
      Keith Instone; Lisa Chan; Peter Boersma; George Olsen
    Keywords: deliverables, information architecture, information design, interaction architecture, interface architecture, usability architecture
    The business value of HCI: how can we do better? BIBAFull-Text 928-929
      Gitte Lindgaard; Nicola Millard
    This workshop brings together experienced HCI practitioners with an interest in the business value of HCI, and who can contribute relevant data and/or case studies showing how HCI contributes to the business bottom line. The goal of the workshop is to collect practitioners' models, case studies, thoughts, and "lessons learned" in order to provide the HCI community with arguments, tips, tricks, and data to support our collective HCI business case.
    It's a global economy out there: usability Innovation for global marketplaces BIBAFull-Text 930
      Mizue Fujinuma; Kirsten Risden
    We describe a workshop for usability researchers to share information about international and intercultural research methods.
    Mobile ad hoc collaboration BIBKFull-Text 931
      Gerd Kortuem; Hans-Werner Gellersen; Mark Billinghurst
    Keywords: CSCW, MANET, PAN, ad-hoc networks, mobile collaboration, spontaneous collaboration
    Getting to know you: open source development meets usability BIBAFull-Text 932-933
      Nancy Frishberg; Anna Marie Dirks; Calum Benson; Seth Nickell; Suzanna Smith
    This workshop seeks to increase the likelihood that usability will become a core value in open source software development by creating a meeting ground of people with direct experience of both perspectives. Anticipated outcomes include tangible and immediate production of articles and posters, as well as intangible and longer term research agenda, outreach efforts to increase the number of people with usability and interaction design expertise involved in all open source projects.
    CHI2002: creative computing workshop BIBKFull-Text 934-935
      Winslow Burleson; Ted Selker
    Keywords: captology, context, creativity, peak performance
    Discourse architectures: designing and visualizing computer mediated conversation BIBAFull-Text 936-937
      Thomas Erickson; Susan Herring; Warren Sack
    The goal of this workshop is to examine the issue of coherence in computer-mediated (text-based) conversation (CMC), and how it can be visualized graphically. The premise underlying the workshop is that the understandings of coherence developed by designers and researchers can usefully inform one another. Analytical representations based on discourse research and/or theory might, suitably modified, serve as interface designs, and the interplay between graphical user interfaces and the achievement of coherence by users might advance research understandings.
    Technologies for families BIBAFull-Text 938-939
      Catherine Plaisant; Allison Druin; Hilary Hutchinson
    In this workshop, we propose to bring together researchers from industry and academia to discuss the design of new technologies for families. We will focus on both design techniques and the technologies themselves. Through discussions and brainstorming we hope to discover new ideas, which can be disseminated more broadly.