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CHI Tables of Contents: 00-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Technology, Safety, Community
Editors:Carolyn Gale
Location:Portland, Oregon
Dates:2005-Apr-02 to 2005-Apr-07
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-002-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI05-2
Papers:309
Pages:941-2141
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2005-04-02 Volume 2
    1. Design expo
    2. Development consortium
    3. Doctoral consortium
    4. Interactivity
    5. Panels
    6. Late breaking results: short papers
    7. Special interest groups (SIGs)
    8. Student design competition
    9. Workshops

CHI 2005-04-02 Volume 2

Design expo

The stakeholder forest: designing an expenses application for the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 941-956
  Jonathan Arnowitz; Monica Heidelberg; Diana Gray; Michael Arent; Naomi Dorsch
This paper discusses the redesign of PeopleSoft's Enterprise Expenses product from a product that was notorious for it's complexity into a product that was both usable and one of PeopleSoft's best selling products. The process used was a combination of best practices from user-centered design, business and marketing to deliver a usable application on a pure-html "no-code on the client" platform. The design effort was also a collaboration of design, usability engineers, business strategy, functional analysts and developers (and of course our customers!) At the same time, the process needed to track the competing interests of various stakeholders: clients, their end users, their business processes, our technical requirements, our limited resources and our internal stakeholders. The designed solution had to work within a framework that could not be re-written. A poorly working metaphor was redefined into a concept that would work better with the end-users.
Tangible UIs for media control: probes into the design space BIBAFull-Text 957-971
  Andreas Butz; Michael Schmitz; Antonio Kruger; Harald Hullmann
In a student project over the summer of 2004 teams of computer science and product design students worked together to develop new forms of interfaces for media control in living room contexts. In this paper we describe the design process from collecting first ideas of design choices and iteratively evolving (low- fidelity) prototypes to fully functional products, partially even meeting mass production requirements. We discuss how the interdisciplinary collaboration influenced the creative process in such a way, that the solutions were more realistic than purely design- informed solutions and more inspired than purely technology- informed ones. We experienced that the combination of skills lead to a much more focused design process, which produced fully functional prototypes in a short time. The resulting designs include one interface installed in the room, two autonomous interaction objects which can be freely moved around, and a two- handed inter- face. While these are only small spotlights into a large design space, they nicely show the possible diversity. We also learned that fully functional and aesthetically pleasing prototypes can be developed with technologically relatively simple means.
Advanced technology for streamlining the creation of ePortfolio resources and dynamically-indexing digital library assets: a case study from the digital chemistry project BIBAFull-Text 972-987
  Alex Cuthbert; Mark Kubinec; David O. Tanis; Fan Ieong; Lois Wei; David Schlossberg
The goal of the Digital Chemistry Project at UC Berkeley is to create a model for how technology can be used to (a) introduce interactivity into large lecture classes, (b) offer customized, web-based learning materials to students outside of the classroom, and (c) provide immediate feedback on students' understanding of targeted instructional concepts. Two products, PRISM and LOTIS, and their interrelated design processes are described in this paper. PRISM (Presentation and Interaction with Streaming media) automates the creation of online learning materials by integrating streaming digital video, wireless concept testing, an annotation system, and face-to-face peer interaction. LOTIS (the Learning Object Tagging and Information System) catalogues and packages instructional resources using a combination of intelligent agents and customized metadata templates. The result is a model for dynamic content creation that lays the foundation for design improvements based on students' access to and interaction with instructional materials.
Looking back at plan AHEAD: exercising user- centered design in emergency management BIBAFull-Text 988-1003
  Leo Frishberg
Plan AHEAD- All Hazard Exercise Development and Administration is a usability test development tool designed for emergency management agencies focused on disaster preparedness. Several user- centered design principles employed to develop Plan AHEAD are discussed including ethnographic research, rapid prototyping and iterative design. Specific design decisions that rely on these approaches are highlighted. Alternative design approaches that failed to meet user requirements are included. Plan AHEAD incorporated design elements that were novel to the Emergency Exercise Development domain. In part because of the intensive user- centered design approaches, Plan AHEAD continues to be used by emergency managers worldwide; even with the approaches described, the application can benefit from several usability improvements.
Unifying the cisco intranet through hierarchical navigation BIBAFull-Text 1004-1021
  Michael Lenz; Jim Beno; Mathew Burns; Sharon Meaney
Cisco web-enabled numerous processes during a period of rapid growth, resulting in a number of disconnected sites and tools. Although this innovation cut costs, employees could not easily find information and had to learn new models of navigation and interaction. This paper describes how the Intranet Strategy team responded by designing a hierarchical navigation system that met user and business requirements, connected numerous isolated sites, and encouraged standardization and governance of the Intranet. The team leveraged prior work on navigation for Cisco's public web site, created and tested a series of prototypes, and integrated the final design with an innovative template framework. The result was better navigation, increased relevancy, and reduced costs.
Use of video in user interfaces that require non-linguistic cues BIBAFull-Text 1022-1036
  Sam Racine; Rachel Nilsson
This case study describes the creation of a user interface for a self-service kiosk that collects biographic and biometric data from non-English-speaking individuals who are unfamiliar with American/Western culture, with little formal education, and little-to-no experience with computers. The users were also completely unfamiliar with the task and in a very stressful environment. Therefore, unlike most commercial software interfaces that "tell" users how to complete a task by relying on entry fields labels and controls, or use language to provide context for tasks, we need to "show" users how to interact with interface. The goals for our user interface are similar to the goals of arcade video game machines that use a short demonstration video, without words, to draw the viewer's attention, create an expectation in the viewer of what is to come, and demonstrate the task to the viewer. User testing found that demonstration videos could meet these requirements.
Designing the world as your palette BIBAFull-Text 1037-1049
  Kimiko Ryokai; Stefan Marti; Hiroshi Ishii
"The World as your Palette" is our ongoing effort to design and develop tools to allow artists to create visual art projects with elements (specifically, the color, texture, and moving patterns) extracted directly from their personal objects and their immediate environment. Our tool called "I/O Brush" looks like a regular physical paintbrush, but contains a video camera, lights, and touch sensors. Outside of the drawing canvas, the brush can pick up colors, textures, and movements of a brushed surface. On the canvas, artists can draw with the special "ink" they just picked up from their immediate environment. We describe the evolution and development of our system, from kindergarten classrooms to an art museum, as well as the reactions of our users to the growing expressive capabilities of our brush, as an iterative design process.
Capturing and viewing media on the treo 650 smartphone and tungsten T5 handheld BIBAFull-Text 1050-1061
  Keith Saft
Today digital photographs and videos are everywhere: on our computers, on our cell phones, on our PDAs. As palmOne releases new smartphones and handheld devices, we continually look for ways to make the experience of capturing, viewing, managing and sharing photos and videos easier, more enjoyable, and more integral to the overall user experience. This paper discusses the release of the latest version of the palmOne media applications for the Treo 650 and Tungsten T5. It steps through the 9-month development process and highlights many of the 'transparent' interactions that make the software compelling and simple to use.
Vista: interactive coffee-corner display BIBAFull-Text 1062-1077
  Marcin Wichary; Lucy Gunawan; Nele Van den Ende; Qarin Hjortzberg-Nordlund; Aga Matysiak; Ruud Janssen; Xu Sun
In the contemporary information-saturated world, there is a need for an easier, faster, and more social way to keep office workers updated and better aware of surrounding activities. Today's information management systems tend to consume time rather than simplify information sharing.
   The Vista system tries to solve this problem. It is designed to be used in places of social interaction, where it displays information about professional activities happening in the department. In this paper, the origins of the project, the user-centered design process, and iterative evaluation of the concept are described. The paper concludes with observations regarding the social acceptance of Vista and reflections on future research aspects.
   Vista is the result of a design project conducted in cooperation between the User-System Interaction postgraduate program at Eindhoven University of Technology, and the Research Group of Oce Technologies in the Netherlands.

Development consortium

Creating a UX profession BIBAFull-Text 1078-1079
  Nigel Bevan
Current aspirations to coordinate the UX community should be complemented by a coordinated series of professional initiatives to raise the status of the UX profession so that it can take its rightful role at the heart of the development process.
AIS SIGHCI position paper BIBAFull-Text 1080-1082
  Dennis F. Galletta; Ping Zhang; Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah
The upcoming ACM SIGCHI Development Consortium is aimed at meeting the needs of multidisciplinary professionals that must choose among a variety of professional associations and their events. The position of AIS' (Association for Information Systems) SIGHCI is that the main problem lies in the deep chasms that separate the literatures of the related disciplines, and the solution is to provide an umbrella organization that enables a more organized federation of disciplines, groups, and associations. Problems identified include differences in terminology, competition for scarce resources, differences in how publications in various outlets are valued, and confusion about where should be the "home" for HCI/CHI majors. Suggestions include developing a framework for a federation, negotiating shared understandings about publication outlets, and coordinating information about meetings and other events.
Why CHI fragmented BIBAFull-Text 1083-1084
  Jonathan Grudin
I have been active in SIGCHI since 1983, serving on the Executive Committee and many conference and program committees. After editing ACM TOCHI for six years, I explored the history of CHI and related fields. The "conference-centered" model unique to U.S. computer science, wherein little published research reaches journals, and uncertainty regarding HCI's academic niche have created an unusual situation. I propose some paths forward.
ACM SIGGRAPH user experience initiatives BIBAFull-Text 1085-1086
  Barbara Helfer
There has been a substantial growth in the number of educational and networking opportunities for professionals in the computer graphics and related fields in the last three years. One of the fastest areas of growth is in the field of computer user experience and the development of cultural communities through the advent of portal technologies, blogs, and wikis.
User experience: an umbrella topic BIBAFull-Text 1087-1088
  Keith Instone
This position paper represents my views on how we address the multi-disciplinary needs of the user experience industry. While each profession struggles to deepen its core skills and membership offerings, it also needs to branch out beyond its traditional borders to serve its members' needs within a broader industry. "User experience" should be the topic that unites all of various professional organizations under an umbrella. Because each organization has its special contribution to the network (some at the core, some as specialists and others as interested parties), and each person will have different needs, a personalized portal should be built for the UX topic to help individuals cross over existing boundaries.
Local ambassadors: local action/global impact BIBAFull-Text 1089-1090
  Dirk Knemeyer; Nick Finck; Matteo Penzo
This position paper for the CHI2005 Development Consortium introduces the Local Ambassadors Initiative of the User Experience Network (UXnet), a collaborative international vision that unites user experience professionals with a variety of skills and backgrounds in a shared effort to develop a productive user experience community.
The human factors and ergonomics society perspective BIBAFull-Text 1091-1092
  Arnold M. Lund; Lynn Strother; Wendy A. Rogers
We first describe the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES), then our challenges with respect to meeting the needs of multidisciplinary professionals. We discuss how HFES has tried, as a professional organization, to meet the needs of its diverse members.
A focus on conferences BIBAFull-Text 1093-1095
  Nico Macdonald
Conferences are still valuable for established attendees and potential new audiences, and the overall audience for events can be increased, helping alleviate competition between professional organisations.
   In addition professional organisations need to avoid conferences being run-of-the-mill, and taking their audience for granted. They need to widen their primary and secondary audiences by helping potential attendees and presenters find out about events, evaluate those they might attend, and benefit in other ways from participating in; professionalising presentation and documentation; facilitating more controversial discussion; improving media relations (including with informal commentators).Some of the solutions involved re-designing and re-programming events, greater inter-organisational cooperation, technical developments, and greater intelligence when thinking about audiences and stakeholders.
'User experience' design a new form of design practice takes shape BIBAFull-Text 1096-1097
  Ian McClelland
This paper outlines my professional background and interests in the 'user-experience' field. I summarise my current relevant responsibilities related to my employment as a specialist in 'user experience' design and my SIGCHI activities. I also summarise some observations on the emergence of 'user experience' as a focus for the professional practice of interactive system design and observations on some directions for the future.
UXnet: making connections BIBAFull-Text 1098-1099
  Whitney Quesenbery; Richard Anderson; Beth Mazur
This position paper for the CHI2005 Development Consortium describes the vision that led to the formation of the User Experience Network (UXnet) and cross-disciplinary needs it addresses, for individual practitioners and for the ongoing development of the field as a whole.
Organizational collaboration: an STC perspective BIBAFull-Text 1100-1101
  Fred Sampson
In this proposal I submit personal qualifications for participation in the CHI 2005 Development Consortium, along with a review of some issues to be discussed and possible resolutions.
Towards knowledge building in professional groups BIBAFull-Text 1102-1103
  John Zapolski
In this submission for the CHI05 Development forum, I reflect on my experience leading the Experience Design community of interest of the American Institute of Graphic Arts and suggest that the focus of the group needs to shift in order to successfully accomplish our mission.

Doctoral consortium

Gender HCI issues in problem-solving software BIBAFull-Text 1104-1105
  Laura Beckwith
Thus far, researchers have not investigated gender HCI issues in the context of end-user problem-solving software. Designers' ignorance of gender differences is particularly evident in studies showing software is unintentionally designed for males. We are investigating gender HCI issues using quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, using formative work to consider gender-conscious design features, implementing these features in our research prototype, and following up with summative work to evaluate effectiveness.
The effect touching a projection augmented model has on perception and object-presence BIBAFull-Text 1106-1107
  Emily Bennett
This paper outlines the PhD thesis entitled 'The effect touching a Projection Augmented model has on perception and object-presence'.
Automatic generation of high coverage usability tests BIBAFull-Text 1108-1109
  Renee C. Bryce
Software systems are often complex in the number of features that are available through the user interface and consequently, the number of interactions that can occur. Such systems are prone to errors when interactions do not work as anticipated. This research introduces a combinatorial method for setting up task-based usability tests. The method bridges contributions from mathematics, design of experiments, software test, and algorithms for application to usability testing.
Context-aware collaborative filtering system: predicting the user's preferences in ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 1110-1111
  Annie Chen
In this paper I propose a context-aware collaborative filtering system that can predict a user's preference in different context situations based on past user-experiences. The system uses what other like-minded users have done in similar context to predict a user's preference towards an item in the current context.
Evaluating technology for coordinating communication BIBAFull-Text 1112-1113
  Laura A. Dabbish
The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) propose a model of communication initiation and response, and (2) evaluate the utility of a set of technology interventions based on that model for coordinating communication. The contribution to the field of HCI will be useful recommendations for the design of electronic communication systems.
Non-speech sound and paralinguistic parameters in mobile speech applications BIBAFull-Text 1114-1115
  Peter Frolich
This paper describes the background, research questions and methodology of user studies on the integration of non-speech sound and paralinguistic parameters in speech-enabled applications. Preliminary results are summarized and future directions are discussed.
The value of shared visual space for collaborative physical tasks BIBAFull-Text 1116-1117
  Darren Gergle
The goal of this research is to elucidate the ways shared visual space supports group communication and performance. This work involves three stages: a series of empirical studies that decompose the features of shared visual space and task, a methodology for assessing the sequential structure of how visible actions serve to augment discourse, and the development of a computational model of discourse to further our theoretical understanding of the ways in which shared visual information serves communication in collaborative physical tasks.
Design and analysis of groupware for large displays BIBAFull-Text 1118-1119
  Elaine M. Huang
Despite the proliferation of large-scale displays in the workplace, creating groupware applications that take advantage of their potential for collaboration and communication remains challenging. Interactions with large displays yield user experiences that are different from interaction with conventional desktop groupware. Thus, unique hurdles exist for designing large display groupware applications (LDGAs) that are integrated into actual work practice. Our research addresses these challenges through experimental design based on studies of workgroup practices, the formation of a framework of heuristics for LDGA adoption, and its application to the design and analysis of LDGAs.
Breaking the laws of action in the user interface BIBAFull-Text 1120-1121
  Per-Ola Kristensson
Fitts' law, Steering law and Law of crossing, collectively known as the laws of action, model the speed-accuracy trade-offs in common hci tasks. These laws impose a certain speed ceiling on precise actions in a user interface. My hypothesis is that for some interfaces, the constraints of these laws can be relaxed by using context information of the task. To support this thesis, I present two systems I have developed for pen-based text input on stylus keyboards. These systems break either Fitts' law or the Law of crossing by taking advantage of high-resolution information from the pen, and the fact that words can be seen as patterns traced on the keyboard. Using these systems users can potentially gain higher text entry speed than on a regular stylus keyboard that is limited by the laws of action. I conclude by discussing planned future research, primarily improved visual feedback and empirical evaluation.
Designing interfaces to afford enjoyable social interactions by collocated groups BIBAFull-Text 1122-1123
  Sian E. Lindley
The main aim of this research is to understand how domestic technologies for collocated groups can be designed to afford enjoyable social interactions. A secondary aim is to devise process measures to assess the nature of these interactions. This study presents a number of process measures and uses them to evaluate differences in groups' social behaviour when sharing photos as prints compared to when photos are presented using a television. Differences in gesturing behaviour towards the photos were evident across the two conditions. However, aspects of verbal behaviour that were measured, which were taken to be indicative of enjoyable social interactions, were not found to vary.
Interrupted cognition and design for non-disruptiveness: the skilled memory approach BIBAFull-Text 1124-1125
  Antti Oulasvirta
Interruptions have gained in importance as a topic in current HCI research. Through a series of experiments, we take a step toward analyzing the active role of human memory in controlling interruptions. The results of these experiments lead us to propose a novel approach, the skilled memory approach, to how UIs can support memory in skilled man-agement of and recovery from interruptions.
A transformational approach to multi-device interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1126-1127
  Kai Richter
Using the same application on different devices requires the user to perform a mental transformation in order to adapt his knowledge to a new platform. In this work we describe how this process can be employed in multi-device development.
A framework for building reality-based interfaces for wireless-grid applications BIBAFull-Text 1128-1129
  Orit Shaer
The pervasive adoption of wireless technologies is creating a growing demand for seamless interaction with wireless services. By sharing resources across devices such as PDA's, sensors and cameras, Wireless Grids provide the opportunity to allow users seamless access to services via a new generation of user interfaces. These interfaces draw upon users existing skills of interaction with objects in the real physical world thus, we refer to them as reality-based interfaces. Although these interfaces offer the promise of ease of use, they are currently more difficult to build than traditional ones. The aim of this research is to simplify the task of developing reality-based interfaces and adapting them to a changing landscape of resources. This goal will be accomplished by providing developers with a high level user interface description language (UIDL) and a user interface management system (UIMS) which describes and enables to develop these interfaces given the uncertainty of the input-output devices they will employ.
Improving user interaction with spoken dialog systems via shaping BIBAFull-Text 1130-1131
  Stefanie Tomko
Speech-based interfaces offer the promise of simple human-computer communication, yet the current state-of-the-art often produces inefficient interactions. Many inefficiencies are caused by understanding or recognition errors. Such errors can be minimized by designing interaction protocols in which users are required to speak in a standardized way, but this requirement presents additional difficulties: this way of speaking can be unnatural for users, and in order to learn the standardized interface, users must spend time in tutorial mode rather than in task mode. I propose a strategy of shaping that helps users adapt their interaction to match what the system understands best, thereby reducing the chance for misunderstandings and improving interaction efficiency.
Phonological and visual working memory in processing of route guidance information BIBAFull-Text 1132-1133
  Patricia L. Trbovich
The goal of my proposed thesis is to examine the role of working memory in processing route guidance information while driving. I will also assess how changes in the presentation and processing of route guidance and secondary task information influences the primary task of vehicle control. Results will be analyzed in terms of whether a change of route navigation presentation from visual to auditory will change the memory resources used to process the information. Furthermore, analyses will be done to assess whether changes in the processing of route navigation and secondary task information affect driving performance. To examine what working memory subsystems (i.e., phonological, visual, spatial, central executive) are used to process visual versus auditory route guidance information, the present research will require participants to drive a driving simulator while performing a route navigation task and a secondary working memory task. Performance of these secondary tasks will permit us to assess demands of route navigation tasks upon the various working memory subsystems. Accordingly, participants will retain a memory load while performing the route navigation tasks. This research is expected to raise significant HCI implications for the design of safer interfaces for vehicles and provide much needed detail about how specific mental codes and processes are involved in processing route navigation information.
Interactive sonification of geo-referenced data BIBAFull-Text 1134-1135
  Haixia Zhao
This paper describes an investigation of using interactive sonification (non-speech sound) to present geo-referenced statistical data to vision-impaired users for problem solving and decision making. By working with vision-impaired users, the work will identify effective interaction and sound designs for geo-referenced data, and derive principles that can guide general interactive data sonification designs for auditory information seeking.

Interactivity

In the Mixxx: novel digital DJ interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1136-1137
  Tue Haste Andersen
We present an interactive system, Mixxx, for live DJ'ing using digital sound files. The design of the system is approached from two directions: Through Contextual Design using contextual interviews and video recordings and Open Source development where feedback and ideas are generated by developers and users from the open source community. Our contextual interviews show that DJs use a significant amount of their time on tracking and synchronizing songs using the traditional setup with turntables or CD players. By making beat information an integrated part of our DJ software Mixxx, synchronization is done automatically and DJs can use more time to attend other parts of the mix. We provide an intuitive interface for mixing with beat information that allows the same level of flexibility as with the traditional setup but facilitates new creative ways of mixing.
Smart laser-scanner for 3D human-machine interface BIBAFull-Text 1138-1139
  Alvaro Cassinelli; Stephane Perrin; Masatoshi Ishikawa
The problem of tracking hands and fingers on natural scenes has received much attention using passive acquisition vision systems and computationally intense image processing. We are currently studying a simple active tracking system using a laser diode, steering mirrors, and a single non-imaging detector, which is capable of acquiring three dimensional coordinates in real time without the need of any image processing at all. Essentially, it is a smart rangefinder scanner that instead of continuously scanning over the full field of view restricts its scanning area, on the basis of a real-time analysis of the backscattered signal, to a very narrow window precisely the size of the target. The complexity of the whole setup is equivalent to that of a portable laser-based barcode reader, making the system compatible with wearable computers.
Intelligent lighting for a better gaming experience BIBAFull-Text 1140-1141
  Magy Seif El-Nasr; Joseph Zupko; Keith Miron
Lighting assumes many aesthetic and communicative functions in game environments that affect attention, immersion, visibility, and emotions. Game environments are dynamic and highly unpredictable; lighting such experiences to achieve desired visual goals is a very challenging problem. Current lighting methods rely on static manual techniques, which require designers to anticipate and account for all possible situations and user actions. Alternatively, we have developed ELE (Expressive Lighting Engine) -- an intelligent lighting system that automatically sets and adjusts scene lighting in real-time to achieve desired aesthetic and communicative goals. In this paper, we discuss ELE and its utility in dynamically manipulating the lighting in a scene to direct attention, stimulate tension, and maintain visual continuity. ELE has been integrated within Unreal Tournament 2003. The videos shown at [14] shows a demonstration of a first person shooter game developed using the Unreal 2.0 engine, where ELE was configured to dynamically stimulate tension, while maintaining other visual goals.
Magic land: live 3D human capture mixed reality interactive system BIBAFull-Text 1142-1143
  Tran Cong Thien Qui; Ta Huynh Duy Nguyen; Asitha Mallawaarachchi; Ke Xu; Wei Liu; Shang Ping Lee; Zhi Ying Zhou; Sze Lee Teo; Hui Siang Teo; Le Nam Thang; Yu Li; Adrian David Cheok; Hirokazu Kato
"Magic Land" is a cross-section of art and technology. It not only demonstrates the latest advances in human-computer interaction and human-human communication: mixed reality, tangible interaction, and 3D-live human capture technology; but also defines new approaches of dealing with live mixed reality content for artists of any discipline. In this system, the user is captured by cameras from many angles and her live 3D avatar is created to be confronted with 3D computer-generated virtual animations. The avatars and virtual objects can interact with each other in a virtual scenery in the mixed reality context; and users can tangibly interact with these characters using their own hands.
SonicTexting BIBAFull-Text 1144-1145
  Michal Rinott
SonicTexting is a system for inputting text -- 'texting' -- using gestures and sound. As in musical instruments and everyday mechanical objects, sound in SonicTexting is synchronous and responsive to actions. SonicTexting explores people's hand-ear coordination and demonstrates the use of informative digital sound. It proposes that through touch and sound, a functional activity like text entry can become an experience on the borders between performing a task, playing an instrument and playing a game.
Curve dial: eyes-free parameter entry for GUIs BIBAFull-Text 1146-1147
  Grham Smith; m. c. schraefel; Patrick Baudisch
In this demonstration, we introduce "curve dial" a technique designed to extend gesture-based interactions like FlowMenus with eyes-free parameter entry. FlowMenus, let users enter numerical parameters with "dialing" strokes surrounding the center of a radial menu. This centering requires users to keep their eyes on the Menu in order to align the pen with its center before initiating a gesture. Curve dial instead tracks the curvature of the path created by the pen: since curvature is location-independent, curvature dialing does not require users to keep track of the menu center and is therefore eyes-free. We demonstrate curvature dial with the example of a simple application that allows users to scroll through a document eyes-free.
Acclairism: questioning biometric technology through an airport security clearance system BIBAFull-Text 1148-1149
  Luther Thie; Eyal Fried
Biometric technologies are becoming socially acceptable in the wake of recent terrorist events. Bio-data is developing into a legitimate source for identity detection and assessment. Acclairism is an attempt to bring to light some of the conflicts and questions these technologies give rise to: What defines us as unique individuals? What defines us as trusted members of society? How much personal information will we willingly give away and under which circumstances? Through Acclairism we explore a situation wherein people freely accept a highly invasive, highly authoritative manipulation in return for tangible rewards and an upgraded social status. We perform this investigation through Acclair, a company providing brain-testing services as part of an exclusive security clearance for air-travelers.
The virtual raft project: a mobile interface for interacting with communities of autonomous characters BIBAFull-Text 1150-1151
  Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Jessica O'Connell; Ksatria Williams; So Yamaoka
This paper presents a novel and intuitive paradigm for interacting with autonomous animated characters. This paradigm utilizes a mobile device to allow people to transport characters among different virtual environments. The central metaphor in this paradigm is that virtual space is like land and real space is like water for virtual characters. The tangible interface described here serves as a virtual raft with which people may carry characters across a sea of real space from one virtual island to another. By increasing participants' physical engagement with the autonomous characters, this interaction paradigm contributes to the believability of those characters.
TRIBA: a cable television retrieval & awareness system BIBAFull-Text 1152-1153
  Michael Tseng; Jon Kolko
This paper discusses the design of a physical and digital system intended to allow for easy manipulation and interaction with the tremendous amount of options present in advanced multimedia devices, such as digital cable television. As user demand for access to large quantities of data increases, and cable companies offer more choices to their audiences, traditional content selection techniques become less useful and much more difficult to understand. TRIBA is the result of a ten week research and design exploration investigating how users can easily manipulate and comprehend tremendously large data sets. The findings of this research indicate a need for utilizing interactive agents to bridge the gap between the user and their goal. As technology is created and consumer electronics becomes more integrated into our lives, devices speak a language that users are expected to learn. TRIBA is a product embracing the philosophical idea that users should not have to learn a new language to interact with a futuristic and useful product, but instead products and devices must learn to speak the same language as the user.
GelForce: a vision-based traction field computer interface BIBAFull-Text 1154-1155
  Kevin Vlack; Terukazu Mizota; Naoki Kawakami; Kazuto Kamiyama; Hiroyuki Kajimoto; Susumu Tachi
We propose a tactile sensor based on computer vision that measures a dense traction field, or a distribution of 3D force vectors over a 2D surface, which humans also effectively sense through a dense array of mechanoreceptors in the skin. The proposed "GelForce" tactile sensor has an elegant and organic design and can compute large and structurally rich traction fields in real time. We present how this sensor can serve as a powerful and intuitive computer interface for both existing and emerging desktop applications.
Magic cubes for social and physical family entertainment BIBAFull-Text 1156-1157
  ZhiYing Zhou; Adrian David Cheok; Yu Li; Hirokazu Kato
Physical and social interactions are constrained,and natural interactions are lost in most of present digital family entertainment systems [5]. Magic Cubes strive for bringing the computer storytelling, doll 's house,and board game back into reality so that the children can interact socially and physically as what we did in the old days. Magic Cubes are novel augmented reality systems that explore to use cubes to interact with three dimensional virtual fantasy world. Magic Cubes encourage discussion, idea exchange, collaboration, social and physical interactions among families.

Panels

Meeting the needs of the "user experience" professional BIBAFull-Text 1158-1159
  Richard I. Anderson
In the business of "User Experience" (UX), collaboration across multiple disciplines is considered to be critical to achieving success. But the increasing number of professional associations and events of relevance to UX practitioners rely much less on collaboration with others in their pursuit of success. This panel reports on obstacles to and opportunities for increasing collaboration among professional organizations, and the effects increased collaboration can have on the service and support provided to the rapidly growing, multidisciplinary UX profession.
Corporate re-orgs: poison or catalyst to HCI? BIBAFull-Text 1160-1161
  Kelly Braun; Klaus Kaasgaard; Stephanie Rosenbaum; Anna Wichansky
Are you facing a corporate re-org? Re-orgs can create exciting opportunities for HCI groups, or good people's careers can be set back. This panel of HCI managers will consult on corporate reorganizations described by audience members. First, panelists with different perspectives discuss the roles of HCI resources during re-orgs. Then the panel will address audience questions on how to be proactive about organizational changes. (Send your questions to stephanie@teced.com by March 15th.) This panel will be of special interest to the industry segment of the CHI community-and also to academics who are educating future practitioners.
Interaction at Lincoln laboratory in the 1960's: looking forward -- looking back BIBAFull-Text 1162-1167
  William Buxton; Ron Baecker; Wesley Clark; Fontaine Richardson; Ivan Sutherland; W. R. Bert Sutherland; Austin Henderson
The activity centered around the TX-2 computer at Lincoln Laboratory in the 1960's laid the foundation for much of HCI. Through the use of archival film footage, and live presentations by some of the key protagonists, this panel is intended to contribute to a more general awareness of this work, its historical importance to HCI, and its relevance to research today.
Is ROI an effective approach for persuading decision-makers of the value of user-centered design? BIBAFull-Text 1168-1169
  Susan Dray; Clare-Marie Karat; Daniel Rosenberg; David Siegel; Dennis Wixon
This panel examines the utility and effectiveness of various ways of making the business case for user-centered design (UCD). Most of the discussion in our field has assumed that measuring and demonstrating ROI for usability is the key to this effort. However, experience shows that the most brilliant ROI analysis may not win the day in the real world of business. Our panelists range from people who claim that ROI is an important persuasive tool as long as the communication about ROI is happening within a healthy business relationship, to people who claim that a focus on ROI can actually be destructive. We also explore the idea that there are important business contexts where ROI simply does not fit. Through the presentations by the panelists and through discussion of a business case scenario, we explore some alternatives to ROI in making the business case for user-centered design.
Outsourcing & offshoring: impact on the user experience BIBAFull-Text 1170-1171
  Liam Friedland; Jon Innes; Roman Longoria; Wayne Hom; Pradeep Henry; Richard Anderson
In a June 2003 survey, the management consulting firm McKinsey & Company reported that 51 percent of software executives surveyed have indicated that their offshore development strategy is already underway. Furthermore, another 20 percent of those surveyed indicated that they would move some portion of their product development offshore within the next 12 months.
   While offshore development has distinct advantages from the cost of labor perspective, it raises a significant number of challenges as well as opportunities for HCI practitioners and companies that wish to develop well designed, usable products. Offshoring is already changing the practice of HCI in industry, and will continue to impact practitioners more significantly over time.
Connecting with kids: so what's new? BIBAFull-Text 1172-1173
  Lori L. Scarlatos; Amy S. Bruckman; Allison Druin; Mike Eisenberg; Molly Lenore; Oren Zuckerman
From pre-schools to high schools, at home and in museums, the educational community has embraced the use of computers as a teaching tool. Yet many institutions will simply install "what everyone else is using" without questioning how technology can be best used to enhance education. For this panel, we have assembled a broad range of researchers and practitioners who are on the forefront of using computers to teach kids in novel ways. Each panelist will summarize their approach with examples of projects that they believe will demonstrate "what's new". We will then have videotaped children pose their toughest educational challenges to the panelists. Panelists will answer by talking about how they would meet these challenges. Finally, attendees will get to vote for their favorite solution. This will expose the CHI audience to a range of educational challenges, with a taste of the different ways that these problems can be solved.
The great debate: can usability scale up? BIBKFull-Text 1174-1175
  Jared M. Spool; Eric M. Schaffer
Keywords: ROI of user centred design, institutionalisation

Late breaking results: short papers

MusicCube: making digital music tangible BIBAFull-Text 1176-1179
  Miguel Bruns Alonso; David V. Keyson
To some extent listening to digital music via storage devices has led to a loss of part of the physical experience associated with earlier media formats such as CDs and LPs. For example, one could consider the role of album covers in music appreciation. Previous efforts at making music interaction more tangible have focused mainly on access issues. A case study is presented in which several content attributes of Mp3 formatted music as well as control access are made more visible and tangible. Play lists, music rhythm, volume, and navigational feedback were communicated via multicolored light displayed in a tangible interface. Users were able to physically interact with music collections via the MusicCube, a wireless cube-like object, using gestures to shuffle music and a rotary dial with a button for song navigation and volume control. Speech and non-speech feedback were given to communicate current mode and song title. The working prototype was compared to an Apple iPod, along the dimensions of trust, engagement, ergonomic and hedonic qualities, and appeal. Subjects rated the MusicCube higher on scales associated with hedonic qualities, while the iPod was preferred for ergonomic qualities. Results on trust measures were found to correlate with ergonomic qualities, while sense of engagement related to hedonic aspects. Subjects generally valued the expressive and tangible interaction with music collections. Next design steps will focus on increasing ergonomic aspects of the MusicCube while maintaining a high hedonic rating.
A simple movement time model for scrolling BIBAFull-Text 1180-1183
  Tue Haste Andersen
A model for movement time for scrolling is developed and verified experimentally. It is hypothesized that the maximum scroll speed is a constant at which the target can be perceived when scrolling over the screen. In an experiment where distance to target and target width were varied, it was found that movement time did not follow Fitts' law. Rather, it was linearly dependent on the distance to the target, suggesting a constant maximum scrolling speed. We hypothesize that the same relationship between movement time and target distance apply to other computer interaction tasks where the position of the target is not known ahead of time, and the data in which the target is sought is not ordered.
Evaluation of multimodal input for entering mathematical equations on the computer BIBAFull-Text 1184-1187
  Lisa Anthony; Jie Yang; Kenneth R. Koedinger
Current standard interfaces for entering mathematical equations on computers are arguably limited and cumbersome. Mathematics notations have evolved to aid visual thinking and yet text-based interfaces relying on keyboard-and-mouse input do not take advantage of the natural two-dimensional aspects of math. Due to its similarities to paper-based mathematics, pen-based handwriting input may be faster, more efficient, and more preferable for entering mathematics on computers. This paper presents an empirical study that tests this hypothesis. We also explored a multimodal input method combining handwriting and speech because we hypothesize that it may enhance computer recognition and aid user cognition. Novice users were indeed faster, more efficient and enjoyed the handwriting modality more than a standard keyboard-and-mouse mathematics interface, especially as equation length and complexity increased. The multimodal handwriting-plus-speech method was faster and better liked than the keyboard-and-mouse method and was not much worse than handwriting alone.
Combining head tracking and mouse input for a GUI on multiple monitors BIBAFull-Text 1188-1191
  Mark Ashdown; Kenji Oka; Yoichi Sato
The use of multiple LCD monitors is becoming popular as prices are reduced, but this creates problems for window management and switching between applications. For a single monitor, eye tracking can be combined with the mouse to reduce the amount of mouse movement, but with several monitors the head is moved through a large range of positions and angles which makes eye tracking difficult. We thus use head tracking to switch the mouse pointer between monitors and use the mouse to move within each monitor. In our experiment users required significantly less mouse movement with the tracking system, and preferred using it, although task time actually increased. A graphical prompt (flashing star) prevented the user losing the pointer when switching monitors. We present discussions on our results and ideas for further developments.
E-motional advantage: performance and satisfaction gains with affective computing BIBAFull-Text 1192-1195
  Lesley Axelrod; Kate Hone
Emotions are now recognized as complex human control systems, crucial to decision making, creativity, playing and learning. Affective technologies may offer improved interaction and commercial promise. In the past, research has focused on technical development work, leaving many questions about user preferences unanswered. For this user-centered study, 60 participants played a simple 'word ladder' game under different controlled conditions. Using 2 x 2 factorial design, and a Wizard of Oz scenario, half the participants interacted with a system that adapted on the basis of the user's emotional expression and half were told the system could react to their emotional expressions. We established that when using an apparently affective system, users perform significantly better and report themselves as feeling significantly happier. We also discuss behavioral responses to the different conditions. These results are relevant to the design of future affective systems.
Effects of tiled high-resolution display on basic visualization and navigation tasks BIBAFull-Text 1196-1199
  Robert Ball; Chris North
Large high-resolution screens are becoming increasingly available and less expensive. This creates potential advantages for data visualization in that more dense data and fine details are viewable at once. Also, less navigation may be needed to see more data. However, little work has been done to determine the effectiveness of large high-resolution displays, especially for basic low-level data visualization and navigation tasks. This paper describes an exploratory study on the effects of a large tiled display with a resolution of 3840x3072 as compared to two smaller displays (1560x2048 and 1280x1024). We conclude that, with finely detailed data, higher resolution displays that use physical navigation significantly outperform smaller displays that use pan and zoom navigation. Qualitatively, we also conclude that use of the larger display is less stressful and creates a better sense of confidence than the smaller displays.
Sweep and point and shoot: phonecam-based interactions for large public displays BIBAFull-Text 1200-1203
  Rafael Ballagas; Michael Rohs; Jennifer G. Sheridan
This paper focuses on enabling interactions with large public displays using the most ubiquitous personal computing device, the mobile phone. Two new interaction techniques are introduced that use the embedded camera on mobile phones as an enabling technology. The "Point & Shoot" technique allows users to select objects using visual codes to set up an absolute coordinate system on the display surface instead of tagging individual objects on the screen. The "Sweep" technique enables users to use the phone like an optical mouse with multiple degrees of freedom and allows interaction without having to point the camera at the display. Prototypes of these interactions have been implemented and evaluated using modern mobile phone technologies. This proof of concept provides a performance baseline and gives valuable insights to guide future research and development. These techniques are intended to inspire and enable new classes of large public display applications.
Effects of display blurring on the behavior of novices and experts during program debugging BIBAFull-Text 1204-1207
  Roman Bednarik; Markku Tukiainen
The Restricted Focus Viewer (RFV) relates a small part of an otherwise blurred display to the focus of visual attention. A user controls which part of the screen is in focus by using a computer mouse. The RFV tool records these movements. Recently, some studies used the RFV to investigate the cognitive behavior of users and some others have even enhanced the tool for research of usability issues.
   We report on an eye-tracking study where the effects of RFV's display blurring on the visual attention allocation of 18 novice and expert programmers were investigated. We replicated a previous RFV-based study and analyzed attention switching and fixation durations reported by an eye tracker. Our results indicate that the blurring interferes with the strategies possessed by experts and has an effect on fixation duration: however, we found that debugging performance was preserved. We discuss possible reasons and implications.
Multi-monitor mouse BIBAFull-Text 1208-1211
  Hrvoje Benko; Steven Feiner
Multiple-monitor computer configurations significantly increase the distances that users must traverse with the mouse when interacting with existing applications, resulting in increased time and effort. We introduce the Multi-Monitor Mouse (M3) technique, which virtually simulates having one mouse pointer per monitor when using a single physical mouse device. M3 allows for conventional control of the mouse within each monitor's screen, while permitting immediate warping across monitors when desired to increase mouse traversal speed. We report the results of a user study in which we compared three implementations of M3 and two cursor placement strategies. Our results suggest that using M3 significantly increases interaction speed in a multi-monitor environment. All eight study participants strongly preferred M3 to the regular mouse behavior.
Acceptance and usability of a relational agent interface by urban older adults BIBAFull-Text 1212-1215
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Lisa Caruso; Kerri Clough-Gorr
This study examines the acceptance and usability of an animated conversational agent designed to establish long-term relationships with older, mostly minority adult users living in urban neighborhoods. The agent plays the role of an exercise advisor who interacts with subjects daily for two months on a touch-screen computer installed in their homes for the study. Survey results indicate the eight subjects who completed the pilot study (aged 62-82) found the agent very easy to interact with, even though most of them had little or no previous experience using computers. Most subjects also indicated strong liking for and trust in the agent, felt that their relationship with the agent was more similar to a close friend than a stranger, and expressed a strong desire to continue working with the agent at the end of the study. These results were also confirmed through qualitative analysis of post-experiment debrief transcripts.
Designing interactivity for the specific context of designerly collaborations BIBAFull-Text 1216-1219
  Eli Blevis; Youn-Kyung Lim; Muzaffer Ozakca; Shweta Aneja
We report on one of several exploratory, formulative studies that we conducted to help inform the thoughtful use of mixed physical and digital interactivity in a wiki-based system targeted at design collaborations. This study had two parts, both involving bar-coded cards, a bar-code scanner, and a projector. One part emphasized a creative, synthesis-oriented design activity. The other part emphasized a decision-making design activity.
   We learned that our method of designing the physical cards and the variance in the types of information we included on the cards significantly affected the collaborative behaviors. We also learned that the extension of interactivity from the digital to the physical world and back again successfully scaffolded both creative and decision-making activities in our context, although with some very notable differences in interactive behaviors between the specific activities. This latter point notwithstanding, we learned that allowing high-resolution, small size physical cards to be arrayed and manipulated on a shared surface matters much more for the purposes of scaffolding the collaborative activities than the ability to scan and project large-size, low-resolution facsimiles of the same information, in specific contexts of collaborative story-creation and decision making.
Imprints of place: creative expressions of the museum experience BIBAFull-Text 1220-1223
  Kirsten Boehner; Jennifer Thom-Santelli; Angela Zoss; Geri Gay; Justin S. Hall; Tucker Barrett
Personalization and social awareness, important aspects in the definition of a place, are traditionally overlooked in the design of technology for museums. We describe Imprints, a system to enhance the role of visitor participation beyond information receiver to active creator of sense of place. Overall response to the Imprints system is explored through interviews and log analysis of use. Despite some usability issues, response to the system was positive, and it was appropriated for both personalization and awareness of others. The results suggest an opportunity to introduce technology that plays with the dynamic between private expression and public presence in the traditional environment of the art museum.
Crystal ball: predicting end-user experience with a digital media adapter BIBAFull-Text 1224-1227
  Cory J. Booth; Paul Sorenson
Computers are moving out of the home office and into other areas of the home. The problem today is not whether the technology that enables this transition is available, but whether people can use the technology as it is presented today. Unfortunately, for the average user, the initial experience of setting up and using some of the newest and most interesting digital home devices is challenging, at best, and impossible for many. This paper describes a unique research technique that has been used to create tools that predict the end-users' experience when setting up and using a variety of products (Lind & Michalak, 2001; Lind & Michalak, 2002). Most recently, we applied this approach to a new category of products called "Digital Media Adapters" (DMAs). As with its predecessors, this tool not only allows the prediction of an end-users' experience but provides guidance on how to improve their experience.
Attention-based design of augmented reality interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1228-1231
  Leonardo Bonanni; Chia-Hsun Lee; Ted Selker
The objects and surfaces of a task-based environment can be layered with digital interfaces to make them easier and safer to use. Once information can be projected anywhere in the space, it becomes crucial to design the information to make optimal use of users' attention. We have prototyped and evaluated a real-world augmented reality kitchen where user-centered interfaces and displays can be projected anywhere in the space to improve its usability. The augmented environment is designed to support the activities of a variety of people in diverse kitchen environments.
   This paper presents five intelligent kitchen systems that layer useful interfaces onto the refrigerator, range, cabinets, countertops and sink. The interface design is driven by human factors, especially attention theory and user evaluations. By projecting interfaces where they require the least cognitive load, we hope to improve the performance and confidence of users. The design employs cueing and search principles from attention theory. We present the results of pilot studies and future directions for our work.
Smart sinks: real-world opportunities for context-aware interaction BIBAFull-Text 1232-1235
  Leonardo Bonanni; Ernesto Arroyo; Chia-Hsun Lee; Ted Selker
Can implicit interaction with a computer easily drive useful interface improvements in physical world settings? This paper presents a case study presenting multiple such context-aware interaction improvements in a sink. We have identified opportunities where automated interfaces at the sink have positive consequences for safety, hygiene and ecology. The danger of scalding oneself with hot water is confronted by transforming the water into a graphical user interface and using image understanding to dispense the proper temperature of water. Audio-visual feedback at the sink can motivate users to conserve water. Used in combination with an RFID reader, the sink can serve as an effective means of verifying hand-washing compliance for clean environments. Finally, automatic actuation of the sink's height based on the user and task can prevent burns and ergonomic injuries. This project demonstrates that the integration of digital interaction in a hostile environment can facilitate and improve our daily rituals.
Faces of emotion in human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 1236-1239
  Pedro Branco; Peter Firth; L. Miguel Encarnacao; Paolo Bonato
The study of users' emotional behavior in the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) field has received increasing attention during the last few years. Our work in this area focuses on the relationship between user emotions and perceived usability problems. Specifically, we propose to observe users' spontaneous facial expressions as a method to identify adverse-event occurrences at the user interface level.
   This paper reports on the results of an experiment designed to investigate the association between adverse-event occurrences during a word processing task and users' facial expressions monitored using electromyogram (EMG) sensor devices. The results suggest that an increase of task difficulty is related to an increase in specific facial muscle activity, thus creating a baseline for future developments using camera-based monitoring of facial activities.
Children's and adults' multimodal interaction with 2D conversational agents BIBAFull-Text 1240-1243
  Stephanie Buisine; Jean-Claude Martin
Few systems combine both Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) and multimodal input. This research aims at modeling the behavior of adults and children during their multimodal interaction with ECAs. A Wizard-of-Oz setup was used and users were video-recorded while interacting with 2D ECAs in a game scenario with speech and pen as input modes. We found that frequent social cues and natural Human-Human syntax condition the verbal interaction of both groups with ECAs. Multimodality accounted for 21% of inputs: it was used for integrating conversational and social aspects (by speech) into task-oriented actions (by pen). We closely examined temporal and semantic integration of modalities: most of the time, speech and gesture overlapped and produced complementary or redundant messages; children also tended to produce concurrent multimodal inputs, as a way of doing several things at the same time. Design implications of our results for multimodal bidirectional ECAs and game systems are discussed.
Does spelling matter in instant messaging?: answers from measuring error correction frequency BIBAFull-Text 1244-1247
  Jeffrey D. Campbell
Although Instant Messaging (IM) is widely perceived as a communication mode with relaxed spelling and grammar rules, three measures show that people still perceive errors and often correct them. In two usability studies with different tasks, participants on average corrected 89 and 95 percent of their typographical and grammatical errors that they identified. However, their self-correction rates were substantially lower and more variable when compared to all errors found by independent proofreaders. The results from the second measurement showed that participants were aware of their own errors. They judged their own error rate to be significantly higher than the other person's even when that was not true. Using the third measure, correction rates in IM were found to be lower than "normal" typing. The self-sensitivity to errors prompts further investigation of techniques for error detection and correction appropriate for IM's rapid pace and relaxed linguistic register.
Evaluation of alternative presentation control techniques BIBAFull-Text 1248-1251
  Xiang Cao; Eyal Ofek; David Vronay
Although slideshow presentation applications, such as PowerPoint have been popular for years, the techniques commercially available to control them rely on mouse and keyboard, which can be restrictive for the presenters. We evaluated two representative alternative designs of presentation control techniques - Bare Hand and Laser Pointer, through a Wizard-of-Oz user study. The result showed that Bare Hand was better than Laser Pointer and Standard (mouse/keyboard) control in terms of acceptance and preference from both presenters and audience. We also proposed design directions based on user feedback.
End user programming and context responsiveness in handheld prompting systems for persons with cognitive disabilities and caregivers BIBAFull-Text 1252-1255
  Stefan Carmien
Providing instructions via handheld prompters holds much promise for supporting independence for persons with cognitive disabilities. Because users of these tools are paired - caregivers who make scripts and a person with cognitive disabilities who uses them - designing such a system presents unique meta-design problems. The problems of changing content and configuration on a handheld computer, as needs and abilities change of the users with cognitive disabilities, produce a critical need for end-user programming tools. This paper describes the design and testing of the MAPS (Memory Aiding Prompting System) system, consisting of a handheld prompter and a multimedia editing tool for script creation, storage, and modification. The unique meta-design challenges of supporting end-user programming of context-responsive systems, and its broader implications, are presented.
The role of the author in topical blogs BIBAFull-Text 1256-1259
  Scott Carter
Web logs, or blogs, challenge the notion of authorship. Seemingly, rather than a model in which the author's writings are themselves a contribution, the blog author weaves a tapestry of links, quotations, and references amongst generated content. In this paper, I present a study of the role of the author plays in the construction of topical blogs, in particular focusing on how blog authors make decisions about what to post and how they judge the quality of posts. To this end, I analyzed the blogs and blogging habits of eight participants using a quantitative analysis tool that I developed, a diary study, and interviews with each participant. Results suggest that authors of topical blogs often do not create new content but strive to, often follow journalistic conventions, use the content of their blogs as a reference tool for other work practices, and are connected as a community by a set of source documents. Results also show that Instant Messaging is useful as an interview medium when questions center around online content.
Designing systems that direct human action BIBAFull-Text 1260-1263
  Ana Ramirez Chang; Marc Davis
In this paper we present a user-centered design process for Active Capture systems. These systems bring together techniques from human-human direction practice, multimedia signal processing, and human-computer interaction to form computational systems that automatically analyze and direct human action. The interdependence between the design of multimedia signal parsers and the user interaction script presents a unique challenge in the design process. We have developed an iterative user-centered design process for Active Capture systems that incorporates bodystorming, wizard-of-oz user studies, iterative parser design, and traditional user studies, based on our experience designing a portrait camera system that works with the user to record her name and take her picture. Based on our experiences, we lay out a set of recommendations for future tools to support such a design process.
Audio-haptic feedback in mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 1264-1267
  Angela Chang; Conor O'Sullivan
A new breed of mobile phones has been designed to enable concurrent vibration and audio stimulation, or audio-haptics. This paper aims to share techniques for creating and optimizing audio-haptic effects to enhance the user interface.
   The authors present audio manipulation techniques specific to the multifunction transducer (MFT) technology. In particular two techniques, the Haptic Inheritance and Synthesis and Matching methods are discussed. These two methods of haptic media generation allow simple creation of vibration content, and also allow for compatibility with non-haptic mobile devices.
   The authors present preliminary results of an evaluation of 42 participants comparing audio-based haptic user interface (UI) feedback with audio-only feedback. The results show that users were receptive to audio-haptic UI feedback. The results also suggest that audio-haptics seems to enhance the perception of audio quality.
Visualization in law enforcement BIBAFull-Text 1268-1271
  Hsinchun Chen; Homa Atabakhsh; Chunju Tseng; Byron Marshall; Siddharth Kaza; Shauna Eggers; Hemanth Gowda; Ankit Shah; Tim Petersen; Chuck Violette
Visualization techniques have proven to be critical in helping crime analysis. By interviewing and observing Criminal Intelligence Officers (CIO) and civilian crime analysts at the Tucson Police Department (TPD), we found that two types of tasks are important for crime analysis: crime pattern recognition and criminal association discovery. We developed two separate systems that provide automatic visual assistance on these tasks. To help identify crime patterns, a Spatial Temporal Visualization (STV) system was designed to integrate a synchronized view of three types of visualization techniques: a GIS view, a timeline view and a periodic pattern view. The Criminal Activities Network (CAN) system extracts, visualizes and analyzes criminal relationships using spring-embedded and blockmodeling algorithms. This paper discusses the design and functionality of these two systems and the lessons learned from the development process and interaction with law enforcement officers.
Behaviour, realism and immersion in games BIBAFull-Text 1272-1275
  Kevin Cheng; Paul A. Cairns
Immersion is recognised as an important element of good games. However, it is not always clear what is meant by immersion. Earlier work has identified possible barriers to immersion including a lack of coherence between different aspects of the game. Building on this work, we designed an experiment to examine people's expectations of how a game should behave and what would happen if that behaviour was deliberately made to be incoherent. The idea then is to understand immersion through seeing how immersion can be broken. The main manipulation was to alter the behaviour and realism of the graphics in the course of a simple game situation. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants could be so immersed within a simple environment such that even significant changes in behaviour had little effect on the level of immersion. In some cases, the attempted disruptions went completely unnoticed. These results suggest that immersion within an application can overcome effects which are completely against user expectations.
SPARKS BIBAFull-Text 1276-1279
  Andrea Chew; Vincent Leclerc; Sajid Sadi; Aaron Tang; Hiroshi Ishii
In this paper we introduce Sparks, an ambient social networking and communication facilitation interface. We developed the Sparks system as a physical alternative to existing connectedness mediator systems. While several systems are under investigation, they are limited by their confinement to the traditional display. We address this issue, in part, by collocating the visualization and the user within the physical environment of the scenario. We describe the specific aspects of the system that capitalize on both foreground and peripheral attention to facilitate communication throughout a conversation. We discuss our ongoing research where architectural surfaces are used to provide interactive layers of information related to elements present in the space, and conclude with a discussion of the benefits of the system in combining the immediacy of the physical environment with the dynamic data handling characteristics of a digital system.
Topic spotting common sense translation assistant BIBAFull-Text 1280-1283
  Jae-woo Chung; Rachel Kern; Henry Lieberman
Our Translation Assistant applies common sense logic to the problem of translating speech in real time from one language to another. Using speech recognition combined with a software translator to do word-by-word translation is not feasible because speech recognition is notorious for poor results. Word-by-word translation requires grammatically correct input to translate accurately. Therefore, translation of speech that is potentially already fraught with errors is not expected to be good. Our Translation Assistant works around these problems by using the context of the conversation as a basis for translation. It takes the location and the speaker as input to establish the circumstances. Then it uses a common sense knowledge network to do topic-spotting using key words from the conversation. It only translates the most likely topics of conversation into the target language. This system does not require perfect speech recognition, yet enables end-users to have a sense of the conversation.
Monitoring and managing presence in incoming and outgoing communication BIBAFull-Text 1284-1287
  Yuan-Chou Chung; John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi
The increase in channels and formats of personal communication such as email, instant messaging, and mobile phones, has generated new problems both with selecting the appropriate method to contact someone and communicating a preference for incoming communication. Some applications, such as instant messaging have partially addressed this problem with status and away messages, but this approach offers limited communication options and only works for this communication channel. Following a user-centered design approach, we explored the needs of users to manage their communication channels. Using diaries, observations, and directed story-telling interviews we generated a set of observed needs. We then generated concept scenarios that capture these needs and performed a concept validation with a focus group looking for an overlap between our observed needs and the focus groups perceived needs. This paper documents our findings and offers implications for designers addressing these communication needs.
An empirical study of typing rates on mini-QWERTY keyboards BIBAFull-Text 1288-1291
  Edward Clarkson; James Clawson; Kent Lyons; Thad Starner
We present a longitudinal study of mini-QWERTY keyboard use, examining the learning rates of novice mini-QWERTY users. The study consists of 20 twenty-minute typing sessions using two different-sized keyboard models. Subjects average over 31 words per minute (WPM) for the first session and increase to an average of 60 WPM by the twentieth. Individual subjects also exceed the upper bound of 60.74 WPM suggested by MacKenzie and Soukoreff's model of two-thumb text entry [5]. We discuss our results in the context of this model.
A development framework for value-centred design BIBAFull-Text 1292-1295
  Gilbert Cockton
HCI's focus has shifted from the system, via the user, to the context of use. All are necessary but not sufficient for effective interactive systems design, which requires a 'fourth' value-centred focus. System-, user- and context-centred HCI must be coordinated within a value?centred framework with four main processes: opportunity identification, design, evaluation and iteration. The latter two are separate, since iteration requires skills and knowledge beyond those typically available to evaluators. Value-centred development adds new activities and artifacts to existing development methodologies. Opportunity identification has the goal of stating the intended value for a digital product or service. Value delivery scenarios refocus design on value in the world, as does value impact analysis for evaluation. The co?ordination of existing and new HCI activities within a value-centred framework is outlined using examples from an ongoing design project.
A closed-loop tactor frequency control system for vibrotactile feedback BIBAFull-Text 1296-1299
  Justin Cohen; Masataka Niwa; Robert W. Lindeman; Haruo Noma; Yasuyuki Yanagida; Kenichi Hosaka
In this paper, we address the problem of maintaining a precise frequency in vibrating motors for use as vibrotactile cueing devices. Our solution utilizes a piezoelectric film sensor that measures the motor frequency and uses a feedback-loop circuit to dynamically adjust the motor power to maintain the target frequency. We confirmed the accuracy of the film with a laser sensor and tested the ability of the feedback system to match a target frequency by changing the physical load placed on the motor. A user study showed that subjects perceived a difference in vibration intensity under loaded conditions with and without our compensation system, indicating the usefulness of such a feedback system on influencing perception. The results can help designers create better interfaces when vibrotactile cues are employed.
Designing interactive life story multimedia for a family affected by alzheimer's disease: a case study BIBAFull-Text 1300-1303
  Tira Cohene; Ron Baecker; Elsa Marziali
In this paper we present a design project involving primary end users who have declining cognitive abilities such as memory, communication, and problem solving. We are designing interactive multimedia with personalized life stories for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. We conducted a case study to discover and address the design challenges for this project. A particular challenge is a limited ability to communicate with the primary end users. In this paper, we present design methods that take this challenge into consideration. Our goal is to contribute insight into designing for users with cognitive disabilities, and to present methodologies that are useful for designers who have a limited ability to interact or communicate with end users.
Evaluating an ambient display for the home BIBAFull-Text 1304-1307
  Sunny Consolvo; Jeffrey Towle
We present our experiences with evaluating an ambient display for the home using two different evaluation techniques: the recently proposed 'Heuristic Evaluation of Ambient Displays' and an in situ, 3-week long, Wizard of Oz evaluation. We compare the list of usability violations found in the heuristic evaluation to the set of problems that were discovered in the in situ evaluation. Overall, the 'Heuristic Evaluation of Ambient Displays' was effective - 75% of known usability problems were found by eight evaluators (39-55% were found by 3-5 evaluators). However, the most severe usability problem found in the in situ evaluation was not identified in the heuristic evaluation. Because the problem directly violated one of the heuristics, we believe that the problem is not with the heuristics, but rather that evaluators have minimal experience with ambient displays for the home.
Incorporating physical co-presence at events into digital social networking BIBAFull-Text 1308-1311
  Scott Counts; John Geraci
As mobile devices become location-aware, it will become possible to know when people are physically co-located and to incorporate this information into social software. Is this valuable? A prototype social networking system based on physical co-presence was created and tested wizard-of-oz-style at four different physical social events by providing event attendees a digital link back to others at the event. Usage of the system was higher than expected, suggesting a meaningful role for incorporating shared physical events into social networking software. Usage and questionnaire analyses suggest some guidelines for design of such systems.
Gait phase effects in mobile interaction BIBAFull-Text 1312-1315
  Andrew Crossan; Roderick Murray-Smith; Stephen Brewster; James Kelly; Bojan Musizza
One problem evaluating mobile and wearable devices is that they are used in mobile settings, making it hard to collect usability data. We present a study of tap-based selection of on-screen targets whilst walking and sitting, using a PocketPC instrumented with an accelerometer to collect information about user activity at the time of each tap. From these data the user's gait can be derived, and this is then used to investigate preferred tapping behaviour relative to gait phase, and associated tap accuracy. Results showed that users were more accurate sitting than walking. When walking there were phase regions with significantly increased tap likelihood, and these regions had significantly lower error rates, and lower error variability. This work represents an example of accelerometer-instrumented mobile usability analysis, and the results give a quantitative understanding of the detailed interactions taking place when on the move, allowing us to develop better mobile interfaces.
Methods for assessing web design through the internet BIBAFull-Text 1316-1319
  Elisabeth Cuddihy; Carolyn Wei; Jennifer Barrick; Brandon Maust; Alexandra L. Bartell; Jan H. Spyridakis
Web design guidelines are often derived from best practices, conventional wisdom, or small-scale usability studies conducted in labs. We contend that if Web design guidelines are to inform the design of Web sites serving varied audiences with varied needs, the guidelines must be derived from empirical research that assesses users in their native environments as they interact with real Web sites. While we believe that the delivery of a remote Web-based experiment has many potential benefits, we acknowledge that it can be difficult to exercise experimental control so as to acquire reliable data, capture user behavior unobtrusively, extract meaningful information from server logs, and collect valid survey data. Therefore, we report on how we addressed some of the challenges of conducting remote empirical studies of the effect of navigational cues on Web browsing behavior.
Why use memo for all?: restructuring mobile applications to support informal note taking BIBAFull-Text 1320-1323
  Liwei Dai; Wayne G. Lutters; Carlie Bower
Informal note taking is an essential activity in Personal Information Management (PIM). Most mobile devices support this via a suite of applications, employing both highly structured (e.g., calendar, task list, contacts) and loosely structured (e.g., memos) data formats. Contextual interviews and artifact inspections with expert PIM-on-PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) users explored task-to-application mapping. Structured tools were routinely avoided for informal note taking in favor of unstructured ones, even though this made managing the information more difficult. Improved support lies somewhere in between, suggesting the design of an integrated architecture, which links data across all PIM tools and provides a persistent, universal organizational system.
Managers' email: beyond tasks and to-dos BIBAFull-Text 1324-1327
  Catalina Danis; Wendy A. Kellogg; Tessa Lau; Mark Dredze; Jeffrey Stylos; Nicholas Kushmerick
In this paper, we describe preliminary findings that indicate that managers and non-mangers think about their email differently. We asked three research managers and three research non-managers to sort about 250 of their own email messages into categories that "would help them to manage their work." Our analyses indicate that managers create more categories and a more differentiated category structure than non-managers. Our data also suggest that managers create "relationship-oriented" categories more often than non-managers. These results are relevant to research on "email overload" that has highlighted the use of email for activities beyond communication. In particular, our findings suggest that too strong a focus on task management may be incomplete, and that a user's organizational role has an impact on their conceptualization and likely use of email.
Effects of fisheye on visualizing connections between nodes BIBAFull-Text 1328-1330
  Erika Darling; Kristine Recktenwald; Nikhil Kalghatgi; Aaron Burgman
It is important for analysts to realize the connection between two distant nodes in a graph, which is not readily supported by existing space-filling techniques. We developed an experimental prototype, FocusTree, which displays graphs in two view modes: fisheye or tree. In fisheye view, selected nodes and the nodes connecting them remained full-sized while the other nodes were reduced in size. In tree view, all nodes remained the same size, regardless of selection state. We conducted a study to compare the speed of participants using the fisheye view to the tree view when determining the number of links between two nodes. There were two states for the degree of separation in the tasks: simple (four links) and complex (eight links). Results showed a main effect for view type with fisheye view being significantly faster than tree view for determining the connection between two nodes.
The book as user interface: lowering the entry cost to email for elders BIBAFull-Text 1331-1334
  Scott Davidoff; Carson Bloomberg; Ian Anthony R. Li; Jennifer Mankoff; Susan R. Fussell
Substantial stumbling blocks confront computer-illiterate elders. We introduce a novel user interface technology to lower these start up costs: the book as user interface, or BUI. Book pages contain both step-by-step instructions and tangible controls, turning a complex interaction into a walk-up-and-use scenario. The system expands support past the technical artifact to a go-to relationship. ElderMail users designate an internet-savvy trusted friend or relative to help with complex tasks. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary evaluation of a BUI-based email system, and report our findings. While research has augmented paper artifacts to provide alternate access into the digital world, we find that elders use the BUI as a way to circumvent the digital world.
MMM2: mobile media metadata for media sharing BIBAFull-Text 1335-1338
  Marc Davis; Nancy Van House; Jeffrey Towle; Simon King; Shane Ahern; Carrie Burgener; Dan Perkel; Megan Finn; Vijay Viswanathan; Matthew Rothenberg
Cameraphones are rapidly becoming a global platform for everyday digital imaging especially for networked sharing of media from mobile devices. However, their constrained user interfaces and the current network and application infrastructure encumber the basic tasks of transferring, finding, and sharing captured media. We have deployed a prototype context-aware cameraphone application for mobile media sharing (MMM2) that aims to overcome these difficulties. MMM2 leverages the point of capture and of sharing to gather metadata, and uses metadata to support sharing. Based on the early results of the first 6 weeks of a six-month trial involving 60 users, indications are that with MMM2 users are actively capturing and sharing photos. The ability to automatically upload photos from a cameraphone to a web-based photo management application and to automatically suggest sharing recipients at the time of capture based on Bluetooth-sensed co-presence and sharing frequency promise to reduce the current difficulty of mobile media sharing.
Wizard of Oz interfaces for mixed reality applications BIBAFull-Text 1339-1342
  Steven Dow; Jaemin Lee; Christopher Oezbek; Blair MacIntyre; Jay David Bolter; Maribeth Gandy
One important tool for developing complex interactive applications is "Wizard of Oz "(WOz)simulation.
   WOz simulation allows design concepts,content and partially completed applications to be tested on users without the need to first create a completely working system.
   In this paper we discuss the integration of wizard interface tools into a Mixed Reality (MR)design environment and show how easier creation and evolution of wizard interfaces can lead to an expanded role for WOz-based testing during the design evolution of MR experiences.
   We share our experiences designing an audio experience in an historic site,and illustrate the evolution of the wizard interfaces alongside the user experience
User strategies for handling information tasks in webcasts BIBAFull-Text 1343-1346
  Christine Dufour; Elaine G. Toms; Jonathan Lewis; Ron Baecker
Webcast systems support real-time webcasting, and may also support access to the stored webcasts. Yet, research rarely examines issues concerning the interface to webcast systems, another form of multimedia system. This paper focuses specifically on how stored webcasts are re-used. Sixteen participants performed three typical information tasks using ePresence, a webcasting system that handles both live and stored video, and contains several tools: a video window, a timeline of the webcast, slides used by the presenter, and a moderator-generated table of contents, that facilitate user access to the intellectual content of a stored video. Use takes place at the level of the webcast, and our analysis assessed user interactivity. The results showed that different types of tasks need different strategies and tools.
NEmESys: neural emotion eliciting system BIBAFull-Text 1347-1350
  Manfred Eckschlager; Regina Bernhaupt; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper describes the development of a new model of agent emotion elicitation called Nemesys. It enhances interfaces with emotional and social information. Nemesys is based on an artificial neural network and is able to learn six basic emotional states. The elicitation of emotions is based on models drawn from the state of the art in modeling emotions in the field of psychology. Further the described framework includes the Five-Factor Model of Personality to represent different agent personalities.
   Nemesys (called after Nemesis, the Greek goddess of righteous anger) is designed to perform in various types of interfaces. The usage of Nemesys is presented with an application scenario employing a commercial 3D game-engine. Additionally a critical review of the current elicitation behavior of Nemesys is presented and discussed.
The sampling lens: making sense of saturated visualisations BIBAFull-Text 1351-1354
  Geoffrey Ellis; Enrico Bertini; Alan Dix
Information visualisation systems frequently have to deal with large amounts of data and this often leads to saturated areas in the display with considerable overplotting. This paper introduces the Sampling Lens, a novel tool that utilises random sampling to reduce the clutter within a moveable region, thus allowing the user to uncover any potentially interesting patterns and trends in the data while still being able to view the sample in context. We demonstrate the versatility of the tool by adding sampling lenses to scatter and parallel co-ordinate visualisations. We also consider some implementation issues and present initial user evaluation results.
Using treemaps to visualize threaded discussion forums on PDAs BIBAFull-Text 1355-1358
  Bjorn Engdahl; Malin Koksal; Gary Marsden
This paper describes a new way of visualizing threaded discussion forums on compact displays. The technique uses squarified treemaps to render the threads in discussion forums as colored rectangles, thereby using 100% of the limited screen space. We conducted a preliminary user study, which compared the treemap version and a traditional text based tree interface. This showed that the contents of the discussion forum were easily grasped when using a treemap, even though there were in excess of one hundred threads. In particular our technique showed a significant improvement in time for finding the largest and most active threads. Overall, it was shown that the benefits derived from using treemaps on desktop computers are still valid for small screens.
Modal spaces: spatial multiplexing to mediate direct-touch input on large displays BIBAFull-Text 1359-1362
  Katherine Everitt; Chia Shen; Kathy Ryall; Clifton Forlines
We present a new interaction technique for large direct-touch displays called Modal Spaces. Modal interfaces require the user to keep track of the state of the system. The Modal Spaces technique adds screen location as an additional parameter of the interaction. Each modal region on the display supports a particular set of input actions and the visual background indicates the space's use. This "workbench approach" exploits the larger form factor of display. Our spatial multiplexing of the display supports a document-centric paradigm (as opposed to application-centric), enabling input gesture reuse, while complementing and enhancing the current existing practices of modal interfaces. We present a proof-of-concept system and discuss potential applications, design issues, and future research directions.
Relescope: an experiment in accelerating relationships BIBAFull-Text 1363-1366
  Stephen Farrell; Christopher Campbell; Suvda Myagmar
Busy academics and professionals are being called upon to manage more and more relationships. Many details of collaboration are accessible in digital libraries and other repositories. With Relationship-Oriented Computing, we posit that network information embedded in these repositories can be leveraged to improve the human need to manage and form the most productive relationships. To explore this idea, we developed a relationship-network application, called Relescope, and deployed it at the ACM CSCW 2004 conference. It provided a personalized report to attendees based on publication and citation information. The report was intended to provide concrete insights into the relationship-network that could be acted upon. Results of a survey showed that 52% of responders used their report to recognize and talk to others or plan which talks to attend. People with fewer collaborators were more inclined to use Relescope than the people with the most collaborators. Lessons learned and future work are discussed.
Enabling rich human-agent interaction for a calendar scheduling agent BIBAFull-Text 1367-1370
  Andrew Faulring; Brad A. Myers
The RhaiCAL system provides novel visualizations and interaction techniques for interacting with an intelligent agent, with an emphasis on calendar scheduling. After an agent interprets natural language containing meeting information, a user can easily correct mistakes using RhaiCAL's clarification dialogs, which provide the agent with feedback to improve its performance. When an agent proposes actions to take on the user's behalf, it can ask the user to confirm them. RhaiCAL uses novel visualizations to present the proposal to the user and allow them to modify the proposal, and informs the agent of the user's actions in a manner that supports long-term learning of the user's preferences. We have designed a high-level XML-based language that allows an agent to express its questions and proposed actions without mentioning user interface details, and that enables RhaiCAL to generate high-quality user interfaces.
Homophily in online dating: when do you like someone like yourself? BIBAFull-Text 1371-1374
  Andrew T. Fiore; Judith S. Donath
Psychologists have found that actual and perceived similarity between potential romantic partners in demographics, attitudes, values, and attractiveness correlate positively with attraction and, later, relationship satisfaction. Online dating systems provide a new way for users to identify and communicate with potential partners, but the information they provide differs dramatically from what a person might glean from face-to-face interaction. An analysis of dyadic interactions of approximately 65,000 heterosexual users of an online dating system in the U.S. showed that, despite these differences, users of the system sought people like them much more often than chance would predict, just as in the offline world. The users' preferences were most strongly same-seeking for attributes related to the life course, like marital history and whether one wants children, but they also demonstrated significant homophily in self-reported physical build, physical attractiveness, and smoking habits.
Glimpse: a novel input model for multi-level devices BIBAFull-Text 1375-1378
  Clifton Forlines; Chia Shen
We describe a technique that supports the previewing of navigation, exploration, and editing operations by providing convenient Undo for unsuccessful and/or undesirable actions on multi-level input devices such as touch screens and pen-based computers. By adding a Glimpse state to traditional three-state pressure sensitive input devices, users are able to preview the effects of their editing without committing to them. From this Glimpse state, users can undo their action as easily as they can commit to it, making Glimpse most appropriate for systems in which the user is likely to try out many variations of an edit before finding the right one. Exploration is encouraged as the cumbersome returning to a menu or keyboard to issue an Undo command is eliminated. Glimpse has the added benefits that the negative effects of inconsistencies in the Undo feature within an application are reduced.
Dealing with system response times in interactive speech applications BIBAFull-Text 1379-1382
  Peter Frolich
In this user study, we address several open issues in the design of waiting cues for system response time (SRT) in interactive telephony speech applications. User observations and structured preference tests indicate that silent waiting times should not be longer than 4 -- 8 seconds. Already at short durations, music combined with speech was favored to silence. A preference test regarding several non-speech waiting cues proposed in literature suggests that music is preferred to more simple synthetic sounds and to natural sounds. The continuous indication of the remaining waiting time by speech was rated as much more pleasant and appropriate than a non-speech audio progress meter. Commercial announcements and navigational advice during waiting times were not accepted by the subjects. Empirically based guidelines for a maximum waiting duration in voice services is given. Implications for the design of auditory waiting cues for SRT are discussed.
Cooperative usability testing: complementing usability tests with user-supported interpretation sessions BIBAFull-Text 1383-1386
  Erik Frokjaer; Kasper Hornbbaek
Recent criticism of think-aloud testing (TA) discusses discrepancies between theory and practice, the artificiality of the test situation, and inconsistencies in the evaluators' interpretation of the process. Rather than enforcing a more strict TA procedure, we describe Cooperative Usability Testing (CUT), where test users and evaluators join expertise to understand the usability problems of the application evaluated. CUT consists of two sessions. In the interaction session, the test user tries out the application to uncover potential usability problems while the evaluators mainly observe, e.g. as in TA or contextual inquiry. In the interpretation session, evaluators and test users discuss what they consider the most important usability problems, supported by a video of the interaction session. In an exploratory study comparing CUT to TA, seven evaluators find that interpretation sessions contribute important usability information compared to TA. Also test users found participation in the interpretation session interesting.
Proposing new metrics to evaluate web usability for the blind BIBAFull-Text 1387-1390
  Kentarou Fukuda; Shin Saito; Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa
Accessibility-related regulations and guidelines are contributing to the steady improvement of Web accessibility. There are various accessibility evaluation tools, and they also help Web authors make their pages compliant with guidelines. As a result, an increasing number of Web pages are compliant with the evaluation tools. These days, however, blind people face the serious problem that reading Web pages is quite difficult. Improvements in information density by using visual effects such as two-dimensional layouts are making it difficult for blind people to understand the page structure. Also, inappropriate alternative texts mislead or confuse blind users.
   In this paper, to evaluate these kinds of usability problems, we introduce two metrics: navigability and listenability. Navigability evaluates how well structured the Web content is by using headings, intra-page links, labels, etc. Listenability denotes how appropriate the alternative texts are. By using these metrics, we summarize the historical transition of Web usability for blind people.
SNIF: social networking in fur BIBAFull-Text 1391-1394
  Jonathan Gips; Noah Fields; Philip Liang; Arnaud Pilpre
We present SNIF: Social Networking in Fur, a system that allows pet owners to interact through their pets' social networks. SNIF comprises inexpensive hardware that can be unobtrusively and transparently affixed to pet collars and paraphernalia in order to augment pet-to-pet, pet-to-owner, and owner-to-owner interactions. SNIF devices aggregate pertinent environmental, social, and individual information that can be broadcast or addressed to other participating community members.
Interactive search in large video collections BIBAFull-Text 1395-1398
  Andreas Girgensohn; John Adcock; Matthew Cooper; Lynn Wilcox
We present a search interface for large video collections with time-aligned text transcripts. The system is designed for users such as intelligence analysts that need to quickly find video clips relevant to a topic expressed in text and images. A key component of the system is a powerful and flexible user interface that incorporates dynamic visualizations of the underlying multimedia objects. The interface displays search results in ranked sets of story keyframe collages, and lets users explore the shots in a story. By adapting the keyframe collages based on query relevance and indicating which portions of the video have already been explored, we enable users to quickly find relevant sections. We tested our system as part of the NIST TRECVID interactive search evaluation, and found that our user interface enabled users to find more relevant results within the allotted time than those of many systems employing more sophisticated analysis techniques.
An enhanced multitap text entry method with predictive next-letter highlighting BIBAFull-Text 1399-1402
  Jun Gong; Bryan Haggerty; Peter Tarasewich
Full keyboards are difficult to implement on small mobile devices, and are sometimes replaced by keypads, with multiple characters assigned to each key. The Multitap method is often used for text entry on devices with keypads. While conceptually simple, Multitap requires one or more key presses to enter each desired letter, and is relatively inefficient from the standpoint of the number of keystrokes required to enter each word. It also requires a significant amount of visual searching to find a needed letter on a key. Fortunately, newer methods based on Multitap (such as LetterWise) have been shown to increase users' text entry efficiency. This paper presents an enhanced Multitap method that uses predictive next-letter highlighting to aid visual searching. Testing shows that this method, when compared to LetterWise, offers increased text entry speeds, fewer errors, and greater novice user satisfaction.
A user-centered approach to visualizing network traffic for intrusion detection BIBAFull-Text 1403-1406
  John R. Goodall; A. Ant Ozok; Wayne G. Lutters; Penny Rheingans; Anita Komlodi
Intrusion detection (ID) analysts are charged with ensuring the safety and integrity of today's high-speed computer networks. Their work includes the complex task of searching for indications of attacks and misuse in vast amounts of network data. Although there are several information visualization tools to support ID, few are grounded in a thorough understanding of the work ID analysts perform or include any empirical evaluation. We present a user-centered visualization based on our understanding of the work of ID and the needs of analysts derived from the first significant user study of ID. The tool presents analysts with both 'at a glance' understanding of network activity, and low-level network link details. Results from preliminary usability testing show that users performed better and found easier those tasks dealing with network state in comparison to network link tasks.
Sharing the big apple: a survey study of people, place and locatability BIBAFull-Text 1407-1410
  Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones; Samer Karam
With the advancement in technologies to locate individuals, there has been an emergence of information systems that link People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places, labeled P3-Systems. While various P3-System services have been proposed and deployed, there is limited knowledge on people's desires and attitudes towards such services. We used the P3-Systems framework to guide a survey study of the impact of 'place' on people's social information needs and willingness to share personal location data. At fourteen different place types (Restaurant, Post Office, Etc.) in Manhattan, New York, we surveyed 509 individuals over 3 weeks. The vast majority of respondents expressed a desire for and willing to share their personal location data. E.g., 77% of respondents were willing to reveal their current location to others (17% with complete strangers).
Profile before optimizing: a cognitive metrics approach to workload analysis BIBAFull-Text 1411-1414
  Wayne D. Gray; Michael J. Schoelles; Christopher W. Myers
The Intelligence Analyst (IA) community will soon be the designated users of many new software tools. In the multitasking world of the IA, any one tool cannot be permitted to greedily consume cognitive resources. This situation requires a new approach to usability assessment; one that profiles the moment-by-moment demands placed on embodied cognition by a given software tool during task performance. The approach we have taken relies on families of cognitive models that interleave cognition, perception, and action at the 1/3 to 3 sec timescale. This is the level of analysis where embodied cognition forms interactive routines that adapt to the cost-benefit structure of the software tool. Our proof-of-concept is a model that performs a task that the IAs find challenging. From the trace of the model, we derive a cognitive metrics profile that pinpoints dynamic changes in workload demands on human cognitive, perceptual, or action systems.
Dynamic dimensional feedback: an interface aid to business rule creation BIBAFull-Text 1415-1418
  Sharon L. Greene; Tracy Lou; Paul Matchen
We examined the efficacy of providing dimensional feedback in the user interface as people construct business rules. Business rules often involve objects that have dimensions (e.g., area, cost, weight) and may entail complex calculations on these objects. Such mathematical expressions are error prone. We designed and tested a novel interface utilizing dimensional analysis to provide advice on expected dimensions, and error feedback on incorrect usage of dimensional objects. Experimental studies were carried out in which subjects used the interface to create rules based on word problems. In a balanced design, rule creation with dimensional feedback was compared to rule creation without such feedback. We found evidence for the usefulness of such feedback. In addition we observed the need to support higher level 'proxy variables' and stepwise definition of complex rules. The findings have implications beyond business rules tools and may be applied to any system requiring mathematical expressions with dimensional objects.
Human computer interfaces for autism: assessing the influence of task assignment and output modalities BIBAFull-Text 1419-1422
  Ouriel Grynszpan; Jean-Claude Martin; Jacqueline Nadel
Several experimental studies have shown the usefulness of computers for autism, but software design remains poorly documented. Our multidisciplinary research focuses on educational HCI for autism. We compared two domains of learning: social dialogue understanding and spatial planning, our hypothesis being that people with autism will be less skillful in the first than in the second domain. Two sets of exercises were designed for each domain: one for training purposes and the other for performance assessment before and after training. We also tested the influence of the following output modalities: text, images, speech synthesis, visual and auditory feedback. Each exercise produced log files informing on duration, number of trials and successes. So far, eight teenagers with autism have completed a 13 week training program with one session a week. First analysis of log files suggests a significant progression in dialogic understanding but not in spatial planning; nor was significant influence of output modalities found.
The power-aware cord: energy awareness through ambient information display BIBAFull-Text 1423-1426
  Anton Gustafsson; Magnus Gyllensward
In order to support increased consumer awareness regarding energy consumption, we have been developing new ways of representing and interacting with energy in electric products intended for domestic environments. The 'Power-Aware Cord' is a re-design of a common electrical power strip that displays the amount of energy passing through it at any given moment. This is done by dynamic glowing patterns produced by electroluminescent wires molded into the transparent electrical cord. Using this fully functional prototype, we have been investigating how such ambient displays can be used to increase energy awareness. An initial user study indicates that the Power-Aware Cord is a very accessible and intuitive mean for better understanding energy consumption. Future work includes further development of the mapping between load and visual pattern and in-depth studies of user perception and learning over time.
Indirect assessment of web navigation success BIBAFull-Text 1427-1430
  Jacek Gwizdka; Ian Spence
Despite much research on hypertext and web navigation, relatively little is known about the relationship between web navigation strategies and success. We present two exploratory studies designed to explore the relationships between several web navigation metrics that are based on similarity to an optimal path to predict task success. The data suggest that the relationships between these measures depend on the particular web navigation task.
Privacy gradients: exploring ways to manage incidental information during co-located collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1431-1434
  Kirstie Hawkey; Kori M. Inkpen
This research introduces privacy issues related to the viewing of incidental information during co-located collaboration. Web browsers were the representative application used in this research as they have several convenience features that record and display traces of previous web page visits. A one-week field study examined how individuals perceive privacy needs relating to the later incidental viewing of traces of their browsing activity. Participants used a 4-tier privacy gradient to classify the privacy of their actual web browsing. The results revealed per window patterns of privacy during browsing with streaks at given privacy levels and relatively few transitions between levels. Management of incidental information is a complex problem due to multiple viewing contexts, individual differences, and the large volume of information. These privacy patterns suggest that a semi-automated approach to privacy management may be feasible.
Experience buffers: a socially appropriate, selective archiving tool for evidence-based care BIBAFull-Text 1435-1438
  Gillian R. Hayes; Khai N. Truong; Gregory D. Abowd; Trevor Pering
Diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of interventions for children with autism can profit most when caregivers have substantial amounts of data they can easily record and review as evidence of specific observed behaviors over time. Through our work with one prototype system and interviews with caregivers, we have recognized the importance of socially appropriate ways to add rich data to the information recorded by caregivers. Analysts must be able to view incidents as they occurred without unnecessarily burdening caregivers and other children with always-on recording of data about them. In this paper, we introduce experience buffers, a collection of capture services embedded in an environment that, though always on and available, require explicit user action to store an experience.. This creates a way to balance the social, technical, and practical concerns of capture applications.
The unless switch: adding conditional logic to concept mapping for middle school students BIBAFull-Text 1439-1442
  Kevin Hartman; Kristen Pilner Blair
Qualitative concept maps are useful for sharing the structure of a domain and for assessing students' understanding. While concept maps made from links and nodes depict static causal relationships between concepts quite well, they provide little support for displaying conditional logic and thresholds for causation. In this paper, we describe the process of incorporating a representation for conditional reasoning into Betty, a computer agent students teach via concept maps. Betty helps students formalize their knowledge of a domain by acting as a novice learner. Students use Betty to construct and assess their knowledge of science topics.
   We tested several prototypes combining conditional logic with concept maps and found that people had difficulty keeping conditional states and conceptual nodes separate. In the end, the "Unless Switch" provided the closest semantic parallel to the type of reasoning we wanted students to learn and generated the least amount of confusion.
Web browsing today: the impact of changing contexts on user activity BIBAFull-Text 1443-1446
  Kirstie Hawkey; Kori Inkpen
Although web browsing behaviour was studied in detail in the mid-to-late 1990s, few recent results have been reported. The nature of web browsing has changed significantly since these early studies, both in the profile of the typical web user and in the context of their browsing (e.g. location, connection speed, web browser features). This paper reports on per-session and per-browser window usage, such as the number of pages visited and the speed of browsing. Some of our findings differ from previously published results that continue to motivate research in this area. Our research indicates that changes in user behaviour, such as the magnitude of web browsing activity, may place restrictions on web-browser related applications.
Evaluating paper prototypes on the street BIBAFull-Text 1447-1450
  David G. Hendry; Sara Mackenzie; Ann Kurth; Freya Spielberg; Jim Larkin
The evaluation of paper prototypes is normally conducted in controlled settings such as a usability lab. This paper, in contrast, reports on a study where evaluations of a paper prototype were performed on the street with young adults. We discuss the merits of this approach and how it impacted the design process. A key finding is that the street location can enfranchise people who may otherwise be under-represented in design. We conclude that evaluating paper prototypes in public, street settings is feasible and informative.
Interactive web usage mining with the navigation visualizer BIBAFull-Text 1451-1454
  Eelco Herder; Harald Weinreich
Web usage mining, the analysis of user navigation paths through web sites, is a common technique for evaluating site designs or adaptive hypermedia techniques. However, often it is hard to relate aggregated clusters or measures to actual user navigation behavior. By contrast, basic graph-based visualizations of user navigation paths are easier to interpret, but it is difficult to find effective views that convey all the required information. In this paper we present the Navigation Visualizer, a web usage analysis tool that combines the two approaches. The Navigation Visualizer makes use of the rich data set that is collected by the Scone proxy-based web enhancement framework and facilitates dynamic selection of the data and interactive exploration with various layout mechanisms, color codings and markers. Several aggregated measures can be calculated and exported to statistical and data mining packages.
TXTmob: text messaging for protest swarms BIBAFull-Text 1455-1458
  Tad Hirsch; John Henry
This paper describes cell phone text messaging during the 2004 US Democratic and Republican National Conventions by protesters using TXTmob -- a text-message broadcast system developed by the authors. Drawing upon analysis of TXTmob messages, user interviews, self-reporting, and news media accounts, we describe the ways that activists used text messaging to share information and coordinate actions during decentralized protests. We argue that text messaging supports new forms of distributed participation in mass mobilizations.
Simple tutors for hard problems: understanding the role of pseudo-tutors BIBAFull-Text 1459-1462
  Matthew Hockenberry
The construction of cognitive tutors is often focused on tightly constrained domains. This is because the creation of a cognitive tutor is a time-intensive process. Pseudo-tutors allow us to model a small number of problems in a relatively short time. There is no need to program a general cognitive model if we can demonstrate this model by example. The creation of a relatively small set of examples can have real cognitive benefit to the student.
   The LSAT Analytic Logic Tutor demonstrates that this is possible. This tutor was designed for teaching strategies for solving analytic logic games. Although such a task would be difficult to model in general, three rich problems produced enough of an impact to significantly improve student performance. This is an interesting example where a small suite of well-designed pseudo tutors are significantly more useful than a full cognitive tutor.
Annotating 3D electronic books BIBAFull-Text 1463-1466
  Lichan Hong; Ed H. Chi; Stuart K. Card
The importance of annotations, as a by-product of the reading activity, cannot be overstated. Annotations help users in the process of analyzing, re-reading, and recalling detailed facts such as prior analyses and relations to other works. As elec-tronic reading become pervasive, digital annotations will become part of the essential records of the reading activity. But creating and rendering annotations on a 3D book and other objects in a 3D workspace is non-trivial. In this paper, we present our exploration of how to use 3D graphics techniques to create realistic annotations with acceptable frame rates. We discuss the pros and cons of several techniques and detail our hybrid solution.
The sense lounger: establishing a ubicomp beachhead in elders' homes BIBAFull-Text 1467-1470
  Amy Hurst; John Zimmerman; Chris Atkeson; Jodi Forlizzi
In this paper we describe the Sense Lounger, a method for simply and cheaply turning a lounge chair into an initial "ubicomp" device in a home; providing a beachhead for transforming the home into a rich ubicomp environment. The Sense Lounger employs fabric sensors sewn into a chair's slipcover and force sensors on each leg to detect both an occupant and their activity. Drawing insights from user needs, we developed the Sense Lounger to (i) fit into the home and lifestyle of elders, (ii) assist and add value to the lives of elders, (iii) provide a platform for expanding assistive devices within the home environment. The current Sense Lounger prototype can be used to detect signs of life, patterns of use, posture, and sitting duration.
mudibo: multiple dialog boxes for multiple monitors BIBAFull-Text 1471-1474
  Dugald Ralph Hutchings; John Stasko
A general problem identified in recent research on multiple monitor systems is the placement of small windows such as dialog boxes and toolbars. These small windows could be placed on top of the application window or on a monitor next to the application window; different situations call for different placements. We present mudibo, a component of the window manager that alleviates this problem by initially placing a window in multiple locations simultaneously and subsequently allowing the user to easily interact with the window in a desired location. Additional important contributions of mudibo are that as a general technique it can be applied to a number of situations and windows beyond simple dialog boxes, exploits the additional screen space that multiple monitors provide to solve a specific problem with dialog box interaction, and is among the first research prototype UIs that explicitly account for multiple-monitor users.
FeelTip: tactile input device for small wearable information appliances BIBAFull-Text 1475-1478
  Sunyu Hwang; Geehyuk Lee; Buyong Jeong; Woohun Lee; Ilyeon Cho
The ever decreasing size of information devices these days does not allow even the space for small input devices such as a touchpad or a 3x4 keypad. We introduce here an input device, FeelTip, as a solution for very small information devices. The main idea is to exchange the usual roles of a finger and a surface in a touchpad; a device has a tip and a finger now provides a surface. The result is an input device requiring minimal space but is potentially more efficient than a touchpad due to the tactile feedback of a tip on a finger. Our first prototype consists of a transparent tip and a small CMOS image sensor that tracks the movement of a finger on a tip. In a series of experiments, it outperformed a small analog joystick in free pointing tasks, and was comparable with a 3x4 keypad in text entry tasks.
Qwerty-like 3x4 keypad layouts for mobile phone BIBAFull-Text 1479-1482
  Sunyu Hwang; Geehyuk Lee
Most computer users are accustomed to the QWERTY keyboard layout. This study was started from the hypothesis that a user's skill in a QWERTY keyboard may be transferred to a 3x4 keypad environment. In order to test the hypothesis, we designed an experiment where users are instructed to type a series of sentences on a "blank" keypad after they were informed that the underlying layout is either QWERTY-like or ABC-type (alphabetical). We observed a more localized layout of typed characters over keys in the QWERTY-like case than in the ABC case. Encouraged by the results, we carried out a series of experiments in order to compare a QWERTY-like layout and an ABC-type layout, and obtained consistently better learning curves and better final typing speeds with a QWERTY-like keypad. As an effort to explain the results, we carried out an eye-gaze analysis for the two cases, and the results are presented.
CyARM: an alternative aid device for blind persons BIBAFull-Text 1483-1488
  Kiyohide Ito; Makoto Okamoto; Junichi Akita; Tetsuo Ono; Ikuko Gyobu; Tomohito Takagi; Takahiro Hoshi; Yu Mishima
With the concept of 'human-machine interface', designed especially for visually impaired persons, we have developed an electric aid device for use in guiding orientation and locomotion. The device, which we call CyARM, measures the distance between a person and an object with an ultrasonic sensor and transmits the distance information to the user's haptic sense. In this report, we will: (1) outline the concept of CyARM, (2) describe its mechanism, and (3) demonstrate three preliminary experiments that verify the usability of CyARM. We conducted the experiments in terms of detection of objects, detection of space, and tracking object movement. As a result of these experiments, we have concluded that CyARM is potentially effective for visually impaired persons. Our study will encourage the related studies of user interfaces, particularly focusing on electric aid devices that guide visually impaired persons in detecting their environment.
Investigating the effectiveness of mental workload as a predictor of opportune moments for interruption BIBAFull-Text 1489-1492
  Shamsi T. Iqbal; Brian P. Bailey
This work investigates the use of workload-aligned task models for predicting opportune moments for interruption. From models for several tasks, we selected boundaries with the lowest (Best) and highest (Worst) mental workload. We compared effects of interrupting primary tasks at these and Random moments on resumption lag, annoyance, and social attribution. Results show that interrupting at the Best moments consistently caused less resumption lag and annoyance, and fostered more social attribution. Results demonstrate that use of workload-aligned models offers a systematic method for predicting opportune moments.
Reach: dynamic textile patterns for communication and social expression BIBAFull-Text 1493-1496
  Margot Jacobs; Linda Worbin
In the research project 'Reach', we investigate the potential for new forms of communication and expression to be incorporated dynamically and interactively into the things to be worn everyday. Through a series of iterative prototypes, we have explored both dynamic textile materials and the interactive behaviours of clothing and accessories, which change pattern through direct physical interaction as well as through sensing context. We have developed a series of working prototypes, where dynamic textile patterns are incorporated into wearable items to reflect and make visible social and contextual behaviours, such as person-to-person communication, proximity and local weather conditions. Ultimately, we aim to develop a new dynamic language of wearable expression integrating aesthetics, pattern and computation into everyday artifacts with increased personal and cultural meaning.
eyeView: focus+context views for large group video conferences BIBAFull-Text 1497-1500
  Tracy Jenkin; Jesse McGeachie; David Fono; Roel Vertegaal
In this paper, we describe the design of eyeView, a video conferencing system that uses participant looking behavior to determine the size of online video conferencing windows. The system uses an elastic windowing algorithm that enlarges the image of the person most looked at by others, while maintaining a contextual view of other remote participants. eyeView measures interest by gauging whom participants look at using an eye tracker embedded in the display. Users can enter side conversations by looking at each other, and pressing the space bar. Cocktail-party filtering is aided by attenuating audio sources outside the social network constituted by glances between participants. By allocating both screen and audio real estate according to the joint attention of participants, eyeView supports smooth allocation of focus on the speaker, while maintaining awareness of the group.
Convergent usability evaluation: a case study from the EIRS project BIBAFull-Text 1501-1504
  Jeff Johnson; Catherine Marshall
Two non-profit organizations developed a Web application to help monitor U.S. elections: the Election Incident Reporting System (EIRS). The mostly-volunteer team had only four months to develop a workable system. The aggressive schedule, limited budget, and distributed team-structure challenged us to find creative ways to evaluate and improve EIRS' usability. We used an approach that combined expert UI review with opportunistic exploitation of venues for gathering data on EIRS' usability. This approach, which we call convergent usability evaluation, had, in the non-profit environment, advantages over the more formal methods typically used for commercial projects. In this paper we describe the usability evaluation methods we used for the EIRS project and discuss how they converged to provide a more complete picture than we would have obtained by conventional methods.
Don't take my folders away!: organizing personal information to get things done BIBAFull-Text 1505-1508
  William Jones; Ammy Jiranida Phuwanartnurak; Rajdeep Gill; Harry Bruce
A study explores the way people organize information in support of projects ("teach a course", "plan a wedding", etc.). The folder structures to organize project information - especially electronic documents and other files - frequently resembled a "divide and conquer" problem decomposition with subfolders corresponding to major components (subprojects) of the project. Folders were clearly more than simply a means to one end: Organizing for later retrieval. Folders were information in their own right - representing, for example, a person's evolving understanding of a project and its components. Unfortunately, folders are often "overloaded" with information. For example, folders sometimes included leading characters to force an ordering ("aa", "zz"). And folder hierarchies frequently reflected a tension between organizing information for current use vs. repeated re-use.
Influence of colearner agent gehavior on learner performance and attitudes BIBAFull-Text 1509-1512
  Wendy Ju; Seth Nickell; Katherine Eng; Clifford Nass
This study examines the effect of colearner agent performance and social behavior on learner performance and subjective satisfaction in an interactive learning environment. In this 2 (high- or low-performing colearner) by 2 (socially supportive or competitive colearner) experiment (N=44), participants learned Morse Code alongside an agent colearner. Participants with high-scoring colearner agents performed significantly better than participants with low-scoring colearners. Participants liked and felt liked by socially supportive agents more than they did socially competitive agent participants. Implications for developing educational software are discussed.
Symbolic objects in a networked gestural sound interface BIBAFull-Text 1513-1516
  Eric Kabisch; Amanda Williams; Paul Dourish
SignalPlay is a sensor-based interactive sound environment in which familiar objects encourage exploration and discovery of sound interfaces through the process of play. Embedded wireless sensors form a network that detects gestural motion as well as environmental factors such as light and magnetic field. Human interactions with the sensors and with each other cause both immediate and systemic changes in a spatialized soundscape. Our investigation highlights the interplay between expected object-behavior associations and new modes of interaction with everyday objects. Here we present observations on embodied network interaction and suggest opportunities for further investigation in this field.
Optimizing the number of search result categories BIBAFull-Text 1517-1520
  Mika Kaki
Automatically generated web search result categories were found to be beneficial in our previous study. In that study, we used 15 result categories and left the optimal number of categories issue deliberately untouched. To address this matter, we conducted a new experiment with 27 participants to compare search user interfaces with 10, 20, and 40 automatically generated categories. The results show that users prefer fewer categories. The use of fewer categories results in a slightly more accurate performance in result selection. In addition, the observed speed differences between the conditions were small. Although reading longer category lists requires more time, the users benefited from the increased descriptiveness, causing the overall speed to be almost equal. According to our results, the optimal number of categories is between 10 and 20.
Toward wearable social networking with iBand BIBAFull-Text 1521-1524
  Marije Kanis; Niall Winters; Stefan Agamanolis; Anna Gavin; Cian Cullinan
The iBand is a wearable bracelet-like device that exchanges information about its users and their relationships. This exchange happens during the common gesture of the handshake, which is detected by the device. As such, iBand seeks to explore potential applications at the intersection of social networking and ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we discuss the iBand technology and feedback from an initial study in which 11 devices were used at two different social networking events. The results suggest that control over personal information is an ongoing issue, but they also highlight the possibility for wearable devices to enable the creation of a set of invented techno-gestures with different affordances and constraints that might be more appropriate for certain social interaction applications.
How peer photos influence member participation in online communities BIBAFull-Text 1525-1528
  Nishikant Kapoor; Joseph A. Konstan; Loren G. Terveen
Online communities (OLCs) are gatherings of like-minded people, brought together in cyberspace by shared interests. Creating such communities is not a big challenge; sustaining members' participation is. In this paper, we describe a technique for presenting members' photos and evaluate how it affects member participation in the community. We compare three different policies for presenting peer photos on the home page of the web site. Our results show that explicit requests in the form of simple and short messages on the home page of a community can induce participation. We show that we were able to motivate members to (a) log into the system to see photos of fellow members, and (b) upload their personal photos.
Communicating intimacy one bit at a time BIBAFull-Text 1529-1532
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Mariah K. Levitt; Jeffrey Nevins; Jessica Golden; Vanessa Schmidt
In this paper, we present a study of 'minimal intimate objects': low bandwidth devices for communicating intimacy for couples in long-distance relationships. We describe a user study of a software intimate object built to communicate a single bit at a time. The results from both log data and journal entries suggest that even a one-bit communication device is seen by users as a valuable and rich channel for communicating intimacy, despite the availability of wider channels of communication such as email, instant messaging, and telephone. We suggest the constrained nature of the communication affords active reinterpretation by its users, and discuss the results in the context of the study of intimacy in human-computer interaction.
It's a jungle out there: practical considerations for evaluation in the city BIBAFull-Text 1533-1536
  Melanie Kellar; Derek Reilly; Kirstie Hawkey; Malcolm Rodgers; Bonnie MacKay; David Dearman; Vicki Ha; W. Joseph MacInnes; Michael Nunes; Karen Parker; Tara Whalen; Kori M. Inkpen
An essential aspect of mobile and ubiquitous computing research is evaluation within the expected usage context, including environment. When that environment is an urban center, it can be dynamic, expansive, and unpredictable. Methodologies that focus on genuine use in the environment can uncover valuable insights, although they may also limit measurement and control. In this paper, we present our experiences applying traditional experimental techniques for field research in two separate projects set in urban environments. We argue that although traditional methods may be difficult to apply in cities, the challenges are surmountable, and this kind of field research can be a crucial component of evaluation.
Evaluating navigational surrogate formats with divergent browsing tasks BIBAFull-Text 1537-1540
  Andruid Kerne; Steven M. Smith; Hyun Choi; Ross Graeber; Daniel Caruso
Navigational surrogates are representations that stand for information resources within search engine result sets, e?commerce sites, and digital libraries. They also form the basis of personal collections of media, such as web pages. Our hypothesis is that the formats of individual surrogates and collections play an important role in how people use collections. We are particularly interested in processes of information discovery, in which ideas are iteratively reformulated in the context of working with information.
   To investigate how the representation of navigational surrogates affects how people work with information, we have created a collection of undergraduate psychology curriculum resources in 3 alternative formats: a linear list of textual elements, a spatialized set of textual elements, and a spatialized set of labeled images that have been composited. To evaluate navigation with these surrogate formats during information discovery, we designed divergent browsing tasks, that is, tasks that require assembling information from multiple diverse sources. A within-subjects evaluation indicates that users prefer the spatial labeled images format, and navigate more effectively with it.
DanceAlong: supporting positive social exchange and exercise for the elderly through dance BIBAFull-Text 1541-1544
  Pedram Keyani; Gary Hsieh; Bilge Mutlu; Matthew Easterday; Jodi Forlizzi
The elderly face serious social, environmental, and physical constraints that impact their well-being. Some of the most serious of these are shrinking social connections, limitations in building new relationships, and diminished health. To address these issues, we have designed an augmented dancing environment that allows elders to select dance sequences from well-known movies and dance along with them. The goal of DanceAlong is twofold: (1) to provide entertainment and exercise for each individual user and (2) to promote social engagement within the group. We deployed DanceAlong in a cultural celebration at a senior community center and conducted evaluations. In this paper, we present the design process of DanceAlong, evaluations of DanceAlong, and design guidelines for creating similar interactive systems for the elderly.
I saw this and thought of you: some social uses of camera phones BIBAFull-Text 1545-1548
  Tim Kindberg; Mirjana Spasojevic; Rowanne Fleck; Abigail Sellen
This paper presents aspects of a study into how and why people use camera phones. The study examined people's intentions at the time of image capture and subsequent patterns of use. Motivated by current interest in "picture messaging", we focus on images taken to communicate with absent people and look at how they were actually used. We consider the timeliness of communication and the role of common ground to derive implications for design.
Preliminary evaluation of the interactive drama facade BIBAFull-Text 1549-1552
  Rachel Lee Knickmeyer; Michael Mateas
There is growing interest in technologies that support user experiences emphasizing aesthetic satisfaction and enjoyment rather than task accomplishment. Evaluating such experiences remains an open research problem. Here we describe a methodology for evaluating the interactive drama Facade, and present the first experimental results. Interactive dramas are "pure" hedonic experiences, forcing a focus on experience quality rather than efficiency and ease of use. Through the coding of retroactive protocols, we reveal play patterns whereby interaction failures are leveraged into new player goals, thus supporting players in maintaining positive interest in the experience even in the face of interaction failures.
Compensating for low frame rates BIBAFull-Text 1553-1556
  Hendrik Knoche; Hermann de Meer; David Kirsh
Experiments were conducted to investigate the interdependency of frame rates (30, 15, 10 fps) and audio-visual skew (from +163 to -233 ms). Noised nonsense words like 'abagava' were presented to 20 participants who were asked to identify the middle consonant. At low frame rates (10 fps) consonant perception was impaired when audio ran ahead of video content (skew of -113 to -233ms). When audio lagged video, performance improved monotonically to a maximum at +167ms, where performance equaled 30fps in synch. The results suggest that frame rate and skew are not orthogonal parameters but must both be taken into consideration for AV-delivery. The findings do not support the current notion that 10 fps videos do not adequately capture visual content for speech perception. Participants were able to integrate the given bi-modal information as well as the 30 fps condition if the audio channel was subjected to an additional 167ms delay.
Design requirements for more flexible structured editors from a study of programmers' text editing BIBAFull-Text 1557-1560
  Andrew J. Ko; Htet Htet Aung; Brad A. Myers
A detailed study of Java programmers' text editing found that the full flexibility of unstructured text was not utilized for the vast majority of programmers' character-level edits. Rather, programmers used a small set of editing patterns to achieve their modifications, which accounted for all of the edits observed in the study. About two-thirds of the edits were of name and list structures and most edits preserved structure except for temporary omissions of delimiters. These findings inform the design of a new class of more flexible structured program editors that may avoid well-known usability problems of traditional structured editors, while providing more sophisticated support such as more universal code completion and smarter copy and paste.
Work coordination, workflow, and workarounds in a medical context BIBAFull-Text 1561-1564
  Marina Kobayashi; Susan R. Fussell; Yan Xiao; F. Jacob Seagull
In this paper we report an ethnographic study of workarounds-informal temporary practices for handling exceptions to normal workflow-in a hospital environment. Workarounds are a common technique for dealing with the inherent uncertainty of dynamic work environments. Workarounds can help coordinate work, especially under conditions of high time pressure, but they may result in information or work protocols that are unstable, unavailable, or unreliable. We investigated workarounds and their effects through observation and interviews in a major teaching medical center. Our results suggest 4 key features of workarounds that technologies might help address: (a) workarounds differ as a function of people's role; (b) workarounds draw on tacit knowledge of others' abilities and willingness to help; (c) workarounds can have a cascading effect, causing other workarounds down the line; (d) workarounds often rely on principles of fairness and who owes whom a favor. We provide recommendations for designing systems to better support workarounds in dynamic environments.
Implications for designing the user experience of DVD menus BIBAFull-Text 1565-1568
  Thomas Koltringer; Martin Tomitsch; Karin Kappel; Daniel Kalbeck; Thomas Grechenig
DVD menus often miss out on usability and are complex and difficult to navigate through. One of the main problems is the lack of design standards. By conducting an expert walkthrough we identified typical usability issues of DVD menus and verified them with usability testing and a user survey. Our research goal is to develop a set of specific solutions for designing usable DVD menus to improve the overall user experience. As a first step towards this goal we present an initial set of usability issues that are specifically relevant for DVD menu design.
Measuring the effective parameters of steering motions BIBAFull-Text 1569-1572
  Sergey Kulikov; I. Scott MacKenzie; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
The steering law model describes pointing device motion through constrained paths. Previous uses of the model are deficient because they are built using only error-free responses, ignoring altogether the path of the cursor. We correct this by proposing and validating a technique to include spatial variability, including errors. The technique is a variant of the well-known "effective target width" used in Fitts' law models. An experiment designed to test our technique demonstrates the improvement: Correlations are consistently higher when spatial variability is included in building the model. Suggestions to aid further development of the steering law model are included.
Dynamic speedometer: dashboard redesign to discourage drivers from speeding BIBAFull-Text 1573-1576
  Manu Kumar; Taemie Kim
We apply HCI design principles to redesign the dashboard of the automobile to address the problem of speeding. We prototyped and evaluated a new speedometer designed with the explicit intention of changing drivers' speeding behavior. Our user-tests show that displaying the current speed limit as part of the speedometer visualization (i.e. the dynamic speedometer) results in safer driving behavior. Designing with the intent to achieve a particular behavior can be an effective approach for increasing the safety of mission-critical systems. This is an area in which HCI designers can have a significant impact.
Robotic method of taking the initiative in eye contact BIBAFull-Text 1577-1580
  Yoshinori Kuno; Dai Miyauchi; Akio Nakamura
Eye contact is an effective means of controlling human communication, such as in starting communication. It seems that we can make eye contact if we simply look at each other. However, this alone does not establish eye contact. Both parties also need to be aware of being watched by the other. We proposed an eye-contact method between humans and robots satisfying these two conditions. In our previous work, however, we mainly consider eye contact from humans to robots. In this paper, we consider the reversal case. We deal with cases where a robot wants to start communication with a particular person. In such cases, the robot needs to make the person aware of its gaze. The robot should make the person feel clearly that it is none other than him/her who the robot is looking at. We show through experiments that the body action of the robot is effective for this.
Flexible timeline user interface using constraints BIBAFull-Text 1581-1584
  Kazutaka Kurihara; David Vronay; Takeo Igarashi
Authoring tools routinely include a timeline representation to allow the author to specify the sequence of animations and interactions. However, traditional static timelines are best suited for static, linear sequences (such MIDI sequencers) and do not lend themselves to interactive content. This forces authors to supplement their timelines with scripted actions which are not represented. Timelines also force frame-accuracy on the author, which interferes with rapid exploration of different designs. We present a redesign of the timeline in which users can specify the relative ordering and causality of events without specifying exact times or durations. This effectively enables users to "work rough" in time. We then implement a prototype and perform a user study to investigate its efficiency.
Seascape and volcano: visualizing online discussions using timeless motion BIBAFull-Text 1585-1588
  Francis Lam; Judith Donath
Motion is the strongest visual appeal to attention [2], yet it is rarely used in the visualization of large-scale quantitative information. Motion is complex; it can vary across numerous dimensions, each of which is potentially an information-bearing element in the visualization. Which dimensions are used and how the data is mapped onto them are the key questions in using motion effectively. In this paper we present two interfaces that use motion as the primary visual element for representing data. These interfaces, Seascape and Volcano, use periodic animation loops to represent key social interaction features in online discussions. We propose that motion may be particularly well suited for representing data about behavior and actions, creating visualizations that intuitively depict different levels and types of activity. In this paper we describe the interfaces we have built and present the results of preliminary user studies.
A gesture-based american sign language game for deaf children BIBAFull-Text 1589-1592
  Seungyon Lee; Valerie Henderson; Harley Hamilton; Thad Starner; Helene Brashear; Steven Hamilton
We present a system designed to facilitate language development in deaf children. The children interact with a computer game using American Sign Language (ASL). The system consists of three parts: an ASL (gesture) recognition engine; an interactive, game-based interface; and an evaluation system. Using interactive, user-centered design and the results of two Wizard-of-Oz studies at Atlanta Area School for the Deaf, we present some unique insights into the spatial organization of interfaces for deaf children.
Graphics matter: a case study of mobile phone keypad design for Chinese input BIBAFull-Text 1593-1596
  Min Lin; Andrew Sears
Developing more effective and efficient Chinese character input methods has the potential to help Chinese mobile phone users (currently 320 millions) input text messages. iTAP(R) supports input based on the writing structure of Chinese characters. Current keypad graphics include three items: digits (0-9), letters (A-Z), and symbols that represent the minimum writing units of Chinese characters (strokes). Our study revealed the difficulties of mapping these strokes to individual keys using the current symbols. We present a case study illustrating the user-centered redesign of these symbols. The new symbols allow for faster entry speeds and lower error rates as compared to the current commercial solution. Results with our solution were also favorable when compared to Pinyin, a popular cross-cultural solution relying on the Roman alphabet. The new design is in the process of being integrated into commercial mobile phones for users who would prefer native input methods for Chinese.
Programmatic semantics for natural language interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1597-1600
  Hugo Liu; Henry Lieberman
An important way of making interfaces usable by non-expert users is to enable the use of natural language input, as in natural language query interfaces to databases, or MUDs and MOOs. When the subject matter is about procedures, however, we have discovered that interfaces can take advantage of what we call Programmatic Semantics, procedural relations that can be inferred from the linguistic structure. Roughly, nouns can be interpreted as data structures; verbs are functions; adjectives are properties. Some linguistic forms imply conditionals, loops, and recursive structures.
   We illustrate the principles of Programmatic Semantics with a description of Metafor, a "brainstorming" editor for programs, analogous to an outlining tool for prose writing. Metafor interactively converts English sentences to partially specified program code, to be used as "scaffolding" for a more detailed program. A user study showed that Metafor is capable of capturing enough Programmatic Semantics to facilitate non-programming users and beginners' conceptualization of programming problems.
Resizing beyond widgets: object resizing techniques for immersive virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 1601-1604
  John F. Lucas; Ji-Sun Kim; Doug A. Bowman
The most common technique for resizing 3D objects in virtual environments is the use of 3D widgets. However, such techniques often exhibit usability problems due to difficulties in selecting and manipulating the widgets. We have developed two novel interaction techniques for resizing objects in immersive VEs. Our two techniques, the Pointer Orientation-based Resize Technique (PORT) and the Gaze-Hand resize technique, take advantage of the user's proprioceptive sense and their spatial knowledge of the environment. We designed these techniques as an alternative to 3D widgets and performed a usability study to compare the effectiveness of all three techniques. Our results show that participants were able to perform tasks significantly faster with the two new techniques than with the existing 3D Widgets technique.
Predicting task execution time on handheld devices using the keystroke-level model BIBAFull-Text 1605-1608
  Lu Luo; Bonnie E. John
The Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) has been shown to predict skilled use of desktop systems, but has not been validated on a handheld device that uses a stylus instead of a keyboard. This paper investigates the accuracy of KLM predictions for user interface tasks running on a Palm OS based handheld device. The models were produced using a recently developed tool for KLM construction, CogTool, and were compared to data obtained from a user study of 10 participants. Our results have shown that the KLM can accurately predict task execution time on handheld user interfaces with less than 8% prediction error.
An evaluation of landmarks for re-finding information on the web BIBAFull-Text 1609-1612
  Bonnie MacKay; Melanie Kellar; Carolyn Watters
Re-finding information on the Web is a common yet often time consuming and challenging task. Even with the use of traditional bookmarks, which allow users to return to a previously visited page, it can be hard to re-find facts within that page. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for users to have long and unmanageable lists of bookmarks, making it difficult to identify the purpose of individual bookmarks. In this paper, we present an extension to traditional bookmarks called landmarks, a user-directed technique that aids users in returning to specific content within a previously visited web page. We investigate the efficiency of landmarks for re-finding information on web pages and present the findings of a study in which participants were first primed on two web pages and returned at a later date to re-find the information using both traditional bookmarks and landmarks.
What's in your wallet?: implications for global e-wallet design BIBAFull-Text 1613-1616
  Scott D. Mainwaring; Ken Anderson; Michele F. Chang
As part of a comparative ethnographic study of everyday life of young professionals in London, Los Angeles, and Tokyo, we conducted a detailed survey of wallets and their contents, through photographs, interviews, diary studies, and observation. Despite prominent differences in culture and lifestyle, there were remarkable similarities across all three sites in terms of what wallets contained and how they were used. Individuals arrived at similar (if imperfect) solutions to common problems of temptation management and access control, identity management and partitioning, and collecting tokens of affiliation and history. Our findings suggest that future electronic wallets (e-wallets), whether physical devices or distributed functionalities, will be able to capitalize on these existing patterns, solve some of the existing problems, and encounter new challenges. Furthermore, they frame the potential value of e-wallets in a broader context than traditional concerns over privacy, security, and efficiency.
Using intimacy, chronology and zooming to visualize rhythms in email experience BIBAFull-Text 1617-1620
  Mirko Mandic; Andruid Kerne
Experiences of intimacy and connectedness through social networks are vital to human sense of well-being. We live in an electronic habitat. Electronic mail functions as a medium of interpersonal exchange. As it accumulates, email data becomes more than a collection of reminders. It is a diary we didn't know we were keeping, and a potential source of valuable insight into the structure and dynamics of one's social network. Current interfaces do little to help users see patterns of social interaction within email data.
   We introduce a multiscale email interface that utilizes computed intimacy measures and chronology as parameters for information visualization. Rhythms of intimacy in email experience are made visible as patterns of color and shapes in a zoomable chronological grid. Qualitative user experience data indicates that such an email visualization can provide striking insights into the experience of social connectedness over time. These insights potentially enable users to better manage how they invest time and energy into personal and work relationships, and thus to improve overall sense of well-being.
Sticky widgets: pseudo-haptic widget enhancements for multi-monitor displays BIBAFull-Text 1621-1624
  Regan L. Mandryk; Malcolm E. Rodgers; Kori M. Inkpen
People use multiple monitors to increase their display surface and to facilitate multitasking. However, if windows are maximized to fill one screen, users may have difficulties accessing widgets and tools on the borders of the displays, accidentally crossing over to the other display. To assist users of multi monitor displays, we developed a pseudo-haptic approach to enhance boundary widgets. We compared our sticky widget to a standard widget for two multi monitor display configurations: two identical side-by-side monitors, and two separated monitors of different sizes. Our enhancement improved performance by significantly reducing errors for accessing a boundary widget, reducing the number of accidental crossovers to the wrong display and consequently decreasing selection time.
Effects of reproduction equipment on interaction with a spatial audio interface BIBAFull-Text 1625-1628
  Georgios N. Marentakis; Stephen A. Brewster
Spatial audio displays have been criticized because the use of headphones may isolate users from their real world audio environment. In this paper we study the effects of three types of audio reproduction equipment (standard headphones, bone-conductance headphones and monaural presentation using a single earphone) on time and accuracy during interaction with a deictic spatial audio display. Participants selected a target sound emitting from one of four different locations in the presence of distracters whilst wearing the different types of headphones. Target locations were marked with audio feedback. No significant differences were found for time and accuracy ratings between bone conductance and standard headphones. Monaural reproduction significantly slowed interaction. The results show that alternative reproduction equipment can be used to overcome user isolation from the natural audio environment.
Automating the detection of breaks in continuous user experience with computer games BIBAFull-Text 1629-1632
  Tim Marsh; Kiyoung Yang; Cyrus Shahabi; Wee Ling Wong; Luciano Nocera; Eduardo Carriazo; Aditya Varma; Hyunjin Yoon; Chris Kyriakakis
This paper describes an approach towards automating the identification of design problems with three-dimensional mediated or gaming environments through the capture and query of user-player behavior represented as a data schema that we have termed "immersidata". Analysis of data from a study of an educational computer game that we are developing shows that this approach is an effective way to pinpoint potential usability or design problems occurring in unfolding situational and episodic events that can interrupt or break user experience. As well as informing redesign, a key advantage of this cost-effective approach is that it considerably reduces the time evaluators spend analyzing hours of videoed study material.
Giving the caller the finger: collaborative responsibility for cellphone interruptions BIBAFull-Text 1633-1636
  Stefan Marti; Chris Schmandt
We present a system in which a cell phone decides whether to ring by accepting votes from the others in a conversation with the called party. When a call comes in, the phone first determines who is in the conversation by using a decentralized network of autonomous body-worn sensor nodes. It then vibrates all participants' wireless finger rings. Although the alerted people do not know if it is their own cellphones that are about to interrupt, each of them has the possibility to veto the call anonymously by touching his/her finger ring. If no one vetoes, the phone rings. A user study showed significantly more vetoes during a collaborative group-focused setting than during a less group oriented setting. Our system is a component of a larger research project in context-aware computer-mediated call control.
Using the environment as an interactive interface to motivate positive behavior change in a subway station BIBAFull-Text 1637-1640
  Anijo Punnen Mathew
This paper examines the use of incremental persuasion techniques to motivate behavior change using the environment. It also describes three design schemes to motivate positive behavior change through the modification of architectural elements and integration of interactive interfaces into the environment of a subway station.
Digital backchannels in shared physical spaces: experiences at an academic conference BIBAFull-Text 1641-1644
  Joseph F. McCarthy; danah m. boyd
There are a variety of digital tools for enabling people who are physically separated by time and space to communicate and collaborate. Widespread use of some of these tools, such as instant messaging and group chat, coupled with the increasingly availability of wireless Internet access, have created new opportunities for using these collaboration tools by people sharing physical spaces in real time. Such 'digital backchannels' affect interactions and experiences in a variety of ways, depending on the spaces, the participants, and the relationships among them. We focus on the space of an academic conference, a physical space designed for voluntary participation by people with shared interests, seeking to share knowledge and connect with others. We present and analyze system logs and interview data from a recent conference, highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages experienced both by those who used the tools and by those who did not, and discuss implications and considerations for future use and research.
Harnessing mobile ubiquitous video BIBAFull-Text 1645-1648
  Neil J. McCurdy; Jennifer N. Carlisle; William G. Griswold
Realityflythrough is a telepresence/tele-reality system that works in the dynamic, uncalibrated environments typically associated with ubiquitous computing. By opportunistically harnessing networked mobile video cameras, it allows a user to remotely and immersively explore a physical space. Live 2d video feeds are situated in a 3d representation of the world. Rather than try to achieve photorealism at every point in space, we instead focus on providing the user with a sense of how the video streams relate to one another spatially. By providing cues in the form of dynamic transitions, we can approximate photorealistic telepresence while harnessing cameras "in the wild." This paper shows that transitions between situated 2d images are sensible and provide a compelling telepresence experience.
Robots as dogs?: children's interactions with the robotic dog AIBO and a live Australian shepherd BIBAFull-Text 1649-1652
  Gail F. Melson; Peter H., Jr. Kahn; Alan M. Beck; Batya Friedman; Trace Roberts; Erik Garrett
This study investigated the interactions of 72 children (ages 7 to 15) with Sony's robotic dog AIBO in comparison to a live Australian Shepherd dog. Results showed that more children conceptualized the live dog, as compared to AIBO, as having physical essences, mental states, sociality, and moral standing. Based on behavioral analyses, children also spent more time touching and within arms distance of the live dog, as compared to AIBO. That said, a surprising majority of children conceptualized and interacted with AIBO in ways that were like a live dog. Discussion focuses on two questions. First, is it possible that a new technological genre is emerging in HCI that challenges traditional ontological categories (e.g., between animate and inanimate)? Second, are pervasive interactions with a wide array of "robotic others" -- increasingly sophisticated personified computational artifacts that mimic biological forms and pull psychologically in mental, social, and moral ways -- a good thing for human beings.
An interactive braille-recognition system for the visually impaired based on a portable camera BIBAFull-Text 1653-1656
  Yoshiyuki Mihara; Akihiro Sugimoto; Etsuya Shibayama; Shin Takahashi
We develop an interactive Braille-recognition system using a portable camera for visually impaired persons who cannot read Braille. Our system helps them to find and then push a desired button, as is necessary when using an elevator or a ticket vending machine, for example. It is natural to think that the information provided, in Braille, with specific buttons is sufficient for successful operation in using an elevator or a ticket vending machine. Most visually impaired persons, however, cannot read Braille. To push a desired button, the user needs to hear only the word or letter associated with the specific Braille character so that s/he can correctly relate the buttons to Braille characters. If the user is informed of all the Braille characters in front of her/him, s/he will be unable to relate the buttons to Braille characters. In our system, the user interactively specifies the location of a particular Braille character to be read by using hand gestures. The system recognizes the user's gestures and reads the desired Braille aloud. In our preliminary experiment, six blindfolded subjects were all able to interact with our system, and recognized the meaning of the buttons that s/he identified.
Intuitive manipulation techniques for projected displays of mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1657-1660
  Kosuke Miyahara; Hiroshi Inoue; Yuji Tsunesada; Masanori Sugimoto
Mobile devices (cellular phone, PDA, etc.) used by many people in their daily lives have so far been personal tools. Due to their multi-functionality, however, the devices have begun to be used by multiple people in co-located situations. This paper discusses near future technologies: a mobile device with a projector and intuitive manipulation techniques by using a video camera mounted on the device. It is difficult to realize a mobile device with a small and light projector that still retains the feature of mobility, so we have developed a system to project displays of mobile devices by tracking their three-dimensional positions and orientations. The proposed system called Hotaru (a firefly, in English) allows users to annotate, rotate or transfer files between multiple devices by touching their projected displays with fingers.
Making an impression: force-controlled pen input for handheld devices BIBAFull-Text 1661-1664
  Sachi Mizobuchi; Shinya Terasaki; Turo Keski-Jaskari; Jari Nousiainen; Matti Ryynanen; Miika Silfverberg
The properties of force-based input on a handheld device were examined. Twenty-one participants used force input to set 10 different target levels representing consecutive force ranges (0 to 4N) with visual feedback (digits or bar graphs) or no feedback. Both accuracy and speed were greater with analog feedback (bar graph). Statistical comparisons of adjacent targets/digits indicated that subjects differentiated roughly seven input levels within the set of ten force ranges actually used. Time taken to input the target force increased significantly with the size of the target force, suggesting that smaller force ranges should be considered in future implementations of force input. The results are discussed in terms of the design of appropriate feedback for force input.
Roomquake: embedding dynamic phenomena within the physical space of an elementary school classroom BIBAFull-Text 1665-1668
  Tom Moher; Syeda Hussain; Tim Halter; Debi Kilb
Authentic practice in science requires access to phenomena. In this paper, we introduce RoomQuake, an application designed to foster the growth of a community of learning around scientific practice in seismology. Rather than treating seismic activity as remote events, RoomQuake seeks to enhance salience by situating those phenomena directly in the classroom. Using fixed-position PDAs as simulated seismographs, students determine the magnitude and distance of a series of "randomly" timed events by reading characteristic waveforms and using calibrated tape measures to sweep out arcs from multiple stations until they literally collide, physically enacting mathematical trilateration. We describe our experience in a six-week unit in a fifth-grade classroom.
StoryGrid: a tangible interface for student expression BIBAFull-Text 1669-1672
  Tom Moher; Ben Watson; Janet Kim; Claudia Hindo; Louis Gomez; Stephen Fransen; Tim McEneany
StoryGrid is a classroom-based design and presentation system for interactive multimedia posters. Employing the technology base first used in Eden's PitABoard, StoryGrid allows groups of learners to manipulate projected multimedia objects on a horizontal board using a small collection of shared physical tokens. In this paper, we present the ongoing design history of StoryGrid in the context of its introduction within an urban high school literature class. Interface modifications based on student and teacher feedback led on changes in token semantics and media importing methods. We describe how StoryGrid features enriched students' interpretations of literature, with particular emphasis in two areas: (1) attention to audience, and (2) reflection of multiple perspectives.
Hug over a distance BIBAFull-Text 1673-1676
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Frank Vetere; Martin R. Gibbs; Jesper Kjeldskov; Sonja Pedell; Steve Howard
People in close relationships, who are separated by distance, often have difficulty expressing intimacy adequately. Based on the results of an ethnographic study with couples, a prototype was developed to test the feasibility of technology in the domain of intimacy. Hug Over a Distance is an air-inflatable vest that can be remotely triggered to create a sensation resembling a hug. Although the couples did not consider the vest to be useful in their daily lives, the prototype served to provoke and stimulate design ideas from the couples during participative design workshops. An additional and unexpected benefit was also found: the prototype enhanced the couples' understanding of the researchers' methods, suggesting that prototypes can serve as tools to make participatory design volunteers aware of their importance in academic research.
What is connected by mutual gaze?: user's behavior in video-mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 1677-1680
  Naoki Mukawa; Tsugumi Oka; Kumiko Arai; Masahide Yuasa
Video-mediated communication systems such as teleconferencing and videophone have become popular. As with face-to-face communication, non-verbal cues such as gaze, facial expression, head orientation and gestures in visual systems play an important role. Existing systems, however, do not support mutual gaze because the lay-out of the camera and monitor is restricted. Thus, conversations using visual systems differ from those in face-to-face communication. This paper clarifies the problems of the video-mediated system, specifically for comparing the system with communication using eye-contact and with communication using no-eye-contact. This study focuses on the protocol of opening communication, e.g. establishment of a visual-audio link, person identification and confirmation of the acceptance of conversation. We conducted experiments using the two systems. Analysis of recorded video sequences revealed that the system using communication with eye-contact induced behavior similar to the system using face-to-face communication.
Shared landmarks in complex coordination environments BIBAFull-Text 1681-1684
  Michael J. Muller; Olga Kuchinskaya; Suzanne O. Minassian; John C. Tang; Catalina Danis; Chen Zhao; Beverly Harrison; Thomas P. Moran
We explore the concept of social landmarks in complex, shared information and coordination environments. Previous research in navigation and shared spaces has tended to emphasize individual navigation, formally inscribed spaces, social filtering, and boundary objects. Based on ethnographic research into complex collaborative work in organizations, we extend the concept of navigational "landmarks" to include not only individually-used documents, but also shared landmarks in the form of persons, roles, and events. This emerging concept of social landmarks may be applied in identifying and representing these coordinating points, to support the work of teams and organizations in complex projects.
Multimodal presentation method for a dance training system BIBAFull-Text 1685-1688
  Akio Nakamura; Sou Tabata; Tomoya Ueda; Shinichiro Kiyofuji; Yoshinori Kuno
This paper presents a multimodal information presentation method for a basic dance training system. The system targets on beginners and enables them to learn basics of dances easily. One of the most effective ways of learning dances is to watch a video showing the performance of dance masters. However, some information cannot be conveyed well through video. One is the translational motion, especially that in the depth direction. We cannot tell exactly how far does the dancers move forward or backward. Another is the timing information. Although we can tell how to move our arms or legs from video, it is difficult to know when to start moving them. We solve the first issue by introducing an image display on a mobile robot. We can learn the amount of translation just by following the robot. We introduce active devices for the second issue. The active devices are composed of some vibro-motors and are developed to direct action-starting cues with vibration. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our multimodal information presentation method.
Sketch-based rapid prototyping platform for hardware-software integrated interactive products BIBAFull-Text 1689-1692
  Tek-Jin Nam
This paper presents a platform in which interaction designers can effectively and rapidly develop tangible interactive prototypes by sketching. The study aims to build a platform that plays the role of sketching in the hardware-software integrated interactive product design process. The platform consists of three components: a sketch based interactive concept exploration software application called STCtools, a set of physical user interface(PUI) widgets with a key converter and a video projection based Augmented Reality desk (ARdesk). For prototyping, a designer creates hardware and software sketches with pen based computers using STCtools. Sketches of hardware and software are drawn in a client device and composed in an electronic whiteboard, which is the server device. PUI widgets can be physically attached on a foam mockup or on a screen of the client device. The hardware-software integrated simulations are conducted on ARdesk. The sketch simulation is captured and projected onto a paper marker created with invisible infra-red ink.
Beyond being in the lab: using multi-agent modeling to isolate competing hypotheses BIBAFull-Text 1693-1696
  Ning Nan; Erik W. Johnston; Judith S. Olson; Nathan Bos
In studies of virtual teams, it is difficult to determine pure effects of geographic isolation and uneven communication technology. We developed a multi-agent computer model in NetLogo to complement laboratory-based organizational simulations [3]. In the lab, favoritism among collocated team members (collocators) appeared to increase their performance. However, in the computer simulation, when controlled for communication delay, in-group favoritism had a detrimental effect on the performance of collocators. This suggested that the advantage of collocators shown in the lab was due to synchronous communication, not favoritism. The canceling-out effects of in-group bias and communication delay explained why many studies did not see performance difference between collocated and remote team members. The multi-agent modeling in this case proved its value by both clarifying previous laboratory findings and guiding design of future experiments.
Community source development: an emerging model with new opportunities BIBAFull-Text 1697-1700
  Dawn Ressel Nidy; Fong Kwok
This paper focuses on an emerging model for software development in higher education: community source. Community source seeks to blend aspects of both open source and traditional development processes. Volunteers join at the institutional level and share resources and ideas to develop applications for common needs. The code remains open, but the collaboration exists in a meritocracy; those who contribute the most have the most influence on the outcome. While many in the HCI community have long abandoned the prospect of affecting change in open source development, average computer users, rather than developers, are becoming the main audience. As open source matures and community source emerges, some new opportunities are presenting themselves. They require a dialogue within our profession to yield new processes and vocabularies that work within the open source framework.
Building security and trust in online banking BIBAFull-Text 1701-1704
  Maria Nilsson; Anne Adams; Simon Herd
Growing threats to online banking security (e.g. phishing, personal identify fraud) and the personal nature of the data make the balance between security, trust and usability vital. However, there is little published research about what influences users' perceptions of online banking security and trust. This study identifies that the type of authentication system used can affect users' subsequent perceived control, situational awareness and trust. The results from a questionnaire and in-depth interviews with 86 participants were triangulated to compare two different authentication processes, namely, a 'security box' (i.e. random system generated passwords at the users' location) and 'fixed passwords' (i.e. user owned and constant). The security box and login procedures were perceived significantly more trustworthy and secure at any location than 'fixed passwords'. Four main concepts were identified: "trust" "the authentication system", "location" and "control". The implications of these findings for HCI are discussed.
TxtBoard: from text-to-person to text-to-home BIBAFull-Text 1705-1708
  Kenton O'Hara; Richard Harper; Axel Unger; James Wilkes; Bill Sharpe; Marcel Jansen
The design of existing mobile phone technology has emphasised the primacy of person-to-person communication for voice, SMS and image-based communication. It may be contrasted with place-to-place communication, the key property of fixed line telephony. However, other forms of communication may mix these two approaches: these include place-to-person or person-to place for example. These patterns may afford different values to users. This reports a field study of a prototype person-to-place SMS communications device, 'TxtBoard'. This is a small, fixed display appliance for home settings. It displays text messages sent to it from any standard mobile phone. The study highlights how the person-to-place character of the device, combined with the 'public' or situated characteristics of its placement within home settings in particular, create new opportunities for use of SMS.
Weak gaze awareness in video-mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 1709-1712
  Takehiko Ohno
We present a video mediated communication system that conveys gaze information to a remote location. Unlike existing video mediated communication system, this system does not send visual information directly, only gaze position and face direction. The appearance of those cues on the display depends on the distance between the screen and the user's eyes, which allows the user to control the appearance of her gaze. Face direction is represented as a still image, which changes when the user's gaze position moves. With this system, people are able to transfer visual cues without becoming self-conscious about their face.
Using an interaction model as a resource for communication in design BIBAFull-Text 1713-1716
  Maira Greco de Paula; Bruno Santana da Silva; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Many design models and representations have been proposed to support user-centered system design, such as scenarios, use cases, and prototypes. With these artifacts, designers typically deal with representations of fragments of the application, and sometimes have difficulties communicating with one another about design decisions. To face some of the communication challenges during design, we believe that we could use a global view of the system's apparent behavior, from the users' point of view. Such a representation would serve as a common reference for HCI designers from different disciplinary backgrounds, helping to foster communication among them. In our goal to promote a shared understanding of the application, we have investigated different professionals' usage of MoLIC, an interaction modeling language that follows an interaction-as-conversation metaphor. MoLIC allows designers to build a blueprint of all the interactions that may take place when the application is used.
Floor interaction: HCI reaching new ground BIBAFull-Text 1717-1720
  Marianne Graves Petersen; Peter Gall Krogh; Martin Ludvigsen; Andreas Lykke-Olesen
Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors.
An experience with an enriched task model for educational software BIBAFull-Text 1721-1724
  Raquel Oliveira Prates; Rosa Maria Videira de Figueiredo
The educational domain brings new issues and specific requirements to interface design. Often traditional HCI principles and guidelines need to be disregarded or broken in order to allow for the intended learning to take place [1, 6]. How to adapt existing HCI methods and techniques to this domain is still an open issue for the HCI and Education fields [5]. In this paper we propose the Scaffold Representation Model (SRM), which allows intended educational support for learners in the application to be abstractly described. The model allows for the generation of educational information that can be added to a traditional HCI task model. We describe an experiment in which SRM was used in the design of a learning support system and its contribution to the process of design.
StressCam: non-contact measurement of users' emotional states through thermal imaging BIBAFull-Text 1725-1728
  Colin Puri; Leslie Olson; Ioannis Pavlidis; James Levine; Justin Starren
We present a novel methodology for monitoring the affective states of computer users. The method is based on thermal imaging of the face. To the user, the imaging system appears much like a video-conferencing camera. The method does not require contact with the subject and is passive; therefore, monitoring can be continuous and transparent to the computer user. We have found that user stress is correlated with increased blood flow in the frontal vessel of the forehead. This increased blood flow dissipates convective heat, which can be monitored through thermal imaging. The system has been evaluated on 12 subjects, and compared against real-time measurements of Energy Expenditure (EE). The new method is highly correlated with the established, but awkward EE methodology. The StressCam methodology is applicable to many instances where the real time measurement of users' emotional state is needed.
Genetic algorithm to generate optimized soft keyboard BIBAFull-Text 1729-1732
  Mathieu Raynal; Nadine Vigouroux
In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm formal framework to optimize character location on a soft keyboard. This method is described regardless of the language and layout used and can then easily be adapted to any language and layout. In this scope, we present a measure, based on Mackenzie's model, to estimate the performances of the best characters in a given layout. We apply our method to common English language and two different layouts (hexagonal and rectangular layout) in order to compare with FITALY, OPTI or Metropolis keyboards. In all configurations, our method has the best performance.
Parallel worlds: immersion in location-based experiences BIBAFull-Text 1733-1736
  Josephine Reid; Erik Geelhoed; Richard Hull; Kirsten Cater; Ben Clayton
This paper analyses the stages and circumstances for immersion based on quantitative and qualitative feedback from 700 people who took part in a three week long public trial of a location-based audio drama. Ratings of enjoyment, immersion and how much history came alive all scored highly and people often spent up to an hour in the experience. A model of immersion as a cycle of transient states triggered by events in the overall experience is defined. This model can be used to design for immersion in future experiences.
Indexing unstructured activities with peripheral cues BIBAFull-Text 1737-1740
  Heather Richter; Andrew Skaggs; Gregory D. Abowd
A variety of ubiquitous computing systems have been built to automatically capture everyday activities in a number of domains. Many capture systems record streams of information that structure and form indices into the recording, providing users easy access to portions of interest. But this is challenging in very unstructured situations or unpredictable environments. In this paper, we explore introducing structure into the activity through the use of an artificial, unrelated, peripheral stream of information. We investigate the feasibility of this idea by integrating a stream of images into an existing meeting capture system. Our study suggests that this technique may be used effectively in some situations, and reveals similar methods of capturing and using indices that could be explored.
A transformation strategy for multi-device menus and toolbars BIBAFull-Text 1741-1744
  Kai Richter
The increasing variety of different devices with different screen size, interaction paradigms and application areas raises the need for new technologies of cross-device development. Automatic transformation of user interfaces between devices of different screen size and interaction devices can increase the speed of multi-device software development and decrease the costs for testing and maintenance while providing inter- and intra-device consistency. Therefore transformation strategies have to be developed and evaluated. In this article we introduce a classification scheme for such transformation strategies. An example transformation strategy for menus and toolbars supporting the migration between desktop PCs an palm-sized devices has been developed and evaluated.
Do people trust their eyes more than ears?: media bias in detecting cues of expertise BIBAFull-Text 1745-1748
  Jens Riegelsberger; M. Angela Sasse; John D. McCarthy
Enabling users to identify trustworthy actors is a key design concern in online systems and expertise is a core dimension of trustworthiness. In this paper, we investigate (1) users' ability to identify expertise in advice and (2) effects of media bias in different representations. In a laboratory study, we presented 160 participants with two advisors -- one represented by text-only; the other represented by one of four alternate formats: video, audio, avatar, or photo+text. Unknown to the participants, one was an expert (i.e. trained) and the other was a non-expert (i.e. untrained). We observed participants' advice seeking behavior under financial risk as an indicator of their trust in the advisor. For all rich media representations, participants were able to identify the expert, but we also found a tendency for seeking video and audio advice, irrespective of expertise. Avatar advice, in contrast, was rarely sought, but -- like the other rich media representations -- was seen as more enjoyable and friendly than text-only advice. In a future step we plan to analyze our data for effects on advice uptake.
The effect of content customization on learnability and perceived workload BIBAFull-Text 1749-1752
  Diego Rivera
One of the key e-commerce challenges is to maintain an increasing amount of information up-to-date. This is a challenging task because frequently there is a substantial amount of data being created under tight deadlines. It is important that data management tools used for these tasks are efficient and easy to use. The present study describes the effect of UI content customization on learnability and perceived workload. Participants were asked to create 20 different products using four different web prototypes that varied in content density and customization capability. Mean time on task over 20 trials was fit using a power function and perceived workload was collected using NASA Task Load Index. The results obtained indicate that content customization allows users to reach peak performance faster and reduce task learning. Also, content customization reduces perceived mental demand and frustration as content density increases. Finally, participants performed faster and with higher satisfaction under the customization conditions.
Voting and political information gathering on paper and online BIBAFull-Text 1753-1756
  Scott P. Robertson; Palakorn Achananuparp; James L. Goldman; Sang Joon Park; Nan Zhou; Matthew J. Clare
Electronic voting is slowly making its way into American politics. At the same time, more voters and potential voters are using online news and political information sources to help them make voting choices. We conducted a mock-voting study, using real candidates, issues, and campaign materials. Political information was browsed either online or on paper, and participants marked electronic ballots either while they browsed or later, in a separate step. Our initial data shows that voters prefer electronic browsing although they are no faster or slower with paper materials. Voters felt that they understood the issues best when they voted during browsing, and they felt most confident about their decisions when they studied electronic campaign materials alongside an active electronic ballot.
The domestic economy: a broader unit of analysis for end user programming BIBAFull-Text 1757-1760
  Jennifer A. Rode; Eleanor F. Toye; Alan F. Blackwell
Domestic ubicomp applications often assume individual users will program and configure their technology in isolation, decoupled from complex domestic environments in which they are situated. To investigate this assumption, we conducted a two week study of VCR use by eight families. Each household member old enough to write completed a diary, interviews were conducted before and after, and information on demographics and appliance ownership was collected. Our key finding supports the notion of the domestic economy and the trading of programming expertise. We use the Attention Investment paradigm, and discuss how the model fits with multi-user programming situations. We discuss the importance of the parent v/s child roles in VCR use, as well as, the tension between direct manipulation (e.g. pressing record) and programming ahead of time. We propose that future work on end user programming must focus on the household as a domestic system rather than on the individual.
The rotating compass: a novel interaction technique for mobile navigation BIBAFull-Text 1761-1764
  Enrico Rukzio; Albrecht Schmidt; Antonio Kruger
In current mobile navigation systems users receive the navigational instructions on a visual display or by descriptive audio. The mapping between the provided navigation information and the surrounding world has still to be performed by the users. In our approach that aims at public spaces, we combine a public display that shows directions with a synchronized output on a personal device. We describe a system where on the public display a compass with a rotating needle is shown. When the compass needle points in the desired direction, the mobile device of the user vibrates. This unobtrusive cue, allows the user to navigate without listening to or looking at the mobile device. In this paper we introduce the concept of synchronized information displays for navigation. We describe our prototype of such a system and report on a user study, that shows the feasibility of the approach.
QueryLines: approximate query for visual browsing BIBAFull-Text 1765-1768
  Kathy Ryall; Neal Lesh; Tom Lanning; Darren Leigh; Hiroaki Miyashita; Shigeru Makino
We introduce approximate query techniques for searching and analyzing two-dimensional data sets such as line or scatter plots. Our techniques allow users to explore a dataset by defining QueryLines: soft constraints and preferences for selecting and sorting a subset of the data. By using both preferences and soft constraints for query composition, we allow greater flexibility and expressiveness than previous visual query systems. When the user over-constrains a query, for example, a system using approximate techniques can display "near misses" to enable users to quickly and continuously refine queries.
Blind learners programming through audio BIBAFull-Text 1769-1772
  Jaime Sanchez; Fernando Aguayo
The development of programming skills is a motivating issue in computer science. Most programming languages are focused on sighted users. This study introduces APL, Audio Programming Language for blind learners. APL is based on audio interfaces to assist novice blind learners to develop problem solving and algorithmic thinking skills. APL was designed by and for blind learners to construct meaning by making programs. We tested APL with novice blind programmers during and after development. They tried, analyzed, and make improvements to APL. Learners wrote programs to solve problems with increasingly complexity. Our preliminary results evidence that audio programming languages such as APL can be constructed to fit the needs and mental models of blind learners to motivate and help them to enter to the programming world.
Project view IM: a tool for juggling multiple projects and teams BIBAFull-Text 1773-1776
  Peter Scupelli; Sara Kiesler; Susan R. Fussell; Congrui Chen
Previous research suggests working on multiple projects may lead to stress and misallocation of attention. A modest redesign of Instant Messenger (IM) could help team members juggle multiple projects and teams. This paper describes the implementation of this redesign--an IM plug-in called Project View IM (PVIM). PVIM uses automatic project status logging to show active project-related files and team members. In a preliminary evaluation experiment, participants working collaboratively with different partners on two projects found PVIM and IM to be equally usable and informative but PVIM participants reported less workload stress. We discuss future work to iterate the design and measure allocation of attention and task performance.
Mobile search with text messages: designing the user experience for google SMS BIBAFull-Text 1777-1780
  Rudy Schusteritsch; Shailendra Rao; Kerry Rodden
SMS (Short Message Service) is already a hugely popular communication technology for mobile phones, with users sending billions of text messages to each other every year. The goal of the Google SMS service is to provide this large existing base of users with access to the types of information they are most likely to need when mobile. Users simply send their query as a text message and receive their results in the reply. This enables users to search for information without having to upgrade their phone or subscribe to specialized mobile data services. In this paper we describe how we worked with the Google SMS team on the iterative design of the service's user experience. In particular, we focus on how we attempted to overcome two major constraints: the technical limitations of the SMS standard, and users' current conceptual models of both SMS and Google search.
CoR2Ds BIBAFull-Text 1781-1784
  Chia Shen; Mark S. Hancock; Clifton Forlines; Frederic D. Vernier
We present a new popup widget, called CoR2Ds (Context-Rooted Rotatable Draggables), designed for multi-user direct-touch tabletop environments. CoR2Ds are interactive callout popup objects that are visually connected (rooted) at the originating displayed object by a semi-transparent colored swath. CoR2Ds can be used to bring out menus, display drilled-down or off-screen ancillary data such as metadata and attributes, as well as instantiate tools. CoR2Ds can be freely moved, rotated, and re-oriented on a tabletop display surface by fingers, hands, pointing devices (mice) or marking devices (such as a stylus or light pen). CoR2Ds address five issues for interaction techniques on interactive tabletop display surfaces: occlusion, reach, context on a cluttered display, readability, and concurrent/coordinated multi-user interaction. In this paper, we present the design, interaction and implementation of CoR2Ds. We also discuss a set of current usage scenarios.
Interaction design for literature-based discovery BIBAFull-Text 1785-1788
  Meredith M. Skeels; Kiera Henning; Meliha Yetisgen Yildiz; Wanda Pratt
Rapid growth in the scientific literature makes it increasingly difficult for scientists to keep abreast of findings outside their own narrowing fields of expertise. To help biomedical researchers address this problem, LitLinker uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. In this paper, we discuss the design of an interface that supports researchers' interactive exploration of the identified connections. Because the interface suggests many possible new connections, researchers must be able to understand how connections are established and to evaluate those connections based on their own expertise. Based on the results of our user study, we have further tailored the interface to support the work processes of biomedical researchers. LitLinker's interaction design promotes user-comprehension of the complex relationships among connected terms and allows for dialogue with researchers on the use of literature in scientific discovery.
The DJammer: "air-scratching" and freeing the DJ to join the party BIBAFull-Text 1789-1792
  April Slayden; Mirjana Spasojevic; Mat Hans; Mark Smith
Traditional Disc Jockeys use vinyl records and turntables to manipulate music in real time. We describe the development of the DJammer, a new device that enables its users to manipulate digital music using a portable handheld sensor. In addition to the standard actions offered by most portable digital music players, the DJammer provides its users with control capabilities previously offered only through the use of turntables. Using the DJammer, DJs can "air-scratch" digital music via simple hand motions similar to those used when scratching vinyl records, fade the music, and jump to a predefined position within the song using a wireless sensor designed to fit in the DJ's hand. The preliminary study of the device by experienced DJs suggests that it can play a role as an accessory to their professional equipment, freeing them to step away from their consoles during the performance and uncovering opportunities for creativity and personalization.
Web accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1793-1796
  Jeon Small; Pamela Schallau; Karen Brown; Richard Appleyard
This pilot study investigated individuals with developmental cognitive disabilities (DCD) navigating W3C accessibility-compliant Web sites and the impact of four cognitive determinants: situation awareness, spatial awareness, task-set switching, and anticipated system response. Participants were placed into one of two search conditions and were asked to complete information-finding tasks. The usability evaluation demonstrated that the majority of users with DCD were able to access the Web but they were unable to successfully use the W3C accessibility-compliant Web sites/. The use of navigation aids was examined, different Web navigation problems were identified as well as user satisfaction and perceived usability. It is clear from this study that current Web accessibility guidelines do not sufficiently address the needs of people with cognitive disabilities. Additional research is needed to understand how cognitive disabilities affect using Web-based media.
Creating a system to share user experience best practices at eBay BIBAFull-Text 1797-1800
  Preston Smalley; Jeff Herman
Increasingly, organizations are looking for ways to use technology to document and share information in order to increase effectiveness and foster a sense of community [1, 3]. As one example of a "community of practice" [4, 10], the eBay User Experience & Design group recently created a knowledge management system known as the Playbook to enable the eBay design community to share design best practices and other information. This paper describes the considerations that went into creating the Playbook and how the working team enabled the rest of the eBay design community throughout the world to contribute their best practices. We also discuss how the group as a whole has benefited from this system as well as lessons learned during this process which may help other design communities outside of eBay.
OverHear: augmenting attention in remote social gatherings through computer-mediated hearing BIBAFull-Text 1801-1804
  David Smith; Matthew Donald; Daniel Chen; Daniel Cheng; Changuk Sohn; Aadil Mamuji; David Holman; Roel Vertegaal
One of the problems with mediated communication systems is that they limit the user's ability to listen to informal conversations of others within a remote space. In what is known as the Cocktail Party phenomenon, participants in noisy face-to-face conversations are able to focus their attention on a single individual, typically the person they look at. Media spaces do not support the cues necessary to establish this attentive mechanism. We addressed this issue in our design of OverHear, a media space that augments the user's attention in remote social gatherings through computer mediated hearing. OverHear uses an eye tracker embedded in the webcam display to direct the focal point of a robotic shotgun microphone mounted in the remote space. This directional microphone is automatically pointed towards the currently observed individual, allowing the user to OverHear this person's conversations.
ImproViz: visual explorations of jazz improvisations BIBAFull-Text 1805-1808
  Jon Snydal; Marti Hearst
ImproViz is a visualization technique for diagramming music that brings to light the signature patterns of a jazz musician's improvisational style. ImproViz consists of two parts: (1) melodic landscapes show the general contours of musical phrasing; and (2) harmonic palettes represent the musician's tendency to use a particular combination of notes in a given part of the song. Viewing the jazz standard All Blues through the lens of ImproViz illustrates the contrasting melodic and harmonic styles of three musicians. This analysis uncovers some surprises, such as how Miles Davis played musical ideas that contradicted his own composition. ImproViz offers jazz students a new way to study jazz theory and can also serve as a real-time improvisational aid, allowing a student to borrow the harmonic vocabulary of jazz masters.
Tangible newspaper for the visually impaired users BIBAFull-Text 1809-1812
  Adam J. Sporka; Vladislav Nemec; Pavel Slavik
This paper outlines a novel interaction technique allowing the visually impaired users to examine the layout of complex paper documents (e.g. a newspaper page). The document is placed on a desk in the view of a camera placed above it. The tip of user's index finger is tracked by means of algorithms of computer vision. As the user moves the finger over the document, the layout of its logical units (articles) is revealed by means of a simple sonification of their boundaries and the speech synthesis. In the paper, implementation of the test application is described and evaluated. The main advantage of our system is the direct mapping of the kinaesthetic experience to the layout of the physical document, enabling the user to employ any strategy to traverse the document. The prototype has been implemented using the ARToolKit library.
Notes on fridge surfaces BIBAFull-Text 1813-1816
  Laurel Swan; Alex S. Taylor
Drawing on ongoing ethnographic investigations into home life, this paper presents detailed findings from a preliminary examination of refrigerator surfaces. The use and organization of items on fridge surfaces are shown to be closely tied to the material properties of both fridges and their surroundings. Emphasis is placed on the importance of fridge magnets as they are seen to contribute to a fluidity and reconfigurability that make fridge surfaces unique. Building on this, it is argued that the negotiation of family relations is afforded by the presented properties of the fridge and of magnets. To conclude, we introduce some general points to consider in designing interactive surfaces for the home.
Automatic video editing system using stereo-based head tracking for multiparty conversation BIBAFull-Text 1817-1820
  Yoshinao Takemae; Kazuhiro Otsuka; Junji Yamato
This paper presents an automatic video editing system based on head tracking for multiparty conversations. Systems that record meetings and those that support teleconferences are attracting considerable interest. Conventional systems use a fixed-viewpoint camera and simple camera selection based on participants' utterances. However, conventional systems fail to adequately convey who is talking to whom to the viewer. We focus on the participants' head orientation since this information is useful in detecting the speaker and who the speaker is talking to. In order to automatically estimate each participant's head orientation, our system combines several modules for stereo-based head tracking. The system selects the shot of the participant that most participants are looking at, based on majority decision. Experiments confirm the effectiveness of our system in several 3-participant conversations. The results show that our system can more successfully convey who is talking to whom which is an extremely crucial piece of information that allows the viewer to better under-stand conversation content.
Information search: the intersection of visual and semantic space BIBAFull-Text 1821-1824
  Franklin P., II Tamborello; Michael D. Byrne
In the context of an information search task, does the visual salience of items interact with information scent? That is, do things like bold headlines or highlighted phrases interact with local semantic cues about the usefulness of distal sources of information? Most research on visual search and highlighting has used stimuli with no semantic content, while studies on information search have assumed equal visual salience of items in the search space. In real information environments like the Web, however, these things do not occur in isolation. Thus, we used a laboratory study to examine how these factors interact. The almost perfectly additive results imply that good information scent cannot overcome poor visual cues, or vice versa, and that both factors are equally important.
Polymorphic letters: transforming pen movements to extend written expression BIBAFull-Text 1825-1828
  Andrea Taylor; Zoltan Foley-Fisher; Carol Strohecker
We are developing a digital writing tool, Polymorphic Letters (PL), to investigate hand and pen movements as they may extend and enrich expression in written language. PL recognizes individual letters and associated spatial, temporal and pressure qualities of pen movements. The system maps these features to typography and colour variables, creating lively representations on-screen. Writers will use the tool in learning environments emphasizing the role of personal expressions. We explore style and voice as they pertain to expressions through hand, pen, and words, and describe the rationale for PL, its iterative design, and next steps based on writers' and readers' experiences.
Ruug: Long-distance communication BIBAFull-Text 1829-1832
  Adriana Thompson; Aurelia Friedland; Jenny Cargiuolo
To provide a long-distance communication device that would appeal to college students and recent graduates, the Ruug team researched long-distance and face-to-face communication in more than 70 potential users. This research (consisting of surveys, observation, and directed storytelling) revealed the importance of body language and gestures and their communication of interest level, which encouraged comfort within the personal interactions. Ruug is a plush rug embedded with pressure sensors which send input from walking, sitting, and short written messages to a sister Ruug. Input from the sister "Ruugmate" is displayed with the color change of heat-sensitive dye in the plush activated by a grid of heating-element "pixels" underneath the rug. This warm, colorful display communicates presence, level of physical activity, and gesture to provide a sense of "being there" and a better understanding of availability, mood, and level of engagement. By integrating both input and display into an inviting everyday object, Ruug provides a comfortable shared experience in which the transparent human-computer interaction is secondary to the interaction between two friends.
Multiple virtual rafts: a multi-user paradigm for interacting with communities of autonomous characters BIBAFull-Text 1833-1836
  Bill Tomlinson; Jesse Gray; Man Lok Yau
This paper describes a multi-user version of the "Virtual Raft Project" being exhibited in the Interactivity Program at CHI 2005. The Virtual Raft Project is an interactive installation in which communities of autonomous animated characters inhabit desktop "virtual islands." A human participant may transport the characters between the islands via a mobile device-based "virtual raft." This paper describes an implementation of a multi-user version of this project, in which several virtual rafts may be used simultaneously to carry characters among the islands. The multi-user experience improves on the single-user original in four ways: increased throughput, increased collaboration among the participants, increased enjoyment for the participants, and the introduction of a new mode of interaction (characters jumping directly from one raft to another). This paper also provides a preliminary evaluation of the entire system through observations from a deployment of the Virtual Raft Project to approximately two hundred people.
Asynchronous collaborative design BIBAFull-Text 1837-1840
  Leslie Tudor; Julie Radford-Davenport
As new usability support analysts at SAS Institute, the authors were challenged with the goal of gathering design input from a diverse population of internal and external design stakeholders. After considering participatory design as the methodology of choice, it was found that simultaneous, collaborative sessions were not possible due to prospective participant time constraints. This constraint motivated the authors to devise and use Asynchronous Collaborative Design methods that were tailored to the specific needs of the data gathering efforts that took place throughout the duration of the project. All methods resulted in a rich set of data that informed subsequent design decisions. However, methods were also associated with drawbacks. The pros and cons of each method are described in this paper.
Using personal photos as pictorial passwords BIBAFull-Text 1841-1844
  Thomas S. Tullis; Donna P. Tedesco
Pictorial passwords, where the user recognizes "target" images among "distractors", appear to have potential for improving the usability of authentication systems. We conducted three exploratory studies on the use of personal photos for authentication over a three-month period. Participants provided 8-20 photos of personal significance to them but which they believed others would not recognize. They also chose four photos to remember from a set of stock photos. Recognition accuracy for the personal photos was significantly higher than the stock photos. We also manipulated the number of target and distractor photos as well as their similarity, and we tested how well others who know the users could guess their photos. Larger numbers of distractors and greater similarity to the targets made it harder for others to guess the correct photos, while having no impact on the user's own recognition accuracy.
Inner circle: people centered email client BIBAFull-Text 1845-1848
  Andrzej Turski; Debbie Warnack; Lili Cheng; Shelly Farnham; Susan Yee
We present an automatic people-centered organization of the email message store, where all the information is organized by the association with the message sender or recipients. By using a zoomable list control, we can show most frequent contacts on the top level, and still scale to a large number of contacts overall. Messages exchanged with a person or any ad-hoc defined group are displayed as a continuous conversation. Individual nuggets sent in email, such as attachments and links, are extracted from messages and put into their own window. Organizing nuggets into people-oriented shared spaces supports email-based collaboration. The proposed email client enhancements tested very well in a preliminary user study.
Navigation via continuously adapted music BIBAFull-Text 1849-1852
  Nigel Warren; Matt Jones; Steve Jones; David Bainbridge
Listening to music on personal, digital devices while mobile is an enjoyable, everyday activity. We explore a scheme for exploiting this practice to immerse listeners in navigation cues. Our prototype, Ontrack, continuously adapts audio, modifying the spatial balance and volume to lead listeners to their target destination. An initial lab-based evaluation has demonstrated the approach's efficacy: users were able to complete tasks within a reasonable time and their subjective feedback was positive. Encouraged by these findings, we are building a pocket-sized prototype for further testing.
The uses of personal networked digital imaging: an empirical study of cameraphone photos and sharing BIBAFull-Text 1853-1856
  Nancy Van House; Marc Davis; Morgan Ames; Megan Finn; Vijay Viswanathan
Developments in networked digital imaging promise to substantially affect the near-universal experience of personal photography. Designing technology for image capture and sharing requires an understanding of how people use photos as well as how they adapt emerging technology to their photographic practices, and vice versa. In this paper, we report on an empirical study of the uses made of a prototype context-aware cameraphone application for mobile media sharing, and relate them to prior work on photographic practices. By reducing many of the barriers to cameraphone use and image sharing (including increasing image quality, easing the sharing process, and removing cost barriers), we find that users quickly develop new uses for imaging. Their innovative communicative uses of imaging are understandable in terms of the social uses identified from prior photographic activity; new functional uses are developing as well.
Visualizing complex medical phenomena for medical students BIBAFull-Text 1857-1860
  Teija Vainio; Kati Hakkarainen; Jarmo Levonen
This paper introduces some early findings and preliminary results of the experiments of the Virtual Laboratory Project, in which we designed and implemented a learning environment for medical students. The focus in our research is to improve students' abilities to learn and recall certain complex phenomena in the mechanisms and diagnostics of infectious diseases by visualizing these phenomena with animations, three-dimensional models, photos and videos. Furthermore, we are aiming to provide conceptual cues on the processes of the essential elements, and to support the construction of a mental model of that phenomenon. In medicine, some complex, dynamic, and multi-level phenomena are difficult to learn using conventional learning material, which is either based on text and is written mainly for experts, or is based on static images, and the relationships between objects and multi-level processes are not so evident. In our project, we design multimedia material on the mechanisms and diagnostics of infectious diseases. Our aim is to study usability issues and user interface design principles that could support cognition. The paper presents the general user interface design issues involving visualization of complex processes. Issues related to the context of use are also discussed.
Media eyepliances: using eye tracking for remote control focus selection of appliances BIBAFull-Text 1861-1864
  Roel Vertegaal; Aadil Mamuji; Changuk Sohn; Daniel Cheng
This paper discusses the use of eye contact sensing for focus selection operations in remote controlled media appliances. Focus selection with remote controls tends to be cumbersome as selection buttons place the remote in a device-specific modality. We addressed this issue with the design of Media EyePliances, home theatre appliances augmented with a digital eye contact sensor. An appliance is selected as the focus of remote commands by looking at its sensor. A central server subsequently routes all commands provided by remote, keyboard or voice input to the focus EyePliance. We discuss a calibration-free digital eye contact sensing technique that allows Media EyePliances to determine the user's point of gaze.
A context-aware recognition survey for data collection using ubiquitous sensors in the home BIBAFull-Text 1865-1868
  Daniel H. Wilson; Anna C. Long; Chris Atkeson
Identifying what people do in the home can both inform ubiquitous computing application design decisions and provide training data to the machine learning algorithms used in their implementation. This paper describes an unsupervised technique in which contextual information gathered by ubiquitous sensors is used to help users label a multitude of anonymous activity episodes. This context-aware recognition survey is a game-like computer program in which users attempt to correctly guess which activity is happening after seeing a series of symbolic images that represent sensor values generated during the activity. We report a user study of the system, focusing on how well subjects were able to recognize their own activities, the activities of others, and counterfeits that did not correspond to any activity.
Maximizing the guessability of symbolic input BIBAFull-Text 1869-1872
  Jacob O. Wobbrock; Htet Htet Aung; Brandon Rothrock; Brad A. Myers
Guessability is essential for symbolic input, in which users enter gestures or keywords to indicate characters or commands, or rely on labels or icons to access features. We present a unified approach to both maximizing and evaluating the guessability of symbolic input. This approach can be used by anyone wishing to design a symbol set with high guessability, or to evaluate the guessability of an existing symbol set. We also present formulae for quantifying guessability and agreement among guesses. An example is offered in which the guessability of the EdgeWrite unistroke alphabet was improved by users from 51.0% to 80.1% without designer intervention. The original and improved alphabets were then tested for their immediate usability with the procedure used by MacKenzie and Zhang (1997). Users entered the original alphabet with 78.8% and 90.2% accuracy after 1 and 5 minutes of learning, respectively. The improved alphabet bettered this to 81.6% and 94.2%. These improved results were competitive with prior results for Graffiti, which were 81.8% and 95.8% for the same measures.
Private communications in public meetings BIBAFull-Text 1873-1876
  Nicole Yankelovich; Jen McGinn; Mike Wessler; Jonathan Kaplan; Joe Provino; Harold Fox
Out-of-band communication during audio conferences can improve the effectiveness of distributed meetings. It provides a means for people to privately consult with one another, supports breakout sessions, and allows individuals to resolve problems without interrupting the discussion. Conversely, off-topic chat and poorly timed interruptions can degrade meeting effectiveness. We considered these trade-offs in adding a private text chat capability and a novel, multi-channel voice chat feature to the Meeting Central collaboration suite. In this paper, we explain the motivation behind adding these features and then describe our initial implementation, the usability and field testing we conducted, and the changes that we made as a result of that user research.
Deciphering visual gist and its implications for video retrieval and interface design BIBAFull-Text 1877-1880
  Meng Yang; Gary Marchionini
How do people make sense of a video based on viewing a few frames of that video? What elements constitute the "visual gist" in their minds? Answers to these questions will give implications to both content-based video retrieval and the interface design (e.g., key-frame selection) of digital video libraries. A preliminary study was conducted to unravel the issues and 45 subjects participated in the study. After viewing a fast forward surrogate, the subjects were asked to choose pictures which they thought would "belong to" the video. And they were also asked to think aloud during their selection processes. Nine visual gist attributes (e.g., people, objects and actions) were generated using the grounded theory method and their frequencies were also compared and analyzed.
Toss-it: intuitive information transfer techniques for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1881-1884
  Koji Yatani; Koiti Tamura; Keiichi Hiroki; Masanori Sugimoto; Hiromichi Hashizume
In recent years, mobile devices have rapidly penetrated into our daily lives. However, several drawbacks of mobile devices have been mentioned so far. The proposed system called Toss-It provides intuitive information transfer techniques for mobile devices, by fully utilizing their mobility. A user of Toss-It can send information from the user's PDA to other electronic devices with a toss or swing action, as the user would toss a ball or deal cards to others. This paper describes the current implementation of Toss-It and its user studies.
From creating virtual gestures to "writing" in sign languages BIBAFull-Text 1885-1888
  Beifang Yi; Frederick C., Jr. Harris; Sergiu M. Dascalu
Sign languages have been proven to be natural languages, as capable of expressing human thoughts and emotions as traditional languages are. The distinct visual and spatial nature of sign languages seems to be an insurmountable barrier for developing a sign language "word processor". However, we argue that with the advancement of computer graphics technology and graphical implementations of linguistic results obtained from the study of sign languages, "writing" in a sign language should not be difficult. We have pursued exploratory work in constructing virtual gestures, applying hand constraints to facilitate the creation of natural gestures, and combining these gestures into meaningful American Sign Language (ASL) parts that follow the ASL Movement-Hold model. The results, although preliminary, are encouraging. We believe that space effective sign language composition is possible space with the implementation of easy-to-use graphical user interfaces and the development of specialized data management methods.
Single complex glyphs versus multiple simple glyphs BIBAFull-Text 1889-1892
  Beth Yost; Chris North
Designers of information visualization systems have the choice to present information in a single integrated view or in multiple views. In practice, there is a continuum between the two strategies and designers must decide how much of each strategy to apply. Although high-level design guidelines (heuristics) are available, there are few low-level perceptual design guidelines for making this decision. We performed a controlled experiment with one, two, and four views to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies on target detection and trend finding tasks in the context of multidimensional glyphs overlaid onto geographic maps. Results from the target detection tasks suggest that visual encoding is a more important factor when detecting a single attribute than the number of views. Additionally, for detecting two attributes, the trend indicates that reusing the most perceptually salient visual feature in multiple views provides faster performance than an integrated view that must map one of the attributes to a less salient feature.
Improving web accessibility using content-aware plug-ins BIBAFull-Text 1893-1896
  Wai Yu; Graham McAllister; Philip Strain; Ravi Kuber; Emma Murphy
This paper describes a novel approach to improve blind and visually impaired people's access to the Web by using a content-aware Web browser plug-in coupled with audio and haptic tools. The Web plug-in accesses the current mouse position on-screen, and makes the co-ordinates available to the audio and haptic modalities. This allows the user to be informed when they are in the vicinity of an image or hyperlink; previously they would only have been informed when they are physically on the link. Thus, when the user is close to an image or hyperlink, haptics and audio will be used to inform and guide them to the actual spatial position. The Web browser plug-in and the associated audio and haptic feedback tools are described in the paper. Finally, results from a pilot study on the usability of this system are also presented.
Age-centered research-based web design guidelines BIBAFull-Text 1897-1900
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Mariya Ghiawadwala; Shabana Mughal
This paper presents the methodology and the results of the development of a set of age-centered research-based web design guidelines. An initial set of guidelines was first developed through careful literature review of the HCI & Aging literature. Then a series of classification methods (card sorting, affinity diagrams) were employed as a means for obtaining a revised and more robust classified set of guidelines. Finally the revised set of guidelines and the original set were tested through their application to a number of age-related websites.
Info-lotus: a peripheral visualization for email notification BIBAFull-Text 1901-1904
  Leizhong Zhang; Nan Tu; Dave Vronay
We designed a peripheral notification visualization called "Info-Lotus". The Info-Lotus is an aesthetically pleasing visualization that offers users a "glance-able" overview of incoming emails of interest in a non-disruptive manner. The goal is to strike a balance among three critical parameters: interruption, reaction, and comprehension. We first present the design of the Info-Lotus. We then discuss the usability study that compares the "toast" notification in Microsoft Office Outlook with the Info-Lotus. Finally, we present a redesign for an improved Info-Lotus, based on the feedbacks of the user study.
"I hear the pattern": interactive sonification of geographical data patterns BIBAFull-Text 1905-1908
  Haixia Zhao; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman
Interactive sonification (non-speech sound) is a novel strategy to present the geographical distribution patterns of statistical data to vision impaired users. We discuss the design space with dimensions of interaction actions, data representation forms, input devices, navigation structures, and sound feedback encoding. Two interfaces were designed, one using a keyboard and another using a smooth surface touch tablet. A study with three blind users shows that they are able to perceive patterns of 5-category values on both familiar and unknown maps, and learn new map geography, in both interfaces.
Augmented reading: presenting additional information without penalty BIBAFull-Text 1909-1912
  Eric Bahna; Robert J. K. Jacob
We present a new interaction technique for computer-based reading tasks. Our technique leverages users' peripheral vision as a channel for information transfer by using a video projector along with a computer monitor. In our experiment, users of our system acquired significantly more information than did users in the control group. The results indicate that our technique conveys extra information to users nearly "for free," without adversely affecting their comprehension or reading times.
WebGazeAnalyzer: a system for capturing and analyzing web reading behavior using eye gaze BIBAFull-Text 1913-1916
  David Beymer; Daniel M. Russell
Capturing and analyzing the detailed eye movements of a user while reading a web page can reveal much about the ways in which web reading occurs. The WebGazeAnalyzer system described here is a remote-camera system, requiring no invasive head-mounted apparatus, giving test subjects a normal web use experience when performing web-based tasks. While many such systems have been used in the past to collect eye gaze data, WebGazeAnalyzer brings together several techniques for efficiently collecting, analyzing and re-analyzing eye gaze data. We briefly describe techniques for overcoming the inherent inaccuracies of such apparatus, illustrating how we capture and analyze eye gaze data for commercial web design problems. Techniques developed here include methods to group fixations along lines of text, and reading analysis to measure reading speed, regressions, and coverage of web page text.
Traveling blues: the effect of relocation on partially distributed teams BIBAFull-Text 1917-1920
  Nathan Bos; Judith Olson; Arik Cheshin; Yong-Suk Kim; Ning Nan; N. Sadat Shami
This experimental study looks at how relocation affected the collaboration patterns of partially-distributed work groups. Partially distributed teams have part of their membership together in one location and part joining at a distance. These teams have some characteristics of collocated teams, some of distributed (virtual) teams, and some dynamics that are unique. Previous experiments have shown that these teams are vulnerable to in-groups forming between the collocated and distributed members. In this study we switched the locations of some of the members about halfway through the experiment to see what effect it would have on these ingroups. People who changed from being isolated 'telecommuters' to collocators very quickly formed new collaborative relationships. People who were moved out of a collocated room had more trouble adjusting, and tried unsuccessfully to maintain previous ties. Overall, collocation was a more powerful determiner of collaboration patterns than previous relationships. Implications and future research are discussed.
Impact of progress feedback on task completion: first impressions matter BIBAFull-Text 1921-1924
  Frederick Conrad; Mick Couper; Roger Tourangeau; Andrey Peytchev
Designers routinely provide feedback about task progress in order to persuade users not to abort the task (break off). However little is known about the effectiveness of such "progress indicators." Two experiments are presented that evaluate progress indicators in web surveys. In the first, progress is displayed at different speeds. When the early feedback is slow, break-off rates are higher and users' subjective experience more negative than when early feedback is fast. In the second experiment, intermittent presentation seems to minimize the costs while preserving the benefits of feedback. Overall, progress indicators can increase completion rates. However, not using them should be as deliberate a decision as using them.
A logic block enabling logic configuration by non-experts in sensor networks BIBAFull-Text 1925-1928
  Susan Cotterell; Frank Vahid
Recent years have seen the evolution of networks of tiny low power computing blocks, known as sensor networks. In one class of sensor networks, a non-expert user, who has little or no experience with electronics or programming, selects, connects and/or configures one or more blocks such that the blocks compute a particular Boolean logic function of sensor values. We describe a series of experiments showing that non-expert users have much difficulty with a block based on Boolean logic truth tables, and that a logic block having a sentence-like structure with some configurable switches yields a better success rate. We also show that a particular use of color with a truth table improves results over a traditional truth table.
Effect of location-awareness on rendezvous behaviour BIBAFull-Text 1929-1932
  David Dearman; Kirstie Hawkey; Kori M. Inkpen
This paper presents an exploratory field study investigating the behavioral effects of mobile location-aware computing on rendezvousing. Participants took part in one of three mobile device conditions (a mobile phone, a location-aware handheld or both a mobile phone and a location-aware handheld) and completed different rendezvousing scenarios. We present one of the scenarios in depth and discuss the effect of location-awareness on rendezvous behaviour.
Mixed interaction space: designing for camera based interaction with mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1933-1936
  Thomas Riisgaard Hansen; Eva Eriksson; Andreas Lykke-Olesen
In mobile devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs, an integrated camera can be used to interact with the device in new ways. In this paper we introduce the term mixed interaction space and argue that the possibility of using mixed interaction spaces is what distinguishes camera-based interaction from other types of sensor-based interaction on mobile devices. We present our implemented applications, and related work that use mixed interaction spaces. Based on this we address how mixed interaction spaces can have different identities, be mapped to applications, and how it can be visualized.
Time quilt: scaling up zoomable photo browsers for large, unstructured photo collections BIBAFull-Text 1937-1940
  David F. Huynh; Steven M. Drucker; Patrick Baudisch; Curtis Wong
In the absence of manual organization of large digital photo collections, the photos' visual content and creation dates can help support time-based visual search tasks. Current zoomable photo browsers are designed to support visual searches by maximizing screenspace usage. However, their space-filling layouts fail to convey temporal order effectively. We propose a novel layout called time quilt that trades off screens-space usage for better presentation of temporal order. In an experimental comparison of space-filling, linear timeline, and time quilt layouts, participants carried out the task of finding photos in their personal photo collections averaging 4,000 items. They performed 45% faster on time quilt.
   Furthermore, while current zoomable photo browsers are designed for visual searches,this support does not scale to thousands of photos: individual thumbnails become less informative as they grow smaller. We found a subjective preference for the use of representative photos to provide an overview for visual searches in place of the diminishing thumbnails.
A living laboratory for the design and evaluation of ubiquitous computing technologies BIBAFull-Text 1941-1944
  Stephen S. Intille; Kent Larson; J. S. Beaudin; J. Nawyn; E. Munguia Tapia; P. Kaushik
We introduce the PlaceLab, a new "living laboratory" for the study of ubiquitous technologies in home settings. The PlaceLab is a tool for researchers developing context-aware and ubiquitous interaction technologies. It complements more traditional data gathering instruments and methods, such as home ethnography and laboratory studies. We describe the data collection capabilities of the laboratory and current examples of its use.
Breakaway: an ambient display designed to change human behavior BIBAFull-Text 1945-1948
  Nassim Jafarinaimi; Jodi Forlizzi; Amy Hurst; John Zimmerman
We present Breakaway, an ambient display that encourages people, whose job requires them to sit for long periods of time, to take breaks more frequently. Breakaway uses the information from sensors placed on an office chair to communicate in a non-obtrusive manner how long the user has been sitting. Breakaway is a small sculpture placed on the desk. Its design is inspired by animation arts and theater, which rely heavily on body language to express emotions. Its shape and movement reflect the form of the human body; an upright position reflecting the body's refreshed pose, and a slouching position reflecting the body's pose after sitting for a long time. An initial evaluation shows a correlation between the movement of the sculpture and when participants took breaks, suggesting that ambient displays that make use of aesthetic and lifelike form might be promising for making positive changes in human behavior.
The advantages of a cross-session web workspace BIBAFull-Text 1949-1952
  Natalie Jhaveri; Kari-Jouko Raiha
Conducting research using the web is often an iterative process of collecting, comparing and contrasting information. Not surprisingly, web-based research tasks habitually span multiple web sessions and involve considerable web page revisitation. Such tasks are not only carried out by researchers, but also by casual web users who, for example, plan vacations and large purchases. Despite the prominence of this activity among web users, existing tools support it poorly. We propose an alternative approach, whereby web-based research tasks are facilitated by a web workspace which represents collected URLs with web page thumbnails. A prototype of our design was developed and studied in an evaluation with 12 participants. Each of the participants adopted the workspace approach instinctively: the workspace was used for web page revisitation, web page comparison, collection overview, cross-session task continuation, and continuous task focus.
Thank you, I did not see that: in-car speech based information systems for older adults BIBAFull-Text 1953-1956
  Ing-Marie Jonsson; Mary Zajicek; Helen Harris; Clifford Nass
Older adult drivers have more difficulty than the general driving public in attending to driving tasks especially in complex traffic situations. This study examines whether a speech based in-car information system can positively influence driver attitudes, driving performance and safety. Eighteen participants between the ages of 55 and 73 used a driving simulator for approximately thirty minutes in one of three conditions: in-car information system with a young voice informing the driver of upcoming hazards, in-car information system with an older adult voice, and no in-car system. There was a clear positive effect of driving with the in-car information system; drivers felt more confident driving, they completed the driving course in less time (without exceeding the speed limit), and had fewer accidents. There was also a clear positive effect of using a young adult voice for the in-car information system.
Chit chat club: bridging virtual and physical space for social interaction BIBAFull-Text 1957-1960
  Karrie G. Karahalios; Kelly Dobson
In this work, we create an audio-video link via an interactive sculpture to facilitate casual, sociable communication between two remote spaces. This communication installation was designed to blend the benefits of online interaction such as low risk interaction, lower barriers to entry, and minimized geographical constraints with the ease and the affordances of interacting and signalling in physical space. We describe the creation and the iterative design process for creating a social virtual-physical hybrid space-interface we call the Chit Chat Club. In describing our design decisions, we note the advantages and disadvantages of two Chit Chat Club installations and their effect on interaction.
A study on the use of semaphoric gestures to support secondary task interactions BIBAFull-Text 1961-1964
  Maria Karam; m. c. schraefel
We present results of a study that considers (a) gestures outside the context of a specific implementation and (b) their use in supporting secondary, rather than primary tasks in a multitasking environment. The results show semaphoric gestures offer significant benefits over function keys in such interactions, and how our findings can be used to extend models of design and evaluation for ubiquitous computing environments that support multitasking.
Benefits of animated scrolling BIBAFull-Text 1965-1968
  Christian Klein; Benjamin B. Bederson
We examined the benefits of animated scrolling using four speeds and three different document types in terms of task speed, accuracy and user preference. We considered reading tasks involving unformatted and formatted text documents, as well as counting tasks involving abstract symbol documents. We found that, compared with non-animated scrolling, animated scrolling significantly improves average task time, by up to 5.3% using 300 millisecond animations for reading documents and by up to 24% at 500 milliseconds for symbol documents. Animated scrolling also significantly decreases error rates for reading tasks by up to 54%, as well as improving satisfaction.
Understanding research trends in conferences using paperLens BIBAFull-Text 1969-1972
  Bongshin Lee; Mary Czerwinski; George Robertson; Benjamin B. Bederson
PaperLens is a novel visualization that reveals trends, connections, and activity throughout a conference community. It tightly couples views across papers, authors, and references. PaperLens was developed to visualize 8 years (1995-2002) of InfoVis conference proceedings and was then extended to visualize 23 years (1982-2004) of the CHI conference proceedings. This paper describes how we analyzed the data and designed PaperLens. We also describe a user study to focus our redesign efforts along with the design changes we made to address usability issues. We summarize lessons learned in the process of design and scaling up to the larger set of CHI conference papers.
Improving automotive safety by pairing driver emotion and car voice emotion BIBAFull-Text 1973-1976
  Clifford Nass; Ing-Marie Jonsson; Helen Harris; Ben Reaves; Jack Endo; Scott Brave; Leila Takayama
This study examines whether characteristics of a car voice can affect driver performance and affect. In a 2 (driver emotion: happy or upset) x 2 (car voice emotion: energetic vs. subdued) experimental study, participants (N=40) had emotion induced through watching one of two sets of 5-minute video clips. Participants then spent 20 minutes in a driving simulator where a voice in the car spoke 36 questions (e.g., "How do you think that the car is performing?") and comments ("My favorite part of this drive is the lighthouse.") in either an energetic or subdued voice. Participants were invited to interact with the car voice. When user emotion matched car voice emotion (happy/energetic and upset/subdued), drivers had fewer accidents, attended more to the road (actual and perceived), and spoke more to the car. Implications for car design and voice user interface design are discussed.
Beyond "from" and "received": exploring the dynamics of email triage BIBAFull-Text 1977-1980
  Carman Neustaedter; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Marc A. Smith
Email triage is the process of going through unhandled email and deciding what to do with it. Email triage can quickly become a serious problem for users as the amount of unhandled email grows. We investigate the problem of email triage by presenting interview and survey results that articulate user needs. The results suggest the need for email user interfaces to provide additional socially salient information in order to bring important emails to the forefront.
PINS push in and POUTS pop out: creating a tangible pin-board that ejects physical documents BIBAFull-Text 1981-1984
  Kher Hui Ng; Steve Benford; Boriana Koleva
There is an asymmetry in many tangible interfaces: while phicons can be used to manipulate digital information, the reverse is often not possible - the digital world cannot push back. We describe a tangible pin-board that pushes back by physically ejecting paper documents when they are digitally deleted. This is realized using pouts, addressable pin-like devices that communicate with a Pin&Play board and that can eject themselves by contracting an internal Muscle Wire actuator to trigger a mechanical latch. To demonstrate and begin to evaluate the technology we have developed an initial application of pouts involving a game where online players vote to eject physical pictures from a pin-board.
A study of preferences for sharing and privacy BIBAFull-Text 1985-1988
  Judith S. Olson; Jonathan Grudin; Eric Horvitz
We describe studies of preferences about information sharing aimed at identifying fundamental concerns with privacy and at understanding how people might abstract the details of sharing into higher-level classes of recipients and information that are treated similarly. Thirty people specified what information they are willing to share with whom.. Although people vary in their overall level of comfort in sharing, we identified key classes of recipients and information. Such abstractions highlight the promise of developing expressive controls for sharing and privacy.
Sources of structure in sensemaking BIBAFull-Text 1989-1992
  Yan Qu; George W. Furnas
A critical aspect of sensemaking is finding appropriate representations for information important to a task. As background for the design of future systems to help people in finding such representations, this paper reports a study of where people currently get aspects of structure for their representations Results show that representation construction and information seeking are closely coupled, as people get aspects of structure top down deducing from their previous knowledge, bottom up inducing from facts they find, and by borrowing from previous sensemaking efforts of others. The findings suggest important revisions of previous sensemaking theories and new opportunities for system design.
Artificial window view of nature BIBAFull-Text 1993-1996
  Adrijan S. Radikovic; John J. Leggett; John Keyser; Roger S. Ulrich
Previous research from environmental psychology shows that human well-being suffers in windowless environments in many ways. In addition, research shows that a window view of nature is psychologically and physiologically beneficial to humans. Current window substitutes, still images and video, lack three dimensional properties necessary for a realistic viewing experience - primarily motion parallax. We present a new system using a head-coupled display and image-based rendering to simulate a photorealistic artificial window view of nature with motion parallax. Evaluation data obtained from a group of human subjects suggest that the system prototype is a better window substitute than a static image, and has significantly more positive effects on observers' moods. The test subjects judged the system prototype as a good simulation of, and acceptable replacement for, a real window, and accorded it much higher ratings for realism and preference than a static image.
Virtual rear projection: do shadows matter? BIBAFull-Text 1997-2000
  Jay Summet; Gregory D. Abowd; Gregory M. Corso; James M. Rehg
Rear projection of large-scale upright displays is often preferred over front projection because of the lack of shadows that occlude the projected image. However, rear projection is not always a feasible option for space and cost reasons. Recent research suggests that many of the desirable features of rear projection, in particular shadow elimination, can be reproduced using new front projection techniques. We report on the results of an empirical study comparing two new projection techniques with traditional rear projection and front projection.
Flipper: a new method of digital document navigation BIBAFull-Text 2001-2004
  Liyang Sun; François Guimbretière
Page flipping is an important part of paper-based document navigation. However this affordance of paper document has not been fully transferred to digital documents. In this paper we present Flipper, a new digital document navigation technique inspired by paper document flipping. Flipper combines speed-dependent automatic zooming (SDAZ) [6] and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) [3], to let users navigate through documents at a wide range of speeds. It is particularly well adapted to rapid visual search. User studies show Flipper is faster than both conventional scrolling and SDAZ and is well received by users.
eMoto: affectively involving both body and mind BIBAFull-Text 2005-2008
  Petra Sundstrom; Anna Stahl; Kristina Höök
It is known that emotions are experienced by both body and mind. Oftentimes, emotions are evoked by sub-symbolic stimuli, such as colors, shapes, gestures, or music. We have built eMoto, a mobile service for sending affective messages to others, with the explicit aim of addressing such sensing. Through combining affective gestures for input with affective expressions that make use of colors, shapes and animations for the background of messages, the interaction pulls the user into an embodied 'affective loop'. We present a user study of eMoto where 12 out of 18 subjects got both physically and emotionally involved in the interaction. The study also shows that the designed 'openness' and ambiguity of the expressions, was appreciated and understood by our subjects.
An empirical assessment of adaptation techniques BIBAFull-Text 2009-2012
  Theophanis Tsandilas; m. c. schraefel
The effectiveness of adaptive user interfaces highly depends on the how accurately adaptation satisfies the needs of users. This paper presents an empirical study that examined two adaptation techniques applied on lists of textual selections. The study measured user performance controlling the accuracy of the suggestions made by the adaptive user interface. The results indicate that different adaptation techniques bare different costs and gains, which are affected by the accuracy of adaptation.
Conveying user values between families and designers BIBAFull-Text 2013-2016
  Amy Voida; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Current research in domestic technology focuses on a subset of the breadth of values that may be present in the domestic environment. In this paper, we present one possible method for conveying a larger potential breadth of user values between families and designers. We describe the ways that we tailored cultural probes specifically for values elicitation as well as the results of both families' and designers' interactions with the probes. We also draw from the social psychology research of Milton Rokeach, whose framework for values was used to scaffold designers in foregrounding user values in domestic design.
Designing a generalized 3D carousel view BIBAFull-Text 2017-2020
  Shuo Wang; Marcin Poturalski; David Vronay
In this paper we describe a 3D carousel view design. We take the basic carousel model and elaborate it to hold an arbitrary number of items in an efficient manner. We equip this model with various interaction methods and a novel component: the termination marker. We also explore more detailed design issues, like animation, by implementing a prototype. We report essential user feedback and how it affected our design.
A meeting browser evaluation test BIBAFull-Text 2021-2024
  Pierre Wellner; Mike Flynn; Simon Tucker; Steve Whittaker
We introduce a browser evaluation test (BET), and describe a trial run application of the test. BET is a method for assessing meeting browser performance using the number of observations of interest found in the minimum amount of time as the evaluation metric, where observations of interest are statements about a meeting collected by independent observers. The resulting speed and accuracy scores aim to be objective, comparable and repeatable.
A picture is worth a thousand keywords: image-based object search on a mobile platform BIBAFull-Text 2025-2028
  Tom Yeh; Kristen Grauman; Konrad Tollmar; Trevor Darrell
Finding information based on an object's visual appearance is useful when specific keywords for the object are not known. We have developed a mobile image-based search system that takes images of objects as queries and finds relevant web pages by matching them to similar images on the web. Image-based search works well when matching full scenes, such as images of buildings or landmarks, and for matching objects when the boundary of the object in the image is available. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple interactive paradigm for obtaining a segmented object boundary, and show how a shape-based image matching algorithm can use the object outline to find similar images on the web.
An experiment in discovering personally meaningful places from location data BIBAFull-Text 2029-2032
  Changqing Zhou; Pamela Ludford; Dan Frankowski; Loren Terveen
As mobile devices become location-aware, they offer the promise of powerful new applications. While computers work with physical locations like latitude and longitude, people think and speak in terms of places, like "my office" or "Sue's house". Therefore, location-aware applications must incorporate the notion of places to achieve their full potential. This requires systems to acquire the places that are meaningful for each user. Previous work has explored algorithms to discover personal places from location data. However, we know of no empirical, quantitative evaluations of these algorithms, so the question of how well they work currently is unanswered. We report here on an experiment that begins to provide an answer; we show that a place discovery algorithm can do a good job of discovering places that are meaningful to users. The results have important implications for system design and open up interesting avenues for future research.

Special interest groups (SIGs)

SIG: the role of human-computer interaction in next-generation control rooms BIBAFull-Text 2033-2034
  Ronald L. Boring; Jacques Hugo; Christian M. Richard; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer
The purpose of this CHI Special Interest Group (SIG) is to facilitate the convergence between human-computer interaction (HCI) and control room design. HCI researchers and practitioners actively need to infuse state-of-the-art interface technology into control rooms to meet usability, safety, and regulatory requirements. This SIG outlines potential HCI contributions to instrumentation and control (I&C) and automation in control rooms as well as to general control room design.
Designs for home life BIBAFull-Text 2035-2036
  A. J. Brush; Leysia Palen; Laurel Swan; Alex S. Taylor
In this Special Interest Group (SIG) we intend to consider the increasingly popular area of interactive systems design for the home. Aiming to incorporate a wide range of perspectives, the SIG's participants will map out the growing number of research and development programs in the area. Particular emphasis will be given to how home life has been characterized in various programmatic visions and how the CHI community might best capitalize on these characterizations. The importance of an understanding of home life to inform design and future directions in this area will also be reflected on. This SIG is intended to appeal to a broad cross section of the CHI community, ranging from practitioners and developers to computer and social scientists.
Rapid user centered design techniques: challenges and solutions BIBAFull-Text 2037-2038
  Karen Holtzblatt; Joerg Beringer; Lisa Baker
This SIG provides a forum for discussing how user-centered methods, including methods like Contextual Design that include field data gathering, can be modified to support short development time frames and organizations using rapid development methodologies. We share ideas for how to get field data into the fast-paced development process, discuss the tradeoffs that can reasonably be made, and talk about techniques for working closely with developers so they value the influx of customer field data. We start by sharing our experiences, and then lead participants through discussions of their key challenges to generate solutions. We record our collective knowledge for the CHI community.
Designing public government web sites BIBAFull-Text 2039-2040
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Jean E. Fox
Public government web sites offer a promise of quick, convenient, and easy access to information and services. This has led many governments to push for an unprecedented move of publications, forms, and other information and services to this medium. There are many design challenges in developing public government web sites. In this SIG we aim to identify these challenges and discuss lessons learned. We will concentrate in two areas: supporting safety and communities, and user-centered design. In our discussion, we plan to touch on issues such as trust, information transparency, information relevance, community support, user-centered design techniques, stakeholders, legal requirements, and universal access. We expect attendees will be either involved in the design of government web sites or interested in a discussion of these issues. The SIG's activities will be organized to maximize input from all attendees.
Making an impact in your community: HCI and US public policy BIBKFull-Text 2041-2042
  Jonathan Lazar; Ben Bederson; Harry Hochheiser; Jeff Johnson; Clare-Marie Karat
Keywords: accessibility, government, government policy, information policy, universal usability, voting machine
eLearning and fun BIBAFull-Text 2043-2044
  Lisa Neal; Ray Perez; Diane Miller
In this Special Interest Group (SIG), we will look at one aspect of eLearning: how to make online learning fun. Taking an online course is often far from a fun experience. Fun should ideally enhance and not interfere with learning by turning it into gaming. Fun has the potential to mitigate some of the drawbacks of eLearning, such as isolation. Fun is itself an elusive concept [7] and there is no consensus on how to design enjoyable experiences [10]. Engagement is accepted as important in online learning but is similarly elusive. In the SIG, we will discuss and define fun with respect to eLearning, looking at innovative approaches to online course design; if fun can increase motivation, engagement, and retention; and how multimedia, games, entertainment, and fun are related.
Do CHI papers work for you?: addressing concerns of authors, audiences and reviewers BIBAFull-Text 2045-2046
  William Newman; Robin Jeffries; m. c. schraefel
CHI papers serve unique and vital purposes within the HCI community. Their ability to serve these purposes is of particular concern to authors, audiences (both attendees at conference sessions and readers of proceedings) and reviewers. However, these stakeholders rarely have an opportunity to state their concerns and influence how they are addressed. This SIG will offer such an opportunity. It has been organized by members of the CHI Papers Support Team, who will lead discussions of major issues. The outcome will be a set of recommended further actions by the Support Team and future papers co-chairs.
End users creating effective software BIBAFull-Text 2047-2048
  Brad A. Myers; Margaret Burnett; Mary Beth Rosson
Is it possible to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to end users? End users create software when they use spreadsheet systems, web authoring tools and graphical languages, when they write educational simulations, spreadsheets, and dynamic e-business web applications. Unfortunately, however, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. A growing number of researchers and developers are working on ways to make the software created by end users more reliable. This special interest group meeting will help support the community of researchers who are addressing this topic.
Design and evaluation challenges of serious games BIBAFull-Text 2049-2050
  Elaine M. Raybourn; Nathan Bos
As the computer game industry grows, game capabilities and designs are being re-used for purposes other than entertainment. The study of 'Serious Games', i.e. games for education and policy making, is of growing interest in many sectors. This SIG will bring together people interested in the topic area to discuss emerging opportunities and challenges. A panel discussion will cover new uses for games, ways of incorporating new measures such as physiological arousal into traditional usability testing, and ways of pursuing new goals such as peer learning with games. Breakout groups will elaborate on panel topics, and also devise next steps for this interest community. A report of this SIG's outcomes will be submitted to the SIG CHI Bulletin.
Tangible user interfaces for children BIBAFull-Text 2051-2052
  Glenda Revelle; Oren Zuckerman; Allison Druin; Mark Bolas
Tangible user interfaces, which provide interactivity using real physical objects, hold enormous promise for children. Exploring and manipulating physical objects is a key component of young children's learning. The educational power of digital technology for children has typically been limited by the fact that users explore and manipulate abstract two-dimensional screen-based representations, and not real physical objects. Embedding interactivity into physical objects, therefore, allows the "best of both worlds" - supporting traditional exploratory play with physical objects that can be extended and enhanced by the interactive power of digital technology. Participants in this SIG are invited to share ideas regarding the design and development of tangible interfaces, and to bring demos or slides/videos showing work in this area. Participants will review as many examples as time allows, and discuss the issues surrounding design and development of such interfaces. A primary goal of this SIG is to foster the development of a community of researchers and practitioners who are focused on designing and developing tangible interfaces for children.
Current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIBAFull-Text 2053-2054
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This CHI SIG is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators' list of topics, augmented by attendees' suggestions.

Student design competition

mPath: facilitating human interaction BIBAFull-Text 2055-2059
  Shweta Aneja; Kevin Makice; Apurva Pangam; Matt Weldon
As the "baby-boomer" generation approaches retirement, the United States will enjoy a significant increase in the number of senior citizens. Issues involving seniors are likely to rise to the forefront of national consciousness. A primary concern for this population is the loss of companionship, which can contribute to isolation, depression, and decreased socialization [9]. A concept for a data management service - mPath - is proposed to combat isolation among seniors. mPath works with administrators of assisted-living facilities to oversee an ad-hoc volunteer network. Interacting with residents, these volunteers assess social relationships and emotional reactions, quantifying for the computer their qualitative observations. The system examines accumulated data over time to reveal anomalies, highlight trends and anticipate future responses. Administrators may choose to act upon that information. The overall effect is to increase the social well being of seniors in an unobtrusive manner.
Fridgets: digital refrigerator magnets BIBAFull-Text 2060-2064
  Jacqueline Bauer; Kristy Streefkerk; Ryan R. Varick
The senior population is a broad, diverse demographic that it is often overlooked by traditional markets, particularly in the United States. In addition, seniors commonly experience feelings of isolation, abandonment and loneliness. This paper seeks to examine the sources of depression in the elderly and to explore human-centered technological solutions. We then propose a system of refrigerator-based technologies designed to foster self-reliance and connectedness among seniors.
Meeteetse: social well-being through place attachment BIBAFull-Text 2065-2069
  Kynthia Brunette; Matthew Eisenstadt; Erik Pukinskis; William Ryan
This paper introduces Meeteetse, a set of technologies designed to facilitate social well-being through place attachment. Meeteetse builds a connection between individual homes and a local community center, a connection that is designed to encourage active involvement in community events and create a support network for those who might otherwise be isolated by the effects of old age. The design consists of several parts that work together to build this connection. A location-aware digital camera and a large public display are integrated into the community center to strengthen shared identity. A touch-screen scheduling device and a digital picture frame create a tangible community presence in seniors' homes. Together, these components enhance social well-being and lower the barrier for participation in the community.
Remember when: development of an interactive reminiscence device BIBAFull-Text 2070-2073
  Niamh Caprani; Nuala Dwyer; Kim Harrison; Karen O' Brien
THE use of technology has become increasingly widespread across the globe. Findings from a feasibility study for the proposed device suggests that a population of 45-65 year olds are experienced using technology. Therefore this experience will be carried through to old age facilitating the use of emerging technologies, such as a technology driven reminiscence device. Furthermore a case study revealed that stimulation may aid communication amongst elderly people. A technology based reminiscence device is proposed as a means of facilitating communication creating bonds among elderly people. This reminiscence device in turn should alleviate loneliness by initiating conversation between elderly people. The proposed device is targeted at elderly people living in a nursing home, elderly people living alone and as a tool for care workers.
ShareComp: sharing for companionship BIBAFull-Text 2074-2078
  Chun-Yi Chen; Marina Kobayashi; Lui Min Oh
We describe our process, findings, and resulting solution for the CHI2005 Student Competition. The design problem was the issue of well-being of persons above the age of 65 years. Loss of a companion can be a primary cause of depression, and decline of social well-being and health for the elderly, so the challenge is to design for "artificial" companionship to support the elderly. We met this challenge by employing extensive research in geriatric psychology, empirical and analytical human-computer interaction methods, interaction design techniques, and technologies currently available or in development. Our solution is a wearable and stationary device that will allow the user to 1) record events through pictures and audio for sharing, 2) gather artifacts of their past such as photographs into a multimedia slideshow format for sharing with others, and 3) allow friends and family to be aware of the user's location for safety purposes.
Pollen: promoting the exchange of meaningful objects BIBAFull-Text 2079-2083
  Stefanie Danhope-Smith; Payaal Patel
One of the most trying aspects of growing old is the loss of loved ones. Older people often experience depression as a result of this reality. Without regular contact from friends and family to amend this loneliness, a gap may exist in the individual's social welfare.
   Through a unique combination of Industrial Design and Interaction Design methods, we have formed a process that allows us to explore the contextual background of a problem as well as a physical product solution. By using this process, we were able to create Pollen, an affordable product that provides companionship through the exchange of meaningful artifacts. This paper describes both the process taken to create this unique product as well as the product itself.
ECHOES: encouraging companionship, home organization, and entertainment in seniors BIBAFull-Text 2084-2088
  Justin Donaldson; Joshua Evnin; Sidharth Saxena
The ECHOES project (Encouraging Companionship, Home Organization, and Entertainment in Seniors), is focused on understanding and improving aspects of companionship in senior populations aged sixty-five years and older. Individuals in this age range commonly experience the loss of close friends and life partners. Furthermore, they are at risk of suffering from feelings of loneliness and depression. The project team consulted with several experts on aging in order to better understand the target population. The team followed an iterative design process which included focus groups and field studies. Potential design possibilities were identified and a final design prototype was chosen after several rounds of usability testing. The proposed system includes "TeleTable," an interactive table-based device that offers intuitive means of arranging and organizing digital media. The TeleTable also functions in a communicative capacity, encouraging individuals to interact with each other by playing simple games, conversing verbally, and exchanging digital photos with each other. This system also includes the "Pitara," a portable device enabling the association of physical mementos and keepsakes to digital media which adds a mobility, lifetime sharing and storytelling aspect to the TeleTable.
SIGCHI project: user centered design of a program alleviating loneliness (PAL) BIBAFull-Text 2089-2093
  Elaine Hollywood; Grainne O'Brien; Sara Lennon
THIS paper illustrates the creation of an interactive entertainment system; PAL (Program Alleviating Loneliness.) The purpose of PAL is to provide artificial companionship to support the social well-being of elderly homebound persons living alone above the age of 65 years. PAL also provides a fully reliable source of emergency contact. PAL is intended for the elderly homebound persons of today with its simplistic design. In order to create PAL methodologies and techniques for designing user centred products or devices were considered. Suggestions from the elderly persons and district nurses were also taken into consideration when designing PAL. Through the application of the above methodology we created an interactive entertainment system that is emotionally engaging, entertaining, cost effective, and supports at least one non-entertainment function for the owner.
HOMIE: an artificial companion for elderly people BIBAFull-Text 2094-2098
  Simone Kriglstein; Gunter Wallner
In this paper we present "Homie" an artificial companion for elderly people. Our approach emphasizes amusement and benefit - amusement in form of entertainment and benefit in terms of medical care. The key to awake elderly people's emotional engagement in an artificial companion is its emotional behavior. Therefore, we propose a companion that does not look technical, which is mostly associated with the words cold and impersonal. Furthermore it features facial expression and gesture. An important design aspect was that it is no additional burden for elderly people. Engaging with it is free and fun.
Supporting emotional ties among mexican elders and their families living abroad BIBAFull-Text 2099-2103
  Pedro C. Santana; Marcela D. Rodriguez; Victor M. Gonzalez; Luis A. Castro; Angel G. Andrade
The aging of the population is a phenomenon faced by most nations, such as Mexico, where 7.5% of the population is older than 60 years, a significant proportion of whom live alone (10%). This fact is related with the ever increasing migration of one or more of their relatives, mostly to the USA. Our work aims to provide a technological solution that eases the isolation of elder people living alone in Mexico while their families are abroad. To envision and inform our design we interviewed independent old persons living alone. We propose an electronic family newspaper, through which elders and their families share information, personal reminiscences and cultural stories, and occasionally interact with each other. Through its functionality, the electronic newspaper enables elders not only to maintain close social ties, but ameliorate cognitive decline.
Project VIRGO: creation of a surrogate companion for the elderly BIBAFull-Text 2104-2108
  Timothy Sherwood; Farilee Mintz; Miroslava Vomela
The Voice Intelligent Reciprocating Gemutlich Orator (VIRGO) was developed from perceptions of companionship held by persons 65 years of age and older. The knowledge gained from ethnographic interaction with segments of the target population was applied toward the creation of a device. VIRGO is expected to fulfill various companionship needs derived from user-centered research, expert advice and those of the sponsor.
   A brief review of the data collected is provided and implications toward the operationalization of various features of companionship are described. Important findings of the data include the need for activity to continue as a matter of over all health and as a management tool for recovery from a loss. The importance of continued learning and physical activity is also indicated as a means of maintaining wellbeing. A brief analysis of the findings from design testing and their implications for redesign is also described.

Workshops

Engaging the city: public interfaces as civic intermediary BIBAFull-Text 2109-2110
  Michele Chang; Katrina Jungnickel; Chet Orloff; Irina Shklovski
This two-day workshop will advance discussion on the role of public interfaces in engaging citizens within the urban context. The aim is to determine how technology can help to develop cities that address the needs and reflect the desires of its inhabitants. The challenge for the HCI community is to design more effective public interfaces that provide citizens with more active access, authorship, and agency. The workshop's field research component will involve visiting the city of Portland as a case study for processing and refining these theoretical considerations.
UbiSoc 2005: first international workshop on social implications of ubiquitous computing BIBKFull-Text 2111-2112
  Vlad Coroama; Vassilis Kostakos; Carsten Magerkurth; Irene Lopez de Vallejo
Keywords: design requirements, social implications, ubiquitous computing
Graduate education in human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 2113-2114
  James Foley; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Jonathan Grudin; James Hollan; Scott Hudson; Judy Olson; Bill Verplank
HCI, course outlines, curricula, degree programs, digital library, graduate education, teaching materials
Making sense of sensemaking BIBKFull-Text 2115-2116
  George W. Furnas; Daniel M. Russell
Keywords: information seeking, information visualization, query formation, representation construction, sensemaking
Distributed display environments BIBFull-Text 2117-2118
  Dugald Ralph Hutchings; John Stasko; Mary Czerwinski
Evaluating affective interfaces: innovative approaches BIBAFull-Text 2119
  Katherine Isbister; Kristina Höök
This paper presents the broad outlines of the context and goals for a one-day workshop concerning the evaluation of affective interfaces.
Cognition and collaboration: analyzing distributed community practices for design BIBAFull-Text 2120
  Peter H. Jones; Cristina Chisalita
This extended abstract describes the workshop Cognition and Collaboration - Analyzing Distributed Community Practices for Design, the Third International Workshop on Analyzing Collaborative Activity.
Usage analysis: combining logging and qualitative methods BIBKFull-Text 2121-2122
  Joke Kort; Henk de Poot
Keywords: automated usability evaluation, automated usage analysis, event logging, product design cycle, product launch and marketing, qualitative methods
Creating and managing user partnership programs BIBAFull-Text 2123
  Wai On Lee; Sol Solorzano; Charles Harrison
In this workshop, we will discuss our experiences and share best practices in creating and utilizing a user partnership program (UPP) to help overcome the challenges of collecting customer feedback in environments characterized with diverse users and business processes, complex technology infrastructures, and large scale enterprise software deployments.
Quality, value(s) and choice: exploring deeper outcomes for HCI products BIBKFull-Text 2124-2125
  Ann Light; Peter J. Wild; Andy Dearden; Michael J. Muller
Keywords: HCI, choice, ethics, quality, value, values
Designing technology for community appropriation BIBFull-Text 2126-2127
  Wendy March; Margot Jacobs; Tony Salvador
Awareness systems: known results, theory, concepts and future challenges BIBKFull-Text 2128-2129
  Panos Markopoulos; Boris de Ruyter; Wendy E. Mackay
Keywords: affective communication, awareness systems, computer mediated communication, connectivity, media theories
HCI challenges in health assessment BIBKFull-Text 2130-2131
  Margaret Morris; Stephen Intille
Keywords: assessment, early detection, health, pervasive computing, prevention, ubiquitous computing, user experience
The virtuality continuum revisited BIBAFull-Text 2132-2133
  Anton Nijholt; David Traum
We survey the themes and the aims of a workshop devoted to the state-of-the-art virtuality continuum. In this continuum, ranging from fully virtual to real physical environments, allowing for mixed, augmented and desktop virtual reality, several perspectives can be taken. Originally, the emphasis was on display technologies. Here we take the perspective of the inhabited environment, that is, environments positioned somewhere on this continuum that are inhabited by virtual (embodied) agents, that interact with each other and with their human partners. Hence, we look at it from the multi-party interaction perspective. In this workshop we will investigate the current state of the art, its shortcomings and a future research agenda.
The future of user interface design tools BIBAFull-Text 2134-2135
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Scott R. Klemmer
This workshop aims to gather researchers in the field of user interface design tools to identify important themes for the next decade of research. These tools aid in the design and development of interactive systems: they include interface builders, development environments for writing code, and toolkits that provide software architectures and building blocks to aid development. These tools have provided tremendous benefit for the designers and developers of graphical user interfaces. The CHI community has shown that the next generation of user interfaces is moving off the desktop: these emerging interfaces employ novel input techniques such as tangible, haptic, and camera-based interaction, access to vast information repositories and sensor networks, and information presentation to a wide range of devices. In this workshop, we will discuss common themes, conflicting ideas, and future directions for the next generation of software tools that will support ubiquitous computing.
Focus on the individual: the future of web-based product support BIBKFull-Text 2136-2137
  Susan Palmiter; Gene Lynch; Jennifer Day; Melinda Geist; Bryan Rhoads
Keywords: customization, personalization, product support
Beyond threaded conversation BIBKFull-Text 2138-2139
  Paul Resnick; John Riedl; Loren Terveen; Mark Ackerman
Keywords: asynchronous communication, computer-mediated communications, information systems, online discussion, system design
Hands-on haptics: exploring non-visual visualization using the sense of touch BIBFull-Text 2140-2141
  Steven Wall; Stephen Brewster