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CHI Tables of Contents: 98-198-2a98-2b98-2c98-2d99-199-200-100-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Anyone, Anywhere
Location:Seattle, Washington, USA
Dates:2001-Mar-31 to 2001-Apr-05
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-340-5; ACM Order No.: 608015; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI01-2
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2001-03-31 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: the way to work
    2. Demonstrations: anywhere
    3. Demonstrations: bleeding edge
    4. Demonstrations: anyone
    5. Demonstrations: web usability
    6. Demonstrations: design tools
    7. Demonstrations: technology play
    8. Design expo
    9. Development consortium participants
    10. Doctoral consortium
    11. Interactive posters: user centered design
    12. Interactive posters: visualizing
    13. Interactive posters: mobility
    14. Interactive posters: telecommunications
    15. Interactive posters: working in offices
    16. Interactive posters: universality
    17. Interactive posters: multimodal interaction
    18. Interactive posters: internet
    19. Interactive posters: novel interaction techniques
    20. Interactive video posters
    21. Panels
    22. Short talks: anywhere: staying in touch in motion (anywhere: mobility)
    23. Short talks: any one: universal design
    24. Short talks: fun with learning
    25. Short talks: HCI in everyday life
    26. Short talks: of mice and measures
    27. Short talks: trust, credibility, community
    28. Short talks: expressing emotion through art, music, and technology (expressing emotions)
    29. Short talks: interaction techniques
    30. Short talks: virtual collaboration tools
    31. Short talks: eCommerce and eLearning
    32. Short talks: input by hand, eye, and brain
    33. Short talks: displaying beyond desktop
    34. Short talks: understanding interfaces
    35. Student posters
    36. Workshops

CHI 2001-03-31 Volume 2

Demonstrations: the way to work

User benefits of connecting automobiles to the internet BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  David Curbow
Commuters spend a lot of time in their cars, Americans average 80 minutes per day -- much of it stuck in traffic jams. Surveys tell us that most users are interested in services and information that makes their drive safer, shorter and more enjoyable -- not reading email.
   Jupiter Communications[1] surveyed 2100 consumers in 1998 regarding services they would like to see in the auto. Their answers (in order of preference): directions and maps, traffic reports, weather, e-mail and arranging travel. This matches our smaller scale studies.
   We have been investigating how to deliver these services to drivers and have initial information to report.
Hubbub: a wireless instant messenger that uses earcons for awareness and for "sound instant messages" BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Ellen Isaacs; Alan Walendowski; Dipti Ranganathan
There is a need for lightweight communication tools that give people awareness of colleagues, friends, and family and that let them initiate and retrieve messages with trivial effort. Existing instant messenger applications are a good step, but most provide minimal awareness and are not easily accessible from the road. Hubbub is an instant messenger that runs on a wireless Palm and a PC, enabling people to maintain background awareness of others and send them quick messages. It uses a novel concept of "sound instant messages," i.e., earcons that have meaning, such "Hi" or "Thanks." Each user has a Sound ID that announces their sound messages and their changes in availability. Users can protect their privacy and control sound overload.

Demonstrations: anywhere

The "Authoring on the Fly" system for automatic presentation recording BIBAFull-Text 5-6
  Wolfgang Hurst; Gabriela Maass; Rainer Muller; Thomas Ottmann
In the presentation recording scenario there are two aspects regarding the user interface: How the recording is done (i.e., how the presenter or his/her assistants have to interact with the recording tools (hardware and software)), and how users can access the produced multimedia documents (i.e., how replay, as well as search and navigation in the files can be done comfortably and efficiently). In this demonstration, we will illustrate Authoring on the Fly (AOF), a system for presentation recording which provides new approaches and solutions for both of these issues.
MobiLearn: competence development for Nomads BIBAFull-Text 7-8
  Johan Lundin; Urban Nulden; Lars M. Persson
Organizations in the new economy are dependent on organizational knowledge and competence. Workers in these organizations are to a large extent mobile. They need new competence development opportunities unrestrained by time and space. We have developed and successfully tested models, applications and activities (e.g. multimedia scenarios) supporting competence development. We are transferring this competence development activity to mobile settings to achieve successful competence development for nomads. The goal is identifying applications and services in the competence development realm suitable for 3G (third generation cellular networks). Combining our models and activities with the new technology we rethink how competence development can be conducted and managed.

Demonstrations: bleeding edge

Richer graphical interaction using interactive pixel rewrite systems BIBAFull-Text 9-10
  George W. Furnas; Yan Qu; Sanjeev Shrivastava; Gregory Peters
Current computer systems are dominated by forms, behaviors and interactions most easily described in the textual languages of the underlying software. In this demo we enrich the space of interactive visual forms and behaviors by using an alternate underlying, non-sentential computational paradigm, Pixel Rewrite Systems. We show fundamental algorithms, interaction elements and application fragments that might be possible with this approach.
CPN/tools: revisiting the desktop metaphor with post-WIMP interaction techniques BIBAFull-Text 11-12
  Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Wendy E. Mackay; Peter Andersen; Paul Janecek; Mads Jensen; Michael Lassen; Kasper Lund; Kjeld Mortensen; Stephanie Munck; Katrine Ravn; Anne Ratzer; Soren Christensen; Kurt Jensen
CPN/Tools is an editor and simulator of Coloured Petri Nets that uses post-WIMP interaction techniques, including bi-manual interaction, toolglasses and marking menus and a new metaphor for managing the workspace. It challenges traditional ideas about user interfaces, getting rid of pull-down menus, scrollbars, and even selection, while providing the same or greater functionality than current GUIs. This demo presents the first version of CPN/Tools.

Demonstrations: anyone

The total access system BIBAFull-Text 13-14
  Neil G. Scott; Isabelle Gingras
In this paper, we describe the Total Access System (TAS) developed by the Archimedes Project at Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information. The purpose of the TAS is to ensure everybody is able to access information regardless of individual needs, abilities, preferences and culture. Rather than modifying the computer that is to be accessed, the TAS provides individuals with a personal information appliance, called an accessor, that provides alternative ways to perform all of the necessary keyboard, mouse and/or monitor functions. With this approach, disabled users can transparently use the full capabilities of any system without penalty and with whatever performance augmentation they may require to be competitive.
What I need is what I get: downloadable user interfaces via Jini and Java BIBAFull-Text 15-16
  Marney Beard; Peter Korn
In this demonstration, we show how technology can improve the lives of people with disabilities, specifically by increasing their independence by giving them control over a few appliances in the home. The technical approach demonstrated here is based on Jini[tm] connection technology, which allows devices and "services" to become known to each other, and allows the "service" to be delivered through a variety of user interfaces. This approach can be applied in any number of situations, both throughout the home and in public spaces, illustrating the power of universal design, which benefits all people, whether they happen to have a disability or not.

Demonstrations: web usability

Usability testing software for the internet BIBAFull-Text 17-18
  Mike Lister
This paper describes a software method of producing an in-depth examination of the user experience of a website. Using Internet technology, multiple tests can be aggregated to produce average patterns of behavior. The visual data from the tests can be copied to removable media such as CD-ROM and replayed on any Windows equipped computer to show the development team the difficulties experienced by target customers. The website customer testing phase can be accelerated by the use of this software because the individuals may be tested via the Internet and so there are no geographic considerations. As testing takes place the target customer is in isolation so that accumulated data is not distorted by other individuals.
WebEyeMapper and WebLogger: tools for analyzing eye tracking data collected in web-use studies BIBAFull-Text 19-20
  Robert W. Reeder; Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card
Eye trackers output a stream of points at which the eye was looking. To give these points meaning, researchers analyzing eye tracking data need to map the points onto the meaningful objects at which the eye was looking. Performing this mapping has proven to be a tedious, time-consuming task. We present a software system that automates this task for Web usability studies that incorporate eye tracking.

Demonstrations: design tools

CTTE: an environment for analysis and development of task models of cooperative applications BIBAFull-Text 21-22
  Fabio Paterno; Giulio Mori; Riccardo Galiberti
Tool-support is strongly required in order to ease the use of task models and make them acceptable to a large number of designers. CTTE is an automatic environment that has been developed for this purpose. This tool can be useful to better develop and analyse task models and their dynamic behaviour including those for cooperative applications.
A user input and analysis tool for information architecture BIBAFull-Text 23-24
  Jianming Dong; Shirley Martin; Paul Waldo
The EZSort tool helps interface designers organize information for Web sites based on users' expectations gathered from card sorting exercises. It includes two packages: Usort and EZCalc. Usort provides a simple user interface for the card sort study participants to group cards by direct manipulation within a Graphical User Interface. EZCalc analyzes the card sort data gathered from Usort using cluster analysis statistical tool and generates tree diagrams that present clearly the page groupings suggested by the data. The output diagrams from EZCalc feature directly adjustable criteria bars and dynamic feedback on the resulting groupings. This tool is available for download from the IBM Ease of Use Web site.

Demonstrations: technology play

MagicBook: transitioning between reality and virtuality BIBAFull-Text 25-26
  Mark Billinghurst; Hirokazu Kato; Ivan Poupyrev
The MagicBook explores how interfaces can be developed that allow for seamless transition between Physical Reality, Augmented Reality (AR), and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) in a collaborative setting. The MagicBook is a normal book and can be read without any additional technology. However, when book pages are viewed through a handheld display three-dimensional virtual images appear overlaid on them. Readers can view these AR scenes from any perspective and can also fly into the scenes and experience them as an immersive VR world. VR users can see other VR users represented as life-sized virtual avatars, while AR users will see VR users as miniature avatars in the scene.
Therapeutic play with a storytelling robot BIBAFull-Text 27-28
  Corinna Lathan; Jack Maxwell Vice; Michael Tracey; Catherine Plaisant; Allison Druin; Kris Edward; Jaime Montemayor
We are developing a prototype storytelling robot for use with children in rehabilitation. Children can remotely control a furry robot by using a variety of body sensors adapted to their disability or rehabilitation goal. We believe this robot can motivate children and help them reach their therapy goals through therapeutic play, either by exercising muscles or joints (e.g. for physically challenged children) or by reflecting on the stories (e.g. for children with developmental disabilities). To develop this technology we use an innovative design methodology involving children as design partners.

Design expo

Personal digital historian: user interface design BIBAFull-Text 29-30
  Chia Shen; Neal Lesh; Baback Moghaddam; Paul Beardsley; Ryan Scott Bardsley
Desktop computers are not designed for multi-person face-to-face conversation in a social setting. We describe the design of a novel user interface for multi-user interactive informal storytelling. Our design is guided by principles of experience sharing, the disappearing computer, visual navigation, and implicit query formulation.
PatternMagix construction kit software BIBAFull-Text 31-32
  Edith Ackermann; Carol Strohecker
PatternMagix is a game-like software construction kit. Its constructive-dialogic style of interaction supports learning through playful exploration. In the course of creating colorful tiles and patterns, learners explore geometric operations, like rotation and symmetry. Their moves alternate with automatic moves of the computational device so that the interactions resemble turn-taking in a dialog.
VisualFlow a media browser BIBAFull-Text 33-34
  Eduardo Sciammarella
This paper covers the development and design of a media browsing application, VisualFlow, for Sony's MemoryStick and VAIO Computers. VisualFlow has been an attempt to establish a new consumer oriented user interface. This new interface provides an enjoyable yet powerful framework for consumers to manage an increasing multitude of media files.
GeoSCAPE: designing a reconstructive tool for field archaeological excavation BIBAFull-Text 35-36
  Jay Lee; Hiroshi Ishii; Blair Duun; Victor Su; Sandia Ren
We introduce GeoSCAPE, a "reconstructive" tool for capturing measurement data in field archaeology and facilitating a 3D visualization of an excavation rendered in computer graphics. This project is carried out by extending a recently developed an orientation-aware digital measuring tape, called HandSCAPE that has been examined to address the efficiency of bridging measuring and modeling for on-site application areas [2]. In this paper, we present the GeoSCAPE system using the same digital tape measure interacting with an enhancing archaeological-specific 3D visualizations the goal is to provide visual reconstruction methods by acquiring accurate field measurements and visualizing the complex work of an archaeologist during the course of on-site excavation.
Poly-vectoral reverse navigation: simplifying traversal to and from shared nodes BIBAFull-Text 37-38
  Mark Freeman; Eric Gould Bear; Barbee Teasley
A shared node is a packet of information accessible from more than one context. A few techniques exist for displaying and navigating shared nodes, but they are either not optimal for web environments, or are lacking in richness and ease-of-use. Poly-vectoral reverse navigation (PVRN) is a technique we developed to provide information within a context about other contexts that share a node. From within a shared node, PVRN provides ready navigation to other contexts that share the node. The technique was successfully used in a commercial web site.
The gas pump as information appliance: a design case BIBAFull-Text 39-40
  Rachel Garb
Advertisers, content providers, and media companies are continually seeking novel ways to reach consumers in everyday places. One company, Ten Square, is launching a network that delivers interactive content and services to consumers at gas pumps. This paper discusses the primary design challenges and constraints Ten Square faced in developing its first application: a coupon-on-demand service. Design approaches and considerations leading up to the solution are presented, along with recommendations for gracefully integrating interactive experiences into time-limited retail transactions.
Building international web sites for the financial market BIBAFull-Text 41-42
  Erik Rutten; David Ziedman; Doris Pelger; Bill McCarthy; Duncan Prior
Launching a financial web site is already a difficult enough prospect. The EUBOS.nl web site wants to offer financial services to people throughout Europe using a bank that is both foreign to their country and whose presence is only a cyberpresence. Such a proposition will sink or swim based on its international sensitivity, its convincing brand identity and user support. International sensitivity means that the web site must have an interface that can take into mutli-cultural considerations (i.e. cultural values, language, legal systems). The proposed web site should radiate a recognizable brand identity (or at least a brand identity the users think they recognize). Task support on the web site must allow for many simultaneous levels of users each needing their own level of support.
GeoNotes: social enhancement of physical space BIBAFull-Text 43-44
  Per Persson; Fredrik Espinoza; Elenor Cacciatore
The GeoNotes system allows users to annotate physical locations with virtual 'notes', which are then pushed to or accessed by other users when in the vicinity. GeoNotes employs a number of social filtering techniques, which all rely on logging of usage rather than content.
Digital jewelry: wearable technology for everyday life BIBAFull-Text 45-46
  Cameron S. Miner; Denise M. Chan; Christopher Campbell
Pervasive technology devices that intend to be worn must not only meet our functional requirements but also our social, emotional, and aesthetic needs. Current pervasive devices such as the PDA or cell phone are more portable than wearable, yet still they elicit strong consumer demand for intuitive interfaces and well-designed forms. Looking to the future of wearable pervasive devices, we can imagine an even greater demand for meaningful forms for objects nestled so close to our bodies. They will need to reflect our tastes and moods, and allow us to express our personalities, cultural beliefs, and values. Digital Jewelry explores a new wearable technology form that is based in jewelry design, not in technology. Through prototypes and meaningful scenarios, digital jewelry offers new ideas to consider in the design of wearable devices.

Development consortium participants

Interfaces for groupware BIBAFull-Text 47-48
  Marcos R. S. Borges; Jose A. Pino; Carla Valle
Groupware applications require a different set of interface metaphors to appropriately deal with synchronous and asynchronous interactions. In this paper we describe some interface artifacts developed for two groupware applications
Research and development of speech technology & applications for Mexican Spanish at the Tlatoa group BIBAFull-Text 49-50
  Ingrid Kirschning
Thanks to the advances in today's technology in terms of processing speed of computers, storage space and the management of sound and video devices, speech technology is a reality in almost any kind of computerized system. Speech applications are being used in personal computers, cellular phones, etc. This makes this interesting technology accessible to almost anyone. Among it's most useful applications we can find telephone-based information services, banking and computer assisted language learning systems.
   There exist already a large number of commercial products that use speech interfaces, developed mainly for English, German and Japanese. That is why we at TLATOA have focused our efforts on making this technology available in the Spanish spoken in Mexico.
   To this effect we perform basic research in the different speech processing techniques, trying to improve the performance of speech recognition and synthesis (artificial neural networks, hidden Markov Models (HMM's), Unit Selection, etc.), as well as, the Spanish language, dialogue structure, perception and human-computer interaction approaches, for the development of speech applications.
Structured user interface design methodology BIBAFull-Text 51-52
  Leonel Morales
This extended abstract describes the research in progress to develop a methodology to deploy user interface designs based on a layer-conformed structure. Final descriptive designs are achieved when all layers are specified.
Adding human computer interaction studies into the informatics and computing engineering bachelor degrees in Latin America BIBAFull-Text 53-54
  Mario Alberto Moreno Rocha
The fast paced evolution of computing disciplines forces educators to a constant reviewing and actualisation of both content and syllabus of professional studies. However, the studies within the area of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) had been traditionally left aside, being the interface design a primordial necessity in the job market. This proposal offers a vision, along with advantages, which would come with the incorporation of HCI studies to the syllabus of careers like the Bachelor in Informatics and Computing Engineering.
A semiotic engineering approach to HCI BIBAFull-Text 55-56
  Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa; Raquel Oliveira Prates
Designing software involves good perception, good reasoning, and a talent to express oneself effectively through programming and interactive languages. Semiotic theories can help HCI designers increase their power to perceive, reason and communicate. In this paper we present the semiotic engineering approach to HCI and some of the results that have been reached at the Semiotic Engineering Research Group (SERG) at the Informatics Department at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio).
Work environments in electronic meeting systems BIBAFull-Text 57-58
  Josefina Rodriquez; Jesus Favela
In this paper, we describe different work environments for the Electronic Meeting System designed at CICESE Research Center.
Human-computer interaction through computer vision BIBAFull-Text 59-60
  Homero V. Rios
In this paper, we describe the work of our group on the use of computer vision to complement existing modes of human-interaction. Our main achievements have been the development of an iris tracker and a hand tracker for HCI similar to a "visual mouse", and a deformable model of a generic face for facial feature extraction, for emotion recognition.
Supporting group awareness in alliance BIBAFull-Text 61-62
  Manuel Romero Salcedo
An important problem in several scientific and technical fields, and in general in the whole human knowledge, is the development and maintenance of common documents. Alliance is a collaborative writing system which allow co-authors, spread out across different locations, to work together sharing common documents. In order for collaboration to succeed and to be efficient, co-authors need to be aware of each other's activities (actions, intentions, presence, etc.). This position paper focus on describing the protocol developed for supporting group awareness in Alliance. A discussion of how well this protocol works in a real operational context is included.
HCI and CSCW in the context of digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 63-64
  J. Alfredo Sanchez
We describe work conducted to explore issues related to human-computer interaction (HCI) and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) in the development of digital libraries. In this context, we have designed and prototyped environments that facilitate collaboration among distributed users while still responding to their specific individual needs and preferences. The results of the work include operational interfaces for large information spaces and collaborative environments for an actual digital library which is part of a large federation of digital collections.
Interactive virtual acoustic environments for blind children: computing, usability, and cognition BIBAFull-Text 65-66
  Jaime Sanchez; Mauricio Lumbreras; Luca Cernuzzi
Blind children tend to represent spatial environments with cognitive difficulty. The absence of visual stimuli processing impedes the construction of rich representations of the surrounding space. This can be decreased if they are exposed to interactive experiences with acoustic stimuli delivered through spatialized sound software complemented with cognitive tasks tailored to accomplish richer representations. A few studies have approached this issue by using interactive applications that integrate virtual reality and cognitive tasks to enhance spatial orientation skills. The aim of this research has been to design interactive software based on spatialized sound to help blind learners to construct cognitive spatial structures.

Doctoral consortium

Social affordances of computer-mediated communication technology: understanding adoption BIBAFull-Text 67-68
  Erin Bradner
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology includes messaging systems, such as e-mail, and conferencing technologies designed to facilitate group work. Technology researchers argue that CMC adoption fails when it interferes with subtle and complex social dynamics of groups. Yet, empirical studies of CMC use which explicitly associate social behavior with design features are largely absent from the literature. Also absent are conceptual tools for detecting and describing such behavior. This research addresses these absences by closely examining how CMC design supports social interaction among distributed work groups and thus, stimulates or suppresses adoption. Contributions of this work are a principled understanding of sociotechnical issues surrounding CMC use and recommendations for design.
Flamenco image browser: using metadata to improve image search during architectural design BIBAFull-Text 69-70
  Ame Elliott
Current user interfaces for image search are not successful at supporting architects' information access needs because they 1) do not recognize the context of architectural design, and 2) require complex textual queries that often result in either too many or too few images. This paper describes a new approach: using metadata about the images to aid search by generating dynamic query previews. Previews will help users visualize the contents of the collection, aid in making queries both more general and more specific, and help them to follow an information scent through a collection by giving them hints about where to go next. This paper describes a prototype system and plans for evaluation.
Presence awareness: multiple sources, multiple roles BIBAFull-Text 71-72
  Mark Handel
Intelligent, networked devices are increasingly common, and most of these devices are capable of reporting presence information about users or sets of users. One serious limitation is that most existing presence awareness systems are unable handle multiple presence sources at once, nor are they able to handle the situation where a user is also enacting multiple roles. This work looks at some of the possible problems with multiple sources, such as when a single device could report about multiple people, or devices have conflicting data.
Exploratory user study of haptic and auditory display for multimodal geographical information systems BIBAFull-Text 73-74
  Woo-seob Jeong
In this paper, the result of haptic and auditory display experiments is reported as an exploratory user test for augmenting visually dominant geographical information systems (GIS). The test results showed the haptic display to be the best in performance, the auditory display to be the worst, and the combination of the two modes to lie in the middle. It was found that the musical experience and haptic device experience affected the performance of the auditory tasks and the haptic tasks respectively. The results also show that there is interference between two modes in the combined situation. The plans for future work are described, including the tests with different kinds of geographical information tasks.
Effect of neck range of motion limitations on the use of head controls BIBAFull-Text 75-76
  Edmund F. LoPresti
Computer head controls provide an alternative means of computer access for people with disabilities. Reduced neck range of motion due to disability was found to be correlated with reduced accuracy and speed in icon selection using head controls. Five alternative interfaces were developed and evaluated to determine their potential to compensate for a user's reduced neck range of motion. Based on the final results of this evaluation, one interface method will be selected. The parameters of this interface will be automatically tuned to an individual user's limitations and abilities. The interface will be further evaluated in order to determine its effectiveness in helping people operate a computer using head controls.
Sensory information for collaborative interaction in augmented environments BIBAFull-Text 77-78
  Andrea H. Mason
To effectively design computer simulations for interactive shared environments, we first need to understand what basic sensory information is required by people collaborating in these environments. Experiments have been proposed to investigate how sensory information is used in the generation of simple collaborative movements in both natural and desktop augmented environments. Results from this work will be used to determine how and when to present sensory information to users of a virtual collaborative system, and to suggest methods for optimizing the hardware and software requirements when designing such environments.
How do people manage interruptions in complex decision making tasks? BIBAFull-Text 79-80
  Sheryl L. Miller
Interruption is a non-trivial part of complex work, in that interruptions frequently contain useful information. When choosing how to manage an interruption, this potential usefulness must be considered along with potential disruption to the ongoing task. This paper proposes two experiments that investigate the strategies that people use to manage interruptions in a computer-based, team decision making task.
Physical programming: software you can touch BIBAFull-Text 81-82
  Jaime Montemayor
Tangible computer-human interfaces is an important and active research area. But, few people are working on ways to easily program these systems. My work addresses this need by developing a physical programming language. This research comes out of our work in developing tools for children to build room-sized storytelling environments. In this extended abstract, I will describe the motivation for my research, my proposed work and design methods.
Paradigm shift? the implications of web-based notetaking BIBAFull-Text 83-84
  Yolanda Jacobs Reimer
This paper explores the transition from traditional paper-based notetaking to the process of information assimilation (IA) on the Web. IA is introduced and defined, and the implications for Web-based notebook tools needed to support this process are explained. A preliminary electronic notebook prototype is described, followed by planned future work in the area of IA and Web-based notetaking.
Towards a semio-cognitive theory of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 85-86
  Carlos A. Scolari
The research here presented is theoretical and introduces a critical analysis of instrumental approaches in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). From a semiotic point of view interfaces are not "natural" or "neutral" instruments, but rather complex sense production devices. Interaction, in other words, is far from being a "transparent" process.
   In this abstract we present the fundaments of a theoretical model that combines Semiotics with Cognitive Science approaches.
Electronic discussion group moderators' experiences with flame messages and implications for the design of a multi-modal adaptive content-sensitive filtering tool BIBAFull-Text 87-88
  Richard H. C. Seabrook
Flame messages pose a persistent and growing problem for discussion groups who rely on the Internet for their primary means of communication. Online communities maintaining public bulletin boards are especially susceptible to undesirable posts which can have a considerable effect on the membership and continuing discussion. Most such groups rely on a moderator or host to take appropriate action when flame messages appear. Filters applied to email headers have been partially successful identifying unwanted messages in electronic mailing lists. While message content provides a consistent determiner of what a message is about, not being able to predict the content of unwanted messages makes filtering on content difficult. The current study interviews list moderators to gain an understanding of current practices with respect to handling flame messages and their effect on continuing discussion. A filtering tool is proposed using a multi-modal filter technique and a prototype tested in the field. A panel of experts is used to evaluate the tool's interface.
Interfaces for understanding: improving access to consumer health information BIBAFull-Text 89-90
  Laura Slaughter
This research will examine how health care consumers use a prototype interface that supports understanding and defining information problems through visual exploration of the medical domain (relationships among medical concepts and functional relationships in the human body).
Adaptive interaction methods in speech user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 91-92
  Markku Turunen
The aim of this research is to build adaptive interaction techniques and methods for speech user interfaces. The focus is on interaction methods which can adapt to the different users and interaction situations. This includes multilinguality, different communication strategies, robust error handling methods and complex structural elements. The research is done in the context of the Jaspis framework, which is a general architecture for speech application development. Jaspis is based on an adaptive interaction model, which includes input agents, dialogue agents and presentation agents. Using these it is possible to construct highly adaptive, modular and reusable interaction techniques for speech applications.
Dynamic viewpoint tethering: controlling a virtual camera for effective navigation in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 93-94
  Wenbi Wang
Dynamic viewpoint tethering is an innovative display technique, which has been proposed to support effective navigation in large-scale virtual environments by integrating information from different frames of reference. The dynamic tether incorporates principles which are known from the older technique of frequency separation, and in many ways resembles a mass-spring-damper system. This study examines the effect of dynamic viewpoint tethering on human users' performance on both local guidance and global awareness tasks. The research results support the design of display systems in improving human-computer interaction in teleoperation tasks.
Psychophysiological indicators of the impact of media quality on users BIBAFull-Text 95-96
  Gillian M. Wilson
The number of networked multimedia applications is increasing, therefore users' quality requirements need to be clearly specified. At present, subjective assessment is used to do this, however it has drawbacks when used in isolation. Therefore, this research approach is utilising physiological indicators of stress to measure the impact of media quality on users -- this is defined as user cost. Four studies using this technique have shown that physiological responses to audio and video degradations can be detected and that they do not always correlate with subjective results. Subsequently, a three-tier approach to multimedia quality evaluation is proposed, which incorporates task performance, user satisfaction and user cost.

Interactive posters: user centered design

On the reliability of usability testing BIBAFull-Text 97-98
  Martin Kessner; Jo Wood; Richard F. Dillon; Robert L. West
Six professional usability testing teams conducted a usability test on an early prototype of a dialog box. Altogether, they identified 36 usability problems. No problem was detected by every team, 2 were found by five teams, 4 by four teams, 7 by three teams, 7 by two teams, and 18 problems were identified by one team only. There was more agreement among teams in this study compared to a previous study [1] and there was more agreement among the teams on severe vs. minor problems. Implications for the cooperation between usability testers and their clients are discussed.
A participatory poster of participatory methods BIBAFull-Text 99-100
  Michael Muller
It has been four years since the last systematic survey of participatory methods for participatory analysis, design, and evaluation. This poster will present the 61 methods (and seven lifecycle models) that were collected from the previous survey, and will solicit new methods and practices from CHI conference participants. The poster is "participatory" in the sense that it will not be complete until conference participants have contributed to it.
What makes a representative user representative? a participatory poster BIBAFull-Text 101-102
  Michael Muller; David R. Millen; Carol Strohecker
We compare six definitions of the concept of "representative user," including interpretations based in statistics, grounded theory, political theory and design practice. This participatory poster invites conference participants to contribute their own interpretations.
Design methodology of an online greek language course BIBAFull-Text 103-104
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Giorgos Zacharia
We present a participatory design methodology for developing an online community supported Modern Greek language course. The students of the classes collaborate in transcribing real audio lessons, publish and peer review shared notes. Participatory design was implemented as a four step process (a) Building bridges with the intended users (b) Map user needs and suggestions to the system (c) Develop a prototype (d) Integrate feedback and continue the iteration.
GUP: graphical presentation of user profile BIBAFull-Text 105-106
  Tomi Kankainen; Jarmo Parkkinen
In this paper, we present a quick and easy technique to present user profiles graphically. The technique is believed to be specially suitable for communicating user data in multidisciplinary design teams. It was invented in a explorative design project focusing on future telecommunications services in department store contexts.
Social navigation research agenda BIBAFull-Text 107-108
  Andreas Dieberger; Kristina Höök; Martin Svensson; Peter Lonnqvist
Social navigation (SN) emerged as a marriage between one-user-one-system scenarios and CSCW. It is a design approach based on either visualizing traces of other users' activities or on direct or indirect communication between users, with the goal to facilitate locating and evaluating information. Social Navigation has wide-ranging benefits, from social filtering over improving trust in eCommerce all the way to improving the user experience in general. However, as it is a new field many design issues are not properly researched yet. In this paper we outline a possible research agenda for the social navigation field, pointing out areas of social navigation in need of research initiatives.

Interactive posters: visualizing

Wherehoo and Periscope: a time & place server and tangible browser for the real world BIBAFull-Text 109-110
  Jim Youll
Periscope is a browsing device for exploring Internet-based representations of the physical world along time and location axes. By manipulating a digitally-augmented view camera, users find media and web pages "located" at the real places they represent, relative to the current time, the real-world location of the Periscope device, and the on-camera controls for range, search radius and time window. Periscope's world view comes from queries of the Wherehoo server, a time-and-place storage system. Wherehoo supports embedded systems, human-exploration-assisting software agents, and other time- and location-based systems that query the physical world or record temporally- and spatially-situated data for use by others.
Pinwheels: visualizing information flow in an architectural space BIBAFull-Text 111-112
  Hiroshi Ishii; Sandia Ren; Phil Frei
We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will become an interface between humans and online digital information. We have been designing ambient information displays to explore the use of kinetic physical objects to present information at the periphery of human perception.
   This paper reports the design of a large-scale Pinwheels installation made of 40 computer-controlled pinwheel units in a museum context. The Pinwheels spin in a "wind of bits" that blows from cyberspace. The array of spinning pinwheels presents information within an architectural space through subtle changes in movement and sound.
   We describe the iterative design and implementation of the Pinwheels, and discuss design issues.
Time-ART: a tool for segmenting and annotating multimedia data in early stages of exploratory analysis BIBAFull-Text 113-114
  Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Atsushi Aoki; Kumiyo Nakakoji
Time-ART is a tool that helps a user in conducting empirical multimedia (video/sound) data analysis as an exploratory iterative process. Time-ART helps a user in (1) identifying seemingly interesting parts, (2) annotating them both textually and visually by positioning them in a 2D space, and (3) producing a summary report. The system consists of Movie/SoundEditor to segment a part of a movie/sound, ElementSpace, which is a free 2D space where a user can position segmented parts as objects, a TrackListController that synchronously plays multiple sound/video data, AnnotationEditor with which a user can textually annotate each positioned object, DocumentViewer that automatically compiles positioned parts and their annotations in the space, ViewFinder that provides a 3D view of ElementSpace allowing a user to use different "depth" as layers to classify positioned objects, and TimeChart that is another 3D view of ElementSpace helping a user understand the location of each segmented part in terms of the original movie/sound.
Examining edge congestion BIBAFull-Text 115-116
  M. S. T. Carpendale; X. Rong
Many applications have emerged that attempt to visualize various aspects of web structure, links, and usage history. These visualizations often rely on graphs to provide a general view and reveal individual relationships. However, these relationships which are explicit in the graph structure are often not visually accessible due to edge congestion problems. In this paper we discuss edge congestion issues and present an interactive approach to handling them. Our edge-displacement algorithm temporarily adjusts the graph layout without distorting the user's mental map. Our algorithm opens up sufficient space to clarify relationship details without moving nodes at all; only edges are shifted.
A dialogue agent for navigation support in virtual reality BIBAFull-Text 117-118
  Jeroen van Luin; Rieks op den Akker; Anton Nijholt
We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to answer questions about this environment (a theatre building). Visitors are invited to explore this building, see what is there, ask questions and get advice from the navigation agent. A 2D map has been added to the environment so that visitors can make references to the locations and objects on this map, both in natural language and by clicking with the mouse, making it a multimodal system with cross-modality references.

Interactive posters: mobility

Pirates: proximity-triggered interaction in a multi-player game BIBAFull-Text 119-120
  Jennica Falk; Peter Ljungstrand; Staffan Bjork; Rebecca Hansson
We show how proximity-sensing technology can be integrated into computer game design to provide richer game experiences in social settings. To explore the theme of proximity-triggered interaction, we have constructed Pirates! -- a multi-player, wireless computer game for handheld computers, played throughout a physical environment. The players' physical locations in the environment trigger game events.
Active click: tactile feedback for touch panels BIBAFull-Text 121-122
  Masaaki Fukumoto; Toshiaki Sugimura
"Active Click" is a new interface mechanism for addling tactile feedback to touch panels. A small actuator is attached to a body of PDA or the backside of a touch panel. The tactile feedback, created by driving the actuator with a short pulse, is perceived by the grasping hand or tapping finger-tip when the panel is tapped. Active Click is effective in improving the input speed of touch panel operation especially in noisy situations. Active click is also useful for large touch panel devices such as public information terminals or ATMs.
A multi-scaled display technique for PDAs BIBAFull-Text 123-124
  Meurig Sage; Martin Gardner; Philip Gray
The proliferation of small mobile devices with different-sized displays presents a challenge to user interface designers. How can the different display sizes and layouts be accommodated while maintaining a consistent display strategy for users and minimizing the complexity of the interface implementation? We present a multi-scaled display technique developed for use with a palmtop-sized medical clinical assistant.
2-D pointing while walking BIBAFull-Text 125-126
  Lisa Louise Davis
A frequent assertion in wearable computer discussions is that WIMP (windows/icons/mouse/pointer) interfaces are inappropriate for wearable computers, in part because 2-D (two-dimensional) pointing is difficult while walking. This paper summarizes findings from user studies conducted by Tangis Corporation on the usability of pointing devices for wearable computers. The author finds that, with changes, 2-D pointing could be an adequate interim solution.
LifeMinder: an evidence-based wearable healthcare assistant BIBAFull-Text 127-128
  Takuji Suzuki; Miwako Doi
Recent needs for evidence-based healthcare systems are increasing. We have been developing a wearable healthcare assistant system LifeMinder that synchronously records physiological information and contextual information. LifeMinder is a long-term monitoring and easy retrieval system for an evidence-based healthcare. This paper discusses a prototype of LifeMinder. This prototype can sense pulse waves and user's actions / postures and capture contextual photos and continuous voices. These collected data are automatically synchronized, sent to a healthcare PC, stored in organized XML formats and can be easily retrieved on Web pages.

Interactive posters: telecommunications

Evaluating commercial touch-tone and speech-enabled telephone voice user interfaces using a single measure BIBAFull-Text 129-130
  Bernhard Suhm; Pat Peterson
This paper describes a method to quantify both cost-effectiveness and (objective) usability of telephone voice user interfaces in a single measure, based on end-to-end recordings of thousands of calls. This method is a valuable tool for usability engineering of commercially deployed, touch-tone and speech-enabled telephone voice user interfaces.
Curing the menu blues in touch-tone voice interfaces BIBAFull-Text 131-132
  Bernhard Suhm; Barbara Freeman; David Getty
This paper presents a study on touch-tone menu design. In particular, we investigated whether short or long menus route callers more efficiently to the destination that can handle the call. A short menu offers a small number of broad selections, while a long menu offers a larger number of more specific choices. Results obtained from thousands of live calls to a commercial customer service center, show that callers route themselves more effectively using the long menu. In addition, in complex voice interfaces, using long menus reduces the number of menu layers required, thus reducing the need to navigate through multiple menu layers, one of the most severe usability problems of existing touch-tone interfaces.
Just (all) the facts, ma'am BIBAFull-Text 133-134
  Dawn Dutton; Selina Chu; James Hubbell; Marilyn Walker; Shrikanth Narayanan
AT&T Communicator is a speech-enabled telephony-based application that allows the end-user to select and reserve airline itineraries. We report the results of an experiment exploring how the amount and structure of information presented in complex lists influences the user experience and the ability of subjects to complete an itinerary selection task. Presenting all the relevant information needed for a decision at once was the factor that most positively influenced successful task completion and the user experience.

Interactive posters: working in offices

Supporting prospective information in email BIBAFull-Text 135-136
  Jacek Gwizdka
Email usage frequently involves management of future actions and events. We believe that understanding the requirements of prospective memory should lead to the design of email tools that better support this functionality. In a recent study, we examined prospective email use and explored processes involved in managing time-sensitive email messages. The study results indicated areas that lack appropriate support for handling future actions in email. The study also found relationships between prospective email usage and users' organization habits. We draw on research in prospective memory to guide the design of email tools that will provide better support for handling future actions.
Supporting narrative flow in presentation software BIBAFull-Text 137-138
  Andreas Dieberger; Cameron Miner; Dulce Ponceleon
Commercial presentation software focuses on authoring, rather than on supporting the presentation process itself. Typical slide navigation tools are disruptive to the presentational flow and could disclose slides early. We present a navigation tool for slide presentations based on design principles such as "never hide the current slide." We kept the tool simple and easy to use to decrease the presenter's stress during a presentation.
Persuasive password security BIBAFull-Text 139-140
  Dirk Weirich; Martina Angela Sasse
Users of password-protected systems have to be persuaded to follow certain regulations to keep systems secure. This paper describes the results of a first study of the mental models, metaphors, attitudes and skills users hold with respect to password mechanisms. It shows that users are currently not motivated to adopt proper password practices. They do not believe that they ultimately can stop somebody from getting into the system, or that somebody getting in could cause them any serious personal harm. We recommend a novel approach to the design of training and online support, which is based on an appropriate use of fear appeals.

Interactive posters: universality

Case study: localization of an accessibility evaluation BIBAFull-Text 141-142
  Michael Cooper; Piotr Rejmer
During the localization process of Bobby [1], a Web tool analyzing accessibility, we have encountered technical and human issues due to major cultural and language differences affecting the user interface: Bobby could not handle multiple byte encoding, in order to understand differences and in the design of the GUI for a global audience we had to account for cultural issues such as uncertainty avoidance.
   Successful localization of this product has required attention to novel technical and human issues.
Multiliteracies and Tumi's web search: a case study BIBAFull-Text 143-144
  Marion Walton
The productive use of the World Wide Web for academic purposes requires a complex combination of advanced literacies, referred to as 'multiliteracies' (New London Group 1996). This case study analyses one South African undergraduate university student's web search process using theoretical concepts from the New Literacy Studies.
The HomeBox: a web content creation tool for the developing world BIBAFull-Text 145-146
  Ben Piper; Rebeca Eun Young Hwang
This paper describes the implementation and testing of the HomeBox, a prototype that seeks to provide a cost effective and scalable means for allowing users in the developing world to publish on the Web. It identifies the key requirements for such a design by drawing lessons from a variety of sources including two studies of networked community projects in Africa and South America. It. It ends with a discussion of possible design developments and plans for field trails in the Dominican Republic.
Using children as expert web evaluators BIBAFull-Text 147-148
  Lorna Gibson; David Sloan; Peter Gregor
This paper discusses the role of children as expert evaluators in the assessment of accessibility and usability of a number of websites primarily aimed at children. It also discusses how children's awareness of accessibility issues can be raised through such a process.

Interactive posters: multimodal interaction

Multimodal mediated communication: an experience BIBAFull-Text 149-150
  Yacine Bellik; Jeremmie Pescator
This paper concerns the Human-Human mediated communication field and more precisely the architecture of multimodal mediated systems. We describe the new problems revealed by this type of communication and propose a solution, which has been tested through a medical application. The architecture model we adopted is based on the use of symbolic information instead of rough data to ensure correct performances even through a low bandwidth communication (modem).
Creating visceral personal and social interactions in mediated spaces BIBAFull-Text 151-152
  Kelly Dobson; danah boyd; Wendy Ju; Judith Donath; Hiroshi Ishii
We introduce vibration and temperature as visceral modes to aid intuitive social perception in networked interaction. We describe two implementations of these ideas for mediated systems -- VibroBod for interpersonal communication and What's Shaking for newsgroup navigation.
Dupliances: physical and virtual activity encompassed BIBAFull-Text 153-154
  Niklas Andersson; Daniel Fallman; Lars Johansson
This paper makes a case for dupliances, which are defined as devices that encompass both physical and virtual activity, as an alternative to information appliances that are only intended to support a specific virtual purpose. Besides putting the uninteresting physical containers of information appliances to use, potential benefits of the notion of dupliances include fewer devices to carry; novel synergy effects arising from creative embodiment of virtual and physical functionalities; and an expectantly higher degree of acceptance from particular user groups. To exemplify the notion of dupliances further, two design concepts are presented and discussed.
Haptic perception of virtual roughness BIBAFull-Text 155-156
  Marilyn Rose McGee; Philip Gray; Stephen Brewster
The texture of a virtual surface can both increase the sense of realism of an object as well as convey information about object identity, type, location, function, and so on. It is crucial therefore that interface designers know the range of textural information available through the haptic modality in virtual environments. The current study involves participants making roughness judgments on pairs of haptic textures experienced through a force-feedback device. The effect of texture frequency on roughness perception is analysed. The potential range and resolution of textural information available through force-feedback interaction are discussed.
Pan-zoom coordination in multi-scale pointing BIBAFull-Text 157-158
  Frederic Bourgeois; Yves Guiard; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
We report some data from an experiment on multi-scale pointing with right-hand panning and left-hand zooming. We use a new metric derived from Zhai and Milgram [6] to quantify pan-zoom coordination, and we show that two-handed input allows parallelism.

Interactive posters: internet

Attending to web pages BIBAFull-Text 159-160
  Pete Faraday
The paper explores how visual information is organized in a web page based on an eye tracking study.
Do we visit, call, or email?: media matter in close relationships BIBAFull-Text 161-162
  Jonathon N. Cummings; Robert Kraut; Sara Kiesler
People use a variety of media to communicate with family and friends, though the evidence is sparse regarding whether differences in the quality of social relationships can be explained, in part, by differences in the media they use. Participants (N=446) in a longitudinal study of household technology use were asked to generate the names of up to 5 family or friends who lived nearby and up to 5 family and friends who lived far away. For each relationship at three points during the course of one year, respondents reported the frequency of face-to-face, phone, and email communication as well as how close they felt toward them. Analyses indicated that an increase in phone communication was most strongly associated with an increase in feelings of closeness, regardless of whether family and friends were nearby or far away.
A taxonomic analysis of what world wide web activities significantly impact people's decisions and actions BIBAFull-Text 163-164
  Julie B. Morrison; Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card
In this paper, we present three taxonomic classification schemes based on Web users' responses to what Web activities significantly impacted their decisions and actions. The taxonomic classifications focus on three variables: the Purpose of people's search on the Web, the Method people use to find information, and the Content of the information for which they are searching. These taxonomies are useful for understanding people's activity on the Web and for developing ecologically-valid tasks to be used when studying Web behavior.
Search and the subjective web BIBAFull-Text 165-166
  Diane J. Schiano; Maria Stone; Regis Bectarte
This paper describes a research project on people's subjective models of the World Wide Web, and the strategies they commonly use to retrieve Web information. Initial results suggest that Web use may be far more flexible and adaptive than most HCI workers realize. These findings directly inform Web navigation and search tool design.
Analysis of web sites with the repertory grid technique BIBAFull-Text 167-168
  Marc Hassenzahl; Tibor Trautmann
The Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) is presented as an approach to analyse and evaluate the user-perceived "character" of web site designs. The RGT reveals the participants' personal perceptions and preferences. This information supports the design of an appealing user experience.
Designing an internet radio interface prototype BIBAFull-Text 169-170
  Kelly Kruse; Rob Mori
In this paper, we describe designing a prototype car radio interface used for playing streaming audio downloaded from the Internet. Combining compelling features from broadcast radio, audio players, and audio mining technology can produce a new user experience. This radio is on display at the ACM CHI 2001 Demonstrations [1].
User expectations for the location of web objects BIBAFull-Text 171-172
  Michael Bernard
This study examined where individuals expect specific web-related objects to be located on a typical web page. The web objects examined were: web page title, internal and external grouping of links, a link to the homepage, internal search engine, and advertisement banner(s). The results suggest that users do have definable expectations concerning the location of these web objects.
A structural equation modeling of internet bookmark organizations BIBAFull-Text 173-174
  Sri Hastuti Kurniawan; R. Darin Ellis
The current study examined the impact of age, Web experience and Web ability across the adult's life span on the ways users managed their Internet bookmarks. It was hypothesized that Web ability would mediate the effect of age and Web experience on how the users managed their bookmarks. Six hundred surveys, sampled from the Project 2000 data, were used to examine this model. Using structural equation modeling technique, it was found that the effect of age on bookmark organization was fully mediated by Web ability. However, the effect of Web experience was not fully mitigated by Web experience.
The effects of font type and size on the legibility and reading time of online text by older adults BIBAFull-Text 175-176
  Michael Bernard; Chia Hui Liao; Melissa Mills
This study examined passages containing two serif and sans serif fonts at 12 and 14-point sizes for differences in legibility, reading time, and general preference when read by an older population. A significant main effect of size was found for font legibility in that 14-point fonts were more legible to read than 12-point fonts. A marginal interaction was also found for reading time in that participants read 12-point serif fonts significantly slower than 14-point serif or sans serif fonts. Moreover, participants significantly preferred the 14-point to the 12-point font size. Font recommendations are discussed.
Empirical evidence for information overload in mass interaction BIBAFull-Text 177-178
  Quentin Jones; Gilad Ravid; Sheizaf Rafaeli
'Virtual publics' are computer-mediated discourse spaces created by using various technologies including email, the USENET, web based bulletin boards, IRC, MUDS, etc. [3]. This paper outlines ongoing field research into the stress zones or boundaries to interactive virtual public discourse produced by information overload. It describes initial findings, based on an examination of 2.65 million USENET messages, which suggest that information overload impacts on discourse structure. Findings include a higher proportional user turnover, and shorter messages in relation to group size. The research in progress addresses issues associated with group level usability of communication technologies.

Interactive posters: novel interaction techniques

Eye-R, a glasses-mounted eye motion detection interface BIBAFull-Text 179-180
  Ted Selker; Andrea Lockerd; Jorge Martinez
Eye-R is a system designed to detect and communicates the intentional information conveyed in eye movement. This glasses-mounted, wireless device stores and transfers information based on user eye motion and external IR devices thus promoting an enriched experience with their environment. This paper describes how the system measures eye motion and utilizes this as an implicit input channel to a sensor system and computer. In the primary scenario, eye motion detection is used to recognize a users gaze. When the person's eyes are fixated the system infers that they are paying attention to something in their environment and then tries to facilitate an exchange of information in either direction on the user's behalf.
Sound through bone conduction in public interfaces BIBAFull-Text 181-182
  Mariano Belinky; Natalie Jeremijenko
Noise level in public spaces sometimes makes impossible to focus on particular sound information. In other cases, such focus is needed even when environmental sound information is also important. In this paper, we describe the use of bone vibration as an applicable technology in both public and private interfaces, when environment sound information or environmental sound contamination are regarded as important factors.
Compact, configurable inertial gesture recognition BIBAFull-Text 183-184
  Ari Y. Benbasat; Joseph A. Paradiso
We describe an inertial gesture recognition framework composed of three parts. The first is a compact, six-axis inertial measurement unit to fully measure human motion. The data from this unit is then analyzed by a gesture recognition algorithm which considers data on an axis-by-axis basis and categorizes them as simple motions (line, twist, etc.) with magnitude and duration. An application designer can then combine these atoms together both concurrently and consecutively to create composite gestures which can be tied to output routines. The framework was implemented on a Palm III to demonstrate its light-weight nature and to evoke devices which possess both a sense of their own motion and the ability to respond to it.
Problems with save BIBAFull-Text 185-186
  Sari A. Laakso; Karri-Pekka Laakso; Panu Vartiainen; Asko Saura
Saving documents, i.e. moving data manually between main memory and disk storage, is a difficult concept for novice users and causes unnecessary work and data loss both for novices and experienced users. Use scenarios show that the problem cannot be solved simply by re-designing the save feature or adding an autosave, because the save problem is entangled in a broader complex of document management problems.
   Based on the analysis of use scenarios, we have designed and implemented a prototype that solves a set of the most essential problems relating to the save problem in the context of word processing.
Bottles as a minimal interface to access digital information BIBAFull-Text 187-188
  Hiroshi Ishii; Ali Mazalek; Jay Lee
We present the design of a minimal interface to access digital information using glass bottles as "containers" and "controls". The project illustrates our attempt to explore the transparency of an interface that weaves itself into the fabric of everyday life, and exploits the emotional aspects of glass bottles that are both tangible and visual. This paper describes the design of the bottle interface, and the implementation of the musicBottles installation, in which the opening of each bottle releases the sound of a specific instrument.
Affective expressions of machines BIBAFull-Text 189-190
  Christoph Bartneck
Emotions should play an important role in the design of interfaces because people interact with machines as if they were social actors [4]. We developed and tested a model for the convincingness of affective expressions, based on Fogg and Hsiang Tseng [3]. The empirical data did not support our original model. Furthermore, the experiment investigated if the type of emotion (happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear and disgust), knowledge about the source (human or machine), the level of abstraction (natural face, computer rendered face and matrix face) and medium of presentation (visual, audio/visual, audio) of an affective expression influences its convincingness and distinctness. Only the type of emotion and multimedia presentations had an effect on convincingness. The distinctness of an expression depends on the abstraction and the media through which it is presented.
AgentSalon: supporting new encounters and knowledge exchanges by chats of personal agents BIBAFull-Text 191-192
  Yasuyuki Sumi; Kenji Mase
AgentSalon is a part of a body of research on personal guidance system for exhibition tours. AgentSalon is a system that facilitates face-to-face knowledge exchange and discussion between users by tempting them to a chat via prompting by their personal agents, which maintain their personal interests and experiences. We prototyped AgentSalon as a kind of information kiosk assumed to be located in a meeting place of an exhibition site, with a large touch panel screen for use by two to five users simultaneously.
Media matrix: self-organizing distributed physical database BIBAFull-Text 193-194
  Joshua Lifton; Jay Lee
We introduce Media Matrix, a system applying distributed, embedded computing techniques to the creation and maintenance of a queriable database of physical objects such as compact discs, video cassettes, books, and component bins. This paper provides theory, design, and implementation details as well as future work and potential applications.
Designing collaboration in consumer products BIBAFull-Text 195-196
  Elyon DeKoven; David V. Keyson; Adinda Freudenthal
Designers of consumer products usually try to address as wide a range of user needs as possible. Due to various design constraints, such as product size and limited interface mechanisms, typically only a portion of those needs can be supported. This paper discusses efforts to design everyday consumer products that can support a broad range of user goals and approaches to the tasks in a collaborative manner.

Interactive video posters

StoryKit: tools for children to build room-sized interactive experiences BIBAFull-Text 197-198
  Lisa Sherman; Allison Druin; Jaime Montemayor; Allison Farber; Michele Platner; Sante Simms; Jessica Porteous; Houman Alborzi; Jack Best; Joe Hammer; Alex Kruskal; Jade Matthews; Emily Rhodes; Cassandra Cosans; Abby Lal
Children enjoy interactive museum experiences, fun houses, and amusement parks, but children are not the authors of these immersive storytelling experiences. They are merely the audience or participants in an environment built by adults. We believe an important educational opportunity is being overlooked. Therefore, we have developed what we call a StoryKit that enables children to be authors, builders, and artists of their own StoryRooms, room-sized immersive experiences. Funware, hardware, and physical software are the three components that make up the StoryKit. In this paper and accompanying video, we describe the StoryKit technologies, our most recent advances in the technology, and how children create a StoryRoom by using the StoryKit.
ideas: a vision of a designer's sketching-tool BIBAFull-Text 199-200
  Aldo Hoeben; Pieter Jan Stappers
In the conceptual phase of a project, industrial designers do a lot of sketching. In this early phase the immediacy and flexibility of traditional media are preferred over the possibilities that computer tools offer. This video presents ways in which a computer-supported sketching tool can improve support for a designer at those stages. Three scenarios each depict part of a designer's activities: discussing the brief with a client, travelling home in a train, and working in the designer's office. For each scenario, the video shows the strong points and limitations of traditional media, and indicates how current or near-future technology can improve the situation.
Component-based, user-constructed, multiple-view visualization BIBAFull-Text 201-202
  Chris North; Ben Shneiderman
A major hindrance to the usage of information visualization in common tasks is that typically a new visualization interface must be custom programmed to suit each task. This video demonstrates a system and user interface that attempts to solve this problem by enabling end users to construct their own multiple-view visualization interfaces that are appropriate for their tasks and data. Users accomplish this by snapping together component visualizations and specifying tight couplings between them. Then they can use their newly constructed visualization interfaces to perform their tasks.
SUEDE: iterative, informal prototyping for speech interfaces BIBAFull-Text 203-204
  Anoop K. Sinha; Scott R. Klemmer; Jack Chen; James A. Landay; Cindy Chen
SUEDE is a speech interface prototyping tool that enables rapid, iterative creation of prompt-response speech interfaces. It explicitly supports iterative design, allowing a designer to quickly create an interface prototype, conduct user studies, and analyze the test data in a single tool. SUEDE offers an electronically supported Wizard of Oz (WOz) technique that captures user test data. Before building the tool that we present here, we built a paper and an interactive prototype and tested the prototypes with a total of fifteen users. We also interviewed six professional speech UI designers at their workplace about their current design practice. These designers encouraged us to build a tool that lets them start with examples when designing and simulate recognition error during testing. Our current tool is a culmination of this iterative design.
DENIM: an informal tool for early stage web site design BIBAFull-Text 205-206
  James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay
DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input; allows design at different refinement levels -- site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zooming. The design of DENIM was informed by a study of web site design practice, in which we observed that web site designers design sites at the levels of refinement mentioned above and that designers sketch at all levels during the early stages of design.
FRIDGE: exploring intuitive interaction styles for home information appliances BIBAFull-Text 207-208
  Marina Vroubel; Panos Markopoulos; Mathilde Bekker
This paper describes FRIDGE, an experimental prototype of a simple home messaging appliance, which combines a graspable user interface and pen input. FRIDGE is designed to be used without explanation and to enable basic e-mail and announcement-board facilities between family members. We describe the concept, the rationale for its design, the interaction with the prototype system and early results from its evaluation.
Movement in the web BIBAFull-Text 209-210
  Oscar de Bruijn; Robert Spence; Chieh Hao Tong
In this paper we illustrate the use of space-time trade-offs for information presentation on small screens. We propose the use of Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to provide a rich set of navigational information for Web browsing.


Exploding wireless myths: exploring the UI issues underlying the marketing hype BIBAFull-Text 211-212
  Scott Jenson; Annette Wagner; Avril Hodges
In this panel, the panelists will take a serious look at the "myths" that are part of the hype surrounding the wireless market and explode those myths to expose the underlying more serious human interface issues that exist.
Methods and modeling: fiction or useful reality? BIBAFull-Text 213-214
  Hermann Kaindl
In this panel, the key issue is whether methods and modeling are useful for HCI design practice and, in particular, user-interface design. More precisely, can scenarios, essential use cases, GOMS and Cognitive Walkthrough really help practitioners? It seems that mainstream practice only rudimentarily applies such methods. Why is it so difficult to introduce them into the work done in the trenches?
Is ignorance bliss?: informed consent online BIBAFull-Text 215-216
  Batya Friedman; John C. Thomas; Mark Lucente; Mark Ackerman; Nancy Willard; Ulrike Lechner
In this panel, we explore: (1) the impacts of electronic media on informed consent; (2) how electronic media can be designed and used to preserve informed consent; (3) the relationship between protecting privacy and informed consent; (4) the relationship between cultivating trust online and informed consent; and (5) proposed relevant standards and brokering systems. This panel fits within the emerging field of Value-Sensitive Design.
Ethics in HCI BIBAFull-Text 217-218
  Rolf Molich; Brenda Laurel; Carolyn Snyder; Whitney Quesenbery; Chauncey E. Wilson
Users are human. As HCI professionals we must be sure that our fellow humans perceive their encounter with usability and design professionals as pleasant without sacrificing the accuracy of our results. There are guidelines produced by professional organizations like the APA and the ACM about how HCI professionals should behave. However, there are few examples from real life about how to translate this information into everyday behavior. This panel will discuss specific examples of HCI dilemmas that the panelists have faced in their daily work.
Measuring information architecture quality: prove it (or not)! BIBAFull-Text 219-220
  Louis Rosenfeld; Keith Instone; Shiraz Cupala; Jesse James Garrett; Marti Hearst; Gary Marchionini; Nick Ragouzis
This panel debates a topic that has been popping up recently as a consequence of different disciplines rubbing up against each other in a new field: can the quality of an information architecture be measured quantitatively? And if so, how can this analysis be verified?
   Information architects and HCI professionals already are discussing this issue regularly and at times heatedly. The need for guidance is especially pressing because information architecture is an emerging field. As in other areas of HCI, information architects are regularly confronted by clients and employers alike with the need to justify the cost of their efforts in quantitative ways.
   Information architects come from a variety of disciplines including HCI, library and information science, visual design, technical communications, and computer science. These fields have widely varying opinions on the validity of and techniques for quantifying information system performance. While some dispute the validity of quantification, others tend to believe that it is not only possible but the only valid means for assessing information architecture. Members of both camps may resort to traditional means of assessing information systems performance, while others feel that the new medium of the Web requires new tools, techniques, and approaches for such assessment.
Interactionary 2: is that your final answer? BIBAFull-Text 221-222
  Sarah Zuberec; Scott Berkun; Debbie Cargile; Christopher Konrad; Alex Little; Linda Carlin; Heather Crombie; Barbee Teasley
This modification of an experimental panel is an attempt to demonstrate the dynamic and impromptu parts of the interaction design process. Teams of designers, usability engineers and project managers will design solutions to interaction problems live on stage, in front of an audience.
Identifying "target cultures": to what extent is that possible? BIBAFull-Text 223-224
  Paula Bourges Waldegg; Daniel Lafreniere; Manfred Tscheligi; Guy Boy; Raquel O. Prates
This panel aims to discuss existing approaches for identifying and defining target cultures during the design process from the perspective of non US people who might be the receivers instead of the makers of the products.
Patterns: what's in it for HCI? BIBAFull-Text 225-226
  Jan O. Borchers; John C. Thomas
Design patterns and pattern languages have proven a useful tool to model design experience, in architecture where they were originally conceived as well as in software engineering. In Human-Computer Interaction, the interest in pattern languages has only recently gained momentum. This panel will explore how pattern languages can be of use to HCI researchers, practitioners, and possibly anyone involved in the design and use of interactive systems.
The impact of mobile technologies on everyday life BIBAFull-Text 227-228
  Wendy A. Castleman; Richard Harper; Steven Herbst; Jonathan Kies; Sean Lane; Jens Nagel
Mobile technologies are rapidly redefining the lives of people around the world. As designers of mobile devices and mobile applications, we should consider the implication of the impact of these technologies on everyday life. This panel will be a discussion of some of the hot topics relating to the issue, and will generate a set of design implications to be considered when designing mobile technologies.
Ph.D. vs. startup BIBAFull-Text 229-230
  Alan Wexelblat; Quentin (Gad) Jones; Howard Abrams; Joseph A. Konstan; Michael Vernick
How should we decide between the conflicting demands and resource drains of startups and Ph.D. programs? This panel discusses some of the current issues facing students, professors and employers, from the panelists' varied perspectives. We do not advocate any one single solution but rather seek to illuminate important issues that affect the CHI community now and will likely continue to do so in the future, both in the US and in other countries promoting high-tech startups as major parts of their economies.

Short talks: anywhere: staying in touch in motion (anywhere: mobility)

Collectively defining context in a mobile, networked computing environment BIBAFull-Text 231-232
  Jenna Burrell; Geri K. Gay
Mobile and wireless computers are rapidly becoming popular with the general public. In our research we design and evaluate new types of applications that take advantage of the unique characteristics of these devices in novel ways. One of these applications is Graffiti, a context-aware device designed using ideas from social navigation research. This system allows users to collectively define what's relevant and interesting about a location by posting electronic notes. Users encountered a variety of benefits and problems in using Graffiti primarily related to the reliance of the system on user contributions.
RoamWare: towards an integrated environment for PDA use and seamless ongoing interaction in mobile CSCW BIBAFull-Text 233-234
  Mikael Wiberg
This paper reports the final step of a research project that has aimed at developing novel in between meeting support for mobile CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). The underlying idea was to integrate spontaneous meetings with in between meeting support and split the use between different situations rather than users attention. We propose a novel system called RoamWare that illustrates the concept of split use and invisible computer support. We then report on some initial use results and relate it to other research attempts near us before concluding the paper.
Calls.calm: enabling caller and callee to collaborate BIBAFull-Text 235-236
  Elin Ronby Pedersen
Calls.calm facilitates the ongoing interaction between two people; it works by enabling callers to make a reasonable choice of time and means for communication, by providing them with key information about the callee's situation. Calls.calm is a web-based application, supporting mini-browsers on web-enabled mobile phones and desktop browsers. Calls.calm was deployed for a month within two small work teams. Results from the deployment points to future direction for research and design.
Tap tips: lightweight discovery of touchscreen targets BIBAFull-Text 237-238
  Paul M. Aoki; Amy Hurst; Allison Woodruff
We describe tap tips, a technique for providing touchscreen target location hints. Tap tips are lightweight in that they are non-modal, appear only when needed, require a minimal number of user gestures, and do not add to the standard touchscreen gesture vocabulary. We discuss our implementation of tap tips in an electronic guidebook system and some usability test results.
Roomotes: ubiquitous room-based remote control over web phones BIBAFull-Text 239-240
  Ryuji Wakikawa; Jonathan Trevor; Bill Schilit; John Boreczky
Roomotes gives people remote control of their physical surroundings through Web phones. The system manages virtual rooms that mirror physical rooms. Roomotes presents not only the devices present in a room, but also the people. Using Roomotes' real world navigator we can control the lighting and audio-video equipment in our conference room from any Web phone. An unusual aspect of Roomotes is notification: users can request text messages be sent to their phone whenever the contents (e.g., people) or "state" of a room's devices change.
Using Quake III Arena to simulate sensors and actuators when evaluating and testing mobile services BIBAFull-Text 241-242
  Markus Bylund; Fredrik Espinoza
We describe QuakeSim, a system that uses Quake III Arena to evaluate, test, and demonstrate context aware services. Context, such as users position or activity, is simulated in Quake and provided to real-world services as real data. The simulation is made more realistic by modeling real physical environments and calibrating the models to correspond to reality. QuakeSim allows simulated and actual context information to be used interchangeably in real services.

Short talks: any one: universal design

The use of labeling to communicate detailed graphics in a non-visual environment BIBAFull-Text 243-244
  Hesham M. Kamel; James A. Landay
The inherently visual nature of Graphical User Interfaces often makes it difficult for visually impaired computer users to access graphical information. We introduce a labeling method that can be used to communicate graphical information between blind and sighted people. Our early pilot study showed that our labeling method enabled visually impaired participants to comprehend meaningful drawings. This labeling method is an extension of the Integrated Communication 2 Draw (IC2D), a drawing program for the visually impaired that uses keyboard and audio feedback.
Using haptics in computer interfaces for blind people BIBAFull-Text 245-246
  Calle Sjostrom
This paper has its roots in Certec's efforts to find a way to use haptic technology (i.e. touch based interfaces) to provide new computer interaction techniques for visually impaired people and those with physical disabilities.
   The paper presents a set of recommendations that we have formulated during our research and development work. These rules of thumb are grouped under the headlines Navigation, Finding objects, Understanding objects, Haptic widgets and Physical interaction.
A unified design for human-machine voice interaction BIBAFull-Text 247-248
  Stefanie Shriver; Arthur Toth; Xiaojin Zhu; Alex Rudnicky; Roni Rosenfeld
We describe a unified design for voice interaction with simple machines; discuss the motivation for and main features of the approach, include a short sample interaction, and report the results of two preliminary experiments.
Strategies for concatenating recordings in a voice user interface: what we can learn from prosody BIBAFull-Text 249-250
  Jennifer Balogh
Findings from the present study show that different strategies for concatenating voice recordings significantly affect subjective preferences and memory of aurally presented information. Specifically, two different automatic telephone number announcement strategies were compared, one that concatenated individual digits and another that grouped digits by prosodic units. The results show that when natural prosodic units are preserved, the phone numbers are remembered better and the style of delivery is preferred over the strategy that uses more concatenation and does not respect natural spoken intonation. The results underscore the importance of modeling natural prosody when designing user-centric voice interfaces.
The AirBook: force-free interaction with dynamic text in an assistive reading device BIBAFull-Text 251-252
  Maribeth Back; Margaret H. Szymanski
We describe a prototype of the AirBook, an assistive reading device that combines dynamic text (especially RSVP, that is, rapid serial visual presentation) with force-free capacitive field sensors to create a simple, easily controlled assistive reading device. This reader is designed to assist people with visual disabilities (like dyslexia, loss of fine motor control or loss of contrast sensitivity) by giving them more control over font size and contrast. It's also for people with upper-body disabilities, lack of fine muscle control, or severe arthritis, all of which can make the reading of standard paper books difficult. The force-free sensor system can be adjusted for large-scale motion or for tiny ranges of movement, and requires no pressure or fiddling with physical objects. The sensors read the proximity of a human limb, and adjust parameters on the text accordingly. For example, the reading device can be controlled with the motion of one finger if necessary, or adjusted to read the motion of an entire arm or leg.
The use of digital pictures for people with cognitive disabilities BIBAFull-Text 253-254
  Henrik Danielsson
Pictures taken with digital cameras have become an alternative and complement to symbols in communication for persons with cognitive disabilities. I have started a discussion forum on digital pictures on the internet. The postings from the discussion forum were analyzed to see what kind of use of digital pictures that professionals and parents are interested in. To validate the results, an e-mail survey was sent to those who had visited the discussion forum and they were asked how they actually used their pictures. The findings indicate some interesting differences between what was discussed and what was actually done.

Short talks: fun with learning

Supporting children's collaboration across handheld computers BIBAFull-Text 255-256
  Regan L. Mandryk; Kori M. Inkpen; Mark Bilezikjian; Scott R. Klemmer; James A. Landay
This paper describes the use of multiple interconnected handheld devices to support children's collocated collaboration. Handhelds are a relatively inexpensive, highly mobile platform, making them potentially useful in educational settings [3]. Two shortcomings of students' use of handhelds are: 1) achieving the benefits of collaborative learning may be difficult given the personal nature of these devices, and 2) the small size of a PDA constrains the amount of information that can be meaningfully displayed. We address these shortcomings by utilizing multiple devices to form a larger surface that can display more information than any individual handheld. This interaction technique encourages collaboration and helps engage all students in the activity. To explore this style of collaboration, we extended an educational application with a shared screen information view that we call WHAT-IF1.
Experiments in using tangible interfaces to enhance collaborative learning experiences BIBAFull-Text 257-258
  Lori L. Scarlatos; Shalva S. Landy
TICLE (Tangible Interfaces for Collaborative Learning Environments) is a project that explores new ways that a computer can enhance learning without dominating the educational experience. We have developed a prototype system that "watches" as students play with Tangram pieces on a physical tabletop, and acts as a "guide on the side" by offering help at appropriate times. This system is currently installed at the Goudreau Museum of Mathematics in Art and Science. Our paper describes the implementation of our prototype and results of a usability study conducted at the museum. We also discuss ongoing enhancements and plans for further testing. Although this work focuses on learning with mathematical puzzles, it has implications for other physical learning activities.
AquaMOOSE 3D: math learning in a 3D multi-user virtual world BIBAFull-Text 259-260
  Elizabeth Edwards; Jason Elliott; Amy Bruckman
AquaMOOSE 3D is a multi-user, graphical, constructionist environment to help children learn about mathematics and computer programming. In this paper, we present the system design, and results from our first round of formative evaluation.
First-person science inquiry in virtual ambient environments BIBAFull-Text 261-262
  Tom Moher; Andrew Johnson; Yongjoo Cho
Virtual ambients are a class of restricted simulations designed to support science inquiry learning among elementary school students. Virtual ambients employ large multi-user displays to support "first-person" collaborative exploration, data collection, and the construction of support for hypotheses in simulated environments. In order to reduce the cognitive load on learners, navigation -- in space, time, and scale -- is used instead of traditional learning simulations' direct control of independent model variables. Early experience with elementary school students at three grade levels is reported, employing a configurable virtual ambient named the Field.
Effects of CMC on student participation patterns in a foreign language learning environment BIBAFull-Text 263-264
  James M. Hudson; Amy Bruckman
In this paper, we describe a study examining how communication patterns compare between a traditional foreign language learning classroom and a synchronous, text-based CMC environment. We present suggesting that conversation patterns change significantly when discussions move online. The slight time delay in composing replies and the development of a sense of community seem to be important mechanisms leading to this change.
Does tutoring really have to be intelligent? BIBAFull-Text 265-266
  Wendy E. Mackay
This experiment was designed to determine whether or not tutoring is more effective if it is relevant to the user's current problems. The experimental design presented identical tutoring advice to pairs of subjects: advice was directly relevant to one subject (as determined by a human researcher monitoring a pre-specified task) and effectively random to the other.
   The quantitative and qualitative results were strikingly different. On one hand, subjects learned almost all tutored commands, regardless of their relevance to their immediate activities, and rarely learned commands that had not been tutored. On the other hand, subjects were very enthusiastic about relevant tutoring and were frustrated when it seemed random: they felt it was an irritating interruption. An intelligent rule-based tutor may be unnecessary for effective learning if users can control the tutoring environment.

Short talks: HCI in everyday life

Smart headphones BIBAFull-Text 267-268
  Sumit Basu; Alex Pentland
In this paper, we describe the "smart headphones" system, which detects and relays speech sounds in the environment through the user's headphones. This allows the user to be aware of speech events and remain involved in conversations while using headphones.
CounterActive: an interactive cookbook for the kitchen counter BIBAFull-Text 269-270
  Wendy Ju; Rebecca Hurwitz; Tilke Judd; Bonny Lee
We introduce CounterActive, an interactive kitchen cookbook that teaches people to cook. After describing the interactive system and the multimedia recipe schema, we discuss results of early user test and evaluation.
The familiar: a living diary and companion BIBAFull-Text 271-272
  Brian Clarkson; Kenji Mase; Alex Pentland
We present a perceptual system, called the Familiar, that could allow a user to collect his/her memories over their lifetime into a continually growing and adapting multimedia diary. The Familiar uses the natural patterns in sensor readings from a camera, microphone, and accelerometers, to find the recurring patterns of similarity and dissimilarity in the user's activities and uses this information to intelligently structure the user's sensor data and associated memorabilia.
The guidebook, the friend, and the room: visitor experience in a historic house BIBAFull-Text 273-274
  Allison Woodruff; Paul M. Aoki; Amy Hurst; Margaret H. Szymanski
In this paper, we describe an electronic guidebook prototype and report on a study of its use in a historic house. Supported by mechanisms in the guidebook, visitors constructed experiences that had a high degree of interaction with three entities: the guidebook, their companions, and the house and its contents. For example, we found that most visitors played audio descriptions through speakers (rather than using headphones or reading textual descriptions) to facilitate communication with their companions.
Conductive ink based page detection for linking digital and physical pages BIBAFull-Text 275-276
  Kim W. May
This paper describes a working prototype of a page detection system for paper stacks, the kind that would be used in digital paper applications. Polymer conductive ink is applied and embossed on the back of each page in a way that causes the resistance of the ink to change when the paper is bent, making a resistive strain guage. In use, a detector circuit identifies the active page by noting the highest page in the stack not exhibiting a resistance change. In volume, this method provides an inexpensive, simple solution to page detection. The person uses the paper pad naturally, not needing to tell the system when a new page is being viewed. With this technology the physical world meets the digital domain in a smooth and transparent manner for the user.
RobotPHONE: RUI for interpersonal communication BIBAFull-Text 277-278
  Dairoku Sekiguchi; Masahiko Inami; Susumu Tachi
RobotPHONE is a Robotic User Interface (RUI) that uses robots as physical avatars for interpersonal communication. Using RobotPHONE, users in remote locations can communicate shapes and motion with each other. In this paper we present the concept of RobotPHONE, and describe implementations of two prototypes.

Short talks: of mice and measures

Cheese: tracking mouse movement activity on websites, a tool for user modeling BIBAFull-Text 279-280
  Florian Mueller; Andrea Lockerd
Conventional web interfaces respond to and consider only mouse clicks when defining a user model. We have extended this and take into account all mouse movements on a page as an additional layer of information for inferring user interest. We have developed a straightforward way to record all mouse movements on a page, and conducted a user study to analyze and investigate mouse behavior trends. We found certain mouse behaviors, common across many users, which are useful for content providers in increasing the effectiveness of their interface design.
What can a mouse cursor tell us more?: correlation of eye/mouse movements on web browsing BIBAFull-Text 281-282
  Mon Chu Chen; John R. Anderson; Myeong Ho Sohn
In this paper, we describe a study on the relationship between gaze position and cursor position on a computer screen during web browsing. Users were asked to browse several web sites while their eye/mouse movements were recorded. The data suggest that there is a strong relationship between gaze position and cursor position. The data also show that there are regular patterns of eye/mouse movements. Based on these findings, we argue that a mouse could provide us more information than just the x, y position where a user is pointing. This implies that we can use an inexpensive and extremely popular tool as an alternative of eye-tracking systems, especially in web usability evaluation. Moreover, by understanding the intent of every mouse movement, we may be able to achieve a better interface for human computer interaction.
Remote automatic evaluation of web sites based on task models and browser monitoring BIBAFull-Text 283-284
  Fabio Paterno; Laila Paganelli
There is an increasing need for tools to support cheaper and faster usability evaluation of Web applications. In this paper, we describe an approach to remote automatic evaluation of web sites. The novelty lies in automatic analysis based on a combination of web browser monitoring and task models which aims to capture and analyse users actual behaviour.
Testing web sites: five users is nowhere near enough BIBAFull-Text 285-286
  Jared Spool; Will Schroeder
We observed the same task executed by 49 users on four production web sites. We tracked the rates of discovery of new usability problems on each site and, using that data, estimated the total number of usability problems on each site and the number of tests we would need to discover every problem. Our findings differ sharply from rules-of-thumb derived from earlier work by Virzi[1] and Nielsen[2,3] commonly viewed as "industry standards." We found that the four sites we studied would need considerably more than five users to find 85% of the problems.
An integrated method for evaluating interfaces BIBAFull-Text 287-288
  Heather L. McQuaid; David Bishop
To take advantage of the interdisciplinary experience of our colleagues, we decided several years ago to add heuristic evaluation to our expert analysis method. Although heuristic evaluation is a cost-effective method for evaluating interfaces, we found that the recommended prioritization strategy -- ranking the problems according to severity -- has several limitations. Specifically, it does not address how much it will cost the developers to fix the problems, nor does it adequately capture the distinction between high-level (global) and low-level (specific, screen-level) problems. To address these limitations, we developed a method which retains the richness of heuristic evaluation, but communicates the results in such a way that project managers, developers, and designers can form a clear and immediately executable plan for addressing the problems. Our method integrates user research, heuristic evaluation, affinity diagramming, cost-benefit charts, and recommendations into a report that others can use to plan both short and long-term improvements.
Concurrent vs. post-task usability test ratings BIBAKFull-Text 289-290
  Ross Teague; Katherine De Jesus; Marcos Nunes Ueno
This test of rating scale use showed that there were significant differences between questionnaire ratings when users were asked to rate task ease and enjoyment during task execution (Concurrent) vs. after task completion (Post-Task). Results suggest that users' Post-Task ratings may not accurately reflect their actual task experience. Results also suggested that there are qualitative differences between user verbal protocols between the Concurrent and Post-Task groups. Implications for use of test ratings scales are discussed.
Keywords: concurrent, post-task ratings, questionnaires, rating scales, retrospective, subjective ratings, usability testing

Short talks: trust, credibility, community

Being there versus seeing there: trust via video BIBAFull-Text 291-292
  Nathan Bos; Darren Gergle; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson
We studied the emergence of trust in a social dilemma game in four different communication situations: face-to-face, video, audio, and text chat. Three-person groups did 30 rounds of a social dilemma game and we measured trust by the extent to which they cooperated vs. competed. The face-to-face groups quickly achieved cooperative behavior, while the text chat groups continued to compete throughout. The video groups achieved the same levels of trust as the face-to-face groups, although perhaps a bit more slowly. The audio group was intermediate. These results show that trust can emerge through mediated communication.
Trust without touch: jump-start trust with social chat BIBAFull-Text 293-294
  Jun Zheng; Nathan Bos; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is thought to be inadequate when one needs to establish trust. Rocco [4] found, for example, that discussions about agreements conducted over email were far less successful in engendering trust than those conducted face-to-face. But, if the participants met and did a team building exercise before the real task, trust was shown in spite of only having email to talk during the task. Here we show that if participants do not meet beforehand but rather engage in a text chat where they are told to "get to know each other" for a brief period, they show the same kinds of trust that you find when they meet beforehand face-to-face.
Web credibility research: a method for online experiments and early study results BIBAFull-Text 295-296
  BJ Fogg; Jonathan Marshall; Tami Kameda; Joshua Solomon; Akshay Rangnekar; John Boyd; Bonny Brown
Through iterative design and testing, we developed a procedure for conducting online experiments. Using this research method, we conducted two recent studies on Web credibility. The data from the first study suggest that Web banner ads reduce the perceived credibility of a Web page's content. The data from the second study show that attribution elements -- in this case, author photographs -- can also affect the credibility of Web content. This research method and our early results have implications for both HCI researchers and Web site designers.
Is seeing believing?: detecting deception in technologically mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 297-298
  Daniel B. Horn
Despite increases in bandwidth, most video conferencing equipment delivers a sub-optimal quality signal. Artifacts caused by video compression and other technological constraints lead to the distortion of subtle communicative cues. This study explores the effects of such video degradation on individuals' ability to detect whether others are lying or telling the truth. Forty-two participants observed mock job interviews presented in High-Quality Audio, High-Quality Audio + High-Quality Video, and High-Quality Audio + Reduced Frame Rate (3 fps) Video. The interviews contained a mix of truthful and deceptive responses, and participants attempted to distinguish the two. Performance in the Reduced Frame Rate condition was significantly worse than in the High Quality Video condition. These findings have implications for both the development and implementation of video-conferencing technology.
Categorical perception of facial affect: an illusion BIBAFull-Text 299-300
  Diane J. Schiano; Sheryl M. Ehrlich; Kyle Sheridan
Facial affect is central to many VMC & affective computing applications, which often compress motion or frame-rate to reduce video bandwidth. Our studies show that claims that "categorical perception" effects protect facial affect from temporal degradation are illusory. Preserving motion is essential, even at the cost of image compression.
Broadband neighborhoods: connected communities BIBAFull-Text 301-302
  Keith Hampton
This paper addresses concerns that home-computing and Internet use damage social capital and contribute to a loss of community. Based on survey and ethnographic data from "Netville", a wired neighborhood equipped with a broadband local network, this paper concludes that the Internet can be used to increase neighborhood social capital and the connectivity of local social networks.

Short talks: expressing emotion through art, music, and technology (expressing emotions)

In tent, in touch: beings in seclusion and in transit BIBAFull-Text 303-304
  John A. Waterworth; Eva L. Waterworth
We describe The Tent, an immersive environment designed to stimulate creativity and to support non-symbolic communication. In a tent we are secluded but also in touch, with nature and with ourselves. We are experimenting with the Tent as a meditative, relaxing environment, but also as a stimulating one, and as a medium for non-symbolic communication.
The InfoCanvas: information conveyance through personalized, expressive art BIBAFull-Text 305-306
  Todd Miller; John Stasko
This paper describes the design of a highly versatile ambient display, the InfoCanvas. Through a novel interface, people identify information of interest and then "paint" an appealing and meaningful representation of it on a virtual canvas for later communication back to them. This new form of interaction with information allows people to keep tabs on useful, but peripheral, information in a calm, unobtrusive manner.
Context-aware sensor-doll as a music expression device BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Tomoko Yonezawa; Brian Clarkson; Michiaki Yasumura; Kenji Mase
We present a sensor-doll capable of music expression as a sympathetic communication device. The doll is equipped with a computer and various sensors such as a camera, microphone, accelerometer, and touch-sensitive sensors to recognize its own situation and the activities of the user. The doll has its own internal "mind" states reflecting different situated contexts. The user's multi-modal interaction with the passive doll is translated into musical expressions that depend on the state of mind of the doll.
Facing the music: a facial action controlled musical interface BIBAFull-Text 309-310
  Michael J. Lyons; Nobuji Tetsutani
We describe a novel musical controller which acquires live video input from the user's face, extracts facial feature parameters using a computer vision algorithm, and converts these to expressive musical effects. The controller allows the user to modify synthesized or audio-filtered musical sound in real time by moving the face.
Tangible bits and malleable atoms in the design of a computer music instrument BIBAFull-Text 311-312
  Roel Vertegaal; Tamas Ungvary
We present SensOrg, a computer music instrument designed as a modular assembly of input/output devices and musical software, mapped and arranged according to functional characteristics of the musician-instrument system. Using tangible bits and malleable atoms, we externally represented the musical software functionality in a physical interface which is freezable yet totally flexible.
LumiTouch: an emotional communication device BIBAFull-Text 313-314
  Angela Chang; Ben Resner; Brad Koerner; XingChen Wang; Hiroshi Ishii
We present the Lumitouch system consisting of a pair of interactive picture frames. When one user touches her picture frame, the other picture frame lights up. This touch is translated to light over an Internet connection. We introduce a semi-ambient display that can transition seamlessly from periphery to foreground in addition to communicating emotional content. In addition to enhancing the communication between loved ones, people can use LumiTouch to develop a personal emotional language.
   Based upon prior work on telepresence and tangible interfaces, LumiTouch explores emotional communication in tangible form. This paper describes the components, interactions, implementation and design approach of the LumiTouch system.

Short talks: interaction techniques

Disentangling relative from absolute amplitude in Fitts' law experiments BIBAFull-Text 315-316
  Yves Guiard
Target distance (D) and target width (W), traditionally treated as independent variables in Fitts' target acquisition paradigm, are shown to suffer inextricable confounds with task difficulty. Through a simple geometrical analogy, it is shown that relative movement amplitude D/W (which determines difficulty) and absolute movement amplitude D (or scale) are the only two variables that can be manipulated independently in a Fitts' task experiment. Disentangling relative amplitude from absolute amplitude with an appropriate experimental design should help to study target acquisition in graphical user interfaces.
Is 100 Milliseconds Too Fast? BIBAFull-Text 317-318
  James R. Dabrowski; Ethan V. Munson
For years, software engineers have been told that applications must respond to user events within 100 milliseconds to seem instantaneous, yet this assumption has never been systematically tested. In this research, we attempt to establish thresholds of detection for changes in a graphical user interface using adaptive tracking. For keyboard interactions, subjects did not notice delays of approximately 150 milliseconds. In contrast, for mouse interactions, subjects did not notice delays of up to 195 milliseconds. Given these findings, further research is clearly needed to firmly establish lower bounds on application responsiveness so that software and operating system engineers can more precisely tune the interactive real-time responsiveness of their systems.
Measuring errors in text entry tasks: an application of the Levenshtein string distance statistic BIBAFull-Text 319-320
  R. William Soukoreff; I. Scott MacKenzie
We propose a new technique based on the Levenshtein minimum string distance statistic for measuring error rates in text entry research. The technique obviates the need to artificially constrain subjects to maintain synchronization with the presented text, thus affording a more natural interaction style in the evaluation. Methodological implications are discussed, including the additional need to use keystrokes per characters (KSPC) as a dependent measure to capture the overhead in correcting errors.
Alphabetically biased virtual keyboards are easier to use: layout does matter BIBAFull-Text 321-322
  Shumin Zhai; Barton A. Smith
Virtual keyboard layouts have been optimized for expert users with no consideration of novice users' ease of locating individual keys. This paper presents a new layout produced by means of a Metropolis algorithm with an added alphabetical bias term to the previous Fitts-digraph energy function. At a small cost of expert's performance, the new layout with alphabetical tendency offered 9% improvement to novice user's performance.
Visual interference with a transparent head mounted display BIBAFull-Text 323-324
  Robert S. Laramee; Colin Ware
Potential perceptual problems that may occur with monocular wearable displays are binocular rivalry and visual interference. We report the results from an experiment with a monocular wearable showing that text becomes increasingly difficult to read as the background becomes more complex. Indeed subjects adopted strategies to avoid the visually complex backgrounds and thereby minimize the interference.
Design rationale of a video explorer BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Marc Nanard; Jocelyne Nanard; Denis Payet
This paper describes an interaction scheme based on gesture analysis of the pointer motion to jointly control three parameters in a Video Explorer: the bounds of a video segment to summarize, and the position of the current frame to display. This strategy drastically reduces the Norman's distances, improves engagement during interaction and provides both wide range and very high precision selection.

Short talks: virtual collaboration tools

ChatScape: a visual informal communication tool in communities BIBAFull-Text 327-328
  Yuji Ayatsuka; Nobuyuki Matsushita; Jun Rekimoto
Informal communication in a community is as important as formal meetings. We propose to support on-line informal communication by a visual communication tool, named ChatScape. A message on ChatScape is made of short text and still images. Short text messages are suitable for informal communication, and snapshots of users adds presence and hints of contexts.
The design of the 'Babble' timeline: a social proxy for visualizing group activity over time BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Thomas Erickson; Mark R. Laff
We describe the design and implementation of the Timeline social proxy, a visualization widget that provides cues about the presence and activity of participants in an online conversation system. Unlike most awareness indicators (but see [4] for an exception), the Timeline shows the history of participants' presence and activities, thus providing cues about who has been 'listening' in asynchronous conversations. We discuss our experience with the Timeline, describing some of the ways in which it is used, as well as its design flaws and potential remedies.
Collaborative tele-directing BIBAFull-Text 331-332
  Judith Donath; Dana Spiegel; Matt Lee; Kelly Dobson; Ken Goldberg
The Tele-Direction interface allows a physically remote and geographically distributed audience to collaboratively control a shared remote resource. It features contextualized user-driven goal setting and voting, an economy, and chat. In this paper we discuss the design considerations that led to this interface and describe our initial implementation.
UI for a videoconference camera BIBAFull-Text 333-334
  Hugo Strubbe; Mi Suen Lee
We present the human factors of a (boardroom or home) group videoconference in which a camera is operated via a remote control. We describe a system that automates this camera operation, the rules it uses, and its effect on the quality of a conference as observed at informal user tests.
Dynamic world design and social navigation in a theatre of work BIBAFull-Text 335-336
  Leonie Schafer; Stefan Kuppers
We describe a novel approach for collaborative work, in which a three-dimensional theatre of work visualizes the work process and enables social encounters. This type of system has potential applications for co-located virtual teams which, though geographically dispersed, work together by the use of modern information technology. We introduce TOWER, the Theatre of Work, which allows project members to be aware of project relevant activities as well as to establish social relationships to intensify team coherence. In this paper we focus on the design of dynamic virtual environments and social navigation.
Patterns of innovation: a web-based MATLAB programming contest BIBAFull-Text 337-338
  Ned Gulley
In this paper, we describe an innovative web-based MATLAB programming contest and point out some interesting connections between the contest and open source software development.

Short talks: eCommerce and eLearning

A visual preference-modeling and decision-support technique for buyers of multi-attribute products BIBAFull-Text 339-340
  Gaurav Tewari; Pattie Maes; Dan Ariely
We describe an intuitive, visual technique by which buyers of multi-attribute goods and services in electronic marketplaces can express their preferences, and receive real-time feedback about which transaction partners can most suitably meet their needs. Our work embodies a novel approach towards the visualization and conceptualization of multi-attribute spaces. Our system gives users the option of being able to iteratively refine their preferences based upon dynamically generated decision-support feedback.
One-to-one e-commerce: who's the one? BIBAFull-Text 341-342
  Jan Blom; Andrew Monk
Personalization, the system knowing about you, can be distinguished from personification, the degree to which the system projects itself as being human. In this experiment personalization is crossed with personification to create four interfaces to a fictional e-commerce system. The effect of personalization on subjective ratings of workload and engagement depended on whether the system projected itself as human or machine.
When buying on-line, does price really matter? BIBAFull-Text 343-344
  Joan Morris; Paul P. Maglio
We studied how consumers make decisions about purchasing airline tickets on-line. The results suggest trends in how decisions are made to purchase products with multiple decision parameters. We found that price matters in that parameters ranked as more important than price are hard requirements whereas parameters ranked as less important than price are only preferences. These results have implications for the design of on-line shopping agents.
Shopping anytime anywhere BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Kenton O'Hara; Mark Perry
As people walk around in the world, many impulses to make a transaction are generated by objects in the environment. For many reasons these transaction impulses are deferred. A study of consumer behaviour is presented focussing on why these transaction impulses are deferred. By looking at the reasons for deferral we aim to inform the design of new user centred mobile ecommerce solutions based on overcoming some of these deferral reasons.
"Less clicking, more watching": an option for entertainment on the web? BIBAFull-Text 347-348
  Claudio Pinhanez; Clare Marie Karat; John Karat; John Vergo; Renee Arora
How can entertainment be provided on the web? Contrary to the common wisdom that sees the web as an inherently interactive medium, this experimental study has found evidence that people may want watchable entertaining experiences on the web, i.e., "less clicking, more watching." This hypothesis was tested in two prototypes of documentary-style streaming web narratives, yielding preliminary evidence that entertainment on the web can be less interactive than currently thought.
A generic presentation modeling system for adaptive web-based instructional applications BIBAFull-Text 349-350
  Jose A. Macias; Pablo Castells
We propose a generic presentation system for adaptive educational hypermedia that is highly independent from domain knowledge representation and application state management. Generality is achieved by providing a framework for the definition of ontologies that best fit specific domains and/or authors. Presentations are described in terms of ontology object classes and relations. An explicit presentation model, separate from course contents, is used to provide course designers with extensive control over the generation of all aspects of presentation, at a moderate development cost.

Short talks: input by hand, eye, and brain

The two-handed desktop interface: are we there yet? BIBAFull-Text 351-352
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Yves Guiard
We argue that today's desktop systems poorly engage the hands of users, and reveal a left-hand bias. Arguments are supported by examples and theory -- by juxtaposing the affordances of keyboard/mouse technology with theories of bimanual skill. Scrolling is cited as a task in particularly bad repair. A design improvement is suggested.
Natural hand writing in unstable 3D space with artificial surface BIBAFull-Text 353-354
  Shun'ichi Tano; Toshihiko Sugimoto
Conventional 3D design systems enable us to make a primitive geometrical figure. That system is useful for structural design. But they are not useful for conceptual design. This paper proposes new and natural design system that fits for conceptual design in 3D space. This system always represents the "hand-writing sketch" in midair by the crystal shutter glasses, and produces the virtual tactile plain in 3D space such as real paper surface by a force feedback device.
Real-time 3D interaction with ActiveCube BIBAFull-Text 355-356
  Yoshifumi Kitamura; Yuichi Itoh; Fumio Kishino
ActiveCube is a novel device that allows a user to construct and interact with a 3D environment by using cubes with a bi-directional user interface. A computer recognizes the 3D structure of connected cubes in real time by utilizing the real-time communication network among cubes. Also, ActiveCube is equipped with both input and output devices, at where the user expects to be, and this makes the interface intuitive and helps to clarify the causal relationship between the input of the user's operational intention and the output of simulated results. Consistency is always maintained between the real object and its corresponding representation in the computer in terms of object shape and functionalities.
Solving multi-target haptic problems in menu interaction BIBAFull-Text 357-358
  Ian Oakley; Stephen Brewster; Philip Gray
While haptic feedback has been shown to enhance user performance and satisfaction in single target interactions in desktop user interfaces, it is not clear whether this will hold for more realistic, multi-target interactions. Here we present an experimental study of haptically enhanced menus. We evaluate a visual condition, a haptic condition and an adjusted haptic condition designed to support menu interactions. We conclude that thoughtful design can create multi-target haptic augmentations that provide performance benefits.
Vision-based face tracking system for window interface: prototype application and empirical studies BIBAFull-Text 359-360
  Kotaro Kitajima; Yoichi Sato; Hideki Koike
In this paper, we study the effective use of gaze information for human-computer interaction based on a stereo-based vision system which can track the 3D position and orientation of a user in real-time. We have integrated our face-tracking system into the X Window interface system, and conducted experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed framework for using gaze information for window interfaces.
Nudge and shove: frequency thresholding for navigation in direct brain-computer interfaces BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Melody Moore; Philip Kennedy; Elizabeth Mynatt; Jennifer Mankoff
Direct control of a computer from the human brain has been made possible by the development of an implanted electrode. This paper describes new paradigms of computer screen navigation adapted for neural signal control.

Short talks: displaying beyond desktop

Who's in control?: exploring human-agent interaction in the McPie interactive theater project BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  Wendy E. Mackay; Ernest Holm Svendsen; Bjarne Horn
The McPie Interactive Theater project explores an unusual style of interaction between human users and visual software agents. Unlike direct manipulation or intelligent agents, McPie explicitly creates a co-adaptive interaction, in which both the human user and the agent modify their behavior according to a changing set of criteria with respect to the other's behavior. The final implementation was tested at an Interactive Theater exhibition in front of a live audience over three days. Volunteers wearing motion detection equipment, interacted with McPie, an animated 3d character back-projected on a wall-sized screen. The setting offered a rich environment for trying out otherwise-controversial interaction styles and suggests new directions for human-agent interaction.
Social and informational proxies in a fishtank BIBAFull-Text 365-366
  Stephen Farrell
This paper describes an interactive fishtank that displays on a large screen in a shared space in our research lab. Fish represent people and informational resources. People can interact with fish by tapping on the tank or typing. Fish can be personalized or extended to reveal whatever a particular person wants to reveal about his or herself. Through this calm, pleasing interface, group awareness can be conveyed.
Barehands: implement-free interaction with a wall-mounted display BIBAFull-Text 367-368
  Meredith Ringel; Henry Berg; Yuhui Jin; Terry Winograd
We describe Barehands, a free-handed interaction technique, in which the user can control the invocation of system commands and tools on a touch screen by touching it with distinct hand postures. Using behind-screen infrared (IR) illumination and a video camera with an IR filter, we enable a back-projected SMARTBoard (a commercially available, 61 3/8" x 47" touch-sensing display) to identify and respond to several distinct hand postures. Barehands provides a natural, quick, implement-free method of interacting with large, wall-mounted interactive surfaces.
Using a steerable projector and a camera to transform surfaces into interactive displays BIBAFull-Text 369-370
  Claudio Pinhanez
The multi-surface interactive display projector (MSIDP) is a steerable projection system that transforms non-tethered surfaces into interactive displays. In an MSIDP, the display image is directed onto a surface by a rotating mirror. Oblique projection distortions are removed by a computer-graphics reverse-distortion process and user interaction (pointing and clicking) is achieved by detecting hand movements with a video camera. The MSIDP is a generic input/output device to be used in applications that require computer access from different locations of a space or computer action in the real world (such as locating objects). In particular, it can also be used to provide computer access in public spaces and to people with locomotive disabilities.
Interactive object registration and recognition for augmented desk interface BIBAFull-Text 371-372
  Takahiro Nishi; Yoichi Sato; Hideki Koike
Identification of objects in a real world plays a key role for human-computer interaction in a computer-augmented environment using augmented reality techniques. For providing natural interaction in such environments, it is necessary for an interface system to know which objects a user is using. In the previously developed interface systems, real objects are identified by using specially designed tags attached to objects. In this work, we propose a new method for interactive object recognition and registration for more natural and intuitive interaction without using any tags. In particular, we introduce interactive object registration and recognition by combining direct manipulation with user's hands and a color-based object recognition algorithm.
Strata/ICC: physical models as computational interfaces BIBAFull-Text 373-374
  Brygg Ullmer; Elizabeth Kim; Axel Kilian; Steve Gray; Hiroshi Ishii
We present Strata/ICC: a computationally-augmented physical model of a 54-story skyscraper that serves as an interactive display of electricity consumption, water consumption, network utilization, and other kinds of infrastructure. Our approach pushes information visualizations into the physical world, with a vision of transforming large-scale physical models into new kinds of interaction workspaces.

Short talks: understanding interfaces

Avoiding interference through translucent interface components in single display groupware BIBAFull-Text 375-376
  Ana Zanella; Saul Greenberg
Our research concerns the design of interface components tailored for single display groupware (SDG) where multiple co-located people, each with their own input device, interact over a single shared display. In particular, we are concerned with 'interference' effects, where one person's raising of an interface component (e.g., a menu) can impede another's view and interaction on the shared screen. Our solution uses translucent interface components, where others can see through the obstructing component and continue their work underneath it. Our in-progress evaluation suggests this design lessens interference effects.
The (in)effectiveness of animation in instruction BIBAFull-Text 377-378
  Julie B. Morrison; Barbara Tversky
Animated graphics have been increasingly adopted to teach complex systems, encouraged by the preconception that realism is effective. Nevertheless, the evidence has been discouraging as to their effectiveness. By the Conceptual Congruence Hypothesis, graphics should be effective in conveying concepts that are literally or metaphorically spatial. By extension, animated graphics should be effective in conveying change in time. This hypothesis was investigated by comparing three interfaces that presented text, text plus static graphics, or text plus animated graphics. Evidence was obtained for the static version of the Conceptual Congruence Hypothesis. Graphics were more effective than text in some cases, especially for participants with low spatial ability, but animation did not further increase effectiveness.
Integrating back, history and bookmarks in web browsers BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  Shaun Kaasten; Saul Greenberg
Most Web browsers include Back, History and Bookmark facilities that simplify how people return to previously seen pages. While useful, these three facilities all operate on quite different underlying models, which undermines their usability. Our alternative revisitation system uses a single model of a recency-ordered history list to integrate Back, History and Bookmarks. Enhancements include: Back as a way to step through this list; implicit and explicit 'dog-ears' to mark pages on the list (replacing Bookmarks); searching/filtering the list through dynamic queries; and visual thumbnails to promote page recognition.
Sketching a graph to query a time-series database BIBAFull-Text 381-382
  Martin Wattenberg
Sequential data is easily understood through a simple line graph, yet systems to search such data typically rely on complex interfaces or query languages. This paper presents QuerySketch, a financial database application in which graphs are used for query input as well as output. QuerySketch allows users to sketch a graph freehand, then view stocks whose price histories match the sketch. Using the same graphical format for both input and output results in an interface that is powerful, flexible, yet easy to use.
An analysis of the influence of need for cognition on dynamic queries usage BIBAFull-Text 383-384
  Giuseppe Carenini
We report preliminary results about a positive correlation between the personality trait of need for cognition (a construct developed in social psychology) and the usage of dynamic queries (an interactive technique for database querying).
End-user perceptions of formal and informal representations of web sites BIBAFull-Text 385-386
  Jason I. Hong; Francis C. Li; James Lin; James A. Landay
Web site designers have expressed concerns that formal, cleaned-up representations of early ideas cause end-users to focus on inappropriate details. It is believed that the high-fidelity of formal representations cause end-users to believe a design is more complete and therefore not amenable to high-level changes and suggestions. In this paper we present an experiment comparing end-user perceptions of formal and informal electronic representations of web site designs. We found that end-users do in fact believe formal representations are finished and unchanging, but that this does not seem to influence the level of detail in their suggestions. However, it appears that informal designs presented in an electronic medium raises user expectations such that lower-level suggestions about the visual aspects were made.

Student posters

The effects of time delay in electronic commerce BIBAFull-Text 387-388
  Danny S. L. Chow
An experiment is conducted to ascertain the effects of time delay on consumer behaviour in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce). Our experiment has found that sequences of delays cause annoyance amongst the subjects. There is little to suggest that psychological adaptation to the time delay may exist. Patterns of delay -- such as increasing and decreasing downloading speeds -- also matters when a subject evaluates an e-commerce shopping experience.
Is banner ads totally blind for us? BIBAFull-Text 389-390
  Chui Yin Wong
The emergence of Internet has provided an alternative channel for companies to promote their services and products online besides the traditional medium. An overview of Internet advertising diagram is also outlined in the paper. Banner ads, as the first form of Internet ads model, is a form of passive exposure in which the consumer does not consciously decide to view [4]. "Banner blindness" was coined [3] to identify users usually overlook banner ads on the Web. A pilot test was conducted to examine whether users do notice the banner ads on the Web. The results showed that graphics, content, and interactivity are the three elements users are attracted to click on the banner ads. Nielsen's 10 usability heuristic principle [5] is adopted on banner ads to illustrate the problem issue.
User-generated analogies of the world wide web: implications for design BIBAFull-Text 391-392
  Aideen J. Stronge; Richard Pak
The purpose of the present study was to gain insight into the mental representations (e.g., mental models, analogies, user models) that people generate of the World Wide Web. There were three groups of participants included in this study: younger adults with web experience, older adults with web experience, and older adults without web experience. All three groups of participants most frequently described the web as a source of information. There is an apparent mismatch between the models recommended by designers and the models given by our participants. Most users' models consisted of multiple idea units. However, most user models recommended by designers consist of one general idea. Differences were also found between the models offered by our two groups of older adults.
Webwatch: visualizing web page histories and social monitoring habits BIBAFull-Text 393-394
  Cathy Eichholz Polk
Much data exists about both web pages and people's browsing behaviors that could be useful, but which is too large and difficult to digest in pure text form. Developing a way to harness this information has the potential to enhance the web browsing experience. I am designing information visualizations and a broader system that allow people to access, review, and analyze such information.
Improving web browsing on handheld devices BIBAFull-Text 395-396
  Michael Fulk
Small screen devices such as PDA's and mobile phones provide a real challenge for displaying web pages. I am exploring alternative display and interaction paradigms for browsing the web on handheld devices.
Dissociation of subjective web site usability evaluation and performance: effect of user experience BIBAFull-Text 397-398
  Michael J. Piller; Michael S. Miller
Usability of three web sites was assessed by low and high experience web users. Findings indicate that despite demonstrating increased objective usability, sites may be characterized as having low subjective usability by experienced users. Implications for design are discussed.
User-interface design principles for experimental control software BIBAFull-Text 399-400
  Ronald Laurids Boring
Much has been written about applying principles and methods of psychology to user-interface design. There is an enormous gap in the literature and in practice for the inverse -- applying user-interface design to psychology. With the prevalence of experimental control software (ECS) in psychology and HCI, it is imperative to consider how ECS would benefit from the application of user-interface design principles. In this paper, several key usability shortcomings in ECS are evaluated, and a set of usability guidelines for the development of ECS is presented.
Expanding an advanced, interface: modifying and reapplying design guidelines BIBAFull-Text 401-402
  Anne Vinter Ratzer
I describe an ongoing design process for expanding a user interface involving advanced interaction techniques (marking menus and toolglasses). My goal is to investigate evaluation and reuse of design guidelines for untraditional interfaces in a participatory design process.
Multiple hierarchies in user workspace BIBAFull-Text 403-404
  Richard Boardman
Desktop workspaces contain many user-defined hierarchies such as the file system, email folders and web bookmark folders. Previous studies have shown that users encounter many overheads in the management and navigation of individual hierarchies. In contrast, this paper presents an exploratory study of how users work with the multiple hierarchies of their workspace.
   The organisations of three hierarchies (file system, email folders and web bookmark folders) were compared for ten users. The study found that overheads are compounded when working with multiple hierarchies. Improved support is required for managing multiple hierarchies in user workspace. The sharing of organisational information between hierarchies is proposed as one possible approach.
Save and store personal experiences BIBAFull-Text 405-406
  Senja Edvardsson
The aim of this paper is to explore a concept of how visitors' personal experiences from a public environment such as an art museum easily can be saved for individual access at a later occasion. The advocated approach is to save experiences by using images of physical objects exhibited at museums as a trigger to remember personal experiences. Ethnographical inspired methods such as observation were used at the Swedish National museum to gain knowledge on conditions for saving experiences. This resulted in design implication and a suggestion of a design approach for future prototype work.
Creating a memory palace using a computer BIBAFull-Text 407-408
  Joshua Harman
A memory palace is a mnemonic device used heavily during the Renaissance. The idea of a memory palace is to create a mental house in which to store symbolic images that can later serve as cues for information retrieval. Much has been made in the psychological literature about the importance of contextual cues for information retrieval. A memory palace serves as an effective way to organize and create contextual cues that can be used later for memory recall. The memory palace project is an attempt to import this completely mental construct into a format a user can manipulate using a computer or PDA.
Understanding the use and utility of anthropomorphic interface agents BIBAFull-Text 409-410
  Jun Xiao
We are exploring the use of anthropomorphic agents in user interfaces in order to understand their potential and utility. Initially, we are conducting a series of Wizard of Oz experiments in order to factor out competence as an issue, and to vary particular aspects of an anthropomorphic agent's presentation.
Surface effects on alignment of graphic and real objects in a stereoscopic augmented reality environment BIBAFull-Text 411-412
  Ming Hou
This poster provides the latest experimental result of a virtual pointer (VP) alignment task at designated probe positions on a cylinder real object surface in a stereoscopic augmented reality environment. The purpose was to evaluate subject's sensitivity to surface texture, target position on the curved surface, VP form, and binocular disparity. The main findings were: a) surface texture had a significant effect, highly textured surface facilitated higher localization accuracy than low textured surface; b) target position had a significant influence, with the central position relative to the observer had less error than the off-centre position; c) binocular disparity had a perceptual interaction with the target position.
Exploring the design space for personal information management tools BIBAFull-Text 413-414
  Rodney Peters
The storing and retrieval of personal and work-related information from large capacity storage devices has become tedious and haphazard especially for individuals that are not technologically or computer literate. There must be a better a way to help people remember where information has been stored, implicate its temporal importance and manage daily tasks. This paper discusses a study currently investigating personal information management and archiving, with an objective of designing software tools to assist the process.
Supporting user-specific views via multidimensional trees BIBAFull-Text 415-416
  Hartmut Obendorf; Sven Bertel; Kai Florian Richter
Large sets of information need to be structured in order to be usable. Users often build hierarchical representations of information that are both user- and task-specific. Traditional structuring techniques used in information systems often fail to support these hierarchies. We try to support the use of individual concepts of the information space with a general structure. We also try to minimize the number of forced decisions in the user's decision tree.
Displaying dynamic information BIBAFull-Text 417-418
  Jaime B. Teevan
In this paper I introduce the problem of displaying dynamic information. I give several examples where an individual must interact with information that is changing beyond her control. The challenge in displaying this information is to discover how the user's context can be maintained while giving her access to the new information that becomes available. The user should feel in control of the information despite the fact that it is changing. This can be done effectively by understanding what conceptual anchors the user creates into the data, and keeping them constant while changing the other information as needed.
Finding what changes: a technique for evaluating icon coding in display systems BIBAFull-Text 419-420
  Angela Garabet; Tonya Stokes
In large-scale systems a user may be required to perform status-monitoring tasks that rely upon the detection of changes among differentially coded icons. We demonstrate a technique for analyzing the utility of coding dimensions in terms of the users' ability to detect display changes in icons that share properties (form, color, orientation, etc.). Results suggest that observers may use the dimensions of color and form to selectively attend to the icons relevant to the task. However, users were unable to completely filter out irrelevant icons to the detriment of their performance on the change detection task.
The effects of graphic organizers that signal the structure of a hypertext document on user's navigation strategies and performance BIBAFull-Text 421-422
  Rachel Michael Nilsson
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that graphical organizers aid users of hypertext documents by providing explicit structural cues. Participants answered thirty questions using a hierarchical website of aquatic animals. In Experiment 1, participants given non-navigable maps were more efficient than participants not given maps on questions 1-20, but marginally less efficient on questions 21-30. In Experiment 2, animal pages contained either an organizer that located the current page within the structure of the website (explicit group), or did not (implicit group). The explicit group was faster during the test phase, but not more efficient. Spatial ability and prior knowledge affected performance. These results suggest that maps are initially useful but discourage further learning.
Content control in multimedia applications BIBAFull-Text 423-424
  Zoe Swiderski
Increasingly expressive input and information presentation techniques are said to enhance interactivity. This paper argues that increased interactivity alone is not sufficient. Though in many cases it may allow more flexible or efficient methods for conveying users' needs, it is often true that a range of retrieved information is obtained from which the user must filter the really useful information. This problem is exacerbated with the increasing popularity of the Internet and its use of multiple media types. This paper describes a 'volume' control for multimedia objects. The volume control is used to adjust the level of detail presented in multiple media objects.
Silver: an intelligent video editor BIBAFull-Text 425-426
  Juan P. Casares
Silver is an authoring tool that allows novice users to edit digital video. A variety of AI techniques provide high-level metadata from the audio signal and video, including shot boundaries and a time-synchronized transcript. Silver uses this metadata to provide multiple, synchronized views of the content, including transcript, tree outline and hierarchical timeline views. These interface components are used to organize and edit the source material. The user can drag and drop representative frames or directly cut and paste in any view, including the transcript. Our work now focuses on supporting intelligent selection when there is a disparity between audio and video boundaries.
Redesigning traditional media and assessing entertainment value with online comics BIBAFull-Text 427-428
  Juan Casares; Karen Cross; Andrea Klein; Stavros Polyviou; Daniel Yocum
As traditional media make the transition to the web, the need for a systematic way of assessing the entertainment value of interfaces becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describe an experiment using online manipulations of traditional paper comic books to a) evaluate the effectiveness of different online presentations of a traditional entertainment medium and b) contrast systematic evaluation methods for assessing entertainment value. Paper comic books were transferred online and manipulated in two ways: the degree of user control in advancing through the story ("user control") and the amount of the original page presented on the screen at a one time ("visual scope"). We used a combination of methods to measure entertainment value: pre and post questionnaires, active experience surveys, facial expression analysis, heart rate measurement and time spent on the interface. From this study, it was determined that the most successful way of presenting comic books online is by giving the user full control over the navigation ("manual" condition), and by presenting each comic book page panel by panel ("panel in page" condition). The most effective and practical way for assessing entertainment value, according to the results of this study, is the use of post questionnaires, and either active experience surveys or facial expression analysis.
Case study of a ubiquitous image/video capture system BIBAFull-Text 429-430
  Dipin Hora
This paper presents the case study of the design of a ubiquitous photographic/videographic based capture system and talks about an application of it. It also describes how these images/videos can be used for a personal consumer application and also as empirical anthropological data.
MultiPoint: a case study of multimodal performance for building presentations BIBAFull-Text 431-432
  Anoop K. Sinha; Michael Shilman; Niraj Shah
MultiPoint is a speech and pen user interface for building presentations, implemented as an add-on to Microsoft PowerPoint. In this study, we compared users' performance between building presentations with MultiPoint and with PowerPoint. We also compared participants' performance between using Wizard of Oz (Woz) speech recognition and computer speech recognition. In aggregate, six participants with Woz recognition completed tasks in about the same time and with about the same number of errors, as they did using PowerPoint alone. Six participants with computer speech recognition took twice the time and committed four times as many errors, as they did using PowerPoint.
The LoveBomb: encouraging the communication of emotions in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 433-434
  Rebecca Hansson; Tobias Skog
We are exploring the use of persuasive computational technology as an instrument for the communication of human emotions. Our current focus is on encouraging such communication between strangers. We present the concept of the LoveBomb -- a mobile and persuasive device that allows people to anonymously communicate feelings of love (happiness) and sadness. The device contains a radio transceiver that the user can employ to send out shock waves of love, affecting people in the proximity carrying a LoveBomb device. The device also lets its users cry for compassion, quietly signaling to others that they are sad. The LoveBomb is intended to encourage people to express themselves emotionally when situated amongst strangers in public spaces. Focus group studies have provided us with an initial understanding regarding the LoveBomb's potential social impact.
A piece of butter on the PDA display BIBAFull-Text 435-436
  Lars Weberg; Torbjorn Brange; Asa Wendelbo Hansson
This paper describes an interaction concept for controlling the cursor on a hand-held computing device's display, in difference to the desktop interaction paradigm. "Cursor" is defined as a small point-like indicator which is movable on a graphic interface. "Hand-held computing device" can for example be a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Moving the cursor should be like moving a piece of butter in a hot frying pan: The more the pan (device) is tilted, the quicker the butter (cursor) will slide "downhills". We also describe a menu system designed for this type of control.
Communication failure in home-help service BIBAFull-Text 437-438
  Lina Larsson
This paper presents the preliminary results from an ongoing research project with the purpose to explore possible ways of using and benefiting from mobile technology for home-help service.
   It is based upon a field study of three Swedish home-help service units. The project aims at an understanding of the work practices of the home-help service. The paper shows that the informal communication is an important practice in the work, but not always sufficient. This is exemplified by an episode with a caretaker. The incident implies that the practice of informal communication possibly could benefit from mobile technology.
Ability by mobility BIBAFull-Text 439-440
  Victoria Nilsson
In this paper, we describe how aspects on usability may be explored in interviews with people from the disabled community. By using Future Workshops and ethnographical studies to get a user perspective on how new technology could be an aid for people who are usually restricted by immobility. How to make access to places and information at locations out of physical reach possible and let all of us take an active part in the modern society. With those means we explore what is possible to do in the present situation, and what would be desirable to do in the future. We have many interesting proposals on what would be valuable technical aids. Extending these with ethnographical studies of the perceived user groups, those ideas where further developed.
TreePredict: improving text entry on PDA's BIBAFull-Text 441-442
  Fredrik Kronlid; Victoria Nilsson
In this paper we describe how an improved word prediction implemented on a PDA can make it easier for users to enter text. The resulting predictions are a result of trigrams using POS-tags (Part Of Speech). The first two parts of the trigrams are POS-tagged, and the last part is extended into a ternary tree, using information from the trigrams to narrow the search. With an improved predictions system, the users are more likely to trust the system, find it improves their ability to enter text with less keystrokes. It is also likely that they will to use the prediction feature more actively when they perceive that it is useful to them.
Using handhelds as controls for everyday appliances: a paper prototype study BIBAFull-Text 443-444
  Jeffrey W. Nichols
Everyday appliances, including telephones, copiers, and home stereos, increasingly contain embedded computers which enable greater functionality. If the interfaces to these appliances were easy to use, people might benefit from these new functions. Unfortunately, it is rare to find a well-designed appliance interface. This study shows that existing appliance interfaces could be improved by using a remote control interface on a handheld computer.
Walk-up keyboard: an efficient low overhead interface for transient workers BIBAFull-Text 445-446
  Matthew Rosencrantz; Kurt Partridge
A situation that traditional PC centered computing does not serve well is that of transient workers; workers who are required to move from place to place frequently, yet still be able to interact with their data. We used intra-body signaling to construct a system that allows workers to carry wearable computers and interact with them through a standard keyboard and monitor. The system has low overhead when changing terminals as the association between terminal and wearable occurs automatically when the user comes into contact with the terminal. Although the system is still under development, an initial implementation has verified that the desired functionality is obtainable.
Developing heuristics for synchronous collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 447-448
  Jill Drury
Heuristic evaluation is widely used for single-user computer systems, but research is ongoing to find a valid set of heuristics that can be applied to synchronous multi-user, or collaborative, computing systems. I have derived a set of heuristics based on six theories and metaphors of collaborative system behavior. The heuristics are being validated through use and a planned experiment.
ATC do I trust thee?: referents of trust in air traffic control BIBAFull-Text 449-450
  Deirdre Bonini
In this paper, we describe an approach to understanding the role of trust in the domain of air traffic control (ATC). We conceptualise trust in terms of the dimensions of belief and control, and identify four referents as necessary elements to describe an air traffic controllers' trust in the system. A number of attributes of the referents were selected, and their relevance was supported by the results of a questionnaire. Experience of working with others and using technology, was reported as being essential. Future work will include a widening of scope, and an experimental validation of the influence of referents and attributes on the level of trust in a system.
User response to two algorithms as a test of collaborative filtering BIBAFull-Text 451-452
  Adam W. Shearer
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether recommendations based on collaborative filtering (CF) are perceived as superior to recommendations based on user population averages. The test vehicle was a movie recommender. 29 subjects were divided into 2 groups, each group using one of these systems. The recommender systems suggested movies which subjects later viewed. Each subject filled out pre and post-questionnaires about their experience. Subjects using the CF algorithm rated more movies. Subjects placed slightly more confidence in the recommendations of the population averages algorithm. Both algorithms were over-confident compared to subjects ratings. Subjects found both recommender systems to be an effective source of finding entertainment. User responses did not reveal a noticeable difference between the two algorithms.
Using interactive maps for navigation and collaboration BIBAFull-Text 453-454
  Wendy A. Schafer
Interactive maps provide unique ways to support collaboration. They can be used to navigate virtual environments and support collaborative activities within these environments. This poster gives an example of map-based navigation and some guidelines for its use. Additional map applications are also suggested.
Predicting user intentions in graphical user interfaces using implicit disambiguation BIBAFull-Text 455-456
  David Noy
We address the problem of predicting user intentions in cases of pointing ambiguities in graphical user interfaces.
   We argue that it is possible to heuristically resolve pointing ambiguities using implicit information that resides in natural pointing gestures, thus eliminating the need for explicit interaction methods and encouraging natural human-computer interaction.
   We present two speed-accuracy measures for predicting the size of the intended target object. These two measures are tested empirically and shown to be valid and robust.
   Additionally, we demonstrate the use of exact mouse location for disambiguation and the use of estimated movement continuation for predicting intended target objects at early stages of the pointing gesture.
The information curtain: creating digital patterns with dynamic textiles BIBAFull-Text 457-458
  Linda Melin
We are exploring ways to bridge the gap between traditional interior-design materials and digital media. At a time when computers become ubiquitous we think it is important to explore alternative display materials that can be better integrated in the human environment. The information curtain is a seemingly ordinary textile that can change color and pattern dynamically according to some input data. This was achieved by creating a special textile based on fibers that change color according to the amount of ultra-violet (UV) light. A color will appear on the surface when exposed to UV light and then slowly fade away when the light is turned off. By connecting the fabric to a computer-controlled UV light we will be able to use textiles as an output for digital media.
"Are you there Margaret? It's me, Margaret": speech recognition as a mirror BIBAFull-Text 459-460
  Christine Flounders
This paper briefly examines the design space of speech recognition as an input device. I discuss the particular advantages of speech recognition over other button-pushing modes of input. The goal of this paper is to examine speech devices that operate as a reflective tool for Human-Computer Interaction. I detail the construction and implementation of a simple speech recognition device, the Speech Patternizer, which specifies the frequency of indicated words in recorded speech. Through the prototyping of this device and a longitudinal study of it, I inspect the more nuanced models of Human-Computer Interaction that make speech patterns more transparent and interpretable. The value of the ability to examine and assess speech interaction between computers and humans is also discussed.
Useful parameters for the design of laser pointer interaction techniques BIBAFull-Text 461-462
  Choon Hong Peck
This paper reports on some fundamental parameters for the design of wall-based laser pointer interaction techniques. Ten users participated in this study and their laser points were tracked and recorded by a computer. The data collected were then processed and statistically analyzed to provide parameters like the size of the dwell of a laser point, the time taken to acquire a target and the time required to determine a dwell on a target. These numbers are needed when designing interaction techniques that use a laser pointer.
Task blocks: tangible interfaces for creative exploration BIBAFull-Text 463-464
  Michael Terry
This paper introduces Task Blocks, a system that uses physical blocks, called task blocks, to represent computational functions. Users string task blocks together to create a "pipeline" that sequentially manipulates data. Input devices attach directly to individual task blocks to control the effect of each function in the pipeline. The design of the system encourages hands-on, active experimentation by allowing users to directly insert, delete, or modify any function in the pipeline. This paper presents the design of Task Blocks and results from initial prototyping efforts.
Senior-centered design of health information architecture BIBAFull-Text 465
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Sri Kurniawan
A series of senior-centered design experiments were used to define the best-fitting web hierarchy for health information for seniors are reported.
   Three experiments were performed, namely card sorting, category identification and category labeling. The card sorting experiment's results show that senior participants grouped items conceptually on the higher categorization level but were influenced by literal words found in the link names when grouping items at a finer categorizations deeper down the hierarchy. The category identification and category labeling experiments' results suggests the importance of involving users to properly label the link and group names.
Tearing down walls for the homebound elderly BIBAFull-Text 469-470
  Jennifer L. Gregg
It is estimated that by 2030, there will be about 70 million older adults, more than twice their number in 1990 [1], indicating a growing number of frail elderly who are more likely to become socially isolated because of chronic health conditions due to advancing age. The purpose of this study was determine if emerging telecommunication technologies could help to change the social framework of homebound and mobility-limited people's lives. Four plain-old-telephone-service (POTs) -based videoconferencing units were placed in the homes of shut-in elderly for six months. Interviews conducted at three time points indicate participants felt more connected to their community because of the technology.
Capturing camp experiences on the web: -design of Cyber Camp CAEN- BIBAFull-Text 471-472
  Hyun Jhin Lee
In this paper, I present Cyber Camp CAEN, a novel web-based form of computer programming education for junior/high school students. Cyber Camp CAEN is a web-based interactive learning platform which incorporates many of the pedagogical features that make University of Michigan's Camp CAEN successful. Based on observations, surveys, and interviews, three features of camp life were found to be particularly significant, and they have been incorporated into the Cyber Camp CAEN design. Those features are: 1) competition, 2) collaboration, and 3) unpredictability. Cyber Camp CAEN incorporates these aspects of camp experience by utilizing A) a peer-based and skill graded learning community; B) live online peer help; C) an "Iron programmer" competition; and D) project exhibitions.
Bringing design dialog to HCI education BIBAFull-Text 473-474
  Colleen M. Kehoe
This research examines design dialog as a technique for helping HCI students learn through design activities. An undergraduate class using this technique with an experienced professor is studied. The students and the professor differ in the techniques they use in asking questions about other students' design projects. Results suggest that students will need help focussing on what they are learning from their design projects.
Essentials of cell biology: usability test of a multimedia cd-rom science curriculum for high-school students BIBAFull-Text 475-476
  Mary Deraitus; Kris Freeman
The CD-ROM "Essentials of Cell Biology" (ECB), a self-guided curriculum and reference program, was developed by Health and Environmental Resources for Educators program in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Washington for use by high-school students. This pilot study described here gathered information on the usability of ECB through formal usability observations of two 15-year-old participants as they used the program, and through post-test interviews. The pilot study also identified areas of concern that might be of interest to future researchers in testing adolescents. The developers of the CD-ROM used the findings from this study in their successful grant application to obtain additional funding to correct usability problems in the CD-ROM.
Verbaliser-visualiser learning on a statistics training program BIBAFull-Text 477-478
  Yean Wei Ong
Can we improve information uptake by tailoring training to individual users' verbal-visual cognitive styles? This study examined the relationship between cognitive style and learning performance on a computer-based training program on measures of central tendency. Verbalisers (verbal stylists), visualisers (visual stylists), and controls (flexible stylists) were selected, and tested on two formats (sentence and diagram) of a statistics training program. Verbalisers and visualisers were expected to do better when format matched style. Contrary to predictions, controls gave different performance across formats while verbalisers and visualisers gave similar performance across formats. Possible explanations are presented.
Design and implementation of an educational technology for a historic home BIBAFull-Text 479-480
  Joshua T. Cothran; James Clawson; Jehan Moghazy
Rhodes Hall, a turn-of-the-century home in Atlanta, Georgia, occupies a significant place in the cultural heritage of the South. Using the iterative design process, we have broken down the design space of Rhodes Hall and found ways to implement useful technologies. Methods of data collection include research, interviews, monitoring tours, and other techniques. Based on this data, we have designed a prototype for an educational software package. The software will improve the quality and experience of learning for middle school students visiting the historic home. Beginning January 2001, we will revise and implement the design, carrying out formative and summative evaluations of the software.


Mobile communications: understanding users, adoption, and design BIBAFull-Text 481-482
  Marilyn Salzman; Leysia Palen; Richard Harper
Mobile telephony adoption is on the rise, with industry projections suggesting that wireless subscribers will reach 1 billion worldwide by 2002 [3]. Recent technological innovations have also dramatically enhanced the capabilities of the wireless telephone [8]. No longer restricted to voice communications, wireless devices are now also able to transmit and manipulate data. Leveraging the power of these new technologies, various business sectors are working together to offer a wide array of services, including voice communications, short messaging, information services, web surfing, location-based services, and e-commerce. Each sector is looking for the next "killer application," yet we are still learning about people's information and communication needs while "on the go" [9, 10, 11]. Additionally, it is difficult to anticipate what new possibilities or challenges are created for the user upon the introduction of these new computational capabilities. An understanding of these issues is critical to the CHI community's ability to produce good technology -- technology that is innovative, useful, usable, and profitable.
Transforming the UI for anyone. anywhere: enabling an increased variety of users, devices, and tasks through interface transformations BIBFull-Text 483-484
  Charles Wiecha; Pedro Szekely
Interactive narrative and knowledge stewardship BIBAFull-Text 485-486
  Tom Carey; Karel Vredenburg; Jim Bizzocchi
This workshop will bring together a diverse set of participants to explore the use of interactive narrative for knowledge stewardship. Participants will bring existing or proposed interactive narratives for analysis and review. The workshop will also develop a draft research agenda linking various disciplinary perspectives.
Distributed and disappearing user interfaces in ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 487-488
  Anind K. Dey; Peter Ljungstrand; Albrecht Schmidt
New concepts for human-computer interaction have to be developed when envisioning ubiquitous computing scenarios [7]. Instead of a single screen-based user interface (UI), humans will interact with a number of devices that are distributed and interconnected. These computers range from highly personal and mobile appliances to systems that are integrated in everyday environments and are more or less invisible. When all the potential components are considered together, the design space for the UI becomes much larger than with conventional personal computers. In the process of designing UIs, decisions on the distribution of the input as well as the output through both space and time are needed. This also raises questions on how to deal with alternative, multiple input options, redundant output opportunities, and the fact that many of these UIs cannot expect to have people's attention for a long time.
Integrating diverse research and development approaches to the construction of social cyberspaces BIBAFull-Text 489-490
  Shelly Farnham; Marc A. Smith; Jennifer Preece; Amy Bruckman; Douglas Schuler
Researchers take a broad range of approaches in studying social cyberspaces, and each approach has its own theoretical underpinnings, goals, methods, advantages, and disadvantages. We intend to bring researchers from various backgrounds together, document the range of variation in this interdisciplinary area, and build connections among these practitioners. Using a survey instrument, this workshop will create a resource catalog (distributed through the web) that can be used by others in this field to guide them through the range of approaches in current use. Particular attention will be paid to the advantages and disadvantages of the different methodological approaches researchers take to understand, develop and enhance specific research topics.
New interfaces for musical expression BIBAFull-Text 491-492
  Ivan Poupyrev; Michael J. Lyons; Sidney Fels; A Tina Blaine (Bean)
The rapid evolution of electronics, digital media, advanced materials, and other areas of technology, is opening up unprecedented opportunities for musical interface inventors and designers. The possibilities afforded by these new technologies carry with them the challenges of a complex and often confusing array of choices for musical composers and performers. New musical technologies are at least partly responsible for the current explosion of new musical forms, some of which are controversial and challenge traditional definitions of music. Alternative musical controllers, currently the leading edge of the ongoing dialogue between technology and musical culture, involve many of the issues covered at past CHI meetings. This workshop brings together interface experts interested in musical controllers and musicians and composers involved in the development of new musical interfaces.
Tools, conceptual frameworks, and empirical studies for early stages of design BIBFull-Text 493-494
  Kumiyo Nakakoji; Mark D. Gross; Linda Candy; Ernest Edmonds
Text entry on mobile systems: directions for the future BIBAFull-Text 495
  Poika Isokoski; I. Scott MacKenzie
Mobile text input is hampered by the absence of a traditional keyboard. This, combined with demand for rapid and effortless writing methods for mobile devices, presents a special challenge. Various systems seeking to meet this challenge have recently emerged. Often, however, rigorous evaluation is lacking, and, so, there is little objective data to inform design. The goal of this workshop is to bring together experts on text entry methods, language prediction and modeling, and natural language input to discuss the state of the art and future directions in mobile text entry.
Managing usability defects from identification to closure BIBAFull-Text 497-498
  Paul McInerney; Christian Pantel; Karl Melder
Usability engineering programs generate volumes of raw data that are analyzed and synthesized into findings. While quantitative results such as task completion time and satisfaction ratings are straightforward to analyze and report, qualitative findings are less so. Qualitative findings encompass defects or flaws introduced at various stages of development, user suggestions for improving an acceptable design, and more diffuse usability concerns that need further investigation.
   It is not sufficient for usability engineers to simply identify usability defects. These defects must be communicated, tracked, resolved, and reported on. The effectiveness of a usability engineering process can be measured by its success rate in causing legitimate usability issues to be successfully resolved. This workshop will seek to identify best practices for managing usability defects from the time they are identified to the time they are closed.
Universal design: towards universal access in the information society BIBAFull-Text 499-500
  Constantine Stephanidis; Demosthenes Akoumianakis
This workshop aims to advance an understanding of the concepts and principles of universal design and extrapolate on their relevance to Information Society Technologies. Specifically, the workshop will seek to review methods and techniques currently in use, ongoing work and future research issues, and establish the foundations of a conceptual frame of reference for applying universal design into Information Society Technologies in general, and HCI in particular.
Building the ubiquitous computing user experience BIBAFull-Text 501-502
  W. Keith Edwards; Mark W. Newman; Jana Z. Sedivy
Many aspects of Mark Weiser's original vision of ubiquitous computing [3] are rapidly becoming reality. Unlike just a few years ago, where we had at most one computer per person, many of us now routinely carry several "intelligent" devices. These may include PDAs, cell phones, laptop computers, portable digital music players, and so on. Additionally, our daily environments are often inhabited by digital devices such as computer display projectors and computer-augmented whiteboards.
   Increasingly, these devices have the ability to interconnect with one another, whether through short-range, proximity-based transports such as infrared or Bluetooth, via longer-range wireless technology, or through "traditional" wired networks. As we carry with us and are surrounded by increasing numbers of interconnectable devices -- as well as rapidly proliferating interconnected software services -- we are confronted with the question: how will we understand, make sense of, and ultimately use, the functionality around us?
Interactive television: strategies for designing useful and usable services BIBFull-Text 503
  Owen Daly Jones; Rachel Carey
The elements of online trust BIBAFull-Text 504-505
  Cynthia L. Corritore; Susan Wiedenbeck; Beverly Kracher
The increasing success and popularity of the Internet makes this a critical time to examine elements that can cause online user interactions to be a success or a dismal failure. One of the most important of these elements, trust, has been identified as critical in ensuring a successful online interaction (Cheskin, 2000; Egger, 2000; Stratford, 2000). Human trust is essential for effective online experiences in part because these systems eliminate or minimize face-to-face contact. Online interface designers are also interested in trust as it relates to their ability to design elements into their websites that engender trust on the part of their users. They require knowledge about what goes into building an online trust relationship with a user which they can use to facilitate this process. While the importance of online trust is recognized, its study is just beginning. Questions such as 'what exactly is online trust?' and 'What makes a website trustworthy?' are some of the key issues in the study of online trust. We have identified two online contexts upon which to focus during the workshop. These are: ecommerce and health care information systems.