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CHI Tables of Contents: 98-2a98-2b98-2c98-2d99-199-200-100-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-1

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Changing our world, changing ourselves
Editors:Loren Terveen
Location:Minneapolis, Minnesota
Dates:2002-Apr-20 to 2002-Apr-25
Volume:1
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-453-3 ACM Order Number 608023; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI02-1
Papers:61
Pages:478
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Contextual Displays
  2. Input Devices
  3. Gaze
  4. Input: Smooth Moves
  5. Structure and Flow
  6. Two-Handed Interaction
  7. Confidence and Trust
  8. Controlling Complexity
  9. I Think, therefore IM
  10. Spatial Cognition
  11. Technology to help people find information
  12. Web Behavior Patterns
  13. Focus and Context
  14. Speech, Audio, Gesture
  15. Interactive Design
  16. Collaborative Filtering
  17. Hands-On Interfaces
  18. Web Site Analysis
  19. Communities and Organizations
  20. Ubiquity
  21. Visualizing Patterns
  22. Group Spaces
  23. Design Methods

Contextual Displays

Where do web sites come from?: capturing and interacting with design history BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Scott R. Klemmer; Michael Thomsen; Ethan Phelps-Goodman; Robert Lee; James A. Landay
To form a deep understanding of the present; we need to find and engage history. We present an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early-stage information design. This history system is implemented in the context of the Designers' Outpost, a wall-scale, tangible interface for collaborative web site design. The interface elements in this history system are designed to be fluid and comfortable for early-phase design. As demonstrated by an informal lab study with six professional designers, this history system enhances the design process itself, and provides new opportunities for reasoning about the design of complex artifacts.
The augurscope: a mixed reality interface for outdoors BIBAFull-Text 9-16
  Holger Schnadelbach; Boriana Koleva; Martin Flintham; Mike Fraser; Shahram Izadi; Paul Chandler; Malcolm Foster; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Tom Rodden
The augurscope is a portable mixed reality interface for outdoors. A tripod-mounted display is wheeled to different locations and rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. Our design encompasses physical form, interaction and the combination of a GPS receiver, electronic compass, accelerometer and rotary encoder for tracking. An initial application involves the public exploring a medieval castle from the site of its modern replacement. Analysis of use reveals problems with lighting, movement and relating virtual and physical viewpoints, and shows how environmental factors and physical form affect interaction. We suggest that problems might be accommodated by carefully constructing virtual and physical content.

Input Devices

Movement model, hits distribution and learning in virtual keyboarding BIBAFull-Text 17-24
  Shumin Zhai; Alison Sue; Johnny Accot
In a ten-session experiment, six participants practiced typing with an expanding rehearsal method on an optimized virtual keyboard. Based on a large amount of in-situ performance data, this paper reports the following findings. First, the Fitts-digraph movement efficiency model of virtual keyboards is revised. The format and parameters of Fitts' law used previously in virtual keyboards research were incorrect. Second, performance limit predictions of various layouts are calculated with the new model. Third, learning with expanding rehearsal intervals for maximum memory benefits is effective, but many improvements of the training algorithm used can be made in the future. Finally, increased visual load when typing previously practiced text did not significantly change users' performance at this stage of learning, but typing unpracticed text did have a performance effect, suggesting a certain degree of text specific learning when typing on virtual keyboards.
Comparison of two touchpad-based methods for numeric entry BIBAFull-Text 25-32
  Poika Isokoski; Mika Kaki
Small hand-held touchpads can be used to replace stylus-based digitizing tablets when the use of a stylus is not convenient. In text entry tasks where the writing surface is held in a hand the error rate becomes a problem. The small size of strokes compared to the width of the fingertip and the additional imprecision caused by the interaction of the pad and finger movements make input very imprecise. We describe a new improved clock-face based stroke system for entering numbers with a touchpad. In a 20-session user study with 6 users we found slightly better throughput of successfully entered numbers with the proposed new system. This advantage was mainly due to lower error rate with the new system. User preference similarly slightly favored the new system over an earlier straightforward proposal based on the clock metaphor.
Interacting at a distance: measuring the performance of laser pointers and other devices BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Brad A. Myers; Rishi Bhatnagar; Jeffrey Nichols; Choon Hong Peck; Dave Kong; Robert Miller; A. Chris Long
It is difficult to interact with computer displays that are across the room. A popular approach is to use laser pointers tracked by a camera, but interaction techniques using laser pointers tend to be imprecise, error-prone, and slow. Although many previous papers discuss laser pointer interaction techniques, none seem to have performed user studies to help inform the design. This paper reports on two studies of laser pointer interactions that answer some of the questions related to interacting with objects using a laser pointer. The first experiment evaluates various parameters of laser pointers. For example, the time to acquire a target is about 1 second, and the jitter due to hand unsteadiness is about +/-8 pixels, which can be reduced to about +/-2 to +/-4 pixels by filtering. We compared 7 different ways to hold various kinds of laser pointers, and found that a laser pointer built into a PalmOS device was the most stable. The second experiment compared 4 different ways to select objects on a large projected display. We found that tapping directly on a wall-size SmartBoard was the fastest and most accurate method, followed by a new interaction technique that copies the area of interest from the big screen to a handheld. Third in speed was the conventional mouse, and the laser pointer came in last, with a time almost twice as long as tapping on the SmartBoard.

Gaze

Messages embedded in gaze of interface agents -- impression management with agent's gaze BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Atsushi Fukayama; Takehiko Ohno; Naoki Mukawa; Minako Sawaki; Norihiro Hagita
We propose a gaze movement model that enables an embodied interface agent to convey different impressions to users. Managing one's own impression to influence the behaviors of others plays an important role in human communications. To create a new application area which involves agents in this kind of social interaction, interface agents that manage their impressions are required. For this purpose, we build the gaze movement model based on three gaze parameters picked from a large number of psychological studies: amount of gaze, mean duration of gaze, and gaze points while averted. In this paper, we introduce the gaze movement model and gaze parameters. We then present an experiment in which subjects evaluated the impressions created by nine gaze patterns produced by altering the gaze parameters. The results indicate that reproducible relations exist between the gaze parameters and impressions, which shows the validity of the model.
Leveraging the asymmetric sensitivity of eye contact for videoconference BIBAFull-Text 49-56
  Milton Chen
Eye contact is a natural and often essential element in the language of visual communication. Unfortunately, perceiving eye contact is difficult in most video-conferencing systems and hence limits their effectiveness. We conducted experiments to determine how accurately people perceive eye contact. We discovered that the sensitivity to eye contact is asymmetric, in that we are an order of magnitude less sensitive to eye contact when people look below our eyes than when they look to the left, right, or above our eyes. Additional experiments support a theory that people are prone to perceive eye contact, that is, we will think that someone is making eye contact with us unless we are certain that the person is not looking into our eyes. These experimental results suggest parameters for the design of videoconferencing systems. As a demonstration, we were able to construct from commodity components a simple dyadic videoconferencing prototype that supports eye contact.

Input: Smooth Moves

Acquisition of expanding targets BIBAFull-Text 57-64
  Michael McGuffin; Ravin Balakrishnan
There exist several user interface widgets that dynamically grow in size in response to the user's focus of attention. Some of these, such as icons in toolbars, expand to facilitate their selection -- allowing for a reduced initial size in an attempt to optimize screen space use. However, selection performance may be degraded by this decreased initial widget size. We describe an experiment which explores the effects of varying parameters of expansion techniques in a selection task. Our results suggest that Fitts' law can model and predict performance in such tasks. They also indicate that performance is governed by the target's final size, not its initial one. Further, performance is dependent on the target's final size even when the target only begins expanding as late as after 90% of the movement towards the target has already been completed. These results indicate that expanding widgets can be used without sacrificing performance.
Quantitative analysis of scrolling techniques BIBAFull-Text 65-72
  Ken Hinckley; Edward Cutrell; Steve Bathiche; Tim Muss
We propose a formal experimental paradigm designed to help evaluate scrolling interaction techniques. Such a method is needed by interaction designers to quantify scrolling performance, thereby providing a tool to evaluate and improve upon new techniques. We systematically vary the scrolling distance as well as the required tolerance of scrolling. Distance and tolerance are the parameters of Fitts' Law, which traditionally has been applied to the evaluation of pointing devices in tasks involving rapid, aimed movement to visible targets. Scrolling involves acquisition of targets well beyond the edges of the screen, yet Fitts' Law models our experimental data very wellWe apply our paradigm to the IBM ScrollPoint and the IntelliMouse Wheel. Our experimental approach reveals a crossover effect in performance versus distance, with the Wheel performing best at short distances but the ScrollPoint performing best at long distances. We also demonstrate that the performance of the Wheel can be significantly improved using an acceleration algorithm. These results show that our approach yields a practical and rigorous method for the evaluation of scrolling techniques.
More than dotting the i's -- foundations for crossing-based interfaces BIBAFull-Text 73-80
  Johnny Accot; Shumin Zhai
Today's graphical interactive systems largely depend upon pointing actions, i.e. entering an object and selecting it. In this paper we explore whether an alternate paradigm -- crossing boundaries -- may substitute or complement pointing as another fundamental interaction method. We describe an experiment in which we systematically evaluate two target-pointing tasks and four goal-crossing tasks, which differ by the direction of the movement variability constraint (collinear vs. orthogonal) and by the nature of the action (pointing vs. crossing, discrete vs. continuous). We found that participants' temporal performance in each of the six tasks was dependent on the index of difficulty formulated in the same way as in Fitts' law, but that the parameters differ by task. We also found that goal crossing completion time was shorter or no longer than pointing performance under the same index of difficulty. These regularities, as well as qualitative characterizations of crossing actions and their application in HCI, lay the foundation for designing crossing-based user interfaces.

Structure and Flow

A Case Study to Distill Structural Scaffolding Guidelines for Scaffolded Software Environments BIBAFull-Text 81-88
  Chris Quintana; Joseph Krajcik; Elliot Soloway
A challenge for HCI researchers and designers involves developing software tools for learners to support them in mindfully doing and learning complex new work practices. Such "learner-centered" tools incorporate scaffolds-software features that address the cognitive obstacles learners face so they can engage in the work in an educationally productive manner. However, designers still lack specific scaffolding design guidelines for developing effective scaffolded tools. The HCI contribution of this paper is a set of scaffolding guidelines distilled from an empirical case study. The study evaluated Symphony, a scaffolded environment for high school students learning science inquiry. The study evaluated the "effects with" the Symphony scaffolds, which described how students worked with the scaffolds to do their science work. The scaffolds were evaluated using several usability and learner-centered criteria, and the resulting information was correlated with structural characteristics of the scaffolds to distill a set of structural scaffolding guidelines.
Notification for shared annotation of digital documents BIBAFull-Text 89-96
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; David Bargeron; Jonathan Grudin; Anoop Gupta
Notification and shared annotations go hand-in-hand. Notification of activity in a shared document system is known to support awareness and improve asynchronous collaboration, but few studies have examined user needs and explored design tradeoffs. We examined large-scale use of notifications in a commercial system and found it lacking. We designed and deployed enhancements to the system, then conducted a field study to gauge their effect. We found that providing more information in notification messages, supporting multiple communication channels through which notifications can be received, and allowing customization of notification messages are particularly important. Overall awareness of annotation activity on software specifications increased with our enhancements.
"I'd be overwhelmed, but it's just one more thing to do": availability and interruption in research management BIBAFull-Text 97-104
  James M. Hudson; Jim Christensen; Wendy A. Kellogg; Thomas Erickson
Many CSCW projects dealing with individual availability and interruption filtering achieve only limited success. Perhaps this is because designers of such systems have limited evidence to draw upon; most data on interruption management is at least a decade old. This study uses an empirical sampling method and qualitative interviews to examine attitudes toward availability and interruption. Specifically, we analyze how corporate research managers spend their time and look at how their attitudes toward interruption relate to their various activities. Attitudes toward interruption are marked by a complex tension between wanting to avoid interruption and appreciating its usefulness. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for design, suggesting that the notion of socially translucent systems may be a fruitful approach.

Two-Handed Interaction

Comparing voodoo dolls and HOMER: exploring the importance of feedback in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 105-112
  Jeffrey S. Pierce; Randy Pausch
When creating techniques for manipulating objects at a distance in immersive virtual environments, researchers have primarily focused on increasing selection range, placement range, and placement accuracy. This focus has led researchers to create and formally study a series of "arm-extension" techniques, which dynamically scale the user's arm to allow him to manipulate distant objects. Researchers have also developed representation-based techniques, which allow users to manipulate a distant object by manipulating a copy of it in a handheld representation. However, researchers have not yet formally established the relative value of these techniques. In this paper we present a formal study comparing Voodoo Dolls, a best-practice representation-based technique, with HOMER, a best-practice arm-extension technique. We found that the Voodoo Dolls technique, which provides better feedback by allowing users to view a manipulated object both up close and at a distance, allowed users to both position and orient objects more accurately. Our results suggest that researchers should focus on improving feedback for 3D manipulation techniques.
SmartSkin: an infrastructure for freehand manipulation on interactive surfaces BIBAFull-Text 113-120
  Jun Rekimoto
This paper introduces a new sensor architecture for making interactive surfaces that are sensitive to human hand and finger gestures. This sensor recognizes multiple hand positions and shapes and calculates the distance between the hand and the surface by using capacitive sensing and a mesh-shaped antenna. In contrast to camera-based gesture recognition systems, all sensing elements can be integrated within the surface, and this method does not suffer from lighting and occlusion problems. This paper describes the sensor architecture, as well as two working prototype systems: a table-size system and a tablet-size system. It also describes several interaction techniques that would be difficult to perform without using this architecture.
Creating principal 3D curves with digital tape drawing BIBAFull-Text 121-128
  Tovi Grossman; Ravin Balakrishnan; Gordon Kurtenbach; George Fitzmaurice; Azam Khan; Bill Buxton
Previous systems have explored the challenges of designing an interface for automotive styling which combine the metaphor of 2D drawing using physical tape with the simultaneous creation and management of a corresponding virtual 3D model. These systems have been limited to only 2D planar curves while typically the principal characteristic curves of an automotive design are three dimensional and non-planar. We present a system which addresses this limitation. Our system allows a designer to construct these non-planar 3D curves by drawing a series of 2D curves using the 2D tape drawing technique and interaction style. These results are generally applicable to the interface design of 3D modeling applications and also to the design of arm's length interaction on large scale display systems.

Confidence and Trust

Adaptive testing: effects on user performance BIBAFull-Text 129-134
  Eva Jettmar; Clifford Nass
This study examines the effects of interface adaptation on user performance in HCI and CMC. No studies to date have explored the psychological effects of a combination of software performance monitoring and adaptation. This combination is the focus of the present study. Two competing possible effects of adaptive interfaces are presented: 1) Social facilitation, according to which users with high task confidence should perform better, and users with low task confidence should perform less well because their performance is monitored by the interface; and 2) "choking", according to which users with high task confidence should perform less well, and users with low task confidence should perform better because the interface adapts to their performance. A 2 (adaptive vs. non-adaptive) x 2 (high user task confidence vs. low task confidence) x 2 (HCI vs. CMC) laboratory experiment was conducted. Results indicate that for CMC, the social facilitation explanation holds true, while results for HCI were consistent with the "choking" explanation. Implications for the theory and design of adaptive interfaces are discussed.
Effects of four computer-mediated communications channels on trust development BIBAFull-Text 135-140
  Nathan Bos; Judy Olson; Darren Gergle; Gary Olson; Zach Wright
When virtual teams need to establish trust at a distance, it is advantageous for them to use rich media to communicate. We studied the emergence of trust in a social dilemma game in four different communication situations: face-to-face, video, audio, and text chat. All three of the richer conditions were significant improvements over text chat. Video and audio conferencing groups were nearly as good as face-to-face, but both did show some evidence of what we term delayed trust (slower progress toward full cooperation) and fragile trust (vulnerability to opportunistic behavior).
Trust without touch: jumpstarting long-distance trust with initial social activities BIBAFull-Text 141-146
  Jun Zheng; Elizabeth Veinott; Nathan Bos; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is thought to be inadequate when one needs to establish trust. If, however, people meet before using CMC, they trust each other, trust being established through touch. Here we show that if participants do not meet beforehand but rather engage in various getting-acquainted activities over a network, trust is much higher than if they do nothing beforehand, nearly as good as a prior meeting. Using text-chat to get acquainted is nearly as good as meeting, and even just seeing a picture is better than nothing.

Controlling Complexity

Automating CPM-GOMS BIBAFull-Text 147-154
  Bonnie John; Alonso Vera; Michael Matessa; Michael Freed; Roger Remington
CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling.
Investigating human-computer optimization BIBAFull-Text 155-162
  Stacey D. Scott; Neal Lesh; Gunnar W. Klau
Scheduling, routing, and layout tasks are examples of hard optimization problems with broad application in industry. Past research in this area has focused on algorithmic issues. However, this approach neglects many important human-computer interaction issues that must be addressed to provide people with practical solutions to optimization problems. Automatic methods do not leverage human expertise and can only find solutions that are optimal with regard to an invariably over-simplified problem description. Furthermore, users must understand the generated solutions in order to implement, justify, or modify them. Interactive optimization helps address these issues but has not previously been studied in detail. This paper describes experiments on an interactive optimization system that explore the most appropriate way to combine the respective strengths of people and computers. Our results show that users can successfully identify promising areas of the search space as well as manage the amount of computational effort expended on different subproblems.
An evaluation of a multiple interface design solution for bloated software BIBAFull-Text 163-170
  Joanna McGrenere; Ronald M. Baecker; Kellogg S. Booth
This study examines a novel interface design for heavily-featured productivity software. The design includes two interfaces between which the user can easily toggle: (1) an interface personalized by the user containing desired features only, and (2) the default interface with all the standard features. This design was prototyped as a front-end to a commercial word processor and evaluated in a comprehensive field study. The study tested the effects of different interface designs on users' satisfaction and their perceived ability to navigate, control, and learn the software. There were two conditions: a commercial word processor with adaptive menus and our two-interface prototype with adaptable menus for the same word processor. Results showed that participants were better able to navigate through the menus and toolbars and were better able to learn with our prototype. There were also significant differences in satisfaction and control with our design.

I Think, therefore IM

Introducing instant messaging and chat in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 171-178
  James D. Herbsleb; David L. Atkins; David G. Boyer; Mark Handel; Thomas A. Finholt
We report on our experiences of introducing an instant messaging and group chat application into geographically distributed workgroups. We describe a number of issues we encountered, including privacy concerns, individual versus group training, and focusing on teams or individuals. The perception of the tool's utility was a complex issue, depending both on users' views of the importance of informal communication, and their perceptions of the nature of cross-site communication issues. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of critical mass, which is related to the features each user actually uses. More generally, we encountered a dilemma that imposes serious challenges for user-centered design of groupware systems.
Hubbub: a sound-enhanced mobile instant messenger that supports awareness and opportunistic interactions BIBAFull-Text 179-186
  Ellen Isaacs; Alan Walendowski; Dipti Ranganthan
There have been many attempts to support awareness and lightweight interactions using video and audio, but few have been built on widely available infrastructure. Text-based systems have become more popular, but few support awareness, opportunistic conversations, and mobility, three important elements of distributed collaboration. We built on the popularity of text-based Instant Messengers (IM) by building a mobile IM called Hubbub that tries to provide all three, notably through the use of earcons. In a 5.5-month use study, we found that Hubbub helped people feel connected to colleagues in other locations and supported opportunistic interactions. The sounds provided effective awareness cues, although some found them annoying. It was more important to support graceful transitions between multiple fixed locations than to support wireless access, although both were useful.
When conventions collide: the tensions of instant messaging attributed BIBAFull-Text 187-194
  Amy Voida; Wendy C. Newstetter; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
We discuss findings from observation, interviews, and textual analysis of instant messaging use in a university research lab setting. We propose a method for characterizing the tensions that permeate instant messaging texts and that expose the collision between conventions of verbal and written communication. Given this method, we suggest a design space for exploring potential design choices in instant messaging clients. Finally, we recommend an analysis of communicative conventions as a fruitful lens through which designers might anticipate or circumvent design tensions in emergent computer-mediated communication technologies.

Spatial Cognition

Women take a wider view BIBAFull-Text 195-202
  Mary Czerwinski; Desney S. Tan; George G. Robertson
Published reports suggest that males significantly outperform females in navigating virtual environments. A novel navigation technique reported in CHI 2001, when combined with a large display and wide field of view, appeared to reduce that gender bias. That work has been extended with two navigation studies in order to understand the finding under carefully controlled conditions. The first study replicated the finding that a wide field of view coupled with a large display benefits both male and female users and reduces gender bias. The second study suggested that wide fields of view on a large display were useful to females despite a more densely populated virtual world. Implications for design of virtual worlds and large displays are discussed. Specifically, women take a wider field of view to achieve similar virtual environment navigation performance to men.
Evaluating the effectiveness of spatial memory in 2D and 3D physical and virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 203-210
  Andy Cockburn; Bruce McKenzie
User interfaces can improve task performance by exploiting the powerful human capabilities for spatial cognition. This opportunity has been demonstrated by many prior experiments. It is tempting to believe that providing greater spatial flexibility-by moving from flat 2D to 3D user interfaces-will further enhance user performance. This paper describes an experiment that investigates the effectiveness of spatial memory in real-world physical models and in equivalent computer-based virtual systems. The different models vary the user's freedom to use depth and perspective in spatial arrangements of images representing web pages. Results show that the subjects' performance deteriorated in both the physical and virtual systems as their freedom to locate items in the third dimension increased. Subjective measures reinforce the performance measures, indicating that users found interfaces with higher dimensions more 'cluttered' and less efficient.
Learning where to look: location learning in graphical user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 211-218
  Brian D. Ehret
A theoretical account is presented on how locations of interface objects are learned and how the mechanisms underlying location learning interact with the representativeness of object labels. The account is embodied in a computational cognitive model built within the ACT-R/PM cognitive architecture [1, 2] and is supported by point-of-gaze and performance data collected in empirical research. The model interacts with the same software under the same experimental task conditions as study participants and replicates both performance and the finer-grained point-of-gaze data. Drawing from the data and model, location learning is characterized as a process that occurs as a by-product of interaction such that, without specific intent to do so, users can gradually learn the locations of the interface objects to which they attend. Characteristics of the user interface shape this learning process, however, by constraining the set of possible strategies for interaction. Locations are learned more quickly when the least-effortful strategy available in the interface explicitly requires retrieval of location knowledge.

Technology to help people find information

SmartSkip: consumer level browsing and skipping of digital video content BIBAFull-Text 219-226
  Steven M. Drucker; Asta Glatzer; Steven De Mar; Curtis Wong
In this paper, we describe an interface for browsing and skipping digital video content in a consumer setting; that is, sitting and watching television from a couch using a standard remote control. We compare this interface with two other interfaces that are in common use today and found that subjective satisfaction was statistically better with the new interface. Performance metrics however, like time to task completion and number of clicks were worse.

Web Behavior Patterns

How knowledge workers use the web BIBAFull-Text 227-234
  Abigail J. Sellen; Rachel Murphy; Kate L. Shaw
We report on a diary study of how and why knowledge workers use the World Wide Web. By examining in detail a complete two-day set of Web activities from each of 24 people, we construct a framework with which to describe the different tasks knowledge workers undertake. By looking at the characteristics of each type of activity, we can see how certain activities are unsuited to particular kinds of technologies (e.g., mobile devices); how Web tools might be incrementally improved; and how we might better support knowledge workers' Web tasks in the future.
Applying patterns of cooperative interaction to work (re)design: e-government and planning BIBAFull-Text 235-242
  David Martin; Mark Rouncefield; Ian Sommerville
This paper presents patterns of cooperative interaction derived from ethnographic studies of cooperative work as devices for generalisation, re-use and design. These patterns consist of examples of similar social and interactional phenomena found in different studies that serve as resources for defining and envisaging design concepts, and potential work process and technical solutions. We outline new pattern examples and demonstrate their use in application to a complex setting: e-government in local government planning.
Separating the swarm: categorization methods for user sessions on the web BIBAFull-Text 243-250
  Jeffrey Heer; Ed H. Chi
Understanding user behaviors on Web sites enables site owners to make sites more usable, ultimately helping users to achieve their goals more quickly. Accordingly, researchers have devised methods for categorizing user sessions in hopes of revealing user interests. These techniques build user profiles by combining users' navigation paths with other data features, such as page viewing time, hyperlink structure, and page content. Previously, we have presented complex techniques of combining many of these data features to cluster user profiles. In this paper, we introduce a user study and a systematic evaluation of these different data features and their associated weighting schemes. We present the results of our study, including accuracy measures for a number of clustering approaches, and offer recommendations for Web analysts. While further investigation over more sites is needed to definitively settle on a robust scheme, we have characterized this analytic space.

Focus and Context

Popout prism: adding perceptual principles to overview+detail document interfaces BIBAFull-Text 251-258
  Bongwon Suh; Allison Woodruff; Ruth Rosenholtz; Alyssa Glass
We present an overview+detail document interface that draws on perceptual principles to help users work with documents. Central to our approach is the use of improved document overviews. Our approach also includes novel highlighting in the full representation of documents, as well as techniques to help users smoothly transition from the overview to the full representation of the document. We present a specific implementation of our design for Web browsing. We also present a qualitative user study that indicates that our perceptual design principles are effective and that users prefer our interface to traditional "find" and highlighting techniques. Our user study additionally reveals interesting tasks and strategies supported in our framework that have implications for overview+detail document interfaces in general.
Keeping things in context: a comparative evaluation of focus plus context screens, overviews, and zooming BIBAFull-Text 259-266
  Patrick Baudisch; Nathaniel Good; Victoria Bellotti; Pamela Schraedley
Users working with documents that are too large and detailed to fit on the user's screen (e.g. chip designs) have the choice between zooming or applying appropriate visualization techniques. In this paper, we present a comparison of three such techniques. The first, focus plus context screens, are wall-size low-resolution displays with an embedded high-resolution display region. This technique is compared with overview plus detail and zooming/panning. We interviewed fourteen visual surveillance and design professionals from different areas (graphic design, chip design, air traffic control, etc.) in order to create a representative sample of tasks to be used in two experimental comparison studies. In the first experiment, subjects using focus plus context screens to extract information from large static documents completed the two experimental tasks on average 21% and 36% faster than when they used the other interfaces. In the second experiment, focus plus context screens allowed subjects to reduce their error rate in a driving simulation to less than one third of the error rate of the competing overview plus detail setup.
Improving focus targeting in interactive fisheye views BIBAFull-Text 267-274
  Carl Gutwin
Fisheye views allow people to see both a focus region and the surrounding context in the same window. However, the magnification effects of the fisheye lens can cause several problems for users. One of these is focus-targeting, where a user moves the focus to a new location. Magnification makes focus-targeting difficult because objects appear to move as the focus point approaches them. This paper examines how the distortion of a fisheye view affects focus-targeting performance, and present a technique called speed-coupled flattening (SCF) as a way to improve focus targeting in distortion-oriented views. SCF dynamically reduces the distortion level of a fisheye based on pointer velocity and acceleration. In an experiment, the technique resulted in significant reductions in both targeting time and targeting errors. By adjusting distortion based on the user's activity, we can improve usability without requiring the user to manipulate any additional view controls.

Speech, Audio, Gesture

SCANMail: a voicemail interface that makes speech browsable, readable and searchable BIBAFull-Text 275-282
  Steve Whittaker; Julia Hirschberg; Brian Amento; Litza Stark; Michiel Bacchiani; Philip Isenhour; Larry Stead; Gary Zamchick; Aaron Rosenberg
Increasing amounts of public, corporate, and private speech data are now available on-line. These are limited in their usefulness, however, by the lack of tools to permit their browsing and search. The goal of our research is to provide tools to overcome the inherent difficulties of speech access, by supporting visual scanning, search, and information extraction. We describe a novel principle for the design of UIs to speech data: What You See Is Almost What You Hear (WYSIAWYH). In WYSIAWYH, automatic speech recognition (ASR) generates a transcript of the speech data. The transcript is then used as a visual analogue to that underlying data. A graphical user interface allows users to visually scan, read, annotate and search these transcripts. Users can also use the transcript to access and play specific regions of the underlying message. We first summarize previous studies of voicemail usage that motivated the WYSIAWYH principle, and describe a voicemail UI, SCANMail, that embodies WYSIAWYH. We report on a laboratory experiment and a two-month field trial evaluation. SCANMail outperformed a state of the art voicemail system on core voicemail tasks. This was attributable to SCANMail's support for visual scanning, search and information extraction. While the ASR transcripts contain errors, they nevertheless improve the efficiency of voicemail processing. Transcripts either provide enough information for users to extract key points or to navigate to important regions of the underlying speech, which they can then play directly.
A comparative study of speech in the call center: natural language call routing vs. touch-tone menus BIBAFull-Text 283-290
  Bernhard Suhm; Josh Bers; Dan McCarthy; Barbara Freeman; David Getty; Katherine Godfrey; Pat Peterson
This paper presents a field study that compares natural language call routing with standard touch-tone menus. Call routing is the task of getting callers to the right place in the call center, which could be the appropriate live agent or automated service. Natural language call routing lets callers describe the reason for their call in their own words, instead of presenting them with a list of menu options to select from using the telephone touch-tone keypad. The field study was conducted in a call center of a large telecommunication service provider. Results show that with natural language call routing, more callers respond to the main routing prompt, more callers are routed to a specific destination (instead of defaulting to a general operator who may have to transfer them), and more callers are routed to the correct agent. Our survey data show that callers overwhelmingly prefer natural language call routing over standard touch-tone menus. Furthermore, natural language call routing can also deliver significant cost savings to call centers.
Gestural and audio metaphors as a means of control for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 291-298
  Antti Pirhonen; Stephen Brewster; Christopher Holguin
This paper discusses the use of gesture and non-speech audio as ways to improve the user interface of a mobile music player. Their key advantages mean that users could use a player without having to look at its controls when on the move. Two very different evaluations of the player took place: one based on a standard usability experiment (comparing the new player to a standard design) and the other a video analysis of the player in use. Both of these showed significant usability improvements for the gesture/audio-based interface over a standard visual/pen-based display. The similarities and differences in the results produced by the two studies are discussed.

Interactive Design

Physical programming: designing tools for children to create physical interactive environments BIBAFull-Text 299-306
  Jaime Montemayor; Allison Druin; Allison Farber; Sante Simms; Wayne Churaman; Allison D'Amour
Physical interactive environments can come in many forms: museum installations, amusement parks, experimental theaters, and more. Programming these environments has historically been done by adults, and children, as the visiting participants, have been offered few pre-created choices to explore. Given these creative limitations, the goal of our research has been to develop programming tools for physical interactive environments that are appropriate for use by young children (ages 4-6). We have explored numerous design approaches over the past two years. Recently we began focusing on a "physical programming" approach and developed a wizard-of-oz prototype for young children. This paper presents the motivation for this research, the evolution of our programming approach, and our recent explorations with children.
A visual language for sketching large and complex interactive designs BIBAFull-Text 307-314
  James Lin; Michael Thomsen; James A. Landay
Informal, sketch-based design tools closely match the work practices of user interface designers. Current tools, however, are limited in the size and complexity of interaction that can be specified. We have created an advanced sketch-based visual language that allows for easy prototyping of large, complex interactive designs. In its current embodiment in the denim web design tool, the visual language allows designers to sketch reusable components for recurring page elements, such as navigation bars, as well as conditionals to illustrate and test transitions that depend on a user's input. Designers can also specify sites that accept richer user input than simple clicking. Our informal evaluation shows that these features allow designers with little programming experience to quickly create prototypes of large, complex web sites while still working inside an informal, sketch-based environment.

Collaborative Filtering

Specifying preferences based on user history BIBAFull-Text 315-322
  Loren Terveen; Jessica McMackin; Brian Amento; Will Hill
Many applications require users to specify preferences. We support users in this task by letting them define preferences relative to their personal history or that of other users. We implement this idea using a graphical technique called control shadows, which we have implemented on both a desktop computer and on a cell phone with a small, grayscale display. An empirical study compared user performance on the graphical interface and a text table interface with identical functionality. On the desktop, users completed their tasks more quickly and effectively and strongly preferred the graphical interface. On the cell phone, there was no significant difference between the graphical and table interfaces. Finally, personal history proved useful in specifying preferences, but history of other users was not helpful.
Observed behavior and perceived value of authors in usenet newsgroups: bridging the gap BIBAFull-Text 323-330
  Andrew T. Fiore; Scott Lee Tiernan; Marc A. Smith
In this paper we describe an evaluation of behavioral descriptors generated from an analysis of a large collection of Usenet newsgroup messages. The metrics describe aspects of newsgroup authors' behavior over time; such information can aid in filtering, sorting, and recommending content from public discussion spaces like newsgroups. To assess the value of a variety of these behavioral descriptors, we compared 22 participants' subjective evaluations of authors whose messages they read to behavioral metrics describing the same authors. We found that many metrics, particularly the longevity and frequency of participation, the number of newsgroups to which authors contribute messages, and the amount they contribute to each thread, correlate highly with readers' subjective evaluations of the authors.
Diffusing information in organizational settings: learning from experience BIBAFull-Text 331-338
  Dave Snowdon; Antonietta Grasso
Recommender systems selectively circulate information enriched with comments and feedback based on people's experience. These systems filter information in a semi-automatic and high-quality way in order to support a community during their work or leisure practices. However recommender systems are usually separate tools that require a degree of effort to be used, both when receiving information and to insert new feedback. In this paper we present our informal experiences with the use of multiple user interfaces (interactive large screen, email, paper and PDA) as means to improve the diffusion of information through an organizational unit and to improve access to information stored within an existing recommender system.

Hands-On Interfaces

A tangible interface for organizing information using a grid BIBAFull-Text 339-346
  Robert J. K. Jacob; Hiroshi Ishii; Gian Pangaro; James Patten
The task of organizing information is typically performed either by physically manipulating note cards or sticky notes or by arranging icons on a computer with a graphical user interface. We present a new tangible interface platform for manipulating discrete pieces of abstract information, which attempts to combine the benefits of each of these two alternatives into a single system. We developed interaction techniques and an example application for organizing conference papers. We assessed the effectiveness of our system by experimentally comparing it to both graphical and paper interfaces. The results suggest that our tangible interface can provide a more effective means of organizing, grouping, and manipulating data than either physical operations or graphical computer interaction alone.
Cognitive cubes: a tangible user interface for cognitive assessment BIBAFull-Text 347-354
  Ehud Sharlin; Yuichi Itoh; Benjamin Watson; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Steve Sutphen; Lili Liu
Assessments of spatial, constructional ability are used widely in cognitive research and in clinical diagnosis of disease or injury. Some believe that three-dimensional (3D) forms of these assessments would be particularly sensitive, but difficulties with consistency in administration and scoring have limited their use. We describe Cognitive Cubes, a novel computerized tool for 3D constructional assessment that increases consistency and promises improvements in flexibility, reliability, sensitivity and control. Cognitive Cubes makes use of ActiveCube, a novel tangible user interface for describing 3D shape. In testing, Cognitive Cubes was sensitive to differences in cognitive ability and task, and correlated well to a standard paper-and-pencil 3D spatial assessment.
Illuminating clay: a 3-D tangible interface for landscape analysis BIBAFull-Text 355-362
  Ben Piper; Carlo Ratti; Hiroshi Ishii
This paper describes a novel system for the real-time computational analysis of landscape models. Users of the system -- called Illuminating Clay -- alter the topography of a clay landscape model while the changing geometry is captured in real-time by a ceiling-mounted laser scanner. A depth image of the model serves as an input to a library of landscape analysis functions. The results of this analysis are projected back into the workspace and registered with the surfaces of the model.
   We describe a scenario for which this kind of tool has been developed and we review past work that has taken a similar approach. We describe our system architecture and highlight specific technical issues in its implementation.
   We conclude with a discussion of the benefits of the system in combining the tangible immediacy of physical models with the dynamic capabilities of computational simulations.

Web Site Analysis

Designing online banner advertisements: should we animate? BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Michelle E. Bayles
A common medium for advertising on the Internet is the use of banner ads. This study investigates recall and recognition of animated banner advertisements in an attempt to identify design guidelines. It was hypothesized that animation would increase recall and recognition of novel ads by increasing user awareness. No significant relationships were found between the use of animation and ability to recall and recognize banner ads. Results indicate that animation does not enhance user memory of online banner advertisements.
Statistical profiles of highly-rated web sites BIBAFull-Text 367-374
  Melody Y. Ivory; Marti A. Hearst
We are creating an interactive tool to help non-professional web site builders create high quality designs. We have previously reported that quantitative measures of web page structure can predict whether a site will be highly or poorly rated by experts, with accuracies ranging from 67-80%. In this paper we extend that work in several ways. First, we compute a much larger set of measures (157 versus 11), over a much larger collection of pages (5300 vs. 1900), achieving much higher overall accuracy (94% on average) when contrasting good, average, and poor pages. Second, we introduce new classes of measures that can make assessments at the site level and according to page type (home page, content page, etc.). Finally, we create statistical profiles of good sites, and apply them to an existing design, showing how that design can be changed to better match high-quality designs.

Communities and Organizations

HutchWorld: clinical study of computer-mediated social support for cancer patients and their caregivers BIBAFull-Text 375-382
  Shelly Farnham; Lili Cheng; Linda Stone; Melora Zaner-Godsey; Christopher Hibbeln; Karen Syrjala; Ann Marie Clark; Janet Abrams
To address the needs of cancer patients and their caregivers, Microsoft Research and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center developed HutchWorld, an online community environment, to provide computer-mediated social and informational support. In a controlled clinical study, we deployed HutchWorld to bone marrow transplant patients and their caregivers and assessed the impact of Internet access and HutchWorld on their quality of life. We found that Internet access and the use of HutchWorld helped to buffer study participants against reductions in life satisfaction and social support following the transplant procedure. In particular, participants used the Internet to seek out support from family and friends.
Design as a minority discipline in a software company: toward requirements for a community of practice BIBAFull-Text 383-390
  Michael J. Muller; Kenneth Carey
This paper provides a description of designers' work practices in a software company. We describe a participatory analysis of the diversity of working relations and roles of designers of IBM's Lotus software products. Designers are an example of a minority discipline -- that is, a discipline whose members are often isolated in their work teams among coworkers with different training, backgrounds, and career paths. We explore differences between the practices of designers of Lotus software products and the published reports of design practices in group settings.
Designing for improved social responsibility, user participation and content in on-line communities BIBAFull-Text 391-398
  Sean Uberoi Kelly; Christopher Sung; Shelly Farnham
Web sites face difficult challenges in supporting successful communities. In this paper we discuss 2 operating web sites, identically designed but with different and distinct audiences. These sites collect user data from site activity and feed it back to the user community in novel ways. The sites are highly active and growing, and have fostered socially conscious, easily navigable and comprehensible on-line communities with little cost and maintenance. The practice of user data collection and re-purposing we describe works particularly well in highly contextual or information /resource-driven communities. These sites also integrate custom content authoring tools and track their use. The authoring tools were designed to quickly grow a specialized "knowledge base" of content created by users and published to a larger audience. A status system encourages the participation of users to contribute to this knowledge base, while increasing social awareness and responsibility in areas of high user interaction. All user activity, communications, and feedback are tracked. Then data is compiled and re-incorporated into scalable solutions for better navigability, content filtering, and presentation of contents to a larger audience. This practice creates a uniquely high quality of interaction within web communities.

Ubiquity

Unremarkable computing BIBAFull-Text 399-406
  Peter Tolmie; James Pycock; Tim Diggins; Allan MacLean; Alain Karsenty
In this paper, we seek to contribute to the Ubiquitous Computing agenda by focusing on one of its earliest, but most difficult, design ambitions -- making technology "invisible in use". We draw on field studies of domestic life as this domain is becoming increasingly important for new technologies and challenges many of the assumptions we take for granted in the design of technologies for the workplace. We use some examples of domestic routines to identify a number of insights into what it means for features of activities to be "unremarkable". We conclude by using these insights to critique some of the current emphases in Ubiquitous Computing research, and suggest how we might better understand the HCI issues of what will be required to develop technologies that really are "invisible in use".
Comparing paper and tangible, multimodal tools BIBAFull-Text 407-414
  David R. McGee; Philip R. Cohen; R. Matthews Wesson; Sheilah Horman
In command posts, officers maintain situational awareness using paper maps, Post-it notes, and hand-written annotations. They do so because paper is robust to failure, it is portable, it offers a flexible means of capturing information, it has ultra-high resolution, and it readily supports face-to-face collaboration. We report herein on an evaluation comparing maps and Post-its with a tangible multimodal system called Rasa. Rasa augments these paper tools with sensors, enabling it to recognize the multimodal language (both written and spoken) that naturally occurs on them. In this study, we found that not only do users prefer Rasa to paper alone, they find it as easy or easier to use than paper tools. Moreover, Rasa introduces no discernible overhead in its operation other than error repair, yet grants the benefits inherent in digital systems. Finally, subjects confirmed that by combining physical and computational tools, Rasa is resistant to computational failure.
Making sense of sensing systems: five questions for designers and researchers BIBAFull-Text 415-422
  Victoria Bellotti; Maribeth Back; W. Keith Edwards; Rebecca E. Grinter; Austin Henderson; Cristina Lopes
This paper borrows ideas from social science to inform the design of novel "sensing" user-interfaces for computing technology. Specifically, we present five design challenges inspired by analysis of human-human communication that are mundanely addressed by traditional graphical user interface designs (GUIs). Although classic GUI conventions allow us to finesse these questions, recent research into innovative interaction techniques such as 'Ubiquitous Computing' and 'Tangible Interfaces' has begun to expose the interaction challenges and problems they pose. By making them explicit we open a discourse on how an approach similar to that used by social scientists in studying human-human interaction might inform the design of novel interaction mechanisms that can be used to handle human-computer communication accomplishments.

Visualizing Patterns

Polyarchy visualization: visualizing multiple intersecting hierarchies BIBAFull-Text 423-430
  George Robertson; Kim Cameron; Mary Czerwinski; Daniel Robbins
We describe a new information structure composed of multiple intersecting hierarchies, which we call Polyarchies. Visualizing polyarchies enables use of novel views for discovery of relationships which are very difficult using existing hierarchy visualization tools. This paper will describe the visualization design and system architecture challenges as well as our current solutions. A Mid-Tier Cache architecture is used as a "polyarchy server" which supports a novel web-based polyarchy visualization technique, called Visual Pivot. A series of five user studies guided iterative design of Visual Pivot.

Group Spaces

Sotto voce: exploring the interplay of conversation and mobile audio spaces BIBAFull-Text 431-438
  Paul M. Aoki; Rebecca E. Grinter; Amy Hurst; Margaret H. Szymanski; James D. Thornton; Allison Woodruff
In addition to providing information to individual visitors, electronic guidebooks have the potential to facilitate social interaction between visitors and their companions. However, many systems impede visitor interaction. By contrast, our electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, has social interaction as a primary design goal. The system enables visitors to share audio information -- specifically, they can hear each other's guidebook activity using a technologically mediated audio eavesdropping mechanism. We conducted a study of visitors using Sotto Voce while touring a historic house. The results indicate that visitors are able to use the system effectively, both as a conversational resource and as an information appliance. More surprisingly, our results suggest that the technologically mediated audio often cohered the visitors' conversation and activity to a far greater degree than audio delivered through the open air.
Age-old practices in the 'new world': a study of gift-giving between teenage mobile phone users BIBAFull-Text 439-446
  Alex S. Taylor; Richard Harper
In this paper, we present an overview of the data collected from an ethnographic study of teenagers and their use of mobile phones. Through the data, we suggest that teenagers use their phones to participate in social practices that closely resemble forms of ritualised gift-giving. Such practices, we claim, shape the way teenagers understand and thus use their phones. We go onto show that this insight into everyday, phone-mediated activities has practical implications for mobile phone design. Using an example, we describe how teenagers' gift-giving practices can inform design, providing an initial means to conceptualise future emerging technologies.
Finding others online: reputation systems for social online spaces BIBAFull-Text 447-454
  Carlos Jensen; John Davis; Shelly Farnham
In this paper, we examine what types of reputation information users find valuable when selecting someone to interact with in online environments. In an online experiment, we asked users to imagine that they were looking for a partner for a social chat. We found that similarity to the user and ratings from the user's friends were the most valuable pieces of reputation information when selecting chat partners. The context in which reputations were used (social chat, game or newsgroup) affected the self-reported utility of the pieces of reputation information.

Design Methods

Groupware walkthrough: adding context to groupware usability evaluation BIBAFull-Text 455-462
  David Pinelle; Carl Gutwin
Discount usability evaluation methods have recently been introduced as a way to assess groupware systems. However, one criticism of these techniques is that they do not make use of information about users and their work contexts. To address this problem, we developed groupware walkthrough, a new usability inspection technique for groupware. The technique is a substantive modification of cognitive walkthrough to include consideration for the complexities of teamwork. The two components of groupware walkthrough are a task model for identifying and analysing real-world collaborative tasks, and a walkthrough process for assessing a system's support for those tasks. Groupware walkthrough is a low-cost technique that can identify collaboration-specific usability problems and can find problems that would not be revealed through other inspection methods.
Cognitive walkthrough for the web BIBAFull-Text 463-470
  Marilyn Hughes Blackmon; Peter G. Polson; Muneo Kitajima; Clayton Lewis
This paper proposes a transformation of the Cognitive Walkthrough (CW), a theory-based usability inspection method that has proven useful in designing applications that support use by exploration. The new Cognitive Walkthrough for the Web (CWW) is superior for evaluating how well websites support users' navigation and information search tasks. The CWW uses Latent Semantic Analysis to objectively estimate the degree of semantic similarity (information scent) between representative user goal statements (100-200 words) and heading/link texts on each web page. Using an actual website, the paper shows how the CWW identifies three types of problems in web page designs. Three experiments test CWW predictions of users' success rates in accomplishing goals, verifying the value of CWW for identifying these usability problems.
A survey of user-centered design practice BIBAFull-Text 471-478
  Karel Vredenburg; Ji-Ye Mao; Paul W. Smith; Tom Carey
This paper reports the results of a recent survey of user-centered design (UCD) practitioners. The survey involved over a hundred respondents who were CHI'2000 attendees or current UPA members. The paper identifies the most widely used methods and processes, the key factors that predict success, and the critical tradeoffs practitioners must make in applying UCD methods and processes. Results show that cost-benefit tradeoffs are a key consideration in the adoption of UCD methods. Measures of UCD effectiveness are lacking and rarely applied. There is also a major discrepancy between the commonly cited measures and the actually applied ones. These results have implications for the introduction, deployment, and execution of UCD projects.