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CHI Tables of Contents: 04-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceeding of the twenty-seventh international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems
Note:Digital Life New World
Editors:Saul Greenberg; Scott E. Hudson; Ken Hinkley; Meredith Ringel Morris; Dan R. Olsen, Jr.
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:2009-Apr-04 to 2009-Apr-09
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-60558-247-6, 978-1-60558-247-4; ACM Order Number: 608095; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI09-2
Papers:385
Pages:2434
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2009-04-04 Volume 2
    1. Feel the love, love the feel
    2. Life, love, death
    3. Build a better world
    4. Method in the madness
    5. Design vignettes
    6. Design methods & practice/designing for behavior
    7. Design methods & practice/designing for expression
    8. Design methods & practice/designing for discovery
    9. Design methods & practice/designing for collaboration
    10. Special interest groups
    11. Student design competition
    12. Case studies: specific user populations
    13. Case studies: new usability metrics and methods
    14. Case studies: tools for UX researchers
    15. Case studies: new technologies and interactions
    16. Case studies: experience with software & system development and evaluation
    17. Doctoral consortium
    18. Interactivity: touch & feel
    19. Interactivity: on the table
    20. Interactivity: look, hear, wear
    21. Panels
    22. Student research competition
    23. Video showcase
    24. Spotlight on work in progress session 1
    25. Spotlight on work in progress session 2
    26. Workshops

CHI 2009-04-04 Volume 2

Feel the love, love the feel

Burn your memory away: one-time use video capture and storage device to encourage memory appreciation BIBAKFull-Text 2397-2406
  Pei-Yu Chi; Xiao Xiao; Keywon Chung; Carnaven Chiu
Although modern ease of access to technology enables many of us to obsessively document our lives, much of the captured digital content is often disregarded and forgotten on storage devices, with no concerns of cost or decay. Can we design technology that helps people better appreciate captured memories? What would people do if they only had one more chance to relive past memories? In this paper, we present a prototype design, PY-ROM, a matchstick-like video recording and storage device that burns itself away after being used. This encourages designers to consider lifecycles and human-computer relationships by integrating physical properties into digitally augmenting everyday objects.
Keywords: appreciation, augmented object, burn, everyday object, fire, matchstick, memory, ubiquitous computing, video capture
Interactive slide: an interactive playground to promote physical activity and socialization of children BIBAKFull-Text 2407-2416
  Joan Soler-Adillon; Narcis Parés
We present a novel playground platform that will hopefully help in countering two important issues in children in the developed world: lack of physical activity and lack of socialization. The system underlying the platform will eventually adapt automatically to and modulate the amount of physical activity of children by applying a new notion in interaction: that of "interaction tempo". The concept of beats per minute seems especially adequate as the base structure of a physically-based activity. As an exertion interface we expect that, through the design of collaborative experiences, it will also enhance socialization of children.
Keywords: children, embodied, exertion, interaction, physical activity, playground, socialization
Opportunities for actuated tangible interfaces to improve protein study BIBAKFull-Text 2417-2426
  Ashlie Brown; Hayes Raffle
We outline strategies for actuated tangible user interfaces (TUIs) to improve the study of proteins. Current protein study tools miss fundamental biology concepts because graphical and symbolic interfaces do not allow users to intuitively manipulate complex physical forms. Actuated, tangible tools may enhance understanding at all levels of protein study. To advance TUI awareness of protein study, we present an overview of protein concepts and current protein study tools. Thirty-six protein researchers, engineers, professors and students recommend design guidelines for tangible interfaces in protein study, and we outline research directions for TUIs to improve protein study at all educational levels.
Keywords: actuation, education, tangible user interface
soft(n): toward a somaesthetics of touch BIBAKFull-Text 2427-2438
  Thecla Schiphorst
This paper explores the concept of somaesthetics as an approach to the design of expressive interaction. This concept is exemplified through the design process of soft(n), an interactive tangible art installation developed in conjunction with V2_Lab in Rotterdam. Somaesthetics is a term coined by Richard Shusterman, a pragmatist philosopher interested in the critical study of bodily experience as a focus of sensory-aesthetic appreciation and agency. In the context of interaction, somaesthetics offers a bridging strategy between embodied practices based in somatics, and the design of an aesthetics of interaction for HCI. This paper argues for the value of exploring design strategies that employ a somaesthetic approach, presents a definitional framework of somaesthetics that can be applied to interaction, and links the concept of somaesthetics to a specific design case in which tactile interaction is applied to the design of a networked, tangible interactive artwork called soft(n).
Keywords: somaesthetics
Stress outsourced: a haptic social network via crowdsourcing BIBAKFull-Text 2439-2448
  Keywon Chung; Carnaven Chiu; Xiao Xiao; Pei-Yu (Peggy) Chi
Stress OutSourced (SOS) is a peer-to-peer network that allows anonymous users to send each other therapeutic massages to relieve stress. By applying the emerging concept of crowdsourcing to haptic therapy, SOS brings physical and affective dimensions to our already networked lifestyle while preserving the privacy of its members. This paper first describes the system, its three unique design choices regarding privacy model, combining mobility and scalability, and affective communication for an impersonal crowd, and contrasts them with other efforts in their respective areas. Finally, this paper describes future work and opportunities in the area of haptic social networks.
Keywords: affective communication, crowdsourcing, haptic social network, privacy model, social network, tangible interface, touch therapy, ubiquitous computing, wearable computing

Life, love, death

Designing for all users: including the odd users BIBAKFull-Text 2449-2458
  Jina Huh; Mark Steven Ackerman
The field of HCI has played an important role in broadening the spectrum of users of computational artifacts. However, users with extreme preferences are mostly ignored by the designers and researchers because they do not constitute a large portion of the market and the users lack generalizable characteristics. In order to further discuss these concerns, this paper introduces a case about the extreme users and the challenges they face. The paper ends with discussing future directions and challenges in designing for all users in the field of HCI.
Keywords: HCI, design, interaction design, universal design, user studies
Dying, death, and mortality: towards thanatosensitivity in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 2459-2468
  Michael Massimi; Andrea Charise
What happens to human-computer "interaction" when the human user is no longer alive? This exploratory paper uses insights from the critical humanist tradition to argue for the urgent need to consider the facts of mortality, dying, and death in HCI research. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we critically reflect upon how the intersection of death and computing is currently navigated and illustrate the conceptual and practical complexities presented by mortality, dying, and death in HCI. Finally, we introduce the concept of thanatosensitivity to describe an approach that actively integrates the facts of mortality, dying, and death into HCI research and design.
Keywords: critical humanism, death, dying, mortality, thanatosensitivity
Productive love: a new approach for designing affective technology BIBAKFull-Text 2469-2478
  Ramon Solves Pujol; Hiroyuki Umemuro
The importance of love is reflected in literature, movies and music, therefore it seems necessary to understand what role technology plays in relation to love and the roles it could to play in the future. We review studies related to Love in HCI and we identify a lack of consideration of philosophy as a background for love understanding. Based on literature review, we offer a proposal of guidelines for designing technology that aims to improve loving relationships. Besides, we explore principles of engagement with technology that may be important when designing love-promoting technology. Finally we propose a practical design example.
Keywords: affective technology, care, family, knowledge, lovers, productive love, respect, responsibility
Television on the internet: new practices, new viewers BIBAKFull-Text 2479-2488
  Louise Barkhuus
Television is increasingly viewed through computers in the form of downloaded or steamed content, yet computer based television consumption has received little attention in HCI. In this paper we describe a study of the uses and practices of tech-savvy college students, studying their television consumption through the internet. We find that users personalize their viewing but that TV is still a richly social experience -- not as communal watching, but instead through communication around television programs. We explore new possibilities for technology-based interaction around television.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, internet, television, user study
The doctor as the second opinion and the internet as the first BIBAKFull-Text 2489-2498
  Lisa Neal Gualtieri
People who use the Internet for health information often obtain their first opinion that way, and then, if they go to a doctor, the doctor's advice is relegated to the second opinion. Using the Internet, or Dr. Google, as a first opinion can be problematic due to misinformation, misinterpretation of valid information, and the fears that can arise due to lack of medical knowledge, inexperience, and limited perspectives. When patients do visit their doctor for a second opinion, some do not disclose the fact they already received their first opinion and often their doctors do not ask. The result is that patients may suffer needlessly if their fears, concerns, misunderstandings, and misinterpretations are not addressed by the healthcare providers with the expertise and skills to assist them. A pernicious disconnect exists between many patients who use the Internet for health information and the medical professionals who care for them. The medical profession can alleviate this disconnect by taking the lead in establishing guidelines for systematically talking to patients about, and guiding, their Internet research. Human-computer interaction professionals can collaborate with the medical community in ensuring credible health Web sites become the gold standard that patients use to achieve better health.
Keywords: Dr. Google, context of use, doctors, health, health communication, health literacy, human-computer interaction professionals, internet, medicine, patient-provider communication, patients, search, user experience, web site

Build a better world

Give peace a chance: a call to design technologies for peace BIBAKFull-Text 2499-2508
  Juan Pablo Hourcade
Peace is an extremely important value for humankind, yet it has been largely ignored by the computing and human-computer interaction community. This paper seeks to begin a discussion within the human-computer interaction community on how we can design technologies that have peace as an explicit goal. To begin this discussion, I review empirical studies on the factors that contribute to conflict and those that make conflict less likely. Based on this, I identify areas where human-computer interaction research has already contributed to prevent conflict and promote peace, and open areas where our community can make a positive difference.
Keywords: causes of conflict, discussion, empirical studies, peace, software, technology
Human computer biosphere interaction: towards a sustainable society BIBAKFull-Text 2509-2518
  Hiroki Kobayashi; Ryoko Ueoka; Michitaka Hirose
This paper presents the author's vision of Human Computer Biosphere Interaction (HCBI): Towards a Sustainable Society. HCBI extends the subject of HCI from countable people, objects, pets, and plants to an auditory biosphere that is uncountable, complex, and non-linguistic. By realizing HCBI, soundmarks in a forest can help us feel as one with nature, beyond the physical distance. The goal of HCBI is to realize the benefits of belonging to nature without causing environmental destruction. This paper presents the concept overview, related work, the method and developed interfaces.
Keywords: HCBI (human computer biosphere interaction), nature conservation, nature interface, smart fashion, soundscape visualization, sustainability, sustainable interaction design
SenseableRays: opto-haptic substitution for touch-enhanced interactive spaces BIBAKFull-Text 2519-2528
  Jun Rekimoto
This paper proposes a new haptic interaction system based on optical-haptic substitution. This system combines time-modulated structured light emitted to the workspace and a mobile or finger-mounted module consisting of a photo-detector with a tactile actuator. Unlike other tactile feedback systems, it does not require any complicated mechanism for position sensing and tactile actuation. Instead, it directly converts time-modulated structured light into haptic sensations. By sensing this light with a photo detector, users can feel this time-modulated light as haptic sensations. The system can easily add haptic feedback to a wide variety of applications, including surface computing systems and 3D interactive spaces.
Keywords: digital micro-mirror device, haptic interactions, interactive devices, time-modulated structured light
Species-appropriate computer mediated interaction BIBAKFull-Text 2529-2534
  Robert E. McGrath
Given the importance of our non-human companions, do we not want to extend social media to our nonhuman co-species? If "human computer interfaces" should be designed for "Anyone. Anywhere." (the theme of CHI 2001), then why not for all species? Recent pioneering efforts have shown that computer mediated interactions between humans and dogs, cats, chickens, cows, hamsters, and other species are technically possible. These efforts excite the imagination and challenge our understanding the basic nature of computer mediated interaction.
Keywords: computer-non-human interfaces, cross-species interaction, species-appropriate interfaces
Three environmental discourses in human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 2535-2544
  Elizabeth Goodman
A review of the past decade of human-computer interaction relating to environmental issues identifies three discourses whose commitments and assumptions have consequences for the design of new interfaces and interactive systems: sustainable interaction design, re-visioning consumption and citizen sensing. It suggests two promising directions for future research: participatory design and infrastructure.
Keywords: design, discourse analysis, environmentalism, nature, sustainability

Method in the madness

Citedness, uncitedness, and the murky world between BIBAKFull-Text 2545-2554
  Ian Scott MacKenzie
We test a recent claim in an opinion piece (interactions, May/June 2008, pp. 45-47) that publications by HCI researchers have little or no impact. The alleged "phenomenon of uncitedness" was not supported. An examination of all 443 papers in the CHI Proceedings (1991-1995), ACM TOCHI (1994-1999), and Human-Computer Interaction (1991-1995) found an average of 93.8, 106.7, and 80.4 citations per paper, respectively. H-index as an impact measure is explained, with values given for members of the CHI Academy. The mean of 34.3 suggests that the group, taken as a whole, have had a significant impact on human-computer interaction.
Keywords: citations, h-index, impact
HCI for the real world BIBAKFull-Text 2555-2564
  Nicholas A. Knouf
HCI as a field comfortably and unquestionably links itself with the corporate world. What does this mean in terms of an ethics of problem choice, meaning the considerations that influence what types of design projects HCI researchers consider as important? Using the work of the industrial designer Victor Papanek, I foreground the agency of the designer. By undertaking a close reading of a recent publication of a major corporate research lab, I examine what important social and political aspects are missing from their vision of the future. I end by examining the work of the design team Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, describing how HCI can be involved in the formation of new forms of subjectivity that are not subservient to a market-based ideology.
Keywords: critical design, design, designer agency, ethics, reflective design, responsibility, subjectivity
Heat, fire and temperature: the industrial revolution and HCI BIBAKFull-Text 2565-2574
  David J. Gilmore
HCI has many challenges and internal debates (for example, where is our theory? What is the role of design in HCI? What is the relationship between research and practice? How do we make an impact?) that recur at the CHI conference and that students either ask themselves or find they are asked by others.
   This paper takes a historical look at this issue and describes some of the discoveries made during the industrial revolution about heat, fire and temperature (the development of thermodynamics) and how these discoveries were made.
   The parallels to human-computer interaction today are explored with two primary intentions: -- to show how important it is that we continue to debate and investigate the precise nature of concepts we take for granted (e.g. usability, user interfaces, user experience), and to illustrate how practice contributes to the development of theoretical concepts.
Keywords: HCI, history, theory, usability, user experience, user interface
Out from behind the curtain: learning from a human auditory display BIBAKFull-Text 2575-2584
  Peter Parente; Gary Bishop
In this paper we describe an approach to gathering design requirements for a software auditory display by analyzing user interactions with an ideal partner: a talking human controlling a computer. We explain the potential benefits of studying such unconstrained user interaction before detailing the design and execution of our qualitative evaluation. We report the results of our thematic coding analysis and give examples of each of the seven major user techniques, difficulties, and preferences identified. To conclude the paper, we summarize the application of our results to the design of a software auditory display for common office computing tasks.
Keywords: auditory display, formative evaluation, ideal interaction, qualitative evaluation, requirements gathering
Some statistical analyses of CHI BIBAKFull-Text 2585-2594
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
In this paper I show a variety of ways to represent and think about statistical aspects of CHI and its sister conferences. In particular, I look at author counts, gender analysis, and representations of repeat authors. I use these visualizations to motivate questions about what the preferred state of CHI should be. For example, should we strive for gender equality at CHI, and if so, why, and if not, why not? Should we encourage the current trend of increasing number of authors per paper, or might we be loosing something in that process? I do not hope to answer these questions, but rather to encourage their discussion.
Keywords: authorship, bibliometric analysis, gender, statistical analysis, visualizations

Design vignettes

CubeBrowser: a cognitive adapter to explore media databases BIBAKFull-Text 2619-2622
  Ludwig Zeller; Lasse Scherffig
CubeBrowser is the concept study for a six-display cube with digital screens that makes it possible to browse online databases like flickr. The control of navigation is exclusively accomplished by performing manual actions on the object. This creates a playful way of exploring image collections that are networked by tags.
Keywords: 3dof, TUI, cognition, flickr, interaction, interface, perception, screens, tagging, tangible
Local sensor: click to find and point to do BIBAKFull-Text 2623-2626
  Qifeng Yan
Local Sensor is a direction and distance tracking application using low power wireless connectivity. It enables new mobile user experiences bridging the physical and digital world. There are lots of challenges in user experience design since it is new for most end users. This paper introduces how the user experience design was conducted to make local sensor an appealing feature for mobile phone users.
Keywords: directional ui, indoor navigation, local connection ui, local interaction, seamless navigation
'PhonePhone': NFC phone as a musical instrument BIBAKFull-Text 2627-2630
  Tuomo Tuikka
This paper describes 'PhonePhone', an approach to create a musical instrument using a Near Field Communication enabled mobile phone. Designs of prototypes leading to the instrument are described in step by step fashion with an explanation of the rationale behind the instrument implementation. The result is a conceptual prototype, which can be used to play different sounds, e.g. piano and drums.
Keywords: NFC, mobile phone, musical, near field communication
Talkative cushion: a phatic audio device to support family communication BIBAKFull-Text 2631-2634
  Chang Won Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
The 'Talkative Cushion' is a novel audio recorder which transforms recorded voices into humorous and ludicrous sounds. It is proposed as a phatic device for homes. It is designed to make people playful and funny when communicating in homes because a delightful situation makes people active to talk. In this paper, we describe why and how a cushion is selected as our target object and how the concept of phatic technologies applied to the cushion.
Keywords: audio recording, home, interaction design, intimacy, phatic technology, tangible & ambient ui
The birth of mobile chinese keypad & hybrid input methods BIBAKFull-Text 2635-2638
  Qifeng Yan
Almost all the language input devices were designed based on western linguistic and psychological model. They are just localized by changing the printings without any key layout modification for eastern countries. In this paper, the design process and user study of a Chinese style keypad and a hybrid input method are introduced.
Keywords: chinese input, chinese keypad, hybrid input
The shared worlds of industrial design TU/e and philips research BIBAKFull-Text 2639-2642
  Caroline Hummels; Emile Aarts; Kees Overbeeke
In this exhibition booth at the Design Vignettes venue we show through projects, demos and information the joined worlds of the department of Industrial Design at the Eindhoven University of Technology and Philips Research, Eindhoven. We show through the results of different joined and related projects, how we envision that design can transform society through intelligent systems, products and related services, and how we can and are educating a new type of designer who is working in the realm of ambient intelligence and who is able to join the worlds of design, engineering and science.
Keywords: ambient intelligence, design education, industrial design, intelligent products, interaction design
The ténéré: design for supporting energy conservation behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 2643-2646
  Ju-Whan Kim; Yun-Kyung Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
We present the Ténéré, electric power extension cords, designed to support people's energy conservation behaviors. The focus of design solutions was to provide appropriate energy awareness information in meaningful and emotional ways while products are being used. A narrative of tree was used to indicate energy use. The Tree of Tenere was the most isolated tree in the world. The tree is dead now and replace by a tree-like sculpture. It symbolizes the environmental consequences of human activity. When users overuse electricity, the graphics of the tree is transformed to the sculpture. This interactive graphics on the product encourages sustainable behaviors. Users are expected to be impressed and change their energy behaviors. Also we verified narrative-embedding approach is considerable method for industrial design field.
Keywords: ambient display, behavior change, energy consumption, interaction design, narrative

Design methods & practice/designing for behavior

Designing the melody of interaction through movies, maps, mechanisms, prototypes and presentations BIBAKFull-Text 2647-2650
  Caroline Hummels; Michael Cruz Restrepo; Kees Overbeeke
Now that computers are no longer merely a means to do our job but help us to pursue our lives, one could question the appropriateness of functionality and efficiency as the main guiding principles for design. User experience and aesthetics of interaction are becoming increasingly paramount. But what makes for aesthetic of interaction and how to design for it? In the module "Aesthetics of Interaction" we used a variety of methods to discuss, experience and analyse the concept of aesthetics of interaction in depth. In this extended abstract we elucidate the methods used, i.e., movies, interaction maps, interaction mechanisms, prototypes and silent presentations, including the rationale behind them.
Keywords: aesthetics of interaction, design methods, interaction map, interaction mechanism, movies, prototypes
Designing with unconscious human behaviors for eco-friendly interaction BIBAKFull-Text 2651-2654
  Minjung Sohn; Tekjin Nam; Woohun Lee
Eco-design has become a central research issue for interaction design, as emerging interactive products can create serious environmental impacts while products are being used. We investigate a design method and develop case studies for eco-friendly interaction. A main concept of the design method is to apply unconscious human behaviors in interaction design. Products designed with this method are expected to be used unconsciously by users with reduced environmental impacts. In this paper, we present a framework of design space matrix and initial case studies for the design method. For the framework, we identified the types of interaction behaviors causing environmental impacts and the attributes of unconscious human behaviors. Based on the framework, three design cases -- a power cord, a trashcan and a speedometer of an automobile -- were developed. The proposed framework and design cases can be used as a base of an advanced eco-friendly interaction design method.
Keywords: design for sustainability, eco-friendly interaction design, interaction design, thoughtless act, unconscious human behaviors
The reflective transformative design process BIBAKFull-Text 2655-2658
  Caroline Hummels; Joep Frens
The department of Industrial Design at the Eindhoven University of Technology distinct itself through a unique combination of focus (designing highly intelligent systems, products, and related services) and education model (competency-centred learning). Based on the foundations of our department we identify three implications for our preferred design process: it is flexible and open, it values design action as a generator of knowledge and it is driven by a vision on the design opportunities that are afforded by emerging intelligent technology. In this paper we explain the reflective transformative design process and the rationale behind.
Keywords: competency-based learning, design process, parallel design process, reflection on action, reflective transformative design process

Design methods & practice/designing for expression

Designing CALLY, a cell-phone robot BIBAKFull-Text 2659-2662
  Ji-Dong Yim; Christopher D. Shaw
This proposal describes the early phase of our design process developing a robot cell-phone named CALLY, with which we are exploring the roles of facial and gestural expressions of robotic products in human computer interaction. We introduce non-verbal anthropomorphic affect features as media for building emotional intimacy between a user and a product. Also, two social robot application ideas generated from brainstorming and initial participatory design workshop are presented with their usage scenarios and implementations. We learned from the pilot test that the prototyping and bodystorming ideation technique enabled participants to more actively take part in generating new ideas when designing robotic products.
Keywords: affect features, bodystorming, facial and gestural expressions, mobile phone, robotic product
More than kimchi and cash: designing for cultural identity BIBAKFull-Text 2663-2666
  Kipum Lee; Shelley Evenson; Richard Buchanan
This project was motivated by one question: Can products be instruments for designing and shaping culture?
   We know that there are products that can destroy a culture. For example, the Nazis created sophisticated products to annihilate groups of people. More recently, many of the visually impaired have complained about not being able to hear hybrid vehicles before crossing the street. If certain products are destructive to a culture, can other ones enhance it?
   My hypothesis is that there are products or a class of products -- centered around appropriate activities -- that can support an environment for people to participate and shape. This project focuses on a specific cultural environment and the impact a product could have in facilitating relationships and participation in that context.
Keywords: Korean Americans, culture, designing for culture, family, forms of interaction, identity, participation
Shapewriter on the iPhone: from the laboratory to the real world BIBAKFull-Text 2667-2670
  Shumin Zhai; Per Ola Kristensson; Pengjun Gong; Michael Greiner; Shilei Allen Peng; Liang Mico Liu; Anthony Dunnigan
We present our experience in bringing ShapeWriter, a novel HCI research product, from the laboratory to real world users through iPhone's App Store.
Keywords: iPhone, mobile, shapewriter, text input, touch screen

Design methods & practice/designing for discovery

Design an interactive visualization system for core drilling expeditions using immersive empathic method BIBAKFull-Text 2671-2674
  Yu-Chung Chen; Sangyoon Lee; HyeJung Hur; Jason Leigh; Andrew Johnson; Luc Renambot
In this paper, we propose an immersive empathic design method and used it to create an interactive high-resolution core visualization system for real-world geological core drilling expeditions. A high domain knowledge barrier makes it difficult for a person from outside this field to imagine the user experience simply through observation. The globally distributed nature of the core drilling community imposes further design constraints. We used this approach to embed a computer scientist trained as a junior core technician. This process allowed the developer to experience authentic user activities and enabled the design of an innovative system for solving real-world problems. This approach made the best use of precious co-located opportunities, overcame the initial domain knowledge barrier, and established a trust relationship between the developer and the domain scientists. The system designed through this approach formed a sustainable and adaptive foundation that the domain scientists can build on. Through in-situ deployment, observation and interview evaluations from on-going expeditions, we present the advantages of this process.
Keywords: HCI, empathic design, visualization
Safety, speed, and style: interaction design of an in-vehicle user interface BIBAKFull-Text 2675-2678
  Larry Constantine; Helmut Windl
Constrained by tight schedule and driven by both safety-critical and aesthetic concerns, an interdisciplinary team designed a novel in-vehicle multimodal, multimedia interface by an unconventional, streamlined process. The distinctive interface architecture and interaction design emphasize style and simplified interaction through strong visual design to speed user recognition, interpretation, and task completion, reducing driver distraction and cognitive load.
Keywords: automotive, in-vehicle, interaction design, model-driven design, safety-critical, user performance
Simplified user interfaces for design and user testing of architecture software applications BIBAKFull-Text 2679-2682
  Greg Demchak; Matthew Jezyk; Lira Nikolovska
In this paper we describe the value of creating simplified user interfaces for architectural software applications intended for use in early conceptual design phases. By reducing the interface the team was able to solicit specific feedback about new tools without the overhead or pre-conceptions associated with using an existing software platform. As a result, the team was able to iterate rapidly on specific problems.
Keywords: architecture, conceptual design, design research, iteration, prototype
Understanding user needs for conceptual design phases of architecture projects BIBAKFull-Text 2683-2686
  Lira Nikolovska; Greg Demchak; Matthew Jezyk
This paper describes design research methods used to understand user needs, identify user requirements and create new conceptual design workflows for an existing architectural software application.
Keywords: architecture, conceptual design, scenarios, storyboards, user research
When one-arm bandits go digital: designing a casino back-end system BIBAKFull-Text 2687-2690
  Celine Pering; Sheila Vyas
frog design collaborated with a gaming machine manufacturer to design a back-end system to address the needs of casino floor managers. As casinos migrate to server-based slot machines, they also need to transform their back-end systems. The frog team conducted user research and designed a new system of floor management software. Our design helped optimize the experience of casino workers, pushed the brand envelop of the gaming provider within their industry, and won a Productivity Award from Global Gaming Expo in 2007.
Keywords: WPF, archetypes, casino, design, enterprise, interaction design, productivity tool, visual design

Design methods & practice/designing for collaboration

Artful surfaces in design practices BIBAKFull-Text 2691-2694
  Dhaval Vyas
A largely overlooked aspect of innovative design practices is how workplace surfaces play a role in supporting designers' everyday work. In this paper we introduce the idea of artful surfaces. Artful surfaces (Figure 1) are full of informative, inspirational and creative artefacts that help designers accomplish their everyday design practices. The way these surfaces are created and used could provide information about how designers work. We identify four types of artful surfaces: personal, shared, project-specific and live surfaces; and describe them using examples.
Keywords: artefacts, artful surface, design practice, ethnography
Co-reflection: user involvement for highly dynamic design processes BIBAKFull-Text 2695-2698
  Oscar Tomico; Joep W. Frens; C. J. Overbeeke
User involvement in systems, products and related services design has increased considerably in relevance. The way user involvement actually progresses depends on how the users are situated in relation to the design process. Their influence may extend from the results of the design project to planning and managing the course of the design project. Sequential techniques developed for the rational problem solving or reflective process have a limited application in highly dynamic design processes. More precisely, in sequential design processes validation steers reflection into a single direction. For this reason, a methodological approach not based on the sequential (hypothetical-deductive) paradigm but on the dialectical inquiry (inductive paradigm) between designers and users is considered. The versatile and holistic nature of this co-reflective process makes it suitable for dynamic and unstructured design processes based on different streams of reflection.
Keywords: co-reflection, constructivist psychology, design process(es), inductive processes, user participation
Ten steps of integrating user feedback into the product definition process: a closed loop approach BIBAKFull-Text 2699-2702
  Jens Bombolowsky; Edmund Eberleh
An appropriate and timely integration of results from user feedback studies into product definition and development efforts is an important but challenging goal. In this paper we describe some best practices and processes at SAP which are facilitating this integration. They are based on several years of experience of applying user centered design principles to SAP Business ByDesign Software.
Keywords: product definition process, user centered design process, user feedback

Special interest groups

Driving user centered design into IT organizations: is it possible? BIBAKFull-Text 2727-2730
  Karen Holtzblatt; Joshua Barr; Les Holtzblatt
In many organizations, actively engaging in user-centered design (UCD) techniques is standard practice when delivering products into the commercial marketplace or to external customers. But in these same organizations -- or in organizations not delivering products to an external customer -- the creation of systems for use by employees is a conversation between IT and the business unit. UCD professionals are either not participating, or they have very limited influence. This SIG creates a forum for people with real-world experience and challenges to discuss how -- and whether it is even possible -- to bring UCD into the IT organization.
Keywords: business systems redesign, requirements gathering / specifications, usability, user experience, user-centered design
End user software engineering: CHI: 2009 special interest group meeting BIBAKFull-Text 2731-2734
  Brad A. Myers; Margaret M. Burnett; Susan Wiedenbeck; Andrew J. Ko; Mary Beth Rosson
End users create software whenever they write, for instance, educational simulations, spreadsheets, or dynamic e-business web applications. Researchers are working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to these end users to try to make their software more reliable. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic with the companies that are creating and using end-user programming tools.
Keywords: empirical studies of programmers (ESP), end users shaping effective software (EUSES), end-user development (EUD), end-user software engineering (EUSE), natural programming, psychology of programming
Designing for families BIBAKFull-Text 2735-2738
  Carman Neustaedter; Svetlana Yarosh; A. J. Brush
In this Special Interest Group (SIG) we plan to focus on discussions and activities surrounding the design of technologies to support families. Many researchers and designers study domestic routines to inform technology design, create novel interactive systems, and evaluate these systems through real world use. Bringing together researchers, designers and practitioners interested in technologies for families at a SIG provides a forum for discussing shared interests including methods for gaining an understanding of the user, metrics for evaluating interventions, and shared definitions of the concept of the family.
Keywords: domestic life, families, technology design
Integrating user experience into free/libre open source software: CHI 2009 special interest group BIBAKFull-Text 2739-2742
  Daniel Schwartz; Allen Gunn
The importance of software in daily life for casual and business purposes has led to a strong increase in the formal integration of usability in commercial software development processes. However, usability still appears to be largely an afterthought for Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS). The intent of this Special Interest Group (SIG) is to encourage participation by the user experience (UX) community and to identify solutions for better integration of UX into the FLOSS development process.
Keywords: computer supported cooperative work, development, floss, open source, usability, user experience
Usable intelligent interactive systems: CHI 2009 special interest group meeting BIBAKFull-Text 2743-2746
  Aaron Spaulding; Krzysztof Z. Gajos; Anthony Jameson; Per Ola Kristensson; Andrea Bunt; Will Haines
The AI and HCI communities have often been characterized as having opposing views of how humans and computers should interact" observes Winograd in Shifting Viewpoints. It is time to narrow this gap. What was once considered the forefront of artificial intelligence (AI) research can now be found in commercial products. While some have failed, others, such as face detection in digital cameras or product recommendation systems, have become so mainstream they are no longer thought of as artificial intelligence. This special interest group provides a forum to examine the apparent gap between HCI and AI communities, to explore how intelligent technologies can enable novel interaction with computation, and to investigate the challenges associated with understanding human abilities, limitations, and preferences in order to drive the design of intelligent interactive systems.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, human computer interaction
Overcoming challenges in mobile UX research methods and tools BIBAKFull-Text 2747-2750
  Yelena Nakhimovsky; Dean Eckles; Jens Riegelsberger
Judging by the year-by-year increasing number of CHI publications on mobile research methods and tools, it is clear that the community is currently rapidly innovating on tools, infrastructure, and methods for mobile user experience (UX) research. To reflect on this development, this SIG extends the workshop, "Mobile User Experience Research: Challenges, Methods & Tools" [8], and will open up the discussion to a wider group of practitioners and researchers.
Keywords: mobile research, research methods, research tools
Agile user experience SIG BIBAKFull-Text 2751-2754
  Lynn Miller; Desirée Sy
Agile development is being adopted by companies with greater frequency every year, resulting in changes to the way user experience practitioners work. Unfortunately, there has been little guidance on how to incorporate User Centered Design (UCD) into the agile process so most practitioners either struggle alone or seek out others in the same boat.
   The goal of this SIG is to draw upon the shared experience of these practitioners to uncover the best practices for agile user-centered design to facilitate optimal product development.
Keywords: agile development, design tools and techniques, user experience, user interfaces -- evaluation/methodology, user-centered design
Designing user interfaces for multi-touch and gesture devices BIBAKFull-Text 2755-2758
  Daniel Wigdor; Joe Fletcher; Gerald Morrison
Initially Designers only had a keyboard and lines of text to design. Then, the mouse enabled a richer design ecosystem with two dimensional plains of UI. Now the Design and Research communities have access to multi-touch and gestural interfaces which have been released on a mass market scale. This allows them to design and develop new, unique, and richer design patterns and approaches. These methods are no longer confined to research projects or innovation labs, but are now offered on a large scale to millions of consumers. With these new interface behaviors, in combination with multiple types of hardware devices that can affect the interface, there are new problems and patterns that have increased the complexity of designing interfaces.
   The aim of this SIG is to provide a forum for Designers, Researchers, and Usability Professionals to discuss this new and emerging technology trends for multi-touch and gesture interfaces, as well as discuss current design patterns within these interfaces. Our goal is to cross pollinate ideas and current solutions from practitioners and researchers across communities to help drive awareness of this new field for those interested in, just starting in, or currently involved in the design of these systems.
Keywords: NUI, direct manipulation, gesture, multi-touch, natural user interface, tabletop, touch, touch screen
Design and adoption of social collaboration software within businesses BIBAKFull-Text 2759-2762
  Jason Blackwell; John Sheridan; Keith Instone; David R. Schwartz; Sandra Kogan
Social networking and collaboration sites are having a large impact on people's personal lives. These same applications, similar functions and related experiences are being adopted within businesses. This special interest group will address the issues around social collaboration software in the business setting. What is the value for the business and its users? How do you measure success? What strategic design and user experience issues are key for successful adoption? What roles do user experience professionals play in this type of social system?
Keywords: social collaboration, social computing
User experience evaluation: do you know which method to use? BIBAKFull-Text 2763-2766
  Marianna Obrist; Virpi Roto; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets. Although the term UX is widely used, the methods and tools for evaluating UX are still inadequate. This SIG session collects information and experiences about UX evaluation methods used in both academia and industry, discusses the pros and cons of each method, and ideates on how to improve the methods.
Keywords: evaluation methods, user experience
Research ethics in the facebook era: privacy, anonymity, and oversight BIBAKFull-Text 2767-2770
  Nathan Bos; Karrie Karahalios; Marcela Musgrove-Chávez; Erika Shehan Poole; John Charles Thomas; Sarita Yardi
Ethical standards for human subjects research have not kept up with new research paradigms. Several research areas are particularly problematic for the CHI community. Online social research is testing the boundaries of public observation, third-party disclosure, and anonymization methods. Furthermore, there are differences in norms about what is and is not ethical among various research disciplines studying the Web. This SIG brings together members of the CHI community who are interested in research ethics for studying the Web. We invite seasoned veterans from industry and academia, educators, and newcomers to the field to share their experiences and advice, ask questions, and to form an interest group that can help shape university and corporate best practices for online research.
Keywords: methods, regulation, research ethics, social and legal issues, web research
API usability: CHI'2009 special interest group meeting BIBAKFull-Text 2771-2774
  John M. Daughtry; Umer Farooq; Jeffrey Stylos; Brad A. Myers
Programmers of all types from novice end-user developers to professional software engineers make use of application programming interfaces (API) within their various designs. And, while the use of these interfaces is ubiquitous, there is little research about their design. Recently, a number of researchers and practitioners have begun to treat API design as a first-order object of study and practice. The purpose of this special interest group meeting is to bring together the community of usability researchers and professionals interested in API usability. The time will be used to discuss attendees' ideas and opinions in order to stimulate this new and exciting emerging field that crosses the boundaries between human-computer interaction and software engineering.
Keywords: empirical studies of programmers (esp), natural programming, psychology of programming

Student design competition

CropConnect: enabling community supported agriculture BIBAKFull-Text 2799-2804
  Michael R. Van Waardhuizen; Catherine E. Peloquin; Uttam Kokil
This research describes a user-centered design effort to facilitate community supported agriculture programs. This process resulted in a paper prototype of a web-based system that connects a diverse user group more efficiently and robustly than at present. The prototype was evaluated by several stakeholders who were able to successfully accomplish their tasks.
Keywords: community supported agriculture, contextual inquiry, prototype, user centered design, web-based system
Dress for success: automating the recycling of school uniforms BIBAKFull-Text 2805-2810
  Fatima A. Boujarwah; Amha Mogus; Jennifer Stoll; Kanan T. Garg
In this paper we present the Dress for Success (D4S) system, a web-supported vending machine for school uniforms. The main goal of the D4S system is to encourage and facilitate the recycling of school uniforms by automating the exchange between parents and minimizing the work necessary to donate and obtain second-hand school uniforms. By creating a sustainable system that facilitates the reuse of this clothing, we hope to reduce both the environmental and monetary cost associated with current uniform purchasing practices.
Keywords: repurposing technology, resource consumption, school uniform recycling, sustainability
Edible earth: dining on seasonal and local ingredients BIBAKFull-Text 2811-2816
  Ross Bohner; Nikki D'Adamo; Adam Faeth; Sara R. Kaplan; William E. Marsh
College students are primarily concerned with the price and convenience of the food they choose to eat. Environmental impact is not a consideration in their food decisions. We present a web-based solution that simplifies meal choices and addresses the perception that home-prepared meals are inconvenient and expensive. The solution provides a web service that suggests convenient recipes that use local and seasonal ingredients tailored to the user's location. This promotes sustainable food purchasing habits. The solution uses a location-aware mobile device as an example platform. The study presents the participatory design process that informed the development of this solution.
Keywords: college students, food decision heuristics, food preparation, location-aware, sustainable food
eXtend: reducing e-waste through redistribution of local it resources BIBAKFull-Text 2817-2822
  Annie T. Fang; Rahan Khozein; Sergio M. Mendez-Baiges; Eunice Y. Shin
We designed a system of online classified ads that facilitates cascading used Information Technology (IT) equipment such as computers, printers, and monitors from computing-intensive labs in higher education institutions to lower-end labs and then to administrative sites within the institution and finally the local community. After ethnographic research and a literature review, we found that IT departments in higher education institutions tend to recycle instead of reuse IT equipment largely because there is no system in place that fosters equipment reuse. In the University of Michigan, this results in 50 tons of electronics being recycled annually, an estimated 40% of which could be re-used either elsewhere in the institution or in the wider local community. eXtend will promote decreased consumption of new equipment which will lead to a decrease in the generation of local e-waste.
Keywords: design, e-waste, electronics, equipment lifespan, it equipment, local, recycle, reuse, second-hand, used electronics
LocalBuy: a system for serving communities with local food BIBAKFull-Text 2823-2828
  Li Li; Nan Chen; Wentao Wang; Jenica Baty
We seek to make local and sustainably produced food available and easy to buy by linking consumers with local producers of meat, vegetables, fruit, and much more. Our dynamic website will enable buyers to purchase fresh and healthy food directly from the manufacturers of these products, contributing to local economy. We are advantageously positioned to help farmers avoid the middlemen, the wholesalers, the big box stores and allow them to meaningfully connect with their consumers.
Keywords: buyers, farmers, local food, online community, online transaction, supply chain, sustainability
MIFresh: promoting local produce consumption BIBAKFull-Text 2829-2834
  Jiang Yang; Maureen Hanratty; Geoffrey Ho; Xiao Wei
In this paper we introduce MIFresh, a grocery store system consisting of a large display and individual kiosks that aims to increase the demand of local produce. In cities like Detroit, where poverty and health are major concerns, increasing consumption of local produce can help create local jobs, sustain the environment, and improve health. We used rapid contextual design to analyze Detroit's existing food system and, based on our findings, iteratively design a solution. MIFresh uses proven techniques such as coupons and rewards points programs and delivers education and awareness about the importance of consuming local produce. User testing results among the target population are promising.
Keywords: consumer systems, human-centered computing, kiosk systems, large displays, sustainability
TreasureHunter: a system to increase the reuse of local used goods BIBAKFull-Text 2835-2840
  Sanghyuk Koh; Amy Kuo; Debra Lauterbach; Noah Liebman; Andrea McVittie
Increasing the reuse of locally available consumer goods is one way to make consumption more sustainable. We present TreasureHunter, a system to help consumers find and share used goods available at thrift stores in their local area. TreasureHunter enlists frequent thrift store shoppers to help find requested items for those who lack the time or inclination to search for the items themselves. Incentive-centered design was used to craft a solution to fit the needs of all types of shoppers. TreasureHunter consists of an online community that is also accessible from mobile phones so that it can be used while at a thrift store. The proposed system works best on smartphones, though any Internet-capable phone could also be used. By motivating more people to buy used goods instead of new, everyone can benefit as consumers pay less for the goods they desire and fewer resources are wasted in the transportation and consumption of new goods.
Keywords: incentive-centered design, local resources, mobile technology, online communities, thrift stores
WantKnot: connecting organizations to improve their waste management practices BIBAKFull-Text 2841-2846
  Jared S. Bauer; Liz A. Blankenship; Leanna M. Gingras; Mark A. Goetz
Commercial businesses represent a large portion of all waste generation; furthermore, their waste streams are large and consistent enough to provide a steady resource to other organizations that can use the waste as inputs for their own processes. However, businesses find it difficult to connect with other organizations, especially those in different industries. We conducted a user-centered design process in which we interviewed 17 local organizations, built an affinity diagram, and devised personas and scenarios. Using this information, we designed a social network, WantKnot, which allows businesses to find other local organizations interested in absorbing some of their waste streams. Based on a preliminary round of usability testing, we found that WantKnot connects businesses in valuable ways, and in doing so, reduces waste and transportation resources.
Keywords: industrial ecology, local resources, sustainability, waste partnerships
WattBot: a residential electricity monitoring and feedback system BIBAKFull-Text 2847-2852
  Dane Petersen; Jay Steele; Joe Wilkerson
Electricity production emits carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere, adversely influences global climate change, depletes limited natural resources, and negatively impacts the lives of those who live near power plants. We designed a residential electricity monitoring and feedback system called WattBot, that allows users to track their home energy usage and encourages them to reduce consumption. Our solution is an application for the Apple iPhone and iPod touch that receives data from a wireless hub, allowing users to view, compare and analyze their electricity usage over time.
Keywords: energy use, feedback, interaction design, persuasive computing, sustainability, visualization
Weigh your waste: a sustainable way to reduce waste BIBAKFull-Text 2853-2858
  Alex A. Gartland; Paulina Piasek
An increased concern for the environment has brought about an arena to develop and experiment with new devices to support sustainable design. The 'Weigh Your Waste' (WYW) device will allow the user to monitor their waste charges and provide a platform for the user to learn and explore areas such as: recycling, reusing old items, how to make compost and many other green activities. Some districts are encouraged to recycle by paying for their waste according to its weight. Similarly, some businesses are subject to a 'pay by weight' scheme. The WYW system proposes to tackle issues for users in these schemes. However, users that are not subject to these schemes can still benefit from the device by using it as a learning tool.
Keywords: bin tax, pay by weight, proenvironmental behavior, recycling, rubbish, sustainable design, trash, waste

Case studies: specific user populations

Acquiring a professional "second life": problems and prospects for the use of virtual worlds in business BIBAKFull-Text 2883-2898
  Katherine Bessière; Jason B. Ellis; Wendy A. Kellogg
The current surge of interest in virtual worlds suggests they are poised to make an evolutionary leap to the workplace, as instant messaging did a decade ago. In recent work we have introduced dozens of new users to teambuilding activities in the Second Life environment, meeting both enthusiasm and skepticism. We document five issues for professional users of virtual environments: initial motivation, technical difficulties, interacting competently, becoming socially proficient, and finding compelling activities. Based on these we describe a training strategy to enable professional users of virtual worlds.
Keywords: adoption, collaboration, serious games, social affordances, social translucence, user training, virtual worlds
Bringing web 2.0 to government research: a case study BIBAKFull-Text 2899-2902
  Francesca A. Barrientos; Elizabeth A. Foughty; Dawn M. McIntosh; Bryan L. Matthews
DASHlink is a public NASA research collaboration website. Web 2.0 style content generation and social software technologies along with a community-moderated posting policy make it easier and faster for NASA scientists and research partners to share data and knowledge with each other and the general public. Designing and building an open collaboration website tested the boundaries of government information sharing rules and policies. In this paper we describe our experiences with and solutions to government specific design challenges.
Keywords: collaboration, government, policy, social software, user-generated content, web 2.0
Designing for and with diaspora: a case study of work for the truth and reconciliation commission of liberia BIBAKFull-Text 2903-2918
  Michael L. Best; Thomas N. Smyth; Daniel Serrano-Baquero; John Etherton
We describe our experiences in designing new media technologies in cooperation with Liberia's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. This work includes two major projects: a dynamic, interactive Web site for the Commission, and a mobile video-sharing kiosk intended for use in-country where connectivity is limited. We place specific focus on our design exercises with members of the Liberian diaspora in Atlanta. Our report includes lessons learned both in designing technologies directly for diaspora users, and in using diaspora members as surrogates for users in-country. These lessons include the need to recognize diversity even within the diaspora community, the sensitivity of content to cultural nuances, and the overall value of the perspective of interaction with diaspora members.
Keywords: contextual design, cross-cultural design, diaspora, liberia, participatory design, post-conflict reconciliation, user-centered design

Case studies: new usability metrics and methods

Beyond usability: evaluating emotional response as an integral part of the user experience BIBAKFull-Text 2919-2930
  Anshu Agarwal; Andrew Meyer
The role of emotion as an integral component of user experience has mostly been overlooked in the HCI literature. Instead, usability has been relied upon as the key indicator of user experience. We developed a methodology that combined verbal and nonverbal emotion scales. A usability study was then conducted, in which we collected both traditional usability metrics and emotional response data. Results indicated insignificant differences in usability metrics but numerous significant differences between emotional responses of users. Exploration of these emotional responses successfully provided additional insight into the user experience.
Keywords: design, emotion, methodology, metrics, usability, user experience, user interface
Open by design: how IBM partnered with the user community in the redesign of lotus notes BIBAKFull-Text 2931-2944
  Elizabeth M. Comstock; Mary Beth Raven; Sheri F. Branco; Michelle L. Cooper; Deborah E. Maurer
This paper describes the methods used to successfully redesign the IBM Lotus Notes user experience. The methods we found most valuable were designed to be open to a rich dialog with the wide community of Notes users. Based on our experience, we share practical benefits and challenges with using these methods.
Keywords: design methods, ibm lotus notes, involving users, usability, user experience practice
Perspective probe: many parts add up to a whole perspective BIBAKFull-Text 2945-2954
  Marianne Berkovich
This case study describes a variation of cultural, technology, and other probes, called a "perspective probe." The perspective probe consisted of multiple activities that participants completed on their own and then discussed with the researcher. The participant's responses to the individual activities added up to their whole perspective. The probe's activities helped guide the conversation around a sensitive topic instead of asking directly about it.
   This paper illustrates how the perspective probe methodology was used to gather information for Google Finance. The focus is on the method rather than the particular findings from the study. The perspective probe methodology was useful in getting rich data from participants and building a holistic understanding of the participant's perspective on a difficult topic, in this case money and investing.
Keywords: cultural probe, hci, probe

Case studies: tools for UX researchers

An online forum as a user diary for remote workplace evaluation of a work-integrated learning system BIBAKFull-Text 2955-2970
  Valentina Lichtner; Angela P. Kounkou; Amir Dotan; José P. Kooken; Neil A. M. Maiden
This paper presents and discusses the use of an online diary for the remote evaluation at the workplace of a new knowledge management tool that supports self-directed learning at work, the second APOSDLE prototype. The workplace evaluation was carried out collaboratively in four different organizations, across different European countries. The online diary was built with the open source discussion forum software phpBB. Used in combination with other research methods, the diary allowed gathering data on the system design and performance as well as the user experience. Its flexibility met participants' preferences and needs. With its use, the diary became the communication tool between users, researchers and developers, giving voice to the users in the evaluation and redesign process.
Keywords: evaluation method, formative evaluation, user diary
Designing and deploying usetube, Google's global user experience observation and recording system BIBAKFull-Text 2971-2986
  Mark LaRosa; David Poole; Rudy Schusteritsch
In this paper, we describe various systems that can be used to record and observe user research activities. We examine the different user needs in this space and the key variables that determine how these needs can be addressed. We then focus on the system we designed and built for the user experience team at Google. Features of that system include the ability to watch high-definition study videos live from anywhere on the Google network using any browser on any major operating system in real time as studies are being conducted around the world, a complete and easily accessible archive of all study videos ever recorded at Google, one-button self-serve operation for study moderators, and minimal system maintenance. Since implementing this system, we have seen a dramatic increase in the number of observers who directly experience our end users.
Keywords: iterative usability lab design, observation and recording system, picture in picture, streaming video solutions, usability lab infrastructure, user experience research, video recording
Supporting the design of network-spanning applications BIBAKFull-Text 2987-3002
  Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Andy Boucher; Tom Rodden; Andy Law; Jan Humble; Chris Greenhalgh
In this case study, we describe our use of ECT, a tool intended to simplify the design and development of network-spanning applications. We have used ECT throughout the course of a two-year collaboration, which has involved individuals with expertise in a variety of fields, including interaction design and computer systems engineering. We describe our experiences with this tool, with a particular focus on its emerging role in helping us to structure our collaboration. We conclude by presenting lessons that we have learned, and by suggesting future directions for the development of tools to support the design of network-spanning applications.
Keywords: component-orientation., interaction design, network-spanning applications, toolkit

Case studies: new technologies and interactions

Adaptive personalisation for researcher-independent brain body interface usage BIBAKFull-Text 3003-3018
  Paul Gnanayutham; Gilbert Cockton
In this case study, we report what we believe to be the first prolonged in-situ use of a brain-body interface for rehabilitation of individuals with severe neurological impairment due to traumatic brain injury with no development researchers present. We attribute this success to the development of an adaptive cursor acceleration algorithm based on screen tiling, which we combined with an adaptable user interface to achieve inclusive design through personalisation for each individual. A successful evaluation of this approach encouraged us to leave our Brain-Body Interface in the care settings of our evaluation participants with traumatic brain injury, where it was used with support from health care professionals and other members of participants' care circles.
Keywords: assistive technology., brain-body interfaces, brain-computer interfaces, cyberlink?, neurorehabilitation
Dynamically transparent window BIBAKFull-Text 3019-3034
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov
In this paper, we present a case study of Dynamically Transparent Windows installed during a five weeks period in the facade of a major department store on a busy high street. The windows are fitted with so-called electro-chromatic foil that can change from opaque to transparent when an electric current runs through it. By using strips or rectangles of the foil, narrow bands on the façade interactively change and reveal what is on display in the store in order to draw the by-passers closer, and encourage them to explore the display. Our evaluation based on log-data, video observations, and in-situ observations points to a number of challenges concerning 1) Interaction issues related to the movement vector of pedestrians, 2) Behaviour and attention issues, and 3) Issues pertaining to the diversity of the situations and external conditions in the high street setting.
Keywords: experience, interactive shop window, marketing effect, urban computing
Evaluating weight perception using digital facial-image feedback BIBAKFull-Text 3035-3050
  Ana C. Andrés del Valle; Jeannie Huang; Karen Becerra; Susan Fernandez
In this paper we describe the MophMed study, a joint effort between technologists and doctors to explore the effects of facial image modification on children's body image and on parental support for children's healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors.
Keywords: facial image morphing, interfaces for medical research, medical trial

Case studies: experience with software & system development and evaluation

It's what it's in: evaluating the usability of large-scale integrated systems BIBAKFull-Text 3051-3060
  Steven R. Haynes
Today's systems are often composed of many heterogeneous, distributed components including computing and communications infrastructure, other hardware devices, and system and application software. Evaluating the usability of these systems is difficult, especially in the early stages of development when their use cannot be observed in context. While many different evaluation methods have been proposed for evaluating stand-alone technologies, evaluating very large-scale integrated systems requires techniques appropriate both for individual components, and the whole of the human-computing context being designed. Results from the case study reported here suggest that the usability of any individual application is highly determined by its integration with other applications in the distributed system. Modern evaluation methods need to account for this integration in both their perspective and the measures they use.
Keywords: distributed systems, large-scale integrated systems, scenario-based methods, usability evaluation
Leveraging open-source software in the design and development process BIBAKFull-Text 3061-3074
  Collin Green; Irene Tollinger; Christian Ratterman; Guy Pyrzak; Alex Eiser; Lanie Castro; Alonso Vera
This paper presents a case study of the NASA Ames Research Center HCI Group's design and development of a problem reporting system for NASA's next generation vehicle (to replace the shuttle) based on the adaptation of an open source software application. We focus on the criteria used for selecting a specific system (Bugzilla) and discuss the outcomes of our project including eventual extensibility and maintainability. Finally, we address whether our experience may generalize considering where Bugzilla lies in the larger quantitative picture of current open source software projects.
Keywords: benefits analysis, collaboration, open-source software, software development
When user experience met agile: a case study BIBAKFull-Text 3075-3084
  Michael Budwig; Soojin Jeong; Kuldeep Kelkar
In mid-2007, one part of the technology organization at our company decided to develop a very large project using scrum, an agile programming methodology. The decision to go with scrum was made from a software development perspective and how the user experience (UX) teams doing the design work would fit into that methodology was not clear.
   As a result, the UX teams faced many challenges and we have had to evolve our approach to how UX teams work with development scrum teams.
   This case study details our UX teams' experiences working with scrum for the past 18 months, describing the challenges and issues that we faced, and the solutions that we implemented to resolve those issues. We recommend best practices for UX teams working in scrum, particularly in a fast-paced and large corporate environment. We hope that others can avoid the common pitfalls that we faced in our initial adjustment to agile and scrum.
Keywords: agile, agile tips, agile-ucd, design, process, research, scrum, technical writing, ucd, usability, user experience, ux

Doctoral consortium

Adaptive brain-computer interface BIBAKFull-Text 3097-3100
  Audrey Girouard
Passive brain-computer interfaces are designed to use brain activity as an additional input, allowing the adaptation of the interface in real time according to the user's mental state. While most current brain computer interface research (BCI) is designed for direct use with disabled users, I focus my research on passive BCIs for healthy users. The goal of my dissertation is to employ functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive brain measurement device, to augment an interface so it uses brain activity measures as an additional input channel. I have measured and classified brain signals that are interesting in HCI context, such as mental workload and difficulty level of a task. My future work will focus on creating an interface that responds to one of those measures by adapting the interface. By combining brain signal measured with an adaptive interface I expect to contribute a functional passive brain-computer interface that measures and adapts to the user's brain signal.
Keywords: brain-computer interface, fnirs, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, human cognition, task classification
Associative personal information management BIBAKFull-Text 3101-3104
  Jonathan Diehl
Personal information management (PIM) is an important and hard research problem. Previous systems suffer inflexibility because of strict hierarchies and immobility. I present an alternative approach, based on associations and moving beyond today's desktop metaphor, to provide ways of managing information while mobile. To illustrate the concepts, I introduce the Associative PDA, a prototype we have designed and evaluated. Finally, I discuss some design principles, which will guide my future work.
Keywords: associations, associative network, mobile, personal information management
Collaborative translation by monolingual users BIBAKFull-Text 3105-3108
  Chang Hu
This paper describes a research effort to support collaborative translation by monolingual speakers, or people that speak only the source or target language. I hypothesize that sharing knowledge across the language barrier is possible with a combination of automated (but poor quality) machine translation, language-independent communication, and existing background knowledge. I demonstrate this possibility with proof-of-concept experiments.
Keywords: collaborative translation, computer-aided translation, machine translation, monolingual
Contemporary domestic infrastructures and technology design BIBAKFull-Text 3109-3112
  Marshini Chetty
In this proposal, I describe my examination of two contemporary domestic infrastructures. Specifically, I am investigating whether we need to surface more information about these systems to make them intelligible to end-users. I describe my empirical research to date and the design of two technology probes which I will use to learn more how home infrastructure affects domestic technology design.
Keywords: home, home networks, infrastructure, resource delivery systems
Detecting cognitive and physical stress through typing behavior BIBAKFull-Text 3113-3116
  Lisa M. Vizer
Monitoring of cognitive and physical function is central to the care of people experiencing or at risk for various health conditions, but existing solutions rely on intrusive methods that are inadequate for continuous tracking. This research explores the possibility of detecting cognitive and physical stress by monitoring keyboard interactions with the eventual goal of detecting acute or chronic changes in cognitive and physical function. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to classify cognitive and physical stress conditions relative to non-stress conditions based on keystroke and text features with accuracy rates comparable to those currently obtained using affective computing methods. The proposed approach is attractive because it requires no additional hardware, is unobtrusive, is adaptable to each user, and is very low-cost.
Keywords: behavioral biometrics, keystroke dynamics, stress
Enabling always-available input: through on-body interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 3117-3120
  T. Scott Saponas
Most current input devices require dedicated attention by our hands through physical transducers such as the keys on a keyboard. Similarly, computer output is dominated by visual displays requiring most of our visual attention. While keyboards and monitors are effective I/O devices for dedicated computing activities, when our primary task is not using a computer, our hands may not be free to manipulate an input device. The goal of my dissertation is to explore how on-body interfaces can better support computing in our everyday activities.
Keywords: electromyography (emg), input, interaction, muscle-computer input, on-body interfaces
Gaze-augmented manual interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3121-3124
  Hans-Joachim Bieg
This project will demonstrate a new approach to employing users' gaze in the context of human-computer interaction. This new approach uses gaze passively in order to improve the speed and precision of manually controlled pointing techniques. Designing such gazeaugmented manual techniques requires an understanding of the principles that govern the coordination of hand and eye. This coordination is influenced by situational parameters (task complexity, input device used, etc.), which this project will explore in controlled experiments.
Keywords: eye-tracking, fitts' law, gaze, input devices
Improving the learnability of mobile device applications for older adults BIBAKFull-Text 3125-3128
  Rock Leung
Mobile devices have the potential to support many older adults (age 65+) in their daily lives. However, older adults find it difficult to learn to use many existing mobile device applications and their interfaces. The goal of this dissertation research is to improve the learnability of mobile software user interfaces for older adults. To achieve this goal, we will investigate three complementary design approaches that have not been well explored for this population.
Keywords: graphical icons, learnability, mobile devices, multi-layered interfaces, older adults, scaffolding
Investigating the psychology of task-based and presentation-based UI customization BIBAKFull-Text 3129-3132
  Sampada S. Marathe
Even with a profusion of customization tools on UIs, we do not see commensurate usage. While some users are known to use available customization tools to the fullest extent, most others make do with bare minimum features and default settings. In my dissertation I propose that empirically investigating customization as functional (task-based) and cosmetic (presentation-based) will enhance our understanding of user psychology surrounding customization, thereby giving us insight into UI design principles. This paper describes the main aim of my dissertation and progress made thus far.
Keywords: control, cosmetic customization, functional customization, identity, power usage, user experience
Phatics and the design of community BIBAKFull-Text 3133-3136
  Kevin Makice
Proposed thesis research uses Twitter-a young channel for phatics communication-as a catalyst to promote community awareness and strengthen connections between members. This paper examines the phatic function, or messages about the communication channel, and its growing interest in HCI research. Examples of projects are described in the context of better understanding the role phatics play in community development.
Keywords: ambient information, communication, community, design, phatic function, twitter, visualization
Social groups, social media, and civic participation of high school youth: concepts and methods for design implications BIBAKFull-Text 3137-3140
  Peyina Lin
High school social groups (e.g., "jocks" and "nerds") and social media (e.g., instant messaging and social network sites) are prominent in the lives of high school students. Social groups affect what high school students find acceptable doing. However, little is known about how social groups affect students' shaping of civic and political selves, or whether social media bridge social relationships across distant high school social groups and engender positive spill-over effects for civic participation. This socio-technical mixed methods study is positioned at the intersection of high school social groups, uses of social media, and students' participation in extracurricular activities, with particular interest in civic participation. Design implications will be drawn from analysis of three data sets: a student questionnaire with sociometric questions, interviews, and observations of students' daily activities. Conceptual and methodological contributions to the HCI literature are discussed.
Keywords: civic participation, hci concepts and methods, high school youth, social crowds, social groups, social media, social networks, structural symbolic interactionism
Studying appropriation of everyday technologies: a cognitive approach BIBAKFull-Text 3141-3144
  Antti Salovaara
The ways in which users appropriate uses of technology -- or invent new ones - have attracted interest in CSCW-oriented research, but much less has been written on its cognitive foundations, although concepts such as practical problem-solving, perception, and action are central to its understanding. I attempt to address this gap here by triangulating the phenomenon both theoretically and methodologically. In this paper, a reflection of the process provides a starting point for a study with a more focused research question.
Keywords: appropriation, cognitive science, methods
Supporting privacy by preventing misclosure BIBAKFull-Text 3145-3148
  Kelly E. Caine
Despite extensive concerns about privacy and multiple potential consequences of revealing personal information, many users still experience invasions of privacy when interacting with technology. For this reason, privacy is an important and complex issue in HCI. This thesis focuses on specific psychological issues of privacy in HCI, primarily the accidental disclosure of information or misclosure. Using multiple methods including focus groups, a diary study, and an experimental manipulation, this thesis seeks to catalog the incidence of such errors, identify the interface issues associated with each type of error, and provide design recommendations for preventing each type of disclosure error.
Keywords: aging, disclosure, error, misclosure, older adult, privacy, technology acceptance, ubiquitous computing
Users' ongoing work on managing computational artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 3149-3152
  Jina Huh
In a computing environment where computational artifacts come and go at rapid pace, products become easily outdated, resulting in lack of support. Consequently, users are constantly challenged to think about the trade-offs between maintaining and appropriating the current product and adopting an alternative product. This challenges us to think beyond designing individual products to be useful, usable, aesthetic, or learnable and consider what is necessary for sustainable and long-term use. In order to further understand users and find potential solutions to the design challenge, I explore how users perceive their everyday computational resources becoming outdated and in reaction how they deal with the problem during maintenance, appropriation, and adoption of computational resources on an ongoing fashion.
Keywords: abandonware, adoption, appropriation, computational resources, design, discontinuation, maintenance
Visualization and interaction techniques for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 3153-3156
  Anne Roudaut
This paper presents ongoing work toward the development of one-handed interaction techniques for mobile devices with a small touch-screen. This work comprises three main parts: the analysis of the state of the art, the development and the evaluation of novel interaction techniques, a proposal of tools that would help designing new techniques. This paper presents the work that has been already performed on the first two phases and some ideas for developing the last phase.
Keywords: interaction technique, mobile devices, one-handed interaction, thumb gestures, visualization

Interactivity: touch & feel

A hand clap interface for sonic interaction with the computer BIBAKFull-Text 3175-3180
  Antti Jylhä; Cumhur Erkut
We present a hand clapping interface for sonic interaction with the computer. The current implementation has been built on the Pure Data (PD) software. The interface makes use of the cyclic nature of hand clapping and recognition of the clap type, and enables interactive control over different applications. Three prototype applications for the interface are presented: a virtual crowd of clappers, controlling the tempo of music, and a simple sampler. Preliminary tests indicate that rather than having total control via the interface, the user negotiates with the computer to control the tempo.
Keywords: audio interfaces, hand clapping, human-computer interaction, sonic interaction design
"Hiya-Atsu" media: augmenting digital media with temperature BIBAKFull-Text 3181-3186
  Mutsuhiro Nakashige; Minoru Kobayashi; Yuriko Suzuki; Hidekazu Tamaki; Suguru Higashino
Despite the development of many types of telecommunication systems, it is still hard to convey various types of information in an expressive manner to a remote partner. Our research focuses on using variations in temperature to achieve this. Hiya-Atsu-Mouse, which we developed to implement this idea, is a mouse device with thermal capabilities; the device becomes warmer or colder to the user's palm or fingertip according to the "temperature" of objects on the computer screen. This article evaluates the thermal performance of the device. The comments made by users are collected. Finally, we introduce a practical Hiya-Atsu-Mouse and describe it in operation.
Keywords: haptics, sense of warmth, thermal device, thermal media
Tactful calling: urgency-augmented phone calls through high-resolution pressure input on mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 3187-3192
  Fabian Hemmert; Matthias Löwe; Anne Wohlauf; Gesche Joost
In this paper we present a system that simulates urgency-augmented phone calls on mobile phones. Different scenarios and interaction techniques are discussed. We report a user study that indicates a general need for such a system and explored the applicability of using a force sensor as a way of intuitive call urgency articulation. The proposed system allows trying out urgency-augmented phone calls hands-on.
Keywords: disturbance, ethics, force-sensitivity, interruption, mobile phone, tactile input, urgency
Tangible sketching in 3D with posey BIBAKFull-Text 3193-3198
  Michael Philetus Weller; Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Posey is a physical construction kit that is instrumented to capture assembly and configuration information and convey it to a host computer. We have used Posey to build applications that deploy a reconfigurable physical model as a tangible interface for various domains. We demonstrate these applications to support a case for computationally enhanced construction kits as a semi-general interaction modality.
Keywords: construction kit, tangible interaction
The mousegrip BIBAKFull-Text 3199-3204
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere
Computer games, often played with others, are a compelling pastime for many. However, they have been criticized for their mouse and keyboard or gamepad interactions, as they support a sedentary lifestyle. In contrast, a "hand exerciser" handgrip device can help strengthen hand and forearm muscles extensively through a simple spring mechanism. Our system "mousegrip" is an exertion interface to control computer applications while simultaneously exercising hand and arm muscles based on a handgrip device. We present a casual game of pong for two distributed players who control the game with a mousegrip each, demonstrating a low-cost approach to "exertion interactions over a distance". By showing how easy it can be to include exertion in interactions with computers, we hope to encourage other researchers and designers to consider exertion activity in their designs in order to support a healthy lifestyle.
Keywords: exergaming, exertion, low-cost, mobile, obesity, physical, physical effort, sports, ubiquitous, videogames

Interactivity: on the table

CaraClock: an interactive photo viewer designed for family memories BIBAKFull-Text 3205-3210
  Daisuke Uriu; Naruhiko Shiratori; Satoru Hashimoto; Shuichi Ishibashi; Naohito Okude
CaraClock is an interactive photo viewing device which allows for the sharing of "Collective Memory" among family members. The server-based algorithm uses a Bayesian Network that employs probabilistic computation to model each user's interpersonal relationships. When multiple CaraClock devices are synchronized, they display related photos according the settings. This often results in serendipitous discoveries for the whole family by reminding them of their collective experiences through images of their past.
Keywords: annotation, bayesian networks, family, interaction design, memory, participation design, photography, tagging
Flux: a tilting multi-touch and pen based surface BIBAKFull-Text 3211-3216
  Jakob Leitner; James Powell; Peter Brandl; Thomas Seifried; Michael Haller; Bernard Dorray; Paul To
FLUX is an interactive touch-sensitive tilting surface that can be used either as a sketching board, as an interactive discussion table, and as a digital presentation whiteboard. The surface, based on a rear-projection screen, supports both multi-touch interaction as well as multiple pen interaction with individual identification of each pen. Our setup combines two tracking technologies. For the hand-tracking, we take advantage of the Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) technology. For the pen-tracking, we are using the tracking technology developed by Anoto.
Keywords: design environment, design room, digital whiteboard, frustrated total inner reflection, multi-touch, pen-based interface, sketching, tabletop
IMPAD: an inexpensive multi-touchpressure acquisition device BIBAKFull-Text 3217-3222
  Ilya D. Rosenberg; Alexander Grau; Charles Hendee; Nadim Awad; Ken Perlin
Recently, there has been great interest in multi-touch interfaces. These have taken the form of optical systems such as Microsoft Surface and Perceptive Pixel's FTIR display as well as hand-held devices using capacitive sensors such as the Apple iPhone. However, optical systems are inherently bulky while capacitive systems are only practical in small form factors and are limited in their application because they only respond to human touch.
   We have created a technology that enables the creation of Inexpensive Multi-Touch Pressure Acquisition Devices (IMPAD) which are paper-thin, flexible and can easily scale down to fit on a portable device or scale up to cover an entire table. These devices can sense varying levels of pressure at a resolution high enough to sense and distinguish multiple fingertips, the tip of a pen or pencil and other objects.
   Other potential applications include writing pads, floor mats and entry indicators, bio-pressure sensors, musical instruments, baby monitoring, drafting tables, reconfigurable control panels, inventory tracking, portable electronic devices, hospital beds, construction materials, wheelchairs, sports equipment, sports clothing and tire pressure sensing.
Keywords: bilinear, flexible, fsr, input device, lotus, multi-touch, pressure, sensor
Occlusion-aware menu design for digital tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 3223-3228
  Peter Brandl; Jakob Leitner; Thomas Seifried; Michael Haller; Bernard Doray; Paul To
In this paper, we describe the design of menus for multi-user digital tabletops. On direct input surfaces, occlusions created by the user's hand decrease interaction performance with menus. The key design criteria are to avoid these occlusions and to adapt the menu placement to the user's handedness and position on the tabletop. We present an adaptive menu placement method based on direct touch and pen tracking that allows correct menu placement around the table. As an extension, we propose adding a gesture input area for fast interaction which can be partly occluded by the user's hand.
Keywords: digital whiteboard, ergonomic evaluation, pen-based interface, pie menu, tabletop
SLAP widgets: bridging the gap between virtual and physical controls on tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 3229-3234
  Malte Weiss; Roger Jennings; Ramsin Khoshabeh; Jan Borchers; Julie Wagner; Yvonne Jansen; James D. Hollan
We present Silicone iLluminated Active Peripherals (SLAP), a system of tangible, transparent widgets for use on vision-based multi-touch tabletops. SLAP Widgets are cast from silicone or made of acrylic and include sliders, knobs, keyboards, and keypads. They add tactile feedback to multi-touch tables and can be dynamically relabeled with rear projection. They are inexpensive, battery-free, and untethered widgets combining the flexibility of virtual objects with tangible affordances of physical objects. Our demonstration shows how SLAP Widgets can augment input on multi-touch tabletops with modest infrastructure costs.
Keywords: dynamic relabeling, multi-touch, tabletop interaction, tangible user interfaces, toolkit, transparent widgets

Interactivity: look, hear, wear

An education-friendly construction platform for wearable computing BIBAKFull-Text 3235-3240
  Grace Ngai; Stephen C. F. Chan; Joey C. Y. Cheung; Winnie W. Y. Lau
Wearable computing and e-textiles has a lot of potential as an educational computing topic. They allow students to exercise their creativity and imagination while learning about concepts in computing and technology.
   However, there are still numerous difficulties involved in deploying existing technology in an educational environment. In this paper, we present the TeeBoard, a construction platform for e-textiles and wearable computing that is designed to be robust, reliable, easy to construct and to program. It has also passed initial tests in a practical workshop for high school students.
Keywords: development tools, e-learning and education, programming environments, teeboard, toolkits
Aurally and visually enhanced audio search with soundtorch BIBAKFull-Text 3241-3246
  Sebastian Heise; Michael Hlatky; Jörn Loviscach
Finding a specific or an artistically appropriate sound in a vast collection comprising thousands of audio files containing recordings of, say, footsteps, gunshots, and thunderclaps easily becomes a chore. To improve on this, we have developed an enhanced auditory and graphical zoomable user interface that leverages the human brain's capability to single out sounds from a spatial mixture: The user shines a virtual flashlight onto an automatically created 2D arrangement of icons that represent sounds. All sounds within the light cone are played back in parallel through a surround sound system. A GPU-accelerated visualization facilitates identifying the icons on the screen with acoustic items in the dense cloud of sound. Test show that the user can pick the "right" sounds more quickly and/or with more fun than with standard file-by-file auditioning.
Keywords: audio spatialization, foley art, music information retrieval, sound effects
Low-cost gaze pointing and EMG clicking BIBAKFull-Text 3247-3252
  Javier San Agustin; John Paulin Hansen; Dan Witzner Hansen; Henrik Skovsgaard
Some severely disabled people are excluded from using gaze interaction because gaze trackers are usually expensive (above $10.000). In this paper we present a low-cost gaze pointer, which we have tested in combination with a desktop monitor and a wearable display. It is not as accurate as commercial gaze trackers, and walking while pointing with gaze on a wearable display turned out to be particularly difficult. However, in front of a desktop monitor it is precise enough to support communication. Supplemented with a commercial EMG switch it offers a complete hands-free, gaze-and-click control for less than $200.
Keywords: electromyography, gaze interaction, head-mounted display, mobile interaction, off-the-shelf gaze tracking, performance evaluation
Natural throw and tilt interaction between mobile phones and distant displays BIBAKFull-Text 3253-3258
  Raimund Dachselt; Robert Buchholz
To provide intuitive ways of interacting with media data, this research work addresses the seamless combination of sensor-enabled phones with large displays. An intuitive basic set of tilt gestures is introduced for a stepwise or continuous interaction with both mobile applications and distant user interfaces by utilizing the handheld as a remote control. In addition, we introduce throwing gestures to transfer media documents and even running interfaces to a large display. To improve usability, data and interfaces can be thrown from a mobile phone to a distant screen and also fetched back to achieve mobility. We demonstrate the feasibility of the interaction methods with several advanced application prototypes facilitating a natural flow of interaction.
Keywords: accelerometer, gestures, interaction design, music browser, natural interaction, remote interaction, user experience
Wearable EOG goggles: eye-based interaction in everyday environments BIBAKFull-Text 3259-3264
  Andreas Bulling; Daniel Roggen; Gerhard Tröster
In this paper, we present an embedded eye tracker for context-awareness and eye-based human-computer interaction -- the wearable EOG goggles. In contrast to common systems using video, this unobtrusive device relies on Electrooculography (EOG). It consists of goggles with dry electrodes integrated into the frame and a small pocket-worn component with a powerful microcontroller for EOG signal processing. Using this lightweight system, sequences of eye movements, so-called eye gestures, can be efficiently recognised from EOG signals in real-time for HCI purposes. The device is self-contained solution and allows for seamless eye motion sensing, context-recognition and eye-based interaction in everyday environments.
Keywords: context-awareness, electrooculography (eog), eye gestures, eye tracking, human-computer interaction (hci), wearable computing

Panels

Creativity challenges and opportunities in social computing BIBAKFull-Text 3283-3286
  Gerhard Fischer; Pamela Jennings; Mary Lou Maher; Mitchel Resnick; Ben Shneiderman
There is a convergence in recent theories of creativity that go beyond characteristics and cognitive processes of individuals to recognize the importance of the social construction of creativity. In parallel, there has been a rise in social computing supporting the collaborative construction of knowledge. The panel will discuss the challenges and opportunities from the confluence of these two developments by bringing together the contrasting and controversial perspective of the individual panel members. It will synthesize from different perspectives an analytic framework to understand these new developments, and how to promote rigorous research methods and how to identify the unique challenges in developing evaluation and assessment methods for creativity research.
Keywords: creativity, social computing
What can user experience learn from food design? BIBAKFull-Text 3287-3292
  Patanjali S. Venkatacharya; Ronald M. Baecker; Jody Adams; Ken Oringer; Karl Mochel
This panel will bring together a group of user experience experts, with a group often overlooked in the art and science of user experience -- food designers. The panelists will include: two James Beard Award-winning Chefs, a user experience practitioner, and a world-renowned HCI academic. Together, the panel will compare and contrast concepts from food design and user experience including the challenges of meeting demanding end-user needs, and best practices from food design that one could potentially apply to the design of everyday things.
Keywords: culinary, design, food, metaphors, user experience
Growing up programming: democratizing the creation of dynamic, interactive media BIBAKFull-Text 3293-3296
  Mitchel Resnick; Mary Flanagan; Caitlin Kelleher; Matthew MacLaurin; Yoshiki Ohshima; Ken Perlin; Robert Torres
Young people interact with games, animations, and simulations all of the time. But few of them are able to create interactive media. The obstacle: traditional programming languages are too difficult to learn and understand. This panel brings together a group of researchers, developers, and educators who are aiming to democratize the activity of programming. They are developing a new generation of programming environments that enable children and teens to create their own interactive games, stories, animations, and simulations. Panelists will discuss and critique their programming environments, then set up interactive demonstration stations for focused exploration and small-group discussion. Audience members will also have the opportunity to download the environments onto their own laptops, so that they can experiment in greater depth.
Keywords: children, education, end-user programming, learning, literacy
Mobile technologies for the world's children BIBAKFull-Text 3297-3300
  Allison Druin; David Cavallo; Christopher Fabian; Benjamin B. Bederson; Glenda Revelle; Yvonne Rogers; Jim Gray
In this panel, academic, non-profit, and industry professionals will discuss their global perspectives on mobile technologies for the world's children. Panelists will explore such issues concerning children's access to mobile devices, the decreasing age that children have access to these technologies, mobile innovations for learning, and challenges/opportunities in diverse countries. This interactive session will begin with each panelist giving a short summary of their work-to-date with children and various mobile applications. Then the panelists will be asked questions by children from different countries via pre-recorded video. Audience members will be invited to offer their thoughts and comments as well as the panelists during the video question period. Audience members will also be able to ask further questions throughout the panel discussion.
Keywords: children, educational applications, micro-laptops, mobile phones, mobile technologies, third-world countries
Figuring out the "one thing" that will move UX into a position of strategic relevance BIBAKFull-Text 3301-3304
  Richard I. Anderson; Killian Evers; Jim Nieters; Laurie Pattison; Craig Peters
A common question asked of successful User eXperience (UX) leaders is what "one thing" they needed to do in order to move their organizations into a position of strategic relevance. However, the answers often vary, posing a challenge to those struggling to figure out how to achieve the same goal where they work. In this interactive session, a subset of answers will be highlighted, then real-world scenarios from around the globe -- most presented by recruited conference attendees -- will be evaluated to determine which "one thing" should be attempted in each case. The process of figuring that out will be explicitly addressed so that session attendees can leave better able to do so themselves for their own situations.
Keywords: design management, organizational strategy, user experience, user-centered design
Fault lines of user experience: the intersection of business and design BIBAKFull-Text 3305-3308
  Daniela K. Busse; Heather Fraser; Carola Fellenz Thompson; Lesley Allan; Patricia Hallstein; Catriona MacAulay; Brinda Dalal
One of the central challenges of the User Experience discipline has always been how early in the development cycle it can exert any degree of influence. The challenge that our field is facing today more pronounced than ever is how to influence the decision makers that give directions guiding individual product development. And vice versa, this early decision making process can benefit from user experience approaches that help ground its direction in user research, and inform its decisions creatively through concepts and design thinking -- see for example the concept of Business Design (as taught by the Rotman school of management, with similar approaches being the foundation of successes such as design consultancies like IDEO). The goal of the panel will be to draw together a community of experts and interested audience members in this topic and initiate a discourse on its key issues and opportunities.
Keywords: business, design, strategy, user experience
Interacting with eHealth: towards grand challenges for HCI BIBAKFull-Text 3309-3312
  mc schraefel; Paul André; Ryen White; Desney Tan; Tim Berners-Lee; Sunny Consolvo; Robert Jacobs; Issac Kohane; Christopher A. La Dantec; Lena Mamykina; Gary Marsden; Ben Shneiderman; Peter Szolovits; Daniel Weitzner
While health records are increasingly stored electronically, we have little access to this data about ourselves. We're not used to thinking of these official records either as ours or as something we'd understand if we had access to them in any case. We increasingly turn to the Web, however, to query any ache, pain or health goal we may have before consulting with health care professionals. Likewise, for proactive health care, such as nutrition or fitness, or post diagnosis support, to find fellow-sufferers, we turn to online resources. There is, it seems, a potential disconnect between points at which professional and proactive health care intersect. Such gaps in information sharing may have direct impact on practices we decide to take up, the care we seek, and the support professionals offer. In this panel, we consider several places within proactive, preventative health care in particular HCI has a role towards enhancing health knowledge discovery and health support interaction. Our goal is to demonstrate how now is the time for eHealth to come to the forefront of the HCI research agenda.
Keywords: eHealth, grand challenges, preventative care, proactive care
Eek! a mouse! organic user interfaces: tangible, transitive materials and programmable reality BIBAKFull-Text 3313-3316
  Roel Vertegaal; Ivan Poupyrev
In this panel, we explore the role emerging transitive materials, like flexible thin-film displays, multi-touch input skins, e-textiles, micro-actuators and Claytronics might play in re-defining the human interface towards a programmable form of reality. Panelist will extrapolate historical trends from Tangibles to new developments in organic user interfaces, trying to identify a future in which interfaces will no longer be predominantly flat, but instead have any possible shape or form: from skins that are foldable, flexible and physical to three-dimensional products that are fully kinetic.
Keywords: organic user interfaces, programming reality, tangible user interface, transitive materials

Student research competition

A personalized walk through the museum: the CHIP interactive tour guide BIBAKFull-Text 3317-3322
  Ivo Roes; Natalia Stash; Yiwen Wang; Lora Aroyo
More and more museums aim at enhancing their visitors' museum experiences in a personalized, intensive and engaging way inside the museum. The CHIP1 (Cultural Heritage Information Personalization) project offers various online and mobile tools to the users to be their own curators, e.g. browsing the online collections, planning personalized museum tours, getting recommendations about interesting artworks to see, and quickly finding their ways in the museum. In this paper we present the new version of the personalized museum guide2 offered on a mobile device in the physical museum space. We maintain a dynamic user model to ensure high relevance of recommended artworks and museum tours and in this way (1) support personalized interaction both online and in the museum and (2) provide an intuitive bridge between the online and on-site experiences. We apply semantic Web technologies to enrich the museum collection and guarantee serendipity, novelty and relevance of the recommendations.
Keywords: interactive museum tours, mobile museum guide, recommender systems, semantic web, user modeling
ActiveNotes: computer-assisted creation of patient progress notes BIBAKFull-Text 3323-3328
  Lauren Wilcox; Jie Lu; Jennifer Lai; Steven Feiner; Desmond Jordan
We present activeNotes, a prototype application that supports the creation of Critical Care Notes by physicians in a hospital intensive care unit. activeNotes integrates automated, context-sensitive patient data retrieval and user control of automated data updates and alerts into the note-creation process. In a user study at New York Presbyterian Hospital, we gathered qualitative feedback on the prototype from 15 physicians. The physicians found activeNotes to be valuable and said they would use it to create both formal notes for medical records and informal notes. One surprising finding is that while physicians have rejected template-based clinical documentation systems in the past, they expressed a desire to use activeNotes to create personalized, physician-specific note templates to be reused with a given patient, or for a given condition.
Keywords: evaluation, interaction techniques, interactive systems, medical user interfaces
An evaluation of techniques for selecting moving targets BIBAKFull-Text 3329-3334
  Tyler J. Gunn; Pourang Irani; John Anderson
Moving targets are found in numerous applications such as computer games, air traffic control systems, and video surveillance. The selection of moving targets is considerably more difficult and error prone than traditional stationary target selection. In this paper, we introduce Comet Tails and Target Lock, two techniques that support the selection of moving targets. Our goal is to facilitate accurate and fast selection of moving targets. We compare our two techniques to unassisted selection in a controlled experiment. The results show that for moving target selection, Comet Tails and Target Lock can outperform unassisted selection, and result in fewer errors. According to post-experiment questionnaires, participants indicate a stronger preference for assisted target selection with Comet Tails and Target Lock than unassisted selection.
Keywords: fitts' law, moving target selection, target selection
Bringing usability to industrial control systems BIBAKFull-Text 3335-3340
  Marcus Reul
I want to examine how domain-specific HCI design patterns can be introduced into an existing software development process for industrial test systems. This paper describes the first findings of a contextual inquiry in the domain of test automation systems. Based on these results, I will collect a set of patterns that are relevant to the field. In the future, these patterns will be applied in a real development process. The final aim is to investigate how the patterns can help the developers and product managers to make design decisions for the user interfaces of the developed software.
Keywords: hci design patterns, industrial control software, style guides, usability guidelines
Comparing emotions using acoustics and human perceptual dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 3341-3346
  Keshi Dai; Harriet Fell; Joel MacAuslan
Understanding the difference between emotions based on acoustic features is important for computer recognition and classification of emotions. We conducted a study of human perception of six emotions based on three perceptual dimensions and compared the human classification with machine classification based on many acoustic parameters. Results show that the six emotions cluster differently according to acoustic features and to perceptual dimensions. Acoustic features fail to characterize the perceptual dimension of valence. More research is needed to find acoustic features that have a close relation to human perception.
Keywords: acoustics, emotion classification, emotional speech, human perception of emotion
Designing a privacy label: assisting consumer understanding of online privacy practices BIBAKFull-Text 3347-3352
  Patrick Gage Kelley
This project describes the continuing development of a Privacy Label to present to consumers the ways organizations collect, use, and share personal information. Several studies have indicated the importance of privacy for consumers, yet current mechanisms to present privacy policies of websites have not been successful. This research addresses the present gap in the communication and understanding of privacy policies, by creating an information design that improves the visual presentation and comprehensibility of privacy policies. Drawing from the nutrition, warning, and energy labeling, as well as from the effort towards creating a standardized banking privacy notification, I present the process and ongoing results of the development of a usable information design for privacy policies.
Keywords: information design, labeling, privacy, privacy policies
Designing a wearable social network BIBAKFull-Text 3353-3358
  Yin He; Thecla Schiphorst
This paper presents a framework and design for a wearable social network based on Facebook. We begin with a discussion of social networking by isolating key characteristics of social interactions in three research areas: Social Networking Sites, Mobile Computing, and Wearable Computing. These characteristics are analyzed to suggest a design framework that can be applied to the design of social networks. Using this framework, we have designed and created a wearable social network called Patches, which extends the social interactions available in most wearable devices today.
Keywords: interaction, social networking, wearable computing
Designing interactive information access technologies for small scale rural indian farmers BIBAKFull-Text 3359-3364
  Rajasee Rege
More than 60% of the Indian population resides in rural areas with agriculture as the main profession. Although small scale rural Indian farmers possess deep knowledge about traditional agricultural practices, they oftentimes lack immediate, contextual and real time access to vital information such as the current state of the agro-market, making the right choice of pesticides and fungicides for pest management, weather conditions, and knowledge about newly introduced agricultural tools, techniques and practices. In this paper, I report the preliminary findings of an ongoing contextual user research study conducted in three different Indian villages in Maharashtra State. This research is targeted to uncover a deeper understanding of the information needs of Indian rural farmers through field observations and interviews, as well as to guide the human-centered design of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions to cater to the information needs of small scale rural farmers in India.
Keywords: agricultural information access, food, interaction design, small scale rural farming, sustainability
Effects of spatial locations and luminance on finding and re-finding information in a desktop environment BIBAKFull-Text 3365-3370
  J. Michelle Moon; Wai-Tat Fu
We studied how spatial locations and luminance affect finding and re-finding information in a desktop environment. In an experiment conducted with computer icons, fixed locations led to more frequent accesses to icons while change of luminance led to worse recall of icon titles and locations. Results are consistent with the notion that information search behavior is adaptive to the cost-benefit structure of the interface, and search strategies are adaptive to different external representations of icons. Results also suggest that both external representations and human information processes are critical in determining the effectiveness of different GUI designs.
Keywords: adaptive human behavior, interface design, re-finding information, spatial memory
Emotion barometer of reading: user interface design of a social cataloging website BIBAKFull-Text 3371-3376
  Hsia-Ching Chang
Reading fiction is many people's favorite pastime. There is no denying that one of the needs of human beings is to share what they read and understand other readers' feelings about the books they have read. Recent developments in Web 2.0 technologies characterizing personalized information organization have led to an interest in social tagging behavior of a variety of items, such as books, images, web pages, videos, etc. However, a major issue with this kind of application is that tags are growing in an uncontrolled manner. In fact, it is chaos. Several studies have recognized the existence of affective tags, but there is no user interface designed to separate affective tags from other tags. To address that affective tags are navigation aids for readers, this work gives an account of design of a novel interface for visualization of affective tags at a social cataloging website, LibraryThing.com.
Keywords: emotion, social tagging, user interface design
Exploring the cognitive consequences of social search BIBAKFull-Text 3377-3382
  Brynn M. Evans; Sanjay Kairam; Peter Pirolli
To what extent can social interactions augment people's natural search experiences? What factors influence the decision to turn to a friend for help? Our paper presents the preliminary results of a social sensemaking task that begin to address such questions by examining the cognitive consequences of social search.
Keywords: cognitive task analysis, social information seeking, social search, verbal protocols
Facilitating benign deceit in mediated communication BIBAKFull-Text 3383-3388
  Wendy Moncur; Judith Masthoff; Ehud Reiter
This research explores how to communicate an individuals' self-reported emotional state to members of their personal social network, through automatic, computer-generated, personalised updates. Results of two qualitative studies are described where participants were unwilling to disclose their emotional state fully to all of their network members, choosing to deceive selected members instead. Further, participants indicated that they would want automatic personalised updates for network members to incorporate these deceits.
Keywords: ambiguity, computer-mediated social interaction, deceit, grounded theory, personal social networks, personalization
Generating affective music icons in the emotion plane BIBAKFull-Text 3389-3394
  Hyun-Ju Kim; Min-Joon Yoo; Ji-Yong Kwon; In-Kwon Lee
In this paper, we discuss the generation of icons that represent the emotion expressed in music. We use the emotion plane for connecting the music with the icon shape affectively. A model to project arbitrary music on the plane is introduced using the result of a user survey and various features of audio signals. Icon shapes are located on the plane from the result of user survey. The icon shape of the input music is obtained by blending neighbor icon shapes of the point of the music on the emotion plane. Using this method, one can easily guess the emotion of music from the corresponding icon shape and find the music he or she wants.
Keywords: affective icons, arousal-valence, emotion plane, music icons
Influences of mood on information seeking behavior BIBAKFull-Text 3395-3400
  Mimi Zhang; Bernard J. Jansen
In this study, we explored how moods influence the way people seek information. We conducted a controlled lab study to test our hypotheses drawn from affect-as-information theory. Fifty-eight participants were randomly assigned to the happy or sad condition. They were primed for a certain mood, and they then performed a search task and finished a series of questionnaires. Our findings supported affect-as-information: the comparatively happy participants were inclined to process more general and less specific information; the comparatively sad participants were likely to process more specific information. The findings advances theoretical and empirical understanding concerning the characteristics of users' information seeking behavior under different moods. Our study will contribute to affective search systems design.
Keywords: affect, emotion, information seeking behavior, mood, web search
InPhase: a communication system focused on "happy coincidences" of daily behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 3401-3406
  Hitomi Tsujita; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
To supplement existing forms of communication such as telephone and e-mail, this research proposes a new method of communicating "awareness" between people who are separated by long distances. In this paper, we investigate cases where coincidences in daily behaviors lead to casual conversation and thus intimacy and togetherness. We propose a new method of communicating these "happy coincidences" between a pair of remotely located houses. By equipping furniture and appliances such as doors, sofas, refrigerators and televisions with sensors, we developed a system where these items are connected to remote equivalents and their near simultaneous use is communicated.
Keywords: awareness, coincidences, communication, synchronization
Investigating computer game immersion and the component real world dissociation BIBAKFull-Text 3407-3412
  Charlene Jennett; Anna L. Cox; Paul Cairns
In this paper we describe research being conducted to investigate the experience of computer game immersion, in particular the component "real world dissociation".
Keywords: games, immersion
KTE2: an engine for kinetic typography BIBAKFull-Text 3413-3418
  Zhiquan Yeo; Scott E. Hudson
In this paper we describe a Kinetic Typography Engine, which allows the creation of text animation sequences. Kinetic typography can bring written text closer to the realm of film by adding expressive power to it. Thus kinetic typography can be used to enhance the digital communication between people. The engine supports various animation effects, some inspired by traditional animation, and others specifically for use with kinetic typography, and has an extensible architecture that allows new effects to be added in future. The engine can also be easily integrated into third party applications to support a wide range of uses.
Keywords: animation effects, dynamic text, kinetic typography, temporal presentation
Learning design principles for a collaborative information seeking system BIBAKFull-Text 3419-3424
  Chirag Shah; Gary Marchionini; Diane Kelly
While collaboration is a natural choice in many situations, there is a lack of specialized tools for collaboratively seeking information. We present design specifications and implementation of a collaborative information seeking system. We test this system through several pilot studies and cognitive walkthroughs. User interactions and feedback from these studies help us refine our design specifications for a better collaborative information seeking system.
Keywords: collaborative information seeking, interface design and testing
Making sense of accelerometer measurements in pervasive physical activity applications BIBAKFull-Text 3425-3430
  Yuichi Fujiki; Panagiotis Tsiamyrtzis; Ioannis Pavlidis
In the last few years, accelerometer-based entertainment and health applications have been receiving increased attention in the research and commercial worlds. The effect of accelerometer placement on different parts of the body, despite its apparent significance, received little consideration. This paper documents through experimentation the different characteristics of accelerometer output on the waist, arm, wrist, thigh, and ankle in the context of translational body motion (walk). Furthermore, it offers experimental formulas that transform peripheral body measurements to more reliable, center body (i.e., waist) measurements, and these in turn to caloric measurements, which are the standard physical activity units. The importance of these results on the design of ubiquitous health applications and the ensuing user experiences cannot be underestimated. The paper's methodology can be used in further studies in other physical activity contexts, where more elaborate body motion patterns are involved.
Keywords: accelerometer placement, physical activity interfaces, ubiquitous health applications
Mental workload in multi-device personal information management BIBAKFull-Text 3431-3436
  Manas Tungare; Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones
Knowledge workers increasingly use multiple devices such as desktop computers, laptops, cell phones, and PDAs for personal information management (PIM) tasks. The use of several of these devices together creates higher task difficulty for users than when used individually (as reported in a recent survey we conducted). Prompted by this, we are conducting an experiment to study mental workload in multi-device scenarios. While mental workload has been shown to decrease at sub-task boundaries, it has not been studied if this still holds for sub-tasks performed on different devices. We hypothesize that the level of support provided by the system for task migration affects mental workload. Mental workload measurements can enable designers to isolate critical sub-tasks and redesign or optimize the user experience selectively. In addition, we believe that mental workload shows promise as a cross-tool, cross-task method of evaluating PIM tools, services and strategies, thus fulfilling a need expressed by several researchers in the area of personal information management. In this paper, we describe our ongoing experiment of measuring mental workload (via physiological as well as subjective measures) and its implications for users, designers and researchers in PIM.
Keywords: mental workload, multiple devices, personal information management
Mobile gesture interaction using wearable tactile displays BIBAKFull-Text 3437-3442
  Seungyon Claire Lee; Thad Starner
We present an interaction method for mobile gesture interaction using wearable tactile displays. We are attempting to show that wrist-worn tactile displays provide adequate feedback to enable reversible and error-resistant gesture-based interaction. In support of this effort, we present pilot study results demonstrating users' sensitivity in perceiving vibratory directional patterns on the wrist.
Keywords: gesture-based interaction, mobile computing, multitasking, tactile feedback
Multi-touch interface for controlling multiple mobile robots BIBAKFull-Text 3443-3448
  Jun Kato; Daisuke Sakamoto; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi
We must give some form of a command to robots in order to have the robots do a complex task. An initial instruction is required even if they do their tasks autonomously. We therefore need interfaces for the operation and teaching of robots. Natural languages, joysticks, and other pointing devices are currently used for this purpose. These interfaces, however, have difficulty in operating multiple robots simultaneously. We developed a multi-touch interface with a top-down view from a ceiling camera for controlling multiple mobile robots. The user specifies a vector field followed by all robots on the view. This paper describes the user interface and its implementation, and future work of the project.
Keywords: entertainment robot, home robot, human robot interaction, multi-touch interface, multiple-robot operation
ReadingMate: an infrared-camera-based content stabilization technique to help joggers read while running on a treadmill BIBAKFull-Text 3449-3454
  Bum chul Kwon; Ji Soo Yi
Though reading could be a useful activity while a jogger runs on a treadmill, reading while running can be quite tiresome. In order to alleviate this difficulty, we developed a content stabilization technique, called ""ReadingMate,"" using head-tracking to track the location of the jogger's head/eyes and relocate the position of the contents on a screen, so that the contents appear to be stabilized. We conducted an experiment with ten participants, and eight out of ten reported positive experiences in using ReadingMate. Thus, ReadingMate could be a potential solution for joggers who would like to read while running, and possible future work is also discussed.
Keywords: head-tracking, infrared camera, readingmate, screen, shaking, stabilization, treadmill
Spatio-temporal interest points for video analysis BIBAKFull-Text 3455-3460
  Ramsin Khoshabeh; James D. Hollan
In this paper, we discuss the need for an effective representation of video data to aid analysis of large datasets of video clips and describe a prototype developed to explore the use of spatio-temporal interest points for action recognition. Our focus is on ways that computation can assist analysis.
Keywords: action recognition, sparse action shapes, spatio-temporal interest points, video analysis, video coding
Storytelling through drawings: evaluating tangible interfaces for children BIBAKFull-Text 3461-3466
  Cristina Sylla; Pedro Branco; Clara Coutinho; Maria Eduarda Coquet
This paper presents an ongoing study comparing the potential and the quality of the experiences provided by tangible versus traditional interfaces. The study was carried with two groups of kindergarten children using two interfaces that aim to motivate children to the practice of oral hygiene. Children's drawings were one of the methods used to assess their experience. We found differences quantitatively and qualitatively between the drawings of the children interacting with the tangible interface and the traditional interface. The drawings suggest that by interacting with the tangible interface children felt more actively involved with the task.
Keywords: children, drawing, evaluation, tangible interfaces
TripTip: a trip planning service with tag-based recommendation BIBAKFull-Text 3467-3472
  Jinyoung Kim; Hyungjin Kim; Jung-hee Ryu
In this paper we suggest a design for a system, TripTip, the aim of which is to help negotiate their way through the immense amount of information that is often available by recommending a set of choices. TripTip recommends to the users the next place, which they would most likely want to visit given their preference in previous choices. To generate this information, tags that are attached on a given place by users give the characteristics of a place and the reasons for visiting the place.
Keywords: place recommendation
Web search and browsing behavior under poor connectivity BIBAKFull-Text 3473-3478
  Jay Chen; Lakshminarayanan Subramanian; Kentaro Toyama
Web search and browsing have been streamlined for a comfortable experience when the network connection is fast. Existing tools, however, are not optimized for scenarios where connectivity is poor, as is the case for many users in developing regions where fast connections are expensive, rare, or unavailable.
   This study examined how users' web search and browsing behavior differs when the connection is slow, and whether users employ techniques to alleviate the problem. In a preliminary study involving 15 subjects on a university campus in Kerala, India, we identify unique mitigating behaviors of users who routinely suffer low-bandwidth or intermittent connections. We examine the challenges faced by these users and find that existing web search and browsing infrastructure is simply incapable of providing a good experience. Finally we outline potential design improvements.
Keywords: intermmittent network, low bandwidth, web browsing, web search, world wide web

Video showcase

A short film about VJs: using documentary film to engage performers in design BIBAKFull-Text 3491-3492
  Jonathan Hook; David Green; Patrick Olivier
VJing is a live performance of visual media. In their performances VJs utilize technologies in ways which subvert and evolve current interfaces; presenting qualities such as performativeness and expression. By developing interfaces in direct response to a VJ's work, we can learn how to develop fresh styles of interaction. The subtle nuances of a VJ's use of technology may not be achieved through a simple observation or dialogue with VJs; as they are difficult to decouple from the performer's creative process.
   In this film we present a design process that utilizes video documentary to explore the working practices of a collection of VJs. The documentary frames our engagement with the creative processes which shape an individual artist's performance. We describe the process detailing the initial creation of the documentary, and a participatory design workshop inspired by the film. We conclude with an example of how the process has been used in the design of a personal interactive tool for one of our participants.
Keywords: creativity support tools, participatory design / cooperative design, user-centered design / human-centered design
CHIstory BIBAKFull-Text 3493-3494
  Michael Bernstein; Paul André; Kurt Luther; Erin Treacy Solovey; Erika S. Poole; Sharoda A. Paul; Shaun K. Kane; Jonathan Grudin
How might the world view human-computer interaction a century from now? In this video, set one hundred years in the future, we playfully re-envision the early history of HCI. As the video opens, the Great Usability Cataclysm of 2068 has erased all previous knowledge of HCI. The world has been plunged into an age of darkness where terror, fear, and poor usability reign. Unearthing fragments of previously lost archival footage, a disembodied HCI historian (Jonathan Grudin) introduces a first attempt to reconstruct the history of our field. Pioneering systems like NLS and Sketchpad are reviewed alongside more recent work from CHI and related conferences. The results may surprise and perplex as much as they entertain, but most of all, we hope they inspire reflection on the past and future of our field.
Keywords: grudin, history, parody, video
Collocated mobile collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 3495-3496
  Jerry Alan Fails; Allison Druin; Mona Leigh Guha
Mobile devices have changed, and continue to shape, the world in which we live. When these devices were first introduced they were most often used in isolation to schedule appointments, take notes, play games, or view or edit pictures and stories. The extent of the collaboration on these mobile devices was to make phone calls, which has led to their worldwide distribution. Despite their broad proliferation, there are limitations such as small screen size and limited interaction space. We believe that by bringing devices and people together, these limitations can be overcome. In this video submission, we illustrate the potential of devices and people working together by showing how children can collaboratively read and create stories using mobile devices and exploit the shoulder-to-shoulder collaborative situation to share and expand the interactive space.
Keywords: collaboration, interaction, mobile phones, narratives
Comm.unity: leveraging social and physical proximity BIBAKFull-Text 3497-3498
  Nadav Aharony; Jamie Zigelbaum
Comm.unity is a new software platform implementing a wireless, device-to-device information system that bypasses the need for any centralized servers, coordination, or administration. A key feature of this platform is the fact that it combines knowledge, awareness, and learning of the user's social relationships and integrates this information into the communication protocols and network services. Comm.unity is designed to work on as many devices as possible, and with as many different radios as possible (WiFi, Bluetooth, IR, etc.). It is designed as a platform over which many different networked applications could be developed with ease, from the bottom layers of the network all the way up to the user interface. In this short movie we present some use cases for Comm.unity based applications, including the "Social Dashboard" -- a readily usable control for one's digital aura -- as well as a brief working demo showing an image propagate across multiple devices.
Keywords: mobile, network interface, pervasive computing, privacy, social, trust, ubiquitous computing
Context menus for the real world: the stick-anywhere computer BIBAKFull-Text 3499-3500
  Julian Lepinski; Eric Akaoka; Roel Vertegaal
In this video, we present a context-aware menu system made out of simulated digital paper. Built on the ubiquitous yellow sticky notes found in offices everywhere, our computer provides a contextual interactive paper menu that can be used to operate numerous everyday electric and electronic devices, such as lamps, speakers and computers. Stuck on a device, the sticky screen displays contextual information and control options which may be selected with a single touch of the finger. The stick-anywhere computer is an example of a context-aware organic user interface that, through a flexible paper-like display, allows software to reside directly on the product or task. The Stick-Anywhere Computer was implemented using a Xuuk Eyebox2 IR camera that tracks nearly invisible IR markers on post-it notes as well as fingers, and uses a projector to render interactive content directly onto the paper note.
Keywords: augmented reality, e-paper., early prototyping, organic user interfaces
Dancing with myself: the interactive visual canon platform BIBAKFull-Text 3501-3502
  Christoph Bartneck; Mathias Funk; Martijn ten Bhömer
The canon is a composition pattern with a long history and many forms. The concept of the canon has also been applied to experimental film making and on Japanese television. We describe our Interactive Visual Canon Platform (IVCP) that enables creators of visual canons to design their movements through rapid cycles of performance and evaluation. The IVCP system provides real time support for the actors; they can see the canon resulting from their movements while they are still performing. We describe some possible approaches to a solution, and reasons for choosing the approach that we have implemented. The hardware has reached a stable state, but we are still optimizing the visual processing of the system. A first user test is planned to provide us with information for improving the system.
Keywords: algorithm, dance, music, visual canon
Digital heritage BIBAKFull-Text 3503-3504
  Aditya Sankar; Archana Prasad; Joseph Joy; Naren Datha; Ajay Manchepalli
The India Digital Heritage Project is a collaborative initiative between the industry and academia, with the aim of using novel techniques to efficiently capture and present various aspects of India's diverse heritage, while at the same time advancing the state-of-the art in related research areas.
   As part of the Digital Heritage Project, we have built a prototype virtual tour of a South Indian temple that, for the first time, integrates technologies such as Photosynth and HDView, opening up new ways to interactively explore visually complex sites. These technologies are combined with audio, video and guided walkthroughs, to provide a compelling end user experience. The accompanying video highlights the key scenarios of our prototype.
Keywords: heritage, prototyping, user experience design, visualization, world wide web and hypermedia
DinnerWare: why playing with food should be encouraged BIBAKFull-Text 3505-3506
  Marcelo Coelho
DinnerWare is an exploration of eating as a medium for computation and aesthetic expression. It consists of a dining service electronically equipped to react to the properties of the food that it holds and respond to a user's eating gestures.
Keywords: dinnerware, edible circuits, edible interfaces, food, responsive materials
DisplayObjects: functional prototyping on real objects BIBAKFull-Text 3507-3508
  Eric Akaoka; Roel Vertegaal
This video introduces DisplayObjects, a rapid prototyping workbench that allows functional displays to be projected on real 3D physical prototypes. DisplayObjects uses a Vicon motion capture system to track the location of physical models. 3D software renditions of the 3D physical model are then texture-mapped with interactive behavior and projected back onto the physical model to allow real-time interactions with the object. This simulates the functionality of future 3D interactive OLED display skins for product designs. We show a selection of interaction techniques used to design a number of DisplayObjects.
Keywords: augmented reality, early prototyping, organic user interfaces., physical user interfaces
Exploring video streams using slit-tear visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 3509-3510
  Anthony Tang; Saul Greenberg; Sidney Fels
Slit-tear visualizations allow users to selectively visualize pixel paths in a video scene. The slit-tear visualization technique is a generalization of the traditional photographic slit-scanning and more recent video slicing techniques: after a user specifies a pixel path of interest, the system generates a timeline that replicates those pixels for each frame in the video. These rich visualizations of the video data help users to discover and explore spatio-temporal patterns of activity in a video. In this video, we illustrate the use of slit-tear visualizations to detect movement and incidence of activity in a video scene, accentuate directional motion and small changes in the video, and discover patterns of activity between spatially distinct areas of the scene.
Keywords: information visualization, video analysis, video interaction, video visualization
Film as invisible design: the example of the biometric daemon BIBAKFull-Text 3511-3512
  Pamela Briggs; Patrick Olivier; Jim Kitson
Film is an accessible medium that can be used naturally to elicit comment and critique. In this sense film can be as the natural language for experience design. We are developing a series of experimental films that can convey user-experience without explicitly depicting the object that generates that experience. In doing this, we are building upon the idea (well rehearsed in the scientific debate about mental imagery) that some visual representations can be inexplicitly non-committal about the presence or absence of certain objects or features. Our films are explicitly non-committal about the objects they describe -- in the sense that the devices are deliberately kept hidden or invisible to the user. We present one such film that captures a security device we call a Biometric Daemon -- essentially an electronic pet that thrives on biometric signals. Crucially, the Daemon is never shown in the film, while the relationship between the Daemon and the user is made apparent.
Keywords: claims analysis, communication, design methods, design rationale, handheld devices, mobile computing, scenarios, security, storyboards, video content
Home, work, (play) BIBAKFull-Text 3513-3514
  Allen Sayegh; Peter Mabardi; David Register; Daniel Spann; Jonathan Lu; Amanda Parkes; S. Adrian, III Massey
The first two segments of a three part series, these shorts were developed for Microsoft Volume Studios. Designed as purely inspirational pieces, to explore in a poetic narrative way how certain developing technologies could begin to blend and augment our daily lives.
Keywords: augmented, gesture, hyper-reality, integration, spatial
Hyperlinking reality via camera phones BIBAKFull-Text 3515-3516
  Dusan Omercevic; Ales Leonardis
Novel user interface concept for camera phones, demonstrated in this video, is based on state-of-the-art computer vision techniques. Instead of typing keywords on a small and inconvenient keypad, the user just snaps a photo of his surroundings and objects on the photo become hyperlinks to information. The photo of the user's environment on the camera phone's screen thus becomes a natural interaction device allowing intuitive access to information with a simple tap of a finger.
Keywords: augmented reality, computer vision, mobile devices, user interfaces
Interrupted BIBAKFull-Text 3517-3518
  Jaekyung Jung
The 'intentional and planned' interference of the human physical, sensational, and conscious behavior could increase the probability of new forms of creation.
Keywords: creativity support tools, perceptual & vision-based uis
Live recruiting on the web BIBAKFull-Text 3519-3520
  Nate Bolt; Kate Nartker
This animated video describes the concept of recruiting participants for remote user research.
Keywords: animation, user studies
New mobile UI with hand-grip recognition BIBAKFull-Text 3521-3522
  Hyunjeong Lee; Wook Chang; Joonah Park; Junghyun Shim
Today, mobile phones are no longer devices supporting only voice communications. Many people use their mobile phones as multimedia players, cameras, messaging systems, etc. Therefore, it is required to design a user interface that improves the usability of multi-functional mobile phones. For this purpose, we proposed a novel user interface that utilizes touch sensing technology to support multi-functional devices. The proposed user interface is based on the assumption that the device can detect how a user holds the device. By analyzing the user's grip-pattern, the device recognizes the user's intention and adjusts itself to meet the specific needs of the user such as accessing an application. The concept of the user interface is presented through several use-case scenarios. In addition, the technical feasibility of the proposed interface is validated by implementing a working prototype system.
Keywords: capacitive multi-touch sensing, hand grip recognition, handheld devices and mobile computing, input and interaction technologies, mobile ui, prototyping, tactile & haptic uis, touch user interface, user interface design
Physical heart in a virtual body BIBAKFull-Text 3523-3524
  Amit Zoran; Marco Coppiardi; Paula Aguilera; Pattie Maes
In this video we present a special guitar that combines physical acoustic properties with virtual capabilities. A wooden resonator -- a unique, replaceable piece of wood that gives the guitar a unique acoustic sound, will embody the acoustical values. The acoustic signal created by this wooden heart will be digitally processed in a virtual sound box in order to create flexible sound design. The project shows that traditional values can be embedded into a digital object.
Keywords: acoustic, craft, digital instrument, guitar, music, resonator, sensors, virtual
Project Chicago: green research BIBAKFull-Text 3525-3526
  Lillian Smith; Frame Demchak
The "Project Chicago: Green Research" video showcases a technology concept for a sustainability analysis dashboard. This dashboard could be used with building information modeling (BIM) software to provide architects, engineers and designers with real-time graphical feedback about the impact of their design decisions on the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating of a project. Our goal was to showcase a highly graphic, interactive technology concept to evaluate water and energy reduction, indoor environmental quality, and carbon footprint impacts and give designers an immediate sense of the results of different building designs. Using real scenarios from BNIM: Berkebile Nelson Immenschuh McDowell Architects' Lewis and Clark State Office Building in Missouri, we portrayed a design team developing alternative concepts and improving their designs as measured by the US Green Building Council's LEED rating system for green buildings. The proposed sustainability dashboard concept is demonstrated on a 6'x3' touch screen to explore its potential use as a collaborative tool. The dashboard was presented by Autodesk as a technology concept and it is not a commercially available product.
Keywords: collaboration, graphical user interface, input and interaction, interaction design, product design, sustainability, technologies, user experience design/ experience design, visualization
Pulp-based computing: a framework for building computers out of paper BIBAKFull-Text 3527-3528
  Marcelo Coelho; Lyndl Hall; Joanna Berzowska; Pattie Maes
In this video, we describe a series of techniques for building sensors, actuators and circuit boards that behave, look, and feel like paper. By embedding electro-active inks, conductive threads and smart materials directly into paper during the papermaking process, we have developed seamless composites that are capable of supporting new and unexpected application domains in ubiquitous and pervasive computing at affordable costs.
Keywords: actuators, composites, paper, sensors, smart materials, ubiquitous computing
QUICKIES: the future of sticky notes BIBAKFull-TextWeb Page 3529-3530
  Pranav Mistry
In this paper, we present 'QUICKIES', an attempt to bring one of the most useful inventions of the 20th century into the digital age: the ubiquitous sticky notes. 'QUICKIES' enriches the experience of using sticky notes by linking hand-written sticky notes to the mobile phones, digital calendars, task-lists, e-mail and instant messaging clients. The project explores how the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Natural Language Processing (NLP), RFID, and ink recognition technologies can make it possible to augment physical sticky notes that can be searched, located, can send reminders and messages, and more broadly, can act as an I/O interface to the digital information world.
Keywords: connecting the physical and information world, handwriting recognition, intelligent, rfid, sticky notes
Remote impact: shadowboxing over a distance BIBAKFull-Text 3531-3532
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Stefan Agamanolis; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere
Exertion games -- games that require physical effort from the user -- have been attributed with many social, mental and in particular physical health benefits. However, research has shown that most current implementations support only light or moderate exercise. We are presenting "Remote Impact -- Shadowboxing over a Distance", in which players punch and kick a life-size shadow of a remote participant in order to win the game. The game includes a novel multi-touch large-scale interaction surface that is soft (so no-one gets hurt), but can detect the location as well as the intensity of the players' even most extreme impacts. Remote Impact shows that computer-augmented games can support extreme exertion while supporting novel experiences, such as a reduced risk of injury and supporting distant players, offering a new way of thinking in which areas Human-Computer Interaction research can contribute to our lives.
Keywords: exergaming, exertion interface, physical effort, sports
Sharing digital photographs in the home by tagging memorabilia BIBAKFull-Text 3533-3534
  Saul Greenberg; Michael Nunes
Within the home, digital photos lack the physical affordances that make collocated photo-sharing easy and opportunistic. Family members have difficulty accessing the personal accounts of the photo organizer, navigating to these photos, or finding the desired ones within the vast number of photos stored on disk. Viewing photos on a standard PC screen is also awkward due to crowding. To promote in-home photo sharing, we designed Souvenirs, an RFID-based system that lets people quickly link digital photo sets to physical memorabilia. These memorabilia trigger memories and serve as social instruments; a person can enrich their story-telling by moving the physical memorabilia close to their large-format television screen, and the associated photos are immediately displayed. A person can also bring a mobile device near memorabilia: the photos appear on that display. Through pick and drop, a person can also transfer the photo display from the mobile device to the large screen for easier viewing. This video motivates and illustrates how all this works.
Keywords: digital photo management, ubiquitous computing
SHIFTR: a user-directed, link-based system for ad hoc sensemaking of large heterogeneous data collections BIBAKFull-Text 3535-3536
  Duen Horng Chau; Aniket Kittur; Christos Faloutsos; Jason I. Hong
We present a novel method and prototype system to help users make sense of and reorganize large amounts of heterogeneous information. Our work is grounded in theories of categorization from cognitive psychology and is designed for ad hoc sensemaking; that is, supporting people's shifting goals and flexible mental representations of concepts. Shiftr adapts a carefully chosen Belief Propagation algorithm from large-scale graph mining to efficiently assist users in interactively clustering information of arbitrary types. The system functions effectively with few human-labeled examples, and supports the use of both positive and negative examples. We demonstrate Shiftr's utility through sensemaking scenarios, one of which uses the DBLP bibliography dataset, which contains more than 1.7 million author-paper relationships.
Keywords: heterogeneous, information retrieval, sensemaking
Spore player research outtakes BIBAKFull-Text 3537-3538
  Nate Bolt; Tony Tulathimutte
This video contains outtakes from a player experience research study for Electronic Arts' Spore. Users played a working build of Spore while communicating with moderators who were stationed in a remote observation room; media streams from the game, webcam, and voice chat were captured and synced for later analysis.
Keywords: empirical methods, performance metrics, qualitative usability testing and evaluation, user studies
The science of fun BIBAKFull-Text 3539-3540
  Nate Bolt; Tony Tulathimutte
This video details the principles underlying our company's player experience research project on behalf of Electronic Arts for their latest game, Spore. Electronic Arts employees discuss the benefits of the "Simulated Native Environment" methodology as compared to focus groups, and Scott Rigby, CEO of Immersyve Inc., describes the PENS (Player Experience of Need Satisfaction) metrics, which were used to gather quantitative feedback in this study.
Keywords: empirical methods, performance metrics, qualitative usability testing and evaluation, user studies

Spotlight on work in progress session 1

A biologically inspired approach to learning multimodal commands and feedback for human-robot interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3553-3558
  Anja Austermann; Seiji Yamada
In this paper we describe a method to enable a robot to learn how a user gives commands and feedback to it by speech, prosody and touch. We propose a biologically inspired approach based on human associative learning. In the first stage, which corresponds to the stimulus encoding in natural learning, we use unsupervised training of HMMs to model the incoming stimuli. In the second stage, the associative learning, these models are associated with a meaning using an implementation of classical conditioning. Top-down processing is applied to take into account the context as a bias for the stimulus encoding. In an experimental study we evaluated the learning of user feedback with our learning method using special training tasks, which allow the robot to explore and provoke situated feedback from the user. In this first study, the robot learned to discriminate between positive and negative feedback with an average accuracy of 95.97%.
Keywords: human-robot-interaction, machine learning, multimodality, speech perception, user feedback
A gesture-based and eyes-free control method for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 3559-3564
  Raine A. Kajastila; Tapio Lokki
A novel interaction method for eyes-free control of a mobile phone or a media player is introduced. The method utilizes acceleration sensors along three axes to sense input gestures, such as pointing and tilting. A spherical auditory menu and feedback are provided using speech and 3D sound. A gestural pointing interface, multiple menu configurations, and their implementation details is presented. Evaluation results suggest that fast and accurate selection of menu items is possible without visual feedback. Combining the gestural interface, positions of menu items in 3D and a browsing method with a dynamically adjustable target size of the menu items allow large menus with intuitive, easy access.
Keywords: 3d audio, accelerometers, auditory-menu, eyes-free, gestural control
Action planning with commonsense knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 3565-3570
  Hyung-il Ahn; Dustin A. Smith
Understanding other people's goals is an essential part of interpersonal interactions. This capability enables a person to naturally predict another person's future actions in a situation and produce appropriate joint or shared actions. In like manner, a human-like planning agent (or sociable robot) should be able to understand the user's action goal and come up with subgoal-based plans to achieve the goal. In this paper we focus on how the agent can automatically construct the subgoal-based action hierarchy corresponding to the user's high-level goal. As a first step, we implement an action-planning engine based on ConceptNet, and indicate the drawbacks of using ConceptNet for this purpose. Also, we present the structure of a new goal-oriented commonsense-reasoning knowledgebase for the agent's action-goal representation and action planning.
Keywords: action planning, action-goal representation, commonsense reasoning, semantic network, subgoal-based action hierarchy
An fNIR based BMI for letter construction using continuous control BIBAKFull-Text 3571-3576
  Rudolph L., IV Mappus; Girish R. Venkatesh; Chetna Shastry; Amichai Israeli; Melody M. Jackson
A long term goal of assistive technology research is to build creative expression applications where subjects can extemporaneously express themselves. Sketch drawing is one form of creative expression. In this work, we demonstrate the usability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) for expression using a letter drawing task. We describe empirical results that represent a first step toward assistive applications for creative expression.
Keywords: assistive technologies, biometric interfaces, brain-machine interface, disability access, fNIR, hemodynamic response, interaction concept design
An objective and subjective evaluation of an autostereoscopic 3d display BIBAKFull-Text 3577-3582
  Masashi Tsuboi; Shinji Kimura; Tsutomu Horikoshi
An autostereoscopic 3D display is evaluated to objective and subjective evaluations. The results confirm that the spatial image reconstruction provided by the 3D display can transfer more information than the standard flat image. This suggests the possibility of eliminating the current limitations imposed by display size and resolution.
Keywords: 3d, evaluation, human factor, subjective tests, visual perception
Assisted-care robot initiation of communication in multiparty settings BIBAKFull-Text 3583-3588
  Yoshinori Kobayashi; Yoshinori Kuno; Hitoshi Niwa; Naonori Akiya; Mai Okada; Keiichii Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki
This paper presents on-going work in developing service robots that provide assisted-care to the elderly in multi-party settings. In typical Japanese day-care facilities, multiple caregivers and visitors are co-present in the same room and any caregiver may provide assistance to any visitor. In order to effectively work in such settings, a robot should behave in a way that a person who has a request can easily initiate communication with the robot. Based on findings from observations at several day-care facilities, we have developed a robot system that displays availability to multiple persons and then displays recipiency to an individual person who wants to initiate interaction. Our robot system and its experimental evaluation are detailed in this paper.
Keywords: computer vision, ethnomethodology, human-robot interaction, non-verbal communication, service robot
Automatic storytelling in comics: a case study on World of Warcraft BIBAKFull-Text 3589-3594
  Chia-Jung Chan; Ruck Thawonmas; Kuan-Ta Chen
This paper presents a development of our comic generation system that automatically summarizes players' actions and interactions in the virtual world. The feature of the system is that it analyzes the log and screenshots of a game, decides which events are important and memorable, and then generates comics in a fully automatic manner. Also, the interface of our system allows users to customize their own comics. As a result, users can easily use the system to share their stories and create individual comics for archival purposes or storytelling.
Keywords: comic generation, entertainment, layout, user interface, virtual community
Bezier lights: establishing virtual boundaries in indoor environments BIBAKFull-Text 3595-3600
  Yuichiro Takeuchi
In this paper we introduce Bezier Lights, an intelligent lighting system that allows users to intuitively establish virtual boundaries in indoor environments. Boundaries can be easily created/modified by arranging the layouts of disk-shaped devices ("stones") on the building floor. The immediate purpose of the system is to assist users in incorporating location-aware capabilities into private properties, esp. individual households and offices, with the longer-term goal of serving as a key component in our vision of "Synthetic Space" -- architectural space of the future where all building elements (walls, windows, etc.) can be dynamically reconfigured in real time.
Keywords: Bezier curve, intelligent lighting, location-aware, smart furniture, synthetic space
Blobby: how to guide a blind person BIBAKFull-Text 3601-3606
  Hugo Nicolau; Joaquim Jorge; Tiago Guerreiro
For the majority of blind people, walking in unknown places is a very difficult, or even impossible, task to perform, when without help. The adoption of the white cane is the main aid to a blind user's mobility. However, the major difficulties arise in the orientation task. The lack of reference points and the inability to access visual cues are its main causes. We aim to overcome this issue allowing users to walk through unknown places, by receiving a familiar and easily understandable feedback. Our preliminary contributions are in understanding, through user studies, how blind users explore an unknown place, their difficulties, capabilities and needs. We also analyzed how these users create their own mental maps, verbalize a route and communicate with each other. Structuring and generalizing this information, we were able to create a prototype that generates familiar and adequate instructions, behaving like a blind companion, one with similar capabilities that understands his "friend" and speaks the same language. We evaluated the system with the target population, validating our approach and orientation guidelines, while gathering overall user satisfaction.
Keywords: accessibility, blind, evaluation, familiar, instructions, mobile, orientation
BubbleWrap: a textile-based electromagnetic haptic display BIBAKFull-Text 3607-3612
  Olivier Bau; Uros Petrevski; Wendy Mackay
We are investigating actuators that are able to provide different types of haptic sensations and that can be wrapped around a wide range of surfaces and objects. Our first prototype, BubbleWrap, consists of a matrix of electromagnetic actuators, enclosed in fabric, with individually controllable cells that expand and contract. It provides both active haptic feedback, using vibration, as well passive haptic feedback, using shape and firmness. An initial experiment demonstrated that users could reliably discriminate among the three firmness levels displayed on our prototype.
Keywords: actuators, firmness control, haptic display, shape changing display
Calibration-free gaze tracking using a binocular 3D eye model BIBAKFull-Text 3613-3618
  Takashi Nagamatsu; Junzo Kamahara; Naoki Tanaka
This paper presents a calibration-free method for estimating the point of gaze (POG) on a display by using two pairs of stereo cameras. By using one pair of cameras and two light sources, the optical axis of the eye and the position of the center of the cornea can be estimated. This estimation is carried out by using a spherical model of the cornea. One pair of cameras is used for the estimation of the optical axis of the left eye, and the other pair is used for the estimation of the optical axis of the right eye. The point of intersection of optical axis with the display is termed the point of the optical axis (POA). The POG is approximately estimated as the midpoint of the line joining POAs of both the eyes with the display. We have developed a prototype system based on this method and demonstrated that the midpoint of POAs was closer to the fiducial point that the user gazed at than each POA.
Keywords: calibration-free, eye model, eye movement, gaze tracking
Can an ARG run automatically? BIBAKFull-Text 3619-3624
  Jennefer Hart; Josephine Reid
Alternative Reality Games (ARGs) provide an interesting platform to explore the nature of game play as they combine fictional and real world elements to create a unique gaming experience. A typical ARG plays over a set time span and players collaborate via an ongoing narrative orchestrated by 'puppet masters'. This paper presents a six week study based around an ARG which was designed to be repeatable, allowing players to enter the game at anytime. Through the use of temporal trajectories we analyse player's interactions and unveil a number of problems that hindered game play. The players lifestyle, pace and gameplay traits all impacted on the game and raises the question of whether a repeatable ARG can really work. We close with some design pointers that might make it feasible.
Keywords: entertainment
Can machines call people?: user experience while answering telephone calls initiated by machine BIBAKFull-Text 3625-3630
  Adam J. Sporka; Jakub Franc; Giuseppe Riccardi
Current state-of-the-art spoken dialog systems are aimed at handling telephone calls to automate incoming caller requests. In this paper we explore a scenario which is symmetric to a traditional human-initiated interaction. We report on an initial qualitative study focusing on the opposite type of interaction, i.e. when automated agents place telephone calls to recipients that request interactive dialog from the recipients. The study consisted of 16 telephone calls to participants placed by a simulated agent, followed by debriefing interviews with the participants. The data gained in the study were analyzed to identify factors that influence the acceptance of such calls.
Keywords: acceptance, agent-initiated telephone calls, autonomous call agents, qualitative study, speech modality, telephone services, wizard of oz
Choosing the right knob BIBAKFull-Text 3631-3636
  Joe Wherton; Andrew Monk
People with dementia have problems carrying out multi-step tasks such as making a hot drink. Intelligent systems are being built to prompt people through such tasks. However, the prompts used by these systems are likely to be viewed as novel. As people with dementia are known to be sensitive to novelty this could be a problem. An experiment was performed to determine how to prompt people with dementia with which knob controls which burner on a cooking range. A highly novel implicit attentional cue using fluorescent wire was found to provide comparable or better results than more conventional alternatives. It is concluded that design in this area does not need to be constrained by the need to avoid novelty. The experiment is also of interest because of the way that it was embedded in a natural cooking task suitable for people of varied cognitive capacity.
Keywords: cooking, cueing action, dementia, implicit cueing
Co-located collaborative web search: understanding status quo practices BIBAKFull-Text 3637-3642
  Saleema Amershi; Meredith Ringel Morris
Co-located collaborative Web search is a surprisingly common activity, despite the fact that Web browsers and search engines are not designed to support collaboration. We report the findings of two studies (a diary study and an observational study) that provide insights regarding the frequency of co-located collaborative searching, the strategies participants use, and the pros and cons of these strategies. We then articulate design implications for next-generation tools that could enhance the experience of co-located collaborative search.
Keywords: collaborative search, search interfaces, web search
Connected space BIBAKFull-Text 3643-3648
  Hee Rin Lee; Carl DiSalvo
Connected Space connects remote spaces based on sensor data values that users collect. Diverse spaces that have similar ambient data are connected. Because sensor data is quantified data which falls outside the scope of human senses, users need a solution to understand it. Connected Space maps the data into a visual representation and allows interaction with the data. Connected Space suggests a new way to connect remote spaces with sensor data in Telecommunication Art and also suggests ways to enable users to understand quantified data with interaction in a more concrete way.
Keywords: ambient data visualization, participatory design, remote connections, sensor data pedagogy, social interaction, telecommunication art
Connecting the dots with related notes BIBAKFull-Text 3649-3654
  Yedendra Babu Shrinivasan; David Gotz
During visual analysis, users must often connect insights discovered at various points of time to understand implicit relations within their analysis. This process is often called "connecting the dots." In this paper, we describe an algorithm to recommend related notes from a user's past analysis based on his/her current line of inquiry during an interactive visual exploration process. We have implemented the related notes algorithm in HARVEST, a web based visual analytic system.
Keywords: information visualization, reasoning process, related notes, visual analytics
Contact-and-connect: designing new pairing interface for short distance wireless devices BIBAKFull-Text 3655-3660
  Jong-bum Woo; Youn-kyung Lim
To solve the problem of the current pairing method of wireless devices with button interface, this paper suggests a new way of pairing wireless devices in short distance with which it requires physically contacting them together, which we call Contact-and-Connect Interface. Through prototyping, we examined the usability of this new interface, and as a result, we realized that all of the participants recognized the pairing easily due to the following three factors: contact action, LED visualization of connection, and instant feedback of what is happening. We also figured out which external forms have better affordance for the contact action, and the ones having no sharp edges with a perfect fit worked best.
Keywords: bluetooth devices, pairing, ubiquitous computing, usability, visualization
Designing for email response management BIBAKFull-Text 3661-3666
  Sungjoon (Steve) Won; Laura A. Dabbish
Email is the most widely used form of computer-mediated communication. And replying to messages is one of the main activities email interfaces need to support. In this paper we address the problems users face when managing emails that need a reply. Previous work has found that users have difficulty remembering to reply to messages when they postpone response, and have trouble re- finding messages they want to respond to. We review related work on email management, and describe three designs developed to facilitate email response management.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, design, email, social messaging
Designing interfaces for presentation of opinion diversity BIBAKFull-Text 3667-3672
  Sean A. Munson; Daniel Xiaodan Zhou; Paul Resnick
News aggregators rely on links and users votes to select and present subsets of the large quantity of news and opinion items generated each day. Opinion diversity in the output sets can provide several benefits. We outline a range of diversity goals and discuss user reactions to a pilot implementation that selects for diversity as well as popularity. We then describe plans for research on alternative presentations and their impacts on users.
Keywords: bias, blogs, diversity, news aggregator, politics, presentation, recommender systems
Designing unobtrusive interfaces with minimal presence BIBAKFull-Text 3673-3678
  Hyunjung Kim; Woohun Lee
The vision of Ubiquitous Computing is a world of invisible technologies. Technologies are so woven into the fabric of everyday life that they become indistinguishable [1]. In this paper, we discuss unobtrusive interfaces having minimal presence. By merging into everyday objects and environments, the presence of an interface can be minimized, making our everyday life more interactive without increasing its complexity. To obtain minimal presence, physical plasticity of the interface is considered in the present work. This allows the interface to shift between invisible and visible states; the concealed interface appears when it is put into use and disappears after use. In addition, our recent project, Shade Pixel, is presented as an example of an unobtrusive interface with minimal presence. We also briefly describe a design concept for the interface to provide inspiration for its practical application.
Keywords: minimalism, physical plasticity, simplicity, unobtrusive interface
Development of evaluation heuristics for web service user experience BIBAKFull-Text 3679-3684
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Minna Wäljas
Positive user experience (UX), including its pragmatic and hedonic aspects, is a central design target for interactive products and services. Increasingly, Web services are developed for both PCs and mobile terminals to support user needs for media content management and social interaction. Even though many UX models have been developed over the last decade, the specific characteristics affecting UX of Web services have not been studied systematically. In this paper we present the first phase of our service UX study in which three Web services were evaluated by three UX experts each, using an initial set of service UX evaluation heuristics. We discuss how well these heuristics covered the positive and negative service UX evaluation findings, and how the heuristics and the expert evaluation approach of UX should be developed further.
Keywords: evaluation heuristics, expert evaluation, user experience (ux), web services
Disembodied performance BIBAKFull-Text 3685-3690
  Peter Alexander Torpey; Elena Naomi Jessop
Early in Tod Machover's opera Death and the Powers, the main character, Simon Powers, is subsumed into a technological environment of his own creation. The theatrical set comes alive in the form of robotic, visual, and sonic elements that allow the actor to extend his range and influence across the stage in unique and dynamic ways. This environment must compellingly assume the behavior and expression of the absent Simon. In order to distill the essence of this character, we recover performance parameters in real time from physiological sensors, voice, and vision systems. These gesture and performance parameters are then mapped to a visual language that incorporates cognitive and semantic models informed by modal relationships. This language allows the off-stage actor to express emotion and interact with others on stage. Our Disembodied Performance system takes a new direction in augmented performance by employing a non-representational abstraction of a human presence that fully translates a character into an environment.
Keywords: performance, physiological sensors, theater, visualization
Emotional gaze behavior generation in human-agent interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3691-3696
  Xia Mao; Zheng Li; Yuli Xue
Gaze behavior plays an important role in face to face communication in that it conveys nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This research proposes a computational framework for generating emotional gaze behavior in a virtual agent, concentrating on analysis and synthesis of primary and intermediate emotions through gaze behavior. We utilize parameters picked from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade) to model primary emotions and describe a rule-based approach to generate intermediate ones.
Keywords: emotional expression, gaze behavior, human-agent interaction, virtual agent
Enhancing brain-machine interface throughput using simultaneous activation detection BIBAKFull-Text 3697-3702
  Rudolph L., IV Mappus; Paul M. Corballis; Melody M. Jackson
In this work, we investigate the viability of a novel combination of evoked responses as input signals for a general-purpose brain machine interface (BMI). We demonstrate response accuracy to alphanumeric stimuli in valid and mirror-reversed orientations, and show task-related activity differences correlated with rotation degree and character validity in superior parietal and inferior frontal gyrus regions of the brain. By observing simultaneous task-related activation in spatially dissociated regions, we increase the amount of information used for inferring user intent in control interfaces.
Keywords: brain-machine interface, electroencephalography
Ethnochat: an instant messenger program for ethnography BIBAKFull-Text 3703-3708
  Jason Zalinger; Nathan Freier; Eric Dutko
This paper describes the design of Ethnochat, an instant messaging (IM) program built for ethnographers to conduct computer-mediated, semi-structured or unstructured interviews. To our knowledge, this is the first program of its kind. Ethnographic techniques are becoming a common method to investigate social interactions and settings in digital contexts, and this creates a demand for a proper tool with which ethnographers can practice their craft. This paper details the design and articulates how Ethnochat will have significant implications for HCI practice.
Keywords: ethnography, evaluation methods, instant messaging, online interviews
Evaluating non-interactive domestic situated SMS messaging BIBAKFull-Text 3709-3714
  John Downs; Beryl Plimmer
We present our evaluation of our SMS-to-photo-frame messaging system in diverse households. We explored whether low-cost, non-interactive ambient displays were useful when applied to domestic messaging. We performed an ethnographic study with two different types of households, during which we analysed their usage of the system and conducted a series of interviews. We found that all households used the system to some degree, but that the social context and communication styles were distinctly different between households comprised of families and those with fictive kin. This highlights the importance of considering the household structure when designing domestic technology. Additionally, our preliminary study explored the minimum requirements for a useful messaging appliance for the home, particularly with respect to interactivity.
Keywords: communication, digital photo frame, domestic messaging, ethnographic evaluation study, mobile phone, situated display, ubiquitous computing
Exploring cues and rhythm for designing multimodal tools to support mobile users in wayfinding BIBAKFull-Text 3715-3720
  Teija Vainio
In recent navigation HCI studies, the shift from investigating map-based mobile applications towards supporting mobile users' wayfinding tasks with multimodal navigation aids is apparent. While there have been many studies of navigation design guidelines for using maps or speech- or tactile-based guidance in mobile devices, in this paper we propose an initial study of multimodal navigation design utilising the theory of designing episodes of motion originating from urban planning. The implications of designing cues and providing rhythm, as the theory of episodes of motions suggests, are explored, with pedestrians as the subjects using wayfinding tasks in an urban area. The main contributions of this paper are in investigating the design principles, evaluating them in the context of mobile wayfinding tasks, and reflecting upon the results in terms of users' wayfinding behaviour. It is concluded that by designing predictive clues and rhythm into mobile multimodal navigation applications, we can improve navigation aids for users.
Keywords: human factors, mobile navigation, multimodality
Exploring participatory performance to inform the design of collaborative public interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 3721-3726
  Robyn Taylor; Pierre Boulanger; Patrick Olivier; Jayne Wallace
We describe a new application of interactive participatory performance in interaction design. Our pragmatic strategy permits us to use performance as an investigatory tool in the exploration of user behavior. By taking a holistic view of the evaluation of the interplay between the designed artifact (the performance content) and the people who interact and relate to it, we can extract insights from the performance with the intention of informing the process of designing interaction mechanisms for more conventional public interfaces.
Keywords: aesthetic experience, collaborative system design, interactive art, performance
Exploring social and temporal dimensions of emotion induction using an adaptive affective mirror BIBAKFull-Text 3727-3732
  Suleman Shahid; Emiel Krahmer; Marc Swerts; Willem A. Melder; Mark A. Neerincx
This paper investigates if and how a digital, interactive affective mirror induces positive emotions in participants. We study whether the induced affect is repeatable after a fixed interval (Study 1) and how the social presence affects the emotion induction (Study 2). Results show that participants systematically feel more positive after an affective mirror session; this effect is shown to be repeatable, and co-presence of a friend is shown to boost this effect.
Keywords: adaptive interfaces, affective computing, co-presence, mood induction, positive emotions, presence effect
Exploring the design of accessible goal crossing desktop widgets BIBAKFull-Text 3733-3738
  Eun Kyoung Choe; Kristen Shinohara; Parmit K. Chilana; Morgan Dixon; Jacob O. Wobbrock
Prior work has shown that goal crossing may be a more accessible interaction technique than conventional pointing-and-clicking for motor-impaired users. Although goal crossing with pen-based input devices has been studied, pen-based designs have limited applicability on the desktop because the pen can "fly in," cross, and "fly out," whereas a persistent mouse cursor cannot. We therefore explore possible designs for accessible mouse-based goal crossing widgets that avoid triggering unwanted goals by using secondary goals, gestures, and corners and edges. We identify four design principles for accessible desktop goal crossing widgets: ease of use for motor-impaired users, safety from false selections, efficiency, and scalability.
Keywords: computer access, crossing-based interfaces, desktop accessibility, human performance, input, motor impairments, mouse cursor
Fast finger tracking system for in-air typing interface BIBAKFull-Text 3739-3744
  Kazuhiro Terajima; Takashi Komuro; Masatoshi Ishikawa
We developed a system which performs 3D motion tracking of human's hand and fingers from images of a single high-frame-rate camera and that recognizes his/her typing motion in the air. Our template-matching-based method using hand textures reduces background effect and enables markerless tracking. In addition, use of a high-frame-rate camera enables recognition of rapid typing motion which is difficult to track using standard cameras. In order to realize real-time recognition, we developed hardware which parallelizes and accelerates image processing. As a result, we achieved real-time recognition of typing motion with the throughput of 138 fps (frames per second) and the latency of 29 ms.
Keywords: embedded computer vision., portable device, vision-based ui
File management with hierarchical folders and tags BIBAKFull-Text 3745-3750
  Shanshan Ma; Susan Wiedenbeck
Hierarchical folders have been widely used for managing digital files. Previous research has revealed problems with them. Users frequently have to turn to desktop search to re-find files, even if they thought they had saved them in a memorable place. Tagging may have the potential to improve information navigation and organization. This research in progress aims at exploring the possibility of incorporating tagging into the hierarchical folder structure for file management, especially for the process of file organization and file re-finding. This work will provide design implications for future file management tools.
Keywords: file management, file organization, file re-finding, tagging
Gesture-based interaction with virtual 3D objects on large display: what makes it fun? BIBAKFull-Text 3751-3756
  Jamie Ng; Tze-Jan Sim; Yao-Sheng Foo; Vanessa Yeo
In this paper, we describe a virtual game where game play is afforded by the user's silhouette interacting with on-screen 3D gaming objects, e.g. a soccer ball or a "chapteh" (Shuttlecock Kicking) -- a game played traditionally in villages, i.e. "kampongs", in Asia. The virtual game system projects a life-size image of the location where the game is often played, e.g. soccer field when soccer is played or village playground in the case of "chapteh". The player's silhouette is super-imposed on the screen as the user interacts with the on-screen virtual 3D object using his body movement, e.g. bounce or lift. We compare the game play when different design variables were changed, e.g. replacing the soccer field image or removing the silhouette outline, to evaluate which design variable affects a user's experience during game play.
Keywords: gesture-based interaction, silhouette interaction, user experience, virtual games
Grounding geovisualization interface design: a study of interactive map use BIBAKFull-Text 3757-3762
  Pamela Karr Wisniewski; Okan Pala; Heather Richter Lipford; David C. Wilson
Building the most effective tools to support user-centered geographic visualization faces a significant challenge: not enough is known about how people interact with maps. Map use research has often focused on higher order use goals or cognitive interpretations of static map representations. In order to address the problem of understanding foundational user-map interaction behavior, we are studying user interactions in complex geovisualizations, with an initial focus on analysis tasks. This paper describes an exploratory user study to examine general interaction issues with complex map visualizations. Our results highlight the need for map tools to improve interactivity and support basic analysis tasks to aid users in decision making.
Keywords: geovisualization, interaction, maps
Haptic feedback in remote pointing BIBAKFull-Text 3763-3768
  Laurens R. Krol; Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Sriram Subramanian
We investigate the use of haptic feedback for enhancing user performance with remote pointing devices. We present a number of concepts that use haptic feedback on such devices and the results of the first user study, in which we have compared the effects of different feedback types on users' performance and preference in remote pointing tasks. The study showed that the addition of haptic feedback significantly improves the performance, while it has also revealed a seemingly low user acceptance of haptic feedback. We discuss the implications of our findings and outline the future work.
Keywords: haptic feedback, remote pointing, target acquisition
How do people talk with a robot?: an analysis of human-robot dialogues in the real world BIBAKFull-Text 3769-3774
  Min Kyung Lee; Maxim Makatchev
This paper reports the preliminary results of a human-robot dialogue analysis in the real world with the goal of understanding users' interaction patterns. We analyzed the dialogue log data of Roboceptionist, a robotic receptionist located in a high-traffic area in an academic building [2][3]. The results show that (i) the occupation and background (persona) of the robot help people establish common ground with the robot, and (ii) there is great variability in the extent that users follow social norms of human-human dialogues in human-robot dialogues. Based on these results, we describe implications for designing the dialogue of a social robot.
Keywords: human-robot dialogue, human-robot interaction, speech-based interaction
iBookmark: locative texts and place-based authoring BIBAKFull-Text 3775-3780
  Johannes Schöning; Tom Bartindale; Patrick Olivier; Dan Jackson; Antonio Krüger; Jim Kitson
With the recent developments in ePaper technology, consumer eBook readers have display qualities and form factors that are approaching that of traditional books. These eBook readers are already replacing paper in some commercial domains, but the potential of eBooks to extend forms of writing and storytelling has not been significantly explored. Using the digital and dynamic characteristics afforded by eBook readers, we are developing iBookmark, a GPS-enabled eBook reader. In iBookmark, writers can create stories that change in response to the location of the eBook itself. By setting context variables based on current and past locations of the eBook reader and using these in the rule-based generation of text and illustrations. We are developing new rhetorical device for writers that extend the expressive range of eBook delivered stories.
Keywords: context sensing, eBook reader, ePaper, narrative theory
Imaging-based cosmetics advisory service BIBAKFull-Text 3781-3786
  Jhilmil Jain; Nina Bhatti
In this paper we describe a multimodal cosmetic advisory system that recommends cosmetics appropriate for users' skin tone. This system is intended for commercial use to address the problem of color selection of cosmetic foundation. Based on surveys and semi-structured interviews we have verified that visual selection of color foundation cosmetics is error prone, and the results of our study indicate that both mobile and kiosk touch points are essential to cover the entire target population (women of all ages) since technical vs. social comfort, accuracy vs. convenience and social vs. individual needs play a huge role in the usage and adoption of personal advisory services.
Keywords: advisory service, interviews, kiosk, mobile, surveys
Implementing emotion-based user-aware e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 3787-3792
  Xia Mao; Zheng Li
We propose an intelligent e-learning system featuring with affective agent tutor. The agent tutor "Alice" is not only fully aware of the affective state of the students through facial expression, speech and text, but also fully capable of adapting to these states wisely guided by a case-based method with facial expression generation and emotional speech synthesis ability.
Keywords: affective computing, intelligent e-learning system, multimodal interaction, perceptive interfaces, virtual agent
Improving with age: designing enduring interactive products BIBAKFull-Text 3793-3798
  William Odom; James Pierce
This study explores people's relationships with digital and non-digital objects in the home -- with an eye toward the ways in which products improve rather than deteriorate over time -- and how this knowledge might inform the design of more enduring and sustainable interactive products. We report our research in progress and provide a collection of initial design themes and design concepts inspired by user studies.
Keywords: durability, interaction design, sustainability
Information foraging in E-voting BIBAKFull-Text 3799-3804
  Ravi K. Vatrapu; Scott P. Robertson
In this paper, we present a case study of human-information interaction in the online realm of politics. The case study consists of a participant observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation while taking notes that were to be shared with others. Interaction analysis of the case study data consisted of applying Information Foraging Theory to understand participant specific behaviors in searching and browsing. Case study results show skewed time allocation to activities, a tradeoff between enrichment vs. exploitation of search results, and issues with lack of scent, low value perception, and value depletion of information. Potential implications for voter-centered design of e-voting portals are discussed and future work is outlined.
Keywords: comparative informatics, e-democracy, e-participation, e-voting, information foraging theory, information patch, information scent, participatory design, voter-centered design, www.votesby.us
Intentions: a game for classifying search query intent BIBAKFull-Text 3805-3810
  Edith Law; Anton Mityagin; Max Chickering
Knowing the intent of a search query allows for more intelligent ways of retrieving relevant search results. Most of the recent work on automatic detection of query intent uses supervised learning methods that require a substantial amount of labeled data; manually collecting such data is often time-consuming and costly. Human computation is an active research area that includes studies of how to build online games that people enjoy playing, while in the process providing the system with useful data. In this work, we present the design principles behind a new game called Intentions, which aims to collect data about the intent behind search queries.
Keywords: human computation game, query classification, query intent, web search
Interaction programming: next steps BIBAKFull-Text 3811-3816
  Harold Thimbleby
Interaction programming bridges the gap between interaction design and programming, but it has not yet been related directly to mainstream development practice. This paper presents UI model discovery tools to enable existing systems and traditional development processes to benefit from interaction programming tools and methods.
Keywords: discovery tools, interaction programming, model checking
Intermediated technology interaction in rural contexts BIBAKFull-Text 3817-3822
  Abhay Sukumaran; Satyan Ramlal; Eyal Ophir; Vangala RamNaresh Kumar; Gaurav Mishra; Vanessa Evers; Venkataraman Balaji; Clifford Nass
Access to information technology in developing countries is often indirect, involving human intermediaries. A computer kiosk is a typical instance of three-way interaction between user, kiosk operator, and kiosk technology. We describe a pilot experimental study that investigates whether manipulating the social prominence of the intermediary versus the technology affects perceived information characteristics and attitudes toward the interaction. We suggest that a better understanding of such locally specific interaction models is needed to address culturally influenced issues in information technology use throughout the developing world. Ongoing methodological challenges in conducting experimental studies in such contexts are discussed.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, cultural research methods, disadvantaged communities, indirect technology access, international user studies
Investigating background & foreground interactions using spatial audio cues BIBAKFull-Text 3823-3828
  Yolanda Vazquez-Alvarez; Stephen Brewster
Audio is a key feedback mechanism in eyes-free and mobile computer interaction. Spatial audio, which allows us to localize a sound source in a 3D space, can offer a means of altering focus between audio streams as well as increasing the richness and differentiation of audio cues. However, the implementation of spatial audio on mobile phones is a recent development. Therefore, a calibration of this new technology is a requirement for any further spatial audio research. In this paper we report an evaluation of the spatial audio capabilities supported on a Nokia N95 8GB mobile phone. Participants were able to significantly discriminate between five audio sources on the frontal horizontal plane. Results also highlighted possible subject variation caused by earedness and handedness. We then introduce the concept of audio minimization and describe work in progress using the Nokia N95's 3D audio capability to implement and evaluate audio minimization in an eyes-free mobile environment.
Keywords: 3d audio, audio cues, background and foreground interactions, evaluation, multiple audio streams
Investigating web search strategies and forum use to support diet and weight loss BIBAKFull-Text 3829-3834
  m.c. schraefel; Ryen W. White; Paul André; Desney Tan
Healthcare is shifting from being reactive to preventive, with a focus on maintaining general wellness through positive decisions on diet, exercise, and lifestyle. In this paper, we investigate search behavior as people navigate the Web and find support for dietary and weight loss plans. Inspecting the Web search logs of nearly 2,000 users, we show that people progressively narrow their searches to support their progress through these plans. Interestingly, people that visit online health forums seem to progress through the plans' phases more quickly. Based on these results, we conducted a survey to further explore the roles and importance of online forums in supporting dieting and weight loss.
Keywords: diet, forums, obesity, web search, weight loss
Lessons from participatory design with adolescents on the autism spectrum BIBAKFull-Text 3835-3840
  Miriam Madsen; Rana el Kaliouby; Micah Eckhardt; Mohammed E. Hoque; Matthew S. Goodwin; Rosalind Picard
Participatory user interface design with adolescent users on the autism spectrum presents a number of unique challenges and opportunities. Through our work developing a system to help autistic adolescents learn to recognize facial expressions, we have learned valuable lessons about software and hardware design issues for this population. These lessons may also be helpful in assimilating iterative user input to customize technology for other populations with special needs.
Keywords: adolescents, asd, autism, design, emotion detection, facial expression analysis, user interface
Map torchlight: a mobile augmented reality camera projector unit BIBAKFull-Text 3841-3846
  Johannes Schöning; Michael Rohs; Sven Kratz; Markus Löchtefeld; Antonio Krüger
The advantages of paper-based maps have been utilized in the field of mobile Augmented Reality (AR) in the last few years. Traditional paper-based maps provide high-resolution, large-scale information with zero power consumption. There are numerous implementations of magic lens interfaces that combine high-resolution paper maps with dynamic handheld displays. From an HCI perspective, the main challenge of magic lens interfaces is that users have to switch their attention between the magic lens and the information in the background. In this paper, we attempt to overcome this problem by using a lightweight mobile camera projector unit to augment the paper map directly with additional information. The "Map Torchlight" is tracked over a paper map and can precisely highlight points of interest, streets, and areas to give directions or other guidance for interacting with the map.
Keywords: magic lens interfaces, mobile augmented reality, projector phones
Measuring users' emotional reactions to websites BIBAKFull-Text 3847-3852
  Helen Petrie; Chandra Harrison
Initial research to investigate users' emotional reactions to websites is presented. An Emotion Words Priming List (EWPL) was developed for UK English speakers and used to prompt users in an evaluation of 6 websites. Only half the words on the EWPL V1 were amongst the most frequently used emotion words in the retrospective verbal protocols. However a list of 16 emotion words emerged from this study that constitute version 2 of the EWPL, to be validated in a future study.
Keywords: emotion, evaluation, methodology, user experience, websites
Metamouse: multiple mice for legacy applications BIBAKFull-Text 3853-3858
  Kurtis Heimerl; Divya Ramachandran; Joyojeet Pal; Eric Brewer; Tapan Parikh
Single Display Groupware (SDG) solutions have been used to create software for disadvantaged children, particularly in the developing world. SDG allows for greater utilization of the limited infrastructure available to these kids. However, SDG faces challenges in working with legacy applications. Our technology, called metamouse, takes a step toward an integrated multi-user application by allowing users to collaborate within unmodified legacy educational software. We conducted a preliminary qualitative user study of our technology with educational software in schools around Bangalore, India. We found that Metamouse is easily learned, encourages collaborative discussion among students, and allows for the use of existing educational applications with no modification.
Keywords: developing regions, education, shared computers, single display groupware
Micro-blogging as online word of mouth branding BIBAKFull-Text 3859-3864
  Bernard J. Jansen; Mimi Zhang; Kate Sobel; Abdur Chowdury
In this paper, we report research results investigating micro-blogging as a form of online word of mouth branding. We analyzed 149,472 micro-blog postings containing branding comments, sentiments, and opinions. We investigated the overall structure of these micro-blog postings, types of expressions, and sentiment fluctuations. Of the branding micro-blogs, nearly 20 percent contained some expressions of branding sentiments. Of these tweets with sentiments, more than 50 percent were positive and 33 percent critical of the company or product. We discuss the implications for organizations in using micro-blogging as part of their overall marketing strategy and branding campaigns.
Keywords: branding, micro-blogging, social networking, twittering
Multilingual search strategies BIBAKFull-Text 3865-3870
  Anne Aula; Melanie Kellar
We explored the search strategies of multilingual searchers, i.e., users who use multiple languages when searching for information. We wanted to understand factors that determine the language multilingual searchers choose to search in, if they switch languages within a search task, and if they encounter challenges when searching in a non-native language. Our results indicate that availability and perceived quality of information were the primary reasons for searching in a non-native language. Language switching within a search only occurred when information could not be found with the original search language. We also observed a language-related use case where the goal was not to find information in a typical sense, but rather to check for correct phrases in the non-native language using search engines. Our research highlights several areas of future work for further understanding the multilingual search process.
Keywords: multilingual searching, user study, web search
Multi-point touch input method for Korean text entry BIBAKFull-Text 3871-3876
  Heesook Shin; Woohun Lee; Geehyuk Lee; Ilyeon Cho
Multi-touch interfaces are becoming popular as a new input means for the various applications. In this paper, we suggest a new Korean text entry method using a multi-touch interface called MPT (Multi-Point Touch) input method. We conducted a text entry performance test comprising 4 sessions for 10 participants, and compared the result with an existing commercial SPT (Single-Point Touch) input method. The experimental results show that the entry speed of MPT was slower than that of SPT method in the initial session. However, the entry speed of MPT input method was improved more rapidly than the speed of SPT method as sessions were proceeded. We observed a statistically significant learning effect from the result of MPT method. Moreover, we found no significant difference between the task loads of SPT and MPT input methods.
Keywords: multi-touch, text entry
New tools for task workflow analysis BIBAKFull-Text 3877-3882
  Will Schroeder
This paper describes first steps in the use of a technique for the visualization, and analysis of users' workflows, well-suited to the study of user behavior in the completion of complex tasks.
Keywords: software development tools, usability, user interfaces, user-centered design
NextSlidePlease: navigation and time management for hyperpresentations BIBAKFull-Text 3883-3888
  Ryan P. Spicer; Aisling Kelliher
Slide-ware presentations typically involve an uninterrupted progression of bulleted slides introduced by a lone figure before a passive audience. This format does not encourage active discussion or facilitate improvisational presentation of material. Two studies were conducted to evaluate how presenters author, rehearse for and deliver presentations. From these studies, feature recommendations for a prototype hyperpresentation system were developed.
Keywords: hypertext, navigation, presentations, slide-ware
Origami simulator: a multi-touch experience BIBAKFull-Text 3889-3894
  Samuel Hsiao-Heng Chang; Lachlan Stuart; Beryl Plimmer; Burkhard Wünsche
We present a 3D origami simulator with multi-touch interaction. This is a preliminary exploration of manipulating 3D models with multi-touch. Following a user centered approach, we analyzed how people make paper origami models and mapped the common actions into two-touch gestures. The user study suggested that people enjoyed the simulator and think the techniques can be applied to other 3D modeling environments.
Keywords: 3d manipulation, multi-touch interaction
Perceived productivity and the social rules for laptop use in work meetings BIBAKFull-Text 3895-3900
  Lisa Kleinman
People multitask with laptops in organizational meetings and this may impact a team's productivity and group dynamics. This paper discusses the results from fieldwork at a Fortune 500 software development company and survey data from a sample of 40 information workers across the United States on the topic of technological multitasking in group meetings. Preliminary results suggest that there is a perceived loss of productivity when using laptops during meetings and that the type of meeting is the strongest determinant for when technological multitasking occurs.
Keywords: collaborative work, group meetings, polychronicity, technology multitasking
P-recognition: you are already recognized BIBAKFull-Text 3901-3906
  Hiroyuki Manabe; Masaaki Fukumoto
The user's intention is reflected in not only the actual input action but the ones immediately before it as well. "P-Recognition"" recognizes the preceding actions, and predicts the intention just when the actual action starts. This paper tests P-Recognition in a pen-based map navigation interface as an example, where the map is panned by user's dragging strokes and zoomed by user's enclosure by a circle. The feasibility of the proposal is confirmed in an experiment. We find that dragging and circling actions are distinguishable before the pen touches the screen. Moreover, for some users we can recognize their intention to write text. It is confirmed that the user's intention is present in the preceding actions and so is detectable.
Keywords: gesture recognition, hover, map navigation, mode, pan & zoom, predictive interface, stroke recognition, stylus pen
Predicting query reformulation during web searching BIBAKFull-Text 3907-3912
  Bernard J. Jansen; Danielle Booth; Amanda Spink
his paper reports results from a study in which we automatically classified the query reformulation patterns for 964,780 Web searching sessions (composed of 1,523,072 queries) in order to predict what the next query reformulation would be. We employed an n-gram modeling approach to describe the probability of searchers transitioning from one query reformulation state to another and predict their next state. We developed first, second, third, and fourth order models and evaluated each model for accuracy of prediction. Findings show that Reformulation and Assistance account for approximately 45 percent of all query reformulations. Searchers seem to seek system searching assistant early in the session or after a content change. The results of our evaluations show that the first and second order models provided the best predictability, between 28 and 40 percent overall, and higher than 70 percent for some patterns. Implications are that the n-gram approach can be used for improving searching systems and searching assistance in real time.
Keywords: n-grams, query reformulation, stochastic process, web queries, web sessions
Product interest and engagement scale, beta (pies-beta): initial development BIBAKFull-Text 3913-3918
  Christopher N. Chapman; Michal Lahav; Edwin Love; James L. Alford
We report a work in progress: development and initial validation of the Product Interest and Engagement Scale (PIES), a short assessment instrument measuring consumer interest in technology products. PIES reflects an explicitly multidimensional, hierarchical, and extensible model of product interest. It assesses consumer product interest in terms of an overall interest scale plus three subscales assessing interest in features and choices, personal image as affected by a product, and interest in optimizing one's choice with regards to a product. We report factor structure in a sample of N=225 US consumers and replication with N=180 US consumers. The results establish reliability of the overall 12-item scale and subscales in a broad consumer sample (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89 overall, 0.82-0.88 for subscales). Validity measures in the validation sample demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with product ownership and product involvement measures. We regard PIES as currently being in beta form (PIES-beta). It is suitable for usage now but will undergo further revision in 2009.
Keywords: evaluation, product interest, product involvement, psychometrics, scale development
Ptz control with head tracking for video chat BIBAKFull-Text 3919-3924
  Kota Yamaguchi; Takashi Komuro; Masatoshi Ishikawa
This paper describes a user interface for video chat that is capable of panning, tilting, and zooming (PTZ) operation using head tracking. The approach is to map a captured 3D position from head tracker to PTZ parameters of a remote camera so that a user can intuitively change the view just as people change their sight by moving their head. The preliminary user study gave encouraging results and clarified the point for further improvement.
Keywords: hci, head tracking, panning, ptz control, tilting, vision-based interaction, wide field of view video chat, zooming
PuyoSheet and PuyoDots: simple techniques for adding "button-push" feeling to touch panels BIBAKFull-Text 3925-3930
  Masaaki Fukumoto
Two simple techniques for touch-panel based portable information devices are proposed. A soft-gel based transparent film named "PuyoSheet" placed over a touch panel provides button-push feeling to the fingertips. Another configuration, soft-gel based small dots, named "PuyoDots", is attached to the backside of a handheld device provides button-edge and button-push feelings to the fingertip(s) that hold the device. Preliminary evaluations indicate that proposed techniques improve "usability" and "preference" without deteriorating input speed or error rate compared with an ordinary touch panel device.
Keywords: haptics, input device, tactile, touch panel
Rehabilitation of handwriting skills in stroke patients using interactive games: a pilot study BIBAKFull-Text 3931-3936
  Jennifer Curtis; Loes Ruijs; Maartje de Vries; Robert Winters; Jean-Bernard Martens
This paper describes an interactive application that aims to support the rehabilitation of handwriting skills in people that suffer from paralysis after a stroke. The purpose of the application is to make the rehabilitation of handwriting skills fun and engaging. Four platform-independent games with adjustable levels of difficulty were created in order to target varying levels of skills. The application also features a performance history, audio-visual feedback, and posture reminders. It was evaluated with medical staff and patients from the Hoensbroeck Rehabilitation Centre in the Netherlands. The initial results indicated that the games are more motivating and fun than traditional pen and paper exercises. The feedback received from therapists supports our claim that the games are a useful addition to the rehabilitation of handwriting.
Keywords: handwriting, interactive game, stroke rehabilitation, user-centered design
Rethinking the ESP game BIBAKFull-Text 3937-3942
  Stephen Robertson; Milan Vojnovic; Ingmar Weber
The ESP Game was designed to harvest human intelligence to assign labels to images -- a task which is still difficult for even the most advanced systems in image processing. However, the ESP Game as it is currently implemented encourages players to assign "obvious" labels, which can be easily predicted given previously assigned labels.
   We present a language model which can assign probabilities to the next label to be added. This model is then used in a program, which plays the ESP game without looking at the image. Even without any use of the actual image, the program manages to agree with the randomly assigned human partner on a label for 69% of all images, and for 81% of images which have at least one "off-limits" term assigned to them.
   We discuss how the scoring system and the design of the ESP game can be improved to encourage users to add less predictable labels, thereby improving the quality of the collected information.
Keywords: esp game, image labeler, tagging
Saltate!: a sensor-based system to support dance beginners BIBAKFull-Text 3943-3948
  Dieter Drobny; Malte Weiss; Jan Borchers
We present Saltate!, a wireless prototype system to support beginners of ballroom dancing. Saltate! acquires data from force sensors mounted under the dancers' feet, detects steps, and compares their timing to the timing of beats in the music playing. If it detects mistakes, Saltate! emphasizes the beats in the music acoustically to help the dancing couple stay in sync with the music.
Keywords: dancing, motor skill learning, wearable computing, wireless sensor system
Software ergonomics: relating subjective and objective measures BIBAKFull-Text 3949-3954
  S. Camille Peres; Vickie Nguyen; Philip T. Kortum; Magdy Akladios; S. Bart Wood; Andrew Muddimer
The use of computers in the workplace is now commonplace. Correspondingly, injuries associated with computer use have increased. However, little research has been done investigating whether these injuries are associated with the software being used. One reason is the difficulty in measuring muscle strain (a predictor of muscle related injuries). Here we present preliminary results of study on the relationship between objective and subjective measures of muscle strain during computer use. As users completed sets of tasks using MSWord, SEMG muscle activity was recorded for the muscles associated with using a keyboard and mouse. After each task set, users completed surveys asking the level of strain they experienced during the tasks. Correlations between the measures suggest that subjective measures can provide reliable information regarding the muscle strain associated with software use. These easily obtained subjective measurements could assist in producing software interaction designs that are better for users.
Keywords: human-computer interaction, musculoskeletal disorders, self-report of strain, software ergonomics
Spectator understanding of error in performance BIBAKFull-Text 3955-3960
  A. Cavan Fyans; Michael Gurevich; Paul Stapleton
The development of computer-based devices for music control has created a need to study how spectators understand new performance technologies and practices. As a part of a larger project examining how interactions with technology can be communicated to spectators, we present a model of a spectator's understanding of error by a performer. This model is broadly applicable throughout HCI, as interactions with technology are increasingly public and spectatorship is becoming more common.
Keywords: error, music controller, performance, spectator
Springboard: exploring embodiment, balance and social justice BIBAKFull-Text 3961-3966
  Alissa N. Antle; Greg Corness; Milena Droumeva
In this paper we describe the theory and design of a prototype interactive environment called Springboard. Springboard supports users to explore concepts in social justice through embodied interaction. We present the foundational theory of embodied conceptual metaphor, focusing on the twin-pan balance schema. We describe the application of balance metaphors in the design of the interaction model for our interactive environment. We conclude with a discussion of design choices and describe future research based on our prototype.
Keywords: embodied interaction, embodied schema, image schema, interactive environment, metaphor, social justice
StoryTags: once upon a time, there was a photo BIBAKFull-Text 3967-3972
  Nuno Tomás; Tiago Guerreiro; Daniel Gonçalves
With the growing volume of digital information users must deal with, management and retrieval tasks have become increasingly problematic. A popular way to help users organize their information is tagging, as is the case in web sites such as flickr, delicious or youtube. Unlike traditional hierarchically-based organization principles, tagging is less strict and easier to employ. However, it is not without its own problems. Low tag reuse is just one of several issues that might hinder retrieval of a document or photo at a later time. We propose that narratives can provide a better way of tagging photos. Describing a photo by telling a story about it may yield more and better tags, as information in stories is organized as a structured, coherent whole. We present a prototype web application, StoryTags, that allows users to tell stories to tag their photos, and then to use those stories to retrieve them.
Keywords: digital photography, narrative-based interfaces, tagging
SuChef: an in-kitchen display to assist with "everyday" cooking BIBAKFull-Text 3973-3978
  Joshua Palay; Mark Newman
Decisions about what to eat are often made close to mealtime, when hunger clouds people's ability to think creatively or conscientiously about their meal choices. As a result, people we studied tended to resort to "everyday meals": recipes that are tasty, quick, and cheap. These choices often run counter to cooks' stated values regarding health, variety, ingredient choice, and so forth, but are chosen for their convenience and familiarity. This lack of variety seemed to stem from a scarcity of "everyday" recipes compounded by the fact that usually, at the time they are preparing the meal, cooks are tired, hungry, and don't want to search for or try less familiar recipes. Based on a study of current cooking practices, we developed the SuChef prototype: a low-fidelity probe supporting the in-kitchen display of everyday meal ideas along with the sharing of recipes among members of social groups. The probe was deployed for a week among 5 geographically dispersed but socially connected households and yielded insights into the design space for technology to support everyday cooking.
Keywords: ambient interfaces, everyday cooking, kitchen displays, paper-prototype, technology probe, ubiquitous computing
Support for seamless linkage between less-detailed and more-detailed representations for comic design BIBAKFull-Text 3979-3984
  Junko Ichino; Tomohiro Makita; Shun'ichi Tano; Tomonori Hashiyama
Through a study of comic design practice, we observed that comic designers created three components -- character-config, plot, and storyboard -- and used a trial-and-error approach with iterative progression from less detailed to more detailed representations during the early stages of design. However, existing comic design tools do not support these tasks very well. In the light of these observations, we created a system that helps comic designers in the early stages of design. Our prototype supports sketching input, allows seamless movement backward or forward among the different granularities of representations across the three components, and concurrent use of multiple related sheets.
Keywords: comic (cartoon) design, informal, pen-based computers, sketching, trial-and-error
Supporting carers in their caring role through design BIBAKFull-Text 3985-3990
  Andrea Taylor; Richard Wilson; Stefan Agamanolis
Carers are people who look after family, partners or friends who could not manage without them because of frailness, illness or disability. Our contribution is to show the potential for design to support carers in their vital caring role, focusing on health information sharing. We describe why it is important to recognise and consider carers in the design of home health monitoring technology, and why it is important to help carers maintain their health and well being. We present design guidelines for home monitoring technology. These guidelines are distilled from a survey distributed to carers in a rural part of Scotland on health information sharing. We used these guidelines to design a new home monitoring system called @Hand. The main difference with current systems is the focus on facilitating information sharing between cared-for and carer rather than cared-for and health professional.
Keywords: carer, carers survey, home health monitoring, self care, telehealth
Supporting family engagement in weight management BIBAKFull-Text 3991-3996
  Nathalie Colineau; Cécile Paris; Peter Marendy; Dipak Bhandari; Yanfeng Shu
As obesity is increasing in many countries, helping people manage their weight has become an important issue. Medical research has shown that the family context may be important to promote lifestyle changes. Our work aims at designing a collaborative environment to engage a family in support of an individual needing to manage his or her weight. This paper presents the first step in our iterative design process which aimed at collecting information about the needs of overweight and obese people, and about the type of environment they would find useful for them and their family.
Keywords: family engagement, weight management website
Supporting intercultural collaboration with dynamic feedback systems: preliminary evidence from a creative design task BIBAKFull-Text 3997-4002
  E. Ilana Diamant; Brian Y. Lim; Andy Echenique; Gilly Leshed; Susan R. Fussell
Intercultural collaboration is often hampered by the manner in which teams communicate, or fail to com-municate, their ideas, concerns, and feelings. Computer-mediated communication and the virtual nature of collaboration tend to exacerbate such communication issues into problems of conversation dominance, misattribution, and group conflict. New communication tools have the potential to mitigate some of these problems by augmenting individuals' and team's awareness of their communication inputs and processes. We explore how such feedback affects the communication content, attention distribution, and affective states of Chinese and American collaborators engaged in a creative de-sign task. We describe our tool, present preliminary findings from an ongoing lab experiment, and discuss next steps in our research regarding ways of detecting the impact of real-time conversation feedback in inter-cultural collaboration environments.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, cross-cultural communication, distributed work, feedback mechanisms
Tailoring websites to increase contributions to online communities BIBAKFull-Text 4003-4008
  Min Kyung Lee; Tawanna Dillahunt; Bryan Pendleton; Robert Kraut; Sara Kiesler
Many online communities experience insufficient contributions from their members. In order to encourage contributions to the community, we examined a website tailoring approach to fit a community's website interface with the motivations of the community. In particular, we used the characteristics of other websites as a method of gauging user motivation. We built two different websites with financial and altruistic themes, and conducted an online experiment with 122 users to test the impact of both segmenting and tailoring on contributions to a recycling community. Preliminary results show that both tailoring and segmenting techniques were effective with altruistic users.
Keywords: online communities, website design, user modeling
The creativity support index BIBAKFull-Text 4009-4014
  Erin A. Carroll; Celine Latulipe
We present a draft survey tool called the Creativity Support Index (CSI). The CSI is similar to the NASA Task Load Index Survey but is designed specifically for evaluating creativity support tools, based on concepts and theories from creativity research.
Keywords: creativity, creativity evaluation, engagement, expressiveness, flow, play, standardized surveys
The design of ViVA: a mixed-initiative visual vocabulary for aphasia BIBAKFull-Text 4015-4020
  Sonya Nikolova; Jordan Boyd-Graber; Perry R. Cook
In this paper, we present the design of ViVA, a visual vocabulary for aphasia. Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that causes variability of impairments affecting individual's ability to speak, comprehend, read and write. Existing communication aids lack flexibility and adequate customization functionality failing to address this variability and to satisfy individual user needs. We tackle these shortcomings by incorporating adaptive and adaptable capabilities in ViVA which is designed to assist communication for users suffering from aphasia. The visual vocabulary for aphasia implements a novel approach that organizes the words in the vocabulary according to user preferences, word usage and certain semantic measures, thus continuously tailoring the tool to the user's profile.
Keywords: adaptive and adaptable interfaces, assistive communication tools, multi-modal interfaces
The effect of affective iconic realism on anonymous interactants' self-disclosure BIBAKFull-Text 4021-4026
  Sin-Hwa Kang; Jonathan Gratch; James H. Watt
In this paper, we describe progress in research designed to explore the effect of the combination of avatars' visual fidelity and users' anticipated future interaction on self-disclosure in emotionally engaged and synchronous communication. We particularly aim at exploring ways to allow users' self-disclosure while securing their anonymity, even with minimal cues of a virtual human, when users anticipate future interaction. The research investigates users' self-disclosure through measuring their behaviors and feelings of social presence in several dimensions. Design and implementation of the stimulus materials and equipments are complete and data collection has begun.
Keywords: affective behavior, anonymity, anticipated future interaction, avatar realism, contingency, embodied virtual agents, evaluation, nonverbal feedback, rapport, self-disclosure, social presence, virtual humans
Thinking with hands: an embodied approach to the analysis of children's interaction with computational objects BIBAKFull-Text 4027-4032
  Alissa N. Antle; Milena Droumeva; Daniel Ha
We present the theory and mixed methods approach for analyzing how children's hands can help them think during interaction with computational objects. The approach was developed for a study investigating the benefits of different input methods for object manipulation activities in digitally supported problem solving. We propose a classification scheme based on the notions of complementary and epistemic actions in spatial problem solving. In order to overcome inequities in number of access points when comparing different input methods, we develop a series of relative measures based on our classification scheme.
Keywords: children, complementary actions, epistemic actions, input methods, physical interaction, video analysis
Toward an experimental methodology for studying persuasion-based online security BIBAKFull-Text 4033-4038
  Michael Nowak; Shailendra Rao; Clifford Nass; Joel Lewenstein; Andrew Meyer; Jessica Richman
In this paper we highlight a controlled experimental design in development to investigate how the intersection of a brand's familiarity and persuasive appeal impact user willingness to engage in increased web security procedures. We offer the results of a 2 (Source: familiar vs. unfamiliar brand) x 2 (Persuasive Strategy: benefit to user vs. benefit to site) web experiment (N=48) using this approach to demonstrate its viability and generate ideas for future directions. Lessons learned and opportunities to improve this experimental methodology to further psychological research in the web security domain are discussed.
Keywords: experimental web methodology, online security, persuasive technology, web brands
Towards new metrics for multitasking behavior BIBAKFull-Text 4039-4044
  Raquel Benbunan-Fich; Rachel F. Adler; Tamilla Mavlanova
In this paper we propose new metrics to investigate computer-based multitasking behavior. These metrics range from a very lean dichotomous variable to a very rich measure based on switches that combines user, task and technology considerations. We demonstrate how to calculate these measures with an exploratory study based on self-reported user logs. The development of new metrics to research multitasking behavior lays the foundation to incorporate this variable in future studies of human-computer interaction.
Keywords: it usage, multitasking, task switching, user behavior
Tracking behavior in persuasive apps: is sensor-based detection always better than user self-reporting? BIBAKFull-Text 4045-4050
  Miyuki Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Washio; Chihiro Takayama; Vili Lehdonvirta; Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima
This paper aims to discuss the roles for the two types of tracking user behavior. Considering these two types of tracking, sensor based recognition has a great advantage when sensing human activity, but it is not always adequate when tracking in the real world. In this paper, we compare the benefits and drawbacks of sensor-based tracking versus self-reported data in persuasive applications called EcoIsland.
Keywords: automatic sensing, persuasive technology, self-reporting
Uncertainty visualization: why might it fail? BIBAKFull-Text 4051-4056
  Nadia Boukhelifa; David John Duke
There is a gulf between the rhetoric in visualization about the importance of uncertainty, and the practice of visualization in which uncertainty is rarely seen other than as a laboratory exercise. We reflect on why something viewed as fundamental in science and engineering is rarely if ever adopted in visualization practice. Our analysis is informed both by research progress and by our own experience in an ongoing industrial case study on modelling and mapping underground assets, where it would appear that uncertainty plays a major role. In this case study, we try to identify promoting and limiting factors. We conclude that the value of uncertainty visualization is severely limited by the quality and scope of uncertainty data, by the limited confidence in the data itself, and by the perceptual and cognitive confusion that the depiction of this data can generate. We hope to broaden the discussion on the utility of uncertainty in visualization from the purely technical and perceptual issues to social and organizational factors.
Keywords: maps, plans, uncertainty, visualization
Understanding consumer perception of technological product failures: an attributional approach BIBAKFull-Text 4057-4062
  Jeroen Keijzers; Elke den Ouden; Yuan Lu
Besides the widely promoted advantages the influx of new technology is bringing to consumers, the disadvantages due to increasing cognitive complexity of such technological advanced products have also been recognized. Among other things, an increasing number of unknown field complaints is one of the evidences. Since consumers often perceive a product's (mal)functioning differently than designers do, we propose an attributional approach to evaluate potential product failures. In this paper, we present the results of an exploratory empirical study to evaluate the attribution of picture quality failures in LCD televisions for a diverse group of consumers. This approach is aimed to provide designers better insight into how consumers perceive (potential) product failures, in order to support critical design decisions in the product development process.
Keywords: consumer electronics, failure attribution, product design, user-perceived failure
Usability, playability, and long-term engagement in computer games BIBAKFull-Text 4063-4068
  Alessandro Febretti; Franca Garzotto
Does usability affect long term user engagement in computer games, or are other factors more influential? This paper explores this issue, discussing an evaluation study that measured the relevance of usability versus playability factors for long-term user engagement in eight commercial games.
Keywords: correlation, design, engagement, heuristic evaluation, interactive game, playability, usability, user testing
User experience evaluation in the wild BIBAKFull-Text 4069-4074
  Francis Jambon; Brigitte Meillon
This article details experience feedback resulting from a user experience study in the wild (i.e. in-situ). The system under test was a mobile device for skiers, which aimed at improving their users' experience. The skiers were equipped with a mini-camera, an accelerometer and a geo-localization system. Thanks to a smartphone, they could replay, on trails, theirs best performances (video, maximum speed, ...). The article focuses both on the methodological and the technological issues encountered during these experimentations, and proposes recommendations.
Keywords: in-situ evaluation, mobile devices, user experience, user tests
Using language tests and emotional expressions to determine the learnability of artificial languages BIBAKFull-Text 4075-4080
  Omar Mubin; Suleman Shahid; Christoph Bartneck; Emiel Krahmer; Marc Swerts; Loe Feijs
The study described hereunder lies within the context of a larger project focusing on the design and implementation of a "Robotic Interaction Language". The research goal of this project is to find the right balance between the effort necessary from the user to learn a new or artificial language and the resulting benefit of robust communication between a robot and the user as a direct consequence of optimized speech recognition. To measure the first criteria we have explored two methods to evaluate language learnability, namely Language Tests and analyzing expressed emotions during interaction in an artificial language. Our results indicate that both have potential in being used as measurement tools for evaluating the learnability of artificial languages.
Keywords: artificial languages, emotions, human robot interaction, language learnability, speech interaction
Using temporal patterns (t-patterns) to derive stress factors of routine tasks BIBAKFull-Text 4081-4086
  Oliver Brdiczka; Norman Makoto Su; Bo Begole
We describe the use of a statistical technique called T-pattern analysis to derive and characterize the routineness of tasks. T-patterns provide significant advantages over traditional sequence analyses by incorporating time. A T-pattern is characterized by a significant time window (critical interval) that describes the duration of this pattern. Our analysis is based on data collected from shadowing 10 knowledge workers over a total of 29 entire work days. We report on the statistics of detected T-patterns and derived correlations with participant perceptions of workload, autonomy, and productivity.
Keywords: routine tasks, stress factors, t-patterns, temporal patterns
Utilizing pathfinder in the design of an intranet website BIBAKFull-Text 4087-4092
  Susan M. Stevens; Courtney C. Dornburg
Usability analyses of the Homepage Categories and Sub-categories at Sandia National Laboratories were undertaken to identify potential improvement opportunities to the current architecture. Through traditional card sorting methods, as well as a novel implementation of Pathfinder analysis, a novel re-structuring and minimal nomenclature changes are suggested for future user testing. Additionally, the study finds Pathfinder analysis a useful addition to traditional usability methods and suggests related methodological research opportunities.
Keywords: card sorting, human factors, semantic networks, web design/layout
Visualizing student activity in a wiki-mediated co-blogging exercise BIBAKFull-Text 4093-4098
  Johann Ari Larusson; Richard Alterman
Students benefit from jointly reasoning, explaining or "arguing" about the course material. There are significant advantages for moving the discussion online e.g. where students co-blog vis-à-vis a wiki. For the teacher, keeping track of who is participating and the degree to which they participate is not straightforward. This paper presents visualization mechanisms we are developing that address these issues.
Keywords: co-blogging, computer-supported collaborative learning, visualization, wiki
Waterhouse: enabling secure e-mail with social networking BIBAKFull-Text 4099-4104
  Alex P. Lambert; Stephen M. Bezek; Karrie G. Karahalios
We present Waterhouse, a system for sending and receiving cryptographically protected electronic mail ("secure e-mail"). We show how an existing e-mail interface can be modified to make exchanging secure e-mail nearly effortless. Our system integrates with social networking services (such as Facebook) to automatically exchange cryptographic keys between friends. When a user sends a message to a friend, our system automatically encrypts the contents to thwart eavesdroppers. When a user receives a message from a friend, Waterhouse uses the recipient's social network to verify the sender's identity. Our prototype shows senders' photos as an intuitive indicator of message authenticity. We describe our planned user study and conclude with directions for future work.
Keywords: cryptography, privacy, security, social computing
Why we cannot work without paper even in a computerized work environment BIBAKFull-Text 4105-4110
  JinHa Seong; Woohun Lee; Youn-kyung Lim
As work environment becomes more computerized, it has been long expected that the computer will substitute for paper. However, in fact, this expectation has strayed. Paper is still around in the work environment; moreover, computers and papers are used in conjunction with each other. In this study, we suggest the term "human-computer-paper interaction" considering these phenomena. Using contextual inquiry and lab-based user study, we explored the switchover in human-computer-paper interaction and determined what incites this interaction. Through this study, we attempted to provide considerable insights into the HCI design area.
Keywords: computerized work environment, human-computer-paper interaction
WUW -- Wear Ur World: a wearable gestural interface BIBAKFull-TextWeb Page 4111-4116
  Pranav Mistry; Pattie Maes; Liyan Chang
Information is traditionally confined to paper or digitally to a screen. In this paper, we introduce WUW, a wearable gestural interface, which attempts to bring information out into the tangible world. By using a tiny projector and a camera mounted on a hat or coupled in a pendant like wearable device, WUW sees what the user sees and visually augments surfaces or physical objects the user is interacting with. WUW projects information onto surfaces, walls, and physical objects around us, and lets the user interact with the projected information through natural hand gestures, arm movements or interaction with the object itself.
Keywords: augmented reality, gestural interaction, object augmentation, tangible computing, wearable interface; SixthSense sixth sense
XPLML: a HCI pattern formalizing and unifying approach BIBAKFull-Text 4117-4122
  Christian Kruschitz
In this paper we describe an approach to formalize and unify Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI) design patterns. The goal is to help pattern authors, users, and software engineers to work more efficiently with design patterns. To this end, we have investigated seven building blocks for setting up a unified form of HCI design patterns. They will serve as the necessary requirements for successful integration into the Semantic Web, pattern management tools, and the HCI community.
Keywords: design patterns, formalization, human computer interaction, pattern language, semantics, standardization

Spotlight on work in progress session 2

A comparative study of interaction metaphors for large-scale displays BIBAKFull-Text 4135-4140
  Ricardo Jota; João M. Pereira; Joaquim A. Jorge
Large-scale displays require new interaction techniques because of their physical size. There are technologies that tackle the problem of interaction with such devices by providing natural interaction to larger surfaces. We argue, however, that large-scale displays offer physical freedom that is not yet being applied to interaction. To better understand how distance affects user interaction, we present a comparative study of interaction metaphors for large-scale displays. We present three metaphors: Grab, Point and Mouse. The metaphors were included in our tests as we felt that each would be more suited to a specific distance: this is the focus of our tests. We then asked the users to solve a puzzle using those metaphors from different distances. We discovered that the point metaphor achieves better results on all tests. However, there is evidence that grab and mouse remain valid for specific tasks.
Keywords: distance-aware interaction, grab, large-scale display interaction, point, vertical mouse
A design evaluation of a user interface for tending long-term tasks BIBAKFull-Text 4141-4146
  Robert Farrell; Hina Shah; Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg
Organizational processes often take place over long periods of time and require intermittent attention. Remembering and reasoning about upcoming process tasks is important, but not adequately supported by existing tools. This paper describes Longitude, a tool that provides a compact timeline of tasks and deadlines. We discuss findings from an exploratory study of the system and propose new requirements for tools that help people participate in long-running group processes requiring intermittent and sporadic attention.
Keywords: organizations, processes, task management, to-do lists
A material focus: exploring properties of computational composites BIBAKFull-Text 4147-4152
  Anna Vallgårda; Tomas Sokoler
In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions.
Keywords: computational composites, computed causality, connectability, expressions, heat, materials
A tool to study affective touch BIBAKFull-Text 4153-4158
  Steve Yohanan; Karon E. MacLean
Touch is an important part of many forms of emotional communication, but has been studied far less than visual and auditory expressions of affect. We are developing the Haptic Creature to investigate fundamentals of affective touch, and its applications in companionship and anxiety management. This small robot senses the world solely by being touched, and communicates its internal state via vibrotactile purring, stiffening its ears, and modulating its breathing. This paper outlines the motivation for its creation and design, and overviews the current version of its architecture and mechatronics.
Keywords: affective touch, haptic interface, human-animal interaction, human-robot interaction, social touch
ActiveShare: sharing challenges to increase physical activities BIBAKFull-Text 4159-4164
  Andre T. S. Fialho; Herjan van den Heuvel; Qonita Shahab; Qing Liu; Li Li; Privender Saini; Joyca Lacroix; Panos Markopoulos
This paper discusses the use of social goal setting as a strategy to achieve persuasion through technology. This approach was applied in the design of ActiveShare a system developed to motivate people with sedentary lifestyles to increase their physical activity. In this system, users obtain and share their goals through challenges, which are posted on a social networking website. The paper describes the iterative design process followed, including concept tests, a focus group, and a field test with a fully functional prototype. Preliminary results are promising, although we found no significant increase on physical activity during the one week test. Suggested improvements to the design and plans for a follow up study are outlined.
Keywords: captology, goal setting, persuasive technology, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle.
ADAPT: audience design of ambient persuasive technology BIBAKFull-Text 4165-4170
  Timothy M. Miller; Patrick Rich; Janet Davis
We discuss our experiences with applying participatory design methods to the development of a persuasive ambient display. By combining these two approaches, we hoped to engage community members in reducing environmental waste on our college campus. We describe our design process and rationale, the resulting design, lessons learned, and future research directions.
Keywords: ambient display, environmental sustainability, participatory design, persuasive computing
Adaptive pointing: implicit gain adaptation for absolute pointing devices BIBAKFull-Text 4171-4176
  Werner A. König; Jens Gerken; Stefan Dierdorf; Harald Reiterer
We present Adaptive Pointing, a novel approach to addressing the common problem of accuracy when using absolute pointing devices for distant interaction. The intention behind this approach is to improve pointing performance for absolute input devices by implicitly adapting the Control-Display gain to the current user's needs without violating users' mental model of absolute-device operation. First evaluation results show that Adaptive Pointing leads to a significant improvement compared with absolute pointing in terms of movement time (19%), error rate (63%), and user satisfaction.
Keywords: adaptive pointing, bubble test, control-display gain, distant interaction, hand tremor, laser-pointer, pointing precision
AdWiL: adaptive windows layout manager BIBAKFull-Text 4177-4182
  Mona Haraty; Syavash Nobarany; Steve DiPaola; Brian Fisher
This paper addresses a challenge for the design of visual analytics software, managing placement of multiple windows while accomplishing a cognitively challenging analysis task. We are designing an adaptive windows layout manager that will support the user's creativity by facilitating concentration on the task at hand.
Keywords: creativity, flow, layout, visual analytics, windows management
Aesthetics matter: leveraging design heuristics to synthesize visually satisfying handheld interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 4183-4188
  Yeonsoo Yang; Scott R. Klemmer
We present a tool for automatically generating UI layouts for handheld devices based on design principles. This tool introduces a gestalt approach to visual interface design rather, complementing prior work on user cost minimization. We aim to increase user satisfaction using this approach. The tool automatically generates size and position of widgets drawn from the UI design heuristics of simplicity, structuring, and proportion. Simplicity refers to excluding non-core functionality; structuring to contextual grouping, and proportion to best-practice geometric ratios of width, height, and spacing. Layouts are generated from device constraints and simple XML containing UI component hierarchy. These layouts can be directly manipulated using a GUI editor.
Keywords: GUI layout, automatic interface generation, design tool
An evaluation of one-handed techniques for multiple-target selection BIBAKFull-Text 4189-4194
  Tyler J. Gunn; Hong Zhang; Ed Mak; Pourang Irani
Recent research has revealed that a large population of mobile users usually use one hand when interacting with mobile devices. However, very few techniques have been developed to support multiple-target selection. In this paper, we introduce Burst and ZoomTap, two techniques that aim to facilitate accurate and fast multiple-target acquisition with one-handed thumb operation on touch-based mobile devices. We compare our two techniques to Shift in a controlled experiment. The results show that for multiple-target selection, Burst and ZoomTap can outperform Shift; also according to the questionnaire, participants prefer Burst and ZoomTap to Shift.
Keywords: input technique, mobile devices, multiple target selection, one-handed interaction, touchscreens
Analytics for the internet of things BIBAKFull-Text 4195-4200
  Mathias Funk; Piet van der Putten; Henk Corporaal
This paper presents ongoing work on an approach to remotely observe the usage of connected products, analyze collected data and dynamically refine the observation mechanisms for better data. This allows for iteratively working towards the most elaborate, meaningful, and relevant representation of usage behavior in the form of structured and semantically annotated data traces. We show an implementation of the approach in the D'PUIS framework.
Keywords: evaluation, internet of things, remote observation, user experience
Analyzing collaborative learning activities in wikis using social network analysis BIBAKFull-Text 4201-4206
  Saskia Janina Kepp; Heidemarie Schorr
This paper investigates the potential of existing methods for analyzing collaboration in wiki environments. After a short description of the motivation for this research paper a presentation of analysis methods in CSCL will be given, including a special focus on Social Network Analysis. The next section points out the main characteristics of wikis and their differences compared to other CSCL tools. In the following step, the methods for collaboration analysis are transferred to wiki contexts. The paper concludes with open issues and an outlook on future research on this topic area.
Keywords: CSCL, collaboration analysis, social network analysis, wikis
Are people drawn to faces on webpages? BIBAKFull-Text 4207-4212
  Tom Tullis; Marisa Siegel; Emily Sun
Three studies were conducted to investigate the effects of faces on webpages. In Study I, eye-tracking data showed that users were clearly drawn to faces when asked to look at pages and report what they remember. In Study II, the presence of a face next to a message on a webpage caused users to have a harder time finding that message. In Study III, photos of the authors of opinion articles caused users to be less likely to find the article and to give the page worse ratings.
Keywords: faces, people, photos, pictures, web
Asynchronous gameplay in pervasive multiplayer mobile games BIBAKFull-Text 4213-4218
  Hannamari Saarenpää; Hannu Korhonen; Janne Paavilainen
One of the interesting features in pervasive multiplayer games is that gaming can be blended into other daily activities. However, the players' current context creates challenges for this parallel activity and therefore, the game design should enable the players to participate in the game whenever it is suitable for them. In this paper, we present initial results from a study which explored one game design solution for this challenge, namely asynchronous gameplay. We wanted to find out how asynchronous gameplay was used and what the players' attitudes were towards this new playing style. The results indicate that the players received asynchronous gameplay positively and that asynchronous gameplay does not diminish the player's opportunities for winning the game.
Keywords: asynchronous, gameplay, pervasive mobile game
At your service: using butlers as a model to overcome the mobile attention deficit BIBAKFull-Text 4219-4224
  Timothy Sohn; Rafael Ballagas; Leila Takayama
Advances in mobile phones and cellular network capabilities have enabled many opportunities for information access on the move. These capabilities provide instant access for the mobile user, but have exacerbated the problem of interaction in a mobile context. Mobile users are often engaged in another task that makes it difficult for them to filter and interact with their mobile device at the same time. Mobile multitasking creates an attention deficit for the user. This paper proposes using butlers as a model to overcome this problem by offloading the burden of interaction from the user to the device. We describe how a suite of butlers can opportunistically and proactively offer information to the user in the moment, allowing mobile users to stay focused on their task at hand.
Keywords: attention, butlers, mobile agents
Auditory priming for upcoming events BIBAKFull-Text 4225-4230
  Timothy Sohn; Leila Takayama; Dean Eckles; Rafael Ballagas
Psychologically preparing for upcoming events can be a difficult task, particularly when switching social contexts, e.g., from office work to a family event. To help with such transitions, the audio priming system uses pre-recorded audio messages to psychologically prepare a person for an upcoming event. In this system, audio priming is being used to prepare a person's state of mind to improve one's sociability in the upcoming social context.
Keywords: auditory priming, auditory user interfaces, context-aware, event priming, mobile, preparation
Authority vs. peer: how interface cues influence users BIBAKFull-Text 4231-4236
  S. Shyam Sundar; Qian Xu; Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch
From the most e-mailed stories of the day to the most favorite stocks of the week, Web interfaces are rife with cues conveying other users' ratings and reviews of products and services. Do these peer opinions indeed affect our decisions? And if so, are they as strong in their impact as cues conveying authority/expertise (i.e., high source credibility)? We explored these questions through an experiment (N = 243) guided by the heuristic-systematic model in social psychology. Bandwagon/peer cues are generally more persuasive, but when they are inconsistent, the authority cue influences decisions. In general, task involvement promotes systematic processing of these cues. Interestingly, we found no difference in perceived authority between CNET Editor's Choice seal and a seal from a fictitious "authority" (Zig!), among other indications of heuristic processing. We discuss design implications for user interfaces in general and recommendation agents in particular.
Keywords: psychology, user interfaces, web design
Automatic retargeting of web page content BIBAKFull-Text 4237-4242
  Ranjitha Kumar; Juho Kim; Scott R. Klemmer
We present a novel technique for automatically retargeting content from one web page onto the layout of another. Web pages are decomposed into their perceptual hierarchical representations. We then use a structured-prediction algorithm to learn reasonable mappings between the perceptual trees. Using the mappings, we are able to merge the content of one page with the layout of another.
Keywords: automatically generated alternatives, web design
Beyond the Dyad: understanding sharing in instant messaging BIBAKFull-Text 4243-4248
  Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross
Instant messaging allows users to exchange presence and availability information, and to have spontaneous online conversations. We report on a study of account sharing in IM, and present distinct types of sharing as well as practices of sharing.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, computer-supported cooperative work, instant messaging, sharing
Body-based interaction for desktop games BIBAKFull-Text 4249-4254
  Mara G. Silva; Doug A. Bowman
Interaction for desktop games is mostly limited to keyboard and mouse input. We are investigating the benefits of adding body-based interaction to complement keyboard and mouse interaction in desktop gaming. We present a proof-of-concept implementation of body-based navigation for the game World of Warcraft, and a formative evaluation to test the feasibility of this kind of interaction. Our observations provide evidence that body-based interaction in addition to keyboard and mouse can help players perform more tasks at the same time and can be especially attractive and helpful to new players. Our study also revealed design consideration for this type of interaction.
Keywords: body-based interaction, desktop games, games, navigation, world of warcraft
Brainy hand: an ear-worn hand gesture interaction device BIBAKFull-Text 4255-4260
  Emi Tamaki; Takashi Miyaki; Jun Rekimoto
Existing wearable hand gesture interaction devices are very bulky and cannot be worn in everyday life, because of the presence of a large visual feedback device. In particular, an eyeglass-type head-mounted display is very large for constant usage. To solve this problem, we propose Brainy Hand, which is a simple wearable device that adopts laser line, or more specifically, a mini-projector as a visual feedback device. Brainy Hand consists of a color camera, an earphone, and a laser line or mini-projector. This device uses a camera to detect 3D hand gestures. The earphone is used for receiving audio feedback. In this study, we introduce several user interfaces using Brainy Hand. (e.g., music player, phone).
Keywords: audio feedback, hand gesture, input device, interaction device, laser, projector, wearable
Breaking down brick walls: design, construction, and prototype fabrication knowledge in architecture BIBAKFull-Text 4261-4266
  Rachelle Villalon; Henry Lieberman; Larry Sass
Architectural designs are not just collections of 3D objects. Architects have both high-level aesthetic design intent, and intent for the functionality of the building; these must eventually translate into real-world construction materials and processes. Physical prototypes are still essential for the architect and their clients to get a feel for whether designs "work". An exciting recent development in architecture is the use of industrial robots to automatically construct 3D prototype architectural models. But programming the robots requires tedious procedures of low-level commands, far removed from the designer's intent.
   Adeon is a system that integrates high-level architectural design knowledge, including aesthetic and stylistic intent, with knowledge about materials and construction processes, and robot programming code for constructing prototype 3D physical models. It centers around collecting and associating "common sense" knowledge, expressed in English and converted to a knowledge representation about the various levels. It provides a graphic editor that allows architects to draw high-level aesthetic designs, perhaps referencing known styles or historical examples, and retrieving relevant construction, materials, and cost information. It automatically produces a robot program for constructing the prototype. We present examples detailing the design of various styles of brick walls. Adeon is an interesting example of how to provide an interface for creative work that spans both high-level and low-level concerns.
Keywords: architectural design tools and methodology, architecture and design, commonsense reasoning, digital fabrication, goal oriented interfaces, robotics
'Broken Expectations' from a global business perspective BIBAKFull-Text 4267-4272
  Aylin Koca; Evangelos Karapanos; Aarnout Brombacher
Especially in the past few years, there has been an increase in the rejection rate of interactive consumer electronics products in the field, not due to broken hardware or software, but due to 'broken expectations' of users. However, operational methods to capture triggering contextual reasons are not functional in the industry. In addressing this gap, we propose systematic analysis of qualitative user feedback data resources from the field by utilizing our Disconfirmed Expectations Ontology (DEO). DEO provides for an efficient means to elicit relevant -but currently unrecognizable- feedback from the field to communicate that to the respective units in a product development process. We further demonstrate the utilization of DEO on a rich qualitative data set regarding the Apple iPhone".
Keywords: business value of usability, soft reliability
Building support for multi-session tasks BIBAKFull-Text 4273-4278
  Bonnie MacKay; Carolyn Watters
In two previous studies, we explored how users perform multi-session web tasks using the currently available tools. We also proposed three guidelines to help developers design browser support for these types of tasks. In this paper, we describe three prototypes that we designed using these guidelines and present the results of a preliminary evaluation.
Keywords: field study, guidelines, multi-session tasks, prototypes, web tasks
Cell phone software aiding name recall BIBAKFull-Text 4279-4284
  Kent Fenwick; Michael Massimi; Ronald Baecker; Sandra Black; Kevin Tonon; Cosmin Munteanu; Elizabeth Rochon; David Ryan
Senior citizens often find it difficult to remember names. This paper describes a novel cell phone application that uses information about one's social network and the places one frequents to suggest the names of individuals one might plausibly encounter in a particular place. We anticipate that this "names prosthesis" will help senior citizens to improve socialization, functional memory and levels of autonomy. We motivate the need for this application space before describing our design process, first implementations, and early testing and iterative improvement of both the concept and the implementation.
Keywords: elderly, handheld devices and mobile computing, user-centered design / human-centered design
Cheese cam: unconscious interaction between humans and a digital camera BIBAKFull-Text 4285-4290
  Boram Lee; Woohun Lee
In everyday life, humans interact with many products. In many of these interactions, a person performs an action with, toward, or in the vicinity of a product and then the product reacts to that action. In this paper, however, the opposite interaction pattern, where a product performs an action to induce a user reaction, is presented by a new camera, 'Cheese Cam', concept. Cheese Cam is a camera that can induce unconscious facial reactions in a photography subject, based on mirror neuron theory and facial mimicry theories. A small facial expression icon displayed on Cheese Cam's screen induces unconscious facial reactions in the subject. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Cheese Cam on the facial reactions of subjects, and the results are discussed in this paper. Through this study, we explored possibilities of unconscious interaction.
Keywords: facial expression mimicry, interaction technique, mirror neuron theory, unconscious interaction
City browser: developing a conversational automotive HMI BIBAKFull-Text 4291-4296
  Alexander Gruenstein; Jarrod Orszulak; Sean Liu; Shannon Roberts; Jeff Zabel; Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Stephanie Seneff; James Glass; Joseph Coughlin
This paper introduces City Browser, a prototype multimodal, conversational, spoken language interface for automotive navigational aid and information access. A study designed to evaluate the impact of age and gender on device interaction errors, perceptions and experiences with the system along with physiological indices of workload is outlined. Preliminary results, plans for further analysis and a larger scale user evaluation are presented.
Keywords: multimodal interfaces, speech I/O, usability testing and evaluation, user interface design
Collaborative editing of micro-tags BIBAKFull-Text 4297-4302
  Mercan Topkara; Bernice Rogowitz; Steve Wood; Jeff Boston
This paper introduces the InSight system, which was designed to explore two new concepts in social tagging. In this system, we introduce the concept of community-editable tags, a methodology that allows a community of users to edit, modify and delete tags of each other. The goal is to improve the quality of tags, and to reduce the proliferation of incorrect or incomplete tags often found in social networking systems. We also explore the concept of "micro-tagging," which has begun to appear in web-based applications. In "micro-tagging," the user attaches a tag to a subset of large media, such as a segment in a video or a region of an image. InSight allows users to create and edit video micro-tags. Users can mark specific time intervals within a video, and specific spatial locations within video frames, and these tags can be edited by subsequent users. We also present an empirical study which demonstrates an improvement in factual tag quality when the community of users is allowed to edit and delete each others' tags. These results provide a first step in demonstrating how refining tags would make them more valuable for search.
Keywords: IBM-insight, collaboration, community editing, micro-tagging, social tagging, user study, video sharing
Coralog: use-aware visualization connecting human micro-activities to environmental change BIBAKFull-Text 4303-4308
  Tanyoung Kim; Hwajung Hong; Brian Magerko
This paper describes the goal, design approach and specification, and preliminary use test of a use-aware ambient media called Coralog. Coralog is a widget that detects the duration of a user's computer idle time (i.e. leaving the computer on without active usage) and communicates the energy consumption behavior through the visualization of the health of coral reefs. By occasionally consulting the non-intrusive widget, users can immediately acknowledge the impact of their computing behavior on ecosystems. Therefore, the goal of this application is to make the public become aware of the connection between their everyday activities and global climate change, which will educate them about the formerly unseen effects that their actions may have and potentially lead to a sustainable living.
Keywords: ambient media, awareness, conservation behavior, eco-visualization, persuasion, sustainability
Cost-effective wearable sensor to detect EMF BIBAKFull-Text 4309-4314
  Cati Vaucelle; Hiroshi Ishii; Joseph A. Paradiso
In this paper we present the design of a cost-effective wearable sensor to detect and indicate the strength and other characteristics of the electric field emanating from a laptop display. Our Electromagnetic Field Detector Bracelet can provide an immediate awareness of electric fields radiated from an object used frequently. Our technology thus supports awareness of ambient background emanation beyond human perception. We discuss how detection of such radiation might help to "fingerprint" devices and aid in applications that require determination of indoor location.
Keywords: ambient signals, capacitive sensor, sensing technology, wearable
Design models for interactive problem-solving: context & ontology, representation & routines BIBAKFull-Text 4315-4320
  Keith A. Butler; Jiajie Zhang
We describe and illustrate a new framework for the design of interactive problem-solving based on recent research on the psychology of distributed cognition.
Keywords: analysis methods, design methods, information architecture, interactive problem-solving, representation effect, top-level routine, work ontology, work-centered design
Designing for discovery: opening the hood for open-source end user tinkering BIBAKFull-Text 4321-4326
  Gifford Cheung; Parmit Chilana; Shaun Kane; Braden Pellett
According to the Free Software Movement, the user ought to have "the freedoms to make changes, and to publish improved versions" and "to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs". The Open Source Initiative expects users to access source code, explaining that "you can't evolve programs without modifying them. Since our purpose is to make evolution easy, we require that modification be made easy". These philosophies can shape a unique perspective on software usability that has not been addressed thoroughly in the open-source domain. That is: how to design user-interfaces and tools that facilitate access to source code and encourage the behaviors envisioned above, namely, to improve the code, to personalize it, to learn from it, and to share it. And, as the Open Source Initiative recommends, to make this easy. In addition to presenting this research perspective, we suggest some fruitful approaches to answering these questions and our current and future steps.
Keywords: design rationale, end-user programming, open source software, usability, user-centered design
Device ecology mapper: a tool for studying users' ecosystems of interactive artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 4327-4332
  William Ryan; Erik Stolterman; Heekyoung Jung; Martin Siegel; Tonya Thompson; William R. Hazlewood
This paper presents a tool for both researchers and designers called the Device Ecology Mapper, which allows users to share devices they own and describe to researchers how they believe these devices are connected. We built this tool from the theoretical perspective of ecology of artifacts in which designed artifacts do not exist independently, but rather in complex ecosystems with other artifacts through physical and perceptual connections. We designed the evaluations of this tool to evaluate the extent to which designers found the tool valuable and users found the tool true to the way they understand their ecology of interactive artifacts-rather than how closely user's perception of their ecology represents how these devices are actually connected. We found evidence for both perspectives from these studies.
Keywords: design, digital interactive artifact, ecology, personal ecosystem, user research
Do HCI and NLP interact? BIBAKFull-Text 4333-4338
  Nikiforos Karamanis; Anne Schneider; Ielka van der Sluis; Stephan Schlogl; Gavin Doherty; Saturnino Luz
We examine the relationship between HCI and Natural Language Processing (NLP) by performing a bibliometric analysis and looking at the specific example of BioNLP. We identify opportunities for HCI to fertilise current NLP research and suggest that HCI will benefit from looking at advances in NLP more closely.
Keywords: bibliometric analysis, bionlp, literature review
Double-side multi-touch input for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 4339-4344
  Erh-li Early Shen; Sung-sheng Daniel Tsai; Hao-hua Chu; Yung-jen Jane Hsu; Chi-wen Euro Chen
We present a new mobile interaction model, called double-side multi-touch, based on a mobile device that receives simultaneous multi-touch input from both the front and the back of the device. This new double-sided multi-touch mobile interaction model enables intuitive finger gestures for manipulating 3D objects and user interfaces on a 2D screen.
Keywords: double-side multi-touch, finger touch gesture, mobile interaction
Emotional experience on facebook site BIBAKFull-Text 4345-4350
  Corina Sas; Alan Dix; Jennefer Hart; Ronghui Su
Although user behavior in the popular Facebook social network site has been intensely investigated since the site came live in 2004, we know little about users' emotions and values weaved in the fabric of their interactions. We report on a diary study for collecting daily accounts of users' most memorable experiences. Outcomes emphasize the distinction between public and private presentation together with user motivation for engaging in each of these roles. Findings also suggest that at their heart, people's most memorable experiences with Facebook are all about positive emotions, in particular those concerned with connectedness and entertainment.
Keywords: diary study, memorable experiences, user experience
Enhancing input device evaluation: longitudinal approaches BIBAKFull-Text 4351-4356
  Jens Gerken; Hans-Joachim Bieg; Stefan Dierdorf; Harald Reiterer
In this paper we present our experiences with longitudinal study designs for input device evaluation. In this domain, analyzing learning is currently the main reason for applying longitudinal designs. We will shortly discuss related research questions and outline two case studies in which we used different approaches to address this issue. Finally, we will point out future research tasks in the context of longitudinal evaluation methods.
Keywords: evaluation, laser-pointer, longitudinal data, pointing device, retention task, transfer task
Experimenting with an organic metaphor and hypervisual links for the interface of a video collection BIBAKFull-Text 4357-4362
  Marco Lazzari; Marco Chiodi
In this paper we describe the prototype of an archive of short movies. The project proposes two original solutions for implementing the interface of this archive: an organic metaphor and a hypervisual navigation mechanism.
Keywords: hyperlinks, hypervideo, metaphors, user interfaces
Exploring effectiveness of physical metaphor in interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 4363-4368
  Sang-Su Lee; Woohun Lee
One direction of the emerging paradigm of interface design is the use of physical metaphors, the adoption of physical phenomenon from the real world with physical principles such as gravity or inertia. To explore effectiveness of physical metaphors in interaction design, we conducted an exploratory study by selecting one specific task where a physical metaphor was applied with physics: searching for a phone number in a contact list using an inertial scroll method with a mouse and touch screen interface environment. The result from this initial study showed that employing a physical metaphor does not always guarantee an improvement of performance; a different effect can be drawn according to the interaction style.
Keywords: inertial scroll, interaction design, interaction styles, interface design, physical metaphor
Expressive typing: a new way to sense typing pressure and its applications BIBAKFull-Text 4369-4374
  Ken Iwasaki; Takashi Miyaki; Jun Rekimoto
In this paper, we propose a new way for measuring key typing pressure when using off-the-shelf laptop computers. Accelerometers embedded in laptop computers to protect hard discs from sudden motion are becoming very common. This paper explores the concept of utilizing this accelerometer for sensing non-verbal aspects of key typing, such as key typing pressure. This possibility enables a wide variety of pressure-sensitive user interfaces through the use of software without requiring any additional hardware/sensors. Such software can be distributed easily to a substantial number of potential users. To confirm the feasibility of this idea, we compared typing finger velocities (obtained by high-speed camera images) with sensor data from an accelerometer embedded in a laptop computer. We then confirmed that there is a clear correlation between these two sets of data. We also investigated differences in typing pressure patterns among different users. By combining keystroke speeds and typing pressure, we found it is possible to distinguish among users. This feature can be used for security purposes such as preventing a laptop computer from being used by non-owners. We also present possible application ideas such as rich text expression, new types of user interface elements, and authentication.
Keywords: non-verbal communication, physiological sensing, user interface
Facilitating multiple target tracking using semantic depth of field (SDOF) BIBAKFull-Text 4375-4380
  Nivedita R. Kadaba; Xing-Dong Yang; Pourang P. Irani
Users of radar control systems and monitoring applications have to constantly extract essential information from dynamic scenes. In these environments a critical and elemental task consists of tracking multiple targets that are moving simultaneously. However, focusing on multiple moving targets is not trivial as it is very easy to lose continuity, particularly when the objects are situated within a very dense or cluttered background. While focus+context displays have been developed to improve users' ability to attend to important visual information, such techniques have not been applied to the visualization of moving objects. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of a focus+context technique, referred to as Semantic Depth of Field (SDOF), to the task of facilitating multiple target tracking. Results of our studies show an inclination for better performance with SDOF techniques, especially in low contrast scenarios.
Keywords: blurring, moving targets, preattentive cues, semantic depth of field, target tracking, visual displays, visualization
Gaze-based interaction with massively multiplayer on-line games BIBAKFull-Text 4381-4386
  Howell Istance; Stephen Vickers; Aulikki Hyrskykari
People with motor impairments can benefit greatly from being able to take part in Massively Multiplayer On-line Games, such as World of Warcraft. We are investigating how to use eye gaze as a high bandwidth input modality for the range of tasks necessary to participate in the game. We approach this from two directions; in the bottom-up approach we iteratively implement and eva-luate various gaze-interaction techniques, and in the top-down approach we analyze the interaction in MMOGs and develop a theory to map games tasks to gaze-based interaction techniques. We present preliminary results from a recently conducted set of trials which have studied how well tasks in World of Warcraft can be carried out using gaze only. We describe this in the context of the whole project.
Keywords: games, gaze control, interaction techniques, virtual communities
Gaze-controlled driving BIBAKFull-Text 4387-4392
  Martin Tall; Alexandre Alapetite; Javier San Agustin; Henrik H. T. Skovsgaard; John Paulin Hansen; Dan Witzner Hansen; Emilie Møllenbach
We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted from the moving robot. Gaze control was found to be similar to mouse control. This suggests that robots and wheelchairs may be controlled "hands-free" through gaze. Low precision gaze tracking and image transmission delays had noticeable effect on performance.
Keywords: control, gaze, input device, mobile, robot, wheelchair
Global mapping of usability labs and centers BIBAKFull-Text 4393-4398
  Ian Douglas
This paper will highlight the global spread of usability expertise by presenting data on the location of usability testing centers and laboratories around the world. The possibilities for future expansion of the database and global networking of usability expertise and knowledge will be discussed.
Keywords: global usability, usability laboratory, usability testing
Head-movement evaluation for first-person games BIBAKFull-Text 4399-4404
  Paulo G. de Barros; Robert W. Lindeman; Timothy J. Loughlin
A first-person view is often used in games to enhance players' sense of presence. Camera movements are added to provide a walking sensation when the player is moving around. Several variations of camera movement are used in current games to simulate head movement. This work aims to evaluate these different types of camera movements by measuring subjective responses of users when exposed to them. In this first stage of research, five important movements were identified, and evaluated in a pair-wise fashion, resulting in subject preferences that contradicted our initial hypothesis.
Keywords: camera movement, first-person view, game, virtual reality
"I felt more of a member of this class": increasing students' sense of community with video commenting BIBAKFull-Text 4405-4410
  Honglu Du; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll; Craig Ganoe
Public displays are typically situated in strategic places like town centers, and in salient positions on walls within buildings. However, currently most public displays are non-interactive and are typically used for information broadcasting (TV news, advertisements etc). People passing by pay little attention to them. As a consequence, public displays are under-utilized in the everyday world. We are investigating whether use of interactive public displays might increase people's interaction with one another, with a resulting increase in sense of community. In this paper we describe the design and first deployment experiences of a platform-independent, interactive video commenting system using a large public display in two sections of a large-enrollment university class. Our preliminary evaluation suggests that students enjoyed the activity of commenting, that they participated a great deal, and that their sense of community was greater after using the system. We discuss lessons we have learned from this initial experience, and describe further work we are planning using this and similar interactive activities.
Keywords: public display, sense of community, video commenting
IdenTTop: a flexible platform for exploring identity-enabled surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 4411-4416
  Grant A. Partridge; Pourang P. Irani
Only a subset of tabletop designs support the ability to determine which user has performed a given action. These identity-enabled (IE) surfaces offer significant functional advantages over systems with no such capability. Distinguishing between the two types of surfaces enables a valuable discourse that should serve to improve the usefulness of all tabletop designs. To facilitate examinations of the IE design space, we have developed a toolkit called IdenTTop, which greatly simplifies the process of prototyping new IE applications, and we present a few sample applications to demonstrate IdenTTop's effectiveness.
Keywords: identity-enabled surfaces, multi-touch, tabletops
Investigating the impact of a minimalist in-home energy consumption display BIBAKFull-Text 4417-4422
  Tae-Jung Yun
We investigated the impact of a minimal in-home Energy Consumption Display (ECD), both stationary and portable versions, on household energy awareness and consumption. We deployed the ECD in eight homes for three weeks each, providing half of the participants with a portable version and the others with a stationary one. This work presents an account of each user's experience through pre- and post-surveys, power meter data, and post-deployment interviews and results of the study, which show that users reduced energy consumption by identifying high-power devices in their home and by playfully setting conservation goals.
Keywords: awareness, energy consumption, field study, sustainability
"It's like a circus in here!": affect and information sharing in an emergency department BIBAKFull-Text 4423-4428
  Helena M. Mentis; Mary Beth Rosson
The following research begins to address the relationship between affect and information sharing in order to inform the design of collaborative systems. Through ethnographic observations of affect and face-to-face information sharing in an emergency department we begin to see trends on the occurrence of affect due to context as well as the relationship between affect and information sharing outcomes.
Keywords: collaboration, emotion, information sharing
Jadeite: improving API documentation using usage information BIBAKFull-Text 4429-4434
  Jeffrey Stylos; Brad A. Myers; Zizhuang Yang
Jadeite is a new Javadoc-like API documentation system that takes advantage of multiple users' aggregate experience to reduce difficulties that programmers have learning new APIs. Previous studies have shown that programmers often guessed that certain classes or methods should exist, and looked for these in the API. Jadeite's "placeholders" let users add new "pretend" classes or methods that are displayed in the actual API documentation, and can be annotated with the appropriate APIs to use instead. Since studies showed that programmers had difficulty finding the right classes from long lists in documentation, Jadeite takes advantage of usage statistics to display commonly used classes more prominently. Programmers had difficulty finding the right helper objects and discovering how to instantiate objects, so Jadeite uses a large corpus of sample code to automatically identify the most common ways to construct an instance of any given class.
Keywords: APIs, documentation, javadoc
Lessons from brain age on persuasion for computer security BIBAKFull-Text 4435-4440
  Alain Forget; Sonia Chiasson; Robert Biddle
Users generally have difficulty understanding and managing computer security tasks. We examined Nintendo's Brain Age games for ways to help users remember more secure passwords. Instead, we found design elements that encouraged users to continually perform cognitive tasks that would otherwise be tedious. This paper discusses these elements using existing Persuasive Technology principles, and explores how they could be leveraged to make computer security tasks easier and more engaging.
Keywords: authentication, persuasive technology, usable security
Let's clean up this mess: exploring multi-touch collaborative play BIBAKFull-Text 4441-4446
  Rilla Khaled; Pippin Barr; Hannah Johnston; Robert Biddle
Multi-touch play is inherently collaborative, but little work currently explores this aspect. We present preliminary observations of multi-touch collaborative gameplay, focusing on the physical-social environment of a multi-touch surface and its technical issues.
Keywords: collaboration, multi-touch, play, video games
Letting tools talk: interactive technology for firefighting BIBAKFull-Text 4447-4452
  Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks
In this work-in-progress report we present the results of a preliminary analysis of a set of fieldwork studies conducted in collaboration with a firefighter school and a firefighter brigade. To inspire the design of ubiquitous computing systems, we provide a description of the equipment used by firefighters, practices built upon them and a set of common properties.
Keywords: ethnography, firefighting, safety-critical hci, ubiquitous computing
Low-cost gaze interaction: ready to deliver the promises BIBAKFull-Text 4453-4458
  Javier San Agustin; Henrik Skovsgaard; John Paulin Hansen; Dan Witzner Hansen
Eye movements are the only means of communication for some severely disabled people. However, the high prices of commercial eye tracking systems limit the access to this technology. In this pilot study we compare the performance of a low-cost, webcam-based gaze tracker that we have developed with two commercial trackers in two different tasks: target acquisition and eye typing. From analyses on throughput, words per minute and error rates we conclude that a low-cost solution can be as efficient as expensive commercial systems.
Keywords: eye typing, gaze interaction, low-cost gaze tracking, performance evaluation, universal access
Material awareness: promoting reflection on everyday materiality BIBAKFull-Text 4459-4464
  James Pierce
Drawing on existing design approaches, this paper argues for the experiential desirability and critical importance -- in terms of environmental sustainability -- of designing for reflection on everyday material things themselves. This paper motivates and proposes a material awareness design approach, further drawing on developments from philosophy of technology and design theory. A series of conceptual designs are presented to help illustrate this approach.
Keywords: design, material awareness, reflection, sustainability
Mediating programming through chat for the OLPC BIBAKFull-Text 4465-4470
  Jill P. Dimond; Sarita Yardi; Mark Guzdial
We built a text-based programming environment that enables youth to design and implement a chat client for the One Laptop per Child XO. The environment allows users to program and chat simultaneously. We conducted two one-week workshops at a Girl Scout camp to test user engagement with the environment. In this paper, we examine how chat mediated the programming experience in a collocated environment and its implications for motivating participation in computing.
Keywords: computer science education, computer supported collaborative learning, programming
Mirroring bodily experiences over time BIBAKFull-Text 4471-4476
  Elsa Kosmack Vaara; Kristina Höök; Jakob Tholander
The Affective Health system is a mobile lifestyle application that aims to empower people to reflect on their lives and lifestyles. The system logs a mixture of biosensor-data and other contextually oriented data and transforms these to a colorful, animated expression on their mobiles. It is intended to create a mirror and thereby empower users to see activity patterns and relate these to their experiences of stress. People's different cultural backgrounds and their different physiological and psychological composition give them different perceptions and associations of time. We explore the time dimension of our system through working through a set of different designs that organize events as time going linearly forward, in a circular movement or relating to geographical places. Here we discuss the process of designing a mobile interface for presenting temporal data in a way that allows multiple and subjective interpretation.
Keywords: graphics, interaction, time, visualization
Montage: a platform for physically navigating multiple pages of web content BIBAKFull-Text 4477-4482
  David Lee; Sean A. Munson; Ben Congleton; Mark W. Newman; Mark S. Ackerman; Erik C. Hofer; Thomas A. Finholt
Montage is a platform for rendering multiple pages of web content on large tiled displays (several desktop LCDs arranged in a spatially contiguous matrix). We discuss the advantages of data visualization using a newsstand metaphor, showing many content items at once and allowing users to quickly refine visual searches by walking (physically navigating) closer to specific data on the display. We have used Montage to build three applications that demonstrate the variety of applications that are possible on this platform. These applications have benefits for both everyday use and as research tools.
Keywords: high resolution visualization, information visualization, micro/macro view, optiportal, tiled displays
Multimodal programming environment for kids: a "thought bubble" interface for the Pleo robotic character BIBAKFull-Text 4483-4488
  Kimiko Ryokai; Michael Jongseon Lee; Jonathan Micah Breitbart
We introduce a mixed physical and digital programming environment for children to control robotic characters. We present our design rationale, our initial prototype, report the results from our initial evaluation, and discuss ongoing work.
Keywords: children, optiportal, programming, robotic toys, tangible
Multi-user interaction in virtual audio spaces BIBAKFull-Text 4489-4494
  Florian Heller; Thomas Knott; Malte Weiss; Jan Borchers
Audio guides are a common way to provide museum visitors with an opportunity for personalized, self-paced information retrieval. However, this personalization conflicts with some of the reasons many people go to museums, i.e., to socialize, to be with friends, and to discuss the exhibit as they experience it [1]. We developed an interactive museum experience based on audio augmented reality that lets the visitor interact with a virtual spatial audio soundscape. In this paper, we present some new interaction metaphors we use in the design of this audio space, as well as some techniques to generate a group experience within audio spaces.
Keywords: augmented reality, mobile computing, museum, spatial audio
On the internet, everybody knows you're a dog: the human-pet relationship in online social networks BIBAKFull-Text 4495-4500
  Jennifer Golbeck
The benefits of pet ownership to physical and mental health are extensive and well documented. Online social networks have the potential to strengthen these relationships and build community among pet owners. In this work, we present several results on the difference in behavior between dog and cat owners in pet-oriented social networks. We extend this analysis to divisions between urban and rural users. Our results show that there are significant differences among these groups. We propose a theory for future testing that more socially isolated the owners are from real-world communities of similar pet owners, the more active they are in forming social connections on these websites, and we offer initial evidence to support this. These results show that these pet social networks are already being used to help support the human-animal bond online, and that different types of pet owners would benefit from different types of support within the systems.
Keywords: online communities, pets, social networks
One-handed behind-the-display cursor input on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 4501-4506
  Xing-Dong Yang; Pourang Irani; Pierre Boulanger; Walter Bischof
Behind-the-display interaction has gained popularity for interactions on handheld devices as researchers have demonstrated the viability of such interactions on small devices. However, most designs have investigated the use of direct input behind the screen. We demonstrate that behind-the-display interaction with cursor input is promising and can be a useful augmentation to handheld devices. We developed a prototypical system on a PDA to which we affixed a wireless mouse. The mouse is mounted on the rear of the PDA with the optical sensor facing outwards. The system is designed to be used with one hand, and prevents occlusion and finger-reach. Through several applications we propose the benefits associated with behind-the-display cursor interaction. A preliminary user evaluation indicates that users can benefit from such an interaction when operating a handheld using one hand.
Keywords: behind-the-display interaction, relative positioning.
Photo Khipu: organizing a public record of social transaction BIBAKFull-Text 4507-4512
  Kora A. Bongen; Karrie G. Karahalios
Traditional photo albums are important not only for storing and organizing photographs but also for their ability to display photos in an aesthetically pleasing manner. A beautiful photo album augments the browsing experience for individual recollection or sharing with others. We present a digital photo album that organizes and displays photos in a form based on an ancient accounting device, the Incan khipu. The khipu metaphor provides an overview of the photos in a collection and a historical record of individual albums. This interface is meant to be an evocative and functional interactive display in the home for visitors and occupants alike.
Keywords: photo sharing, social computing, visualization
Predicting shoppers' interest from social interactions using sociometric sensors BIBAKFull-Text 4513-4518
  Taemie J. Kim; Maurice Chu; Oliver Brdiczka; James Begole
Marketing research has longed for better ways to measure consumer behavior. In this paper, we explore using sociometric data to study social behaviors of group shoppers. We hypothesize that the interaction patterns among shoppers will convey their interest level, predicting probability of purchase. To verify our hypotheses, we observed co-habiting couples shopping for furniture. We have verified that there are sensible differences in customer behavior depending on their interest level. When couples are interested in an item they observe the item for a longer duration of time and have a more balanced speaking style. A real-time prediction model was constructed using a decision tree with a prediction accuracy reaching 79.8% and a sensitivity of 63%.
Keywords: behavior modeling, group dynamics, interaction pattern, interest, shopping, sociometric sensors
PressureText: pressure input for mobile phone text entry BIBAKFull-Text 4519-4524
  David C. McCallum; Edward Mak; Pourang Irani; Sriram Subramanian
Pressure sensitive buttons are appealing for reducing repetitive tasks such as text entry on mobile phone keypads, where multiple key presses are currently necessary to record an action. We present PressureText, a text-entry technique for a pressure augmented mobile phone. In a study comparing PressureText to MultiTap, we found that despite limited visual feedback for pressure input, users overall performed equally well with PressureText as with MultiTap. Expertise was a determining factor for improved performance with PressureText. Expert users showed a 33.6% performance gain over novices. Additionally, expert users were 5% faster on average with PressureText than MultiTap, suggesting that pressure input is a valuable augmentation to mobile phone keypads.
Keywords: mobile phone text-entry, multi-level button, pressure input
Recognizing and using goals in event management BIBAKFull-Text 4525-4530
  Dustin Arthur Smith; Henry Lieberman
Personal event management involves planning when, where and how events should occur, making sure the event's prerequisites are satisfied, and developing contingencies for when things go wrong. Conventional calendar and project management tools, however, only record and visualize explicit human decisions regarding event specifics.
   We present Event Minder, a calendar program that takes into account the goals for which the events are scheduled. Users can input descriptions of events in natural language, mixing high-level objectives, concrete time and place decisions, and omit "obvious" common sense details. A commonsense knowledge base provides sensible defaults, and machine learning refines these defaults with experience. We can make recommendations for alternative plans, including alternatives that satisfy higher-level goals in different ways as well as those that meet immediate constraints. Our current system covers dining-related events, integrating commonsense with domain knowledge about specific restaurants, bars and hotels.
Keywords: PIM, calendaring, common sense, event management, user modeling
Rhythms of non-use of device ensembles BIBAKFull-Text 4531-4536
  Nithya Sambasivan; Leena Ventä; Jani Mäntyjärvi; Minna Isomursu; Jonna Häkkilä
The proliferation of portable devices has transformed our everyday practices, blurring second and third places. However, almost no research exists on how the perpetual possession of devices impacts how we escape them. In this paper, we explore the notion of non-use of portable devices. Drawing from the results of a multi-step qualitative study, we provide a discussion on how non-use interplays with the dynamics of everyday life. Specifically, we discuss practices surrounding hybridities of portable devices and social circles. The layerings of portables help in de-personalizing interactions through evasions, pretence, and resistance. We argue that non-use is not a reason for failure, but is a form of use in itself.
Keywords: device ensembles, non-use, social aspects of technology, urban computing
Second skin: motion capture with actuated feedback for motor learning BIBAKFull-Text 4537-4542
  Dennis R. Miaw; Ramesh Raskar
Second Skin aims to combine three-dimensional motion tracking with real-time tactile feedback for the purpose of improving users' motor-learning ability. The system tracks a user's body and limb movements as he or she is performing an action, and the user is given automatic, real-time tactile feedback to aid in the correction of movement and position errors. A number of components integral to the motion tracking and tactile feedback systems must be bound to the user's body, and as such, an important goal is to design a lightweight and minimally inhibitive wearable suit that contains all of these elements.
Keywords: haptics, motion capture, motion tracking, motor learning, structured light, tactile feedback
See you on the subway: exploring mobile social software BIBAKFull-Text 4543-4548
  Nicolas Belloni; Lars Erik Holmquist; Jakob Tholander
This project explores the social possibilities of mobile technology in transitional spaces such as public transport. Based on a cultural probes study of Stockholm subway commuters, we designed a location-based friend finder that displays only people in the same train as the user. We aim at reaching a critical mass of users and therefore decided to make the system compatible with as many phones as possible, thus it was designed as a simple web application. An initial informal study pointed out consequences of certain design decisions on the user experience and highlighted social tensions created by presence awareness.
Keywords: commuting, cultural probes, mobile social software
Selective message distribution with people-tagging in user-collaborative environments BIBAKFull-Text 4549-4554
  Qihua Wang; Hongxia Jin
Oftentimes, we would like to distribute call-for-participation messages by email to people who are potentially interested in the topics of the corresponding events. Meanwhile, people either broadcast such messages to everyone in their organizations or maintain a number of mailing lists for different topics. But both approaches have drawbacks.
   In this paper, we explore the idea of automatically selecting recipients for broadcasting messages on different topics using people-tagging. In a collaborative people-tagging system, users can tag each other with the terms they want, and tags from different users are combined and aggregated. Tags applied to a user usually describe the user's attributes, such as her affiliation, expertise, and the projects she has been involved in. We can thus effectively find interested recipients by matching the content of messages with people's tags. A prototype of our solution has been implemented for a real-world and large-scale people-tagging system in IBM.
Keywords: collaboration, information sharing, tagging
Single stroke gaze gestures BIBAKFull-Text 4555-4560
  Emilie Mollenbach; John Paulin Hansen; Martin Lillholm; Alastair G. Gale
This paper introduces and explains the concept of single stroke gaze gestures. Some preliminary results are presented which indicate the potential efficiency of this interaction method and we show how the method could be implemented for the benefit of disabled users and generally how it could be integrated with gaze dwell to create a new dimension in gaze controlled interfaces.
Keywords: eye tracking, gaze based interaction, gaze gestures
Squidy: a zoomable design environment for natural user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 4561-4566
  Werner A. König; Roman Rädle; Harald Reiterer
We introduce the interaction library Squidy, which eases the design of natural user interfaces by unifying relevant frameworks and toolkits in a common library. Squidy provides a central design environment based on high-level visual data flow programming combined with zoomable user interface concepts. The user interface offers a simple visual language and a collection of ready-to-use devices, filters and interaction techniques. The concept of semantic zooming enables nevertheless access to more advanced functionality on demand. Thus, users are able to adjust the complexity of the user interface to their current need and knowledge.
Keywords: design environment, multimodal interaction, natural user interface, squidy, zoomable user interface
Supporting volunteer activities with mobile social software BIBAKFull-Text 4567-4572
  Shaun K. Kane; Predrag V. Klasnja
Many community organizations rely extensively on volunteer work. However, people who wish to help often have difficulties finding the time to volunteer. We are developing mobile social software that is intended to motivate users to volunteer and to help users find volunteering opportunities. In order to understand how technology might support volunteering, we interviewed 9 recent volunteers about their volunteer work. We report on their motivations to volunteer, obstacles to volunteering, and strategies they use to manage the demands of volunteering. We discuss how these factors are shaping the design of a mobile social application to support volunteering.
Keywords: mobile devices, mobile social software, volunteering
Synchronized communication and coordinated views: qualitative data discovery for team game user studies BIBAKFull-Text 4573-4578
  William A. Hamilton; Zachary O. Toups; Andruid Kerne
We present a tool for qualitative data discovery that aids researchers in analyzing synchronized log data with audio collected from multiple computers. The tool was originally developed for team games in which the goal of play is to exercise coordination skills. In team coordination games, players cooperate toward a shared objective by communicating effectively and synchronizing their game world actions. To evaluate such games, researchers observe communication between players synchronized with their actions in-game, discovering instances of team coordination. Coordination is a composite of communication and in-game action; thus it is essential to observe both in context. The tool enables simultaneous observation from each player's viewpoint, synchronized with communication using log files and time-stamped audio. Viewpoints and voice tracks can be selectively soloed and muted, enabling researchers to focus attention. The application can be expanded to support logs and audio from other user studies.
Keywords: data synchronization, qualitative data discovery, research tools
Tag trails: navigation with context and history BIBAKFull-Text 4579-4584
  Jacek Gwizdka; Philip Bakelaar
We describe a technique for preserving and presenting context and history while navigating web resources described by keywords. We use tagging and tag clouds as an application area for our technique. The technique is illustrated by employing it in a prototype that interfaces data from a social tagging website used to bookmark academic articles. The prototype displays a "tag trail" which can reveal contextual connections between web resources and the associated tags. We argue that the user's understanding of web resources is aided by making such connections explicit.
Keywords: browsing, tag clouds, tagging
Tagged photos: concerns, perceptions, and protections BIBAKFull-Text 4585-4590
  Andrew Besmer; Heather Lipford
Photo sharing has become a popular feature of many online social networking sites. Many of the photo sharing applications on these sites, allow users to annotate photos with those who are in them. A number of researchers have examined the social uses and privacy issues of online photo sharing sites, but few have explored the privacy issues of photo sharing in social networks. In this paper, we begin by examining some of our findings from a series of focus groups on photo privacy in the social networking domain. We then devise a new mechanism to enhance photo privacy based on these findings.
Keywords: facebook, online photo sharing, photos, privacy, social networking communities
Take me home: designing safer in-vehicle navigation devices BIBAKFull-Text 4591-4596
  Vince Mancuso
In this paper we will propose a new design for a safer and more usable In-Vehicle Navigation System. In order to focus our design on safety and usability, we generated several design points based on prior research. From our design points, we are able to propose a design for a system which uses voice controls as the primary input modality, and the rear-view mirror as a Heads-Up Display. In addition, we will propose displaying limited amounts of information to decrease the likeliness of a driver's focus straying away from the road. If we are able to show that our design is superior to current commercial navigation devices, we will continue to apply our design points and system design towards other aspects of In-Vehicle Information Systems.
Keywords: GPS, heads up display, human attention, in vehicle information system, in vehicle navigation, visual demand, voice command
Tangible message bubbles for children's communication and play BIBAKFull-Text 4597-4602
  Kimiko Ryokai; Hayes Raffle; Andy Brooks
We introduce Tangible Message Bubbles, a new composition and communication tool that invites youngsters to express and record their everyday expressions, play with these original recordings, and share these personal creations with their friends and family. We present a design rationale that focuses on supporting both co-located and remote collaboration, and on balancing play with tool design. Results from pilot evaluations with our initial prototypes informed us with ways to leverage the physical properties of the toys and support playful exploration of children's recorded video messages for sharing.
Keywords: children, communication tools, tangible, toys
The accidental tutor: overlaying an intelligent tutor on an existing user interface BIBAKFull-Text 4603-4608
  Stephen B. Gilbert; Stephen B. Blessing; Liz Blankenship
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been shown to have dramatic impact on student learning [9]. However, these gains have been mostly in topics in which the interface has been designed with the intelligent tutor in mind. This research investigates the HCI challenges that result from creating two model-tracing ITSs for use with existing interfaces. We describe overlaying a tutor on an image-editing program and a web-based application. We highlight three main HCI challenges: 1) integrating a problem scenario in the context of the existing application, 2) providing learners with appropriate feedback during task performance, and 3) allowing learners to explore the interface while making sure they complete the task.
Keywords: intelligent tutoring system, interaction design
The moral accountability of a personified agent: young adults' conceptions BIBAKFull-Text 4609-4614
  Nathan G. Freier; Elia J. Nelson; Amanda Rotondo; Wai Kay Kong
This paper describes the preliminary results of a study conducted to answer the question: Do users attribute moral accountability to personified agent technologies? A pilot study was conducted in which 20 college students interacted with a personified agent, were insulted by the agent, and observed a researcher interacting and insulting the same agent. A semi-structured interview was conducted to investigate the participants' judgments of the observed interactions. Results suggest that most users will hold a designer, programmer or creator responsible for moral violations enacted by the personified agent, rather than attributing accountability to the agent itself.
Keywords: moral accountability, personified software agent, social computing, user-centered design
Time sequences BIBAKFull-Text 4615-4620
  Ross Shannon; Aaron Quigley; Paddy Nixon
Visualisations of dynamic data change in appearance over time, reflecting changes in the underlying data, be that the development of a social network, or the addition or removal of a device node in an ad-hoc communications network. As viewers of these visualisation tools, it is up to us to accurately perceive and keep up with the constantly shifting view, mentally noting as visual elements are added, removed, changed and rearranged, sometimes at great pace. In a complex data set with a lot happening, this can be a strain on the observer's comprehension, with changes in layout and visual population disrupting their internalised "mental model" of the data, leading to errors in perception. We present Time Sequences, a novel dual visualisation technique which dilates the flow of time in the visualisation so that observers are given proportionally more time to understand changes based on the density of activity in the visualisation.
Keywords: dynamic data, human factors, perception, visual analytics, visualization
To answer or not to answer: that is the question for cell phone users BIBAKFull-Text 4621-4626
  Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Richard P. Schuler; Quentin Jones
People are constantly making decisions to answer or ignore cell phone calls based on inferences derived from partial information about the incoming call. To gain an understanding of this information deficit we conducted a survey study of cell phone call handling practices. The results highlight the type and extent of information desired about incoming cell phone calls. It also shows that desired information is largely unknown and often misattributed by the receiver. Our findings can be used by designers to prioritize the presentation of additional types of call related information on cell phone displays, and in so doing, empower users to make informed call handling decisions.
Keywords: availability, cell phones, context, interruptions
Towards a sensible integration of paper-based tangible user interfaces into creative work processes BIBAKFull-Text 4627-4632
  Tanja Doering; Steffi Beckhaus; Albrecht Schmidt
We live in a hybrid world where standard computers with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) have become an integral part of our daily life. Additionally, novel user interfaces like tangible user interfaces (TUIs) are among emerging interaction styles that offer new potential as tools for supporting creative tasks and weak-structured workflows. In order to meet the users' needs, the most suitable user interface for a task should be chosen and different kinds of user interfaces have to be integrated appropriately. We addressed these topics and applied a generative framework to structure and analyze a creative work process in the domain of Art History. On this basis, we designed the integration of TUI and GUI elements and constructed as well as tested a tabletop TUI to support creative work.
Keywords: TUI-GUI integration, creativity support tools, generative theories for HCI, reality-based interaction, tangible user interfaces
Towards improving mental models of personal firewall users BIBAKFull-Text 4633-4638
  Fahimeh Raja; Kirstie Hawkey; Konstantin Beznosov
Windows Vista's personal firewall provides its diverse users with a basic interface that hides many operational details. However, our study of this interface revealed that concealing the impact of network context on the security state of the firewall results in mental models that are unclear about the protection provided by the firewall resulting in an inaccurate understanding of the firewall configuration. We developed a prototype to support more contextually complete mental models through inclusion of network context information. Results from our initial evaluation of the prototype support our approach of improving user understanding of underlying system states by revealing hidden context, while considering the tension between complexity of the interface and security of the system.
Keywords: configuration, firewall, mental model, usable security
Towards intelligent authoring tools for machinima creation BIBAKFull-Text 4639-4644
  Brian O'Neill; Mark O. Riedl; Michael Nitsche
As user-created content increasingly becomes an ever more prominent element of modern game design, tools have been developed to aide in the creative process for several forms of digital media, including machinima. Because creating content that will be valued by the community is a challenging process, tools are needed that will assist novices in both technical realization and optimization of content. We are exploring tools for machinima authoring that use a 3-pronged approach: authoring via metaphor, performance, and automation. Future work involves using AI to provide feedback to machinima authors, suggesting sensible attributes for scenes based on prior input by acting as a surrogate audience.
Keywords: computational creativity support, machinima, story authoring, user-created content
Towards systematic usability verification BIBAKFull-Text 4645-4650
  Max Möllers; Jonathan Diehl; Markus Jordans; Jan Borchers
Although usability is the core aspect of the whole HCI research field, it still waits for its economic breakthrough. There are some corporations that are famous for their usable products, but small and medium-sized businesses tend to prefer features over usability. We think, the primary reason is that there are no inexpensive methods to at least prevent huge design flaws. We propose the use of test specifications. Once defined for a domain, these allow non-usability experts to systematically verify the usability of a given system without any users involved. We picked a sample domain with some basic tasks and found strong indication of our hypothesis: test specifications can be applied by non-experts and are able to find major design flaws. Future work will extend this method to more complex tasks and evaluate the economic benefit.
Keywords: analysis methods, performance metrics, quality management, quantitative usability evaluation, usability testing and evaluation., usability verification
Understanding teamwork in high-risk domains through analysis of errors BIBAKFull-Text 4651-4656
  Aleksandra Sarcevic
Trauma care is an example of dynamic, complex, and safety-critical teamwork. The staff in trauma centers works under time pressure and lacks effective information technologies to support teamwork and reduce errors. This work presents a qualitative study that looked at the teamwork errors and their causes to better understand the challenges in providing computerized support for this user group.
Keywords: healthcare, human errors, teamwork, trauma
Using bookmark visualizations for self-reflection and navigation BIBAKFull-Text 4657-4662
  Pooja Mathur; Karrie Karahalios
Web users have been employing numerous methods for recalling websites. Bookmarks have been around for some time, but the usefulness of such a system has been under question. The lack of intuitive organization in web browsers forces users to make arbitrary choices on where to store bookmarks. As a result, bookmarks are often lost, never to be used again. These web pages a user bookmarks can say a lot about the user, though. A person's personality is reflected by the web pages a user visits and deems important enough to bookmark. By taking the user's bookmarks along with one's browser history and visualizing them, the user is able to notice things about oneself that he or she did not notice before. In this paper, we describe the iteration of a tool that visualizes all of user's bookmarks. We conclude with areas for future work.
Keywords: bookmarks, information organization, self-reflection, visualizations
Using hands and feet to navigate and manipulate spatial data BIBAKFull-Text 4663-4668
  Johannes Schöning; Florian Daiber; Antonio Krüger; Michael Rohs
We demonstrate how multi-touch hand gestures in combination with foot gestures can be used to perform navigation tasks in interactive systems. The geospatial domain is an interesting example to show the advantages of the combination of both modalities because the complex user interfaces of common Geographic Information System (GIS) requires a high degree of expertise from its users. Recent developments in interactive surfaces that enable the construction of low cost multi-touch displays and relatively cheap sensor technology to detect foot gestures allow the deep exploration of these input modalities for GIS users with medium or low expertise. In this paper, we provide a categorization of multitouch hand and foot gestures for the interaction with spatial data on a large-scale interactive wall. In addition we show with an initial evaluation how these gestures can improve the overall interaction with spatial information.
Keywords: foot interaction, geographic information system (gis), large screens, multi-touch, multitouch, spatial data, tangible interfaces
Using tactile rhythm to convey interpersonal distances to individuals who are blind BIBAKFull-Text 4669-4674
  Troy L. McDaniel; Sreekar Krishna; Dirk Colbry; Sethuraman Panchanathan
This paper presents a scheme for using tactile rhythms to convey interpersonal distance to individuals who are blind or visually impaired, with the goal of providing access to non-verbal cues during social interactions. A preliminary experiment revealed that subjects could identify the proposed tactile rhythms and found them intuitive for the given application. Future work aims to improve recognition results and increase the number of interpersonal distances conveyed by incorporating temporal change information into the proposed methodology.
Keywords: assistive technology, haptic belt, haptic icons, tactile icons, tactons, vibrotactile belt
Visualizing remote voice conversations BIBAKFull-Text 4675-4680
  Pooja Mathur; Karrie Karahalios
Online voice conversations are becoming ever more popular. People have been logging online text conversations, but what about voice conversations? Walter Ong simply states, "written words are residue. Oral tradition has no such residue or deposit" [6]. However, we do not just want to archive conversations, we want to enable users to have some meaning in these "logs". We introduce a project that takes a remote conversation and visualizes it. It does so in a way that takes volume, pitch and content into account. With this information, the visualizations display the data in a meaningful way. Users can use these images in the future to review past conversations whether it is for nostalgia's sake or to recall some piece of information. In this paper, we describe the early design and iteration of system for archiving and creating artifacts from remote audio conversations.
Keywords: VoIP, archival, artifacts, content, conversation, pitch, remote audio, skype, social visualization, volume
Warp speed design: a rapid design method for use with children BIBAKFull-Text 4681-4686
  Janet C. Read
This paper introduces a new design method -- Warp Speed Design -- for use with older children (aged 9+) for the design of workable tangible games. The rationale for the method is presented and then a workshop, in which the method was evaluated, is described.
   The method introduced children to basic programming concepts and worked surprisingly well. Almost all of the designs made by the children were so well specifies at the end of the brief workshop that they were able to be developed with very little uncertainty.
Keywords: children, participatory design, programming, tangible interfaces
Web-active users working with data BIBAKFull-Text 4687-4692
  Nan Zang; Mary Beth Rosson
Mashups have emerged as an area of interest for end-user programming research. While many users may find the ability to develop mashups useful, there are still many barriers to locating interesting data, figuring out how to "mash" it together and creating a useful view of the result. Furthermore, there is still much to learn about the motivations and needs of the user. In this paper, we present the results of interviews and think-aloud studies of non-programmers working with XML data and a mashup building tool. This work aims to better understand the users' mental models as they first attempt to use a novel mashup tool. We identify key areas where breakdowns occur and propose a future path for research.
Keywords: design, end-user programming, interviews, think-aloud study
Wii can do it: using co-design for creating an instructional game BIBAKFull-Text 4693-4698
  Greg Walsh
There are many children for whom learning is difficult if they need to remain still. The Nintendo Wii, with its motion-controlled sensors, can support learning experiences that enable children to be physically active learners. This paper presents the methodologies and results from a multi-day, co-design session at the University of Maryland's Human-Computer Interaction Lab. The goal of the sessions was to design an instructional game that leveraged the Nintendo Wii's motion controls to teach about U.S. National Parks.
Keywords: children's technology, co-design, cooperative inquiry, educational video games
WIIS: multimodal simulation for exploring the world beyond visual sense BIBAKFull-Text 4699-4704
  Minyoung Song; Chris Quintana
This paper describes a pilot study of a computer simulation called WIIS, which is designed to extend students' learning experience of the sizes of the objects beyond human vision. By interacting with a simulation that incorporates temporal, aural, and visual representation (TAVR), students are expected to refine their mental model of the sizes of the objects too small to see with human eyes (called submacroscopic objects). The goals of the study are to explore whether middle school students can understand TAVR in a simulation and how they use their experience of interacting with TAVRs to refine their mental model of the sizes of submacroscopic objects.
Keywords: learning technologies, multimodal representations, simulations
Writing to your car: handwritten text input while driving BIBAKFull-Text 4705-4710
  Dagmar Kern; Albrecht Schmidt; Jonas Arnsmann; Thorsten Appelmann; Nillakshi Pararasasegaran; Benjamin Piepiera
For in-car navigation, information and entertainment systems, text input is increasingly important. We investigate handwriting as a text input modality and assess where to best position the input surface and how to provide feedback. For this purpose, we created different prototypes that allow text input on the steering wheel and in the central console, as well as visual feedback on the input surface and on the dashboard. The results of the study indicate that handwritten text input on the steering wheel is well-received by the users and that the visual feedback should be presented in the dashboard area or on the steering wheel. We also observed that the number of corrective actions and the remaining errors were significantly smaller (25% less) on the steering wheel than in the central console and that entering text while driving made people drive slower.
Keywords: automotive user interfaces, car user interfaces, handwritten text input, text input
You scratch my back and i'll scratch yours: combating email overload collaboratively BIBAKFull-Text 4711-4716
  Manas Tungare; Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones
Email is no longer perceived as a communication marvel, but rather as a constant source of information overload. Several studies have shown that accessing, managing, and archiving email threatens to affect users' productivity. While several strategies and tools have been proposed to assuage this burden, none have attempted to empower users to fight the overload collaboratively. We hypothesize that despite differences in email management practices and frequencies of filing among users, there is some degree of similarity in the end-product of the organizational structures reached by those working in close cooperative roles (e.g. members of a research group, employees of an organization). In this paper, we describe a system that enables collaborators to share their filing strategies among themselves. Tags applied by one user are suggested to other recipients of the same email, thereby amortizing the cost of tagging and email management across all stakeholders. We wish to examine if such system support for semi-automated tagging reduces email overload for all users, and whether it leads to overall time savings for an entire enterprise as network effects propagate over time.
Keywords: collaborative tagging, email management, personal information management

Workshops

Tangibles for children, the challenges BIBAKFull-Text 4729-4732
  Bieke Zaman; Vero Vanden Abeele; Panos Markopoulos; Paul Marshall
A significant proportion of research in the field of tangible interaction involves children. A common aspiration is to offer benefits through tangibility, related to ease of use and overall user experience while also support learning and developmental processes. However, evaluation results are often equivocal, and expectations of researchers not always verified. This workshop aims to attract researchers who approach this topic of tangibility and children from an empirical or design perspective. The purpose is to obtain a good picture of what benefits we expect tangibility to provide (including novel and future applications), establish what is the current empirical evidence to support such claims (or what is missing), and motivate appropriate evaluation methodologies for children.
Keywords: child-computer interaction, evaluation methods, tangible and embedded interaction
Computational creativity support: using algorithms and machine learning to help people be more creative BIBAKFull-Text 4733-4736
  Dan Morris; Jimmy Secretan
The emergence of computers as a core component of creative processes, coupled with recent advances in machine-learning, signal-processing, and algorithmic techniques for manipulating creative media, offers tremendous potential for building end-user creativity-support tools. However, the scientific community making advances in relevant algorithmic techniques is not, in many cases, the same community that is currently making advances in the design, evaluation, and user-experience aspects of creativity support.
   The primary objective of this workshop is thus to bring together participants from diverse backgrounds in the HCI, design, art, machine-learning, and algorithms communities to facilitate the advancement of novel creativity support tools.
Keywords: algorithms, arts, creativity, machine learning
Location and the web: (LocWeb 2009) BIBAKFull-Text 4737-4740
  Erik Wilde; Susanne Boll; Keith Cheverst; Peter Fröhlich; Ross Purves; Johannes Schöning
Location-based services are becoming increasingly Web-based, as a result of the availability of networked mobile devices and mobile Internet access. The "Location and the Web (LocWeb)" workshop targets the capabilities and constraints of Web-based location-based services, which can be implemented as browser-based applications, or as native applications using Web services. The focus of this CHI workshop is on approaches which handle the complexity of location-based services, specifically looking at location abstractions, location sharing, context-relevant information, privacy issues, and interface and interaction design. The goal of this workshop is to serve as a starting point for attaining a better understanding of how the Web has to change in order to embrace location as a first-level concept, and how these changes might be reflected in applications and user interfaces that transform the Web into a platform for location-based services.
Keywords: location-based services, mobile computing, privacy, web services, world wide web
Designing for reflection on experience BIBAKFull-Text 4741-4744
  Corina Sas; Alan Dix
This paper outlines the rationale for the workshop and offers an outline of its objectives.
Keywords: body awareness., emotional awareness, reflection on experience, reflective skills
Human-centered computing in international development BIBAKFull-Text 4745-4750
  Nithya Sambasivan; Melissa Ho; Matthew Kam; Neesha Kodagoda; Susan Dray; John C. Thomas; Ann Light; Kentaro Toyama
This workshop continues the dialog on exploring the challenges in applying, extending, and inventing appropriate methods and contributions of Humancentered Computing (HCC) to International economic and community development, borne out of tremendously successful HCI4D workshops at CHI 2007 and 2008. The workshop aims at 1) providing a platform to discuss interaction design practices that allow for meaningful embedding of interactive systems in the cultural, infrastructural, and political settings where they will be used 2) addressing interaction design issues in developing regions, as well as areas in the developed world marginalized by poverty or other barriers. We hope to continue to extend the boundaries of the field of Human-centered Computing (HCC) by spurring on more discussion on how existing methods and practices can be adapted/ modified, and how new practices be developed, to combat.
Keywords: human-centered computing, international development, sustainability, user-centered design, values
Sensemaking workshop CHI 2009 BIBAKFull-Text 4751-4754
  Daniel M. Russell; Peter Pirolli; George Furnas; Stuart K. Card; Mark Stefik
How does one make sense of a large or complex task? By the term "sensemaking" we mean the processes people go through to frame, collect, organize and structure information to help understand a problem. Sensemaking is what people do to get from the earliest phases of an information collecting and organizing task to the conclusion. Sensemaking tasks are commonplace, and this workshop is dedicated to understanding the range of sensemaking behaviors and systems that can support sensemaking.
Keywords: information seeking, information visualization, representation construction, sensemaking
Crowd computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 4755-4758
  Barry Brown; Kenton O'Hara; Timothy Kindberg; Amanda Williams
HCI had moved from considering how individuals interact with computers to thinking about how groups collaborate using technology. While there has been research focused on large-scale on-line communities, little attention has been paid to large groups of collocated assemblies, namely crowds. The evidence from social psychology and sociology suggest that the social dynamics and behaviours of crowds are distinct from those of smaller group formations. In this workshop we want to think about new opportunities for designing crowd-centric technologies and explore the factors that will shape interaction design for large scale crowd computing. The workshop will explore themes related to crowd-centric computing through hands-on crowd-based exercises, position papers and discussion.
Keywords: crowd-computer interaction, spectatorship, ubiquitous computing
Programming reality: from transitive materials to organic user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 4759-4762
  Marcelo Coelho; Ivan Poupyrev; Sajid Sadi; Roel Vertegaal; Joanna Berzowska; Leah Buechley; Pattie Maes; Neri Oxman
Over the past few years, a quiet revolution has been redefining our fundamental computing technologies. Flexible E-Ink, OLED displays, shape-changing materials, parametric design, e-textiles, sensor networks, and intelligent interfaces promise to spawn entirely new user experiences that will redefine our relationship with technology. This workshop invites researchers and practitioners to imagine and debate this future, exploring two converging themes. Transitive Materials focuses on how emerging materials and computationally-driven behaviors can operate in unison blurring the boundaries between form and function, human body and environment, structures and membranes. Organic User Interfaces (OUI) explores future interactive designs and applications as these materials become commonplace.
Keywords: architecture, flexible computers, interaction design, interactive textiles, organic UI, physical interaction, shape change, smart materials, tangible UI, transitive materials, ubiquitous computing
Developing shared home behavior datasets to advance HCI and ubiquitous computing research BIBAKFull-Text 4763-4766
  Stephen S. Intille; Jason Nawyn; Beth Logan; Gregory D. Abowd
Researchers in human-computer interaction and allied fields are increasingly interested in using new sensing capabilities to create context-aware interfaces and devices for the home. Data from sensors worn on the body or installed in an environment can be used by algorithms to infer what activities the home occupant may be engaged in and enable applications to respond accordingly. This one-day CHI'09 workshop would convene a multidisciplinary group of researchers to discuss strategies for creating community resources that might accelerate research on development of home technologies. In particular, the participants will discuss how to collaboratively gather high quality synchronized data streams from real homes, as well as qualitative material about home occupants and their behaviors. The resultant datasets could facilitate work on context modeling and enable researchers in other areas of HCI to explore contextual factors influencing the use of technology in naturalistic settings. The outcome of the workshop will be a community index of existing shared datasets of home behavior and guidelines for those interested in creating and disseminating new datasets.
Keywords: activity modeling, analysis tools, applications, community sharing, context aware computing, data navigation, living laboratories, sensors
Multitouch and surface computing BIBAKFull-Text 4767-4770
  Steven C. Seow; Dennis Wixon; Scott MacKenzie; Giulio Jacucci; Ann Morrison; Andy Wilson
Natural user interfaces (NUI) such as multitouch and surface computing are positioned as the next major evolution in computing and user interfaces. Just graphical user interfaces (GUIs) brought unprecedented interaction capabilities to their command-line predecessors, we believe multitouch and surface computing will spawn novel ways to interact with media and improve social usage patterns. Since experimentation and deployment are currently limited, the exploration of applications and interfaces in this area is still at an early stage.
Keywords: NUI, multitouch, natural user interface, surface computing, touch computing
Evaluating new interactions in healthcare: challenges and approaches BIBAKFull-Text 4771-4774
  Rebecca Randell; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Stephanie Wilson; Lena Mamykina; Charlotte Tang
New technologies for supporting the provision of healthcare are increasingly pervasive. While healthcare computing previously referred to a desktop computer within the consulting room, we are now seeing an ever broader range of software, hardware and settings. This workshop is concerned with how to conduct evaluations which allow assessment of the overall impact of technology. The workshop will explore challenges and approaches for evaluating new interactions in healthcare. In this paper we outline the goals for this workshop and summarize the issues and questions it intends to explore.
Keywords: evaluation, healthcare
Social mediating technologies: developing the research agenda BIBAKFull-Text 4775-4778
  Alistair Sutcliffe; Victor M. Gonzalez; Robert Kraut
Social Mediating Technologies (SMTs) range from e-mail to social networking sites and community websites. The popularity of these technologies is increasing rapidly, yet we have little understanding about how and why people find these technologies so appealing. The research challenge is to try to understand the causal drivers for usage of social technologies, and theory-based understanding of how the affordances of such technologies meet with people's cognitive and social needs. This workshop will provide a forum for researchers to synthesise current knowledge on SMTs and map out future research directions.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, e-communities, social networking sites
Workshop on end user programming for the web BIBAKFull-Text 4779-4782
  Allen Cypher; Tessa Lau; Jeffrey Nichols; Mira Dontcheva
In the past several years, there has been a resurgence in research activity in end user programming (EUP), all focused on the web. This work is spread across a variety of institutions and has been published in a variety of conference venues, including CHI, UIST, IUI, and WWW. This workshop will bring these researchers together for a common discussion, with the following goals: establish a sense of community amongst researchers in this area; discuss common problems and lessons learned about doing research in EUP for the web; define a standard corpus of tasks that can be used to evaluate current and future EUP systems; and plan the publication of an edited book on the topic of end user programming for the web.
Keywords: end user programming, web
Interacting with temporal data BIBAKFull-Text 4783-4786
  Wendy E. Mackay; Max G. Van Kleek; Aurélien Tabard
Time serves as a basis for measuring the occurrence and evolution of natural phenomena, and governs the coordination of many of our everyday life activities. As the capacities of our digital tools have grown, they have begun to make readily available to us unprecedented quantities of new, rich, structured temporal information about the people and things in our lives. This abundance of information has laid open avenues for new tools and applications -- applications which, in turn, introduce new demands on interface mechanisms used to display, represent and interact with temporal data.
   This workshop, the second in a series on Capturing, Interacting with and Visualizing Temporal Data, will focus on such demands, examining interaction challenges emerging across new application domains.
Keywords: information interfaces, temporal data visualisation and interaction
The reign of catz & dogz at CHI 2009 BIBAKFull-Text 4787-4790
  Shaun Lawson; Thomas Chesney
Despite the enormous commercial successes of products such as Nintendogs, very little is known about people's interactions with artificial representations of animals. However there is an increasing body of research in different disciplines which could be used to better understand such interactions. The Reign of Catz & Dogz at CHI 2009 is a one day workshop which will bring together researchers in an inter-disciplinary, international and multi-cultural setting to explore the relevant issues surrounding interactions with virtual creatures and the role such creatures will play in the future.
Keywords: companionship, human robot interaction, virtual pets
Best practices in longitudinal research BIBAKFull-Text 4791-4794
  Catherine Courage; Jhilmil Jain; Stephanie Rosenbaum
This workshop will identify best practices for longitudinal research through an in-depth exploration of methods and metrics for collecting and analyzing user data over time. This is the fourth event in an ongoing effort by the organizers to enhance our current body of knowledge about longitudinal research.
Keywords: comparative analysis, longitudinal data, longitudinal research, study design, user research
Mobile user experience research: challenges, methods & tools BIBAKFull-Text 4795-4798
  Yelena Nakhimovsky; Dean Eckles; Jens Riegelsberger
We are currently witnessing rapid innovation in mobile user experience (UX) research. The HCI community is creating and adapting research methods, tools, and infrastructure for mobile-specific challenges and opportunities. This workshop brings together researchers from industry and academia, designers, and creators of research tools, who faced the challenges of mobile UX research and responded with innovative approaches. We will examine the co-evolution of methods and tools by considering their goals and requirements, and how these are shared across different approaches.
Keywords: mobile research, research methods, research tools
Age matters: bridging the generation gap through technology-mediated interaction BIBAKFull-Text 4799-4802
  David A. Harley; Sri H. Kurniawan; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Frank Vetere
Internet-based, mobile and pervasive technologies provide the means for older people to establish and maintain intergenerational relationships over long distances. However the significance of this intergenerational context has been largely ignored when considering potential interactions and the design of new technologies. This workshop aims to explore what the important issues are when considering intergenerational contact as a significant context for design. The overarching objective of this workshop is to identify key research themes in respect of intergenerational communication and its implications for the design of interactive systems.
Keywords: intergenerational communication, older users
Building a unified framework for the practice of experience design BIBAKFull-Text 4803-4806
  John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi; Ilpo Koskinen
This workshop challenges design practitioners and researchers to begin creating a unified framework for the practice of experience design.
Keywords: design practice, design theory, experience design, theory in practice
Engagement by design BIBAKFull-Text 4807-4810
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Sunny Consolvo; Stephen S. Intille
The focus of this workshop is on the development of interfaces for long-term, voluntary use, spanning dozens, if not thousands, of interactions, and in which maintenance of user adherence to a desired interaction usage pattern is of primary interest. Domains in which these issues are important include: wellness applications, such as long-term exercise or diet promotion; web site "stickiness"; multi-session intelligent tutoring systems; and computer games. This one-day CHI'09 workshop brings together researchers from a wide spectrum of disciplines who share a common interest in finding theoretical frameworks, models, and design methodologies to support longitudinal HCI.
Keywords: adherence, compliance, engagement, health behavior change, longitudinal study
Challenges in evaluating usability and user experience of reality-based interaction BIBAKFull-Text 4811-4814
  Georgios Christou; Effie Lai-Chong Law; William Green; Kasper Hornbaek
This workshop aims to further the understanding of the challenges relating to the evaluation methods of usability and user experience that are specific to Reality-Based Interaction (RBI), and to identify effective practical responses to these challenges. The emergence of Post-WIMP interfaces has led to new ways of interacting with technologies. However, there are still no integrated ways of evaluating the usability and user experience of these interfaces. Developers and designers are left to discover their own metrics and evaluation methods. This approach presents problems, in that the metrics used in each case may provide results that are neither valid nor meaningful. For this reason, the time is ripe to integrate the methods that have been developed for evaluating interfaces that belong to the RBI umbrella. The measures and techniques will then be turned into a framework that enables designers of RBI interfaces to select appropriately existing methods and tools to evaluate systematically the usability and user experience of their prototypes and products. Reusing and adapting validated evaluation approaches can not only avoid reinventing the wheel and wasting time but also further improve and consolidate these approaches. Such a framework will also provide a basis for comparison between designs of RBI interfaces in different application contexts.
Keywords: evaluation, human-computer interaction, reality-based interaction, usability, user experience
Whole body interaction BIBAKFull-Text 4815-4818
  David England; Eva Hornecker; Chris Roast; Pablo Romero; Paul Fergus; Paul Marshall
In this workshop we explore the notation of whole body interaction. We bring together different disciplines to create a new research direction for study of this emerging form of interaction.
Keywords: motion capture, multi-modal, physicality, whole body interaction
The changing face of digital science: new practices in scientific collaborations BIBAKFull-Text 4819-4822
  Cecilia R. Aragon; Sarah Poon; Claudio T. Silva
The confluence of two major trends in scientific research is leading to an upheaval in standard scientific practice. A new generation of scientists, working in large-scale collaborations, is repurposing social software for use in collaborative science. Existing social tools such as chat, IM, and FriendFind are being adopted and modified for use as group problem-solving facilities. At the same time, exponentially greater and more complex datasets are being generated at a rate that is challenging the limits of current hardware, software, and human cognitive capability. A concerted effort to develop new software tools to handle this data tsunami is redefining the collaboratory and represents a new frontier for computer supported cooperative work.
   We are hoping this workshop can build community among researchers studying and/or building software for scientific collaborations.
Keywords: scientific collaboratories, scientific data analysis, scientific groupware, visualization
DIY for CHI: methods, communities, and values of reuse and customization BIBAKFull-Text 4823-4826
  Leah Buechley; Daniela K. Rosner; Eric Paulos; Amanda Williams
People tinker, hack, fix, reuse, and assemble materials in creative and unexpected ways, often codifying and sharing their production process with others. Do-it-yourself (DIY) encompasses a range of design activities that have become increasingly prominent in online discussion forums and blogs, in addition to a small-but-growing presence in professional/research forums such as CHI. This workshop will explore DIY practice from the ground up -- examining DIY as a set of methods, communities, values and goals and examining its impact in the domains of traditional crafts, technology development, and sustainable design.
Keywords: creativity, customization, design, do-it-yourself, online communities, reuse
Defining the role of HCI in the challenges of sustainability BIBAKFull-Text 4827-4830
  Elaine M. Huang; Eli Blevis; Jennifer Mankoff; Lisa P. Nathan; Bill Tomlinson
Sustainability is an increasingly prominent and critical theme in the field of HCI. More needs to be known about how to critique and assess design from the perspective of sustainability, and how to integrate sustainability into the practice of HCI. This workshop focuses on achieving this integration, identifying challenges, and defining directions for Sustainable Interaction Design (SID).
Keywords: design, evaluation, methods, sustainability, sustainable interaction design