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CHI Tables of Contents: 03-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual CHI conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems
Note:art science balance
Editors:Margaret Burnett; Maria Frqncesca Costabile; Tiziana Catarci; Boris de Ruyter; Desney Tan; Mary Czerwinski; Arnie Lund
Location:Florence, Italy
Dates:2008-Apr-05 to 2008-Apr-10
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 978-1-60558-012-X; ACM Order Number: 608085; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI08-2
Papers:335
Pages:2001
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2008-04-05 Volume 2
    1. Case studies
    2. Panels
    3. Interactivity
    4. Special interest groups
    5. alt.chi
    6. Design theater
    7. Design community
    8. Doctoral consortium
    9. Works in progress
    10. Research landscapes
    11. Student research
    12. Student design competition
    13. Workshops
    14. Special session

CHI 2008-04-05 Volume 2

Case studies

Bluereach: harnessing synchronous chat to support expertise sharing in a large organization BIBAFull-Text 2001-2008
  Kevin Singley; Jennifer Lai; Lei Kuang; Jung-Mu Tang
We present a case study of BlueReach, an expertise sharing application that uses synchronous chat to connect question askers with subject-matter experts. We discuss how the solution evolved over time, and the generally high level of acceptance from users and volunteer experts. We include survey findings and usage data, which indicate that in spite of initial concerns that the experts would be overwhelmed by questions, usage has been fairly low and relatively flat. We examine this phenomenon and conclude with a discussion of lessons learned.
Defending design decisions with usability evidence: a case study BIBAFull-Text 2009-2016
  Erin Friess
This case study takes a close look at what novice designers discursively use as evidence to support design decisions. User-centered design has suggested that all design decisions should be made with the concern for the user at the forefront, and, ideally, this concern should be represented by findings discovered within user-centered research. However, the data from a 12-month longitudinal study suggests that although these novice designers are well-versed with user-centered design theory, in practice they routinely do not use user-centered research findings to defend their design decisions. Instead these novice designers use less definitive and more designer-centered forms of evidence. This move away from the user, though perhaps unintentional, may suggest that design pedagogy may need to be re-evaluated to ensure that novice designers continue to adhere to the implications of user-centered research throughout the design process.
First steps in role playing BIBAFull-Text 2017-2024
  Stella U. Boess
This paper presents and evaluates examples from our work with role playing in design education. Rationales for role playing in design are: communication within the design process, the increase of technological complexity, the experience and empathy of designers, the tangibility of interaction, and attentiveness to social change. These rationales inform our inclusion of role playing techniques in design education. Our aim is that the students can and do incorporate the techniques into their own design activity. Here, we focus on three questions: 1. whether the techniques helped the students understand and question interaction, 2. whether the techniques helped students in ideation, and 3. whether the role playing exercises inspired students to use the techniques in own work. We identify several ways in which the techniques are effective for the students in their design work.
Acceptance of augmented reality instructions in a real work setting BIBAFull-Text 2025-2032
  Susanna Nilsson; Björn Johansson
The differences between Augmented Reality (AR) systems and computer display based systems create a need for a different approach to the design and development of AR systems. To understand the potential of AR systems in real world tasks the technology must be tested in real world scenarios. This case study includes two qualitative user studies where AR was used for giving instructions to users in a hospital. The data show that the users in the context of medical care are positive towards AR systems as a technology and as a tool for instructions in terms of usefulness and social acceptance. The results indicate that AR technology, should it be introduced as technical support in this context, may become an accepted, and appreciated, part of every day work.
The science of fun: one-to-many moderated game research BIBAFull-Text 2033-2038
  Tony Tulathimutte; Nate Bolt
Native environments are of particular importance in game research, where findings depend even more than usual on the user's mood and comfort level. Using remote voice chat to moderate game research sessions enables researchers to remove the distracting and discomforting physical presence of the moderator, providing a more convincing native environment. This paper describes the benefits and addresses the methodological pitfalls of this approach.
Using online communities to drive commercial product development BIBAFull-Text 2039-2044
  Sheena Lewis
This paper demonstrates how human computer interaction (HCI) practitioners utilize an online community to drive commercial product innovation, definition, and development. Upper management's increased interest in user feedback suggests that this development strategy promotes the case for stronger human-centered design processes to be included in corporate strategic planning.
Barriers to virtual collaboration BIBAFull-Text 2045-2052
  Amy Tan; Ahmet M. Kondoz
This paper reports on the implementation and use of a virtual collaboration system -- a virtual collaborative desk (VCD) that has been introduced to a software design team in an organizational context. Virtual collaboration systems are complex and can be considered as social-technical systems, oftentimes encompassing several layers of both technical and social issues. If this multi-layered social-technical system is to work effectively and provide a dependable service, then all the layers must be well understood and structured accordingly. Otherwise, these layers can become barriers to virtual collaboration if they impede the collaborating users of a virtual team from attaining their goals. An amalgamation of principles from life-cycle and ethnomethodologically informed ethnography approaches in the evaluation of a virtual collaborative system is demonstrated in a case-study to enable researchers to understand what these issues are and how the different types of issues can prevent effective virtual collaboration.
Healthy technology BIBAFull-Text 2053-2066
  Ashwini Asokan; Michael J. Payne
One of the biggest struggles user experience teams face is breaking through traditional notions of product strategy, planning and development to bring actionable awareness to the bigger picture around delivering full experiences that people really care about. User research and design is often focused around product & feature design in a space that is defined by out-dated boundaries imposed by history or pre-existing constraints. Research is used to create new features or product direction within these walls, and many design tools are employed to ensure the experience delivered is acceptable. This paper uses a case study of a project titled "Healthy Technology" to highlight the important role that metaphors can play in shifting conversations & strategy, from executive managers to development teams, leading to new boundaries, new strategies, a fresh look at what it means to set direction that targets complete user experiences rather than consumer appreciated features. The metaphor is discussed, through example, as more than a tool for user interface design, exploring the same as a means to alter strategic thinking in upper management as well as guide design and development teams in rethinking notions of technology to create new categories, rethink the problem space and to think beyond features. This paper outlines the research processes that lead to the creation of a metaphor and the functions of the metaphor in overcoming traditional boundaries and thinking. It describes key challenges and methods in this process of moving from research to strategic initiatives that fundamentally shift thinking, providing direction for business models, services, technologies, and industry alignment that come together to provide more than just features or products.
Increasing design buy-in among software developer communities BIBAFull-Text 2067-2070
  Satya Viswanathan
This paper is based on projects in which the User Experience (UX) team in Bangalore adopted a User Centered Design approach to increase design buy-in among the developer community of our product and improve working relations with them.
   This paper provides ethnographical insights into the work practices our developers, their needs & limitations that prevent them from adopting the design process. We share our learning and methods we adopted to address these scenarios.
When the designer becomes the user: designing a system for therapists by becoming a therapist BIBAFull-Text 2071-2078
  Julie A. Kientz; Gregory D. Abowd
In this paper, we present the design process for developing a technology to support therapists for children with autism. To learn about the domain for which we were designing, one researcher became trained as a therapist and worked as one part time for over 10 months. This case study outlines the process by which the researcher was trained, the ways in which it was helpful in the design and evaluation of a technology system, and the aspects of the experience that we feel led to a better and more successful design.
Challenges in computerized job search for the developing world BIBAFull-Text 2079-2094
  Indrani Medhi; Geeta Menon; Kentaro Toyama
We examine the broad challenges facing a computer-based system to help match low-income domestic workers from an urban slum with potential middle-class employers in Bangalore, India. Due to the near impossibility of implementing such a system in one shot, we first implemented a paper-based system that provides the intended functionality but without a computer. This system proved a significant challenge in itself, and among the lessons learned are the crucial role of human intermediaries (necessary even in the final computer-based system), the importance of building skills among the domestic workers, the need for a strong value proposition for both employers and employees well above existing systems, and the requirement of technological literacy. We then show that these lessons are applicable to other scenarios where computing technology is applied to developing-world challenges, by analyzing corresponding issues in related work. Our broad conclusion is that computer-based systems to solve developing-world problems often require significant work above and beyond an implementation of the technology, with trustworthy human intermediaries playing a critical role.
Cutting edge usability design and smashing graphics: the perfect recipe for firing up a sophisticated pharmaceutical touch screen application BIBAFull-Text 2095-2108
  Christel Dehaes; Lore Nuyens
In this case study, we describe a complex pharmaceutical touch screen software development project in which an appealing graphical design on top of a well-thought user interface elevate the benefits of a good user interface design. Based on this specific case, we emphasis the importance of a clear and simple navigation and interaction in a complex pharmaceutical touch screen application.
Spontaneous scenarios: an approach to user engagement BIBAFull-Text 2109-2112
  Jeremy Yuille; Laurene Vaughan; Markus Rittenbruch; Stephen Viller; Ian MacColl
In this paper we present work on a scenario and persona based approach to exploring social software solutions for a globally distributed network of researchers, designers and artists. We discuss issues identified with scenario based approaches and a potential participatory solution adopted in this project.
Wheels around the world: windows live mobile interface design BIBAFull-Text 2113-2128
  Christine Anderson; Sandra G. Hirsh; Andre Mohr
We present a unique interface design for mobile devices that addresses major user pain points with deep menu systems and page scrolling. Using a series of 1-5 wheels of content, arranged in a combination-lock style on a single mobile screen, this design enables a user to consume a multitude of personalized internet and web content without ever scrolling up/down or selecting from a menu. Additionally, the wheels are easily mapped to a personalized PC experience such as those from My MSN, live.com, and myYahoo!, enabling users to access their PC content from anywhere. Results from iterative testing across US, Japan, and China show the model to be an effective and desirable mode of consuming personal and internet content on the mobile device, despite very different navigation paradigms and cultural expectations in each of the countries.
Designing embodied interfaces for casual sound recording devices BIBAFull-Text 2129-2134
  Ivan Poupyrev; Haruo Oba; Takuo Ikeda; Eriko Iwabuchi
In the Special Moment project we prototype and evaluate the design of interfaces for casual sound recording devices. These devices are envisioned to be used by a casual user to capture and store their everyday experiences in the form of "sound albums" -- collections of recordings related to a certain situation. We formulate a number of design principles for such recording devices, as well as implement and evaluate two working prototypes. A candle recorder allows for capturing the general atmosphere at a party, and the children's book recorder records the interactions between parents and children while reading a book together.
Development of information terminal 'it scarecrow' for rural station BIBAFull-Text 2135-2142
  Fuminori Tsunoda; Go Yanagisawa; Koichi Wakasugi; Katsushi Nagumo; Takayuki Matsumoto; Takeshi Nakagawa; Mariko Utsunomiya
This paper explains the development of an information terminal for a rural station and its background system. The information terminal, which we call 'IT scarecrow', displays traffic information based on a train location system. It is designed like a scarecrow to blend into a rural station. The service the system provides depends mainly on passengers' surveys and discussions with the rural community. In addition, we tried to make the system at low cost.
   In the spring of 2007, we made some preliminary system tests followed by an experiment in an actual station. As a result, we learned what the critical conditions for the next implementation should be. The IT scarecrow is consulted as a representative of communication between a railway and a local community. We hope the system will expand and also that it be implemented as a mobile guidance system.
Monitoring time-headway in car-following task BIBAFull-Text 2143-2146
  Matteo Fiorani; Michele Mariani; Luca Minin; Roberto Montanari
This study investigates the effect of the follower and leader vehicles' speed on time headway variation during deceleration in a car-following task. Significant results were found in deceleration onset; headway varies significantly when absolute and relative follower speed are high. These results suggest possible application in the tuning of in-vehicle advanced system for longitudinal safety control.
Force feedback: new frontier as the innovative driving comfort tool BIBAFull-Text 2147-2150
  Luca Minin; Roberto Montanari; Cesare Corbelli; Cristina Iani
Previous Human Factors studies in the automotive field showed that drivers performance is influenced by the type of Force Feedback (FF) reproduced by the steering wheel. In the present study, six FF were compared. Results suggest that the effect of the type of FF depend on the specific driving scenario, thus suggesting the utility of an adaptive force feedback based steering wheel. In the final part of the paper, we describe how such a system could be implemented.
Probing an agile usability process BIBAFull-Text 2151-2158
  Peter Wolkerstorfer; Manfred Tscheligi; Reinhard Sefelin; Harald Milchrahm; Zahid Hussain; Martin Lechner; Sara Shahzad
In this paper we describe adaptations to the classical Extreme Programming (XP) process. The approach described integrates HCI (human computer interaction) instruments. The implemented HCI instruments are: user studies, extreme personas (a variation of the personas approach), usability expert evaluations, usability tests, and automated usability evaluations. By combining XP and UCD (user centered development) processes we take advantages of both approaches.
Scenario-based usability engineering techniques in agile development processes BIBAFull-Text 2159-2166
  Hartmut Obendorf; Matthias Finck
Improving the users' experience is a common goal of both software engineering and usability engineering. However, although practitioners of both disciplines collaborate in practice, development processes often rely on a sequential division of labor, and thus limit the effectiveness of a meeting of different perspectives. In this paper, we report on experiences we made in both academia and industry as we put an agile development process pattern to the test -- combining Extreme Programming and Scenario-Based Usability Engineering, based on a blend of perspectives on equal terms.
Agile user centered design: enter the design studio -- a case study BIBAFull-Text 2167-2178
  Jim Ungar; Jeff White
In this paper we describe the merger of user centered design into agile (team) development practice as manifest in a one day design studio. Benefits and challenges to a design studio approach are discussed, and the evolution of one design using the design studio process is presented.
Tag-it, snag-it, or bag-it: combining tags, threads, and folders in e-mail BIBAFull-Text 2179-2194
  John C. Tang; Eric Wilcox; Julian A. Cerruti; Hernan Badenes; Stefan Nusser; Jerald Schoudt
We describe the design of bluemail, a web-based email system that provides message tagging, message threading, and email folders. We wanted to explore how this combination of features would help users manage and organize their email. We conducted a limited field test of the prototype by observing how users triage their own email using bluemail. Our study identified ways in which users liked tagging, threading, and foldering capabilities, but also some of the complex ways in which they can interact. Our study elicited early user input to guide the iterative design of these features. It also involved a user study researcher, designer, and developer in the field test to quickly integrate different perspectives during development.
They call it surfing for a reason: identifying mobile internet needs through pc internet deprivation BIBAFull-Text 2195-2208
  Rachel Hinman; Mirjana Spasojevic; Pekka Isomursu
In this case study we describe the details of a PC Internet deprivation study used to gather information on mobile Internet needs. Eight participants in our study used a mobile device as their only means of Internet access for four days. The case study describes details of the research methodology as well as design insights and implications that resulted from the study.
Using comics to communicate qualitative user research findings BIBAFull-Text 2209-2212
  Evangeline Haughney
This paper is a case study of how exploratory, qualitative interview findings were communicated to product teams through the visual design language of comics.
A comparative evaluation of heuristic-based usability inspection methods BIBAFull-Text 2213-2220
  Jarinee Chattratichart; Gitte Lindgaard
Given that heuristic evaluation (HE) is a popular evaluation method among practitioners despite criticisms surrounding its performance and reliability, there is a need to improve the method's performance. Several studies have shown HE-Plus, an emerging variant of HE, to outperform HE in both effectiveness and reliability. HE-Plus uses the same set of heuristics as HE; the only difference between these two methods is the 'usability problems profile' element in HE-Plus. This paper reports our attempt to verify the original profile employed in HE-Plus based on usability problem classification in the User Action Framework and an experiment evaluating its outcome by comparing HE with two HE variants using a profile (HE-Plus and HE++) and a control group. Our results confirmed the role of the 'usability problems profiles' on improving the performance and reliability of heuristic evaluation: both HE-Plus and HE++ outperformed HE in terms of effectiveness as well as reliability.
Seeing the bigger picture: a multi-method field trial of Google maps for mobile BIBAFull-Text 2221-2228
  Jens Riegelsberger; Yelena Nakhimovsky
This case study discusses a 2-week field trial of Google Maps for Mobile with 24 participants (in London, Manchester, Hamburg, Munich). The field trial served as a pilot, because it combined many methods previously used individually: group briefing sessions, recorded usage, multiple telephone interviews for additional context around recorded use, and 1:1 debriefs in a lab setting with the development team observing. In this paper we describe our approach, as well as substantive and methodological findings. Insights were gained along several dimensions: user experience at different levels of product familiarity (e.g. from download/install to habitual use); specific usability fixes (100+) as well as product strategy drivers; and hurdles to user experience arising from the mobile eco-system (e.g. carrier and handset platforms).
Using participants' real data in usability testing: lessons learned BIBAFull-Text 2229-2236
  Todd Zazelenchuk; Kari Sortland; Alex Genov; Sara Sazegari; Mark Keavney
In usability testing, we place great importance on authentic tasks, real users, and the appropriate fidelity of prototypes, considering them carefully in our efforts to simulate people's real-life interactions with our products. We often place less importance on the data with which we ask participants to interact. Commonly, test data are fabricated, created for participants to imagine as their own. But relating to artificial data can be difficult for participants, and this difficulty can affect their behavior and ultimately call our research results into question. Incorporating users' real data into your usability test requires additional time and effort, along with certain considerations, but it can lead to richer and more valid usability results.

Panels

Renaissance panel: the roles of creative synthesis in innovation BIBAFull-Text 2237-2240
  Matthew Hockenberry; Leonardo Bonanni
The Renaissance ideal can be expressed as a creative synthesis between cultural disciplines, standing in stark contrast to our traditional focus on scientific specialization. This panel presents a number of experts who approach the synthesis of art and science as the modus operandi for their work, using it as a tool for creativity, research, and practice. Understanding these approaches allows us to identify the roles of synthesis in successful innovation and improve the implementation of interdisciplinary synthesis in research and practice.
Design, marketing, strategy: where does user research belong? BIBAFull-Text 2241-2244
  Christian Rohrer; Irene Au; Elissa Darnell; Nancy Dickenson; Shelley Evenson; Klaus Kaasgaard
In this interactive session, a panel of experts will discuss and debate an emerging and pressing issue: To have maximum impact on the user experience, how and where should a User Research team be structured within a corporation whose business depends on the development of successful interactive products through cross-functional collaboration? This has significant implications for organizations such as user experience, marketing, design, strategy, and academic programs preparing students entering corporate environments.
Media spaces: past visions, current realities, future promise BIBAFull-Text 2245-2248
  Ron Baecker; Steve Harrison; Bill Buxton; Steven Poltrock; Elizabeth Churchill
Established researchers and practitioners active in the development and deployment of media spaces review what seemed to be promised twenty years ago, what has actually been achieved, and what we might anticipate over the next twenty years.
What would you do with a 1 million dollar user experience marketing budget?: internal vs. external user experience evangelism BIBAFull-Text 2249-2252
  Luke Kowalski; Carola Thompson; Tom Chi; Darren Mc Cormick; Omar Vasnaik; Peter Heller
User Experience evangelism inside an organization is a frequent topic. Methods for marketing user centered design to internal stakeholders have been analyzed in many papers and on panels. Emerging media and new venues have recently presented an opportunity to reexamine methods and goals for external user experience marketing and evangelism. This interactive panel will address motivations and brainstorm about discount methods for promoting the role of the human factors profession to the general public, and communicating directly with the end users. This will be contrasted with the position that a well designed product should market itself, and that money is best spent on design and internal evangelism instead.
   The panel itself will involve 3 parts: 1. Moderator collecting answers to the "What would you do with a 1 million dollar UX marketing budget?" question via index cards. 2. Four panelists presenting short sales pitch proposing what they would do when faced with the same question. 3. Panel discussion focusing on the contributions from the audience and focused on producing two lists. One would include specific user experience marketing venues (targeted bloggers, un-conferences, think tanks, specific ad words, design-friendly printed publications like Business Week, etc.). The second list would focus on goals and of user experience marketing (raising awareness and promoting better image of user experience vs. engineering and other disciplines, increased sales, better brand, recruiting, swaying executives, etc.). The panel would continue to live after external publication of the two lists, with new blog installments, comments, and any subsequent and open discussions.
Agile or awkward: surviving and flourishing in an agile/scrum project BIBAFull-Text 2253-2256
  Mary Lukanuski; Michel Milano; Jeroen de Bruin; Miles Rochford; Reinoud Bosman
The Agile development methodology poses challenges to the traditional user centered design process. In this panel discussion differing experiences and approaches will be shared and debated along the panelists with the audience encouraged to contribute to the discussion. The goal of the session is both a survey of UCD experience with the Agile/Scrum method and collectively developing best practices on working within an Agile/Scrum environment.
The next challenge: from easy-to-use to easy-to-develop. are you ready? BIBAFull-Text 2257-2260
  Joerg Beringer; Gerhard Fischer; Piero Mussio; Brad Myers; Fabio Paternò; Boris de Ruyter
The main challenge of next years is to allow users of software systems, who are non-professional software developers, to create, modify or extend software artefacts. In this panel we want to discuss with the CHI community the key aspects in the area of End User Development and an associated research agenda, which should be then proposed to the main research agencies, such as NSF and EU ICT.
Longitudinal usability data collection: art versus science? BIBAFull-Text 2261-2264
  Misha Vaughan; Catherine Courage; Stephanie Rosenbaum; Jhilmil Jain; Monty Hammontree; Russell Beale; Dan Welsh
In this proposal the authors describe an exciting panel for CHI 2008 on Longitudinal Usability Data Collection. Collecting usability data over time is increasingly becoming best practice in industry, but lacks "thought leadership" in the current literature -- very few articles or books exist addressing the topic. To inspire academic research and share best practices with practitioners, we propose a panel to debate some key questions that arose from the CHI 2007 SIG on the same topic.
Branding the feel: applying standards to enable a uniform user experience BIBAFull-Text 2265-2268
  Mohini Wettasinghe
There is nothing more dissatisfying to users than the inconsistent behavior of a particular interaction within or between different software applications from the same company. A company's unified interaction is part of the company brand: the "feel" of look and feel. Many companies throw away their brand when they do not observe interaction consistency across products. However what is precisely meant by consistency and to what level this consistency should be attained is open for debate.
   Moreover, user interface designers and developers ignore standards since they assume that complying with standards stifles design innovation. The lack of understanding on what are standards and how they can be effectively applied, results in unnecessarily complicated user interface designs and dissatisfied users.
   This panel discusses how there is still much room for design innovation after applying appropriate user interface standards and how application designers can contribute to the creation of standards.
Extreme usability: adapting research approaches for agile development BIBAFull-Text 2269-2272
  Melissa Federoff; Craig Villamor; Lynn Miller; Jeff Patton; Aviva Rosenstein; Kathy Baxter; Kuldeep Kelkar
Agile development is being adopted by many leading software companies, such as those represented by this panel. Though many instructional resources exist to guide companies through a change to Agile Development, there are few resources available on the subject of Agile development and User Centered Design (UCD). As a result, user experience practitioners have had to develop their own tactics and strategies for maintaining sound UCD practices within their organizations when moving to Agile.
   This panel consists of six practitioners who actively work with development teams using Agile. Panel members will share the challenges and successes they face while championing UCD within their respective development organizations. Panelists will focus on adaptations to research methodology and strategy that make UCD possible to attain within Agile cultures.
Beyond the hype: sustainability & HCI BIBAFull-Text 2273-2276
  Lisa P. Nathan; Eli Blevis; Batya Friedman; Jay Hasbrouck; Phoebe Sengers
In this panel we explore: (1) the burgeoning discourse on sustainability concerns within HCI, (2) the material and behavioral challenges of sustainability in relation to interaction design, (3) the benefits and risks involved in labeling a project or product as environmentally sustainable, and (4) implications of taking on (or ignoring) sustainability as a research, design, and teaching topic for HCI.
CHI policy issues around the world BIBAFull-Text 2277-2280
  Jonathan Lazar; Harry Hochheiser; Jeff Johnson; Clare-Marie Karat; Benjamin Bederson
While public policy is a recognized important topic within human-computer interaction, not enough attention has been paid to public policy efforts outside of the USA. We propose a panel at CHI 2008 to focus on CHI policy issues around the world. Specifically, we plan to address at least three major topics: accessibility, privacy, and voting.

Interactivity

Gamelunch: forging a dining experience through sound BIBAFull-Text 2281-2286
  Pietro Polotti; Stefano Delle Monache; Stefano Papetti; Davide Rocchesso
The Gamelunch is a sonically augmented dining table. By means of the Gamelunch, we aim at investigating the closed loop between interaction, sound and emotion by exploiting the power and flexibility of physically-based sound models for an effective and coherent process of interactive sound design. Continuous interaction gestures are captured by means of various force transducers, providing data that are coherently mapped onto physically-based sound synthesis algorithms. Investigation of the above mentioned loop is carried out by the principle of contradiction: while performing usual dining actions, such as cutting and slicing, dressing the salad, pouring beverages, the user encounters contradicting and unexpected sound feedbacks, thus experiencing -- per absurdum -- the importance of environmental sounds in everyday-life acts.
Interactivity: constructed narratives BIBAFull-Text 2287-2290
  Pamela Jennings; Paul Cunningham
Constructed Narratives is a digital media research project and game that explores the design of tangible social interfaces that facilitate discourse and information sharing in public spaces. Designed for experiments in social networking and learning in physical environments, the tangible social interface (TSI) is based on the premises of the tangible user interface (TUI) -- physical objects embedded with hardware sensors for responsive output when manipulated. The tangible social interface gives unique output based on manipulation technique as well as profile information about the person who is doing the manipulation.
Remote impact: shadowboxing over a distance BIBAFull-Text 2291-2296
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Stefan Agamanolis; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere
People use a wide range of intensity when interacting with artifacts and one another, spanning from subtle to brute force. However, computer interfaces so far have mainly focused on interactions restrained to limited force and do not consider extreme physical and brutal interactions, such as those encountered in contact sports. We present an interactive demonstrator that aims to facilitate "Brute Force" activities to aid designers who want to leverage the physical and mental health benefits of such forceful interactions. Our prototype demonstrates that augmenting Brute Force with computing technology can be beneficial: unlike traditional contact sports experiences, it supports distributed participants. Our aim is to encourage designers to extend their supported interactions to include extreme forceful behaviors, which can contribute to general fitness and weight loss while at the same time allowing socializing in an entertaining sportive way.
Speculative devices for photo display BIBAFull-Text 2297-2302
  Abigail Durrant; Alex S. Taylor; Stuart Taylor; Mike Molloy; Abigail Sellen; David Frohlich; Phil Gosset; Laurel Swan
In this paper, we describe three purposefully provocative, digital photo display technologies designed for home settings. The three devices have been built to provoke questions around how digital photographs might be seen and interacted with in novel ways. They are also intended for speculation about the expressive resources afforded by digital technologies for displaying photos. It is hoped interactions with the devices will help researchers and designers reflect on new design possibilities. The devices are also being deployed as part of ongoing home-oriented field research.
Tangible-3d: hand shaking model BIBAFull-Text 2303-2308
  Takao Abe; Takuya Ogawa; Masanori Ogawara; Mitsusnori Hirano; Kazuhiko Tanaka
We have developed the "Hand Shaking Model," an application of Tangible-3D, which is a new type of remote communication interface, another example of which is the haptic 3D video phone. In this paper, we explain the Hand Shaking Model application, which allows users to shake hands with remote users, one example of Tangible-3D.
Dynamic knobs: shape change as a means of interaction on a mobile phone BIBAFull-Text 2309-2314
  Fabian Hemmert; Gesche Joost; André Knörig; Reto Wettach
In this paper, we introduce the change of a mobile phone's hardware shape as a means of tactile interaction.
   The alteration of shape is implemented in a hardware prototype using a dynamic knob as an interaction device for the user. The knob alters the phone's shape according to different events and states, like incoming calls, new voice mail, or missed calls. Therefore, the user can explore the phone's status by touching it -- ambiently, even through the pocket. Initial user testing showed that this form of tactile interaction was easy to understand and handy to interact with, also for unexperienced users.
Natural interaction sensitivetable BIBAFull-Text 2315-2318
  Alessandro Valli; Lorenzo Linari
The SensitiveTable is a large multi-touch display that detects and tracks hands and objects in contact with it at 60 frames per second with a resolution of about 1.5 millimeters. A software application framework allows the creation of custom natural experiences. The table is equipped with array microphones and RFID antennas on its edges. The table runs a speaker independent speech recognition engine, based on a very small vocabulary, that is invoked only in specific circumstances. RFID tagged objects are used to populate the interface with contents, activate functions and authenticate users. Due to its analytical nature (high resolution and multi-point gestures), the table in the public space is used mostly as a form of digital mediation between two or more persons (e.g. consultant and customer): the expert can lead the novice through the more complex and less intuitive dynamics of interaction. We provide the SensitiveTable as an example of analytical natural interaction.
SnapAndGrab: accessing and sharing contextual multi-media content using bluetooth enabled camera phones and large situated displays BIBAFull-Text 2319-2324
  Andrew J. Maunder; Gary Marsden; Richard Harper
In this paper we describe a novel interaction technique that allows users to access and share rich multi-media content via a large, situated public display and their own Bluetooth enabled camera phone. The proposed system differs from other solutions in that it does not require any client software to be installed on the user's device. We believe that our solution provides a practical and holistic approach for device-based interactions with a public multi-media information system.
Spoken words: activating text-to-speech through eye closure BIBAFull-Text 2325-2330
  Fabian Hemmert; Danijela Djokic; Reto Wettach
Writing is a predominantly visual task. In the following, we describe a system that adds a new modality to computer-supported text editing: Listening with closed eyes.
   We present a prototype, for which we combined a text-to-speech software, Microsoft Word and a face tracking system. It reads out the current sentence in Microsoft Word as soon as the user closes both eyes.
   In this paper we discuss further details of the concept and its background, describe the implementation of the prototype and disclose first user testing results, before we conclude our findings with an outlook on future research.
Weaving memories into handcrafted artifacts with Spyn BIBAFull-Text 2331-2336
  Daniela Rosner; Kimiko Ryokai
Handcrafted objects, such as knit scarves or sweaters, subtly signify the time and skill involved in their creation. Yet a handcraft artifact itself cannot convey the experience of its creation. We present the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of Spyn, a system for knitters to virtually weave stories into their creations. Using Spyn, a knitter can record, playback and share information involved in the creation of hand-knit products. Spyn uses patterns of infrared ink printed on yarn in combination with computer vision techniques to correlate locations in knit fabric with events recorded during the knitting process. Using Spyn, knitters can capture their activities as audio, image, video, and spatio-temporal data. When users photograph the knit material, the Spyn system analyzes the ink patterns on the material and visualizes events over the photograph of the knit. In the design of Spyn, we investigate the role that technology can play in preserving and sharing the handcraft process over space and time.
Digital rubbing: playful and intuitive interaction technique for transferring a graphic image onto paper with pen-based computing BIBAFull-Text 2337-2342
  Hyunjung Kim; Seoktae Kim; Boram Lee; Jinhee Pak; Minjung Sohn; Geehyuk Lee; Woohun Lee
In this paper, we introduce digital rubbing, which is a playful and intuitive interaction technique for transferring a graphic image directly onto paper. We designed TransPen and MimeoPad to realize digital rubbing. With these drawing tools, children and adults can use rubbing motions to transfer a digital image directly to paper and produce a drawing with a personal touch and natural texture, just as in traditional rubbing. We expect that digital rubbing technique would be useful in arts and design as a new way of expression in the process of drawing and editing ideas. In addition, the suggested interaction devices have the full potential to become new drawing toys for children.
iCandy: a tangible user interface for iTunes BIBAFull-Text 2343-2348
  Jamey Graham; Jonathan J. Hull
For more than half a century, musicians used artwork as a way of visually describing the contents of an album. 'Cover art' attracts attention, reminds the listener of the contents, and when printed on the album cover, provides a tangible representation of the music that's easily used for organization and sharing. Over the past few decades, the benefits of the physical album 'package' were lost as it changed from a 12" vinyl album to an electronic file and thumbnail image downloaded from an online music store. In this demonstration we present a tangible user interface called iCandy that restores the benefits of physical albums for the electronic music in the iTunes multimedia application and provides a method for easy access to recorded media. The system also includes several desktop visualizations that enhance the overall experience especially when dealing with large collections of music and video.
Paperproof: a paper-digital proof-editing system BIBAFull-Text 2349-2354
  Nadir Weibel; Adriana Ispas; Beat Signer; Moira C. Norrie
We present PaperProof, a paper-digital proof-editing application that allows users to edit digital documents by means of gesture-based mark-up of their printed versions. This enables users to switch seamlessly back and forth between paper and digital instances of a document throughout the document lifecycle, working with whichever medium is preferred for a given task. Importantly, by maintaining a logical mapping between the printed and digital instances, editing operations on paper can later be integrated into the digital document even if other users have edited the digital version in parallel. The system is based on Anoto digital pen and paper technology and is implemented using the iPaper framework for interactive paper.
Rub the Stane BIBAFull-Text 2355-2360
  Roderick Murray-Smith; John Williamson; Stephen Hughes; Torben Quaade; Steven Strachan
Stane is a hand-held interaction device controlled by tactile input: scratching or rubbing textured surfaces and tapping. The system has a range of sensors, including contact microphones, capacitive sensing and inertial sensing, and provides audio and vibrotactile feedback. The surface textures vary around the device, providing perceivably different textures to the user. We demonstrate that the vibration signals generated by stroking and scratching these surfaces can be reliably classified, and can be used as a very cheap to manufacture way to control different aspects of interaction. The system is demonstrated as a control for a music player, and in a mobile spatial interaction scenario.
TwelvePixels: drawing & creativity on a mobile phone BIBAFull-Text 2361-2366
  Ivan Poupyrev; Karl D. D. Willis
TwelvePixels is an interface for drawing pixel-based imagery using only the standard keys on the mobile phone handset. Using an essentially simple drawing method, an extensive range of imagery can be created and shared between users. This paper explores the rationale and details behind the development of the TwelvePixels interface; tracking possible applications for promoting creativity, communication, and content sharing on mobile phones.

Special interest groups

International user research in product development cycle BIBAFull-Text 2367-2370
  Wei Zhou; Velynda Prakhantree; Kelly Braun; Shannon Farrington
As an increasing number of software products enter the global market, the popularity of international user research is on the rise. Though the concept of studying international users to inform global designs is clear-cut, the actual practice is not. There are many open questions and challenges present, such as, in what stages of the development cycle and using what methods should international research be done? How might different language interfaces be studied?
   In this SIG, we will review actual case studies focused on international user research, and discuss best practices for conducting international user research to maximize global usability and ROI.
End user software engineering: chi'2008 special interest group meeting BIBAFull-Text 2371-2374
  Brad A. Myers; Margaret M. Burnett; Mary Beth Rosson; Andrew J. Ko; Alan Blackwell
End users create software whenever they write, for instance, educational simulations, spreadsheets, or dynamic e-business web applications. Researchers are working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to these end users to try to make their software more reliable. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting has two purposes: to incorporate attendees' and feedback into an emerging survey of the state of this interesting new sub-area, and generally to bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic, with the companies that are creating end-user programming tools.
Design for intuitive use: beyond usability BIBAFull-Text 2375-2378
  Anja B. Naumann; Anna E. Pohlmeyer; Steffi Husslein; Martin Christof Kindsmüller; Carsten Mohs; Johann Habakuk Israel
After a short introduction to our concept of intuitive use of user interfaces we would like to invite the interdisciplinary CHI community to discuss at least two important issues, namely: How does intuitive use and aesthetics relate? And, does physicality enable intuitive use? In the following, we present some provoking theses to trigger the discussion of these questions.
Tips and tricks for avoiding common problems in usability test facilitation BIBAFull-Text 2379-2382
  Rolf Molich; Chauncey Wilson
In this SIG experienced usability test practitioners and HCI researchers will discuss common errors in usability test facilitation. Usability test facilitation is the actual encounter between a test participant and a facilitator from the moment the test participant arrives at the test location to the moment the test participant leaves the test location. The purpose of this SIG is to identify common approaches to usability test facilitation that work and do not work, and to come up with realistic suggestions for how to prevent typical problems.
Culture calling: where is CHI? BIBAFull-Text 2383-2386
  Ashwini Asokan
Despite some incredible books and works on culture in the past decade by wonderful designers, anthropologists and thinkers like Kenji Ekuan, Genevieve Bell and Howard Rheingold, the CHI community is still sparse on conversations and publications surrounding the place and significance of world cultures on design and HCI. [4, 6, 12] Culture as a lifestyle, a set of beliefs and value systems that shape everyday life in countries around the world, is at the core of understanding what our community calls 'the user'. It is the context that explains all data and inspiration we use in our design and creative processes. This SIG provides members of HCI & Design communities with an opportunity to explore and discuss different ways in which we can integrate culture as an essential aspect of our thinking, research and design of products, services and systems.
All roads lead to CHI: interaction in the automobile BIBAFull-Text 2387-2390
  David M. Krum; Jens Faenger; Brian Lathrop; Jo Ann Sison; Annie Lien
The way we interact with the automobile is changing. New factors in automotive interaction include driver assistance technologies, new media and information options, new power train technologies, environmental concerns, and the introduction of automobiles into emerging markets. In this special interest group session, practitioners and researchers from industry, industrial labs, and academia will discuss several key interaction issues of the automotive environment. These may include personal devices and media, interaction technologies and methods, cognitive load and human factors, and international and cultural factors. Participants will also be able to share their work and recent results in short presentations to other researchers and practitioners. The goal of this session is to establish and reinforce connections between individuals in the academic and industrial communities, open new lines of communication, and foster new partnerships. These collaborations will help create a better understanding of the automotive interaction design space and address important issues in product design, safety, manufacturability, and environmental sustainability.
Design for creating, uploading and sharing user generated content BIBAFull-Text 2391-2394
  Marianna Obrist; David Geerts; Petter Bae Brandtzæg; Manfred Tscheligi
The power of users playing the roles of authors and editors is undeniable these days [1]. New media, not only the Internet, are enabling people to become active users related to content production and sharing, and in co-creation of User Generated Content (UGC). In particular younger users and heavy users of Internet use networked applications to create and share content [1]. There is a need for UGC applications targeting a broader market, including older users and average Internet users. Today, the knowledge in designing and building for co-creation in networked media is still rather weak. The lack of information about UGC characteristics makes it difficult to expect what kind and amount of content will be produced, and to understand and interpret the reasons why users and user communities arise or fail. A significant effort is currently made by the HCI community in order to support active user involvement into the design and evaluation of networked applications [6]. Non-professional users are encouraged to become active producers and designers themselves [1]. However, there is still the need to explore how to apply and further extend these approaches and methods to better understand, design for and evaluate UGC applications. This SIG will contribute to this discussion by actively involving the audience in UGC creation.
Towards a shared definition of user experience BIBAFull-Text 2395-2398
  Effie Law; Virpi Roto; Arnold P. O. S. Vermeeren; Joke Kort; Marc Hassenzahl
User experience (UX) is still an elusive notion with many different definitions, despite some recent attempts to develop a unified view on UX. The lack of a shared definition of UX not only confuses or even misleads customers of a product/service but also undermines the effectiveness of researching, managing and teaching UX. Diverse ideas have been generated in scientific activities that aim to develop a common understanding about the meaning and scope of UX. It is plausible, with sound methodologies, to converge these divergences, driving the UX community closer to a common definition and integrated views of UX. This SIG tackles this challenge by systematically assembling a set of existing definitions and viewpoints of UX and collecting opinions on them from known UX experts/researchers and general CHI'08 attendees.
Current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIBAFull-Text 2403-2406
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators' list of topics, augmented by attendees' suggestions.
Vocal interaction BIBAFull-Text 2407-2410
  Sri H. Kurniawan; Adam J. Sporka
Vocal interaction research has slowly been gaining popularity in the mainstream HCI, assistive technology, arts and game development communities. One main reason for the uptake of this interaction style is the potential of exploiting one of the most natural means of expression: human vocalizations, speech, and vocal gestures. This SIG meeting has three purposes: to communicate the results of the CHI 2007 workshop on vocal interaction to interested CHI attendees; to sketch a research agenda on the topic of the emerging interaction styles in the context of vocal interaction and its implications for the design of interactive systems; and to bring together the communities of researchers and practitioners who are addressing this topic.
User interface history BIBAFull-Text 2415-2418
  Anker Helms Jørgensen; Brad A. Myers
User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities of launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces.
Child computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 2419-2422
  Janet C. Read; Panos Markopoulos; Narcis Parés; Juan Pablo Hourcade; Alissa N. Antle
The study of Child Computer Interaction is a growing subfield of HCI. Child Computer Interaction encompasses traditional HCI but also specifically reaches out into the areas of child psychology, learning and play. The aim of this SIG is to bring together researchers and practitioners working in this area, to discover current themes, to explore the creation of a more formal working group, to locate publishing opportunities and to foster international co-operation.

alt.chi

Biometric daemons: authentication via electronic pets BIBAFull-Text 2423-2432
  Pamela Briggs; Patrick L. Olivier
A well-known security and identification problem involves the creation of secure but usable identification and authentication tools that the user is fully motivated to adopt. We describe an innovative solution to this problem: The Biometric Daemon, which takes its inspiration from two sources. It is firstly conceived as a biometric device which is initially imprinted with the fixed biometric properties of its owner, and is then regularly updated with the fluid biometric properties of its owner. However it also acts as an electronic pet which (i) part-shares identity with its owner, (ii) needs nurturing and (iii) effectively dies when separated from its owner for any length of time. Our proposal was inspired by the literary daemons described by Philip Pullman. Our Biometric Daemon synthesizes the properties of biometric token and daemon and we argue that it offers the basis for secure, usable and engaging identification and authentication.
CHI'08 alt.chi / do we bump into things more while speaking on a cell phone? BIBAFull-Text 2433-2442
  Noam Tractinsky; David Shinar
We observed more than 8,800 cases of people passing by an obstacle that was placed at different heights at the entrance to a university cafeteria. Of those cases, 491 were of pedestrians speaking on a cell phone. Overall, 2,422 bumping cases were recorded. Using a cell phone while walking did not increase the risk of bumping into protruding obstacles. The results suggest that the effective visual field of people who are involved in a highly automated, relatively slow- paced task, such as walking, under low rates of information input, is not degraded by speaking on a cell phone.
Keyholes: selective sharing in close collaboration BIBAFull-Text 2443-2452
  Les Nelson; Diana Smetters; Elizabeth F. Churchill
Documents are changing, becoming more malleable. Content operations progress, from command lines to annotation and tagging. Our studies reveal that people in practice share entire documents when portions would suffice. Readers hunt for relevant information. Authors describe laborious processes of selective sharing and redaction. Overload and loss of focus arises. We describe Keyholes, content annotations where authors or readers enter meta-data within a document to indicate what gets shared, with whom, and why. We argue that leveraging established practices (tags, social annotation, and command-line automation) clashes with CHI notions of technical contribution, but creates new social dynamism within document texts.
Location and activity sharing in everyday mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 2453-2462
  Frank R. Bentley; Crysta J. Metcalf
We present a study on current, real-world communication of location and activity information based on analyzing context-sharing practices in recorded mobile phone calls. In 176 conversations, we found that over 70 percent contain disclosures of location or activity for one of eight main purposes. Based on our observations, we provide implications for the design of new systems for mobile social software.
Interaction criticism: a proposal and framework for a new discipline of HCI BIBAFull-Text 2463-2472
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell
Though interaction designers critique interfaces as a regular part of their research and practice, the field of HCI lacks a proper discipline of interaction criticism. By interaction criticism we mean rigorous, evidence-based interpretive analysis that explicates relationships among elements of an interface and the meanings, affects, moods, and intuitions they produce in the people that interact with them; the immediate goal of this analysis is the generation of innovative design insights. We summarize existing work offering promising directions in interaction criticism to build a case for a proper discipline. We then propose a framework for the discipline, relating each of its parts to recent HCI research.
Revisiting usability's three key principles BIBAFull-Text 2473-2484
  Gilbert Cockton
The foundations of much HCI research and practice were elaborated over 20 years ago as three key principles by Gould and Lewis [7]: early focus on users and tasks; empirical measurement; and iterative design. Close reading of this seminal paper and subsequent versions indicates that these principles evolved, and that success in establishing them within software development involved a heady mix of power and destiny. As HCI's fourth decade approaches, we re-examine the origins and status of Gould and Lewis' principles, and argue that is time to move on, not least because the role of the principles in reported case studies is unconvincing. Few, if any, examples of successful application of the first or second principles are offered, and examples of the third tell us little about the nature of successful iteration. More credible, better grounded and more appropriate principles are needed. We need not so much to start again, but to start for the first time, and argue from first principles for apt principles for designing.
What is good?: a comparison between the quality criteria used in design and science BIBAFull-Text 2485-2492
  Christoph Bartneck
The human-computer interaction community is an umbrella for many disciplines. Conflicts occur from time to time, in particular between scientists and designers. This article compares the quality criteria used in design with those used in science, in order to gain insight into what design can contribute to the development of science. From the scientific perspective, the weakest point of design knowledge is its limited generalizability.
Can an orc catch a cab in stormwind?: cybertype preference in the world of warcraft character creation interface BIBAFull-Text 2493-2502
  Tyler Pace
Virtual worlds are reaching a point of critical mass as a medium for the exchange of business, entertainment and other cultural products and values. As cultural interfaces, virtual worlds mediate the access to remediated cultural data. This remediation of cultural data may transfer existing, repressive racial ideologies to new media. Limited research about racial stereotypes in virtual worlds exists and this paper contributes to the growing research body by demonstrating a novel study of a dominant racial stereotype in the character creation interface of World of Warcraft.
Early OLPC experiences in a rural Uruguayan school BIBAFull-Text 2503-2512
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Daiana Beitler; Fernando Cormenzana; Pablo Flores
In this paper, we discuss children's and teachers' experiences in a small rural town in Uruguay where every child in elementary school has received a laptop from the OLPC Foundation. In conducting activities in classrooms, observing children, and speaking with their teachers we found that the laptops have had a positive impact so far, with children accessing information resources that were previously unavailable, creating content for the world to see, collaborating and learning from each other, and increasing their interest in reading and writing. We also noted several challenges that need to be addressed, some directly related to human-computer interaction including problems with input devices, basic interactions, and the conceptual design and localization of user interfaces.
Minimal connectedness: exploring the effects of positive messaging using mobile technology BIBAFull-Text 2513-2522
  Marije Kanis; Mark Perry; Willem-Paul Brinkman
This paper describes a lightweight mobile technology designed to investigate the potential of positive messaging. We introduce the concept of minimal connectedness and examine how this form of connectivity supports and gives rise to user's positive affect. To explore this idea, a mobile application called PosiPost Me was developed, allowing users to randomly share positive messages. We present a study of the ways in which it was used and understood. As well as encouraging positive thoughts, analysis shows how the form of minimal social connectedness afforded by the application is marked by its minimal social obligation, curiosity and ambiguity.
"Seeing like a rover": embodied experience on the mars exploration rover mission BIBAFull-Text 2523-2532
  Janet Vertesi
Although they work with two non-humanoid robots located several million miles away, the distributed team that operates the Mars Exploration Rovers demonstrates an uncanny sympathy for their robotic teammates. This paper examines not only how the Rovers are anthropomorphized by the human team, but also how the team takes on characteristics of the Rovers while conducting science and operations on Mars. Based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork with the Mars Rover mission, the paper places the configuration of the user in social context and probes the role of the machine as social resource, with implications for HCI.
CHI'08 alt.chi / auralscapes: engaging ludic ambiguity in the design of a spatial system BIBAFull-Text 2533-2542
  Anijo Punnen Mathew; Justin Taylor
Ambiguity as a resource for interactive systems is gaining momentum within HCI. In this paper we describe a spatial system designed at the intersection of architecture and computing; using ludic ambiguity as its theoretical construct. Through description of the system and an examination of the ambiguous nature of the representations we will explore how such mediations could lead to richer interpretations of information.
Fragile: a case study for evoking specific emotional responses BIBAFull-Text 2543-2552
  Carla Diana
Designers and artists often seek to evoke specific, nuanced sets of emotional responses [1], but attempting to predict the reaction of a given target audience can be daunting. As a first step, it is helpful to create prototypical systems of objects and interactions in order to observe whether or not participants express certain intended emotional responses. The insight gleaned from such explorations can then be applied to future work in which the crafting of a particular experience is desired. This paper documents such an exploration, which took place in the form of an immersive, interactive environment. The environment, entitled "Fragile" included delicate movable lamps that rewarded the user with a combination of ambient sounds based on the lamps' positioning on a host object. [2]
Future craft: how digital media is transforming product design BIBAFull-Text 2553-2564
  Leonardo Bonanni; Amanda Parkes; Hiroshi Ishii
The open and collective traditions of the interaction community have created new opportunities for product designers to engage in the social issues around industrial production. This paper introduces Future Craft, a design methodology which applies emerging digital tools and processes to product design toward new objects that are socially and environmentally sustainable. We present the results of teaching the Future Craft curriculum at the MIT Media Lab including principal themes of public, local and personal design, resources, assignments and student work. Novel ethnographic methods are discussed with relevance to informing the design of physical products. We aim to create a dialogue around these themes for the product design and HCI communities.
Slurp: tangibility spatiality and an eyedropper BIBAFull-Text 2565-2574
  Jamie Zigelbaum; Adam Kumpf; Alejandro Vazquez; Hiroshi Ishii
The value of tangibility for ubiquitous computing is in its simplicity-when faced with the question of how to grasp a digital object, why not just pick it up? But this is problematic; digital media is powerful due to its extreme mutability and is therefore resistant to the constraints of static physical form. We present Slurp, a tangible interface for locative media interactions in a ubiquitous computing environment. Based on the affordances of an eyedropper, Slurp provides haptic and visual feedback while extracting and injecting pointers to digital media between physical objects and displays.

Design theater

Do that again? BIBAFull-Text 2575-2578
  Stella Boess
The proposal is for a design theatre session that explores the readability of a staged interaction. This is based on our work with role playing in design education, design research and design work. It is also based on our background in both observational research and interaction design. Reading an interaction is not straightforward. Presenting an interaction is not, either. In this presentation, a very small interaction is presented in several different ways. The audience is invited to guess and discuss about the readability of this interaction and about the consequences of the possible readings for design.
Sketch worth, catch dreams, be fruity BIBAFull-Text 2579-2582
  Gilbert Cockton
This Design Theatre uses method acting: we act out a method. It is didactic theatre: we must sketch designing, not just designs. We act out a sketching process to make maps that we can later act on.
Unhelpful helpers: when scaffolding structures veil collaborative interactions BIBAFull-Text 2583-2586
  Jakita O. Thomas; Lisa Kreeger
Collaborative software tools are designed to support users in individual and group efforts to engage in complex tasks and/or to acquire and develop complex cognitive skills. The aim is to help users by alleviating or lessening the burden of complexity or even to hide or veil the complexity inherent in these tasks and skills. These embedded design structures act as scaffolds to provide support and laddering for users' attempts at climbing through, or mastering, skills and tool use. Tools whose scaffolds and structures fail to support and/or mediate collaborative interactions and exchanges become "unhelpful helpers". Unhelpful helpers stifle, hinder, and sometimes inhibit the collaborative interactions they were designed to support. Through the use of both metaphysical and natural representations of scaffolding and collaborative interactions, we examine the emergence of unhelpful helping as a by-product, in particular, of the design of scaffolding in collaborative tools. We argue that collaborative tools should be designed with a realistic and deep understanding of the context and practices in which they will be used. Furthermore, we argue that special attention and care should be given to the design of scaffolding structures to ensure that they support and help collaborative interactions and exchanges in ways they were intended.
Co-located group interaction design BIBAFull-Text 2587-2590
  Cecily Morrison; Alan F. Blackwell
This design theatre experience explores the use of choreographic improvisation exercises to reflect on the structures of interaction in a mobile, co-located group. The design technique is motivated by studies of clinical ward rounds, and applies analytic models from Kendon, Garfinkel and Hutchins.
If you build it, they will come ... if they can: pitfalls of releasing the same product globally BIBAFull-Text 2591-2596
  Ann Hsieh; Todd Hausman; Nerija Titus; Jennifer Miller
As companies based in the US launch more "Web 2.0"-style products, the rest of the world may not be moving at the same speed. This presentation will reveal the pitfalls of building the same product for all audiences across many countries, especially when it comes to economic, environmental, technological, and cultural disparities. This illustrates the point that even if global users want to access new products, they may not always have the means.
Requirements gathering with diverse user groups and stakeholders BIBAFull-Text 2597-2600
  Maggie Morgan; Chris Martin; Marilyn McGee-Lennon; Julia Clark; Nick Hine; Maria Wolters; John Arnott
An interactive theatre piece has been designed to facilitate requirements gathering with a diverse range of user groups and stakeholders within the conceptual stage of telecare equipment for the home environment. The piece has been devised and produced by theatre professionals in consultation with computer engineers as part of a major research programme developing computer systems to support older and disabled people. By the interaction of a researcher, two actors and some video-clips, this piece demonstrates: a) the vital importance of all stakeholders being properly consulted and for them to inter-communicate well, and b) the role of theatre as a tool in this process.
   The rationale and methodology of this technique is discussed in an interactive session with the audience.
Nightmarket workshops: art & science in action BIBAFull-Text 2601-2604
  Chia-Hsun Jackie Lee; Yi-Hsiang Daniel Chao; Edward Yu-Te Shen; Anna Huang; Wu-Hsi Li; Marisa Jahn
During the past three years in Taiwan, we organized a series of Nightmarket Workshops to investigate Taiwanese sociocultural phenomena, and to provide cross-disciplinary environments for college students and practitioners to create interactive art pieces. In this process, we were intrigued by how the collaboration of art and science in the context of the nightmarket can deeply engage people in participatory ways of designing, demonstrating, and exhibiting. We present a 10-minute documentary film to illustrate the experience in which we see art and science in action.
What about a local wrapper around an universal core? BIBAFull-Text 2605-2608
  apala lahiri chavan
In this paper, I examine the possibility of restructuring our premise about cross cultural design and explore a possible new way to look at how we can create products in one culture and yet have the whole 'flat world' use it!

Design community

Accessibility Challenge -- a Game Show Investigating the Accessibility of Computer Systems for Disabled People BIBAFull-Text 2609-2610
  Maggie Morgan; Vicki Hanson; Chris Martin; Janet Hughes; Alan Newell
A professional live theatre event in the form of a game show has been designed to raise awareness of the challenges computer technology provides to older and disabled people and the advantages and disadvantages of various accessibility options that can be found within some software. It also demonstrates one way in which theatre can be used within HCI research and development. It is designed to be a stimulating event with a serious purpose.
   A pilot version of the event proved successful as a plenary "social" activity at a recent conference on Computer Science education, where very positive evaluation results were obtained. It has since been modified to focus particularly on HCI issues of accessibility.
What is a CHI portfolio? BIBAFull-Text 2611-2612
  Scott G. Pobiner; Anijo Punnen Mathew; Justin Taylor
CHI Participants are increasingly creating work in multiple formats and media. Much of this work is well suited to the kind of efficient and effective graphic and text presentation found in what has traditionally been called within design communities as a portfolio. Building on the theme of this year's conference we would like to provide an opportunity to engage the "dots" in art.science.balance. We propose a portfolio development session designed to present the notion of 'portfolio' as it relates to all fields within CHI.

Doctoral consortium

Collaboration-oriented design of disaster response system BIBAFull-Text 2613-2616
  Lucy T. Gunawan
It is of the utmost importance, we argue, to specifically tailor disaster response systems with users' collaboration in mind. Such an approach, building on top of, and extending the classic single- and multi-user Human-Computer Interaction paradigm is described in this paper. In what follows, we outline our evacuation support system for walking wounded. The proposed system follows a user-centered design method, coupled with navigationally relevant aspects of human cognition and exemplifies our collaboration-oriented design.
Emotional response as a measure of human performance BIBAFull-Text 2617-2620
  Danielle Lottridge
Emotional reactions are a key part of the user experience, and are particularly of interest to the design of systems that consider user emotions. This dissertation studies methods of measuring emotional responses through a novel two-dimensional tool, based on the model of valence and arousal. A study on reactions to storyboard and video prototypes motivated the need for continuous, quantitative, affective self-report. A pilot study with a slider revealed significant differences between the experiences of several video conferencing techniques. Next steps include prototyping two-dimensional affective self-report capture devices, and an experiment to compare relative ease of use and cognitive complexity of different methods of emotional measurement.
Flexible shortcuts: designing a new speech user interface for command execution BIBAFull-Text 2621-2624
  Teppei Nakano
This paper proposes a new speech user interface for command execution called "Flexible Shortcuts." With this approach, users can select any commands by using "continuous keyword input," a voice input method using a series of keywords related to the command. Keywords are defined by a hierarchically structured command set, called the "functional structure." Two kinds of interactions are designed to support user-friendliness and effectiveness: interaction for exploration and interaction for the resolution of ambiguity. A probabilistic formulation for this approach is also considered. An experiment and objective evaluation method are designed so that the new interface for command execution can be compared with the conventional "command and control" interface. A comparative experiment to measure the efficiency and usability is also conducted and reported in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is superior to the conventional approach from both objective and subjective points of view.
Increasing the accessibility of pen-based technology: an investigation of age-related target acquisition difficulties BIBAFull-Text 2625-2628
  Karyn A. Moffatt
Direct pen-based input takes full advantage of hand-eye coordination, and offers a familiar form of interaction. Despite these advantages, many older users experience difficulties. Thus, the goal of this dissertation is to identify the sources of user difficulty across the adult lifespan, and to design and evaluate new interaction techniques to specifically address these difficulties.
Intelligent interactions in email using social networks and AI BIBAFull-Text 2629-2632
  Joshua B. Gross
This work is directed toward high-throughput email users, and uses machine learning and other artificial intelligence approaches to allow these users to triage and search email using automatically extracted social networks. While this approach makes use of (potentially) complex algorithms, these algorithms are abstracted through user interface design such that a non-technical user can take advantage of them, customizing when appropriate. My dissertation work will crystallize the needs of high-throughput email users into concrete tools to allow these users to better and more easily manage their information needs.
Interpersonal interruptibility: a framework and research program BIBAFull-Text 2633-2636
  Sukeshini Grandhi
To date, research exploring interpersonal technology-mediated interruptions has focused on understanding how knowledge of an "interruptee's-local-context" can be utilized to reduce unwanted intrusions. However, the value of everyday interruptions are strongly tied to interrupter-interruptee relationships, interrupter's context and interruption content that we refer to as the 'relational context'. This suggests that a fresh approach to interruptibility research is needed that focuses on understanding how the knowledge of this relational context can be used to improve interruption management decisions. To address this concern a theoretical framework and associated research program are presented. The validity of fundamental aspects of this framework is then demonstrated through a study of cell phone call handling decisions. It shows that "who" is calling is used most of the time (87.4%) by individuals to make call handling decisions (N=834) unlike the interruptee's current local social (34.9%) or cognitive (43%) contexts. In addition, a clear disconnect was shown between the influence of local interrupee-context and relational context in terms of call handling decisions, suggesting that interruption management systems that focus only on an interruptee's-local-context will be ineffective. An alternative design approach is described to address these short comings.
Invoking emotional support in a health crisis BIBAFull-Text 2637-2640
  Wendy Moncur
This dissertation research explores the invocation of emotional support from friends and family for parents who have a baby in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, through the use of textual summaries of clinical and non-clinical data.
Methodological advancements of cross-cultural user-analysis BIBAFull-Text 2641-2644
  Björn M. Braun
In this paper we describe the formatting requirements for CHI2007 Extended Abstracts and offer recommendations on writing for the worldwide SIGCHI readership.
Providing insight into group process BIBAFull-Text 2645-2648
  Gahgene Gweon
This paper presents ongoing work towards development of a reporting tool for providing group work facilitators with insight into group work processes. The work includes three main phases, including feasibility testing, initial design based on data analysis of interviews, and iterative design based on user testing. Here, the work completed to date on the first two phases is presented along with ideas for the last phase of the work.
Simulating HCI for all BIBAFull-Text 2649-2652
  Pradipta Biswas
Computers offer valuable assistance to people with physical disabilities. However designing human-computer interfaces for these users is complicated. The range of abilities is more diverse than for able-bodied users, which makes analytical modelling harder. Practical user trials are also difficult and time consuming. I am developing a simulator to help with the evaluation of assistive interfaces. It can predict the likely interaction patterns when undertaking a task using a variety of input devices, and estimate the time to complete the task in the presence of different disabilities and for different levels of skills.
Social and psychological reactions to receiving help from a robot BIBAFull-Text 2653-2656
  Cristen Torrey
Computer systems, including humanoid robots, are becoming capable of recognizing human activity and, in the future, may offer unsolicited help in a variety of contexts. This helpfulness may improve people's performance on certain tasks, but there could be negative social and psychological consequences. Help recipients may feel vulnerable -- that their self-esteem and their control over the task have been threatened. To better understand the social psychological impact of receiving help from a robot, this thesis explores strategies used in human-human conversation to deliver unsolicited help and observes participants' reactions to these strategies in human-robot dialogue.
Storytelling with digital photographs: supporting the practice, understanding the benefit BIBAFull-Text 2657-2660
  Brian M. Landry
Storytelling has been a mainstay of communication between humans for centuries. Despite the sharp increase in digital photography and tools to support digital photo practices, constructing personal narratives with digital photographs remains a difficult problem. Creating personal narratives requires story-writing, media editing, and media composition skills. This research explores how to support everyday people through the challenges of narrative composition with photographs by leveraging everyday photo practices to make storytelling with photos easier. It is also concerned with providing a satisfying experience to authors and audiences alike.
The design of gaze behavior for embodied social interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2661-2664
  Bilge Mutlu
Non-verbal behavior, particularly gaze, is a crucial part of human communication. To interact with humans in a rich, natural way, social interfaces need to use this communicative channel effectively. While the role and mechanics of human gaze are extensively studied, how gaze might be used effectively by embodied interfaces is not well explored. The goal of my dissertation is to gain a deeper understanding of how gaze behavior affects people's interactions with embodied social interfaces and how we can design gaze for effective communication. This research focuses on four main social functions of gaze: Regulation, Expression, Establishing Joint Attention, and Initiating/Avoiding of Social Encounters and four sets of design variables: Temporal, Spatial, Physiological, and Contextual. A systematic study of how these functions and design variables affect each other is conducted through a series of empirical studies.
Touch proxy interaction BIBAFull-Text 2665-2668
  Angela Chang
The purpose of this research is to build and evaluate collaborative touch devices that influence behavior change over individuals in small group situations. This paper presents touch proxy objects for collocated collaboration and communication. Touch proxy objects afford and represent touch in order to allow the sense of touch to be shared between people. This paper presents preliminary observations from studies performed on existing touch communication objects.
Wellness applications -- UI design to support long-term usage motivation BIBAFull-Text 2669-2672
  Aino Ahtinen
Due to the high penetration rate of mobile phones today, they have the potential to provide accessible and easy-to-use applications that help people manage their health and be physically more active. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author's PhD studies on the user interaction, usability and motivational issues related to mobile wellness applications.

Works in progress

A framework for mobile evaluation BIBAFull-Text 2673-2678
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço; Luís Duarte; Tiago Reis
In this paper we present a software framework which supports the construction and evaluation of mixed-fidelity prototypes for mobile devices. The framework is available for desktop and mobile devices and allows designers and users to 1) test the prototypes on actual devices; 2) gather usage information, both passively and actively supporting contextual and ubiquitous evaluation; 3) convey common prototyping procedures with effective data gathering methods that can be used on ubiquitous scenarios; 4) support in-situ prototyping and participatory design on-the-go. We address the framework's features and its contributions to the evaluation of applications for mobile devices and the field of mobile interaction design, presenting real-life case studies and achieved results.
A framework for understanding mobile internet motivations and behaviors BIBAFull-Text 2679-2684
  Carol A. Taylor; Ona Anicello; Scott Somohano; Nancy Samuels; Lori Whitaker; Judith A. Ramey
Why do people access information via the mobile Internet? This qualitative study examines a group of active users and proposes a new preliminary framework for understanding their motivations and behaviors.
A gesture based game for image tagging BIBAFull-Text 2685-2690
  Duarte Gonçalves; Rui Jesus; Nuno Correia
This paper proposes and discusses the ASAA (Application for Semi-Automatic Annotation) interface, a new computer game for image tagging. The application is composed by a 3D game interface, a game engine that uses a system for automatic image annotation and gestural input to play the game. The paper describes the rational and design principles for the application and presents ideas for future developments.
A large 2d+3d focus+context screen BIBAFull-Text 2691-2696
  Achim Ebert; Peter Dannenmann; Matthias Deller; Daniel Steffen; Nahum Gershon
Today, the amount of unstructured, multidimensional information is becoming more and more complex and overwhelming. One promising approach to face these problems is the efficient use of large displays. Their immersive effect is even stronger when using a stereoscopic representation of information. However, the technical limitations of such 3D projective systems result in a loss of detail and a bad readability of textual information. We present a novel approach which enhances a 3D projective system by providing an additional high resolution 2D focus area.
A multimodal interactive system to create and explore graph structures BIBAFull-Text 2697-2702
  Cristian Bernareggi; Christian Comaschi; Andrea Marcante; Piero Mussio; Loredana Parasiliti Provenza; Sara Vanzi
This work introduces a multimodal interactive system to create, edit and explore graph structures through direct manipulation operations. The system being designed is based on audio-haptic interaction, supported by visual feedback. A star life design and development cycle was undertaken. The main design choices and early implementation and evaluation results are illustrated.
A novel interface to present emotional tactile sensation to a palm using air pressure BIBAFull-Text 2703-2708
  Yuki Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
We propose a new tactile interface to present various types of tactile sensation, especially a feeling of "softness". A user holds our interface, containing two speakers, with both hands while the speakers vibrate air between the speakers and palms. The user feels suctioning and pushing sensations to the palms due to the air pressure. By changing the frequency of vibration, the user experiences not only normal vibration but also "soft" feelings like that of liquid, spring-like objects, and living matter.
A resource kit for participatory socio-technical design in rural Kenya BIBAFull-Text 2709-2714
  Kevin Walker; Joshua Underwood; Tim Waema; Lynne Dunckley; José Abdelnour-Nocera; Rosemary Luckin; Cecilia Oyugi; Souleymane Camara
We describe our approach and initial results in the participatory design of technology relevant to local rural livelihoods. Our approach to design and usability proceeds from research in theory and practice of cross-cultural implementations, but the novelty is in beginning not with particular technologies but from community needs, and structuring technology in terms of activities. We describe our project aims and initial data collected, which show that while villagers have no clear mental models for using computers or the Internet, they show a desire to have and use them. We then describe our approach to interaction design, our expectations and next steps as the technology and activities are first introduced to the villages.
A solution to interface evolution issues: the multi-layer interface BIBAFull-Text 2715-2720
  Bruno Merlin; Christophe Hurter; Raïlane Benhacene
Updating an operational system is often complex and awkward. In this article, we will explain how the concept of multi-layer interface could facilitate the evolution of operational interactive systems. We will explain how the division in several layers could increase the application acceptance and smooth out learning phases. Furthermore, we will present how we implement this concept in the ASTER project.
A study on a flight display using retro-reflective projection technology and a propeller BIBAFull-Text 2721-2726
  Takuya Nojima; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
The head up display (HUD) is becoming increasingly common in the aerospace field because it has many benefits such as enabling operations in poor visibility and improving flight safety. The HUD is a kind of augmented reality display that enables a pilot to observe the scene outside the cockpit while simultaneously viewing an artificial image of flight information. However, the HUD is too expensive and heavy for light airplanes. In this paper, we propose a new method to combine real and artificial images using Retro-reflective Projection Technology and rotating objects, and we apply the method to an airplane with a single propeller to compose a simple HUD. In this report, we also describe the developed system and preliminary experimental results.
Accessibility in virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 2727-2732
  Shari M. Trewin; Mark R. Laff; Anna Cavender; Vicki L. Hanson
Virtual worlds present both an opportunity and a challenge to people with disabilities. Standard ways to make such worlds accessible to a broad set of users have yet to emerge, although some core requirements are already clear. This paper describes work in progress towards an accessible 3D multi-player game that includes a set of novel tools for orienting, searching and navigating the world.
Achieving accessibility with self-interested designers: a strategic knowledge-acquisition approach BIBAFull-Text 2733-2738
  Bruno N. da Silva; Lucia H. da Silva; Ana C. Garcia
We introduce a new approach towards a more accessible Web by means of more accessible knowledge acquisition mechanisms. Our strategy is to detect the Web designer's needs for knowledge that can be collected from minorities of Web users, and subsequently to design mechanisms that allow the proper elicitation of such knowledge from Web users. We discuss how this scenario places marginal Web users in a privileged position that appeals for their inclusion. Additionally, we illustrate how this approach might help build a more accessible Web, to the benefit of visually-impaired knowledge contributors.
Age differences in online social networking BIBAFull-Text 2739-2744
  Rajiv Arjan; Ulrike Pfeil; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This study presents an analysis of age-related differences of user behavior in the social network site MySpace.com. We focus on two age groups: older people (60+ years of age) and teenagers (between 13 and 19 years of age). We used locally developed web crawlers to collect large sets of data from MySpace's user profile pages. We used different analytic techniques to quantify any differences that exist in the networks of friends of older people and teenagers. Content analysis was applied to investigate age-related differences concerning the way users represent themselves on their profile pages. Our findings show that teenagers tend to have much larger networks of friends compared to older users. Also, we found that the majority of teenage users' friends are in their own age range (age +/- 2 years), whilst older people's friends tend to have a more diverse age distribution.
Attending to large dynamic displays BIBAFull-Text 2745-2750
  Jing Feng; Ian Spence
Although studies have shown that physically large displays bring benefits in performance and user satisfaction, the expanded field-of-view (FOV) places considerably higher demands on our cognitive capacities. Understanding how we process information over a wide FOV is increasingly important to optimize interface design. So far, however, empirical investigations are scarce. We present an experimental paradigm and framework for research with large displays and we report a preliminary experiment that explores attentional performance over a wide FOV. The paradigm simulates aspects of tasks that are facilitated by large displays. Our data suggest that processing abilities in the center and periphery are similar only if distractors are not present. With distractors, peripheral processing is disrupted and performance is poorer than in the center. In general, both accuracy and speed decline if the user must process information simultaneously in both areas. We discuss the implications for interface design, and describe further work that we are planning within this framework.
Backchan.nl: integrating backchannels with physical space BIBAFull-Text 2751-2756
  Drew Harry; Dan Gutierrez; Joshua Green; Judith Donath
In this paper, we describe backchan.nl, a web based backchannel system that focuses on managing questions for presenters by allowing audience members propose and vote on other people's questions. Top rated questions are projected in the presentation space so audience members, moderators, and panelists can see them. We discuss the results of deploying this system at a conference and relate those results to the particular design of our system, demonstrating how backchannel systems can be more than just shared chat rooms.
Blocked sites and offensive videos: the challenges of teen computer use BIBAFull-Text 2757-2762
  Anne Aula; Sasha Lubomirsky
Teenagers are often presented as comfortable users of technology. To better understand this assumption, we asked 27 teenagers to complete a survey about the previous day's media use; we then interviewed the participants about these entries. The participants actively used computers for information, communication and entertainment. Most of the comments about technology were positive, but our study also revealed problems in the teenagers' computer use. They had stories about parents and teachers restricting their use of the web and there were several instances in which the teens themselves found the web to be offensive, inappropriate and unreliable.
Bridging gaps: affective communication in long distance relationships BIBAFull-Text 2763-2768
  Shruti Bhandari; Shaowen Bardzell
This study examines communication methods and needs of people in long distance romantic relationships to understand how intimate computing can help create or augment already existing artifacts to promote feeling of connectivity within non-collocated couples. We report our research in progress and provide a collection of initial design concepts based on the user research.
Brightshadow: shadow sensing with synchronous illuminations for robust gesture recognition BIBAFull-Text 2769-2774
  Jun Rekimoto
We introduce a new sensor architecture for robust gesture recognition that uses a combination of a high-speed camera and synchronous LED illumination. This sensor looks at shadows cast by a user's hand for recognizing position. The position of the hand can be robustly recognized by independently tracking multiple shadows and by using multiple light sources with time-synchronous modulation with the camera. We also developed a multi-finger tracking system that uses similar modulated illumination from multiple light positions. We expect that these sensing configurations can be naturally integrated into our daily environments as LED lighting becomes more commonplace.
Bringing the target to the cursor: proxy targets for older adults BIBAFull-Text 2775-2780
  Faustina Hwang; Helen Batson; Nitin Williams
Studies in the literature have proposed techniques to facilitate pointing in graphical user interfaces through the use of proxy targets. Proxy targets effectively bring the target to the cursor, thereby reducing the distance that the cursor must travel. This paper describes a study which aims to provide an initial understanding of how older adults respond to proxy targets, and compares older with younger users. We found that users in both age groups adjusted to the proxy targets without difficulty, and there was no indication in the cursor trajectories that users were confused about which target, i.e. the original versus the proxy, was to be selected. In terms of times, preliminary results show that for younger users, proxies did not provide any benefits over direct selection, while for older users, times were increased with proxy targets. A full analysis of the movement times, error rates, throughput and subjective feedback is currently underway.
Can blogs empower women?: designing agency-enhancing and community-building interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2781-2786
  Carmen Stavrositu; S. Shyam Sundar
The much-touted empowerment potential of blogs is empirically examined in this study through an online survey of female bloggers (N = 340). Our findings indicate that by affording users either a strong sense of community, or a deep sense of agency, or both, blogging is indeed psychologically empowering to those undertaking it. This is part of an ongoing series of investigations into the empowerment potential of Web 2.0 interfaces for marginalized groups in society. Implications for design are discussed.
Chromirror: a real-time interactive mirror for chromatic and color-harmonic dressing BIBAFull-Text 2787-2792
  Chueh-Min Cheng; Meng-Fang Chung; Ming-Yang Yu; Ming Ouhyoung; Hao-Hua Chu; Yung-Yu Chuang
This study presents the "ChroMirror" system, a digital mirror imaging system which helps users select appropriate clothing color combinations. By digitally rendering a mirror image of the user wearing clothing in different color-harmonic combinations, this system enables users to easily and playfully explore a wide variety of chromatic and color-harmonic clothing combinations (i.e., without having to physically change clothing). A long-term goal of the ChroMirror system is to encourage users to experiment with colorful and color-harmonic clothes.
CogTool-explorer: towards a tool for predicting user interaction BIBAFull-Text 2793-2798
  Leonghwee Teo; Bonnie E. John
In recent years, research predicting search through webpages has begun to be successful. However, existing tools ignore the order in which on-screen options are evaluated and therefore might make inaccurate predictions. We developed CogTool-Explorer and used it to model a previously published web-based experiment. Its predictions were better than those of a previously published tool, and included the order of evaluation effect not accounted for by previous tools. These more accurate predictions can be attributed to the approach used in CogTool-Explorer.
Collaborative search and sensemaking of patents BIBAFull-Text 2799-2804
  Suresh Bhavnani; Gavin Clarkson; Matthew Scholl
Despite the large number of patent searches conducted by professional patent searchers and inventors, little is known about how such searches are actually performed. Here we describe a qualitative study of experienced patent searchers as they conducted in-context searches at a technology transfer office. Based on studies of expert search and sensemaking in other domains, we expected the professional searchers to (1) use well-formed search strategies that were effective for patent search, and (2) rapidly make sense of the novelty of an invention by constructing new representations to organize existing patents that appear relevant. Instead, we observed the searchers perform simplistic preliminary searches and then exchange their search process and results with inventors and patent lawyers to collaboratively make sense of the patentability and licensability of the invention. Furthermore, their sensemaking consisted of selecting known representations of patents to organize the new information, an approach we call "weak" sensemaking. These results suggest implications for designing systems that support the observed collaborative "weak" sensemaking with the goal of helping the users to more effectively determine the patentability and licensability of an invention.
Common sense assistant for writing stories that teach social skills BIBAFull-Text 2805-2810
  Kyunghee Kim; Rosalind W. Picard; Henry Lieberman
People on the autistic spectrum often have difficulties with social interaction, and these difficulties are compounded when a person faces the uncertainty of not knowing what to expect in a new social setting. Detailed, step-by-step explanations of people's intentions and plausible actions can often help autistic people make sense of the situation, adapt to the social rules, and reduce stress associated with the social encounter. Carol Gray's Social Stories? are carefully structured stories designed to prepare autistic people for everyday situations such as smiling at friends, waiting in a line, and staying calm in an audience when the speaker's slides don't match the handouts. Teachers or parents writing these stories often forget to include explanations of simple, "common sense" facts and simple variations of the story that might occur in different circumstances. We present a new tool that helps the writer explain salient points and think of more variations of the story. It uses a knowledge base of Common Sense sentences, Open Mind Common Sense, and inference in a semantic network, ConceptNet. We are investigating whether this new tool's suggestions are useful by examining how often the writers choose and use the suggestions that it generates.
Communication patterns and usability problem finding in cross-cultural thinking aloud usability testing BIBAFull-Text 2811-2816
  Qingxin Shi; Torkil Clemmensen
Communication plays an important role for the evaluator to find accurate usability problems in formative thinking aloud usability testing in the industrial area. This study investigates the communication patterns of evaluators in cross-cultural usability testing, and the influence on usability problem finding by doing experiments with Danish users and Chinese users. The purpose of this research is to propose effective communication patterns for evaluators to do usability tests with Western and East Asian users.
Comparing access methods and quality of 3g mobile video streaming services BIBAFull-Text 2817-2822
  Marcin Davies; Antitza Dantcheva; Peter Fröhlich
In this paper we examine the access methods and the quality of experience of current unicast video streaming services in 3G mobile networks. A packet-switched mobile video client, a packet-switched video portal and two variants of circuit-switched streaming (standard vs. short code access) are evaluated in a user study. We found that the particular access method is an influential factor in the overall acceptance of a mobile video service. This makes circuit-switched streaming video with short code access a viable alternative to the currently predominant packet-switched video services.
Content visualization and management of geo-located image databases BIBAFull-Text 2823-2828
  Marco Cristani; Alessandro Perina; Umberto Castellani; Vittorio Murino
In the last years, several algorithms and platforms for photo sharing have been developed. Usually, in order to index huge quantities of images for a fast and intuitive retrieval, additional textual tags attached to the pictures are considered. In this paper, we present a set of solutions for an effective management of geo-located images, i.e. pictures equipped with tags indicating the geographical coordinates of acquisition. This brings towards an intuitive content visualization and management of large geo-located image databases.
Conversation clusters: human-computer dialog for topic extraction BIBAFull-Text 2829-2834
  Tony Bergstrom; Karrie Karahalios
In this paper, we look at projects leveraging human knowledge and understanding in computer systems for extracting conversational topics. Tasks like speech recognition are difficult for computers, but simple for people engaged in conversation. This task is a cornerstone of transcription, speech summarization, and topic recognition. We propose using tabletop interaction to enhance the computer's basic categorization. We then describe how the results of tabletop interaction help to create meaningful archival visualizations and personal reflecting tools.
Creating social value of interactive media installation: case study of designing "wish spark" BIBAFull-Text 2835-2840
  Sunyoung Park; Tek-Jin Nam; Yuree Stacy Lim
We present a public interactive media installation, "Wish Spark" that evokes people's participation, sharing and giving. Different from art-based interactive media installation, Wish Spark has a practical feature; an aid for making donation a pleasurable, meaningful, and interactive activity. Our main concept is to make a system that appeals donation behavior as an act of fun not as a buggy activity, and finally lead people to make freewill contribution for society. This paper presents design process on how to make synergic effect of charitable giving as well as makes people have fun together. The act of throwing coin into the fountain was found to be a powerful and traditional way of making donation, thus it was used as a main metaphor for our solution. When people throw coins with their wish into Wish Spark, light and sound expressions occur to create a pleasurable user experience. The corrected coins are represented as people's wishes. Wish Spark is suggested to install in the landing gate of the airport because people can easily have a chance to give donation with small effort. In this project, we suggest a possibility to extend the social value of media installation by introducing interaction design process between human and public environment.
Creativity interventions: physical-digital activities for promoting group creativity BIBAFull-Text 2841-2846
  Lisa M. Tolentino; Aisling Kelliher; David A. Birchfield; Rebecca P. Stern
Arizona State University's Arts, Media, and Engineering Program is currently addressing the need to assess the growth of group creativity in trans-disciplinary collaboration. This paper describes our initial work in developing criteria and a framework for constructing creativity interventions, or activities designed for building, tracking and evaluating creative group behaviors in diverse communities of IT practitioners.
Defining scenarios for mobile design and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 2847-2852
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
This paper presents results from the design experiences of several mobile applications. It starts by addressing the difficulties that emerged through the data gathering, prototyping and evaluation stages. We explain how these problems and challenges were tackled, resulting in the creation of a conceptual scenario generation and selection framework. The framework and suggested guidelines aim at aiding designers on the scenario generation and selection process during design and evaluation of mobile applications. We address several case studies in which these guidelines were applied, stressing their contributions and results.
Design and evaluation of Korean text entry methods for mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 2853-2858
  Ivaylo Ilinkin; Sunghee Kim
This paper presents a new keypad layout for Korean mobile phones and provides a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of the design. At present the keypad layout for Korean mobile phones has not been standardized and different manufacturers produce phones with different layouts. The proposed layout is inspired by the structure of the Korean script and is designed to promote faster learning curve and ease of use.
Design of human-map system interaction BIBAFull-Text 2859-2864
  Thomas Porathe; Johannes Prison
In this work-in-progress we present some ideas and findings involving map design and human performance. Satellites has once and for all automated geographic positioning and resulted in a plethora of map applications, not only in professional transportation but also in the private sphere, in cars and even for street use in mobile phones. But many people have problems using the traditional bird's-eye view maps. A maze experiment presented here show that an egocentric (out of the window) view of the map results in faster decision making and fewer errors. Can this also address some of the human-out-of-the-loop problems of navigation automation?
Designing an interactive forest through sensor-based installations BIBAFull-Text 2865-2870
  André Dória; Pedro Campos; Emanuel Fernandes
We describe the design approach of an interactive exhibition called "The Interactive Laurissilva". The exhibition is about Madeira Island's endemic forest, and is composed of 15 sensor-based interactive installations. We discuss the interaction styles that were adopted, reflecting upon the ethnographic observation of visitors and we summarize the lessons learned.
Designing for children's physical play BIBAFull-Text 2871-2876
  Tilde M. Bekker; Berry H. Eggen
In this paper we describe preliminary results of our work on designing innovative sport concepts to stimulate children's physical play. We are exploring how embedding sensor and actuator technology in products can stimulate children to practice sport related skills. It incorporates ideas from game design, persuasive technology and sport motivation theories. We illustrate our approach with two case studies, in the context of football and basketball and discuss our experiences with embedding sensor technology to provide a motivating play experience for children.
Designing large-display workspaces for cooperative travel consultancy BIBAFull-Text 2877-2882
  Jasminko Novak; Mattias Aggeler; Gerhard Schwabe
This paper discusses the design and first deployment experiences of an interactive large-display workspace for face-to-face travel consultancy. The stickiness of client preferences, the asymmetry of information about the solution space and the emotional colouring of client choices, make this complex cooperative process difficult to perform. To support such collocated consultancies we propose a large-display system providing a shared visualization of information resources that can be manipulated jointly by both parties. The use of natural touch interaction and multimedia resources furthers emotional involvement of the user. Results of a preliminary evaluation suggest that such a large-display workspace can greatly improve the cooperation process and both customer and agent satisfaction.
Developing a novel interface for capturing self reports of affect BIBAFull-Text 2883-2888
  Madeline Alsmeyer; Rosemary Luckin; Judith Good
This paper describes the Subtle Stone, a tangible handheld tool which supports the communication of emotional experience in the classroom. The results of an initial evaluation suggest that this novel interface is easy to use within a busy working context, and renders the concept of emotion more accessible to young learners. The highly adaptable nature of the tool may make it a useful research instrument within other experimental contexts as well as a communication device for different experiential reports.
Development of a location and movement monitoring system to quantify physical activity BIBAFull-Text 2889-2894
  Gillian MacLellan; Lynne Baillie
There are currently 1 billion overweight adults in the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Being overweight can pose a major risk to the health of an individual. The main reason for the increase in obesity in the West is the large changes in society, for example, our work and our leisure pursuits are becoming increasingly less physically demanding. One of the main ways that, according to the WHO, an individual can combat this is to undertake 30 minutes of moderate physical activity a day. However, it can be difficult for a person to gauge this moderate physical activity. This paper describes the design of a prototype system which collects and subsequently combines data from an activity monitor and GPS device in order to help people to examine their activity patterns. The intention is that the integrated system will provide data to the user and others that will enable them to assess the effectiveness of attempts to increase activity and indicate where barriers to increased activity may exist, particularly those caused by the external environment.
Digital paper bookmarks: collaborative structuring, indexing and tagging of paper documents BIBAFull-Text 2895-2900
  Jürgen Steimle; Oliver Brdiczka; Max Mühlhäuser
Bookmarks provide an efficient and well established means for structuring, indexing and tagging documents, all important processes for successful learning. We present a prototype of Digital Paper Bookmarks, writable adhesive stickers which combine the intuitiveness of paper bookmarks with electronic processing. Electronic tracking of the bookmarking actions performed on a paper printout provides for tangible bookmarking and tagging of electronic documents. A collaborative visualization of own bookmarks and shared ones of other users allows contrasting the own understanding with those of others. Four different semantic types of bookmarks scaffold learners in their learning processes and enable automatic aggregations.
Dip -- it: digital infrared painting on an interactive table BIBAFull-Text 2901-2906
  Peter Vandoren; Tom Van Laerhoven; Luc Claesen; Johannes Taelman; Fabian Di Fiore; Frank Van Reeth; Eddy Flerackers
In this paper we report on our work to develop a novel input technique for a digital paint system. Using a brush with infrared (IR) light emitting fibers, we were able to create a natural paint interface on an interactive table. This IR-brush adds two important properties to our paint environment: haptic feedback and an accurate brush footprint. The modified brush approaches the haptic feedback of the traditional paint brush. The use of IR-light in the brush enables tracking the contact area of the brush on the interactive table. Informal usability tests show that our digital paint environment offers an intuitive interface and contributes to an enhanced user experience in digital painting.
Do knobs have character?: exploring diversity in users' inferences BIBAFull-Text 2907-2912
  Evangelos Karapanos; Stephan Wensveen; Bart Friederichs; Jean-Bernard Martens
Physical controls are now ubiquitous in everyday interactions. Empirical studies of physical interactions have traditionally been exploring instrumental aspects such as error rate and experienced workload. Recently, affective aspects of physical interaction have attracted an increased interest. In this paper we further argue that physical controls might have a character. We describe an exploratory study that aimed at understanding whether individuals form character judgments of physical controls based on haptic information, and explored the diversity across individuals' inference processes.
Driving the family: empowering the family technology lead BIBAFull-Text 2913-2918
  Matthew, Jr. Forrest; Jodi Forlizzi; John Zimmerman
Advances in technology continually increase the ability, but also the complexity of consumer electronics. This is especially true when several devices must be configured to work together, such as a digital TV and satellite box. Manufacturers of consumer electronics attempt to remedy this by designing interfaces that consolidate multiple, complex user interfaces into a single, simple interface. However, the problem remains that end-users are still expected to configure and learn to operate these new interfaces on their own.
   This paper addresses the problem by proposing a radically new goal in terms of user interfaces for in-home, networked consumer electronics. Instead of trying and failing to make interfaces simple enough for everyone to use, we propose making interfaces that allow a "technology lead" -- the person in the family responsible for supporting the technology-to more easily administer devices in his or her own home and in the homes of other family members. In Japan, where this study is taking place, user-centered research methods show that families usually have a single technology lead who is challenged with supporting people remotely in several homes. By enabling the technology lead to remotely support family members at a distance, the natural family dynamic can be used to support users who either find the new breed of consumer electronics too difficult to learn or do not wish to invest the time to learn how they work.
Effect of agent appearance on people's interpretation of agent's attitude BIBAFull-Text 2919-2924
  Takanori Komatsu; Seiji Yamada
We conducted psychological experiments in which participants were presented with artificial sounds that were intended to convey the attitudes of three different agents: a Mindstorms robot, an AIBO, and a laptop PC. The participants were asked to select the correct attitudes based on the sounds expressed by these three agents. The results showed that the participants had higher interpretation rates when the PC presented the sounds, even though the utilized artificial sounds were the same for all three agents.
Engaging the crowd: studies of audience-performer interaction BIBAFull-Text 2925-2930
  Louise Barkhuus; Tobias Jørgensen
In this work-in-progress we explore audience behavior at large musical events and present our prototype, a "cheering meter" developed to aid voting at rap competitions. We report from use of the cheering meter at eight concerts and conclude by highlighting how augmented interaction can increase the sense of participation among the audience at large-scale performances.
Enhancing online personal connections through the synchronized sharing of online video BIBAFull-Text 2931-2936
  David A. Shamma; Marcello Bastea-Forte; Niels Joubert; Yiming Liu
Going to movies in a group and inviting friends over to watch TV are common social activities. This social engagement both improves the viewing experience and helps us stay close with our friends and family. To bring this feeling of co-presence to the Internet, we developed a set of prototypes that enable people to feel more connected by watching web video together in sync. We present the preliminary results of a quantitative usage study and show initial evidence that simultaneous video sharing online can help people feel closer and more connected to their friends and family.
Evaluating automatically generated location-based stories for tourists BIBAFull-Text 2937-2942
  Johannes Schöning; Brent Hecht; Nicole Starosielski
Tourism provides over six percent of the world's gross domestic product. As a result, there have been many efforts to use technology to improve the tourist's experience via mobile tour guide systems. One key bottleneck in such location-based systems is content development; existing systems either provide trivial information at a global scale or present quality narratives but at an extremely local scale. The primary reason for this dichotomy is that, although good narrative content is more educationally effective (and more entertaining) than a stream of simple, disconnected facts, it is time-intensive and expensive to develop. However, the WikEar system uses narrative theory-informed data mining methodologies in an effort to produce high-quality narrative content for any location on Earth. It allows tourists to interact with these narratives using their camera-enabled cell phones and an innovative interface designed around a magic lens and paper map metaphor. In this paper, we describe a first evaluation of these narratives and the WikEar interface, which reported promising, but not conclusive, results. We also present ideas for future work that will use this feedback to improve the narratives.
Evaluating touch gestures for scrolling on notebook computers BIBAFull-Text 2943-2948
  Kevin Wayne Arthur; Nada Matic; Paul Ausbeck
We describe a new circular touch gesture for scrolling called ChiralMotion and report on work to measure its performance. In a study using a document scrolling task, ChiralMotion outperformed linear Virtual Scrolling on a notebook computer TouchPad. Participants also indicated a preference for ChiralMotion in a follow-up questionnaire. We discuss the results and our plans for follow-up studies incorporating other devices.
Evaluating user preferences for adaptive reminding BIBAFull-Text 2949-2954
  Julie S. Weber; Martha E. Pollack
We are developing an adaptive reminding system that tailors its reminders to its users' reminding preferences through real-time interaction and feedback. To determine the potential utility of such a system, we conducted a multi-phase user study, presented in this paper, in which we evaluate people's preferences for the visual presentation of reminders. Results indicate that people generally agree on the relative annoyance levels of visual reminders, and further, in certain contexts, more "annoying" or intrusive reminder styles are preferred. However, while there are some overarching patterns of agreement about the contexts in which certain types of reminders are preferable, preliminary evaluation also indicates that there are significant differences among people's preferences for specific visual reminders. This motivates the design and development of adaptive reminding systems that learn their users' individual preferences.
Evolving TUIs with smart objects for multi-context interaction BIBAFull-Text 2955-2960
  Stefano Baraldi; Luca Benini; Omar Cafini; Alberto Del Bimbo; Elisabetta Farella; Giulia Gelmini; Lea Landucci; Augusto Pieracci; Nicola Torpei
We present our ongoing work, an application framework created to extend the concept of natural and tangible interfaces to environments composed of many interactive systems disseminated in an indoor space. In such environments users can perform solo or collaborative activities using different systems (like interactive tabletops or walls) and interacting with them through tangible smart objects provided with sensors, storage, processing and wireless communication capabilities. The smart objects become the representatives of the user navigating in the environment, and while retaining their basic affordance suggested by their shape, can assume different roles in relation to the system they approach. We investigated some application scenarios and present early observations related to the design and implementation, as well as future directions.
Experience-scapes BIBAFull-Text 2961-2966
  Eric Keylor; Winslow Burleson
Experience-scapes systems enable scripted sequences of media events (acoustic, visual, and haptic) to be triggered based on time and/or sensed activity. These systems use event-based schedulers and sensors in physical environments to detect and respond to individual and group activity. They are designed to motivate, sustain, and augment a wide variety of human behaviors. Ongoing user testing is geared toward understanding how these systems can be used to better understand, encourage, and organize personal and group activities. A primary goal of experience-scapes research is to leverage increasingly available ubiquitous and physical computing platforms to enhance personal and group self-awareness and self-efficacy. Through user testing and refinement, experience-scape systems are becoming readily deployable, interactive, smart environments that empower people to reflect on their everyday activities.
Exploring characteristics of collective content: a field study with four user communities BIBAFull-Text 2967-2972
  Thomas Olsson; Hannu Toivola; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
People increasingly share online information with the communities they belong to. This paper presents an empirical field study of four communities on how they interact with collective content. Our results reveal users' motivations for creating collective content. The results indicate the defining characteristics by which collective content can be described: semantic content of the content item, the level of sharing and the community's contribution. Furthermore, we found that collectivity of content is not primarily an ownership issue but more a matter of users' perceptions of communality of content.
Exploring evaluation methods for ambient information systems BIBAFull-Text 2973-2978
  William R. Hazlewood; Kay Connelly; Kevin Makice; Youn-kyung Lim
In this paper, we begin by laying out our motivation for exploring methods of evaluating Ambient Information Systems, with a strong push toward in-situ studies. Next, we describe a simple study which was conducted to give us further insight into this research domain. We conclude by discussing the insights gained from our study, and possible ways to improve our evaluation results in future iterations.
Exploring gestural mode of interaction with mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 2979-2984
  Shruti Bhandari; Youn-Kyung Lim
The study explores the users' perceptions to a novel interaction method with mobile phones. We study responses and reactions of participants towards gestures as a mode of input with the help of a low fidelity prototype of a camera mobile phone. The study uses an approach inspired by participatory design to gauge the acceptance of gestures as an interaction mode.
Extracting "broken expectations" from call center records: why and how BIBAFull-Text 2985-2990
  Aylin Koca; Aarnout C. Brombacher
Currently, despite the explicit industrial consideration to improve the appeal and usability of technically sound electronics products, users increasingly seem to have dissatisfactory experiences in interacting with them. These unforeseen experiences (attributable to specifications omissions, usability/learnability problems, or specific usage context) lead to a large and increasing share of unknown field complaints. To correct and prevent such complaints or user reports, we promote effective exploitation of call centers: Valuable usage data is retrievable from the field by adopting a user-centered failure classification model that we developed. We also report on the supporting results of a test from applying our model to a set of call center data.
Eye movements as implicit relevance feedback BIBAFull-Text 2991-2996
  Georg Buscher; Andreas Dengel; Ludger van Elst
Reading detection is an important step in the process of automatic relevance feedback generation based on eye movements for information retrieval tasks. We describe a reading detection algorithm and present a preliminary study to find expressive eye movement measures.
Eye-mouse coordination patterns on web search results pages BIBAFull-Text 2997-3002
  Kerry Rodden; Xin Fu; Anne Aula; Ian Spiro
We analyzed the patterns of coordination between users' eye movements and mouse movements when scanning a web search results page, using data gathered from a study with 32 participants. We discovered 3 patterns of active mouse usage: following the eye vertically with the mouse, following the eye horizontally with the mouse, and using the mouse to mark a promising result.
Eyepass -- eye-stroke authentication for public terminals BIBAFull-Text 3003-3008
  Alexander De Luca; Roman Weiss; Heinrich Hußmann; Xueli An
Authentication on public terminals e.g. on ATMs and ticket vending machines is a common practice. Due to the weaknesses of the traditional authentication approaches PIN and password, it is possible that other people gain access to the authentication information and thus to the users' personal data. This is mainly due to the physical interaction with the terminals, which enables various manipulations on these devices.
   In this paper, we present EyePass, an authentication mechanism based on PassShape and eye-gestures that has been created to overcome these problems by eliminating the physical connection to the terminals. EyePass additionally assists the users by providing easy-to-remember PassShapes instead of PINs or passwords. We present the concept, the prototype and the first evaluations performed. Additionally, the future work on the evaluation is outlined and expected results are discussed.
Fighting fragmentation: an enterprise framework for creating unified online workspaces BIBAFull-Text 3009-3014
  Wei Ding; Marcia L. Morelli; Bala Kalyanasundarum; Michael Magoolaghan
This paper describes Vanguard's efforts to create an enterprise-wide framework for producing unified online workspaces. This framework was developed to accommodate diverse business lines and job roles while leveraging cross-organizational components and services, providing for optimal scalability, flexibility and customizability, and ensuring cohesive user experiences. It addresses these goals by mapping business units, job roles and attributes to a core set of features/capabilities, thereby providing a consistent yet adaptable set of design patterns that can be leveraged in the creation of new workspaces and the further tailoring of existing ones. It is especially useful for large enterprises where a variety of job functions exist across multiple business lines and users struggle with moving between complex information spaces.
Finding a balance: social support v. privacy during weight-management BIBAFull-Text 3015-3020
  Julie Maitland; Matthew Chalmers
This work investigates current attitudes towards the involvement of others during weight-management (WM). It is prompted by ongoing attempts to harness social influence within system design so as to promote an increase in physical activity, with obesity often cited as a motivation. Through in-depth interviews, we have found that the complexities of sharing information in existing WM practices are not reflected in current system designs. Initial findings highlight the design tension raised by the need for social support as well as privacy. Preliminary design concepts of selective disclosure and relative comparison are offered to developers of sociocentric systems supporting WM-specific behavioural change.
Fishing for sustainability: the effects of indirect and direct persuasion BIBAFull-Text 3021-3026
  Turadg Aleahmad; Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Jeffrey Wong; Susan R. Fussell; Sara Kiesler
Websites and technologies that promote sustainable behavior often employ direct persuasion by being open about persuasive intent. We examined the use of indirect persuasion, methods that do not make persuasive intent clear. We built two variants of a recipe website designed to induce changes in users: one using direct persuasion and the other using indirect methods. We measured the effects of each site on users' attitudes and actions towards the environment. Preliminary results show that the direct style influenced actions while the indirect style influenced attitudes. We discuss the implications of this dissociation for research and applications.
Free-sketch recognition: putting the chi in sketching BIBAFull-Text 3027-3032
  Tracy Hammond; Brian Eoff; Brandon Paulson; Aaron Wolin; Katie Dahmen; Joshua Johnston; Pankaj Rajan
Sketch recognition techniques have generally fallen into two camps. Gesture-based techniques, such as those used by the Palm Pilot's Graffiti, can provide high-accuracy, but require the user to learn a particular drawing style in order for shapes to be recognized. Free-sketch recognition allows users to draw shapes as they would naturally, but most current techniques have low accuracies or require significant domain-level tweaking to make them usable. Our goal is to recognize free-hand sketches with high accuracy by developing generalized techniques that work for a variety of domains, including design and education. This is a work-in-progress, but we have made significant advancements toward our over-arching goal.
"Front-stage" and "back-stage" information BIBAFull-Text 3033-3038
  Danny Ho; Yan Xiao; Peter F. Hu; Vinay U. Vaidya; John P. Straumanis; Marcelo G. Cardarelli; Anthony F. Norcio; Ayse P. P. Gurses
This paper presents an ongoing observational study to explore a "front-stage-back-stage" model of information processes during group discussions (multidisciplinary rounds) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of an academic medical center. Participants were observed to collaborate on "front-stage" processes of case presentation, discussion of issues, and treatment planning, while in parallel they performed "back-stage" information activities. The front-stage and backstage information processes were interdependent to address the need for fluid, highly time-pressured discourse with potential life-and-death consequences. We believe the front-stage-back-stage model adds to our understanding of collaborative information exchange and holds implications for computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) systems. For example, computing support may increase the efficiency and reliability of information transfer by enhancing the ability to "choreograph" front-stage and back-stage information processes during critical discourse such as medical rounds.
Gaze beats mouse: hands-free selection by combining gaze and EMG BIBAFull-Text 3039-3044
  Julio C. Mateo; Javier San Agustin; John Paulin Hansen
Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse.
Generating and using gaze-based document annotations BIBAFull-Text 3045-3050
  Georg Buscher; Andreas Dengel; Ludger van Elst; Florian Mittag
In this paper we describe a prototypical system that is able to generate document annotations based on eye movement data. Document parts can be annotated as being read or skimmed. We further explain ideas how such gaze-based document annotations could enhance document-centered office work in the future.
Give me a reason: hedonic product choice and justification BIBAFull-Text 3051-3056
  Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl
Recently, researchers and practitioners of Human-Computer Interaction started to distinguish instrumental, task-related, pragmatic quality aspects (i.e., usefulness, usability) of interactive products from non-instrumental, self-referential, hedonic quality aspects (e.g., beauty, novelty). Although both qualities are appreciated while using a product, hedonic quality tends to be downplayed in the moment of product choice. We suggest and test the idea that this is the consequence of an increased experienced pressure to justify hedonic choices and according expenditures.
Globetoddler: designing for remote interaction between preschoolers and their traveling parents BIBAFull-Text 3057-3062
  Paulina L. Modlitba; Christopher Schmandt
In recent decades, families in the Western world have become more geographically distributed, making it more difficult for family members to achieve and maintain a feeling of connectedness. Different time zones and contexts and a limited awareness of the other family members' availability and mood are some of many factors that make "being together" more challenging when physically apart. Besides, when it comes to preschool children, existing communication technologies, such as phones and computers, may not even be an option. As a result, many families simply accept the fact that being apart leads to fragmented, or even non-existent, interaction. In this paper we describe initial work on a tangible system, Globetoddler, which aims to make remote interaction between preschool children and their traveling parents easy and enjoyable. The paper describes the process of defining design principles for this system, as well as the content and implications of these principles.
Hands-on the process control: users preferences and associations on hand movements BIBAFull-Text 3063-3068
  Hanna Maria Kaarina Koskinen; Jari Olavi Laarni; Petri Mikael Honkamaa
Design of future smart environments is challenging especially when we are talking about smart control room environments for advanced process control activity. One key element of our concept of a future smart control room is a movable multi-touch table called "Affordance table". In this paper we present the results of a user test in which we explored what kind of hand gestures are intuitive and comfortable when using multi-touch sensitive displays. Overall, simple gestures were preferred over more complex ones, and dimensions of gestures such as duration, force and direction have an impact on participants' evaluations. Some gestures also evoked similar associations among them. Our results suggest that user preferences and associations should be carefully considered when mapping gestures to system commands.
HD touch: multi-touch and object sensing on a high definition LCD TV BIBAFull-Text 3069-3074
  Nima Motamedi
In this paper, we describe our first prototype in implementing a robust and low-cost multi-touch and tangible system using a High Definition LCD monitor. Since our prototype utilizes an LCD, we discuss and compare the advantages that HD LCD monitors provide over projectors. Secondly, we give an overview of the sensing data the system can detect, and what interaction techniques it enables. Since our approach is scalable, we anticipate being able to implement multi-touch and tangible interactions on large high-definition LCD monitors in the future.
Human-in-the-loop: rethinking security in mobile and pervasive systems BIBAFull-Text 3075-3080
  Vassilis Kostakos
In this paper we argue that pervasive systems introduce human-driven security vulnerabilities that traditional usability design cannot address. We claim that there is a need to understand better the appropriate role of humans in the context of pervasive systems security, and to develop quantifiable and measurable concepts that describe humans and their relationship with our systems. Here, we highlight mobility and sociability as two new sources of security vulnerabilities for pervasive systems, and describe our method for developing quantifiable metrics for these concepts.
Idea management in creative lives BIBAFull-Text 3081-3086
  Tim Coughlan; Peter Johnson
This research explores how ideas occur in creative work and the strategies and tools used to represent and develop them. We describe the analysis of an open questionnaire survey of creative practitioners' use of devices to represent ideas and capture inspirational material. Unconscious processes, novel experiences and time away from practice frequently provoke ideas. Our analysis finds that ubiquitous devices are important to practitioners for making initial representations for personal use. Paper and pen remains by far the most common device employed, however respondents perceived organisational advantages in new technology. Representations are created as initial memory aids, platforms for development, or to share ideas. A single representation is rarely suitable for all these purposes.
Implementing eye-based user-aware e-learning BIBAFull-Text 3087-3092
  Marco Porta
We propose an e-learning scenario where eye tracking is exploited to get valuable data about user behavior. What we look at -- as well as how we do that -- can in fact be used to improve the learning process, revealing information which would otherwise remain hidden. The prototype system we are developing at the University of Pavia takes into account both the user's "emotional status" and the way learning activities are carried out, employing these data to adapt content presentation in real-time.
Implicit personalization of public environments using bluetooth BIBAFull-Text 3093-3098
  Hema Mahato; Dagmar Kern; Paul Holleis; Albrecht Schmidt
Implicit and remote personalization of public environments is technically easily possible by using Bluetooth technology. We present a concept to allow people to individually influence public content such as songs played in shopping malls, news displayed on big displays, and advertisements shown etc. based on the Bluetooth functionality in their mobile. Users define once their preferences and store them encoded in the Bluetooth friendly name of their mobile phone. We describe the underlining idea, the implementation of the prototype "Bluemusic" as well as the conducted online survey and the initial user trail. The results suggested that the participants are cautious regarding privacy issues but very interested in such implicit interaction possibilities with public environments.
Influence of social setting on player experience of digital games BIBAFull-Text 3099-3104
  Brian Gajadhar; Yvonne de Kort; Wijnand IJsselsteijn
Recent studies have indicated that playing games against other people is more fun and more exciting than playing alone. The current study aims to further explore the influence of social setting on player experience in digital games; in particular, it sets out to test the level of social presence of the co-player as a determinant of player experience. Dependent variables include a comprehensive self-report measure of player experience (the GEQ) and state aggression. The first results demonstrate significant differences in playing against a computer, a mediated other, or a co-located other on player experience in terms of positive affect, competence, tension and hostility.
Information and communication tools as aids to collaborative sensemaking BIBAFull-Text 3105-3110
  Sharoda A. Paul; Madhu C. Reddy; Christopher J. deFlitch
Collaborative sensemaking occurs when multiple actors engage in understanding an unfamiliar, information-rich environment. We present preliminary results from a field study of the collaborative activities of healthcare providers in an emergency department. The goal of our study was to explore the nature of collaborative sensemaking and the role various information and communication tools play in the process. We describe how paper, whiteboards, and the computerized provider order entry system support common external representations to enhance collaborative sensemaking; but at the same time gaps in collaborative sensemaking occur, leading to representation shifts.
Intelligent object group selection BIBAFull-Text 3111-3116
  Hoda Dehmeshki; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Current object group selection techniques such as lasso or rectangle selection can be time consuming and error prone. This is apparent when selecting distant objects on a large display or objects arranged along curvilinear paths in a dense area. We present a novel group selection technique based on the Gestalt principles of proximity and good continuity. The results of a user study show that our new technique outperforms lasso and rectangle selection for object groups in(curvi)linear arrangements or clusters, i.e. groups with an implicit structure.
Interactive control of music using emotional body expressions BIBAFull-Text 3117-3122
  Daniel Bernhardt; Peter Robinson
This paper presents a novel music mixing interface which allows users to blend between pieces of music by moving their whole body in different emotional styles. Although the interface itself would be most applicable for the performing arts and gaming, the principles concerning the use of emotions and body motion analysis apply to many other areas interested in the design of intelligent user interfaces. We report the results of a pilot user study which suggest that such an interface could afford an emotionally immersive experience. However, individual user differences in the expression of emotions need to be accounted for.
International ethnographic observation of social networking sites BIBAFull-Text 3123-3128
  Christopher N. Chapman; Michal Lahav
Current research on social networking largely covers US providers. To investigate broader trends, we examine cross-cultural differences in the usage patterns of social networking services with observation and ethnographic interviews in multiple cultures. This appears to be the first systematic investigation of social networking behavior across multiple cultures. We report here on the first four locations with observation and interviews of 36 respondents, 8-10 in each of the US, France, China, and South Korea. The results show three dimensions of cultural difference for typical social networking behaviors: the users' goals, typical pattern of self expression, and common interaction behaviors. These differences exemplify a developmental path of interest in social networking and the gradual integration of social networking behavior into more general communications behaviors. Future work in other cultures and with additional methods will evaluate the hypotheses presented here.
Interpersonal connectedness: conceptualization and directions for a measurement instrument BIBAFull-Text 3129-3134
  Daniel T. Van Bel; Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn; Yvonne A. W. de Kort
Interpersonal connectedness is the sense of belonging based on the appraisal of having sufficient close social contacts. This feeling is regarded as one of the major outcomes of successful (mediated) social interaction and as such an important construct for HCI. However, the exact nature of this feeling, how to achieve it, and how to assess it remain unexplored to date. In the current paper we start the theoretical conceptualization of this phenomenon by exploring its basic origins in psychological literature and simultaneously formulate requirements for a measurement instrument to be developed in the service of exploring and testing CMC applications, in particular awareness technologies.
Invisible Eni: using gaze and pupil size to control a game BIBAFull-Text 3135-3140
  Inger M. Ekman; Antti W. Poikola; Meeri K. Mäkäräinen
We present an eyes-only computer game, Invisible Eni, which uses gaze, blinking and as a novelty pupil size to affect game state. Pupil size can be indirectly controlled by physical activation, strong emotional experiences and cognitive effort. Invisible Eni maps the pupil size variations to the game mechanics and allows players to control game objects by use of willpower. We present the design rationale behind the interaction in Invisible Eni and consider the design implications of using pupil measurements in the interface. We discuss limitations for pupil based interaction and provide suggestions for using pupil size as an active input modality.
IToNe: a Japanese text input method for a dual joystick game controller BIBAFull-Text 3141-3146
  Kentaro Go; Hayato Konishi; Yoshisuke Matsuura
In this paper, we report the design and evaluation of a Japanese text input method called IToNe. It uses a dual joystick game controller to input Japanese text. The left and right joysticks are respectively assigned to the left and right halves of the Japanese syllabary chart. The combination of left and right joystick signals selects a character. IToNe is theoretically faster than the Japanese selection chart. Results of a preliminary user study show that users prefer IToNe to EGCONVERT: its smoothness during operation and accuracy measures are significantly higher. In addition, the learning curve of IToNe suggests that it can be learned easily and that it potentially provides higher performance.
Lessons learned from a pilot study quantifying face contact and skin conductance in teens with asperger syndrome BIBAFull-Text 3147-3152
  Chia-Hsun Jackie Lee; Rob Morris; Matthew Goodwin; Rosalind Picard
This paper presents lessons learned from a preliminary study quantifying face contact and corresponding physiological reactivity in teenagers with Asperger syndrome. In order to detect face contact and physiological arousability, we created a wearable system that combines a camera with OpenCV face detection and skin conductance sensors. In this paper, we discuss issues involved in setting up experimental environments for wearable platforms to detect face contact and skin conductance levels simultaneously, and address technological, statistical, and ethical considerations for future technological interventions.
Letterscroll: text entry using a wheel for visually impaired users BIBAFull-Text 3153-3158
  Hussain Tinwala; I. Scott MacKenzie
Four text entry techniques for visually impaired users are presented. LetterScroll uses a mouse wheel to maneuver a cursor across a sequence of characters, and a button for character selection. Keystrokes per character (KSPC) vary from 6.97 to 2.68. After extensive analyses and pilot testing, two variations were chosen for initial evaluation. Method 1 (M1) uses the mouse alone to enter text. Method 4 (M4) also uses the keyboard to access vowels. In a study with seven blindfolded participants, entry rates averaged 2.9 wpm for M1 and 4.4 wpm for M4. Error rates for both methods were about 3.4%.
Lifesampler: enabling conversational video documentary BIBAFull-Text 3159-3164
  Ryan P. Spicer; Aisling Kelliher
Today's multidisciplinary, fast-paced and innovative workplaces present new challenges in facilitating effective communication between diverse team members and ensuring successful transfer of knowledge within a flexible workforce. In this paper, we present Conversational Documentary, a model for supporting constructive audiovisual dialog between workplace colleagues that also aims to archive and interpret the work practices and approaches of a creative community. We discuss the development and initial evaluation of the LifeSampler, a prototype audiovisual system designed to support and test our model, and propose directions for future development based on our preliminary results.
Mapchat: conversing in place BIBAFull-Text 3165-3170
  Elizabeth Churchill; Elizabeth S. Goodman
Arranging a social meeting often involves collaborative consideration of events, locations and time. In studying online dating, we observed people using multiple information sources and applications to arrange suitable activities and rendezvous locations/times. Would-be socializers then exchange URLs and discuss ideas until a decision is made. To reduce the work of collaborative event planning, we have designed MapChat, a novel, map-based combination of existing services. MapChat allows people to chat synchronously over an interactive map, transforming online maps into shared digital environments for place/location exploration and rendezvous negotiation.
Mashups: who? what? why? BIBAFull-Text 3171-3176
  Nan Zang; Mary Beth Rosson; Vincent Nasser
In recent years major web services have opened their systems to outside use through the implementation of public APIs. As a result, web developers have begun to experiment with mashups -- software applications that merge separate APIs and data sources into one integrated interface. Because the APIs and data sources are publicly available, in principle anyone can create a mashup. However, because relatively advanced programming languages are required to integrate these APIs, creating a mashup still requires considerable programming expertise. In this paper we share the results of an exploratory study of web developers and their experiences with building mashups. We profile the characteristics of mashup developers, examine the mashups they create, and the reasons they create mashups. From the results of this initial survey we outline a course for future research.
Master of the game: assessing approachability in future game design BIBAFull-Text 3177-3182
  Heather Desurvire; Charlotte Wiberg
Game Approachability Principles (GAP) is proposed as a set of useful guidelines for game designers to create better tutorials, or first learning levels-especially for the casual gamer. Developing better first learning levels can be a key step to ease the casual gamer into play and to do so proactively-before it is too costly or cumbersome to restructure the tutorials to be more effective. Thus, Game Approachability in the context of game development is defined as making games initially more friendly and accessible for players who have the desire to play, yet do not always follow-through to actually play. GAP has evolved through a series of stages assessing applicability as a stand alone, heuristic based approach versus one-on-one usability testing. Outcomes suggest potential for GAP as (1) effective Heuristic Evaluation, (2) adjunct to Usability Testing, and (3) as proactive filters in beginning conceptual and first learning level tutorial design to increase Game Approachability -- for all levels of gamers.
Meeting mediator: enhancing group collaboration with sociometric feedback BIBAFull-Text 3183-3188
  Taemie Kim; Agnes Chang; Lindsey Holland; Alex (Sandy) Pentland
In this paper we present the Meeting Mediator (MM), a real-time, personal, and portable system providing feedback to enhance group collaboration. Social interactions are captured using Sociometric badges [6] and are visualized on mobile phones to promote change in behavior. In a study on brainstorming and problem-solving meetings, MM had a significant effect on overlapping speaking time and interactivity level without distracting the subjects. Our system encourages effective group dynamics that may lead to higher performance and satisfaction. We envision MM to be deployed in real-world organizations to improve interactions across various group collaboration contexts.
Meta-gui-builders: generating domain-specific interface builders for multi-device user interface creation BIBAFull-Text 3189-3194
  Kris Luyten; Jan Meskens; Jo Vermeulen; Karin Coninx
Nowadays, there is a growing demand to design user interfaces that run on many devices. However, existing multi-device design approaches are not suitable for domain experts, whose input can be invaluable to come to a suitable user interface for a specific domain. Existing techniques often require the manipulation of high-level models and transformations which are difficult to interpret and predict by a domain expert without a technical background. We present Meta-GUI-Builders, a new generation of graphical user interface builder tools that allows domain experts to create multi-device GUI designs themselves. These tools automatically adapt their workspace to a specific domain by encapsulating domain-specific elements in the designer's tool palette. Engaging domain experts in a multi-device design approach is a first step towards creating aesthetic user interfaces that can be deployed on many devices, a combination that is hard to achieve with previous approaches.
Mind your P's and Q's: when politeness helps and hurts in online communities BIBAFull-Text 3195-3200
  Moira Burke; Robert Kraut
Little is known about the impact of politeness in online communities. This project combines deductive and inductive approaches to automatically model linguistic politeness in online discussion groups and determine the impact of politeness on desired outcomes, such as getting people to reply to one another. We find that politeness triples reply rates in some technical groups, but rudeness is more effective in others. The model can be applied as a "politeness checker" to encourage people to write in ways likely to garner a response from specific communities.
Mobile science learning for the blind BIBAFull-Text 3201-3206
  Jaime Sánchez; Héctor Flores; Mauricio Sáenz
Science learning for blind people is limited. For a variety of reasons there is a very low emphasis on science learning for such users, especially those from deprived communities. We have designed, implemented and evaluated the usability of AudioNature, an audio-based interface implemented for pocketPC devices to assist with science learning in users with visual impairments. The usability and the cognitive impact of the device were evaluated. Users accepted the interface, enjoyed the interaction with AudioNature, felt motivated, and learned science. Preliminary results provided evidence that points towards gains in problem solving skills and showed that game-based learning activities facilitate the user's interaction with the software.
Multimodal capture of consumer intent in retail BIBAFull-Text 3207-3212
  Jhilmil Jain; Riddhiman Ghosh; Mohamed Dekhil
In this paper we present a prototype for capturing retail related consumer intent using multiple devices and in multimodal input formats such as text, audio, and still images. The prototype was used in a longitudinal user study to analyze the process that consumers go through in order to make purchasing decisions. Based on these findings, we recommend desirable features for information management systems specifically designed for the retail environment.
Multimodal communication involving movements of a robot BIBAFull-Text 3213-3218
  Hermann Kaindl; Juergen Falb; Cristian Bogdan
Communication between humans is multimodal and involves movements as well. While communication between humans and robots is becoming more and more multimodal, movements of a robot in 2D space have not yet been used for communication. In this paper, we present a new approach to multimodal communication with (semi-)autonomous robots, that even includes movements of a robot in 2D space as a form of expressing communicative acts. We also show how such a multimodal human-robot interface can be generated from a discourse-based interaction design that does not even include information about modalities.
Mystorymaker BIBAFull-Text 3219-3224
  Bard McKinley; Yun-Ling Lee
In this paper we describe the development of our storytelling program for children MyStoryMaker based on the concept of literacy learning through play. The focus is on designing interfaces inducive to play and open to user interpretation.
Opportunities to support parents in managing their children's health BIBAFull-Text 3225-3230
  Hee Young Jeong; Sun Young Park; John Zimmerman
Parents always desire to take good care of their children and manage their numerous responsibilities. One of parents' main responsibilities is to manage their children's health. Through their actions of caring for their children, parents want to know they're doing the best job to ensure their children's well being.
   Unfortunately, much of the time this responsibility is a challenge-particularly for busy, dual-income parents-because it involves the collection, organization, retrieval, and transfer of information between many people in many different contexts. In our user research with dual-income parents they shared their experiences of forgetting to give medication, and of both not having an easy way of recording information and not having the information they needed when communicating with childcare and healthcare providers.
   Smart home technology appears to offer a promise to easy this situation for parents; however, the HCI community has only investigated healthcare in the home with a focus on elders. To better understand this opportunity area we conducted a user-centered design project looking at the management of children's by their parents.
Pensieve: augmenting human memory BIBAFull-Text 3231-3236
  Neta Aizenbud-Reshef; Eran Belinsky; Michal Jacovi; David Laufer; Vladimir Soroka
Human memory is fallible. We remember certain things, while we completely forget others. Some of the events we experience end up stored in our episodic memory, others disappear completely. Even those stored, very often remain inaccessible, since we do not have reliable mechanisms to retrieve them when required. In this paper we describe Pensieve, a system for augmenting episodic memory, that facilitates capturing of events and retrieving them later, using various relevant cues and associative browsing.
Photochat: communication support system based on sharing photos and notes BIBAFull-Text 3237-3242
  Yasuyuki Sumi; Jun Ito; Toyoaki Nishida
This paper proposes PhotoChat, a system that facilitates communication among users who want to share experiences by enabling them to share photos and notes. PhotoChat is designed to be used as a digital camera and to run on mobile PCs with a camera module. PhotoChat users can comment on the shared photos with a pen interface. The data, i.e., photos and comments, are distributed among PhotoChat users in real time to enable them to learn others' interests and to chat easily. In this paper, we show an implementation of our PhotoChat system and interaction patterns among PhotoChat users observed during our experimental evaluations.
Photos for information: a field study of cameraphone computer vision interactions in tourism BIBAFull-Text 3243-3248
  Gregory Cuellar; Dean Eckles; Mirjana Spasojevic
Advances in mobile computing and computer vision can support camera-based interactions with mobile devices, including systems that use image-matching to support getting information about objects identified by the camera. These interfaces, sometimes considered mobile augmented reality, can be applied in many domains. This paper reports on a field study of these interfaces in a tourism application, which begins to address questions about embodied interaction, existing photo-taking practices, and alternative interfaces.
Playware: augmenting natural play to teach sign language BIBAFull-Text 3249-3254
  Svetlana Yarosh; Kevin Huang; Ian Mosher; Marisa Topping
We discuss PlayWare -- a system of augmented dress-up clothes, toys, and a digital environment that teaches simple ASL vocabulary to young children. We present a preliminary evaluation of the system in a school setting and plans for improving the PlayWare system for future deployment.
Pointing with fingers, hands and arms for wearable computing BIBAFull-Text 3255-3260
  Ian Oakley; John Sunwoo; Il-Yeon Cho
Pointing is a fundamental enabling operation for human-computer interaction across a broad spectrum of scenarios. The paper presents a study exploring how to develop a pointing system for truly wearable, rather than hand-held, computing. It describes a Fitts' law study of pointing based on motions in free-space captured using an inertial sensor pack. It compares performance when the pack is held in the hand, mounted on the back of the hand and finally on the wrist. The results show a significant, but numerically small, advantage in using the hands over using the upper arm only. This suggests that for wearable tasks where pointing is relatively infrequent a wrist based sensor pack may well be sufficient to enable effective and usable interaction.
Predicting user interface preferences of culturally ambiguous users BIBAFull-Text 3261-3266
  Katharina Reinecke; Abraham Bernstein
To date, localized user interfaces are still being adapted to one nation, not taking into account cultural ambiguities of people within this nation. We have developed an approach to cultural user modeling, which allows to personalize user interfaces to an individual's cultural background. The study presented in this paper shows how we use this approach to predict user interface preferences. Results show that we are able to reduce the absolute error on this prediction to 1.079 on a rating scale of 5. These findings suggest that it is possible to automate the process of localization and, thus, to automatically personalizing user interfaces for users of different cultural backgrounds.
Preliminary evaluation of a remote mobile collaborative environment BIBAFull-Text 3267-3272
  Kharsim Yousef
MCEs (Mobile Collaborative Environments) are systems designed to allow users to collaborate any time and anywhere using wireless networks and mobile devices. In this paper we report on our findings from the development and testing of a fully functional MCE photo-conferencing service that enables seamless synchronous collaboration between remote mobile users over existing 3G cellular networks. Key to the development of MCEs is an understanding of the effects of remote gestural interactions between mobile participants. We report on the results of an initial evaluation of our photo-conferencing service, examining the effects of two remote gestural interactions, 'Pointing' and 'Scaling', assessing their impact on performance measurements. Our findings begin to inform the design of future mobile collaborative environments.
Preliminary evaluation of the audience-driven movie BIBAFull-Text 3273-3278
  Tao Lin; Akinobu Maejima; Shigeo Morishima; Atsumi Imamiya
In this paper we introduce an audience-driven theater experience, DIM Movie, in which audience participates in a pre-created CG movie as its roles, and report the subjective and physiological evaluations for the audience experience offered by DIM movie. Specifically, we present three different experiences to an audience-a traditional movie, its Self-DIM (SDIM) version with the audience's participation, and its Self-Friend-DIM (SFDIM) version with co-participation of the audience and his friends. The evaluation results show that the DIM movies (SDIM and SFDIM) elicit greater subjective sense of presence, engagement, and emotional reaction, and stronger physiological response (galvanic skin response, GSR) as compared with the traditional movie form; moreover, audiences show a phasic GSR increase responding to the appearance of their own or friends' CG characters on the movie screen.
Premote: a user customizable remote control BIBAFull-Text 3279-3284
  Jan Hess; Guy Küstermann; Volkmar Pipek
The pRemote ('p' stands for personal) is an alternative input device based on digital pen technology, paper-based interface layouts and text recognition. Compared to standard remote controls the concept allows the creation of personal interfaces by the user, the use of different templates during running an application and an alternative for text input by writing with a pen. In our work we developed a design study of the pRemote which was evaluated with eight users. The concept was appreciated by almost all of the participants. We exemplified the concept for controlling an already developed media application. The pRemote should establish a basis for further evaluations of different input designs.
Presence disparity in mixed presence collaboration BIBAFull-Text 3285-3290
  Anastasia Bezerianos; Gregor McEwan
We present the design of an experiment investigating presence disparity in mixed presence collaboration using digital tabletops. In an attempt to verify previous work and relate their results, we examined different presence representations of remote collaborators: audio, video, telepointers and video arms. Our early results show some interesting trends that we are currently investigating in more detail through further analysis of our data.
Privacy and technology: folk definitions and perspectives BIBAFull-Text 3291-3296
  Michelle Kwasny; Kelly Caine; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
In this paper we present preliminary results from a study of individual differences in privacy beliefs and relate folk definitions of privacy to extant privacy theory. Focus groups were conducted with younger and older adult participants who shared their individual definitions of privacy and engaged in a discussion of privacy across six scenarios. Taken together, Westin's and Altman's theories of privacy accounted for both younger and older adults' ideas about privacy; however, neither theory successfully accounted for findings across all age and gender groups. Whereas males tended to think of privacy in terms of personal needs and convenience, females focused more on privacy in terms of others, respecting privacy rights, and safety. Older adults tended to be more concerned with privacy of space than information privacy. Initial results suggest that designing for commonalities in privacy perceptions among group members is feasible.
Public displays of affect: deploying relational agents in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 3297-3302
  Timothy W. Bickmore; Laura Pfeifer; Daniel Schulman; Sepalika Perera; Chaamari Senanayake; Ishraque Nazmi
Design principles for deploying agents designed for social and relational interactions with users in public spaces are discussed. These principles are applied to the development of a virtual science museum guide agent that uses human relationship-building behaviors to engage visitors. The agent appears in the form of a human-sized anthropomorphic robot, and uses nonverbal conversational behavior, empathy, social dialogue, reciprocal self-disclosure and other relational behavior to establish social bonds with users. The agent also uses a biometric identification system so that it can re-identify visitors it has already talked to. Results from a preliminary study indicate that most users enjoy the conversational and relational interaction with the agent.
Quantifying adaptation parameters for information support of trauma teams BIBAFull-Text 3303-3308
  Aleksandra Sarcevic; Michael E. Lesk; Ivan Marsic; Randall S. Burd
Trauma centers are stressful, noisy and dynamic environments, with many people performing complex tasks, and with little in the way of information support. Information must be prioritized and filtered to avoid overload or loss. This work quantifies the information-selection parameters that will guide adaptive user interfaces for trauma teams.
Rapid image analysis using neural signals BIBAFull-Text 3309-3314
  Santosh Mathan; Deniz Erdogmus; Yonghong Huang; Misha Pavel; Patricia Ververs; James Carciofini; Michael Dorneich; Stephen Whitlow
The problem of extracting information from large collections of imagery is a challenge with few good solutions. Computers typically cannot interpret imagery as effectively as humans can, and manual analysis tools are slow. The research reported here explores the feasibility of speeding up manual image analysis by tapping into split second perceptual judgments using electroencephalograph sensors. Experimental results show that a combination of neurophysiological signals and overt physical responses -- detected while a user views imagery in high speed bursts of approximately 10 images per second -- provide a basis for detecting targets within large image sets. Results show an approximately six-fold, statistically significant, reduction in the time required to detect targets at high accuracy levels compared to conventional broad-area image analysis.
Real ethics in a virtual world BIBAFull-Text 3315-3320
  Victoria McArthur
This paper investigates the ethics of the appearance and behavior of avatars in massively multi-user online communities, in particular, avatars created for virtual business interactions in Second Life. The ethics of research conducted with avatars in 3D online environments is also discussed.
Realfind: managing personal items in the physical world BIBAFull-Text 3321-3326
  Leonel Câmara; Tiago Guerreiro; Daniel Gonçalves; Joaquim A. Jorge
While in recent years some effort has been put into helping users manage their personal information in their computers, little has been done to provide meaningful ways to organize and retrieve a user's personal physical objects. Nowadays, technologies such as RFID tags can help bridge the gap between the real and electronic worlds. We propose that a tool that keeps track of the users' objects and seamlessly inter-relates information about them with other relevant autobiographical and contextual data, about the users and their activities, can help manage and retrieve both physical and electronic items in meaningful ways. We describe a prototype tool, RealFind that allows this to take place in a synergistic and effective way. Objects can be searched for based on their properties, but also by relating them to a wide range of contextual information stored on their computers.
Real-time snowboard training system BIBAFull-Text 3327-3332
  Daniel Spelmezan; Jan Borchers
We present a wireless prototype system for real-time snowboard training. This system can be used to detect common mistakes during snowboarding and to give students immediate feedback on how to correct their mistakes. The project illustrates new ways to assist students during sports training and to enhance their learning experience on the slope.
Recovering trust and avoiding escalation: an overlooked design goal of social systems BIBAFull-Text 3333-3338
  Asimina Vasalou; Jens Riegelsberger
The online trust discussion is focused on mechanisms for building and maintaining user trust. This paper introduces the relevance of providing for the repair of trust breakdowns. Three criteria are proposed for designing reparative mechanisms within trading systems. The reparative ability of two existing systems is then evaluated by using these criteria as a framework.
Redesigning video analysis: an interactive ink annotation tool BIBAFull-Text 3339-3344
  Rahn C. Rahn; Youn-kyung Lim; Dennis P. Groth
Video recording and analysis is an important tool for user experience researchers. This project aimed to learn more about how an interactive video annotation method might affect video analysis. Ink annotations on video were used as the annotation method, and an early prototype was demonstrated to professional user experience researchers. Feedback on the interactive video analysis method was positive. A new tool was designed and is being implemented that emphasized the insights gained from analysis of the initial research, including: collaborative timeline visualization, refined interaction with ink annotation tools, a refined general annotation toolset, and a toolset for reporting findings. Further lessons from implementation are noted, including: video manipulation, space limitations for tool navigation, and reporting tool development.
Re-phrase: chat-by-click: a fundamental new mode of human communication over the internet BIBAFull-Text 3345-3350
  Jeroen Geuze; Peter Desain; Joop Ringelberg
There is a fast growing need for companies to handle full text interaction via internet with chat-like functionality, think of online helpdesk, demand aggregation, etc. However, even state-of-the-art language technology is not able to automatically handle consumer requests in a reliable and sensible manner. Semantic text understanding systems are brittle and expensive to maintain, and simple pattern matching text-bots cannot handle the complexity of natural language and often give useless or wrong answers. RE-phrase meets this need by starting from threads of real human textual interaction (chat, helpdesk) and then storing and re-cycling it for fast multiple-choice conversation with automated replies. It is a new technology for users to interact via the Internet, which combines browsing and chatting. It makes use of an adaptive and collaboratively growing database of conversation phrases. It is fast, adaptive, allows full text entry, and is well suited for different types of browsers and platforms.
Re-thinking fashion trade shows: creating conversations through mobile tagging BIBAFull-Text 3351-3356
  Solomon Bisker; Hector Ouilhet; Steve Pomeroy; Agnes Chang; Federico Casalegno
In this paper we discuss our explorations encouraging discussion and information exchange in high-bandwidth, real-time settings such as trade shows, fairs and conferences. We detail the iterative construction and planned testing of the "PittiMobi" system, a mobile phone system designed to augment face to face communication between buyers, sellers and the press at a series of fashion trade shows. A platform for the creation of viral digital conversations that link people at physical gatherings is envisioned and discussed as a tool for further study.
Select-and-point: a novel interface for multi-device connection and control based on simple hand gestures BIBAFull-Text 3357-3362
  Hyunglae Lee; Heeseok Jeong; JoongHo Lee; Ki-Won Yeom; Hyun-Jin Shin; Ji-Hyung Park
Select-and-Point provides us with a new interface and intuitive interaction style in our daily computer use. With simple selection and pointing hand gestures, users can eliminate cumbersome processes in managing connections and controls between multiple devices as well as in sharing information/data. We implemented a Select-and-Point system in an intelligent meeting room and performed a preliminary user study in this environment. The results show that Select-and-Point is easily accepted by users and it can significantly improve users' interaction with various devices in a ubiquitous computing environment.
Shaping how advertisers see me: user views on implicit and explicit profile capture BIBAFull-Text 3363-3368
  Dagmar Kern; Michael Harding; Oliver Storz; Nigel Davis; Albrecht Schmidt
Public electronic displays are increasingly used for advertising. In a drive to improve the effectiveness of such displays, advertisers and researchers are exploring the creation of systems that show adverts tailored to the context of the display or to the profile of the audience in close proximity to the display. In this paper we explore, through structured interviews with potential users in two European countries, reactions to the ideas of implicit and explicit generation of such profiles and relate these to more general user views on privacy and targeted advertising. The initial results suggest that users are prepared to trade off ease of use against increased levels of control over their data and are therefore more comfortable with an explicit system.
Sharing the squid: tangible workplace collaboration BIBAFull-Text 3369-3374
  Rebecca Stern; Aisling Kelliher; Winslow Burleson; Lisa Tolentino
Effective communication is central in building trust and negotiating differences in diverse, multidisciplinary working environments. In this paper we discuss a tangible mediated environment designed to facilitate positive social interaction between colleagues in a research workplace. Through our multi-user tangible interface in the form of a plush squid, participants can share media resources and collaborate in a playful and inviting setting. Results from preliminary studies indicate that playful mediated work environments stimulate constructive discourse, strengthen social bonds, and enhance creative output.
Shybot: friend-stranger interaction for children living with autism BIBAFull-Text 3375-3380
  Chia-Hsun Jackie Lee; Kyunghee Kim; Cynthia Breazeal; Rosalind Picard
This paper presents Shybot, a personal mobile robot designed to both embody and elicit reflection on shyness behaviors. Shybot is being designed to detect human presence and familiarity from face detection and proximity sensing in order to categorize people as friends or strangers to interact with. Shybot also can reflect elements of the anxious state of its human companion through LEDs and a spinning propeller. We designed this simple social interaction to open up a new direction for intervention for children living with autism. We hope that from minimal social interaction, a child with autism or social anxiety disorders could reflect on and more deeply attain understanding about personal shyness behaviors, as a first step toward helping make progress in developing greater capacity for complex social interaction.
Social networking 2.0 BIBAFull-Text 3381-3386
  Vassilis Kostakos
In this paper we describe the development of a platform that enables us to systematically study online social networks alongside their real-world counterparts. Our system, entitled Cityware, merges users' online social data, made available through Facebook, with mobility traces captured via Bluetooth scanning. Furthermore, our system is constantly growing, since it enables users to contribute their own mobility traces. In addition to describing Cityware's architecture, we discuss the type of data we are collecting, and the analyses we intend to carry out.
Social resonance: balancing reputation with tangible design BIBAFull-Text 3387-3392
  Alyssa Wright; Pattie Maes; Hiroshi Ishii
New forms of tangible systems can be designed to leverage the strengths, and bridge the discrepancies, of reputation systems. This paper presents the ongoing design of a tangible reputation system, Social Resonance, that uses a wearable device to merge face-to-face interaction with online networking. Like its virtual counterparts, this system aims to make explicit the perspective of anonymous actors. Yet unlike online reputations, this system is negotiated through real-world action and signals. We present an overview of the system, including potential opportunities and related work, and conclude with future steps for analysis.
Socially respectful enjoyment tracking for tabletop games BIBAFull-Text 3393-3398
  Ben Kirman; Duncan Rowland
This paper describes the current state of our ongoing work developing tools for tracking player enjoyment in traditional face-to-face tabletop gaming situations. The challenge presented is that of quantifying game enjoyment whilst minimising the effects of the measurement techniques on the validity of the study. This paper presents the development of a self-report tool for cellular phones that aims to gauge player enjoyment with minimal impact on the "magic circle" of play. Its design for non-invasive and meaningful self-report data is described along with initial preliminary results from casual trials that indicate the potential value of the technique along with avenues for further study.
Study and modeling of user errors for virtual scanning keyboard design BIBAFull-Text 3399-3404
  Samit Bhattacharya; Debasis Samanta; Anupam Basu
Virtual scanning keyboards are text entry systems used by individuals with severe speech and motion impairments. In this paper, we present results of our empirical study on user errors for such keyboards. We also propose a computational error model and a method for evaluation of such keyboards taking errors into account. The work is aimed to help designers make appropriate choice from a large number of design alternatives with minimum user involvement.
Studying paper use to inform the design of personal and portable technology BIBAFull-Text 3405-3410
  Daniela K. Rosner; Lora Oehlberg; Kimiko Ryokai
This paper introduces design guidelines for new technology that leverage our understanding of traditional interactions with bound paper in the form of books and notebooks. Existing, physical interactions with books have evolved over hundreds of years, providing a rich history that we can use to inform our design of new computing technologies. In this paper, we initially survey existing paper technology and summarize previous historical and anthropological analyses of people's interactions with bound paper. We then present our development of three design principles for personal and portable technologies based on these analyses. For each design guideline, we describe a design scenario illustrating these principles in action.
Sun dial: exploring techno-spiritual design through a mobile Islamic call to prayer application BIBAFull-Text 3411-3416
  Susan P. Wyche; Kelly E. Caine; Benjamin Davison; Micheal Arteaga; Rebecca E. Grinter
We present the design and formative evaluation of Sun Dial, an application that supports Muslims' prayer practices. We report on a study that involved identifying prayer as an activity that can be supported with technology; the development of a prototype; and a short-term evaluation of Sun Dial conducted with our local Muslim community. In addition to presenting a novel design idea, our case study contributes to the growing corpus of research examining technology and religion.
Supporting orientation for blind people using museum guides BIBAFull-Text 3417-3422
  Giuseppe Ghiani; Barbara Leporini; Fabio Paternò
Novel environments exploiting recent technology can enhance several tasks in applications such as mobile guides. However, in the many museum mobile guides that have been proposed, accessibility is often not explicitly addressed and the benefits of such technology are rarely made available to blind users. In this paper, we propose a solution for flexible orientation support in a multimodal and location-aware museum guide, which has been developed specifically for blind users.
Supporting selective information sharing with people-tagging BIBAFull-Text 3423-3428
  Maryam Najafian Razavi; Lee Iverson
We explore the idea of tagging people for selective information sharing in the context of a social-personal information management (SPIM) system. Each new tag applied to a person has a distinctly specifiable visibility, and people tagged with the same key word form a relationship group that can be used as an access control option for each piece of information. We introduce the idea and motivation behind people-tagging, describe a research implementation we have created to experiment with the concept, and provide a preliminary discussion of potential usage and directions for future work.
Surflex: a programmable surface for the design of tangible interfaces BIBAFull-Text 3429-3434
  Marcelo Coelho; Hiroshi Ishii; Pattie Maes
In this paper we describe Surflex, a programmable surface for the design and visualization of physical forms. Surflex combines the physical properties of shape-memory alloy and foam to create a surface that can be electronically controlled to deform and gain new shapes. We describe implementation details, the possibilities enabled by the use of smart materials and soft mechanics in human computer interaction, as well as future applications for this technology.
Sustainable informal it learning in community-based nonprofits BIBAFull-Text 3435-3440
  Sue E. Kase; Yang Zhang; John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) play a substantial role in the economies of many countries, in the delivery of social services, and in many quasi-government functions. But NPOs face many resource challenges; for example, they depend on volunteer labor that is often under-trained and has high turnover resulting in limited knowledge acquisition and decreased sustainability. Ethnographic data from a three-year multi-organizational analysis reveals the occurrence of social and technical patterns during informal technology learning. Construction of a pattern schema grounded in organizational learning and activity theories will enable the development of lightweight interventions in establishing information technology sustainability, self-directed learning, and management processes in NPOs.
Taking up the mop: identifying future Wikipedia administrators BIBAFull-Text 3441-3446
  Moira Burke; Robert Kraut
As Wikipedia grows, so do the messy byproducts of collaboration. Backlogs of administrative work are increasing, suggesting the need for more users with privileged admin status. This paper presents a model of editors who have successfully passed the peer review process to become admins. The lightweight model is based on behavioral metadata and comments, and does not require any page text. It demonstrates that the Wikipedia community has shifted in the last two years to prioritizing policymaking and organization experience over simple article-level coordination, and mere edit count does not lead to adminship. The model can be applied as an "AdminFinderBot" to automatically search all editors' histories and pick out likely future admins, as a self-evaluation tool, or as a dashboard of relevant statistics for voters evaluating admin candidates.
Technology education for woman by d.i.y. technology in closing gender gap BIBAFull-Text 3447-3452
  Ji Sun Lee
Today more than ever, the importance of technology is increasing rapidly and related job opportunities are growing in electrical engineering, computer science and other related fields. Despite this trend, female employment in these fields is still low and it is hard to find renowned female scientists and programmers. In addition, most attendees at technology exhibitions and readers of technology magazines are male. Why aren't women interested in computer science and electrical engineering? I believe that creating an interest in technology and science for women from a young age could help increase the number of females in technology-based fields. When a mother and daughter make electronic crafts together, the mother becomes a good role model for technology use, and can help stimulate her child's interests in science and technology. This paper explores the reasons why women are not interested in technology and how this can be overcome.
The bandwagon effect of collaborative filtering technology BIBAFull-Text 3453-3458
  S. Shyam Sundar; Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch; Qian Xu
Advancements in collaborative filtering and related technologies have resulted in the ubiquitous presence of other users' opinions and actions on a variety of Websites and portals, ranging from news to music to photo sites. But, do these cues about others' behaviors guide our own decisions online? Our lab group has begun exploring this "bandwagon effect" from a variety of perspectives. In one pilot study reported here, outcomes such as purchase intention and attitudes toward products on an e-commerce site are dictated by user perceptions of others' opinions about the site's products. Empirical determination of the cues triggered by collaborative filtering technologies and the psychological mechanisms by which they lead to bandwagon effects have important implications for interface design of technologies that display user input.
The bar of soap: a grasp recognition system implemented in a multi-functional handheld device BIBAFull-Text 3459-3464
  Brandon T. Taylor; V. Michael Bove
We propose a vision of a grasp-based interaction system where users' intentions are inferred by the way they hold and interact with a device. In this paper we specifically discuss the Bar of Soap, a multi-function handheld prototype that uses grasp-based interactions to switch between modes. This prototype relies on the hypothesis that users share a set of stereotyped grasps associated with common multi-function modes. We show that using common machine learning techniques our device can reliably distinguish five separate classes based on the users' grasps. While this interaction is currently implemented in a multi-function handheld, we anticipate the existence of many scenarios where grasp recognition could provide a more intuitive or useful interface.
The cuetable: cooperative and competitive multi-touch interaction on a tabletop BIBAFull-Text 3465-3470
  Tom Gross; Mirko Fetter; Sascha Liebsch
In this paper we explain how we built cueTable, a multi-touch interactive tabletop, as a base technology to explore new interaction concepts for cooperative and competitive multi-touch applications. We present the Puh game application. And most of all we report on user feedback to the cueTable and the Puh game.
The effects of semantic grouping on visual search BIBAFull-Text 3471-3476
  Tim Halverson; Anthony J. Hornof
This paper reports on work-in-progress to better understand how users visually interact with hierarchically organized semantic information. Experimental reaction time and eye movement data are reported that give insight into strategies people employ while searching visual layouts containing words that are either grouped by category (i.e. semantically cohesive) or randomly grouped. Additionally, sometimes the category labels of the cohesive groups are displayed as part of the group. Preliminary results suggest that: (a) When groups are cohesive, people tend to search labeled and unlabeled layouts similarly. (b) People seem to trust the categorical information of labels more than non-labels. This work will be used to extend current computational models of visual search to better predict users visual interaction with interfaces.
The effects of web site aesthetics and shopping task on consumer online purchasing behavior BIBAFull-Text 3477-3482
  Shun Cai; Yunjie Xu; Jie Yu
This research-in-progress investigates the effects of website aesthetics and shopping task type on consumer attitude towards electronic shopping sites. The conceptualization of website aesthetics is based on the two-dimensional structure, namely, classical and expressive aesthetics, proposed by Lavie and Tractinsky (2004). The online shopping tasks are categorized as hedonic versus utilitarian shopping tasks. A pre-test was conducted for selection of utilitarian and hedonic products. Based on the results of the pre-test, a laboratory experiment was designed to capture the effects of website aesthetics on online consumer purchasing behavior across different shopping tasks.
The hinge between input and output: understanding the multimodal input fusion results in an agent-based multimodal presentation system BIBAFull-Text 3483-3488
  Yong Sun; Helmut Prendinger; Yu (David) Shi; Fang Chen; Vera Chung; Mitsuru Ishizuka
A multimodal interface provides multiple modalities for input and output, such as speech, eye gaze and facial expression. With the recent progresses in multimodal interfaces, various approaches about multimodal input fusion and output generation have been proposed. However, less attention has been paid to how to integrate them together in a multimodal input and output system. This paper proposes an approach, termed as THE HINGE, in providing agent-based multimodal presentations in accordance with multimodal input fusion results. The analysis of experiment result shows the proposed approach enhances the flexibility of the system while maintains its stability.
The mobile forum: real-time information exchange in mobile SMS communities BIBAFull-Text 3489-3494
  Felix-Robinson Aschoff; Jasminko Novak
In this paper we propose a definition for a mobile community based on the value of knowledge exchange among locally dispersed community members. Against this conceptual background, we propose a low-tech mobile community setting using SMS messaging and customary mobile phones. The feasibility of this approach is tested in a field study. Results show that successful information exchange is established with high user traffic and that participants judge the communication to be helpful. User requirements hint to the need for a better structuring of SMS messages, alternative input/output devices and location-based services. Implications for the future support of mobile communities are discussed.
The new face of procedural content: a real world approach BIBAFull-Text 3495-3500
  Connie Douglass-Olberg; David Farkas; Michaël Steehouder; Joyce Karreman; David Kieras; Axel Roesler; Ninad Dalal; Ryan Baker; David Brunet
This paper describes a large-scale project to improve the effectiveness of knowledge base (KB) articles on a support website in solving problems experienced by novice to intermediate computer users. The project encompasses the structure of the content, the quality of the writing and graphics, and the user interface presentation. In addition, we are developing guidelines intended for the designers and writers of new KB articles. We leveraged product knowledge, research findings, and extensive experience in user support to develop and empirically test three prototypes. Preliminary test results show improved solve rates ranging from 17% to 26%, with still better results from pilot content currently released to the public.
The openinterface framework: a tool for multimodal interaction BIBAFull-Text 3501-3506
  Marcos Serrano; Laurence Nigay; Jean-Yves L. Lawson; Andrew Ramsay; Roderick Murray-Smith; Sebastian Denef
The area of multimodal interaction has expanded rapidly. However, the implementation of multimodal systems still remains a difficult task. Addressing this problem, we describe the OpenInterface (OI) framework, a component-based tool for rapidly developing multimodal input interfaces. The OI underlying conceptual component model includes both generic and tailored components. In addition, to enable the rapid exploration of the multimodal design space for a given system, we need to capitalize on past experiences and include a large set of multimodal interaction techniques, their specifications and documentations. In this work-in-progress report, we present the current state of the OI framework and the two exploratory test-beds developed using the OpenInterface Interaction Development Environment.
The virtual midas touch: helping behavior after a mediated social touch BIBAFull-Text 3507-3512
  Antal Haans; Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn; Mark P. Graus; Juho A. Salminen
A brief touch on the upper arm increases people's altruistic behavior and willingness to comply to a request. In this paper, we investigate whether this Midas Touch effect would also occur under mediated conditions (i.e., a text messaging system and an arm strap equipped with vibrotactile actuators). Although helping behavior was more frequently endorsed in the touch, compared to the no touch condition, this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Such a failure to find response similarities between vibrotactile stimulation and real (i.e., unmediated) physical contact undermines the design rationale of the field of mediated social touch, which aims to provide an alternative for real physical contact.
There's always one!: modelling outlying user performance BIBAFull-Text 3513-3518
  Julie Schiller; Paul Cairns
Informal analysis of many usability tests suggests that there is regularly one participant that is substantially slower than all the others. Moreover, such outliers are more extreme and more frequent than would be predicted by a normal distribution. We propose using a rational model to explain the outliers and the work described here begins to parameterise the model based on empirical data to provide accurate analyses of user performance. This prediction appears to be correct and the model begins to reflect the outlying performance. Moreover, by using an executable model, we believe that it could be used in future as an analytical tool to help designers improve usability for those users who are struggling the most.
Toped: enabling end-user programmers to validate data BIBAFull-Text 3519-3524
  Christopher Scaffidi; Brad Myers; Mary Shaw
Inputs to spreadsheets and web forms often contain typos or other errors. However, existing tools require end-user programmers (EUPs) to write regular expressions or even scripts to validate data, which is slow and error-prone. We present a new technique enabling EUPs to describe data as a series of constrained parts. We incorporate our technique in a prototype tool called Toped, which generates validation code for Excel and web forms. Our technique enables EUPs to validate data more quickly and accurately than with existing techniques, finding 90% of invalid inputs in a lab study.
Towards designing a user-adaptive web-based e-learning system BIBAFull-Text 3525-3530
  Leena Razzaq; Neil T. Heffernan
This work-in-progress report presents the groundwork for the design of a user-adaptive web-based e-learning system. A survey and two randomized controlled experiments were carried out to compare the effects of active versus passive interaction on attitude and learning and to compare user vs. system initiated control of information presentation. Results showed that the more time-consuming active interaction was indeed more helpful to less-proficient students, but it was not as helpful to more-proficient students. Results also indicate that both more- and less-proficient students learn more from system initiated information presentation. These results will help to design a user-adaptive e-learning system that can determine which kind of interactivity and information presentation works best for which students and when.
Ubigraphy: a third-person viewpoint life log BIBAFull-Text 3531-3536
  Seunghwan Lee; Geehyuk Lee; Hojin Kim
A traditional life-log is written in the first-person viewpoint since a user collects data using sensors worn on the body. A UbiGraphy that we introduce here is a third-person viewpoint life-log that is made possible by the spontaneous interaction between a wearable computer and smart objects in a ubiquitous computing environment. A wearable computer uses smart objects in the proximity to capture a user's smiles, poses, and even songs from the third-person viewpoint, and then write a life-log where a user appears. This paper presents the design of a protocol that enables UbiGraphy and our first prototyping effort for experiencing UbiGraphy.
Ubipay: conducting everyday payments with minimum user involvement BIBAFull-Text 3537-3542
  Vili Lehdonvirta; Hayuru Soma; Hitoshi Ito; Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima
As services embedded into public spaces become increasingly transparent, one peripheral aspect of use continues to demand explicit user attention: payment. UbiPay is a system that carries out small everyday payments in a way that minimises user involvement by choosing an interaction method based on context information. The aim is to make paying like breathing: something we are only peripherally aware of unless we exert our resources beyond the usual. This idea has powerful implications for business and design.
Understanding consultants' information-seeking practices: knowledge management's touchpoint BIBAFull-Text 3543-3548
  Kathy J. J. Lee; Jakita O. O. Thomas
This note reports on preliminary findings from a study of consultants' information-seeking practices in a global IT services company. We conducted semi-structured interviews with consultants in addition to observing their interactions with a knowledge repository in the course of everyday problem-solving events. Initial analyses suggest that consultants interacted with the knowledge repository with very instrumental ends in mind, looking for information that resembled more tidbits than knowledge. Time was also an important constraint -- search was rarely approached without a perceived time cost. Though deeper analysis is pending, our data points to broader implications for the design of knowledge repositories, designers' and scholars' conceptualizations of them, and subsequently, approaches to studying them. We end with a discussion of next steps toward developing this work more fully.
Unigest: text entry using three degrees of motion BIBAFull-Text 3549-3554
  Steven J. Castellucci; I. Scott MacKenzie
This paper introduces UniGest, a technique that provides pointer input and text entry in a single device without occupying the display. It uses a Nintendo Wii motion-sensing remote to capture gestures that are mapped to character input. A gesture alphabet is proposed, with each gesture composed of at most two primitive motions. A web-based user study measured movement times for primitive motions. Results range from 296 to 481 ms, implying an upper-bound UniGest text entry performance prediction of 27.9 wpm.
Urban encounters: the game of real life BIBAFull-Text 3555-3560
  Vassilis Kostakos
In this paper we describe our ongoing work on modelling urban encounters by extending Conway's Game of Life. We develop our model based on empirical data collected using a Tamagotchi-like mobile game that recorded people's encounters by sensing nearby devices using Bluetooth. Our findings include the identification of useful ways to capture and analyse data to derive a model of encounter, and a set of rules that can be used to drive our model. We also identify interesting patterns in the behaviour of our simulations that can help us understand, and in certain cases predict, urban encounter.
User experience over time BIBAFull-Text 3561-3566
  Evangelos Karapanos; Marc Hassenzahl; Jean-Bernard Martens
The way we experience and evaluate interactive products develops over time. An exploratory study aimed at understanding how users form evaluative judgments during the first experiences with a product as well as after four weeks of use. Goodness, an evaluative judgment related to the overall satisfaction with the product, was largely formed on the basis of pragmatic aspects (i.e. utility and usability) during the first experiences; after four weeks of use identification (i.e. what the products expresses about its owner) became a dominant aspect of how good a product is. Surprisingly, beauty judgments were largely affected by stimulation (e.g. novelty) during the first experiences. Over time stimulation lost its power to make the product beautiful in the users' eyes.
Using cognitive models to evaluate safety-critical interfaces in healthcare BIBAFull-Text 3567-3572
  Farah Magrabi
We investigated the feasibility of using a GOMSL model to assess the user interface of a medications prescribing application in a hospital setting. A GOMSL model was developed for key prescribing tasks identified in an observational study. Task execution times predicted by the GOMSL model for six clinical scenarios were comparable with times from a pilot user study. Model-based evaluation may be useful in identifying features more susceptible to errors in safety-critical healthcare interfaces.
Uvmode: usability verification mixed reality system for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 3573-3578
  Ungyeon Yang; Dongsik Jo; Wooho Son
UVMODE is a mixed reality based usability evaluation system for mobile information device development. The system contributes to increasing efficiency of the usability evaluation process by replacing real products with virtual models. With our system, users can change the design of a virtual product easily, and investigate how it affects its usability. While users can review and test the virtual product by manipulating it with MR interfaces, the system also provides evaluation tools for measuring objective usability measures, including estimated design quality and users' hand load. In this paper, we present the system design and implementation details of our system, and discuss how it could improve the current usability evaluation processes held in mobile information device industry.
Verbal associations to tactile patterns: a step towards textured legends in multimodal maps BIBAFull-Text 3579-3584
  Christine Megard; Samuel Roselier; Jean-Marie Burkhardt
In this paper we present a pilot study designed to investigate how tactile patterns are spontaneously interpreted by subjects. Participants were confronted to a sample of 40 tactile patterns. The results show strong correlations in the way subjects spontaneously associate verbal description to a clearly identified set of patterns. In terms of application, the study aimed to provide empirical evidence that can support the selection of appropriate tactile patterns in multimodal maps for blind or visually impaired users.
Visual filler: facilitating smooth turn-taking in video conferencing with transmission delay BIBAFull-Text 3585-3590
  Hiroaki Kawashima; Takeshi Nishikawa; Takashi Matsuyama
Turn-taking in a smooth conversation is supported by the anticipation of the floor handover timing among participants. However, it becomes difficult to maintain natural turn-taking in video conferencing with transmission delays because the utterances and movements of each participant are presented to the others with a time lag, which often leads to a collision of utterances. In order to facilitate smooth communication over a video-conferencing system, we propose a novel method, "Visual Filler," that fills temporal gaps in turn-taking caused by the existence of delays. Visual Filler overlays an artificial visual stimulus that has a function similar to that of filler sounds on a screen with participant images. We have evaluated the effectiveness of a Visual Filler for reducing the unnaturalness of turn-taking on a simulated dyadic dialog situation with a delay.
Visualizations: speech, language & autistic spectrum disorder BIBAFull-Text 3591-3596
  Joshua Hailpern; Karrie Karahalios; Jim Halle; Laura DeThorne; Mary-Kelsey Coletto
Without speech, we can have great difficulty communicating wants, emotions, needs, and interacting with society at large. During typical child development, an infant acquires language skills without explicit teaching. However, some children, including those with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have explicit difficulty developing these skills in the context of everyday interactions. HCI is situated to help by developing technology and techniques to teach speech and language skills to children with ASD through the use of visual and auditory feedback. This paper examines preliminary results from a study, as well as describes new directions of research.
Visually querying the e-LIS ontology: a proposal BIBAFull-Text 3597-3602
  Mauro Felice
The e-LIS dictionary includes the first web dictionary from Italian sign language to Italian. Albeit innovative, its interface makes it a dictionary for experts of Italian sign language and of its sign composition rules. In this paper, we present a novel visual interface for the e-LIS dictionary. Our interface visualises the e-LIS ontology, which encodes the composition rules of signs of the dictionary. Thus our interface supports the dictionary users in querying by transparently browsing the ontology. The prototype of our interface was designed with the User Centred Design Methodology.
What is part of a usability test? BIBAFull-Text 3603-3608
  Torkil Clemmensen; Shi Qingxin
The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability evaluation. In this paper we report from an ethnographic interview study of what is a part of a standard usability test in a company in Mumbai, India. Using structural and contrast questions, we do a taxonomic and paradigm analysis. Initially, we find that most parts of the usability test are not related to the interactive application that is tested, but to differences in user characteristics, test preparation, method, and location. Future work may identify cultural themes that can help interpret results from existing laboratory research in usability test methods.
Where no interface has gone before: what can the phaser teach us about label usage in HCI? BIBAFull-Text 3609-3614
  Franklin P. Tamborello; Phillip H. Chung; Michael D. Byrne
Most research on how people represent procedures suggests that control labels are central. However, our data suggest that even moderately-experienced users do not rely on labels to locate interface elements.

Research landscapes

Accenture technology labs: HCI research BIBAFull-Text 3615-3620
  Kelly L. Dempski; Brandon L. W. Harvey; Manoj Seshadrinathan
This paper describes the high level goals of Accenture Technology Labs' research group, and concentrates specifically on the HCI research domain. We discuss three representative projects in order to give the reader a sense of our research agenda, as well as the culture of the group itself.
All the news that's fit to e-ink BIBAFull-Text 3621-3626
  Ohad Inbar; Ohad Ben-Asher; Talya Porat; Dudu Mimran; Bracha Shapira; Peretz Shoval; Joachim Meyer; Noam Tractinsky
We describe a design project of a future electronic news device and service. The project employs about 20 researchers, designers and developers. It uses advances in product technologies and in social computing to deal with the challenges of transferring the print newspaper reading experience onto a mobile, hand-held device, and of transferring the editor's power to decide what constitutes worthy news to the reader.
Generative UI design in SAPI project BIBAFull-Text 3627-3632
  Giuseppina Russo; Cosimo Birtolo; Luigi Troiano
In this paper we provide an overview of the SAPI project, an initiative of Poste Italiane in collaboration with RCOST-University of Sannio, ITSLab and CRIAI, supported by MIUR, Italian Ministry of University and Research. The project is aimed at developing a software platform, that implementing a novel approach to the user interface generation centered on search based techniques, will provide automatic and semi-automatic adaptation of user interface to vision impaired people.
HCI@aachen: experiments in the future of media and mobility BIBAFull-Text 3633-3638
  Jan Borchers
This paper presents the Media Computing Group at RWTH Aachen University and its goal to explore the future of collaborative, ubiquitous interaction with audiovisual media. It explains how this initial research vision has led to work on the levels of HCI theory, algorithms, toolkits, testbeds, and design patterns. It also introduces some of our external collaborations, in particular the Excellence Initiative, Germany's most fundamental change in government research funding to date, which supports RWTH and our group.
Human, organizational, and technological factors of IT security BIBAFull-Text 3639-3644
  Kirstie Hawkey; David Botta; Rodrigo Werlinger; Kasia Muldner; Andre Gagne; Konstantin Beznosov
This paper describes the HOT Admin research project, which is investigating the human, organizational, and technological factors of IT security from the perspective of security practitioners. We use qualitative methods to examine their experiences along several themes including: unique characteristics of this population, the challenges they face within the organization, their activities, their collaborative interactions with other stakeholders, the sub-optimal situations they face as a result of distributed security management, and the impact of the security management model in place. We present preliminary results for each theme, as well as the implications of these results on the field of usable security and other research areas within HCI.
HxI: research down under in distributed intense collaboration between teams BIBAFull-Text 3645-3650
  Claudia Schremmer; Christian Müller-Tomfelde
The Australian HxI Initiative led by CSIRO, DSTO, and NICTA investigates how the application of information and communication technology can help geographically distributed teams collaborate more effectively. The HxI Initiative embraces not only the development of world-class scientific and industrial outcomes, but the development of human capital in this multi-disciplinary research field. In its first project, [braccetto], a team of engineers, computer scientists, and social scientists are collaborating on overarching research goals to explore the principles underlying distributed intense collaboration and to develop effective applications. We present our research challenges, the research platform, and a suite of experiments conducted during the first year of the [braccetto] project.
Informatics at UC Irvine BIBAFull-Text 3651-3656
  Paul Dourish; Gillian R. Hayes; Lilly Irani; Charlotte P. Lee; Silvia Lindtner; Bonnie Nardi; Donald J. Patterson; Bill Tomlinson
Computer Science, as a single discipline, can no longer speak to the broad relevance of digital technologies in society. The Department of Informatics in the Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Irvine, serves as the institutional home for research on relationships between technological, organizational, and social aspects of information technology. Here, we describe the research landscape of the Department of Informatics and its relation to the diverse field of Human-Computer Interaction.
Landscaping personification technologies: from interactions to relationships BIBAFull-Text 3657-3662
  David Benyon; Oli Mival
Personification technologies are technologies that encourage people to anthropomorphize. These technologies try to get people to form relationships with them rather than simply interact with them. They may do this through having behaviours that encourage people to attribute personality or emotion to them. They may be persuasive technologies in the sense of Fogg that aim to get people to do things they would rather not do. They may promote trust. The convergence of a number of technologies is making personification technologies possible. Speech as an interaction is finally becoming robust and useable and is very influential in people attributing intelligence to devices and systems. Human language technologies allow devices to understand, or appear to understand, conversation. Interactions are becoming more natural and engaging. Avatars appear more congenial and coordinated.
   Building on the experience of a previous project, and drawing on the experience of a four year multi-disciplinary project, called Companions, the authors are keen to build community relationships around the notion of personification technologies. This includes the design, engineering, research (including ethics and social issues) and usability communities.
Making user engagement visible: a multimodal strategy for interactive media experience research BIBAFull-Text 3663-3668
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Tyler Pace; Jeremi Karnell
This paper describes an industry-academic collaborative research initiative, focused on determining useful measures of user engagement and experience with social media (e.g., video games, virtual worlds, social networking sites, etc.) and digital devices. Using newly designed hardware and software, the research initiative addresses the relationships among neurological, physiological, behavioral, and cognitive assessments of engagement in ongoing and short duration user experiences. It is a centerpiece of an iterative strategy toward understanding and modeling relationships among different engagement measures. The research will lead to design proposals for model-based assessments of engagement calibrated to individuals' responses.
Meta-perception: reflexes and bodies as part of the interface BIBAFull-Text 3669-3674
  Carson Reynolds; Alvaro Cassinelli; Masatoshi Ishikawa
Meta-perception is both an interaction design concept and the theme of a research group at the University of Tokyo. As a design concept, meta-perception is used to describe experience of novel phenomena made possible by devices that extend the human precepts. As a research group, our goal is to develop methods for capturing and manipulating information that is normally inaccessible to humans and machines. In this paper we describe various displays and devices that exemplify meta-perception. These include: several displays with which the human bodily interacts and wearable haptic devices that act as an extended skin. We reflect upon a design approach which borrows from elements of philosophy and media art to describe a different relationship between humans and technology.
The Georgia Tech aware home BIBAFull-Text 3675-3680
  Julie A. Kientz; Shwetak N. Patel; Brian Jones; Ed Price; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Gregory D. Abowd
The Aware Home Research Initiative (AHRI) at Georgia Tech is devoted to the multidisciplinary exploration of emerging technologies and services based in the home. Starting in 1998, our collection of faculty and students has created a unique research facility that allows us to simulate and evaluate user experiences with off-the-shelf and state-of-the-art technologies. With specific expertise in health, education, entertainment and usable security, we are able to apply our research to problems of significant social and economic impact.
User experience at Google: focus on the user and all else will follow BIBAFull-Text 3681-3686
  Irene Au; Richard Boardman; Robin Jeffries; Patrick Larvie; Antonella Pavese; Jens Riegelsberger; Kerry Rodden; Molly Stevens
This paper presents an overview of the User Experience (UX) team at Google. We focus on four aspects of working within Google's product development organization: (1) a bottom-up 'ideas' culture, (2) a data-driven engineering approach, (3) a fast, highly iterative web development cycle, and (4) a global product perspective of designing for multiple countries. Each aspect leads to challenges and opportunities for the UX team. We discuss these, and outline some of the methodological approaches we employ to deal with them, along with some examples of our work.
Using wearable computing solutions in real-world applications BIBAFull-Text 3687-3692
  Michael Lawo; Otthein Herzog; Paul Lukowicz; Hendrik Witt
In this paper we report on the wearIT@work project. With the wearIT@work project the European Commission and 42 partners from 16 countries invested into a new technology empowering mobile workers. The first 42 months of this project are over and industrial demonstrators, evaluations and results and an exploitation strategy are available. Beside the four application domains of maintenance, production, healthcare and emergency response further domains like cultural heritage, a rural living lab for the prevention of environmental disasters and eInclusion are first extensions to new application domains. In this paper based on the results of the third development cycle of the project results and an approach of the exploitation strategy are presented.

Student research

(hi}stories: supporting user generated history BIBAFull-Text 3693-3698
  Larissa Pschetz
With more and more digital information being produced by individuals every day, we will soon be able to use it to understand the past. Based on this premise this paper presents {Hi}Stories, a system to support the creation and access of user generated contents as historical evidences. In {Hi}Stories users aggregate contents from Internet and are invited to contribute their own material. It combines a number of research themes: collaborative information structuring, combination of contents from online services, and visualization and browsing of structured information collections.
An evaluation scheme for hierarchical information browsing structures BIBAFull-Text 3699-3704
  Megan Richardson
There is no widely accepted means of evaluating category systems for information search and browsing. This presentation outlines an evaluation scheme and an evaluation method that applies the scheme. The scheme delineates features broadly classified under comprehensiveness, coherence, and correctness. The method evaluates the category system through a survey distributed among subject domain experts. The method requires minimal resources, is easily conducted remotely, and is easily modified. The approach finds the over- and under-sensitivities of the method of generating the system. A case study has demonstrated the usefulness of the approach, and the inter-rater reliability found suggests that the evaluation scheme is meaningful.
Assocaptcha: designing human-friendly secure CAPTCHAs using word associations BIBAFull-Text 3705-3710
  Chinmay Eishan Kulkarni
CAPTCHAs are challenge-response tests to verify that the user is a human (and not a program/robot). CAPTCHAs use problems that are trivial for humans to solve, but are hard for computers. Unfortunately, CAPTCHAs have focused only on one aspect of human ability: image/word recognition. This paper explores the usage of other human abilities: particularly, finding associations between related concepts; to design secure, human-friendly Human Interaction Proofs (HIPs)
   In this paper, we present AssoCAPTCHA: CAPTCHAs so designed that they require no greater user-interaction than conventional solutions, yet have orders of magnitude greater security. Preliminary tests confirm user acceptance and efficiency of the system.
Buddywall: a tangible user interface for wireless remote communication BIBAFull-Text 3711-3716
  Melissa S. Quintanilha
BuddyWall is a system comprised of a wall-mounted panel with mobile wireless objects that represent remote friends on a virtual network. It uses established software and hardware for communication among a networked set of objects. The purpose of this interface is to allow for communication among remotely located friends and to display an awareness of group presence and others' availability through an ambient wall display. This project illustrates the transparency of a physical interface that provides aesthetically pleasing and emotionally engaging access to digital information for anyone. This paper describes the design of the system and interaction techniques developed in the context of this work. The aesthetics of physical objects can also enrich the digital experience and make it emotionally evocative.
Dynamic design elements for the peripheral interaction of ambient media BIBAFull-Text 3717-3722
  Jin-Yung Park; Tek-Jin Nam
Ambient media utilize peripheral awareness in interaction with people, which can be described as peripheral interaction. It represents information through dynamic changes of light, sound, form, or color in a physical space. In this study we present dynamic design elements and methods to apply them for peripheral interaction of ambient media in a physical space. We report on characteristics of dynamic design elements for peripheral interaction by reviewing literatures in psychology or related to ambient media. Based on the characteristics, we describe our design and prototype system of new ambient media, Cyber Pung-Kyung, focusing on how to apply dynamic design elements for peripheral interaction.
Ecovillages, values, and interactive technology: balancing sustainability with daily life in 21st century America BIBAFull-Text 3723-3728
  Lisa P. Nathan
This project seeks to provide a rich account of the adaptive process that occurs as individuals with explicit value commitments interact with information technology. Specifically, ethnographic methods are being used to investigate the information technology adaptive process as it unfolds in the daily life of two ecovillages, communities made up of individuals striving to balance their use of technology with a lifestyle that is environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable. Anticipated research outcomes include: (1) an analytic description of information technology adaptive process; (2) a categorization of technological functionalities which support or constrain certain values, (3) an empirical extension of Value Sensitive Design, and (4) an analysis of the negotiation around tensions which emerge as a community's values influence the use of information technology features and, reciprocally, as information technology features influence a community's values. Most broadly this work contributes to our larger understanding of how the information technology adaptive process influences the human experience.
Emotional instant messaging with KIM BIBAFull-Text 3729-3734
  Zhiquan Yeo
This paper describes a Kinetic Typography Instant Messaging client called KIM. KIM aims to improve the Instant Messaging experience by allowing the conveyance of more expressive content than is normally found in text-based communication. KIM also demonstrates a unique approach to applying animation to text by using keyword matching against a list of emotional words. This paper then describes the implementation and challenges faced when developing KIM, concluding with feedback obtained from user testing.
Facet folders: flexible filter hierarchies with faceted metadata BIBAFull-Text 3735-3740
  Markus Weiland; Raimund Dachselt
Facet Folders are a visualization and interaction concept for filtering collections of personal data. Although visually derived from the ubiquitous folder hierarchies of file managers, Facet Folders explicitly expose the faceted metadata used for filtering. Facet Folders can be arranged into persistent hierarchies, enabling the construction of dynamically updating views across multiple facets. If demands change, the hierarchy can be easily rearranged.
Information spaces -- building meeting rooms in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 3741-3746
  Drew Harry; Judith Donath
Virtual worlds are typically designed to recreate the familiar physical world, both in the design of the spaces and the ways that people interact within them. In this paper we describe an alternate approach that uses the computational capabilities unique to the virtual world to augment social interaction and personal experience. We propose a specific design for supporting medium sized group meetings using avatar's positions in the space to represent their feelings about the discussion and discuss our preliminary testing results.
Interface metaphor design and instant messaging for older adults BIBAFull-Text 3747-3752
  Suzanne Prior; John Arnott; Anna Dickinson
Instant Messaging is currently not widely adopted among older computer users. An investigation has therefore been conducted into the use of Instant Messaging by older computer novices, with particular emphasis on the use of an alternative metaphor in the user interface to try to produce a more usable and acceptable solution for older adults. Two messenger interfaces (a traditional one and an experimental alternative) were designed for the study and compared in use by older computer novices, through measurement and participant interview. Results showed that the alternative metaphor interface performed better overall and that the majority of the participants preferred it for future use.
Looking good on the web: evaluating the visual impact of political websites BIBAFull-Text 3753-3758
  Kayce N. Reed; Dennis P. Groth
We present a study designed to measure the perceptions of the visual design for political websites. We use as our sample population approximately 400 different websites for United States Congressional office-holders. In the analysis and presentation of our results we use the United States map divided into congressional districts, and then encode the study participants' perceptions of the visual design of the websites according to a color scale that maps to the perceived favorability of the site. Our motivation for the visualization is, of course, the well known red-blue map that depicts election results according to support for a particular political party. Further, we intend to look at the competitiveness of the districts where congressional elected officials reside, the noticeable features on their websites (for example, if a blog or visible contact information exists), as well as the results in relation to demographic information about the individual (political party, gender, age, etc). Beyond developing an understanding of the political landscape, our study aims to suggest a set of heuristics that tend to lead to more favorably perceived website designs.
Memorability of persuasive passwords BIBAFull-Text 3759-3764
  Alain Forget; Robert Biddle
Text passwords are the primary authentication method used for most online services. Many online users select weak passwords. Regrettably, most proposed methods of strengthening passwords compromise memorability. This paper explores a lightweight password creation mechanism's effect on password memorability. Our system employs Persuasive Technology to assist users in creating stronger passwords. Results show that our improvement scheme affected password memorability only for users who created secure passwords before the system applied its improvement. This result warns researchers to not alienate users who are already security-aware when trying to assist security-unaware users to behave more securely.
NomaticBubbles: visualizing communal whereabouts BIBAFull-Text 3765-3770
  Xianghua Ding; Donald J. Patterson
We describe the design of the NomaticBubbles, a visualization that provides cues of communal whereabouts. Unlike most location displays showing whereabouts on a geographical map, the NomaticBubbles depicts historical and aggregate traces of participants' whereabouts in an abstract and ambiguous manner. We describe the design of the NomaticBubbles, and discuss some early experiences and feedback we got, as well as future work.
Particle display system: a real world display with physically distributable pixels BIBAFull-Text 3771-3776
  Munehiko Sato
In this paper, the author designs and implements a new display system called Particle Display System, which can be installed on the non-planar surface of any objects. It consists of hundreds of full-color and wireless Light Emitting Diode (LED) nodes with a PC and video camera. The wireless capability makes the each node freely movable without distant limitation of the use of wire cables. By processing the images from the camera, the system calculates the positioning information of the each node and performs the timing control of the LED in the each node in real time. Therefore, the author is able to design a uniquely arranged pattern in full-color in the real world, by distributing and controlling the smart nodes. This paper describes the design and implementation of the prototype of Particle Display System.
Personal inventories: toward durable human-product relationships BIBAFull-Text 3777-3782
  William Odom
In this paper, I build on perspectives in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and design literature to develop a theoretical lens to conduct personal inventories of human-product relationships within the home. I describe an ongoing empirical study examining participants' attitudes toward and relationships with interactive technology, and frame this research within the nascent and growing literature in HCI on environmental sustainability. I will present early findings from this study and discuss how these implications can inform potential future design practice within the HCI community.
Positional prediction: consonant cluster prediction text entry method for Burmese (Myanmar language) BIBAFull-Text 3783-3788
  Ye Kyaw Thu
I am investigating a consonant cluster prediction text entry method for Myanmar language based on positional vowel information. The concept of this method is adapted by inspecting and carefully considering the nature of Myanmar language word formations or hand writing orders. According to the initial user study with our software keyboard prototype, users were able to type at 41.57 characters per minute with mouse, 41.84 characters per minute with stylus pen, 14.76 characters per minute with Logitech dual thumbstick game pad and 20.52 characters per minute with Nintendo Wii remote controller. These numbers are sure to improve as further refinements on program interface are made. The merits of the proposed predictive text input method is that even first time users can type Myanmar sentences with appropriate typing speed, and that this approach is applicable for various kinds of mobile devices (see Figure.1) and extendable for other similar syllabic languages such as Khmer (language of Cambodia), Nepali (language of Nepal), Thai (language of Thailand) and Hindi (one of the languages of India) etc.
Security practitioners in context: their activities and interactions BIBAFull-Text 3789-3794
  Rodrigo Werlinger; Kirstie Hawkey; Konstantin Beznosov
This study develops the context of interactions of IT security practitioners. Preliminary qualitative analysis of 22 interviews (to date) and participatory observation has identified eight different types of activities that require interactions between security practitioners and different stakeholders. Our analysis shows that the tools used by our participants do not provide sufficient support for their complex security tasks, including the interactions with other stakeholders. We provide recommendations to improve tool support for security practitioners.
Supporting long-distance parent-child interaction in divorced families BIBAFull-Text 3795-3800
  Svetlana Yarosh
Children in divorced families benefit from meaningful contact with both parents. Currently, there are few technologies that effectively support distributed contact between parents and children. This work presents the results of interviews with 10 parents and 5 children from divorced families to better understand the challenges and needs of this group.
Tabletop interface using a table's circular vibration and controllable friction BIBAFull-Text 3801-3806
  Shogo Fukushima; Yuki Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
In tabletop interfaces, there have been many proposals to control moving objects on the table. But it was hard to miniaturize or simplify the system. In this paper we propose a new simple tabletop system using table's circular vibration and controllable friction of the moving object.
The associative PDA 2.0 BIBAFull-Text 3807-3812
  Eileen Falke
In this paper I describe the Associative PDA 2.0, a mobile system for Personal Information Management (PIM), based on an associative information network. In addition to associate items manually, context information is used for defining associations and thereby indexing data automatically. The design is limited to note-taking, allowing a representative example of a PIM application. I conducted initial interviews to receive background information about note-taking. The system will be evolved following a user centered design. It will be evaluated in a long-term study with authentic personal information to verify the design and usefulness.
The usability perspective framework BIBAFull-Text 3813-3818
  Tobias Uldall-Espersen
The usability perspective framework is a tool under development supporting various stakeholders in contributing to software systems usability. This paper describes the work conducted so far and argues how the framework is expected to contribute to both academia and practitioners in industry. The framework's fit to software development systems is discussed and we argue why the framework might succeed where current usability work often fails. Finally the plans and ideas for future work are described.
Twend: twisting and bending as new interaction gesture in mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 3819-3824
  Gero Herkenrath; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
In this work we present a hardware prototype that uses bending gestures as input for a mobile device and experimental setups that compare possible gestures with other, more traditional input methods in mobile computing. These will eventually result in guidelines for researchers and designers how to build bendable devices and show new interaction metaphors for computer user interfaces.

Student design competition

aSister: scheduling for homeless women with special needs BIBAFull-Text 3825-3830
  Kshitij Gupta; Adwait Joshi; Jamie Allison McAtee; Nigel Savio Vaz
Homeless women need special care and attention especially during pregnancy or while trying to overcome substance abuse. We present a solution to help counselors working with these women. The solution allows the counselor to send text messages, which can be used to remind women of their daily schedule, as well as provide them with health and nutritional information. The system will also serve as a persuasive tool to help them develop positive behavior through the delivery of encouraging messages. Cell phone technology usage is increasing rapidly among the homeless population. The system uses text messaging which is an inexpensive and non-obtrusive method of communication. Our study contains details on the design of such a system and also attempts to evaluate the efficacy of such a text messaging system.
Human-centered space design for the homeless: clean dignity BIBAFull-Text 3831-3836
  Daniel John Myers Letson; Charles Alan Patterson
The goal of this document is to present both the methods employed by the team in collecting useful information pertaining to homelessness, and the proposal for a possible solution that was arrived at after analysis of the results. Emphasis is placed by the authors on the process of information collection, the interpersonal interaction with the homeless subjects, and the subtleties of the problem space explored in defining a solution.
Confidence camp BIBAFull-Text 3837-3842
  Petter Bergqvist; Fredrik Gustafsson; Ingrid Mårtensson
Homeless people who want to leave homelessness have a really hard time doing this, because they are stuck in the very same environment and have to face their problems alone. Our solution provides homeless people with a much needed vacation from their daily lives at the same time as they can learn new skills and build network that will help them in the future. The idea is a camp for the homeless based on four features that we have found are important to get out of homelessness; change of environment, activation, improvement of self-efficacy and improvement of social abilities. It is a place where they can prepare for the long journey out of homelessness.
doGooder: fostering volunteer communities to serve the homeless BIBAFull-Text 3843-3848
  Joshua Morse; Jacqueline Cerretani; Sameer Halai; James Laing; Melissa Perez
We developed an online system, doGooder, to foster volunteer social networks. Through an extensive user-centered design process, including interviews and a literature review, we learned that people experiencing homelessness face a wide range of issues. Most organizations helping the homeless depend heavily on volunteers to enhance their service capacity. One agency we studied was able to extend its budget by 30% as a result of volunteer labor. Research shows that social relationships play a key role in galvanizing potential volunteers and motivating existing ones. doGooder connects volunteers with opportunities and service organizations, and builds a community of volunteers to encourage each other. Preliminary usability testing indicates that doGooder will successfully help organizations to recruit, retain, and organize volunteers to meet the diverse needs of various populations facing homelessness.
Enroll me!: a portable device to facilitate homeless student enrollment BIBAFull-Text 3849-3854
  Eugene Chang; Xi Zhu; Hillary Elmore; Jun Youp Kim
We are designing an information transfer device to expedite the enrollment of homeless children to schools. Homeless children change schools often, seriously disrupting their educational experience. Our design uses existing, familiar technology to unobtrusively facilitate the enrollment process for both the school staff and the homeless parents.
GuardDV: a proximity detection device for homeless survivors of domestic violence BIBAFull-Text 3855-3860
  Zayira Jordán Conde; William Eric Marsh; Andrew W. Luse; Li-Shan Eva Tao
Research in homelessness points to a recent increase in the population of homeless women. Survivors of domestic violence who become homeless as a result of their flight from an abusive situation seem to comprise an increasingly significant segment of this group. GuardDV is a system that seeks to address the safety concerns of domestic violence survivors who do not possess a stable residence. The system warns the potential victim and the corresponding law enforcement organizations about the physical proximity of the aggressor. For this project, an interdisciplinary team committed to improve the quality of life of DV homeless survivors employed qualitative accounts as part of a participatory design [10] effort.
Homeless HealthShare: connecting health professionals and the homeless BIBAFull-Text 3861-3866
  James J. Pierce; Ashley E. Engelhardt; Jung Youn Yim
We are developing a web-based system that helps improve the health of homeless individuals by aiding healthcare professionals in identifying, locating, and contacting homeless patients in order to initiate and continue effective healthcare. Poor health is both a significant cause and a symptom of homelessness, carrying high costs for the general public as well. Our system addresses health problems amongst the homeless by allowing healthcare professionals and other homeless service professionals from multiple organizations to better share, manage, and communicate information vital to effective healthcare.
Ñuu Xaa: a system to support homeless people's self-subsistence BIBAFull-Text 3867-3872
  Edaena Itzel Bautista Ruíz; Laura Elena Hernández Domínguez; Cynthia Fátima Julián Loaeza; José Antonio Velasco Pérez
In this paper we present Ñuu Xaa, a tin collecting bank to support homeless people's self-subsistence in the city of Huajuapan de León. The main goal of this system is to improve homeless people's quality of life by providing them with the opportunity to have remunerative self-employment. We think that the implementation of Ñuu Xaa will bring homeless people social, economical and psychological benefits because they will be able to earn enough money in order to satisfy their elementary needs and the community will understand that homeless people aren't lazy but just people in need.
Portalis: using competitive online interactions to support aid initiatives for the homeless BIBAFull-Text 3873-3878
  Cheng-Lun Li; Ayse G. Buyuktur; David K. Hutchful; Natasha B. Sant; Satyendra K. Nainwal
We designed a web-based system with game-like properties that utilizes crowdsourcing to facilitate the beneficial transfer-of-knowledge to case managers (CMs) working with the homeless. This has two significant impacts: First, Portalis allows CMs to make informed decisions in managing client cases. Second, it enables individuals who would like to volunteer their services but are limited by time constraints to contribute.
QR-Codes for the chronically homeless BIBAFull-Text 3879-3884
  Meseret Gebrekristos; Ahmad Aljadaan; Kumud Bihani
We propose a system to use QR codes and cheap cell phones to alleviate some challenges faced by the chronically homeless. We propose combining the affordability, simplicity and portability of cell phones with the fast emerging QR Code technology to develop an information system which could augment current data entry methods utilized by homeless service agencies. The system offers simple interfaces which employ QR Codes for configuring cell phones to perform basic functions such as setting up reminders. The system is robust to the loss of its components, individual phones and QR cards. We developed and refined our design concept through an iterative design process of contextual inquiry, persona development, prototyping, and user tests.
The GroceryMate: eliciting community empathy and transforming it into purposeful action BIBAFull-Text 3885-3890
  Rajasee S. Rege; Jennifer L. Allen; Eric P. Drewski; Robert S. Molnar
People who are homeless in the United States lack adequate amounts of nutritious food which is detrimental to their health. We are designing a grocery shopping assistance device that strategically requests affordable and nutritious food donations that charitable organizations need to feed the homeless. We target grocery shoppers, since doing so allows us to leverage mass participation, as well as frequent and balanced community participation. This device employs persuasive technology to elicit emotions of empathy and alter the behavior of grocery shoppers to encourage them to donate. The device provides the shopper with an enhanced, personalized shopping experience making it appealing to use.
The NestEgg: a budgeting tool BIBAFull-Text 3891-3896
  Susan Coleman Morse; Augusto Kitover Lobo Alves
The NestEgg is a simple to use budgeting tool designed to help people who earn a low income. These individuals may be one paycheck away from no longer being able to afford housing, thus living on the edge of homelessness. Sometimes referred to as the "working poor," one in every five people in the United States was classified as such by the U.S. Department of Labor in 2003 [1]. By providing a mechanism to track their income and expenses and teach solid money management skills, financial stability can be achieved, aiding in the prevention of homelessness.

Workshops

Optimizing agile user-centred design BIBAFull-Text 3897-3900
  Desiree Sy; Lynn Miller
The goal of this workshop is to improve future Agile user centred design (UCD) experiences for User Experience (UX) practitioners (such as interaction designers, usability professionals, UI designers, etc.) by investigating best practices for Agile UCD. To achieve this, senior UX practitioners with prior experience on an Agile project will share their knowledge, collaborating in order to:
  • Identify success factors for Agile UCD
  • Find and remove obstacles that block Agile UCD
  • Find opportunities that Agile projects give us
  • Identify best UX practices for Agile UCD
  • Identify UX skills that Agile projects need. The results of this investigation will be shared with the wider UX community (including those new to Agile development.
  • Measuring affect in HCI: going beyond the individual BIBAFull-Text 3901-3904
      N. Sadat Shami; Jeffrey T. Hancock; Christian Peter; Michael Muller; Regan Mandryk
    The measurement of affect in HCI research is a challenging and complex issue. Although a number of techniques for measuring affect have been developed, a systematic discussion of their effectiveness and applicability in different contexts remains lacking, especially in social contexts with multiple users. As computing shifts to increasingly collaborative and ubiquitous models, it is important to discuss affect measurement beyond the individual level. This workshop will provide a forum where designers, practitioners, and researchers can 1) introduce novel methods of affect measurement that go beyond physiological and self-report measures, 2) advance our understanding of existing measurement methods and how they can be expanded, and 3) critically evaluate issues of affect measurement.
    Evaluating user experiences in games BIBKFull-Text 3905-3908
      Regina Bernhaupt; Wijand Ijsselsteijn; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Manfred Tscheligi; Dennis Wixon
    Keywords: fun, funology, game, gaming concepts, user experience
    HCI for community and international development BIBAFull-Text 3909-3912
      John Thomas; Andy Dearden; Susan Dray; Ann Light; Michael Best; Nuray Arkin; Andrew Maunder; Mathew Kam; Marshini Chetty; Nithya Sambasivan; Celeste Buckhalter; Gaurishankar Krishnan
    This workshop explores the challenges in applying, extending and inventing appropriate methods and contributions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to International economic and community Development. We address interaction design for parts of the world that are often marginalized by the Global North as well as people in the Global North who are themselves similarly marginalized by poverty or other barriers. We hope to extend the boundaries of the field of Human Computer Interaction by spurring a discussion on how existing methods and practices can be adapted and modified, and how new practices can be developed, to deal with the unique challenges posed by these contexts.
    BELIV'08: Beyond time and errors: novel evaluation methods for information visualization BIBAFull-Text 3913-3916
      Enrico Bertini; Adam Perer; Catherine Plaisant; Giuseppe Santucci
    Information visualization systems allow users to produce insights, innovations and discoveries. Evaluating such tools is a challenging task and the goal of BELIV'08 is to make a step ahead in the comprehension of such a complex activity. Current evaluation methods exhibit noticeable limitations and researchers in the area experiment some frustration with evaluation processes that are time consuming and too often leading to unsatisfactory results. The most used evaluation metrics such as task time completion and number of errors appear insufficient to quantify the quality of an information visualization system; thus the name of the workshop: "beyond time and errors".
    The disappearing desktop: PIM 2008 BIBAFull-Text 3917-3920
      Jaime Teevan; William Jones
    In an ideal world, we would always have the right information, in the right form, with the right context, right when we needed it. Unfortunately, we do not live in an ideal world. This workshop looks at how people in the real world manage to process massive amounts of information, and discusses how tools can bring real information interactions closer to the ideal.
    Collocated social practices surrounding photos BIBAFull-Text 3921-3924
      Siân E. Lindley; Abigail C. Durrant; David S. Kirk; Alex S. Taylor
    Recent developments in technology mean that it is becoming increasingly possible to support collaboration around digital photos. This makes an exploration of the existing collocated social practices that are associated with photos both timely and relevant. This workshop will explore social practices in the areas of photowork, photo sharing and photo displays, with the aim of drawing together current research and considering how the findings might inform technology innovation.
    Brain-computer interfaces for HCI and games BIBAFull-Text 3925-3928
      Anton Nijholt; Desney Tan; Brendan Allison; Jose del R. Milan; Bernhard Graimann
    In this workshop we study the research themes and the state-of-the-art of brain-computer interaction. Brain-computer interface research has seen much progress in the medical domain, for example for prosthesis control or as biofeedback therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Here, however, we look at brain-computer interaction especially as it applies to research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Through this workshop and continuing discussions, we aim to define research approaches and applications that apply to disabled and able-bodied users across a variety of real-world usage scenarios. Entertainment and game design is one of the application areas that will be considered.
    Semantic web user interactions: exploring HCI challenges BIBAFull-Text 3929-3932
      m. c. schraefel; Jennifer Golbeck; Duane Degler; Abraham Bernstein; Lloyd Rutledge
    The purpose of this workshop is to engage interaction researchers and designers in the user interaction challenges posed by the Semantic Web. The workshop will be the fifth workshop in the SWUI series -- it has previously been hosted at either the World Wide Web Conference or the International Semantic Web Conference. We have sufficient exemplars of both tools and approaches now that we can demonstrate the concepts of the space to participants and make it very clear why there are design/research challenges for the CHI community. We want to explore current and future CHI research that fits this problem space, and so invite participants exploring many interaction issues.
    Values, value and worth: their relationship to HCI? BIBAFull-Text 3933-3936
      David J. Gilmore; Gilbert Cockton; Elizabeth Churchill; Sari Kujala; Austin Henderson; Monty Hammontree
    This workshop explores the territory of 'value-centered HCI' with the intention of freeing us from the tricky complexity of this topic and the multiple meanings of the words 'value' and 'values'.
    Usable artificial intelligence BIBAFull-Text 3937-3940
      Aaron Spaulding; Anthony Jameson; Jonathan Grudin; Neil Yorke-Smith; Jack Zaientz
    "The AI and HCI communities have often been characterized as having opposing views of how humans and computers should interact" observes Winograd in "Shifting Viewpoints". Reconciling these views requires a thoughtful balancing of assistance and control, of mental and system representations, and of abstract process and contextualized workflow. This workshop examines the gap between HCI and artificial intelligence, with the goal of improving usability of AI systems.
    Designing and evaluating mobile phone-based interaction with public displays BIBKFull-Text 3941-3944
      Corina Sas; Alan Dix
    Keywords: evaluation, interaction design, mobile phones, public displays
    HCI for emergencies BIBAFull-Text 3945-3948
      Markus Klann; Alessio Malizia; Luca Chittaro; Ignacio Aedo Cuevas; Stefano Levialdi
    Emergencies put people in a particular state of mind and often also in difficult physical situations. When designing information technology for emergencies, these two sides have to be taken into account in the various activities supporting design. This includes studying and understanding the users and the influential factors for good designs, engaging the users in the design process as well as evaluating designs in realistic ways. There are challenges specific to emergencies in all of these activities, as well as in new technologies ranging from wearable computing to distributed information systems. This workshop is meant as an opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion as well as practical hands-on exchange of experiences regarding these challenges. The goal is to work towards a better understanding of the challenges, technologies, practices, and design methodologies relevant to HCI in emergencies.
    User interface description languages for next generation user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 3949-3952
      Orit Shaer; Robert J. K. Jacob; Mark Green; Kris Luyten
    In recent years HCI researchers have developed a broad range of new interfaces that diverge from the "window, icon, menu, pointing device" (WIMP) paradigm, employing a variety of novel interaction techniques and devices. Developers of these next generation user interfaces face challenges that are currently not addressed by state of the art user interface software tools. As part of the user interface software community's effort to address these challenges, the concept of a User Interface Description Language (UIDL), reemerge as a promising approach.
       To date, the UIDL research area has demonstrated extensive development, mainly targeting multi-platform and multi-modal user interfaces. However, many open questions remain regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of UIDLs in supporting the development of next generation interfaces.
       The aim of this workshop is to bring together both developers of next generation user interfaces and UIDL researchers in an effort to identify key challenges facing this community, to jointly develop new approaches aimed at solving these challenges and finally to consider future spaces for UIDL research.
    Distributed participatory design BIBAFull-Text 3953-3956
      Karin Danielsson; Amir M. Naghsh; Dorina Gumm; Andrew Warr
    Over the years a consensus has developed that involving users directly in the software development process can lead to more useful and usable systems. This has found its clearest expression in the Participatory Design (PD) movement. However, a limitation of PD is that it has primarily focused on project stakeholders being co-located, whereas in recent years we are starting to see software development projects involve more distributed collaborations. This workshop is aimed at researchers and practitioners with an interest to overcome the challenges of performing PD in distributed design teams. Several critical issues need examination in order to understand the usefulness and constraints of distributed participatory design (DPD).
    Exertion interfaces BIBAFull-Text 3957-3960
      Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Stefan Agamanolis
    Exertion as an interface for computing technology has generated increased attention recently due to the belief that it can address health issues such as obesity, contribute to social benefits, and open new markets for entertainment industries. We are proposing a workshop on this topic to bring researchers and industry participants from related areas together to strengthen the scientific influence on this field and promote a multidisciplinary agenda. The workshop will support the development of future collaborative efforts in this rapidly growing area.
    Now let's do it in practice: user experience evaluation methods in product development BIBAFull-Text 3961-3964
      Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Virpi Roto; Marc Hassenzahl
    As the selection of products and services becomes profuse in the technology market, it is often the delighting user experience (UX) that differentiates a successful product from the competitors. Product development is no longer about implementing features and testing their usability, but understanding users' daily lives and evaluating if a product resonates with the in-depth user needs. Although UX is a widely adopted term in industry, the tools for evaluating UX in product development are still inadequate. Based on industrial case studies and the latest research on UX evaluation, this workshop forms a model for aligning the used UX evaluation methods to product development processes. The results can be used to advance the state of "putting UX evaluation into practice".
    Technology in mental health BIBAFull-Text 3965-3968
      Gavin Doherty; John Sharry; Magnus Bang; Mariano Alcañiz; Rosa Baños
    Mental illness has been identified as one of the greatest challenges facing society in the coming decades. However, there are significant barriers to access for many people suffering from mental illness, including overburdened public health care systems, geographic distance from point of care, difficulties encountered by individuals in engaging with services, and the stigma associated with mental illness. Technology has the potential to significantly improve access, engagement, effectiveness and affordability of treatment, yet relatively little use has been made of technology to date. Significant opportunities exist for further research and development, but the domain throws up a variety of challenges for HCI design and HCI methods.
    Sonic interaction design: sound, information and experience BIBAFull-Text 3969-3972
      Davide Rocchesso; Stefania Serafin; Frauke Behrendt; Nicola Bernardini; Roberto Bresin; Gerhard Eckel; Karmen Franinovic; Thomas Hermann; Sandra Pauletto; Patrick Susini; Yon Visell
    Sonic Interaction Design (SID) is an emerging field that is positioned at the intersection of auditory display, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, and interactive arts. SID can be used to describe practice and inquiry into any of various roles that sound may play in the interaction loop between users and artifacts, services, or environments, in applications that range from the critical functionality of an alarm, to the artistic significance of a musical creation. This field is devoted to the privileged role the auditory channel can assume in exploiting the convergence of computing, communication, and interactive technologies. An over-emphasis on visual displays has constrained the development of interactive systems that are capable of making more appropriate use of the auditory modality. Today the ubiquity of computing and communication resources allows us to think about sounds in a proactive way. This workshop puts a spotlight on such issues in the context of the emerging domain of SID.
    Urban mixed realities: technologies, theories and frontiers BIBAFull-Text 3973-3976
      Rod McCall; Ina Wagner; Kari Kuutti; Guilio Jacucci; Wolfgang Broll
    This workshop will address the approaches, challenges, benefits and aspects of interaction within urban mixed reality environments. It will seek to draw upon existing research into place, presence and situated interaction while exploring areas of art, flow, ambience, urban design, performance and technology. In doing so, it will bridge the divide between art and science which exists in the growing research area of urban mixed realities. The anticipated outcome is a closer examination of the issues relevant to interacting within urban mixed realities and how to drive the research agenda forward.
    Social data analysis workshop BIBAFull-Text 3977-3980
      Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg; Jeffrey Heer; Maneesh Agrawala
    This workshop addresses a new online phenomenon: social data analysis, that is, collective analysis of data supported by social interaction. The recent democratization of data sources on the Internet -- from mandated publication of government-generated data to scientific repositories of experimental data sets -- has enabled a new kind of web site where users upload and collaboratively analyze the most varied sorts of data. So far, most of these sites have relied on visualization as an intrinsic part of their analytical arsenal. The goals of this workshop are to:
  • Bring together, for the first time, the social data analysis community
  • Examine the design of social data analysis sites today
  • Discuss the role that visualizations play in social data analysis
  • Explore how users are utilizing the various sites that allow them to exchange
       data-based insights.
  • Sensemaking BIBAFull-Text 3981-3984
      Daniel M. Russell; George Furnas; Mark Stefik; Stuart K. Card; Peter Pirolli
    When confronted with a large or complex amount of information, how DO people come to understand it? This workshop will focus on the most recent work in sensemaking, the activities, technologies and behaviors that people do when making sense of their complex information spaces.
    Night and darkness: interaction after dark BIBAFull-Text 3985-3988
      Wendy March; Dawn Nafus; Laurel Swan; Alex S. Taylor
    Many of us work and socialize late into the night, some increasingly so. However, most information technology is still designed in the daytime and largely to be used in the light. Little thought is given to its behavior in darkness, even if the technology itself can sense darkness, or sleep. The aim of the workshop outlined below is to examine night and darkness as a starting point for designing ubiquitous computing. We aim to explore if and how the behavior of our technology should change as night falls. The workshop will use the topics of darkness, safety, 'nighttime people' and nighttime activities to think about new design opportunities for interaction design and ubiquitous computing. Practicing what we preach, so to speak, the workshop participants will also critique their ideas and designs in the dark, in Florence.
    Surrounded by ambient persuasion BIBAFull-Text 3989-3992
      Wolfgang Reitberger; Manfred Tscheligi; Boris de Ruyter; Panos Markopoulos
    This workshop will discuss the implications of the use of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) for Persuasion. AmI allows surrounding the user with persuasive technology in their everyday life, giving the possibility for persuasive interventions just at the right time and in the right place. The workshop will focus on the potential of Ambient Persuasion for applications in the area of sustainability, health and well-being and related areas. It will also address the need for theoretical foundations and frameworks on which to ground such applications. The use of AmI for persuasion also raises a number of ethical and privacy questions. These issues play an important part in the overall user experience of persuasive AmI applications, where a special focus of this workshop lies.
    Secrets and lies in computer-mediated interaction: theory, methods and design BIBAFull-Text 3993-3996
      Adam N. Joinson; Jeffrey Hancock; Pam Briggs
    The keeping of secrets and practicing of deception are commonplace in everyday social interaction. They also serve an important role in encouraging social cohesion. However, for HCI practitioners, the challenge is to design systems that enable exactly this kind of flexibility and ambiguity in social behavior while also maintaining trust and authenticity. This workshop will bring together researchers of both deception and secrecy in computer-mediated interaction, alongside designers of systems, to face up to these challenges and develop a road map for the future. The workshop will act as a venue for the synthesis of theory with design, and propose ways to face the challenges of enabling authentic social interaction in computerized environments.

    Special session

    Special session in honor of Randy Pausch BIBAKFull-Text 3997-4002
      Caitlin Kelleher; Brad A. Myers; Daniel P. Siewiorek; Dennis Cosgrove; Jeffrey S. Pierce; Matt Conway; Don Marinelli
    Randy Pausch is an inspiration to all with his research, teaching, the way he has lived his life, and his courage while confronting pancreatic cancer. This session brings together people he has touched through various phases of his career to discuss his research and legacy.
    Keywords: alice, entertainment technology, last lecture, suit, toolkits, virtual reality