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CHI Tables of Contents: 02-203-103-204-104-205-105-206-106-207-107-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of the CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Reach Beyond
Editors:Bo Begole; Stephen Payne; Elizabeth Churchill; Rob St. Amant; David J. Gilmore; Mary Beth Rosson
Location:San Jose, California, USA
Dates:2007-Apr-28 to 2007-May-03
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-59593-642-4, 978-1-59593-642-4; ACM Order Number: 608075; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI07-2
Papers:226
Pages:1260
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2007-04-28 Volume 2
    1. Doctoral consortium
    2. Experience report
    3. Interactive session
    4. Interactivity
    5. Student design competition
    6. SIG
    7. ACM student research competition
    8. Work-in-progress
    9. Workshops

CHI 2007-04-28 Volume 2

Doctoral consortium

Observation-based design methods for gestural user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1625-1628
  David L. Akers
The design of gestural user interfaces is uniquely challenging because the input is freeform, personal, and often carries subconscious meanings that are domain-specific and difficult to articulate. These features suggest an approach of observation-based design: learning from what people do, rather than relying on what they say. To facilitate observation-based design, this dissertation is exploring two design methods: gesture brainstorming, a Wizard of Oz method for early prototyping of new interfaces, and gesture log analysis, a machine learning-based log analysis method for improving existing interfaces. These design methods will be tested by applying them to two gestural interfaces: a 3D pathway selection interface (CINCH, see Figure 1), and a 3D modeler (Google SketchUp). Experience with CINCH already suggests the utility of observation-based design, while work on Google SketchUp is anticipated to begin this summer. These test cases should inform observation-based design for gestural user interfaces in general.
Connectedness: support to communities in diaspora via ICT BIBAFull-Text 1629-1632
  Luis A. Castro
The continuous migratory flows from Mexico to the US have yielded the creation of transnational communities. Communication is essential for these people to keep their community awareness high. Even though recent advances on ICT have enabled people to be in touch with remote family or friends, community context obtained by migrants is arguably partial. My dissertation will focus on an exploratory study of different communication channels used by migrants to communicate to and from their community of origin. The contributions of my work will provide an understanding of the nature of community connectedness of migrants as well as the information elements involved on increasing the sense of connection itself. This knowledge might be used for the better design of communication technologies.
Interaction with user-adaptive information filters: trust, transparency and acceptance BIBAFull-Text 1633-1636
  Henriette S. M. Cramer
This PhD-project investigates interaction with user-adaptive systems. Experiments and user studies are used to explore the factors that lead to trust and acceptance of such systems. This research aims to inform design of transparent user-adaptive and (semi-)autonomous systems. Focus is on interaction with content-based user-adaptive information filters.
Design and evaluation of reduced-functionality interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1637-1640
  Leah Findlater
Many types of reduced-functionality interfaces have been proposed to manage user interface complexity. This dissertation research explores issues of evaluation and feasibility within this space.
Ears ))): a methodological framework for auditory display design BIBAFull-Text 1641-1644
  Christopher Frauenberger
In this paper we will present a methodological framework for the design of auditory displays called ears ))). It provides methods to create, maintain and apply design knowledge in the form of design patterns for experts and novices to effectively re-use existing expertise. The context space, a key concept in the framework is presented which allows efficient matching of design problems and design knowledge to advance the use of the auditory interaction channel in human-computer interaction.
Decision-making strategies in design meetings BIBAFull-Text 1645-1648
  Erin Friess
This project aims to further our understanding of the practice of user-centered design (UCD) by observing the argumentation strategies used by designers in face-to-face meetings in the critical periods between usability research and prototype iteration. In order to conduct such an investigation, I recorded ten meetings of graduate student designers charged with redesigning documents for the United States Postal Service. I then used discourse analysis techniques to determine how the designers used findings from research phases as evidence to support proposed design decisions in meetings concerning prototype alterations. Results show that these designers overwhelmingly do not support their design decisions with specific evidence from usability studies. This neglect of research-based evidence may indicate that these novice UCD designers may resort to designer-centric design behaviors in decision-making periods. My analysis will focus on the rhetorical reasons why designers may avoid research-based evidence.
Supporting proactive planning of multiple activities BIBAFull-Text 1649-1652
  Leonardo Galicia
Many studies have shown that the nature of information work demands constant switching among multiple activities. This doctoral dissertation aims at expanding the understanding of the process and strategies involved in personal activity management (PAM), including planning, managing and organizing multiples activities and their resources, with the goal of designing, implementing and testing appropriate supportive information technology.
Bridging the social-technical gap in location-aware computing BIBAFull-Text 1653-1656
  Fabien Girardin
Building ubiquitous applications that exploit location requires integrating underlying infrastructure for linking sensors with high-level representation of the measure space to support human activities. However, the real-world constraints limit the efficiency of location technologies. The inherent spatial uncertainty embedded in mobile and location systems constantly challenges the coexistence of digital and physical spaces. Consequently, the technical mechanisms fail to match the highly flexible, nuanced, and contextual human spatial activities. These discrepancies generate a social-technical gap between what should be socially supported and what can be technically achieved. My research aims at exploring, and hopefully reducing this gap in the context of location-aware computing.
Gazetop: interaction techniques for gaze-aware tabletops BIBAFull-Text 1657-1660
  David Holman
GazeTop is a tabletop system that tracks multi-user eye movement in a co-located setting. Knowledge of eye movement is highly relevant to tabletop interaction: eyes can point to distant targets on large tables, address usability issues imposed by rotation sensitive objects, such as menu and text, and facilitate new types of multimodal interactions. This research will evaluate a set of novel eye-controlled interactions and explore the design space of gaze-aware tabletop systems.
Evaluating experience-focused HCI BIBAFull-Text 1661-1664
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
There is growing interest in experience-focused, rather than task-focused, HCI. Task-focused HCI has developed methods for creating and validating knowledge, but those methods may not be applicable or sufficient for experience-focused technology. In particular, new evaluation techniques to validate knowledge need to be created, discussed, and understood. I address this in three ways. First, it is important to understand the historical, technical and social factors that impact the evaluation criteria the community consider valid today. Second, I propose an ethnomethodological approach to evaluation that emphasizes the ways users use and make sense of technologies. And third, I demonstrate the validity of my approaches by means of several case studies.
Playing with fire: participatory design of wearable computing for fire fighters BIBAFull-Text 1665-1668
  Markus Klann
In this paper we present our approach of using game-like techniques for designing wearable computing solutions for the Paris Fire Brigade, consisting of namely a board game and a virtual environment for collaborative prototyping during simulated interventions. We provide first results on the approach's benefits and difficulties.
Scaffolding cooperative multi-device activities in an informal learning environment BIBAFull-Text 1669-1672
  Leilah Blakeney Lyons
Informal learning environments, e.g. children's science museums, provide special challenges for educational software design: the software must (1) be immediately accessible, (2) convey educational content within short episodes of use, and (3) should allow multiple users to participate at the same time. While mobile technology allows for multiple simultaneous users, significant scaffolding is required to allow groups to walk up and productively use it. Using a design experiment approach, my research focuses on the design and evaluation of distributed scaffolds that enable informal learners to use mobile technology effectively.
Sensemaking handoff: theory and recommendations BIBAFull-Text 1673-1676
  Nikhil Sharma
Sensemaking work is often handed off between people. Yet handoff can cause problems, somewhat similar to an interruption. This dissertation examines the issues related to sensemaking handoff by integrating existing theories and drawing predictions about the effects of premature handoff. These predictions and the related design recommendations for systems will be verified using short-term ethnography, interviews, laboratory observations and experiments.
Authorable virtual peers for children with autism BIBAFull-Text 1677-1680
  Andrea Tartaro
For my dissertation, I am designing, implementing and evaluating the use of a new kind of, authorable, virtual peer that allows children with autism to learn about reciprocal social interaction by building their own virtual humans. This work has three stages: (1) Study the verbal and nonverbal reciprocal social interaction behaviors of children with autism; (2) Use the results of the study to design and implement an authorable virtual peer for children with autism; and (3) Evaluate the effectiveness of the system in improving reciprocal social interaction behaviors of children with autism.
Incentive design for home computer security BIBAFull-Text 1681-1684
  Rick Wash
Home computer users frequently lack the skills necessary to ensure proper security. Hackers exploit this to control large networks of computers ('botnets') that are used for spam, extortion, and fraud. I integrate ideas from psychology and economics to design software that provides incentives that induce better security choices by home computer users.

Experience report

Designing for totality of mobile and non-mobile interaction: a case study BIBAFull-Text 1685-1690
  Shweta Aneja; Youn-Kyung Lim
The focus of the project is to design for mobile needs of users to support activities that closely relate to non-mobile contexts. We selected the real estate industry for a case study and conducted an in-depth research to gain a deeper understanding of the office (non-mobile) and mobile work environments of realtors and the social context of interaction with their clients. We identified some unique challenges that such a mixed work environment proposes. Recording contextual data in the mobile environment and streamlining it with huge amount of other related unorganized information in the non-mobile environment was identified as the main challenge. We designed an integrated system of a web-based application "REMAP" (for information analysis) and a mobile device "NotePod" (for information capture). The paper talks about some of the main research and findings, the design concept proposed, and finally some lessons learnt that we could extend to similar mixed contexts.
In-between theory and practice: dialogues in design research BIBAFull-Text 1691-1696
  Arianna Bassoli; Johanna Brewer; Karen Martin
Why Wait? and Betwixt are two of the workshops we have recently run on the theme of in-between-ness. The approach of social computing, where researchers work to understand how the socio-cultural aspects of human life relate to the design of new technologies, was the starting point for our investigation. By observing actual instances of in-between-ness in context we explored how design activities can be used as an opportunity to discuss and take positions on a specific theme, and as a space for narrowing the gap in design research between theoretical and practical thinking.
Common & particular needs: a challenge to participatory design BIBAFull-Text 1697-1702
  Rachel K. E. Bellamy; John Richards; Rhonda Rosenbaum; Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg; John Thomas; Jonathan Brezin; Cal Swart
A design story about the design of a visualization for controllers who monitor IBM's controls process, provides the backdrop for reflections on the success of a participatory design process. The story illustrates that while the design process appears to lead to a successful general technical solution, the solution fairs less well when viewed from the perspectives of: support for evolving work practices, or support for the particular and contextual tasks of individuals. This leads us to reframe our participatory design process as the design and socialization of end-user programming tools.
Fast-tracking product innovation BIBAFull-Text 1703-1708
  Daniela K. Busse
This paper describes the coming-of-age of an analytical application that was built using agile development processes, tightly interlinked with an iterative user experience methodology, but at times at odds with the legacy of more rigid development methods such as prescriptive pattern-based design and strictly separated core disciplines. We pioneered a variety of ways to deal with these challenges, most of which focused on empowering the User Experience discipline in decision-making processes, development impact, and in leading product definition overall. This ensured that innovative forces were least constrained while fast-tracking this product, while still achieving effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction of the application's user experience.
Usability on patrol BIBAFull-Text 1709-1714
  Maria Callander; Lorna Zorman
The introduction of computers into police patrol cars comes with an increase in driver distraction issues. We will describe the usability process and techniques we adapted to study computers in law enforcement patrol cars. Our approach to assess the risk of driver distraction in the police vehicles was a combination of a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) workload assessment protocol and cognitive modeling. This combination proved useful without the high cost of driving simulators and instrumented test subjects. Using cognitive modeling, we could identify the potential problems for certain tasks. For example, we found that automating the task of running a license plate with a typical mouse-keyboard interface, could increase the workload by more than seven hundred percent compared with doing the same task via radio contact with dispatcher. We also found measuring by glances instead of time to be a useful technique in practice.
Towards systematic research of multimodal interfaces for non-desktop work scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1715-1720
  Victoria Carlsson; Bernt Schiele
Non-desktop workplaces often generate challenging multitasking situations for a user attempting to interact with supporting technology. Multimodal applications promise great advantages in this type of context. However, current research does not provide enough knowledge for the ergonomic optimization of multimodal interfaces. In order to advance in the research area concerning non-desktop work, a systematic research approach is needed. This paper discusses a possible strategy for advancing towards systematic research, and describes a preliminary experiment attempting to evaluate a real scenario using this strategy.
A theory-based approach to designing student learning context BIBAFull-Text 1721-1728
  Jarinee Chattratichart
How can we keep technology-focused computing and software engineering students interested and engaged in a soft subject like HCI? How can we avoid leaving the less gifted and less enthused students behind in a 12-week module packed with theories, methodologies and with a new development tool to learn? This paper describes how educational research findings were deployed to address the above issues across four semesters in an HCI module at a UK university. Kolb's experiential learning cycle was successfully applied to the design and scheduling of course content and learning activities to enhance students' learning outcomes. Surveys of the students -- both at the beginning and at the end of each semester -- consistently showed improvement in students' understanding, perception and satisfaction with the module.
Heuristic evaluations at bell labs: analyses of evaluator overlap and group session BIBAFull-Text 1729-1734
  Xerxes P. Kotval; Cheryl L. Coyle; Paulo A. Santos; Heather Vaughn; Rebecca Iden
In this paper we examined a set of seven heuristic evaluations with specific attention to issue identification overlap among professional heuristic evaluation reviewers. We also evaluated the effectiveness of conducting a group review.
Designing software for consumers to easily set up a secure home network BIBAFull-Text 1735-1740
  Brenton Elmore; Stuart Hamilton; Subbarao Ivaturi
Home networking continues to expand into a collection of computers and networked devices that are becoming more complex to setup and manage. Research indicated that new techniques were needed to help people set up a secure home network. The techniques should satisfy the expectations of advanced users, without requiring technical knowledge on the part of novice users. A central design theme influenced the software solution: If a networking expert was advising a user on how to set up, configure, and secure a home network, what would this person tell the user to do?.
   In this case study, insights about creating a new home networking program to solve the challenges are discussed. Results indicated animations, good default settings and a network map increased the user success rate for network setup.
User-centered design gymkhana BIBAFull-Text 1741-1746
  Muriel Garreta-Domingo; Magí Almirall-Hill; Enric Mor
The User-centered design (UCD) Gymkhana is a tool for human-computer interaction practitioners to demonstrate through a game the key user-centered design methods and how they interrelate in the design process. The target audiences are other organizational departments unfamiliar with UCD but whose work is related to the definition, creation, and update of a product or service.
A bridging design prototype for investigating concept mapping in the preschool community BIBAFull-Text 1747-1752
  Gloria Gomez
This paper reports on studies where teachers from two different preschools incorporated a Bridging Design Prototype (BDP) for concept mapping into classroom activities. Designed under inclusive, participatory, and user-centered principles, the BDP was used to perform observations for assessing an interaction problem and refining the user community profile. The observation findings will inform next stage of product development.
Learning observation skills by making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches BIBAFull-Text 1753-1758
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Olga I. Garcia; Keith B. Perry
In this report we describe our experience conducting a class activity where students learned and practiced observation skills. In the activity, students in small groups observed and were observed making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. The groups then used their observations to sketch designs for a peanut butter and jelly maker that they presented to the class. We found that the activity helped students learn about the difficulties involved in observing and being observed. It also taught them about the value of observing users, even if they are performing tasks familiar to the observer. Having international students in the class brought an additional perspective to the activity which benefited everyone. These students discussed the difficulty of observing experts conduct tasks that are unfamiliar to the observer. In spite of the overall positive outcome, we discuss ways of improving the activity given our experience.
How to look beyond what users say that they want BIBAFull-Text 1759-1764
  Younghee Jung; Akseli Anttila
This paper shares our experience with a strategic design project for defining the key user experience scenarios for utilizing location information available on mobile devices. While the domain area has been known both in industry and academia alike for many years, our stakeholders wanted to know what would be most appealing user experiences in the coming years, particularly beyond what is expected and available in the market right now. Therefore gaining confidence in understanding user needs and desires was considered crucial in the project. We pursued two main tracks of design research activities to bring insights on the current users' perceptions, needs and wants (contextual interviews) as well as implicit wishes and aspirations (exploration probes and creative workshop) we should fulfill when designing location aware solutions. We describe our rationales of how we designed the design research process, and compare the results of the two tracks.
Evolution of a concept: from technology to end-user to enterprise BIBAFull-Text 1765-1770
  Lynne S. Brotman Karmin; Doree Duncan Seligmann; Michael Sammon; Ed Peebles
In this report we describe our experiences designing and trialing a hands-free, context-aware, mobile communications system for enterprise workers. Our concept, inspired by a new consumer technology, was designed with a heavy focus on the end-user. Through our trial we became aware of various factors in the enterprise that impacted design and deployment.
Persona based rapid usability kick-off BIBAFull-Text 1771-1776
  Nina Khalayli; Silja Nyhus; Kari Hamnes; Tone Terum
The paper reports on the evaluation of a rapid usability kick-off technique (RUKO). Ten mobile service development projects in the company applied the technique during the early analysis phase. The technique was designed for non-usability experts (NUEs), to enable them to perform usability work. The effect was that usability awareness and end user focus in projects increased. However, there was an increased need for usability expertise in later phases.
Early research strategies in context: adobe photoshop lightroom BIBAFull-Text 1777-1782
  Grace K. Kim
In January of 2006, Adobe Systems introduced the public beta of Lightroom, a digital imaging solution designed specifically for professional photographers and serious amateurs [1]. The appeal of Lightroom is that it offers a modular, task-based environment that flexibly supports a complete photography workflow. This paper describes two foundation-setting research strategies pursued during the early concept and definition phases of Lightroom. It discusses why certain research strategies were undertaken by the placing the decisions to pursue these strategies within a broader context, including the stage of Lightroom's development, the evolving assumptions of the Lightroom team, product positioning issues, time and resource constraints, and stakeholder engagement. To emphasize the context in which specific research approaches were crafted rather than simply executed, the term research strategies is used in favor of research methods.
When two methods are better than one: combining user study with cognitive modeling BIBAFull-Text 1783-1788
  Andrea Knight; Guy Pyrzak; Collin Green
We discuss the benefits of combining user studies and cognitive modeling in the context of Firefox tabbed browsing. We studied new users' ability to use tabbed browsing without assistance, and then evaluated alternatives for closing browser tabs to improve the new user experience through user tests and cognitive modeling. In general, our experience highlights the advantages of using user studies and modeling together to do user interface evaluation: user studies provided validation of design intuitions and data to support modeling of user behavior; modeling provided a fast and efficient ability to play "what if" with the design change; the combination of qualitative user test data and quantitative modeling results proved to be a far more convincing package of evidence than either result in isolation, given the variety of perspectives in the design and development team.
Surrogate users: a pragmatic approach to defining user needs BIBAFull-Text 1789-1794
  Matthew A. Lievesley; Joyce S. R. Yee
It is often difficult for practising interaction designers to engage with real end-users because of the competing economic pressures on projects. Preliminary research with end-users (a particularly rich source of information) may be squeezed in favour of more tangible, later-stage project deliverables. This case study paper presents a pragmatic approach to getting closer to end-users by briefing project stakeholders to think as surrogate users within managed 90 to 120 minute-long focus groups. It concludes with an evaluation of the approach in terms of the experiences of the research participants and its merits in terms of project delivery and outcomes. It finds that the method described is particularly useful in multi-stakeholder projects and provides a rich design brief with clear, agreed, user-centred design goals.
UI toolkit for non-designers in the enterprise applications industry BIBAFull-Text 1795-1804
  Liang-Cheng Lin; Wai On Lee
This report describes a user interface (UI) toolkit used for prototyping by non-designers. The toolkit enables the development of standardized UI wireframes and click-through prototypes that comply with User Experience UI style guides and design specifications.
Minimizing modality bias when exploring input preferences for multimodal systems in new domains: the Archivus case study BIBAFull-Text 1805-1810
  Agnes Lisowska; Susan Armstrong; Mireille Betrancourt; Martin Rajman
In this paper we discuss the problems faced when trying to design an evaluation protocol for a multimodal system using novel input modalities and in a new domain. In particular, we focus on the problem of trying to minimize bias towards certain modalities and interaction patterns. Such bias might be introduced by experimenters in the instructions given to users which explain how the system can be used.
Mandala: supporting social presence and interaction in the Chinese home BIBAFull-Text 1811-1816
  Neema Moraveji; A. R. D. Rajan; Liu Like
Multiple factors lead social software to be unevenly adopted by differing age segments in urban China. This paper presents user research to understand the discrepancy between parents and their children and attempts to address them with the design of an information appliance. The appliance uses novel techniques to magnify and emphasize unidirectional social presence data so as to comply with cultural social protocol. It attempts to support interaction ranging from peripheral awareness to real-time conversation. Initial reactions to the design are also presented.
Making personas memorable BIBAFull-Text 1817-1824
  James E. Nieters; Subbarao Ivaturi; Iftikhar Ahmed
Although Cisco's tag line for fiscal year 2007 is "Lead the Experience," not all Cisco product teams have historically focused on designing products that facilitate user success and delight. The Cisco User Experience Design (UXD) Group provides tools that stimulate a UXD culture, one of which is personas to catalyze a common understanding of users and a centralized persona database. The challenge has been that engineers at Cisco could opt out of using personas. This UXD Group therefore had to produce personas and artifacts that increase the fun and the stickiness of persona characteristics as a basis for product design. In November 2005, the UXD team won an award for developing best practices in product development for creating these personas by vice presidents from across Cisco.
The internal consultancy model for strategic UXD relevance BIBAFull-Text 1825-1832
  James E. Nieters; Subbarao Ivaturi; Garett Dworman
Experts in the field of HCI have spoken at length about how to increase the strategic influence of User Experience Design (UXD) teams in industry [3]. Some have offered courses in HCI management [1]. Others have presented recommendations on how to prove a return on investment for usability-related activities [2].
   Nielsen [5] has described the usability maturity model, presenting implicit management challenges and structures at different phases.
   Few though have discussed the value and process for an embedded UXD Group functioning as an internal consultancy to different product teams within their organizations, and how this model can increase the strategic relevance of UXD in their companies.
   The Cisco UXD Group evolved through several funding and organizational models (central funding, client-funding, distributed teams), and now follows an internal consultancy model. This paper describes the experiences that led to this model and how it has helped increase the strategic influence of UXD within Cisco.
The LiLiPUT prototype: a wearable lab environment for user tests of mobile telecommunication applications BIBAFull-Text 1833-1838
  Peter Reichl; Peter Froehlich; Lynne Baillie; Raimung Schatz; Antitza Dantcheva
User trials for future mobile telecommunication applications inherently pose several particular challenges which are difficult to meet in a traditional lab environment. In this paper we describe LiLiPUT (Lightweight Lab Equipment for Portable User Testing in Telecommunications), a highly flexible wearable test system which has been realized as a fully operational prototype at the Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (ftw.). Then we illustrate how we use LiLiPUT for testing various types of mobile application in the wild.
Towards the perfect infrastructure for usability testing on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1839-1844
  Rudy Schusteritsch; Carolyn Y. Wei; Mark LaRosa
In this paper, we describe various setups that allow usability professionals to conduct effective user studies on mobile devices. We describe the factors relevant when building a solution for mobile device observation and the various designs we worked with in the Google user experience research environment as we iterated to meet changing study needs. We highlight several systems that can successfully be used in an industry environment, including a novel setup that is fully portable, can be used in a usability lab as well as in the field, accommodates a large variety of different mobile devices, and allows for live observation by product teams around the world.
Establishing relationships for designing rural information systems BIBAFull-Text 1845-1850
  Yael Schwartzman; Tapan S. Parikh
Designing for the developing world presents unique challenges. Establishing rapport with local partners is important to overcome contextual unfamiliarity and ensure the relevance of proposed solutions. In this paper, we discuss our experiences designing a CAM-based mobile data capture system for Asobagri, a rural coffee cooperative in Barillas, Guatemala. CAM is a camera-based mobile application framework designed based on fieldwork with rural microfinance groups in India. Our local partners in India are now using the CAM framework in a real application. We list some practices that have helped us establish and sustain both these design relationships.
Thinking but not seeing: think-aloud for non-sighted users BIBAFull-Text 1851-1856
  Philip Strain; A. Dawn Shaikh; Richard Boardman
This paper discusses some of the methodological challenges that can be encountered when usability testing with visually impaired users. These include (1) the need for customized test environments, (2) the potential for audio interference between screen reader output and the moderator to participant dialogue, and (3) the difficulty for observers inexperienced in accessibility technology. In this paper we outline several techniques for dealing with these challenges, including some variations on traditional think-aloud techniques that are useful when a usability participant is using a screen reader.
Software design and engineering as a social process BIBAFull-Text 1857-1862
  William A. Stubblefield; Tania L. Carson
Traditionally, software engineering processes are based on a formalist model that emphasizes strict documentation, procedural and validation standards. Although this is a poor fit for multidisciplinary research and development communities, such groups can benefit from common practices and standards. We have approached this dilemma through a process model derived from theories of collaborative work rather than formal process control. This paper describes this model and our experiences in applying it in software development.
Implementation of interactive poster "SuiPo" BIBAFull-Text 1863-1868
  Fuminori Tsunoda; Takayuki Matsumoto; Takeshi Nakagawa; Mariko Utsunomiya
This paper explains an implementation of new media "SuiPo," or Suica Poster, which uses a combination of IC card ticket "Suica" and Internet accessible mobile phone. Customers can get e-mail information by touching their IC card ticket on the reader located near the poster. Two pilot tests are conducted before the service has begun. The first test revealed that many people preferred the interactive poster but the registration process was complicated. The second test was conducted after improving the registration process. The lessons learned through two pilot tests are that in addition to the easier registration process, the increased popularity of two dimensional barcode reader in mobile phone has lowered the barrier of registration process.
   The SuiPo has been introduced in July 31st, 2006 and started service at Shinjuku Station and Tokyo Station. We hope the implementation would change customers' perception of Suica not only as a ticket or e-money but also as an information tool.
Music organisation using colour synaesthesia BIBAFull-Text 1869-1874
  Michael Voong; Russell Beale
The movement of music from physical discs to digital resources managed on a computer has had an effect on the listening habits of users. We explore using the potential of the innate synaesthesia that some people report feeling between colour and mood in a novel interface that enables a user to explore their music collection and create musical playlists in a more relevant way.
   We show that there is a reasonable degree of consistency between users' associations of colour and music, and show that an indirect descriptor can aid in the recall of music via mood, making playlist generation a simpler and more useful process.
How informances can be used in design ethnography BIBAFull-Text 1875-1880
  Ron Wakkary; Madison Poon; Leah Maestri; Travis Kirton; Corey Julihn; Ryan Betts
In this paper we discuss how we've adapted the technique of informance design for use in design ethnography. We detail our design ethnography workflow method and describe our informances.
Exploring augmented live video streams for remote participation BIBAFull-Text 1881-1886
  Michael Wittkämper; Irma Lindt; Wolfgang Broll; Jan Ohlenburg; Jan Herling; Sabiha Ghellal
Augmented video streams display information within the context of the physical environment. In contrast to Augmented Reality, they do not require special equipment, they can support many users and are location-independent. In this paper we are exploring the potentials of augmented video streams for remote participation. We present our design considerations for remote participation user interfaces, briefly describe their development and explain the design of three different application scenarios: watching a pervasive game, observing the quality of a production process and exploring interactive science exhibits. The paper also discusses how to develop high quality augmented video streams along with which information and control options are required in order to obtain a viable remote participation interface.
Education, entertainment and authenticity: lessons learned from designing an interactive exhibit about medieval music BIBAFull-Text 1887-1892
  Marius Wolf; Eric Lee; Jan Borchers
In this paper we describe the design experience gathered from creating an interactive exhibit about medieval music. This system was designed as an educational exhibit that relies on audio as its only feedback channel. We focused our work on three major goals: educational value, entertainment aspects, and historic authenticity. We present insight into the challenges in designing a system with these goals, and how they could be solved.
Pottering: a design-oriented investigation BIBAFull-Text 1893-1898
  Susan P. Wyche; Alex Taylor; Joseph Kaye
In this paper we examine a ubiquitous yet overlooked aspect of home-life, pottering. The Oxford English Dictionary defines pottering as "To occupy oneself in an ineffectual or trifling way; to work or act in a feeble or desultory manner; to trifle, to dabble." It is thus a term used to describe a variety of activities but none in particular. Below, we give shape to the practice of pottering and in doing so aim to demonstrate how such an investigation has broad implications for HCI and designing for the home. We also report on our experiences of using design sketching as an analytical resource.
Coming to terms: comparing and combining the results of multiple evaluators performing heuristic evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1899-1904
  Hanna Yehuda; Jennifer McGinn
In this paper we describe a new way to perform heuristic evaluations, which allows multiple evaluators to easily compare and combine the results of their reviews. This method was developed to provide a single, reliable, result to the client, but it also allowed us to easily negotiate differences in our findings, and to prioritize usability problems identified by the evaluation. An unexpected side effect is that, by using this evaluation method, the practitioner can measure and predict the effect of usability improvements.

Interactive session

Moving UX into a position of corporate influence: whose advice really works? BIBAFull-Text 1905-1908
  Richard I. Anderson; Jeremy Ashley; Tobias Herrmann; Justin Miller; Jim Nieters; Shauna Sampson Eves; Secil Tabli Watson
Professionals working to move user experience (UX) into a position of corporate influence are impeded by conflicting recommendations, including those regarding the roles of documenting and evangelizing UX work, ownership of UX, organizational positioning, calculating return on investment, and conducting "ethnographic" research. In this interactive session, a group of senior UX management personnel who have moved UX into positions of rapidly increasing influence in their varied places of work debate their different perspectives and approaches to help resolve conflicting recommendations and generate some new and improved guidance.
Semantic Web HCI: discussing research implications BIBAFull-Text 1909-1912
  Duane Degler; Scott Henninger; Lisa Battle
Semantic Web progress is very active, and this past year shows a much greater focus on the subject of user interaction. W3C leaders talk about the importance and grand challenges for user interaction. Workshops showcase more well-developed projects and innovative interaction designs. A W3C mailing list has begun. But what are the implications for the HCI community? What research and practice contributions can be made, and what relationships can be fostered with the semantic web research community? This collaborative, interactive session will give CHI participants a chance to discuss the issues that have surfaced at recent semantic web workshops.
"Get real!": what's wrong with hci prototyping and how can we fix it? BIBAFull-Text 1913-1916
  William Jones; Jared Spool; Jonathan Grudin; Victoria Bellotti; Mary Czerwinski
A prototype of computing technology as a means to evaluate and communicate a good idea is often an essential step towards useful, shipping products and towards a deeper understanding of what people really need. Prototyping and user evaluation can be enormously expensive and failure rates are high. Moreover, prototype user evaluations are often far from real with respect to user representatives, tasks, and measures. But to get real in HCI prototyping and evaluations risks placing even greater (more unrealistic) demands upon the HCI researcher. Do very real costs and constraints force HCI prototyping to the margins? Can we change acceptable HCI prototyping methods, helping HCI prototyping "get real," in both its conduct and in the implications of its results.
Taking CHI for a drive: interaction in the car BIBAFull-Text 1917-1920
  David M. Krum; Dietrich Manstetten; Clifford Nass; K. Venkatesh Prasad; Roberto Sicconi
With the increasing number of cars on the road, longer commutes, and the proliferation of complex information and entertainment features, there is a greater need for careful interaction design in the car. The automobile is a challenging environment for designing and deploying good user interfaces. Interaction designers must balance brand identity, safety, legislation, and manufacturability, among other issues. In this panel, practitioners and researchers from industry, industrial labs, and academia will discuss the challenges of interaction design in an automotive environment. While some members of the CHI community are active in the automotive field, the general CHI community may not be aware of this work, the open research issues, and opportunities for collaboration in this area. This panel will provide an introduction into HCI research in the automotive industry. Some successful examples of interaction design will be discussed, as well as a few not-so-successful examples. Questions and comments from the audience are welcomed.
Recommendations on recommendations BIBAFull-Text 1921-1924
  Rolf Molich; Kasper Hornbaek; Josephine Scott
This interactive session discusses the quality of recommendations for improving a user interface resulting from a usability evaluation. Problems with the quality of recommendations include recommendations that are not actionable, ones that developers are likely to misunderstand, and ones that may not improve the overall usability of the application. The session will discuss characteristics of useful and usable recommendations, that is, recommendations for solving usability problems that lead to changes that efficiently improve the usability of a product. To make the session as useful as possible we have deliberately left 2-3 panel seats open for people with demonstrated abilities in writing useful and usable recommendations. We intend to fill these seats through a pre-conference contest.
Who killed design?: addressing design through an interdisciplinary investigation BIBAFull-Text 1925-1928
  Scott G. Pobiner; Anijo Punnen Mathew
This extended abstract describes the grounding for an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the contemporary meaning of "Design","Designer", and "Designed" and the role it will play in the future of CHI and CHI-related disciplines.

Interactivity

REXplorer: a mobile, pervasive spell-casting game for tourists BIBAFull-Text 1929-1934
  Rafael A. Ballagas; Sven G. Kratz; Jan Borchers; Eugen Yu; Steffen P. Walz; Claudia O. Fuhr; Ludger Hovestadt; Martin Tann
REXplorer is a mobile, pervasive spell-casting game designed for tourists of Regensburg, Germany. The game uses location sensing to create player encounters with spirits (historical figures) that are associated with historical buildings in an urban setting. A novel mobile interaction mechanism of "casting a spell" (making a gesture by waving a mobile phone through the air) allows the player to awaken and communicate with a spirit to continue playing the game. The game is designed to make learning history fun for young (and young at heart) tourists and influence their path through the city.
Soap: how to make a mouse work in mid-air BIBAFull-Text 1935-1940
  Patrick Baudisch; Mike Sinclair; Andrew Wilson
Computer mice do not work in mid air. The reason is that a mouse is really only half an input device -- the other half being the surface the mouse is operated on, such as a mouse pad. In this demo, we demonstrate how to combine a mouse and a mouse pad into soap, a device that can be operated in mid air with a single hand. We have used soap to control video games, interact with wall displays and Windows Media Center, and to give slide presentations.
BluetunA: let your neighbour know what music you like BIBAFull-Text 1941-1946
  Stephan Baumann; Björn Jung; Arianna Bassoli; Martin Wisniowski
BluetunA is an application running on Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones that allows users to share information about their favourite music. With BluetunA people can select a list of favourite artists or songs and see who else in proximity share their taste in music, or they can search whom nearby has selected specific artists, and check out what other preferences in terms of music these people have. Moreover, BluetunA users can exchange messages with each other over Bluetooth, connect to the Internet to download their profile and obtain music recommendations from Last.fm website. To enrich this experience, people can interact with each other through their mobile phones while sitting in cafes by accessing the BluetunA hotspots and a wider range of music sharing options.
Dynamics of tilt-based browsing on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1947-1952
  Sung-Jung Cho; Changkyu Choi; Younghoon Sung; Kwanghyeon Lee; Yeun-Bae Kim; Roderick Murray-Smith
A tilt-controlled photo browsing method for small mobile devices is presented. The implementation uses continuous inputs from an accelerometer, and a multimodal (visual, audio and vibrotactile) display coupled with the states of this model. The model is based on a simple physical model, with its characteristics shaped to enhance usability. We show how the dynamics of the physical model can be shaped to make the handling qualities of the mobile device fit the browsing task. We implemented the proposed algorithm on Samsung MITs PDA with tri-axis accelerometer and a vibrotactile motor. The experiment used seven novice users browsing from 100 photos. We compare a tilt-based interaction method with a button-based browser and an iPod wheel. We discuss the usability performance and contrast this with subjective experience from the users. The iPod wheel has significantly poorer performance than button pushing or tilt interaction, despite its commercial popularity.
The mixed reality book: a new multimedia reading experience BIBAFull-Text 1953-1958
  Raphael Grasset; Andreas Duenser; Hartmut Seichter; Mark Billinghurst
We are introducing a new type of digitally enhanced book which symbiotically merges different type of media in a seamless approach. By keeping the traditional book (and its affordance) and enhancing it visually and aurally, we provide a highly efficient combination of the physical and digital world. Our solution utilizes recent developments in computer vision tracking, advanced GPU technology and spatial sound rendering. The systems' collaboration capabilities also allow other users to be part of the story.
Interactive exploration of city maps with auditory torches BIBAFull-Text 1959-1964
  Wilko Heuten; Niels Henze; Susanne Boll
City maps are an important means to get an impression of the structure of cities. They represent visual abstraction of urban areas with different geographic entities, their locations, and spatial relations. However, this information is not sufficiently accessible today to blind and visually impaired people. To provide a non-visual access to map information, we developed an interactive auditory city map, which uses 3D non-speech sound to convey the position, shape, and type of geographic objects. For the interactive exploration of the auditory map, we designed a virtual walk-through. This allows the user to gain an overview of an area. To be able to focus on certain regions of the map, we equip the user with an auditory torch. With the auditory torch users can change the number of displayed objects in a self directed way. To further aid in getting a global idea of the displayed area we additionally introduce a bird's eye view on the auditory map. Our evaluation shows that our approaches enable the user to gain an understanding of the explored environment.
Tangible programming in the classroom with tern BIBAFull-Text 1965-1970
  Michael S. Horn; Robert J. K. Jacob
This interactivity demonstrates Tern, a tangible programming language for middle school and late elementary school students. Tern consists of a collection of wooden blocks shaped like jigsaw puzzle pieces. Children connect these blocks to form physical computer programs, which may include action commands, loops, branches, and subroutines. With Tern we attempt to provide the ability for teachers to conduct engaging programming activities in their classrooms, even if there are only one or two computers available. In designing Tern, we focused on creating an inexpensive, durable, and practical system for classroom use.
Learning shape writing by game playing BIBAFull-Text 1971-1976
  Per Ola Kristensson; Shumin Zhai
We present a computer game designed to efficiently and playfully teach users shape writing -- a new text entry method for pen-based devices.
GUIDe: gaze-enhanced UI design BIBAFull-Text 1977-1982
  Manu Kumar; Terry Winograd
The GUIDe (Gaze-enhanced User Interface Design) project in the HCI Group at Stanford University explores how gaze information can be effectively used as an augmented input in addition to keyboard and mouse. We present three practical applications of gaze as an augmented input for pointing and selection, application switching, and scrolling. Our gaze-based interaction techniques do not overload the visual channel and present a natural, universally-accessible and general purpose use of gaze information to facilitate interaction with everyday computing devices.
imPulse BIBAFull-Text 1983-1988
  Gilad Lotan; Christian Croft
imPulse is a modular design object that senses pulse and allows users to wirelessly transmit their heartbeat rhythms to companion imPulse units. By synchronizing light and vibrations with users' personal heartbeats, these devices create intimacy across distance.
Jogging over a distance: supporting a "jogging together" experience although being apart BIBAFull-Text 1989-1994
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Shannon O'Brien; Alex Thorogood
Jogging is a healthy activity and many people enjoy jogging with others for social and motivational reasons. However, jogging partners might not always live in the same location, and it may be difficult to find a local jogger who runs at the same pace, we found through a survey "Jogging over a Distance" allows geographically distant joggers to socialize and motivate one another by using spatialized audio to convey presence and pace cues, similar to the experience of running side by side. We hope our approach encourages active and prospective joggers to jog longer and more often, while simultaneously supporting friendships.
I/O brush: beyond static collages BIBAFull-Text 1995-2000
  Kimiko Ryokai; Stefan Marti; Hiroshi Ishii
I/O Brush is our ongoing effort to empower people to create new expressions and meanings by painting with attributes of everyday objects and movements in their physical world. Using examples from our case studies with kindergarteners and artists, we discuss I/O Brush's most distinguishing features, its dynamic ink and history functions, and how they enable people to invent new expressions and meaning making with objects in their physical environment.
BodySpace: inferring body pose for natural control of a music player BIBAFull-Text 2001-2006
  Steven Strachan; Roderick Murray-Smith; Sile O'Modhrain
We describe the BodySpace system, which uses inertial sensing and pattern recognition to allow the gestural control of a music player by placing the device at different parts of the body. We demonstrate a new approach to the segmentation and recognition of gestures for this kind of application and show how simulated physical model-based techniques can shape gestural interaction.
Dreaming of adaptive interface agents BIBAFull-Text 2007-2012
  Bill Tomlinson; Eric Baumer; Man Lok Yau; Paul Mac Alpine; Lorenzo Canales; Andrew Correa; Bryant Hornick; Anju Sharma
This interactive project uses the metaphor of human sleep and dreaming to present a novel paradigm that helps address problems in adaptive user interface design. Two significant problems in adaptive interfaces are: interfaces that adapt when a user does not want them to do so, and interfaces where it is hard to understand how it changed during the process of adaptation. In the project described here, the system only adapts when the user allows it to go to sleep long enough to have a dream. In addition, the dream itself is a visualization of the transformation of the interface, so that a person may see what changes have occurred. This project presents an interim stage of this system, in which an autonomous agent collects knowledge about its environment, falls asleep, has dreams, and reconfigures its internal representation of the world while it dreams. People may alter the agent's environment, may prevent it from sleeping by making noise into a microphone, and may observe the dream process that ensues when it is allowed to fall asleep. By drawing on the universal human experience of sleep and dreaming, this project seeks to make adaptive interfaces more effective and comprehensible.
Devices as interactive physical containers: the shoogle system BIBAFull-Text 2013-2018
  John Williamson; Roderick Murray-Smith; Stephen Hughes
Shoogle is a novel interface for sensing data within a mobile device, such as presence and properties of text messages or remaining resources. It is based around active exploration: devices are shaken, revealing contents rattling around "inside". Vibrotactile display and realistic impact sonification create a compelling system. Inertial sensing is used for completely eyes-free, single-handed interaction. Prototypes run on both PDA's a standard mobile phones with a wireless sensor pack.
Building upon everyday play BIBAFull-Text 2019-2024
  Haiyan Zhang; Bjöern Hartmann
Most of today's video game strategies are based on a static set of game controls and player actions that remain oblivious to the player's context and own creativity. Building Upon Everyday Play is the result of a collaboration of Control Freaks, a pervasive gaming experience project, and Exemplar, a toolkit that uses programming-by-demonstration to author sensor-based interactions. In combination, Building Upon Everyday Play furthers a pervasive gaming experience through appropriation of objects in the player's environment and enables new ways to play.
   The project consists of a combination of a portable, wireless motion-sensing clamp that can be attached to everyday objects to turn them into game controllers by proxy, and a programming-by-demonstration system that translates sensor data reported by the controller into game events. In the demonstration, participants will be able to play custom video games projected on a large 2D screen by attaching the clamp to their bodies or provided household objects, and to invent their own moves to control the provided games.

Student design competition

Journey planning based on user needs BIBAFull-Text 2025-2030
  Paul André; Max L. Wilson; Alisdair Owens; Daniel Alexander Smith
In this paper we discuss potential developments to the design of pre-trip in-home journey planning services, to include support for additional user needs. These needs were identified through stakeholder interviews as contributing to actual decisions in route selection scenarios and include: safety, weather and even fitness. A journey planner was designed to allow users to articulate these constraints and a series of paper prototypes were evaluated through cognitive walkthroughs. An exploratory study compared three designs and provided rationale for the most effective interaction method, informing an implementation plan.
Ri-Ri: assisting bus conductors in madras (chennai) BIBAFull-Text 2031-2036
  Arvind Ashok; Christian M. Beck; Nick Quagliara
In this paper, we present a tool to increase the efficiency of public transport buses inside the metropolitan city of Madras (Chennai) in South India. The amount of people dropping out of the public bus system is growing at an alarming rate, and arresting this problem is at the root of our prototype. By increasing efficiency of the system, we hope that this problem will be stopped and will lead to more people entering the system, rather than abandoning it.
EMI: a system to improve and promote the use of public transportation BIBAFull-Text 2037-2042
  Tonatzin Yutzin Baños; Emmanuel Aquino; Fernando David Sernas; Yazmí Regina López; Roberto Carlos Mendoza
This paper presents a project to improve the public transportation in the city of Huajuapan de León, Oaxaca, México. Interactive Multimedia Stations (EMI, for its Spanish acronym), the system proposed here, has the following purposes: to increase the use of public transportation through an information system comprised of routes and schedules, to improve public services with a module of users. complaints and suggestions, along with a module of incentives, which would raise the awareness of a culture of road safety education through informative capsules to the general public.
Facebook ride connect BIBAFull-Text 2043-2048
  John M. Booher; Balakrishna Chennupati; Nina S. Onesti; David P. Royer
Ride Connect is a tool integrated into the social networking site Facebook's (www.Facebook.com) event planning feature. Ride Connect helps people coordinate transportation to specific events. We chose to focus on undergraduate students because changes in their attitudes and habits towards shared transportation will lead to a sustainable increase in public transportation (PT) use. Ride Connect encourages PT use through social incentives and by conveniently presenting user-generated transportation options. Our study investigates how social incentives and convenient PT information lead to increased PT use, and how PT use, coupled with a reduction in stigma, leads to long-term behavioral and attitudinal changes towards P.
txt bus: wait time information on demand BIBAFull-Text 2049-2054
  Carl Collins; Amy Grude; Matthew Scholl; Robert Thompson
This paper describes an SMS based text messaging system that delivers real time bus information to users' mobile phones. Many public transit systems provide schedule and fare information on their web sites, and a small subset of these have recently experimented with bus stop countdown displays. In contrast, an SMS based delivery system allows users to receive real time updates wherever they may be. Given that lack of information is an often cited barrier to transit use, particularly among "choice riders" (i.e. those who have access to other forms of transit), such a solution also creates an opportunity for transit organizations to improve their services, thus promoting ridership [6].
Carpool.UMD: community carpooling BIBAFull-Text 2055-2060
  John Dobrosielski; Tiffany Gray; Anna Nhan; Martin Stolen
With the demand on energy resources increasing as the supply decreases, energy costs in the United States have been at an all-time high. Despite these costs, congestion is still steadily increasing. Carpooling has for a long time been an option to help reduce congestion, but commuters currently under use it. Carpool.UMD is a social-networking website designed to make carpooling to and from the University of Maryland, College Park easier. The website allows users to search for carpools, learn more about other riders and manage their carpools. Carpool.UMD aims to create a safe and friendly community as well as making it convenient to carpool to and from the University.
EventStream: integrated transit information system BIBAFull-Text 2061-2066
  Pin Sym Foong; Vincent, Jr. Diaz; Aaron R. Houssian; Adam Huse; Pornsuree Jamsri
EventStream was designed to help out-of-town attendees of seminars or conferences use public transportation (PT) to travel to and from these meetings. Since the dominant business travel mode is the personal vehicle [2], this would help reduce habitual and inefficient travel in Single Occupant Vehicles. Using recommendations from studies on travel mode choice [4], we designed EventStream to offer customized transit information for this target group. We deliver this information via email, our website, to an iPod, or through Short Message Service (SMS) to a cell phone. Our user studies indicated a willingness to attempt PT use in an unfamiliar town when provided information that supports informed choices.
altVerto: using intervention and community to promote alternative transportation BIBAFull-Text 2067-2072
  Martha V. Gukeisen; David Hutchful; Pieter Kleymeer; Sean A. Munson
We seek to motivate drivers who regularly use web-based local and mapping services and have access to viable alternative transit methods -- such as public transportation, carpooling, walking or bicycling -- to use these alternatives instead of driving alone. altVerto works with users' existing habits to intervene during trip planning, and then sustains long-term positive behavior through progress tracking and community-building around alternatives to driving. Our study investigates how computer-mediated intervention at decision making moments and online transit-related community motivates and sustains the use of alternative transit methods.
CarLoop: leveraging common ground to develop long-term carpools BIBAFull-Text 2073-2078
  Joshua Morse; Joshua Palay; Yarun Luon; Satyendra Nainwal
We developed and tested a website and public display to connect and sustain carpoolers in the workplace. We arrived at this design through study of traffic congestion and its causes. After finding that many problems are deeply rooted in transportation infrastructure, we discovered several that could be addressed through design of an interface to carpooling. We found that people are often hesitant to carpool with unknown drivers. Our system offers numerous features to create and nurture sustainable carpools, bringing together design principles with organizational principles and workplace knowledge. Preliminary testing of our system encourages us that its combination of features could increase the success rate of workplace carpools.
Senior travel buddies: sustainable ride-sharing & socialization BIBAFull-Text 2079-2084
  Will Odom; Scott Jensen; Meng Li
We are developing a system to be implemented at Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs) throughout the United States in an effort to encourage ride-sharing among residents in order to decrease their carbon emissions. We are focusing on senior citizens for two reasons. they are a growing segment of the population with driving habits that result in higher pollution, but they are also a population that is at risk of isolation and the mental and physical harm that can result from being isolated. Our system addresses both of these issues while leveraging the infrastructure and culture of CCRCs in addition to hiding the technology from the senior residents themselves.
Celerometer and idling reminder: persuasive technology for school bus eco-driving BIBAFull-Text 2085-2090
  Tyler Pace; Shruti Ramalingam; David Roedl
We are designing a feedback system to encourage more fuel-efficient driving habits among school-bus drivers. We chose to design for the school bus because as one of the largest public transport systems in the U.S., it is a major contributor to the country's total fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Our design uses persuasive technology to discourage excessive idling and aggressive driving by providing real-time in-vehicle feedback for self-monitoring.
The VVIP system: encouraging the use of public transport in Edinburgh BIBAFull-Text 2091-2096
  Darren James Thomson; Marius Gylseth; Robert McGarry; Carmen Valero Garcia
This article is concerned with the encouragement and promotion of the use of buses in Edinburgh, especially among visually impaired users and tourists / migrant workers. The report outlines the key issues these groups encounter when using buses, and introduces VVIP, or Visual and Vocal Information Platform as a solution. The report contains detailed research methodology and findings which led to the development of VVIP, and the design and evaluation procedures undertaken by the group. VVIP is a cost effective and easily deployed dynamic location based system which offers passengers a visual and auditory display of where the bus is in relation to its next stop facilitating and improved bus travel experience.

SIG

Usability and free/libre/open source software SIG: HCI expertise and design rationale BIBAFull-Text 2097-2100
  Paula M. Bach; Bryan Kirschner; John M. Carroll
The usability of Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) is a new challenge for HCI professionals. Although HCI professionals are working on usability issues in FLOSS, the CHI community has not yet organized with respect to FLOSS. The purpose of this SIG is to bring together HCI professionals and researchers to discuss current issues in FLOSS. Specifically, this SIG looks at usability, the role of HCI expertise, and design rationale in FLOSS projects.
Let's get emotional: emotion research in human computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 2101-2104
  Elizabeth A. Crane; N. Sadat Shami; Christian Peter
Emotion is a topic of growing interest in the HCI community. Studying emotion within the HCI discipline is an exciting interdisciplinary task. This can be facilitated by the exchange of thoughts and ideas with others working on related projects. The aim of this SIG is to bring together an interdisciplinary group of researchers and practitioners actively working on projects where emotion is an essential component. The goals of the SIG are to identify current themes related to emotion specific HCI work and discuss strategies for moving forward.
Comparing internal UXD business models BIBAFull-Text 2105-2108
  Garett Dworman; James E. Nieters; Subbarao Ivaturi
Experts in the field of HCI have spoken at length about how to increase the strategic influence of User Experience Design (UXD) teams in industry [3]. Some have offered courses in HCI management [1]. Others have presented recommendations on how to prove a return on investment for usability-related activities [2]. This SIG is an extension of the CHI experience report.
   The Internal Consultancy Model for Strategic UXD Relevance,. [5] and explores four common UXD organizational models. In this SIG, we will develop a SWOT analysis (analyzing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) of each model. The SIG will facilitate a systematic exploration by attendees whose organizations follow, or are considering, one or more of these models. It will result in a broader understanding for managers of UXD teams on how they can optimally structure their internal UXD functions, given their unique corporate environments and cultures.
Interactive technologies for autism BIBAFull-Text 2109-2112
  Daniel R. Gillette; Gillian R. Hayes; Gregory D. Abowd; Justine Cassell; Rana el Kaliouby; Dorothy Strickland; Patrice (Tamar) Weiss
In meeting health, education, and lifestyle goals, technology can both assist individuals with autism, and support those who live and work with them, such as family, caregivers, coworkers, and friends. The uniqueness of each individual with autism and the context of their lives provide interesting design challenges for the successful creation and adoption of technologies for this domain. This Special Interest Group (SIG) aims to bring together those who study the use of technology by and for individuals with autism, those who design and develop new technologies, and those who are curious about getting involved. Areas that this SIG will consider include assistive technologies; tools for data collection and analysis; educational software; virtual reality rehabilitation environments; identifying users; need finding; user-centered collaborative design processes that include individuals who cannot speak or write; and product assessment. This SIG will provide opportunities for participants to join together and share their own projects, design challenges, and lessons learned while focusing on directions for future development. Those with experience and newcomers to the field are both equally encouraged to attend.
Beyond usability: taking social, situational, cultural, and other contextual factors into account BIBAFull-Text 2113-2116
  Jina Huh; Mark S. Ackerman; Thomas Erickson; Steve Harrison; Phoebe Sengers
Design and evaluation in mainstream HCI have often relied on scientific measurements of efficiency and error. Although usability and usefulness are still primary concerns for HCI, researchers and designers in the field are attempting to move beyond, investigating a variety of approaches such as user experience, aesthetic interaction, ambiguity, slow technology, and various ways to understand the social, cultural, and other contextual aspects of our world. While some are driven by non-utilitarian theoretical frameworks, many are not informed by any particular framework or theory. Regardless, there has not been a coherent body of discussion in the field of HCI. This SIG will provide a forum for people to discuss current and future design approaches that move beyond usability. It will address both the relation of underlying paradigms and the relation of design and research.
Evaluating experience-focused HCI BIBAFull-Text 2117-2120
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Kirsten Boehner; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Anna Ståhl
A growing trend in the field is the development of experience-focused HCI, which emphasizes the experience of using the technology, rather than the focus on the task that is characteristic of many other approaches HCI. A focus on experience also means that research concentrating on such technologies produces a different kind of knowledge than task-focused HCI, and that this knowledge must be validated in different ways. Importantly, this focus means that evaluation techniques designed for evaluating task-focused measures, such as classical notions of usability, are inadequate (although far from unnecessary) for the evaluation of experience. In this SIG, participants who are interested in designing, building or currently evaluating experience-focused projects will discuss ways to do so. This SIG is intended to appeal to a broad cross section of the CHI community, ranging from practitioners and developers to computer and social scientists.
Environmental sustainability and interaction BIBAFull-Text 2121-2124
  Jennifer C. Mankoff; Eli Blevis; Alan Borning; Batya Friedman; Susan R. Fussell; Jay Hasbrouck; Allison Woodruff; Phoebe Sengers
By its nature, the discipline of human computer interaction must take into consideration the issues that are most pertinent to humans. We believe that the CHI community faces an unanswered challenge in the creation of interactive systems: sustainability. For example, climate scientists argue that the most serious consequences of climate change can be averted, but only if fundamental changes are made. The goal of this SIG is to raise awareness of these issues in the CHI community and to start a conversation about the possibilities and responsibilities we have to address issues of sustainability.
End user software engineering: CHI 2007 special interest group meeting BIBAFull-Text 2125-2128
  Brad A. Myers; Margaret M. Burnett; Susan Wiedenbeck; Andrew J. Ko
Recently, researchers have been working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to end users who find themselves in programming situations, to try to make their software more reliable. End users create software whenever they write, for instance, educational simulations, spreadsheets, or dynamic e-business web applications. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting has three purposes: to bring the results of a recent (February 2007) week-long "Dagstuhl" meeting on end-user software engineering to interested researchers at CHI; to incorporate attendees' ideas and feedback into an emerging survey of the state of this interesting new subarea; and generally to bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic, with the companies that are creating end-user programming tools.
Online health communities BIBAFull-Text 2129-2132
  Lisa Neal; Kate Oakley; Gitte Lindgaard; David Kaufman; Jan Marco Leimeister; Ted Selker
Online health communities provide a means for patients and their families to learn about an illness, seek and offer support, and connect with others in similar circumstances. Online health communities raise difficult design challenges because of the wide variability of members. medical expertise, health literacy, and technology literacy, and the potential severity of problems due to misinformation. The importance of online health communities is evidenced by their popularity, as well as the significant impact they have on the lives of their members. This Special Interest Group (SIG) will explore current trends in online health communities and how the design and evaluation expertise of the CHI community can benefit and improve online health community research and development.
Beyond usability for safety critical systems: how to be sure (safe, usable, reliable, and evolvable)? BIBAFull-Text 2133-2136
  Philippe Palanque; Sandra Basnyat; Regina Bernhaupt; Ronald Boring; Chris Johnson; Peter Johnson
While a significant effort is currently being undertaken by the CHI community in order to apply and extend current usability evaluation techniques to new kinds of interaction techniques very little has been done to improve the reliability of software offering these kinds of interaction techniques. As these new interaction techniques are currently more and more used in the field of command and control safety critical systems the potential of incident or accidents increases. Similarly, the non reliability of interactive software can jeopardize usability evaluation by showing unexpected or undesired behaviors. Lastly, iterative design processes promote multiple designs through evolvable prototypes in order to accommodate requirements changes and results from usability evaluations thus reducing reliability of the final system by lack of global and structured design. The aim of this SIG is to provide a forum for both researchers and practitioners interested in safety critical interactive systems. Our goal is to define a roadmap of activities to cross fertilize usability, reliability and safety for these kinds of systems to minimize duplicate efforts and reuse knowledge in all the communities involved.
Trust 2.1: advancing the trust debate BIBAFull-Text 2137-2140
  Jens Riegelsberger; Asimina Vasalou
Trust has a considerable research tradition in the CHI community. It has been investigated in the context of e-commerce, virtual teams, online gaming, social networking. to name a few. In this paper, we give an overview on this research. We delineate existing research along the key dimensions of objects of trust and related risks, methods and background of research, models of trust, and goals of trust research. Our aim is to provide a basis for the discussion at a special interest group (SIG), but also to give researchers and practitioners with an interest in the field an entry point to existing work. More importantly we hope that the SIG and this abstract will help in driving and structuring future trust research.
Current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIBAFull-Text 2141-2144
  Stephanie L. Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators. list of topics, augmented by attendees. suggestions.
Dealing with key challenges in international usability and user research BIBAFull-Text 2145-2148
  David A. Siegel; Susan M. Dray; Rolf Molich
In this SIG, we will present scenarios that exemplify many of the key challenges of doing user research and usability evaluation internationally. We will use these to stimulate discussion about solutions and approaches, and then share our own recommendations.
SIG: capturing longitudinal usability: what really affects user performance over time? BIBAFull-Text 2149-2152
  Misha Vaughan; Catherine Courage
In this Special Interest Group (SIG) the attendees will discuss methods for capturing usability data over time. Specifically, we will share industry best practices, brainstorm alternative solutions, as well as compare and contrast usability engineering methods for capturing usability problems that persist over time. We will also explore why longitudinal research is not a more common UCD practice.

ACM student research competition

The role of paralinguistic voice-control of interactive media in augmenting awareness of voice characteristics in the hearing-impaired BIBAFull-Text 2153-2158
  Sama'a Al Hashimi
Explaining voice characteristics to the deaf is not an easy undertaking for their instructors. Furthermore, many existing strategies for conveying these characteristics and teaching the deaf how to perceive them do not seem efficient, especially when dealing with the concept of pitch. As a result, some deaf people are not fully capable of differentiating between voice characteristics. Paradoxically, this doesn't only apply to the deaf, but many of the hearing do not know the difference between pitch and loudness; when asked to generate a higher-pitched sound, many generate a louder sound. These were some of several reasons that led to my exploration of additional approaches to the visual representation of voice. I developed and employed non-speech voice-controlled applications in analyzing the interaction patterns of seven deaf children. The aim was to explore the potential role of paralinguistic vocal control of interactive media in enabling the deaf to have a greater understanding of voice and to offer their instructors more efficient and engaging strategies for explaining voice characteristics.
Social impacts of a video blogging system for clinical instruction BIBAFull-Text 2159-2164
  L. Amaya Becvar
In the past decade, digital technology has become widely integrated into many professional training settings, yet at present we lack a detailed understanding of how new technology alters networks of social and technology-mediated interactions present in such environments. I have been engaged in a multi-year ethnography-for-design study in a dental hygiene training program in National City, CA. During the project, I helped design a new clinical training laboratory, equipped with embedded digital media technology, such as flat-panel monitors, computer workstations and overhead cameras. Here, I detail the ethnographic motivations for the design of the technology integrated into the training program. I also present an analysis of how a collaborative video blogging system (a 'vlog'), used in an introductory clinical instruction course, affects the network of social and technology-mediated interactions. In particular, I examine how interactions with videos structured the way students and instructors work with each other in the clinic. Additionally, I report how the faculty's acceptance of technology was influenced by the presentation of divergent methodology in the vlog content.
Towards a new method for the evaluation of reality based interaction BIBAFull-Text 2165-2170
  Georgios Christou
In this paper we present work toward a new method of evaluation for Reality-Based Interaction Styles that we call Cognitive Description and Evaluation of Interaction (CoDeIn). This framework is similar to GOMS, but also shares similarities with cognitive architectures, such as ACT-R and Soar. We apply this new approach to a Tangible User Interface, built as a Wizard of Oz interface, to illustrate the new method, and compare CoDeIn's results to a GOMS model. We show that CoDeIn provides some promise of representing the parallel processing and new modes of physical interaction inherent in reality-based interfaces, and CoDeIn does a better job in predicting the completion time of an example task than GOMS.
Exploring tabletop file system interaction BIBAFull-Text 2171-2176
  Anthony Eugene Collins
Tabletop interfaces provide a new medium for collocated collaboration. Consequently, tabletops need to support access to file systems, just as a core facility of conventional computer systems is to provide an interface to a file system. However, the constraints of tabletop interfaces call for rethinking standard approaches to file system interaction. This paper presents the design of OnTop, a novel associative-search approach to file system interaction: users navigate multiple file systems by selecting focus files, retrieving similar ones. We report a small-scale qualitative evaluation of OnTop against a more conventional file browser approach: OnTop was consistently preferred and found to be more efficient, especially for larger file collections.
"Let me show you what I want": engaging individuals with cognitive disabilities and their families in design BIBAFull-Text 2177-2182
  Melissa Dawe
In this paper I describe an ongoing multi-stage, participatory design study with individuals with cognitive disabilities and their family caregivers. I use a technology probe to inspire families to co-design a picture-based remote communication system. The technology platform is a PDA "smart phone." I will present early findings from this study and discuss how it was a successful approach to engage with individuals with significant cognitive disabilities as co-designers of their own technology.
SciNews online: scaffolding the construction of scientific explanations BIBAFull-Text 2183-2188
  Sebastian de la Chica
Middle and high-school science teachers have traditionally introduced current events in the classroom to leverage news topics relevant to the curriculum, such as the Sumatra Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina. SciNews Online is an online research environment co-designed with science teachers for learners to construct web reports on the science behind the news on natural disasters. Writing scientific explanations provides valuable learning opportunities for learners to engage in a realistic and educationally relevant science task. Here I highlight the design of the Scientific Explanation Activity, a scaffolded environment that supports learners. construction of scientific explanations using multiple online sources. The Scientific Explanation Activity focuses on supporting the development of key information literacy skills for sense-making in science inquiry, namely information integration across sources and effective scientific argumentation.
Visualizing an enterprise Wiki BIBAFull-Text 2189-2194
  Xianghua Ding; Catalina Danis; Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg
This paper describes the iterative development of a visualization for a wiki used in a large enterprise to manage research projects. An initial prototype-based field study exposed two main usage problems and provided five design ideas, which led to the development of an interactive visualization called CherryTree. The paper describes CherryTree, discusses the reactions of users, and discusses future directions for this work.
Children distinguish conventional from moral violations in interactions with a personified agent BIBAFull-Text 2195-2200
  Nathan G. Freier
This paper describes the preliminary results of a study conducted to answer two questions: (1) Do children generalize their understanding of distinctions between conventional and moral violations in human-human interactions to human-agent interactions? and (2) Does the agent's ability to make claims to its own rights influence children's judgments? A two condition, between-subjects study was conducted in which 60 eight and nine year-old children interacted with a personified agent and observed a researcher interacting with the same agent. A semi-structured interview was conducted to investigate the children's judgments of the observed interactions. Results suggest that children do distinguish between conventional and moral violations in human-agent interactions and that the ability of the agent to make claims to its own rights significantly increases children's likelihood of distinguishing the two violations.
Defining high-throughput email users BIBAFull-Text 2201-2206
  Joshua B. Gross
In this paper we make the case for the existence and importance of a special class of email user, the high-throughput email user, whose needs are not well-served by current clients. We establish these groups by quantitative and qualitative definitions derived from fieldwork, a large-scale survey, and subsequent analysis of the user population, along with analysis of current email clients. We conclude with directions for future research.
The impact of digital iconic realism on anonymous interactants' mobile phone communication BIBAFull-Text 2207-2212
  Sin-Hwa Kang
In this paper, I describe progress in research designed to explore the effect of the combination of behavioral and visual fidelity of avatars on users. social presence in synchronous and emotionally engaged mobile phone communication. I specifically focus on ways to secure mobile phone users. anonymity while preserving their most important nonverbal affective behaviors. The research measures social presence in several dimensions, and investigates the impact of combinations of behavioral and iconic realism of avatars on the measures.
Towards a quantitative analysis of audio scrolling interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2213-2218
  Eric Lee
We present the results of a user study inspired by previous work in document navigation comparing rate and position control for navigating an audio timeline. Although interfaces for controlling playback speed (rate) are favored over playback position, we found that position control is, on average, 15-19% faster than rate control when searching for targets 90 to 100 seconds away in the audio timeline. Additional studies are being planned to further characterize audio scrolling performance with position and rate controls.
Providing affective information to family and friends based on social networks BIBAFull-Text 2219-2224
  Wendy Moncur
We are developing a computer system which provides information about babies in neonatal intensive care to family members and friends. A key challenge is deciding what information should be given to each individual; we believe this can be based on social networks of the parents. If successful, this technique could also be used in other contexts where a diverse set of family and friends would like information about a patient.
An interface to aid rural health workers in the preliminary diagnosis of cataract at the slit lamp using LOCS III BIBAFull-Text 2225-2230
  Satyendra Kumar Nainwal
In India there is an inequitable distribution of wealth and resources; while 70% of population lives in villages, about 80% of ophthalmologists practice in cities [4]. India has 1 ophthalmologist per 100,000 of its population [4] and this ratio is even more dismal for rural areas. In such circumstances, ophthalmologist-based model is not a cost-effective screening method. On the other hand, an ophthalmologist led screening model offers a cost-effective and feasible screening model for screening of eye diseases. Such a model can be beneficial in filling the critical gaps in the government health services. Based on ethnographic studies conducted in Assam, India, We propose and discuss the design of an experimental interactive interface that can help trained rural health workers diagnose and classify the extent of cataract in the preliminary stages. This has two significant benefits:
  • 1. The Cataract patients, usually old, and living in rural areas do not have to
        travel miles away from home only to be told to come back a few months later
        as the cataract was not sufficiently mature for a surgery yet.
  • 2. It provides for a more efficient system that helps the already overburdened
        ophthalmologists concentrate their time on patients who actually need
        immediate surgeries thus directly influencing the quality of eye care.
  • Speed sonic across the span: building a platform audio game BIBAFull-Text 2231-2236
      Michael A. Oren
    We describe the design process and initial user study of an audio game created for the visually impaired. Until the advent of 3D graphics games, platform games where the player jumps from platform to platform, such as Mario and Sonic, [1] were wildly popular. Although many audio games have been developed over the past decade, the platform genre has been all but ignored. To fill this gap and to add to the limited choices visually impaired gamers have, we developed a platform game that can be also be played via audio-only interface and compared it to a traditional audio-visual version.
    Distributed tabletops: territoriality and orientation in distributed collaboration BIBAFull-Text 2237-2242
      Philip Tuddenham
    Previous research has shown that orientation and territory serve key roles during tabletop collaboration. However, no one has yet investigated whether they can play similar roles in distributed collaboration. In this paper, we design and implement distributed tabletops to address this problem and hence improve distributed collaboration. We show that distributed tabletops allow geographically-separated collaborators to use orientation and territory to mediate their interactions as they would in co-located collaboration. We also suggest that distributed tabletops offer further benefits such as an increased sense of presence.

    Work-in-progress

    Designing tangibles for children: what designers need to know BIBAFull-Text 2243-2248
      Alissa N. Antle
    New forms of tangible and spatial child computer interaction and supporting technologies can be designed to leverage the way children develop intelligence in the world. In order to design playful learning tangibles designers must understand how children interact with and understand the representations embedded in tangible systems. In this short work in progress paper the author summarizes relevant theory from cognitive developmental psychology which may provide grounding for the design of tangibles to support children's learning.
    Making dead history come alive through mobile game-play BIBAFull-Text 2249-2254
      Carmelo Ardito; Maria Francesca Costabile; Rosa Lanzilotti; Thomas Pederson
    This work in progress presents a design approach to digitally enhancing an existing paper-based game to support young students learning history at an archaeological site, by making use of recent advantages provided by mobile technology. It requires minimal investments and changes to the existing site exhibition because it runs on the visitors. own cellular phones. It is expected that game-play will trigger a desire to learn more about ancient history and to make archaeological visits more effective and exciting.
    Using activity theory to develop a design framework for rural development BIBAFull-Text 2255-2260
      Arvind Ashok; Christian Beck
    Many attempts to bridge the digital divide between lesser-developed countries (LDC) through Information & Communication Technology (ICT) projects have had little success. With the concurrent rise in number of ICT projects in rural areas, the current situation calls for better design. However, it is our claim that the nature of villages -- being devoid of digital artifacts -- requires much of HCI theory and methodologies to be re-examined. HCI theory has evolved in urban environments over the past 30 years and may not be suitable for the village environment. However, Activity Theory lends itself well to these environments as its primary focus is on pre-existing activities and goals rather than digital artifacts themselves. Using this theory as basis, we examine past failures and successes of ICT interventions. From this examination we intend to derive a practical framework for guiding future HCI-design (HCID) in the developing world.
    OSI and ET: originating source of information and evidence traceability BIBAFull-Text 2261-2266
      Robert Ball; Pardha Pyla; Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones
    Originating Source of Information (OSI) is the idea of following all data, facts, and citations that documents rely on for their arguments back their source. OSI then helps people perform Evidence Traceability (ET), which allows them to understand the questions about the different sources used in documents such as how many unique sources were used, where the sources came from, when the sources were obtained, and how the sources were obtained. Answering these questions allows people to better question the validity of documents, reevaluate hypotheses, or continue work or research when original authors are not available.
    Encouraging contribution to shared sketches in brainstorming meetings BIBAFull-Text 2267-2272
      Marcello Basté Forte; Corina Yen
    Brainstorming in small design groups typically involves one person taking notes and sketching at a whiteboard while other group members remain seated and contribute verbally. We believe that lowering the threshold for shared sketching improves idea generation from all members and supports building off the ideas of other members. We have designed and completed preliminary testing of a collaborative sketching system that enables simultaneous contribution to and viewing of a shared canvas through individual devices (Tablet PCs) and a digital whiteboard. A pilot study indicates that such a system helps equalize sketching contribution within a group although it reduces total sketching of the group as a whole. This finding suggests that individual access to a shared sketching space has implications for the brainstorming process such as a greater awareness of the quality and the relative amount of individual idea contribution.
    2D meets 3D: a human-centered interface for visual data exploration BIBAFull-Text 2273-2278
      Sebastian Baumgärtner; Achim Ebert; Matthias Deller; Stefan Agne
    There is still a controversial debate on the usefulness of 3D user interfaces. Most of the time, 2D metaphors are force-fitted to establish a rich set of functionality. With the aim of shifting the 20-year-old 2D WIMP (windows, icons, menus, and pointing device) paradigm towards a more natural and intuitive 3D user interface, we have developed a hybrid 2D + 3D prototype targeted at immersive environments. Our complementary display and interaction environment combines visual design techniques with mixed-mode interaction to support typical tasks of information workers to the greatest potential. To achieve this, we match visualization and interaction metaphors by the principle of dimensional congruence. This results in a sophisticated and more intuitive user interface. An ongoing evaluation gives encouraging feedback and shows that even non-expert users can efficiently work with the system.
    Conversation votes: enabling anonymous cues BIBAFull-Text 2279-2284
      Tony Bergstrom; Karrie Karahalios
    In this work we describe Conversation Votes, a visualization to create new backchannels in conversation and augment collocated interaction. We expand the idea of a social mirror, a reflection of interaction, to incorporate direct user feedback in the form of anonymous voting. By capturing user input, the mirror becomes more demonstrative of context as participants add their interpretation into the visualization. The end result produces a visualization to provide a more accurate reflection of interaction and create flags of salient moments in conversation.
    Management of personal information scraps BIBAFull-Text 2285-2290
      Michael S. Bernstein; Max Van Kleek; m. c. schraefel; David R. Karger
    We introduce research on information scraps. short, self-contained personal notes that fall outside of traditional filing schemes. We report on a preliminary study of information scraps. nature and outline plans for the next phase of our user study. Based on ongoing study results, we describe our designs and prototypes for information scrap capture and access tools.
    Practical approaches to comforting users with relational agents BIBAFull-Text 2291-2296
      Timothy Bickmore; Daniel Schulman
    Interactions in which computer agents comfort users through expressed empathy have been shown to be important in alleviating user frustration and increasing user liking of the agent, and may have important healthcare applications. Given the current state of technology, designers of these systems are forced to choose between (a) allowing users to freely express their feelings, but having the agents provide imperfect empathic responses, or (b) greatly restricting how users can express themselves, but having the agents provide very accurate empathic feedback. This study investigates which of these options leads to better outcomes, in terms of comforting users and increasing user-agent social bonds. Results, on almost all measures, indicate that empathic accuracy is more important than user expressivity.
    The digital music box: using cultural and critical theory to inform design BIBAFull-Text 2297-2302
      Mark A. Blythe
    This work draws on studies which explore resistance to the music industry's construal of copying music files as theft. Following a previous ethnography on participants."Technology Scruples" it considers the issue as a design challenge rather than a legal problem. Drawing on critical theory it considers how value might be added to digital music by embedding it in artifacts. Three product design students were briefed to create concept designs for "digital music boxes" that would contain and display particular back catalogues of music. The paper reflects on their sketches and models and argues that critical theory can inform new approaches to design work.
    txt 4 l8r: lowering the burden for diary studies under mobile conditions BIBAFull-Text 2303-2308
      Joel Brandt; Noah Weiss; Scott R. Klemmer
    We present and evaluate a new technique for performing diary studies under mobile or active conditions. Diary studies play an important role as a means for ecologically valid participant data capture. Unfortunately, when participants are asked to capture data while mobile or active, they are often unwilling or unable to invest time in thorough, reflective entries. Ultimately, this leads to lowered entry quality and quantity. The technique presented here suggests the capture of only small snippets of information in the field. These snippets then serve as prompts for participants when completing full diary entries at a convenient time. We describe how this system automates collection of snippets via text (SMS), picture (MMS) and voicemail messages and later presents these snippets for full entry elicitation. We then present results from a preliminary evaluation of this technique.
    Designing mobile phone interface with children BIBAFull-Text 2309-2314
      Xiaowei Cao; Sri Hastuti Kurniawan
    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a mobile phone interface with and for children. Ten children aged 8-13 years old took part in a participatory design process and ten others evaluated the design. Whilst there were similarities in the problems and desired features children and adults share, children had some unique requirements and preferences, such as cartoon-styled icons or placing access to emergency number at the home screen. This study enlists some requirements of mobile phone interface for children. The methods used in this study can also be adapted to other design and evaluation processes with children.
    An investigation into the use of spatialised sound in locative games BIBAFull-Text 2315-2320
      Kirsten Cater; Richard Hull; Tom Melamed; Robin Hutchings
    This paper shows how spatialised sound can be used to guide users around a located gaming environment. Thus far, despite growing interest in delivering location-relevant media information to users, accurate delivery of virtual spatialised sound using limited-processing portable devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), has not yet been explored. The use of spatialised sound allows users to judge accurately which direction a virtual sound is coming from through a pair of stereo headphones. The initial findings of this research demonstrates that spatialised sound can be used to navigate users in a locative game running on a PDA.
    Extending a theory of remote scientific collaboration to corporate contexts BIBAFull-Text 2321-2326
      Sajeev P. Cherian; Judith S. Olson
    In this paper we present preliminary results of a research project aimed at understanding the theoretical basis for successful remote collaboration in corporations. We evaluate some corporate distributed teams with respect to a theory of remote scientific collaboration to identify similarities and differences in corporate contexts. Preliminary results indicate that distance collaboration in corporations differs from distance collaboration in scientific research in three key ways: (1) the importance of functional (as opposed to geographic) distance, (2) new collaboration paradigms (i.e. offshoring) with varying degrees of "otherness" and (3) different incentives. We additionally discuss future research plans based upon our initial findings.
    HCI4D: hci challenges in the global south BIBAFull-Text 2327-2332
      Marshini Chetty; Rebecca Grinter Chetty
    While researchers have designed user-centered systems for the Global South, fewer have discussed the unique challenges facing HCI projects. In this paper, we describe methodological and practical challenges for HCI research and practice in the Global South.
    Enabling nutrition-aware cooking in a smart kitchen BIBAFull-Text 2333-2338
      Pei-yu Chi; Jen-hao Chen; Hao-hua Chu; Bing-Yu Chen
    We present a smart kitchen that can enhance the traditional meal preparation and cooking process by raising awareness of the nutrition facts in food ingredients that go into a meal. The goal is to promote healthy cooking. Our smart kitchen is augmented with sensors to detect cooking activities and provides digital feedbacks to users about nutritional information on the used food ingredients. We have created a preliminary prototype for evaluation, and the result is promising.
    Studying activity patterns in CSCW BIBAFull-Text 2339-2344
      Gregorio Convertino; Thomas P. Moran; Barton A. Smith
    We study small distributed work groups capturing, managing, and reusing knowledge in a collaborative activity. We conceive this process as adaptation of a group to an activity and we study it in a realistic semi-controlled setting. We briefly describe our approach, method, preliminary results, and research trajectory.
    A research agenda for mobile usability BIBAFull-Text 2345-2350
      Constantinos K. Coursaris; Dan Kim
    The turn of this decade marked a renewed interest for mobile usability research within the field of Human Computer Interaction. A challenge, however, exists in that many scholars define and operationalize usability differently. With the introduction of mobile commerce circa 1999, a review of relevant peer-reviewed literature would highlight areas of past emphasis and opportunities for future empirical research specific to mobile usability.
       This work-in-progress presents a research agenda for mobile usability that consists of two parts. First, a framework is adapted for the taxonomy of empirical mobile usability studies. Second, results of a qualitative review of 45 empirical mobile usability studies include: i) a summary of the core and peripheral usability dimensions measured; ii) a detailed analysis of contextual factors studied; and iii) key findings that provide the basis for a research agenda in mobile usability.
    Prime III: a user centered voting system BIBAFull-Text 2351-2356
      E. Vincent, II Cross; Yolanda McMillian; Priyanka Gupta; Philicity Williams; Kathryn Nobles; Juan E. Gilbert
    Mr. Wilson never votes. He doesn't vote because he is not confident in his reading capabilities; however, he decided that he will vote this year because he heard that blind people will be able to privately cast their vote. He said, "If blind people can vote, then so can I" At the voting precinct, he shows his identification and receives a blank, numbered ballot sheet. He enters a voting booth, placing the ballot into the printer. Using a headset with a microphone, he is able to make his selections by speaking numbers, which gives him confidence that his vote is private. Before printing his ballot, he listens to a summary of his selections. He leaves the voting booth and places his printed ballot into a secure box. Like Mr. Wilson, there are millions of people that don't participate in our electoral process due to disabilities and lack of confidence in the equipment. Through usable security, Prime III aims to broaden voter participation and confidence.
    Posture monitoring and improvement for laptop use BIBAFull-Text 2357-2362
      Carrie Demmans; Sriram Subramanian; Jon Titus
    Both Repetitive Stress Injuries and laptop use have increased. The poor ergonomic design of laptops has the potential to create or exacerbate existing RSI. We propose a persuasive Attentive User Interface which provides feedback in order to improve user neck posture. This system measures the angle of the user's neck and determines the quality of his/her neck posture. We then provide exercises to strengthen the neck and improve the user's posture. We performed a study which showed an increase in neck comfort among our system's users. The study demonstrated the potential of our system, which should be further tested.
    A study of co-worker awareness in remote collaboration over a shared application BIBAFull-Text 2363-2368
      Julien R. Epps; Benjamin S. Close
    Following recent developments in groupware that allow teams of co-located and distributed users to work simultaneously on a shared application, differences in the relative awareness of co-located and remote users have been identified. This paper examines users' perceived awareness of others and their observed direction of attention in this context. A study of six groups of three users distributed across two sites reveals that the disparity in awareness between co-located and remote users may not be such a problem as previously suggested. Results also show that for the tasks employed herein, users rely predominantly on cues within the shared application such as multiple cursors, rather than the videoconference channel, to remain aware of the actions of their collaborators. The study also provides further evidence for the importance of additional awareness cues, such as "video arms".
    NEAT-o-games: ubiquitous activity-based gaming BIBAFull-Text 2369-2374
      Yuichi Fujiki; Konstantinos Kazakos; Colin Puri; Ioannis Pavlidis; Justin Starren; James Levine
    The role of Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenes is (NEAT) has become a key component of obesity research, prevention, and treatment. This paper describes research that aims to suppress the obesity epidemic by infusing NEAT in the sedentary lifestyle of an average person. The method combines unobtrusive physiologic sensing and novel Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) technologies. It supports a strong motivational framework based on ubiquitous computer gaming, appealing enough to likely change the behavior of "couch potatoes" on their own volition. This novel generation of computer games (NEAT-o-games) is fueled by activity data recorded by small wearable sensors. Data from the sensors are logged wirelessly to a Personal Digital Assistant/Cell Phone (PDA), which acts as the central computing unit of the system. Algorithmic software processes these data and computes the energy expenditure of the user in real-time. The paper presents a prototype implementation of NEAT-o-games and initial evaluation results.
    Malibu personal productivity assistant BIBAFull-Text 2375-2380
      Werner Geyer; Beth Brownholtz; Michael Muller; Casey Dugan; Eric Wilcox; David R. Millen
    The Malibu system provides peripheral access to and awareness of activities, tasks, social-bookmark resources, and feeds to assist knowledge workers in their activity-centric work. We describe the experimental system, a usage scenario and some preliminary usage data.
    SocialBrowsing: integrating social networks and web browsing BIBAFull-Text 2381-2386
      Jennifer Golbeck; Michael M. Wasser
    In this paper we introduce SocialBrowsing, a Firefox extension that adds social context to the web browsing experience. The extension is paired with services provided by social networking websites, analyzes the page's contents, and adds tooltips and highlighting to indicate when there is relevant social information. We present an overview of the tool and implementation, and outline future steps for analysis.
    Improving dictionary-based disambiguation text entry method accuracy BIBAFull-Text 2387-2392
      Jun Gong; Peter Tarasewich; Carole D. Hafner; Scott I. Mackenzie
    Text entry on mobile devices is problematic because of ever-decreasing device sizes. Dictionary-based keypad text entry methods are relatively effective, but still run into problems of word ambiguity, especially when used with small numbers of keys. Common text entry disambiguation methods only use word frequency information to resolve conflicts. This paper proposes a new method that also looks at semantic information (distances between word meanings). Simulations show encouraging results, suggesting potential practical applications of this method to mobile devices.
    Addressing constraints: multiple usernames task spillage and notions of identity BIBAFull-Text 2393-2398
      Benjamin M. Gross; Elizabeth F. Churchill
    In this work in progress report, we present preliminary results from an interview study on people's use of email addresses and instant messenger usernames. Based on these interview findings, we speculate that many people use multiple identifiers reactively and prosaically, rather than simply proactively and strategically. This has implications for understanding the scope of previous studies; for developing cross-platform methodologies for analysis of people's practices; for understanding identifier selection; and for design of communication tools and protocols. We believe that a focus on "identity", which we characterize to be a set of strategic and coherent practices for self-presentation/protection, has led to an under-representation of reactive and prosaic practices of identifier selection that can result from organizational policy, technological implementations, and social and task information flow management.
    Comparing visualizations for tracking off-screen moving targets BIBAFull-Text 2399-2404
      Sean G. Gustafson; Pourang P. Irani
    In games, aircraft navigation systems and in control systems, users have to track moving targets around a large workspace that may extend beyond the users. viewport. This paper presents on-going work that investigates the effectiveness of two different off-screen visualization techniques for accurately tracking off-screen moving targets. We compare the most common off-screen representation, Halo, with a new fisheye-based visualization technique called EdgeRadar. Our initial results show that users can track off-screen moving objects more accurately with EdgeRadar over Halos. This work presents a preliminary but promising step toward the design of visualization techniques for tracking off-screen moving targets.
    Investigating response similarities between real and mediated social touch: a first test BIBAFull-Text 2405-2410
      Antal Haans; Christiaan de Nood; Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn
    In this paper, we investigate whether the gender differences generally found in same and opposite sex social touch are also present in mediated situations. Participants were led to believe that a male or female stranger was remotely touching them by means of a vest equipped with vibrotactile actuators. Affective responses varied with the stimulated body location, but the effect of dyad composition was not significant. In sum, we found partial support for the assumption that mediated social touch is actually perceived of as a real touch. Possible improvements to haptic communication devices are discussed.
    On nurturing strong-tie distant relationships: from theory to prototype BIBAFull-Text 2411-2416
      Cristina Hoffmann; Sylvie Jumpertz; Bernard Marquet
    This paper presents our research on the process of creating new communication experiences in the private sphere of users. To do this, we have chosen to study the concept of social presence, and also the notion of communication. The communication models that we have examined come from various disciplines and all have in common the fact that they focus on exploring the communication act once the decision to communicate has been taken. We have build upon them and conceived a model that includes an analysis of the factors that influence the decision to communicate. This initial analysis has helped us integrate the specific needs of our targeted users and has allowed us to materialize them in a working prototype of a communication terminal called TACT.
    New parameters for tacton design BIBAFull-Text 2417-2422
      Eve Hoggan; Stephen Brewster
    Tactons (tactile icons) are structured vibrotactile messages which can be used for non-visual information presentation. Information can be encoded in a set of Tactons by manipulating parameters available in the tactile domain. One limitation is the number of available usable parameters and research is ongoing to find further effective ones. This paper reports an experiment investigating different techniques (amplitude modulation, frequency, and waveform) for creating texture as a parameter for use in Tacton design. The results of this experiment show recognition rates of 94% for waveform, 81% for frequency, and 61% for amplitude modulation, indicating that a more effective way to create Tactons using the texture parameter is to employ different waveforms to represent roughness. These results will aid designers in creating more effective and usable Tactons.
    Integrating user performance time models in the design of tangible UIs BIBAFull-Text 2423-2428
      Paul Holleis; Dagmar Kern; Albrecht Schmidt
    One of the aspects that are important for judging an application is the time an experienced user needs to complete a task. This can be assessed by a Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) of that task. In this paper we show a method that allows designers to prototype hardware applications entirely in software and still be able to draw conclusions about the time to completion of given tasks on the envisioned hardware implementation. We provide versatile, easily extensible tools and examples that give developers quick access to KLM data for their prototypes and applications.
    Vuelta: creating animated characters and props using real-world objects BIBAFull-Text 2429-2434
      Juan Pablo Hourcade; Keith B. Perry; Joyce L. Moore
    When authoring in visual storytelling environments, children are often limited to use characters and props available in libraries or have to create their own using software. We present a novel alternative in the early design and implementation of Vuelta, a tool for creating animated characters and props using real-world objects. Vuelta authors can create animations for real-world characters and props by capturing animation frames using a high-definition camera. Each frame is captured from many directions enabling the characters and props to be positioned in any direction. We use an image difference algorithm to extract the characters and props from the frames. Our setup is designed to support creativity by enabling authors to use objects of their choice that they may create with their own hands and by not putting limits on the types of animations that may be created. Vuelta is also designed to support collaboration by enabling more than one author to participate in the process. The next steps in our development of Vuelta include working with children to design a tool to edit the animations, as well as integrating Vuelta with a storytelling environment we are developing.
    Talking about "stuff": artifacts and expectation in social communication BIBAFull-Text 2435-2440
      Elaine M. Huang; Crysta J. Metcalf
    In this work, we use qualitative field studies to examine the role of physical artifacts in conjunction with and comparison to digital communication. We investigate what people convey through the choice of a communicative medium, how choices of medium are perceived and intended, and how people combine digital and physical media and artifacts to maintain social connections.
    The use of aesthetics in HCI systems BIBAFull-Text 2441-2446
      Jina Huh; Mark S. Ackerman; Robert Douglas
    As computing expands its domain from workplace to pervasive and domestic environments, interest in aesthetics for designing is increasing in HCI. HCI literatures in aesthetics provide wide variety of theoretical foundations for how aesthetics might be interpreted and potentially used for design. However, aesthetics in designing HCI systems have been mainly studied as a source for decoration or visualizing information. In this paper, we present our initial investigation on a qualitative study with an awareness information system prototype to explore what decorative art can bring to HCI systems beyond decoration and/or effective communication.
    BlogCentral: the role of internal blogs at work BIBAFull-Text 2447-2452
      Jina Huh; Lauretta Jones; Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg; Rachel K. E. Bellamy; John C. Thomas
    This paper describes a preliminary investigation into an internal corporate blogging community called BlogCentral. We conducted semi-structured interviews with fourteen active bloggers to investigate the role of blogging and its effects on work processes. Our findings suggest that BlogCentral facilitates access to tacit knowledge and resources vetted by experts, and, most importantly, contributes to the emergence of collaboration across a broad range of communities within the enterprise.
    WOZ pro: a pen-based low fidelity prototyping environment to support wizard of oz studies BIBAFull-Text 2453-2458
      Christopher D. Hundhausen; Anzor Balkar; Mohamed Nuur; Stephen Trent
    Because they are easy to create and modify, low fidelity prototypes are commonly used in early evaluations of user interface designs. Designers typically use either pen-and-paper or various computer-based tools to create and test low fidelity prototypes; however, our informal analyses of these existing technologies indicate that they do not optimally support the two key, complementary tasks of (a) prototype creation and (b) wizard of oz testing. To address this problem, we have been developing WOZ Pro (Wizard of Oz Prototyper), a pen-based software environment for the quick and easy creation and testing of low fidelity user interface prototypes. We are designing WOZ Pro to be as easy to use as pen-and-paper, but to hold key advantages over pen-and-paper and existing computer-based tools. When designing interface screens in WOZ Pro, designers can easily (a) propagate a design change to other related screens, and (b) specify the set of screens that are reachable from a given screen. In a wizard of oz test, WOZ Pro reduces the cognitive load on the wizard by allowing navigation only to those next screens that are valid. We are planning a controlled experiment to compare WOZ Pro against paper-and-pencil along several measures in a set of prototype creation and evaluation tasks.
    Content-aware layout BIBAFull-Text 2459-2464
      Edward Waguih Ishak; Steven Feiner
    We describe content-aware layout (CAL), a technique that automatically arranges windows on a user's desktop. Unlike conventional window managers that automatically cascade or tile each window without regard to its content, CAL uses information about the contents of windows to help decide if and where they should be placed. We present the approach to designing CAL, as well as its implementation. We then conclude with a discussion about future work and CAL's potential use in large display environments.
    Reality-based interaction: unifying the new generation of interaction styles BIBAFull-Text 2465-2470
      Robert J. K. Jacob; Audrey Girouard; Leanne M. Hirshfield; Michael S. Horn; Orit Shaer; Erin Treacy Solovey; Jamie Zigelbaum
    We are in the midst of an explosion of emerging human-computer interaction techniques that have redefined our understanding of both computers and interaction. We propose the notion of Reality-Based Interaction (RBI) as a unifying concept that ties together a large subset of these emerging interaction styles. Through RBI we are attempting to provide a framework that can be used to understand, compare, and relate current paths of HCI research. Viewing interaction through the lens of RBI can provide insights for designers and allows us to find gaps or opportunities for future development. Furthermore, we are using RBI to develop new evaluation techniques for features of emerging interfaces that are currently unquantifiable.
    The effect of brand awareness on the evaluation of search engine results BIBAFull-Text 2471-2476
      Bernard J. Jansen; Mimi Zhang; Ying Zhang
    In this paper we investigate the effect of search engine brand (i.e., identifying name that distinguishes a product from its competitors) on evaluation of system performance. Our research is motivated by the large amount of search traffic directed to less than a handful of Web search engines, even though many are of equal technical quality with similar interfaces. We conducted a laboratory experiment with 32 participants measuring the effect of four search engine brands while controlling for the quality of search engine results. Based on average relevance ratings, there was a 25% difference between the most highly rated search engine and the lowest, even though search engine results were identical in both content and presentation. We discuss implications for search engine marketing and the design of empirical studies measuring search engine quality.
    What you said about where you shook your head: a hands-free implementation of a location-based notification system BIBAFull-Text 2477-2482
      Eric M. Jones; Ted Selker; Hyemin Chung
    The MIT Smart Helmet is an ongoing project at the MIT Media Lab that incorporates context-aware technology into a bicycle helmet for the purpose of enhancing rider safety. The following paper is an evaluation of a proposed feature being considered for integration: a location-based notification system that can be operated without the use of the hands.
    Range: exploring proxemics in collaborative whiteboard interaction BIBAFull-Text 2483-2488
      Wendy G. Ju; Brian A. Lee; Scott R. Klemmer
    Range is an interactive whiteboard designed to support collocated, ad-hoc meetings. It employs proximity sensing to proactively transition between ambient and authoring modes, clear space for writing, and cluster ink strokes. The inspiration for Range stems from longitudinal studies of student design teams, in which we observed that shifts in collaborative activity correlated with changes in the users physical proximity to the whiteboard. Through iterative design, we developed techniques for incorporating implicit input like that of the proximity sensors into interaction.
    Interactive generation of overview information using speech BIBAFull-Text 2489-2494
      Johan Kildal; Stephen A. Brewster
    In non-visual interfaces, using non-speech audio can be a more effective and efficient way of obtaining overview information than using speech. However, users who are blind regularly use speech-based tools to access information in computers, and often prefer this technology over others that pose steeper learning curves. This paper proposes a technique to explore numerical data tables interactively in order to extract overview information by optimising the use of speech.
    A gestural input through finger writing on a textured pad BIBAFull-Text 2495-2500
      Ji-Eun Kim; John Sunwoo; Yong-Ki Son; Dong-Woo Lee; Il-Yeon Cho
    We describe a new input method that utilizes patterned vibration that is generated through the finger writing on a textured pad. Using a flexible or a foldable textured pad which can be worn by the user can bring more diverse applications than conventional input interfaces such as a touchpad or tablet screen.
    Physically present, mentally absent: technology use in face-to-face meetings BIBAFull-Text 2501-2506
      Lisa Kleinman
    This work-in-progress discusses qualitative findings about the impact of portable technologies in collocated collaboration. Laptops, cell phones, and other handheld devices are both a distraction during face-to-face meetings, and at the same time allow spontaneous access to needed information. Interviews with fifteen professionals were conducted to elicit why and how these technologies are used in meeting settings. Responses across participants varied strongly and indicate that this emerging research area must look at the notion of context in new ways to support both individual and group needs.
    Computer aided observations of complex mobile situations BIBAFull-Text 2507-2512
      Tobias Klug
    Designing mobile and wearable applications is a challenge. The context of use is more important than ever and traditional methodologies for elicitation and specification reach their limits. This paper investigates the challenge of creating and communicating information about the user's primary task with regards to its fine grained temporal structure. TaskObserver is a TabletPC software that allows real-time logging of events during observations of complex mobile scenarios. The results are communicated to other team members using task trace graphs of the events observed.
    Game controller text entry with alphabetic and multi-tap selection keyboards BIBAFull-Text 2513-2518
      Thomas Költringer; Michaela Ngo Van; Thomas Grechenig
    In this paper we present a longitudinal study comparing an alphabetical selection keyboard to a multi-tap selection keyboard using a game controller as input device. Our experiment showed the alphabetic selection keyboard to be faster for novice (7.72 wpm vs. 6.34 wpm) and expert users (11.87 wpm vs. 9.64 wpm). The multi-tap selection keyboard was more error prone than the alphabetic selection keyboard. Qualitative results showed that over time the alphabetic selection keyboard was preferred by the users.
    How do robotic agents' appearances affect people's interpretations of the agents' attitudes? BIBAFull-Text 2519-2524
      Takanori Komatsu; Seiji Yamada
    An experimental investigation of how the appearance of robotic agents affects interpretations people make of the agents.' attitudes is described. We conducted a psychological experiment where participants were presented artificial sounds that can make people estimate specific agents' primitive attitudes from three kinds of agents, e.g., a Mindstorms robot, AIBO robot, and normal laptop PC. They were also asked to select the correct attitudes based on the sounds expressed by these three agents. The results showed that the participants had higher interpretation rates when a PC presented the sounds, while they had lower rates when Mindstorms and AIBO robots presented the sounds, even though the artificial sounds expressed by these agents were completely the same.
    Applying a user-centered metric to identify active blogs BIBAFull-Text 2525-2530
      Adam D. I. Kramer; Kerry Rodden
    Current methods of determining whether a blog is active or abandoned tend to rely on simple rules, such as identifying whether it has been posted to within the last 7 or 30 days. Individual bloggers vary widely in their posting activity levels, however, and so using such fixed cutoffs can result in both misses (calling active blogs "abandoned") and false positives (calling abandoned blogs "active"). We suggest using an alternative metric that varies the cutoff date according to the properties of each individual blog, and show how its results relate to those of the standard 30-day active metric. From our initial analysis, we believe that such a metric offers a more accurate representation of the intuitive notion of blog activity.
    Gaze-enhanced scrolling techniques BIBAFull-Text 2531-2536
      Manu Kumar; Terry Winograd; Andreas Paepcke
    We present several gaze-enhanced scrolling techniques developed as part of continuing work in the GUIDe (Gaze-enhanced User Interface Design) project. This effort explores how gaze information can be effectively used as input that augments keyboard and mouse. The techniques presented below use gaze both as a primary input and as an augmented input in order to enhance scrolling and panning techniques. We also introduce the use of off-screen gaze-actuated buttons which can be used for document navigation and control.
    I/O plant: a tool kit for designing augmented human-plant interactions BIBAFull-Text 2537-2542
      Satoshi Kuribayashi; Yusuke Sakamoto; Hiroya Tanaka
    In this paper, we introduce the versatile creative tool called "I/O Plant" which generates new-style interactions among humans, plants and computers. It enables designers to manipulate plants as modules by attaching actuators and sensors to plants. It has been designed to create original hybrid circuits. We report not only our tool, but also use patterns and several examples. I/O Plant cultivates new creativity toward the interaction design.
    K-menu: a keyword-based dynamic menu interface for small computers BIBAFull-Text 2543-2548
      Seung Eun Lee; Geehyuk Lee
    In this paper, we introduce K-Menu, a keyword-based dynamic menu interface. When a user enters a keyword, a menu with items related to the keyword is constructed dynamically and presented to the user. We implemented K-Menu as a top-level interface for major mobile applications and mobile web services on a smartphone environment. A subsequent user test confirmed the task efficiency and the user acceptance of K-menu.
    Finding communication hot spots of location-based postings BIBAFull-Text 2549-2554
      Saija-Maaria Lemmelä; Hannu J. Korhonen
    The growing amount of location-based public postings will challenge the current visualization and access methods of location-based information. The aim of our work is to provide a clear overview of location-based postings and to support easy access to information the user is interested in. We designed a prototype using a semi-transparent heat map over a map view to visualize posting density on the area of interest. Automatically extracted keywords and dynamic time selection support the search and filtering of location-based public postings. Based on our evaluation, users found the heat map as a familiar abstraction of the location based information. Clustering and displaying the salient words as keywords over the map view was considered to be especially useful.
    CAWS: a wiki system to improve workspace awareness to advance effectiveness of co-authoring activities BIBAFull-Text 2555-2560
      Ilaria Liccardi; Hugh C. Davis; Su White
    Crucial to effective collaborative writing is knowledge of what other people are doing and have done, what meaningful changes are made to a document, who is editing each section of a document and why. This is because awareness of individual and group activities is critical to successful collaboration. This paper presents the problems that surround co-authoring activities, and the advantages of using CAWS are explained and compared with other implementation and techniques for collaborative authoring. This co-authoring wiki based system (CAWS), aims to improve workspace awareness in order to improve user's response to the document development activity.
    AwareLESS authentication: insensible input based authentication BIBAFull-Text 2561-2566
      Hiroyuki Manabe; Masaaki Fukumoto
    To increase the security of handheld devices, we propose awareLESS authentication. Since insensible input prevents the leakage of the key information, it can provide more secure authentication scheme. Experiments that used a pressure sensor show that users can input a preset rhythm by insensible finger motion, and the boundary between insensible and sensible is extended by adding vibration while input.
    Design and evaluation of 3d models for electronic dental records BIBAFull-Text 2567-2572
      Michael F. Marotta; Purin Phanichphant; Patrick Malatack; Tej Shah; Greg Price; Thankam Thyvalikakath; Titus Schleyer; Jason Hong
    We present the results of a field study of some of the work practices and software used by dentists. We also present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a user interface that streamlines some of these practices, as well as providing a novel 3D visualization of a patient's mouth that also displays relevant radiographs depending on what teeth are visible in the visualization. Dentists found the 3D synchronized navigation intuitive, even with little to no 3D navigation experience, but further research is needed to see the effect on real clinical outcomes.
    An initial investigation into non-visual computer supported collaboration BIBAFull-Text 2573-2578
      David McGookin; Stephen Brewster
    In this paper we present an initial study of computer supported collaboration between visually impaired users based around the interactive browsing and manipulation of simple graphs. We specifically looked at supporting awareness of others activities and interaction between participants. We found that shared audio and haptic locating tools, to allow users to find each other, are useful. However further work is required to determine the general applicability of our findings.
    Jogging over a distance: supporting a "jogging together" experience although being apart BIBAFull-Text 2579-2584
      Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Shannon O'Brien; Alex Thorogood
    Jogging is a healthy activity and many people enjoy jogging with others for social and motivational reasons. However, jogging partners might not always live in the same location, and it may be difficult to find a local jogger who runs at the same pace, we found through a survey "Jogging over a Distance" allows geographically distant joggers to socialize and motivate one another by using spatialized audio to convey presence and pace cues, similar to the experience of running side by side. We hope our approach encourages active and prospective joggers to jog longer and more often, while simultaneously supporting friendships.
    Value scenarios: a technique for envisioning systemic effects of new technologies BIBAFull-Text 2585-2590
      Lisa P. Nathan; Predrag V. Klasnja; Batya Friedman
    In this paper we argue that there is a scarcity of methods which support critical, systemic, long-term thinking in current design practice, technology development and deployment. To address this need we introduce value scenarios, an extension of scenario-based design which can support envisioning the systemic effects of new technologies. We identify and describe five key elements of value scenarios; stakeholders, pervasiveness, time, systemic effects, and value implications. We provide two examples of value scenarios, which draw from our current work on urban simulation and human-robotic interaction . We conclude with suggestions for how value scenarios might be used by others.
    Mapmail: restructuring an email client for use in distributed teams BIBAFull-Text 2591-2596
      Les Nelson; Elizabeth F. Churchill
    In this paper we examine a solution for coping with information sharing across location, time zone, and organizational boundaries. Email, a principal tool for such collaboration, relies on textual and/or numeric sorting, filtering and presentation by subject, data, sender addresses and/or time. Typically, spatial properties of presentation are limited to filtering incoming messages into folders. We have been designing for a different form of social expressiveness. mapping email by geographic region. We describe an example of how an email client was extended, preserving its original familiarity and functions, but augmented with new features expressed in a spatial map arrangement. We describe how this approach exemplifies a general technique we call "application surrogates". We discuss application surrogates in terms of emerging "mashup" approaches to application development.
    A motion-based marking menu system BIBAFull-Text 2597-2602
      Ian Oakley; Junseok Park
    The rapid development of handheld devices is driving the development of new interaction styles. This paper examines one such technique: using hand motions to control a menu system. Previous research on this topic deals with systems which rely heavily on graphical feedback, a disadvantage in many mobile scenarios. Inspired by marking menus, our system is designed to be used "eyes-free" and based on making relatively large scale rotational strokes. We describe the system and an initial evaluation in detail. The results indicate that its performance is comparable to previous motion menu systems, but that this can be attained without visual feedback. This represents a substantial benefit.
    Pointer delegation for group collaboration using telepointers BIBAFull-Text 2603-2608
      Noritaka Osawa
    Pointer delegation, a new function for a telepointer, allows people to delegate the rights of their own pointers to the pointer of someone who they can trust, which helps to achieve better group collaboration through a kind of fair voting system in interactive environments that include many people. A telepointer that has a pointer delegation function is called a delegate pointer. The appearance of delegate pointers in an interactive environment can show the weight of voting. Moreover, delegate pointers can be used to limit the manipulators of objects to only one or a small group in order to reduce any conflicting manipulation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of the appearance of pointers to show the voting weight, and to test the feasibility of the delegate pointer.
    Squeeze: designing for playful experiences among co-located people in homes BIBAFull-Text 2609-2614
      Marianne Graves Petersen
    Squeeze is a multi-person, flexible and interactive furniture that allows for collective and playful exploration of the family history among co-located people in homes. It is designed to explore how we can use digital technology to create settings where co-located family members can collectively and actively engage in playful activities as part of their everyday lives at home. It is argued that this is for the most part an unexplored design space, which is awaiting the interest of the CHI community. Our work has both a strategic and theoretical outset. It is designed from a strategic point to open up the design space for digital domestic technology emphasizing the potential in designing for playful experiences among co-located family members. Secondly, it is designed from a theoretical perspective, namely that of designing for playfulness and aesthetics of interaction.
    iProCam: a lens-sharing projector-camera system for augmented reality applications BIBAFull-Text 2615-2620
      Seyoung Pyo; Jaewon Shim; Geehyuk Lee
    Projector-based augmented reality techniques are expected to become a practical display solution for hand-held devices in the near future. A new problem in the new environment is that neither a projector nor a projection surface is fixed in space. This means that calibration between the two coordinate systems of a projector and a camera will have to be no more a one-time setup procedure but a dynamic process. The best solution will be to remove the need for calibration from the beginning by having a projector and a camera share the same lens system. The iProCam is a projector-camera system that realized this idea using a beam splitter and a time-multiplexing scheme. Sharing the same lens system also makes it possible to keep a projector in focus by keeping a camera in focus. This paper presents the implementation details of an iProCam prototype and the results of experiments conducted to verify the concept.
    Human guided evolution of XUL user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2621-2626
      Juan C. Quiroz; Sergiu M. Dascalu; Sushil J. Louis
    Graphical user interface design is a time consuming, expensive, and complex software design process. User interface design is both art and science in that we use both objective and subjective design metrics to evaluate interfaces. An automated process that relies on both subjective and objective metrics to guide the evolution of effective, personalized user interfaces could significantly change current GUI development and maintenance practice. This paper uses an interactive genetic algorithm to evolve XUL user interface layouts by combining objective and subjective metrics. The genetic algorithm encodes expert knowledge from prominent usability guidelines as objective heuristics. Further, the graphical user interface developer (or user!) biases and guides the evolution of the interfaces by subjectively evaluating and selecting the "best" and "worst" interfaces from a small set of displayed interface prototypes. We explore how the selection of individuals from the population to be displayed to the user for subjective evaluation affects the convergence of the genetic algorithm and show that our methodology can produce effective interfaces that reflect subjective user-preferred aesthetics.
    Iterative design of an audio-haptic drawing application BIBAFull-Text 2627-2632
      Kirsten Rassmus-Gröhn; Charlotte Magnusson; Håkan Eftring
    This paper presents the ongoing design and evaluation of an audio-haptic drawing program that allows visually impaired users to create and access graphical images. The application is developed in close collaboration with a user reference group of five blind/low vision school children. The objective of the application is twofold. It is used as a research vehicle to investigate user interaction techniques and do basic research on navigation strategies and help tools, including e.g. sound fields, shape creation tools and beacons with pulling forces in the context of drawing. In the progress of the development, the preferred features have been implemented as standard tools in the application. The final aim of the application in its current form is to aid school work in different subjects, and part of the application development is also to create tasks relevant in a school setting.
    An extensible platform for the interactive exploration of Fitts' Law and related movement time models BIBAFull-Text 2633-2638
      Martin J. Schedlbauer
    This paper describes a new software platform for the interactive exploration of human performance models such as Fitts' law. The software is written in Java and provides a flexible environment for HCI research and education. Its distributed, object-oriented architecture provides a framework for exploring new performance models, task types, and selection modes.
    Finding your way with CampusWiki: a location-aware wiki BIBAFull-Text 2639-2644
      Richard P. Schuler; Nathaniel Laws; Sameer Bajaj; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones
    Wikis provide a simple and unique approach to collaborative authoring, allowing any member of the community to contribute new, or change existing information. However, Wikis are typically disconnected from the physical context of users who are utilizing or creating content, resulting in suboptimal support for geographic communities. In addition, geographic communities might find the highly skewed generation of content by a few individuals problematic. Here we present research into addressing these challenges through location-awareness and lightweight user content rating mechanisms. We describe one such location-aware Wiki, CampusWiki and initial results from a field study demonstrating the value of location-linked content and the rating approach. We conclude with a discussion of design implications.
    Using isovist views to study placement of large displays in natural settings BIBAFull-Text 2645-2650
      Peter G. Scupelli; Sara Kiesler; Susan R. Fussell
    In this paper we present the concept of an isovist, derived from the architectural literature, and describe how isovists can help HCI researchers understand visibility in a physical environment. An isovist is defined as the set of all points visible in all directions from a given vantage point in space. The overlap in isovists from two or more locations can be used to assess reciprocal visibility and thereby assist in the placement of large displays for public or shared use. We illustrate the value of isovists for HCI research using field data from two OR suites in two major urban hospitals. First, we show how patterns of interaction between anesthesiologists and nurses in each of two OR suites are associated with quantity of isovist overlap. Then, we show how an isovist analysis can be used to determine a better placement for the shared display in one of the OR suites to enhance coordination between groups.
    Galvanic skin response (GSR) as an index of cognitive load BIBAFull-Text 2651-2656
      Yu Shi; Natalie Ruiz; Ronnie Taib; Eric Choi; Fang Chen
    Multimodal user interfaces (MMUI) allow users to control computers using speech and gesture, and have the potential to minimise users. experienced cognitive load, especially when performing complex tasks. In this paper, we describe our attempt to use a physiological measure, namely Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), to objectively evaluate users. stress and arousal levels while using unimodal and multimodal versions of the same interface. Preliminary results show that users. GSR readings significantly increase when task cognitive load level increases. Moreover, users. GSR readings are found to be lower when using a multimodal interface, instead of a unimodal interface. Cross-examination of GSR data with multimodal data annotation showed promising results in explaining the peaks in the GSR data, which are found to correlate with sub-task user events. This interesting result verifies that GSR can be used to serve as an objective indicator of user cognitive load level in real time, with a very fine granularity.
    WalkMSU: an intervention to motivate physical activity in university students BIBAFull-Text 2657-2662
      Vikash Singh; Anijo Punnen Mathew
    In this paper, we describe an interface whose application is designed to motivate college students to increase their level of physical activity in daily life. The design idea is based on inducing a.just in time. intervention when a user is in a decision making stage. The design described in this paper is a spatial intervention which is intended to increase awareness towards physical activity while students negotiate the urban landscape of a college campus.
    UP health: ubiquitously persuasive health promotion with an instant messaging system BIBAFull-Text 2663-2668
      Misook Sohn; Jeunwoo Lee
    The spread of ubiquitous technologies into the health domain provide an opportunity to investigate interactive communications that can persuade users to adopt certain beneficial behaviors.. We are interested in understanding how networked devices can support and leverage social influence. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of online group interaction for promoting healthy behavior patterns and to investigate how the participation in the online group activity can influence an individual's off-line health-related behavior. As first part of this research, we devised an Instant Messaging (IM) system which shares context information relating to health and covering things such as physical activity and smoking behavior.
    Longitudinal study of continuous non-speech operated mouse pointer BIBAFull-Text 2669-2674
      Adam J. Sporka; Sri H. Kurniawan; Murni Mahmud; Pavel Slavik
    This paper reports a longitudinal study of a non-speech input-controlled continuous cursor control system: Whistling User Interface (U3I). This study combines quantitative (target acquisition tasks, subjective ratings and a simple reaction time test) and qualitative (interview) methods to arrive at a more nuanced understanding novice users. experience over time. The progress of training of ten participants has been observed. The study shows that the performance improved over time and plateaued on day four of the five days of the study.
    A grid-based extension to an assistive multimodal interface BIBAFull-Text 2675-2680
      Philip Strain; Graham McAllister; Emma Murphy; Ravi Kuber; Wai Yu
    This paper describes an extension to a multimodal system designed to improve Internet accessibility for the visually impaired. Here we discuss the novel application of a grid (patent pending) to our assistive web interface. Findings from our evaluation have shown that the grid enhances interaction by improving the user's positional awareness when exploring a web page.
    Analysis of human interruptibility in the home environment BIBAFull-Text 2681-2686
      Yoshinao Takemae; Shuichi Chaki; Takehiko Ohno; Ikuo Yoda; Shinji Ozawa
    Many studies have explored the issues of interruption and availability in workplace environments, however, few have focused on human interruptibility in home environments. To make the initiation of online remote communication smoother, determining if it is appropriate to interrupt the remote communication partner is critical. As a preliminary investigation for developing a method that can automatically estimate interruptibility in the home environments, this paper determines the characteristics of human interruptibility by analyzing self-reported data of subjects in the home. The results indicate that factors such as individual differences, activities and certain home locations influence interruptibility.
    Towards a tool for predicting user exploration BIBAFull-Text 2687-2692
      Leonghwee Teo; Bonnie E. John; Peter Pirolli
    CogTool-Explorer is a tool to predict user exploration choices given a user interface and task. We describe the integration of components that make up CogTool-Explorer, and how it interprets the text of both the task description and interface elements to make its exploration choices. We present CogTool-Explorer's performance on a web navigational search task compared to human performance.
    Location, location, location: a study of bluejacking practices BIBAFull-Text 2693-2698
      Jennifer Thom-Santelli; Alex Ainslie; Geri Gay
    We present an initial exploration of bluejacking, the practice of using Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones to send unsolicited messages to other Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones within a transmission range of 10 meters. A content analysis was conducted on 427 bluejacks from Bluejackq, an online community of bluejackers, in which the contextual characteristics of bluejacking were examined. Bluejacking was found to be highly location-dependent, primarily transpiring in everyday public places. The message content of the bluejacks was also inspired by the physical location where bluejacking took place. We also discuss implications of bluejacking with regards to its relationship to public space and comment on how these findings are relevant to mobile social computing.
    SyncDecor: appliances for sharing mutual awareness between lovers separated by distance BIBAFull-Text 2699-2704
      Hitomi Tsujita; Itiro Siio; Koji Tsukada
    Many lovers separated by distance worry about their relationships, despite the fact that the use of various means of communication such as mobile phones and e-mail is now widespread. We interviewed some such couples, who expressed the desire to feel a sense of connection and synchronization with their partners. They also expressed the desire to have devices that provide awareness about their partners. For this purpose, we propose "SyncDecor" devices, which are pairs of remotely installed appliances that synchronize each other.
    Rating, voting & ranking: designing for collaboration & consensus BIBAFull-Text 2705-2710
      Don Turnbull
    The OpenChoice system, currently in development, is an open source, open access community rating and filtering service that would improve upon the utility of currently available Web content filters. The goal of OpenChoice is to encourage community involvement in making filtering classification more accurate and to increase awareness in the current approaches to content filtering. The design challenge for OpenChoice is to find the best interfaces for encouraging easy participation amongst a community of users, be it for voting, rating or discussing Web page content. This work in progress reviews some initial designs while reviewing best practices and designs from popular Web portals and community sites.
    WikiNavMap: a visualisation to supplement team-based wikis BIBAFull-Text 2711-2716
      Adam John Ullman; Judy Kay
    Wikis are an invaluable tool for quickly and easily creating and editing a collection of web pages. Their use is particularly interesting in small teams to serve as a support for group communication, for co-ordination, as well as for creating collaborative document products. In spite of the very real appeal of the wiki for these purposes, there is a serious challenge due to their complexity. Team members can have difficulty identifying the structure and salient elements of the wiki. This paper describes the design of WikiNavMap, an alternative visual representation for wikis, which provides an overview of the wiki structure. Based on analysis of student wikis, we identified factors that help team members identify which wiki pages are currently relevant to them. We hypothesised that a structural overview coupled with the visual representations of these factors could assist users with wiki navigation decisions. We report a preliminary evaluation with a large group wiki, created over a full university semester by a group of ten users. The results are promising for a small wiki but point to challenges in coping with the complexity of a larger one.
    Flickr and public image-sharing: distant closeness and photo exhibition BIBAFull-Text 2717-2722
      Nancy A. Van House
    This paper presents an empirical study in progress of the use of Flickr.com, part of an on-going research program on personal digital media, including images. Two new kinds of image-sharing with Flickr are "distant closeness" and "photo exhibition". We are seeing changing uses of images in social interaction and increased multi-modal communication.
    Touch: sensitive apparel BIBAFull-Text 2723-2728
      Cati Vaucelle; Yasmine Abbas
    Touch-Sensitive is a haptic apparel that allows massage therapy to be diffused, customized and controlled by people while on the move. It provides individuals with a sensory cocoon. Made of modular garments, Touch-Sensitive applies personalized stimuli. We present the design process and a series of low fidelity prototypes that lead us to the Touch-Sensitive Apparel.
    Mapping semantic relevancy of information displays BIBAFull-Text 2729-2734
      Vladislav Daniel Veksler; Wayne D. Gray
    Semantic Relevancy Maps are a visual analytic technique for representing the distribution of semantic relevancy across an information display. The maps highlight the text areas of the display corresponding to the relevance of that text to user goals, with stronger highlights indicating higher degrees of relevance. Semantic Relevancy Maps were developed as a tool for high-fidelity computational cognitive models that search complex information displays in the same manner as humans. However, they offer the potential to be a standalone tool for quickly evaluating the spatial layout of information for designers or, more simply, for identifying the spatial location of sought-for information by any computer user.
    Continuing motivation for game design BIBAFull-Text 2735-2740
      Sarah E. Walter; Karin Forssell; Brigid Barron; Caitlin Martin
    In this paper we share experiences from a 2-week game-design project using the introductory programming environment AgentSheets with middle school students (6-8 grades) during a summer computing course at a public middle school in northern California. We examine factors that influence students. desire to continue working with the software, looking at similarities and differences between boys and girls, students with high or low levels of prior experience, and variables which we hypothesize might contribute to continuing motivation. Our findings suggest that programming in the context of game design can be of interest to a broad range of students, not only those who already are engaged in technological activities.
    aIRPLane: an information retrieval pattern language BIBAFull-Text 2741-2746
      Christine E. Wania; Michael E. Atwood
    Interaction patterns and pattern languages have been discussed for years in HCI literature yet there have been few empirical studies conducted. We describe aIRPLane: An Information Retrieval Pattern Language, its discovery, and the experimental design we use to examine its impact on the design of information retrieval interfaces. The results of a pattern sorting exercise are the focus of this paper.
    WillCam: a digital camera visualizing users. interest BIBAFull-Text 2747-2752
      Keita Watanabe; Koji Tsukada; Michiaki Yasumura
    With the increased usage of digital cameras and camera-enabled mobile phones in recent years, large numbers of photos are being taken. Many of the photos that are taken are used little, if at all. Researchers and companies have developed systems where photos can be annotated or tagged to facilitate storage and retrieval. However, people are often unwilling to spend the time and effort to carry out annotation. To solve this problem, we focus on real-time annotation where photographs are annotated at the time when they are taken. We propose a novel digital camera, 'WillCam', which enables users to capture various information, such as location, temperature, ambient noise, and photographer facial expression, in addition to the photo itself. WillCam also helps users express their interest -- what object or information in the picture/scene is most important for them -- visually.
    On context of content: a comparative methodology review of how HCI and mass communication analyze blogs and social media BIBAFull-Text 2753-2758
      Lo Ping Wei; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; Charles M. Eastman
    Across contexts, researchers have most recently applied content analysis -- an unobtrusive scientific method originated to draw social inferences from mass media contents -- to studying weblogs and social media (WSM). In this paper, we look at the classic and contemporary definitions of content analysis and identify the methodology's key premises and uses. Against these premises and uses, we present findings from individual methodology reviews of twelve WSM studies involving content analyses by two disciplines -- Mass Communication and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). We cross-tabulate the individual reviews by discipline, in terms of (1) what content-analysis premises and uses were involved and (2) what research inferences -- from media contents to social contexts -- were made. We conclude with a collective comparison of the Mass Communication and HCI approaches to WSM and suggest one discipline complement the other in analyzing the contents as well as in drawing inferences on the user psychology and social behavior of WSM.
    Comparing two methods for gesture based short text input using chording BIBAFull-Text 2759-2764
      Hendrik Witt; Torben Janssen
    We report on the design and initial evaluation of two methods for short text input in wearable computing applications using hand gestures. A wireless data glove able to recognize 4 basic gestures is used together with the chording principle. We present two different concepts to map gestures to characters. A presentation of preliminary experiment results shows that simple free hand gestures in combination with different key maps are easier to learn and allow faster typing than distinct gestures assigned for each character.
    Preliminary evidence for top-down and bottom-up processes in web search navigation BIBAFull-Text 2765-2770
      Shu-Chieh Wu; Craig S. Miller
    In current theories of web navigation, link evaluation has been treated primarily as a bottom-up process involving assessing the semantic distance between a search goal and a given link in the information source. In this paper we investigate whether link evaluation could be subject to top-down influence from knowledge of the information source. We measured fixation durations that occurred during link evaluation and found shorter durations in the search for easy goals. This preliminary finding suggests that for goals with category names readily retrievable from knowledge of the information source, search is likely aided by top-down influences.
    Exploring the use of large displays in American megachurches BIBAFull-Text 2771-2776
      Susan P. Wyche; Yevgeniy Medynskiy; Rebecca E. Grinter
    Within the HCI community, there is a growing interest in how technology is used and appropriated outside the workplace. In this paper, we present preliminary findings of how large displays, projection systems, and presentation software are used in American megachurches to support religious practice. These findings are based on ten visits to church services by the study's authors. We describe how large display technology augments and replaces certain church traditions, and finish by discussing issues related to the design for church environments that are highlighted by this use of technology.
    Tangible avatar and tangible earth: a novel interface for astronomy education BIBAFull-Text 2777-2782
      Jun Yamashita; Hideaki Kuzuoka; Chiaki Fujimon; Michitaka Hirose
    The capability to support spatial perception plays an important role in developing material for astronomy education. Considering this, we developed a novel tangible user interface consisting of a glove and a physical avatar attached on its surface. Virtual reality graphics of the solar system can be controlled manually with the glove and avatar. Preliminary experiments have indicated the advantages of the proposed tangible user interface for astronomy education.
    Sounding board: a handheld device for mutual assessment in education BIBAFull-Text 2783-2788
      Jun Yamashita; Hiroshi Kato; Toshiaki Ichimaru; Hideyuki Suzuki
    We are developing a set of handheld input devices for mutual assessment in the course of a learning activity and a system to give on-the-spot feedback concerning the summary of the assessment to the learners visually with the aid of charts. This paper describes its design concept and provides an overview of the system.
    Porta-person: telepresence for the connected conference room BIBAFull-Text 2789-2794
      Nicole Yankelovich; Nigel Simpson; Jonathan Kaplan; Joe Provino
    This paper describes a telepresence device called Porta-Person. This is the first project in a larger initiative known as the Connected Conference Room, which aims to improve the user experience for remote people connected to meetings taking place in conference rooms. The Porta-Person is designed to enhance a sense of social presence for remote meeting participants. It does this by providing a high-fidelity audio connection and a remotely controlled telepresence display with video or animation.
    The facial expression effect of an animated agent on the decisions taken in the negotiation game BIBAFull-Text 2795-2800
      Masahide Yuasa; Naoki Mukawa
    This paper investigates the manner in which decision-making is influenced by the impressions given by life-like agents in negotiation situations. These impressions comprise an agent's facial expressions such as happy and sad, and the history of relationship with the agent. In this paper, we introduce a negotiation game as one of the basic interactions based on the soft game theory. The experimental results reveal that expressions and history significantly influence the receiver's impressions and decision-making. The findings of this study can be beneficial for designing the nonverbal expressions of an animated agent who can negotiate and make a deal with users.
    Design and comparison of acceleration methods for touchpad BIBAFull-Text 2801-2806
      Sumi Yun; Geehyuk Lee
    As the resolution of a notebook display increases, the efficiency of a touchpad is becoming a more important issue. In particular, it is often observed that users scrape the pad repeatedly to reach the close button of a window. In this paper, we propose two new cursor control methods utilizing the contact-area information that is provided by most touchpads. We compared the new methods with the mouse acceleration that is the most common cursor control method. An evaluation study showed that the new methods required smaller number of scrapings and shorter distance of scraping on the touchpad while their efficiency is similar to that of the mouse acceleration. All participants preferred the new methods to the mouse acceleration.
    The sound of touch BIBAFull-Text 2807-2812
      David Merrill; Hayes Raffle
    In this paper we describe the Sound of Touch, a new instrument for real-time capture and sensitive physical stimulation of sound samples using digital convolution. Our hand-held wand can be used to (1) record sound, then (2) playback the recording by brushing, scraping, striking or otherwise physically manipulating the wand against physical objects. During playback, the recorded sound is continuously filtered by the acoustic interaction of the wand and the material being touched. Our texture kit allows for convenient acoustic exploration of a range of materials.
       An acoustic instrument's resonance is typically determined by the materials from which it is built. With the Sound of Touch, resonant materials can be chosen during the performance itself, allowing performers to shape the acoustics of digital sounds by leveraging their intuitions for the acoustics of physical objects. The Sound of Touch permits real-time exploitation of the sonic properties of a physical environment, to achieve a rich and expressive control of digital sound that is not typically possible in electronic sound synthesis and control systems.

    Workshops

    HCI and new media arts: methodology and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 2813-2816
      Piotr D. Adamczyk; Kevin Hamilton; Michael B. Twidale; Brian P. Bailey
    Successful collaborations between New Media Arts and HCI tend to develop hybrid techniques that promote balanced contributions from both disciplines. However, since many of these collaborations are one-off or highly dependent on the researchers/artists involved, systematic discussions of the role and impact of the various evaluation techniques and methodologies are missing. This workshop is aimed at practitioners from both HCI and the Arts as a venue to discuss the contribution that one another's techniques have made to their own practice, evaluate critical issues in HCI/New Media Collaboration, and examine ways that existing approaches can be extended for a deeper role in practice, design, and research.
    Tangible user interfaces in context and theory BIBAFull-Text 2817-2820
      Alan F. Blackwell; George Fitzmaurice; Lars Erik Holmquist; Hiroshi Ishii; Brygg Ullmer
    Tangible User Interface (TUI) research has become increasingly widespread over the past 25 years. It is an essential component of Ubiquitous Computing and Augmented Reality research. It introduces many challenging problems in the theory and practice of interaction design. However much day-to-day research is concerned with the practicalities of making these systems work. In this workshop, we focus on the analytic and generative theories of TUI use, and the ways in which these can be applied to the design and evaluation of TUIs in real contexts.
    Supporting design studio culture in HCI BIBAFull-Text 2821-2824
      Eli Blevis; Youn-kyung Lim; Erik Stolterman; Tracee Vetting Wolf; Keichi Sato
    The workshop considers the needs and possibilities for integrating design studio culture within the research, education, and practice of interaction design and HCI. The primary goals of the workshop are (i) to assess the current state of design studio culture within HCI in comparison with other design disciplines, (ii) to invite participants to collaborate on the design of the artifice required to support design studio culture within HCI, and (iii) to aggregate insights from these designs into strategies for the future.
    User centered design and international development BIBAFull-Text 2825-2828
      Andy Dearden; Ann Light; Susan Dray; John Thomas; Mike Best; Celeste Buckhalter; Dan Greenblatt; Gaurishankar Krishnan; Nithya Sambasivan
    This workshop explores User Centered Design (UCD) challenges and contributions to International economic and community Development. We are addressing interaction design for parts of the world that are often marginalized by the Global North as well as people in the Global North who are themselves similarly marginalized by poverty or other barriers. We hope to extend the boundaries of the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) by spurring a discussion on how existing UCD practices can be adapted and modified, and how new practices be developed, to deal with the unique challenges posed by this context.
    Imaging the city: exploring the practices and technologies of representing the urban environment in HCI BIBAFull-Text 2829-2832
      Carl DiSalvo; Janet Vertesi
    Developing and employing technologies for the urban environment requires visualization techniques that can reflect and challenge how and what we design for this space. This one-day workshop will explore the practices and technologies of Imaging the City from the perspective of Human-Computer Interaction, bringing together designers, HCI experts, and urban planners to deeply address the roles for imaging technologies in civic space.
    Security user studies: methodologies and best practices BIBAFull-Text 2833-2836
      Serge Egelman; Jennifer King; Robert C. Miller; Nick Ragouzis; Erika Shehan
    Interest in usable security -- the research, development, and study of systems that are both usable and secure -- has been growing both in the CHI and information security communities in the past several years. Despite this interest, however, the process of designing and conducting security-related user studies remains extremely difficult. Users deal with security infrequently and irregularly, and most do not notice or care about security until it is missing or broken. Security is rarely a primary goal or task of users, making many traditional HCI evaluation techniques difficult or even impossible to use. This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners from the HCI and information security communities to explore methodological challenges and best practices for conducting security-related user studies.
    Converging on a science of design through the synthesis of design methodologies BIBAFull-Text 2837-2840
      Gerhard Fischer; Elisa Giaccardi; Yunwen Ye; Chris DiGiano; Kumiyo Nakakoji
    The goals of this workshop are: (1) to bring together the community of researchers who are exploring innovative design theories and different design methodologies; (2) to evaluate the appropriateness of design methodologies for specific contexts and explore their respective difference and synergies; and (3) to strengthen the community of researchers who are interested and involved to make progress toward creating a science of design.
    Mobile spatial interaction BIBAFull-Text 2841-2844
      Peter Frölich; Rainer Simon; Lynne Baillie; Joi Roberts; Roderick Murray-Smith
    Mobile phones are starting to become the major platform for interaction with spatial information. Recent research has yielded promising applications and approaches for exploring, accessing and augmenting information related to the user's immediate surroundings. The CHI workshop "Mobile Spatial Interaction" (MSI) aims at gathering researchers working on this emerging and multifaceted, but quickly evolving topic. A forum for open dialogue is needed to enable researchers to obtain a picture of the facets and the benefits of mobile spatial interaction as well as its challenges. Potential ways to combine the various approaches will be examined and discussed.
    Culture and collaborative technologies BIBAFull-Text 2845-2848
      Susan R. Fussell; Qiping Zhang
    This workshop will explore interactions among culture, features of collaborative technologies, and group processes and outcomes. The workshop will address several key challenges to this area of research, including identifying important dimensions of cultural variability, specifying how these dimensions interact with features of technology to impact group processes and outcomes, developing design specifications for multi-cultural and cross cultural collaborative tools, and addressing methodological issues that arise in cross cultural research. Workshop goals include identifying key areas for future research, specifying initial design recommendations, fostering new collaborations among researchers interested in culture and computer mediated collaboration, and, if there is sufficient interest among participants, creating an edited volume on this topic.
    Supporting non-professional users in the new media landscape BIBAFull-Text 2849-2852
      David Geerts; Marianna Obrist; Manfred Tscheligi; Petter Bae Brandtzæg
    This workshop will discuss the implications of the new media landscape allowing non-professional users to co-produce and share media content in applications for (interactive) television, websites and mobile devices. This new media landscape represents an important shift away from professionally produced media content for the mass-market towards a more homemade media landscape. More specifically, the workshop will focus on methodologies and techniques that are suitable to design co-creative applications for non-professional users in different contexts of use like the office, the home, or in public spaces. Special attention goes to stimulating user participation and motivation in small network communities, and how social interaction can be supported through the interface. Co-experience is an evolving concept, which gives insight both into the lives and interaction between people and their in-between user experience. A special focus lies also on advanced evaluation approaches for the production of these forms of user experience in different contexts of use. Designing for co-creative and co-experiences targeting non-professional users will be critical in the further developments of interactive technologies in the new media landscape.
    Supple interfaces: designing and evaluating for richer human connections and experiences BIBAFull-Text 2853-2856
      Katherine Isbister; Kristina Höök
    The aim of this workshop is to create a common language for discussing the issues involved, the research challenges, and progress already made in designing and evaluating "supple" interfaces. Supple interfaces aim to build richer connections between people as well as deeper emotional experiences through interface. Examples include affective interactive systems, games, and relationship-building systems. For these kinds of applications, the CHI community is struggling with a new set of design values and accompanying challenges that can be hard to articulate and thus to advance as a community. These application spaces and interaction modes require an emphasis on the quality of experience rather than outcome, and often involve subtleties of the dynamics of engagement with such interfaces and with others through these interfaces. Through hands-on experiences, presentations, and active discussion during the day, we hope to make a start at creating a coherent working framework for this area that can be shared with the larger CHI community.
    Exertion interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2857-2860
      Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Stefan Agamanolis
    Exertion as an interface has gained an increased momentum recently due to the belief that it can address current issues such as obesity, contribute to technology developments such as pervasive computing, and open new markets for entertainment industries. We are proposing a workshop on this topic to bring researchers and industry participants from this area together to further refine the field and promote the area as distinct topic. The workshop will support developing future collaborative efforts and encourage a constructive reflection on the issues of this novel area.
    Exploring design as a research activity BIBAFull-Text 2861-2864
      Matthew R. Peters; Steven Haynes; David J. Saab; Helena Mentis; Abigail Durrant
    Human-computer interaction research often includes a significant design component. In cases where software or other tools are developed and described, but no empirical evaluation is provided, the research consists almost entirely of the knowledge marshaled in support of and as a result of design activities. Very little analysis has been carried out, however, into the scientific and epistemological bases underpinning this kind of research. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss different perspectives on the nature of design as a research activity, and the challenges facing researchers who employ design as a methodology.
    Beyond current user research: designing methods for new users, technologies, and design processes BIBAFull-Text 2865-2868
      Judith Ramey; Elisabeth Cuddihy; Zhiwei Guan; Stephanie Rosenbaum; Emma Rose
    With the rapid diversification of computing technologies, user researchers often encounter new applications, new users and scenarios of use, and even new design processes that require new research approaches. (For instance, how do you assess the usability of a roving, multi-user, activity-based system? Or how do you assess a device intended to support a social network?) In this workshop we will examine case studies from user researchers who have modified a classic user research technique or created a new technique to meet the exigencies of such challenges. The workshop is organized around three aspects of methods design: the impetus for creating the new or modified method, the challenges of implementing the method, and the impact of the innovation on the design or design process.
    Striking a c[h]ord: vocal interaction in assistive technologies, games, and more BIBAFull-Text 2869-2872
      Adam J. Sporka; Susumu Harada; Sri H. Kurniawan
    Vocal interaction research has primarily been focused on the use of systems for automatic speech recognition and synthesis. Whilst ASR has been successful in various domains, it can be impractical in some contexts of use such as in time-sensitive and continuous controls and in applications involving users with speech impairment. This workshop aims to discuss the state of the art in vocal interaction methods that go beyond word recognition by exploiting the information contained within non-verbal vocalizations (e.g. pitch, volume, or timbre). The overarching objective of this workshop is to sketch a research agenda on the topic of the emerging discipline of non-verbal vocal interaction and its implications for the design of interactive systems. The workshop will be of interest to researchers, designers, developers, and users that are interested or would benefit from use of the non-verbal interaction.
    Increasing the impact of usability work in software development BIBAFull-Text 2873-2876
      Tobias Uldall-Espersen; Erik Frøkjær; Ann Blandford; Timo Jokela
    A key challenge when producing usable and useful software is the lack of impact of usability work on software development. We aim at developing a more coherent and realistic understanding of this challenge and the possibilities of how to increase the impact from usability work when developing high quality software products. We present a workshop gathering usability practitioners and researchers in order to establish and thoroughly discuss a corpus of case studies covering a broad range of usability practices in software development. The result of the workshop will be summarized in a conference paper and an international recognized scientific publisher will publish the case studies.
    Exploratory search and HCI: designing and evaluating interfaces to support exploratory search interaction BIBAFull-Text 2877-2880
      Ryen W. White; Steven M. Drucker; Gary Marchionini; Marti Hearst; m. c. schraefel
    The model of search as a turn-taking dialogue between the user and an intermediary has remained unchanged for decades. However, there is growing interest within the search community in evolving this model to support search-driven information exploration activities. So-called "exploratory search" describes a class of search activities that move beyond fact retrieval toward fostering learning, investigation, and information use. Exploratory search interaction focuses on the user-system communication essential during exploratory search processes. Given this user-centered focus, the CHI conference is an ideal venue to discuss mechanisms to support exploratory search behaviors. Specifically, this workshop aims to gather researchers, academics, and practitioners working in human-computer interaction, information retrieval, and other related disciplines, for a discussion of the issues relating to the design and evaluation of interfaces to help users explore, learn, and use information. These are important issues with far-reaching implications for how many computer users accomplish their tasks.
    Shared encounters BIBAFull-Text 2881-2884
      Katharine S. Willis; Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Mirjam Struppek; George Roussos
    Our everyday lives are characterised by encounters, some are fleeting and ephemeral and others are more enduring and meaningful exchanges. Shared encounters are the glue of social networks and have a socializing effect in terms of mutual understanding, empathy, respect and thus tolerance towards others. The quality and characteristics of such encounters are affected by the setting, or situation in which they occur. In a world shaped by communication technologies, non-place-based networks often coexist alongside to the traditional local face-to-face social networks. As these multiple and distinct on and off-line communities tend to carry out their activities in more and more distinct and sophisticated spaces, a lack of coherency and fragmentation emerges in the sense of a shared space of community. Open public space with its streets, parks and squares plays an important role in providing space for shared encounters among and between these coexisting networks. Mobile and ubiquitous technologies enable social encounters located in public space, albeit not confined to fixed settings, whilst also offering sharing of experiences from non-place based networks. We will look at how to create or support the conditions for meaningful and persisting shared encounters. In particular we propose to explore how technologies can be appropriated for shared interactions that can occur spontaneously and playfully and in doing so re-inhabit and connect place-based social networks.