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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012-10-22

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 56th Annual Meeting
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:2012-Oct-22 to 2012-Oct-26
Standard No:ISBN: 978-0-945289-41-8; hcibib: HFES12; TA 166 H794
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | Online Order Form
  1. Aerospace Systems: AS1 -- Enhancing Safety in Aviation Systems
  2. Aerospace Systems: AS2 -- Human-Technology Interaction in Aviation Systems
  3. Aerospace Systems: AS3 -- The Design of the UAS Ground Control Station: Challenges and Solutions for Ensuring Safe Flight in Civilian Skies
  4. Aerospace Systems: AS4 -- Human Factors at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): From Research to Reality
  5. Aerospace Systems: AS5 -- Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms
  6. Aerospace Systems: AS6 -- Methodologies for the Design of Future Aviation Systems
  7. Aerospace Systems: AS7 -- Human Factors Challenges for Future Air Traffic Controllers
  8. Aging: A1 -- Healthy and Engaged Aging
  9. Aging: A2 -- Working, Driving, Serving, and at Home: Older Adults are Everywhere!
  10. Augmented Cognition: AC1 -- The Future Is Augmented
  11. Augmented Cognition: AC2 -- Modeling the Complex Dynamics of Teamwork from Team Cognition to Neurophysiology
  12. Augmented Cognition: AC3 -- AugCog Live: EEG Sessions
  13. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE2 -- Collaborative Automation Across Varying Time Scales of Interaction
  14. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 -- Advances in Support System Design
  15. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE7 -- Investigating Assessments and Decisions
  16. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 -- Advances in Support System Design
  17. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE4 -- Impact of Risk, Safety, & Alerting
  18. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE5 -- Perspectives on Situated Cognition in Cyber Security
  19. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE6 -- Approaches to Cognitive Bias in Serious Games for Critical Thinking
  20. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 -- Advances in Support System Design
  21. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE7 -- Investigating Assessments and Decisions
  22. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE8 -- Origins and Destinations: 30 Years of Cognitive Systems Engineering
  23. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE9 -- Trust in Computers and Robots
  24. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE10 -- Cognition in Modeling and Design
  25. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE11 -- Investigating the Cognition of Luggage Screening
  26. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE12 -- New Approaches to Analyzing Work
  27. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE13 -- Cognitive Engineering for Teams
  28. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE14 -- Control of Multiple UAVs
  29. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE15 -- Exploring Cognitive Readiness in Complex Operational Environments: Advances in Theory and Practice
  30. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE16 -- Where's the Beef? Is Cognitive Engineering a Player in Military Research & Development Today?
  31. Communications: C1 -- Team Communication
  32. Communications: C2 -- Beyond the Spoken Word
  33. Computer Systems: CS2/I -- User Experience Day: User Experience and Agile Development
  34. Computer Systems: CS3/I -- User Experience Day: Best Paper Competition
  35. Demonstrations: DEM1 -- Interactive Demonstrations
  36. Education: E1 -- Research on HF/E Pedagogy
  37. Education: E2 -- Fitts Education Award Winners: Teaching Human Factors and Ergonomics
  38. Education: E3 -- Incorporating Industry Goals Into Academic Programs: A Case Study of a Successful Effort
  39. Education: E4 -- Expectations for Future HF/E Programs
  40. Education: E5 -- Computers and HF/E Education: Best Practices
  41. Environmental Design: ED1 -- Environmental Design for Special Populations
  42. Environmental Design: ED2 -- Environmental Design
  43. Forensics Professional: FP1 -- Forensic Issues in Warnings, Products, and Falls
  44. Forensics Professional: FP2 -- Factors Related to Perceiving the Relative Speed of Leading Vehicles in High-Speed Rear-End Crashes
  45. Forensics Professional: FP3 -- Examples of How to Present Human Factors Testimony to the Trier of Fact
  46. Forensics Professional: FP4 -- Forensic Issues in Transportation and Disabilities
  47. General Sessions: GS3 -- Creating Healthcare Simulation Training Systems: A Designer's Forum
  48. General Sessions: GS4 -- General Sessions Lectures
  49. General Sessions: GS9 -- The Operational Context of Procedures and Checklists in Commercial Aviation
  50. Heath Care: HC1 -- What Can Human Factors Contribute to Improve Electronic Health Record Usability and Patient Safety?
  51. Heath Care: HC2 -- Design & Ergonomics
  52. Heath Care: HC3 -- Nursing
  53. Heath Care: HC4 -- Context
  54. Heath Care: HC5 -- Developing Methods to Measure Health Care Team Performance in Acute and Chronic Care Settings
  55. Heath Care: HC6 -- Clinical Communications -- Human Factors for the Hidden Network In Medicine
  56. Heath Care: HC7 -- Using Human Factors and Systems Engineering to Improve Care Coordination
  57. Heath Care: HC8 -- A Wealth of Information Creates a Poverty of Attention? Understanding Information Requirements for Communication at Handovers
  58. Heath Care: HC9 -- Handoff Communication: Implications for Design
  59. Heath Care: HC10 -- Safety & Fatigue
  60. Heath Care: HC11 -- Human Factors in the Wild: Dilemmas and Solutions From Human Factors Engineers Working in Health Care
  61. Heath Care: HC12 -- Ergonomic Aspects of Clinical and Surgical Procedures
  62. Heath Care: HC13 -- Literacy & Special Populations
  63. Heath Care: HC14 -- Learning About Health Care: Preparing Human Factors Professionals for a Career in Health Care
  64. Heath Care: HC15 -- Collaboration/Communication
  65. Heath Care: HC16 -- Simulation-Based Training Across the Medical Education Continuum
  66. Human Performance Modeling: HP2 -- Aviation & Military
  67. Human Performance Modeling: HP3 -- Ergonomics and Vision
  68. Human Performance Modeling: HP4 -- Modeling Supervisory Control, Emotion, Training, and Cognition
  69. Individual Differences in Performance: ID1 -- Multidisciplinary Concepts in Ergonomic Design and Individual Differences in Performance
  70. Individual Differences in Performance: ID2 -- Individual Differences in Human Interaction with Automation, Robots, and Computers
  71. Individual Differences in Performance: ID3 -- Individual Differences in Performance, Workload, and Stress
  72. Individual Differences in Performance: ID4 -- Individual Differences: Models and Methods for Prediction
  73. Industrial Ergonomics: IE1 -- Tablets, Keyboards, Pointing Devices, and Computer Work
  74. Industrial Ergonomics: IE2 -- Underlying Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders: What Are We Missing?
  75. Industrial Ergonomics: IE3 -- Ergonomics, Biomechanics, and Muscle Physiology
  76. Industrial Ergonomics: IE4 -- Applications of NIRS in Ergonomics and Human Factors
  77. Industrial Ergonomics: IE5 -- Assessment of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders
  78. Industrial Ergonomics: IE6 -- Lifting, Material Handling, and Low Back Assessment Methods
  79. Industrial Ergonomics: IE7 -- Ergonomic Assessment Methods
  80. Internet: I1/CS -- Security, Privacy, and Trust
  81. Internet: I2/CS -- Physical Topics and Methods
  82. Macroergonomics: ME1 -- Macroergonomics and Safety
  83. Macroergonomics: ME3 -- Macroergonomics, Work and Education
  84. Macroergonomics: ME2 -- Macroergonomics in Health Care: Principles, Progress, and Prospects
  85. Perception and Performance: PP1 -- Getting Users' Attention: Effectiveness of Different Cues
  86. Perception and Performance: PP2 -- Multisensory Tactile Systems for Soldiers: Theory, Research, and Applications
  87. Perception and Performance: PP3 -- Operating Systems in Simulated, Virtual, & Faraway Environments
  88. Perception and Performance: PP4 -- Augmented Reality: Implications Toward Virtual Reality, Human Perception, and Performance
  89. Perception and Performance: PP5 -- Auditory -- Visual Displays
  90. Perception and Performance: PP5 -- Auditory & Visual Displays
  91. Perception and Performance: PP6 -- Design of Controls
  92. Perception and Performance: PP7 -- Developing & Measuring Expertise
  93. Perception and Performance: PP8 -- Multimodal Cueing: The Relative Benefits of the Auditory, Visual, and Tactile Channels
  94. Perception and Performance: PP9 -- Research on Sustained Attention and Workload
  95. Perception and Performance: PP10 -- Research on Systems for Command and Control Environments
  96. Posters: POS1 -- Posters 1
  97. Posters: POS2 -- Posters 2
  98. Posters: POS3 -- Posters 3
  99. Posters: POS4 -- Posters 4
  100. Product Design: PD3 -- Hardware Design for Interaction
  101. Product Design: PD4 -- Design Practice
  102. Product Design: PD5 -- Product Design Considerations
  103. Product Design: PD6 -- Product Design and Emotion
  104. Product Design: PD7 -- Software Design Usability
  105. Product Design: PD8 -- Design Theory and Concepts
  106. Safety: S1 -- Mental Workload, Situation Awareness, & Technology
  107. Safety: S2 -- Accident Analysis, Risk Assessment, & Human Reliability
  108. Safety: S3 -- Improving Public Response to Disaster Warnings
  109. Safety: S4 -- Test & Evaluation: Safety Alerts, Fall Prevention, Nuclear Power
  110. Safety: S5 -- Transportation Research into Practice: A Multi-Agency Government Perspective
  111. Student Forum: SF2 -- Biomechanics, Ergonomics, and Haptics
  112. Student Forum: SF3 -- Human-Computer Interaction and Simulation
  113. Student Forum: SF4 -- Automation and Human Performance
  114. Virtual Environments: VE4 -- Virtual Environments: Current & Future Trends
  115. Student Forum: SF5 -- Attention and Memory
  116. Student Forum: SF6 -- Student Research Potpourri
  117. Surface Transportation: ST1 -- Driver Distraction and Drowsy Driving
  118. Surface Transportation: ST2 -- Driver Assistance Systems
  119. Surface Transportation: ST3 -- Driver Visual Behavior
  120. Surface Transportation: ST4 -- New Methods for Data Analysis and Design
  121. Surface Transportation: ST5 -- Driver Attitudes Toward Monitoring and Perspectives on Automation
  122. Surface Transportation: ST6 -- Driving Simulators and Vehicle Interiors
  123. Surface Transportation: ST7 -- Reducing Major Rule Violations in Commuter Rail Operations: The Role of Distraction and Attentional Errors
  124. System Development: SD1 -- Widening the Net of HSI in the Army Acquisition Process
  125. System Development: SD2 -- System Development Potpourri
  126. Test and Evaluation: TE1 -- Analysis, Evaluation, and Usability Testing
  127. Virtual Environments: VE4 -- Virtual Environments: Current & Future Trends
  128. Test and Evaluation: TE2 -- Navigation & Military Applications
  129. Test and Evaluation: TE3 -- The Note-Taker's Perspective During Usability Testing: A Hands-On Approach to Recognizing What's Important, What Isn't
  130. Training: T1 -- Learning, Feedback and Decision Making
  131. Training: T2 -- Training and Retention of Knowledge
  132. Training: T3 -- Training and Virtual Environments
  133. Training: T4 -- Training Applications in Non-Standard Training Environments
  134. Virtual Environments: VE1 -- Me and My VE
  135. Virtual Environments: VE2 -- Applications in Gaming, Training, and Decision Making
  136. Virtual Environments: VE3 -- Virtual Reality, Virtual Humans, and Robots
  137. Virtual Environments: VE4 -- Virtual Environments: Current & Future Trends

Aerospace Systems: AS1 -- Enhancing Safety in Aviation Systems

Estimating the Monetizable Safety Benefits of Prototype Air Traffic Control Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Amy L. Alexander; Tom G. Reynolds
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) utilizes a formal investment analysis process to support the development, procurement and deployment of new air traffic control technologies. It is often unclear how to estimate the impacts of a new technology on aviation safety, both in terms of the probability that incidents and accidents could be prevented and in terms of the potential financial savings associated with reduced aircraft damage and personal injuries. With this in mind, the focus of this paper is twofold: (1) demonstrating the application of a method for generating probabilistic estimates of safety benefits for a future air traffic control technology, and (2) monetizing and extrapolating safety impacts from historical data to provide a quantitative estimate of savings over the lifetime of a new technology. The technologies explored in this analysis involve electronic flight data, enhanced surveillance and decision support tools for the air traffic control tower environment. From this initial analysis, the estimated total monetizable safety benefit of deploying all of these capabilities in a new system with an expected 2015-2035 lifetime across a set of major airports in the US ranges from $155 million to $2.1 billion. Implications of key data assumptions driving the lower and upper-bound estimates are discussed.
Behind the Scenes of NextGen: Describing the Impact of NextGen Operational Improvements on the Traffic Manager BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Katherine A. Berry; Michael W. Sawyer; Edward M. Austrian
In an effort to modernize the National Airspace System (NAS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has introduced the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The introduction of new capabilities and operational improvements (OI) offers the potential for changes to the roles and responsibilities of the traffic management unit (TMU). Each change presents the opportunity to positively or adversely impact the overall safety of the NAS. This paper applies a proactive approach to identifying potential human performance hazards associated with NextGen TMU operations. The TMU performance hazards identified were primarily related to the potential for selecting inadequate airspace and airport configurations. The potential effects of these hazards will directly affect the NextGen controller and thus represent rich opportunities for researchers to mitigate potential issues in the early stages of system design.
Analysis of New Proposed Air Traffic Control Alerts in the NextGen Midterm BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Michael W. Sawyer; Katherine A. Berry; Edward M. Austrian
In an effort to modernize the National Airspace System (NAS) the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has introduced the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The introduction of new systems and procedures as described in NextGen offers the potential for significant changes to the daily activities of air traffic controllers. Along with the many proposed NextGen capabilities and improvements comes the need for new controller alerts and notifications. This research presents fourteen potential new alerts directly or indirectly proposed by literature describing NextGen midterm operations. Each new alert along with the potential positive and negative implications of providing the controller with the alert is discussed. This high-level survey of alerts should serve to inform researchers and system designers as they develop research and design requirements.
How Does Reliance on Automated Tools During Learning Influence Students' Air Traffic Management Skills When the Tools Fail? BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Hector Silva; Jason Ziccardi; Corey A. Morgan; Gregory Morales; Tristan Grigoleit; Samuel Lee; Ariana Kiken; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste
Research on potential NextGen technology has shown that advanced conflict detection and resolution tools can increase air traffic controllers' performance and decrease their workload. However, use of NextGen tools can change the way controllers represent and manage their sector. Kraut et al. (2011) found that when NextGen tools failed in a simulated environment, experienced controllers were able to recover from the error and revert back to manual air traffic management techniques. One question is whether students would be able to recover from failures of technology if they were trained to rely on NextGen tools during acquisition of their air traffic management skills. To answer this question, we performed a simulation in which students were trained over 16 weeks to manage a sector consisting of both NextGen equipped and unequipped aircraft. Reliance on manual skills versus NextGen tools was induced by varying the percentage of equipped aircraft, being mostly NextGen equipped aircraft (75% vs. 25%) or mostly non-equipped aircraft during the first 8 weeks of learning. After the 16 weeks of training, participants were tested under nominal and failure conditions. Results showed that under nominal conditions, the training type was not an important factor. Instead, the percentage of equipped aircraft was the important factor: More equipped aircraft led to better performance and lower workload. However, when comparing the same scenario in which there was a failure of NextGen tools, the group trained to rely more on manual skills early in training performed better than the group trained to rely more on NextGen tools early in training. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Use a Tested Approach for Risk Management and Safety Enhancement: Maintenance Line Operations Safety Assessment (M-LOSA) BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Maggie J. Ma
Managing risks has become increasingly important in modern organizations. The aviation industry is maturing in its preference for proactive intervention over post-accident remediation in potentially hazardous circumstances (Jones & Tesmer, 1999). Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) collects safety data during normal airline operations through peer observations in strict non-jeopardy conditions. Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), a multi-year project was launched in October 2008 to capitalize on the successes of flight deck LOSA and extend it to aviation maintenance operations. The project delivered an array of open source tools, including observation data collection forms, procedures, implementation guideline, scenario-based training, and database. The Maintenance LOSA program is expected to positively leverage peer pressure to enforce behavior change and allow subunits of an organization to build in some flexibility to address their key problems and conquer them one at a time. The periodic assessment can help ensure that specific problems identified have been resolved, as well as assure the effectiveness of safety recommendations. The results of the understanding of the benefits and limitations of a threat and error recognition model will also benefit risk mitigation in other high-consequence industries.

Aerospace Systems: AS2 -- Human-Technology Interaction in Aviation Systems

Pilot's Information Use During TCAS Events, and Relationship to Compliance to TCAS Resolution Advisories BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  Amy R. Pritchett; Elizabeth S. Fleming; William P. Cleveland; Vlad M. Popescu; Dhruv A. Thakkar; Jonathan J. Zoetrum
The Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is intended to serve as a backup, redundant system that alerts and advises the pilot when all other methods of aircraft separation assurance fail. A flight simulator experiment examined pilot responses to TCAS advisories in a full air traffic environment. This paper discusses two analyses of the pilots' use of information within their environment. The first analysis examined air traffic communications manipulated according to four conditions: traffic call-outs, instructions conflicting with the TCAS advised avoidance maneuver, the ability to over-hear relevant party-line information, and no relevant communications. The second analysis used data from an eye tracker to identify when the pilot examined the traffic situation display provided by TCAS. These patterns of information use are then compared with pilot compliance to the Resolution Advisories provided by TCAS.
NextGen Flight Deck Data Comm: Auxiliary Synthetic Speech -- Phase I BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Tracy Lennertz; Judith Bürki-Cohen; Andrea L. Sparko; Nickolas Macchiarella; Jason Kring; Mike Coman; Tom Haritos; Jeffry Alvarado
Data Comm -- a digital, text-based controller-pilot communication system -- is critical to many NextGen improvements. With Data Comm, communication becomes a visual task. Although Data Comm brings many advantages, interacting with a visual display may yield an increase in head-down time, particularly for single-pilot operations. This study examined the feasibility of supplementing the visual Data Comm display with an auxiliary synthetic speech presentation. Thirty-two pilots flew two experimental scenarios in a Cessna 172 Flight Training Device. In one scenario, ATC communication was with a text-only Data Comm display; in the other, the text Data Comm display was supplemented with a synthetic speech display annunciating each message (i.e., text+speech). In both scenarios, pilots heard traffic with similar call signs on the party line and received a conditional clearance; however in just one scenario (counter-balanced between communication conditions), pilots received a clearance that was countermanded by a live controller before it was displayed. Results indicated that relative to the text-only display, the text+speech display aided single-pilot performance by reducing head-down time; and it may have prevented participants from acting prematurely on the conditional clearance. Supplementing text Data Comm with speech did not introduce additional complications: participants were neither more likely to erroneously respond to similar call signs, nor to ignore a live ATC voice countermand. The results suggest that the text+speech display did not hinder single-pilot performance and offered some benefits compared to the text-only display.
A Human Factors and Electromyographic Evaluation of Proposed Pointing Devices for Air Traffic Controllers BIBAFull-Text 36-40
  J. Stephen Higgins; Ben Willems; Daniel R. Johnson; Carolina M. Zingale
To ensure that the Next Generation Air Transportation System is efficient and safe, we conducted a simulation to explore the use of alternative pointing devices at en route air traffic control workstations. The current en route trackball supports limited interactions. However, speed, accuracy, interaction capabilities, and ergonomic issues of different pointing devices must be assessed to determine their effect on performance and musculoskeletal strain. Participants controlled simulated traffic with the current trackball, alternative trackball, hand-shake mouse, and a three button wheel-mouse. We collected surveys and recorded performance, behavior, and muscle activity data. Participants preferred the mouse and current trackball to the other devices. The air traffic measures we evaluated did not differ across any of the devices and there were no physiological indications that any of the devices had the potential to cause injury. The mouse was associated with greater pointing accuracy and speed than other devices. Based on these findings, we recommend using a mouse in future en route air traffic control systems.
UAS Integration into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Lisa Fern; Caitlin A. Kenny; Robert J. Shively; Walter Johnson
As a result of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are expected to be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2015. Several human factors challenges need to be addressed before UAS can safely and routinely fly in the NAS with manned aircraft. Perhaps the most significant challenge is for the UAS to be non-disruptive to the air traffic management system. Another human factors challenge is how to provide UAS pilots with intuitive traffic information in order to support situation awareness (SA) of their airspace environment as well as a see-and-avoid capability comparable to manned aircraft so that a UAS pilot could safely maneuver the aircraft to maintain separation and collision avoidance if necessary. A simulation experiment was conducted to examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system. Researchers also examined the effects of introducing a Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) into a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) on UAS pilot performance, workload and situation awareness while flying in a positively controlled sector. Pilots were tasked with conducting a highway patrol police mission with a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS in L.A. Center airspace with two mission objectives: 1) to reroute the UAS when issued new instructions from their commander, and 2) to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) to negotiate flight plan changes and respond to vectoring and altitude change instructions. Objective aircraft separation data, workload ratings, SA data, and subjective ratings regarding UAS operations in the NAS were collected. Results indicate that UAS pilots were able to comply appropriately with ATC instructions. In addition, the introduction of the CSD improved pilot SA and reduced workload associated with UAS and ATC interactions.
Eye Tracking-Based Target Designation in Simulated Close Range Air Combat BIBAFull-Text 46-50
  Stephen D. O'Connell; Martin Castor; Jerry Pousette; Martin Krantz
The ability to lock on targets as quickly and easily as possible while maintaining speed and a tactically advantageous position is crucial to success in air combat. The capability of remote eye tracking systems has recently improved significantly and has opened up new possible applications. A modern eye-tracker was integrated in an advanced flight simulator environment and an experiment was conducted. The independent variable was target designation mode that was varied between: Heads-Up Display (HUD), Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and a solution based on eye tracking. Eleven participants flew in the experiment and mean times to designate targets indicate significant advantages for the eye tracking based solution.

Aerospace Systems: AS3 -- The Design of the UAS Ground Control Station: Challenges and Solutions for Ensuring Safe Flight in Civilian Skies

The Design of the UAS Ground Control Station: Challenges and Solutions for Ensuring Safe Flight in Civilian Skies BIBAFull-Text 51-55
  Beth Blickensderfer; Timothy J. Buker; Stephen P. Luxion; Beth Lyall; Kelly Neville; Kevin W. Williams
Growing civil demands for uninhabited aircraft systems (UASs) are creating pressure to determine minimum design standards and required capabilities for UAS ground control stations (GCSs). This panel will discuss recent and ongoing research initiatives, regulatory guidance, and lessons learned from military UAS operations and mishap reports to shed light on the potential for GCS designs to support safe and non-disruptive UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). As part of this discussion, panelists will present GCS design challenges related to the preservation of NAS safety and traffic flow and will suggest strategies for overcoming them.

Aerospace Systems: AS4 -- Human Factors at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): From Research to Reality

Human Factors at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): From Research to Reality BIBAFull-Text 56-60
  Michelle Yeh; Cathy Swider; Kathy Abbott; Colleen Donovan; Eric Neiderman; Dino Piccione
The purpose of this discussion panel is to inform human factors researchers and practitioners of the role of human factors throughout the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and how the FAA uses human factors research to enhance aviation safety and to support the performance of the national airspace system. Through this panel, the FAA hopes to provide outreach by communicating the Agency's research needs and requirements to help researchers and practitioners facilitate the transition from research and development to tangible outcomes for the public. This panel will describe the role of the FAA Human Factors Division in coordinating human factors research at the Agency, the process for how research projects are initiated at the FAA, and the challenges faced in transitioning results to implementation in the field or in regulation. Two examples of research programs (Electronic Flight Bag and the Air Traffic Front Line Manager (FLM) Quick Reference Guide) that were successfully implemented are discussed.

Aerospace Systems: AS5 -- Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Michael Lewis; Michael Goodrich; Katia Sycara; Mark Steinberg
Robotic systems composed of a large number of entities, often called robot swarms, are envisioned to play an increasingly important role in applications such as search, rescue, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations. Nowadays, many mobile robots that are deployed for such applications are still tele-operated by a single or multiple operators. While these platforms are individually very capable, the development of cheaper hardware allows the consideration of swarm systems composed of many more robots but with each individual being far less powerful. Examples from biology indicate that such systems can be collectively more powerful than any individual robot within the team and also more than many larger, more sophisticated individual robots. Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer number of robots that need to be coordinated to successfully complete a mission. Autonomous algorithms provide an opportunity to mitigate some of the complexity an operator faces in controlling such swarms, but it is not clear either (a) which tasks will ultimately need to be executed by the operator rather than by the swarm, or (b) what kinds of interactions would be needed.

Aerospace Systems: AS6 -- Methodologies for the Design of Future Aviation Systems

Identifying Support Requirements for Airport Departure Management BIBAFull-Text 65-69
  Alicia B. Fernandes; Philip J. Smith; Kristen Weaver; Ken Durham; Mark Evans; Dustin Johnson
Airport departure demand that exceeds capacity can lead to longer departure queues than necessary. Departure metering is one approach to managing the flow of aircraft to the departure queue so as to build an appropriate inventory of departures on the surface. The Departure Reservoir Coordinator (DRC) is an envisioned role that will be responsible for managing a departure metering procedure. This paper describes a functional analysis of the DRC role and requirements for supporting a person or team in that role that were derived from the functional analysis. Results of the functional analysis were used to develop display concepts that were evaluated by air traffic controllers.
Impact of Automation, Task and Context Features on Pilots' Perception of Human-Automation Interaction BIBAFull-Text 70-74
  Kathleen Mosier; Ute Fischer
Human-automation interaction (HAI) takes place in virtually every phase of flight under a variety of operational conditions. Pilots must decide when to engage and disengage automation, which automation to use, the extent to which they should monitor and crosscheck the automation, and so on. Currently, little is known about which characteristics of scenarios involving HAI are important in these decisions and precisely how they influence the interaction. The objective of the present research was to examine how systematic variations of automation characteristics, task features and context variables individually and jointly influence pilots' perception of HAI situations. Commercial pilots received descriptions of aviation situations and were asked to judge the cognitive demands and predict behaviors associated with each HAI event. Results of the study support the notion that HAI comprises a complex interplay between features of the automation and elements of the task and context.
Analysis of the Risks and Benefits of Flight Deck Adaptive Systems BIBAFull-Text 75-79
  Michael C. Dorneich; William Rogers; Stephen D. Whitlow; Robert DeMers
The objectives of this work were to identify human performance risks and benefits of adaptive systems through a systematic analysis and heuristic evaluation of adaptive system component types and characteristics. As flight deck automated systems have more access to aircraft data, sensor data, stored databases, communicated information, and real time flight crew inputs, as well as more ability to process that information in sophisticated ways to identify situational priorities and context, it is becoming more realistic for those automated systems to adapt their behavior based on context. Automated systems that can make such changes on their own are called adaptive systems. The concern here is with adaptive systems that are perceived by the pilot to behave non-deterministically even though they are technically deterministic. Based on a framework to describe the types and characteristics of adaptive system components, a risk/benefit analysis was preformed to identify potential issues. Based on this analysis, eight representative adaptive system storyboards were developed as the basis of a heuristic evaluation with pilots to validate the analysis and explore more detailed issues and potential risk mitigations. The value of this work is expected to be in suggesting adaptive system issues, risks, and guidelines that need to be considered in making design decisions and approving new adaptive systems on the flight deck.
Method for Evaluating Data Communication Messages in NextGen Flight Deck Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 80-84
  Jennie J. Gallimore; Kiss Steven Brent; Ricardo D. Munoz; Chang-Geun Oh; Randall Green; Timothy Crory; Clark Shingledecker; Pamela S. Tsang; Dan Herschler
Data communications (DataComm) is one of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) key technologies supporting the transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). As communication on the flight deck changes from voice clearances to clearances sent via datalink, human factors experts have anticipated potential implementation challenges, particularly for the data communications that may not be integrated with the flight management system (FMS) and which requires the flight crew to read the DataComm message, interpret it, and then make the appropriate FMS input. Even fully integrated DataComm and FMS flight deck systems could prove challenging for flight crew use in the Trajectory Based Operations context. For example, textual clearances that provide complex 4D trajectory information may be difficult for pilots to interpret in a timely and efficient manner without error. To address this challenge, flight deck displays with graphics, hybrid text and graphics, and other formats integrated with existing navigation displays may enable pilots to more easily identify, understand, and quickly respond to air traffic clearances and instructions. To support FAA Aircraft Certification Service and Flight Standards Service evaluation of new DataComm flight deck technologies and associated procedures for Trajectory Based Operations and other key NextGen applications, this paper describes a method that allows rapid evaluation of new and modified DataComm displays in the cockpit. Our method uses a variety of complex data communications, including the use of concatenated messages to obtain rapid pilot feedback and performance in a part-task, scenario-based simulation. Average data values from an initial study evaluating pilot interpretability measured as percent errors and response time to text-based clearances are presented.
Variance as a Method for Objectively Assessing Pilot Performance BIBAFull-Text 85-89
  Christopher K. McClernon; James C. Miller; James C. Christensen
The advent of high-precision GPS navigation and digital attitude/heading reference instruments creates opportunities for researchers to obtain objective aircraft attitude data now in actual flight as well as simulation. With this wealth of data, appropriate analyses and interpretation are critical to efficiently and accurately assessing pilot performance. A combined (constant plus variable) error measure applied to attitude is a common approach to determining pilot performance. However, a variable error measure has previously proven effective in various contexts. This paper will report results obtained from twenty novice participants performing a simulated flight training and test task. Attitude data were analyzed using both common root mean square error (combined error) and a variable error measure. Results indicated that the variable error approach was sensitive, precise, and efficient when measuring pilot performance. Characteristics of flight operations are discussed that render this approach particularly useful in an aviation context.

Aerospace Systems: AS7 -- Human Factors Challenges for Future Air Traffic Controllers

Factors Affecting the Learning of a New Air Traffic Control Sector for Experienced Air Traffic Controllers BIBAFull-Text 90-94
  Annie Cho; Jonathan Histon
Developing generic airspace is one means of addressing the need for increased staffing flexibility as part of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) NextGen Air Traffic Control modernization efforts. Assessing the similarity of airspace sectors and identifying groups of sectors is a key step in enabling the generic airspace concept. In order to assess similarities of airspace sectors, factors affecting how quickly a controller makes a transition from one sector to another were identified using semi-structured interviews with experienced air traffic controllers. The most important factors appear to reflect familiarity with types of operations and common traffic patterns, providing a basis for classifying groups of sectors for the generic airspace concept.
Shifts in air traffic controllers' situation awareness during high altitude mixed equipage operations BIBAFull-Text 95-99
  Sarah Gregg; Lynne Martin; Jeffrey Homola; Paul Lee; Joey Mercer; Connie Brasil; Christopher Cabrall; Hwasoo Lee
Studies of future airspace design often predict that automated tools will be available to assist the controller and sometimes complete tasks independently of controller intervention. How this redistribution of functions will change the role of the controller needs to be considered, as does its impact on the controller's awareness of aircraft movement in their sector. In a study of high altitude operations in future airspace where aircraft were equipped with different levels of data communications capabilities, it was found that about half of the participants positively attributed the contribution of the automation as assisting their own level of situation awareness (SA) -- and hence perceived themselves as being in a better position in terms of SA under more automated / equipped conditions. Whereas the other half of the participants, who did not consider the automation to assist their situation awareness, perceived themselves as having higher SA under conditions that were closer to the current day. With increased reliance on automation and higher expected traffic volume in the future, controllers will need to rethink what constitutes as their SA since they will no longer be able to have a complete awareness of their airspace as they do now. Insights into new SA strategies that can factor automation's contribution and integrate it into controllers' awareness could be helpful in future training and tool design.
Prediction of Traffic Complexity and Controller Workload in Mixed Equipage NextGen Environments BIBAFull-Text 100-104
  Paul U. Lee; Thomas Prevot
Controller workload is a key factor in limiting en route air traffic capacity. Past efforts to quantify and predict workload have resulted in identifying objective metrics that correlate well with subjective workload ratings during current air traffic control operations. Although these metrics provide a reasonable statistical fit to existing data, they do not provide a good mechanism for estimating controller workload for future air traffic concepts and environments that make different assumptions about automation, enabling technologies, and controller tasks. One such future environment is characterized by en route airspace with a mixture of aircraft equipped with and without Data Communications (Data Comm). In this environment, aircraft with Data Comm will impact controller workload less than aircraft requiring voice communication, altering the close correlation between aircraft count and controller workload that exists in current air traffic operations. This paper outlines a new trajectory-based complexity (TBX) calculation that was presented to controllers during a human-in-the-loop simulation. The results showed that TBX accurately estimated the workload in a mixed Data Comm equipage environment and the resulting complexity values were understood and readily interpreted by the controllers. The complexity was represented as a "modified aircraft count" that weighted different complexity factors and summed them in such a way that the controllers could effectively treat them as aircraft count. The factors were also relatively easy to tune without an extensive data set. The results showed that the TBX approach is well suited for presenting traffic complexity in future air traffic environments.
Cognitive Workload and Visual Attention Analyses of the Air Traffic Control Tower Flight Data Manager (TFDM) Prototype Demonstration BIBAFull-Text 105-109
  Kiran Lokhande; Hayley J. Davison Reynolds
This paper presents two methods of analyzing air traffic controller activity: cognitive workload measurement through the novel comparison of controller-pilot verbal communications, and visual attention quantification through manual eye gaze analysis. These analyses were performed as part of an evaluation of the Tower Flight Data Manager (TFDM) prototype system. Cognitive workload analyses revealed that, when comparing participant controllers utilizing TFDM to a control group utilizing existing air traffic control (ATC) equipment, participants issued commands sooner than the control, and thus were perceived to have a lower workload. While visual attention data were not available for the control group, analyses of participant gaze data revealed 81.9% of time was spent in a head-down position, and 17.2% of time was spent head-up. Results are related back to system inefficiencies to find potential areas of improvement in design.
The Role of Mental Computations in Current and Future En Route Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 110-114
  Elizabeth D. Murphy; Harold A. Albert; Jennifer M. Chen; Gregory G. Anderson
As air traffic control (ATC) becomes increasingly automated, software designers need to know how air traffic controllers process information as they manage operations in today's system. Extracting knowledge from today's controller workforce and representing that knowledge in the form of mental computations are essential steps toward needs assessment and development of advanced decision-aiding tools and technologies. A recent task analysis documented information derived by controllers from their cognitive integration of displayed information. This work envisions future, more detailed analyses of the controller's mental computations as essential to identifying needs for advanced software tools, including predictive displays.

Aging: A1 -- Healthy and Engaged Aging

Identifying Usability Problems of Blood Glucose Tracking Apps for Older Adult Users BIBAFull-Text 115-119
  Laura A. Whitlock; Anne Collins McLaughlin
Almost two-thirds of adults aged 65 and older in the United States are affected by diabetes or prediabetes (Cowie et al., 2009), and the health consequences of poor glycemic control are severe. Blood glucose tracking applications for mobile devices have the potential to help improve glycemic control but design issues may limit their use by older adults. We examined the usability of three existing blood glucose tracking applications via hierarchical task analysis and heuristic evaluation of their graph displays, and describe the problems we found and their implications for older users. We propose the inclusion of decision aids in the apps to better inform users' health-based behavior.
Younger and Older Adults' Comprehension of Health Risk Probabilities: Understanding the Relationship between Format and Numeracy BIBAFull-Text 120-124
  Cara Bailey Fausset; Wendy A. Rogers
The format in which a probability is presented and a person's numeracy can influence comprehension of health risk probabilities (e.g., Galesic, Gigerenzer, & Straubinger, 2009). Many people, especially older adults, have inadequate numeracy (Kutner, Greenberg, & Baer, 2005), which may interact with comprehension of different formats (e.g., frequency, percent, or words). The relationship between probability format and numeracy on comprehension of health risk probabilities was investigated via questions and delayed tests of recall for 36 younger adults' (M age=20.0, SD=2.2, range=18-27) and 36 older adults' (M age=71.1, SD=2.4, range=66-75). No interaction between numeracy and format was identified; higher numeracy was positively correlated with higher accuracy on comprehension questions across all formats. The results suggest that percent format best supports comprehension and recall of health risk probabilities for younger and older adults in a probability comparison task.
Caregiver Needs from Elder Care Assistive Smart Homes: Nursing Assessment BIBAFull-Text 125-129
  A. Leah Zulas; Aaron S. Crandall; Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe; Diane J. Cook
With the elderly population on the rise, assistive smart technology is positioned to help the assisted living community take on the upcoming age wave. Even with the notable volume of sensor data collected and medical applications of these systems, there are few researchers formally evaluating the needs of caregivers and how that data can help them. This study attempts to inform researchers and engineers building smart technologies to better understand the needs of nurses as caregivers to the elderly. Interviews suggest that nutrition, sleep length and quality, cleanliness of the individual, safety, and elopement by cognitively impaired individuals are of central concern. It is also important for programmers to make graphs with axis that have real world reliability. Sensor 'events' are not relevant to nursing staff, and should not be presented in their raw form. Time increments are more appropriate for this population than number of sensor events. With a little extra care to the needs of caregivers during the design of user-facing tools, assistive smart homes can truly become helpful to keep our aging population independent for longer.
Assessing the Usefulness of Software Tools for Aiding Meaningful Access of Internet Health Information by Older Users BIBAFull-Text 130-134
  Joseph Sharit; Sara J. Czaja; Mario A. Hernandez; Chin Chin Lee; Samantha Lang
Consumers are increasingly using the Internet as a source of health information. Older users in particular, who generally have more health-related issues to contend with, can stand to benefit greatly from the vast resources of health information that the Internet can provide. However, finding, integrating, and making sense of such information in support of health management can be challenging for these users, especially in the face of age-related declines in cognitive abilities that are critical for Internet health information seeking. In this study, data from three focus groups comprised of 23 Internet users 65 years of age or older were collected to investigate the potential usefulness of four software tools that, in principle, offer the capability for aiding such users in their Internet health information search and decision-making activities. The data revealed both positive features and concerns with these tools. Overall, these data provided valuable guidance for an initial phase of design interventions directed at making these tools more usable and effective for supporting Internet health-information seeking for older users, and in the process for other users as well.
Older Adult Engagement in Activities: All Motivations Are Not Created Equal BIBAFull-Text 135-139
  Gina M. Tyree; Anne Collins McLaughlin
Engaging in cognitive and social activities is related to higher cognitive function in older adults (Hertzog, Kramer, Wilson, & Lindenberger, 2008). However, some older adults engage in activities that help maintain cognitive functioning, and some do not. The present research was aimed at discovering the motivations that underlie older adult engagement in activities. Thirty-three older adults aged 60-87 years provided information about the activities in which they participated and their motivations to engage in these activities. Results indicated that people were generally motivated by factors in the Material World (Forbes, 2011), such as motivation for achievement. Moreover, contrary to socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 1993), older adults were least motivated by factors within the Social World, such as motivation for nurturance. Lastly, it appears possible to predict motivation for activities based on the characteristics of the activity using Multilevel Modeling. Further research could formulate a taxonomy of older adult activities and motivations to best encourage challenging activities at older ages.

Aging: A2 -- Working, Driving, Serving, and at Home: Older Adults are Everywhere!

Working Late: strategies to enhance productive and healthy environments for the older workforce BIBAFull-Text 140-143
  Cheryl Haslam; Roger Haslam; Stacy Clemes; Aadil Kazi; Myanna Duncan; Ricardo Twumasi; Lois Kerr
Aims and objectives: Working Late is a 4 year multidisciplinary research project addressing practice and policy issues associated with later life working. The project is funded by the New Dynamics of Ageing (NDA) Programme. Methods: The Working Late research adopts a mixed method research approach of focus groups, interviews, surveys, interventions and the development of a design resource to enhance health and quality of working life across the life span. Results: This paper describes findings from the surveys and physical activity interventions along with the development of the design resource which captures the needs of the older workforce. Discussion: This research unites key policy themes: the need to maintain workforce capacity and flexibility; the need to retain older people in the workforce; and the need to support active healthy ageing. Conclusion: This project brings together the policy domains of employment dynamics, work systems design and health and the outputs will inform policies and practices aiming to remove barriers to later life workforce participation, and promote the health and well-being of older workers.
Examining the Efficacy of Training Interventions in Improving Older Driver Performance BIBAFull-Text 144-148
  John G. Gaspar; Mark B. Neider; Daniel J. Simons; Jason S. McCarley; Arthur F. Kramer
An increasing number of commercial training products claim to improve older driver performance by training underlying cognitive abilities. However, research examining transfer of such training to driving performance is limited. The current study examined whether 16 hours of training on a commercial training package improved older adults' performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Data showed no differential improvements between the training group and a control group on any driving performance measure following training. The commercial training program did not improve the simulated driving performance of older adults.
Age-Related Balance Among Soldiers BIBAFull-Text 149-152
  Gary L., Sr. Boykin; Valerie J. Rice; Petra E. Alfred
Postural degradation can begin as early as age forty men and women, but little information is available regarding postural stability among the 'younger-old' working population. The purpose of this research was to examine younger (≤ 38 yrs, n=14) and older (≥ 39 yrs, n=14) Soldiers' balance using a biomechanical orthogonal balance platform. Twenty-Eight active duty Soldiers between the ages of 28-56 years (mean = 40.62, median = 38.8) participated. Soldiers assumed a tandem stance for 22 seconds, with their dominate foot forward for two trials, first with eyes open, then with eyes closed. T-test results (p < .05) indicate significant Center of Pressure displacement differences in Average Displacement Y axis (ADY- fore and aft) with eyes open (t(26) = -2.46, p=.021) and Average Velocity eyes open (t(26) = -2.30, p=.030), but not for Average Displacement X axis (ADX -- medial-lateral) (t(26) = -1.62, p=.117) eyes open, (t(26) = -.463, p= .647) eyes closed. These findings may provide relevant information to military leaders responsible for physical training and combat initiatives that involve balance efficacy, and to build a case for the need to develop normative balance data based on age.
Older Adults' Preferences for and Acceptance of Robot Assistance for Everyday Living Tasks BIBAFull-Text 153-157
  Cory-Ann Smarr; Akanksha Prakash; Jenay M. Beer; Tracy L. Mitzner; Charles C. Kemp; Wendy A. Rogers
Many older adults value their independence and prefer to age in place. Robots can be designed to assist older people with performing everyday living tasks and maintaining their independence at home. Yet, there is a scarcity of knowledge regarding older adults' attitudes toward robots and their preferences for robot assistance. Twenty-one older adults (M = 80.25 years old, SD = 7.19) completed questionnaires and participated in structured group interviews investigating their openness to and preferences for assistance from a mobile manipulator robot. Although the older adults were generally open to robot assistance for performing home-based tasks, they were selective in their views. Older adults preferred robot assistance over human assistance for many instrumental (e.g., housekeeping, laundry, medication reminders) and enhanced activities of daily living (e.g., new learning, hobbies). However, older adults were less open to robot assistance for some activities of daily living (e.g., shaving, hair care). Results from this study provide insight into older adults' attitudes toward robot assistance with home-based everyday living tasks.
Validation of Inhibition Tasks for a Comprehensive Assessment of Visual Attention Across Age Groups BIBAFull-Text 158-162
  Davis, Jr. Conley; Stephanie Tuttle; Nicholas D. Cassavaugh; Richard W. Backs
The primary goal of this study was to assess the utility of adding the Conners' Continuous Performance Task (CPT) to a comprehensive assessment of visual attention, in order to provide it with a better measure of response inhibition. Two Maximum Likelihood Factor Analyses (MLFA) were performed and compared (one containing the Conners' CPT and one without), in order to assess any differences within the resulting factor solutions. The two factor solutions were almost identical, with the exception of an additional factor of response inhibition existing within the MLFA containing the Conners' CPT. This revealed that the Conners' CPT did add a meaningful factor of response inhibition to the existing attention battery. In addition, age group differences were assessed by one-way ANOVAs of the individual factor scores from the Conners MLFA.

Augmented Cognition: AC1 -- The Future Is Augmented

Measuring workload during a dynamic supervisory control task using cerebral blood flow velocity and the NASA-TLX BIBAFull-Text 163-167
  Kelly Satterfield; Raul Ramirez; Tyler Shaw; Raja Parasuraman
While automated systems have been shown to improve safety and efficiency in operational environments, automation failures can lead to abrupt shifts in workload. Subjective workload scales have been shown to be sensitive to differences in workload, but they are limited in their ability to assess dynamic, moment-to-moment workload variations. Physiological measures may be better suited to assess dynamic workload in complex environments. This study explored the feasibility of a relatively new physiological measure, Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD), as a candidate for adaptive automation studies. Participants performed long duration, supervisory control tasks under varying levels of taskload. In one group, enemy threats increased once late in the simulation, and in another group enemy threats increased at two points; once early and once late within the simulation. All participants completed a comparison condition in which there was no variation in the number of incoming enemy threats. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), as measured by TCD, was measured during task performance. Performance was assessed by the ability of the operator to protect a no-fly zone from enemy incursion. Subjective mental workload was assessed using the NASA-TLX. As performance decreased during periods of high load, CBFV increased, and there was a close parallel between the CBFV and performance measures. The NASA-TLX was sensitive in detecting differences in workload between the two conditions, but the patterns of results of this subjective measure were insensitive to specific task elements. The results are interpreted in terms of a resource theory of task performance and show that the CBFV measure is sensitive to dynamic changes in taskload in complex environments.
Classifying Workload with Eye Movements in a Complex Task BIBAFull-Text 168-172
  Tim Halverson; Justin Estepp; James Christensen; Jason Monnin
Eye movements and pupil size have been used to assess workload in previous research. However, the results presented in the literature vary, and the tasks have been too simple at times or the experimental conditions (e.g. lighting) too tightly controlled to determine if the use of eye data to assess workload is useful in real-world contexts. This research investigates the use of ten eye movement, eyelid, or pupil related metrics as input to support vector machines for classifying workload in a complex task. The results indicate that both pupil size and percentage of eye closure are useful for predicting workload. Further, the combination of the two metrics increases the robustness and accuracy of the workload predictions.
Comparative Effects of First-Person Shooter Video Game Experience and Brain Stimulation on Threat Detection Learning BIBAFull-Text 173-177
  Brian Falcone; Raja Parasuraman
We have previously shown that 2 mA of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right inferior cortex improved sensitivity (d') during learning and 24-hour retention of a complex visual perceptual learning task, independent of changes in response bias (β) (Falcone et al., 2012). Because some participants in that study had video game experience, the current study investigated the effect of three different levels of video game experience on the learning rate for the same perceptual task: non-video game players (NVGPs), gamers with low 1st person shooter gaming expertise (Low-1stVGPs), and gamers with high 1st person shooter gaming expertise (High-1stVGPs). There were graded group differences in d' but not in β by the end of the training: NVGPs had the lowest sensitivity, Low-1stVGPs intermediate, and High-1stVGPs the highest. The High-1stVGPs group had significantly higher perceptual sensitivity than the NVGPs group and, while not statistically significant, there was a clear trend of a higher perceptual sensitivity for the High-1stVGPs group over the Low-1stVGPs. In addition, the rate of learning in the High-1stVGP was comparable to that of the group receiving 2 mA tDCS. While the High-1stVGP group had a slightly lower d' value by the end of training, it was not significantly different from that of the 2 mA tDCS group. The results indicate that 1st person shooter videogame experience and brain stimulation have comparable beneficial effects on complex perceptual learning. Both types of effects have been attributedto enhancement of visual attention. Thus, even greater benefits for augmenting learning might be possible by administering tDCS to individuals with 1st person shooter videogame experience.
The Interpenetration of Mind and Machine BIBAFull-Text 178-182
  Michael W. Boyce; P. A. Hancock
We here provide our assessment of the growing intimacy which is the relationships between humans and technology. With the development of each more innovative and intimate system, the line between human and machine is becoming increasingly blurred. The concept of human qua human and machine qua machine are no longer situated at polar extremes of a human versus automation spectrum. Rather, human and machine represent a converging dyad that is evolving toward a hybrid commonalty. Within this overarching context, we discuss the concept of intimacy using four basic dimensions: i) the internal perspective, ii) the external extension, iii) interpersonal interaction, and finally, iv) the societal reflection. Through the use of three case study personae (a disabled individual, a military operative, and a student), these dimensions are shown to be flexible to the characterization of various classes of users and can thus be used to frame the multilevel and emerging impacts of emergent physical and cognitive intimacy.

Augmented Cognition: AC2 -- Modeling the Complex Dynamics of Teamwork from Team Cognition to Neurophysiology

Modeling the Complex Dynamics of Teamwork from Team Cognition to Neurophysiology BIBAFull-Text 183-187
  Nancy J. Cooke; Polemnia G. Amazeen; Jamie C. Gorman; Stephen J. Guastello; Aaron Likens; Ron Stevens
Teamwork is a complex dynamic process that emerges from team member interaction. The dynamics provide a characterization of the team over time. The stability, flexibility, and resilience of team dynamics over various windows of time can change with experience, training, environmental perturbations, and technological intervention. Once patterns of team dynamics have been established for a particular team, anomalous dynamics can signify impending teamwork problems. Dynamical systems modeling has been applied to many physical and natural systems and has only recently been applied to teamwork. The panel that we have assembled has applied dynamical modeling to this problem from different perspectives and at different scales. Each panelist will overview his or her approach to this problem. We will then discuss pros and cons of each approach and possibilities for using them in a complementary fashion.

Augmented Cognition: AC3 -- AugCog Live: EEG Sessions

Temporal Factors of EEG and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers of Mental Workload BIBAFull-Text 188-192
  B. N. Penaranda; Carryl L. Baldwin
The use of machine learning algorithms to classify Mental Workload (MW) from various neurophysiological measures is a growing trend in Human Factors research. Several teams have demonstrated that artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be employed to differentiate highly-dimensional neurophysiological data from participants performing tasks at different levels of cognitive demand in many experimental paradigms. Yet, in other cases, classifier performance was found not to exceed chance levels. One inescapable aspect of neurophysiological measures is the time course associated with data collection. This study directly examined the effect of time on classifier performance. Relative classifier performance values were compared for ANNs trained with EEG data from participants performing a verbal/spatial n-back task at varying load levels. For the vast majority of participants, classifiers trained with data from one session were ineffective when tested with data from a subsequent session. Similarly, classification performance suffered when training and testing tasks were incongruent. In contrast to the very high aggregate performance when trained and tested with data from the same session and same task (M = .81), cross-classification performance was consistently much worse (M = .49-.53). The relative magnitude of the cross-session and cross-task 'costs' to classification were compared, revealing a greater effect for session than task. The authors argue that the mere passage of time causes tonic changes in MW-related features of EEG that severely confound ANNs.
Empirical Evaluation of the Emotiv EPOC BCI Headset for the Detection of Mental Actions BIBAFull-Text 193-197
  Grant S. Taylor; Christina Schmidt
This study evaluated the detection accuracy of one of the first brain-computer interfaces intended for personal use by normal, healthy users: the Emotiv EPOC. This system allows the user to directly interact with computer software through thoughts alone. The system was evaluated on its ability to accurately detect and classify six sets of paired mental actions over three evaluation phases. Results found the system to perform significantly better than chance for all mental actions, and improve over time with additional training data. The system detected all actions with equivalent accuracy. Additional investigation of individual differences revealed that a user's gender, age, handedness, attentional control, vividness of visual imagery, and mental rotation ability all had no bearing on the detection accuracy of the system. These results indicate the Emotiv EPOC system performs its function as a brain-computer interface with an acceptable level of accuracy, yielding many new possibilities for human-computer interaction.
Efficacy of Measuring Engagement during Computer-Based Training with Low-Cost Electroencephalogram (EEG) Sensor Outputs BIBAFull-Text 198-202
  Benjamin Goldberg; Keith W. Brawner; Heather K. Holden
The potential of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to influence learning may be greatly enhanced by the system's ability to accurately assess a student's cognitive state in real-time. For this to happen, interactions with, and reactions to, training content must be collected and assessed; data is then used to inform instructional adaptation within the system. Validated sensors are available for this purpose and have been shown to correlate with cognitive and affective states linked to learning. However, sensors used to inform student models are often expensive and impractical for wide-range use. In this paper the authors present a study evaluating the efficacy of using Emotiv's Electroencephalogram (EEG) Affectiv Suite outputs to inform an ITS student model. In this experiment, seventy-three participants interacted with the Cultural Meeting Trainer (CMT), a web-based cultural negotiation trainer, while Emotiv's engagement, short-term excitement, and long-term excitement metrics were indexed and logged. Our analysis assesses the quality of Emotiv metrics across one well-defined and two ill-defined scenarios. Results show consistent outputs across tasks and support further examination into the Emotiv's ability to accurately track cognitive state in a learning environment.
Diagnostic Monitoring Of Vigilance Decrement Using EEG Workload Indices BIBAFull-Text 203-207
  Altyngul Kamzanova; Almira Kustubayeva; Gerald Matthews
The resource model of vigilance (Warm, Parasuraman, & Matthews, 2008) suggests that EEG-based indices of workload might be used to monitor the operator's fitness to sustain signal detection. 92 participants performed a 40 minute vigilance task believed to be sensitive to resource availability. Half performed in a cued condition, half without cues. Findings confirmed that cueing reduces workload and enhances vigilance. EEG was recorded throughout performance. Of the various EEG indices analyzed, lower frequency alpha and the Task Load Index (TLI) corresponded most closely to changes in signal detection rates. Other indices, the Engagement Index (EI) and frontal theta, did not show systematic decrement but discriminated cued and uncued conditions towards the end of the task. Implications of the findings for using EEG to drive adaptive automation are discussed.
Charting Neurodynamic Eddies in the Temporal Flows of Teamwork BIBAFull-Text 208-212
  Ronald Stevens
Teams at the 'sweet spot' of organization demonstrate both stability and flexibility having the organization to cooperatively accomplish the task while being able to rapidly respond to evolving demands. The goal of this study was to characterize these reorganizations at the neurophysiologic level. The neurophysiologic measures highlighted were electroencephalography (EEG)-derived levels of engagement or workload that were modeled into collective team variables called Neurophysiologic Synchronies (NS) showing the engagement or workload levels of each team member as well as the team as a whole. An entropy model of the NS data streams revealed a dynamic information structure characterized by fluctuations or eddies in the neurodynamic flow of the team. These eddies were often seen when a team encountered an obstruction to its normal operation. Fewer, or less persistent or lower amplitude eddies were correlated with higher team performance suggesting that the entropy levels of NS data streams may identify when a team is operating inside or out of its sweet spot of organization.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE2 -- Collaborative Automation Across Varying Time Scales of Interaction

Discussion Panel: Collaborative Automation Across Varying Time Scales of Interaction: What's the Same? What's Different? BIBAFull-Text 213-217
  Emilie M. Roth; Missy Cummings; Christopher Miller; Philip Smith; Debra Schreckenghost; Ron Scott
Automated systems, ranging from robots to intelligent planning aids, are increasingly part of the cognitive landscape. A pressing question facing the human factors community is how to design the automation to foster effective collaboration between the human and automated agents. This panel brings together leading researchers actively engaged in design of decision-support systems that involve some element of 'cognitive work' automation. They represent a variety of domains and a variety of approaches to design of collaborative automation. Panel members will discuss unique challenges of their respective domains, including differences in temporal rhythm, and how these have shaped their perspective on 'collaborative aiding'.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 -- Advances in Support System Design

Perception of Meta-Information Representation: A Psychophysical Approach BIBAFull-Text 218-222
  Nicholas Fortenbery; Michael P. Jenkins; Ann M. Bisantz; Jean-François D'Arcy; Michael Farry; Allen Nagy; Emilie Roth; Jonathan Pfautz; Gina Thomas
Previous research has identified many effective methods to visualize different types of meta-information, or information qualifiers; however, these methods are often incorporated without understanding how the graphical codes are perceived and how the encoded information is interpreted by display users. This results in display designers selecting graphical codes to represent meta-information without empirical evidence to determine the appropriateness of these selections. To help address this lack of guidance, this paper presents a systematic study of how people perceive two graphical codes (saturation and opacity) and relate those codes to different types of meta-information. Results were generated using psychophysical scaling methods, and provide visualization designers with a means to more appropriately design meta-information representations.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE7 -- Investigating Assessments and Decisions

Designing Collaborative Automated Planners for Agile Adaptation to Dynamic Change BIBAFull-Text 223-227
  Robert Truxler; Emilie Roth; Ronald Scott; Stephen Smith; Jeffrey Wampler
A common characteristic of domains that require planning for allocation of scarce resources is the need to dynamically revise the plan as new requirements emerge and priorities change. We describe a prototype decision support system for planning and scheduling airlift that we developed for a military transport organization that enables agile plan adaptation as movement requirements, available airlift assets, and priorities change. The collaborative automated scheduler includes visualizations to foster improved situation awareness of available airlift assets versus total demand on those assets; mechanisms to enable users to communicate informal priorities and changes to those priorities; and mechanisms that enable users to explore alternative scheduling options in response to changes in movement requirements, priorities and available assets. A formal user evaluation study that included 12 participants representing three different organizational groups involved in transportation planning provided evidence that the prototype improves the ability to capture and communicate movement priorities, rapidly reallocate airlift assets to accommodate changes, and communicate/collaborate across organizational boundaries in managing airlift demand versus capacity.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 -- Advances in Support System Design

Requirements and Design for Better Cultural Situation Awareness: Delivering the Right Information BIBAFull-Text 228-232
  Emrah Onal; Mica R. Endsley
Over the past decade, irregular warfare has dominated the focus for U.S. military forces, requiring interaction with civilian populations for extended periods of time. Effective understanding of the impact of cultural factors and maintaining higher Cultural Situation Awareness has become imperative for success in the emerging environment. Based on knowledge elicitation sessions with hundreds of Soldiers across a variety of military occupation codes, and hands-on research and design experience, this paper examines the application of situation awareness theory to help build, improve, and maintain higher Cultural Situation Awareness from requirements to design.
A Comparison of Visualization and Command-Based Decision Aiding in a Simulated Aircraft Departure Sequencing Task BIBAFull-Text 233-237
  Kenyon Riddle; Alex Kirlik; Donald Talleur; Ronald Carbonari; Yijing Zhang; Jon Holbrook; Michael Byrne; David Bauer; Bettina Beard
Three versions of a prototype ground controller interface were tested for their effect on aircraft departure sequencing in a simulation of Dallas/Forth-Worth International Airport. Two versions featured automated decision aids and a third served as a baseline with no decision aid. The two decision aids performed fundamentally different functions, with a Temporal Constraint Visualization (TCV) providing a visualization of spatiotemporal constraints on the departure sequence and a Timeline display providing release sequences derived by an optimization algorithm. Results indicate that participants in the TCV condition had more efficient departure sequences than the Baseline and Timeline conditions. No significant differences were found between conditions for timeliness of departures or handling of arrival aircraft. These results indicate that, through the use of appropriate decision aids, task performance in complex dynamic environments can be improved with humans retaining full decision making control. Additional research is warranted to investigate situation awareness and failure mode performance using these decision aid types.
Visualizations and Interaction Methods for Resilient Submarine Decision Support BIBAFull-Text 238-242
  Robert F. Stark; David D. Woods; Michael Farry; Alex Morison; Wayne Thornton; Arthur Wollocko
Submarine commanders must make decisions rapidly to carry out increasingly complex missions. However, the rate of information delivery has outpaced the capacity of the command and control systems that prioritize and filter it. Technology could help commanders filter through data to make decisions, but this decision support must be carefully engineered to support the development of resilient courses of action (COAs). This paper details our experiences applying resilience engineering to submarine decision support. It focuses on designing two features that are essential for a resilient decision support system: (1) user interaction with a decision support system, which blends the user's operational insights with the technical aspects of the decision support system; and (2) visual representations of trade-offs. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned from this work and a set of recommendations for designing decision support systems.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE4 -- Impact of Risk, Safety, & Alerting

Social norms and their impact on safety-related rule violations in process control: Does it make a difference if operators are aware that residents will be injured? BIBAFull-Text 243-247
  Ananda von der Heyde; Palle Presting; Annette Kluge; Björn Badura
As the avoidance of safety-related rule violations is an important concern in high reliability organizations, it is essential to understand the decision-making process that determines rule violating behavior. As a theoretical background, the Integrated Model of Behavior Prediction (IM) is used to design two studies in which the impact of different 'goods at stake' (injured residents versus damaged plant) on safety-related rule violations was investigated. An online prestudy was conducted to select two appropriate scenarios out of three with which the 'goods at stake' were operationalized followed by an experiment to determine the effect of the 'goods at stake' on safety-related rule violations. 'Goods at stake' were operationalized in terms of a) a damaged plant versus b) 20 injured residents as a consequence of a deflagration caused by a safety-related rule violation. Although the prestudy showed that subjects are less likely to violate a safety-related rule in the case of injured residents, this result was not replicated by the main experiment. Safety-related rule violations were equally likely in the case of residents injured and plant damage. Post hoc analyses showed that person-related variables also addressed by the IM were significantly related to the decision of a violation, such as skills and abilities.
Operators' Adaption to Unreliability of Alarm Systems: A Performance and Eye-Tracking Analysis BIBAFull-Text 248-252
  Linda Onnasch; Stefan Ruff; Dietrich Manzey
Operators in complex environments are supported by alarm-systems that indicate when to shift attention to certain tasks. As alarms are not perfectly reliable, operators have to select appropriate strategies of attention allocation in order to compensate for unreliability and maintain overall performance. This study investigates how humans adapt to differing alarm-reliabilities. Within a multi-tasking flight simulation, participants were randomly assigned to four alarm-reliability conditions (68.75%, 75%, 87.5%, 93.75%), and a manual control group. In experimental conditions, one out of three subtasks was supported by an alarm-system. Compared to manual control, all experimental groups benefited from alarms in the supported task, with best results for the highest reliability condition. However, analyses of performance and eye-tracking data revealed that the benefit of the lowest reliability group was associated with an increased attentional effort, a more demanding attention allocation strategy, and a declined relative performance in a non-supported task. Results are discussed in the context of recent research.
On the Relation Between Reliance and Compliance in an Aided Visual Scanning Task BIBAFull-Text 253-257
  Rebecca Wiczorek; Joachim Meyer; Torsten Guenzler
Alarms, alerts, and other binary cues affect user behavior in complex ways. One relevant distinction is the suggestion that there are two different responses to alerts -- compliance (the tendency to perform an action cued by the alert) and reliance (the tendency to refrain from actions as long as no alert is issued). An experiment tested the dependence of the two behaviors on the Positive and Negative Predictive Values of the alerts (PPV and NPV) to determine whether these are indeed two different behaviors. Results suggest that the compliance is relatively stable and unaffected by irrelevant information (the NPV), while reliance is also affected by the PPV. The results are discussed in terms of multiple-process theories of trust in information sources.
Decision-Making and Risk-Taking Behavior in Lunar Landing BIBAFull-Text 258-262
  H. Y. Wen; A. W. Johnson; K. R. Duda; C. M. Oman; A. Natapoff
Model-based simulation and human subject experiments can be used to develop quantitative methods for analyzing the human-automation task allocation of a system early in the design process. An integral part of the human-system model is a representation of human decision-making and risk-taking behavior. These behaviors were investigated in a lunar landing human subject experiment. Subjects were asked to select a landing aim point that was near both a point of interest and hazardous region. It was expected that the placement of the landing aim point would vary with the probability of manual versus automatic flight and whether estimated touchdown dispersions were remembered by the subjects from earlier in the experiment or presented graphically on scatter plots. The experiment found that subjects did systematically modify the placement of landing aim points. Further, presenting landing dispersions graphically allowed subjects to compensate for touchdown deviations in both risk-critical and non-risk critical directions.
The World is not Enough: Trust in Cognitive Agents BIBAFull-Text 263-267
  Ewart J. de Visser; Frank Krueger; Patrick McKnight; Steven Scheid; Melissa Smith; Stephanie Chalk; Raja Parasuraman
Researchers have assumed a dichotomy between human-human trust (HHT) and human-automation trust (HAT). With the advent of cognitive agents, entities that are neither machine nor human, it is important to revisit this theory. Some claim that HHT and HAT are the same concept and propose that people respond socially to more human automation. Others say that HHT and HAT are fundamentally different and propose models that indicate differences in initial perception, automation monitoring performance, and judgments that lead to differences in trust. In this study, we varied humanness on a cognitive spectrum and investigated trust and performance with these different types of cognitive agents. Results showed that increasing the humanness of the automation increased trust calibration and appropriate compliance with an automated aid leading to better overall performance and trust, especially during unreliable conditions. Automated aids that exhibit human characteristics may be more resilient to human disuse in the face of sub-optimal machine performance.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE5 -- Perspectives on Situated Cognition in Cyber Security

Perspectives on the Role of Cognition in Cyber Security BIBAFull-Text 268-271
  Michael McNeese; Nancy J. Cooke; Anita D'Amico; Mica R. Endsley; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Emilie Roth; Eduardo Salas
The cyber security task is an intensely cognitive task that is embedded in a large multi-layered sociotechnical system of analysts, computers, and networks. Effective performance in this world is hampered by enormous size and complexity of the network data, the adaptive nature of intelligent adversaries, the lack of ground truth to assess performance, the high number of false alarms presented by automated alerting systems, by organizational stove pipes thwarting collaboration, and by technology that is thrown at the problem without an adequate understanding of the human needs. Further, the consequences of effective system performance in the cyber security domain are unparalleled because our world is so dependent on its cyber infrastructure. We have assembled a panel of six experts in cognitive engineering to provide perspectives on the cyber security problem and promising solutions.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE6 -- Approaches to Cognitive Bias in Serious Games for Critical Thinking

Approaches to Cognitive Bias in Serious Games for Critical Thinking BIBAFull-Text 272-276
  John M. Flach; Christopher R. Hale; Robert R. Hoffman; Gary Klein; Beth Veinott
This Panel discusses decision and learning theory and application in the design of serious games to train people for bias-free critical thinking, particularly in analytical domains. The theoretical understanding of cognitive bias will determine the shape of the cognitive work that is entrained by the games. Panelists will describe an approach to bias mitigation training that is premised on a notion that reasoning strategies can have heuristic value depending on circumstances.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 -- Advances in Support System Design

Evaluating a Multimodal Interface for Firefighting Rescue Tasks BIBAFull-Text 277-281
  Jan Willem Streefkerk; Wouter Vos; Nanja Smets
Firefighters searching for victims work in hazardous environments with limited visibility, obstacles and uncertain navigation paths. In rescue tasks, extra sensor information from infrared cameras, indoor radar and gas sensors could improve vision, orientation and navigation. A visual and tactile interface concept is proposed that integrates this sensor information and presents it on a head-mounted display and tactile belt. Sixteen trained participants performed a firefighting rescue task with and without the prototype interface, measuring task performance, mental effort, orientation and preference. We found no difference in task performance or orientation, but a significantly higher preference for the prototype compared to baseline. From participants' remarks, it appears the interface overloaded them with information, reducing the potential benefit for orientation and performance. Implications for the design of the prototype are outlined.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE7 -- Investigating Assessments and Decisions

Differences in Macrocognition Strategies With Face to Face and Distributed Teams BIBAFull-Text 282-286
  Emily S. Patterson; Fernando Bernal; Robert Stephens
Deciding is an important macrocognition function for small teams performing overconstrained tasks. It is unclear how macro cognition strategies differ for small teams that work in a traditional face to face configuration as opposed to a physically distributed configuration. In this study, a process tracing analysis was conducted to identify differences in deciding strategies for face to face as compared to distributed three-person teams executing a military logistics planning task. Deciding strategies employed by emergent leaders were found to include conversation dominance, using the identification of a plan for submission as the work stopping rule, and strengthening and weakening commitment to a solution by ruling out options, adding new factors for consideration, and delaying commitment to any solution. Distributed teams used one strategy significantly more often than face to face teams: ruling out options. Implications are discussed.
Black Holes, Keyholes And Brown Worms: Challenges In Sense Making BIBAFull-Text 287-291
  B. L. William Wong; Margaret Varga
We address the problems faced by analysts who have to sift through large amounts of data quickly and accurately in order to make sense of the information contained within the data or the circumstance represented in the data. We discuss the approach we have taken to visual analytics from the perspective of the Data-Frame Theory of Sense-making and its extension to Causal Reasoning, and how the cognitive strategies that are invoked in these processes need to be supported. We identify 20 problems that designers of visual analytics-type systems need to address in order to support sense-making. In particular, we discuss design issues associated with three exemplar problems: (i) Black holes -- the problem of representing missing data; (ii) Keyholes -- the problem of being able to access and view only a small part of a large dataset or only part of a problem; and (iii) Brown worms -- the problem of dealing with and representing misleading or deceptive data.
Sampling error and other statistical problems with query-based situation awareness measures BIBAFull-Text 292-296
  Steven J. Landry; Hyo-sang Yoo
An analysis of query-based measures for situation awareness was conducted, focusing on the effect of sampling from among the population of possible queries and the assumption that all queries are equally likely to be answered correctly across the population of participants. The analysis, which utilized Monte Carlo simulations, demonstrate that sampling from among the possible queries reduces the power of statistical tests, and the assumption of equal likelihood may result in a misleading portrayal of the results.
Use of an Option Generation Paradigm to Investigate Situation Assessment and Response Selection in Law Enforcement BIBAFull-Text 297-301
  Joel Suss; Paul Ward
When individuals make decisions in the natural ecology, generation and selection of a course of action is informed by their assessment of the situation. Previous option generation research -- largely using complex but static tasks -- has examined, separately, the decision strategies employed during the situation assessment and response phases of decision making. This research found that decision makers typically generate a small number of options, and their first option is generally a good one. In dynamic tasks, however, skilled performance involves not only comprehension of the current situation, but the ability to predict impending events. The goal of the current study is to test existing claims about the option generation strategies employed during the situation assessment and response phases of decision making, in the context of a dynamic task.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE8 -- Origins and Destinations: 30 Years of Cognitive Systems Engineering

Origins to Destinations: Looking Forward to the Next 30 Years of Cognitive Systems Engineering BIBAFull-Text 302
  Amy R. Pritchett; Christopher Nemeth; Karen Feigh; Michael Feary; Jonathan D. Pfautz; Shawn Weil
This panel will discuss emerging areas in cognitive engineering from several researchers and practitioners who are defining their own research directions. The panelists will be challenged to discuss what they see as the design challenges that cognitive engineering is uniquely suited to answer. Further, they will be asked what grand challenges cognitive engineering should work toward solving, whether it is in terms of specific design problems or broad capabilities for modeling and understanding complex work domains.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE9 -- Trust in Computers and Robots

Trust in Computers and Robots: The Uses and Boundaries of the Analogy to Interpersonal Trust BIBAFull-Text 303-307
  David Atkinson; Peter Hancock; Robert R. Hoffman; John D. Lee; Ericka Rovira; Charlene Stokes; Alan R. Wagner
Trust is a complex concept having many meanings and hinting at many variables, and is not a single concept, or state, or continuum. Panelists will briefly argue their stances concerning concepts of trust in automation, and whether (or to what extent) our understanding of trust in automation should be addressed by analogy to interpersonal trust. There is considerable divergence of opinion on these matters, and on the question of whether it is possible for robots to engage in trustworthy relations with humans.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE10 -- Cognition in Modeling and Design

Investigating the Relation between Cognitive Load and Creativity in the Conceptual Design Process BIBAFull-Text 308-312
  Ganyun Sun; Shengji Yao
Numerous studies have been done to assist designers in generating creative concepts. However, few studies focus on satisfying designers' cognitive demands. As the first step of addressing this issue, this paper attempts to investigate the relation between cognitive load and creativity in the conceptual design process. A pilot study was conducted with nine participants divided into experienced and novice groups. Cognitive load was evaluated by the intensity of mental effort. Creativity evaluation was based on four measures: novelty, variety, quality, and quantity. The results indicate that mental effort is more related to novelty and quantity, while experience in design has more effect on variety and quality. The relation between mental effort and creativity was investigated from the perspective of cognitive efficiency, which shows that the experienced group has relatively higher scores in cognitive efficiency than the novice group.
Coherence and Correspondence Competence: Implications for Elicitation and Aggregation of Probabilistic Forecasts of World Events BIBAFull-Text 313-317
  Jennifer Tsai; Alex Kirlik
One potentially useful concept that arises in the elicitation and aggregation of probabilistic forecasts is Hammond's (1996) distinction between coherence and correspondence. A study was conducted to test the commonly held assumption that coherence competency, a judge's ability to reason correctly according to the prescriptions demanded by the problem, directly yields correspondence competency, a judge's ability to predict the outcome that actually happens in the external world. The role of a visualization aid in terms of moderating these effects was also examined. Participants who were knowledgeable baseball fans predicted the probability with which their favored team would win the 2011 Major League Baseball World Series, giving a prior probability shortly before the start of the Series, and then sequentially updating their answer as the individual games unfolded over time. Results show that for participants using the visualization, their ability to update probabilities according to the dictates of Bayes' Theorem was correlated with their ability to predict the winner of the 2011 MLB Series -- a desirable property that allows for estimation of judges' outcome performance based on more readily available process information.
Exploring the Relationship Between Topic Area Knowledge and Forecasting Performance BIBAFull-Text 318-322
  Sarah M. Miller; Clifton Forlines; John Regan
The Intelligence Community (IC) is often asked to make predictions about future world events. One aspect of predicting the quality of forecasts and forecasters is the knowledge that the forecaster has about the question to be forecast. This paper explores the relationship between factual knowledge about a forecast event and eventual performance on a forecast question. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between a forecaster answering a series of factual questions correctly and answering the corresponding forecast question correctly. This relationship is enhanced when controlling for the relative difficulty of the factual question. When controlling for forecaster performance, roughly half of the impact was due to general forecaster performance and half was due to their specific knowledge about a given forecast question. Interestingly, we found that forecasters with more factual knowledge were less calibrated with respect to their probability forecast whereas forecasters who were less knowledgeable were better calibrated in their probability estimates. We discuss the implication of the results related to improving forecast quality.
An Integrated Cognitive Architecture for Cognitive Engineering Applications BIBAFull-Text 323-327
  Shi Cao; Yili Liu
The increasing complexity of computational cognitive architectures may increase both their modeling capabilities and their difficulty to learn and use as cognitive engineering tools. This paper reports our work dedicated to enhance the usability and the cognitive engineering applicability of a complex computational cognitive architecture called QN-ACTR, which integrates two complementary architectures Queueing Network and Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational. The aim is to provide an easy-to-use interface and intuitive modeling that support both inexperienced and experienced users in using this complex and powerful architecture. The process of model development is greatly simplified with improved visualization and validation methods. The results were examined using heuristic evaluation. The benefits and practice implications are discussed.
Exploring human error in an RPA target detection task BIBAFull-Text 328-332
  Leah Swanson; Eric Jones; Brian Riordan; Sylvain Bruni; Nathan Schurr; Seamus Sullivan; Jonathan Lansey
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) sensing platforms are becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, the fidelity of collected data is continuing to increase, along with the number of deployable sensors that retrieve these data, such as those found on Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs). There are numerous, critical challenges when designing ISR systems because the technology and the human are tightly integrated, resulting in interdependent performance and behaviors. Predicting operator error can inform more effective means of managing erroneous decisions, but current methods of doing so are impractical because of the effort required to construct operator models. We explored human performance in a target detection task by conducting a human-in-the-loop experiment that examined the performance of operators who simultaneously monitored four simulated RPA video feeds and determined the presence of targets at points of interest (POIs). The results of this experiment confirm that performance varies significantly across certain flight conditions (e.g., combinations of altitude, speed, aspect angle). A statistical model was constructed from the human data to predict operator error in new situations. In future work, the model predictions will be integrated with an automated flight planner that will adjust RPA air tasking orders in real time and intelligently revisit POIs when human error is likely.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE11 -- Investigating the Cognition of Luggage Screening

Effects of Superposition on Oculomotor Guidance and Target Recognition BIBAFull-Text 333-337
  Biyun Zhu; Xianghong Sun
Searching for targets in complex scenes like X-ray baggage screening is demanding. One cause of impaired search performance is the superimposed objects of X-ray images. In this study, we compared searching for threat items in a superimposed display and a sparse display. Using both behavioral and eye movement measures, we explored the effects of superposition on search course. As expected, superposition affected accuracy rates and response times. Results showed searching in the superimposed display caused longer fixation durations, and the effect was pronounced throughout the search trial. We also found longer search initiation time and target verification time in superposition, suggesting that the initial planning of oculomotor guidance and target recognition was influenced.
Affect and Time Pressure in a Simulated Luggage Screening Paradigm: A Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory Analysis BIBAFull-Text 338-342
  Kimberly E. Culley; Poornima Madhavan
Research on the effects of negative emotions on risk assessment profiles in decision making has shown that emotions significantly impact the perception of risk; anger reduces perceived risk, fear heightens perceived risk, and sorrow leads to more logical and objective decision making. Another situational factor that influences operator performance is time pressure, which in general is not an optimal condition for decision making. Participants performed a simulated airline luggage screening task under varying time pressures after being primed with emotion-inducing stimuli (anger, fear, or sorrow respectively). Operator performance was assessed using fuzzy signal detection theory (FSDT) analyses to evaluate the impact of various negative emotions and time pressure on performance in a visual threat detection paradigm. It was anticipated that the added cognitive stressors of negative affect and time pressure would induce more low-confidence target-present responses (i.e., low r; near miss), albeit to differing degrees due to the distinctive effects of different negative emotions. These findings have implications for the training and performance enhancement of luggage screening operators, and, in turn, air transportation security.
Memory and Recognition of a Non-Target During a Threat Detection Visual Search Task BIBAFull-Text 343-347
  Molly Liechty; Poornima Madhavan
Context plays an important role in visual search tasks. The ability of people to form implicit associations about the objects in the world around them not only assists them in focusing their attention but also in simplifying their world. The goal of this study was to investigate whether, and how, people utilize 'distractors' as contextual cues during a visual target search. Twenty undergraduate participants performed a luggage-screening task, where they were asked to locate a specific target (a knife). First, participants were trained using 25 luggage images, each of which contained a target (i.e., knife) and a specific distractor (i.e., iPod). During the post-training session, participants screened 100 bags with target base rate set at 50%. The bags contained either the distractor and the target (25 bags), the target only (25 bags), the distractor only (25 bags), or neither the distractor nor the target (25 bags). Participants' dwell times and fixation counts for specific areas of interest (AOI) were assessed across trial blocks. It was found that recognition of the distractor object increased across trials but the dwell time and number of fixations decreased as the experiment progressed. These results demonstrate that participants were able to recognize the distractor and form an implicit association between its presence and the presence of the target. Results also indicated that the presence of the distractor ultimately biased participant response, creating more 'liberal' responses over time.
An Assessment of Spatial Context on Eye Movement During a Visual Search Task BIBAFull-Text 348-352
  Molly Liechty; Poornima Madhavan
Contextual cueing is the implicit association of objects (or 'cues') in a visual scene due to repeated exposure, either spatially or semantically. These associations can aid people in detecting a specific target. The goal of this study was to investigate whether, and how, people utilize 'distractors' as contextual cues during a visual target search and how spatial location of objects affects that association. Forty undergraduate participants performed a luggage-screening task in which spatial context was manipulated. First, participants were trained using 25 luggage images, each of which contained a target (i.e., knife) and a specific distractor (i.e., iPod). During the post-training session, participants screened 100 bags with a target base rate set at 50%. The bags contained either the distractor and the target (25 bags), the target only (25 bags), the distractor only (25 bags), or neither the distractor nor the target (25 bags). Participants' fixation durations, dwell times, saccade counts, and scan paths were assessed. It was found that when the spatial context of the distractor and target were relatively close, participants appeared to encode the objects together, thereby improving search efficiency. By moving the distractor across the image from the target, eye movement patterns changed. The results suggest a higher activation threshold of the distractor when it was present adjacent to the target as compared to when it was moved farther away.
The Effect of Simulation Style on Performance BIBAFull-Text 353-357
  Rachel R. Phillips; Poornima Madhavan
Despite the fact that luggage screening occurs with the dynamic presentation of images, most luggage screening research is conducted with static images. Although some research has suggested that performance with static and dynamic images is equivalent, this has not been addressed in the context of complex visual search tasks such as luggage screening. Participants completed a luggage screening task under either static or dynamic conditions to test the hypothesis that performance would vary by condition. A series of 2 (block) x 3 (condition) mixed ANOVAs revealed that sensitivity was higher in the scrolling condition than in the 3 second condition and that this effect may have been due to presentation time. Results also revealed that performance workload was lower in the 9 second condition than in the scrolling or 3 second condition. Luggage screening simulation styles may be an important consideration when designing research to test the effectiveness of different performance enhancement devices or the impact of different conditions.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE12 -- New Approaches to Analyzing Work

One Work Analysis, Two Domains: A Display Information Requirements Case Study BIBAFull-Text 358-362
  M. L. Cummings; Jackie Tappan; Christine Mikkelsen
Work domain analyses can be time consuming, requiring extensive interviews, documentation review, and observations, among other techniques. Given the time and resources required, we examine how to generalize a work domain analysis technique, namely the hybrid Cognitive Task Analysis (hCTA) method across two domains in order to generate a common set of display information requirements. The two domains of interest are field workers troubleshooting low voltage distribution networks and telecommunication problems. Results show that there is a high degree of similarity between the two domains due to their service call nature, particularly in tasking and decision-making. While the primary differences were due to communication protocols and equipment requirements, the basic overall mission goals, functions, phases of operation, decision processes, and situation requirements were very similar. A final design for both domains is proposed based on the joint requirements.
What are they doing: testing a structured cognitive work analysis-based approach for identifying different road user strategies BIBAFull-Text 363-367
  Miranda Cornelissen; Paul M. Salmon; Roderick McClure; Neville A. Stanton
Cognitive Work Analysis has been widely applied within Human Factors to develop and evaluate complex sociotechnical systems. To date, however research has focused primarily on the first two phases of the framework -- Work Domain Analysis and Control Task Analysis. Recently, a new approach, the Strategies Analysis Diagram, has been proposed as a structured approach to the third phase -- Strategies Analysis. This paper evaluates the Strategies Analysis Diagram with a complex sociotechnical system, road transport. The results suggest the Strategies Analysis Diagram is capable of describing the range of potential strategies employed when different road users (e.g. drivers, motorcycle riders, cyclists and pedestrians) execute a right hand turn at an intersection. The strategies identified provide what appears to be a comprehensive overview of those employed by different road users. The analysis also identified differences in strategies for a particular function as well as differences in strategies between road user groups.
From work analysis to work design: A review of cognitive work analysis design applications BIBAFull-Text 368-372
  Gemma J. M. Read; Paul M. Salmon; Michael G. Lenné
Cognitive work analysis is a framework for analysis to inform the design of complex cognitive systems. However, the framework has been criticized for failing to directly inform design. This paper describes a review of CWA design applications and analyses the way in which CWA-based designs have been developed. The review reveals that the majority of CWA-based design applications are associated with interface design. Further, when designing for causal, compared to intentional domains, CWA has more commonly been applied directly, with little use of further supplemental design methods or processes. In closing, the implications for augmenting CWA to support system design are discussed.
Developing and evaluating the Organizational Constraints Analysis (OCA) approach to analysing work coordination via resource allocation case studies BIBAFull-Text 373-377
  Tania Xiao; Penelope M. Sanderson
In this paper, we introduce an Organizational Constraints Analysis (OCA) approach to work analysis that focuses on how organizational rules constrain coordination work possibilities. OCA is guided by ideas from Cognitive Work Analysis and by organizational theory. First, using nurse rostering and rail controller rostering case studies, we discuss the development of two analytical tools: the Organizational Constraints model and Work Possibilities template. Second, we conduct an initial test of the generalizability of the analytical tools in a hospital bed management domain. Overall, the findings suggest that the OCA approach has the potential to help researchers and analysts develop a richer understanding of the organizational processes that constrain the coordination of work.
Applying Work Domain Analysis to Scope Micro- or Scaled World Simulator Design: A Petrochemical Domain Case Study BIBAFull-Text 378-382
  Antony Hilliard
Interactive human-in-the-loop simulators are widely recognized as a cost-effective and safe way to train workers in challenging work situations, and to more tractably research human performance. However, developing lower-fidelity microworld or scaled world simulators remains a challenge, as there are no systematic methods to guide simulator design. This article presents how the modeling distinctions used in Work Domain Analysis (WDA) can be applied to support designers in making and explaining decisions on simulator scope. Three examples are demonstrated in a petrochemical case study.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE13 -- Cognitive Engineering for Teams

Team Displays Work, Particularly with Communication Breakdown: Performance and Situation Awareness in a Simulated Forest Fire BIBAFull-Text 383-387
  Avi Parush; Chunyun Ma
A team display provides integrated information required by teams performing command and control tasks in complex situations. This study assessed the impact of such an information display using the C3Fire micro-world simulation of command and control tasks when managing forest fire incidents. The study focused on the impact of the team display when teamwork was interrupted by communication breakdown. The findings show that performance was significantly better with the team display, in terms of a lower mean number of lost houses, particularly when there was a communication breakdown. In addition, the presence of the team display was associated with better situation awareness. In practical terms, the study shows that a team display facilitates performance and situation awareness. In theoretical terms, there may be other cognitive processes and contributing factors to the benefit of the team display in addition to facilitating situation awareness.
Effects of Integrated and Differentiated Team Knowledge Structures on Distributed Team Cognition BIBAFull-Text 388-392
  Vincent F. Mancuso; Michael D. McNeese
This paper describes an experiment to study the effects of varying knowledge structures on distributed team cognition. Using the teamNETS simulation, integrated and differentiated knowledge structures were manipulated by varying the reference materials the participants received during training. While the two knowledge structures had no direct effects on team performance, other results were found for their collaborative processes and team perceptions. Specifically the results showed that teams with differentiated structures worked more independently of each other, simply coordinated their actions and minimal communication, while teams with integrated structures worked more interdependently with a much tighter collaboration and frequent communication.
Improving the Management of Interruption through the Working Awareness Interruption Tool: WAIT BIBAFull-Text 393-397
  Meshael Alqahtani; Jonathan M. Histon
Interruptions in time-critical, dynamic and collaborative environments, such as Air Traffic Control (ATC), can provide valuable, task-relevant information. However, they also negatively impact task performance by distracting the operator from on-going tasks and consuming 'attention resources'. It is hypothesized that operators in these environments could better manage when interruptions occur if there were indications of the availability of a collaborator and the priority of an interruption. The Working Awareness Interruption Tool (WAIT) is being developed to support more efficient and appropriate interruption timing in the context of complex, real-time, distributed, human operator interactions. Prototypes for application in operational ATC displays are presented as well as techniques used to develop the design requirements. Feedback on the initial prototypes was solicited through a Participatory Design (PD) interview process with air traffic controllers. The implications of the findings for the feasibility of an interruption awareness tool in real ATC environments are discussed.
The Effects of Vehicle Number and Function on Performance and Workload in Human-Robot Teaming BIBAFull-Text 398-402
  Shannon Fouse; Michael Champion; Nancy J. Cooke
In the context of a synthetic task environment, human-robot interactions were observed with unmanned underwater vehicles during a mine-mapping scenario. Two-person teams (i.e, dyads) completed four missions, with either heterogeneous or homogeneous vehicle distribution between team members, and either four or eight vehicles per dyad. Based on performance and workload measures, we found performance deficits for dyads with large numbers of vehicles to control and for vehicles of a single vs. multifunctional task distribution.
"Why should I share what I know?" -Antecedents for enhancing knowledge-sharing behavior and its impact on shared mental models in steel production BIBAFull-Text 403-407
  Nina Gross; Annette Kluge
Shared Mental Models, with respect to the cognitive architecture of teams, are believed to be important for team functioning and performance. One influencing factor for building and optimizing shared mental models in teams is knowledge-sharing behavior, which is assumed to be affected by individual factors. These factors include attitude, subjective norms, self-efficacy and intention. Additionally, there are five organizational factors: social ties, organizational communication, team communication, perceived appraisal and organizational support. One hundred and twenty-three shop floor workers took part in our study to investigate the importance of individual and organizational factors for knowledge-sharing behavior and its impact on shared mental models. The results indicate that taken together, the assumed predictors, especially subjective norms, organizational communication and social ties, explained 31% of the variance in knowledge-sharing behavior. In turn, knowledge-sharing behavior had a significant impact on all four types of shared mental models. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of supporting interventions in organizations and of further shared mental model research in production settings.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE14 -- Control of Multiple UAVs

Guided Attention For Autonomous System Supervision BIBAFull-Text 408-412
  Maia B. Cook; Harvey S. Smallman; Frank C. Lacson; Daniel I. Manes
Significant increases in automation and vehicle autonomy are expected to transform today's operators of single unmanned vehicles performing single missions into tomorrow's supervisors of multiple autonomous systems performing multiple missions. What displays and tools will those future supervisors require, given that they will manage automation that is deterministic and brittle in the dynamic and unpredictable battlespaces of the future? To help mitigate the shortfalls of automation for the future supervisor, we focus on how to make the scope of the events handled by automation explicit to the supervisor. Here, we explore the highlighting of different event attributes, including scope, to guide attention during supervision, and we investigate aspects of geospatial integration and tradeoffs in how the highlighting is applied. These concepts are developed and applied in the domain of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) guided by path planning automation-mediated routes. In a study, participants monitored multiple concurrent missions, and triaged events varying in severity and automation scope, to decide when to intervene. Four different methods of guiding attention were contrasted. Events were (1) in a callout separated from a map, (2) integrated into the map, (3) map-integrated and categorized by priority but not task-tailorable, or (4) map-integrated, categorized, and task-tailorable. Monitoring was fastest and most accurate for categorized and tailorable events, validating the utility of the attentional guidance. These two conditions traded off in the support they provided, however. Monitoring was significantly faster for tailorable vs. categorized events; however, a significant time cost for correctly configuring the tailorable guidance reduced its advantage. This study validates a novel approach for conveying automation scope, and elucidates the need to design and validate new concepts for the specific task needs of the future autonomous systems supervisor.
Tailored Performance-based Adaptive Levels of Automation BIBAFull-Text 413-417
  Gloria L. Calhoun; Heath A. Ruff; Sarah Spriggs; Crystal Murray
Adaptive automation may help balance system autonomy with human interaction in supervisory control environments. The present experiment evaluated application of performance-based adaptive automation for an image analysis/decision task in a multiple autonomous vehicle simulation. An asymmetrical algorithm was employed in which the performance threshold differed for the two steps of the adaptive cycle: 1) increasing level of automation (to relieve participant when overloaded) and 2) decreasing level of automation (to re-engage participant when less loaded). Results showed that performance-based adaptation of the autonomy level improved both the speed and accuracy of performance on the image analysis task. Most participants indicated that adaptive automation reduced their cognitive workload and aided situation awareness. Additionally, the results suggest that the asymmetrical algorithm used to implement performance-based adaptation helped keep participants at a lower autonomy level where automation-induced problems are less likely.
A Cognitive Work Analysis to Identify Human-Machine Interface Design Challenges Unique to Uninhabited Aircraft Systems BIBAFull-Text 418-422
  Kelly Neville; Beth Blickensderfer; Julian Archer; Katherine Kaste; Stephen P. Luxion
As part of evaluating whether and under what terms uninhabited aircraft systems (UASs) will fly in controlled airspace, the applicability of existing FAA regulations and guidance to UAS certification must be determined. We performed a cognitive work analysis (CWA) to identify human-machine interface (HMI) requirements for safe UAS control so they could be compared with relevant regulations and guidance. Data included pilots' accounts of past critical events supplemented with observations of UAS operations, mishap report summaries, and subject matter expert critiques. Data were used to identify inadequacies in information, feedback, planning support, resource access, and controls across ten flight events. Recurrent, cross-cutting inadequacies were identified as systemic HMI design risks to safe UAS control. Six HMI design risks are described in this paper. All six relate to constraints imposed by characteristics of UAS operations. Risk mitigation may call for new HMI frameworks, strategies, and concepts.
Supporting Dynamic Re-Planning In Multiple Uav Control: A Comparison of 3 Levels of Automation BIBAFull-Text 423-427
  Julie C. Prinet; Andrew Terhune; Nadine B. Sarter
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control currently requires multiple operators to supervise the mission of a single vehicle. The goal is to improve this ratio and have a single operator supervise up to 10 UAVs. Achieving this goal requires the introduction of automated systems that support multitasking and decision-making. However, there is uncertainty about the appropriate level of automation (LOA). The present study compared re-planning performance at three LOAs (manual, intermediate, full automation) of 30 participants who each supervised 9 UAVs. Full automation resulted in the best re-planning performance and matched intermediate automation in terms of target detection. The manual condition showed significantly poorer performance on these tasks, especially in high workload, but suffered the smallest loss of UAVs. Subjectively, most participants preferred intermediate automation, which they trusted more than full automation. The findings from this research help inform UAV system design and add to the knowledge base in human-automation collaboration.
Adaptable and Adaptive Automation for Supervisory Control of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 428-432
  Brian Kidwell; Gloria L. Calhoun; Heath A. Ruff; Raja Parasuraman
Supervisory control of multiple autonomous vehicles raises many issues concerning the balance of system autonomy with human interaction for optimal operator situation awareness and system performance. An unmanned vehicle simulation designed to manipulate the application of automation was used to evaluate participants' performance on image analysis tasks under two automation control schemes: adaptable (level of automation directly manipulated by participant throughout trials) and adaptive (level of automation adapted as a function of participants' performance on four types of tasks). The results showed that while adaptable automation increased workload, it also improved change detection, as well as operator confidence in task-related decision-making.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE15 -- Exploring Cognitive Readiness in Complex Operational Environments: Advances in Theory and Practice

Exploring Cognitive Readiness in Complex Operational Environments: Advances in Theory and Practice BIBAFull-Text 433-434
  Haydee M. Cuevas; Dylan D. Schmorrow
Cognitive readiness refers to the mental preparation (including knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes) an individual needs to establish and sustain competent performance in complex and unpredictable operational environments (Morrison & Fletcher, 2002). Over the past decade, the scientific research community has endeavored to optimize human performance in complex domains through a better understanding of the cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal aspects of cognitive readiness, at both the individual and team level. The goal of this symposium is to add to this growing body of work by presenting the latest advances in cognitive readiness research in terms of both theory development and practical applications across domains.
Defining and Measuring Military Cognitive Readiness BIBAFull-Text 435-437
  Rebecca A. Grier; J. D. Fletcher; John E. Morrison
Over the past ten years, we have been examining the construct of military cognitive readiness. This investigation began by tentatively defining what is meant by the term. This definition included identifying the component constructs of military cognitive readiness. The next steps are to develop measurement operations that can be used to further the research and definition of the construct as well as its application in measuring military readiness. This paper reviews the work we have done thus far and documents the questions that still need to be addressed.
Promoting Individual and Team Cognitive Readiness in Complex Domains BIBAFull-Text 438-442
  Laura D. Strater; Haydee M. Cuevas; Cheryl Bolstad; Anthony Costello; Sandro Scielzo
In the complex operational environments that prevail in many organizations, successful operations depend more on the ability to adapt to novel, emerging situations, rather than repeating a learned, proscribed task sequence. In these situations, the cognitive readiness of the individuals and teams involved is critical to insuring mission success. Our understanding of the factors underlying cognitive readiness, the interaction among those factors, and their impact on performance outcomes, however, is still developing. The current paper describes several recent research projects aimed at improving our understanding of cognitive readiness. It details the significant findings of these research efforts and suggests directions for future research needed to fully capitalize on the potential for cognitive readiness measures to predict performance.
Cognitive Readiness: The Need for a Multi-Modal Measurement Approach BIBAFull-Text 443-447
  Alexander D. Walker; Zachary N. J. Horn; Camilla C. Knott
Cognitive readiness is the fit of cognitive state to a task or mission. High cognitive readiness enables successful execution of tasks and missions and supports good decision-making under the complex and dynamic conditions common to military operations. In these environments, where the consequences of poor performance can be catastrophic, cognitive readiness assessment could enable leaders to ensure that individuals and teams are ready to maintain safety and attain mission success. The current paper summarizes Aptima Inc.'s work with individual cognitive readiness, including the development of a revised definition and model of individual cognitive readiness, and the proposal of a multi-modal measurement approach for its assessment.
Conceptualizing Cognition at Multiple Levels in Support of Training Team Cognitive Readiness BIBAFull-Text 448-452
  Stephen M. Fiore; Michael A. Rosen; Davin Pavlas; Florian Jentsch
Many operational domains require rapid and adaptive responses from individuals, teams, and larger organizational units to address dynamic and unpredictable environmental demands. These create a number of challenges to effective performance and consequently pose many challenges to training theory. This paper presents a framework for conceptualizing these multi-level processes in the context of training theory for team cognitive readiness. We submit that the development of theory for the individual, team, and team-of-teams level, as well as for across levels, is necessary for team cognitive readiness. From this, we can better target the design and test of training methods in support of team cognitive readiness.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE16 -- Where's the Beef? Is Cognitive Engineering a Player in Military Research & Development Today?

Where's the Beef: How Pervasive Is Cognitive Engineering in Military Research & Development Today? BIBAFull-Text 453-457
  Cynthia O. Dominguez; Patricia McDermott; Lawrence Shattuck; Pamela Savage-Knepshield; Christopher Nemeth; Mark Draper; Kristin Moore
Cognitive Engineering methods were developed to enable human factors practitioners to understand and systematically support the cognitive work of people working 'at the sharp end of the spear.' Military members for whom DoD acquisition organizations develop systems are the quintessential 'sharp end of the spear.' This panel is proposed to share present-day experience from military and industry reflecting how pervasively Cognitive Engineering is contributing to research and development for the highly complex military systems being operated under conditions of stress, time pressure, and uncertainty today. The implications for human factors practitioners will be highlighted, both in terms of practices to continue and areas for improvement.

Communications: C1 -- Team Communication

Influence of Team Communication and Coordination on the Performance of Teams at the iCTF Competition BIBAFull-Text 458-462
  Shree Jariwala; Michael Champion; Prashanth Rajivan; Nancy J. Cooke
Effective team process is critical for the performance of cyber security teams. To examine this, we observed two comparably skilled cyber security teams participating in the International Capture the Flag (iCTF) competition held in December 2011. At the conclusion of the competition, we followed up with a focus group discussion with six members from the two teams. In this paper, we present our findings from the focus group interviews, on the relationship between team level factors and team performance. Findings from the focus group discussion indicate that team level factors such as team communication, coordination, team structure, and leadership play important roles in team performance.
The Impact of Spatialized Communications on Team Navigation BIBAFull-Text 463-467
  Andrew Hampton; Valerie L. Shalin; Eric Robinson; Brian Simpson; Victor Finomore; Jeffery Cowgill; Thomas Moore; Terry Rapoch; Robert Gilkey
A team navigation task allowed the evaluation of spatialized communications to help ground soldiers maintain awareness of each other's locations in complex environments. Subjects had to rendezvous as quickly as possible from unknown starting locations in large, unfamiliar, urban virtual environments. Traditional monaural and 3D audio communication channels were compared. In the 3D audio condition, talkers could make their communications sound like they arose from their own location or from the location of another object in the environment (audio annotation). Some conditions included additional prominent landmarks. Rendezvous times were significantly shorter in the 3D audio condition, but the presence or absence of additional landmarks did not impact performance. The results are compared to previous research on spatialized auditory displays and on team navigation.
Recurrence Quantification Analysis Used to Assess Team Communication in Simulated Air Battle Management BIBAFull-Text 468-472
  Sheldon M. Russell; Gregory J. Funke; Benjamin A. Knott; Adam J. Strang
Nonlinear time-series measures provide an opportunity to examine temporal structure in team communications. In this experiment, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA), a nonlinear measure that quantifies visual patterns in recurrence plots, was applied to verbal communication utterances produced in a 5-person air defense simulation. Communication utterances were analyzed with three coding schemes -- team position, semantic content, and combined. No differences in RQA percent determinism (%DET) driven by experimental manipulations were detected for communications coded by team position, but differences were detected for semantic content and combined. This implies that a higher resolution of coding was necessary to detect manipulated effects via RQA in this experiment. Specific changes in %DET, when paired with findings from a more traditional communication analysis, i.e., cumulative frequency, indicated positive compensatory adaptations in team communication when faced with training and task constraints. Results are discussed with emphasis on changes in %DET as a result of current experimental manipulations and integration with previous research.
Examining Temporal Regularity in Categorical Team Communication Using Sample Entropy BIBAFull-Text 473-477
  Adam J. Strang; Sharon Horwood; Christopher Best; Gregory J. Funke; Benjamin A. Knott; Sheldon M. Russell
Communication is inherent to team coordination and performance. Nonlinear time-series measures, such as Sample Entropy (SEn), provide the opportunity to examine the temporal structure of team communication. The aim for this experiment was to develop a method for applying SEn to a set of categorically coded and sequential team verbal communications recorded during a dyadic Air Battle Management (ABM) simulation. Results showed that deterministic temporal regularity was detected in team communication for three categorical coding schemes applied to the data -- team role, semantic content, and combined. For data coded for semantic content, SEn was able to detect an increase in communication temporal regularity for teams exposed to high workload. Practical and theoretical implications are considered.

Communications: C2 -- Beyond the Spoken Word

Tactile Language Design BIBAFull-Text 478-482
  Dawn L. Riddle; Roger J. Chapman
The Tactile Language Design Methodology takes a systematic approach to the design of tactile communication. The methodology leverages the systems engineering lifecycle, research on human perception and the cognition of touch, and practical considerations for fielding a usable tactile communication system. Application of the methodology to the development of squad level tactile communications is presented to illustrate the use of the methodology.
Prosodic cues that signal non-understandings to power control operators during radio communication BIBAFull-Text 483-487
  Jaime C. Auton; Mark W. Wiggins; Thomas Loveday
The readback/hearback procedure is a radio protocol implemented in many technical environments to minimize communication errors. This protocol requires the receiver of a verbal instruction to repeat or read back the instruction to the sender, allowing the sender to monitor and remedy any inaccuracies if required. Although this protocol ensures that the receiver has accurately heard the instruction, it does not ensure that the receiver has necessarily understood the instruction. Using a sample of Australian power control operators, the present research investigated whether the prosodic cues that listeners attend to when judging levels of uncertainty, are also used by power control operators when judging the degree to which a receiver has understood an instruction during a simulated readback/hearback radio exchange. Intonation, inter-turn delays and fillers were identified as important prosodic cues that allow listeners to detect different levels of understanding of a receiver during a readback response. The practical and theoretical implications of the outcomes are discussed.
Four Key Challenges in Disaster Response BIBAFull-Text 488-492
  Razia V. N. Oden; Laura G. Militello; Karol G. Ross; Christen E. Lopez
This paper summarizes a project to explore challenges associated with information sharing in disaster response and identify innovative solutions. Challenges associate with domestic disaster response such as volunteer organizations are well-documented (Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2011; Militello, Patterson, Bowman, Wears, 2007). To obtain a deeper understanding of these problems, we conducted several site visits to experience the environment in which these decisions are made. We identified four key challenges across these domains that must be addressed in order to improve training and operations: coordination among groups involved in the response, communication among these groups, timely information exchange, and effective information technology support for emergency responders in the field. As a potential solution, we conceptualized an integrated software package that combines the flexible capabilities of mobile applications for personnel with desktop software to be used in static planning to allow individuals to gather and distribute information, as well as query for specific information when needed. The envisioned tool would allow the State Emergency Operations Center to gather data from multiple sources. The software would organize information according to functional needs, providing easy access on demand for use by responders in a range of roles and settings.
Emotion Expression under Stress in Instant Messaging BIBAFull-Text 493-497
  Afarin Pirzadeh; Mark S. Pfaff
In spite of rapid growth of text-based instant messaging (IM) in very diverse settings, emotion expression in IM has received limited empirical scrutiny, especially outside of casual settings. The main focus of this study is how stress and personality traits affect verbal and nonverbal cues used in IM to express emotions during a simulated team decision-making task. This exploratory study analyzed a preexisting set of 168 chat logs from an experiment on team decision making under stress. Results of the analysis revealed significant differences in the frequency of several verbal and nonverbal cues as a result of manipulations of mood (happy and sad) and stress (time pressure). In addition, several correlations were found between cue types and three personality traits: extraversion, openness to experience, and locus of control. Understanding how users express emotions in IM helps researchers and designers to support the user's emotional needs, resulting in the improvement of emotional communication strategies in IM.

Computer Systems: CS2/I -- User Experience Day: User Experience and Agile Development

User Experience and Agile Development BIBAFull-Text 498-500
  Marc L. Resnick; Russ Beebe; Jeff Kelley; Jay Elkerton; Ania Rodriguez; Marc L. Resnick
Agile product development has been defined as a process that involves rapid and frequent design updates using cross-functional teams including marketing, manufacturing, procurement and design. A second stage brings in customers, suppliers and other external stakeholder groups for additional enhancements. Risk analysis and requirements analysis are integrated throughout the process and at each stage. There appear to be many similarities between this and modern approaches to user experience.

Computer Systems: CS3/I -- User Experience Day: Best Paper Competition

Relating Perceived Web Page Complexity to Emotional Valence and Eye Movement Metrics BIBAFull-Text 501-505
  Joseph H. Goldberg
Initial impression of visual complexity has major significance for both consumer and enterprise web page designs. Research is still needed, however, before complexity assessment methods can become part of the usability tool arsenal. In this regard, a study was conducted to compare subjective ratings, eye tracking, JPEG-compressed file size, and emotional valence measures. Professional enterprise users conducted search tasks, then judged the complexity of web pages. Multivariate factor analysis was followed by ordinal logistic regressions on subjective ratings. Subjective ratings of page complexity were driven in part by self-perception of search difficulty, and in part by page density. Fixation durations increased and search area decreased with lower complexity ratings. Aggregated emotional valence, from facial analysis, also increased with higher ratings of page clarity. Overall, both pre-attentive eye tracking and emotional valence measures were related to conscious subjective judgments of complexity. Further research is recommended to be able to ascribe complexity-inducing features to measurable qualities.
Using System-Generated Mnemonics to Improve the Usability and Security of Password Authentication BIBAFull-Text 506-510
  Kevin A. Juang; Sanjay Ranganayakulu; Joel S. Greenstein
Due to fundamental human nature, it is exceedingly difficult for people to generate secure passwords on their own. System-generated random passwords can be secure but are often unusable, which is why most passwords are still created by humans. Research has been done to try to leverage the security of system-generated passwords but improve their usability through the use of mnemonics, or memory aids. We developed a simple system for automatically generating mnemonics and conducted a study to compare it with user-generated mnemonic and no mnemonic conditions. We found that participants remembered their passwords significantly better using the system-generated mnemonic condition compared to the other conditions. We also found that participants gave our system the highest overall usability ratings.
The Effects of Automation Reliability and Experience on Attention in a Computer Environment BIBAFull-Text 511-515
  Ralph H. Cullen; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Computer environments are often complex and require operators to work on multiple tasks at once. Diagnostic automation is purported to help by telling the operator when and where to look, but imperfect reliability and the question of experience with the system provide an open question to research. In this study, we asked 60 participants to interact with a multiple-task computer system representative of the demands of work to test whether experience with the automation would change the way participants allocated their attention between the tasks and efficiency in interacting with the system. We found that highly reliable automation provided not only an overall benefit but an improvement with experience. Less reliable automation provided an overall benefit but no additional gains with experience. The reliability of diagnostic automation in computer applications, then, should be designed with consideration for reliability; only at greater levels will experience with the system provide additional benefits.
Task-Centered Context Manager for Customer Relationship Management Systems BIBAFull-Text 516-520
  Min Wu; Arin Bhowmick
In the customer relationship management (CRM) environment, agents tend to multitask. But the current CRM systems are not task-centered and therefore hinder the agent's multitasking performance. We proposed the task-centered context manager, which better matches the agent's mental model by focusing on the tasks that an agent is working on. The task-centered context manager automatically creates contexts, each for a separate task. It provides a flexible context switching mechanism for agents to easily go back and forth between tasks. And its priority-driven interface helps agents focus on important tasks. A formative usability evaluation indicated that our task-centered context manager was very well received by participating agents as evidenced by the overall System Usability Scale score of 88.5.
The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Pointing Device For a Wearable Computer BIBAFull-Text 521-525
  Andres Calvo; Gregory Burnett; Victor Finomore; Saverio Perugini
U.S. Air Force special tactics operators at times use small wearable computers (SWCs) for mission objectives. The primary pointing device of a SWC is either a touchpad or trackpoint, which is embedded into the chassis of the SWC. In situations where the user cannot directly interact with these pointing devices, the utility of the SWC is decreased. We developed a pointing device called the G3 that can be used for SWCs used by operators. The device utilizes gyroscopic sensors attached to the user's index finger to move the computer cursor according to the angular velocity of his finger. We showed that, as measured by Fitts' law, the overall performance and accuracy of the G3 was better than that of the touchpad and trackpoint. These findings suggest that the G3 can adequately be used with SWCs. Additionally, we investigated the G3's utility as a control device for operating micro remotely piloted aircrafts.

Demonstrations: DEM1 -- Interactive Demonstrations

Fast, Formal, & Beautiful: Effectively Capture, Document, and Communicate User Workflow Information for Designing Complex Healthcare Software Systems BIBAFull-Text 526-530
  Jean M. R. Costa; Xianjun Sam Zheng; Roberto S. Silva Filho; Xiping Song
Successful user interface design for complex healthcare software systems requires a solid analysis and understanding of the users' workflow so that designers can create a solution that delivers the "right information to the right user at the right time' thus better supporting users' tasks and workflow. In spite of the current availability of several successful workflow modeling notations and tools (e.g., UML, Little JIL), none of these have been widely applied by user experience (UX) designers in their day-to-day practice. This observation motivated our study of tools and practices employed by UX designers in their day-to-day work. Our goal is to understand how designers currently capture, document, and communicate users' workflow information, and also to identify opportunities for refinement and adaptation of these approaches to their practice. In order to answer these questions, we conducted a contextual inquire, analyzing the work of designers with respect to three main concerns: process, communication and tools. The result is a set of implications for tool design, and a discussion of a possible method that seeks to make formal workflow modeling more suitable for designers.
Innovative Systems for Human Supervisory Control of Unmanned Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 531-535
  Andrew S. Clare; Jason C. Ryan; Kimberly F. Jackson; M. L. Cummings
The development of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs) with increasing autonomy has enabled a transition from teleoperation to Human Supervisory Control (HSC). In this demonstration, participants can test three innovative operator interfaces for HSC of UVs. The first system allows users to control a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) via a hand-held device, such as an iPhone®, through high-level waypoint commands and fine-grained nudge controls. The second system enables a single operator to collaborate with an automated planner to control multiple heterogeneous UVs from a laptop-sized display for searching for, tracking and engaging moving ground targets. The third system is designed to aid in planning on naval aircraft carrier decks, serving as a decision support tool for a supervisor overseeing and scheduling the activity of people, vehicles and unmanned vehicles working in this complex and uncertain environment.
The Transition from Analog to Digital NOTAMs: A Tool to Support Human Performance BIBAFull-Text 536-540
  Liza Josias; Jacob A. Miller; Kelley J. Krokos; Corinne E. White
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is modernizing the United States Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) System by transitioning from an analog system to a digital system for originating and tracking NOTAMs. This shift will enable the FAA to organize the different elements of aeronautical information into separate data fields. The resulting data will be machine readable, which will support users' ability to sort, filter, and manage the volume of electronic NOTAM information. The new system comprises a suite of digital software products designed by the FAA. As part of the suite, the FAA developed a web-based software application called Digital NOTAM Manager (NOTAM Manager), which airport and FAA Technical Operations personnel use to create digital NOTAMs. This demonstration will present the capabilities of NOTAM Manager and discuss the human factors benefits and challenges of NOTAM Manager to NOTAM originators and end users.
A Closed-Loop Feedback System for a Context-Aware Tunable Architectural Lighting Application BIBAFull-Text 541-545
  Jason Nawyn; Maria Thompson; Nancy Chen; Kent Larson
In this demonstration, we present a closed-loop feedback system for evaluating and improving the human factors performance of a lighting system based on tunable LED technology. We investigate the ways in which closed-loop feedback can enhance the ability for lighting to automatically respond to changes in the user's ongoing activities. A sensing platform uses multimodal wireless sensors and computer vision to detect an individual's presence and uses computational reasoning to make inferences about his or her activities. A "recognition engine' provides access to the inferred activities, which the LED system uses to make contextually relevant lighting changes according to the various operational states within the space. A human factors experiment makes use of a mobile phone based context-aware experience sampling application that responds to changes in the activities, delivering questions to the user to help improve the activity classifier and refine the lighting application. During the demonstration, participants will experience lighting changes automatically applied to a workspace in order to fulfill the visual requirements of the detected activities and to maximize energy savings.

Education: E1 -- Research on HF/E Pedagogy

Online Education: Best Practices to Promote Learning BIBAFull-Text 546-550
  Denise Finch; Karen Jacobs
The purpose of this paper is to discuss best practices and the evidence literature related to online education. High quality educational experiences in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) are of interest to the global ergonomics community in order to promote the development of the profession, enhance the skill set of HFE practitioners, and facilitate the translation of knowledge into practice (Dul et al., 2012). Online education provides a potentially powerful tool to connect HFE practitioners and students at a global level and is an effective educational method that produces equal or superior learning outcomes as compared to more traditional face-to-face learning environments (Allen & Seaman, 2010). In addition, new technology makes online education attractive to both learners and instructors as multiple methods of delivery and design are available to enhance communication (Rovai, Ponton & Baker, 2008) and meet the educational goals and the needs of the learner (Trujillo, 2007; Shearer, 2007). However, the quality of the education experience and careful attention to course design and delivery is necessary to achieve the desired learning outcomes and meet needs of adult learners in the online learning environment.
Evaluation of Integrated and Inclusive Pedagogy for Cognitive Communications BIBAFull-Text 551-555
  Tonya Smith-Jackson; Tamal Bose; Carl Dietrich; George Hsieh; Chunsheng Xin; Daniel DePoy; Ratchaneekorn Thamvichai
Educational systems, especially in STEM disciplines, continue to be challenging in terms of effective design of pedagogies and environments to support teaching and learning. There is a need for more empirical investigations of the effectiveness of specific pedagogies. As part of a cognitive communications curriculum for engineering and computer science students, learning modules were developed through a partnership between Virginia Tech and Norfolk State University. A quasi-experimental design was used, including pre- and post-test measures of cognitive communications self-efficacy and performance on lab assignments. Results were mixed in terms of effectiveness. Criteria for engagement were fully met and self-efficacy increased significantly for one of the self-efficacy items. However, student performance based on lab assignments did not fully meet the criteria. Issues contributing to the lack of effectiveness are discussed as well as extended analyses of the data to further explore student performance.
A Cognitive Load Approach To Learner-Centered Design Of Digital Instructional Media And Supporting Accessibility Tools BIBAFull-Text 556-560
  Ashley Russell; Daniel Hannon
Instructional material provided through digital media and various types of educational technology may be able to support students with a wide range of learning abilities, providing better educational opportunities for a greater number of students. Technology-based instructional design, however, often does not take into consideration variation in student abilities. Research on Universal Design for Learning (UDL) promotes the idea of providing students with a variety of means of representation and expression. Investigations into cognitive load note the impact of the complexity of information content (intrinsic cognitive load) and the type of information presentation (extraneous cognitive load) on student learning. The work provided here is part of a larger effort to understand the influence of a student-centered approach to technology-based, instructional design in the field of high school chemistry. In the present study, results from a study by Carlson, Chandler, and Sweller (2003) of cognitive load were replicated in a digital media learning environment to determine whether the elements of cognitive load theory can be extended into design requirements for technology-based instructional materials. In a two-by-two experimental design, participants were required to learn contents in organic chemistry that was designed with either high or low intrinsic load and high or low extraneous load. Results were congruent with Carlson et al. (2003) and further support the following claims: (1) when compared to low element interactivity, high intrinsic load leads to decreased performance and higher subjective workload, (2) extraneous load reduction can promote performance gains and reduction in workload for tasks with high element interactivity.
Structural Measures of Undergraduate ePortfolios in Three Educational Contexts BIBAFull-Text 561-565
  Julie Birckbichler; Taylor Bolt; Christine O'Hara; Alexa Rinz; Amanda Rollo; Cynthia Marshall; Benjamin Stephens
Undergraduate-constructed eportfolios from three programs were used to promote learning goals and aid assessment. We developed objective structural measures of these eportfolios to quantify their descriptions as a function of their context as well as their connections to learning outcomes. ePortfolio objective measures included number of pages, internal links, external links, crosslinks, and document links at hierarchical levels within the website. Results showed strong and significant hierarchical organization, high variability, and high productivity in two educational contexts (a summer research program and a "capstone course"), compared to a third context (a general education eportfolio). These results indicate promise for objective measures of eportfolios as accurate and comprehensive descriptions that may differentiate program learning and assessment goals.

Education: E2 -- Fitts Education Award Winners: Teaching Human Factors and Ergonomics

Fitts Education Award Winners: Teaching Human Factors and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 566-570
  Beth Blickensderfer; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Peter Hancock; Raja Parasuraman; Wendy A. Rogers; Michael J. Smith
Every day, current Human Factors & Ergonomics (HF/E) professionals work to foster the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for their students to be future HF/E professionals. Experienced HF/E educators possess a wealth of knowledge of what works in regards to teaching their particular topics. Unfortunately, this valuable in-domain teaching knowledge and expertise often does not get disseminated to other HF/E educators. The purpose of the current panel is to provide a forum for professionals, who have been recognized for teaching excellence, to share their ideas and approaches with other educators. The panelists are recent winners of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society's Paul M. Fitts Education Award, an award that recognizes individuals for outstanding contributions to HF/E education. The discussion will focus on three themes: strategies to integrate practical problems into the education process, suggestions for improving instructional effectiveness via mentoring skills, and HF/E teaching challenges.

Education: E3 -- Incorporating Industry Goals Into Academic Programs: A Case Study of a Successful Effort

Incorporating industry goals into academic programs: A case study of a successful effort BIBAFull-Text 571-575
  Michael C. Bartha; S. Camille Peres; Christy Harper; Kritina Holden; Melissa Meingast; Andrew Muddimer; Danielle Smith
The need for trained Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) professionals has increased remarkably over the last few years. The skill sets these professionals need to have vary by industry and changes over time. However, current employers of HF/E new-hires have repeatedly indicated that students are not getting sufficient training and preparation for their positions. This panel will present a case study of how a newly developed program integrated the needs of industry into the academic requirements of the program. Further, the question and discussion part of the panel session will focus on developing a guideline for other programs to utilize to integrate the needs of industry into their academic programs.

Education: E4 -- Expectations for Future HF/E Programs

Student Perceptions of their Educational and Skill Needs in the Workplace BIBAFull-Text 576-580
  William F. Moroney; Esa M. Rantanen
The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society's Education and Training Committee and the Early Career Committee identified the need to evaluate the effectiveness of graduate education in the field of human factors/ergonomics and identify areas requiring improvement. Consequently, a survey to determine the expectations of current students was developed. Fifty-eight students, from a variety of colleges and universities, completed the survey. The findings of this survey were contrasted with finding of an earlier survey, which focused on new professionals (individuals with less than five years experience in the field). Considerable overlap between the groups was noted. Of particular interest was the reliance of both groups on material obtained through the Internet and through social networks. Both groups indicated a need for applied research methods and statistics, application of knowledge learned, and various aspects of design. The ability to write specifications and requirements documents for a wider business audience was also recognized. Both students and new professionals emphasized the need for properly supervised internships, which focus on developing their skills in human factors/ergonomics and provide them with opportunities to work as team members and improve their interdisciplinary communication skills.
Employers' Expectations for Education and Skills of New Human Factors/Ergonomics Professionals BIBAFull-Text 581-585
  Esa M. Rantanen; William F. Moroney
This paper reports the results from a survey administered to individuals in several companies whose responsibilities included either hiring or supervision of new human factors/ergonomics professionals. The survey asked about the knowledge and skills expected from new professionals entering the workplace. It was based on the survey previously administered to new professionals about their experiences in their first human factors jobs. The results both replicate and complement the findings of the previous survey. Many critical skills, such as communication skills, are not specific to the discipline. However, in over half of the Ergonomist Formation Model subdomains the respondents rated new professionals' preparedness as only adequate. The open-ended questions allowed for a review of specific challenges and the responses echoed those of the new professionals' responses last year. Application of the knowledge gained in college to practical design tasks was reported lacking in the new professionals' skill set. Skills to effectively interact in multi-disciplinary and cross-functional teams were found wanting in both surveys. Results from both surveys offer a useful and cross-validated review of the current demands new professionals are facing, and a mandate to educators to develop human factors curricula in response to them.
Multi-media Global Human Factors Distance Education BIBAFull-Text 586-590
  Andris Freivalds; Myung Hwan Yun
In the fall semester of 2009, we had the unique opportunity to develop and teach a human factors course presented to students simultaneously at Penn State University (PSU) in the USA and Seoul National University (SNU) in South Korea. This was partially in response to both department strategic plans for a greater focus on global engineering and to increasing numbers of graduating students working for multinational companies. This paper presents some of the logistical and multicultural issues that arose with the first offering of the course and some insights for those universities and faculty members who may be attempting to prepare similar courses in the future. Pre- and post-course surveys showed that intercultural awareness levels increased over the duration of the course, especially for PSU students. Intercultural anxiety was relatively high for both groups of students at the start of course, but decreased over the duration of the course, for SNU students. In terms of on-line communication channels, e-mail and Skype were preferred over Wiggio. In the future, we will also rely more on Skype. Also, the course at PSU was first tested for graduate students. To increase international collaboration, especially for native-born American students, the course was later opened to undergraduate students. The course is now offered for the third time.
Guidelines for a Successful Student Chapter BIBAFull-Text 591-594
  Adam Emfield
Many professional organizations have local student chapters that allow students to become involved in varying aspects of professional and academic life. While many schools have successful student chapters that field the needs of students successfully, other student chapters have struggled to accommodate their students to the best of their ability. In this paper, I present a series of anecdotal guidelines for the leadership of student chapters to consider in order to get the most out of each and every year. Although the focus of these guidelines are for improving existing student chapters, these guidelines can be used in the creation of new student chapters and in reviving student chapters that have become less active.

Education: E5 -- Computers and HF/E Education: Best Practices

Teaching Human Factors to Graduate and Undergraduate Computer Science Students BIBAFull-Text 595-599
  Robert Pastel; Christopher Brown; Margo Woller-Carter; Shreya Kumar
Human factors (HF) is not a subject traditionally taught in the Computer Science (CS) curriculum. The traditional CS curriculum focuses on the computer (the machine) and the programs for the machine. Because the faculty was not introduced to HF in their education, studying users has no role in their discipline. Undergraduate CS students are more receptive to new ideas and consequently do not define their discipline as rigidly. Nevertheless, they typically chose to study CS because of their interest in the technology and the machines. Another challenge to introducing HF to the CS curriculum is that there is no space in the program for another course. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an existing course in most CS curricula that can be leveraged to expose CS undergraduates to HF concepts. The traditional HCI course focused primarily on the technology and implementation of graphical user interfaces. Only recently has design, specifically user centered design, been taught in CS HCI courses. This paper describes combining undergraduate and graduate HCI courses that expose CS students to HF. Students in the undergraduate HCI course design and implements group projects, consisting of smart phone applications (apps), and the graduate students evaluate and test the apps. The challenges of introducing HF to CS students and principles for overcoming them are explained, along with the interactions between the undergraduate and graduate students.
Expanding the Usability Toolkit: Using PowerPoint™ to Perform Website Analysis and Testing BIBAFull-Text 600-604
  Haneen Saqer; Brian Kidwell; Craig Stoudt; Robert J. Youmans
Many usability software packages exist to serve the needs of user experience practitioners. However, these options are often expensive and possess steep learning curves. The purpose of this paper is to provide novice practitioners a usability toolkit that is easy to use, versatile, and affordable. Using basic presentation software, PowerPoint™, graduate students in a usability and redesign course performed card sorting tasks with several users and used the results to create website prototypes for usability testing. The detailed methods for deploying these usability techniques via PowerPoint™, as well as the benefits of these methods, will be explored.
Studying the Novice's Perception of Visual Vs. Command Line Programming Tools in CS1 BIBAFull-Text 605-609
  Edward Dillon; Monica Anderson-Herzog; Marcus Brown
Determining appropriate practices for novice programming has been an important research topic for some time. Programming tools and their effect on novices has been one research area. When learning to program, novices can be exposed to either visual or command line tools. The variation of feature sets between both tool schemes could influence how a novice perceives programming. Visual tools tend to possess features that are familiar, assistive, and user-friendly for novices. Command line tools, on the other hand, usually provide basic essential features for programming. Prior studies have shown the effects of programming tools on novices while learning to program. However, most of these studies primarily focus on visual tools. This article explores visual and command line programming and their effect on novices. Our findings show that visual tools could provide a lower learning curve for novices, while command line tools could broaden their understanding of programming.
Leveraging the Use of Mobile Applications to Increase Knowledge Retention in a Classroom Lecture BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Drew Harnish; Chen Ling; Randa Shehab
This research sought to determine if the use of mobile applications (e.g., iPhone® apps) had an impact on students' ability to learn new material. A control group was compared against a group of students who used mobile devices during a statistics lecture. Students participated separately in a lecture followed by a period of either pencil and paper only or technology-assisted examples. They then took a quiz over the material. The data collected shows that the app group outperformed the control group on every question and scored 16% higher overall. A post-experimental survey found that participants in the app group felt strongly that mobile applications helped them understand the new concepts more clearly and were more confident in their ability to quickly learn this new material than the control group. Overall, this research demonstrates that technology-assisted learning positively impacts students' learning. It also suggests that technology is changing the way people think and learn.

Environmental Design: ED1 -- Environmental Design for Special Populations

Research and Design of a Cultural Product: Inclusive Design of a Squat Latrine BIBAFull-Text 615-619
  Abir Mullick; Ashok Kumar
This paper presents a research and development project, the research generated user needs and design transformed research information into inclusive squat latrine concepts. The new latrine design is for all users safe and it allows equitable use by everyone. The latrine responds to age-old defecation practice grounded in habit and cultural practice and it offers an ergonomic solution that helps maintaining comfortable squat posture throughout the defecation process. Since latrine use is difficult for most users and many experience difficulties over time, the ergonomic design and better buttock support minimizes strain on the joints and helps everyone prolong latrine use.
Developing a Unique Research Opportunity in Control Room Alarm Sonification BIBAFull-Text 620-623
  Jacob Viraldo; Barrett Caldwell
Alarm flooding occurs because of systemic overreliance on alarms and recurrent manpower shortage in control environments due to the relative unpredictability and scarcity of emergency states. As alarm technology has become cheaper, digitized, and more effective, its pervasiveness has increased. Organizations trying to reduce costs, human error, and manpower have taken to using more automated systems, more alarms and fewer operators. Such approaches are logical using a strict cost basis, but can lead to significant problems in cognitive loading and sensemaking when emergency states are triggered and alarm flooding occurs in any quintessential safety-critical system. The result of these trends has been a tendency towards more frequent alarm flooding. In this context, the primary author has a unique opportunity to develop a dissertation research project to address a once-in-a-generation challenge: addressing system design and implementation criteria for improved alarm designs for emerging technologies, including nuclear power plant control environments. This paper addresses technical and student development issues in developing a novel, unprecedented doctoral dissertation with significant application potential.
Universal Design India Principles; A Contextual Derivative for Practice BIBAFull-Text 624-628
  Rachna Khare; Abir Mullick
This paper presents a methodical collaborative effort of a team of industrial designers, architects, ergonomists and access consultant from prestigious academic institutions and proactive NGOs in India, who made a joint attempt to reformulate 'Five Universal Design India Principles (UDIP)' with strong Indian idiom, to design inclusive products, environments and systems in Indian context. Dedicated to its one-third of the total world's disabled population, second largest elderly population, and contradictions of large poor population living in second fastest growing economy, these five Universal Design India Principles intend to build consensus on contextual definition and principles of practice to address the needs of its diverse population.
Effects of ramp slope on usability when a wheelchair is propelled by attendant BIBAFull-Text 629-633
  Chung Sik Kim; Donghun Lee; Min K. Chung
Many wheelchair users are accompanied by an attendant, but most prior studies did not consider this fact. This study investigated effects of ramp slope on wheelchair velocity and subjective discomfort considering both the wheelchair occupant and the attendant while ascending with the occupant facing forward, descending with the occupant facing forward, and descending with the occupant facing backward. Forty (20 male, 20 female) participants were dividing into four groups: male -- male (attendant -- occupant), male -- female, female -- male, female -- female. To evaluate the usability of the ramp, analysis considered the four levels of user group and five levels of the ramp slope (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12 and 1:14) as independent variables, and mean wheelchair velocity, attendants' physical discomfort, and occupants' psychological anxiety as dependent variables. Considering the opinions of both the attendant and the occupant, 1:12 was recommended as the appropriate ramp slope. Furthermore, when descending a ramp, the occupant should be able to look forward.
Wall Outlet Height Recommendations: Contrasting Ambulatory and Wheelchair Users' Data BIBAFull-Text 634-638
  Wenjiao Wang; Siwen Liu; Steven Valenziano; Sharon Joines
Design choices made for built environments, such as wall outlet height, should address human factors and ergonomic considerations to provide a comfortable and convenient environment for everyone, regardless of their capabilities. Previous research, focusing on ambulatory individuals (only one participant was a wheel chair user), indicated that the majority of participants benefited from raising the wall outlet height. Similarly, this paper addresses the intersection of ergonomics and the built environment by exploring one aspect of the built environment (wall outlet height) on the user extending the sample user population from ambulatory individuals (n=34) in the previous investigation to include wheelchair users (n=25). This study aims to provide guidance on how to improve the interpretation of existing building codes for the built environment regarding wall outlet height. The results showed that for ambulatory individuals, wall outlet heights located between 91 cm -- 101 cm are recommended. For wheelchair users, lower heights (71 cm) may be better design choices. For all participants, a mid-height location (81 cm) is recommended.
Evaluating public awareness of trip hazards on outdoor walkways BIBAFull-Text 639-642
  Andrew Kwasniak; Joseph Cuadrado; Michael Kuzel; Jerome Sinocruz
Trip-fall incidents are often associated with injuries to pedestrians. Sidewalks are susceptible to changes over time, which may result in height deviations between surfaces, creating potential trip hazards. This research assessed whether members of the general public would identify sidewalk elevation changes of various heights as a hazard, how they would rate the walking conditions in the area of the hazard, and whether they would report the condition to authorities. Results indicate that participants were generally unaware of walking surface deficiencies, even though they may regularly encounter surface defects. When specifically asked to rate conditions, participants were most likely to classify elevation changes greater than 0.75 inches as walkway hazards, and only when conditions reached that level did the majority of participants indicate a likelihood of reporting the condition.

Environmental Design: ED2 -- Environmental Design

Evaluation of Desirability Assessment Techniques for Tunable Solid State Lighting Applications BIBAFull-Text 643-647
  Jeremy M. Spaulding
Tunable Solid State Lighting (SSL) systems based on Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology allow us to supply customizable lighting for both colored and white light applications. This means that lighting can now be tailored to meet user preferences and expectations for practically any environment or application. The ability to measure difficult-to-quantify emotional impressions is necessary to better understand how people will likely respond to lighting applications and may be useful in providing practical, easily discussable results to designers, and development teams creating such systems. Borrowing from techniques developed by user experience researchers in the software industry, this study provides an examination of different methodologies used to assess highly subjective responses for residential lighting applications. Overall, the two new word selection methods yielded results that were consistent with the classical methods. The word selection exercises provided a rich data set useful for deeper insight understanding general differences in the overall impression.
The Moderating Effect of the Severity of Baseline Musculoskeletal Discomfort on the Effect of an Alternative Keyboard: A 5-Month Randomized Clinical Trial BIBAFull-Text 648-651
  Nancy A. Baker; Krissy Moehling
Objective: To determine if baseline discomfort severity would moderate differences in 5-month follow-up discomfort in those using a fixed split-angle (FSA) keyboard compared to those using a standard (ST) keyboard. Procedure: Computer operators with keyboard related musculoskeletal discomfort were randomly assigned to use an FSA keyboard or a ST keyboard in their workplace for 5 months. They reported weekly levels of discomfort using the Weekly Discomfort Survey. Result: The interaction between baseline severity and keyboard was significant. This significant interaction suggests that those who had moderate/severe baseline discomfort who used the FSA keyboard improved significantly more than: 1) those who had moderate/severe baseline discomfort who used the ST keyboard; or 2) those who had none/mild baseline discomfort and used either keyboard.
Designing with Users: A case study for design of dental workspace BIBAFull-Text 652-655
  Gourab Kar; Abir Mullick
Dental professionals are prone to musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems due to the extreme static body postures and use of repetitive hand and wrist movements. This project researched dental work practices and environments to learn about seating needs, tools and the environment that will help maintain good working posture and offer maximum body support during times of repetitive motion and hyperextension. The project also designed new tools that allow for dental work in a neutral posture; a new chair that supports the upper body during dental work; and a customizable work environment for the dental professionals.
Performance of Visually Impaired Users during Simulated Boarding and Alighting on Low-Floor Buses BIBAFull-Text 656-660
  Piyush Bareria; Clive D'Souza; James Lenker; Victor Paquet; Edward Steinfeld
Low-floor buses with folding ramp access represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with mobility disabilities. However, the safety and usability aspects of the interior design of low-floor buses on blind and visually impaired users has not been studied in much detail. A laboratory study was completed using a static full-scale simulation of a low-floor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with (n=18)) and without visual impairments (n=17). The protocol simulated bus journeys including boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty across different bus layout designs The results suggest the need for more supportive design features (e.g. guide rails, handholds), legroom, and space for guide dogs too improve accommodation for passengers who are visually impaired. Such design improvements will also support a universal design approach that takes into consideration the needs of a diverse passenger population.
An Exploration into Framing Effects and User Preferences: Implications for the Design of Energy Feedback Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 661-665
  Peter Taylor-Brown; Daniel Hannon
A recent topic in the energy industry is promoting behavioral change in the individual energy consumer. Interfaces provide people with more useful energy feedback. The goal is to prompt the motivation and ability to adopt less wasteful energy consumption behaviors. Skillful HCI design will include attention to informational preferences, and framing effects due to presentation choices. A questionnaire study explored this domain, and the results were used to guide the design of test interfaces. An online survey yielded results from 36 male and 49 female United States residents. Cost ($) was perceived as the most useful metric and kW as the least useful. Further, a test of framings effects showed a higher likelihood to change behavior to save 100 dollars per year than 2 per week (U=1248.5, p=0.001). Respondent preference was expressed for lower levels of automation, which was not attributable to distrust of automation to effectively control energy consumption. A 2x2x2 factorial design was used to compare goal-type (specific vs. open-ended), metric use ($ vs. kWh), and visualization (graphical vs. text-only) in prototype displays. Goal-type and metric use independently affect perceived utility of a feedback interface, and visualization affects perceived comfort sacrifice from changing consumption behaviors.

Forensics Professional: FP1 -- Forensic Issues in Warnings, Products, and Falls

Most Natural and Propane (LP) Gas Service Users Report Not Having Electronic Gas Detectors BIBAFull-Text 666-670
  Soyun Kim; Michael S. Wogalter
Gas leaks in buildings can cause explosions and fire, which can result in serious burns, death and/or property damage. Since people may not smell the odorants added to natural and propane gas for a variety of reasons (e.g., being congested or asleep) electronic gas detectors could assist in detecting gas leaks. This study examined the extent to which electronic gas detectors are being used by persons reporting that they receive gas service. Three hundred seventy six participants were asked whether they have gas service at their residence and if so, what kind. Also they were asked what kinds of electronic gas detectors they had. Results showed that about half of the participants had gas service. While almost everyone reported having smoke detectors in their residence (whether or not they received gas service), less than half of the gas service users reported having a carbon monoxide detector. Very few gas service users (about 9%) reported having electronic gas detectors. Implications for warning about gas leaks and how HFE professional can aid in the production of better warnings in this domain are discussed.
Case Study: Evaluating the Design and Warnings of a Tanning Bed BIBAFull-Text 671-674
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
When human factors professionals are retained to evaluate a product and its labeling after an injury, other relevant information must be considered to determine if additional warnings may have led to a different outcome. This case study evaluates an incident where a woman alleged that a tanning bed had inadequate warnings. When evaluating the case, the product design, user interface, and relevant communication system standards were considered along with the plaintiff's personal knowledge and behavior. The warnings were also evaluated in the context of the tanning establishment and its trained employees. This case illustrates the circumstances when manufacturer's product design and labeling was not a causation factor of an incident.
Using Orange Traffic Cones to Warn of Pedestrian Hazards BIBAFull-Text 675-679
  Kenneth Nemire
A study of the effectiveness of orange traffic cones for warning of a pedestrian hazard was undertaken after an injury resulted from the reported failure of a young girl to perceive the presence of a hazard marked by orange traffic cones. Despite their common usage, there are few studies of the effectiveness of orange traffic cones for warning drivers, and none for pedestrians. Results of the study showed that orange traffic cones surrounding a hazardous area was sufficient for 97% of the young participants to perceive the presence of a hazard, and to indicate that they would avoid the hazard. Implications for future research to determine behavioral compliance are discussed.
Human Factors Related to Programmable Thermostats: Consumers Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Product Use and Hazards BIBAFull-Text 680-684
  William J., Jr. Vigilante; Patrick Reeves
This study sought to identify consumers' knowledge and practice with respect to residential thermostats and the hazard associated with their use and potential misuse. The study was a result of a forensic assignment involving a defective thermostat that allowed a furnace to continue running unchecked after its batteries died causing an extreme temperature elevation within the home resulting in damage to the interior of the home. Home owners in the development of the incident property were surveyed via telephone with regards to their use, understanding, and appreciation of the risks associated with their thermostats. The majority of the respondents had the same brand and model thermostat as the incident home. The results indicate that a majority of the respondents did not understand how their thermostats worked and were not aware that their thermostats were battery powered or that there was a need to change the batteries on a regular basis. Respondents did not appreciate the risk of property damage that could occur if the batteries in the thermostat ran low or died. Most of the respondents indicated giving little or no thought to their thermostats. The consequences of user's reliance on everyday household products to work as they are supposed to are discussed with respect to product safety and design.
Walking Backwards Without Looking: An Observational Study BIBAFull-Text 685-689
  Kenneth Nemire
Litigation stemming from an incident in which a middle-aged woman tripped while stepping backward to take a photograph, and without first looking in her direction of travel, led to an observational study of the frequency with which people taking photographs step back without first looking where they were stepping. Prior research on looking before stepping backward did not exist. Research assistants asked a convenience sample of middle-aged women to take a photograph of the assistants standing in front of a building. The task required the participants to step away from the building. The study found that 87% of the participants looked back at least once before or during a backward step, and that 83% of the steps away from the building were preceded by or accompanied by a look in the direction of travel. Suggestions for future research are provided.

Forensics Professional: FP2 -- Factors Related to Perceiving the Relative Speed of Leading Vehicles in High-Speed Rear-End Crashes

Panel Discussion -- Factors related to perceiving the relative speed of leading vehicles in high-speed rear-end crashes BIBAFull-Text 690-694
  Michael E. Maddox; Greg Fitch; Aaron Kiefer; Rudolf Mortimer; Jeffrey Muttart
Forensic human factors practitioners are often engaged to offer expert opinions in cases involving rear-end collisions. Such collisions represent approximately 25% of all automobile crashes and have done so for many years. The sad fact is that people run into the backs of slow moving or stopped vehicles with a low, but persistent probability. According to the 100-car study, the probability is 1 in 1.84 million miles traveled (Americans drive a total of about 3 trillion miles per year). A number of researchers have examined the circumstantial and perceptual issues related to rear-end crashes in an effort to understand why drivers have such a difficult time perceiving the relative speed of leading vehicles. Results from these studies are often cited in expert reports and testimony. In particular, the 'looming threshold' established in these studies is sometimes used to establish the expectation of braking or steering responses. However, when reconstruction data are used to calculate looming thresholds, the values are usually much higher than those obtained in controlled studies. It is unclear whether these data represent the same phenomenon. The purpose of this panel discussion is to examine the breadth of data related to rear-end crashes and offer insight into the discrepancy between reconstruction and experimental results.

Forensics Professional: FP3 -- Examples of How to Present Human Factors Testimony to the Trier of Fact

Examples of How to Present Human Factors Testimony to the Trier of Fact BIBAFull-Text 695-699
  Gary D. Sloan; Kenneth E. Nemire; Joseph Cohen; Marc. L. Resnick; Claudine Cloutier
The forensic human factors specialist is an advocate, an advocate of our discipline's value in determining the cause of accidents, errors, and system failure. It follows that when we appear before the trier of fact -- be it judge, jury, or attorney -- we want to effectively convey our opinions and their foundation. The purpose of this session is for four practitioners of forensic human factors to share methods of providing testimony that are readily understandable and helpful to the trier of fact. In addition, a practicing attorney will give her take on criteria and concerns in retaining a forensic human factors specialist.

Forensics Professional: FP4 -- Forensic Issues in Transportation and Disabilities

Looming Threshold Limits and Their Use in Forensic Practice BIBAFull-Text 700-704
  Michael E. Maddox; Aaron Kiefer
Rear-end collisions account for about one-third of all traffic crashes on a yearly basis. It has been apparent for some time that the key to perceiving a slower vehicle ahead of us as an imminent hazard, i.e., one requiring immediate action, is a sufficient rate of change of the visual angle of the lead vehicle. This is known as the 'looming threshold', among other things. A number of laboratory researchers have reported values of the looming threshold to be in the range of 0.003 radian/sec. Forensic practitioners routinely use elevated values of the looming threshold, e.g., 0.005-0.008, to account for the complexity of real-world driving tasks. However, only one source has used data from actual vehicle accidents to arrive at a looming threshold -- and that value, 0.0275 rad/sec, is an order of magnitude larger than that derived from laboratory studies. In this study, we examine a much broader range of real-world accident data to obtain an estimate of the reasonable upper end of the looming threshold. The results show a range of 0.0397 to 0.0117 rad/sec, for presumed perception-reaction times (PRTs) of 0.75 and 2.0 seconds, respectively. We discuss the implications for forensic human factors analysis of rear-end crashes.
Driver-Related Delay in Emergency Braking Response to a Laterally Incurring Hazard BIBAFull-Text 705-709
  Kurt W. Ising; Jason A. Droll; Shannon G. Kroeker; Pamela M. D'Addario; Jean-Francois Goulet
Collision analysis often assumes emergency deceleration begins immediately upon completion of the vehicle's mechanical brake lag. The goal of this study is to determine the driver-related delay from initial brake application to various degrees of deceleration in a simulated emergency and to test variables contributing to the modulation of driver braking. Using the data of Mazzae et al (2003), in which drivers respond to a lateral vehicle incursion, we have assessed the contribution of Time-to-Intersection (TTI), road condition, gender and crash outcome on driver emergency brake response. In the first 0.3 second phase after initial brake application, vehicle behavior was similar across all variables as drivers reached only moderate levels of deceleration. In the second phase, drivers often took more than one second to reach emergency decelerations, especially with a longer TTI. Pavement condition, gender and crash outcome were not significant factors. We discuss the consequences of driver braking behavior in the context of driver feedback and accident reconstruction analyses.
How a Video Record of a Driver's Forward View Made a Difference in the Human Factors Analysis of a Traffic Crash BIBAFull-Text 710-714
  Rudolf G. Mortimer
Modern vehicles are equipped with various recording devices that can aid in accident reconstruction and human factors analyses. One example is the fitting of video recorders in buses and trucks. In one such case a bus ran into the underside of an overturned semi trailer that was blocking both lanes of an interstate highway in darkness. While a first review of the case suggested that the bus driver would not have been able to avoid the collision, that opinion was reversed when the video recording became available of the view ahead of the bus in the 6 seconds before the crash.
The Effects of Texting and Driving on Hazard Perception BIBAFull-Text 715-719
  Rondell Burge; Alex Chaparro
Hazard perception has received little attention compared to measures of vehicle control in studies exploring the effects of texting on driving performance, despite being a more direct measure of crash risk. Furthermore, the driver strategies attempting to moderate such distraction are not well understood. The current study attempts to address these two facets of texting while driving. Participants (10 male; 10 female) drove a low fidelity simulator that measures situational awareness, while text messaging in order to assess hazard perception performance. Participants were required to identify and appropriately respond to events that would result in a collision. Two text message conditions (i.e., copying and alphabetizing a 5-letter string) were used to compare low vs. high cognitive load, respectively. Participants missed more hazards in the alphabetize-text compared to the copy-text and driving only conditions. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) analyses revealed the adoption of a more liberal response bias (B') (i.e., participants increased false) when required to copy the text message but not when required to alphabetize. Last, participants were slower to react to hazards in the alphabetize-text condition compared to the copy-text and driving only conditions. These findings suggest that the impact of text messaging on the detection of driving hazards depends in part, on the cognitive load imposed by the text messaging task and the adoption of strategies to compensate for the interference on the driving task.
When a Dog is Just a Dog? A Case Study Evaluating the ADA Service Animal Rules BIBAFull-Text 720-723
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
This case study evaluates the American's with Disabilities Act requirements regarding service animal use. The first author was retained as a defense expert in a case where a woman placed her small dog on a table at a restaurant and when she was asked to sit at an exterior table, she sued the restaurant on the basis of disability discrimination. This paper evaluates the relevant facts of the case and clarifies when an animal qualifies as a service animal, and when a dog is just a dog.

General Sessions: GS3 -- Creating Healthcare Simulation Training Systems: A Designer's Forum

Creating Healthcare Simulation Training Systems: A Designer's Forum BIBAFull-Text 724-727
  Mark W. Scerbo
Healthcare simulation systems have had a transformational effect on the training and education of clinical providers. Although members of the human factors community have begun to study issues surrounding the use of healthcare simulation training systems, there has been less emphasis on the development of the technology itself. The objective of this session is to bring together some of the leading designers and developers of healthcare simulation training systems to discuss some of the challenges associated with creating this technology. Each member of the panel has extensive experience designing and creating physical and virtual simulation systems for a wide range of medical procedures including general surgery, endoscopic and laparoscopic surgical procedures, emergency medicine, and trauma care. Specifically, the session is focused on some of the unique human factors issues that impact the development of effective healthcare simulator systems.

General Sessions: GS4 -- General Sessions Lectures

Effects of Unity of Form and Symmetry on Visual Aesthetics of Website Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 728-732
  Ahamed Altaboli; Yingzi Lin
Unity of form represents the extent to which visual objects on the screen are related in size. High levels of unity of form can be achieved by using objects with similar sizes on the screen and/or by reducing number of objects on the screen. Findings of earlier observational studies suggested that effect of unity of form on perceived visual aesthetics of website design was more evident in case of highly symmetrical webpages. The purpose of this study is to verify these findings. An experiment was conducted to systematically study effects of number of objects and number of different sizes of objects on perceived visual aesthetics of website design at high and low levels of symmetry. Perceived aesthetics was assessed using the classical/expressive dimensions. Results showed that both factors have significant effects on perceived visual aesthetics, only at high levels of symmetry and only on the classical dimension.
Evaluation of 3D Television: Impact on Depth Perception BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  Richard T. Stone; Kristopher P. Watts; Bryce E. Rosenquist
Three dimensional (3D) television (TV) is an emerging technology that has not yet been evaluated for its effects on depth perception. Further, due to its importance in physical performance as well as academic performance it is imperative to do so. This study looks to evaluate the effects of 3D displays on depth perception. In order to do this, two distinct methods were used. The first uses a traditional method of measuring depth perception, the Randot Sterotest. The second method uses two practical depth perception tests. The Randot Sterotest showed significant degradation (P = 0.0071) as did one of the practical tests (P = 0.032). This indicates there is an effect on depth perception; however, due to the conflicting practical tests more research is needed to determine if the effect it has can lead to serious performance issues.
A Framework for Human Total Ownership Cost Based On Universal Human Performance Cost Components BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Tareq Z. Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski
The engagement between various human performance elements is overwhelming because the human element, at the center of each and every process, is unpredictable, highly variable, and often changes in context dependent upon the situation. Economic modelling of human total ownership cost (TOC) establishes the foundation of measuring human or manpower cost drivers as they relate to acquisition and during the lifecycle of any program. Thus, research presented in this paper attempts to build a human performance economical modeling framework based on human TOC library of artifacts that reflect human value-performance, technology trade-offs, and human performance task and mission requirements representation in terms of dollar value.
Increased Serum TNF-Alpha and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 are Associated With Grip Strength Declines and Tissue Degeneration in a Rat Model of Overuse BIBAFull-Text 743-747
  Helen G. L. Gao; Paul W. Fisher; Christine K. Wade; Ann E. Barr; Steven N. Popoff; Mary F. Barbe
We have shown that continued performance of repetitive tasks induces grip strength declines despite resolution of systemic inflammation. We hypothesize this is due to underlying tissue degeneration. Here, we assessed long term performance (18 weeks) of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) task in a rat model of reaching and grasping. We observed reduced grip strength immediately after training, and persistent grip strength declines in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Several inflammatory cytokines increased in serum of 6- and 12-week HRLF rats, e.g. tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). TNF- alpha was also increased in reach limb muscles and tendons at similar time points. A serum analyte of collagen degradation (matrix metalloproteinase-2, MMP2) was increased in serum of 18-week HRLF rats. MMP2 and several other MMPs, as well as two fibrogenic proteins (CTGF and TGFB1), were increased in 18-week HRLF tendons, which also showed histological signs of pathology. Thus, motor declines were associated earlier with tissue inflammation but later with tendon degenerative changes. Assaying for TNF- alpha and MMP2 provided important insights into the stages of inflammation and degradation in this model.
A Situated Approach To Shared Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 748-752
  Dan Chiappe; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Conrad Rorie; Corey Morgan
Team SA theories differ in the information they require operators to have for effective coordination. Endsley and Jones (1997) stress shared SA, while Distributed SA (DSA) argues coordination involves transactive and compatible SA. Although we agree with Endsley on the importance of shared SA, we argue her account of how it is acquired exceeds the working memory capacity of individual team members. We offer an account consistent with a Situated SA perspective that claims individuals off-load information to their environment whenever possible to minimize effortful internal processing. We argue that the situated SA approach, in conjunction with Pickering and Garrod's (2004) Interactive-Alignment Model, can explain how shared SA is acquired, relying on automatic processes enacted when individuals interact in conversations. This approach can be used to study team SA in many complex and distributed systems.
A tailored Top-Down Functional Analysis (TDFA) for AEGIS Ballistic Missile Defense (ABMD) BIBAFull-Text 753-757
  Daniel J. Colombo; Dr. Lisa Chavez; Sean Driscoll
The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. A TDFA is often cited as a major analysis needed when developing a new system. However, designing new components for pre-existing U.S. Navy systems presents a unique challenge. This paper describes the application of a modified TDFA to an existing system with new capabilities and functionality. New technologies introduced in the ABMD Baseline 5.1 include the Standard Missile (SM)-3 Block (Blk) IIA, which will provide superior speed, range, and discrimination capabilities relative to earlier SM-3 missile variants. This will lead to better performance against existing threats as well as entirely new mission capabilities. However, the areas impacted by this technology comprise a small subset of the overall AEGIS Weapon System functionality. As a result, a hybrid methodology for the TDFA was developed collaboratively by industry and government teams to ensure that outputs fit into the systems engineering process and ultimately the display design process. The hybrid TDFA methodology was developed as a means to help identify the information considered necessary to support warfighter decision making during mission planning and the ability to achieve the mission goal of successful ballistic missile threat kills during mission execution. An example is provided that shows how the hybrid methodology has impacted the development of prototype displays to date. It is concluded that this hybrid TDFA approach has demonstrated utility in the development of lower level requirements for these displays and is recommended for use when the system is already well-known and only a portion of the system in design will be considered new or changed functionality.

General Sessions: GS9 -- The Operational Context of Procedures and Checklists in Commercial Aviation

The Operational Context of Procedures and Checklists in Commercial Aviation BIBAFull-Text 758-762
  Robert Mauro; Asaf Degani; Loukia Loukopoulos; Immanuel Barshi
To design effective and efficient procedures and checklists, one must take into account the full operational context within which these procedures are embedded. This context is defined by the requirements of the technology, the limitations and capabilities of the human operators, and the constraints and affordances of the operational environment. The complexity of this context arises from the interactions of the human, machine, and environment. We present a model of that operational context, THE Model, that lays the foundations for analyzing each of these elements and their interactions, and illustrate its application through the analysis of an aviation accident.

Heath Care: HC1 -- What Can Human Factors Contribute to Improve Electronic Health Record Usability and Patient Safety?

What Can Human Factors Contribute to Improve Electronic Health Record Usability and Patient Safety? BIBAFull-Text 763-766
  Robert Schumacher; Robert North; Matthew Quinn; S. Patterson; Laura G. Militello; Rollin J. (Terry) Fairbanks; M. Chris Gibbons
The panel brings together diverse perspectives to bear on one critical question: (1) How can human factors methods improve usability in order to protect patient safety with the use of electronic health records? Panelists represent the viewpoint of the government's role in encouraging collaboration and use of best practices, best practices in electronic health record evaluations for hospitals and special considerations for pediatric populations, the role of workflow in protecting patient safety, applying cognitive task analysis and abstraction hierarchies to inform imaging system design, and the influence of health disparities on the use of consumer health products by patients.

Heath Care: HC2 -- Design & Ergonomics

Context matters: Design guidance for maximizing success of storytelling sessions during a user-centered design task BIBAFull-Text 767-771
  Kim Gausepohl; Woodrow, III Winchester; James D. Arthur; Tonya Smith-Jackson; Brian Kleiner
Empirical comparisons of elicitation methods provide guidance to engineers for the selection of the best method for a given design goal. This work explores how alterations to the context (i.e, setting, prompts) of storytelling sessions impacted the types of user needs collected from 22 emergency room (ER) nurses. Six user need sets, comprised of 477 narratives detailing an experience relating to a healthcare quality aim, were quantitatively compared. The results of the study yielded a set of decision rules and decision trees to aid the selection of an appropriate storytelling protocol that facilitates formative usability design.
Development of A User-Centered Virtual Liver Surgery Planning System BIBAFull-Text 772-776
  Xiaopeng Yang; Wonsup Lee; Younggeun Choi; Heecheon You
The present study is intended to develop a user-centered virtual liver surgery planning system called Dr. Liver which has clinical applicability and effectiveness to support liver surgery. Existing virtual surgery systems needs to be customized to liver surgery and improved for better usability and time efficiency. A use scenario of a virtual liver surgery planning system was established through literature review, benchmarking, and interviews with surgeons. Based on the use scenario, detailed liver surgery planning procedures were defined. The major functions of Dr. Liver include (1) extraction of the liver, vessels, and tumors from abdominal CT images, (2) estimation of the standard liver volume of a patient, (3) volumetry of the extracted liver, vessels, and tumors, (4) segmentation of the liver into 8 segments based on structures of the extracted portal and hepatic veins, and (5) support of surgery planning. Novel algorithms were developed and implemented into Dr. Liver for accuracy and time efficiency. Various user-friendly features such as a procedural interface of virtual liver surgery planning were integrated into Dr. Liver for better usability. Dr. Liver would be applied to safe and rational planning of liver surgery.
Observing the Challenges of Implementing New Health ICT BIBAFull-Text 777-781
  Birgit Planitz; Penelope Sanderson; Clinton Freeman; Tania Xiao; Adi Botea; Cristina Beltran Orihuela
Research into the development and adoption of new health technologies finds that information and communication technology (ICT) developers often fail to understand the clinical workplace, resulting in the implementation of costly systems that stakeholders reject. Here we report observations of the implementation of a well-designed new patient information system at a regional hospital. We used a combination of ethnographical and survey methods to assess stakeholders' uptake of and reactions to the new system. We found that even with a well-designed system, uptake can encounter challenges. We outline a number of important factors that may influence the success, or failure, of new ICT.
Evaluating Alternate Visualization Methods for Microsurgery: 2D and 3D Optical Microscopes and Flat-Panel Displays BIBAFull-Text 782-786
  Michael Sackllah; Denny Yu; Charles Woolley; Steven Kasten; Thomas J. Armstrong
Due to the inherent postural constraints from a microscope, surgeons who perform minimally invasive surgeries may be exposed to prolonged static postures. As 3D displays become more economically viable, their role in the healthcare industry may become more prominent. The purpose of this pilot-study is to assess the effect of stereoscopic displays on postural constraint, perceived effort, and performance during simulated microsurgery tasks. Ten subjects with no surgical experience performed microsurgical skills tests using four visualization methods: 2D flat panel display, 3D flat panel display, monoscopic microscope, and stereoscopic microscope. Body posture was measured via motion tracking equipment and task performance was captured through video analysis. Subjective data was gathered on posture, perceived effort, and equipment usability. Significant differences were found between all displays for each measured joint angle; however, all posture deviations can be classified as neutral. Participants were unable to perceive posture differences between the visualization methods. Task completion times were fastest for the monoscopic microscope; however, the differences were not significant. Total errors were significantly greater for the monoscopic microscope than the flat panel displays. Perceived effort ratings were not significantly different among visualization methods. This study demonstrates that 2D and 3D flat panel visualization methods may provide an alternative to microscopes during surgery; however, hardware improvements are needed before this technology is viable in the healthcare industry.
Comparison of Design Preferences for Mobile Phones and Blood Glucose Meters BIBAFull-Text 787-791
  Dan Nathan-Roberts; Yili Liu
Mobile Phones and Blood Glucose Meters are widely used personal digital input/output devices of great aesthetic and functional importance to their users. Interactive Genetic Algorithms (IGAs) are used to test for aesthetic preference links between these two devices. IGAs mimic natural selection by repeatedly having a human tester select designs they find the most aesthetically pleasing to serve as the parents of the next generation. The web-based IGA was used by 22 participants; varying button spacing, screen size, and radius of phones and glucose meters over 8 trials. Several links were found between the devices, specifically the screen-area to keypad-area ratio, and screen height to screen width ratio. IGAs show promise as a tool for designers to use a similar product to reduce the risk in a new product's design by building on user's current aesthetic experience.
Crash Cart Drug Drawer Layout and Design BIBAFull-Text 792-796
  Aimee M. Pearson; Jeff K. Caird; Andrew Mayer
A two-phase study of crash cart medications in the Emergency Department (ED) is reported. The purpose of the phased study was to determine a standardized layout for emergency medications that would promote safety and efficiency during a code blue event. During Phase I, a comprehensive list of ED medications and crash cart configurations was compiled and compared across three acute care hospitals. Three emergency departments were consulted to catalogue medications and to understand the workflow processes surrounding the crash cart such as medication stocking and inventory control. A number of similarities and differences were found for drug usage and crash cart drug drawer layout across hospitals. Phase II examined how ED nurses accessed and used medications from the crash cart. ED nurses individually designed the primary crash cart drawer by placing pictures of each medication into a 'jigsaw puzzle' while thinking aloud. Alphabetization of medications and grouping by ABC (airway, breathing and circulation) emerged as primary access strategies proposed by ED nurses. Implications for these and other design insights are discussed with respect to crash cart safety and efficiency.

Heath Care: HC3 -- Nursing

The Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation Symptoms among Night Shift Nurses and Nurses' Aides at the University Hospital of the West Indies BIBAFull-Text 797-800
  Fernando M. Green; Alvaro D. Taveira
Shift work is unavoidable in essential services such as health care. Even though working long hours into and through the night is often necessary, humans as diurnal creatures suffer adversely from it. The purpose of this study is to assess sleep related problems among nurses and nurses' aides on the night shift at the University Hospital of the West Indies, located in Kingston, Jamaica. This information could hopefully assist hospital decision makers in better policy development. A cross-sectional study design was utilized focusing on the nursing staff on the night shift. Of a possible 176 participants 102 responded, for a response rate of 58%. The data was gathered using self-administered questionnaires and was analyzed using SPSS. The results of the study were mostly consistent with previous research on the topic. As predicted, a decrease in the number of hours of sleep was associated with increased difficulty staying awake on the job, irritability, tiredness and medical errors.
Revealing Latent Strategy Structures from Expert Critical Care Nurses BIBAFull-Text 801-805
  Ashley N. Ferguson; Sadaf Kazi; Francis T. Durso
It is common knowledge that operators controlling dynamic environments use different types of strategies and choose strategies for different reasons. We have been using a Threat-Strategy Interview (TSI) procedure based on the threat and error management view to elicit strategies. However, there is a need for a method to uncover strategies and sub-strategies from subject matter expert (SME) interviews. This study explored an algorithmic procedure for the generation of strategy organization from participant sorts of strategies, tactics, and actions mentioned by SMEs during structured TSIs. Clusters that emerged from N x N agreement matrices of rater judgments on strategies collected from pediatric intensive care unit nurses allowed for the identification of strategy structures that were similar to those that emerged after lengthy discussion but did so in considerably less time. Through the use of this agreement matrix, we hope to uncover the latent structure of strategies from experienced nurses and, ultimately, to teach those strategies to novice nurses.
Mapping Strategies to Threats in Critical Care Nursing BIBAFull-Text 806-810
  Sadaf Kazi; Ashley N. Ferguson; Francis T. Durso
Nurses in the critical care environment encounter numerous threats while performing critical tasks. These threats may emerge from different sources such as the environment or the patient. Effective mitigation of the threats while managing the condition of the patient entails the use of strategies. The strategies that are used to manage the threats aim at changing the state of particular characteristics of the environment or the patient. This study attempted to classify the threats and strategies used by intensive care unit nurses into different types, and to map commonalities between the threats and strategies. Results indicated that although nurses managed threats with a cocktail of strategies, the most prominent strategy in the cocktail typically belonged to the same category as that of the threat.

Heath Care: HC4 -- Context

Flow Disruptions in Trauma Surgery: Type, Impact, and Affect BIBAFull-Text 811-815
  Renaldo C. Blocker; Sacha Duff; Douglas Wiegmann; Ken Catchpole; Jennifer Blaha; Daniel Shouhed; Eric Ley; Cathy Karl; Richard Karl; Bruce Gewertz
The objective of this study was to identify and understand all components of the trauma care process to mitigate the systemic challenges faced by clinicians attempting to deliver the best trauma care. The study was conducted using a prospective data collection method. An interdisciplinary team of researchers observed 87 cases over a 10-week period and identified 1759 flow disruptions. There were a higher number of flow disruptions per case in the operating room (M=61.3, ±36.72) than in the emergency department (M=9.2, ±1.77) or radiology (M=7.5, ±2.01). Focusing on the OR, the majority of the flow disruptions identified in the OR were due to either coordination issues (28%) or communication breakdowns (24%). Roughly 12% of disruptions resulted in moderate delays or full case cessation. This study demonstrates the value of using flow disruptions as a surrogate for efficiency and quality outcome measures, and as a diagnostic method for understanding higher order problems in the system of trauma care.
The 'Smart Bay' Optimizing Trauma Care of the Future BIBAFull-Text 816-818
  Dean Hooper; Kristin Simoens
Renowned as one of the most variable frontline environments in all of healthcare the Resuscitation bay is a ripe arena to be conceptualized for the future through a human-centered design lens. Resuscitation bays in hospital emergency departments today are poorly suited for work that requires speed, accuracy, and access to both patient and equipment. Necessary supplies are stored beyond the average reach range, and with no specific organization, cords prevent 360 degree access to the patient and critical equipment goes missing. Over the course of 5 weeks researchers conducted more than 150 hours of contextual observation to determine usability barriers looking not only at physical ergonomics but also cognitive and organization ergonomics with a goal to provide solutions to better optimize this environment for work. The result is the 'Smart Bay' of the future, a fully re-imagined and ergonomic (human factors compliant) environment allowing for expedient care in this critical environment.
Interruptions in the Real World: Examining the Role of Internal Versus External Interruptions in a Hospital Pharmacy BIBAFull-Text 819-823
  Nicole E. Werner; Erik Nelson; William D. Miller; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
Interruptions are a common cause of errors in the pharmacy, cited as being responsible for as much as 43% of the error that occurs in medication administration. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of interruptions in a hospital pharmacy setting and to determine the extent to which existing theories of interruptions can account for our findings. As a central feature of this work, we chose to examine a characteristic of interruptions seldom examined in laboratory studies, which is the source of the interruption. The findings from this study begin to suggest that the theories developed to explain the cognitive mechanisms by which people resume from interruptions do apply to the pharmacy setting. Further, the data suggest that preservation of the system state has a protective effect on performance.
Not All Interruptions are Created Equal: Positive Interruptions in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 824-828
  Farzan Sasangohar; Birsen Donmez; Patricia Trbovich; Anthony C. Easty
Interruptions were studied extensively in the past but with a focus on their negative effects. Although many types of interruptions result in a break-in-task, in some cases interruptions communicate important information associated with patient's safety. The majority of previous interruption research use a reductionist approach to minimize or prevent interruptions, and minimal attention has been given to the differentiation between positive and negative interruptions. Through the analysis of relevant healthcare literature, this paper first identifies the inconsistencies in the way interruptions are defined, and then categorizes potential sources of negative and positive interruptions.
Why Aren't We Achieving Better Results? A Literature Review of Healthcare Associated Infection Interventions BIBAFull-Text 829-833
  Vicki R. Lewis; Sarah H. Parker; Robert J. Stephens; Lindsey Clark; Rollin J. Fairbanks
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a considerable threat to patient and provider safety, healthcare quality, and cost of care. Given the extent of the HAI challenge, there is substantial pressure to reduce and mitigate HAIs. Viewing healthcare as a sociotechnical system (STS) allows us to design interventions to consider all of the STS factors; that is, the internal environment (people, technology, organization, and physical factors) and the external environment (outside influences, politics, policies). Although the clinical indicators of HAIs are well-studied, it is unclear what STS factors have been examined. This paper aims to determine what STS factors have been examined or involved with the development of solutions. The research team identified 213 articles and an in-depth review was conducted. Inventions to address HAIs were classified according to the aspects of an STS which were addressed. This paper summarizes findings and discusses the research gaps. Identification of gaps will allow human factors and health systems researchers design interventions that, if addressed, could potentially reduce HAIs.

Heath Care: HC5 -- Developing Methods to Measure Health Care Team Performance in Acute and Chronic Care Settings

Developing methods to measure healthcare team performance in acute and chronic care settings BIBAFull-Text 834-835
  Sarah Henrickson Parker; Michael Rosen
Effective teamwork is one of the most important aspects of providing care in today's healthcare system. Human factors researchers and practitioners alike are regularly asked to evaluate and improve teamwork within many complex and varied care settings. This invited symposium will include experts in teamwork theory and clinical application within different care environments, with the specific goal of discussing methods to better understand teams and their functions for both research and quality improvement. Methods include validated behavioural rating systems, data mining from electronic medical records, interviews, augmented hierarchical task analysis, and video analysis, all of which have been used to better understand team performance in various clinical tasks. In addition, the symposium will focus on work outside of the operating room, and in other areas of acute care, specifically the post-anaesthesia care unit, the trauma bay, the intensive care unit, and outpatient clinic settings.
Assessing intraoperative teamwork skills at the individual level: From research to implementation BIBAFull-Text 836-839
  Steven Yule
This paper focuses on observing and rating teamwork skills of each individual member of the team. With training of teamwork skills becoming a central aspect of many medical, nursing and surgical training curriculums all over the world, developing reliable and validated observation scales to assess non-technical skills at the individual level is essential. This paper focuses on the process of developing workable tools, and guidance for researchers who are in the process of tool development. Particular emphasis will be placed on the development, evaluation and application of the NOTSS (Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons) system -- an observation tool for assessing individual surgeons' intraoperative behaviors.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Specific Interview Methods and Qualitative Data Analysis Strategies in Identifying Team Performance Requirements BIBAFull-Text 840-844
  Tanja Manser; Lucy Mitchell
Interviews are a widely accepted method for determining team performance requirements in complex work environments. Using examples from two studies in acute patient care settings, this paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of specific interview methods and qualitative data analysis strategies in identifying performance requirements and in establishing categories for observational research or skills assessment. Interview study 1 was carried out in cardiac anesthesia deductively applying a conceptual framework of cooperation and coordination in analyzing the data. In study 2 interviews were analyzed applying an inductive data analysis approach to establish a basic list of non-technical skills that are important to scrub practitioner performance. Both studies provide valuable insights with regards to performance requirements of the various team members and specific teamwork behaviors. Implications for the interpretation of results and the design of interview studies in the research area are discussed.
Using Video Review for Assessment and Improvement of Team Performance in a Dynamic Medical Domain BIBAFull-Text 845-849
  Randall S. Burd; Sarah Henrickson Parker
Trauma resuscitation, the initial management and treatment of injured patients in the emergency department, is an example of a dynamic medical domain in which coordinated team activity is essential for achieving optimal patient outcome. Identifying individual and teamwork behaviors associated with optimal performance is essential for developing effective training interventions and assessing the impact of new technologies in this setting. Although observational techniques can be used for this purpose, these techniques have limitations because the work in this domain is executed sequentially, concurrently, or in parallel by different providers. In this paper, we will describe how we have used video analysis to track the work during trauma resuscitation and used it to identify factors associated with team performance.

Heath Care: HC6 -- Clinical Communications -- Human Factors for the Hidden Network In Medicine

Clinical Communications -- Human Factors for the Hidden Network In Medicine BIBAFull-Text 850-854
  Wayne Zachary; Russell C. Maulitz; Michael A. Rosen; Janis Cannon-Bowers; Eduardo Salas
Medicine is practiced not only through encounters and other interactions between patients and providers, but also through documentation of event-centered information via the patient record, and through patient-centered communications between clinicians and between clinicians and patients (and their families). Human factors has been heavily involved in the first two, contributing to design and evaluation of medical devices, identification and remediation of safety issues, and analysis and modifications to electronic health records and their interface. These same two areas have also received widespread research support and capital investment, while the third -- clinical communications -- has remained in the background for research, investment and human factors involvement. Yet clinical communication is vitally important. Health care providers communicate with patients directly in encounters, and when the communications fail, patients know it, are unhappy, and disparities in treatment, some systematic, arise (Brach & Fraserirector, 2004). In all but the simplest cases, providers also communicate with each other about the care of patients. These patient-centered communications (PCCs) occur through the hidden network of relationships linking providers with each other and with patients. These PCCs are largely ephemeral, occurring in encounter rooms and via phone calls, pagers, hallway chat, and increasingly, tasking within EHRs. Research has begun to indicate that this mesh of PCCs can have substantial effects on outcomes (Kahn and Angus, 2011). When these PCCs fail, negative outcomes occur, but we know little of what 'good' PCCs look like, or how to encourage or train them. Virtually no PCC data is captured in EHRs or elsewhere. All this points to a fertile but undiscovered country for human factors. This panel brings together four leading researchers with different perspectives on this domain: how clinical communication has evolved with the practice of medicine and communication technology; what we know about and can learn from failures of clinical communications; how leading edge training technology can help clinicians acquire adaptive communication expertise; and how broader issues of teamwork and organization affect and are affected by communication needs.

Heath Care: HC7 -- Using Human Factors and Systems Engineering to Improve Care Coordination

Using Human Factors And Systems Engineering To Improve Care Coordination BIBAFull-Text 855-859
  Ann M. Bisantz; Pascale Carayon; Anne Miller; Adjhaporn Khunlertkit; Alicia Arbaje; Yan Xiao
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) describes care coordination as one of the six dimensions of health care to overcome barriers and accomplish improvements in the quality of care (IOM, 2001). Care coordination has received more research attention because of its potential to improve the quality and safety of care. Despite numerous efforts to improve care coordination, there is limited evidence regarding their effectiveness and the benefits described vary widely among studies. Moreover, we know little about the specific characteristics of care coordination. In this panel, the speakers will share their experiences regarding (1) barriers to and strategies for effective care coordination, (2) different care coordination mechanisms that affect quality and safety of care, and (3) the use of a human factors engineering approach to understand and improve care coordination. The panel members will use their research experiences and the existing literature to provide a better understanding of different aspects of care coordination and to identify future research directions.

Heath Care: HC8 -- A Wealth of Information Creates a Poverty of Attention? Understanding Information Requirements for Communication at Handovers

A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention?: Understanding information requirements at handovers BIBAFull-Text 860-862
  Robert L. Wears; Sarah Henrickson Parker; Michael Cohen; John Carroll; Shawna Perry; Tanja Manser
Given the growing interest in understanding and improving handovers, a deeper understanding of exactly how to create the most effective handover is necessary. This unique symposium will emphasize the distinction between salience and comprehensiveness in handover communications across multiple acute care settings. The discussion panel brings together individuals with experience spanning human factors and system safety research, complex systems, information utilization, public policy, organizational and health communication, and clinical practice to provide a set of diverse but complementary viewpoints on what it will take to successfully, safely, and meaningfully design and implement communication structures for salient information exchange.

Heath Care: HC9 -- Handoff Communication: Implications for Design

Handoff Communication: Implications For Design BIBAFull-Text 863-866
  Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Ellen J. Bass; Michael F. Rayo; Shawna J. Perry; Michael Rosen; Ayse P. Gurses
Handoff communication is one of the most typical clinical communication mechanisms in a healthcare setting to transfer information and responsibilities of the care provider. Handoff communication is varied across settings, provider type, and even within a clinical unit. Information technology has the capability to support handoff communication, with better understanding of handoff communication needs and variations. This panel examines (1) how handoff communication happens in the healthcare setting through mini-cases (2) insights on information technology design for handoff communication.

Heath Care: HC10 -- Safety & Fatigue

Using Incident Reports to Identify Vulnerabilities: A Case Study in Radiation Therapy BIBAFull-Text 867-871
  Christen Lopez; Laura G. Militello; William S. Brown; John Wreathall; Julie Marble; Susan E. Cooper
As mandatory reporting of health care incidents becomes more prevalent, the need for effective strategies for analyzing historical reports to identify vulnerabilities is increasingly important. For this project, the research team reviewed existing event narratives collected by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that described errors with the use of nuclear byproducts in four medical treatment modalities: gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery, high dose rate brachytherapy, low dose rate brachytherapy, and interstitial brachytherapy. This analysis had three levels: identification of possible system vulnerabilities based on historical data, analysis of event data for trends over time and for each treatment modality, and comparison of the suggested corrective actions with the implemented corrective actions for each event. The research team identified types of errors that were more prevalent with each treatment modality, along with discrepancies between suggested corrective actions and the implemented corrective actions. This project is a case study illustrating strategies for extracting valuable information from incident-reporting databases.
Understanding Use Errors for Medical Devices: Analysis of the MAUDE Database BIBAFull-Text 872-876
  Laura H. Barg-Walkow; Daniel R. Walsh; Wendy A. Rogers
Use error is a type of error in a system wherein a user's actions -- or lack of actions -- result in a different outcome than intended, possibly resulting in an adverse event. Use error in medicine is especially important, as adverse events can result in life-critical situations. Studies investigating use error have been conducted using databases of medical adverse events (e.g., the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of adverse events related to device usage). However, these studies are limited by being specific to a context of use (e.g., drug delivery pumps in anesthesia). Therefore, this study investigated use error for medical devices across all contexts of use through a systematic search of the MAUDE database. We found that use error 1) is reported across many sub-fields and contexts of medicine; 2) is associated with many steps in the device usage process; 3) occurs during device operation by both lay users and health professionals; 4) has varying underlying causes; 5) cooccurs in adverse events; and 6) results in a wide array of outcomes, including death. This analysis provides valuable insights into characteristics and context of use errors that can guide design to minimize such errors.
A Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis on the Safety of Secondary Infusions BIBAFull-Text 877-881
  Rossini Ying Kwan Yue; Patricia Trbovich; Tony Easty
Secondary infusions are a common and convenient method to administer intermittent infusion unattended through a single IV access using infusion pump technology. Previous studies have indicated that clinicians have a high frequency of committing operation errors while administering secondary infusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of secondary infusion practice by identifying and analyzing potential failure modes when delivering secondary infusions on five different smart infusion pumps. Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (HFMEA) was used to investigate the potential outcomes of each identified failure mode, while prioritizing failure modes that are considered high risk for each pump. General categories of failure modes are described and mitigation strategies for some of the failure modes are discussed.
Strategies for Coping with Fatigue: A Pilot Study of Medical and Surgical Residents BIBAFull-Text 882-886
  Linsey M. Steege; Suzanne A. Boren; Douglas S. Wakefield; Stephanie Reid-Arndt; Stephen L. Barnes
Concern about the potential of medical and surgical residents making errors when fatigued has led to a reduction in resident duty hours. However, this reduction in duty hours, coupled with a lack of, or inadequate training in dealing with fatigue, may result in decreased opportunities for residents to learn how to provide safe care when fatigued. We conducted structured interviews with 18 senior residents completing their residency programs to investigate existing fatigue training programs and their experiences in coping with fatigue as physicians. Most reported receiving some lectures on fatigue, and use of one or more strategies to cope with fatigue while providing patient care. Respondents reported moderate to high concern about their ability to provide safe patient care when fatigued once residency training was completed. Further research is needed related to fatigue awareness and training.
Gender Effects on Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Physician Computer Users in Outpatient Diagnostic Clinics BIBAFull-Text 887-891
  Alan Hedge; Tamara James
A survey of computer use patterns among 179 physicians within multiple outpatient diagnostic clinics of a major healthcare system in the USA showed significant gender effects. A majority of physicians reported daily use of a desk mounted computer. Female physicians spent more time using a computer, were more likely to adjust the keyboard, but felt less familiar with the adjustability features. Over half of respondents reported upper body musculoskeletal discomfort. Female physicians experienced more frequent neck, shoulder, upper back and right hand musculoskeletal discomfort symptoms which seem to relate to their hours of computer use. Implications for the increased use of computers in healthcare are described.
Comparison of Muscle Exertion and Fatigue Between Standard Bag Valve Mask and NuMask BIBAFull-Text 892-896
  Jakeb D. Riggle; Bernadette McCrory; Michael Wadman; Emily Miller; Bobbi Balogh; Vincent Cao; Catherine Sargus; M. Susan Hallbeck
Ventilation is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by medical professionals. The self-inflating bag valve mask (BVM) is often used to deliver rescue breaths during CPR. As resuscitation may last for extended periods of time, it is important that the equipment used reduces the potential of operator fatigue, which could lead to decreased performance and substandard patient care. The NuMask is an intraoral mask designed as an alternative to the pre-inflated mask typically used with a BVM. This pilot study uses muscle exertion electromyography, Borg's CR10 pain scale, and a Likert-scale questionnaire to compare muscle contraction, fatigue, and user preference between these two interfaces when ventilating a difficult airway mannequin. No significant differences were found in muscle pain or interface preference, but significantly lower muscular exertion by the non-dominant thenar eminence when using the NuMask suggests this interface could reduce user fatigue during extended periods of ventilation. A larger, more conclusive study is necessary to confirm these results.

Heath Care: HC11 -- Human Factors in the Wild: Dilemmas and Solutions From Human Factors Engineers Working in Health Care

Human Factors in the Wild: dilemmas and solutions from human factors engineers working in healthcare BIBAFull-Text 897-900
  Rollin J. (Terry) Fairbanks; Yan Xiao; Laurie Wolf; Peter Doyle; Olivier St-Cyr; Jason Kumagai
The session will focus on the solution side of human factors contribution into real world problems in healthcare. Five practitioners who work within systems will present real world challenges which were discovered by HF methods, or which have heavy HF implications, but wheredirect HF influence on design lead to the ultimate effective solution. The session will be designed to lead to a discussion about how HF professionals can highlight the success of their science. Five practitioners, each with extensive experience working from within a healthcare organization, will present real world challenges which were discovered by HF methods, or which have heavy HF implications, but where direct HF influence on design lead to the ultimate effective solution. Thesession will be designed to lead to a discussion about how HF professionals can focus their impact, and how they can highlight the success of their science.

Heath Care: HC12 -- Ergonomic Aspects of Clinical and Surgical Procedures

Ergonomic Aspects of Clinical and Surgical Procedures Discussion Panel Proposal BIBAFull-Text 901-905
  Thomas J. Armstrong
This discussion panel aims to identify ergonomic concerns, solutions and research needs related to outcomes and the health and safety of workers who perform clinical and surgical procedures. This session will begin with formal presentations to demonstrate current ergonomic concerns and research initiatives associated with clinical and surgical procedures to frame the panel discussion for the second part of the session. Discussion of different procedures will help to identify solutions research needs that relate to a broad range of ergonomic problems. Questions will be collected from the attendees and speakers and organized so as to guide the panel discussion and to engage all of the speakers in the discussion to achieve the symposium aims.

Heath Care: HC13 -- Literacy & Special Populations

Ease of Use of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) by Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 906-910
  Nicole B. Percival; Aimée Pearson; Jessica Jones; Matthew Wilkins; Jeff K. Caird
This study evaluated two automated external defibrillators (AEDs) to determine the extent to which different AED designs affect the performance of older adults over the age of 65 years. Forty-two untrained laypersons (20 young adults, M = 27 years old and 22 older adults, M = 71 years old) were randomly assigned to use training versions of either the Medtronic LifePak CR Plus or the Zoll AED Plus during a simulated cardiac arrest using an iStan patient simulator. A number of aspects of AED designs were difficult for the two age groups. Fifty percent of older users and 55% of younger users were able to use the AEDs to deliver a shock to the patient. For those who were able to complete the appropriate tasks steps, younger adults (M = 109.90, SD = 23.30) delivered the initial shock faster than older adults (M = 141.46, SD = 50.62). Task completion rates differed by age group and AED type. The most problematic steps across age groups included opening and activating the AED, removing the liner and placing the pads on the patient simulator. This paper will also discuss the implications of the AED evaluations and redesign recommendations.
One Size Does Not Fit All: Health Care Human Factors When Designing for an Emerging Market BIBAFull-Text 911-915
  Arathi Sethumadhavan; Laura Dove
This paper discusses the methodologies that were used to understand the users and the usage environment in an emerging market (i.e., India) and how the findings were used to aid the design of a next generation computer system (referred to as a programmer) that will be used in clinics and hospitals to manage cardiac devices. A variety of techniques including observations, interviews, and story-boarding helped to unravel the key differences in the clinical practices between India and the United States. The main differences between these markets were in the following areas: the exam room environment, transportation of the programmer, familiarity and expertise with the programmer, level of cardiac training, documentation practices, and degree of collaboration during device checks. These findings were used to make recommendations for the product design that could meet the unique needs of Indian clinicians.
Reading Engagement Offsets Declines in Processing Capacity for Health Literacy BIBAFull-Text 916-920
  Yusuke Yamani; Jessie Chin; Elise A. G. Meyers; Xuefei Gao; Daniel G. Morrow; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow; Thembi Conner-Garcia; James F. Graumlich; Michael D. Murray
Understanding patient skills, abilities, and other resources related to health literacy is crucial for improvement of self-care knowledge and behaviors. The current study explored links between cognitive abilities, knowledge, and reading engagement within the framework of process-knowledge model of health literacy (e.g., Chin et al., 2011) as measured using the S-TOFHLA (Baker et al., 1999). The data suggest that more reading engagement compensates limits of processing capacity for better health-related literacy. The results imply that patient education about the benefits of engagement in reading activities may potentially improve health literacy and comprehension of self-care information among older adults with lower processing capacity.
An investigation of format modifications on the comprehension of information in consent form when presented on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 921-925
  Kapil Chalil Madathil; Reshmi Koikkara; Melissa Dorlette-Paul; Sanjay Ranganayakulu; Joel S. Greenstein; Anand K. Gramopadhye
A major challenge associated with converting paper-based consent to electronic versions is to assure that the level of comprehension offered by the electronic consenting systems is not reduced. A randomized between-subject trial comparing patient comprehension with four different electronic consenting formats of the same consent information presented on an Apple iPad was conducted using a non-clinical sample of 32 participants. The formats were Text-Based, text-based with Text Being Read out, Video-Based and Video-Based with Subtitles. The participants were asked to read and complete a consent form in one of the formats. The participants were subsequently asked to complete a semantic comprehension quiz, the NASA Task Load Index and the computer system usability questionnaire (CSUQ). Upon completing the questionnaires, the participants took part in a retrospective think-aloud session to understand any difficulties they had using the consent forms. Statistically significant differences among the formats were found for task completion time, the mental demand and frustration sub-components of the NASA-TLX, and the comprehension quiz. Video with subtitles to convey consent information appears to be the best format among the formats tested for electronic consent presentation.
Auto-Personalization: Theory, Practice and Cross-Platform Implementation BIBAFull-Text 926-930
  Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Jutta Treviranus; Jose A. Martinez Usero; Evangelos Bekiaris; Maria Gemou; Amrish O. Chourasia
In an increasing digital society, access to information and communication technologies (ICT) is no longer just helpful but has become a necessity. However, the human interfaces appearing on these ICT (and increasingly, even common household products) are beyond of the abilities of many people with disability, digital literacy, or aging related limitations. Access to these ICT is essential to these individuals yet it is not possible to create an interface that is usable by all. This paper introduces a new approach to auto-personalization that is based on the development of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII). The GPII is a new international collaborative effort between users, developers and industry to build a sustainable infrastructure to make access to all digital technologies technically and economically possible, including access by users who are unable to use or understand today's technologies. Based on a one-size-fits-one approach, the GPII uses auto-adapting mainstream interfaces, and ubiquitous access to assistive technologies when mainstream interfaces cannot adapt enough, to provide each user with the interface they need. The GPII has three main components: a mechanism to allow individuals to easily discover which interface variations they need and then store it in a secure way on a token or in the cloud; a mechanism to allow them to use these stored needs and preferences to automatically adapt the interfaces on the digital technologies they encounter, anywhere and anytime; and a resource for developers (mainstream and assistive technology) providing the information and tools required to develop, disseminate, and support new access solutions more simply, more quickly, and at lower cost.

Heath Care: HC14 -- Learning About Health Care: Preparing Human Factors Professionals for a Career in Health Care

Learning about Healthcare: Preparing Human Factors Professionals for a Career in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 931-935
  C. Adam Probst; Alissa L. Russ; Pascale Carayon; Laurie Wolf; Sarah H. Parker; Meghan M. Dierks; Yan Xiao
Formally trained human factors professionals are in increasing demand from medical device companies, health care systems, and electronic health record (EHR) vendors to ensure successful device design, EHR deployment, and overall usability and quality improvement initiatives. Most members of this panel have extensive experience working in the healthcare domain, while one is starting a career in healthcare. The panelists will exchange their views on the challenges and rewards of learning about healthcare in order to be effective in making contributions to health care. Specific initiatives human factors professionals can take to learn about healthcare will be introduced and discussed. Human factors professionals and students should expect steep a learning curve, as well as strong support from clinicians and other health care workers, which will be discussed.

Heath Care: HC15 -- Collaboration/Communication

Does the Shoe Fit? Applying Lessons Learned in Aviation to Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 936-940
  Heidi S. Kramer; Frank A. Drews
Aviation's successful use of Decision Support Systems (DSS) has not been replicated in the healthcare subset of DSS referenced as Clinical Decision Support (CDS). Here the domains of healthcare and aviation are compared and contrasted providing an overview of the adaptation of lessons learned in aviation to healthcare. We propose there are differences in characteristics inherent to the contexts of aviation and healthcare that affect the data necessary for efficient, effective CDS systems. Specifically, ten context characteristics are discussed that jointly and separately affect the availability, quantity, quality and temporal relevance of the data. By providing remedies for overcoming deficiencies and supporting accurate representation of the data perhaps then CDS systems will meet their potential for improved adoption, user satisfaction and patient outcomes.
Using Videos to Determine the Effect of Stage of Operation and Intraoperative Events on Surgeons' Intraoperative Leadership BIBAFull-Text 941-945
  Sarah Henrickson Parker; Rhona Flin; Aileen McKinley; Steven J. Yule
Background Leadership is a key component for the successful functioning of teams and the achievement of task goals. During the intraoperative phase of surgery, the attending surgeon can be likened to a team leader with responsibility for task accomplishment by a small team. This study identified and evaluated surgeons' leadership behaviors during operations, with particular reference to any changes that occurred following two types of events. Method Videos of live operations (n=29) from the operating rooms of three teaching hospitals in the UK were analyzed to identify and code surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviors using the Surgeons' Leadership Inventory (SLI). The frequency and quality of the leadership behaviors were compared before and after the point of no return (PONR) (n=24) and before and after an unexpected intraoperative event (n=5). Results Most leadership behaviors were directed toward the resident during an operation. No significant differences were found for the overall frequency or quality of leadership behaviors pre- and post-PONR. The frequency of leadership behaviors classified as 'training' and 'Supporting others' significantly decreased after an unanticipated intraoperative event. Discussion This study provides a detailed description of surgeons' intraoperative leadership during different types of operative situations and stages. During the intraoperative period, the attending surgeon seemed to lead the surgical trainee almost exclusively, and not other members of the operative team. Leadership was highly focused on the surgical task.
Spatial Communication in Robotic Surgery BIBAFull-Text 946-950
  Stacey Cunningham; Caroline G. L. Cao
Surgical robots assist with precision tasks in minimally invasive procedures. The surgeon controls the robot from a console away from the operating table, reducing the opportunity for face-to-face communication in an otherwise team-oriented environment. This study examined spatial communication in a collaborative surgical task. It was hypothesized that spatial communication aids would improve performance in the task despite subjects' innate spatial ability. Fifteen novice dyads completed a simulated organ manipulation task using a laparoscopic trainer box with a rotated (90o) camera view. Subjects were divided into 3 experimental groups: no aid, cardinal directions aid, and grid aid. A spatial ability test was also administered. Significant correlations were found between spatial ability, time, and communication volume in the no aid condition, an effect less apparent in the cardinal directions or grid aid conditions. These results suggest the benefit of a spatial communication aid to promote collaboration in robotic surgery.
Assessing Patient and Doctor Eye Gaze Patterns Between Two Styles of Doctor Ehr Use in Primary Care Encounters BIBAFull-Text 951-955
  Onur Asan; Enid N. H. Montague; Jie Xu
The purpose of this study is to understand the potential relationship between the ways primary care doctors interact with electronic health records (EHRs) and the eye gaze patterns of doctors and patients during primary care visits. Forty primary care encounters where doctors used two different EHR interaction styles were analyzed. This study used a lag analysis method to analyze the eye-gaze patterns between doctor and patient for each style. Differences and similarities in eye gaze behavior patterns were found between the two styles. The results of this study may inform guidelines for EHR design and implementation and inform EHR interaction training.
The Impact of Communication Training in High Fidelity Simulation of Emergency ICU Resuscitation BIBAFull-Text 956-960
  Esther Breton; Chelsea Kramer; Cindy Chamberland; Geneviève Dubé; Gilles Chiniara; Sébastien Tremblay
The intensive care unit (ICU) is a high-risk environment that requires cross-professional teams to provide life-saving patient care. There is ample evidence that poor communication creates situations where medical errors are likely to occur and affect patient safety. We tested whether communication-oriented debriefing following high-fidelity simulation improves quality of information exchange reflecting collaborative work in ICU teams. Ten teams of six cross-professional ICU workers participated in three simulation-based training sessions. After each training session, the experimental group was debriefed on communication-oriented skills (based on Crew Resource Management, CRM), while the control group was debriefed on technical skills. The analysis was double-blind; 30 videotaped sessions were coded for three types of communication measures by four observers showing adequate inter-rater reliability. Results suggest that high-fidelity simulation training can improve non-technical skills in cross-professional ICU teams. Further investigation is needed on the performance effects of communication-focused debriefing.

Heath Care: HC16 -- Simulation-Based Training Across the Medical Education Continuum

Simulation-Based Training across the Medical Education Continuum BIBAFull-Text 961-964
  Megan E. Gregory; Lauren E. Benishek; Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Moshe Feldman; Michael A. Rosen; Shawna J. Perry
Simulation-based training (SBT) is commonly integrated into medical education. This panel examines current uses of SBT in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education and addresses the advantages and different considerations for each. Furthermore, we consider how SBT within the different levels of medical education can inform practices across levels.

Human Performance Modeling: HP2 -- Aviation & Military

Workload Assessment in Human Performance Models Using the Secondary-Task Technique BIBAFull-Text 965-969
  Wenbi Wang
The reductionist's approach to human performance modeling provides a framework for developing modular human performance models that can be aggregated to represent more complex human behavior. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore the use of this approach to mimic the secondary-task technique in a computerized model for task workload assessment. Two task network models were independently created to represent an Air Traffic Control (ATC) and a visual Bakan task respectively. The two models were then connected in parallel to represent operator behavior and assess dual task performance. The Bakan task was assigned as a secondary task and performed concurrently with the primary ATC task. The model generated performance predictions for two tasks under both single and dual task conditions. The results produced patterns of performance that could be explained by the secondary-task technique. The study demonstrated the feasibility of using the secondary-task technique for assessing task workload in human performance models.
Adaptation of a Human Resource Model by the Use of Machine Learning Methods as Part of a Military Helicopter Pilot Associate System BIBAFull-Text 970-974
  Felix Maiwald; Axel Schulte
This article describes an approach how to improve a knowledge-based pilots' associate system in the domain of military helicopter missions by the use of machine learning methods. To prevent the pilot from being overtaxed the associate system estimates the pilots' residual mental capacity and thereby the current subjective workload. This estimation enables the associate system to selectively direct automation induced dialogues, e.g. hints, warnings, alerts, suggestions to the perceptual modality, which can be assumed to provide spare resources. Therefore, we developed task related models of mental resource demands for the military helicopter flying domain. To eliminate subjective influences from these models as far as possible, laboratory experiments have been conducted to better match the predicted resource conflicts within distinct task situations with the objectively measured pilots' performance. Based on these experiments, we applied machine learning methods (i.e. genetic algorithms) to adapt the underlying human resource model to the measured human performance. By using suchlike models the associate system is enabled to cooperate with the pilot by resource adaptive information exchange. This article focuses on a specific aspect of the overall associate system related trials. We provide a detailed description of the conducted experiments used for adaptation of the resource model and the application of the machine learning technique for the model optimization as well as detailed results of the overall evaluation of thee associate system's adaptive capabilities in a relevant mission context obtained in simulator experiments.
Modeling Algorithms for Predicting the Effects of Human Performance in the Presence of Environmental Stressors BIBAFull-Text 975-979
  Marianne Paulsen; Thomas J. Alicia; David M. Shrader
For military systems, environmental stressors (e.g. motion, temperature, noise) must be considered during decision making related to manpower requirements, workload determination, design tradeoffs, and mission effectiveness/sustainability early into and throughout the system acquisition process. Current human performance modeling techniques may have limited predictive utility and have not been fully validated against operational human in the loop (HIL) data. As a result, they may lack sufficient fidelity to support systems engineering needs to predict the individual and interactive effects that environmental stressors may have on human performance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach for developing performance shaping function (PSF) algorithms for environmental stressors that can be integrated into human performance modeling tools. These high fidelity plug-in algorithms are anticipated to provide an enhanced level of predictive validity when compared to current discrete event modeling tools. The algorithms will address environmentally induced limitations that are levied on human performance and enhance decision making in defense acquisition system design and cost versus performance tradeoffs.
The Multimodal Evaluation Module: Design and Validation of a Model-Based Tool to Predict Pilot Noticing of Multimodal Information on the Flight Deck BIBAFull-Text 980-984
  Angelia Sebok; Christopher Wickens; Nadine Sarter; Corey Koenecke
Flight decks present a great deal of information to pilots, much of it through the visual modality. As new automation and displays are included on the flight deck, including information such as spacing from a lead aircraft, wake vortex displays, and datalink, a text-based messaging system for communication with air traffic control, there is a real concern that these displays can over-burden a pilot's already-challenged visual system. Auditory, tactile, or redundant modality displays are potential alternatives to yet another visual display. As design concepts are being developed for these new flight deck systems, it is necessary to identify their predicted effects on pilot performance. This paper describes the development and validation of a model-based tool to assist flight deck automation designers and human performance specialists in selecting information presentation modalities that best support pilot performance.
Tools for Predicting the Duration and Variability of Skilled: Performance without Skilled Performers BIBAFull-Text 985-989
  Bonnie E. John; Evan W. Patton; Wayne D. Gray; Donald F. Morrison
Many devices are designed to allow skilled users to complete routine tasks quickly, often within a specified amount of time. Predictive human performance modeling has long been able to predict the mean time to accomplish a task, making it possible to compare device designs before building them. However, estimates of the variability of performance are also important, especially in real-time, safety-critical tasks. Until recently, the human factors community lacked tools to predict the variability of skilled performance. In this paper, we describe a combination of theory-based tools (CogTool and SANLab) that address this critical gap and that can easily be used by human factors practitioners or system designers. We describe these tools, their integration, and provide a concrete example of their use in the context of entering the landing speed into the Boeing 777 Flight Management Computer (FMC) using the Control and Display Unit (CDU).

Human Performance Modeling: HP3 -- Ergonomics and Vision

Fitts' Law in 3D Space with Coordinated Hand Movements BIBAFull-Text 990-994
  Xiaolu Zeng; Alan Hedge; Francois Guimbretiere
The study tested the applicability of Fitts' law to coordinated hand movements in a 3D response space with. An experiment was conducted in which 20 participants performed the Fitts' pointing tasks with varying target distances, target sizes and approaching angles from a home position. Results confirmed that Fitts' law applies to coordinated hand movements in 3D space.
Modeling Human Visual Processing Within and Beyond the Oculomotor Range Using ACT-R Cognitive Architecture BIBAFull-Text 995-999
  Hyungseok Oh; Rohae Myung
The Active Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture model has limitations in the broad visual world because both head movements and eye movements are generated beyond the oculomotor range. Thus, this paper describes the model of visual processing in the broad visual world by considering gaze shifts during orienting the movements to targets within and beyond the oculomotor range, which was developed using both the revised Eye Movements and Movement Attention (EMMA) module and the head module. The model in this study can predict the latency of human visual processing and describe the following two human behaviors. First, gaze shift has been mainly affected by eye movement when the target is in the oculomotor range. Second, gaze shift has been mainly affected by head movement when the target is outside of the oculomotor range. Consequently, in the domain of the broad visual world, the model in this study is able to predict human visual processing more accurately than the existing visual processing models such as the EMMA model.
A Discrete Movement Model for Cursor Tracking Validated in the Context of a Dual-Task Experiment BIBAFull-Text 1000-1004
  Yunfeng Zhang; Anthony J. Hornof
Understanding human cursor tracking behavior is essential in understanding human motor control. Though tracking has been hypothesized as a sequence of discrete movements, better data is needed to support the theory. By analyzing moment-to-moment tracking data, this paper shows that discrete, non-ballistic movements exist throughout a tracking task, and that these short submovements can be characterized by either Fitts' law or a linear model. A cognitive model was built to incorporate the characteristics of these discrete movements into a dual task. Using parameters estimated through linear regression of the movement data, the model achieves a good fit to the overall performance measures of the dual-task experiment. This research investigates the characteristics of human motor control in tracking tasks, improves modeling techniques by providing a new method for estimating tracking parameters, and advances the science of motor control with new evidence for the discrete movement tracking hypothesis. The discrete movement model presented here offers an excellent alternative to established control theory models that are used to simulate steering in cognitive models of driving.
Automated CPM-GOMS Modeling from Human Data BIBAFull-Text 1005-1009
  Evan W. Patton; Wayne D. Gra; Bonnie E. John
We present the Log Analyzer for generating CPM-GOMS models from human performance data. Built on top of the SANLab tool for stochastic CPM-GOMS modeling (Patton & Gray, 2010), the Log Analyzer uses event-driven parsing to map experimental log files into SANLab interactive routines used to generate CPM-GOMS activity networks. Identical models within and across participants are averaged to obtain estimates of performance times and variability, which are then used to drive stochastic simulations. In this report, we apply our tool to human data collected during a simple eyetracking calibration task and compare the resulting models to existing models in the literature. The generated models show good predictive performance and raise questions about di erent strategies not captured in the literature.
Towards Bridging the Gap between Biomechanics and Motor Control for Virtual Ergonomics Applications BIBAFull-Text 1010-1014
  Tara Kajaks; James L. Lyons
Posture prediction algorithms, particularly those that consider comfort (or discomfort), are typically based on gross movements rather than on the finer movements of the upper extremity. However, understanding these finer movements, particularly during goal-directed reaching tasks, is critical to accurately predicting postures, and the associated potential injury risks, when using virtual ergonomic tools. Furthermore, it is expected that these finer movements will be highly sensitive to the planning processes used to perform sequential tasks, particularly when start and terminal orientation, terminal precision, and terminal force are manipulated. Thus, the purpose of this proposed study is to challenge the theory of the end-state comfort effect under conditions of varying terminal precision and exertion force requirements during both discrete and sequential goal-directed reaching tasks. It is expected that each of these manipulations (i.e. start and terminal orientation, terminal precision, terminal force, and number of movement sequences) will influence the chosen movement patterns. Understanding how each of these variables affects movement patterns will provide important information for the development of posture prediction algorithms for use with virtual ergonomics tools.

Human Performance Modeling: HP4 -- Modeling Supervisory Control, Emotion, Training, and Cognition

QN-ACTR Modeling of Multitask Performance of Dynamic and Complex Cognitive Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1015-1019
  Shi Cao; Yili Liu
This paper reports the latest development of QN-ACTR, which integrates two complementary cognitive architectures, Queueing Network and Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational. The integrated architecture can model multitask performance in dynamic and complex cognitive task situations that each architecture alone has difficulties to model. It also allows the examination of several important modeling issues in ACTR from the QN perspective. Benefits from the integration are illustrated in model simulation of a transcription typing and reading comprehension dual-task. Future steps of the integration are discussed.
A Conceptual Framework for Emotional Response of Product with ACT-R Cognitive Architecture BIBAFull-Text 1020-1024
  Sungjin Park; Rohae Myung
This article proposes a conceptual framework that describes emotional decision making of a product considering the existing structure of Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R). The main proposition of this framework is to explore how emotions are evoked by a product and how emotional words and purchase intention are activated. The process starts when a customer perceives the design features of a product. After the perception of design features, associated emotions are implicitly determined by the appraisal elements such as the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD). To describe this implicit appraisal process, an appraisal module which generates PAD values of the current emotional states is required to be added to ACT-R. The above two stages are replicated until all design features which a consumer is interested in are evaluated and the average PAD values are turned over to the next stage. Subsequently, the emotional word which has the highest activation value based on similarity with PAD values is retrieved from a declarative memory. Finally, as a comprehensive result of the emotions evoked by all design features, purchase intention is activated in a goal module.
Time Pressure, Memory, and Task Knowledge Facilitate the Opportunism Heuristic in Dynamic Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1025-1029
  Daniel Gartenberg; Leonard A. Breslow; J. Malcolm McCurry; J. Gregory Trafton
There are a variety of strategies that operators can utilize when performing a dynamic task, yet operator strategies are typically studied in a well-controlled environment that prevents the possibility of these strategies from interacting or competing with one another. In this study we investigated operator strategy use in a dynamic supervisory control task. We identified four possible strategies that the operator may use: scanning, opportunism, task knowledge, and memory. In order to determine the impact of time pressure on strategy use, we manipulated the speed of the vehicles. We found that as time pressure increased, operators shifted from a scanning strategy to a heuristic opportunistic strategy. We also found that when operators used task knowledge and memory they were more likely to be opportunistic.
Application of System Dynamics Modeling for the Assessment of Training Performance Effectiveness BIBAFull-Text 1030-1033
  Hong Jiang; Waldemar Karwowski; Tareq Ahram
System Dynamics Modeling (SDM) is a mathematical technique to understand the behavior of complex systems over time. SDM has been widely used and applied in modeling complex systems such as human performance and social network analysis. This paper highlights key features of the system dynamics approach for human performance modeling and training optimization. Using three of the Big Five factors which include Conscientiousness, Extroversion, and Openness, modeling results show how these factors interact and influence training performance. This research sum arizes the development of a system dynamics model for use in evaluating training performance, acquired personality traits and overall system effects on training proficiency.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID1 -- Multidisciplinary Concepts in Ergonomic Design and Individual Differences in Performance

Multidisciplinary Concepts in Ergonomic Design and Individual Differences in Performance BIBAFull-Text 1034-1038
  Krystyna Gielo-Perczak; Waldemar Karwowski; Peter A. Hancock; William S. Marras; Waldemar Karwowski; Paolo Bonato; Krystyna Gielo-Perczak
Currently, individual differences are considered to be the most important factors in home-, work-, health- (HWH) related comfortable designs. However in reality, these factors are still abandoned. Future prospective design needs require an intensive multidisciplinary approach to individual differences and performance capacities.
   The purpose of this panel is to discuss controversial concepts and ideas on individual differences and capacities which should be included in HWH designs. Novel designs necessitate a broad interaction among psychology, physiology, sociology, biomechanics, emerging current health care needs and functional design as an integration of the individual differences within human capabilities and daily necessities.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID2 -- Individual Differences in Human Interaction with Automation, Robots, and Computers

The Effects of Autonomy and Cognitive Abilities on Workload and Supervisory Control of Unmanned Systems BIBAFull-Text 1039-1043
  Brittany C. Sellers; Thomas Fincannon; Florian Jentsch
In this paper, we examine the influence of autonomy and cognitive ability on workload in unmanned systems. First, we outline prior research regarding the role of autonomy and operator selection in decreasing workload in the realm of human-robot interaction. Next, we discuss two aspects of cognitive ability (i.e., visualization and perceptual speed) explain differences between these constructs, and their influence on workload. Then, we describe the current study and discuss the effects of varying levels of autonomy, visualization, and perceptual speed on workload in a simulated reconnaissance mission. Finally, we explore the implications of our findings in terms of the influence of autonomy and operator selection and provide suggestions for future research.
Participant Characteristics and Speeding Behavior during an Advisory Warning and Cash Incentive Intervention BIBAFull-Text 1044-1048
  Sharon Berlin; Ian J. Reagan; James P. Bliss
Speeding-related crashes are responsible for a significant economic and human toll to society. This paper presents data from a field study evaluating the effectiveness of in-vehicle automated feedback and monetary incentive systems to reduce speeding behavior. The current effort was a unique opportunity to compare self-reported speeding beliefs and behaviors to observed driving behaviors and quantify associations between participant characteristics and driving behaviors. Fifty participants completed the four week study within three experimental groups: automated feedback with monetary incentive (n=20), automated feedback without incentive (n=20), and control (n=10). Results indicated little connection between self-reported and observed speeding behaviors, despite high correlation between self-reported and observed driving patterns overall. Associations were found between sensation-seeking personalities and speeding behavior. Few differences were found between sexes. Results highlight the relationship between personality and driving behavior, and suggest a closing gap between male and female driving behaviors.
A Preliminary Research on P300-Based BCI Application for People with Motor Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1049-1053
  Yueqing Li; Jincheol Woo; Chang S. Nam
The primary purpose of this paper was to find the relationship between the participants' disability and user performance on a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) -- P300 Speller. Ten participants with motor disabilities were employed to spell 10 ten-character phrases with two different user interfaces (5 for each). Results of the study indicated a linear relation between participants' speech ability and task performance. As the speech ability increases, users' task performance increases. However, such a relation doesn't exist between motor ability and task performance. This study should provide invaluable empirical data and insights for the future study.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID3 -- Individual Differences in Performance, Workload, and Stress

The Joint Effect of Task Characteristics and Extraversion on The Performance, Workload, and Stress of Signal Detection BIBAFull-Text 1054-1058
  James. L. Szalma; Grace W. L. Teo
The present study tests an extension of the Dynamic Adaptability Theory of Stress (Hancock & Warm, 1989) that incorporated individual differences into the model (Szalma, 2008). The purpose was to investigate how the task characteristics of information rate (event rate) and information structure (number of displays to be monitored) interact with participant personality (extraversion) to affect the performance, workload, and stress associated with a cognitive vigilance task. As expected, extraversion moderated the relationship of task characteristics to performance, global workload, distress, and task engagement, although the relationship of extraversion to the worry dimensions of stress was not significant.
The Effects of Individuals' Mood State and Personality Trait on the Cognitive Processing of Emotional Stimuli BIBAFull-Text 1059-1063
  Sol I. Lim; Jin C. Woo; Sangwoo Bahn; Chang S. Nam
This study assessed the effects of individuals' personality trait and mood state on affective reactions to emotional stimuli. Resting electroencephalographic (EEG) was recorded from 11 healthy right-handed males and questionnaires were administered to assess subject's mood state (total mood disturbance score) and personality trait (i.e. introvert or extravert), respectively. Along with baseline signals from the resting period, EEG was measured while subjects viewed pictures of three types of emotional stimuli (negatively arousing, calm, and positively arousing) chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). A major question raised by the brain's response to emotional stimuli was whether these changes were related to preexistent differences in subjects' mood state and personality. Extraverted subjects and those with normal mood disturbance scores showed a greater response to positive stimuli processing while brain areas of introverted subjects and those with high mood disturbance scores were highly responsive to negative emotional pictures in the upper alpha frequency bands (10~12 Hz).
Predicting and Maintaining the Challenge Point through the Study of Individual Differences BIBAFull-Text 1064-1068
  Michelle R. Bryant; Anne Collins McLaughlin
Predicting a challenge point in performance requires an examination of individual differences in cognitive, perceptual and motor abilities. The following paper poses an approach to the previously established challenge point framework that integrates abilities in different populations while incorporating subjective workload and stress measures. Results will allow human factors and ergonomics to merge existing knowledge about these areas into several applications for real world performance success in a variety of tasks.
Effects of Input Modality and Expertise on Workload and Video Game Performance BIBAFull-Text 1069-1073
  Travis M. Kent; Matthew D. Marraffino; Maxine B. Najle; Anne M. Sinatra; Valerie K. Sims
A recent trend in consumer and military electronics has been to allow operators the option to control the system via novel control methods. The most prevalent and available form of these methods is that of vocal control. Vocal control allows for the control of a system by speaking commands rather than manually inputting them. This has implications not only for increased productivity, but also for optimizing safety as well as for assisting the disabled population. Past research has examined the potential costs and benefits to this novel control scheme with varying results. The purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between modality of input, operator workload, and expertise. The results obtained indicated that vocal control may not be ideal in all situations as a method of input, as participants experienced significantly higher amounts of workload than those in the manual condition. Additionally, expertise may be more specific than previously thought, as participants in the vocal condition performed nearly identical at the task regardless of gaming expertise. The implications of the findings for this study suggest that vocal control be further examined as an effective method of user input, especially with regards to expertise and training effects.
Guiding Principles for Team Stress Measurement BIBAFull-Text 1074-1078
  Aaron S. Dietz; Mary Jane Sierra; Kimberly Smith-Jentsch; Eduardo Salas
Teams, like individuals, experience stress. While a number of theoretical models and empirical studies have examined the role and effects of stress on team processes and performance, there is surprisingly no guidance for measuring and diagnosing team-level stress. This paper proposes that team stress is a unique construct and necessitates robust measurement systems for its evaluation. To this end, the present paper presents four principles that serve to guide the development of valid and reliable team stress measurement systems.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID4 -- Individual Differences: Models and Methods for Prediction

Investigating Individual and Occupational Factors and their Interactions on Low Back Pain Severity in Workers BIBAFull-Text 1079-1083
  Nirathi Keerthi Govindu; Kari Babski-Reeves
Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal disorder. Current ergonomic prevention strategies focus on reducing the effect of occupational risk factors. However, other underlying mechanisms may exist since not all workers performing the same task develop an injury. In this study, 36 LBP patients with a previous MRI scan were recruited to investigate the effects of individual and occupational factors and their interactions on LBP severity. Individual and occupational factors information was obtained through questionnaires. LBP severity ratings were obtained through a self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire and served as the dependent variables. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed on the variables. For ODI, a model consisting of interaction effects between individual and occupational risk factors with an adjusted R2 value of 0.84 was obtained. These preliminary results may help to develop models to predict and, hence, prevent chronic LBP.
Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1084-1088
  Bonny Parke; Judith Orasanu
Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors.
Fine Distinctions within Cognitive Style Predict Forecasting Accuracy BIBAFull-Text 1089-1093
  Joshua C. Poore; John Regan; Sarah Miller; Cliff Forlines; John Irvine
Leveraging data from over 1,000 users in the System for Prediction, Aggregation, Display and Elicitation (SPADE) research program, we present preliminary data on the factor structure of individual variation in decision making ability and the associations of this variance with errors in cognitive reasoning and accuracy in making socio-political forecasts. Generally, prior research has identified two factors, or styles -- intuitive and analytic -- that account for significant variance in how individuals reach solutions to complex numerical and logical problems. Though sometimes named differently across research programs, an intuitive style is a tendency to use instincts, experiential knowledge, and intuition to solve problems, where an analytic style is a tendency to apply formal logic, methods of inquiry and theory to confront problems. Within a large research sample, factor analytic techniques define finer distinctions among these styles. In particular, we find distinctions within the analytical style, such that certain measures of analytic style (REI; Norris, Pacini, & Epstein, 1998) capture variance related to tendencies to express a deep interest in complex problem solving and openness to new information. In contrast, other measures (CSI; Allinson et al., 1996) capture variance related to tendencies to solve problems that are driven by a need for closure and conscientiousness. Subsequent correlation analysis suggests that the latter tendency covaries with susceptibility to commit errors in logical reasoning and poor performance on socio-economic forecasts elicited through the iSPADE system. Future work will clarify the relationship between cognitive styles and errors in reasoning and forecasting behavior through multi-level modeling techniques.
The Effects of Pointing out Failures of Inattentional Blindness on Performance and Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 1094-1098
  Andrew R. Dattel; Jason E. Vogt; Chelsea C. Sheehan; Kristen Madjic; Matthew C. Stefonetti; Marissa C. Miller; Daniel. P. Dever; Jesse Brodsky; Sierra Bradley; Jessica K. Fratzola
Eighty-two participants were categorized into one of three groups: participants with inattentional blindness (IB), participants without IB, and participants with IB, but were told about their failure to notice a salient, although irrelevant stimulus (the Show group). The Invisible Gorilla video (Simons, 2003) was used to determine IB. The effects of pointing out IB failures were tested for subsequent tasks. Performance and situation awareness (SA) of the Show group in a subsequent task of watching driving videos was compared to the IB group and the group who did not display IB. No differences in performance were found between any of the groups. The IB group was slower to answer irrelevant questions about the driving environment than participants who did not display IB. The IB group and the Show group answered irrelevant questions slower than they answered relevant questions. However, the time to answer relevant SA questions and accuracy of answering SA questions about the driving environment did not differ between the three groups. Thus, it appears that pointing out failures of an irrelevant stimulus has no effect for improving performance or SA of relevant information in subsequent tasks. Participants were further categorized as high working memory or low working memory (WM). IB participants with low WM were slower answering SA questions than IB participants with high WM.
Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility Predict Performance in Vigilance Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1099-1103
  Ivonne J. Figueroa; Robert J. Youmans
'Real-world' vigilance tasks are difficult to perform because they require sustained and divided attention. The present study investigated whether individual differences in a person's cognitive flexibility, the ability to abandon one cognitive strategy in favor of another, can predict performance on a vigilance task. Sixty-one undergraduate students from California State University, Northridge participated in this study. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task was used to measure participants' level of cognitive flexibility. Vigilance was examined using a multi-screened Clock Task. Participants then performed either a nine-minute Static or Dynamic Clock task. Two variables of cognitive flexibility were found to predict signal detection. Cognitive flexibility may eventually become a useful individual difference measure that can help provide insight for vigilance training strategies.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE1 -- Tablets, Keyboards, Pointing Devices, and Computer Work

Are there Differences in Force Exposures and Typing Productivity between Touchscreen and Conventional Keyboard? BIBAFull-Text 1104-1108
  Jeong Ho Kim; Lovenoor Aulck; Michael C. Bartha; Christy A. Harper; Peter W. Johnson
As the use of tablets is becoming increasingly prevalent, it is important to understand how using a touchscreen (virtual) keyboard affects typing forces, productivity and comfort. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether there were differences in typing forces, typing productivity and users' discomfort between virtual and conventional keyboards. A total of 19 subjects (10 males and 9 females) typed for 10 minutes on a virtual keyboard and two conventional keyboards. The results showed that virtual keyboard use resulted in lower typing forces (p < 0.0001), lower typing performance (p < 0.0001), and higher subjective discomfort at the hand/wrist and the neck/shoulder (p < 0.0001). The results indicate that using a virtual keyboard may not cause any detrimental effect on physical exposures, but may increase musculoskeletal discomfort on the upper extremities and neck/shoulder regions; therefore, appropriate interventions should be considered for the prolonged use of a virtual keyboard.
Holding a Multi-touch Tablet with One Hand: 3D Modeling and Visualization of Hand and Wrist Postures BIBAFull-Text 1109-1113
  David J. Feathers; Han Zhang
Multi-touch tablets are increasingly being used in highly mobile work environments such as sales support, medical charting, parts tracking, and field-based work requiring real-time data. Menu options, checklists, and data entry require precise gesture-based movements. The role of stabilizing the 2D gesturing surface while performing gesture input tasks, such as rotating an on-screen image, is undertaken by the non-gesturing hand, wrist, and forearm. This research investigates stabilizing postures of the non-gesturing hand while gesture input commands are being performed. Eleven healthy volunteers performed a series of one-handed gestures on a tablet device while in an erect, unsupported seated posture. Hand coupling postures and stabilizing motions of the hand and wrist in radial and ulnar deviation, flexion and extension, and pronation and supination, are modeled in three-dimensional space. Results offer preliminary data for hand coupling positions and resulting wrist and forearm postures for multi-touch tablet computer use. Keywords: hand and wrist stabilization modeling, multi-touch, postural analysis.
Indirect Touch Pointing with Desktop Computing: Effects of Trackpad Size and Input mapping on Performance, Posture, Discomfort, and Preference BIBAFull-Text 1114-1118
  M. Camilleri; B. Chu; A. Ramesh; D. Odell; D. Rempel
Multi-touch trackpads have the advantage over traditional pointing devices (mice) in being able to recognize and act on finger gestures, such as pinching, rotating, and swiping. The primary objective of this study was to quantify the effects of desktop-trackpad size and input mapping on performance, posture and discomfort. Three trackpad sizes (112X63 mm, 178X100 mm, 230 X130 mm) and two types of input mapping, the traditional relative mapping with 'cursor acceleration' and absolute mapping, were tested. Subjects performed a series of target acquisition tasks (drag and select) while the dependent variables were recorded. Results suggest that peripheral indirect-touch pointing devices with a width between 112 and 178 mm and a depth between 63 and 100 mm may provide an appropriate balance between cost, footprint, performance, and comfort.
Observed postural variations across computer workers during a day of sedentary computer work BIBAFull-Text 1119-1122
  Nancy Black; Leon DesRoches; Isabelle Arsenault
Sedentary computer work is widespread and typically occurs at a fixed-height seated workstation. Both neutral and at-risk postural classes of the back and neck were observed among 11computer-intensive workers using such workstations who had reported high discomfort levels. Four video recordings of approximately 1 hour each over the working day were analyzed to determine the percent duration and number of observations of each body and neck posture. Risky slouching (32.3% ±17.3%) and neck forward postures (16.9% ±12.3%) varied significantly by participant but not by time of day. Absence from video field of view of the workstation was not negligible, occurring 23.8%±14.8%. Postural changes of slouch and neck forward occurred several times during each recording (4.8±1.9 and 2.5±0.9, respectively) and varied significantly by participant but not over the day. Despite these postural adjustments, the prevalence of risky postures suggests that static workstations are fundamentally problematic.
The effects of psychosocial factors on trapezius muscle activity levels during computer use BIBAFull-Text 1123-1127
  Jennifer L. Bruno Garza; Belinda H. W. Eijckelhof; Maaike A. Huysmans; Peter W. Johnson; Jaap H. van Dieen; Allard J. van der Beek; Jack T. Dennerlein
The goal of the present study, a part of the PROOF (Predicting Occupational biomechanics among OFfice workers) study, was to determine if there was a relationship between psychosocial stress, measured by reward and over-commitment, and trapezius muscle activity while workers performed their own computer work in the field. We observed that workers reporting higher levels of over-commitment and lower reward also experienced approximately 40% higher median trapeizus muscle activity levels than workers reporting lower levels of over-commitment and lower reward (change from 3.5% MVC to 6% MVC), with no difference in muscle activity for workers reporting high reward and either low or high over-commitment. Workers reporting higher levels of over-commitment experienced more variability in trapezius muscle activity. The results of this study may be used to inform interventions targeting reduction of musculoskeletal disorders among office workers.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE2 -- Underlying Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders: What Are We Missing?

Underlying Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders: What Are We Missing? BIBAFull-Text 1128-1129
  Kermit G. Davis; William S. Marras; Laura Punnett; Beth Winkelstein; Birgitte Blatter
The purpose of the panel will be to discuss briefly the current knowledge of factors relating to musculoskeletal disorders in four main areas: biomechanics, psychosocial, individual characteristics, and pain sensation. The main discussion of the panel will have panelist challenge musculoskeletal disorder researchers to focus on new directions and think beyond current paradigms.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE3 -- Ergonomics, Biomechanics, and Muscle Physiology

Weibull Analyses of the Fatigue Life of Human Tissues BIBAFull-Text 1130-1134
  Sean Gallagher
It is likely that many musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the result of a gradual accumulation of damage that results from a process of fatigue failure. Studies on the mechanical responses of cadaveric materials to loading provide much of our knowledge of the properties of human tissues and should be of considerable interest to the ergonomist. The purpose of the present investigation was to perform Weibull analyses on data provided in fatigue failure studies of human extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and human lumbar motion segments to evaluate the reliability and fatigue life when these materials are loaded at various levels of their ultimate strength.
Changes in the range of lumbar flexion during cyclic stooping BIBAFull-Text 1135-1139
  Xinhui Zhu; Gwanseob Shin
Previously, responses to stooping or static upper body flexion have been evaluated by quantifying the changes in the range of lumbar flexion after a bout of stooping with restricted and controlled posture conditions. The current study was aimed to confirm the same with unrestricted posture conditions that resembled work-related postures. Twenty two subjects performed stooping work tasks for 6 minutes with intermediate short breaks, followed by a 6-min upright standing recovery period. Time-dependent changes in the range of lumbar flexion were evaluated by measuring peak lumbar flexion angle in full flexion trials and stooping postures before, during and after the stooping period. Results found a significant increase (p<0.05) in the peak lumbar flexion angle after stooping, and the increased range of lumbar flexion did not return to its pre-stooping level after the recovery period. Short breaks during stooping moderated the increase in the flexion range, resulting in a smaller increase in the flexion range compared to what static and controlled full flexion postures have produced in previous research.
Spectral Analysis of Root-Mean-Square Processed Surface Electromyography Data as a Measure of Repetitive Muscular Exertion BIBAFull-Text 1140-1144
  Lauren Gant; Nathan Fethke; Fred Gerr
Highly repetitive motion is associated with development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) among industrial workers, especially when encountered concurrently with forceful exertions. Current measures of 'repetitiveness' provide information about the repetitiveness of joint motion, but fail to provide complete information about the repetitiveness of muscular exertion, a more biomechanically meaningful measure of repetition. The current study introduces a novel processing technique in which surface electromyography (sEMG) data is root-mean-square processed prior to computation of the frequency spectrum. The mean power frequency of the resulting power spectrum is the proposed metric for estimation of muscular exertion frequency. The metric was compared to joint movement and applied force frequencies during a series of isometric gripping trials and an industrial simulation. Results suggest that the proposed metric has potential to be a valuable metric to estimate exposure to repetitive muscular exertion.
Assessment of neck and shoulder muscle fatigue using discrete wavelet transforms of surface electromyography BIBAFull-Text 1145-1149
  Suman Kanti Chowdhury; Ashish D. Nimbarte; Majid Jaridi; Robert C. Creese
Objective assessment of neuromuscular fatigue is important for the early detection and prevention of risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although, in recent years, a number of researchers have used discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of surface electromyography (SEMG) to evaluate muscle fatigue, its application to neck and shoulder muscle fatigue assessment is not well established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish DWT analysis as a suitable method to conduct quantitative assessment of neck and shoulder muscle fatigue caused by dynamic exertions. Six human participants performed 40 minutes of fatiguing repetitive arm and neck exertions. SEMG data from the right upper trapezius and left sternocleidomastoid muscles were recorded. Six most commonly used orthogonal wavelet functions were used to conduct DWT analysis. With the development of fatigue for most of the wavelet functions a significant increase in the power in the lower frequency bands of 12-23Hz and 23-46Hz was observed. Bior 3.1 wavelet showed the highest power, statistically consistent and meaningful power trend and the highest overall power contrast compared to the remaining five wavelets tested in this study.
Serum and MRI Biomarkers in Mobile Device Texting: A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 1150-1154
  Judith E. Gold; Feroze B. Mohamed; Sayed Ali; Mary F. Barbe
Text messaging has become widespread, particularly among college-aged young adults. There is concern that high rates of texting may result in musculoskeletal disorders, including tendinopathies. We examined serum biomarkers, conventional MRI findings, and MRI mean intratendinous signal-to-noise ratio (MISI) of thumb tendons to determine if high volume texters (≥ 230 texts sent/day; n = 5) would be more likely than low volume texters (≤ 25 texts sent/day; n = 5) to have early onset tendinopathy and inflammation. Three of the high volume texters had MRI findings of tendinopathy as did one low volume texter. Increased serum TNF-R1 was found in high volume texters compared to low volume texters of college age, as were non-significant increases in MISI in 2 thumb tendons. Serum TNF-R1 and TNF-α correlated with the MISI in these tendons, as did IL1-R1. These results suggest that early onset tendinopathy with concurrent inflammation may be occurring in prolific texters. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE4 -- Applications of NIRS in Ergonomics and Human Factors

Application of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Ergonomics and Human Factors: A Discussion Panel BIBAFull-Text 1155-1157
  Rammohan V. Maikala; Ranjana K. Mehta; Sue A. Ferguson; R. Parasuraman; Mark S. Redfern; April J. Chambers
This panel presents near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) theory and its principles, and applicability of NIRS on a variety of muscle and cerebral regions during activities that demand considerable physical and mental effort. Five presentations will cover: (1) theoretical basis of NIRS; (2) NIRS-derived hemodynamic measurements in shoulder muscles during repetitive tasks; (3) development of NIRS for use in evaluating long term standing fatigue; (4) monitoring training-related changes in prefrontal cortex activation with functional NIRS; and (5) simultaneous evaluation of physical and mental work.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE5 -- Assessment of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders

Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Tattoo Artists BIBAFull-Text 1158-1162
  D. Christian Grieshaber; Matthew M. Marshall; Thomas J. Fuller
Despite the widespread popularity of tattoos in the U.S. and worldwide, little consideration has been given to the occupational risk factors that tattoo artists face. Tattoo artists are exposed to many of the same risk factors faced by occupations such as dentistry and cosmetology, including prolonged static work postures and sustained gripping of hand held tools. However, no research has evaluated the extent to which the tattooing profession is adversely affected by its occupational demands. Utilizing a survey of tattoo artists, this research sought to benchmark the prevalence of symptoms commonly associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders. The survey results revealed that tattoo artists experience high levels of discomfort in the lower back, neck, shoulders, and upper extremities and that these levels significantly exceed discomfort reported in professions that expose workers to similar ergonomic risk factors.
Licensed Massage Therapist Strain Index Scores BIBAFull-Text 1163-1167
  Lenore T. Page
Massage Therapists (MT) are almost exclusively self-employed and lose income if they are unable to perform massage treatments. This study investigated MT workplace pain via survey and assessed musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk by video recording MT massage treatments then calculating the Strain Index (SI) scores. First, randomly contacted MTs (16 respondents of 100 cold calls) completed an online survey about their work practices. Despite 87% of MTs reporting self care regimes, 83% reported work-related pain in the wrist or thumb over their careers with 57% experiencing pain in the last 30 days. SI scores were calculated for a 60 minute, naturalistic massage performed by seven licensed MTs (six female and one male reflecting the MT population sex proportions). There was suggestive evidence that the average and maximum hands-on day mean peak right hand SI scores (M = 5.6 and 7.7, SD = 4.30 and 5.73, and p = 0.08 and 0.04, respectively) were greater than an SI of 3.0 (moderate risk for MSD). There was no evidence of MSD risk for the left hand (M = 3.2 and 4.3, SD = 2.93 and 3.91, and p = 0.42 and 0.20, respectively). MTs may be at moderate risk of incurring work-related upper extremity disorders.
Valve Operation: Evaluation of Handwheel Actuation Techniques in Terms of Muscle Loading, Perceived Comfort, and Efficiency BIBAFull-Text 1168-1172
  Fereydoun Aghazadeh; Saif Al-Qaisi; Laura Ikuma; Francis Hutchinson
The purpose of this study was to introduce an innovative design of a valve wrench and compare it to conventional tools/methods of handwheel actuation. Four methods of handwheel actuation were evaluated, including using bare hands, regular wrench-restricted (assumes the presence of obstructions), regular wrench-unrestricted (assumes no obstructions), and modified wrench. These methods were tested on a medium-sized gate valve at two torque settings (25 Nm and 50 Nm). The methods were compared to each other, in terms of efficiency (speed), subjective ratings of perceived exertion (Borg ratings), and electromyography (EMG) activity of the left bicep and right medial deltoid. The least efficient technique at both torques was the regular wrench-restricted, and the most efficient technique was the modified wrench. At 25 Nm, the modified wrench was optimal, in that it was the most efficient and had moderately low EMG activity and Borg ratings. At 50 Nm, the regular wrench-unrestricted seemed to be the best method, having the lowest EMG activity and Borg ratings. In contrast, the bare hands technique had the highest EMG activity.
Assessment of Upper Extremity Postures in Novice and Expert during Simulated Carpentry Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1173-1177
  Shaheen Ahmed; Kari Babski-Reeves
Research has shown differences in working postures between experts and novices for lifting tasks, though there is limited research on upper extremity postural differences between experts and novices. This study quantified upper extremity postural differences between novices and experts while completing two simulated finished carpentry tasks: deck building and picket installation. A 16 camera, motion capture system was used to track upper extremity posture for 21 expert and 21 novice participants while performing 15 minute laboratory task simulations. A biomechanical model, built in AnyBody Modeling System, was used to extract seven different joint postures for wrist, elbow, and shoulder. In general, experts assumed more neutral postures, thereby reducing injury risk associated with non-neutral postures, though task, as expected, dictated the working posture assumed. The picket installation task imposed higher levels of non-neutral wrist and elbow postures; while the deck building imposed higher levels of non-neutral shoulder postures.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE6 -- Lifting, Material Handling, and Low Back Assessment Methods

Can the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation Predict Low Back Pain Incidence in a '90-day-pain-free-cohort'? BIBAFull-Text 1178-1182
  Sruthi Boda; Arun Garg; Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan
LBP is a major public health concern with enormous human and economic burden. The validity of the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE), a widely used job assessment tool, has not been studied previously in individuals with past LBP. The primary aim of this research was to study the relationship between RNLE measures and incident LBP episode risk after a 90-day pain free period using a prospective study design. One hundred and thirty industrial workers were identified as eligible to become an incident case for LBP. Univariate relationships between RNLE measures and incidence of LBP episode were studied using the Cox proportional hazards model. Significant associations between RNLE measures and incident LBP risk were found. It is concluded that the RNLE is predictive of incident LBP episode risk in individuals with past pain.
B Factor and its Importance to HFE Practitioners -- Applying NIOSH's 1991 Revised Lifting Equation and its Derivatives BIBAFull-Text 1183-1187
  James G. Borchardt; Sang D. Choi
Weight of materials is an essential component of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) 1991 Revised Lifting Equations, its European (BS EN)/International (ISO) derivatives and other published extensions/modifications. Weighing materials is often difficult at construction work sites. NIOSH's Lifting Equation and its variations might be used more frequently and effectively by Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) Practitioners if the weight of materials could be determined more easily at work sites. The Borchardt Factor (B Factor) concept would enable HFE Practitioners to 'calculate' the weight of large, bulky or irregularly shaped materials at work sites. The B Factor is defined as: Weight (lbs or kg) per 'easy to measure' unit of measurement.
Association between Trunk Flexion and Physical Activity in Patient Care Unit Workers BIBAFull-Text 1188-1191
  Oscar E. Arias; Peter E. Umukoro; Sonja Stofell; Jack T. Dennerlein; Glorian Sorensen
The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the direct measure of physical activity levels and the trunk posture (as a proxy for physical load) among a convenience sample of 49 Patient Care Unit workers (nurses and patient care assistants) for a single work shift. We tested the hypotheses that Patient Care Unit (PCU) worker's increased trunk posture is associated with their direct measure of physical activity levels during one work-shift. To assess the physical activity and physical load component all participants wore an accelerometer and an inclinometer respectively. A correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between parameters of physical activity (minutes in sedentary activity, minutes in lifestyle activity, minutes in light activity and minutes in moderate activity) with parameters of physical load (number of forward trunk bends to 20° per shift, number of forward trunk bends to 45° per shift). Workers were recruited from two hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Eleven participants spent 86% of the time at work with a trunk flexion lower than 15°, they were considered at low exposure for back disorders. Seven PCU workers spent 33% of their work time with a trunk flexion higher than 20°, they were considered at high exposure. Twenty-one workers were classified at a medium exposure for back disorders. A high correlation was found between number of forward trunk bending to 20° per shift (spearman's correlation: 0.56, p<0.001) with minutes in lifestyle activity. In addition, a high correlation was found among number of forward trunk bending to 45° per shift with minutes in lifestyle activity and minutes in light activity (spearman's correlation: 0.41, p=0.005 and 0.37, p=0.01 respectively). These results suggest that physical load at work during a single shift does not contribute to meet moderate or vigorous activity levels which are the activity levels that have substantial health benefits. Further studies with a bigger sample size would be recommended to assess the association between physical loads and physical activities for more than one shift to corroborate our findings.
Biomechanical Trade-Offs in Manual Material Handling: Some Tasks Reduce Lumbar Loading But Increase Thoracic Loading BIBAFull-Text 1192-1195
  Patrick J. Lee; Ellen L. Lee; Wilson C. Hayes
Job design that is protective of the lumbar spine may inadvertently increase stresses on the thoracic spine, potentially leading to thoracic injury. In this study, we determined the ratio of thoracic to lumbar loading during various tasks, including stoop and squat lifts. Loading on the thoracic spine was calculated based on previously reported thoracic intradiscal pressures and cross-sectional areas, and compared to loading on the lumbar spine calculated using the same methodology. Results demonstrated that the ratio of thoracic and lumbar loading is not uniform and varies with the posture used during manual material handling tasks. Specifically, the loading of the thoracic spine increased during squat lifts, as compared to stoop lifts, whereas the loading on the lumbar spine decreased during squat lifts. This study adds to the body of knowledge that there are trade-offs between squat and stoops lifts and neither are without risks.
Low Back Muscle Fatigue Measurements of Cyclic and Prolonged Stooped Work BIBAFull-Text 1196-1200
  Danny Nou; Brandon J. Miller; Fadi A. Fathallah
Fatigue experiments were performed on human subjects to study muscle fatigue measurements of the erector spinae muscles during cyclic and prolonged static stooped bending using electromyography (EMG). Nineteen subjects participated in the study. The median muscle firing frequency (fm) data of the erector spinae muscles were measured noninvasively and continuously during simulated cyclic and prolonged stooped work. In the prolonged condition, the subject conducted an isometric stooped work at 4:1 work to rest ratio; whereas in the cyclic condition, the subject conducted an isometric stooped work at 4:1 work-to-rest ratio; each followed by a recovery period. To quantify the rate of fatigue, a fatigue index was defined as the change in the fm with respect to muscle activation time. All measurements were normalized to each subject's individual erector spinae maximum voluntary contraction using the Biering-Sørenson Muscle Endurance test for lower back endurance as control measurement. The results indicated that the use of EMG showed no significant differences in the muscle fatigue between cyclic and prolonged stooped conditions. However, when EMG results for both are compared to the control conditions, similar fatigue responses are shown. This may be an indication that both cyclic and prolonged stooped work conditions are equally detrimental to the spine, which calls for effective interventions to limit their effects on workers who commonly perform these types of tasks.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE7 -- Ergonomic Assessment Methods

Investigating the effects of slipping on lumbar muscle activity, kinematics, and kinetics BIBAFull-Text 1201-1205
  Ehsan Rashedi; Bochen Jia; Maury A. Nussbaum; Thurmon E. Lockhart
Slips, trips, and falls remain leading causes of occupational injuries and fatalities. The current exploratory study quantified lumbar kinematics and kinetics during both induced slips and normal walking. Individual anthropometry, lumbar muscle geometry, and lumbar kinematics, along with electromyography of 14 lumbar muscles were used as input to a 3D, dynamic, EMG-based model of the lumbar spine. Results indicated that, in comparison with values during normal walking, lumbar kinematics, lumbosacral kinetics, lumbar muscle activations, and lumbosacral reaction forces were all substantially increased during a slip event. Observed levels of muscle activity and lumbosacral reaction forces suggest the potential for low back injury during a slip event. Outcomes of this work may facilitate the identification and control of specific mechanisms involved with low back disorders consequent to a slip.
An Inside Step in an Aerial Bucket Reduces Postural Instability During Ingress and Egress BIBAFull-Text 1206-1210
  Bianca Bain; Richard Marklin
The objective of this research study was to determine if an inside step in an aerial bucket reduces instability of a person entering and exiting the aerial bucket by reducing muscular exertion, which in theory can help reduce the risk of a fall. There are no publications based on laboratory or field studies regarding how the design of an aerial bucket affects postural instability and the risk of falls. Three configurations of aerial buckets (2 inside step locations and no inside step) for ingress and egress were tested to determine if the presence, and also the location, of an inside step affected three indicators of postural instability: location of person's center of mass (CM), hand force on the bucket rim, and EMG activity of the triceps and rectus femoris (quadriceps). Sixteen electric utilities workers were tested. It was found that the presence of an inner step allowed for a lower CM of the person entering and exiting the bucket, reduced the muscle activity of the triceps and rectus femoris, and decreased hand force on the rim. Two locations of the inside step are equally beneficial. Utilities should use a removable inside step in aerial buckets that do not have a door. An inside step in an aerial bucket may benefit other industries that use buckets, such as telecommunication, tree trimming, and sign painting.
Ergonomic Evaluation of Track-Type Stair Descent Devices Used for the Evacuation of High Rise Buildings BIBAFull-Text 1211-1212
  Steven A. Lavender; Jay P. Mehta; Glenn E. Hedman; Sanghyun Park; Paul A. Reichelt; Karen M. Conrad
Fire service personnel are often the first people called upon when evacuating large multi-story buildings during emergency and non-emergency conditions. During such evacuations, firefighters may need to transport building occupants with physical disabilities down several flights of stairs. While several stair descent devices or "evacuation chairs" are currently on the market for emergency evacuation of individuals with motor disabilities from high rise buildings, there is little empirical data indicating their impact on the physical demands placed on the firefighter. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate five existing evacuation chairs with track systems, each representing a different design approach, that have been developed to transport individuals who are ill or who have ambulatory disabilities down multiple flights of stairs.
Using Multiple Complementary Methods to Develop Ergonomics Audits for Mining Operations BIBAFull-Text 1213-1217
  Patrick G. Dempsey; William L. Porter; Jonisha P. Pollard; Colin G. Drury
Although ergonomics audits are commonly used by consultants, the scientific literature on reliable and valid audits is sparse. This paper describes a multi-faceted methodological approach to developing ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations. The approach was derived from a validated audit (Ergonomics Assessment Program (ERNAP)) for aircraft maintenance operations. While there were contextual, regulatory, and intended end user differences, the general approach to establishing content validity through task analysis and workplace observations, surveillance data, and accepted practices and regulations proved to be effective, albeit with modifications. Analysis of fatality reports and desire for integration with existing mining safety approaches were two areas where the current approach differed from ERNAP.
Whole Body Vibration Exposure and Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility of Air Suspension Seat in Different Bus Designs BIBAFull-Text 1218-1222
  Ornwipa Thamsuwan; Ryan P. Blood; Charlotte Lewis; Patrik W. Rynell; Peter W. Johnson
A number of studies have shown that whole body vibration (WBV) exposures contribute to low back pain in vehicle operators. Bus design may be an important factor in determining the WBV exposures that a driver receives. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in WBV exposures among three buses commonly used in long urban commuter routes: a high-floor coach bus, a low-floor coach bus, and a low-floor articulating bus. Each bus had the same new air-suspension installed and was driven over a standardized test route which included four road types: a smooth freeway, a rough freeway, a city street segment, and a road segment containing several speed humps. WBV exposures were evaluated per ISO 2631-1 action limits for acceptable WBV exposure levels. In this study, there were statistically significant differences among buses in WBV exposures. The high-floor coach bus had the highest fore-aft (x-axis) exposures, the low-floor articulating bus had the highest lateral (y-axis) exposures and the low-floor coach bus had the highest vertical (z-axis) exposures. With respect to ISO action limits, the z-axis WBV exposures did not exceed the 8-hour action limit (0.5 m/s2). The study also found that the air suspension seat did not perform well in the coach buses. The air suspension seat transmitted 92% of the floor measured vibration to the seat of the operator on the high-floor coach bus, 88% on the low-floor bus, and 76% on the low-floor articulating bus. Due to the low vibration attenuation performance of the air suspension seat, an evaluation of the different types of seats and seat suspensions may be merited in future research.

Internet: I1/CS -- Security, Privacy, and Trust

Improvement of a Social Gaming Checkout User Interface BIBAFull-Text 1223-1227
  Rochelle Edwards
Social games are utilizing virtual currency to increase the gaming experience as well as their bottom line. Users must progress through a checkout user interface in order to obtain this virtual currency, and the onus is placed on the development team, including the user researcher, to optimize this interface. Playfish recently performed testing on a new version of its checkout interface in one of its social games, Pet Society. It explored the usability and security of the interface, as well as the degree to which the interface integrated with Facebook's checkout interface. While current spenders rated security quite low due to past personal and second-hand experiences, non-spenders' ratings were not yet sullied by a negative checkout experience. Therefore, improvement to the interface, particularly in the security domain, has the ability to increase new users' perceptions when purchasing virtual currency, which may increase the number of microtransactions moving forward.
Evaluating the usability of CAPTCHAs on a mobile device with voice and touch input BIBAFull-Text 1228-1232
  Andrew J. Wismer; Kapil Chalil Madathil; Reshmi Koikkara; Kevin A. Juang; Joel S. Greenstein
The usability of text-based CAPTCHAs, featuring distorted letters, and image-based CAPTCHAs, featuring pictures, was explored on an Apple iPad. Five conditions were explored: Confident CAPTCHA with either voice or touch input, ESP-PIX with voice or touch input, and Google's CAPTCHA with touch input. Usability was analyzed in terms of performance, perceived usability, workload, and preference rankings. Results showed that CAPTCHAs involving touch input scored better in almost every measure than CAPTCHAs involving voice input. In particular, Confident Touch is recommended based on preference and perceived performance, whereas ESP-PIX Touch is recommended for its short completion time. When image-based CAPTCHAs are not feasible, Google's CAPTCHA is a satisfactory alternative based on usability ratings.
The role of topic familiarity in online credibility evaluation support BIBAFull-Text 1233-1237
  Teun Lucassen; Jan Maarten Schraagen
Evaluating the credibility of information is a difficult yet essential task in a society where the Internet plays a large role. Familiarity with the topic at hand has been shown to have a large influence on the way credibility is evaluated; 'familiar users' tend to focus on semantic features, 'unfamiliar users' focus more on surface features. In this study, we attempt to find out whether these differences have consequences for the development of credibility evaluation support systems. Two simulated support systems were evaluated, one utilizing semantic features (aiming at familiar users), the other utilizing surface features (aiming at unfamiliar users). The results suggest that unfamiliar users have a preference for a surface support system. Familiar users have no clear preference, have less trust in the support, and report to be influenced less by a support system. We recommend to focus on unfamiliar users when developing credibility evaluation support.
Acceptance of Advertising and Collection of Personal Information BIBAFull-Text 1238-1242
  Joshua B. Hurwitz
The current study investigated the relationship between acceptance of advertising and of services that collect personal information. Survey respondents were presented with a questionnaire asking about their agreement with various forms of advertising, and were also presented with scenarios describing mobile and TV-based services. The results showed that adding collection of personal information to the services had less of an impact on the ratings of respondents who were more accepting of advertisements inserted into applications (software, games and MP3s) or presented on mobile devices. These results suggest that acceptance of advertising could be an indicator of privacy sensitivity, and could be used to personalize privacy management in part based on individual differences in sensitivity.
Cognitive Approaches to Password Memorability -- the Possible Role of Story-Based Passwords BIBAFull-Text 1243-1247
  Steffen Werner; Connor Hoover
The inverse relation between memorability of a password and the strength of a password presents a unique optimization opportunity for cognitive approaches. While graphical passwords have received most of the attention to date, the use of verbal material to create memorable passwords presents some distinct advantages that might make story-based passwords a serious contender in the race to the ultimate 'cognitive' password system. In a first pilot study with 385 participants we investigated the memory for different story elements for short (10 min) and long (1 week) retention intervals. Even a non-optimized story yields better long-term performance than traditional alphanumeric passwords and is comparable to the lower end of graphical password systems.

Internet: I2/CS -- Physical Topics and Methods

Precise Positioning on Computer Monitors: Comparison of Mouse and Scroll Wheel in One Dimension BIBAFull-Text 1248-1252
  Robert Pastel
Precisely positioning graphical objects is an essential task for graphic designers. This paper compares precise positioning using a physically discrete device, indented scroll wheels, with positioning using a continuous device, standard mouse movements. The device (scroll wheel or mouse), positioned object height, positioning tolerance and initial object-target separation are varied while observing the error frequency, movement times and time to confirm that the object is accurately positioned. Positioning tolerance was varied from a single permissible position to 7 possible positions. Error frequency and confirmation time were less using the scroll wheel, while movement times were less using the mouse. Appropriate measures for the difficulty of precise positioning are discussed.
Can User-Derived Gesture be Considered as the Best Gesture for a Command?: Focusing on the Commands for Smart Home System BIBAFull-Text 1253-1257
  Eunjung Choi; Sunghyuk Kwon; Donghun Lee; Hojin Lee; Min K. Chung
With advanced technologies of gesture recognition, various researchers have started to focus on deriving intuitive gestures for commands from users. Most of the studies suggested only the gestures with the highest frequency (a top gesture) for the commands. In this study, a total of two experiments were conducted to identify whether the top gestures in the first experiment are maintained in the second experiment. A total of thirty participants took part in the first experiment and twenty eight in the second experiment. As a result of the experiments, 65% of the top gestures from the first experiment were changed in the second experiment, although the same participants conducted the two experiments. Also, the agreement score was significantly higher in the second experiment.
Assessing Posture While Typing on Portable Computing Devices in Traditional Work Environments and at Home BIBAFull-Text 1258-1262
  Abigail J. Werth; Kari Babski-Reeves
Mobile computers are becoming increasingly popular for many user populations, since they allow owners to perform computing activities in a number of settings (e.g., home, office). However, little research exists that quantifies ergonomic exposures associated with using mobile computing devices, particularly in non-traditional environments or for newer, compact mobile computers (e.g., slate computers). Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify posture differences between mobile computing devices when performing data entry tasks at a traditional workstation and on a sofa. Wrist and neck flexion/extension (FE) and wrist radial/ulnar deviation (RU) were measured using electrogoniometers. When working at the non-traditional work station (i.e., sofa), postures were found to be degraded particularly when typing on the slate computer. These findings indicate that the potential or injury or illness may be elevated when working on smaller computers in non-traditional work settings.
"Commanding Your Robot" Older Adults' Preferences for Methods of Robot Control BIBAFull-Text 1263-1267
  Jenay M. Beer; Akanksha Prakash; Cory-Ann Smarr; Tracy L. Mitzner; Charles C. Kemp; Wendy A. Rogers
Home robots have the potential to assist older adults in maintaining their independence. However, robots deployed in older adults' homes will be required to interact with untrained, novice users. The way untrained users, such as older adults, provide commands or control the robot (i.e., 'method of robot control') will likely impact the ease of use and adoption of the robot. The current study explored older adults' preferences for controlling robots. Twelve independently-living older adults (ages 68-79) observed a functioning personal robot in a home setting, and were interviewed about their opinions regarding specific methods of robot control (i.e., laser pointer, physical manipulation, and devices). The older adults perceived advantages and disadvantages of these specific methods, including 'specificity in command', 'accurate robot performance', 'limitations in their own physical capability', and 'challenges in using control device.' The older adults also completed a questionnaire measuring their willingness to use 10 different types of methods of robot control. These data revealed that older adults were willing to use a variety of methods. Although older adults were limited in their spontaneous ideas about robot control (i.e., limited to voice command), once exposed to other options they were willing and open to a variety of control methods.
Effects of Cover Letter Subject Line and Open-ended Question Response Area on Responding to an Internet Survey BIBAFull-Text 1268-1272
  Michael P. Linegang; William F. Moroney
To ensure the validity of the data and conclusions derived from internet questionnaires, researchers must understand the implications different questionnaire design decisions have for their data. This paper describes an internet-based survey in which the text of the email cover-letter subject line and the size of response area provided for open-ended question responses were manipulated. This study showed that the offer of a food incentive in the subject line yielded fewer responses. Meanwhile, a larger (six line) text box yielded significantly more words than a smaller (one line) text box, but the larger text box did not yield any increase in the number of topics addressed in the open-ended response data. Finally, open-ended questions soliciting negative comments yielded significantly more words than did questions seeking positive comments.

Macroergonomics: ME1 -- Macroergonomics and Safety

Macroergonomic Approach to Safety Culture/Climate: A Healthcare Facility Case Study BIBAFull-Text 1273-1277
  Todd William Loushine
A long-term care facility in the Upper Midwest was experiencing a high rate of injuries, primarily due to caregiver-patient interactions. A grounded theory case study was conducted to collect top management, supervisor, and caregiver perceptions of work system elements (centered on the caregiver job), and then compare their responses to identify discrepancies. Any discrepancies in perceptions between organizational levels are a potential point for miscommunication, poor relations, injuries, or other negative outcome. Results indicate that although management believes that injuries can be avoided by following work rules, some workers believe that getting injured is, 'just part of my job' and that overexertion and 'hurrying' is expected. Organizational and social issues need to be understood before sustainable change can occur. Implications for a macroergonomic approach to safety culture assessment are discussed.
Evaluation of an FAA Maintenance Agency Using an Organization Development Approach BIBAFull-Text 1278-1282
  Linda Pierce; Cristina Byrne; Clara Williams
An action research approach was used to plan for organization development (OD) in centers within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for remote monitoring and coordination of maintenance. Research participants worked in one of three centers. The participants were asked questions about their technical background; interdependencies, structure, complexity, and workload inherent in the job; cohesion and trust among co-workers; and perceived operational effectiveness and job satisfaction. Results were summarized and categorized as related to workload, resources, and knowledge of results. Strategies to address one or more of the factors identified were proposed. Strategies included the use of small teams to organize work, a revised training approach for new employees and leaders, internal and external mechanisms for performance feedback, and a fatigue risk management approach to improve shift work practices. The next step will be to work with managers to tailor and implement selected strategies.

Macroergonomics: ME3 -- Macroergonomics, Work and Education

A LISREL Analysis of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Office Workers BIBAFull-Text 1283-1287
  Susan Sung Eun Chung; Alan Hedge
A survey of 2,346 office computer users was analyzed using structural equation modeling to identify self-report individual, work characteristics, technology, and postural risk factors, determined by observation, for self-reports of work-related musculoskeletal discomfort for the neck, shoulders and arms/hands and also somatic symptoms (eyestrain, headache). The final structural equations were Somatic symptoms= 0.68*Individual factors + 0.14*Postural risk factors, with an error variance of 0.89 and explained variance of 11%; and Discomfort = 0.64*Somatic symptoms with an error variance of 0.25 and explained variance of 62%. Analysis showed that somatic symptoms mediate the effects of individual and postural risk factors on musculoskeletal discomfort symptoms.
Organizational Learning in a Large-scale Complex Health IT Project BIBAFull-Text 1288-1292
  Ann Schoofs Hundt; Pascale Carayon; Peter Hoonakker; Randi Cartmill; Ruth Den Herder; Joan Topper; Jim Younkin; James Walker
Implementing large-scale complex health IT projects poses significant challenges to organizations. This paper discusses one Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT Beacon project aimed at implementing an IT-mediated care coordination model across multiple care settings in multiple communities. We posit that using participatory ergonomic methods to collect and promptly report findings to the project management team provides significant impetus for organizational learning and increases the likelihood of success of this large-scale health IT implementation project. We describe how we involve management team members in the ongoing regular evaluation of the project through short monthly Web-based surveys and semi-annual individual interviews. The goal of this process is to promote organizational learning and impact the success of this and future complex large-scale projects.

Macroergonomics: ME2 -- Macroergonomics in Health Care: Principles, Progress, and Prospects

Macroergonomics in Healthcare: Principles, Progress, and Prospects BIBAFull-Text 1293-1297
  Richard J. Holden; Enid Montague; Pascale Carayon; Peter Hoonakker; Patrick Waterson; Tosha Wetterneck; Ayse Gurses; A. Joy Rivera-Rodriguez
Macroergonomics is a branch of human factors/ergonomics that can be, and indeed has been, of tremendous value to the healthcare domain. Macroergonomics offers healthcare a whole-systems orientation, a suite of methods, and numerous examples of interventions that can be successfully deployed in a variety of healthcare settings. This panel will first discuss how macroergonomic principles such as its whole-systems orientation can improve our understanding of the context of patient safety (Carayon) and the impact of health information technology (Hoonakker). Waterson (on behalf of Waterson and Eason) will present a sociotechnical analysis of a home care intervention for frail elderly patients. Wetterneck will present another multi-component intervention, this one in primary care. The panel will conclude with two examples of how macroergonomics has been used to address classic healthcare human factors issues: the implementation of electronic health records (Rivera-Rodriguez); and the classification of hazards (Gurses).

Perception and Performance: PP1 -- Getting Users' Attention: Effectiveness of Different Cues

Sonification Discriminability and Perceived Urgency BIBAFull-Text 1298-1302
  Wayne Giang; Catherine M. Burns
Sonifications are auditory displays that can help operators monitor safety critical data. However, there are very few guidelines that describe the design of effective sonifications. Two parameters that may impact the effectiveness of a sonification are discriminability and perceived urgency. We designed and evaluated four sonifications which varied timbre and the presence of a redundant pulse rate mapping using measures based on discriminability and perceived urgency. Our results show that participants were faster in detecting changes in a simple pure-tone timbre when compared to a more complex but natural sounding propeller engine timbre. Perceived urgency was heavily influenced by the presence of a redundant pulse rate mapping that changed the tempo of the sonification. When the redundant mapping was present, participants rated that the sonification sounded more urgent than when the mapping was absent. Further examination of how context influences discriminability and perceived urgency can extend the findings of this study.
Perceived Urgency Scaling in Tactile Alerts BIBAFull-Text 1303-1306
  Stephanie M. Pratt; Bridget A. Lewis; B. N. Peñaranda; Daniel M. Roberts; Christian Gonzalez; Carryl L. Baldwin
Tactile vibrations are potentially useful in a variety of environments to communicate information to visually and auditorily overloaded people. However, since vibrotactile signals must come into physical contact with the skin, they may also be perceived as highly urgent and annoying. The current study examined whether scalable levels of perceived urgency could be obtained with tactile signals by measuring the relationship between changes in vibrotactile pulse rate and ratings of urgency and annoyance. In two separate experiments, changes in pulse rate resulted in changes in ratings of perceived urgency with faster pulse rates being perceived as more urgent. Importantly, in both studies pulse rate had a greater impact on perceived urgency than it did on annoyance suggesting that scalable levels of urgency can be achieved without similarly annoying operators. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for multimodal display design.
Equating Perceived Urgency Across Auditory, Visual, and Tactile Signals BIBAFull-Text 1307-1311
  Bridget A. Lewis; Carryl L. Baldwin
Determining the most effective modality to use to draw an operator's attention to a specific situation has been a topic of recent interest. Making this determination requires ensuring that the signals being compared have been equated for saliency and perceived urgency. We conducted an experiment to examine how perceptions of urgency and annoyance change with changes in physical parameters across auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. While urgency ratings in the low, medium, and high range were found in each modality, parameters such as interpulse interval had a greater impact on perceived urgency than annoyance in the auditory and tactile modality, while having relatively little impact in the visual modality. Results can be used to facilitate the design of alerts and warnings with pre-specified urgency levels while minimizing annoyance and have implications for both research and interface design.
Spatial Multisensory Cueing to Support Visual Target-Acquisition Performance BIBAFull-Text 1312-1316
  Julio C. Mateo; Brian D. Simpson; Robert H. Gilkey; Nandini Iyer; Douglas S. Brungart
The impact of spatial multisensory cues on target-acquisition performance was examined. Response times (RTs) obtained in the absence of spatial cues were compared to those obtained when tactile, auditory, or audiotactile cues indicated the target location. Visual scene complexity was manipulated by varying the number of visual distractors present. The results indicated that all these spatial cues effectively reduced RTs. The benefit of cueing was greater when more distractors were present and when targets were presented from more eccentric locations. Although the benefit was greatest for conditions containing auditory cues, tactile cues alone had a large benefit. No apparent advantage of audiotactile cues over auditory cues was observed, suggesting that the auditory cues provided sufficient information to support performance. Future research will explore whether audiotactile cues are more helpful when the auditory cues are degraded (e.g., when presented in noisy environments or in generic virtual auditory displays).
The Influence of Visual Aids on Detecting Early and Late Decelerations in Maternal-Fetal Heart Rate Patterns BIBAFull-Text 1317-1321
  Rebecca A. Kennedy; Brittany L. Anderson-Montoya; Mark W. Scerbo; Erik Prytz; Lee A., II Belfore; Alfred Z. Abuhamad; Stephen S. Davis; Suneet P. Chauhan
The present study examined how well individuals could differentiate between two different types of signals (early and late decels) in maternal-fetal heart rate tracings with and without the use of a visual aid. Twenty-one undergraduates twice viewed 80 simulated images under four different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. Further, the late decels were delayed in 4-sec increments. In one block of trials, the images were presented without a visual aid, and in the other block a visual aid consisting of a large turquoise crosshair was overlaid on the images. The results indicated that lower S/N ratios and shorter onset delays made signals more difficult to distinguish. However, overall levels of accuracy were significantly higher when the visual aid was present. These results provide initial evidence that utilizing visual aids can enhance the ability to detect critical signals in maternal-fetal heart rate patterns.

Perception and Performance: PP2 -- Multisensory Tactile Systems for Soldiers: Theory, Research, and Applications

HFES Panel Discussion Submission (Perception and Performance) BIBAFull-Text 1322-1325
  Dr. Linda R. Elliott; Dr Peter Hancock
Soldiers can quickly lose situation awareness and orientation in combat, particularly in situations where there is degraded visual acuity, high noise, and/or need for audio silence. Multisensory tactile displays have enabled Soldiers to communicate during strenuous movements and to navigate at night, while hands-free and eyes-free. The full potential of these multisensory systems to reduce Soldier cognitive load and enhance performance has yet to be determined. Improved technology in tactile cueing enables more precise recognition of diverse alerts and communications. Efforts are also underway to integrate the tactile systems to visual and gesture-based systems. These new integrated systems could augment battlefield visualization techniques to allow individuals to quickly visualize and respond to battlefield dynamics. Given these technology developments, there is immediate need for research and guidelines to address issues arising from these multisensory displays. Panel discussants will introduce issues and insights arising from extensive research in basic and applied streams of research. While the performance context is that of Soldier navigation, communication, and performance, discussions will generalize to many fields.

Perception and Performance: PP3 -- Operating Systems in Simulated, Virtual, & Faraway Environments

Can Users Judge the Stair-Climbing Abilities of Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Robots? BIBAFull-Text 1326-1330
  Keith S. Jones; Elizabeth A. Schmidlin; Noah J. Wheeler
This experiment examined users' abilities to judge whether an autonomous robot can accomplish a given task. It was predicted that 1) participants would differentiate the action-capabilities of short and tall robots, 2) participants would base their judgments on an action-relevant scalar, and 3) participants' judgments would be accurate. All three predictions were supported. This is important because it suggests that users may be able to accurately judge whether an autonomous robot can accomplish a given task without having previously observed that robot perform that task. The ability to do so will be very important as users increasingly ask their robots to perform tasks that the robots' designers may have never considered.
The Design and Evaluation of Visual and Tactile Warnings in Support of Space Teleoperation BIBAFull-Text 1331-1335
  Huiyang Li; Nadine B. Sarter; Angelia Sebok; Christopher D. Wickens
Space teleoperation is a very challenging task, in part due to the difficulty with maintaining awareness of the robotic arm's configuration. Operators sometimes fail to notice undesirable arm configurations, such as joint limits or singularities, due to poor graphic user interface (GUI) designs and visual data overload. These failures can lead to hazards and unsafe conditions. The present study served to develop and comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of two approaches to supporting astronauts in monitoring the arm: 1) visual highlighting and information integration, and 2) tactile warnings. Performance measures and eye tracking data were collected and show that visual highlighting/integration and tactile warnings resulted in faster response times to, and successful avoidance of problematic arm configurations. The findings also highlight that additional support is needed for later stages of information processing, such as response selection. The findings from this research not only benefit space teleoperation but can inform the design of interfaces in other data-rich domains.
Human Control in Rotated Frames: Anisotropies in the Misalignment Disturbance Function of Pitch, Roll, and Yaw BIBAFull-Text 1336-1340
  Stephen R. Ellis; Bernard D. Adelstein; Kiwon Yeom
Comparative misalignment disturbance functions (MDF) have been measured for rotations between display and control axes for pure pitch, roll, and yaw misalignments in a high fidelity virtual environment. Twenty participants manually moved a virtual cursor using position control to touch 3-dimensionally, randomly presented nearby targets having a constant Fitts Index of Difficulty. Results show a peak disturbance near 120° of rotation for all axes with Roll being distinguishably more disturbed. Some reasons for observed anisotropies, nonlinearities and an equiaxial spiral feature are briefly discussed and modeled.
Steering Performance and Dynamic Complexity in a Simulated Underground Mining Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 1341-1345
  Steven Cloete; Christine Zupanc; Robin Burgess-Limerick; Guy Wallis
Research concerning the visuomotor control of steering suggests that some steering systems used in underground shuttle cars are not optimal. This research compared the performance of two groups of participants steering with a joystick interface through a simulated underground mine environment. The joystick employed either first-order or second-order control of heading. Results indicated poorer performance with second-order steering dynamics in the early stages of the experiment, which generally did not improve to levels observed in the first-order group. Poorer overall performance suggests that equipment manufacturers should reconsider the use of second-order steering dynamics in their vehicle designs. Alternately, simulation-based training technologies may have the potential to safely accelerate individual attainment of competence in the use of second-order steering systems.
Camera Placement in Simulated Laparoscopic Surgery Influences Performance BIBAFull-Text 1346-1350
  Noah J. Wheeler; Martina I. Klein; Curtis Craig
Laparoscopic surgery requires surgeons to view rotated visual feedback of the surgical field. However, systematic assessments of the effects of visuomotor rotations on performance have been controversial. Forty novice undergraduates performed a pointing task in a laparoscopic trainer box while experiencing one of five different visuomotor rotations: 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°. Performance was measured using root mean squared error (RMSE). When initially exposed to the visuomotor rotations, participants' performance was superior in the 0° condition when compared to the 45°, 90°, and 135° conditions. The pattern of results observed in the present study were consistent with basic research by Cunningham (1989) that showed the most severe performance decrements for rotations between 90° and 135°. With prolonged exposure to the visuomotor rotations, participants adapted to the distortions. The results of the present study are relevant to the design of laparoscopic training curricula.

Perception and Performance: PP4 -- Augmented Reality: Implications Toward Virtual Reality, Human Perception, and Performance

Augmented Reality -- Implications toward Virtual Reality, Human Perception and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1351-1355
  R. A. Grier; H. Thiruvengada; S. R. Ellis; P. Havig; K. S. Hale; J. G. Hollands
Augmented reality (AR) is defined as 'a live direct or an indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input, such as sound, graphics or GPS data.' It is not uncommon to come face-to-face with smart devices that are equipped with multiple embedded sensory inputs such as mega pixel camera, microphones, speakers, high definition (e.g. Retina) displays, 3D displays, holographic displays and pico-projection technologies. Such technology has enabled application designers and developers to package information succinctly and efficiently without loss of clarity. Recently, AR applications (e.g. iPhone World Lens, Google goggles) have drawn mainstream attention. The military also has programs that represent a leap forward (e.g. DARPA Sandblaster program). These advances in AR have been influenced by developments in variety of technologies including low cost of advanced processors, light weight displays, ubiquitous computing afforded by omnipresent devices such as smart phones, tablets, etc. However, there are currently no human factors standards to aid the development. These technologies have great potential to enhance our abilities, but there is also the risk that they represent an annoyance or a significant safety risk. Specifically, improper system lag, reliability, display design (e.g., clutter or resolution) could lead to errors. The goal of this session is to discuss what research is needed to define these standards. It is likely that there is no one set of standards, but developing a framework for these standards will go a long way towards bridging the research-application gap.

Perception and Performance: PP5 -- Auditory -- Visual Displays

Conduction Equivalency Ratios: A Means for Comparing the Frequency Response of Bone and Air Conduction Auditory Displays BIBAFull-Text 1356-1360
  Rafael Patrick; Jason Kring; Maranda McBride; Tomasz Letowski
Soldiers in today's military operate in environments where noise can make verbal communication and auditory awareness of incoming danger very difficult. Due to advances in technology and the development of bone-conduction (BC) communication systems, soldiers are now able to communicate via two-way radio without surrendering their ability to perceive surrounding events. However, despite rapid advancements in the application of BC systems, very little is known in regards to the perceived equivalency between the two modes of hearing. To better understand how BC technology can be utilized, this study sought to determine the relationship between spectral content of bone and air conducted sound using conduction equivalency ratios (CERs), whereby CER is defined as the difference in sound intensity levels between equally loud signals transmitted in both conduction modes.
Spearcons Improve Navigation Performance and Perceived Speediness in Korean Auditory Menus BIBAFull-Text 1361-1365
  Hyewon Suh; Myounghoon Jeon; Bruce N. Walker
For decades, auditory menus using both speech (usually text-to-speech, TTS) and non-speech sounds have been extensively studied. Researchers have developed situation-optimized auditory menus involving such cues as auditory icons, earcons, spearcons, and spindex. Spearcons have generally outperformed other cues in terms of providing both contextual information and item-specific information. However, little research has been devoted to exploration of spearcons in languages other than English, or the use of spearcon-only auditory menus. In this study, we evaluated the use of spearcons in Korean menus, as well as the use of spearcons alone. Twenty-five native Korean speakers navigated through a two-dimensional auditory menu presented via TTS, with or without spearcon enhancements. Korean spearcons were successful. Participants also rated the spearcon-enhanced menu as seeming speedier and more fun than the TTS-only menu. After a short learning period, mean time-to-target in the auditory menu was even faster with spearcons alone, compared to traditional TTS-only menus.

Perception and Performance: PP5 -- Auditory & Visual Displays

Eye Tracking Metrics: A Toolbox for Assessing the Effects of Clutter on Attention Allocation BIBAFull-Text 1366-1370
  Nadine M. Moacdieh; Nadine B. Sarter
Display clutter is a problem that affects operators in various data-rich environments. Clutter measurement techniques such as image processing and performance measures can provide an estimate of clutter but are largely not suited to tracing the effects of clutter on the dynamic allocation of attention. Eye tracking is a promising process-oriented tool that can help assess in real-time the attentional costs associated with the different aspects of clutter. In this experiment, we investigated which of a number of eye tracking metrics in the literature are sensitive to clutter. Twenty-two participants were asked to look for a target in static and dynamic images that were classified as either high or low in clutter. Response time and error rate were recorded, and an eye tracker was used to compute the identified eye tracking metrics. Results showed that, in both the static and dynamic conditions, a large number of eye tracking metrics were significantly affected by an increase in clutter. This suggests that eye tracking can be used to supplement other clutter measurement techniques by providing information about dynamic attention allocation.
"Cognitive Efficiency" in Display Media: A First Investigation of Basic Signal Dimensions BIBAFull-Text 1371-1375
  Shiyan Yang; Karan Shukla; Thomas K. Ferris
In many work domains, such as aviation cockpits and hospital operation rooms, data overload can result when a human operator is unable to make efficient use of his/her limited cognitive resources in processing task-relevant data. One way to address this problem is to design displays that communicate data in a mentally economical way, either by increasing the information content, or decreasing the demand on cognitive resources. This paper introduces a metric -- 'Cognitive Efficiency' (CE) -- expressed as a ratio of display informativeness to resource demand, which can be used to compare the effectiveness of various display types for a given task environment. The present study explored CE ratios for basic visual and auditory displays modulated by either the intensity or spectral properties (e.g., hue, pitch) of the light/sound signal. Among other findings, the results showed that visual displays are more efficient than auditory displays when more information content is present, and spectral modulation is more efficient than intensity modulation. Interesting differences are highlighted between CE ratios that use subjective (NASA-TLX) and those that use physiological (EEG) workload measures. The findings have implications for the study of human information processing, display design, and the development of metrics for display effectiveness.
Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Display Compatibility BIBAFull-Text 1376-1380
  Justin G. Hollands
In this paper, display design is considered in terms of representations and compatibility. We can view the various forms of compatibility (display, task, data type, stimulus-response, ecological, etc.) in terms of the correspondence between a pair of representations. Each type of compatibility is reviewed, with the representations specified in each case. In defining the various types, and considering the relation between them, some previous misinterpretations are clarified. A general compatibility framework is defined, and a model is proposed that could be validated through empirical means. Finally, a notional tool is described that could be used by a human factors engineer to guide design or acquisition choices for information display.

Perception and Performance: PP6 -- Design of Controls

Up or Down: Directional Stimulus-Response Compatibility and Natural Scrolling BIBAFull-Text 1381-1385
  Jing Chen; Robert W. Proctor
The settings of scrolling direction (e.g., whether scrolling up or down to move the display content up) on current computer operating systems are discrepant, which may impair users' performance and user experience. To evaluate the alternatives, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, we simulated the way people read and scroll on a computer by asking participants to press the up-arrow or down-arrow key to scroll the screen. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the scrolling component by including only a location-judgment task. We examined directional stimulus-response compatibility in the scrolling task and the location-judgment task. Results showed that responses were facilitated when the control direction was compatible with the display content movement direction. This finding is consonant with the Mac OS X Lion operating system, which defines the default scrolling direction as 'move content in the direction of finger movement.' We recommend that other systems adopt this directional compatible mapping.
Are Two Hands (from Different People) Better than One? Transfer between Unimanual, Bimanual, and Intermanual Coordination Modes BIBAFull-Text 1386-1390
  Michael J. Crites; Jamie C. Gorman
We report an experiment investigating transfer effects between unimanual (one-handed), bimanual (two-handed), and intermanual (different peoples' hands) coordination modes. From an information-based perspective, coordination at the individual level should positively transfer to coordination at the interpersonal level, and vise versa. From a constraint-based perspective, simpler coordination tasks (e.g., at the individual level) should positively transfer to a more complex one (e.g., at the interpersonal level), but not vise versa. Participants drove a teleoperated rover using different manual coordination modes in a within-subjects design, and their speed was measured. The resulting pattern of transfer effects across coordination modes is better accounted for by a constraint-based explanation. However, those transfer effects disappear rapidly with practice. The current results lead us to conclude that team motor skills are not immediately transferable to individual motor skills.
Using Fitts' Law for a 3D Pointing Task on a 2D Display: Effects of Depth and Vantage Point BIBAFull-Text 1391-1395
  Erik Prytz; Michael Montano; Mark W. Scerbo
Laparoscopic surgery requires surgeons to make judgments about three-dimensional movements using a two-dimensional display. This arrangement reduces the available visual feedback information, such as certain depth cues. The current study used Fitts' (1954) law to examine the relationship between psychomotor movement time, target size and target distance for a psychomotor pointing task using a laparoscopic instrument in three-dimensional space projected on a two-dimensional display from different vantage points. Analyses demonstrate an effect for depth of target on accuracy, internal consistency and movement time. The results demonstrate that Fitts' law can be utilized to detect differences in conditions when a three-dimensional task must be completed with the visual feedback presented on a two-dimensional display. No reliable results of vantage point were found. Thus, the location of a two-dimensional display may not be critical for the type of laparoscopic pointing tasks examined in the present study.
Prediction of a Three-Dimensional Pointing Task through Extending the Motor Module of ACT-R BIBAFull-Text 1396-1400
  Daecheol Park; Rohae Myung
In this study, we attempted to develop a model to describe a pointing task in a three-dimensional environment, particularly in a car cockpit. When humans interact with a system in three-dimensional space, they usually reach toward targets to adjust controls. Hence, reaching movements are considered to describe pointing tasks in three-dimensions. However, the ACT-R cognitive architecture deals only with two-dimensions with hand movements using Fitts' law or parameters. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to describe the reaching arm movement of a person in a three-dimensional environment by extending the motor module of ACT-R. Arm movement is more complicated biologically than hand movement, because many aspects such as kinematic features have to be considered. In this study, an extended Fitts' law that includes the azimuth angle and inclination angle was used to develop the extended motor module to represent human reaching actions. A pointing task was then simulated using an extended ACT-R in a mock-up vehicle. The extended motor module was found to simulate pointing movements in three-dimensional environments accurately with an r-squared value of 0.947. In addition, the extended motor module is able to describe the variations in movement determined by the targets' locations and directions.
Direct Perception-Action Coupling: A Neo-Gibsonian Model for Critical Human-Machine Interactions under Stress BIBAFull-Text 1401-1405
  Moin Rahman
The cognitive capacities of a human agent are significantly impoverished when operating under severe temporal and emotional stress. Currently, human-machine interaction under these circumstances is being informed by classical cognitive models, which treat the human agent as having a repertoire of undiminished cognitive capacities consisting of semantic, symbolic, and inferential reasoning abilities. Such an approach is unsuited when an agent's mental capacities are reduced to simple perception-action mechanisms, due to functional decortication, under severe stress. Gibson's direct perception provides a partial answer to this problem. This paper attempts to provide a more robust answer by putting direct perception under the light of recent advances made in human-machine interaction design and theory, neurosciences and embodied cognition. This resulted in the development of a model for human-machine interaction called Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC). This model can be applied to inform the design of critical human-machine interactions that need to be flawlessly performed, often times under stress, to prevent catastrophic outcomes.

Perception and Performance: PP7 -- Developing & Measuring Expertise

Scan patterns on overland navigation in varying route difficulty: is total-flight-hours (TFH) a good measure of expertise? BIBAFull-Text 1406-1410
  Ji Hyun Yang; Quinn Kennedy; Joseph Sullivan; Ronald D., Jr. Fricker
Helicopter overland navigation is a cognitively complex task that requires continuous monitoring of system and environment parameters and many hours of training to master. This study investigated the effect of expertise on pilots' gaze measurements, navigation accuracy, and subjective assessment of their navigation accuracy in overland navigation on easy and difficult routes. Twelve military officers who ranged in flight experience, as measured by total flight hours (TFH) completed a simulated overland task. They first completed map study of a route comprised of easy and difficult route sections, and then had to 'fly' this simulated route in a fixed-base helicopter simulator. They also completed pre-task estimations and post-task assessments of how hard it would be to navigate to each waypoint in the route. Their scan pattern was tracked via two eye tracking systems. The tracking systems captured both the participant's out-the-window (OTW) and topographical map scan data. TFH was not associated with navigation accuracy and RMS (root mean square) error for either legs. For the easy routes, experts spent less time scanning out the window (Ï =-.61), had shorter OTW dwell (Ï =-.66), For the difficult routes, experts appeared to slow down their scan by spending as much time scanning out the window as novices, while also having fewer MAP fixations (Ï =-.65) and shorter OTW dwell (Ï =-.69). However, TFH was not significantly correlated with more accurate estimates of route difficulty. This study found that TFH did not predict navigation accuracy or subjective assessment but was correlated with some gaze parameters. It may be that TFH is too crude measure to use as a measure of expertise for task specific activities (e.g., overland navigation).
Searching in clutter: Visual attention strategies of expert pilots BIBAFull-Text 1411-1415
  Melissa R. Beck; Michael Trenchard; Amanda van Lamsweerde; Rebecca R. Goldstein; Maura Lohrenz
Clutter can slow visual search. However, experts may develop attention strategies that alleviate the effects of clutter on search performance. In the current study we examined the effects of global and local clutter on visual search performance and attention strategies. Pilots and undergraduates searched for an elevation marker in charts of high, medium, and low global clutter. The target was in a low or high local clutter region of the chart or it was absent. High global and local clutter slowed search performance for both pilots and undergraduates. Pilots were more accurate but slower. Pilots' search strategies differed from undergraduates in the following ways: they had more conservative criteria for responding target absent and spent more time processing the information within each fixation. Pilots and undergraduates used a coarse-to-fine search strategy in which, as the trial progressed, fixation durations increased and saccade distance decreased.
Effects of Friend vs. Foe Discrimination Training in Action Video Games BIBAFull-Text 1416-1420
  Christopher Brown; Robert May; Jeremiah Nyman; Evan Palmer
Action video games have received intensive study because they improve players' visual attention and perception abilities more than other types of video games. However, experimenters' ability to attribute visual functioning improvements to particular action video game components has been hampered due to the use of non-action video games as controls. Here, we employ a newly developed, tightly controlled experimental paradigm in which two groups of participants trained in two versions of the same custom video game world. One version contained both friends and foes and the other contained foes only. A third group of participants served as a no-training control. People trained for two hours in friend vs. foe discrimination showed several modest improvements in their visual skills, including a significant increase in attentional filtering and a marginal decrease in flanker interference. This experimental design establishes that friend vs. foe discrimination per se led to the observed visual improvements.
The Effect of Knowledge of Results for Training Vigilance in a Video Game-Based Environment BIBAFull-Text 1421-1425
  Grace W. Teo; Tarah N. Schmidt; James L. Szalma; Gabriella M. Hancock; Peter A. Hancock
One of the greatest challenges facing military personnel deployed to combat zones is the threat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In spite of advances in IED detection technology, one of the best defenses against IEDs is the vigilant Soldier. The present study compares the vigilance performance of those who were provided knowledge of results (KR) during vigilance training, to those who did not have knowledge of results, using a video game-based vigilance task. KR was effective in improving vigilance, both during training and during a subsequent test phase in which no feedback was provided. These results indicate that video game-based methods may be useful for training sustained attention.
Effects of Different Types of Variable Priority and Adaptive Training on Skill Acquisition in Dual Verbal-Spatial Working Memory Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1426-1430
  Ryan McKendrick; Raja Parasuraman
The effects of two variable priority (or emphasis change) training paradigms (with 3 or 5 levels of emphasis) and an adaptive training paradigm on skill acquisition in dual verbal-spatial working memory tasks were examined. Competing hypotheses of the cognitive mechanisms of variable priority training were evaluated. All three training groups showed improved performance over a control group on the verbal working memory task. Only the variable priority groups showed an improvement over time relative to the control group in the spatial working memory task. The results support the hypothesis that variable priority training forces trainees to focus not only on easy tasks, but also on harder tasks, yielding more balanced task performance and higher levels of skill development. No evidence was found that variable priority training leads to the discovery of an optimal attention allocation strategy, or more efficient adaptation to changing task demands.

Perception and Performance: PP8 -- Multimodal Cueing: The Relative Benefits of the Auditory, Visual, and Tactile Channels

Multimodal Cueing: The Relative Benefits of the Auditory, Visual, and Tactile Channels in Complex Environments BIBAFull-Text 1431-1435
  Carryl L. Baldwin; Charles Spence; James P. Bliss; J. Christopher Brill; Michael S. Wogalter; Christopher B. Mayhorn; Thomas K. Ferris
Determining the most effective modality or combination of modalities for presenting time sensitive information to operators in complex environments is critical to effective display design. This panel of display design experts will briefly review the most important empirical research regarding the key issues to be considered including the temporal demands of the situation, the complexity of the information to be presented, and issues of information reliability and trust. Included in the discussion will be a focus on the relative benefits and potential costs of providing information in one modality versus another and under what conditions it may be preferable to use a multisensory display. Key issues to be discussed among panelists and audience members will be the implications of the existing knowledge for facilitating the design of alerts and warnings in complex environments such as aviation, driving, medicine and educational settings.

Perception and Performance: PP9 -- Research on Sustained Attention and Workload

Cerebral Hemovelocity and the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) BIBAFull-Text 1436-1440
  Gregory Funke; Matthew Funke; Michael Dillard; Victor Finomore; Tyler Shaw; Samantha Epling; Joel S. Warm; Raja Parasuraman
Vigilance tasks in the traditional format (TVF) require observers to respond to critical signals on their monitored displays and withhold responding to neutral events. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) features the opposite response requirements which supposedly lead it to promote a mindless, non-thoughtful approach to the vigilance task. To test that possibility, this study compared the SART to the TVF in terms of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) secured in the performance of a simulated UAV monitoring assignment. Previous studies have consistently shown that CBFV declines significantly over time for observers who monitor in the TVF while it remains temporally stable in control observers who view the display without a work imperative -- perhaps a maximum case of mindlessness. In the present study, CBFV declined over time in a similar manner for observers performing under SART and TVF conditions while it remained stable over time for non-engaged controls. The results are consistent with studies using psychophysical, workload, and stress measures that challenge the view that the SART is an engine of mindlessness.
Using Variable-Rate Alerting to Counter Boredom in Human Supervisory Control BIBAFull-Text 1441-1445
  Armen A. Mkrtchyan; Jamie C. Macbeth; Erin T. Solovey; Jason C. Ryan; M. L. Cummings
A low task load, long duration experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cyclical attention switching strategies on operator performance in supervisory domains. The impetus for such a study stems from the lack of prior work to improve human-system performance in low task load supervisory domains through the use of design interventions. In this study, a design intervention in the form of auditory alerts is introduced and the effects of the alerts are examined. The test bed consists of a video game-like simulation environment, which allows a single operator the ability to supervise multiple unmanned vehicles. Each participant in the study completed two different four hour sessions, with and without the alerts. The results suggest that the alerts can be useful for operators who are distracted for a considerable amount of time, but that the alerts may not be appropriate for operators who are able to sustain directed attention for prolonged periods.
Combating Vigilance Decrements in a Sustained Attention Task: Lack of Support for the Utility of a Cognitive Intervention Secondary Task BIBAFull-Text 1446-1450
  Thomas R. Carretta; Guy A. French
Results from previous studies (St. John & Risser, 2007, 2009) indicate the addition of a simple cognitive secondary task may mitigate vigilance decrements for a sustained attention task involving target acquisition. The effectiveness of the cognitive task increased when its onset was triggered by physiological indicators of inattention. The current study examined the generalizability of this methodology with a few modifications. A no intervention condition was added to provide a baseline and a short perceptual vigilance task (AVT) was added to examine the construct validity of the experimental task (ET). Finally, instead of using physiological indicators to trigger the intervention, a schedule was used that resembled that of the physiological intervention. Although vigilance decrements were observed for both the AVT and ET, only a weak relationship was observed between the two tasks. ET performance was not affected by the cognitive intervention. The weak relationship between the AVT and ET scores suggests that they are not measuring the same constructs. Further, the failure to replicate previous findings casts doubts on the robustness of the cognitive intervention for mitigating performance decrements on real-world tasks, especially when its onset is not linked with physiological indicators of inattention.
A comparison of subjective and physiological workload assessment techniques during a 3-dimensional audio vigilance task BIBAFull-Text 1451-1455
  Tyler H. Shaw; Kelly Satterfield; Raul Ramirez; Victor Finomore
The shift from platform-centric to network-centric warfare will require the use of sophisticated collaborative and communication technologies that can enhance shared situation awareness, thus improving military capabilities. However, the communication-intensive environment related with the use of these technologies may impose a high degree of mental workload as it is typical for operators to monitor and transmit on eight or more simultaneous channels. A net-centric communication management suite called Multi-Modal Communication (MMC) has been developed that offers a 3-dimensional spatial audio feature that can enhance the intelligibility of critical messages, but the workload associated with its use has not been thoroughly investigated. Twenty-two operators were assigned to monitor for the presence of critical phrases during a 40-min vigilance session with 6 different communicators in either a 3d spatial audio condition or a monaural radio condition. Cerebral blood flow velocity, a new index of mental workload, was measured during task performance and compared with a subjective measure of workload, the NASA-TLX. Results showed that there was a significant vigilance decrement over time, but that overall detection probability was higher in the 3d spatial audio than in the monaural radio condition. CBFV declined significantly over time, and a three way hemisphere x periods x presentation mode interaction revealed that CBFV was elevated during performance with monaural radio, but the decrement was most pronounced in the left hemisphere for the spatial audio task. Workload ratings from the NASA-TLX were insensitive to the differences in workload for the two task types. Results are interpreted in terms of a resource model of vigilance, and cerebral lateralization of vigilance and the potential limitations of subjective rating scales are discussed.
Effect of Task Modality on Dual-Task Performance, Response Time, and Ratings of Operator Workload BIBAFull-Text 1456-1460
  Veronica E. Scerra; J. Christopher Brill
The purpose of this study was to use established measures of attentional reserve capacity to test for the existence of tactile-specific resources in the context of Wickens' (1984, 2002) Multiple Resource Theory. Participants performed a primary counting task in the tactile modality and were presented with a concurrent secondary attention task in the visual, auditory, and tactile modalities. The data indicate a significant difference in performance based on whether the dual-task conditions were performed crossmodally or unimodally, in terms of percent correct and response time to target stimuli. Specifically, participants performed significantly worse in tactile-tactile dual-task conditions, suggesting performance was degraded as a function of resource depletion. Furthermore, participants rated the unimodal dual-task conditions as significantly harder, using a subjective workload rating, than either of the dual-task crossmodal conditions, or the single task condition. The results suggest that task interference was a function of resource limitation rather than structural interference, providing direct empirical evidence supporting the inclusion of tactile resources in Wickens' Multiple Resource Theory.

Perception and Performance: PP10 -- Research on Systems for Command and Control Environments

Effects of the Multi-Modal Communication tool on Communication and Change Detection for Command & Control Operators BIBAFull-Text 1461-1465
  Victor Finomore; Kelly Satterfield; Adam Sitz; Courtney Castle; Gregory Funke; Tyler Shaw; Matthew Funke
Due to the highly demanding and stressful mission set encountered by Command and Control (C2) operators, researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory have developed a network-centric, multi-modal communication-monitoring suite. In previous studies, this tool has been shown to increase communication monitoring effectiveness and reduced workload for participants monitoring communication displays. However, in addition to communication displays, C2 operators often have the additional burden of monitoring tactical displays in order to create real-time representations of dynamic battlefield conditions. Creating this real-time picture is necessary to efficiently plan, coordinate, and control assets to accomplish mission objectives. This multi-tasking environment across different displays leaves C2 operators susceptible to missed information. The current study examined the performance and workload associated with monitoring both communication and tactical displays for critical information or changed events with varying communication management tools. Results indicated that the Multi-Modal Communication suite aided performance on both the communication and change detection task when compared with standard radio and chat displays. In addition, Multi-Modal Communication suite was found to reduce the perceived mental workload of this complex task.
Reliability of a Cued Combat Identification Aid on Soldier Performance and Trust BIBAFull-Text 1466-1470
  Eric T. Chancey; James P. Bliss
Personal combat identification (CID) aids have been developed to assist Soldiers in the appropriate allocation of lethal force. Because of the dynamic nature of the battlefield, CID aids may be situationally unreliable. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effects of varying the reliability levels of CID aids on Soldier performance using a simulated marksmanship trainer. Twelve Army ROTC students and two active duty USMC volunteers engaged in three separate 'shoot/don't-shoot' tasks using three separate simulated CID aids of different reliability levels (90%, 75%, and 60%). Improved target identification accuracy and reaction time were observed when the participants used more reliable CID aids. Higher trust ratings were associated with the more reliable aids. The results suggest that these types of automated aids may be useful in terms of both lethality and as a fratricide prevention tool, provided there is a high reliability associated with the system.
Aurally Aided Visual Threat Acquisition in a Virtual Urban Battlespace BIBAFull-Text 1471-1475
  Eric Robinson; Brian Simpson; Victor Finomore; Jeffery Cowgill; Valerie L. Shalin; Andrew Hampton; Thomas Moore; Terry Rapoch; Robert Gilkey
Many of today's military operations take place in large urban environments, which present unique challenges due to limited line of sight and increased concealment for enemy forces. This experiment evaluated the potential of a 3D audio display to aid threat detection and localization in a complex visual environment. Subjects rode as part of a convoy through a simulated city where they encountered snipers surrounded by distracting personnel. We compared 3D audio cues to verbal descriptions of the sniper's location and to simple audio warnings of the presence of a sniper. Consistent with past research, subjects located the sniper more quickly in the 3D audio condition compared to both the semantic description and simple warning conditions. The 3D audio display was faster than the other displays across all azimuths but, in contrast to previous findings, the advantage did not increase consistently with increasing azimuth.
Redundancy Gains in Communication Tasks: A Comparison of Auditory, Visual, and Redundant Auditory-Visual Information Presentation on NextGen Flight Decks BIBAFull-Text 1476-1480
  Sara A. Lu; Christopher D. Wickens; Nadine B. Sarter; Lisa C. Thomas; Mark I. Nikolic; Angelia Sebok
The redundant presentation of information in more than one sensory channel has traditionally been assumed to benefit performance. However, a recent meta-analysis suggests that redundancy gains may depend on task type and a number of moderator variables. The present study examined the effectiveness of visual, auditory, and redundant auditory-visual information presentation under high and low workload in the context of a mid-fidelity NextGen flight simulation with experienced airline pilots as participants. Overall, for two types of communication tasks -- data link and ATIS -- faster responses were observed for redundant displays, compared to vision and audition alone. No significant benefit of redundancy was found for accuracy due to a ceiling effect and workload did not mediate redundancy effects. The findings from this research add to the knowledge base in multimodal and redundant information processing and can inform modality choices in the design of displays for complex, data-rich domains.
Effects of Observability, Mood States, and Workload on Human Handling Errors When Monitoring Aircraft Automation BIBAFull-Text 1481-1485
  Ute Niederée; Meike Jipp; Uwe Teegen; Mark Vollrath
An increasing level of automation changes the role of human operators also in the flight deck. Herewith, communication and coordination efforts between humans and automation gain importance as communication breakdowns may cause serious incidents and accidents. To ensure successful communication, it was proposed, on the one hand, to enhance the observability of automation. On the other hand, researchers analysed the impact of inter- and intraindividual differences in affect and mood states on the interaction. Within this study, it was investigated whether an experimental manipulation of the automation's observability and workload in addition to interindividual differences in mood states impacted human errors in handling automation. Therefore, 24 participants monitored aircraft automation and, more specifically, whether the automation succeeded in keeping the aircraft's pitch angle within certain boundaries and whether the aircraft engines functioned as expected. Data analyses revealed significant effects of the automation's observability and of the participants' level of positive mood and extraversion on the number of handling errors. The handling errors were considered an indicator for communication breakdowns as they were caused by the automation insufficiently informing the human on its actions. The results highlight the need to focus on the automation's observability when designing highly automated systems especially in safety-critical domains and on further analysing the effects of mood states on human-automation interaction.

Posters: POS1 -- Posters 1

He Says, She Says: Does Voice Affect Usability? BIBAFull-Text 1486-1490
  Rochelle Edwards; Philip Kortum
Interactive voice response systems (IVRs) are ubiquitous user interfaces that allow customers to gather information and execute transactions. Because the entire user interaction is auditory-based, the voice used in the IVR is of high importance. Entities that field IVRs go to great lengths to select appropriate voices, usually on the basis of aesthetics of the voice, or on branding considerations. While much has been written on the usability of these IVR systems from the perspective of navigation, the impact of the voice on the usability of IVRs has not been well explored. Towards this end, we investigated the impact of voice personality and speaker gender on the usability of an interactive voice response system. Results suggest that voice characteristics can have an impact on the perceived usability of the system, with male voices resulting in higher usability metrics than female voices.
Being Aware that You're Nice or Nasty Won't Make You Write Friendlier E-Mail BIBAFull-Text 1491-1495
  Daniel Hor; Igor Dolgov; Amanda Fretwell
E-mail communication is fraught with problems of inaccurate encoding and decoding of information due to the relative lack of emotional cues. In our experiment, we investigated whether having e-mail senders rate the intended friendliness levels of their own messages before they write them would make them generate replies that were indeed friendlier. This manipulation was intended to make the senders more aware of their decision to write friendly or unfriendly e-mail messages and subsequently compel them to follow through with their friendly intention, or to make them question their decision to be unfriendly. However, our results show no significant main effect of our manipulation. Instead, the tone of the original e-mail stimulus and the context surrounding the e-mail message were much stronger influences in determining the friendliness of the e-mail reply that people generate.
Examining the Role of Gender in Video Game Usage, Preference, and Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1496-1500
  Mikki H. Phan; Jo R. Jardina; Sloane Hoyle; Barbara S. Chaparro
Since coming into mainstream culture in the 1970s, video games have become increasingly popular. While both men and women play video games, game companies have begun developing games specifically for women that, unfortunately, adhere to stereotypes about females (i.e., pink, fashion, and shopping). This study aims to help game developers better understand the gaming patterns of gamers, both male and female, through a questionnaire which asks questions about video game usage, preferences, behaviors, and spending habits. Results reveal that men overwhelmingly played more violent video games than women. However, women tend to play both violent and non-violent almost equally. Male gamers were more likely than female gamers to be drawn to games from the Strategy, Role Playing, Action, and Fighting genres whereas female gamers were more likely than male gamers to play games from the Social, Puzzle/Card, Music/Dance, Educational/Edutainment, and Simulation genres. Overall, more men than women treated playing video game as their primary hobby, while women were more likely to regard playing video games as a less important hobby after other more important hobbies such as watching television.
Development of an Electronic Patient Record: Selection Instrument BIBAFull-Text 1501-1505
  Marc L. Resnick
Selecting an effective electronic patient record (EPR) system is a challenge for both large and small medical organizations. As a result, significant investments are often wasted or fail to meet expectations. This paper presents the ecological design of an evaluation tool that healthcare providers can use to determine how well an EPR matches its workflow, functional requirements, and performance expectations. Five stages were conducted. First, the academic and applied literatures were reviewed for issues of importance in the selection process. Existing EPR systems were benchmarked to identify baseline levels of functionality and performance and identify gaps with the expectations found in the literature. A prototype survey instrument was developed to articulate the design. Contextual interviews were conducted with administrators, doctors, nurses, and health IT experts to review the design concept and scope. Finally, the prototype instrument was revised to reflect the results of the interviews. The result is the architecture for a tool that medical organizations can use to select and customize an EPR tailored to their specific needs.
Examination of Dual vs. Single Monitor Use during Common Office Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1506-1510
  Justin W. Owens; Jennifer Teves; Bobby Nguyen; Amanda Smith; Mandy C. Phelps; Barbara S. Chaparro
Previous studies have found that using multiple monitors increases productivity, but there are also documented drawbacks to increased monitor count and/or size. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in productivity hold true with newer technology, like wide flat-screens, in the multitasking context. Sixty participants were asked to complete several tasks commonly completed in an office environment. These tasks were performed on four different monitor configurations: a single and dual 17' monitor(s) and single and dual 22' monitor(s). Participants located information from several documents and compiled this information into a new document. Dependent variables measured included efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction. Results indicated a performance benefit for dual monitor usage, regardless of monitor size. Participants most preferred using dual 22' monitors and least preferred a single 17' monitor.
Apple iPad Usage Trends by Students and Non-Students BIBAFull-Text 1511-1515
  Bobby T. Nguyen; Barbara S. Chaparro
Since its release in April 2010, the Apple iPad has become the de facto tablet for consumers. Given the increasing popularity of the iPad as a consumer, educational, and work device, we were interested in how different groups of people use the iPad. More specifically, we were interested in how students and non-students use the iPad at work, school, and at play. One-hundred thirteen participants completed an online survey about iPad use. Results indicated students use the iPad more often for socializing, playing games, editing and posting photos, listening to audio, and taking pictures or videos. On the other hand, non-students use the iPad more often for reading the news, eBooks, and eMagazines.
A new International Standard for the design of an environmental survey for the assessment of integrated environments BIBAFull-Text 1516-1518
  Simon Hodder; Ken Parsons
A new International Standard has been developed and published for the design and administration of an environmental survey. It provides a practical framework for Ergonomists and Occupational Hygienists who are required to conduct assessments of the physical environment. It gives guidance on objective, subjective and behavioural assessments. It also details a structured framework for the presentation and interpretation of results.
Elephant in the Break Room: The use of Modified Operational Sequence: Diagrams for the Determination of Zoo Exhibit Inefficiencies BIBAFull-Text 1519-1523
  Nicholas Kelling; Diann Gaalema; Angela Kelling
Although human factors has been applied to situations involving animals, it has not been formally used in zoo exhibit design. Zoo exhibits with their varied, and possibly conflicting, goals of three distinct user groups present a unique opportunity to apply human factors to improve the design process. Treating zoo staff, visitors, and animals as co-workers, each with input into the exhibit system, allows the design process to be optimized in order to maximize efficient use of time and better meet the needs of all users. Ideally, well designed exhibits will maximize animal welfare while increasing the efficiency and safety of zoo staff. Additionally, exhibits should enhance the visitor experience, allowing them to connect with the exhibit and learn from it, ideally by viewing species-typical behavior. The current paper uses a novel approach, a modified Operational Sequence Diagrams, to examine the needs of the zoo system. This methodology is used because of its flexibility and ease of understanding for zoo personnel not trained in human factors. An example diagram is provided for scatter feeding in an elephant exhibit.
Using Magpie Research to Determine the Top 10 Human Factors Issues in UAS for NATO FINAS BIBAFull-Text 1524-1528
  Gayle Hunt; Stephen Rice; Kasha Geels; Doug Davis
Knowledge from various related disciplines is commonly used as a top-down approach to address human factors issues. In this paper, we suggest continuing this tradition in order to solve the specific problems pertaining to NATO UAS flight. Furthermore, we encourage applying what is known about manned aircraft to unmanned aircraft, rather than starting anew, because the two share many common issues. We narrowed down the top 10 issues in NATO UAS flight, as voted on by NATO FINAS delegates (subject matter experts), and discuss how each of these issues may be addressed using a top-down approach.
Mental Demand, Asymmetries, and Tympanic Membrane Temperature (TMT) BIBAFull-Text 1529-1533
  Curtis Craig; Martina I. Klein
Previous research has indicated that tympanic membrane temperature (TMT) is inversely correlated with cerebral blood flow and change in cerebral blood flow is a neurological measure of mental workload. We investigated whether TMT changed as a function of time on task and type of picture exposure (nature vs. urban) when participants performed two sessions of the original Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997) that were separated by exposure to the pictures. Tympanic membrane temperature was recorded for both ears before and after each SART. We found a trend for declining temperature with time in the left ear and not the right ear. This finding is inconsistent with previous research that associated right-hemisphere dominance for vigilance tasks and suggested that SART is not a vigilance task. Further, the temperature asymmetries correlated with SART performance, which is in accordance with research by Helton (2010).
Humans to Robots: How Technomorphic Features Shape our Perceptions of Each Other BIBAFull-Text 1534-1538
  Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Shane E. Halse; Megan A. Harris
It is becoming commonplace for humans to use technology to enhance and augment their understanding of the world. In this study, we investigated whether attention to these forms of technology can be predicted by scores on the Technomorphic Tendencies Scale (TTS) (Lum et al., 2011). Participants completed the TTS and were eye tracked while viewing pictures of models wearing various types of technological devices (e.g., an eye tracker; a Bluetooth headset). Higher TTS scorers tended to have more fixations and for a shorter duration of time when compared with the lower TTS Scorers. The Technomorphic Tendencies Scale is predictive of attention directed to technology when making first impressions.
Individual Differences in Multimodal Waypoint Navigation BIBAFull-Text 1539-1543
  Andre Garcia; Victor, Jr. Finomore; Gregory Burnett; Carryl Baldwin; Christopher Brill
Waypoint navigation is a critical task for dismounted soldiers, especially when navigating through novel environments with potential threats. In these dangerous environments, the soldiers should have their 'eyes-up' and 'ears-out' scanning the environment for critical signals. Current practices for dismounted soldiers include the use of a compass and map or small wearable computer in order to navigate. In this experiment, we compared several modalities and multiple combinations of these modalities in waypoint navigation performance. These modalities include two visual (an egocentric and a geocentric map), 3D spatialized audio, tactile, and the multimodal combinations of each. We also examined individual differences in sense of direction as a potential moderator of display usage. Results provide preliminary evidence that localized 3D audio and haptics navigation aids are an intuitive, efficient, and effective means of waypoint navigation, regardless of sense of direction.
The Effect of Video Game Play on Performance in a Vigilance Task BIBAFull-Text 1544-1547
  Tarah N. Schmidt; Grace W. L. Teo; James L. Szalma; Gabriella M. Hancock; Peter A. Hancock
Traditional vigilance research typically employs static stimuli presented in discrete trials within a highly structured laboratory setting with few similarities to operational environments. The current study employs a dynamic video game-based environment in which the vigilance task has crucial elements of real world detection tasks, in this case the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The novel platform for this vigilance task and its similarity to popular video games on the market motivated the current study to compare performance between video game players (VGPs), to non-video game players (NVGPs). The results indicate that, relative to NVGPs, VGPs achieved improved performance on the vigilance task, regardless of whether they received training using knowledge of results (KR).
Classification of Robot Form: Factors Predicting Perceived Trustworthiness BIBAFull-Text 1548-1552
  Kristin E. Schaefer; Tracy L. Sanders; Ryan E. Yordon; Deborah R. Billings; P. A. Hancock
Many factors influence perceived usability of robots, including attributes of the human user, the environment, and the robot itself. Traditionally, the primary focus of research has been on performance-based characteristics of the robot for the purposes of classification, design, and understanding human-robot trust. In this work, we examine the human perceptions of the aesthetic dimensions of a variety of robot domains to gain insight into the impact of physical form on perceived trustworthiness that occurs prior to human-robot interaction. Results show that the physical form does matter when predicting initial trustworthiness of a robot, primarily through the perceived intelligence and classification of the robot.
Human-animal teams as an analog for future human-robot teams BIBAFull-Text 1553-1557
  Elizabeth Phillips; Scott Ososky; Brittany Swigert; Florian Jentsch
Current military robotics research aims to transition the robot from tool to teammate, one that is more autonomous and acts with limited supervision within a highly complex and demanding environment. Investigating likely analogs to the human-robot team can provide guidance an inspiration into the simultaneous development of robot design and human training. Human-animal teams are one such metaphor that can provide insight into the capabilities of near-future robotic teammates. This paper explores the human-animal team metaphor, and describes a continuum of relevant human-animal team capabilities that can inform and guide the design of next-generation human-robot teams.
Measurement Equivalence of Trucking Industry-Specific Safety Climate Scales BIBAFull-Text 1558-1561
  J. Lee; Y. H. Huang; L. A. Murphy; S. Jeffries; M. M. Robertson; A. Garabet
Precise measurement and understanding of employees' safety climate perception is critical in promotion of a safe environment in an organization. The current study aimed at testing measurement equivalence (ME) of trucking industry-specific safety climate scales. ME refers to whether a psychological assessment system has consistent wording, scaling, and construct scoring across different measurement conditions and consequently can measure the same attributes. For both organization- and group-level safety climate scales, ME was supported to the configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance levels. The findings suggest that the safety climate scales' measurement structure holds consistent meaning across different trucking companies and the scale scores can be used for comparison of safety climate across different companies and safety climate interventions.
The Influence of Organizational Structure on Safety Climate in the Trucking Industry BIBAFull-Text 1562-1565
  L. A. Murphy; Y. H. Huang; J. Lee; S. Jeffries; M. M. Robertson; A. Garabet
While it has been well established that safety climate is a leading indicator of accidents and injuries, the antecedents of safety climate are rarely examined in the safety literature. Structural factors of an organization, like company size, haul type, and geographic location, may contribute to the perception workers have of their organization's safety climate. Especially in the trucking industry, in which drivers work alone for long periods of time with little social interaction among coworkers and supervisors, it is important to understand different factors that will influence safety climate. Some understanding of which organizational characteristics impact safety climate may help organizations to focus on specific areas to counter the effects of structure in order to improve safety.
Training Effects in a Low Fidelity Combat Vehicle Simulator BIBAFull-Text 1566-1570
  Per-Anders Oskarsson; Staffan Nählinder
A study of training effects in a combat vehicle simulator was performed at two occasions, first during the early part of the vehicle crews' education and second during the later part. The focus of the study was on fidelity, presence, fun, motivation, feedback, learning in the simulator, and transfer of training. Learning in the simulator was rated highest at the early occasion; nevertheless both learning and transfer of training were rated relatively high at both occasions. This indicates positive training effects in a fairly simple low fidelity simulator. Finally a preliminary model of the causal relations between the aspects of training was created by structural equations modeling. The model indicates that the training environment (measured by rated feedback, presence, fidelity, motivation, and fun) had a positive influence on the training in the simulator (measured by rated learning in the simulator and transfer of training to the real combat vehicle).
Assessing the Impact of a Dynamic Intervention within a Perceptual Discrimination Training Module BIBAFull-Text 1571-1575
  Javier Rivera; Michael T. Curtis; Florian Jentsch; Jose Quevedo
The use of multimedia training methods for improving learning outcomes has been examined in recent years. Commonly, two types of multimedia training (static media and dynamic media) have been utilized for learning facilitation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact that both dynamic image training and static image training has on perceptual skill augmentation and performance on a visual approach aviation task. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the two types of training on accuracy on a visual approach task. However, a significant difference was found between the static training group and the control group. The results suggest that although the visual approach is a dynamic maneuver, using static images during training is a practical method for visual skill refinement and learning differences between glide slope angles.
The Effect of Feedback Specificity in a Virtual Training Environment BIBAFull-Text 1576-1580
  Cheryl I. Johnson; Heather A. Priest-Walker; Paula J. Durlach; Stephen R. Serge
Feedback clearly contributes to performance improvement; however, the most effective ways to provide feedback in virtual training environments has not been established. In the present experiment we investigated the effect of feedback specificity. Participants practiced applying search procedures during multiple search missions in a virtual environment. All conditions received a performance score after each mission. The control group received no additional feedback, whereas the detailed group received feedback at the enabling learning objective level, and the general feedback group received feedback at the terminal learning objective level. The detailed group showed the most rapid performance improvement; however, participants in the general group showed equally rapid acquisition if they consulted supplementary materials two or three times. Those who did not performed no better than the control condition. The results suggest that easily accessible detailed feedback produces faster acquisition, compared to when the same information is less easy to access.
Effects of Cross-Training on Team Performance, Communication, and Workload in Simulated Air Battle Management BIBAFull-Text 1581-1585
  Adam J. Strang; Gregory J. Funke; Benjamin A. Knott; Scott M. Galster; Sheldon M. Russell
Team cross-training is used to improve team interpositional knowledge (IPK). IPK is thought to promote adaptability, allowing teams to maintain coordination and performance when faced with challenges, such as increased task demands and role reconfiguration. The current experiment examined the effects of experiential cross-training, a form of training where teammates practice each other's tasks and duties, in 5-person teams performing a command and control (C2) air battle management (ABM) simulation over a 5-day training period. Results indicated that under some conditions, cross-training resulted in slightly diminished team performance relative to control teams. Cross-trained teams also reported higher levels of workload throughout training. However, teams who underwent cross-training were better able to maintain team communication when faced with increased task demands.
Evaluating Vigilance in a Dynamic Environment: Methodological Issues and Proposals BIBAFull-Text 1586-1590
  Grace W. Teo; James L. Szalma; Tarah N. Schmidt; Gabriella M. Hancock; Peter A. Hancock
Decades of vigilance research have contributed much to our understanding of the factors affecting sustained attention. However most of what we know about vigilance has been from studies employing tasks that involve relatively static stimuli presented on relatively uncluttered backgrounds. This bears little resemblance to many modern day vigilance tasks. The present study discusses the challenges and issues in applying the vigilance paradigm and methodology to a dynamic task requiring vigilance in an IED detection task.

Posters: POS2 -- Posters 2

Shape Writing on Tablets: Better Performance or Better Experience? BIBAFull-Text 1591-1593
  Harry Nguyen; Michael C. Bartha
Shape writing is a technology for text input that involves 'drawing' the desired word with your finger or a stylus in one continuous motion on the virtual keyboard. Swype, initially introduced to smart phones, is a shape writing application that is advertised as being faster than traditional methods of keying on a virtual keyboard. This technology is relatively new to the market, and to date there is little available research on the performance of Swype on smart phones, and none on the even newer tablet devices, such as a Samsung Galaxy Tab. The present study investigated the performance (words per minute/average errors per word) and preference associated with the use of Swype for text input compared to keying on the virtual keyboard. The effect of keyboard sizes within landscape and portrait orientations was also examined. In the current implementation, the keying method did not have the benefit of a prediction algorithm, therefore prediction was turned off for Swype condition as well. No significant difference was found in typing speed between the two input methods, however, an effect of keyboard viewing orientation on typing speed was found. For average errors per word, the only significant effect was an interaction between input method and keyboard viewing orientation. Additionally, Swype was rated significantly better than keying on four out of five preference measures. Findings show that despite Swype not operating at its fullest ability, it performs just as well as keying and provides a better experience for users.
Differences in Muscle Activity for 4 Touch Devices BIBAFull-Text 1594-1598
  Paul Ritchey; S. Camille Peres; Timothy John Duffield
The use of touch devices has become pervasive in businesses, coffee shops, homes, and schools. These devices are used for a myriad of different tasks for extended periods of time. However, there is little known about the effects on user's muscles when these devices are used for extended periods of time. As part of a larger project, we present here results about the differing levels of muscle exertion degree of dynamic activity for muscles when people use four different touch devices -- an iPod touch, iPad, touch screen desktop and a touch screen laptop. Participants completed four separate tasks with the devices and there were surprising and interesting differences found by device for the different muscles and tasks.
Where's My Web Page? How Aesthetic Changes Affect User Performance When Critical Navigation Links Change BIBAFull-Text 1599-1603
  Philip Kortum; Lauren F. V. Scharff
This paper reports the results of a study that examined the impact of aesthetic changes to a web site on user performance when a single critical link in the main navigation of the page also changed. 102 participants performed 4 search tasks on a web site. They were then redirected back to the site immediately or waited approximately 14 days to perform the first search task again. Half the participants had the critical navigation link on the first set of tasks, while the other half did not. On their second visit, the presence or absence of the link was either consistent, or was the opposite of what they had encountered on their first visit. In all cases, participants saw a web site with one aesthetic look on their first visit, and this aesthetic was changed for their second visit. Results showed that, while users generally noticed changes to the site after an aesthetic change, they were not particularly good at determining exactly what changed. Further, their ability detect and describe these differences decreased as the time between recurrent visits increased, and for the most part, the changes did not adversely impact objective performance measures.
Gender Differences in First Impressions of Web Pages: The Role of Attractiveness, Complexity, and Brightness on Perceived Design Quality BIBAFull-Text 1604-1608
  Jo R. Jardina; Mikki Phan; Duy Nguyen; Barbara S. Chaparro
First impressions of a web page are important since users can form a lasting impression of a site in as little as 50ms (Lindgaard et al, 2006; Lindgaard et al, 2011). This study examined gender differences of initial impressions of 50 e-commerce web pages. Participants rated each page on five attributes: masculinity/femininity, brightness, attractiveness, complexity, and design quality. Results from a multiple linear regression showed that user perceptions of attractiveness and complexity were predictive of whether a web page was rated as well-designed. When examined by gender, it was found that this same finding was true of females but not for males, who did not report the same relationship between complexity and design quality. Sample pages which resulted in gender rating differences are discussed.
Adopting Network Analysis Methods for Contextual Inquiry: the Keyword Structure Representation of a Web Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1609-1613
  Ga-Won Kim; Jihyoun Lim; Hyosun Choi; Myung-Hwan Yun
This study employed network analysis to understand core values teenagers seek, in use of the Internet. Data had been collected through in-depth interview using contextual inquiries about teens' usage of the Internet. Interview data was converted into a list of grouped words based on their similarity. A relation matrix was generated based on the frequency of connections between words. Network visualization and analysis were performed using UCINET 6.0 on the relation matrix. In this study, 'joy' appeared as the key value teenagers pursuing and, 'beauty' and 'managing relationships' were also identified as words with high centrality in their use of the Internet. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing non-hierarchical network approach as a tool to understanding the value structure, which allows researcher to utilize natural description on users' experience toward a given product, service or system.
The Effect of Text Versus Video Presentations of Patient Narratives in a Web-based Patient Decision Aid BIBAFull-Text 1614-1618
  Samantha Jansen; Andrew Miranda; Justin Owens; Brian Zikmund-Fisher; Victoria Shaffer
Over the past several years the Internet has developed a more prominent role as a source for medical patients to search for health related information. The current study examined the use of web-based patient decision aids and how the format of patient narratives influenced treatment preferences and knowledge about the treatments options. Fifty-three women viewed a web-based decision aid with patient narratives displayed in a full-video format, full-text (no video) format, no patient video format, or no patient text format. The patient narrative format had no influence on knowledge or treatment preference, but time spent viewing specific webpages within the decision aid was predictive of treatment choice. Participants that spent more time viewing the lumpectomy webpage were significantly more likely to prefer lumpectomy with radiation, while participants who spent more time viewing the mastectomy webpage were significantly more likely to prefer mastectomy. These results suggest that a confirmation bias may be present.
Gaze Pattern Differences Between Objective and Subjective Search of E-Commerce Web Pages BIBAFull-Text 1619-1623
  Duy Nguyen; Justin Owens; Alex Chaparro; Barbara Chaparro; Evan Palmer
Both users and retailers benefit from optimizing e-commerce web pages for consumers who freely browse, subjectively search (e.g., 'Find a gift for your uncle.'), or objectively search (e.g., 'Find the laptop.') for merchandise online. However, search behavior of e-commerce web pages under these conditions is not well understood. We studied how gaze patterns were modulated by search task on 12 e-commerce web pages. Search for objectively defined targets yielded larger saccade amplitudes than when freely browsing or subjectively searching. Furthermore, users fixated product images more often than product text or navigation regions when searching for particular items. On the other hand, search for subjectively defined gifts led to longer fixation durations of navigation regions, in particular. These findings show that search behavior of e-commerce web pages is influenced by consumer objectives and concurs with classic findings from the scene perception literature about the influences of top-down goals on eye movements.
Superior Visual Search Accuracy after Exposure to Natural Relative to Urban Environments BIBAFull-Text 1624-1628
  Joshua Sandry; Jeremy Schwark; Gayle Hunt; Kasha Geels; Stephen Rice
Recent studies have demonstrated a performance benefit when interacting in natural compared to urban environments. Presently, we are interested in testing whether visual search performance would differ depending on environmental exposure. We exposed participants to images of either natural scenes or urban scenes and asked them to complete a visual conjunction search (identifying the letter O embedded in an array of Q's). Consistent with existing literature, findings revealed that participants were more accurate at identifying targets when they were exposed to images of nature relative to participants exposed to images of urban environments.
Design and Evaluation of a Differential Speedometer BIBAFull-Text 1629-1633
  Joseph Szczerba; Roger Hersberger; Alex Riegelman
Differential speedometers are gauges that continually display real-time over/under vehicle speed relative to the current speed limit. Use of these gauges may increase situation awareness and reduce driver workload. The design of such a gauge, however, is critical to its usability and its effect on driver performance. Thirty differential speedometer designs were brainstormed and subsequently down-selected to nine gauges using a heuristic assessment. The selected gauges were then tested for usability in a desktop study. Participants answered questions regarding vehicle speed with respect to the current speed limit using information presented on the gauges. Understanding was assessed by measuring the response time and accuracy of the participants' response. Subjective ratings of usability and overall gauge preference were also obtained. Results were used to select three gauge designs for future study in a vehicle simulator for the purpose of selecting an optimal design of a differential speedometer.
Effects of Task-Irrelevant Cars on Judgments of Deceleration and Time-to-Contact During Car-Following BIBAFull-Text 1634
  Samuel J. Levulis; Patricia R. DeLucia; Daniel Oberfeld
Rear-end collisions represent over 25% of crashes with other moving vehicles (NHTSA, 2005). Factors that potentially contribute to such accidents include a driver's ability to respond to a lead car's deceleration and to estimate how much time remains until a collision would occur (DeLucia & Tharanathan, 2009). Prior research (Oberfeld & Hecht, 2008) showed that time-to-contact (TTC) judgments of approaching objects were influenced by task-irrelevant distractor objects. This finding has implications for rear-end collisions when drivers must detect a lead car's deceleration amidst surrounding cars. However, Oberfeld and Hecht simulated a stationary observer rather than a moving observer which is more representative of driving. We measured effects of task-irrelevant distractor cars on judgments of a lead car's deceleration during simulations of self motion. Observers viewed car-following scenarios in which only a lead car was present or a lead car and two distractor cars were present in adjacent lanes. The lead car decelerated 10 s or 15 s after the scene's onset, at either 4 ft/s2 (slow) or 10 ft/s2 (fast). The distractor cars decelerated earlier, later, or at the same time as the lead car, or never decelerated. Brake lights were disabled. Observers were instructed to maintain 40 mph and to press a button as soon as the lead car decelerated. Mean response time was significantly longer in the presence of distractor cars when the lead car decelerated 15 s after the scene's onset, at 4 ft/s2. In a separate study of a TTC (prediction-motion) task used by Oberfeld and Hecht, car-following speed was pre-set to 40 mph, and the lead car decelerated for 3 s and then disappeared. Observers pressed a button when they thought a collision would occur. Distractor cars affected TTC judgments only when deceleration was concurrent with the lead car. In contrast to deceleration detection, TTC judgments were significantly shorter when distractor cars were present compared with absent, suggesting that effects of distractor cars are task-dependent. In summary, task-irrelevant distractor cars can affect deceleration detection and TTC judgments. The implication is that drivers cannot always ignore task-irrelevant cars on the road. Cars on lanes that do not have immediate consequences for a rear-end collision nevertheless may affect a driver's response to a lead car's deceleration. Warning systems designed to prevent rear-end collisions may be needed more in relatively dense traffic when drivers are potentially distracted by task-irrelevant cars.
The Impact of Synthetic and Accented Speech on Unattended Recall in a Dichotic Listening Task BIBAFull-Text 1635-1638
  Anne M. Sinatra; Valerie K. Sims; Maxine B. Najle; Shannon K. T. Bailey
Synthetic speech is a commonly used form of computer-generated speech. Synthetic speech is different than natural speech as it has a different pacing and lacks intonation. English natural speech with a foreign accent also has a different pacing and pronunciation than an American's own natural accented speech. A study was performed to determine if unattended synthetic speech was more difficult to process than unattended natural speech when one is engaged in an activity that demands a great deal of attention. Participants engaged in a dichotic listening task where they wore headphones and repeated information from one ear (attended), while ignoring information from their other ear (unattended). It was found that the presence of natural speech in the unattended ear resulted in participants reporting more low-threshold information from the task, and that accent did not impact the amount reported. It was concluded that synthetic speech is inherently different than natural speech, as degrading the natural speech by including a foreign accent did not result in the same deficits as synthetic speech.
Missing Critical Auditory Alarms in Aeronautics: Evidence for Inattentional Deafness? BIBAFull-Text 1639-1643
  Frédéric Dehais; Mickaël Causse; Nicolas Régis; Eric Menant; Patrice LaBedan; François Vachon; Sébastien Tremblay
The inability of pilots to detect unexpected changes in the environment (e.g., auditory alarms) is a critical problem in aeronautics. The lack of response to alarms is not thought to be a perceptual/attentional issue, but rather that pilots choose to ignore such warnings due to cognitive biases. In the current paper we consider an alternative explanation, by extending the phenomenon of inattentional deafness to aeronautics. Fourteen pilots equipped with an eye tracker and an electrocardiogram performed landings in a flight simulator. During the critical landing, an auditory landing gear alarm was triggered while the volunteers also faced a windshear. Eight out of 14 pilots did not report the occurrence of the critical alarm during the debriefing. Interestingly, all but one of these 'deaf' pilots failed to perform the adequate go-around behavior. These findings establish inattentional deafness as a cognitive phenomenon that is critical for air safety.
A comparison of "on-thigh" vibrotactile, combined visual-vibrotactile, and visual-only alerting systems for the cockpit under visually demanding conditions BIBAFull-Text 1644-1648
  Yael Salzer; Tal Oron-Gilad
In the cockpit, performance is prone to break down. Conveying crucial information through the tactile modality, which requires little to no additional effort, has been previously examined as means to improve performance and safety. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the on-thigh vibrotactile alerting display to convey directional cues in the vertical plane. We hypothesized that tactile directional alerting cues would be beneficial in a visually loaded multi-tasking environment. In the current study, two tasks were introduced simultaneously: a directional task where participants respond to directional cues (visual, tactile, or combination of both), and a visual-memory recall task where participants identify, count and recall objects embedded in flight movies. Response time, accuracy and subjective workload were evaluated. Performance in the memory recall task and subjective workload were in favor of the combined tactile & visual configuration. No performance difference was found between visual and tactile & visual in the directional task. We conclude that the tactile & visual configuration may allow operators to choose a strategy in which perceptual and cognitive resources are better utilized.
Evaluation of Spatial Audio for Improving Change Detection on Large Screen Displays BIBAFull-Text 1649-1653
  Courtney Castle; Victor Finomore; Brian Simpson; Kelly Satterfield; Susan Davis
In the context of military command and control operations, operators are under an incredible amount of pressure to perform time-sensitive tasks in a rapidly changing environment. When the task involves a large screen display, it is easy to miss a critical event due to the overabundance of information present. In the current task, we investigated the potential of a spatial auditory cue for improving performance on a command and control monitoring task. We found that for a change detection task on a large screen display, a localized auditory cue can provide a useful and salient method of alerting operators to a change on the display. Additionally, because a spatial audio cue contains information about the location off an event on the screen, it gives the operator a better chance of detecting and responding to relevant events as they occur. Since a spatialized cue alerts the operator to the location of importance, it provides an especially critical advantage in areas of the screen which are normally associated with lower rates of detection.
The Design of Product Comparison Tables and its Effects on Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 1654-1658
  Michael Lee; C. Melody Carswell; Will Seidelman; Michelle Sublette
Consumers are constantly presented with new information about new products. The presentation of this information can affect decision making processes by varying the form, organization, and sequence of the information (Kleinmuntz & Schkade, 1993). One organization strategy frequently used in marketing is a product comparison table which allows for side-by-side comparisons to be made. Two decision making heuristics which can occur when using such tables are the 'as-if (AI) heuristic,' where all features are treated 'as if' they are equal in importance or value, and the other is the 'elimination-by-aspect (EBA) heuristic,' where a preferred feature must be present for an alternative to be considered further. One design manipulation that could affect such heuristics when using a table is shading. When applying the Proximity Compatibility Principle (PCP) and theories of visual search, it is easy to see how shading can influence or shape the perceptual acquisition of information and, in turn, affect decision making strategies. This research looked at shading orientation and its effects on decision making during a guided choice task. The study of spontaneous choice is ongoing.
Human Factors Principles Underlying Glyph Design: A Review of the Literature and an Agenda for Future Research BIBAFull-Text 1659-1663
  Navaneethan Siva; Alex Chaparro; Evan Palmer
Glyphs are graphical icons that depict multivariate data and are used by a number of disparate fields. Their designs are varied, reflecting both the diversity of applications and the absence of design standards. In the absence of guidelines, glyph designers have relied on their intuition and expert opinion to develop a diverse collection of idiosyncratic techniques for representing complex data sets. Importantly, it is not clear whether glyph design schemes are in any way optimal for efficient perceptual interpretation and usage. We note several findings in the perception and cognition literature that may serve as an initial basis for guidelines, we discuss how they might be used and the importance of doing so. Additionally, the dynamic updating of information in glyphs is a new trend that makes this kind of optimization necessary now more than has been in the past.
Interval Production as a Secondary Task Workload Measure: Consideration of Primary Task Demands for Interval Selection BIBAFull-Text 1664-1668
  Will Seidelman; C. Melody Carswell; Russell C. Grant; Michelle Sublette; Cindy H. Lio; Brent Seales
Twenty-eight participants performed a surgical training primary task along with a concurrent time estimation (interval production) secondary task. Fourteen participants were given a primary task that varied in motor demand; the other fourteen performed a primary task that varied in cognitive demand. Time estimation is an attractive option as a workload measure due to its low cost and ease of implementation. Currently it is unclear whether the structure of task demands influences the sensitivity of time estimation tasks that use different intervals. The sensitivity of both a short (3 second) and long (21 second) interval were observed in tasks that differed in level of workload. Results indicated that short intervals were more sensitive to changes in motor workload while long intervals displayed more sensitivity to changes in cognitive demand.
How Accurate Are Older Drivers' Judgments of the Effects of Headlight Glare on Acuity? BIBAFull-Text 1669-1673
  Ashley A. Stafford; Stephanie A. Whetsel; Natalee K. Cartee; Richard A. Tyrrell
Visual performance declines at night and this effect is more pronounced for older drivers. Despite the fact that high beam headlights can increase visibility when driving at night, drivers tend to underuse their high beams at night. Little is known about why high beams are underused, but the desire to minimize glare to oncoming drivers has been cited as a possible explanation. In this study 12 older drivers judged the distance at which they would just be able to recognize the orientation of a non-retroreflective Landolt C if it were present adjacent to the headlights of an opposing vehicle. The beam setting (low vs. high) of both vehicles was manipulated. Both the participants' judgments of their own visual performance and their actual visual performance decreased when the participants faced the high beams of the opposing vehicle. Reports of glare-induced discomfort increased when participants faced high beams. Interestingly, the participants overestimated their visual performance when their own vehicle used low beams but were more accurate when their own vehicle used high beams. These results may help explain why drivers underuse their high beam headlights even when in conditions that favor their usage.
Auditory Progress Bars: The effects of Feedback, Endpoint and Free Response on Estimations of Time Remaining BIBAFull-Text 1674-1678
  Adrian Garcia; Camille S. Peres
Auditory Progress Bars (APB) are non-speech auditory displays that indicate the status and progress of ongoing tasks. In on-hold telephone settings they may provide the caller with a means of estimating when their call will be answered. Here, participants used three distinct APBs to make estimations of the time remaining during a simulated on-hold wait. The benefits of feedback and hearing the APB's endpoint on estimating time remaining were examined. Evidence is found that the accuracy of estimations differs by APB type and that feedback on initial estimations increases accuracy on later estimations. Knowing the APBs endpoint does not appear to increase the accuracy of estimating the time remaining in fixed intervals.
An Expansion of System Wide Trust Theory Using In-Vehicle Automation BIBAFull-Text 1679-1683
  Kasha Blair; Joshua Sandry; Stephen Rice
In the present experiments, we extended system-wide trust theory (SWT) to make predictions regarding in-vehicle automated devices. Reformulation of SWT into system-wide assessment theory (SWAT) was successful in predicting participants' perceived reliability and trust ratings of in-vehicle automated devices when participants were presented with only a limited amount of information about the reliability of an existing in-vehicle automated device. Over a series of two related experiments, findings revealed that the initial reliability level impacted both subsequent reliability estimates and subsequent trust ratings of both specific and non-specific in-vehicle automated devices.
Perceived Urgency and Annoyance of Auditory Alerts in a Driving Context BIBAFull-Text 1684-1687
  Christian Gonzalez; Bridget A. Lewis; Daniel M. Roberts; Stephanie M. Pratt; Carryl L. Baldwin
Complex in-vehicle technology and safety systems are finding their way into many cars on the road today. These systems require alerts and warnings that appropriately convey multiple levels of urgency, but if these are deemed excessively annoying, then their implementation may be of little consequence. In this study we used a well-documented psychophysical approach to identify the relationship between specific auditory parameters, perceived urgency and perceived annoyance. In agreement with existing literature, increases in all parameters led to increases in both urgency and annoyance -- although differentially. Of the parameters investigated, only pulse rate exhibited a stronger psychophysical relationship with urgency than annoyance. The tradeoff between urgency and annoyance is of practical concern and results from this study provide a potential guideline to determine the viability of future in vehicle alerts based on this relationship.
Electric Vehicle Charging Station Signs: An Evaluation of Driver Comprehension and Perceived Risk BIBAFull-Text 1688-1692
  Erin E. Dagnall; Bryan J. Katz; Mary Anne Bertola
As drivers continue to purchase electric vehicles, there is an increasing demand for electric vehicle charging stations and, consequently, signing for these stations. Previous research evaluated a sign which was recommended to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) team for addition to the MUTCD; however there remained concerns that drivers' perceptions of electric vehicle charging stations signs had not been adequately addressed. The present research focused on driver comprehension and perceived risk of electric shock in regard to two electric vehicle charging station signs. Members of the driving public completed a computer-based survey which consisted of open-ended questions, rating tasks, and ranking tasks. Drivers did not necessarily associate a risk of electric shock with electric vehicle charging stations. In fact, nearly 100 percent reported that they would feel comfortable using a public electric vehicle charging station. When asked specifically about the risk of electric shock, statistically significant differences in sign alternatives arose only in the risk of electric shock implied by the sign. Further, drivers perceived the risk of shock from using an electric vehicle charging station as lower than many commonly used items which contain an electric charge (e.g., toaster, hair dryer, and extension cord). Given that both alternatives were well comprehended, either sign is suitable for use.
Driver Distraction: Effects of Text Entry Methods on Driving Performance BIBAFull-Text 1693-1697
  Joseph M. Crandall; Alex Chaparro
This research investigates the effect of cell phone interface design on simulated driving performance. The effects of three text message conditions (no text, touch screen keyboard, physical keyboard) on lateral vehicle control and operator workload (mental and physical) were evaluated. Twenty three participants performed a lane change task for each of the text message conditions. The results indicate that drivers had greater lane variability and reported higher workload when using a touch screen compared to physical keyboard. The findings of this study suggest that a touch screen interface may exacerbate the effects of a secondary task (e.g. texting) on driving performance.
Optically-Controlled Braking Responses to Variable Deceleration Magnitudes in a Car-Following Task BIBAFull-Text 1698-1702
  Rowdy J. Hope; Roger Lew; Katrina A. Colby; Brian P. Dyre
This study sought to identify which braking strategies are more often used in a car-following task when only optical cues to deceleration are available (no brake lights). Previous research identified three braking strategies for stopping to a stationary obstruction: regulation (deceleration at a near-constant magnitude), slam-on-the-brakes (increasing magnitude of deceleration), and bang-bang (initial high deceleration followed by a less deceleration). We used a car-following task with braking profiles which included variable decelerations to examine which of these strategies is most often used when drivers are not presented with brake lights warning of the deceleration of the lead vehicle. Results showed that individuals tend to use the slam-on-the-brakes approach (soft-then-hard braking) more than regulated (constant braking) or a bang-bang approach (hard-then-soft braking) when following vehicles without brake lights. These data form an important baseline of behavior for evaluating the effects of brake lights and other deceleration displays on braking behavior.

Posters: POS3 -- Posters 3

The Enhancement of Mental Models and its Impact on Teamwork BIBAFull-Text 1703-1707
  Marie-Eve Jobidon; Alexandra Muller-Gass; Matthew Duncan; Ann-Renée Blais
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enhancing team mental models (TMM), more specifically task models and team interaction models, improved teamwork in dynamic situations. Measures of performance, coordination, and communication were collected during a forest firefighting simulation task (C3Fire) and compared across three learning conditions. The purpose of these learning conditions was to either enhance task TMM by providing additional information on environmental dynamics or team TMM by providing additional information on the roles of each team member and possible interaction strategies. In the control condition, no additional information was provided. Also, task complexity was varied through transparency of courses of action (COA). The results showed better team performance and coordination in conditions with a more obvious COA. However, there was no significant effect of learning condition on team effectiveness. A trend in the data suggests that teams given additional information on team interaction or task factors spent more time communicating. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research and potential avenues for future investigations.
Supporting Change Detection in Complex Dynamic Situations: Does the CHEX Serve its Purpose? BIBAFull-Text 1708-1712
  Benoit R. Vallières; Helen M. Hodgetts; François Vachon; Sébastien Tremblay
Change detection is required in monitoring and managing complex situations such as air traffic control. Considering that change blindness -- the incapacity to detect changes in a visual scene -- is a considerable source of human errors and that most studies on change detection have involved static visual scenes, it is crucial to evaluate existing tools designed to help this cognitive function in complex dynamic situations. The goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of the Change History Explicit (CHEX) -- a tool already proven effective when explicit change detection is the only task to execute -- when change detection is implicit and intrinsic to a more complex task. Results revealed that the CHEX failed to improve implicit change detection when this task was embedded in a threat-evaluation and weapon-assignment (TEWA) task. Moreover, TEWA performance was hindered and mental workload was perceived as higher when the CHEX was available. Even when the information load imposed by the CHEX was reduced, the tool remained ineffective. This suggests that the nature of the change detection task should be taken into account when designing a decision support system.
Comparison of SA Measurement Techniques in a Human-Robot Team Task BIBAFull-Text 1713-1717
  David Schuster; Joseph R. Keebler; Florian Jentsch; Jorge Zuniga
Increasingly intelligent and capable robots may lead to human-robot interaction characterized by close collaboration with robots as team members rather than remotely manipulated tools. In this mode of operation, it is important that robot team members contribute to, rather than limit, the situation awareness (SA) of soldiers. An exploratory study was conducted in which the effects of individual differences and mission factors on three measures of SA were compared. The Situational Awareness Rating Technique (SART) was the best metric for capturing elements of SA that were useful in mission performance, although the results suggest that other measures should not be disregarded. Practical implications for the use of SA metrics in human-robot teams are discussed.
Supporting Human-Robot Teams in Social Dynamicism: an overview of the Metaphoric Inference Framework BIBAFull-Text 1718-1722
  Patricia Bockelman Morrow; Stephen M. Fiore
Metaphoric classification of social interaction in human-robot teams can provide a useful frame for directing robot-human engagement while assisting the robot in sense-making of dynamic world behaviors. This paper describe a framework built from principles of embodiment to show how members of teams are not separated from their world, but make sense and interact in a world via a continuous (rather than causal) flow of engagement facilitated by two forms of perception. In this context, we distinguish between direct and reflective perception, arguing that agents socially engage via these modalities of perception through body, language, and context. We then argue that these forms of perception can direct the use of metaphors. The metaphors, in turn, act as classification frames for robot social intelligence using established human schemas.
Communicating and Distorting Risks with Graphs: An Eye-Tracking Study BIBAFull-Text 1723-1727
  Margo M. Woller-Carter; Yasmina Okan; Edward T. Cokely; Rocio Garcia-Retamero
Graphs can represent complex information in accessible ways. Unfortunately, many graphs are poorly designed and lead to errors in judgment and decision-making. Here, we examine the influence of distorted graphs used by advertisers and major news organizations to communicate risks. Results indicated that the distorted graphs were associated with large judgment errors and that cognitive abilities (e.g., numeracy, graph literacy, cognitive reflection) predicted differences in error rates. Eye-tracking results revealed a strong link between elaborative information search and stimuli-memory, which mediated the ability-judgment relationship. Discussion focuses on cognitive mechanisms (e.g., elaborative encoding), implications for HFES graph design guidelines, and emerging opportunities for personalized decision support.
Workload Comparison of Intraoral Mask to Standard Mask Ventilation Using a Cadaver Model BIBAFull-Text 1728-1732
  Bernadette McCrory; Bethany R. Lowndes; Darcy L. Thompson; Emily E. Miller; Jakeb D. Riggle; Michael C. Wadman; M. Susan Hallbeck
Background: The bag-valve mask (BVM) is critical to providing positive pressure ventilation for patients who are not breathing or who are breathing inadequately. This simple hand-held device enables healthcare professionals to quickly provide mechanical ventilation in emergent and non-emergent situations. However, the difficulty of achieving and maintaining an adequate seal between the BVM and face reduces ventilation volume and the success rate of resuscitation efforts. A novel IntraOral Mask (IOM) was developed by NuMask to eliminate these difficulties by creating a seal inside the mouth using a snorkel-like mouthpiece. There have been no published reports comparing the human factors and ergonomics of these masks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the perceived workload of the standard BVM and the NuMask IOM. Method: Twenty-five emergency medicine students performed mechanical ventilation on a cadaver model using both masks. Workload was assessed using the NASA-TLX after ventilating with each mask. Results: Overall workload and effort were rated significantly less for the IOM (p < 0.05). In general, the IOM had lower median ratings for physical demand, mental demand and frustration compared to the BVM. Conclusion: Overall, the IOM appears to facilitate gripping through its novel snorkel-like design and reduced hand interface size by decreasing the perceived effort and workload of the healthcare responder. However, further clinical and ergonomic investigations are needed to ascertain whether the IOM improves mechanical ventilation performance and therefore resuscitation success rates.
Managing Different Perspectives in the Redesign of Family-Centered Rounds in a Pediatric Hospital BIBAFull-Text 1733-1737
  Anping Xie; Pascale Carayon; Michelle M. Kelly; Yaqiong Li; Randi Cartmill; Lori L. DuBenske; Roger L. Brown; Elizabeth D. Cox
Managing conflicts between different perspectives is critical to healthcare system redesign. This study compares the perspectives of different stakeholders involved in family-centered rounds (FCR) in a pediatric hospital. A survey was distributed to 134 participants involved in FCR. The objective of the survey was to evaluate stakeholder perceptions of the impact of system redesign strategies on family engagement in FCR. Results showed parents, nurses, physicians and medical students have different opinions about how to enhance family engagement in FCR. Recommendations for managing different perspectives in healthcare system redesign are discussed.
Best Practices for the Effective Implementation of Telerounding BIBAFull-Text 1738-1742
  Kyle Heyne; Elizabeth Lazzara; Joseph Keebler; Lauren Benishek; Eduardo Salas
The research base for telemedicine is expanding with nearly the voracity that the implementation of tele-medicine systems has. Telerounding is one specific subset of telemedicine where a team of physicians will gather in a specific location and use a telepresence robot to perform their day to day rounding procedures. This type of telemedicine is fairly new, and thus is lacking a solid research base to guide the implementation and usage of such a system. This paper is an initial attempt at a comprehensive list of best practices for such a system and is based off of current telemedicine literature as well as the experience of the authors.
Recognition of Patient Selection Errors in a Simulated Computerized Provider Order Entry System BIBAFull-Text 1743-1747
  A. Zach Hettinger; Rollin J. (Terry) Fairbanks
Objective: To investigate whether the manipulation of a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) interface design will change provider recognition and correction of patient selection errors. Materials and Methods: Forty-six emergency medicine providers were randomly assigned to three groups (standard design, bolded patient identifiers, and contextual information) using a between-subjects design. Each participant navigated through 3 scenarios, including one with a forced patient selection error. The primary outcome was recognition and correction of the error. Secondary measures were the correction interval (time from introduction to correction) and the step in the ordering process at which recognition occurred. Results: We found an overall 24% error recognition rate. The error recognition rate and correction interval were both non-significant between groups. 82% of error recognitions occurred during the data entry (brief history, indication, room location) phase of ordering (p=0.03). Discussion: In this study 76% of providers did not recognize the occurrence of a patient selection error, with no significant impact from the addition of contextual information. This result suggests that providers do not routinely confirm patient identity after patient selection from the menu. However, when recognized, recovery took place significantly more often in the data entry phase which suggests this is where efforts should be focused. Conclusion: Medical providers do not routinely confirm patient identity after patient selection. Further study is needed to determine the most effective intervention to reduce the wrong patient selection order hazard, including the role of provider input in CPOE systems.
Care Managers' Challenges in Using Multiple Health IT Applications BIBAFull-Text 1748-1752
  Bashar Alyousef; Pascale Carayon; Peter Hoonakker; Ann Schoofs Hundt; Randi Cartmill; Janet Tomcavage; Doreen Salek; Andrea Hassol; Kimberly Chaundy; Jim Younkin; James Walker
While care managers use multiple health IT applications to coordinate patient care across transitions of care, they experience challenges posed by these multiple health IT applications. We used a macroergonomic framework (i.e. the work system model), and conducted interviews and observations of care managers (inpatient, outpatient, transition of care) and a web-based survey to assess these challenges. The challenges were related to the care managers' work system: technologies and tools (e.g., poor interface design of health IT), organization (e.g., no access to some health IT applications), and tasks (e.g., duplicate documentation). Care managers consider the following as major barriers: transferring patient-related information between multiple applications, finding correct information for medication reconciliation and other patient information (e.g., patient's psychosocial background), and duplicate documentation and data entry. The next phase of the research focuses on how care managers deal with challenges posed by multiple health IT applications to perform their job of coordinating patient care across transitions of care.
Acceptability of Evacuation Instruction Fire Warnings BIBAFull-Text 1753-1757
  Jesseca R. I. Taylor; Michael S. Wogalter
The present research examined a set of fire warning statements that could be used to facilitate evacuation of a multi-story building by manipulating the statements' wording and order. Participants (N = 105) evaluated how acceptable each of 13 statements would be in a fire emergency. Manipulated in the statements were two types of components: (a) 3 levels of egress immediacy: 'exit now,' 'exit immediately,' or none, and (b) 3 levels of egress directives: 'use stairs,' 'do not use elevator,' or none. Results showed that participants rated statements containing egress-immediacy and egress-directive components higher than statements without those components. There were no significant differences between the two egress immediacy components or between the two egress directives. An additional component order manipulation showed no effects. Implications and suggestions for future research on warning statement composition are discussed.
Human Factors Issues Associated with Teaching Over a Virtual World BIBAFull-Text 1758-1762
  Valerie Rice; Petra Alfred; Jessica Villarreal; Angela Jeter; Gary Boykin
Second Life (SL) is one of the most popular Virtual Worlds (VW) available on the web, with over 15 million registered accounts and over 50,000 registered users online at any given time (de Freitas, 2008). A number of universities offer classes taught via VWs, however little information is available on the human factors issues associated with teaching and learning via a VW. This paper is a practice-oriented analysis of information gathered during a pilot test of didactic and behavioral training offered over SL, using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) as a test case. Results indicate that human factors issues including social, communication, and technological concerns impact class interactions and feelings of trust. Participants report gaining didactic knowledge, a willingness to recommend VW training to others, and being open to future training via a VW. Recommendations to modify in-person training for VW use include targeted, early education of class members to potential differences in VW training, alteration of teaching strategies, and use and upkeep of technologies.
Visually induced motion sickness and presence in videogames: The role of sound BIBAFull-Text 1763-1767
  Behrang Keshavarz; Heiko Hecht
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known phenomenon in virtual environments, simulators, and videogames. We conducted an experiment to analyze the role of sound on the severity of VIMS and the feeling of presence in videogames. Thirty-two subjects first watched a pre-recorded sequence of the game 'Mirrors Edge' and then played the game actively. Game-play sound was activated for half of the participants. VIMS was measured via the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire and the Fast Motion Sickness Scale, presence was captured using the Presence Questionnaire. Results showed severe VIMS in all participants during the passive video session, whereas active-play revealed only moderate VIMS. However, in both conditions sound turned out to have no effect, neither on the severity of VIMS nor on the amount of presence. We found a moderate negative correlation between VIMS and presence. The results indicate that sound is less important than often thought.
A Phenomenological Interview Method for Informal Science Learning BIBAFull-Text 1768-1771
  Amy S. Bolling
In this paper I explore the phenomenological interview as a method of measuring learning outcomes in informal science environments, specifically with respect to the nature of the emotional experience and its impact on learning. The learning outcomes of informal science education include emotional components such as excitement and interest, which are not easily measured with traditional testing and surveys. The phenomenological interview involves open-ended questioning, and responses are analyzed by comparing the common threads between participants. This research method could be helpful in understanding the nature of the emotional experience and what aspects of the environment contributed. It could also be applied to research on other virtual and mixed-reality environments, especially where emotional impact is studied.
Enhancing Speed Perception in Virtual Environments Through Training BIBAFull-Text 1772-1776
  John D. Hill; Jonathan A. Salzman
The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which training can improve the speed perception of drivers in simulated environments. Seventy-two participants completed one of two driving simulator studies involving following a lead vehicle travelling at an unknown speed. Twenty-four subjects completed a training exercise to provide feedback at various speeds. The drivers who completed these short training exercises provided significantly better speed estimates without the aid of the speedometer during the driving trial. Given the close relationship between vehicle speed and many of the performance measures used in driving simulator studies, there may be a strong benefit in taking time to acclimate study participants to the how various speeds appear in a simulated environment. This can be done in a very short period of time, even as part of common procedures to acclimate the driver to the simulated environment.

Posters: POS4 -- Posters 4

Display type effects in military operational tasks using Unmanned Vehicle (UV) video images: Comparison between color and B/W video feeds BIBAFull-Text 1777-1781
  Yaniv Minkov; Ronny Ophir-Arbelle; Tal Oron-Gilad
The increased use of unmanned vehicles (UVs) in military environments requires development of guidelines to enable maximal compatibility between those technologies and users' needs. Specifically, the way video feeds are delivered to dismounted soldiers may affect the utility of such information. This work follows previous studies on the type (e.g., size) of displays required by dismounted soldiers to process video feed from UVs in a variety of operational situations. Sixteen former infantry soldiers with no experience using UV video feed participated. Three display types were examined using color or B/W video feeds in three different operational tasks (identification, orientation and movement detection). Performance and subjective data were collected. Results showed some effects for display type, no significant effect for feed color and an interaction for display type and feed color only in response time.
The Issue of Monotony and Low Workload in Spaceflight: Considerations for the Mission to Mars BIBAFull-Text 1782-1786
  James M. Oglesby; Eduardo Salas
The future mission to Mars will present a number of challenges regarding habitability and performance for spaceflight crewmembers. One aspect that needs to be considered is the potential impact of extended periods of low workload relating to monotony and boredom. The following provides an overview of the challenges associated with long duration spaceflight, and specifies the characteristics of interplanetary exploration. Focus is put on these challenges in space and provides possible approaches in mitigating the potential consequences regarding low workload in the high-risk environment. Discussion points are provided regarding possible applications for implementation in future interplanetary expeditions.
Effect of Data Communications on Pilot Situation Awareness, Decision Making, and Workload BIBAFull-Text 1787-1788
  Kelley M. Baker; Sara K. DiMare; Erik T. Nelson; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
Over the next decade, the demand for air transportation and other airspace services is expected to grow significantly. To address this, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is developing the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), which is a series of transformations designed to increase the capacity, safety, and security of air traffic operations. One major enabling technology being investigated is data communications (data comm), which is an electronic text-based message-transferring system between aircraft and ground stations. The literature on data communications outlines both potential benefits and costs. On the benefits side, subject matter experts and researchers have suggested that the switch to text-based communications will lead to reduced distractions and workload (Hoogeboom, Joosse, Hodgetts, Straussberger, & Schaefer, 2004; Navarro & Sikorski, 1999). In addition, data communication is thought to be more accurate and concise (Kerns, 1991; Prinzo, 2001). On the costs side, pilots have reported their belief that loss of information gained through the party line leads to a loss of situation awareness (Prinzo & Campbell, 2008; Hodgetts et al., 2005). Pilots seem particularly concerned with the loss of party line information related to weather, traffic, and holding situations (Pritchett & Hansman, 1997; Pritchett, Midkiff, & Hansman, 1995) and with the loss of information during the busier phases of flight near the airport (Pritchett et al., 1995). However, Boehm-Davis, Gee, Baker, and Medina-Mora (2010) found that while some information presented over the party line is important to pilots' situation awareness, it may be possible to mitigate the loss of the party line by providing supplemental information with data comm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of data communications on pilot situation awareness, decision making, and workload. This study built upon a previous study by Boehm-Davis, et al. (2010), which examined party line loss and mitigation strategies. In this study, a two-pilot crew was asked to fly two 40-minute flight scenarios using a low fidelity desktop computer-based flight simulator. The independent variable was communication modality, which was a within-subjects variable. Participants flew one scenario with all communication with air traffic control handled via auditory communication channels. In this condition, they were able to overhear party line communications between other aircraft and ATC. Participants flew the other scenario with all communication with ATC handled via data communications. In this condition, the pilots received clearances from ATC via data comm, and also received data comm messages regarding flight events. Situation awareness and workload were assessed during the flight using the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) (Durso & Dattel, 2004). In this method, participants are interrupted from their primary task with queries about their situation. Accuracy and response time are used as measures of their situation awareness and workload. Subjective workload was measured at the end of each flight, using the NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) (Hart & Staveland, 1988). Pilot decision making was also assessed. Throughout the experiments, a former airline pilot observed the participants and assessed their awareness, planning, decision making, and actions in response to specific flight events. No significant differences were found for the SPAM workload or situation awareness times or in the number of correct responses to the SPAM situation awareness questions. Likewise, there was no significant difference in subjective workload between conditions, as measured with the NASA-TLX. When presented with specific flight events, participants showed slightly greater awareness, discussion, and action in the data comm condition than in the voice condition. However, this difference was not significant. In addition, pilots were less likely to seek information from ATC in the data comm condition, which could potentially reduce workload for controllers. Although this study did not yield many statistically significant results, the findings imply that there may not be a loss of situation awareness, degradation of decision making, or increase in workload when using data comm instead of voice communications, especially with a well-designed data comm interface, sufficient training, and clear procedures.
Investigating Collaborative Behaviors on Interactive Tabletop Displays in Complex Task Environments BIBAFull-Text 1789-1793
  Xiaochen Yuan; Joseph Shum; Kimberly Langer; Mark Hancock; Jonathan Histon
A two-player, collaborative digital tabletop testbed has been developed in order to study collaborative behaviors of human operators in complex task environments such as Air Traffic Control. The game provides a means of examining interaction techniques designed to foster collaboration, and support natural communication strategies between operators in these complex environments. This paper describes key requirements for the testbed and how those requirements were met in a first version of the testbed. Finally, lessons learned from initial evaluations of its application to studying handoffs and coordination between players on an interactive tabletop display in a simulated ATC environment is presented.
Aviation Decision Making Issues and Outcomes: Evidence from ASRS and NTSB Reports BIBAFull-Text 1794-1798
  Kathleen L. Mosier; Ute Fischer; Kerry Cunningham; Alec Munc; Kendra Reich; Linda Tomko; Judith Orasanu
As we move into NextGen (Next Generation) aviation operations, it becomes critical to ensure shared situational understanding and cooperative problem solving between flight crews and ATC. Doing so will entail identifying potential problems, as well as evaluating the likely impacts of specific operator and environmental characteristics on decision processes and outcomes. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) incident and accident reports were examined, with a focus on human factors issues, antecedents of errors and associated operational consequences. Results showed interrelationships between specific antecedents and errors, and the prevalence of attention errors, crew communication issues and monitoring/challenging errors in procedural errors and poor decisions. A model of how antecedents contribute to poor situational models and outcomes is proposed.
Using Medieval Architecture as Inspiration for Display Design: Parameter Interrelationships and Organizational Structure BIBAFull-Text 1799-1803
  Immanuel Barshi; Asaf Degani; David Iverson; Peter J. Lu
In physical environments such as aerospace and process control, many system components and their associated information are interrelated (e.g., an increase in a chamber temperature results in an increase in its pressure). Displaying interrelationships between individual parameters and also among sets of parameters reveals meaningful information and can help yield understanding about the 'big picture,' which operators in complex systems commonly strive for. In this paper, we propose a framework for information organization, discuss a method for computation of such interrelations, and suggest a display organization approach to 'house' them. The computation is done using data mining tools and the display organization approach is based on concepts from Islamic medieval architecture. We illustrate these ideas using a helicopter engine display and briefly discuss some of the implications for a holistic display of multiple components and subsystems.
Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management BIBAFull-Text 1804-1808
  Mary Kim Ngo; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Elaine Thorpe; Vernol Battiste; Thomas Z. Strybel
We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.
Age Differences in Simple and Procedural Reaction Time Among Healthy Military Personnel BIBAFull-Text 1809-1813
  Petra E. Alfred; Valerie J. Rice
Knowledge of cognitive processing changes among adults is important as it can impact their work and home functioning. However, basic cognitive changes due to aging among healthy working adults are either not as well documented or focus on adults over 60 years of age. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of younger (age 21-38) and older (age 39-58) military personnel on the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) tests of simple and procedural reaction time. Descriptive statistics including correlation analyses were used to examine the data. Independent samples t-tests were used to compare the groups. Linear regression was used to predict age based on the three reaction time tests. Results of the correlation analyses failed to find a significant relationship between age and reaction time (p &gt; .05). Results of the t-tests failed to find significant mean differences between younger and older participants (p &gt; .05). Results of the linear regression analyses failed to find significance for predicting age based on the selected reaction time measures (p &gt; .05). These results appear to support findings that age-related differences in reaction time do not occur during less complex reaction time tasks.
Investigation into the Functional Mobility Difference between Obese and Non-Obese Elderly BIBAFull-Text 1814-1816
  Xuefang Wu; Han T. Yeoh; Rahul Soangra; Thurmon E. Lockhart
Obese aging population is increasing in the United States, and obese elderly experience fall twice as frequent as their lean counterparts. However, the mechanisms of older obese adults fall are still not clear. It is not known whether the obese elderly has more functional mobility impairments than their lean counterparts, and consequently have increased risks of falls. It was hypothesized that obese elderly have more functional mobility impairments compared with their healthy weight counterparts. Six lean and six obese community-dwelling elderly participated in the study. 'Timed up & go' test was used to quantify the functional mobility for both lean and obese elderly. Stopwatch and custom-made inertial measurement units were used to obtain the temporal and kinematic parameters. The results showed that there is no significant difference in overall time to complete the 'timed up & go' task, but significant difference in anterior posterior acceleration, time to reach the peak extension angular velocity from initiation and double support time between lean and obese groups of participants. Therefore, we concluded that older obese adults have some functional mobility impairments compared with their lean counterparts but the completion time of the 'timed up & go' test may not be able to differentiate these individuals. Our results also suggested that obese elderly might have more muscular impairments than their healthy weight counterparts, which can result in higher fall risks. Future studies are warranted to investigate the mechanisms of increased fall risks among obese elderly.
Augmented Emotion and its Remote Embodiment: The Importance of Design from Fiction to Reality BIBAFull-Text 1817-1821
  Kristin E. Schaefer; Jacquelyn G. Cook; Jeffrey K. Adams; Jonathan Bell; Tracy L. Sanders; P. A. Hancock
In this work, we address the under-emphasized need for attention to the emotional dynamics involved in human-robot interaction. This becomes more prominent as robots continue to transition from a tool-based role to a role of a teammate or companion. A theoretical review of robotic design through both current technology and fictional media provides a foundation for understanding domains in which the remote embodiment of human emotions can be used. Current and prior research is discussed, as well as limitations and necessities. Recommendations are established for an initial Best Practices approach that can provide optimal benefits to the user with regard to design implementation.
Measuring workload using a combination of electroencephalography and near infrared spectroscopy BIBAFull-Text 1822-1826
  Emily B. J. Coffey; Anne-Marie Brouwer; Jan B. F. van Erp
The ability to continuously monitor workload in a real-world environment would have important implications for the offline design of human machine interfaces as well as the real-time improvement of interaction between humans and machines. We explored the usefulness of features derived from electroencephalography (EEG) spectra, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) hemoglobin concentration, and their combination, under data acquisition and processing conditions that could be applied to real-time usage. We simultaneously recorded from eight EEG and three NIRS channels during different workload conditions of the N-back task (N = 0, 1, 2). EEG and NIRS data were classified independently, and in combination. EEG could be used to reliably classify workload condition for most subjects and NIRS for half of them. NIRS tended to contribute to classification accuracy when combined with EEG in some subjects. We discuss implications and future directions.
Usability of an Interactive Educational Website for Statistics BIBAFull-Text 1827-1831
  Sloane Hoyle; S. Camille Peres; Kate Bruton; Trini Gutierrez
As the use of online learning tools (e-tools) becomes increasingly prevalent, there is a strong need for practical design guidelines and recommendations to facilitate an efficient and effective e-learning environment. The main focus in this paper is to identify usability elements of educational websites. Finding usability problems was the main focus of the three usability studies conducted using twenty-six participants. One study evaluated the effectiveness of the navigational system; the two other studies assessed the usability of interactive simulations. While the initial focus was on the website specifically, collective information gathered from the three studies further identified usability guidelines useful for educational websites. The results from these studies support thirteen key guidelines that could inform guidelines for online educational tools that differ from those guidelines for commercially focused websites.
Integrating Principles of Environmental Sustainability into Human Factors Education: A Recommendation BIBAFull-Text 1832-1836
  Melissa Paz; Brittany C. Sellers; Stephen M. Fiore; Lindsey Richards
Environmental problems continue to increase and a variety of scholarly disciplines are working to address sustainability through the study of engineering design and human behavior. However, the human factors and ergonomics community of scholars has yet to become a force in research related to environmental issues and solving environmental problems. We argue that the next generation of scientists and engineers in human factors must be educated to understand how they can address current and future problems in environmental sustainability. In this paper we outline the beginnings of a set of topics that can inform the development of such an educational program.
Range of Motion and Reaches of Warfighters in Body Armor BIBAFull-Text 1837-1841
  K. Blake Mitchell
To better understand the performance impact of body armor on U.S. military Warfighters, NSRDEC conducted an evaluation examining the range of motion of 67 Soldiers. Four configurations were assessed: duty uniform only and duty uniform with three different body armor protection levels (BAPLs). Sixteen (16) measurements were collected using standard and modified methods. Test participants were dressed in their best fitting size body armor and performed a variety of mission relevant movements. Test participants repeated each movement three times, and a mean was calculated for data analysis. Significant differences were seen between the BAPLs across the movements and within each movement. Follow up analysis has shown significant differences between the duty uniform alone and the three BAPLs for most of the movements. Design modifications of the armor could reduce the performance degradation caused by wearing the body armor, thereby improving mission performance and reducing fatigue in Warfighters.
The Relationship Between Trust and Usability in Systems BIBAFull-Text 1842-1846
  Claudia Ziegler Acemyan; Philip Kortum
There is a large body of literature on trust, which focuses on interpersonal relationships. In recent years the scope of this research has expanded, as some studies have begun to explore trust between people and systems. Trust in these systems is critical, because if someone does not trust a system they will not use it. Another factor that heavily influences system use is usability, which has been extensively studied in human factors research. The goal of the research presented here was to expand the current understanding of usability by exploring its relationship to trust in two contexts: (1) popular consumer products that people can choose to use and (2) voting systems that citizens must use if they participate in an election. In the first context the relationship between usability and trust was explored across fourteen popular consumer products. In the second, the manner in which trust changed across three paper-ballot voting methods, each characterized by a different level of usability, was examined. In both studies it was found that the more usable systems were also the more trusted systems. At the same time, the relationship between the two factors differed in each context, implying other variables likely influenced it.
The Need to Examine Culture in Health Technology BIBAFull-Text 1847-1851
  Jennifer Perchonok; Enid Montague
Culture influences how healthcare is received, what is considered to be a health problem, how symptoms are expressed, who should provide treatment, and what type of treatment should be provided. Culturally-informed health technology can result in higher adoption rates and can mitigate access barriers facing culturally diverse populations. Unfortunately, culture is not often considered in the design of health technology. Three design considerations are suggested as high-level guidelines for the development of culturally-informed health technology. First, designers should conduct formative research, which includes methods such as focus groups, interviews with key informants, surveys, and field notes, in the early phases of design. Second, health technology designers should choose an appropriate type of technology for the intended population. Third, designers should consider culture when deciding how to present the information. For instance, the information should be presented in the correct language, at the correct educational level, and by someone of a similar culture to the end user. A model is presented to illustrate a potential process of designing culturally-informed health Information Technology. Future research should investigate potential relationships, health consumer culture, and design needs.
The Effects of a Weighted Wrist Mounted Device on Marksmanship BIBA