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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting 2007-10-01

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting
Location:Baltimore, Maryland
Dates:2007-Oct-01 to 2007-Oct-05
Publisher:HFES
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-30-8, 0-978-945289-30-2; hcibib: HFES07; TA 166 H794
Papers:351
Pages:2136
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2007-10-01 Volume 51
    1. AGING: Aging and Technology and Product Design
    2. AGING: Aging and Ergonomic Design
    3. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Automation and Displays
    4. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Safety and Training
    5. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Air Traffic Control
    6. COMMUNICATIONS: Getting Through to Other People -- Team and Individual Communication
    7. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognition Under stress
    8. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Working with Automation
    9. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Modern Technology Failures, Cognitive Engineering Successes
    10. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Situation Awareness in Complex Environments
    11. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Meta-Information Communication and Representation
    12. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Working with Interruptions
    13. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Decision Making Gets Tough
    14. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Using and Applying CWA
    15. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Intelligence Analysis
    16. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Understanding Cognitive Work
    17. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Working with Spatial Knowledge
    18. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Influencing How People Work
    19. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Macrocognition Metrics: Meaningful Measures for Complex Processes
    20. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: All About Communicating
    21. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Information Input and Security
    22. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Information Display and Management
    23. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Usability
    24. DEMONSTRATIONS: Demonstrations
    25. EDUCATION: Human Factors in Learning and Teaching
    26. EDUCATION: Design Specifications for a Cognitive Engineering Textbook
    27. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Workspace Perceptions, Workspace Design, and Seating
    28. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensics Professional
    29. GENERAL SESSION: President's Forum
    30. GENERAL SESSION: Ergonomics Professionalism
    31. GENERAL SESSION: Human Factors in Complex Operational Environments
    32. HEALTH CARE: Achieving High Reliability in Health Care: Approaches and Perspectives
    33. HEALTH CARE: Minimally Invasive Human Factors
    34. HEALTH CARE: Developing and Using Team Performance Measures in Health Care: Lessons Learned
    35. HEALTH CARE: Human Factors in the ICU
    36. HEALTH CARE: Collaboration, Communication, and Task Support in Medical Contexts
    37. HEALTH CARE: Understanding and Designing the Medication Process
    38. HEALTH CARE: Beyond See-One, Do-One, Teach-One: Applying HF to Clinical Training and Education
    39. HEALTH CARE: Practical Issues in Medical Human Factors: Managing the Details and Methods
    40. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: Modeling Performance in the Environmental Context
    41. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: The Next Generation of Cognitive Modeling Tools
    42. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: Exploring Cognition and Performance through Modeling
    43. INTERNET: Internet
    44. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Human Performance: Neural, Genetic, Cognitive, and Psychometric Approaches
    45. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Performance, Stress, and Coping
    46. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper Extremity and Workstation Design
    47. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: The World of Stability: Postural and Spine
    48. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: The Complexities of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Untangling the Web
    49. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Manual Material Handling Activities
    50. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Ergonomic Sensor Development and Measurement
    51. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Practical Application of Ergonomics
    52. MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomic Approaches to Management of Information across Organizations
    53. MACROERGONOMICS: Improving Employment Outcomes of Cancer Survivors
    54. PRODUCT DESIGN: Product Potpourri
    55. PRODUCT DESIGN: Information and Instructions in Product Design
    56. PRODUCT DESIGN: Miscellanea: Methods, Tools, Aesthetics, and Evaluations
    57. POSTERS: Poster Session 1
    58. POSTERS: Poster Session 2
    59. POSTERS: Poster Session 3
    60. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception in Aerospace Applications
    61. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Neuroergonomics of Visual Cognition: Research and Applications
    62. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception Theory and Practice
    63. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Auditory, Visual, and Haptic Cueing
    64. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Haptics Control and Imagery
    65. SAFETY: Warnings and Risk Perception
    66. SAFETY: An International Perspective on Risk Communications
    67. SAFETY: Construction and Industry Safety
    68. SAFETY: Safety Potpourri
    69. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Operational Applications
    70. STUDENT FORUM: Student Research on Driver Behavior
    71. STUDENT FORUM: A Guide to Successful HF/E Career Preparation
    72. STUDENT FORUM: Student Research on Cognitive Arousal and Trust in Automation
    73. SPECIAL SESSION: Health Care Mock Trial
    74. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Diver Safety Warnings & Alerts
    75. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: In-Vehicle Driver Distraction
    76. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Driver Safety Potpouri
    77. TRAINING: Methods and Procedures for Tactical Training
    78. TRAINING: Training Potpourri
    79. TEST AND EVALUATION: Human-System Performance Test and Evaluation
    80. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Human Factors in Virtual Environments

HFES 2007-10-01 Volume 51

AGING: Aging and Technology and Product Design

A Survey of Mobile Phone Use in Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Young Seok Lee
Mobile phone adoption by older adults is radically increasing. As a part of multiple empirical studies to improve older adults' experiences with mobile phones, a survey was conducted to investigate a number of specific aspects of mobile phone use in the older adult population including motives of ownership, usage patterns, preferences on mobile phone features, and perceived usability of their own phones. A total of 154 older adults from 20 states of the United States who owned a mobile phone participated in this study. Results indicated that participants used a few basic features of mobile phones since they used them mainly for personal communication and safety reasons. Overall, participants perceived that their current phones offered marginal 'ease of use', but they found most usability problems with understanding error messages, inputting text, and understanding user manuals. The majority of older adults (over 50%) desired a phone with basic features that include making/receiving a call, phonebook, emergency call, voice message checking, speed dial, ringer change, and clock. However, effects of age and gender were found on mobile phone usage patterns and design preferences, which suggest a need of focusing on diverse groups within the older adult population.
Reliance on Automation as a Function of Expectation of Reliability, Cost of Verification, and Age BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Neta Ezer; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
The influence of trust on automation reliance has been examined during interaction with the automation, but little attention has been paid to individuals' initial expectation of automation reliability as it affects future reliance, especially when the cost of not relying on automation is known in advance. Additionally, whereas automation may help to improve the lives of older adults, their expectations of automation reliability have not been thoroughly considered. In this study, 16 older adults and 16 younger adults were asked about their expectation of the reliability of an automated counting aid and half were told that they would lose points for verifying the automation. Subsequent reliance on the decision aid was recorded. The results indicated that neither age nor the cost of verification appears to have an effect on reliability expectancy. Furthermore, predictions of reliability had a negative correlation to reliance. The findings suggest that individuals develop expectations of automation over the course of experience and interaction with automation.
What Types of Difficulties do Seniors Encounter When Using the Internet to Make Health Care Decisions? BIBAFull-Text 11-14
  Thomas Kuhn; Sara J. Czaja; Sankaran N. Nair; Joseph Sharit; Tamer El-Attar; Mario Hernandez; Chin Chin Lee
The Internet is an important source of information for health-related topics and services. Currently, however, an age-related digital divide exists, especially for lower SES minority elderly. This study examined the ability of a sample of 40 community dwelling adults aged 50-85 yrs. to use the Internet to make choices related to Medicare services. Performance data included response time, accuracy, and search behavior (based on videotape recordings) and ratings of usability. Overall the data indicate that although most of the of participants were able to find the needed information many of them made errors, used inefficient search strategies, and encountered search problems. Furthermore, most of the sample indicated problems with usability and that they were frustrated interacting with the website. These findings are discussed in terms of recommendations for training and website design. The paper will also discuss how screen capture data can be used in the development of design guidelines.
Older Adults' Health Information Needs and the Effect of the Internet BIBAFull-Text 15-19
  Jessica Hirth; Sara J. Czaja; Joseph Sharit
Internet-based health information may be particularly beneficial for older adults as this segment of the population is likely to need healthcare information and services and often experiences problems accessing needed services and care. In order to effectively design e-health tools for seniors it is important to understand their health information needs and factors that enhance or impede their ability to use the Internet. Another important issue is to determine if in fact health information needs are satisfied to a greater extent between Internet users and non-users. This study explored these issues using six focus groups comprised of 35 adults aged 50+ (M = 69.71 years) with varying levels of Internet-based health information-seeking experience. Results indicated that the adults who used the Internet were quite satisfied with finding information from this source; however non-users were also quite satisfied with the more traditional sources that they rely on for health information.
Error Extensions to GOMS Modeling: Age-Related Predictions of Error in a Mobile Phone Task BIBAFull-Text 20-24
  Tiffany S. Jastrzembski; Neil Charness
Human error is pervasive (Kirwan, 1994), and its consequences are often costly (e.g. time, money) or even deadly (e.g. Neumann, 1995). Yet, many types of human fallibility are not anomalous occurrences, but instead flow from psychological processes that normally produce correct behavior (Mach, 1905). It is therefore reasonable to argue that some types of errors may be predictable (so long as situational demands and human capabilities/limitations are properly taken into consideration) and subsequently, amenable to computational modeling techniques. This research seeks to incorporate and implement psychological theory of human error in GOMS models of human performance by first classifying errors under a simplified GEMS schematic (Reason, 1990), then extracting observed error probabilities from simpler mobile phone tasks, and validating model predictions in a more complex, mobile phone task. Results revealed no differences between model predictions and human production of error across all types of error classification, and models accurately predicted error rates for younger and older users based upon previously validated, age-informed processing parameters included in each age-sensitive model.
Inferences and Confidence in Warning Texts: The Role of Age and Prior Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 25-29
  Anne E. Adams; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Understanding warnings is important, regardless if prior knowledge with respect to such information exists. The goal of the current study was to investigate younger and older adults' ability to draw inferences under different conditions of prior knowledge, and how confident participants were about their decisions. Participants read two-sentence text passages, which either resembled real warnings (real) or were the opposite of real warnings (reversed). Participants evaluated whether information in a given statement was consistent (true) or inconsistent (false) with information given in a text passage. Statements either repeated information explicitly or implied in the text passage. Participants also rated their confidence in the correctness of their answer. Data showed no age-related differences in accuracy when the text passages resembled real warnings. When text passages were reversed, older adults were less accurate than younger adults, yet more confident when inferences were required.

AGING: Aging and Ergonomic Design

Perceptions and Use of Product-Related Age Recommendations: A Case Study Involving ATVs BIBAFull-Text 30-34
  Stephen L. Young; J. Paul Frantz; Raina J. Shah; Timothy P. Rhoades; Julia K. Diebol
Forty-four adults and nineteen youth participated in a study that examined responses to age recommendations related to the purchase of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) intended for operators under age 16. Structured interviews were used to evaluate preferences under different purchase scenarios. Focus groups were also conducted to assess the factors influencing purchase decisions. Results from the interviews and focus groups showed that situational, person, and product factors influenced people's perceptions of various age recommendations and purchase preferences for ATVs. Implications regarding the design and use of age recommendations are discussed.
Investigating the Dynamic Accommodative Characteristics of the Aging Eye with the Control of the Intensity and Chromaticity of Light BIBAFull-Text 35-39
  Wen Shi; Thurmon E. Lockhart
The age-related accommodation loss of the human eye impairs aging people's life. A study was conducted to preliminarily investigate the dynamic accommodative characteristics of the eye for different age groups under various intensities and chromaticities of light. 4 younger (20-29 years of age), and 4 older (60-69 years of age) participants were recruited, and the accommodation of their eyes was recorded and analyzed dynamically via the modified Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The laboratory experiment was designed to assess accommodation in a simulated condition where the participant needed to alternate from viewing outside to reading the dashboard with signals of different light intensities (2 levels: 100 and 20 cd/m2) and light chromaticities (2 levels: red vs. blue). The results of the study indicated that aging, light intensity, and light chromaticity all had an impact on the dynamic accommodative characteristics of the eye. The implications of the study are discussed.
Identification of Aging Effects on the Control of Upright Stance Using a Local Maximum Wavelet Transform Method BIBAFull-Text 40-44
  HongBo. Zhang; Maury A. Nussbaum
The purpose of this study was to investigate aging effects on the mechanisms of postural control during upright stance, and specifically the use of proprioceptive feedback on this control. Thirty-two healthy individuals participated, equally divided among younger (19-22 years) and older groups (54-68 years) and genders. Experimental trials involved several sessions of quiet stance on a firm surface with eyes closed. Center of pressure (COP) data were obtained from a force platform and processed using a new local maximum wavelet transform method. The critical time interval (CTI) derived from this method was proposed to describe the activation period of proprioceptive function, which is mainly influenced by the proprioceptive feedback loop. A reduced CTI was assumed to indicate poorer control based on proprioceptive input. Results showed that younger participants' CTI significantly increased from the first experimental session to consecutive experimental sessions in both the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposteriorer (AP) directions. However, older participates' CTI did not exhibit significant differences between the first and the consequent experimental sessions in either direction. This result suggests that the adaptability of proprioceptive function was impaired with age. Younger adults' CTIs were significantly larger than those of older adults in both ML and AP directions, indicating that among older adults stance control based on proprioceptive function was significantly impaired due to aging.
Of mice and pen: effects of input device on different age groups performing goal-oriented tasks BIBAFull-Text 45-49
  James F. Kravitz
Convertible tablet PCs can use a pen or a mouse for input. The pen is better suited than the mouse for some tasks because of its interaction properties, and research has shown it may ameliorate age-related decrements in performance. This study compared the pen and mouse on a series of realistic tasks for older (55-69) and younger (18-30) adults. Precision tasks were better served by the mouse, while ballistic tasks with strong analogs to real-world actions were served equally well by the pen or the mouse. Older adults were slower than younger adults on both devices, but contrary to the research hypothesis, no benefits were observed specifically for older adults with the pen. This study reinforces findings regarding the importance of task demands when selecting input devices. Younger adults seemed more willing than older adults to embrace the pen.
Pre-Exertion Perceptions of Musculoskeletal Overexertion Injury Risk: An Assessment of Age, Gender, Anthropometric, and Lifting Task Factors BIBAFull-Text 50-54
  Steven F. Wiker; Viviana Baggio
Manual materials handling safety training programs typically encourage workers to make judgments regarding manual material handling risk prior to making attempts to perform the task. The objectives of this effort were to determine if: a) perceptions of MMH tasks are consistent with consensus-based lifting hazards, and b) judgments are materially affected by observer age and or gender. Photographs of orthogonally varied levels of horizontal and vertical origin and final position of a 20 Kg box lift at 0.2, 2 and 5 lifts per minute were presented to 50 males and 50 females who were distributed among age decades between 20 and 70 years. Subjects were asked to rate their perceived risk of musculoskeletal injury using magnitude estimation methods. Results showed that subjects, regardless of age, were unable to spatially perceive consensus-based biomechanical indexes of musculoskeletal hazard; this finding held regardless of age group, gender, stature, body mass, prior safe lifting practices training, or history of low back injury.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Automation and Displays

In-Flight Planning and Intelligent Pilot Aids for Emergencies and Non-Nominal Flight Conditions Using Automatically Generated Flight Plans BIBAFull-Text 55-59
  Vittesh V. Kalambi; Amy R. Pritchett; Daniel P. J. Bruneau; Mica R. Endsley; David B. Kaber
The following study examined pilots' performance on in-flight planning tasks in non-nominal and emergency conditions using autoflight systems capable of automatically generating a flight plan. The findings revealed that autoflight systems did not significantly impact replanning, while the scenarios did significantly affect the primary performance measures of distance flown and time of flight. Additionally, pilots selected the most direct route when possible and did not distinguish between emergency and non-nominal flight conditions. Pilots also favored use of the automatically generated flight plans. We conclude that: 1) automatic flight path generation benefits in-flight replanning primarily by reducing workload in emergencies; and 2) such a system will require real time access to environmental information, including traffic, weather and terrain, be considered simultaneously.
Manual versus speech input for entering a taxiroute into an Electronic Flight Bag BIBAFull-Text 60-64
  Fenne Roefs; Erik Theunissen; Joris Koeners
An application for entering a taxiroute into an Electronic Flight Bag, using either speech input or manual input, has been investigated. The input concepts are designed such that the number of actions to be performed when using speech input is the same as when using manual input. A previous evaluation of the speech input concept in an undisturbed, single-task environment showed that high route recognition performance is feasible. To compare the concepts in an operationally realistic environment, two experiments were conducted in a fixed-base research simulator. Typical disturbances that are present in the cockpit environment were modeled and used in this simulation-based evaluation/comparison. Time, efficiency, workload, and pilot preference were used as criteria. Eight professional pilots, with flight experience varying from 9 to 27 years, participated. The results indicate a clear performance benefit in terms of speed and efficiency for the manual input, which also yielded a lower workload and was the preferred option of the pilots.
Pilot Identification of Proposed Electronic Symbols for Displays of Aeronautical Charting Information BIBAFull-Text 65-69
  Divya C. Chandra; Michelle Yeh; Colleen Donovan
Many electronic displays of aeronautical charting information currently use different symbols for common display elements, creating the risk of confusion and misinterpretation. The SAE International Aerospace Behavior and Technology (G-10) Aeronautical Charting Committee, an industry group of subject matter experts, is developing an updated recommendations document that would provide guidance on what symbols to use on these displays. This paper describes a study conducted to evaluate some of the symbology proposed by the committee. Instrument-rated pilots were asked to identify proposed electronic symbols, and to rate their confidence in their response. The goal of this task was to determine whether pilots could correctly identify the proposed symbols, even though they may not be familiar with some of the specific symbols. Most of the symbols were well recognized, but a few were problematic.
"Picture-in-Picture" Augmentation of UAV Workstation Video Display BIBAFull-Text 70-74
  Gloria Calhoun; Heath Ruff; Austen Lefebvre; Mark Draper; Antonio Ayala
Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory has focused on determining the value of combining computer-generated information with live camera video presented on an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) station display. In a previous study, a picture-in-picture (PIP) concept (where video imagery is surrounded by synthetic-generated terrain imagery, increasing the operator's instantaneous field-of-view) was found to reduce landmark search time and enhance operator situation awareness. The present study examined whether PIP display size and symbology overlay registration error impacts performance. Results confirmed that performance on a landmark search task is better when a PIP display was used, particularly with the more compressed video imagery, reducing average designation time by 60%. Also, the registration error between the virtual flags and landmarks was less critical with the PIP capability enabled. This research has potential application to a variety of teleoperated control applications.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Safety and Training

Impact of Visual Scene Field of View on F-16 Pilot Performance BIBAFull-Text 75-79
  Jamie L. Estock; Amy L. Alexander; Emily M. Stelzer; Kathryn Baughman
The tremendous expense and inherent dangers of training in the aircraft have led to the increased use of simulators for practicing and maintaining air combat skills; However, the advantages and disadvantages of using high or low-fidelity simulators for such training must be specified. An experiment was conducted to examine the in-simulator performance differences between pilots flying lower-fidelity simulators compared to higher-fidelity simulators. The primary difference between the two simulators is the visual scene field-of-view. Sixteen U.S. Air Force F-16 pilots flew standard training missions as an integrated team of four (a "four-ship") with two pilots flying in the high-fidelity simulators and two pilots flying in the lower-fidelity simulators. Various subjective and objective measures were collected to assess the pilots' ability to maintain a briefed formation. Overall, the results suggest that pilots who practice four-ship employment in the lower-fidelity simulators can perform at the same level as those who practice in the high-fidelity simulators. Future analyses should be conducted to examine the impact of simulator fidelity on other air combat skills and on training effectiveness.
Performance Differences on Rejected Takeoffs as a Function of Expectancy BIBAFull-Text 80-84
  Susan M. Stevens; Timothy E. Goldsmith; Peder J. Johnson
Unexpected emergency situations in the aviation realm (e.g., rejected takeoffs) demand an immediate response from the pilot in order to avoid severe consequences. Commercial pilots receive extensive training on emergency maneuvers in simulators; however, on rare occasions pilots experience an unexpected event and perform poorly. We completed a series of studies aimed at investigating the effects of expectancy on performance for rejected takeoffs. We found that undergraduate students had a significant degradation in performance for unexpected rejected takeoffs. These results have implications for pilots who experience unexpected events on the line.
Job-Aiding and Training Tool Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 85-89
  Kristie Nemeth; Laurie Quill; Robert Fudge; Justin Adams
This study evaluated an Air Force research tool aimed at transforming the aircraft on-the-job flightline learning environment by supporting a variety of learning preferences through a Job-Aiding and Training Tool (JATT.) A comparative evaluation was conducted between the traditional presentation of maintenance task information (PDF) and a training enhanced information presentation (JATT). The study found that use of the training enhanced presentation significantly improved total completion time by 16%, decreased errors by 49%, while decreasing the number of trainer assists by 73%. JATT users liked the system 22% more, rated the helpfulness of the interface 30% higher, found the interface 66% less frustrating and felt 35% more confident than did PDF users during their performance of the maintenance activity.
Developing a Methodology for Assessing Safety Programs Targeting Human Error in Aviation BIBAFull-Text 90-92
  Scott Shappell; Douglas Wiegmann
There is a need to develop an effective methodology for generating and evaluating interventions for reducing accidents due to human error. In this study, the Human Factors Intervention Matrix (HFIX) was used to evaluate current/proposed FAA safety programs to determine (1) the types of interventions typically proposed by this organization and (2) the types of human error these safety interventions target. Over 600 FAA safety recommendations were examined and categorized using the HFIX methodology. Results suggest that FAA safety programs primarily employ organizational/administrative, technological/engineering and human/operator-based interventions. Few approaches focus on either task or environmental changes. There is also a bias toward interventions aimed at pilot decision-making, rather than other common problems in aviation such as skill-based errors or violations. Further research is needed to develop HFIX as a tool for generating, rather than just evaluating, safety programs.
Temporal Effects in a Security Inspection Task: Breakdown of Performance Components BIBAFull-Text 93-97
  K. M. Ghylin; C. G. Drury; R. Batta; L. Lin
Data from certified screeners performing an x-ray inspection task for 4 hours, or 1000 images, were analyzed to identify the nature of the vigilance decrement. The expected vigilance decrement was found, with performance measured by probability of detection (PoD) and probability of false alarm [P(FA)] decreasing from hour 1 to hour 4. Correlations between PoD and P(FA) indicate that sensitivity between hours remained the same, however a shift in criterion (Beta) occurred. Significant decreases in both detection and stopping time were found from the first hour to the second, third, and fourth hour. Evidence of changes in the search component of the time per item was found to account for part of the vigilance decrement. As the task continued, participants spent less time actively searching the image, as opposed to other activities. Evidence is provided for truncation of active search as security inspection continues.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Air Traffic Control

Cognitive Task Analysis of Future Air Traffic Control Concepts: The TCAS Downlink Scenario BIBAFull-Text 98-101
  Brian Hilburn
Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is a flightdeck-based technology aimed at helping aircraft avoid proximate traffic. TCAS information has traditionally not been presented to the air traffic controller. A 2002 German midair collision was triggered, in part, by incompatible air traffic control (ATC) and TCAS clearances. Largely in response to this accident, attention has focused in recent years on the potential benefits of "downlinking" to the controller TCAS Resolution Advisories (RAs) in near real time. Such presentations, it is thought, could benefit situation awareness and joint decision making between controller and pilot.
   A cognitive task analysis (CTA) was recently conducted into the present-day and future RA Downlink (RAD) operational concepts. On the basis of functional task description and cognitive walkthroughs, CTA assessed the impact of various specific non-nominal events (e.g. pilot reports RA, but does not initiate an evasive maneuver). Finally, a set of cognitive elements and potential error mechanisms was identified.
A Functional Collaborative Work Unit for Analysing Hazardous Flight Approaches BIBAFull-Text 102-106
  Ronish Joyekurun; Paola Amaldi; William Wong
We report in this ongoing study on the resilience of Air Traffic Management approach operations by considering a collaborative work unit consisting of the Executive Controller, the Pilot Flying and the Pilot Non-Flying -- the behaviour of the team is hypothetically structured by, a) the divided labour strategies of approach control and, b) an adaptiveness to organisational objectives of efficiency. Normal Accident Theory is used as a framework for analysing 348 verbal exchanges from five aviation occurrences. We make use of navigation in hazardous atmospheric situations, as a safety-boundary condition to inform on the behaviour of operator teams. Five broad activity-related themes leading to four detailed collaborative themes were obtained: 1) Monitoring of activities, 2) Redirecting attention to perceived priorities, 3) Implicit redistribution of responsibilities, and 4) Explicit assignation of decisional activities. We conclude that the dynamic interactions within the team during hazardous approaches indicate a functional unit of collaborative work.
Creating effective collaboration tools: Lessons from the Multi-center Traffic Management Advisor BIBAFull-Text 107-111
  Steven J. Landry; Kerry Levin; Dennis Rowe; Monicarol Nickelson
The emphasis on network-centric operations for the next generation air traffic system presages an important opportunity for collaborative work. However, there is no clear design guidance for collaborative work across such a large and complex network of users and operators. In this paper we will describe the Multi-center Traffic Management Advisor, a system which can enable collaboration on regional air traffic problems. We will describe specific findings regarding collaborative work from a four-year testing period with six separate air traffic facilities, including a design feature we believe was crucial for improving collaborative work. This work has important implications regarding the future collaborative environment of the U.S. air traffic system as well as for collaborative work across large, complex organizations.
Developing a Decision Support Interface for Surface Domain Air Traffic Controllers BIBAFull-Text 112-116
  Lynne Martin; Savita Verma; Deborah Ballinger; Victor Cheng
The effects of advanced automation tools on the air traffic control tower environment were assessed through a real-time simulation study. One focus of the study was the impact that advanced tools would have on controllers' roles and work patterns. Participants controlled simulated traffic during 45-minute scenarios, and reported their perceived workload and experience of using a prototype automation tool. Perceived workload was significantly reduced in the advanced automation conditions, more so as the automation assumed more functions. Participants interacted a great deal with the automation in these conditions, a notable proportion of which was interface management. Despite generally liking the tool, controllers reported the automation had assumed all of their role's decision-making responsibilities and left them with mechanical tasks. It is concluded that a more artful allocation of functions is required if controllers are to be engaged in their task when using advanced automation tools.
Usability Considerations for a Tower Controller Near-Eye Augmented Reality Display BIBAFull-Text 117-121
  John W. Ruffner; Jim E. Fulbrook
Although the primary means by which air traffic controllers in airport towers obtain information is by direct head-up, out-the-window (OTW) viewing, they spend a considerable amount of head-down time looking at flight strips, panel-mounted displays, and other information sources in the tower. The U.S. Air Force sponsored the development of a prototype Near-Eye Augmented Reality (NE/AR) display to enhance tower controller performance and situation awareness. The display overlays situation-relevant text (e.g., aircraft call sign) and graphic images (e.g., runway outline), on real-time, head-tracked video imagery. Throughout the development process, we performed usability engineering and assessments using 1) user/task observation, 2) physical mockups, 3) interactive reviews, and 4) early prototype evaluation. In this paper we describe our usability efforts, and discuss usability considerations and human performance issues affecting the functionality and acceptance of a tower controller NE/AR display.

COMMUNICATIONS: Getting Through to Other People -- Team and Individual Communication

A Metric for the Shared Interpretation of Commander's Intent BIBAFull-Text 122-126
  Jennifer L. Winner; Jared T. Freeman; Nancy J. Cooke; Gerald F. Goodwin
An enduring challenge in management and in military command is ensuring that subordinates select actions as their leader would, particularly when circumstances change unexpectedly. An experiment was conducted to test a measure of shared interpretation of commander's intent and its effects on the adaptability of subordinates. Performance was measured in the context of a simulated law enforcement task. A course of action ranking procedure was used as a measure of interpretation of intent with rank order correlation reflecting shared interpretation. The study validates a measure of shared interpretation of commander's intent and supports the hypothesis that making values explicit enhances shared interpretation and adaptability. The findings indicate that when missions change in unexpected ways, a commander's intent statement that presents the values by which actions are to be prioritized produces greater agreement between commander and subordinates on action preferences than do intent statements that prescribe command preference for specific actions.
The Effects of Communication Modality and Spatial Processing Load on Distributed Team Performance in a Simulated C2 Environment BIBAFull-Text 127-131
  Gregory J. Funke; Scott M. Galster
The present study addressed the effects of communication modality and spatial processing load on team performance, workload, and situational awareness. Sixteen people served as paid participants in this study. Teams of two participants competed against a computer opponent in a RoboFlag simulation based on 'capture-the-flag.' Participants either could or could not see their teammates' simulated vehicles during a trial, and they could send each other images or annotated images from their RoboFlag display. Results of the experiment indicated that team performance and situational awareness were increased, and team communication and workload were decreased when participants could see teammates' vehicles, and more limitedly, that transmission of spatial information between teammates is facilitated by the ability to communicate that information pictorially. Overall, results support the supposition that distributed team performance may be mediated by spatial processing load.
Oops, Wrong Number: Exploring Age and Cellular Telephone Dialing Performance BIBAFull-Text 132-135
  Christina C. Mendat; Christopher B. Mayhorn
One challenge that faces older adults today is the pervasive trend in miniaturized technology. This trend has permeated the cellular phone industry and resulted in technology that has not only become smaller in terms of size, but slimmer resulting in flat-smooth keypads. The current study examined differences in dialing performance between keypads with raised-rubber keys and flat-smooth keys as a function of age. The results revealed that both younger and older adults performed significantly better in terms of dialing accuracy and dialing time with the raised-rubber keypad. Furthermore, older adults improved significantly more with the raised-rubber keypad than did younger adults. Findings, also, revealed that older adults committed more errors than younger adults. These findings demonstrate how the trend of miniaturization and smooth keypads may potentially alienate the largest growing population in the U.S. (i.e., older adults) with respect to usability.
Effects of Long Audio Communication Delays on Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 136-140
  Adam G. Armstead; Robert A. Henning
Mediated communication in sociotechnical systems is quite common but the effects of long audio delays remain unexplored. In the current study, two-person teams (N=67) completed a modified NASA Multi-Attribute Task Battery with closed-loop audio communication delays 0 to 16 seconds in length. In addition to a joint fuel management task, each team member had simultaneous responsibility for either a compensatory tracking or a system monitoring task. As communication delay increased, performance on the joint task degraded in a cubic fashion while individual tasks were unaffected. These results imply that audio communication delay degrades team performance in a non-linear fashion while simultaneous tasks not requiring communication are unaffected. Implications for the design of sociotechnical systems with long audio communication delays are discussed.
Does Multimodal Presentation Encourage Integration of Multimedia Materials? A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 141-145
  Jesse S. Zolna
Presenting instructional materials with a mixture of media increases the likelihood that people will learn the information. The hypothesis of this study is that these learning benefits are primarily the result of multimedia supporting the integration of instructional materials. For instance, replacing text with narrations improves learning (the modality effect) by taking advantage of humans' ability to perceive visual and auditory inputs simultaneously, allowing faster processing and aiding efficient integration of multimedia instructional materials. To test this hypothesis, study time will be manipulated to see if it influences the modality effect when verbal materials accompany visual images. This paper outlines results of a pilot study, study results will be presented at the conference.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognition Under stress

An Evaluation of Real-Time Cognitive State Classification in a Harsh Operational Environment BIBAFull-Text 146-150
  Michael C. Dorneich; Santosh Mathan; Patricia May Ververs; Stephen D. Whitlow
This paper describes an evaluation conducted with a full platoon of 32 Soldiers at Aberdeen Proving Grounds' MOUT site in Aberdeen, MD. The objective was to assess the cognitive workload classification techniques driven by neuro-physiological (EEG) and physiological (ECG) sensors. In a first ever evaluation of real-time cognitive monitoring in the harsh operational environment, the assessment culminated in a three phase, 24-hour mission consisting of a coordinated Route Reconnaissance, a Cordon and Search of a village, and a Hasty Defense operation. Task load levels were manipulated by introducing unexpected and unplanned events requiring re-planning and extensive coordination by the leadership (high task load) as well as lulls in the activity in which part missions were executed flawlessly with little variations on the preplanned, well versed drill (low task load). Four leaders (Platoon Leader, Platoon Sergeant, Squad Leader 1, and Squad Leader 2) were equipped with sensors to measure and output cognitive state in real-time. The fused EEG and ECG workload classification approach reached 95% accuracy depending on the individual and the amount of data used to train the classifier. This level of success implies that Augmented Cognition workload assessment tools enable the ability to move beyond subjective workload rating scales, such as NASA TLX and Cooper Harper ratings, to more objective measurements of real-time cognitive state metrics in almost any conceivable operational environment.
Operators' Time Perception Under Stress BIBAFull-Text 151-155
  Razia V. Nayeem; Tal Oron-Gilad; P. A. Hancock
Time perception is extremely important to the understanding, design and use of complex military systems. This experiment focused on differences in time estimation, navigation performance, and monitoring tasks. In a between-subjects experiment, participants navigated through a ground scenario while monitoring a screen and listening to white noise at either 55dBA or 85dBA. Performance data was collected throughout the task for both the navigation and monitoring tasks. Participants also completed the NASA-TLX and the DSSQ-S. Statistical analyses showed that the noise condition did not significantly affect workload, monitoring abilities, task completion and time estimates for the dual task. However, the noise did affect subjective state questionnaires. These results suggest that the dual task was not demanding enough and the stress was not adequate to push participants out of the comfort range and experience a performance decrement.
Friend/Foe Identification and Shooting Performance: Effects of Prior Task Loading and Time Pressure BIBAFull-Text 156-160
  Kelly A. Burke; Tal Oron-Gilad; Gareth Conway; Peter A. Hancock
The current dismounted soldier and the soldier of the future will be "loaded" with more information processing tasks while they perform shooting tasks. It is conceivable that some increased level of cognitive tasking may be performed simultaneously with required shooting tasks. The current was conducted in a high fidelity mixed reality simulation environment SAST-II. The study was designed to examine the ability of the soldier to perform friend-foe target discrimination and shooting accuracy, with varying target exposure times, friendly target signatures, and varying cognitive load demands. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for the memory recall task during shooting and non-shooting conditions. Furthermore, results showed that workload increased as a function of task demand, with associated decreases in shooting performance.
Spatial Disorientation in Remote Ground Vehicle Operations: Target Localization Errors BIBAFull-Text 161-165
  Roger A. Chadwick; Skye Pazuchanics
Operating remote unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) poses the risk of operator spatial disorientation. While the position of the vehicle can be tracked and displayed on a global map, operators face the difficult task of integrating object (target) information from context limited ground views with a global map view. Studies indicate this can be a challenging task. An analysis of specific object location errors is presented.
Effects of Cumulative Sleep Loss and Two Nights' Recovery Sleep on Multiple-Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 166-170
  Marja-Leena Haavisto; Jussi Virkkala; Mikko Harma; Kiti Muller; Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen; Mikael Sallinen
The present study investigated the effects of five days' cumulative sleep restriction and two nights' recovery sleep on multiple-task performance and subjective sleepiness in a controlled laboratory environment. A total of 21 volunteers participated, thirteen in the experimental group and eight in the control group. Compared to the control group, the sleepiness of the sleep-loss group gradually increased over the five days, but returned to the baseline level after an eight hour recovery sleep period. Multiple-task performance declined selectively in the memory, arithmetic and auditory subtasks, while visual monitoring results were not affected. After the eight hour recovery period, the performance of the sleep-restricted participants in the auditory subtask remained low, although the individuals themselves no longer reported sleepiness. Performance in the rest of the tasks returned to the baseline level. Thus the partial cumulative sleep loss selectively impaired cognitive performance in subtasks of a multiple-task environment, which simulated many ordinary working environments. This may be due to the slowing of the cognitive processing during sleep restriction, as well as decline in attention control.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Working with Automation

Psychophysiological Correlates of Shifting Between Levels of Automation BIBAFull-Text 171-175
  Francesco Di Nocera; Marco Camilli; Michela Terenzi
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects on performance and workload of the shifting between levels of automation: from manual to automatic (forward shift) and from automatic to manual (backward shift). Three levels of difficulty of the Tetris game were implemented as task load conditions. Two versions of the game were also implemented: automated and manual. The automated version provided the participants a projection of the falling block on the lowest layer for making its placement easier. Results showed that the commonsense consideration that only shifts toward a lower level of automation should reflect poor performance and higher workload is unsupported. Forward shifts may affect performance as well, particularly when workload is moderate.
Driver Support Functions Under Resource-Limited Situations BIBAFull-Text 176-180
  T. Inagaki; M. Itoh; Y. Nagai
What type of support should be given to an automobile driver when it is determined, via some monitoring method, that the driver's situation awareness may not be appropriate to a given traffic condition? With a driving simulator, the following three conditions were compared: (a) Warning type support in which an auditory warning is given to the driver to enhance situation awareness, (b) action type support in which an autonomous safety control action is executed to avoid an accident, and (c) the no-aid baseline condition. Although the both types of driver support are effective, the warning type support sometimes fail to assure safety, which suggests a limitation of the human locus of control assumption. Efficacy of the action type support can also be degraded due to a characteristic of human reasoning under uncertainty. This paper discusses viewpoints needed in the design of systems for supporting drivers in resource-limited situations.
Applying Coherent Design to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Operations and Control Stations BIBAFull-Text 181-185
  Luis N. Gonzalez Castro; Amy R. Pritchett; Daniel P. J. Bruneau; Eric N. Johnson
This paper addresses principles of coherent design in the design of operational procedures, control systems and ground control stations for uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs). Creating a coherent set of operating procedures, automatic functions and Ground Control Stations (GCS) requires a systematic design approach that creates a consistent conceptual thread between these elements. Following this approach, Cognitive Work Analysis was used to develop procedures, automatic functions and ground control stations for continuous target surveillance using a UAV. The importance of the coherence was subsequently analyzed through human-in-the-loop simulation. The results indicate that UAV controllers, using coherent designs, achieve significantly higher mission performance and experience lower workloads than those using incoherently matched procedures, automatic functions and GCS.
A Dynamic Model Balancing User Control and Workload in Automatic and Adaptive Systems BIBAFull-Text 186-190
  Shelley Roberts; Avi Parush
Current interactive systems are criticized for having complex interfaces that overload users with information. Two possible solutions to manage overload are automatic interfaces that augment user capabilities, and user-controlled systems that provide support. These two types of interfaces introduce a trade-off: On the one hand, automatic interfaces alleviate workload but create performance problems associated with the absence of control. On the other hand, user-controlled interfaces afford users more control, which may come with additional workload. Based on the analysis of adaptive user interfaces and automation, a model is proposed where automatic and user interface adaptation are in a multidimensional and continuum-based space, allowing for modelling dynamic changes to the roles the human and machine play at various stages of interaction.
Hierarchical task prioritization behavior in two- and four-task scenarios BIBAFull-Text 191-195
  Guoxi Zhang; Robert Feyen
This paper describes an empirical study conducted to validate a computational model of dynamic task prioritization based on a framework proposed by Zhang and Feyen (2005). Three key factors in task prioritization were manipulated: processing time, available time, and task valence. Because earlier studies did not investigate how people prioritize tasks when valence and temporal characteristics conflict, this study examined how these conflicts are resolved. 20 subjects completed 54 time-limited task scenarios. Each scenario consisted of two or four concurrent tasks, each assigned a point value for completion. Subjects were instructed to maximize points scored. Results indicated that, although valence was predominant in determining task selection, it failed to explain all instances. Instead, a hierarchy of task prioritization was revealed in which subjects first checked what tasks were doable (e.g., self-efficacy), then applied rules first regarding valence, then temporal characteristics, and then others (e.g., task location).

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Modern Technology Failures, Cognitive Engineering Successes

Modern Technology Failures, Cognitive Engineering Successes BIBAFull-Text 196-199
  Nancy J. Cooke; Francis T. Durso
This panel will focus on five stories in which cognitive engineering has resulted in a significant, measurable success. Five experts will revisit problems with human-technical systems that they helped to solve. In this way, the panel will provide an intimate look at the trials, tribulations, and thought processes of dedicated scientists and engineers who have had an impact on our use of modern technologies. The five stories were motivated by serious problems, but our focus is on the solution to those problems -- the repair of the human-technical system. In the question and answer period we will elicit from the panelists insights about doing cognitive engineering, wisdom about becoming a cognitive engineer, and advice about being a cognitive engineer in today's society. The lessons learned from these cognitive engineering successes will be of value to all human factors researchers.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Situation Awareness in Complex Environments

Expertise, Spatial Ability and Intuition in the Use of Complex Visual Displays BIBAFull-Text 200-204
  Harvey S. Smallman; Mary Hegarty
In a naturalistic setting, a large group of U.S. Navy forecasters (N=21) performed a weather forecasting task and saved copies of the visual displays that they consulted to complete the task. On the basis of structured interviews with the forecasters, quantitative analysis of the information content of the displays they used, and psychometric measures of their spatial ability, we found two key results. First, forecasters of lower spatial ability populated their forecasting displays with more extraneous meteorological variables than did forecasters of higher spatial ability. Second, we found quantitative support for the previously qualitatively observed trend for more experienced forecasters to exhibit a different temporal pattern of display use. Experienced forecasters tend to consult observations before models, and less experienced forecasters show the reverse trend. This work implies that forecasters of lower spatial ability may benefit from training that teaches them to display only the variables they need to complete a task, and that it may be beneficial to customize forecasting displays to the spatial ability of their users.
Supporting Situation Awareness Through Ecological Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 205-209
  Catherine Burns; Greg Jamieson; Gyrd Skraaning; Nathan Lau; Jordanna Kwok
A full-scope simulation study with licensed nuclear power plant operators was conducted to evaluate whether displays designed using Ecological Interface Design (EID) could support improved Situation Awareness over traditional displays. EID demonstrated performance advantages over traditional displays in beyond-design basis scenarios where operators were unable to rely on procedures. The same effects were not seen in within-design basis scenarios where procedures were available. This suggests that EID has the potential to improve SA in unanticipated situations, but that ecological interfaces should be supported with task-based displays in procedure-driven situations.
Adapting Situational Awareness Measures for Hydropower Display Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 210-214
  X. Li; P. Sanderson; R. Memisevic; W. Wong
This study used Situation Awareness (SA) as a measure to evaluate two new functional displays supplementing existing monitor displays in a large hydropower system control room. Because it was impractical to use traditional SA measures this paper proposes a novel SA measurement framework, in which controllers' SA levels are derived from their in-the-loop utterance and viewing patterns, their context-specific reports of the situations, and their overall SA reflections. Results indicate that the SA measures not only support and complement one another, but also are consistent with performance results. This study offers a novel approach of using convergent lines of evidence to assess SA in the situations that involve a whole control room or command centre or in situations constrained by time and resources.
Situation Awareness in the Power Transmission and Distribution Industry BIBAFull-Text 215-219
  Erik S. Connors; Mica R. Endsley; Lawrence Jones
This paper describes active research on situation awareness (SA) as it applies to the power transmission and distribution (T&D) industry. Goal-Directed Task Analysis (GDTA) interviews were conducted with Specialist Reliability Analysis & Operation and Reliability Coordinator/System Operators from two large U.S. power companies to achieve a clear understanding of the power T&D domain. The resulting GDTA and lessons learned are presented.
Guiding visual attention by exploiting crossmodal spatial links: An application in air traffic control BIBAFull-Text 220-224
  Shameem Hameed; Swapnaa Jayaraman; Melissa Ballard; Nadine Sarter
Recent research on multimodal information processing has provided evidence for the existence of crossmodal links in spatial attention between vision, audition, and touch. The present study examined whether these links can be exploited to support attention allocation in workplaces that involve competing task demands and the potential for visual data overload. In particular, the effectiveness of tactile cues for guiding visual attention to the location of a critical event was tested in the context of an air traffic control simulation. Participants monitored a display depicting the flight paths of 40 aircraft and were presented with tactile cues indicating either just the occurrence, or both the occurrence and display location, of an event requiring a participant response. Tactile cuing, especially when combined with location information, resulted in significantly higher detection rates and faster response times to these events. These findings indicate that tactile cuing is a promising means of directing visual attention in a data-driven manner.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Meta-Information Communication and Representation

Meta-Information Representation and Communication BIBAFull-Text 225-228
  Jonathan Pfautz; Emilie Roth; Ann Bisantz; Cullen Jackson; Gina Thomas; Greg Trafton; Randy Whitaker
Increasingly, the study of cognition and action in complex sociotechnical systems has revealed that humans reason about both information and the qualifications of that information. These qualifications, or meta-information (e.g., pedigree, recency, uncertainty), play a role in human performance across work domains (Pfautz et al., 2006). Meta-information contextualizes information, and therefore can critically influence how a human will process, understand, and act on that information. This panel will discuss the role of meta-information in the design and evaluation of visualization and decision-support systems.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Working with Interruptions

Interruption Recovery Tools for Team Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 229-233
  Mark St. John; Harvey S. Smallman; Daniel I. Manes
Interruptions and situation awareness recovery are important issues in many task domains. Here, we explore the extent to which cognitive design principles for situation awareness recovery that were developed in the air warfare domain can be applied to team mission execution. We developed a tool, called team-CHEX, for presenting and managing messages and for helping users recover situation awareness following interruptions. We report two experiments that compared team-CHEX with two commonly employed mission execution recovery tools -- chat and shared whiteboards. The results of the first experiment were used to refine specific interface features of team-CHEX. The final tool was superior to common chat designs and equal to, and in some respects superior to, common whiteboard designs. The revised and extended interruption recovery principles should be useful for the design of both monitoring tasks, such as air warfare, and team collaboration tasks, such as mission execution.
Does the Difficulty of an Interruption Affect our Ability to Resume? BIBAFull-Text 234-238
  David M. Cades; J. Gregory Trafton; Deborah A. Boehm Davis; Christopher A. Monk
Research has shown that different types of interruptions can affect their disruptiveness. However, it is unclear how different features of the interrupting task determine its disruptive effects. Specifically, some theories predict that the difficulty of an interruption does not contribute to the disruptive effects of that interruption alone. Disruptive effects can be mediated by the extent to which the interrupting task interferes with the ability to rehearse during the interruption. In this experiment participants performed a single primary task with three interruptions of different difficulty. We found that interruptions were more disruptive when the task minimized the participant's ability to rehearse (as measured by the number of mental operators required to perform the task) and not just when they were more difficult. These results suggest that the ability to rehearse during an interruption is critical in facilitating resumption of a primary task.
The Effects of Multitasking On Cerebral Hemodynamics and Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 239-243
  Keryl A. Cosenzo
The research objective was to evaluate cerebral blood flow velocity's (BFV) sensitivity to performance changes in a multitasking setting and to examine resulting constraints on multitasking. The research used a Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD) unit and multitask environment simulation. The tasks represented the diverse nature of the future military environment and included visual tracking, auditory monitoring, and more complex cognitive tasks requiring mental manipulations and memory. Participants completed four tasks simultaneously but with varying priority. BFV and multitask performance were measured. Results showed that BFV changed during training and paralleled a performance change. BFV was not sensitive to changes in task load during multitasking. We did show behavioral consequences to multitasking, specifically when transitioning between tasks. The data suggest that BFV may not be the most direct neurophysiological method for measuring complex cognitive performance; however, the use of this type of portable and relatively low-cost methodology should be pursued further.
Using Peripheral Processing and Spatial Memory to Facilitate Task Resumption BIBAFull-Text 244-248
  Raj M. Ratwani; Alyssa E. Andrews; Malcolm McCurry; J. Gregory Trafton; Matthew S. Peterson
Theories accounting for the process of primary task resumption following an interruption have focused on the suspension and retrieval of a specific goal (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). The ability to recall the spatial location of where in the task one was prior to being interrupted may also be important. We show that being able to maintain a spatial representation of the primary task facilitates task resumption. Participants were interrupted by an instant message window that either partially or fully occluded the primary task interface. Reaction time measures show that participants were faster at resuming in the partial occlusion condition. In addition, eye track data suggest that participants were more accurate at returning to where they left off, suggesting that they were able to maintain a spatial representation of the task and use this information to resume more quickly.
More is Less: The Effect of Single and Multiple Interleaved Interruptions on Task Resumption BIBAFull-Text 249-252
  David G. Kidd; Christopher A. Monk
People experience and handle interruptions on a daily basis. One strategy that people use to manage interruptions is to interleave an interrupting task with a primary task. Past interruptions research has mostly looked at the effects of a single interruption on primary task performance. This study sought to expand on past research by examining primary task performance during a period of interleaved interruptions. In this study, participants experienced either a single interruption or a series of interruptions that increased or decreased in duration. Task resumption in both interleaved interruption conditions was significantly faster than in the single interruption condition. The findings suggest that interleaving interruptions leads to more efficient task resumption than resuming after a single interruption.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Decision Making Gets Tough

Lessons Learned from the Design of the Decision Support System Used in the Hurricane Katrina Evacuation Decision BIBAFull-Text 253-257
  Alex Kirlik
Computer-based decision support systems are increasingly used to aid human decision makers in dynamic, uncertain, time-stressed and high-stakes contexts. The decision of whether, and if so, when to evacuate New Orleans as Hurricane Katrina approached landfall is a prime example. An evaluation of the "HURREVAC" decision support system (DSS) used during Katrina is presented. The evaluation is based on real-time screen-shots of the graphical and numerical information displayed to emergency response managers and other users. While the system is clearly an improvement over methods used prior to advances in information technology and real-time networking, design deficiencies were identified as well. The most crucial of these concern insufficient resources provided by the design to support users in reasoning effectively about uncertainty, and about the interactions among uncertainty and other aspects of the decision situation. The paper concludes by providing lessons learned and by identifying needs for cognitive engineering research to improve future DSS design in operational contexts.
Framing Effects: Implications in Complex Problem Solving Tasks BIBAFull-Text 258-262
  Damodar Bhandarkar
In decision-making literature, framing effects have been studied in a wide number of task and context conditions. In much of these studies, there is strong support that decision framing can result in inconsistent behavior among individuals. While much of the literature has been in static, one-time tasks, there is a dearth of studies in decision framing in complex problem solving tasks. This dearth in part can be attributed to an assumption that operators in complex environments are often well trained in decision-making routines, and as such, may not be vulnerable to framing effects. However, what is still unclear is whether trained operators are resistant to the effects of framing when they operate under non-routine conditions, and more importantly, what relation, information processing changes caused due to framing may have on the task performance of operators. The study reported here was conducted to answer these two questions. The outcome of this work is expected to have both theoretical and practical implication towards understanding individual's adaptive behavior and design of real time complex systems.
Risk, Ambiguity, and Information Use in an Ethical Decision Dilemma BIBAFull-Text 263-267
  Kathleen L. Mosier; Michael Bartholomew; Eva Meng; Luiz Xavier
We used the situational context of purported unethical organizational behavior to examine the impact of risk to self, risk to society, and cue ambiguity on information search strategies and ultimate decision. Participants completed eight experimental scenarios using a web-based interface. They read each scenario stem and accessed information until they could make a decision about whether or not to 'blow the whistle' on the organization. Significant effects on number of same-type cue boxes accessed were found for ambiguity and risk to society levels. Risk to self and risk to society impacted participants' likelihood of reporting the scenario incident. A significant risk to self by risk to society interaction suggested that low risk to self enhanced willingness to report incidents especially when risk to society was high. Results suggest that individuals will respond to this type of risky situation by a) trying to be more sure of the situation, and b) focusing more on risks to others than to themselves. Implications are discussed.
Cross-National Comparison of Team Competency Values BIBAFull-Text 268-272
  Winston R. Sieck; Jennifer L. Smith; Anna P. McHugh
The current study examined cultural differences in beliefs about the competencies required for effective team functioning. Participants (n = 163) with professional experience from four nations completed a web-based survey about team competencies. Overall, the results indicated that notions of competent team behavior rooted in Western scholarship are valued across a diverse set of countries. Surprisingly, these differences held even for team-focused competencies that would appear to run counter to Western independence and individualism, such as putting team goals before personal goals. Implications are discussed.
High Velocity Human Factors: Human Factors of Mission Critical Domains in Nonequilibrium BIBAFull-Text 273-277
  Moin Rahman
Mission critical domains (MCDs), such as fire fighting, military combat, etc., experience periods of nonequilibrium. This typically occurs when extended periods of low grade activity are punctuated by intense, high stakes actions unfolding at high velocities (e.g., fighting a fire, engaging in combat, etc.). These periods of nonequilibrium are typically characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Human agents operating under these conditions experience a variety of reactions, such as emotional modulation of cognition, recognition primed decision making, among others. To study this phenomenon a construct named High Velocity Human Factors (HVHF) is defined and described. On the practical side, the HVHF framework will be used to analyze demands placed on personnel operating in MCDs and inform the design of systems and solutions.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Using and Applying CWA

Testing a novel auditory interface display to enable visually impaired travelers to use sonar mobility devices effectively BIBAFull-Text 278-282
  T. Claire Davies; Catherine M. Burns; Shane D. Pinder
This paper discusses the pilot testing of an auditory interface designed to increase navigational ability of visually impaired individuals. Sonar devices have been developed to increase preview distances, but these have gained limited acceptance as they lack an easily interpreted interface. This paper presents usability testing of an auditory prototype interface developed using the work domain analysis of ecological interface design (EID). An interface design that provides the user with sufficient preview to avoid obstacles may offer more environmental information than the single tones of the current designs.
Work Domain Analysis for the Interface Design of a Sonobuoy System BIBAFull-Text 283-287
  Huei-Yen Chen; Tab Lamoureux; Catherine M. Burns
Modern sonar systems have greatly improved their sensor technology and processing techniques, but little effort has been put into display design for sonar data. The enormous amount of acoustic data presented by the traditional frequency versus time display can be overwhelming for a sonar operator to monitor and analyze. In addition to their normal sonar tasks, sonobuoy system operators manage the deployment of sonobuoys and ensure proper functioning of deployed sonobuoys. This paper describes a work domain analysis carried out as part of an interface design project targeting the sonobuoy system on board a maritime patrol aircraft. The domain of sonobuoy management and the domain of tactical situation awareness were modeled separately to address the two different aspects of the operator's work. Information requirements were drawn from the two models. Some of these requirements have significant implications for new design ideas that were previously overlooked in displays for sonobuoy systems.
Formalizing Display Development in Ecological Interface Design: The Form Comparison Matrix BIBAFull-Text 288-292
  Ryan M. Kilgore
Combined, the Ecological Interface Design (EID) and Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) frameworks foster the development of complex system interfaces that capitalize on human perceptive capabilities to support skill-, rule- and knowledge-based control behavior. While numerous examples of compelling ecological display designs exist, many practitioners have experienced difficulty in transforming the nested behavior-shaping constraints identified by CWA into novel EID display forms. We introduce the Form Comparison Matrix (FCM) as a tool to further structure EID design efforts by leveraging the outputs of CWA activities. Drawing upon the familiar DURESS mass balance display form as an example, we discuss typical challenges of ecological display development and present a practical application of the FCM to support evaluation of competing ecological design alternatives. This article is intended to stimulate discussion of methods and tools for further formalizing EID processes and to serve as a methodological example for future EID practitioners.
Two Methods for Control Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 293-297
  Tab Lamoureux; Jessica Sartori
Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA; Vicente, 1999) is a five-step process by which to understand complex and dynamic work systems. We have been employing the first two steps of CWA, Work Domain Analysis (WDA) and Control Task Analysis (CTA) to investigate the development and maintenance of system/environment awareness, typically called 'picture compilation'. There is little procedural guidance on how to carry out the CTA, and even less discussion of alternative interpretations of the analysis process. This paper describes two different methods of performing CTA that we have successfully employed in the course of our work. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed and put into the context of procedural reliability and validity.
A Comparison of Work Domain and Task Analysis for Identifying Information Requirements: A Case Study of Rural Intersection Decision Support Systems BIBAFull-Text 298-302
  Jason Laberge; Nicholas Ward; Michael Rakauskas; Janet Creaser
Minnesota drivers are over-represented in accidents at rural intersections and many crashes are attributable to drivers accepting unsafe gaps. In this context, intersection decision support (IDS) systems are promising technologies for supporting driver decision-making. A significant activity during IDS development is to determine the information requirements to display to drivers. To be effective, an IDS system must present information that helps drivers successfully negotiate intersections. This paper compares two methods for identifying information requirements: work domain analysis (WDA) and hierarchical task analysis (HTA). Results showed that 58% of the requirements were identified by WDA, 7% by HTA, and 35% by both methods. An analysis of driver errors at intersections during the HTA activity identified that drivers can perceive gaps at intersections in different ways. This important nuance was not captured in the WDA. Therefore, both WDA and HTA are effective methods for identifying information requirements. Discussion focuses on the importance of both WDA and HTA in IDS system development.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Intelligence Analysis

Visual Evidence Landscapes: Reducing Bias in Collaborative Intelligence Analysis BIBAFull-Text 303-307
  Maia B. Cook; Harvey S. Smallman
Two new approaches for mitigating the confirmation bias are proposed and evaluated in the domain of collaborative intelligence analysis. Trainee Naval intelligence analysts and reservists (N=27) role-played analysts working 10 problems, taking one of two different collaborative roles across problems. Each problem's hypothesis had an equal proportion of supporting and refuting evidence. Participants chose and prioritized a subset of available evidence that would be most important in evaluating a particular hypothesis. Bias manifested itself as selecting or prioritizing a skewed subset of supporting evidence to focus on or share. Two new low-workload debiasing methods were evaluated. First, supporting or refuting evidence was laid out graphically, instead of in text. Second, other analysts shared their interpretations of evidence, instead of analysts having to interpret the evidence on their own. Results showed a significant bias to focus on and share confirming evidence across all conditions. The highest ranked evidence was also the most supportive evidence. However, bias was reduced for problems worked with the graphical evaluation format for one collaborative role. Also, participants were less biased to accept hypotheses for problems worked in a graphical format when they had interpreted the evidence-hypothesis relationship themselves. These results have implications for the basic study of decision bias (conflating support and importance) and applied design of systems that help to reduce bias.
Team Cognition in Intelligence Analysis BIBAFull-Text 308-312
  Stoney Trent; Martin Voshell; Emily Patterson
While intelligence analysis has become the focus of much recent research, there has been a shortage of research in team cognition for analytical tasks and effective training strategies for analysis. This study investigates the effectiveness of teams of analysts in a training exercise. In order to capture the dynamics and nuances of multiple large teams of practitioners concurrently struggling with a realistic scenario, we used a unique adaptation of established ethnographic methods. The goal of this qualitative research was to determine persistent analytical strategies and study the interplay between the critical support functions of macrocognition for teams of novice analysts. Findings from this study suggest strategies for improving performance and training for intelligence analysts.
Weather Systems: A New Metaphor for Intelligence Analysis BIBAFull-Text 313-317
  Phillip J. Ayoub; Irene J. Petrick; Michael D. McNeese
With the recent catastrophic outcomes in U.S. intelligence capabilities we suggest that current design metaphors are inadequate to address the changing reality of U.S. intelligence needs. In-depth interviews and concept mapping efforts with intelligence analysts suggest that the intelligence domain be characterized as a distributed cognitive work system. Current mechanical or information processing metaphors that encourage techno-centric system design solutions neglect the emergent, pluralistic and distributed nature of information that supports situational awareness and decision making in the intelligence domain. Instead, we suggest that weather systems are a more appropriate metaphor for understanding the cognitive activity of intelligence analysts and to guide the design of cognitive aides, information sharing and knowledge management systems, and data processing tools used to support intelligence work.
Judging Sufficiency: How Professional Intelligence Analysts Assess Analytical Rigor BIBAFull-Text 318-322
  Daniel J. Zelik; Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods
This study examines how professional intelligence analysts judge the rigor behind an analysis. The study investigates the challenges that inhibit the understanding of rigor in intelligence analysis and explores cues used by analysts to identify analytic rigor -- or lack of rigor. Nine professional intelligence analysts participated in a modified elicitation by critiquing method study, embedded in a scenario walkthrough. Findings from the study indicate that, while professional intelligence analysts can make perceptive assessments about the quality of an analysis process based on product quality, these perceptions are apt to change with insight into the analytic process.
Exploring Challenges of Information Dynamics Using an Animock BIBAFull-Text 323-327
  Shilo Anders; Dan Zelik; Timothy Jacoby; Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods
In this paper, we describe the use of an animated prototyping technique to elicit feedback on the usefulness of a set of modular design concepts for dealing with information dynamics in inferential analysis under data overload conditions. The design concepts were comprised of innovative solutions that utilized technology to assist in inferential analysis. The findings generally support the "promisingness" of the design directions for addressing information dynamics challenges in inferential analysis under data overload. Elicited feedback provides insight on how the concepts might prove useful to intelligence analysts in the field. Analysts recommended significant modifications that would be difficult to change post-implementation of software, suggesting that the animock technique was useful for exploring how design concepts could address challenging issues where no current software support exists.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Understanding Cognitive Work

The Cost of Knowledge Recovery: A Challenge for the Application of Concept Mapping BIBAFull-Text 328-332
  Robert R. Hoffman; Paul J. Feltovich; David W. Eccles
Whereas knowledge management relies on processes of knowledge elicitation, there is also a process in which knowledge is "recovered," typically from archived documents. We conducted a knowledge recovery (KR) effort, going from documents to a structured set of propositions concerning expert knowledge about terrain analysis, discussing landforms, soils, rock types, etc. Assertions and feature associations were recast as over 3,000 propositions. When contrasted with results from previous evaluations of methods of knowledge elicitation, KR was costly in terms of time and effort, suggesting that knowledge-based organizations should make knowledge capture an on-going aspect of work, rather than finding themselves in the "catch-up mode" to recover lost expertise. For both knowledge elicitation and recovery, the knowledge has to be represented in a form that is usable and useful (e.g., instantiation in knowledge bases). We created from the propositions a navigable knowledge model based on over 150 Concept Maps, which were hyperlinked together and to dozens of resources (aerial photos, maps, diagrams, etc.). Such knowledge models are intended to make the "expertise of the past" more useful and usable in training and in performance support.
Decision Making in Naval Aviation: Contextual Factors Influencing Cue and Factor Saliency BIBAFull-Text 333-337
  Melissa B. Denihan
Aeronautical decision making research has focused almost exclusively on general and commercial aviation -- with little attention given to the military aviation domain. This research has also been limited by its lack of realism and/or inability to probe aviators for additional clarifying information relevant to their decisions. This study addresses these shortcomings by using in-depth interviews of critical incidents guided by the critical decision method to gain a deeper understanding of the decision making process of experienced naval aviators during novel or unexpected situations in flight. Through this method, two contextual factors in the military aviation environment not previously addressed were identified: (a) the purpose of the flight; and (b) the flight operation environment. These two factors were found to influence each other in addition to impacting the saliency of certain cues and factors for the aviators. Implications for military aviator training and other domains of aviation are discussed.
Modeling Work for Cognitive Work Support System Design in Operational Control Centers BIBAFull-Text 338-342
  Karen Feigh; Amy Pritchett
The design of cognitive work support systems for operational control centers is an emerging challenge for human factors practitioners. Ecological, task and cognitivist approaches individually do not provide the full insight required for CWSS design. Instead, work is presented as a 'mid-level abstraction' that captures many of the inherent structures and constraints of the ecology and context which can be captured by a set of complementary work models, and extended through the use of contextual control modes. This paper presents representative work models and insights from ethnographic observations of airline OCCs.
Artifacts Use in Safety Critical Information Transfer: A Preliminary Study of the Information Arena BIBAFull-Text 343-347
  Danny Ho; Yan Xiao; Ayse P. Gurses; Vinay Vaidya; Marcelo G. Cardarelli; Jamie Tumulty; Shari Simone; Dyana Burns-Conway; Peter F. Hu; Jason Cervenka
Highly skilled professionals in mission critical work domains communicate complicated, critical information, frequently under time pressure. For example, sustained operations require shift work, which results in hand-offs of responsibilities and need of information transfers. There is a growing interest to support their communications through advanced information technology. We observed usage of information artifacts in a pediatric intensive care unit to study information transfers to guide the design of support technology. In contrast to published studies, we examined the context of supporting environment that contains rich information sources gathered or tailored for verbal discourses. We called the supporting environment "information arena." Clinicians prepare for their personal information arena as well as the shared information arena (e.g., paper notes, charts, mobile computers). Patterns of artifact uses during discourses revealed several distinct roles of artifacts, as well as constraints on design of such artifacts. For example, artifacts in shared information arena should be easily manageable to support fluid and dynamic conversation flow. We also uncover several potential future roles for information artifacts to support information transfer.
Supporting The Cognitive Work of Information Analysis and Synthesis: A Study Of The Military Intelligence Domain BIBAFull-Text 348-352
  Justin B. Grossman; David D. Woods; Emily S. Patterson
Information Analysis and Synthesis (henceforth "IAS") is a type of cognitive work that plays a key role in many high-performance, complex, and mission-critical domains. These can range from tactical military intelligence to scientific or technological forecasting, business and financial intelligence to national strategic counterterrorism, and include areas as disparate as geopolitical policy analysis to computer network intrusion detection. The specific subject of this study is the military intelligence domain as one instantiation of IAS. Several innovative ethnographic and cognitive task analysis methods were used to observe team-based distributed work done by actual domain practitioners. The main investigative effort took the form of a scaled-world study, leveraging a real world tactical intelligence training exercise as a natural laboratory for investigating the contrasts between weaker and stronger IAS. Specifically, we examined the role of instructors in providing broadening checks to the team analytic process, and mapped the findings to an existing framework.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Working with Spatial Knowledge

Presenting spatial information on a mobile device: Differences in workload and performance BIBAFull-Text 353-357
  Jim Nixon; Sarah Sharples; Mike Jackson
An experiment was conducted to study differences in workload and performance of participants when navigating a route. Participants used a mobile device to navigate a route in a building. Different types of representation were used: a paper floor plan and three representations presented on a personal digital assistant (PDA). In the PDA based conditions, an overview of the floor plan was presented in a picture viewer. Since the plan was much larger than the PDA screen, participants moved different parts of the plan into view using a stylus. Floor plans were also presented as a sequence of plan fragments on the PDA which were advanced by the user according to location. Results show significantly shorter route completion times for participants using the paper plan compared with the PDA support. Significant differences in workload, effort and mental demand were also found between the types of representation. The paper plan condition elicited the lowest levels of workload and the shortest route completion times. Implications for the design of location-based navigation support are discussed.
The Effects of Direct Pilot Warnings on the Prevention of Runway Incursions BIBAFull-Text 358-362
  Kathleen McGarry; Peter Moertl
This paper describes a human-in-the-loop simulation evaluating the effectiveness of integrated ground-based warning systems for improved runway safety. The evaluated warning systems contained technologies to enhance pilot awareness, as well as warn pilots about runway safety risks. Pilots experienced simulation scenarios with warning systems that provided either visual or audio warnings about surface traffic. In addition, pilots experienced simulation scenarios in a baseline condition, with no warnings. The ground-based warnings consisted of airport surface lights including Runway Entrance Lights, Take-off Hold Lights, Arrival Warning Lights, and an Auditory Arrival Runway Incursion Alerting System. Eye tracking was used to examine where pilots focused their attention when they are taxiing, departing, and arriving. Results indicate significant safety benefits of ground-based pilot warnings by reducing the likelihood of runway safety incidents.
Comparing Two Methods for Predicting Navigation Problems in Information Hierarchies BIBAFull-Text 363-367
  Craig S. Miller; Sven Fuchs; S. Niranchana; Priti Kulkarni
When locating target items in information hierarchies, performance depends much on selecting the right nodes along the path. Two methods for evaluating category membership, card sorting and a simple statistical approach, are compared with regard to their predictive capacity of navigation difficulties. We developed a category structure for a web site and obtained metrics from both card sorting and a statistical approach based on the word frequencies of category content items. We then conducted a user study to compare actual user performance with predictions from the two approaches. Despite the simplicity of the statistical approach, it produced marginally better predictions. In particular, it predicted problematic target items that took nearly twice as much time on average to find than the remaining targets in the web navigation study. We review these results and discuss usefulness and implications of predicting navigation problems in information hierarchies for the information architect.
Measuring Spatial Knowledge: Effects of the Relation Between Acquisition and Testing BIBAFull-Text 368-371
  Erik Troberg; Douglas J. Gillan
Performance in human-robot interaction is related to the operator's mental map of the space in which the robot travels. Accordingly, accurate assessment of mental maps will be important for the design of human-robot interfaces. The present research used a factorial design experiment to examine two methods for acquiring spatial knowledge (reading a map vs. navigating in the space), three methods of testing spatial knowledge (drawing a map, navigating through the space, and estimating point-to-point distances. The results showed that performance in the navigation test was influenced by factors unrelated to the navigated distance, whereas map drawing especially was closely related to the actual distance. Map drawing resulted in a stronger relation between map distance and actual distance in the map training condition than in the navigation training condition. The results are interpreted in terms of transfer appropriate processing, and are applied to human-robot interface design.
Decision Making in Engineering Design Tasks: Do Designers Benefit from Representations of Uncertainty? BIBAFull-Text 372-376
  F. Akhavi; C. C. Hayes
Engineering design tasks require designers to compare, weigh and choose between many complex alternatives throughout the design processes. The uncertainty in design decisions and the high cost of poor choices has long made decision methods incorporating representations of uncertainty appealing from a theoretical standpoint. Yet, such methods have not been widely adopted in practical settings. This paper describes a study exploring reasons why this is so. The study found that in task of rank ordering a set of design alternatives from best to worst, a decision making method which incorporated a representation of uncertainty produced no better performance than a deterministic one. However, when compared to the informal methods typically followed by designers for rank ordering alternatives, both methods resulted in more consistent rankings for expert designers, but required more time. We will discuss the practical implications these findings may have for use of these methods in practice.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Influencing How People Work

Assessing the Impact of Computerization on Work Practice: Information Technology in Emergency Departments BIBAFull-Text 377-381
  Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Ann M. Bisantz; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Shawna J. Perry; Frank Zwemer; Robert L. Wears
Typical hospital emergency departments (ED) use patient status boards as information tracking devices for providing safe care by supporting shared memory, latent processes, collaboration, shared cognition, communication and coordination. Traditionally, status boards are large, manually updated dry erase "whiteboards." Though electronic patient tracking technologies are fast replacing manual status boards, significant questions remain regarding the design of these technologies and the manner in which they impact ED work. This paper describes part of a study which is documenting the transition from a manual status board to electronic technology in two different emergency departments. The impact of technology implementation on existing work practices, and insights on design of information technology for safety critical healthcare system are described.
Knowledge Training Versus Process Training: The Effects of Training Protocol on Team Coordination and Performance BIBAFull-Text 382-386
  Jamie C. Gorman; Nancy J. Cooke; Jennifer L. Winner; Jasmine L. Duran; Harry K. Pedersen; Amanda R. Taylor
Three-person teams controlling a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle underwent different training regimes in order to assess the effect of process-based and knowledge-based training on team coordination and performance. Coordination and performance were assessed during training and eight to eleven weeks after training. Process training consisted of either enforcing a rigid coordination process or forcing teams to coordinate in different ways through the introduction of perturbations. Knowledge training consisted of cross-training teams on each others roles. Results indicate that process training had a significant effect on team coordination. In addition, the qualitative nature of coordination flexibility changed from training to retention for process versus knowledge trained teams, with process teams behaving flexibly at retention. Perturbation process training led to significantly higher team performance under high workload. Rigid process training lead to significantly lower performance in one of the retention missions.
Strategy Selection and Compliance: A case-study using a thermal-hydraulic process microworld BIBAFull-Text 387-391
  Olivier St-Cyr
This paper focuses on the third phase of the Cognitive Work Analysis framework: strategies analysis. While CWA outlines the basic characteristics of strategies, little attention has been paid to the issues of strategy selection and compliance. This paper presents experimental data looking at these issues. Forty engineering university students performed a start-up task on a representative thermal-hydraulic process microworld. Participants were divided into two groups, each performing the task with a different graphical user interface. Three different strategies were available to control the simulation: Single, Decoupled, and Full. The only constraints imposed on strategy selection were the physical characteristics of the process simulation. A frequency count for each of the different strategies used by participants was cumulated. Results show a strong preference towards the Decoupled strategy. Results also show significant differences between the two interface groups. These results provided helpful insights on strategy selection and compliance and interface design.
Differential Base Rate Training Influences Detection of Novel Targets in a Complex Visual Inspection Task BIBAFull-Text 392-396
  Poornima Madhavan; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Frank C. Lacson
We studied the effects that multiple levels of signal probability (known as base rate) have on the transfer of learning in an airline luggage screening task. Participants (n = 33) were presented with three base rates during the acquisition (training) phase: 100%, 50%, or 20%; at transfer, all participants detected novel targets at a base rate of 20%. Performance was measured by hit rates, false alarm rates, sensitivities, and detection times. Results revealed that participants receiving higher base rates during training obtained higher hit rates at transfer compared to participants encountering lower base rates. However, increasing the training base rate also increased the incidence of false alarms, leading to a low overall level of sensitivity during transfer. Relatively higher base rates had mixed effects on response times. These results have implications for improving training modules for individuals in complex visual inspection tasks.
Development and Evaluation of an Intuitive Operations Planning Process for the Canadian Forces BIBAFull-Text 397-401
  L. Bruyn Martin; L. Rehak; T. Lamoureux; David Bryant; B. Vokac
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an intuitive planning process as an alternative to the Canadian Forces Operational Planning Process (CFOPP), a formal planning procedure based on analytical decision theory. The Intuitive Operations Planning Process (IOPP) is an iterative planning procedure, developed for this project, in which a single course of action is continually evaluated and refined. An experimental evaluation of the IOPP was conducted in which two planning teams performed two simulated planning tasks, once with the CFOPP and once with the IOPP. Results show that the IOPP outperformed the CFOPP in terms of efficiency, quality of planning products, usability, operational effectiveness, and workload, but was rated inferior in terms of trust and reliability, and the potential to lead to errors. It appears that the IOPP may be able to provide benefits to operational planning in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness and its use should therefore be further examined.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Macrocognition Metrics: Meaningful Measures for Complex Processes

Macrocognition Metrics: Meaningful Measures for Complex Processes BIBAFull-Text 402-404
  Eduardo Salas; Stephen M. Fiore; Panel Chairs
Increasingly we see business functions and military operations engaging systems that are interconnected and interdependent with an even greater degree of cognitive work distributed among people and machines. From this we will see an increased need to understand how individuals and teams in these environments are able to work together to plan, think, decide, solve problems, and take action as integrated units. This panel brings together leading researchers from the burgeoning field of macrocognition to discuss their research. In cognitive engineering and related scientific disciplines the term macrocognition has been contrasted with microcognition to illustrate differing types of cognitive processes. What complicates the issue is that these distinctions consider not only the realization of cognition in the real world but also a level of analysis. Panel members will discuss issues arising out of research to understand complex and collaborative activities in vivo and in situ and in the development of the appropriate metrics to measure dynamic cognitive processes in such environments.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: All About Communicating

Automatic Assessment of Situation Awareness from Electronic Mail Communication: Analysis of the Enron dataset BIBAFull-Text 405-409
  Jamie Gorman; Shawn A. Weil; Nancy Cooke; Jasmine Duran
Over the past two decades, "situation awareness" (SA) has graduated from a Human Factors construct to a mainstream term in domains as diverse as aviation, medicine, and defense. Individuals involved in design, training, and policy consider SA a critical aspect of the success of their organizations. Given this prominence, accurate measures of SA should be primary indications of organizational performance. However, many traditional measures of SA disrupt the flow of work; they are poorly suited for operational organizations. Alternative methods of SA measurement are needed if accurate feedback is to be given to team members in working conditions. In this effort, we explore the potential of unobtrusive process measures of SA. These measures are based on analyses of the electronic communications media prevalent in modern networked organizations.
Tagging Macrocognitive Processes Using Communication Flow Patterns BIBAFull-Text 410-414
  Jamie C. Gorman; Nancy J. Cooke; Norman W. Warner; Elizabeth M. Wroblewski
Team communications provide a rich source of data on team or macro- cognition. Efforts to automate team communication analysis are easing the burden of manual analysis and are facilitating the investigation of a variety of dimensions of these data. Communications flow is one dimension that has been tapped and shown to be relevant to team performance. In this study macrocognitive processes are manually coded in the context of a Noncombatant Evacuation Exercise. In addition, communication flow patterns are extracted for a portion of the communication data and mapped onto the manually coded processes. The human tags of the remaining data are then predicted based solely on communication flow patterns with flow data predicting 73% of the variance in human-coded macrocognitive stages and 42% of the variance in the macrocognitive processes. These results can help inform macrocognitive theory and present promise for automatic tagging.
Evaluating a Model of Team Collaboration via Analysis of Team Communications BIBAFull-Text 415-419
  Susan G. Hutchins; Alex Bordetsky; Tony Kendall; Maura Garrity
A model of team collaboration was developed that emphasizes the macro-cognitive processes entailed in collaboration and includes major processes that underlie this type of communication: (1) individual knowledge building, (2) developing knowledge inter-operability, (3) team shared understanding, and (4) developing team consensus. This paper describes research conducted to empirically validate this model. Team communications that transpired during two complex problem solving situations were coded using cognitive process definitions included in the model. Data was analyzed for three teams that conducted a Maritime Interdiction Operation (MIO) and four teams that engaged in air-warfare scenarios. MIO scenarios involve a boarding team that boards a suspect ship to search for contraband cargo (e.g. explosives, machinery) and possible terrorist suspects. Air-warfare scenarios involve identifying air contacts in the combat information center of an Aegis ship. The way the teams' behavior on the two scenarios maps to the model of team collaboration is discussed.
Supporting Asynchronous Dialogs in the Communication of Army Operations Orders BIBAFull-Text 420-424
  Philip J. Smith; Amy L. Spencer
An empirical study was completed to study the use of an asynchronous multimedia communication tool to support dialogs during a joint forces military exercise. Ten captains, majors and colonels from Canada, France, Germany, Israel and the US who participated in the joint forces exercise had the option of using this multimedia communication tool whenever they felt it would help them to communicate information to commanders in other units. Two of the messages consisted of one-way communications. The remaining 13 were asynchronous dialogs. In these messages, the officers:
  • Made extensive use of pointing, drawing and embedded written notes
  • Used these asynchronous dialogs to detect and repair misconceptions that
       arose from live face-to-face briefings (6/13 dialogs)
  • Used these asynchronous dialogs to share expertise while developing a plan
       (13/13 dialogs). On Likert scales (1=strongly disagree; 7=strongly agree), the ratings for usefulness and usability were 6.2 and 6.4, respectively.
  • Four Responses to Warning Systems: A Case Study of Clinical Reminders BIBAFull-Text 425-428
      Geva Vashitz
    This paper addresses theoretical aspects of human responses to warning systems and applies them to the responses to a clinical reminder system. The literature on warnings describes a number of responses, such as compliance and reliance, automation bias, and the "cry-wolf" effect. This paper suggests two complementary responses to compliance and reliance, named spillover and reactance, which can be placed within the framework of operators' responses to warning systems, and which altogether describe a complete set of possible responses to cues from warning systems. This set of responses is demonstrated on the example of a clinical reminder system, which mails reminders to primary care physicians regarding patients who require secondary prevention of clinical arteriosclerosis. The results mainly show evidence for compliance. Some theoretical conclusions are drawn.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Information Input and Security

    Effects of Key Size and Spacing on the Completion Time and Accuracy of Input Tasks on Soft Keypads Using Trackball and Touch Input BIBAFull-Text 429-433
      Martin Schedlbauer
    Simulated keyboards on touch screens are becoming the norm for data entry on mobile and kiosk systems. Since onscreen keyboards compete with other user interface elements for limited screen space, it is essential that soft keyboard designs are optimally laid out. This paper describes an experiment in which the performance and accuracy of data input on soft keyboards with square keys of two different widths (10 and 15mm) and two inter-key gap distances (1.5 and 4.5mm) were evaluated. Three methods of input were studied: finger, stylus, and trackball. Entry times were the shortest and most accurate for stylus touch, although trackball input was the most accurate for the smallest key size. The spacing between keys did not exhibit a significant effect regardless of key size and input method. A key size of 15mm appears to be sufficiently large to provide acceptable accuracy for touch input, although a key size of 10mm was equally acceptable for trackball input.
    Memorability of Alphanumeric and Composite Scene Authentication (CSA) Passcodes Over Extended Retention Intervals BIBAFull-Text 434-438
      Korey Johnson; Steffen Werner
    Current authentication strategies seek to increase security by requiring users to create more secure alphanumeric passwords. Unfortunately, the inverse relationship between alphanumeric password security and memorability prevents users from being able to create a password that is both secure and memorable. Graphical user authentication mechanisms have been explored as a means to maintain security while enhancing memorability of passcodes. Current approaches often use unrelated picture sets from which participants have to remember a subset, with mixed results. The study outlined in this paper seeks to further validate the Composite Scene Authentication (CSA) graphical passcode mechanism (Johnson & Werner, 2006). Extending retention intervals and increasing the variability of stimuli clearly demonstrated the superiority of CSA over alphanumerical passwords. In addition, we manipulated the mode of presentation (serial vs. composite) to assess the memorability of stimuli presented in different temporal formats. In the current study CSA passcodes consisting of nine categorical dimensions were compared to nine character alphanumeric passwords. Participants showed a strong advantage in passcode retention of graphical passcodes for both modes of presentation. This effect grew larger with increasing retention intervals. At the longest retention interval (6 weeks), only 10 (12%) participants were able to produce their alphanumerical password vs. 50 (60%) participants who were still able to produce the correct graphical passcode.
    Movement Kinematics and Their Relationship with Performance in Target Acquisition Task Using a Mouse BIBAFull-Text 439-443
      Yuen-Keen Cheong; Randa L. Shehab; Chen Ling
    Movement kinematics has been shown useful for characterizing the process of aiming movement in target acquisition tasks. There are multiple kinematic measures reported in the literature, but their relationship to eventual performance is not well documented. To determine the relationship between various kinematic measures and movement performance, data were collected from participants aged 21 to 90 years with a wide range of psychomotor ability. When computed across age groups, time to peak velocity (TPV), time to peak acceleration (TPA), and time from peak velocity until the end of movement (TPVEND) were found to correlate with movement performance. However, the relationships diminished when the correlations were computed within age groups (except for TPVEND). More interestingly, despite the extensive report, certain kinematic measures such as peak velocity were found to be uncorrelated with performance. Thus, when performance is the focus, improvement should be made to reduce TPV, TPA, and TPVEND.
    Gravity Mouse Design and Evaluation: Effects of Distracters and Target Size BIBAFull-Text 444-448
      Robert Pastel; Paul Himes; Mathew Harper; William S. Helton
    Gravity mouse is a mouse interface that accelerates the cursor towards potential targets. Its design is based on the premise that as the cursor approaches a potential selection the system can be more certain of the selection. Usability studies with multiple buttons, target and distracter buttons, demonstrate a 100 ms reduction in selection time for 52x41 px buttons and a 130 ms reduction for 19x15 px buttons. Analysis of the results suggests that users resist the full benefit of gravity mouse. Gravity mouse's influence is adaptive and the paper discusses its potential application in intelligent user interfaces.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Information Display and Management

    The Effect of Automated Telephone Menu Structure on User Frustration and Performance BIBAFull-Text 449-453
      Jennifer L. Dyck; Marie P. Panepinto; Amanda K. Emo; Thaddeus Wojcik
    Two experiments examined the effect of a wide, deep, or balanced telephone menu on task accuracy, task completion time, and user attitude. The wide menu had 8 choices at 2 levels, the deep menu had 2 choices at 6 levels, and the balanced menu had 4 choices at 3 levels. Experiment 1 results indicated no effect of menu structure on task accuracy. Experiment 2 results indicated longer task completion time for the deep menu as compared to the wide and balanced menus. Variability among task completion time for the wide menu, however, indicated an advantage for the balanced menu. User attitude did not vary with the menu structure, but was related to the number of calls needed to complete the tasks, such that the more calls that were needed, the more negatively the telephone menu was viewed.
    Executive Dashboard Widgets: A Performance-Based Comparative Analysis BIBAFull-Text 454-458
      M. Ryan Chipley; Todd Barlow
    Executive dashboards have become popular in enterprise software applications. Consequently, much advice has been offered by private consulting firms on how best to design dashboards. This paper details a couple of studies testing the advice given by the dashboard experts. The results suggest that some of the notions about how dashboard widgets should be designed might be incorrect. The results indicate that colored widgets are not necessarily inferior to simpler, colorless widgets. Similarly, fancy widgets (i.e., those with three dimensional characteristics) were not demonstrated to be inferior to plainer widgets. While some methodological challenges must be overcome in similar future studies, the results of the described studies do not support some popular ideas about executive dashboards (and data visualization in general), and suggest that the area of interest is ripe for further investigation.
    Evaluation of Semantic Fisheye Zooming to Provide Focus+Context BIBAFull-Text 459-463
      Andrew J. Afram; John Briedis; Daisuke Fujiwara; Robert J. K. Jacob; Caroline G. L. Cao; David Kahle
    A concept map is a diagram that consists of nodes that contain individual concepts or pieces of information. These nodes are connected by lines that represent relationships between the information.
       Large concept maps are difficult to explore and navigate using current digital display interfaces. As users zoom in on a desired node, connections between the node of interest and surrounding nodes become hidden from the user. A combination of fisheye zooming and semantic zooming mechanisms to maintain the visual connections between the nodes was implemented, and a user study to determine whether this technique helps users learn from the map was conducted.
       The user study revealed that participants were able to recall more information presented in a concept map, with practically no difference in the amount of time spent using the map, despite the novelty of the semantic fisheye interface.
    The Effect of Typeface on the Perception of Onscreen Documents BIBAFull-Text 464-468
      Doug Fox; A. Dawn Shaikh; Barbara S. Chaparro
    This study investigated the effect that typeface has on a reader's perception of three different types of onscreen documents (business, email, and youth narrative stories). Participants read documents displayed in either a congruent, neutral, or incongruent typeface. Results suggest that the less congruent the typeface, the more the document was perceived in a negative fashion. That is, the typeface itself affected the perceived personality of the document and the perception of the author; thus, typeface appropriateness should be considered when writing an onscreen document.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Usability

    A Case Study on Use of Personas in Design and Development of an Audit Management System BIBAFull-Text 469-473
      Pallavi Dharwada; Joel S. Greenstein; Anand K. Gramopadhye; Steve J. Davis
    With the ROI of persona methods still being arguable, it is important to understand how personas can be utilized in user interface design. The extensive methods proposed by Pruitt and Adlin (2006), throw light on several ways to use persona methods in user interface design lifecycle and also propose mitigations to several risk factors that can be encountered in this process. However, there is very little research presenting case studies on an entire design lifecycle that utilizes personas. This paper presents design, development and evaluation of a web-based audit management system in aircraft maintenance domain with emphasis on the persona creation process, the design approach followed, and the user testing results obtained. The experiences of a design team novice to personas will be discussed.
    Comparing Usability Problem Identification and Description by Practitioners and Students BIBAFull-Text 474-478
      Miranda G. Capra
    Many studies of usability studies count the number of usability problems identified to measure the effectiveness of an evaluation. However, communicating problems is also important to evaluation effectiveness, because a problem found but poorly explained may not be fixed. This study compared lists of usability problems from 21 practitioners and 23 students watching a pre-recorded usability session. Lists were evaluated for the number of problems reported, and for following six guidelines for describing usability problems: be clear and avoid jargon, describe problem severity, provide backing data, describe problem causes, describe user actions, and provide a solution. There was no difference in the number of problems reported by students and practitioners, but there was a difference in their ratings for following several of the guidelines. Using both measures provides a more complete assessment of usability reports.
    Exposure to Ubiquitous Mobile Instructional Technology in a High School Setting: An Observational Study BIBAFull-Text 479-483
      Carolyn M. Sommerich; Sahika Vatan Korkmaz
    This paper describes results of a study of high school juniors and seniors who participated in their school's 24/7 access tablet PC (TPC) program during the program's third year. Primary areas of interest for this study were students' experiences with and attitudes about the TPCs, physical discomfort associated with TPC use, and temporal and task-driven patterns of TPC use. Data were collected via questionnaire. Results showed students' attitudes were generally quite positive towards the TPCs. However, they did not tend to think TPCs had improved their grades, few disagreed that TPCs were a distraction in class, and visual and musculoskeletal discomfort was prevalent. Recognizing the organizational capacity of the TPC was associated with several positive attitudes towards the TPC, including aiding interactions with teachers and feeling more comfortable in class. This type of assessment provides a useful complement to more common assessments of impact of digital technology on academic performance.
    Digital Photo Kiosk Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 484-488
      Jacob Solomon; Frank A. Drews
    Self-service modules have become an integral part of the economy throughout the world, replacing expensive human operators in many settings. However, usability issues continue to diminish the economic value of these modules. This experiment demonstrates how the application of sound usability principles can be applied to self-service settings to increase the usability of self-service modules. The study compared the usability of two versions of a self-service digital photo kiosk. In one version we replicated a kiosk presently in use and broadly available. The other version of the software incorporated several design principles, such as the use of a metaphor, intended to increase usability and learnability, more specifically to allow for easier navigation. Participant's performance in completing tasks was measured as a function of speed, accuracy, and the need for human assistance. The results demonstrate that incorporating usability principles can improve usability of self-service modules.
    The Difficulty of Remotely Negotiating Corners BIBAFull-Text 489-493
      Robert Pastel; Jacob Champlin; Matthew Harper; Nathan Paul; William Helton; Martin Schedlbauer; Jesse Heines
    Remote navigation, popular in computer games and prevalent in areas such as clinical medicine and teleoperations of robots and drones, uses human-computer interfaces for control. Usability studies of remote navigation interfaces require good metrics for evaluating interfaces, assessing users' capabilities, and determining the difficulty of the navigational task. We studied the time proficient users took to navigate virtual hovercrafts through virtual hallways with corners of various widths and discovered that the time to negotiate corners is inversely proportional to corner width. We derive and evaluate two models for the index of difficulty for negotiating corners. Both models fit the data well, with r2 greater than 0.85 for the mean time to negotiate corners verses corner width.

    DEMONSTRATIONS: Demonstrations

    Demonstration of Training and Process Support Capabilities for Bridging the Gap between Systems Engineering and Cognitive Engineering BIBAFull-Text 494-498
      Jon Holbrook; Emily Muthard Stelzer; Adam Darowski; Zachary Horn; Rebecca Grier; Emily Wiese; Michael Paley; Edward Martin
    The systems engineering and cognitive engineering communities both offer processes and methods that must be jointly used to design tools and technologies that can effectively and efficiently support task performance. Unfortunately, these groups have not effectively integrated their approaches. To begin to bridge the gap between systems engineers and cognitive engineers, we have developed The Resource for Applied Cognitive Engineering and Systems Engineering (TRACE-SE). TRACE-SE is a web-based tool designed for both cognitive and systems engineers to provide the information needed to create and support awareness and understanding of the processes and methods used by both the cognitive and systems engineering communities and to facilitate communication between these two groups. Using the TRACE-SE tool, both communities will better understand how to use their respective processes in order to develop systems that support superior decision making, improved safety, and greater operator productivity.
    An Interactive Planning Prototype for Task Force Air Defense BIBAFull-Text 499-503
      Gavan Lintern
    This work reports development of an interactive prototype of a military planning workspace, implemented in Macromedia Flash. The interface was structured to support the natural reasoning strategies that are encouraged by a functional structure based on an Abstraction-Decomposition Space. A scenario involving planning for naval task force air defence is used to illustrate the use of the system. The prototype demonstrates a pictorially rich information workspace for planning and also the flexibility of Macromedia Flash for developing a prototype that permits interactive exploration of an information work system.
    UPDATE: A Usability Analysis Method and Tool BIBAFull-Text 504-506
      Rebecca A. Grier; John Colonna-Romano; Gabriel Spitz; Jared Freeman
    Molich, Ede Kaasgaard, and Karyukin (2004) reported that usability test reports are inconsistent both within and between usability organizations. Some of these inconsistencies are due to the nature of the reporting. UPDATE (Usability Problem Data Analysis Technology), is an innovative new tool that enables usability analysts to follow a systematic process to generate usability recommendations for the system under test. The tool supports traceability from recommendations back through usability problems and analyst observations to specific moments in video of the test session. UPDATE uses a novel usability taxonomy (called the UDS, Usability Design Space) to support consistent diagnosis and reporting of usability problems.
    A Virtual Operating Room for Context-Relevant Training BIBAFull-Text 507-511
      Mark W. Scerbo; Lee A. Belfore; Hector M. Garcia; Leonard J. Weireter; Michael W. Jackson; Amber Nalu; Emre Baydogan; James P. Bliss; Jennifer Seevinck
    A fully immersive virtual environment simulating an operating room is described. The Virtual Operating Room (VOR) is a platform that integrates procedural medical simulators into a coherent, context-relevant training environment. Trainees interact with a surgical team comprised of real and/or virtual team members (e.g., attending surgeon, anesthesiologist, scrub technician, and circulating nurse). All characters are defined by their procedural knowledge and personality. The interface capitalizes on natural interactions and is largely driven by voice recognition and text-to-speech software. A custom designed controller manages the VOR functionality, rendering platform, speech recognition, and text-to-speech generation modules. The VOR allows instructors and researchers to simulate the physical and social context in which surgical procedures are performed. The VOR can be used to train surgical teams and address issues in judgment, decision making, team dynamics, and interpersonal skills. Most importantly, the VOR allows medical teams to train the way they operate without putting patients at risk.

    EDUCATION: Human Factors in Learning and Teaching

    The Effects of Study Time and Presentation Modality on Learning BIBAFull-Text 512-515
      Jesse S. Zolna; Richard Catrambone
    The modality principle suggests that presenting words via audio-narration rather than visual-text can improve learning (Mayer, 2001). However, the use of narrations when verbal materials are lengthy can have cognitive costs, and learning from text can be improved when materials are self-paced or provide ample study time. Therefore, there might be circumstances under which using text would actually be better than using narration. In this experiment we compare learning from diagrams that accompany text or narration; we manipulated available study time while also providing learners control over the pace of presentation. The results show that under these conditions, using narration instead of text does not improve learning. Some additional study time improves learning from both narration and text. However, even greater amounts of study time improve learning from narrations but not text. Implications about when to apply the modality principle to multimedia instructional design are discussed.
    Placement Opportunities for Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Professionals BIBAFull-Text 516-520
      William F. Moroney
    During the period from January 2006 through December 2006, the Placement Service of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society distributed announcements describing 140 new positions available for human factors and ergonomics professionals. This paper focuses on the 124 placement opportunities for those in Industry and the government/military, and briefly addresses positions in Education. The attributes of the position descriptions examined include: employment sector, degree requirements, work experience, expertise, salary, and geographic location.
       The employment sector type seeking the most employees was Consulting Firms that specialize in Human Factors with 29 positions (23%). The degree required was usually a Masters (48%) and the geographic area with the most jobs was the MidWest (N=16). The areas of expertise most frequently requested by employers were Engineering and Psychology.
    Verbal Ability and Structured Navigation on Learning with Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 521-525
      Brenda Martinez-Papponi; Timothy E. Goldsmith
    Learners bring their unique individual perceptions, preferences, and abilities to a learning situation. The effect of individual differences on learning depends in part on how the instructional system accommodates individual differences. The current study examined the role of individual differences in verbal ability and structured navigation in hypertext learning. It was predicted that learning would vary with how well the hypertext environment supported a learner's individual attributes. Ninety-seven participants participated in one of four groups of a 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial design, which focused on the interaction between levels of navigational structure (unconstrained or expert constrained) and levels of participants' verbal ability (high or low). Overall, learners with high-verbal ability performed better on an unconstrained navigation structure than those with low-verbal ability; whereas in an expert-constrained navigation this difference between verbal ability levels was smaller. The results have implications for the design of hypertext-based learning systems.
    Teaching Usability Methods to Undergraduate Students: Can We Measure Changes in Experience? BIBAFull-Text 526-530
      Terence S. Andre; Margaret A. Schurig
    Instructors at the Air Force Academy recently developed an undergraduate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) laboratory to teach basic components of HCI concepts to undergraduate students. The objective was to develop a teaching laboratory so that students would gain the necessary experience to conduct usability evaluation on local projects. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in a student's technique of identifying usability problems while using the HCI laboratory. Thirteen students in an undergraduate HCI course participated in the study. During a pre-and post-assessment, we collected several measures in order to quantify any changes experienced by the students as they logged usability problems. These measures included attention focus, number of problems identified, word count, and use of HCI terms in describing usability problems. Results showed that the metrics of number of usability problems identified and the use of HCI technical terms were particularly sensitive to changes over the semester.
    Use of the Tablet PC for Human Factors Instruction BIBAFull-Text 531-535
      Andris Freivalds
    Tablet PCs are laptop computers that allow the instructor to use a special stylus to write digital ink on the screen which then can be saved to an electronic file. This offers human factors courses several nice features: 1) cleaner, better, more interactive lectures; 2) quicker and more effective student feedback; 3) the ability to save and make available complete lecture materials to students; 4) audio and video integration; 5) more collaborative team work; and 6) eventually, a paper-less classroom. In addition, the tablet PC is a natural start to the development of on-line courses. Student surveys indicated a very high satisfaction with the use of the tablet PC.

    EDUCATION: Design Specifications for a Cognitive Engineering Textbook

    Design Specs for a Cognitive Engineering Textbook BIBAFull-Text 536-538
      Alex Kirlik; Ann Bisantz; Catharine Burns; Nancy J. Cooke; Stephanie Guerlain; John D. Lee; Nadine Sarter; Daniel Serfaty
    This discussion panel will consider whether the time is right for a cognitive engineering textbook and what the ideal specifications for such a text would be. Courses in this area are typically taught using either one of various books focused on a particular approach or perspective, or else multiple books or articles that aim at somewhat broader coverage. The panelists are recognized leaders in cognitive engineering research and education at universities and industry. One important focus of the discussion will be whether the field has matured to a point where some of the barriers that have contributed to the difficulty of creating such a book can now be overcome. These include the need for a systematic and coherent integration and orderly presentation of material in the style required for a true textbook, and a shared or convincing definition of the scope of the field.

    ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Workspace Perceptions, Workspace Design, and Seating

    Occupancy Quality Predictors of Office Worker Perceptions of Job Productivity BIBAFull-Text 539-543
      Thomas J. Smith; Steven J. Orfield
    This paper describes use of a perceptual response survey instrument to assess the degree to which rankings by office workers of different key attributes of occupancy quality predict worker perceptions of their on-the-job productivity. Data were collected from a total of 434 workers employed in 10 different office sites. Results show that perceived levels of productivity are significantly correlated with rankings of perceived overall physical work environment and job quality. The correlation between perceived levels of productivity and perceived overall organization quality is marginally significant. No significant correlations are observed between perceived levels of productivity with rankings of perceived overall compensation, work station, and employment quality. The results should benefit employer decision-making regarding human factors/ergonomic (HF/E) interventions to improve office worker productivity.
    Effects of a dynamic seat pan on torso movement, back comfort, and task performance BIBAFull-Text 544-548
      E. Lawler; A. Hedge
    Thirty-six subjects, half with back pain, performed 1-hour sessions, including 3 x 10-minute tasks separated by 2 x 10-minute relaxation tasks, while sitting on both a static seat (SS) and a rotary dynamic seat (DS) at fixed speed. Ss torso movement was greater for the DS condition (p=.000) and while performing active versus passive tasks (p=.000). However, personal comfort measures for postural stability (p<.000), postural instability (p<.003), limitations in writing and typing (p<.001), feelings of nausea (p<.023), and dizziness (p<.024) were worse for the DS condition than for the SS condition. The DS did not significantly affect task performance or back pain. Ss without pre-existing back pain made more negative than positive comments on the chair's motion than those with back pain. Allowing intermittent use of the DS with personal control of the speed of rotation according to task demands and comfort level, may afford some benefits.
    Effects of a Flat Panel Monitor Arm on Comfort, Posture and Preference in an Architectural Practice BIBAFull-Text 549-553
      K. M. Boothroyd; A. Hedge
    The effects of installing a flat panel monitor arm (FPMA) at an architecture firm were investigated. Twenty eight participants were equally divided into test and control groups. Three surveys were conducted: pre-installation and one-month and 3-month post-installation. The web-based survey assessed musculoskeletal discomfort for eleven upper body regions, demographics, workstation utilization and workstation satisfaction. On-site measurements of workstation dimensions were taken and posture was observed using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessments (RULA) method for each survey. Participants reported that the FPMA allowed them to optimally position their screen and a majority said it made it easier to share information with colleagues. Total upper extremity musculoskeletal discomfort and computer vision syndrome symptoms were significantly reduced for the test group. However, no significant differences were found for specific body regions or for RULA scores.

    FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensics Professional

    Case Study: The Wrong Mental Model Can Kill You BIBAFull-Text 554-558
      Kenneth Nemire
    Mental models are internal representations of the external world that are thought to influence perception and decision-making. An inappropriate mental model of a "roller coaster" was hypothesized to have caused the injury of one person and the death of another in a roller coaster incident. A study was conducted to learn about existing internal representations of roller coasters. Participants were asked to draw a roller coaster. Despite the existence of several types of roller coasters, 98% of the study participants drew a roller coaster representing the oldest and most prevalent type of coaster. The results of the study are discussed with respect to this injury incident and the importance of educating product users about more appropriate mental models that may help prevent injury or death.
    When Communication Failure Contributes to an Injury: A case study of para-transportation for wheelchair users BIBAFull-Text 559-563
      Ilene B. Zackowitz; Alison G. Vredenburgh
    Our firm was retained to investigate an injury sustained by an elderly woman who was confined to a wheelchair at the time of the incident. The woman was utilizing a public para-transportation service for people with disabilities when the van she was riding stopped short. As a result, she slid out of her wheelchair and suffered a compound fracture of the leg. This case went to trial with the seatbelt manufacturer and transportation entity as defendants. Looking beyond the obvious issues of seatbelt failure and driver training, this paper will examine communication as a necessary part of the safety system. Communication involves the sharing of information in a complex system where users are not domain experts. In this case, communication as part of a public para-transportation safety system is evaluated.
    Training to Proficiency: Reality v. the Courtroom BIBAFull-Text 564-568
      Marc L. Resnick
    The purpose of workplace training is to enable workers to successfully perform activities related to their work tasks so that they can satisfy the expectations of the company and its customers. Training objectives often include levels of productivity, effectiveness, and/or safety. Regulatory requirements can also influence training, either by modifying existing training needs or adding new requirements. The success of training programs depends on the design of the training materials, post-training verification and ongoing validation. When workers are trained to proficiency, they remain safe, acceptable products and services are produced, and customers are satisfied. But when disputes lead to lawsuits, the evaluation of training proficiency changes. The determination of responsibility in a courtroom is based on the interpretation of the law by a judge and jury in isolation from the complicated contexts of the real world. The contribution of human factors to this process can provide a significant benefit to the effective resolution of legal proceedings in which the effectiveness of training programs and the proficiency achieved by workers is in question. In fact, human factors insights are critical to the just resolution of these cases. Human factors practitioners are uniquely capable to explain how context affects training requirements and how proficiency should be evaluated in the naturalistic work environment.
    Emphasis Terms for Warning Directives on Compliance Intent BIBAFull-Text 569-573
      Soyun Kim; Jennifer Cowley; Michael S. Wogalter
    Instructions on how to avoid hazards are an important aspect of warnings. Because message brevity is beneficial for effectiveness, the wording ought to be useful in motivating compliance. Participants (N=132) evaluated 37 single and two-word emphasis phrases (e.g., "critical" or "absolutely crucial") that could be added to a directive (or instructions) statement to indicate the degree of compliance necessity. Manipulated were one or two-word (phrase) emphasis terms (e.g., "critical," "must," and "absolutely critical"). Participants rated the compliance intent for each of these. Results showed a wide range of ratings across word/phrase conditions (from "extremely critical" and "urgent" as the highest to "optional" as the lowest). Linear (additive) and non linear effects were yielded by the pattern of means for word/phrase combinations. "Federal Law" was one of the highest rated items confirming similar previous findings. Implications are discussed including the potential for matching terms with hazard levels.
    Effectiveness of a Warning as Measured by Behavior Change BIBAFull-Text 574-577
      Rudolf G. Mortimer
    Few studies of the effectiveness of warnings have evaluated the extent to which the warning actually affects the behavior that can lead to the hazard. This study provided such an opportunity. It arose because a person was injured while climbing onto a commuter rail platform instead of using the stairs that were at the other end of the platform. It was suggested that a warning may have deterred the hazardous behavior. Persons were observed by video approaching and climbing onto the platform at two stations having similar characteristics as where the accident occurred, both before and after a sign warning of the hazard was erected. Before and after the sign was in place all who approached the end without the stairs climbed onto the platform, even those who clearly looked at the sign. The sign had no effect on changing the behavior.

    GENERAL SESSION: President's Forum

    How Can We Enhance the Impact of HFE on the World? Presidential Forum Position Paper BIBAFull-Text 578-580
      Marvin J. Dainoff
    A core value of HFES has been the translation of scientific knowledge into information that can be used to improve the design and effectiveness of the systems and equipment used by people. The extent to which HFE knowledge has, in fact, had an impact on the world needs to be systematically and analytically explored. This is necessary for the continued growth of the HFE field. This forum will explore this issue. Three key questions are: (a) In the process of translation from research to practice, to what extent is practice evidence-based? (b) Should the HFE field be constrained in the service of quality control or purely entrepreneurial in style? (c) Can we reframe the benefits of our contributions to conform more closely with the key goals and objectives of customer organizations?

    GENERAL SESSION: Ergonomics Professionalism

    Ergonomics Professionalism: A Panel Discussion BIBAFull-Text 581
      Valerie J. Berg Rice; Jerry R. Duncan; Barry H. Beith; Hal W. Hendrick; Andrew S. Imada; Y. Ian Noy; Wendy A. Rogers
    There are common criteria for identifying an occupation as a "profession" and an individual as a "professional". Five internationally recognized leaders within the Human Factors & Ergonomics community will present their views on these criteria and on professionalism in ergonomics. They will also answer questions such as: 1) Is professionalization of ergonomics needed? How should it be achieved? If not needed, is there a perceived need within the HF&E community and how should that be addressed? 2) Are criteria identified in the literature applicable to ergonomics? 3) How do the criteria for achieving professional status impact the HFES strategic plan and code of ethics (or do they)? 4) Is human factors/ergonomics already a "profession"? and 5) How is the professionalism of an occupation different from the "professional" status of an individual? How are the two related? These and other questions will be facilitated during an open discussion of ergonomics professionalism with the audience.

    GENERAL SESSION: Human Factors in Complex Operational Environments

    A Case Study in Canine-Human Factors: A Remote Scent Sampler for Landmine Detection BIBAFull-Text 582-586
      William S. Helton; Shane Begoske; Robert Pastel; Jindong Tan
    Helton (2005b) proposed that Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) professionals share a common interest with animal behavioral scientists in the study of working non-human animals, in particular, working dogs. Helton, moreover, suggests that HF/E could contribute to the understanding of working dog behavior and, perhaps, in the long run assist in the design of canine working conditions and assistive technologies. Continuing this line of reasoning, the present study presents a case where HF/E provides a theoretical rationale of a recent technological development in canine ergonomics and the design of a new technology for a Canine-Human-Machine system.
    Human Redundancy in Automation Monitoring: Effects of Social Loafing and Social Compensation BIBAFull-Text 587-591
      Juliane Domeinski; Ruth Wagner; Markus Schobel; Dietrich Manzey
    The present study addresses effects of social loafing and social compensation in automation monitoring. Thirty-six participants performed a multi-task, consisting of three sub-tasks which simulate work demands of operators in a chemical plant. One of the tasks involved the monitoring of an automated process. Participants were randomly assigned to three different groups: (1) "Non-Redundant": participants worked on all tasks alone. (2) "Redundant": participants were informed that a second crewmember would work in parallel on the monitoring task. (3) "Informed-Redundant": like the "redundant" condition with the additional information that the crewmate's monitoring performance might be low. Results provide evidence of social loafing and social compensation effects in automation monitoring. Participants in the "redundant" condition cross-checked the automation significantly less than participants in the other groups. This result suggests that human redundancy might not always be the best solution to enhance safety, but might even lead to riskier operator behavior.
    Effects of Scanner Height on Fingerprint Capture BIBAFull-Text 592-596
      Brian Stanton; Mary Theofanos; Shahram Orandi; Ross Micheals; Nien-Fan Zhang
    Although the deployment of biometric technologies such as fingerprints is becoming more widespread, little attention is being paid to the human-computer interaction that such technologies involve. Most biometric systems employ both hardware and software measures to maximize the capture quality of the biometric data. The physical presentation of the biometric data by the participant to the system involves many anthropometric and ergonomic factors that have been largely ignored. This study examined the effect of the height of the sensor on the quality and the time required to collect fingerprints. User performance, both fingerprint quality and timing, was impacted by scanner height.
    Ten-Print Fingerprint Capture: Effect of Instructional Modes on User Performance BIBAFull-Text 597-601
      Mary Theofanos; Brian Stanton; Shahram Orandi; Ross Micheals; Nien-Fan Zhang
    Despite the increased deployment of biometric technologies in United States government applications, not enough attention is being paid to the human factors that such technologies involve. The use of biometric applications will be unfamiliar to many users, who may neither understand nor be comfortable with the technology. Currently, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Officers are critical in communicating and training users in the acquisition of fingerprints. Since user behavior can affect both the throughput of the system as well as the quality of the captured images, guidelines for developing interactions with biometric applications that increase throughput and image quality would be valuable. This study examines the effect of instructional modes on user performance. Posters were not as effective in providing instructions to users as video or verbal instructions.
    Human Factors Contributes to Queuing Theory: Parkinson's Law and Security Screening BIBAFull-Text 602-606
      Clara V. Marin; Colin G. Drury; Rajan Batta; Li Lin
    It is the thesis of this paper that queuing theory should take into account not just the behavior of customers in queues, but also the behavior of servers. Servers may change their behavior in response to queue length, which has implications for service quality as well as for customer waiting time. Parkinson's Law would be one explanation of any speed-up effect as queue length increases. We provide empirical evidence for this assertion in one queuing situation with high visibility and high error consequence: security screening at an airport.

    HEALTH CARE: Achieving High Reliability in Health Care: Approaches and Perspectives

    Enhancing an Application for Dynamic Management of System Capacity Using Cognitive Assessment Indicators BIBAFull-Text 607-611
      Jeffrey Brown; Linda Kosnik; Donald Cox
    Over the past two decades there has been an escalation in the number of patient admissions to U.S. hospitals while the number of available hospital beds has declined. Concurrently, decreasing reimbursements for patient care services have compelled cost cutting and efficiency measures. Coupled with other factors such as personnel shortages, this has eroded the capacity of hospitals to absorb situational increases in demand. Innovative approaches to monitoring and enhancing capacity management are integral to improving resilience and reliability. This paper describes the Acute Care Operations Management Solution (ACOMS), an application designed to enable dynamic management of demand versus capacity across system scales, and Cognitive Assessment Indicators, a method for evaluating the impact of system design on the cognitive functioning of operators.
    Dynamic Changes in Reliability and Resilience in the Emergency Department BIBAFull-Text 612-616
      Robert L. Wears; Shawna J. Perry; Allyson McFauls
    Emergency Departments (EDs) are open systems that routinely cope with highly variable and uncertain inputs. This paper will use two critical incidents to explore system adaptations to demand, complexity, unpredictability, and other threats to performance. We then relate the observations to three recently proposed graphical representations of organizational resilience: the resilience state space model; the stress-strain model of adaptation; and a dynamic model of resilience. We use these graphics to analyze the ED's response to chronic constraints and unexpected shocks. The models are found to be mutually reinforcing - each highlights some important aspects of resilience, while none capture all of the salient features.
    The Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries: an Analysis of 300 Cases of from a Human Factors and Cognitive Psychology Perspective BIBAFull-Text 617-620
      Lygia Stewart; Lawrence W. Way
    Application of human factors concepts to high-risk activities has facilitated reduction in human error. With introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the incidence of bile duct injury increased. Seeking ideas for prevention, we analyzed 300 laparoscopic bile duct injuries within the framework of human error analysis. The primary cause of error (97%) was a visual perceptual illusion. The laparoscopic environment contributed to 75% of injuries, poor visibility 22%. Most injuries involved deliberate major bile duct transection due to misperception of the anatomy. This illusion was so compelling that the surgeon usually did not recognize it. Even when irregular cues were detected, improper rules were employed, eliminating feedback. Since the complication-causing error occurred at few key steps during laparoscopic cholecystectomy; we instituted focused training to heighten vigilance, and have formulated specific rules to decrease the incidence of bile duct injury. In addition, factors in the laparoscopic environment contributing to this illusion are discussed.
    Reliability Versus Resilience: What Does Healthcare Need? BIBAFull-Text 621-625
      Christopher Nemeth; Richard Cook
    System performance in healthcare pivots on the ability to match demand for care with the resources that are needed to provide it. High reliability is desirable in organizations that perform inherently hazardous, highly technical tasks. However, healthcare's high variability, diversity, partition between workers and managers, and production pressure make it difficult to employ essential aspects of high reliability organizations (HROs) such as redundancy and extensive training. A different approach is needed to understand the nature of healthcare systems and their ability to perform and survive under duress; in other words, to be resilient. The recent evolution of resilience engineering affords the opportunity to configure healthcare systems so that they are adaptable and can foresee challenges that threaten their mission. Information technology (IT) in particular can enable healthcare, as a service sector, to adapt successfully, as long as it is based on cognitive systems engineering approaches to achieve resilient performance.
    Systems Ambiguity: A Framework to Assess Risks and Predict Potential Systems Failures BIBAFull-Text 626-630
      Ayse P. Gurses; Yan Xiao; Kristin Seidl; Vinay Vaidya; Grant Bochicchio
    To be a high-reliability organization, organizations need to continually assess risks and predict potential failures before even they actually occur. In this paper, we present a new method to uncover and assess risks and failures embedded in a work system: systems ambiguity framework. We define systems ambiguity as uncertainty or vagueness that may prevent a work system from achieving its purpose. We identified five main types of ambiguity in a work system: task ambiguity, responsibility ambiguity, expectation ambiguity, method ambiguity, and exception ambiguity. Examples for each type of ambiguity are provided from a qualitative study aimed at identifying the underlying causes of non-compliance to evidence based guidelines in intensive care units. We argue that systems ambiguity framework can be used alone or in conjunction with well-known risk assessment methods (e.g., root cause analysis, failure modes and effects analysis) to uncover systems failures both reactively and proactively.

    HEALTH CARE: Minimally Invasive Human Factors

    Role of Haptic Feedback and Cognitive Load in Surgical Skill Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 631-635
      M. Zhou; D. B. Jones; S. D. Schwaitzberg; C. G. L. Cao
    Teaching novice surgeons to attend to subtle and often misleading haptic cues in minimally invasive surgery can be challenging. Haptic cues may even be distracting during initial skill acquisition stage. A controlled experiment with thirty surgical residents and attendings was conducted to test the hypothesis that haptic feedback is more useful to the expert than novice surgeon because of the difference in spare cognitive capacity resulting from experience. In general, surgeons cannot perform a cognitively demanding task and laparoscopic surgery at the same time. Haptic feedback not only enhances performance, but counters the effect of cognitive loading, especially in accuracy of task performance. Performance is faster with more experience. With more spare cognitive capacity available, experienced surgeons can better take advantage of haptic feedback to aid their performance.
    Shifts in Force Perception Threshold in Laparoscopic Surgery with Experience BIBAFull-Text 636-640
      M. Zhou; J. Perreault; S. D. Schwaitzberg; C. G. L. Cao
    In laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon receives limited haptic feedback and relies on visual feedback to judge the amount of force applied to tissues. It has been shown that friction forces inherent in the instrumentation increased the haptic perception threshold of naïve subjects. A controlled experiment was conducted to examine the effects of experience on force perception threshold in a simulated tissue-probing task. Fourteen subjects participated in a mixed design experiment, with friction, vision, and tissue softness as independent within-subjects factors, experience as an independent between-subjects factor, and applied force and detection time as dependent measures. Higher thresholds and longer detection times were observed when friction was present. Experienced surgeons applied a greater force than novices, but were quicker to detect contact with tissue, suggesting that experience allowed surgeons to perform more efficiently while keeping within the limits of safety.
    Initial Construct Validation of a Laparoscopic Surgical Simulator BIBAFull-Text 641-645
      Kellie L. Mathis; Douglas A. Wiegmann
    Objectives: To determine if the METI laparoscopic surgical simulator can discriminate between novices and experts and to assess learning curves among novices.
       Methods: Twenty novices and 5 experts performed five repetitions on the following modules: place arrow, retract, dissect, and traverse tube. For each module, median baseline performance was calculated. Novices performed 35 additional repetitions to assess learning with practice.
       Results: Experts out-performed novices at baseline for completion time of the dissect, place arrow, and traverse tube modules, as well as for error frequency on the traverse tube and retract modules. Novices' performance times improved significantly with practice, approaching the experts' baseline in all modules.
       Conclusion: The METI simulator exhibits construct validity on three of four basic-skills modules when considering completion time and on two modules when considering error frequency. Among novices, learning occurred with additional repetitions. Whether acquired skills transfer to the actual surgical environment has yet to be determined.
    How Does Artificial Force Feedback Affect Laparoscopic Surgery Performance? BIBAFull-Text 646-650
      Audrey K. Bell; Caroline G. L. Cao
    The use of haptic devices to provide force feedback in teleoperation has been shown to enhance performance. An experiment was conducted to examine whether artificial force feedback is utilized in the same manner as real force feedback in a simulated laparoscopic tissue-probing task. Forces in probing a double-layer silicon gel mass were replicated and exaggerated in a virtual environment using a haptic device. Ten subjects performed the probing task in four different conditions: 1) realistic force feedback, 2) exaggerated feedback, 3) disproportionately exaggerated forces, and 4) reversed and disproportionately exaggerated forces. Results showed a significantly higher maximum force, detection time and error rate in virtual probing than in real probing. Time to task completion was significantly different between the virtually realistic and exaggerated force feedback conditions. These results suggest that artificial force information may be processed differently than real haptic information, leading to higher force application, inefficiency, and reduced accuracy in tissue probing tasks.
    Can an Elderly Stereotype Prime Degrade Performance on a Simulated Surgical Task? BIBAFull-Text 651-655
      Tammy E. Ott
    Automaticity literature has clearly demonstrated that the mere activation of stereotypes can have a negative impact on a perceiver's own behavior. If this finding transfers to the context of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), it is important to be aware of these effects and fully understand the implications. The current study looks at the possibility that the behavioral effects of automatic stereotype activation could occur during MIS. Specifically, will an elderly prime result in slower performance? Participants that received the elderly prime were slower and had more errors when completing trials after the prime than participants that received the young prime. These results suggest that surgical performance may be affected by stereotypes and the increased error rates found in the elderly population may not be due solely to the complexity of their care.

    HEALTH CARE: Developing and Using Team Performance Measures in Health Care: Lessons Learned

    Developing and Using Team Performance Measures in Healthcare: Lessons Learned BIBFull-Text 656-657
      Y. Xiao; T. Manser
    Coordination patterns and clinical performance levels in the management of a simulated anesthetic crisis BIBAFull-Text 658-662
      T. Manser; T. K. Harrison; S. K. Howard; D. M. Gaba
    Many critical situations in health care correspond to difficulties in teamwork, communication, and coordination. This study aimed at describing differences in coordination processes of high and low performing crews during a simulated anesthetic crisis. We coded the coordination process of 24 anesthesia crews during a simulated crisis scenario using a predefined set of observation categories. We compared the coordination patterns of crews with different clinical performance levels (CPL). During the actual crisis, several differences can be noted in the coordination processes of crews with different CPLs. For example, higher performing crews seem to have a more centralized coordination structure and spent less time on task management. This study provides empirical insights into the relationship of coordination patterns and CPLs during a simulated anesthetic crisis. A more comprehensive study including different types of crisis situations will support the development of specific coordination trainings to further improve performance.
    Debriefing Surgeons on Non-Technical Skills in the Operating Room Results from a Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 663-667
      S. Yule; R. Flin; N. Maran; D. Rowley; G. Youngson; S. Paterson-Brown
    Briefing and debriefing are common practices for safety in high risk industries but are not systematically done in surgery. Regular debriefing of performance after operative surgery can greatly assist surgical trainees' development and help optimize learning from the limited time they spend in the Operating Room (OR). We developed and tested the NOTSS (Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons) behaviour rating system with subject matter experts. It allows surgeons to observe trainees' behaviour in the OR and provide them with structured feedback for improvement. This paper describes process of debriefing and the results of a pilot usability trial. The majority of participants reported that the NOTSS system was useful for debriefing trainees, provided a common language to discuss non-technical skills, and was a valuable adjunct to current assessment tools. Some surgeons found interpersonal skills more difficult to rate than cognitive skills. 73% felt that routine use of the system would enhance patient safety.
    Simulation Training for Rapid Assessment and Improved Teamwork - Lessons Learned from a Project Evaluating Clinical Handoffs BIBAFull-Text 668-672
      Jason M. Slagle; Audrey Kuntz; Dan France; Theodore Speroff; Abeer Madbouly; Matthew B. Weinger
    Effective communication between clinicians is a crucial component of safe care. High-quality communication may be especially critical during care transitions between clinicians (handoffs). In a two-year quasi-experimental Quality Improvement project, we are using simulation learning to evaluate and improve communication between anesthesia providers and nurses as care is transitioned from the operating room to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Using a multiple baseline, staggered entry, prospective cohort design with repeated measures, we are introducing a training intervention and evaluating its effects on dyadic communication. The primary hypothesis is that simulation-based communication skills training of PACU personnel will significantly improve the quality of handoffs. Clinicians' performance is being compared before and after their training on four dimensions of handoff effectiveness: information transfer; use of best evidence handoff strategies; interpersonal skills; and team behaviors. Clinicians also rate their own handoffs. Lessons learned and results to date will be presented.
    The Observational Teamwork Assessment For Surgery (OTAS): Development, Feasibility and Reliability BIBAFull-Text 673-677
      Shabnam Undre; Andrew Healey; Nick Sevdalis; Maria Koutantji; Charles Vincent
    Surgery depends on inter-professional teamwork, which is becoming increasingly specialized. If surgery is to become a highly reliable system, it must adapt and professionals must learn from, and share, tested models of inter-professional teamwork. Trainers also need valid measures of teamwork to assess individual and team performance. However, measurement and assessment of inter-professional teamwork is lacking and inter-professional team training is scarce in the surgical domain. The presentation will address the complexity of measuring inter-professional teamwork in the operating theatre. It will focus mainly on the design and properties of observational assessment tools and will describe in some detail the "Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery" (OTAS) that our group has developed. We aim to inform the researcher or clinician of the issues to consider when designing or choosing from alternative measures of team performance for training or assessment.
    Development of an Instrument for Assessing Trauma Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 678-682
      Barbara Kuenzle Haake; Yan Xiao; Colin Mackenzie; F. Jacob Seagull; Thomas Grissom; Amy Sisley; Richard Dutton
    Teamwork training is critical for patient safety and has been advocated for widespread application in many settings. A key challenge for evaluating teamwork training is measurement. Despite much effort, the team performance instruments reported thus far suffer from a variety shortcomings that prevent their wide application in assessing teams in real settings. Based on review of video recorded trauma team activities in real patient care, a multi-disciplinary research team developed an instrument based on observable behaviors (UMTOP). A set of video clips were reviewed by 6 subject matter experts who were requested to provide "descriptors" about the observed team activities. The 167 collated descriptors were combined to a reduced list, which was then sent to the subject matter experts for revision. The revised list was then categorized into 5 areas of team performance (task and clinical performance, leadership organization, teamwork organization, social environment, sterile precaution). UMTOP was developed to be a tradeoff among four criteria: ease of use, reliability, usefulness for team performance feedback, and speed of scoring. An initial assessment of reliability was conducted with surgeon and nursing reviewers.

    HEALTH CARE: Human Factors in the ICU

    The frequency and impact of task interruptions in the ICU BIBAFull-Text 683-686
      Frank A. Drews
    Up to 98,000 patients die annually in U.S. hospitals due to human error. Despite epidemiological studies demonstrating the severity of this problem it is still unclear what the contributing factors to human error are. However, in aviation one contributor to accidents is task interruptions. The present study examined the frequency and impact of task interruptions in the Intensive Care Unit.
       Observational data were collected in the ICU by shadowing nurses. During the 34 hours of observation, 1138 nurse activities were observed, of which 29.4% were interrupted. Consequences of an interruption for the primary task can be abandoning its completion or omissions of some of the tasks steps. The conditional probability that an interrupted task was abandoned was p(abandoned | interrupted)=.12, where the omission of steps of the primary task had a conditional probability of p(omission | interrupted)=.015. A total of six cases that created patient hazards were observed where in five of these cases an interruption preceded directly.
       The results of the present study indicate that interruptions in the ICU are frequent and are likely to have a negative impact on patient safety.
    Team coordination in an Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 687-691
      Anne Miller; Carlos Scheinkestel; Michelle Joseph
    Researchers have the need for improved coordination and continuity of care in health-care environments, but little research has been undertaken to better understand how coordination occurs and how it might be improved. Using Klein's (2001) phases of coordination this exploratory study provides a profile of the contributions of role-based communications to team coordination in an Intensive Care Unit. All communication events for five patients for five consecutive days were logged and analysed using a hierarchical loglinear analysis. Nurses to nurse communications were found to focus mainly on the planning phase of coordination of short-term time horizons. Doctor to doctor communication events were characterized as formal and involved the planning and direction phases of team coordination and informal nurse to doctor communication events focused on planning and team assessment phases of coordination. Further analysis is required to determine how these contributions interact and what the vulnerabilities might be.
    Assessing Medication Safety Technology in the Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 692-696
      Michael Rayo; Phil Smith; Matthew B. Weinger; Jason Slagle; Timothy Dresselhaus
    Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of a technology in the context of the distributed system in which it is working is critical to assessing and improving the performance of that system. Taking a systems approach requires knowledge about how all agents in a system work together to achieve the goals of that system. With these aims, the alerting mechanism of infusion pumps containing Dose-Error Reduction Software (DERS) was studied to determine its effectiveness in the Intensive Care Units (ICU's) of three hospitals. In 1,146 of the 9,557 pump alerts (12.0%), the alert caused the clinician to change the input. Of these, 1,030 were changed to within the hospital's recommended dosing limits. The alert was overridden for 8,400 (88.0%) of the alerts. The data show that this technology successfully informed clinicians over 1000 times that unintended doses had been inputted and stopped those doses from reaching the patient, thereby averting potential Medication Events. The data also suggest that, because nearly 90% of the alerts were overridden, a well-intended and valuable alert may be perceived by the clinicians as a false alarm and may be overlooked. Another key finding from this analysis was that clinicians may have used potentially unsafe workarounds to administer intravenous drug boluses (i.e., more rapid infusion of a defined dose or volume) and to keep the patient's line active between infusions. In a separate parallel study, clinician self-report of potentially harmful medication events was studied. During 559 hours of direct observation, clinicians detected 27 (IV and non-IV) medication events. All of the reported events were outside of the scope of what DERS technology was designed to detect. In addition, during the same time period the technology detected five potentially harmful IV medication events that the clinicians did not report. The results of these two studies indicate two possible classes of solutions that could reduce the impact and likelihood of medication administration errors. One class of solutions involves the procedures and policies of the hospital, ensuring that process and technology implementations are optimally tuned, taking human performance and the current practice of the clinicians into account. The other class of solutions involves using new strategies and technologies to ensure that each system agent has access to other agents' perspectives, and the broader system's perspective. Studies such as these can provide insight into the use of safety technology during critical care processes and provide direction for future research, including more effective design of alerting mechanisms of ICU devices.
    Extending clinical information systems design in the ICU BIBAFull-Text 697-701
      Anne Miller; Cathie Steele; Carlos Scheinkestel
    Miller and Sanderson (2003b) presented promising results for a prototype clinical information design developed according to Ecological Interface Design principles, but the size of the prototype made it impractical for onscreen display. This paper replicates the previous study using an onscreen presentation of the original EID divided according to functional systems. As in the original study, nurses' ability to detect patient change events was enhanced using the onscreen EID. However, there are differences between doctors' performance using the original and using the onscreen EID. Unlike the original participants, doctors were better able to agree about physiological systems failure, but also unlike the original participants, showed no significant differences in their ability to agree about the patients' current diagnostic state using the onscreen EID or conventional charts. This later ability is clinically more important. It was concluded that while dividing the original EID had no appreciable effect on nurses and enhanced some abilities among doctors, this was at the expense of more clinically significant abilities. It may be necessary to rethink the appropriateness of limited real-estate, office style computer terminals in intensive care units.
    Error Producing Conditions in the Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 702-706
      F. A. Drews; A. Musters; B. Markham; M. H. Samore
    Up to 98,000 patients die annually in U.S. hospitals due to human error. One of the areas where error occurs frequently is the Intensive Care Unit. Despite the impact of error, there is very little work that attempts to identify the human factors contributors to error in the ICU. The current study used the framework of error producing conditions to identify factors that are contributing to error. By modifying the method of assessing error producing conditions we were able to identify the extent to which individual conditions contribute to the prevalence of error. Also, we were able to identify the contribution certain devices have in the prevalence of error. Most importantly, the most critical devices for patient care were also identified as the ones that were rated the highest in their prevalence of error producing conditions and potential for hazard. Thus, developing medical devices that are reducing the device related potential for patient harm has to be a main goal for future patient safety work. This is a challenge sound human factors engineering should answer.

    HEALTH CARE: Collaboration, Communication, and Task Support in Medical Contexts

    Towards a Functional Model of Quality Improvement Collaboratives BIBAFull-Text 707-711
      Emily S. Patterson; Sharon Schweikhart; Shilo Anders; Suzanne Brungs; Marta L. Render
    Quality improvement collaboratives (QIC) are widely used for seeking improvements in healthcare quality and safety. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of QICs is variable. In order to support research that identifies critical elements in running a successful collaborative, we fill a conceptual gap by moving towards a functional model of QICs. Specifically, we define how QICs are distinct from traditional quality improvement teams, conceptualize how primary and secondary functions are accomplished in a means-ends framework, and illustrate how the functions are dynamically accomplished in a series of meetings by nested teams within a collaborative. Finally, we discuss distinctions among QICs.
    Developing a Preoperative Briefing Protocol for Cardiovascular Surgery BIBAFull-Text 712-716
      Sarah E. Henrickson; Thomas Suther; Douglas Wiegmann
    Objective: Design a protocol for conducting preoperative briefings within the context of cardiovascular surgery.
       Method: A combined questionnaire and semi-structured focus group approach involving four subspecialties of surgical staff (n = 47) was conducted to gather information concerning (1) attitudes towards preoperative briefings, (2) logistical issues related to the conduct and content of briefings and (3) potential barriers that might impede implementation.
       Results: Analyses revealed consensus among surgical staff concerning briefing benefits (majority were very positive), duration (< 10 min), location (in the OR), content (procedure, patient, and equipment issues) and potential barriers (staff availability, attitudes, case scheduling, and lack of resources). Differences in opinions arose concerning timing of the brief (e.g., before vs. after patient enters OR) and the role of key participants.
       Discussion: A prototype checklist for conducting preoperative briefings was developed based on these results. Additional research is needed to implement and validate its effectiveness.
    Development of Team Coordination and Performance Measures in a Trauma Setting BIBAFull-Text 717-721
      Stuart Marshall; Anne Miller; Yan Xiao
    The paucity of reliable measures of team coordination and performance significantly obstructs the assessment of the effects of any technology on teams to improve decision making in health care. A pilot study was conducted to determine if measures of coordination and performance could be developed for teams involved in trauma resuscitation. A video assisted review of cases enabled evaluation of the use of the tools. Descriptors of coordination were derived from Klein's five-stage model of team coordination. A scoring system of team performance was developed from the University of Maryland Team Observable Performance Metric (UMTOP). After some modification both coordination and performance could be described. However, four defined stages of resuscitation were observed which greatly improved coding. More rigorous assessments of these tools will be required before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effects of a decision support tool recently introduced into the environment.
    External Support for Collaborative Medication Planning by Patients and Providers BIBAFull-Text 722-724
      Daniel Morrow; Liza Raquel; Angela Schriver; Seth Redenbo; David Rozovski
    Older adults' medication nonadherence is an important patient safety issue. Adherence depends on plans that instantiate treatment guidelines in the context of patients' daily lives, but the ability to create successful plans is often undercut by poor collaboration between providers and patients. We investigated whether external aids can support the provider/patient collaboration needed to create effective plans for taking multiple medications. We tested whether an external aid that was designed to reduce cognitive load associated with collaborative problem solving (("medtable") was more effective than an unstructured aid (blank paper) in a simulated patient/provider collaboration task. Findings suggested that pairs of older adults worked together more efficiently to create accurate schedules when using the medtable.
    Just-in-time Training for Medical Emergencies: Computer Versus Paper Checklists for a Tracheal Intubation Task BIBAFull-Text 725-729
      F. Jacob Seagull; Danny Ho; James Radcliffe; Yan Xiao; Peter Hu; Colin F. Mackenzie
    Responding to medical emergencies quickly and effectively is essential. In remote or hostile environments, fully trained medical personnel are not always available, so clear and effective guidance is required. This paper reports a comparison of paper-based and computer-based checklists for just-in-time training for medical emergencies. In a between-subjects experiment, untrained participants carried out an emergency airway management task on a patient simulator either using a paper-based checklist with text and still images or using a computer-based checklist that included identical text plus video clips. Participants using the computer-based checklist performed significantly faster and more proficiently than those using the paper checklist. Subjective usability and preference measures were also superior for computer checklist. The results suggest the clear superiority of the computer-based checklist for untrained responders. We discuss which aspects of the computer-based checklist may contribute to its superiority.

    HEALTH CARE: Understanding and Designing the Medication Process

    Tachistoscopic Study on the Impact of Net Quantity and Dosage Strength Proximity on Dosage Strength Recognition in Prescription Drug Labels BIBAFull-Text 730-734
      Kevin Buffardi; Agnieszka Bojko; Edmond Israelski
    A study was conducted to assess the impact of two different drug label layouts on pharmacy practitioners' ability to correctly extract critical information. Labels were shown to 43 participants under time-pressure conditions, using tachistoscopic presentation. The two layouts did not differ in terms of recognition accuracy, and the anticipated interference between two label elements, dosage strength and net quantity (number of tablets/capsules), when located in close proximity to each other, was not observed. Successive reduction in exposure time (200, 100 and 50 ms) resulted in an increased dosage strength recognition error rate, but the effect was independent of the distance between the dosage strength and net quantity. Possible explanations, as well as the benefit of using tachistoscopic presentation to assess the impact of design changes on user performance are discussed.
    Challenges with applying FMEA to the process for reading labels on injectable drug containers BIBAFull-Text 735-739
      Jennifer Jeon; Sylvia Hyland; Catherine M. Burns; Kathryn Momtahan
    As a part of a study that aims to evaluate and improve the labelling of containers for injectable drugs, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was applied to the label reading process. Implementing a FMEA on a small-scale cognitive process involved various challenges including difficulties in representing the process, defining the failure modes, causes and effects, developing the rating scales for criticality, and rating the criticality of the failure modes. The failure modes were rated via two focus groups of healthcare professionals. The results highlight complexities and potential pitfalls with applying FMEA to the label reading process.
    Implementation of Electronic Systems for Prescribing and Delivering Medication in Hospitals: Issues in Real Practice BIBAFull-Text 740-744
      Jennie J. Gallimore; Peter K. Wong
    Electronic systems are being purchased by hospitals to improve procuring, prescribing, dispensing, administering medications and patient monitoring processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe issues related to implementation of computer technologies to support the pharmaceutical process in a real hospital setting. Examining the issues can help to improve processes and systems and provides an indication where hospital resources may need to be directed to solve problems of immediate concern. Future research needs for improving electronic systems are presented.
    Using the Technology Acceptance Model to Predict Violations in the Medication Use Process BIBAFull-Text 745-749
      Samuel J. Alper; Richard J. Holden; Matthew C. Scanlon; Rainu Kaushal; Theresa M. Shalaby; Ben-Tzion Karsh
    Violations present a path to medical injury that has, thus far, been largely unexplored. This paper focuses on violations of three medication administration protocols and tests the hypothesis that if current processes for completing these tasks are neither easy nor useful, or if there is dissatisfaction with the tasks, then violations will be more likely. Survey data were collected from 199 nurses in the pediatric intensive care units, hematology-oncology-transplant units, and medical-surgical units at two pediatric hospitals. The results of the logistic regressions did not support the hypothesis, though several significant predictors of violations were found. The predictors of violations, possible reasons the hypotheses were not supported, and considerations for measuring violations are discussed.
    The What and How of Medical Device Design Validation: A Human Factors Methodology BIBAFull-Text 750-754
      Merrick F. Kossack; Andrew W. Gellatly
    To meet the FDA's Quality System Regulation, medical device manufacturers must include design validation as part of their design and development activities. However, the regulation does not specify which product requirements must be validated or what methods satisfy a proper design validation process. This paper outlines an approach that device manufacturers can follow to determine which product requirements should undergo design validation testing and what types of testing methods should be used.

    HEALTH CARE: Beyond See-One, Do-One, Teach-One: Applying HF to Clinical Training and Education

    Beyond See-One, Do-One, Teach-One: Applying HF to Clinical Training and Education BIBAFull-Text 755-759
      Klaus Christoffersen; George Blike; Caroline Cao; Stephanie Guerlain; Colin Mackenzie; Emily S. Patterson; F. Jacob Seagull
    While HF is enjoying a growing profile within the medical community, the role of HF with respect to clinical training and education in particular has not been clearly defined. The purpose of this panel is to explore the intersection of HF and clinical training, and to delineate some of the opportunities and challenges that exist. The panel will discuss a number of current examples of how HF techniques are being applied to develop and implement clinical education initiatives.

    HEALTH CARE: Practical Issues in Medical Human Factors: Managing the Details and Methods

    Nursing Workload and its Effect on Patient and Employee Safety BIBAFull-Text 760-764
      Richard J. Holden; Samuel J. Alper; Kamisha Hamilton Escoto; Rainu Kaushal; Kathleen Murkowski; Neal Patel; Matthew Scanlon; Ben-Tzion Karsh
    A well accepted human factors concept is that poorly designed work systems can produce workload levels that pose a threat to safety and performance. The purpose of this study was to assess a systems model of workload and safety developed for nursing/healthcare. Using survey data from six nursing units in two pediatric hospitals, the study measured the relationship between self-reported workload at the unit, job, and task levels on the one hand and job dissatisfaction, burnout, and medication error likelihood on the other. Multiple linear and logistic regression revealed that staffing adequacy and medication administration workload strongly predicted the above patient and employee safety outcomes. Design priorities and strategies for future research are discussed, including the need for multiple-level approaches.
    Coding and Visualizing Eye Tracking Data in Simulated Anesthesia Care BIBAFull-Text 765-769
      Noa Segall; Jeffrey M. Taekman; Jonathan B. Mark; Gene Hobbs; Melanie C. Wright
    Eye tracking can be a valuable tool for collecting data about perception and attention in task performance, but its use in human factors research has been limited. This may be due to the fact that the coding and visualization of eye tracking data can be difficult and time-consuming. In this paper we introduce a video-coding application for coding and analyzing eye tracking data. We discuss various methods for visualizing these data for the purposes of identifying patterns or trends that can then be more formally analyzed. We also present several visualization examples from the simulated anesthesia care environment.
    Summative evaluation with a full-scale patient simulator: Challenges and adaptations BIBAFull-Text 770-774
      P. M. Sanderson; M. O. Watson; S. Jenkins; D. Liu; W. J. Russell; N. Green; P. Cole
    In this paper we outline considerations that went into designing and executing a full-scale simulator-based summative evaluation of four different display configurations for presenting information about anesthetized patients to an anesthesiologist. Although patient simulators appear to provide a "natural laboratory" for evaluating medical device innovations and equipment interface concepts, the software underlying patient simulators can be unequal to the challenges posed by the need for good representation of patient physiology and good experimental control. Moreover, the opportunities that full-scale patient simulators can offer for completely interactive, event-driven scenarios can present problems for experimental control and can promote participant hypervigilance. We describe the design of our experimental scenarios, the challenges our scenarios posed for simulator software and how we overcame those challenges, the design of a distractor task, and the methodology used to ensure we collected behavioral data sensitive to the manipulations of interest. Our adaptations in the face of challenges posed by the full-scale simulator context let us design an experiment that was highly informative about the advantages and disadvantages of the display configurations of interest.
    An exploratory study of the effect of domain knowledge on internet search behavior: The case of diabetes BIBAFull-Text 775-779
      Leo Gugerty; Dorrit Billman; Peter Pirolli; Ame Elliott
    This study investigated how domain knowledge, about diabetes, influences the process and outcome of answering complex questions using the internet. The internet has become an important source of knowledge for people seeking health information about diseases. People with chronic diseases often need a great deal of information for self-management and have emerging needs for new information. Participants in our exploratory study were 8 people with diabetes and 2 without. An initial interview identified individuals with high versus low knowledge about diabetes. We then traced the activity of individuals as they used the internet to answer questions about diabetes. Questions were designed to be difficult, require reasoning, and lack a single, integrated source with a packaged answer. Here we report on case analyses of one individual with high and one with low domain knowledge. Domain knowledge influenced activity in multiple respects, including initial orienting to the task and supplying facts needed in inference chains.

    HUMAN PERFORMANCE: Modeling Performance in the Environmental Context

    Modeling Human Performance with Environmental Stressors: A Case Study of the Effect of Vehicle Motion BIBAFull-Text 780-783
      Josephine Q. Wojciechowski
    Human performance modeling tools are used to predict mission performance as a function of human performance. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has developed a human performance modeling tool, the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT), for investigation of the impact on a Soldier's performance when the Soldier subjected to environmental stressors such as heat and cold. IMPRINT has the capability to create user-defined stressors to study the stressors' effect on human performance and therefore system performance. This case study used data from literature to create a user-defined stressor in IMPRINT to predict the effect of riding in a moving vehicle on task time and performance. This capability can provide useful information to system designers.
    Modeling the Effects of Behavior Moderators for Simulation-Based Human Factors Design BIBAFull-Text 784-788
      W. Scott Neal Reilly; John Bachman; Karen A. Harper; Stephen Marotta; Jonathan Pfautz
    Designing systems, interfaces, procedures and artifacts in simulated environments before they are developed and deployed has the potential to greatly decrease the costs of design and development and, in some cases, can provide significant safety advantages. Creating realistic models of humans is an important aspect of the modeling problem, but existing models tend to model typical humans and fail to account for the significant differences seen from person to person or even by the same person in different circumstances. In the modeling literature, models of the factors that lead to such differences (including personality, affect, training, etc.) are typically called behavior moderators or performance moderators. This paper describes the MINDS (Modeling INdividual Differences and Stressors) project, which builds on previous work in behavior moderator modeling by supporting richer representations of moderators, moderator dynamics, and moderator interactions and by providing moderator-integration approaches for common behavior-modeling technologies, including production rules, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian networks. We provide a demonstration scenario from a military-operation domain.
    Predicting Situation Awareness from Team Communications BIBAFull-Text 789-793
      Cheryl A. Bolstad; Peter Foltz; Marita Franzke; Haydee M. Cuevas; Mark Rosenstein; Anthony M. Costello
    Given the importance of Situation Awareness (SA) in military operations, there is a critical need for a real-time, unobtrusive tool that objectively and reliably measures warfighters' SA in both training and operations. Just as the requirement for improved access to SA measures has become vital, it is now commonplace for military team communications to be mediated by technology, hence easily captured and available for analysis. We believe that team communications can be used to derive SA measures. To address this issue, we are developing the Automated Communications Analysis of Situation Awareness (ACASA) system. ACASA combines the explanatory capacity of the SA construct with the predictive and computational power of TeamPrints, to assess team and shared SA as well as other cognitive processes. TeamPrints is a system that combines computational linguistics and machine learning techniques coupled with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to analyze team communication. In this paper, we present the findings from an exploratory evaluation of how well TeamPrints predicts SA from the team communications arising during a military training exercise.
    Modeling of Situation Awareness Supported by Advanced Flight Deck Displays BIBAFull-Text 794-798
      Christopher D. Wickens; Angelia Sebok; Timothy Bagnall; Jill Kamienski
    A two module computational model of situation awareness is presented. One module, characterizing stage 1 (noticing) SA is based on the SEEV model of selective attention in complex environments, and consists of components of Salience (capturing attention), Effort (inhibiting attention movement), Expectancy (for events along a channel) and Value (of attending those events). These are combined additively, and accurately predict visual scanning on the flight deck and in driving. The second module characterizing stage 2 (understanding) SA, results from the integration of noticed information, and its decay if unattended. We describe briefly the application and validation of the attention module to pilot scanning of the synthetic vision system display suite in aviation, and in more detail, the application to predicting differences in situation awareness supported by three formats of a wake vortex display, designed to alert aircraft pilots to dangers in the flight path ahead.

    HUMAN PERFORMANCE: The Next Generation of Cognitive Modeling Tools

    The Next Generation of Cognitive Modeling Tools: Opportunities, Challenges and Basic Needs BIBAFull-Text 799-801
      Michael L. Bernard; J. Chris Forsythe; Laurel Allender; Joseph Cohn; Gabriel Radvansky; Frank E. Ritter
    In the past twenty or so years the scientific community has made impressive advancements in the modeling and simulation of general human cognition. This progress has led to the beginnings of wide-spread applications and use. In fact, we are now at a point where the community can begin to make fairly accurate predictions as to how this technology will be used in the next twenty-plus years. Accordingly, the purpose of this panel is to engage the community at large regarding the future needs and requirements associated with building cognitive models for various scientific and engineering endeavors. Specifically, this panel will discuss and make recommendations with regard to the future functionality of cognitive modeling that could be encompassed in next-generation capabilities. To do this, we will concentrate on four different domain areas. These are: academic use of cognitive modeling, cognitive model development, neuroscience-related issues, and practical applications of cognitive modeling.

    HUMAN PERFORMANCE: Exploring Cognition and Performance through Modeling

    Computational GOMSL Modeling towards Understanding Cognitive Strategy in Dual-Task Performance with Automation BIBAFull-Text 802-806
      Sang-Hwan Kim; David B. Kaber; Carlene M. Perry
    The objective of this study was to assess the use of a computational cognitive model for describing human performance with an adaptively automated system, with and without advance cueing of control mode transitions. A dual-task piloting simulation was developed to collect human performance data under auditory cueing or no cueing of automated or manual control. GOMSL models for simulating user behavior were constructed based on a theory of increased memory transactions at mode transitions. The models were applied to the same task simulation and scenarios performed by the humans. Comparison of results on human and model output demonstrated the model to be generally descriptive of performance; however, it was not accurate in predicting timing of memory use in preparing for manual control. Interestingly, the human data didn't reveal differences between cued and no cue trials. A refined GOMSL model was developed by modifying assumptions on the timing and manner of memory use, and considering human parallel processing in dual-task performance. Results revealed the refined model to be more plausible for representing behavior. Computational cognitive modeling appears to be a viable approach to represent operator performance in adaptive systems.
    A queueing network model of task prioritization using a general hierarchy of prioritization rules BIBAFull-Text 807-811
      Guoxi Zhang; Robert Feyen
    Earlier, Zhang and Feyen (2005) proposed a qualitative framework for predicting how people working in a multitasking scenario switch between concurrent tasks with dynamically changing priorities. This paper describes a validation study of a computational model derived from this framework. Utilizing a general hierarchy of prioritization rules suggested by a companion empirical study, a model of a multiple task scenario built using a queueing network approach was compared to the empirical results. On all metrics considered, no means were found significantly different and the model replicated all but one of 54 task sequences demonstrated by human subjects. Comparisons to similar models utilizing only single prioritization rules revealed that the general hierarchy yielded substantially better predictions.
    ACT-R Model of EEG Latency Data BIBAFull-Text 812-816
      Daniel N. Cassenti
    Anderson and Lebiere's (1998) modeling system ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought -- Rational) has been a leading contributor to advances in cognitive science. Despite the modeling system's success there are areas in which it may be improved. The present research advocates a suggested approach to improving ACT-R's predictive capacity by using EEG (electroencephalography) latency data to predict the time it takes to achieve certain mental steps. A model is presented which successfully represents EEG data from a simple auditory experiment. Implications of this modeling approach to ACT-R and to the field of cognitive science are discussed.
    Evaluating Systematic Error Predictions in a Routine Procedural Task BIBAFull-Text 817-821
      Jennifer Tsai; Michael D. Byrne
    Systematic errors in routine procedural tasks present an important problem for psychologists who study interactions between humans and technological systems. This paper details an experiment designed to examine systematic error patterns and evaluate error predictions made by a notable psychological theory and industry-standard usability tools when performing multiple routine procedural tasks on a single highly visual interface. Participants completed three dynamic, computer-based routine procedural tasks involving execution of multiple steps. Differences were found in error frequencies at particular steps between the three tasks, a result that is consistent with predictions derived from Altmann and Trafton's (2002) activation-based model of memory for goals, but contrary to those of usability guidelines. Error patterns were reminiscent of several familiar types of systematic error.

    INTERNET: Internet

    Internet-Based Error Reporting Systems: Usability is Power BIBAFull-Text 822-826
      Marc Resnick
    Error reporting systems have been around for many decades, in domains such as aerospace, with great success. In contrast, domains such as health care have resisted broad-based systems, due in part to cultural issues and fear of litigation. A recurring issue in the development of all of these systems is usability. Usability affects the development, growth, usage, and sustainability of error-reporting systems in many ways. As these systems migrate to the Internet and become more broadly accessible, usability will become a dominant factor in system success. Whether the system is publicly accessible, Intranet-based behind a company firewall, or semi-private and managed through a government agency or non-governmental organization, some usability issues will apply to all systems and others will shift in importance. This paper applies an existing knowledge management model to the analysis of error reporting systems, highlighting the significant impact and necessity of usability on the success of error-reporting systems, using examples from a variety of domains.
    The Importance of Context in the Design of Collaborative Media BIBAFull-Text 827-831
      Yichen Xu; Marc L. Resnick
    Collaborative media are the most rapidly expanding form of communication in the business and user domains. Channels such as blogs, social networks, and file sharing sites present exciting opportunities for satisfying consumers' needs for information, entertainment, and commerce. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of interface design and context of use on performance and preference with the most common collaborative media channel, the web log. Design manipulations modified the amount of information presented on each page in two orthogonal ways to vary the amount of navigation required to access desired content. Contextual manipulations modified the subject domain of the content, the specificity of the tasks that users were assigned, and the time pressure placed on the user to browse the content. The effects of these manipulations were assessed by measuring the time users spent navigating the site and several measures of performance in an immediate recall test. All of the manipulations affected user performance in a variety of ways. Insights for the design of collaborative media are provided.
    Strategy, Spatial Visualization Ability, and Performance on Website Navigation BIBAFull-Text 832-836
      Susan G. Campbell; Kent L. Norman
    Spatial Visualization Ability is a determinant of performance efficiency on website navigation tasks. It is unclear, however, why this is the case; though the spatial metaphor for web "navigation" is popular, it is not accurate. We put forth a hypothesis that strategy use is another important component of web navigation efficiency that relates to Spatial Visualization Ability. To investigate this hypothesis, we designed a series of experiments using numeric indicators instead of verbal labels in model websites. We then characterized the strategies that participants used on each website into categories based on their resemblance to prototype strategies. We found that, though strategy choice does not seem to depend on Spatial Visualization Ability, precise implementation does seem to depend to some degree on Spatial Visualization Ability.
    Aggregation of Consumer Ratings of Online Products: Applying Social Choice Theory to Investigate the Cordorcet Efficiency of Mean Rule BIBAFull-Text 837-840
      Xianjun Sam Zheng
    Mean rule has been popularly used to aggregate consumer ratings of online products. This study applied social choice theory to evaluate the Condorcet efficiency of the mean rule, and to investigate the effect of sample size (number of voters) on the agreement or disagreement between the mean and majority rules. The American National Election Survey data (1968) were used, where three candidates competed for the presidency, and the numerical thermometer scores were provided for each candidate. Random sampling data with varied sample sizes were drew from the survey, and then were aggregated according to the majority rule, the mean rule, and other social choice rules. The results show that the sample winner of the mean rule agrees with the sample majority winner very well; as sample size increases, the sample mean rule even converges faster to the correct population majority winner and ordering than does the sample majority rule. The implications for using aggregation rules for online product rating were also discussed.

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Human Performance: Neural, Genetic, Cognitive, and Psychometric Approaches

    Individual Differences in Human Performance: Neural, Genetic, Cognitive, and Psychometric Approaches BIBAFull-Text 841-844
      Joel Warm
    This panel discusses the potential of a multi-level approach to the study of individual differences to enhance both theory and practice in human factors. Neural, genetic, cognitive, and psychometric studies are presented, and each panelist describes research using two or more of these approaches. Panelists demonstrate how assessment of individual differences informs cognitive modeling and discuss the implications for selection, training, and the individuation of interface design are discussed.

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Performance, Stress, and Coping

    The Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Visual Search of Emotional Stimuli and Emotion Identification BIBAFull-Text 845-849
      Angela N. Fellner; Gerald Matthews; Gregory J. Funke; Amanda K. Emo; Juan Carlos Perez-Gonzalez; Moshe Zeidner; Richard D. Roberts
    Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to competencies in processing and managing emotion that may be important in security settings; facial emotions may betray criminals and terrorists. This study tested the hypothesis that high EI relates to superior detection and processing of facial emotion, in relation to two tasks: controlled visual search for designated facial emotions, and identification of micro-expressions of emotion. Participants completed scales for EI, as well as cognitive intelligence, personality, and coping. EI failed to predict performance on either task, contrary to the initial hypothesis. However, performance related to higher cognitive intelligence, the personality trait of openness, and use of task-focused coping. These measures related to faster visual search, and to greater accuracy in detecting facial micro-expressions. Practical considerations suggest selecting security agents who are high in conventional rather than emotional intelligence, and training use of task-focused coping. However, EI may be useful for selecting stress-tolerant agents.
    Predicting Cognitive Vigilance Performance from Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity and Task Engagement BIBAFull-Text 850-854
      Lauren E. Reinerman; Gerald Matthews; Joel S. Warm; Lisa K. Langheim
    Responses to a brief six-min screening battery involving high-workload tracking, verbal working memory, and line discrimination tasks were used to predict subsequent performance on a 36-min cognitive vigilance task. Two predictors of interest were subjective state, as indexed by the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (DSSQ), and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), measured via transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The results testify to the importance of assessing task-induced responses for predicting cognitive vigilance performance. They also indicate that forecasting vigilance performance is a complex endeavor requiring a set of multidimensional predictors. Specifically, higher post-battery task engagement scores on the DSSQ in this study and higher levels of CBFV during performance of the screening battery predicted more correct detections on the subsequent vigilance task. These findings are interpreted in the light of the resource-workload model of vigilance, and their practical significance is discussed.
    Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Attrition BIBAFull-Text 855-859
      Thomas W. Davis; Thurmon E. Lockhart
    Each year the military loses hundreds of millions of dollars invested in enlistees whom never make it to their first duty station. Investigators have reported that the transition process from civilian to military in basic combat training tends to be very stressful and anxiety provoking for enlistees. However, little data have been gathered to assess the relationship of enlistees' stress levels and their attrition rate. A study was conducted of 155 Soldiers during their nine-week basic combat training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. It was hypothesized that enlistees with higher levels of stress would also have a higher level of depression and hostility resulting in performance degradation. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship among perceived stress, hostility and depression levels; furthermore, participants who were able to modify their coping mechanism tended to be more confident in successfully completing training and less likely to receive disciplinary action.
    Revisiting an Old Question with a New Technology: Gender Differences on a Neuro-Cognitive Temporal Tracking Task BIBAFull-Text 860-864
      Valerie J. Rice; Jenny Butler
    Gender differences exist, but the strength and importance of those differences is debatable. This study examined differences in performance among men (n = 64) and women (n = 56) on 14 neuro-cognitive temporal tasks. No adult norms exist for these tasks. Therefore, the goals were to 1) record and compare scores achieved by men and women, and 2) investigate differences in terms of performance (grade point average and physical fitness score) during Army Health Care Specialist Advanced Individual Training (AIT). Descriptive statistics and t-tests identified and compared scores by gender, while IM scores and performance relationships were explored with Pearson product-moment correlations and regression analysis. Men's temporal responses were closer to the reference beat than women's on 14.3% of tasks (p< 0.05). There were no significant relationships between temporal responses and physical fitness performance scores and only two correlations between temporal responses and grade point average (right hand tapping, Task Average and Super Right On (percent within ±15ms of the target beat) (r = 0.189, p = 0.04; and r = 0.20, p = 0.03). While this research upheld findings of differences between men and women in temporal abilities, the differences did not impact functional performance during AIT.
    The Importance of Self-Efficacy to Usability: Grounded Theory Analysis of a Child's Toy Assembly Task BIBAFull-Text 865-868
      Cortney V. Martin
    Traditional usability measures such as effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction may not fully describe usability across domains and user groups. Qualitative Grounded Theory analysis was employed to study children assembling toys from pictorial instructions. The resulting model showed that usability problems can have a striking impact beyond just performance, affecting the user's self-efficacy, particularly among girls who tend to use internal attributions and equate difficulty with low ability. Without sufficient self-efficacy, the child will likely choose not to engage with assembly tasks and may regard him or herself as inadequately skilled in that area. Usability professionals should consider adding self-efficacy measures to provide more complete assessments.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper Extremity and Workstation Design

    The association between computer typing style and typing speed BIBAFull-Text 869-873
      Nancy A. Baker; Mark S. Redfern
    Typing styles vary among keyboard users; however few studies have investigated the association between typing style and typing speed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the differences in typing speed between typists who rarely assume extreme postures of the wrist, hands, and fingers with typists who often assume extreme postures. The paper also examines the association between other typing behaviors, such as using a wrist support, and typing speed. Forty computer users were videotaped while typing a standardized text. Their typing postures were rated using the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS). One-way ANOVA's were used to compare typing speed between the rating levels of several items on the K-PeCS. Results suggest that those who frequently isolate their 5th digit are significantly faster than those who always isolate their 5th digit. Subjects who "float" their wrists, translate their wrist/hands, do not change pronation angles, use moderate to high force, and use more digits appear to type faster than those who do not.
    Learning rate Analysis of Alternative Keyboards BIBAFull-Text 874-878
      Allison M. Anderson; Gary A. Mirka; Sharon M. B. Joines
    Although alternative keyboards offer ergonomic benefits over the standard keyboard, the standard QWERTY keyboard is still the most widely used. This study was performed to quantify learning rate percentages for four alternative keyboards (chord, contoured split, Dvorak, and fixed split) and understand how physical, cognitive, and perceptual demands affect learning rate by quantifying these measures. Sixteen proficient typists participated in five, three-sentence typing trials on each alternative keyboard, and nine additional subjects participated in 20 typing trials on one alternative keyboard. Time-to-complete and error percentage were collected after every trial, and subsequent learning rates were calculated. Results demonstrated that the learning rate for the fixed split keyboard was significantly different from the learning rates for the other three keyboards. Learning rate negatively correlated to all types of demand (physical, cognitive, and perceptual), so learning rate was slower with higher demand, regardless of the type of demand. Many alternative keyboards have been shown to have ergonomic benefits, and the results of this study would indicate that the learning rates associated with some of the keyboard designs are such that they can easily be implemented into the workplace without long-term productivity decrements.
    A Comparison of Computer Workstation Adjustments Made by Users Following Web-Based Instructions and Those of an Ergonomics Professional BIBAFull-Text 879-883
      Riley E. Splittstoesser; Sahika V. Korkmaz; Carolyn S. Sommerich; Steven A. Lavender
    Computer use and posture has been linked to musculoskeletal disorders. Web-based tools offer a way for users in large organizations to perform an initial assessment and routine adjustment of their workstations, allowing the ergonomist to focus on more detailed cases. Twelve male and eight female subjects used a web-based tool to adjust two standard workstations. The tool presented information using text, animation and color coding to accommodate as many learning styles as possible. Afterwards, an ergonomist, blinded to the adjustments made previously, adjusted each workstation for the subject. Subject adjustments agreed with the ergonomist's for chair height, seat pan depth, armrest height, monitor depth and keyboard tray height with moderate correlation values and mean errors of less than 1.35 cm. The results indicate computer users are able to adjust their own workstations following this type of web-based instruction.
    Evaluation of various handle grip spans for optimizing finger specific force based on the users' hand sizes BIBAFull-Text 884-888
      Yong-Ku Kong; Soo-Jin Lee; Brian D. Lowe; Seongho Song
    This study evaluated the effects of handle grip span and user's hand size on maximum grip strength and individual finger force using a computerized digital dynamometer with five various grip spans (45, 50, 55, 60, and 65mm). Forty-six males participated and were assigned into three hand size groups (small, middle, large) according to their hand lengths. Results showed that generally 55 and 50mm grip spans had the highest grip strength (433.6N and 430.8N, respectively), whereas 65mm grip span had the least grip strength. With respect to the interaction effect of grip span and hand size, small hand sized participants produced the highest grip forces at the 45mm grip span, followed by 50 and 55mm, middle hand size participants provided the highest grip force at the 55mm followed by 50 and 45mm, whereas large hand size participants exerted the highest grip force at the 55mm followed by 60mm. In the analysis of individual finger force, the middle finger force was the strongest and the highest contribution (37.5%) to the total finger force, followed by ring (28.7%), index (20.2%) and little (13.6%) fingers. In addition, it was noted that each finger had a different optimal grip span for exerting maximum force, resulting in a bowed contoured shaped handle (i.e., the grip span of the handle at the center is larger than that of the handle at the end) for two-handle hand tools.
    Estimation of Grasp Envelope Using a 3-Dimensional Kinematic Model of the Hand BIBAFull-Text 889-893
      Jaewon Choi; D. Christian Grieshaber; Thomas J. Armstrong
    A 3-dimensional kinematic model of the hand was developed. The model predicts hand posture using a simple contact algorithm, which detects a contact between hand segments and the object. Using the 3-dimensional kinematic model of the hand, we estimated grasp envelopes because the space requirement for a specific task is an important aspect to be considered in the task's design stage. For this purpose, two hose insertion methods -- a straight method and a rotation method -- were simulated. The simulation results were compared favorably with the experimental studies by the previous researches. The model can be used to estimate grasp envelopes for varying hand sizes, object sizes, object shapes, and grip types. The model gives useful and practical information about the grasp envelope to the engineers who design parts or work space.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: The World of Stability: Postural and Spine

    Influence of localized muscle fatigue of the knee joint on gait parameters related to slip propensity BIBAFull-Text 894-898
      Prakriti Parijat; Thurmon E. Lockhart
    Existing epidemiological evidence suggests that localized muscle fatigue might be considered as an intrinsic risk factor that causes lack of balance control leading to falls. The goal of the study was to examine how localized muscle fatigue of the knee joint (quadriceps) alters gait parameters that are related to slip propensity. Sixteen healthy young participants were recruited to walk across a vinyl floor surface in two different sessions (Fatigue and No fatigue). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a three-dimensional video analysis system and force plates during both sessions. The fatigue session results indicated a substantial increase in heel contact velocity (HCV) and required coefficient of friction (RCOF), as well as a decrease in the transitional acceleration of the whole body COM (TA), walking velocity (WV), and step length (SL). In addition, a positive correlation was observed between RCOF and HCV. These findings provide new insights into the biomechanical relationship between localized muscular fatigue and gait parameters linked with slip propensity. The study concluded that localized muscular fatigue affects gait parameters and hence can be considered as a potential risk factor for slip-induced falls.
    Sensitivity and reliability of local dynamic stability: effects of age and altered sensory conditions BIBAFull-Text 899-903
      Sunwook Kim; Maury A. Nussbaum
    Local dynamic stability was investigated during quiet upright stance with respect to age and altered sensory conditions. From center of pressure (COP) trajectories, the largest Lyapunov exponent (λmax) was extracted to directly parameterize local dynamic stability, and the reliability of λmax was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Thirty two participants volunteered for upright quiet stance trials. Vision and somatosenstaion were experimentally altered: vision was modified by eye closure, and somatosensation by using both a hard surface (HS) and a soft surface (SS). Age and vision had main effects on λma, and the age x vision and vision x surface interaction effects were also significant. In general, older participants were less stable (i.e., higher λmax) than younger, and altered sensory information resulted in a decrease in stability. Reliability was higher for older versus younger participants. Use of λmax enabled a direct assessment of age-related differences in local dynamic stability and effects of altered sensory conditions. Such non-linear measures can provide additional information to that available from traditional COP-based analyses.
    Arm movements and slip severity BIBAFull-Text 904-908
      Rakie Cham; Peter N. Sandrian
    Slip-initiated falls often cause occupational injuries and deaths, especially in older workers. Previous slips and falls research has to a large extent focused on lower extremity reactions, yet arm responses are often part of postural reactions to such perturbations. It is unclear if arm responses play a role in balance recovery, are modulated by the severity of the postural perturbation and/or are a reflex-type response, e.g. reaching for external body support. In this study, the relationship between slip severity and shoulder biomechanics was examined. Subjects (17 younger and 12 older adults) were exposed to two conditions: (1) baseline dry (subjects knew the floor was dry), and (2) unexpected slip (a diluted glycerol solution was spread on the floor to slip the leading/left foot). Bilateral sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics were derived. Slip severity was quantified using a measure of slip hazardousness based on the peak slip velocity (PSV) measured at the heel of the slipping foot. Specifically, if PSV ≥ 1 m/s, then the slip was classified as hazardous. Although arm responses were bilateral, only the biomechanics of the shoulder ipsilateral to the slipping foot, specifically moment generation rate, were affected by slip hazardousness. Specifically, a hazardous slip was associated with an extensor moment at the shoulder ipsilateral to the slipping foot, whereas a non-hazardous slip was associated with a flexor moment. Shoulder responses were triggered later than the hip and knee response based on moment onset data. Finally, overall, older adults appeared to generate a greater extensor moment at the shoulder compared to the response seen in the younger group of participants. In conclusion, evidence presented in this study implies that (1) arm responses play a role in balance recovery but also may be protective in nature when experiencing a severe slip, (2) a legs-to-arms response sequence appears to drive the reaction to a slip, and (3) older adults may use their arms as a protective strategy to a greater extent than their younger counterparts.
    Effect of Load Carrying on Local Dynamic Stability BIBAFull-Text 909-913
      Jian Liu; Thurmon E. Lockhart; Kevin Granata
    Occupational load carrying tasks are considered one of the major factors contributing to slip and fall injuries. The objective of the current study was to explore the feasibility to assess the stability changes associated with load carrying by local dynamic stability measures. Twenty-five young participants were involved in a treadmill walking study, with their trunk acceleration profiles measured wirelessly by a tri-axial accelerometer. Finite time local dynamic stability was quantified by maximum Lyapunov exponents (maxLE). The results showed a significant increase in long term maxLE in load condition, indicating the declined local dynamic stability due to the load carrying. Thus, current study confirmed the discriminative validity and sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure and its utility in the load carrying scenario.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: The Complexities of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Untangling the Web

    The Complexities of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Untangling the Web BIBAFull-Text 914-917
      W. S. Marras; Svend Erik Mathiassen
    Two invited speakers will provide their insights into the future of ergonomics, low back pain, and musculoskeletal exposure assessment. Dr. Marras will provide a broad overview of the current and future challenges of understanding the development of low back disorders and how to control them in the workplace. Dr. Mathiassen will be providing insights into how variability in ergonomic exposures plays a role in the development of musculoskeletal disorders.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Manual Material Handling Activities

    Obesity Effects on Maximum Acceptable Weights of Lift BIBAFull-Text 918-922
      Devender Singh
    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of obesity on the maximum acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) Two obesity levels were considered: non-obese (18.5 kg/m2≤BMI≤24.9 kg/m2) and extremely obese (BMI≥40 kg/m2). Each obesity level had 10 male participants. The participants determined their MAWL for 18 different lifting task conditions (6 lifting frequencies x 3 lifting heights). An ANOVA was conducted to determine the effects of obesity level, lifting height, lifting frequency and their interactions on MAWL. In general, the ANOVA results revealed that obesity does not reduce MAWL. This indicates that there may not be a need to develop new psychophysical lifting limits for the obese worker population. However, in order to develop comprehensive lifting limit guidelines for the obese worker population, future studies should investigate the biomechanical and physiological based lifting tolerance limits for them.
    Application of an Entropy-Assisted Optimization Model in Prediction of Agonist and Antagonist Muscle Forces BIBAFull-Text 923-927
      Zongliang Jiang; Gary A. Mirka
    Many existing optimization based biomechanical models fail to predict antagonist muscle activity. Some optimization models predict such a cocontraction, but either lack a compelling physiological basis or are computationally formidable. The current study takes advantage of the flexible definition of entropy as a scientific measure, and utilizes it in the objective function of an optimization formulation to construct a new optimization model for predicting agonist and antagonist muscle forces. In this model, the objective function of a nonlinear program consists of a weighted sum of two components: a linear or nonlinear term favoring agonist muscle exertions (reciprocal inhibition), and the entropy term enforcing cocontraction. The concept of the current optimization model is based on recent findings in neurophysiology that there exist two separate central nervous systems for generation of two motor patterns: agonist contraction and agonist-antagonist cocontraction.
    The Relationship between Hand Force Direction and Posture during Two-Handed Pushing Tasks BIBAFull-Text 928-932
      Suzanne G. Hoffman; Matthew P. Reed; Don B. Chaffin
    Posture and external loads such as hand forces have a dominant effect on ergonomic analysis outcomes. Accurate job analyses require accurate representation of working postures and knowledge of external loads. The effects of hand force location, magnitude, and direction on whole-body posture for standing tasks were quantified in a motion-capture study of 20 men and women with widely varying body size. A subset of the data was analyzed to study the relationship between hand force direction and posture during two-handed pushing tasks performed with and without a constraint on hand force direction. Analyses demonstrated that force direction is a significant determinant of posture, and that pushing postures are consistent with several biomechanical principles.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Ergonomic Sensor Development and Measurement

    Body-fixed Orientation Sensors for Trunk Motion Sensing BIBAFull-Text 933-937
      Brandon J. Miller; Fadi A. Fathallah
    Awkward trunk postures and dynamic trunk movements are associated with increased risk of low back disorders (LBDs). Recent advancements in computing and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology have resulted in high precision, compact, and relatively inexpensive commercial orientation sensors that address the workplace usage limitations of the most common kinematics measurement methods (video analysis, magnetic field sensors, and electrogoniometers). The purpose of this study is to review the available body-fixed orientation sensing technology for its use in ergonomics research and practice. A laboratory study of a custom MEMS accelerometer-based inclinometer highlights issues of axial orientation, vibration, and non-gravitational acceleration that affect orientation results from basic inclinometers. Techniques are presented for correcting for such issues in advanced sensors using computational methods and combinations of MEMS accelerometers, gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers. Body-fixed orientation sensors provide enhanced opportunities to identify and reduce harmful work postures that may reduce the prevalence and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).
    Taking an Acceleration Approach to Identifying Vertebral Endplate Failures BIBAFull-Text 938-942
      S. E. Kotowski; K. G. Davis; R. J. Parkinson; J. P. Callaghan
    Identification of spine tolerances has typically involved the complete destruction of functional spinal units in order to confirm an endplate fracture. A new method of identifying endplate fractures utilizing the measurement of acceleration response through accelerometers mounted to the functional spinal unit was tested on porcine spines. Functional spinal units were mechanically tested to failure using a cyclic loading protocol modeled after the expected loading during a lifting task. Over 80% of the segments had visible endplate fractures upon dissection. Trends in acceleration profiles revealed increased accelerations when specimens failed, with more pronounced trends in the specimens that had visible cracks after dissection. While further analysis is necessary, the results do point to some level of shift in the biomechanical responses within the vertebral body meaning the methodology may have the potential to identify endplate structural breakdown prior to ultimate failure.
    Differences Between Lifting and Lowering Manual Material Handling Tasks in Distribution Centers BIBAFull-Text 943-946
      Sue A. Ferguson; William S. Marras; Steven A. Lavender; Riley E. Splittstoesser; Gang Yang; Peter A. Schabo
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to quantify the physical demands of manual material handling in distribution centers. One hundred and sixty-three workers were assessed wearing the moment monitor. The moment monitor measures static and dynamic mass of the boxes as well as the trunk kinematics and moment arms of each manual material handling exertion. The moment monitor analysis software distinguishes between lifting, lowering, pushing/pulling exertions. Paired comparison between lifting and lowering were performed on 163 workers. The results showed no differences in static mass or moment whereas the dynamic z force and dynamic moment were significantly greater for lifting. Trunk kinematic results showed greater sagittal velocity for lifting compared to lowering but greater lateral velocity for lowering compared to lifting.
    A Novel Dynamometer for Describing Forces and Vectors in the Long Fingers During Grip BIBAFull-Text 947-951
      C. B. Irwin; R. G. Radwin
    A new dynamometer has been designed that enables the capture of multiple grip force vectors in a single squeeze. The thumb is completely isolated in the measurement ensuring these vectors are a result of only forces produced only by the long fingers. The measured force vectors can be resolved to find the overall grip force magnitude and direction if a simple measure of grip force is desired. Alternatively, due to the ability of the dynamometer to easily measure multiple vector magnitudes and angles, the instrument lends itself well to the collection of grip data to be used as input into a hand biomechanical model. An experiment was conducted to measure the maximum grip exertions of sixteen subjects on a series of cylindrical handles and this data was used for the model. The results demonstrated that the model can be implemented and that tendon tension, when normalized by grip force, continues to increase as handle size increases even though grip force magnitudes decrease.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Practical Application of Ergonomics

    Estimation of muscle contraction forces and joint reaction forces at the low back and shoulder during drywall installation BIBAFull-Text 952-956
      Lu Yuan; Bryan Buchholz; Laura Punnett; David Kriebel
    Construction workers performing drywall installation are exposed to a variety of ergonomic hazards, including heavy material handling, repetitive motions and awkward postures. The rates of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders among drywall installers are very high, especially at the low back and shoulder. The unique characteristics of the work environment in the construction industry do not allow for applying objective ergonomic assessment instruments. Thus, biomechanical models and computer simulations were combined for a more comprehensive evaluation of ergonomic hazards. Utilizing Monte-Carlo simulation to generate the input for biomechanical models based on information from PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools, and Handling), a work-sampling based approach, the present study estimated the required muscle contraction forces and joint reaction forces at the low back and shoulder during a simulated 8-hour drywall installation workday. The results of this study also provided a database for future evaluations of ergonomic interventions on drywall installation work.
    Subjective Self-Ratings of Perceived Difficulty During Obstructed Manual Hose Insertion Tasks BIBAFull-Text 957-961
      D. Christian Grieshaber; Michael H. Lau; Thomas J. Armstrong
    Objective: A study was conducted to measure the effect that restricted hand access had on perceived difficulty ratings during simulated hose insertion tasks.
       Background: Insertion tasks have been identified by workers as physically demanding. Spatial limitations around the flange may affect the ability of the workers to successfully perform the insertion task.
       Methods: Six male and six female subjects pushed a rubber hose onto a stationary flange under conditions of limited hand access during simulated insertions.
       Results: The highest difficulty ratings were recorded when an obstruction was lateral to the flange. The overall difficulty rating was positively correlated with posture and force ratings.
       Conclusion: The location and number of obstructions is an important factor in how the subjects perceived the difficulty of the task.
       Application: The results of this study can be applied to the future design of insertion-type tasks and methodologies for subjectively assessing hand clearance.
    Cross-sectional Study of Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity and Self-Reported Neck/Shoulder Pain BIBAFull-Text 962-966
      Nathan B. Fethke; Fred Gerr; Daniel C. Anton; Joseph E. Cavanaugh; Thomas M. Cook
    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the observed associations between upper trapezius muscle activity, as estimated with several summary measures obtained from surface electromyography (EMG), and self-reported neck/shoulder pain among a sample of 231 manufacturing workers. EMG methods used in this study included mean root-mean-square amplitude, the amplitude probability distribution function (APDF), EMG gaps analysis, and clustered exposure variation analysis. The observed seven-day prevalence of neck/shoulder pain was 13.9%. Of the EMG summary measures, only the 90th percentile of the APDF was significantly associated with symptoms, with crude and adjusted odds ratios of 2.57 (1.02-6.49) and 2.78 (1.07-7.21) per natural log unit, respectively. This study was largely inconclusive due to the similarity in the distributions of the summary measures between symptomatic and nonsymptomatic participants, and explicit measures of posture and repetition may produce stronger associations with symptoms.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomic Approaches to Management of Information across Organizations

    Organizational Predictors of a Successful Implementation of an Ergonomic Training Program BIBAFull-Text 967-971
      Christian Korunka; Elisabeth Dudak; Martina Molnar; Peter Hoonakker
    Job, organizational and individual predictors of a successful implementation of an ergonomic training program are evaluated in a single case study. 116 employees in a large production company underwent a comprehensive ergonomic training. Transfer of the training into practice was measured by the number of ergonomic improvements which were realized in the company. Job, organizational and individual variables explained 35% of the variance of the training transfer. Psycho-social resistance attitudes and missing management support were found to be the most important inhibitors of implementation success.
    Middle School Students' Notebook Computer Use BIBAFull-Text 972-976
      Karen Jacobs; Kathryn Runge
    This pilot study investigated how middle school students use notebook computers in their daily activities, their knowledge and beliefs about ergonomics, the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort in notebook computer use and if the use of peripherals, a participatory ergonomics approach or goal setting is effective in promoting "healthy computing" and reducing self-reported computer-related musculoskeletal discomfort. One hundred and twenty four students were recruited from three middle schools in Maine to participate in the study for three months. Pilot results suggest that over 26% of the students self-report musculoskeletal discomfort with notebook computer use. Students who self-reported general discomfort typed significantly faster as compared to students who typed at a slower average weekly rate. Participatory ergonomics training that involved the participants in planning, developing, and implementing ergonomic solutions to notebook computer workstations and the use of peripherals, i.e., keyboard and mouse significantly improved students' "healthy computing" as compared to the control group.
    Understanding Impacts of Technology, Process Changes, and Organizational Controls to Improve the Cost of Cash in Retail Stores BIBAFull-Text 977-980
      Mark Hoffman; Charles Cash
    The emergence of self checkout systems and transaction kiosks present an opportunity for retailers to redesign the cash management process and identify more efficient and automated solutions to improve performances within each step of the system. International and domestic retail companies from various industry segments are taking different views of opportunities to reduce the cost of cash. A socio-technical systems approach provides a foundation for anchoring predictions in process improvements and task automation and a context to identify impacts of step improvements in the Cash Flow Process. This paper provides an overview of a framework, findings from cash office operations studies of domestic and international retailers, and performance benchmarks for repetitive tasks of till balancing and till re-sets to help evaluate proposed changes in store cash office operations.
    Assessing Information Alignment in Production Organizations BIBAFull-Text 981-985
      Ralph C. Palmer
    Alignment is defined as the proper positioning or adjustment of resources in relation to each other. Organization alignment involves aligning many different levels of an organization and its business segments to allow more accurate predictability of organization performance. To align an organization requires consideration of many different levels of vertical and lateral alignment of processes, resources, and information. Alignment research involves interaction implications, level of coordination implications, and geographic implications as well as resource and information need, and resource and information generation. One of the challenges of alignment is directly connecting deficiencies to their underlying issues. This is due to the weak link between organization metrics of performance and alignment factors. This study discusses issues that alignment alleviates in reference to process efficiency, procedure errors, operator errors, knowledge loss, and forecasting.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Improving Employment Outcomes of Cancer Survivors

    Panel: The Need for System Solutions to Improve Employment Outcomes of Cancer Survivors BIBAFull-Text 986-990
      Mary E. Sesto; Robin K. Yabroff; Cathy J. Bradley; Michael Feuerstein; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
    The good news is that the number of cancer survivors and length of survival has increased due to early detection and treatment improvements. Of the estimated 10.5 million cancer survivors in the United States, approximately 40% are of working age (NCI, 2006). Unfortunately, one out of five survivors experience cancer-related disabilities that affect employment. Survivors may experience long-term and late-effects (including functional and general health changes) resulting in less than optimal employment outcomes, including long-term employment and work productivity. Although employment issues have been recognized in this area, to date, the majority of research on work productivity and return to work in human factors and ergonomics has focused on common occupational injuries and illnesses. The application of theories, methodologies, and perspectives from human factors research may serve to optimize employment outcomes for cancer survivors.

    PRODUCT DESIGN: Product Potpourri

    Effects of a Vibrating Mouse on Computer Users' Work Behaviors and Performance BIBAFull-Text 991-995
      C. R. Moe; A. Hedge
    This study investigated the effects of a computer mouse that vibrates after 10 seconds of inactivity to remind the user to release their grip and rest their hand. A laboratory experiment tested the reactions of 11 female and 7 male participants to this vibrating mouse against a conventional mouse to see how it affected Ps performance of 5 tasks, their resting behavior and their mouse preference. No effects on task performance were found between the two conditions. The vibrating mouse induced significantly more resting behavior (p=0.02) and marginally more hand removals (p=0.06). However, it also induced significantly more unsupported hand hovering (p=0.00). Some Ps found that the vibrating mouse was disruptive to their performance. Further investigation of the effects of task type and user technique on the use of the vibrating mouse is needed.
    Comparison of four cursor control devices for development of a powered laparoscopic surgery tool users' opinions BIBAFull-Text 996-1000
      S. R. Herring; A. E. Trejo; M. S. Hallbeck
    Laparoscopic surgery greatly benefits the patient: it reduces recovery time, has a lower cost than other procedures, and has a greater cosmetic benefit. With every benefit, there is usually a cost. Laparoscopic surgery comes at the cost of the surgeons. Surgeons must cope with disadvantages caused from unergonomic handles. The current tools create awkward postures, pressure points and nerve legions. The purpose of the current study was to determine the best input device for a hot, powered, laparoscopic surgery tool. The current study tested four different input devices on a previously designed ergonomic laparoscopic tool handle using a target acquisition task. The input devices tested were the: Mouse Button Module, TouchPad, MiniJoystick Module, and MicroJoystick. Users' provided feedback via a questionnaire. Results show that the TouchPad and MicroJoystick are the best input devices for a powered tool with the MicroJoystick leading the pack.
    Evaluation of a hand-held neutron detector for usability, design and comfort BIBAFull-Text 1001-1005
      Pamela Castillejos; M. Susan Hallbeck
    Seven male first responders were surveyed about the usability, design, and comfort of a hand-held commercially available neutron detector. The primary goal of the questionnaire was to identify the positive and negative features, and evaluate what could be enhanced on new detectors. Some of the negative features found on the detector were that it was heavy, unbalanced, too big, and difficult to handle while wearing gloves. The first responders couldn't use the controls well while wearing gloves and the force required for the use of the controls is too hard. Using the recommendations given by the first responders, a future hand-held neutron detector will be designed and studies will be conducted after constructing several different physical prototypes.
    Acceptability of a Wearable Vital Sign Detection System BIBAFull-Text 1006-1010
      William J. Tharion; Mark J. Buller; Anthony J. Karis; Stephen P. Mullen
    This study assessed the human factors issues associated with wearing a Vital Sign Detection System (VSDS), a body worn physiological monitoring system. Experienced combat Soldiers (n = 27) participated in a combat training exercise of 120 hr while wearing the VSDS. They were then given a questionnaire to assess comfort, physical impact on the body, and acceptability of the VSDS as well as questions on fit, impact on performance, and durability of the VSDS. Comfort was impacted the most by the VSDS when in the prone position, possibly affecting sleep, and prone position rifle shooting. Skin irritation or discomfort was reported in 85% of respondents. Sixty-two percent thought the VSDS was not acceptable to wear for ≥ 8 hr. Yet, at the same time, 92% of Soldiers approved of the concept for health monitoring, and 89% said they would wear the VSDS as is if it could help save their life. The VSDS needs to be modified to be more comfortable before it can be fielded for medical monitoring of Soldiers in the field.
    An Evaluation of Self-Checkout Systems BIBAFull-Text 1011-1014
      Christina C. Mendat; Christopher B. Mayhorn
    The number of self-checkout systems in stores has increased exponentially in the past 5 years becoming a common way for consumers to complete their purchases. Little research has been conducted in this pervasive area, however, other than market research studies. An online survey found that although individuals use self-checkout systems a great deal, there are a number of issues and concerns with these systems. The most cited difficulties that arise when using self-checkout systems included the barcode not scanning as well as slow customers ahead in the line. These findings including others noted throughout this paper highlight a number of opportunities for human factors professionals to make the design of self-checkout systems more user-friendly.
    Office chairs are often not adjusted by end-users BIBAFull-Text 1015-1019
      P. Vink; R. Porcar-Seder; Alvaro Page de Pozo; F. Krause
    To find out how many office workers adjust their chairs, 350 office workers in Spain and the Netherlands are observed and questioned on whether they adjust their chairs. It appears that 24% of 236 Spanish office workers and 61% of 100 Dutch subjects never adjust their chair. If the chair is adjusted, it concerns mostly the seat height. Except for the seat height, other adjustment possibilities are not used by the majority of the study population. Reasons for not adapting could be awareness, complexity of the control system and expected effects.

    PRODUCT DESIGN: Information and Instructions in Product Design

    Comprehension Testing of Product Safety Symbols: Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 1020-1024
      Elaine C. Wisniewski; Judith J. Isaacson; Steven M. Hall
    Standards and existing literature provide guidance regarding methodologies for symbol comprehension testing, but practical guidance for the practitioner conducting this type of testing is scarce. This paper shares observations and experiences gained over the course of multiple symbol testing projects. Specifically, the paper addresses pros and cons of written vs. oral questionnaire administration and resulting comprehension scores, sample size and the concept of "statistical equivalence" to ANSI Z535.3 criteria, various participant recruitment methods and interview locations, and the importance of explaining the context in which a symbol appears. The lessons learned and tips provided in this paper begin to fill the information gaps that practitioners encounter when making numerous design, methodological, and practical decisions required for safety symbol comprehension studies.
    Toward More Usable Pictorial Assembly Instructions for Children BIBAFull-Text 1025-1028
      Cortney V. Martin
    Age-rating guidelines for construction toys are based on the physical characteristics of the toy and not necessarily the attributes of the accompanying instructions. Many construction toys are intended for children as young as six years old, but it is unclear how effectively they can use accompanying pictorial toy assembly instructions. This study examined the usability of four sets of toy instructions by K'NEX, LEGO, BIONICLE, and Lincoln Log, as used by six- and nine-year-old boys and girls. Significant usability problems impacting engagement and performance were evident including: color inaccuracies, cognitive overload, attention tunneling, bottom-to-top step sequencing, and complex graphic syntax. The research yielded design guidelines to enhance the effectiveness of pictorial assembly instructions for young children. It is important that instructions not discourage children from interacting with building and construction toys thus depriving them of important cognitive and motor development opportunities.
    ANSI Z535.6 and Conspicuity: A Test of the New State of the Art Format for Instructions BIBAFull-Text 1029-1032
      Gavin Huntley-Fenner; Erin Harley; Doris Trachtman; Douglas Young
    ANSI Z535 provides guidance to manufacturers regarding the format and content of labels, signs, and other materials. In laboratory studies, elements of the standard appear to contribute to the visibility and comprehension of risk communications, but there is little real-world-based evidence that adherence to formatting guidelines reduces injuries. In the present study, we measured both real-world behavior and laboratory behavior using a within-subject design. Recall of, and compliance with, warnings as a function of increasing use of ANSI Z535.6 formatting was assessed. Additionally, self-reported compliance at home was compared to observed compliance behavior in the laboratory. ANSI formatting increased the likelihood that a warning was recognized. Rate of compliance was higher in the laboratory setting than self-reported at-home compliance. However, there was no evidence that compliance was impacted by the presence, absence or degree of ANSI Z535 formatting.
    Redesigning a Small Car Segment Vehicle Interior: A Case Study Focusing on Driver Information BIBAFull-Text 1034-1038
      Colleen Serafin; Rebecca Paskaramoorthy
    In the automotive industry, a significant amount of resources are invested in demonstration vehicles that showcase innovative, emerging technologies. The process undertaken to build a demonstration vehicle is quite extensive, bringing together many disciplines within an organization as well as partners and suppliers from other industries. In this paper, the current process is described in detail, using a case study as an example. The areas of the demonstration vehicle that are most affected by human factors, namely the driver information areas (e.g., the center stack systems and instrument cluster), are the focus of this paper.
    Usability Impact on Effectiveness of Parental Controls BIBAFull-Text 1039-1043
      Leslie A. McFarlin; Kevin J. Buffardi; Robert M. Schumacher
    Parental controls are tools that enable guardians to protect their children from exposure to material they deem inappropriate. This paper details our study of parents and their children on their ability to configure parental controls on entertainment and communication devices. We discovered considerable difficulty on behalf of both parents and children in setting up parental controls on most devices. Additionally, we observed a discrepancy between participants' confidence in successfully setting the parental controls and their actual performance.

    PRODUCT DESIGN: Miscellanea: Methods, Tools, Aesthetics, and Evaluations

    Using Emotions in Usability BIBAFull-Text 1044-1049
      Roberto K. Champney; Kay M. Stanney
    Emotions are evermore present in discussions of product design and are becoming part of a usability practitioner's repertoire of evaluation criteria. Nonetheless, emotions in design are far more than simply using satisfaction and frustration as criteria, noting how pleasant or unpleasant a product is, or listing a number of emotions elicited during an evaluation. Evaluating the emotional impact of a user interaction as part of a usability evaluation requires that emotions be adequately assessed and, most importantly, interpreted to identify their source. This article aims to present a method and process of Emotional Profiling to show how emotions may be utilized to aid usability professionals in further understanding the emotional reactions to human-system interactions, thereby identifying factors that enhance or detract from the user experience.
    Do Looks Really Matter? The Effect of 3-Dimensional Product Representations on the Customers' Buying Decision in Electronic Commerce BIBAFull-Text 1050-1052
      A. Ant Ozok; Anita Komlodi
    This study aimed at determining the effects of three-dimensional product representations on e-commerce shoppers' purchasing decisions. An experiment was designed and conducted with twenty graduate student electronic shoppers. Three representation types were used: 2-Dimensional (2D), 3-Dimensional Low-Interaction (3DL), and 3-Dimensional High-Interaction (3DH) product representations. A reliable survey with 0.89 Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was presented to participants after they completed product viewing tasks on each product representation type. Results indicated that as interactivity significantly increased with three-dimensional representation types, participants became more likely to purchase a product with three-dimensional representations. Participants were also more satisfied with three-dimensional representations of the products, and their satisfaction level and likelihood to purchase a product were more closely related in three-dimensional representations. Future studies can explore product-specific representation and purchasing decision issues, as well as cost and connection speed issues relating to three-dimensional images.
    Augmenting the Traditional Approach to Usability: Three Tools to Bring the User Back Into the Process BIBAFull-Text 1053-1057
      David L. Jones; Roberto Champney; Par Axelsson; Kelly Hale
    A primary goal of the usability evaluation process is to create interfaces that can be seamlessly integrated into current processes and create an enjoyable experience for the user. Given this, it is critical to capture user input to effectively drive product development and redesign. While many methods are available to usability practitioners, this paper highlights three techniques that can be used to substantially enhance usability evaluation output. Specifically this paper presents a method to utilize focus groups, emotional profiling and Kano analysis methods in combination to define user needs, expectations, and desires, provide an explanation of why features of a product are liked or disliked, as well as add additional structure to the prioritization of usability shortcomings and related redesign recommendations. A background on each method, the process for implementing them into usability analyses, and guidelines for successful use are provided for usability practitioners.
    Ergonomic Evaluation of Writing Instruments BIBAFull-Text 1058-1060
      V. Gnaneswaran; S. Herring; Wei Hua Ge; P. Castillejos; R. R. Bishu
    The objective of this study was to evaluate, using ergonomic principles, a number of interesting looking instruments. A three phase evaluation procedure, comprising a paired comparison procedure, subjective evaluation and objective assessment was followed. A total of 8 pens were evaluated using 30 students from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Results showed that such a three phase methodology can be effective in evaluating products. The results also have ramifications for designers and users of pens.

    POSTERS: Poster Session 1

    Evaluating Situation Awareness in Human-Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 1061-1064
      E. de Visser; R. Parasuraman; A. Freedy; E. Freedy; G. Weltman
    New methodologies and quantitative measurements for evaluating human-robot team performance must be developed to achieve effective coordination between teams of humans and unmanned vehicles. The Mixed Initiative Team Performance Assessment System (MITPAS) provides such a comprehensive measurement methodology. MITPAS consists of a methodology, tools and procedures to measure the performance of mixed manned and unmanned teams in both training and real world operational environments. This paper shows results of an initial experiment conducted to validate the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) methodology as part of the MITPAS tool and gain insight into the effect of robot competence on operator situation awareness as well as on overall human-robot team performance.
    Information Availability and Team Performance: A Network-Centric Supply Chain Simulation BIBAFull-Text 1065-1069
      April M. Bennett; W. Todd Nelson; Scott M. Galster; Allen W. Dukes; Rebecca D. Brown; Daniel H. Schwartz
    Future concepts of operations purport that sophisticated information technology will significantly enhance mission effectiveness through two fundamental aspects: "speed of command" and "self synchronization." On one hand, unlimited availability of information may serve to enhance the overall awareness of individuals and teams. On the other hand, unrestricted information push may serve to distract, overwhelm, and overload individuals and teams, thereby compromising their situation awareness and decision-making effectiveness. The question remains, how much information is enough? The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of information availability on decision-making by utilizing a four-person supply chain management simulation. View of information and communication were manipulated to constrain information availability. Results indicated better performance for conditions with more information availability, including unrestricted information push. Overall, these results illustrated the importance of capabilities such as anticipation and redundancy, which seem to be vital to collaborative tasks.
    Teamwork on a cognitive task during a night of sleep deprivation and sustained operations BIBAFull-Text 1070-1072
      Melissa A. Vander Wood; Kristina L. O'Connell; June J. Pilcher
    Research shows that sleep deprivation has a negative effect on performance on cognitive and vigilance tasks. However, little research has focused on the effects of sleep deprivation on team performance. This study examined the effect of sleep deprivation on a task requiring teamwork to maximize performance. Twenty-four college students remained awake for one night and completed a variety of tasks during each of four testing sessions. The Wombat, a complex cognitive task, required participants to work with a partner to maximize their overall scores. Results show that performance over the night increased while performance within each testing session decreased. This indicates that teamwork can help to improve performance over a night of sleep deprivation but does not entirely counteract the negative effects seen within the testing sessions. The current results suggest that team managers should be aware that teamwork may not counteract all negative effects of sleep deprivation on performance.
    Undergraduate student perceptions of teamwork and use of teams in the classroom BIBAFull-Text 1073-1075
      Jeffrey J. Smith; Sharolyn A. Lane
    The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society has recognized that, in order to properly prepare students for teamwork in the workplace, team-building experiences are an indispensable part of education (Stone, Moroney, & Wortham, 2006). Panels held at previous HFES meetings have identified approaches to instructing student teams, developing effective teams, and utilizing peer ratings. One hundred fifty-five students were surveyed concerning methods used to plan and communicate with other team members, best and worst team task experiences, and what was liked best and least about working in teams. Responses indicated that, while many students enjoy the collaborative and social aspects of working in teams, many are displeased with the distribution of workload between team members, procrastination by team members, and the difficulty of scheduling meetings. Implications for instructors and recommendations for tools designed to enhance student team experiences are described.
    Perception of Robot Passability and Aperture Width during Direct Line of Sight and Teleoperation Conditions BIBAFull-Text 1076-1080
      Kristin S. Moore; Joshua A. Gomer; Suzanne N. Butler; Christopher C. Pagano
    The current experiment examined the ability of participants to judge the passability of a robot through an aperture and to reproduce the width of the aperture in both Direct Line of Sight (DLS) and Teleoperation (TO) conditions. Previous research performed in our laboratory has shown that participants overestimate robot passability in teleoperation conditions (i.e. they state that the robot can pass when it cannot). The current study aimed to replicate past findings as well as to determine the cause of overestimation during TO. Twelve Clemson University undergraduate students participated in both the DLS and TO conditions. Similar to previous research, participants judged smaller apertures as passable in the TO condition compared to the DLS condition. Results showed that participants' reproductions of aperture sizes were overestimated, which likely leads to the overestimation of robot passability during TO. Participant estimations of aperture size and judgments of robot passability help to quantify the differences between direct line of sight and teleoperation conditions and these results will be useful in the training of operators for future teleoperation tasks.
    Effects of Imperfect Automation and Task Load on Human Supervision of Multiple Uninhabited Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1081-1085
      Ewart J. de Visser; Raja Parasuraman
    Many current and emerging systems require human operators to supervise multiple uninhabited vehicles (UVs) with the support of automation. Automation is not 100% reliable; ergo it is important to understand the effects of automation imperfection on performance. This study investigated the effects of automation reliability on system performance with multiple UVs under different levels of task load. Twelve participants completed 12 "missions" supervising 3 (low load) or 6 (high load) UVs. Participants used one UV to conduct Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition. They were assisted with an automatic target recognition (ATR) system whose reliability was low, medium, or high. Overall system performance was higher than user or ATR performance alone. The gain in system performance with the ATR was particularly effective with medium and high automation reliability. Thus, human-robot teams can benefit from imperfect automation even under high workload conditions.
    Human Factors Evaluation of 360 Panoramic View Camera System for Ground Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 1086-1090
      Cheng Li Wei; Ang Cher Wee; Chan Wai Herng; Ying Meng Fai
    The 360 Panoramic view camera System (360 PS) is a commercial-off-the-shelf camera technology that captures and presents the viewer with a 360-degree horizontal view around the camera. Due to its unique ability to monitor in omni-directional, there is potential for operator functions such as surveillance and monitoring, and for enhancing situational awareness of crews operating vehicles with restricted visual field-of-view. This man-in-the-loop evaluation is to study the limitations and capabilities of the system, and enhance its performance for the proposed functions. Two sets of experiments were designed, and carried out to study the man-machine interface (MMI) issues. Subjective and objective data were collected, which allowed us to identify two preferred display modes out of the six factory modes. Graphic user interface (GUI) overlays were then designed for these two display modes.
    The effect of display size on performance of operational tasks with UAVs BIBAFull-Text 1091-1095
      Yaniv Minkov; Shay Perry; Tal Oron-Gilad
    The user-Interface of military dismounted systems has extreme influence on soldiers' ability to complete their missions and to protect themselves during combat. This work focused on the type of displays required to retrieve information from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in operational situations. Twenty IDF soldiers with limited experience in operating UAVs, participated in this simulated study of display-size preferences. In the 3 x 2 within subject design, participants used 3 types of displays on two missions: navigation and target detection. Performance data was collected for both tasks. Participants also completed the NASA-TLX and a closing questionnaire. Statistical analyses showed that performance differences between displays were task dependent. Thus, some tasks can be performed with a smaller display at the same level of performance by exerting more mental effort. Furthermore, sensitivity to task difficulty was evident.
    Recovery from Automation Error after Robot Neglect BIBAFull-Text 1096-1100
      Daniel N. Cassenti
    Automation is a robot's ability to control itself without operator intervention. Advances in automation have resulted in a phenomenon called robot neglect (Crandall & Goodrich, 2003) in which a robot operator infrequently attends to an automated robot. Robot neglect becomes a problem when automation fails and the robot operator is not attending to the robot. This work outlines a set of guidelines for aiding an operator faced with robot neglect followed by automation failure. The guidelines focus on how video replay of the incidents leading up to the failure may help the operator overcome inattention and regain situation awareness. Complications with this approach in past research are addressed.
    Evidence for the Use of Minimal Anthropomorphic Features in Attributions for Automobiles BIBAFull-Text 1101-1104
      Hana S. Smith; Valcric K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Linda Upham Ellis; David J. Sushi; Matthew Velie; Randall Shumaker; Neal Finkelstein
    The present study examined the role of minimal features in humans' attributions for automobiles. This work extends research on minimal features in drawn stimuli by testing whether the findings extend to real automobiles. Participants viewed sixteen front ends of cars that varied in terms of the shape of the headlights and the shape of the grill. Each was rated in terms of attractiveness and six affective states used to describe human faces. As in studies with both drawn stimuli and human faces, headlight (eye) shape was highly associated with attractiveness, whereas grill (mouth) shape was more predictive of negative ratings. Minimal features lead to anthropomorphic attributions for automobiles.
    Size Does Matter: Automobile "Facial" Features Predict Consumer Attitudes BIBAFull-Text 1105-1108
      Heather Lum; Anne Sinatra; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Hana S. Smith; Randall Shumaker; Neal Finkelstein
    This study further examines the issue of whether perception of automobile "faces" can be predicted based on the way in which people process human faces. Specifically, this work examined whether consumer ratings are correlated with the relative size of features on the front end of an automobile. Participants rated twenty-three cars on a variety of consumer attributes. Greater distance between headlights, like distance between human eyes, predicted positive ratings on several consumer attitudes. Results are consistent with the idea that processes used for perception of faces are involved in the attributions made for artifacts displaying minimal features.
    Development and Evaluation of Safety Symbols for Landscaping Products BIBAFull-Text 1109-1113
      Elaine C. Wisniewski; Judith J. Isaacson; Steven M. Hall
    This project involved developing symbols to replace existing text-based warnings provided on 10 different types of landscaping products. Using symbols would eliminate the need to translate and print the text in multiple languages, reducing the amount of non-applicable information and reducing the space necessary to print the safety information on the product. ANSI Z535.3-2002, ISO 9186-2001, and ISO 3864-2002 were considered in the design, development, and testing of the symbols, including the use of acceptance criteria for open-ended comprehension testing of 85 percent correct responses with a maximum of 5 percent critical confusions (assuming a sample of 50 respondents). Seven hundred and nine participants represented three different spoken languages. Sixty-one symbols and symbol sets were developed and tested; all except three symbols (gas/oil mixture, use identical replacement parts, brushcutter accessories) passed the ANSI Z535.3 acceptance criteria for comprehension. The process of developing symbols for various types of hazards across products is discussed as are challenges associated with conforming to recommendations and requirements of multiple, sometimes conflicting standards.
    Perceived hazard for images depicting before and during consequences with two kinds of prohibition symbols BIBAFull-Text 1114-1118
      N. Ribar; M. S. Wogalter; C. B. Mayhorn
    This research examined the connoted danger level for symbols varying on type of prohibition symbol and depictions showing before- or during-injury consequences. One prohibition symbol was a red circle with a diagonal slash intended to show that the depicted event within the circle should not be performed. A similar, but less commonly used, prohibition symbol is the red circle without the slash. In the present research, 96 participants evaluated a set of symbols on two risk perception scales. Eight of the symbols viewed were manipulated with respect to a base concept depicting before- or during-injury consequences and type of prohibition. The results showed the symbols depicting during-consequence (injury) events produced significantly higher ratings than images showing before-consequence events. Symbols with a circle-slash prohibition were rated higher than the circle-alone prohibition, but only for some of the images. Symbols with both the prohibition circle-slash and during-consequences image tended to produce the highest ratings. In general, scoring participants' written interpretation of the symbols was relatively high for the manipulated images and did not differ as a function of condition. Very few critical confusions were noted (less than 5%) indicating, for example, no apparent confusions of "double negatives" when combining the during-injury consequences and the circle-slash prohibition symbol. More people expressed a negative (don't, no, not, or do not) in the verbal responses for images with the circle-slash prohibition symbol than with the circle-alone prohibition. Results and implications are discussed.
    Reflective Trim on Clothing: Desirability Indicated by Purchase Preference BIBAFull-Text 1119-1123
      Theresa M. Costello; Michael S. Wogalter
    Motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrians result in 1.8 deaths per 100,000 population annually in the U.S. Most of these fatalities are attributed to pedestrians not being seen in time for the driver to avoid a collision, particularly under poor visibility conditions. Previous research shows that reflective clothing worn at night can substantially increase pedestrians' visual conspicuity to drivers. The purpose of the present research was to examine people's desire for reflective trim on their clothing. Findings of strong desirability for reflective trim could prompt its incorporation into garments available to the public, and thus, potentially decrease pedestrian-related motor vehicle accidents. The present study measured the extent to which people are willing to pay extra or less for clothing with reflective material compared to the same items without reflective material. People reported they are willing to pay more for reflective material on sports-related, children's and inclement-weather clothing. Implications for safety and future research are discussed.
    Development of Air Traffic Control Measures Database BIBAFull-Text 1124-1128
      Esa M. Rantanen; Peter M. Vlach
    Availability of measures that would predict controller success in his or her task and the impact of changing procedures and advancing technology on the system as a whole is imperative to the success of modernization of air traffic control (ATC) systems worldwide. This paper describes a database that is populated by the results of previous reviews of ATC research literature, organized according to a novel ATC measures taxonomy, and made accessible via the World Wide Web and a purpose-built web interface. The database will also facilitate continual updates, allowing for growth and relevance of its contents into the foreseeable future.
    Enhancing Forensic Human Factors/Ergonomics Analyses Using Digital Surveillance Video BIBAFull-Text 1129-1132
      Joseph Cohen; H. Harvey Cohen
    The increased need for physical security and rapid technological developments has created opportunities for enhancing the validity of expert opinions offered in the courtroom by human factors/ergonomics professionals. Digital surveillance equipment typically yields more information from several perspectives as well as affords more control than 'old' technologies such as closed-circuit television, video cassette recorders, and multiplexers. This poster illustrates three case examples in which human factors/ergonomics experts used digital surveillance video as part of forensic analyses on cases retained by attorneys representing both plaintiffs and defendants. The first case is a rear-end collision on a freeway between a moving bus and a stopped pickup truck. The second is a collision between a moving bus and falling pedestrian, while the third is a more common slip-and-fall incident in a retail grocery store. The implications of improved digital surveillance video for the practice of forensics human factors/ergonomics are discussed.
    Indexing Cognitive Reserve Capacity: A Multi-modal Approach BIBAFull-Text 1133-1137
      J. Christopher Brill; Richard D. Gilson; Mustapha Mouloua
    The Multi-Sensory Workload Assessment Protocol (M-SWAP) is a newly developed standardized measure of cognitive reserve capacity. It is consists of a multi-modal counting task administered in a dual task environment. The goal of the present work was to further validate the measure by assessing the demand manipulation and perceived workload. Significant differences in performance and perceived workload were observed across demand levels, but not across modalities. These results suggest the secondary task protocol imposes demand in a manner consistent with the proposed model.

    POSTERS: Poster Session 2

    The Effect of Small Changes in Web Page Navigation Links on the Performance of Users Who Revisit Sites BIBAFull-Text 1138-1142
      Philip Kortum; Lauren F. V. Scharff
    This paper examines the results of a study conducted to determine if small changes to a site's primary navigation structure would significantly impact user performance. Between a user's first visit and their subsequent revisit a week later, a single task-related link was either consistently present, consistently absent, or was added or removed between the two visits. Results show that performance was significantly degraded when the critical navigation element was removed from the page after the user first visited the site. Additions to the navigational structure were less disruptive to user performance and actually enhanced it because the additional link provided another navigational pathway to the desired information. The one week re-visitation delay produced results similar to those found in a similar study where the delay was less than 5 minutes (Scharff, 2006). Further research is being conducted to determine the between-visit time required in order for performance to be consistent regardless of the link condition.
    Reexamining Synthetic Speech: Intelligibility and the Effects of Age, Task, and Speech Type on Recall BIBAFull-Text 1143-1147
      Jefferson B. Hardee; Christopher B. Mayhorn
    Synthetic speech is a technology that can be utilized to convey information and aid people in their tasks. Older adults in particular are a population that may be able to benefit from synthetic speech, and they are a population that has been investigated in a limited capacity. The current researchers intended to elucidate lingering conflicts in previous research on the intelligibility and recall of word and stories in synthetic speech for older and younger adults and how that compared to similar conditions in natural speech. Twenty-four older and 24 younger adults completed intelligibility and recall tasks with word lists and stories. Results indicated that older adults had a more difficult time with all speech, natural speech was easier to understand and remember than synthetic speech, and stories were easier to recall than words. Results also indicated that older adults had a more difficult time understanding synthetic words as compared to natural words than younger adults. In addition, older adults improved differentially with the recall of stories as opposed to words when compared to the younger adult group. Potential directions for synthetic speech software design and future research are discussed.
    The Use of Bullets in Textual Web Content BIBAFull-Text 1148-1152
      Shannon Riley; Barbara S. Chaparro
    This study examined the use of bullets in textual web content. Thirty-six undergraduate and graduate college-age participants completed nine information search tasks in one of three text formats (standard paragraph form, bulleted sentences, or bulleted phrases). Overall, participants were able to find information significantly more quickly in the true bulleted format; otherwise, there were no statistical differences found between conditions for measures of success, difficulty or satisfaction.
    A Survey of Secondary Activities of Telephone Callers Who are Put on Hold BIBAFull-Text 1153-1157
      Philip Kortum; S. Camille Peres
    This paper examines the results of a study conducted to determine what types of secondary activities callers engage in when they are placed on hold in a telephone call setting. One hundred and one participants were surveyed in order to determine if they performed secondary tasks while on hold, and if so, the types of activities engaged in and the relative amount of time they spent on those activities. Results showed that 79% of callers engaged in some form of secondary activity while on hold. These activities were diverse, with the majority of participants reporting 8 different types of secondary activities. The data from this study will help researchers and IVR designers understand the types of secondary tasks in which callers engage and allow them to design on-hold stimuli that support multi-tasking and enable them to more accurately construct experiments to reflect real world conditions.
    Using the Tactile Modality as a Communication Medium for Dismounted Soldiers BIBAFull-Text 1158-1162
      Andrea S. Krausman; Timothy L. White
    This study examined the issues related to the detection and identification of tactile patterns as combat assault maneuvers were being performed. Three obstacles were used in this study: tires, windows, and high crawl. A baseline condition, in which participants received tactile patterns while standing, was also included in the analysis. In the baseline condition, participants detected and identified 100% of the tactile patterns. Analysis of the obstacle data showed that the obstacles had a significant effect on the detection and identification of the tactile signals. Participants detected 62.5% of the tactile patterns during the high crawl, which was significantly lower than for the tires and windows, with 92% and 88% of signals detected, respectively. With regard to the correct identification of tactile patterns, participants correctly identified 51% of the patterns during the high crawl, as compared to 88.5% for the tires and 77% for the windows.
    Assessment of a Novel Chat Messaging Interface for Rapid Communication in Tactical Command and Control BIBAFull-Text 1163-1167
      Benjamin A. Knott; W. Todd Nelson; Rebecca D. Brown; Allen W. Dukes; Robert S. Bolia
    Two experiments explored speed of communication when transmitting and receiving chat messages in different formats for a military command and control (C2) task. In Experiment 1, participants were prompted with a tactical display and responded by composing chat messages with an appropriate command. Speed, accuracy, and subjective workload were compared for three chat messaging formats: 1) full-text; 2) abbreviated text; or 3) click-chat. Writing full-text messages took longer, resulted in more typing errors and higher workload ratings than abbreviated text or click-chat. Although there was no difference in response times between abbreviated and click-chat messaging, the abbreviated chat yielded higher error rates. A translation delay was evidenced by slower initial response times for abbreviations and click-chat compared to full-text. However, faster message completion, once initiated, compensated for this delay resulting in faster communication overall. Experiment 2 demonstrated that there was no difference in the speed, accuracy, or workload for completing commanded actions when receiving abbreviated compared to full-text chat messages.
    Teaching Human Factors Principles Through Design of an EXIT Sign BIBAFull-Text 1168-1170
      Jennifer L. Dyck
    A hands-on, specific design assignment is described, for use in a graduate or undergraduate human factors course. The assignment requires students to re-design an EXIT sign, taking into account principles of visual display design, and environmental factors, which may reduce visibility of the sign. Assigning a particular object to re-design allows for in-class comparison and discussion, and additionally, is easier for students when first beginning to identify human factors deficiencies in everyday objects. Students consistently rate this assignment positively, and especially enjoy the creative aspect of the assignment.
    Predicting Memory for Words and Symbols from Spatial Abilities BIBAFull-Text 1171-1175
      Sally A. Stader; Grant S. Taylor; JoAnn Harvan-Chin
    This study seeks to better understand the aspects of working memory, particularly spatial processing, involved in memory for visually presented verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Prior research has suggested that there are separate memory stores for words and symbols. It is proposed that memory for the location of words is assisted by the phonological loop, which provides comprehension, and a contextual basis to use logical reasoning to determine the location of words. Participants in this study were tested on measures of object and location memory, spatial relations, spatial visualization, as well as their memory for the location of words or symbols, and reading comprehension. Results suggest different processes are involved when remembering the location of words when compared to remembering the location of symbols. The measure for location memory was found to have a significant negative relationship with memory for the location of words, suggesting that subjects with better location memory (who, presumably, rely on it more), end up suffering on the memory for the location of words measure by not relying on the more effective method of using context to deduce the locations. With all measures contributing to a regression equation, roughly 50% of the variance of both memory for the location of words and symbols was accounted for.
    The Interaction of Map Resolution and Spatial Abilities on Route Learning BIBAFull-Text 1176-1180
      Christopher A. Sanchez; Russell J. Branaghan
    This study evaluated how well routes were learned from maps that were either enhanced with actual satellite photography or presented in more traditional (low resolution) form, with no additional detail. The potential interaction between map resolution and participants' static spatial abilities was also considered. Results indicated that learners recalled significantly more route information and made fewer response errors in the low detail condition than in the high detail condition. Additionally, participants' spatial visualization ability significantly correlated with success on these tasks, whereas mental rotation ability did not. These results suggest that while the addition of high resolution information is now technologically possible, it is not necessarily advised for certain situations as it can lead to a detriment in performance.
    Driver Detection of Roadside Obstacles at Night BIBAFull-Text 1181-1185
      David G. Curry; Edward A. Nielsen; Jason W. Kidd; Matthew R. Tuttle
    Oftentimes vehicular accidents involve collisions, not between two vehicles on the roadway, but between a vehicle which departs from the roadway and a vehicle parked on the shoulder. In many such cases, the striking party will maintain that they were in control of their vehicle at all times, but were simply unable to detect the parked vehicle due to lack of illumination or inadequate warning of its presence. A search of the available literature has produced no data which quantifies the relative detectability of such warning devices compared to reflections from such surfaces as vehicle bodies, non-illuminated taillight lenses, or retroreflective striping such as that required on transport trailers and trucks. This study was designed to quantify the relative detection ranges of each of these surfaces for a vehicle parked alongside a darkened roadway by an aware motorist.
    Do You See What I See? Effects of Communication on Scanning Strategies in Change Detection by Individuals and Teams of Observers BIBAFull-Text 1186-1190
      Camilla C. Knott; W. Todd Nelson; Megan K. McCroskey; Brent T. Miller
    Change blindness results from the absence of attention from the source of a change. Unsurprisingly, change blindness worsens in dual task and high workload conditions. Such is the environment in which teams of operators in military command and control missions operate, yet little is known about change blindness susceptibility in these conditions. A flicker task required individuals and dyads to detect changes under high and low task difficulty. Reaction time, accuracy, and eye movements were examined. Scan path analyses showed that communicating dyads were more efficient at change detection than individuals and non-communicating dyads, but are just as blind to no change. Eye movement data also indicate differences in attention allocation and scan strategies among individuals, communicating, and non-communicating dyads. Implications for adaptive aids and tasks such as tactical command and control are discussed.
    Examining the Effect of Grouping Border Type on Visual Search Performance BIBAFull-Text 1191-1194
      Shiva Naidu
    Past research has shown that enclosing a group of items within a border can actually slow the reaction time of individuals during search tasks. Navon (1977) and Mermelstein, Banks, & Prinzmetal (1979) suggested that individual components are "hidden" within a larger group formed by borders because global perception comes before perception of the individual items. This study tried to identify the minimal visual cues needed to effectively produce perception of grouping. Different border types, including solid lines, dashed lines, and simple chevrons were manipulated in order to assess how quickly subjects can detect targets within groups. Results indicated that the single character condition was significantly faster than the double and triple character conditions. In addition, the Full Border condition was also significantly faster than the 1:3 Ratio Border condition.
    Watching Where You're Going: An Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Attention During Walking BIBAFull-Text 1195-1199
      Jason S. Augustyn; Caroline R. Mahoney; M. R. Fletcher; Edward Hirsch
    Dual task methodology and eye-tracking were used to examine how attention is allocated when walking over terrain of varying complexity. Volunteers completed six test sessions in which they walked for 30 minutes with one of three terrain conditions (no markings, irregular markings, irregular markings). While walking, volunteers also performed a secondary vigilance task with targets placed at either eye level or ground level. Results showed that accuracy on the secondary task declined as terrain complexity increased. Median RT was also significantly faster with no markings than either marking condition. In addition, RTs were faster with the targets at eye level for all marking patterns except the irregular pattern. These data show that walking over varied terrain impacts vigilance.
    "F" Pattern Scanning of Text and Images in Web Pages BIBAFull-Text 1200-1204
      Sav Shrestha; Kelsi Lenz; Justin Owens; Barbara Chaparro
    This article discusses users' visual scan paths of web pages containing text and/or images while conducting browsing and searching tasks on an e-commerce website. Participants were exposed to two web pages, one image-based and one text-based, and asked to perform either a search or browse task on each. They were also asked to perform a search task for a non-existent category on the image-based page. Results show that users follow a fairly uniform scan path with greater fixations on images above the fold when browsing through image-based pages. Fixation counts dramatically dropped on images close to the fold and below the fold. The users performing the searching task on the image-based page seemed very efficient. They seemed to employ unique and random scan paths to successfully accomplish the search. Nielsen's 'F' pattern (2006) was confirmed in both the text-browse and text-search tasks.
    Effect of Audio-Visual Alerts on Situation Awareness and Workload in a Net-Centric Warfare Scenario BIBAFull-Text 1205-1209
      Jennifer M. Ross; John S. Barnett; Larry L. Meliza
    The goal of net-centric warfare (NCW) is to give soldiers an information advantage that leads to a war-fighting advantage. However, the inherent nature of NCW systems is often quite complex and dynamic, which leads to impaired situation awareness (SA) and heightened levels of mental workload for the human operator. The following study investigated the moderating effects of automated audio-visual alerts on user SA and perceived workload while using a net-centric warfare system. Twenty-six participants observed battlefield scenarios on a simulation of the common NCW system, Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2), and were required to pay attention and remember critical events (e.g., the appearance of an enemy unit). The system was presented with or without an automated alerting aid that provided combined auditory and visual alerts when certain critical events occurred (i.e., System to Help Implement and Empower Leader Decisions; SHIELD). Results revealed that contrary to current assumptions the use of an automated alerting aid did not impact user SA; however, perceived workload was significantly lower with the addition of the alerting aid. This work demonstrates that the automated alerts used in this NCW experiment do not affect SA (either positively or negatively) and decreased perceived workload.

    POSTERS: Poster Session 3

    Study of the load on the hand and fingers of mandarin pickers, the 1st report -- Investigation of three types of shears and their effect on the workload on the hand and fingers BIBAFull-Text 1210-1214
      Hiroshi Udo; Akihiro Udo; Ben Branlund; Akiko Udo; Motovasu Ochi; Shunji Imai; Noritune Yokoyama; Kohji Hashimoto; Hitoshi Okano; Kohji Nakamura; Noboru Furukawa
    Mandarins are picked by hand with the use of shears. An average mandarin picker makes at least 20,000 cuts daily. This daily workload on the upper limbs is the cause of occupational cervicobrachial disorders (OCD). In order to improve their working conditions, we devised two types of shears, one with a soft grip wrapped around the handle and another with shock reducing cushions in between the handles. The following two experiments were conducted. First we tested and compared the Borg scale and pinch meter scores of each participant by having them cut sticks as the same radius as those of mandarin stems using both the improved and conventional shears. Next, we placed two pressure sensors on each shear, where the middle finger and thumb contact the handles, to measure and compare the impact pressure within the hand. The results of the first experiment suggested that the improved shears reduces workload to the hand and fingers when comparing results to those of the conventional shears. The second experiment indicates that the shock reducing cushions reduces impact pressure to the hand from the handles when cutting.
    The Effect of Simultaneous Grip on Wrist Flexion/Extension Strength BIBAFull-Text 1215-1218
      Na Jin Seo; Thomas J. Armstrong; Kathryn L. Dannecker
    This study quantifies the effect of a simultaneous grip on wrist strength. It was hypothesized that wrist flexion strength increases with an increasing grip and wrist extension strength decreases with an increasing grip. Twelve subjects performed maximum wrist flexion and extension exertions with a different level of simultaneous grip - minimum, preferred, and maximum. Wrist flexion strength increased 34% and wrist extension strength decreased 10% from minimum to maximum grip. This shows that measure of wrist strength for assessing strength capabilities or the efficacy of hand surgeries or rehabilitation programs requires control of finger flexor activities to ensure consistent and relevant results. When opening a bottle in an outward direction (right hand thread), wrist extension strength may be significantly limited by a simultaneous grip due to muscle antagonism. When twisting a fragile or uncomfortable object, reduced finger flexor activities can limit wrist flexion strength.
    Limitations of Postural Stability Ratings BIBAFull-Text 1219-1223
      Angela DiDomenico; Krystyna Gielo-Perczak; Raymond W. McGorry; Chien-Chi Chang
    A substantial number of injuries and fatalities within occupational environments are due to falls, the majority of which are believed to be a result of loss of balance. The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries and falls from height are a leading cause of fatalities in construction operations. This study investigated the effects of beam condition, foot placement and load on objective and subjective assessment of postural stability. Twenty-three male participants completed all conditions with the effect of beam condition significantly affecting both objective and subjective measures of stability (ANOVA, α=0.05). While not significantly affecting postural sway, the load conditions significantly affected the stability ratings. Correlations between the objective and subjective measures were very weak (-0.219 < r < 0.01) with the strongest correlation between mean velocity and the stability ratings. Subjective perceptions of postural stability should be used with caution, particularly in more realistic task environments with less variability in difficulty levels.
    Vocal Analysis and Heart Rate as Measures of Assertiveness and Aggression BIBAFull-Text 1224-1226
      Heather C. Lum; Kimberly Smith-Jentsch; Valerie K. Sims; Michael Flood
    This study examined the relationship between assertiveness and such physiological features as heart rate and vocal inflections (pitch and intensity). The vocal data were assessed from a first person simulation in which participants interacted with video-based characters. During the simulation, the participants' partner (friend, family member, or acquaintance) completed inventories that asked their perceptions of the participant's assertiveness and aggressiveness for the scenes. Results found heart rate and mean intensity of speech were unique indicators of peer-rated aggressiveness. Also, standard deviation in pitch and heart rate accounted for unique variance in peer-rated assertiveness. The results suggest that physiological and verbal measures may be a useful means of distinguishing between assertiveness and aggressiveness of team members.
    The Biomechanical and Physiological link between Archery Techniques and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1227-1231
      Richard T. Stone
    In this study, biomechanical and physiological analyses (via electromyography (EMG)) were used to predict the accuracy of non-archers. This study was designed to provide evidence that biomechanical strain and associated muscular fatigue will result in unnecessary muscular activation that can be reduced by technique selection. Correct selection can result in increased non-archer accuracy. To accomplish this, a group of sixteen participants were given basic training using two string grip positions and four standard stance postures. The participant(s) performance (measured in FITA score) were recorded and analyzed. It was determined that the less physically straining techniques would result in higher subject performance. Hence, physiological and biomechanical techniques can be used to accurately make predictions (pertaining to grip type and archer stance) on non-archer performance. Specifically, selection of the thumb grip (least straining) and the even stance (least straining) were found to result in the highest initial performance.
    The Effect of Driving Environments on Simulator Sickness BIBAFull-Text 1232-1236
      Ronald R. Mourant; Prasanna Rengarajan; Daniel Cox; Yingzi Lin; Beverly K. Jaeger
    In order to be an effective tool for driver evaluation and education, driving simulators need to be better designed to reduce simulator sickness. This study investigated driving in four environments (country, suburban, city, and curves) using a simulator. When driving on straight roads (city and suburban environments) subjects reported less simulator sickness then driving in the city environment (which included left and right turns) and on curves. A mini-SSQ was used to measure the accumulation of simulator sickness over trials. From trial 1 to trial 5, reported simulator sickness increased linearly. From trial 5 through 8, the rate of increase in simulator sickness decreased. We suggest that the rapid and distorted optic flow experienced while executing turns and driving on curves in driving simulators makes a substantial contribution to simulator sickness.
    Development of Active and Passive Fatigue Manipulations Using a Driving Simulator BIBAFull-Text 1237-1241
      Dyani J. Saxby; Gerald Matthews; Edward M. Hitchcock; Joel S. Warm
    The present study investigates driving simulator methodologies for inducing qualitatively different patterns of subjective response. The study tested Desmond and Hancock's (2001) theory that there may be two types of fatigue: active and passive. 108 undergraduates participated. There were 3 conditions (active, passive, control) and 3 durations (10, 30, 50 minutes). The active condition used simulated wind gusts to increase the required number of steering and acceleration changes. The passive condition was fully automated. In the control condition, drivers were in full control of steering and acceleration. Task engagement (e.g., energy) was lowest in the passive fatigue condition, followed by the control and active conditions. Distress (e.g., negative mood) was found to be highest in the active fatigue condition. The time course of fatigue responses was also determined. The results suggest methods for developing manipulations to determine the impact of fatigue on performance.
    Reduction in Tree Stand Assembly Errors with Modified Instructions BIBAFull-Text 1242-1245
      Wayne Gregory; Jan Berkhout
    Naïve subjects performed a direct out-of-the-box assembly and installation sequence for two models of hunters' tree stands. Their actions were timed and monitored in detail using an array of video cameras. After extensive analysis of their assembly errors and interactions with the packaged instructions, two alternative instruction sets were written, one with modified language, the other with additional user-friendly graphic material. Two additional groups of naïve subjects who assembled tree stands packed with these alternative instructions took significantly less time and made significantly fewer errors.
    Geospatial Perspective-Taking: How Well Do Decision Makers Choose Their Views? BIBAFull-Text 1246-1248
      Kyle Bailey; C. Melody Carswell; Rusty Grant; Luke Basham
    Today decision makers may benefit from richer sources of data and a wider variety of visualization tools than ever. However, the extent to which individuals make adequate use of a "toolkit" of visualization modes -- choosing the right formats to support different task demands -- has received relatively little attention. In the present study, a sample of 43 participants learned to perform three decision-making tasks with a five geospatial formats or "views." When allowed to choose their own views prior to beginning different tasks, few participants spontaneously selected those displays that would provide the greatest performance support. Most participants fell prey to "naïve realism" (a preference for realistic-looking displays) or "viewpoint inertia" (a preference for familiar map-like displays). These data suggest that greater attention needs to be given to the training of basic visualization skills as well as possibly limiting display choices in some contexts.
    Evaluation of a Software Implementation of the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) BIBAFull-Text 1249-1253
      Roger D. Serwy; Esa M. Rantanen
    The Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) represents a second-generation approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). The method, however, is very tedious to apply manually and not yet in widespread use and therefore largely untested. To allow for rapid and systematic evaluation of the CREAM method, a software tool for its application was developed. Results from several analyses undertaken to evaluate the method and the tool are also presented. The simplicity of our CREAM software allowed novices to analyze events in much detail but also revealed some critical shortcomings in both the method and the software tool. Several conclusions could be drawn from this allow for drafting of specific design guidelines for future upgrades of the CREAM software. These conclusions and recommendations can be further generalized to all software applications of HRA methods.
    Effect of Cost Value Structure Associated with Uncertainty on Human Inspection Performance BIBAFull-Text 1254-1258
      Gulshan Ramesh Chand; Ishita Desai; Pallavi Dharwada; Lisa Bosman; Anand Gramopadhye
    Cost-value structures associated with different defects play a prominent role in improving the human inspection performance. Equally, uncertainties also influence human decision making in the inspection domain and show significant effect on the operator's performance. Not much research has been done on the effect of the cost-value structure on human performance combined with the different levels of uncertainty present in the system. It is worth understanding and exploring the importance of the relationship between the cost value structure, uncertainty and human performance in the inspection domain. The research results reveal that the performance of human inspectors improves when they are enticed with economic benefits. Furthermore, feedback on economic gains along with performance feedback aids in the improvement of human inspection performance.
    Assessing temporal support for dynamic decision making in C2 BIBAFull-Text 1259-1262
      R. Rousseau; S. Tremblay; D. Lafond; F. Vachon; R. Breton
    Temporal awareness is key to successful decision making in a wide range of command and control situations, yet little explicit support to maintaining temporal awareness is provided by Decision Support Systems (DSS) for time-critical decisions. In the context of simulated weapon-target scheduling, the present study compared the decision support gained from two display formats: typical geospatial display and temporal display. The results demonstrated that the temporal display facilitates scheduling performance though its beneficial impact seems to require greater familiarization.
    Robustness of The a b Signal Detection Theory Model of Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 1263-1267
      Ernesto A. Bustamante; Brittany L. Anderson; Amy R. Thompson; James P. Bliss; Mark W. Scerbo
    Bustamante, Fallon, and Bliss (2006) showed that the a b Signal Detection Theory (SDT) model was more parsimonious, generalizable, and applicable than the classical SDT model. Additionally, they demonstrated that both models provided statistically equivalent and uncorrelated measures of sensitivity and bias under ideal conditions. The purpose of this research was to show the robustness of the a b model for handling extreme responses. We conducted an empirical evaluation of operators' decision-making and two Monte Carlo simulations. Results from the empirical study showed that the a b model provided equivalent yet independent measures of decision-making accuracy and bias, whereas the classical model failed to provide independent measures in the presence of extreme responses. The Monte Carlo simulations showed a similar trend for the superiority of the a b model. Results from this research provide evidence to support the use of the a b model instead of the classical model.
    Dimensions of Information and Resource Flow in Healthcare Systems BIBAFull-Text 1268-1271
      Karim Camille Boustany; Barrett S. Caldwell
    This study focuses on classifying human interactions in healthcare delivery in terms of the information and resource flows at multiple levels of analysis. Understanding the characteristic healthcare delivery requirements and communication patterns among healthcare professionals seems to be necessary to effectively support information sharing and coordination. We analyzed communication links between healthcare providers and dissected different types of information and resource flow. We identified four dimensions of information and resource flow: spatial proximity, flow requirement, modality, and flow path. Now that we have set a new methodology to characterize them, we can easily distinguish the various information and resource flow types. When applying these finding in simulating healthcare systems in order to analyze information and resource sharing and coordination, the above four dimensions would serve as attributes of the flowing entities. Finally, we demonstrate that the results of this study are the natural first step towards developing an efficient healthcare quality measurement tool.
    Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Prescription Drug Advertising on Television and Online Purchases of Medications BIBAFull-Text 1272-1276
      William J. Vigilante; Christopher Mayhorn; Michael S. Wogalter
    The present research explored several aspects concerning hazard/risk communication in direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertising. Results indicated that participants frequently encounter DTC ads and some report information seeking as a result. Participants reported that their physicians will fill their requests for DTC advertised drugs. They report infrequently making online (Internet) purchases of prescription drugs possibly due to safety and legal concerns. Implications of the findings for factors/ergonomics (HF/E) professionals are discussed.
    Measurement of the Relationship between Patient Wait Time and Patient Satisfaction at each Stage of an Appointment BIBAFull-Text 1277-1279
      Patricia R. Delucia; Kerstan S. Mork; Tammy E. Ott; Eston T. Betts; Nushin S. Niroumand; Meredith L. Slaughter
    Patient satisfaction is associated with self-reported treatment compliance and patient outcomes. One factor that influences patient satisfaction is wait time- how long a patient waits during a visit to a health care facility. Here, we measured the time spent at each component of a patient's visit to a cancer treatment facility and its correlation with patient satisfaction. Results suggest that reducing the total time of a patient's visit to a health care facility will improve not only patient satisfaction with how long the entire visit takes, but also satisfaction with other aspects of the visit not including waiting. Moreover, results suggest that the time spent in the examination room waiting for the doctor is highly associated with patient satisfaction with overall time spent during the entire visit. In short, our results suggest several ways to improve patient satisfaction at a cancer treatment facility. The implication is that such improvements will lead to greater treatment compliance and ultimately to better patient outcomes.
    Using Global Implicit Measurement Strategies to Assess Situation Awareness during the Training of Laparoscopic Surgical Skills BIBAFull-Text 1280-1282
      C. H. Lio; C. M. Carswell; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke; Y. Kurs; J. Decuir
    How well does a global implicit measure assess situation awareness in an elementary laparoscopic training scenario? Nine volunteers threaded as many orange, purple, and blue foam rings as possible onto a pegboard during 2-minute trials. They used a pair of 5mm laparoscopic surgical graspers in an endoscopy training simulator to perform the task. Ring sizes were identical for all colors in the first three trials but were of different inner diameters for the remaining six trials. This switch was never mentioned to participants. Workload measures were collected for each trial and included a subjective measure (NASA-TLX) and a secondary-task method (interval productions). Results indicated that interval productions, but not the NASA-TLX, showed evidence of a workload spike at the time that situation awareness was first manifested in performance. These preliminary data suggest that a global implicit measure can be used for evaluating SA in a relatively simple environment.
    Gender Differences and Aggressive Driving Behavior: A Factor Analytic Study BIBAFull-Text 1283-1286
      Mustapha Mouloua; J. Christopher Brill; Edwin Shirkey
    Aggressive driving behavior can be manifested in a wide variety of unsafe driving practices such as tailgating, honking, obscene and rude gestures, flashing high beams at slower traffic, and speeding. According the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2000 report, aggressive driving was a major cause of traffic accidents and injury. The present study was designed to systematically examine 5 previously developed scales related to aggressive driving behavior using a factor analytic approach. A sample of 253 students were administered these five questionnaires and the data were coded and statistically analyzed using a principal components analysis with Varimax rotation on the 81 items of the five combined scales. Nineteen components accounting for 67.4% of the variance were retained. Component scores were computed for the 19 components and then correlated with gender. Three significant (p < .05) positive r's were found between gender; factors 11 (bright lights action), 12 (delaying action), and 19 (driving drunk). Males in the sample reported performing these actions more than females. There was one negative r between gender and factor 4 (considerate thoughts), suggesting that females reported more pleasant thoughts than males when angered or annoyed on the road.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception in Aerospace Applications

    2D vs. 3D Visual Cues for Altitude Maintenance in Low-Altitude Flight BIBAFull-Text 1287-1290
      Rob Gray
    Previous research on altitude maintenance in low-altitude flight has focused either on cues provided by 2D features in the visual scene (e.g., splay angle) or on visual cues provided by the presence of 3D objects in the scene (e.g., occlusion). Therefore, little is known about the relative importance of 2D and 3D cues in altitude maintenance. We systematically varied the position variability, height, and pattern of surface elements in a simulated low-level flight environment to vary the salience of 2D and 3D visual cues. For 2D objects, altitude variability increased as a function of object position variability indicating that splay and depression angles are not reliable cues for terrains with irregularly spaced objects. For 3D objects, altitude variability increased less (or not at all) as a function of position variability indicating that the cues provided by 3D objects such as occlusion and motion parallax are the dominant visual cues for altitude maintenance for natural terrains with irregularly spaced objects.
    Detection-Action Linkage in Vigilance: Effects on Workload and Stress BIBAFull-Text 1291-1295
      Kelley S. Parsons; Joel S. Warm; W. Todd Nelson; Gerald Matthews; Michael A. Riley
    Using a simulated UAV control task in which a vigilance display warned observers of the presence of enemy threats, Gunn et al. (2005) reported that perceived mental workload in relation to the vigilance task was unexpectedly low. The present study did not confirm that finding. It did show, however, that vigilance performance was greater and task induced stress was less among observers who had the opportunity to act upon vigilance signal detections by destroying the enemy threats than among those who detected threats but had no opportunity to counter them. Accordingly, the results point to the importance of a detection-action linkage to enhance signal detection and reduce stress in the performance of vigilance tasks.
    +Gz Acceleration Loss of Consciousness: Use of G-suit Pressurization and Sensory Stimulation to Enhance Recovery BIBAFull-Text 1296-1300
      Lloyd D. Tripp; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; Peter Y. Chiu; R. Bruce Bracken
    Gravity-induced loss of consciousness (GLOC) is the second largest human factors problem facing fighter pilots today. Whinnery, Burton, Boll, and Eddy, (1987) found that the GLOC event consists of a 24-sec period of total incapacitation involving unconsciousness and confusion. A study by Tripp, et al. (2006) found that the GLOC problem was much worse that originally thought with total performance incapacitation lasting for 87 sec. The two studies described herein were designed to decrease the time required to recover from the GLOC event. Toward that end, the first study employed an anti-G suit inflation technique while the second study exposed participants to accessory auditory, visual, and tactile stimulation following GLOC. Both procedures significantly reduced the duration of the GLOC episode but the reductions were not substantial enough to be functionally effective.
    Use of Continuous Zoom on Electro-Optical Imaging Systems: Comparisons Between Automatic and Manual Target Tracking BIBAFull-Text 1301-1305
      Jacquelyn M. Crebolder; L. Penney
    The use of continuous zoom in an electro-optical sensor system was investigated with respect to target tracking. Using a simulation of an operator-machine interface in an airborne multi-sensor surveillance system, targets were tracked by manually directing the sensor or by an automated tracker. It was hypothesized that frequency of using the continuous zoom would be higher in the manual tracking mode than in auto-tracking, and negatively correlated with tracking error. Sensor, and targets to be tracked, were either moving or stationary in three types of tracking scenarios. Results showed that the zoom function was used more often when tracking manually, although the way continuous zoom was used differed between the two tracking modes. Also, tracking error was lower when the zoom function was used in manual mode. Tracking error was additionally affected by whether or not the target and/or the sensor were moving or stationary. Results improve our understanding of the way complex sensor systems are used, and will assist in ascertaining whether providing a continuous zoom into optical imaging systems is of benefit to operators.
    Pilot Expertise and Instrument Failure: Detecting Failure is Only Half the Battle BIBAFull-Text 1306-1310
      Randy J. Brou; Stephanie M. Doane; Daniel W. Carruth; Gary L. Bradshaw
    The present research examined novice and expert flight performance in simulated routine and announced instrument failure flight conditions. Pilots flew routine flight segments under simulated instrument flight rules, and were informed there would be an instrument failure at some point. Microsoft Flight Simulator was used to simulate a slow vacuum failure that impacted the attitude indicator and the failure was explicitly displayed in large letters on the instrument panel throughout the failure segment. Although novices and experts showed minimal axis deviations from optimal during routine flight maneuvers, the novice deviations increased significantly in the announced failure condition. The results have implications for the efficacy of instrument failure indicators for novice pilots with approximately ninety-five hours of flight experience.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Neuroergonomics of Visual Cognition: Research and Applications

    Neuroergonomics of Visual Cognition: Research and Applications BIBAFull-Text 1311-1314
      Raja Parasuraman
    This panel examines recent developments in neuroergonomic research and application involving higher-order vision. Four important aspects of visual cognition are discussed, namely 3-D object motion, biological motion, visual memory, and visual imagery. Each of the panelists follows a neuroergonomic approach, first describing studies of these aspects of visual cognition using both behavioral and neuroimaging (fMRI, ERP, and MEG) measures. The implications of these results for human factors applications are then discussed. Particular domains of application that are examined include elder design, driving, virtual environments, and software and educational curriculum design.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception Theory and Practice

    A Multidimensional Model of Space Perception: Theoretical and Practical Implications BIBFull-Text 1315-1316
      Patricia R. DeLucia
    Naive Realism in Terrain Appreciation BIBAFull-Text 1317-1321
      Harvey S. Smallman; Maia B. Cook; Daniel I. Manes; Michael B. Cowen
    Previously, we have shown that shaded perspective view ("3-D") displays are better for understanding the shape and rough layout of terrain than conventional 2-D views. We have coined the term Naïve Realism for users' misplaced, blanket faith in these 3-D displays (Smallman & St. John, 2005). There are hints in the individual difference literature that those of low spatial ability may be particularly prone to Naïve Realism. Here, we integrate these notions to test several theoretical predictions and to develop a new terrain simplification concept. Thirty-three participants had their spatial ability and problem-solving style measured. Then participants predicted which displays would, and then did, best support them in performing a task of threading a concealed route through realistic terrain. Depth relief (shading vs. topographic lines), viewing angle (90° vs. 45°) and terrain fidelity (high/unfiltered sharp vs. low/spatially smoothed) were all varied. Of the eight display combinations, Naïve Realism correctly predicted the greatest preference for the highest fidelity, realistic 3-D view (sharp, shaded, 45°). Yet the routing task was best performed with lower fidelity views. Spatially filtering terrain unmasks canyons and other gross terrain features, enabling them to pop-out more easily. Individuals of high spatial ability had better task performance and better calibrated their post-task display preferences, suggesting they are generally more savvy about the ways that display format affects their performance.
    Effects of Transitioning Between Perspective-Rendered Views BIBAFull-Text 1322-1326
      Jocelyn Keillor; Kevin Trinh; Justin G. Hollands; Michael Perlin
    Increasingly, multiple views on the same scene may be made available via a network of sensors in security and surveillance applications. Similarly, virtual reality and gaming applications may provide a user with more than one view on a scene in an attempt to improve user orientation. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of 'visual momentum' by showing an advantage in spatial judgments when users are provided with a transition between 2D and perspective views. However, no prior research has examined the utility of smooth transitions between different perspective-rendered views of the same scene. The present experiment compared two types of smooth transition between perspective-rendered views, and demonstrated that transitions generally provide an advantage on a spatial judgment task. Notably, transitions between perspective views did not need to include a bird's eye view of the scene in order for users to make improved line-of-sight judgments.
    Identity Verification from Photographs in Travel Documents: The Role of Display Duration and Orientation on Performance BIBAFull-Text 1327-1330
      Sarah D. Chiller-Glaus; Adrian Schwaninger; Franziska Hofer
    At border control, it is the personnel's job to identify possible passport fraud, in particular to verify whether the photograph in a travel document matches its bearer. However, as various earlier studies suggest, identity verification from photographs or CCTV is far from accurate. The aim of this study was thus to investigate identity verification at border control. Particularly, we examined the influence of display duration in document verification. Results showed that performance significantly suffered from time restrictions, which stresses the importance of working environments at border control free of time pressure. A second aim was to assess a possible benefit of inversion of the document on identity verification performance, as was suggested by anecdotal evidence from security personnel but clearly contradicts the well known inversion effect in face recognition. Indeed, no such beneficial influence of inversion was found in this study. The results are discussed in terms of application-oriented implications.
    Attention Can Influence the Aperture Illusion: Theoretical and Practical Implications BIBAFull-Text 1331
      Tammy E. Ott; Patricia R. DeLucia
    Recently we demonstrated that the aperture illusion is affected by both the shape of the aperture and by whether the aperture is stationary or moving (Ott & DeLucia, 2006). We hypothesized that effects of aperture shape and motion were due to attentional processes. With the use of computer-generated displays and manipulation of attention instructions, we obtained results consistent with our hypothesis: When the aperture was a moving circle or moving octagon, the illusion was smaller when participants divided their attention between the line and aperture compared with when they focused their attention on the line. However, when the aperture was a moving rectangle, the illusion was smaller when participants focused their attention on the line compared with when they divided their attention. The theoretical implication is that the mechanisms that underlie the aperture illusion can be influenced by attention. Results also have potential practical implications for situations in which observers view moving objects with a limited field of view, as in minimally-invasive surgery.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Auditory, Visual, and Haptic Cueing

    A Comparison of Soldier Performance on a Target Detection and Identification Task Using Fused Sensor Technology and Current Night Vision Technology BIBAFull-Text 1332-1335
      M. LaFiandra; W. Harper
    Soldiers rely on night vision devices to enhance their ability to detect and identify objects of interest in environments of reduced luminosity. The night vision device that is currently being used by United States Army Soldiers deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan is based on Image Intensifying (I2) technology. An alternative technology for night vision devices is to use a fused sensor that combines I2 technology and a thermal sensor. The purpose of this study is to compare Soldier performance on detecting and identifying human targets while using a night vision device with I2 technology to their performance while using prototype fused sensors in a field setting. Five retired Special Forces Soldiers, all of which had experience with using night vision devices which employed I2 technology and with thermal imaging technology participated in the study. Participants were asked to detect targets at ranges varying from 50-250 meters and to identify targets as military or civilian at ranges of 25-150 meters. Significant main effects of type of night vision device type (p<0.0093) and range (p<0.0003) were found on the ability of the participants to both detect and identify targets. In addition, a significant interaction was determined (p<0.0219) on the ability of participants to detect targets. Focused analysis revealed participants were more able to correctly detect targets with the I2 technology than with fused sensors at targets ranging from 200-250 meters, and were more able to correctly identify targets with I2 than with fused sensors. The results from this study clearly indicate the prototype fused sensor tested here did not outperform a night vision device based solely on I2 technology, and in several cases demonstrated poorer performance.
    Dynamic Frequencies and Perceptual Binding in a Combined Auditory-Tactile Task BIBAFull-Text 1336-1340
      Peter I. Terrence; Justin F. Morgan; Richard D. Gilson
    Two experiments examined the potential effect of perceptual binding in the auditory and tactile modalities for one stimulus parameter: dynamic frequency sweeps versus static frequencies. Experiment 1 established baseline performance for identifying a single stimulus presentation. Experiment 2 examined the effects of presenting simultaneous auditory and tactile signals while attempting to focus on a single sensory channel. Experiment 1 demonstrates that identifying the frequency sweep or static signal is relatively easy in both modalities. Experiment 2 shows the unidirectional domination of auditory signals over tactile, irrespective of sensory focus modality. Overall findings and the implications for design and directions for future research are discussed.
    In-Flight Navigation Using Head-Coupled and Aircraft-Coupled Spatial Audio Cues BIBAFull-Text 1341-1344
      Brian D. Simpson; Douglas S. Brungart; Ronald C. Dallman; Richard J. Yasky; Griffin D. Romigh; John F. Raquet
    A flight test was conducted to evaluate how effectively spatialized audio cues could be used to maneuver a general aviation aircraft through a complex navigation course. Two conditions were tested: a head-coupled condition, where audio cues were updated in response to changes in the orientation of the pilot's head, and an aircraft-coupled condition, where audio cues were updated in response to changes in the direction of the aircraft. Both cueing conditions resulted in excellent performance, with the pilots on average passing within 0.25 nm of the waypoints on the navigation course. However, overall performance was better in the aircraft-coupled condition than in the head-coupled condition. This result is discussed in terms of an alignment mismatch between the pilot's frame of reference and that of the aircraft, which is critical when using spatial audio to cue the desired orientation of the vehicle rather than the location of an object in space.
    The Effect of Sonification Pulse Rate on Perceived Urgency and Response Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 1345-1348
      Randall D. Spain; James P. Bliss; Elizabeth T. Newlin
    Emergency signal researchers have devoted considerable energy to understanding the perceived urgency and performance effects of reliable and marginally reliable discrete auditory signals. Relatively little attention has been paid to aspects of continuous auditory displays. The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate and document the effects of sonification presentation rate on perceived urgency and response behaviors during a simulated patient monitoring task. As expected, participants rated shorter interpulse intervals as being significantly more urgent than longer pulse intervals. Participants also responded faster to patient problems when interacting with a sonification system that used shorter pulse intervals.
    3D Audio Display For Pararescue Jumpers BIBAFull-Text 1349-1352
      Robert H. Gilkey; Brian D. Simpson; Douglas S. Brungart; Jeffery L. Cowgill; Adrienne Janae Ephrem
    Visual and audio navigations aids were compared in a virtual environment that depicted an urban combat search and rescue mission (CSAR). The participants' task was to rapidly move through a virtual maze depicted in a CAVE to find a downed pilot, while dealing with automated hostile and friendly characters. The visual and audio displays were designed to present comparable information, which in separate conditions could be a simple realtime indication of the bearing to the pilot or to intermediate waypoints along the way. Auditory displays led to faster response times than visual displays (p=.011) and the waypoint display led to faster response times than the simple bearing display (p=.002). The results are considered in the context of the target CSAR application.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Haptics Control and Imagery

    Kinematics of Reaching and Grasping with a Tool BIBAFull-Text 1353-1357
      Bin Zheng; Christine L. MacKenzie
    Kinematics of reaching and grasping are observed for prehension performed by the hand (natural prehension) and with a simple grasper held in the hand (remote prehension). Remote prehension is executed with a longer movement time, lower movement speed, extended deceleration phase and a relatively larger peak aperture compared to natural prehension. The kinematic changes in remote prehension are more pronounced when adults reached and grasped an object placed on a narrow than a wide base. Results suggested that the indirect and incomplete proprioception and sensorimotor integration with tool use are the main problems for movement control in remote manipulation. Implications of this study are discussed for design of tools and a safe work environment for tool use.
    The Control Strategy for Degrees of Freedom in Remote Prehension with a Tool BIBAFull-Text 1358-1362
      Bin Zheng; Christine L. MacKenzie
    Constructing movement couplings is essential for decreasing degrees-of-freedom for a compound movement that requires coordination over a multiple segments. Angular movements of joints in the upper limbs are examined, the pattern of movement couplings between prehension performed with the hands (natural prehension) and with a simple grasper held in the hands (remote prehension). In remote prehension, the shoulder and elbow joint are tightly associated with a clear in-phase joint to joint movement; the elbow and wrist display both anti- and in-phase movements due to the change of initial configuration of the upper limb when holding a tool. In contrast, the shoulder-elbow bond is mixed in natural prehension, but the elbow and wrist bond is predominant with an anti-phase pattern. With diversity for joint couplings, the movement consistency of the hinge is preserved with relatively smaller path variability. Results support the end-point control notion, i.e. movement is controlled by extrinsic coordinates close to the end-effectors of the movement system.
    Neurotechnology for Imagery Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1363-1367
      A. Eve Miller; David L. Strayer; Julie L. Marble
    This research combined image alignment techniques with techniques for processing neurophysiological signals to find consistent classifiers of changed and unchanged aerial reconnaissance images. These physiological markers were independent of explicit responses, and in fact, can compensate for errors made by analysts. In addition, we found that measures of eye movements have significant potential for use in image triage. This research has applications not only to the Intelligence community but also in commercial applications, such as analysis of medical imagery, geological and environmental studies, and building construction and inspection.
    The Role of Temporal Sequence Learning in Guiding Visual Attention Allocation BIBAFull-Text 1368-1372
      Sarah M. Miller; Wai-Tat Fu
    Models of visual attention allocation suggest that monitoring is driven primarily by proximal cues like bandwidth and value. However, these cues might not always be predictive of the meaningful events an operator is asked to monitor. The aim of the current study is to extend visual sampling models by studying whether sampling can be influenced by more distal cues, like detecting patterns in the monitored signal, when proximal cues, like bandwidth, are not predictive of the meaningful events the operator is asked to monitor. Ten participants completed a task based on Senders' (1964) experiment where operators were asked to monitor a series of four gauges to detect when the gauges traveled into the alarm region. The performance results suggest that participants could successfully adapt to the temporal sequence. However, participants did not show explicit awareness of the sequence, indicating that this type of learning could, in some cases, be implicit. Implications for display design and training are discussed.
    Effect of Variable Visual-Feedback Delay on Movement Time BIBAFull-Text 1373-1377
      Julio C. Mateo; Robert H. Gilkey; Jeffrey L. Cowgill
    The effects of variable feedback delays on movement time were examined in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment. The participants' task was to use a 3D controller to position a cursor in targets as they appeared in a cubic workspace. Both the mean and standard deviation of the delay between the movement of the controller and the displayed position of the cursor were manipulated. In addition, the size of the targets and the distance between targets were varied. The results suggested that movement times are much more strongly affected by mean delay than by delay variability and that the effect of both variables is greatest during the closed-loop component of the movement. The results are discussed in relation to buffering strategies for reducing delay variability, Fitts' law, and other descriptions of aimed movements.

    SAFETY: Warnings and Risk Perception

    Exploring Parental Response to Age-Related Warnings BIBAFull-Text 1378-1382
      J. Paul Frantz; Timothy P. Rhoades; Stephen L. Young; Julia K. Diebol; Raina J. Shah
    Forty parents participated in structured interviews that explored parental responses to a warning that proscribed the use of an adult ATV by children under age 16. Two such labels were evaluated in a between-subjects design -- one with and one without the following statement: "Even youth with ATV experience have immature judgment and should never drive an adult ATV." Several dependent measures were considered in relation to these warnings, including parents' understanding of the label, likelihood of considering the label, and comfort with not complying with the label. Interview results showed no effect of the message on any of these measures. There was significant correlation between the age of the child in question and parents' reported responses to the labels. Focus groups indicated a negative affective reaction to the added message with some parents noting that the message was offensive, unnecessary, and/or that it lacked credibility. Parents also noted variability in maturity levels among youth of a given age. Implications are discussed.
    Middle-School-Aged Children's Expectations and Beliefs Toward the Relative Safety of Riding Bicycles at Night BIBAFull-Text 1383-1387
      Raymond W. Lim; William J. Vigilante
    The expectations, attitudes, and perceptions of middle-school-aged children toward the relative safety of riding bicycles at night, with reflectors and/or head and tail lights, were examined. Six hundred and twenty-nine children between grades 6 and 9 were surveyed. More than 50 percent of the children reported that it was not dangerous to ride a bicycle at night with only reflectors or only lights. Moreover, 91 percent of the children reported that it was safe to ride at night if they had both reflectors and lights. Results indicated that 22% of the children had lights on their bicycles; while 51% reported riding their bicycles at night at least once in a while. The results suggest that children riding their bicycles at night without lights are under-estimating the dangerousness of the activity. That is, a large percentage of children are underestimating the ease at which drivers can see them while riding without lights.
    Eye Movements While Reading Degraded On-Product Warnings BIBAFull-Text 1388-1392
      Nathan T. Dorris; R. Brian Valimont; Eric J. Boelhouwer
    This investigation tested whether heavily degraded warnings affected gaze patterns and resulted in longer viewing times than lightly degraded warnings. The study included sixteen participants who viewed six matched pairs of lightly and heavily degraded warnings. Eye movements were recorded using an eye tracking system while the total time on task for each warning was collected. Fixation times were also collected as participants viewed the various panels of each warning. In the second part of the experiment, legibility and participant comprehension of each warning was tested. Paired t-tests showed that total time on task, total fixation time, and message panel fixation time were consistently significantly different for three of the six pairs of warnings, such that each of the three aforementioned times increased significantly when participants were viewing a highly degraded warning label. Additionally, participants were able to comprehend all warnings presented. This study also provides evidence that eye tracking can be a useful tool in warnings research.
    Driving Under the Influence of Phones: The Importance of Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Style on Interruption-related Performance BIBAFull-Text 1393-1397
      Danielle Lottridge; Mark Chignell
    The impact of notifications on driving performance is a critical safety concern (Lee & Strayer, 2004). This study examined how interruptions (including phone calls) impair simulated driving performance, and how individual differences mediate the effect of those interruptions. Consistent with our hypothesis, field dependent participants answered phone calls more quickly and with less consideration of the difficulty of the current driving situation than more field independent participants. Further, a post-hoc analysis showed that, on average, field dependents with small operating spans crashed twice as often as the other drivers. Thus the detrimental effect of a field dependent style on managing interruptions while driving is likely worsened for people with low working memory capacity. It is suggested that future research should investigate the safety implications of individual differences in interruption handling ability. Such research is needed to support ongoing efforts to develop guidelines and legislation concerning the use of distracting information technologies (such as cell phones) in automobiles.
    Perceived Effectiveness of Warning Messages for Use as Vocal Warnings in Residential Fire Alarms BIBAFull-Text 1398-1402
      Jeffrey J. Smith; Michael S. Wogalter
    Approximately half of all deaths associated with residential fires occur while individuals are sleeping. Voice technology added to fire alarms may provide better warnings than traditional, nonverbal alarms. This study examined several verbal messages presented to participants in written form. Forty-four university students and 12 firefighters rated the appropriateness, attention-getting qualities, and content of 6 prototype messages. Data indicate similarities and differences between the two participant groups. Firefighters provided recommendations on improving the messages with respect to safe egress for children during residential fires. Areas for further research are discussed.

    SAFETY: An International Perspective on Risk Communications

    An International Perspective on Risk Communications: Adapting to Safety Demands in the Emerging Global Economy BIBAFull-Text 1403-1405
      Michael J. Kalsher; Freija van Duijne
    The purpose of this session is to explore alternative ways of thinking about risk communication in an effort to spark new research that will be responsive to the increasingly complex safety demands of the new millennium in a rapidly shrinking world. To accomplish these objectives, we have assembled a group of international scholars and practitioners who have published and/or worked extensively in the general topic area. One feature of this panel discussion session that is unique is that each participant will present data relevant to a particular set of risk communication issues in their respective countries. A synopsis of this work is outlined in the summary that follows.

    SAFETY: Construction and Industry Safety

    Assessing Safety Climate and Organizational Risk BIBAFull-Text 1406-1410
      Anthony P. Ciavarelli
    Research conducted at the Navy Postgraduate School, over the past 10 years, has focused on key organizational factors that may influence the likelihood of an accident or organizational failure. The concept of "high-reliability-organizations", originated by Dr. Karlene Roberts and her colleagues at UC Berkeley, California, and was used as a point of departure for understanding how different organizations manage the risk of accidents and other organizational failures. High-reliability organizations are those that are very successful at reducing the risks of operational hazards that typically underlie accidents and organizational disasters, such as the Challenger and Columbia Shuttle accidents. Included in the concept of high-reliability organizations are factors related to the safety culture of the organization. The author and his colleagues at the Naval Postgraduate School and UC Berkeley have developed and validated a web-based safety climate assessment and feedback system now in use in Naval Aviation and in other aviation, aerospace, and medical applications. This paper reviews recent findings in the application of safety climate and culture assessments conducted in naval aviation and US hospitals.
    The Use of HEART to Assess the Risk of Remote Control Locomotive Operations: A Tale of Two Cities BIBAFull-Text 1411-1415
      Stephen J. Reinach; Steven Fadden; Frederick C. Gamst; Sarah A. Acton
    In an effort to reduce operating costs and increase safety and efficiency, U. S. Class I freight railroads have begun to use remotely controlled locomotives in and around railroad switching yards. To better understand the safety implications of implementing this technology, a human reliability assessment was conducted to compare remotely controlled locomotive operations with conventional (engineer onboard) yard switching operations. This paper discusses application of the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) with 2 yard switching employee subject matter experts. Each was asked to assess 11 conventional scenarios and 11 nearly-identical remote control scenarios. Human error probabilities were calculated for each scenario. The HEART assessment revealed no overall difference in human error probabilities between the 2 methods of operation. Additional analyses suggest significant variability between the two assessors. This paper explores differences in how assessors used HEART, including differences in selection of generic task types and error-producing conditions.
    Effect of Operator Position on the Incidence of Continuous Mining Machine/Worker Collisions BIBAFull-Text 1416-1420
      John R. Bartels; Dean H. Ambrose; Sean Gallagher
    Remote operation of continuous miners has enhanced the health and safety of underground miners in many respects; however, numerous fatal and non-fatal continuous miner struck-by accidents have occurred when using remote controls. In an effort to prevent these injuries, NIOSH researchers at Pittsburgh Research Laboratory examined the workplace relationships between continuous miner operators and various tramming modes of the equipment using motion captured data, predicted operator response times, and field-of-view data to determine causes of operator-machine struck-by events in a virtual mine environment. Factors studied included machine speed, direction of escape, operator facing orientation relative to the machine, work posture, distance from machine, and operator anthropometry. Close proximity to the machine, high machine tramming speeds, a right-facing orientation and operator positioning near the tail all resulted in high risk of being struck. It is hoped that this data will provide an improved rationale for operator positioning for remotely operated continuous miners.
    Interaction of Vehicle Speed and Auditory Detection of Backup Alarms AKA: Can the Construction Worker Get Out of the Way? BIBAFull-Text 1421-1424
      Jeff A. Lancaster; Khaled Alali; John G. Casali
    Accident and incident reports have indicated that construction workers, who comprise only a fraction of the industrial work force, suffer more fatal injuries than in any other industry. Many of these accidents and incidents involve workers being struck and run over by a reversing vehicle. During performance of their duties, construction workers are frequently in the vicinity of backup alarms mounted on a variety of vehicles, each with different backing speeds. Due to the loud ambient noise prevalent on many construction sites, workers may wear hearing protection devices, which can affect their ability to detect these backup alarms. An experiment was conducted in free-field conditions to determine the distance at which normal-hearing listeners who wore a high-attenuation earmuff could detect a standard backup alarm signal. Based on the data collected, a relationship was established between the minimum-required backup alarm detection distance and the reversing speeds for several typical vehicles.

    SAFETY: Safety Potpourri

    From Latent Failure to Active Failure: The Investigation of Human Errors in Aviation Operation BIBAFull-Text 1425-1429
      Wen-Chin Li; Don Harris
    The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS, Wiegmann & Shappell, 2003) was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human factors in aviation accidents. HFACS is based upon Reason's model (1990) of human error in which active failures are associated with the performance of front-line operators in complex systems and latent failures are characterized as inadequacies which lie dormant within a system for a long time, and are only triggered when combined with other factors to breach the system's defenses. In this research HFACS was used to analyze accidents occurring in civil aviation aircraft in the Republic of China (ROC). Forty-one accident reports from the Aviation Safety Council (ASC) were analyzed. Relationships in the HFACS framework were identified linking fallible decisions at higher (organizational) levels with supervisory practices, thereby creating the preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots.
    Pitfalls in Evaluating Aviation Accident Risk BIBAFull-Text 1430-1434
      Bruce G. Coury; Deborah Bruce
    Reducing accident risk is a primary goal of aviation safety. To accomplish that goal requires a thorough understanding of accident and exposure data used in the evaluation of accident risk. Using Gulf of Mexico helicopter data as an example, this paper examines the way in which civil aviation accident risk is determined, and discusses the pitfalls found in accident and exposure data. The implications for characterizing accident risk and evaluating safety improvements are discussed.
    Use of Cautions and Warnings within International Space Station Procedures: When Too Much Information Becomes Risky BIBAFull-Text 1435-1438
      Cynthia M. Rando; Devanshi G. Patel; Laura E. Duvall
    Working on the International Space Station (ISS) has uncovered several challenges in the prevention of human error and desensitization to hazard advisories. Although human-centered design strives to eliminate accidents, there are still many unknowns in long term space habitation. Specifically, during the last fourteen ISS Expeditions, the crew has indicated that cautions and warnings (C&Ws) were used inappropriately within procedures. Human factors and safety personnel reviewed all comments made during ISS debriefs and a sample set of procedures. Findings included: no human factors input in procedure development, inconsistencies in procedure development, unclear C&W standards, and overuse and misuse of C&Ws throughout procedures. A usability evaluation was conducted to assess C&W intuitiveness for a specific set of C&Ws: Touch Temperature, Shock, Electrostatic Discharge, Rack Rotation, and Foreign Object Debris. This work focuses on the review findings, usability evaluation results, recommendations to NASA, final implementation and application to industry.
    Response Time and Decision Accuracy for 'No Turn on Red' Signs BIBAFull-Text 1439-1443
      Bryan A. Campbell; Jennifer A. Cowley; Christopher B. Mayhorn; Michael S. Wogalter
    'No turn on red' signs have been the subject of traffic research in recent years because they are violated at higher rates than other signs. One reason may be due to inadequate conspicuity. This study examined response times and decision accuracy (proportion correct) following glance exposure to three different 'No Turn on Red' signs. Two of the 'No Turn on Red' signs tested are currently being used on U.S. roadways in some jurisdictions; one contains only text and the other contains a red circle with text. These were compared to a third new sign (Prohibition Arrow and Text). The three signs and a no-sign condition (control) were embedded into 12 different traffic scenes. Each sign and scene condition was presented for a 1 s duration and then participants responded whether they could turn right in that particular scene or not (answering yes or no). The new (Prohibition Arrow and Text) sign condition had significantly faster response times compared to the other two signs. Accuracy was approximately 90% and did not differ among sign conditions. The no-sign condition was responded to significantly slower and less accurately than the sign conditions. The new (Prohibition Arrow and Text) sign yielded better performance than the other sign conditions in scenes rated as highly cluttered. Some explanations on why the new sign benefited decision times are discussed.
    Human Factors Analysis of the BP Texas City Refinery Explosion BIBAFull-Text 1444-1448
      Cheryl MacKenzie; Donald Holmstrom; Mark Kaszniak
    On March 23, 2005, the BP Texas City Refinery suffered one of the worst industrial disasters in recent U.S. history. An explosion and fire occurred during the startup of a process unit. Fifteen workers were killed and 180 others were injured when a distillation tower was overfilled and liquid and vapor hydrocarbons were released into the atmosphere. A vapor cloud formed, found an ignition source, and exploded. The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) deployed a team to Texas City to conduct a root cause investigation. The authors of this paper, working as investigators for the agency, found several pre-existing latent conditions and safety system deficiencies that affected unit operators' decisions and actions on the day of the incident. This submission presents a summary of those deficiencies and the primary human factors issues of the case.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Operational Applications

    Field Testing the AMIT Job Performance Aid: Methods, Results, and Implications for the Air Force Maintenance Community BIBAFull-Text 1449-1453
      David E. Kancler; Christopher C. Curtis; Darryl S. Stimson; Johnnie Jernigan
    The Aircraft Maintenance Intuitive Troubleshooting (AMIT) project was a 3 year endeavor sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Logistics Readiness Branch. The project's goal was to develop a Job Performance Aid (JPA) that Air Force maintenance technicians could use at the aircraft, regardless of experience level, and realize improved technician performance. This paper describes the AMIT Field Demonstration Test (FDT) and subsequent Cost Analysis (CA). The FDT demonstrated that using the AMIT JPA could reduce repair times by 41 to 50 minutes. Also, performance of novice specialists using AMIT approached or exceeded that of expert specialists using current methods. The CA, applying the FDT results to fleet-wide F-16 Block 40/42 maintenance data, revealed a potential savings of over 47,000 labor hours annually in repair time, translating roughly into $3,000,000 in labor costs. Similar savings are likely across additional airframes pending development and implementation of the AMIT solution.
    Please Don't Abuse the Models: The Use of Experimental Design in Model Building BIBAFull-Text 1454-1457
      Diane Mitchell; Charneta Samms
    Human factors professionals strive to create effective system design by ensuring that the capabilities and limitations of the human operator are a primary design consideration. By demonstrating the effect of various design decisions concerning the human operator on system performance early in the development cycle, resulting recommendations may be adopted to enhance system performance. To achieve this goal, human performance modeling tools are used. One of the common misconceptions about modeling is that a model alone will impact design. A model is merely a building block within an analysis. An influential analysis incorporates the principles of experimental design, the power of predictive modeling and the varying system design requirements to produce results that empower program managers to make informed decisions regarding system design. Analysts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have successfully influenced the conceptual design of several manned ground vehicles by recognizing this difference.
    Systems Thinking and Archetypes in the Military, Postulating a New Archetype BIBAFull-Text 1458-1462
      Lisa A. Rehak; Tab Lamoureux; Jerzy Jarmasz; Jeff Bos
    Systems thinking involves looking beyond events to see patterns of behaviour and the underlying systemic interrelationships. This is especially important for teams of planners or decision makers that are required to have a shared understanding of the systems they are affecting. Soon after 'systems thinking' emerged, the creation of generic counter-intuitive structures that seem to occur repeatedly in different systems began. These generic structures (which have come to be known as Archetypes) are models that can represent systems across different domains. This paper outlines the most 9 common archetypes that were first proposed by Senge. Finally, a new archetype is proposed that is characterized by a critical event triggering a massive increase in some factor.
    Dynamic Task Load Scheduling for Platform Control and Navigation on a Naval Ship BIBAFull-Text 1463-1467
      M. Grootjen; M. A. Neerincx; M. Marckelbach
    In process control, the ongoing automation and application of new technologies caused a radical change in the position of the operator. Due to this change, increasing manning constraints and the pressure to maximize the operational capability in the Navy, naval operators need personalized and dynamic support which can differ in time: the system should accommodate the user with the right task support at the right time. This paper presents the design and user evaluation of an interface with task allocation support. This kind of support enables the operator to redirect the alarm (system or operator initiated). Evaluation with 34 navy students shows positive results on performance and general usability. Performance increases because the most important problems are solved faster. However, performance on a less important task decreases and can be interpreted as 'reallocation costs'. Results on questionnaires show an increasing insecurity on the predictability of the system.
    NASA Space Flight Human System Standards BIBAFull-Text 1468-1470
      Dane Russo; Tico Foley; Ken Stroud; Janis Connolly; Barry Tillman; Lynn Pickett
    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems specifications (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook.

    STUDENT FORUM: Student Research on Driver Behavior

    Accommodating Age-Related Differences in Computer-Based Information Retrieval Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1471-1475
      Steven L. Pautz; Margaux M. Price; Richard Pak
    Previous research has shown that spatial ability is associated with performance on information retrieval tasks. Age-related changes in spatial ability may thus explain older adults' tendency to have lower performance on such tasks. However, previous studies have emphasized hierarchical information organization. The current study will examine the extent to which a different information retrieval interface can accommodate age-related changes in cognitive abilities. Younger and older adult performance in two information retrieval interfaces will be compared. One interface is meant to simulate hierarchically organized information systems while the second interface is specifically designed to reduce demands on age-related abilities while increasing demands on age-invariant abilities. It is expected that the results of this study will identify potential methods for improving information retrieval task performance for older adults.
    The Influence of Lead Vehicle Behavior and Vehicle Rates of Closure on a Driver's Braking Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1476-1480
      Nicholas J. Kelling; Gregory M. Corso
    Given the great prevalence of vehicle accidents, collision prevention should be a priority for ground transportation research. The understanding of such incidents is critical to the safety of the driver. This study involved simulations of multiple driving situations variant on Rate of Closure (the relative speed between two vehicles) and Lead Vehicle Behavior. Useful Field of View and Test Anxiety measures were used to analyze additional factors related to driving with little success. The findings show that brake onset times of younger drivers are significantly related to the behavior of a lead vehicle and to the rate of closure. As such, any system that only uses time to contact or distance to contact is fundamentally flawed. These results aid in the general understanding of driver behavior and could fundamentally change automatic braking systems.
    Tactons in multitask environments: The interaction of presentation modality and processing code BIBAFull-Text 1481-1485
      Thomas Ferris; Shameem Hameed; Robert Penfold; Nikhil Rao
    Tactons, or vibrotactile icons, have been proposed as a means to communicate complex concepts to users and to support multitasking in environments involving numerous visual and/or auditory tasks and stimuli. This study investigated the role of processing code in the interpretation of tactons while performing concurrent visual tasks in such environments. Participants decoded tactons composed of spatiotemporal patterns of vibrations -- requiring spatial processing - and interpreted one of two types of visual task stimuli -- requiring either spatial or categorical processing -- in a driving simulation. Compared to single-task performance, there was a significantly larger dual-task performance decrement when the tacton task was paired with the visual task requiring spatial (as compared to categorical) processing. The findings are consistent with the assertion of Multiple Resource Theory that interference between concurrent tasks is greater when these tasks involve the same processing code. They illustrate how distributing task-related information across modalities is beneficial but not sufficient to avoid task interference. A direct implication of the findings is to avoid the use of spatiotemporal tactons in environments which rely heavily on spatial processing resources, such as car cockpits or flight decks.

    STUDENT FORUM: A Guide to Successful HF/E Career Preparation

    A Guide to Successful HF/E Career Preparation: The Ultimate "Not-To-Do" List BIBAFull-Text 1486-1490
      Ronald G. Shapiro; Anthony D. Andre; Arnold M. Lund; Todd Barlow; Sara Waxberg
    Welcome to the Fourteenth Annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Student Career Panel. While our typical career panel emphasizes what one should do to prepare for a career, avoiding various misconstrued approaches to career preparation is as important as carrying out known beneficial approaches. Thus, this year's paper emphasizes what one should "not do" in the process of preparing for one's professional career. Following the recommendations provided in this paper will enhance the graduate school experience, the post-graduate job search process and success in the job itself. Tried and tested techniques as well as new ideas towards preparing for and finding the ideal career path and position will be presented.

    STUDENT FORUM: Student Research on Cognitive Arousal and Trust in Automation

    Applying the Appraisal Theory of Emotion to Human-Agent Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1491-1495
      Aaron A. Pepe; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin
    When people interact with one another, there is a series of conscious and unconscious evaluations used to judge the situation in order to determine an emotional response. This research examines whether the emotional appraisals that individuals use when interacting with other humans, can be applied to human-agent interactions, and whether the attributes of the non-human agent affect the nature of these appraisals. Participants work with one of three non-human teammates to accomplish a series of tasks. These agents are a real dog, a robotic dog (Sony AIBO), and a nondescript robot (Lego NXT). Participants' emotional reaction is measured through subjective questionnaires, physiological data (EKG & galvanic skin response), and vocal analysis. Taken together this set of measurements forms a detailed picture of how humans react emotionally to agents during their task interaction. It is predicted that agent form will influence participants' appraisals and emotional reactions.
    The Influence of Emotional State and Pictorial Cues on Perceptual Judgments BIBAFull-Text 1496-1500
      Kimberly R. Raddatz; Abigail Werth; Tuan Q. Tran
    Perspective displays (e.g., CDTI) are commonly used as decision aids in environments characterized by periods of high emotional arousal (e.g., terrain enhanced primary flight displays). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how emotional state, independently or in conjunction with other perceptual factors (e.g., pictorial depth cues), can impact perceptual judgments. Preliminary research suggests that induced emotional state (positive or negative) adversely impacts size comparisons in perspective displays (Tran & Raddatz, 2006). This study further investigated how size comparisons are affected by emotional state and pictorial depth cues while attenuating the limitations of the Tran & Raddatz (2006) study. Results confirmed that observers do make slower judgments under induced emotional state. However, observers under negative emotional state showed higher sensitivity (d') and required more evidence to respond that a size difference exists (response bias) than observers under positive emotional state. Implications for display design and human performance are discussed.
    Empirical Examination of Trust in Automation Across Multiple Agents in a Search and Rescue Operation BIBAFull-Text 1501-1505
      Jennifer M. Ross; James L. Szalma; Peter A. Hancock
    Automation has become increasingly prevalent in modern day society. With this progress, the shift from operators serving as active controllers (directly involved with the system) to supervisory controllers (indirect management of a system) has become more common. Accompanying this evolution of the operator from their original role, there is a need to explore the components that influence effective cooperation between operators and semi-autonomous agents. Two key factors moderating this relationship are operator trust in the agent and the complexity of the task itself (i.e., number of agents an operator monitors). This work examines trust and automation theory as it applies to an operator monitoring a complex, two agent, simulated search-and-rescue task. The effect of source characteristics of the two automated systems will be evaluated across reliability conditions for their impact upon reliance and perceived trust of automation. The purpose of this research is to extend knowledge in the theory of human-agent trust interaction and offers potential applied benefits in leveraging the aspects of system design that lead to optimizing human-agent interaction in a complex and possibly imperfect system.
    Effects of Mental Model Quality on Collaborative System Performance BIBAFull-Text 1506-1510
      Bart D. Wilkison; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
    This ongoing study is exploring how varying levels of user mental model quality influence performance with an imperfect automated system (navigational aid). The number and types of errors produced by participants is of particular interest along with how mental models influence user trust and reliance with automation. The design attempts to manipulate the acquisition of mental models by varying exposure to the task environment between groups. A high acquisition group, low acquisition group, and no acquisition group navigated the confines of a simulated city with the help of an automated aid performing at two levels of reliability. Implications of this study could influence the design of automated systems and their associated user training programs. Additionally, this study could spur additional research into the effects of mental model quality on automated system performance.
    Caution! Warning Effectiveness may be More Obfuscated than it Appears: Making Sense of the Warning Literature BIBAFull-Text 1511-1513
      Andrew Mayer; Julie Blaskiewicz Boron; Colin Kress; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
    Much research on warnings has the ultimate goal of assessing warning effectiveness or behavioral compliance with the warning. Despite this seemingly common goal, research conducted on warnings differentially concentrates on various aspects of the warning process, all of which are necessary to comply with a warning, but each is not sufficient to ensure compliance when considered in isolation. Thus, this extensive review of the literature will consider research on the four stages of warning compliance: namely, notice, encode, comprehend, and comply, and will seek to evaluate the effectiveness of product warnings as a whole. In addition to determining the effectiveness of warnings at each stage of the warning process, this research will also identify areas in need of further research, especially those pertaining to behavioral compliance, and will propose a framework for conducting experiments to adequately and more fully address behavioral compliance and warning effectiveness for on-product warnings.

    SPECIAL SESSION: Health Care Mock Trial

    Mock Trial: Role of Human Factors in Litigation Involving an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) BIBAFull-Text 1514-1516
     
    This special joint session (sponsored by Health Care TG and Forensics TG) at the 2007 annual meeting of HFES presents an enactment of a court trial involving an automated external defibrillator (AED). The mock trial session presents human factors issues related to the design and use of the AED which lead to the death of an individual who collapsed in an airport. Human factors experts for the plaintiff and the defense will each weigh in on the circumstances surrounding the death of the victim, with examination from the respective attorneys, and cross examination from the opposing attorneys. A panel of commentators provides reactions and opinions after each side has given its testimony. However, no judgment or verdict on the case will be reached at the end of the session.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Diver Safety Warnings & Alerts

    Identifying the Pattern of Localization Responses with a Haptic Seat Intended to Alert Drivers to the Direction of a Crash Threat BIBAFull-Text 1517-1521
      Gregory M. Fitch; Raymond J. Kiefer; Brian M. Kleiner; Jonathan M. Hankey
    The potential safety benefits afforded by emerging automotive crash avoidance systems may be enhanced by implementing a driver vehicle interface (DVI) that effectively communicates the direction of a potential crash threat in a timely, effective, and integrated manner. An in-traffic study by the authors provided evidence that drivers could spatially map eight haptic seat vibration areas to the corresponding directions surrounding the vehicle with 86% localization accuracy (Fitch, Kiefer, Hankey, & Kleiner, 2007). This paper re-analyzed the data from this study to explore the extent to which there were any notable patterns in the observed localization errors. Results indicate there was some tendency for subjects to perceive side (i.e., left or right) seat pan vibration locations as originating somewhat further back than they actually occurred. Furthermore, the pattern of these errors suggest that a haptic seat communicating four directions of crash threat (e.g., front, right, back, and left) may further reduce the low level of localization errors observed with an eight direction haptic seat design.
    Detecting the Deceleration of a Lead Car During Active Control of Virtual Self Motion BIBAFull-Text 1522-1525
      Anand Tharanathan; Patricia R. DeLucia
    Twenty-five percent of traffic accidents involve rear-end collisions. One important factor that may contribute to such collisions is a driver's ability to detect the deceleration of a lead car. Prior studies of deceleration judgments involved passive viewing rather than active control of self motion. The primary purpose of this study was to measure effects of headway and deceleration rate on the detection of deceleration during (simulated) active control. We investigated whether the pattern of such effects was similar to those we reported previously for passive viewing. Consistent with our previous study, the current results indicated that, during active control, mean response time to detect deceleration was longer when headway was relatively far or when deceleration rate was relatively slow. The implication is that collision-avoidance warning systems may have to utilize different criteria for providing warnings under different traffic conditions.
    Adapting Alarm Threshold to Driver's Brake Timing: Is It More Effective and/or Acceptable than Stopping Distance Algorithm? BIBAFull-Text 1526-1530
      Makoto Itoh; Toshiyuki Inagaki
    In order to develop a useful forward collision warning system, it is important to determine the alarm timing appropriately. This study examined whether or not adapting alarm timing to driver's brake timing is more effective and/or acceptable by drivers than conventional Stopping Distance Algorithm (SDA). The results suggest that the proposed method can contribute to prevent rear-end collisions, and is as acceptable as SDA. Also, the driver adaptive alarm system may not suffer from driver's over-reliance.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: In-Vehicle Driver Distraction

    A Cognitive Constraint Model of the Effects of Portable Music-Player Use on Driver Performance BIBAFull-Text 1531-1535
      Duncan P. Brumby; Dario D. Salvucci; Walt Mankowski; Andrew Howes
    We describe an approach to modeling strategic variations in how people might select media content from an Apple iPod portable music player while driving. An experiment was conducted to determine the time required to select a target from a list using the scroll wheel on the iPod. It was found that a linear model accurately predicted the time to scroll through a list to a target. This model was then used in conjunction with a previously reported steering control model to derive a priori predictions for dual-task performance over the entire range of possible multitasking strategies. From this set of strategies, we then focused on identifying the fastest and the safest strategies for completing both a simple selection task and also a more complex selection task. It was found that the model predictions bracketed the observed human data from a recent study that investigated the effects of using an iPod while driving. Moreover, the analysis suggests that in order to compensate for the inherent risks of using devices that demand longer interaction episodes to complete a task, people might adjust their multitasking strategy by giving more time up to steering control while completing the secondary task.
    Do Driving Impairments from Concurrent Cell-Phone Use Diminish with Practice? BIBAFull-Text 1536-1539
      Joel Cooper; David Strayer
    Our research examined the effects of practice on in-vehicle cell-phone use. Drivers that reported either high or low real world cell-phone usage were selected to participate in four, hour-and-a-half simulated driving sessions, on different days. The research consisted of two phases, a training phase and a novel transfer phase. Compared to single-task driving, dual-task performance deficits persisted through training and transfer driving conditions. Furthermore, groups of high and low real world experience were equally impaired. It is concluded that practice does not improve the ability to drive while conversing on a cell-phone.
    Development of an Adaptive Workload Management System using the Queueing Network-Model Human Processor BIBAFull-Text 1540-1544
      Changxu Wu; Omer Tsimhoni; Yili Liu
    Drivers overloaded with information from in-vehicle systems significantly increase the chance of vehicle collisions. Developing adaptive workload management systems (AWMS) to dynamically control the rate of messages from these in-vehicle systems is one of the solutions to this problem. However, existing AWMS do not use driver models to estimate workload, and only suppress or redirect messages without changing the rate of messages from the in-vehicle systems. In this work, we propose a prototype of a new adaptive workload management system, the Queuing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP) AWMS, which includes a model of driver workload based on the queueing network theory of human performance that estimates driver workload in different driving situations and a message controller that dynamically controls the rate of messages presented to drivers. Corresponding experimental studies were conducted to validate the potential effectiveness of this system in reducing driver workload and improving driver performance.
    A Measurement Systems Analysis of Total Shutter Open Time (TSOT) as a Distraction Metric for Visual-Manual Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1545-1549
      Louis Tijerina; Dev Kochhar
    The Total Shutter Open Time (TSOT) metric was examined for estimating the visual-manual distraction potential of in-vehicle devices. A measurement systems analysis was carried out on TSOT using data on thirteen visual-manual tasks from the CAMP Driver Workload Metrics Project. TSOT showed low test-retest reliability but high repeatability when data were averaged across persons by task. TSOT predicted task completion time, lane keeping, speed variation, total glance time, and number of glances away from the road while driving. Tasks were classified into higher and lower workload categories based on literature, analytical modeling, and engineering judgment. TSOT showed a high percentage of statistically significant pairwise differences between higher vs. lower workload tasks. Different classification rules were also applied to TSOT. The best rule to classify tasks as higher or lower workload consistent with prior prediction was one in which a mean TSOT>7.5 seconds implied the task was of higher workload. These results illustrate a general procedure to assess driver workload measures in general and the usefulness of TSOT in particular.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Driver Safety Potpouri

    Applying a Sociotechnical Framework for Improving Safety at Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings BIBAFull-Text 1550-1554
      Michelle Yeh; Jordan Multer
    To understand drivers' decisions and actions at grade crossings, we examined human factors contributing to noncompliance at grade crossings using a sociotechnical framework. This perspective allows driver behavior at grade crossings to be examined not as individual elements but rather as a function of how each element interacts with other elements within the system. In this paper, we present a model that addresses driver decision-making at grade crossings at a systems level. We identify and describe four elements of the grade crossing system influencing driver compliance: the design of the grade crossing environment, driver characteristics, the role of organizations and management, and social and political forces. We then apply the model to identify how failure to consider safety from a systems perspective contributed to the grade crossing accident that occurred in Fox River Grove, Illinois, in 1995.
    Visual information in judgments of head-on collisions BIBAFull-Text 1555-1559
      Kerstan S. Mork; Patricia R. DeLucia
    Head-on collisions result in a substantial number of fatalities. To detect head-on collisions, drivers must judge effectively the direction or heading of their own vehicle in relation to the heading of oncoming vehicles. In our previous study, we used computer simulations of self-motion through a traffic scene to measure judgments about whether a head-on collision was imminent. Results suggested that judgments about head-on collision are affected by both the optical flow information provided by the centerline and the optical flow information provided by the oncoming car. The objective of the current study was to further examine the effect of different components of the optical flow pattern on judgments of head-on collisions. We measured judgments about head on collisions while manipulating local optical flow from the oncoming car and global optical flow from the background scenery. Our results suggest that visual information about the oncoming car's motion was more effective than visual information about self motion. The implication is that it may be beneficial for drivers to focus greater attention on the information about the oncoming car's motion in order to improve judgments about head-on collisions. Further research is needed to evaluate this possibility.
    Visual Search Strategies of Older Drivers at Rural Expressway Intersections BIBAFull-Text 1560-1564
      Shan Bao; Linda Ng Boyle
    Studies show that older drivers are at a greater risk for crashes at unsignalized intersections. The objective of this study is to examine the visual search pattern of older drivers as they begin one of three drive maneuvers (i.e., left turn, right turn, and straight across) at two different rural expressway intersections (i.e., high and low crash areas). Twenty drivers participated in this study with 10 older drivers (65-80 years old) and 10 middle-aged drivers (35-55 years old) used as a comparison group. Results show that older drivers used significantly less search time to get ready for all maneuvers when compared to middle-aged drivers. There was also an interaction effect with older drivers taking significantly less search time during higher traffic volumes. Middle-aged drivers would search for potential hazards and wait for an appropriate gap distance before entering into the intersection.
    Effects of retroreflector placement on the nighttime conspicuity of pedestrians: An open-road study BIBAFull-Text 1565-1568
      Stacy A. Balk; Justin S. Graving; Ryan G. Chanko; Richard A. Tyrrell
    While considerable data indicate that positioning retroreflective markings on a pedestrian's extremities can dramatically enhance nighttime conspicuity, most relevant safety devices (vests) limit coverage to the torso. We asked 120 participants to press a button whenever they recognized that a pedestrian was present during a short drive at night. A test pedestrian wearing different configurations of retroreflective markings was positioned on the left shoulder of an unilluminated two-lane roadway. Compared to an ANSI class-II vest alone, response distances were significantly greater when the vest was supplemented with ankle markings and when a full biological motion configuration was worn. Conspicuity was also greater when the pedestrian was walking and when facing the approaching test vehicle. Relative to a full eleven-element biological motion configuration, adding just two retroreflective ankle straps to a conventional safety vest is considerably more practical while still providing substantial conspicuity benefits.

    TRAINING: Methods and Procedures for Tactical Training

    Assessing Distributed Mission Operations Using the Air Superiority Knowledge Assessment System BIBAFull-Text 1569-1572
      Leah J. Rowe; Sara Elizabeth Gehr; Nancy J. Cooke; Winston Bennett
    The Air Superiority Knowledge Assessment System (ASKAS) was developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory as a method for measuring knowledge in fighter pilots. Differences in ASKAS results have been shown to correspond with the knowledge level of pilots with different amounts of experience. To further test this tool, it has recently been integrated into a week-long training program. ASKAS is given before and after training to measure changes in knowledge as a result of the training. Our results show that there is a small but measurable increase in knowledge, as measured by ASKAS, after the training. In addition, there is a quadratic relationship between pilot experience and performance on ASKAS, suggesting that mid-level pilots have the highest levels of knowledge. These results support the validity of ASKAS as a tool to measure changes in knowledge during training, and provide insight on how to improve ASKAS for future use.
    Technology and Procedures for Debriefing Distributed Training Should be Designed Simultaneously BIBAFull-Text 1573-1577
      Emily Muthard Stelzer; William J. Salter
    The military training community is developing methods and tools to support distributed simulation-based training, technological advances that enhance coordination from different geographical locations and reducing funding and resource requirements. As the training community evolves to conduct distributed training exercises frequently, there is a strong need to simultaneously shape and design the methods and procedures that will be used for these training events. In this paper, we describe traditional after-action review processes and roles and identify challenges to the extension of these approaches to distributed training environments. Two specific challenges are highlighted and discussed: the increased burden on the instructor to integrate performance and mission information across geographic locations, and the redefinition of instructor roles and task responsibilities in the distributed training environment. Finally, we discuss the implication of these challenges in developing training methods and in designing the technologies to support these procedures.
    Accelerated Training with Microworlds for Command Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 1578-1582
      Jerzy Jarmasz
    Microworlds, simple simulations that strip away tactical details, have been proposed as tools for training strategic-level command decision making. In microworlds, scenarios lasting days or weeks play out in a matter of hours. Though time acceleration has been studied in other training areas, little is known about its effects on decision making, especially regarding transfer of training. In the current study, participants were asked to perform a simple decision task modeled on peace support operations. Before performing the task, they received training on the task at a time compression ratio of either 15:1 or 5:1. While both groups achieved similar performance in training, the performance of the 15:1 training group improved when transitioning to the target task, whereas the 5:1 training group saw its performance decrease. The results suggest that time acceleration can benefit training for decision making, but more study is needed to determine optimal acceleration ratios.

    TRAINING: Training Potpourri

    Using Displays to Improve Training: Functional Aviation Displays Improve Novice Piloting Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 1583-1587
      Carl F. Smith
    Twenty novices were trained on either a conventional Cessna display or a functional flight display over 6 flight sessions in an Elite iGATE flight simulator. Between flight sessions, participants completed concept maps of the system state changes required to perform specific maneuvers. When compared to expert concept maps, novices trained on a functional flight display showed significantly greater agreement than novices trained on a conventional display. This indicates that novices exposed to functional displays in training have an improved conceptual understanding of system dynamics, as well as a more accurate understanding of proper system operation.
    Does Metric Feedback Hinder Actions Guided By Cognition? BIBAFull-Text 1588-1592
      Allyson R. Hall; Keith S. Jones; Patricia R. DeLucia; Brian R. Johnson
    Providing trainees with metric feedback improves their metric distance estimations, but doing so also hinders certain actions. This paper describes a possible explanation for this hindrance. Based on that explanation, it was predicted that metric feedback should not hinder actions that are guided by cognitive processing, i.e., actions guided by the ventral visual system. To investigate this possibility, participants threw underhanded to specific metric distances during Pre and Post-Testing, e.g., throwing an object so that it came to rest 30 feet away. During the intervening Training, participants generated verbal distance estimates. Half received metric feedback. The results indicated that throws improved from Pre to Post-Test, but only when participants received metric feedback during Training. This outcome supports our hypothesis. Moreover, it suggests that trainees must know whether their distance estimation training should be applied to untrained tasks. Doing so may benefit certain tasks. Others, however, may suffer from it.
    Effects of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Media Exposure Training in a Tank Recognition Task BIBAFull-Text 1593-1597
      Joseph R. Keebler; Michelle Harper-Sciarini; Michael T. Curtis; Dave Schuster; Florian Jentsch; Meredith Bell-Carroll
    This investigation explores the differences between two types of military vehicle training: a current training method (2-dimensional, military-issued cards) and a novel method using 3-dimensional 1:35 scale models. Participant performance was tested in 3 areas: an identification task (can you name this vehicle?), a recognition task (have you seen this vehicle before?) and a friend/foe differentiation task. All three tasks were tested in both two dimensions (Training cards) and three dimensions (1:35 models). The performance results of the tasks support the integration of 3D training.
    Deciphering optimality: A framework towards understanding optimal technology training for older adults BIBAFull-Text 1598-1602
      Jamye M. Hickman; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
    Older adults are joining the technology revolution, as they are the fastest growing population using computers and the internet. Due to age-related declines in cognition, they may be at a disadvantage when learning to use new technologies. Training may ameliorate the impact of such disadvantages; however, the lingering question is how best to design such training programs. One limitation of current training models is the lack of integration across research findings resulting in an inability to determine what constitutes optimal training. Previous research has identified many components that may lead to improved performance and it is essential to examine the circumstances in which specific details of training result in specific learning outcomes. To begin to accomplish this, the current paper illustrates a conceptual framework focused on the systematic design of training older adults for technology use. The framework offers an expanded view of the training development process and serves as a guide to future research to help in deciphering optimality of technology training for older adults.

    TEST AND EVALUATION: Human-System Performance Test and Evaluation

    Studying Complex Human-System Behaviour: Human-in-the-loop Simulation Requirements BIBAFull-Text 1603-1607
      David Crone; Penelope Sanderson; Neelam Naikar
    The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is required to provide advice to customers for the procurement of future military systems using the high fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) facility housed in the Air Operations Simulation Centre (AOSC). A program of research is under way that compares two work analysis techniques (traditional task analysis and Cognitive Work Analysis) on the basis of whether the human-system performance measures that they suggest are sensitive to system modifications and so may be used for system evaluation. In this paper we show that representing aircrew's tactical environment as a series of concentric "rings" resulted in the development of HILS requirements that let us evaluate the measures derived from both work analysis approaches. Using the rings to frame the experiment and develop simulation requirements was beneficial for several reasons including participant involvement, validity of the system and operator behaviour observed, and completeness of the study.
    Human Factors Evaluation of Restraint Systems for Military Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1608-1612
      Tim Joganich; Larry Sicher; Kristen Nicholson; Gary Whitman
    Three configurations of occupant restraint systems were evaluated for use in military vehicles. Restraint configurations consisted of a 23 (lap and two shoulder belts), 3+2 (standard 3-point lap/shoulder belt plus secondary shoulder belt) and 5-point (two shoulder, two lap, and one crotch belt). All systems had a single point release feature. Human factors evaluation entailed assessing ingress/egress, functional operation (control reach) and accommodation (fit). Testing included with and without full gear. Eleven soldiers with military vehicle driving experience participated in the evaluation. Results for egress testing showed that the 5-point was slightly faster than the 3+2 and the 23. Results for the ingress testing showed that ingress time was directly related to the number of connections with the 3+2, 23 and the 5-point reflecting fastest to slowest times. Wearing full gear significantly increased ingress time but had minimal effects on egress times. No major accommodation issues were noted.
    Evaluating Tactility and Dexterity for Military Aviation Protective Gloves BIBAFull-Text 1613-1616
      Karla Eve Allan
    To avoid penetration from chemical agents, U.S. military Aviators wear chemical-biological (CB) protective clothing, including gloves, while in CB threat environments. This protective requirement typically increases glove thickness which could interfere with tactility and dexterity needed to effectively operate aircraft. An applied laboratory evaluation was conducted to determine if current CB glove tactility and dexterity could be enhanced by the introduction of novel glove concepts. Aviator subjects performed objective tasks based upon standardized tests of tactility and dexterity. They also self-rated their ability to manipulate cockpit controls on aircraft simulator panels. A human factors questionnaire was administered following each test condition and at the conclusion of all conditions. Evidence from all data sources indicates that three novel glove concepts show promise for enhancing tactility and dexterity performance. The approach to combining multiple data sources, the methodological constraints, and lessons learned are discussed.
    Intra-Individual Ergonomics (I2E): Performance Effects of Ultra-negative-ion Water BIBAFull-Text 1617-1621
      Alvah C. Bittner; Rachel C. L. Bittner; Keith Lile; Yoshihide Sakuragi
    This study both: (1) tested the effects of MSW ultra-negative-ion (-550mV ORP) water (8KNOT, Ltd., Osaka) on aerobic performance; and (2) partially evaluated the utility of an I2E: Unified-Model (Bittner & Sakuragi, 2006). Swim-team volunteers (11Ps) were accessed double-blind over 4 days following a MPPM or PMMP Schedule (M = MSW or P = Placebo, 250ml 120s before lap-swim). Analyses, adjusted and unadjusted for carryover, revealed significant (p<0.015) increases in 600s lap-swim distance (≥3.3%) and associated aerobic output (≥13.2%). Lap-time analyses indicated emerging increases (p = 0.04, 1-tailed) within the first 100yds (50-100s) and between 1st and 2nd laps (p = 0.01). It is concluded that (1) MSW Neg.-Ion Water increased 10 min. lap-swimming aerobic output by ≥ 13.2% -- pointing to potential for substantial performance increases in athletes and older-workers, as well as VO2-Max challenged retirees, and (2) this unprecedented increase supported predictions of the Bittner-Sakuragi Unified Model.
    Usability Testing for Rapid Fielding with Small Ns: Lessons Learned During an Army Operational Field Experiment BIBAFull-Text 1622-1626
      Pamela A. Savage-Knepshield
    The Army's acquisition process is transforming to meet the needs of a force that must be agile, adaptive, and responsive to asymmetric threats. Advanced capabilities and technologies, which are urgently needed to enable rapid response to evolving military needs, are being developed and pushed out to troops at unprecedented rates. As a result, not all systems have undergone an iterative design process, received usability feedback from their target users, or had design support from human factors engineers to ensure that unit and Soldier considerations have been addressed. Subsequently, these systems may possess characteristics that induce high cognitive workload, fatigue, detectability, or trigger events that lead to fratricide. When human factors engineers encounter a system that has not derived these benefits, they too must become more agile, adaptive, and responsive to ensure that Soldier feedback is collected and that serious issues are identified and resolved before the system makes its way to the battlefield. Lessons learned while participating in advanced technology and experimentation programs include techniques that facilitate working with small Ns, institutional review boards, rapid survey instrument development, and the collection of qualitative feedback as well as the importance of having a "usability tool kit" available to facilitate data collection efforts in an operational field environment.

    VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Human Factors in Virtual Environments

    The Effect of Input Device on Performance of a Driving Task in an Uncoupled Motion Environment BIBAFull-Text 1627-1630
      Alexander D. Walker; Joshua A. Gomer; Eric R. Muth
    Objective: To examine the effect of input device on performance of a driving task during uncoupled motion (UM). Background: Muth, Walker & Fiorello (2006) demonstrated that UM affected performance on a driving task with a steering wheel input device. However, it was unclear if the effect was due to general (motion sickness) or specific (interference with motor control) effects of UM. Methods: Ten participants completed a driving task while in a stationary and a moving real vehicle using a handheld control pad. Data were combined with the results of the previous study. Results: Regardless of input device, performance was significantly affected by UM, F(1,18) = 16.69, p< 0.01, ηp2=0.48. There was also a condition by input device interaction, F(1, 18) = 4.81, p<0.05, ηp2=0.21. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that UM can have both specific and general effects and that system design can potentially mitigate some of these effects.
    It's turtles all the way down: A comparative analysis of visually induced motion sickness BIBAFull-Text 1631-1634
      L. James Smart; Edward W. Otten; Thomas A. Stoffregen
    One of the most frustrating aspects of motion sickness is the apparent lack of predictability, particularly from one context (seasickness) to another (cybersickness). It has been postulated that this lack of predictability is indicative of separate but related disorders. Recent evidence has suggested that the problem may not lie in the disorder itself, but in the measures used to predict it. Based on the predictions of Riccio and Stoffregen (1991) and the findings of Smart, Stoffregen, and Bardy (2002), a secondary analysis was performed using parameters of postural motion in order to classify participants who would later become motion sick across three laboratory (four modes of presentation: moving room (Smart, et al, 2002), high fidelity flight simulator (Stoffregen, et al, 2000) large screen projection, and head mounted display (Otten, 2005)) settings. Results suggest that measures of postural instability may serve as a common, minimally invasive, and predictive index of visually induced motion sickness.
    Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 1635-1639
      James C. Maida; Charles K. Bowen; John Pace
    Robotic operations performed in earth orbit face unique challenges. In the case of the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), a two-armed robotic device, operations can last multiple orbital days, with dynamic sunlit days and very dark nights. Direct and indirect visibility can be difficult. This project developed and tested the use of augmented reality technology with a ground based trainer to reduce the negative effects of these conditions. Results of the project showed that twelve skilled operators can significantly reduce positioning errors and time to task completion when using augmented reality techniques.
    The Evaluation of a Distributed Online Simulation During a Battalion Staff Exercise BIBAFull-Text 1640-1644
      Michael J. Singer
    A distributed simulation being developed by the U.S. Army using online gaming technology was evaluated during a Battalion staff exercise. The staff worked through a pre-deployment Stability and Support Operation (SASO) exercise to a hypothetical Middle-Eastern country, in which they acquired information about the local situation relevant to their assigned mission, then developed deployment and contingency plans for that mission. These plans were then evaluated by the Battalion Commander, and the staff was evaluated on their performance. Questionnaire information was collected from the staff about the effectiveness of the simulation, and interviews with the command staff and the commander provided opinion-based evidence of the value of the simulation system and simulated exercises of this kind. The results indicate considerable potential for systems of this nature to expand training and evaluation opportunities as well as meet new asymmetric training needs while optimizing Soldiers' training time.
    Evaluation of Driver Visual Behavior and Road Signs in Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 1645-1649
      H. Cai; Y. Lin; Ronald R. Mourant
    Human errors are blamed for nearly 90 percent of traffic accidents; however, the human driver is only one of the three principal components (driver, vehicle and road/environment) in driving. Why are so many errors attributed to drivers? Are drivers inherently error prone? Based on these questions, twelve drivers' visual behavior and mental stress were investigated through simulated driving in a virtual environment. A Tobii eye tracker was used to record drivers' eye gaze activities and a FlexComp biofeedback system was used to record physiological parameters related to mental stress change. The preliminary experiment results found that improperly placed traffic signs have a significant effect on drivers' visual behavior and mental stress. Drivers tend to simply ignore the signs with poor visibility or poor readability in simulated driving. Compared with properly placed signs, improperly placed signs are less effective and cause more stress to the drivers. The decreased attention and insufficient response to critical traffic facilities indicates necessity of correction in highway design and management. The current experiment methods and research results are useful for highway safety evaluation.
    Optimizing the Functionality of Teams with Dispersed Individuals: An Exploration into the Conditions for Effective Knowledge Management Applications in Virtual Teams BIBAFull-Text 1650-1654
      Joy Oguntebi
    As the technological environment is constantly changing and becoming more global, organizations must continue to find ways to compete advantageously. Teams are increasingly being used as a mechanism for accomplishing organizational work yet researchers are still exploring what leads to the ability to learn as an organization or to exhibit effective knowledge management. A parallel trend is the dispersion of organizations globally and the set of virtual teams and even virtual organizations operating in different places and times. One body of research that may help in understanding how to improve the functioning of virtual teams focuses on Transactive Memory Systems (TMSs). Prior studies have indicated that TMS emergence leads to improved team performance. Therefore, the present research explores and analyzes the roles that influential factors play in TMS emergence and maintenance in virtual teams. Specifically, a number of factors will be investigated with a goal of identifying how best to utilize findings to assemble virtual teams.