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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010-09-27

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting
Location:San Francisco, California
Dates:2010-Sep-27 to 2010-Oct-01
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-37-5, 978-0-945289-37-1; hcibib: HFES10; TA 166 H794
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2010-09-27 Volume 54
    1. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS1 -- A Portfolio of Human Factors Guidance for NextGen
    2. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS2 -- NextGen Concepts for Air Traffic Control and Flight Deck
    3. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS3 -- NextGen: Under Construction -- Works in Progress to Enhance Aviation Operations
    4. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS4 -- Bridging the gap between Human Automation Interaction Modeling and Flight Deck Design
    5. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS5 -- Air Traffic Control and Flightdeck Strategies
    6. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS6 -- Aviator Performance and Displays
    7. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS7 -- Training and Measurement at the Extremes: Developing and Sustaining Expert Team Performance in Isolated, Confined, Extreme Environments
    8. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS8 -- Human-Technology Interaction in Air Traffic Control Operations
    9. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS9 -- The Next Generation Air Transportation System: Data Communication
    10. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS10 -- Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation
    11. AGING: A1 -- Safety and Physical Performance with Aging
    12. AGING: A2 -- Aging and Cognitive Function
    13. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC1 -- Research and Methods Pertaining to EEG
    14. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC2 -- The Basic versus Applied Research Dilemma
    15. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC3 -- Transfer: From the Laboratory to the Real World
    16. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC4 -- Measuring Workload using Physiological Measures such as Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD)
    17. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE1 -- Cognitive Engineering Methodology
    18. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE2 -- Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Simulations and Games in Human Factors
    19. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE3 -- Workload and Situation Awareness
    20. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE4 -- Decision-Making and Decision Strategies
    21. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE5 -- Cognitive Engineering in Health Care
    22. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE6 -- Human-Automation Interaction
    23. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE7 -- Accelerated Learning: Prospects, Issues, and Applications
    24. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE8 -- Design and Evaluation of Human-system Interfaces
    25. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE9 -- Supporting Teams and Communities of Practice
    26. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE10 -- Interruptions and Task Switching
    27. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE11 -- Judgment and Decision Making Behavior in Complex Systems
    28. COMMUNICATIONS: C1 -- From Vocal Cords to Mobile Computing: Understanding How We Communicate
    29. COMMUNICATIONS: C2 -- Team Communications
    30. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS1 -- Investing in User Research
    31. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS2 -- Physical Issues in Computer Systems
    32. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS3 -- Usability and Evaluation
    33. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS4 -- Input and Display
    34. DEMONSTRATIONS 1 -- Portable Tools for Human Factors
    35. DEMONSTRATIONS 2 -- Real-World Human Factors Demonstrations
    36. EDUCATION: E2 -- The Future of Human Factors Education
    37. EDUCATION: E3 -- Teaching, Learning, or Both
    38. EDUCATION: E4 -- Visualizing Innovative Uses of Technology and Devices for Engaging College Students in Active Learning
    39. EDUCATION: E5 -- Teaching the Future Human Factors and Ergonomics Professionals
    40. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED1 -- The Impact of Environmental Design
    41. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED2 -- Rethinking Elder Design
    42. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED3 -- Information Technology and Design -- the Big Picture
    43. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: FP1 -- Forensics Challenges in Human Factors and Ergonomics
    44. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: FP2 -- Forensics Issues in Accessible Housing Design and Usability
    45. GENERAL SESSION: GS1 -- President's Forum
    46. GENERAL SESSION: GS2 -- NRC Committee on Human-Systems Integration
    47. GENERAL SESSION: GS3 -- Head to Head: Remote Usability Testing Takes on Live Usability Testing in the HFES Ultimate Fighting Challenge
    48. GENERAL SESSION: GS4 -- Transforming the Energy Economy -- The Role of Behavioral and Social Science
    49. GENERAL SESSION: GS6 -- Blasphemy or Pragmatics? When NOT to Follow User-Centered Design Techniques
    50. GENERAL SESSION: GS7 -- Facilitating University-Industry Collaborations in Human Factors and Ergonomics
    51. GENERAL SESSION: GS8 -- Sleep Across Military Environments
    52. GENERAL SESSION: GS9 -- General Ergonomics
    53. GENERAL SESSION: GS10 -- Monitoring and Signal Detection
    54. HEALTH CARE: HC1 -- Human Factors Contributions To Medication Safety
    55. HEALTH CARE: HC2 -- Electronic Health Records: Physician's Perspective on Usability
    56. HEALTH CARE: HC3 -- Supporting Cognition and Decision Making in Clinical Work
    57. HEALTH CARE: HC4 -- Just What the Doctor Ordered? The Role of Cognitive Decision Support Systems in Clinical Decision Making and Patient Safety
    58. HEALTH CARE: HC5 -- Health Care Workflow, Research Implications
    59. HEALTH CARE: HC6 -- Patient Safety in the Operating Theatre
    60. HEALTH CARE: HC7 -- Human Factors in the Operating Room
    61. HEALTH CARE: HC8 -- Process Improvement in Health Care
    62. HEALTH CARE: HC9 -- How Design Impacts Health Care
    63. HEALTH CARE: HC10 -- Health Care Handover and Patient Safety
    64. HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP1 -- Prediction of Performance for Devices, Age, Workload, and Error
    65. HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP2 -- Human Performance Modeling in the Aerospace Domain
    66. HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP3 -- Modeling Human Performance Dimensions in Dynamic Tasks and Environments
    67. HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP4 -- Advances in Modeling Situation Awareness, Decision Making, and Performance in Complex Operational Environments
    68. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID1 -- Individual Differences in Affective Traits and States
    69. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID2 -- Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills and Abilities
    70. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE1 -- Upper Extremities and Computer Workstations
    71. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE2 -- Anthropometry
    72. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE3 -- Pioneers of Ergonomics -- Karl Kroemer and Colin Drury
    73. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE4 -- Occupational Safety: The Past, Present, and Future
    74. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE5 -- Hand Tool Ergonomics -- Past, Present, and Future
    75. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE6 -- Gait and Stability
    76. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE7 -- Low Back and Trunk
    77. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE8 -- Medical Applications
    78. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE9 -- Construction and Warehouses
    80. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE9 -- Construction and Warehouses
    81. INTERNET: I1 -- Harvesting Innovation in the Industry: Prescriptions for Breakthrough Products
    82. INTERNET: I2 -- Internet and Social Systems
    83. MACROERGONOMICS: ME1 -- Management Perspectives on Creating and Building User Experience Departments: A Panel Discussion
    84. MACROERGONOMICS: ME2 -- Health Care Recovery: How the Science of Human Factors Is Challenging Health Care to Move Patient Safety Forward
    85. MACROERGONOMICS: ME3 -- The View from the Top: Macroergonomics in Action
    86. MACROERGONOMICS: ME4 -- Trust in Sociotechnical Systems
    90. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP2 -- Getting the Buzz: What's Next for Tactile Information Delivery?
    93. POSTERS: POS1 -- Posters 1
    94. POSTERS: POS2 -- Posters 2
    95. POSTERS: POS3 -- Posters 3
    96. POSTERS: POS4 -- Posters 4
    97. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD2 -- Designing Products with Emotion: Fad, or Here to Stay?
    98. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD4 -- New Concepts in Product Design
    99. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD5 -- Methodology For Creating An Anthropometric Database For Workstation Setup Using CAESAR, NATICK, and NHANES
    100. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD6 -- Ergonomics and Anthropometrics in Product Design
    101. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD7 -- User-Centered Methods For New Product Concept Development
    102. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD8 -- User-Centered Approaches to Product Design
    103. SAFETY: S1 -- Safety Communications: Do You Get It?
    104. SAFETY: S2 -- Safety in Motion
    105. SAFETY: Articles
    106. SAFETY: S2 -- Safety in Motion
    107. SAFETY: S3 -- Safety Applications and Theories
    108. SPECIAL SESSION: SS2 -- A Debate: Is There Low-Hanging Fruit in Medical Human Factors?
    109. STUDENT FORUM: SF2 -- Student Research in Applied Venues: Aviation, Farming, and Medicine
    110. STUDENT FORUM: SF3 -- Wayfinding, Memory, and Workload: Student Research in Cognition
    111. STUDENT FORUM: SF4 -- Technology and Computing Experience: Cutting Edge Student Research
    112. STUDENT FORUM: SF5 -- Exploring Issues with Visual Perception in Human Factors Student Research
    113. STUDENT FORUM: SF6 -- General Topics in Student Research: Crowds, Task Analyses, and Biomechanics
    114. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST1 -- In-Vehicle Decision Support Systems
    115. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST2 -- Safe Driving In The Multi-Tasking Generation
    116. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST3 -- Driver Workload
    117. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST4 -- Collisions and Mitigation
    118. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST5 -- Simulation and Methods in Transportation
    119. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD1 -- Human-Automation Interaction
    120. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD2 -- Human Systems Engineering: Standards, Speed & Simplicity
    121. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD3 -- Establishing Requirements for Human Factors Engineering and HSI: Why Do We Feel Like We're Banging Our Heads Against a Wall?
    122. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD4 -- Human Factors Standards for United States Government Agencies
    123. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Articles
    124. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD6 -- Human Systems Integration in the Federal Government
    125. TEST AND EVALUATION: TE1 -- Winning the Usability War: A Long-Term Approach to Success in Rapid-Prototyping Environments
    126. TEST AND EVALUATION: TE2 -- How Would You Test This? Test and Evaluation Works in Progress Forum
    127. TEST AND EVALUATION: TE3 -- Techniques for Usability Testing
    128. TEST AND EVALUATION: TE4 -- Opportunities for Human Factors Measures in Military Operational Test and Evaluation
    129. TRAINING: T1 -- Making the Implicit Explicit
    130. TRAINING: T2 -- Training Vigilance, Stress, and Multitasking
    131. TRAINING: T3 -- Training Issues in Military and Defense
    132. TRAINING: T4 -- Methods for Improving Training
    133. TRAINING: T5 -- Training Theory and Application
    134. TRAINING: T6 -- Training in the Wild: Studies of Application and Transfer
    135. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: VE1 -- Leveraging Virtual Reality, Simulations, and Games for Training
    136. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: VE2 -- Learning in Virtual Environments
    137. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: VE3 -- Human Performance in Virtual Environments

HFES 2010-09-27 Volume 54

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS1 -- A Portfolio of Human Factors Guidance for NextGen

Portfolio of Human Factors Guidance for NextGen BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Francis T. Durso; Valerie J. Gawron; Paul Krois; Nadine Sarter; Philip J. Smith; Chris Wickens; Tanya Yuditsky
This discussion panel will focus on guidance that the field of human factors can provide in the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States, ranging from input regarding the overall operational concept for NextGen to approaches for crafting the details of specific designs. The discussion will include consideration of how the feasibility of alternative implementations should inform the operational concept.
   To provide the necessary perspectives, the expertise represented on this panel provides both breadth and depth regarding the contributions that the field of human factors needs to provide to the development of NextGen in the United States. This expertise extends across a number of functional roles in the aviation system (piloting, air traffic control, air traffic flow management, airport surface management and flight dispatching). It also spans a wide range of human factors issues including considerations of trust, cognitive complexity, information overload, interruption management, human reliability, automation reliability, timesharing, mental workload, shared situation awareness and the design of distributed work systems. Finally, this expertise encompasses experience with human factors program management, system design and evaluation (including both empirical testing and the use of computational models). Panelists will be posed with variations on the question of "what are concrete ways in which the field of human factors can guide the development of an effective Next Generation Air Transportation System?" based on the system perspectives that they represent.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS2 -- NextGen Concepts for Air Traffic Control and Flight Deck

Human Factors Research and Development Planning for NextGen BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Paul Krois; Dan Herschler; Glen Hewitt; Tom McCloy; Dino Piccione
Increasingly detailed planning is addressing a range of human factors considerations associated with the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The practice of human factors program management for NextGen poses complex opportunities and challenges. Relationships between human factors research programs and their elements and with other programs and portfolios are identified and aligned using a human system integration roadmap. Effective planning that addresses human factors issues associated with transitions of new NextGen technologies, automation and procedures will facilitate realization of intended benefits from NextGen involving increased throughput, efficiency, and safety in the National Airspace System.
  Carolina M. Zingale; Ben Willems; Jennifer M. Ross
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is designed to transform the existing air traffic system and introduce new procedures to accommodate increased traffic levels. This simulation evaluated three potential procedures using two simulated en route controller workstation systems. The Baseline system modeled the workstation planned for use in the field after 2010. The Future En Route Workstation (FEWS) added features and functions to the Baseline system to further support the management of high traffic levels and procedure use. When using the FEWS system, the participants managed more aircraft, held traffic less, and reported lower workload than when using the Baseline system. When the participants worked with Area Navigation (RNAV) procedures that included both lateral and vertical conformance constraints, they managed more aircraft and issued fewer voice clearances than when they worked with RNAV procedures that included only lateral constraints. We did not find additional benefits for the other two delegated aircraft procedures.
Comparison of Deconfliction Responsibility Procedures for Adjacent En-Route Sectors in NextGen Separation Assurance BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Christopher D. Cabrall; Thomas Prevot; Jeffrey R. Homola; Joey Mercer
The subject of the current research is a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept that involves automation-assisted separation assurance within the high altitude (at or above 29,000 feet) en route environment. The concept is designed to enable controllers to provide both safe and efficient air traffic services at much higher traffic densities than today. The presented research addressed the question of how responsibility should be handled for the resolution of a conflict that is predicted to occur in a sector other than where it was detected. Two possibilities, namely a De-Conflicting AirPlanes procedure (DCAP) versus a De-Conflicting AirSpace procedure (DCAS) were examined with recently retired controllers under human-in-the-loop simulations with scripted aircraft conflicts. Results showed that controllers preferred DCAS, in which they took less time to resolve conflicts and experienced less coordination with one another. However, the results did not yield significant differences among other plane performance metrics between DCAP and DCAS. The present analyses indicated that controllers are capable of meeting demands of NextGen with ownership/coordination procedures (e.g. DCAP.) similar to today. However, allowing separation assurance responsibilities to extend more seamlessly across sector boundaries (e.g. DCAS) could evidently be more agreeable for them.
Automated Spacing Support Tools for Interval Management Operations during Continuous Descent Approaches BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Arik-Quang V. Dao; Joel Lachter; Vernol Battiste; Summer L. Brandt; Kim-Phuong Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel; Nhut Ho; Patrick Martin; Walter W. Johnson
In this study, pilots were asked to achieve a specific time in trail while flying an arrival into Louisville International airport. Weather shortly before the start of the descent added variability to the initial intervals. A spacing tool calculated airspeeds intended to achieve the desired time in trail at the final approach fix. Pilots were exposed to four experimental conditions which varied how strictly the pilots were told to follow these speeds and whether speeds had to be entered into the autopilot manually. Giving the pilots more discretion had little effect on the final spacing interval. However, pilots required to enter speeds into the autopilot manually did not effectively manage their airplane's energy resulting in less accurate performance. While these results may not always generalize to alternative spacing implementations, one should not assume pilots manually closing the loop on automated commands can perform as well as a fully automated system.
The Automation Design Advisor Tool (ADAT): Supporting Flight Deck Design In NextGen BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  Angelia Sebok; Christopher Wickens; Nadine Sarter; Stacey Quesada; Connie Socash; Brian Anthony
This paper describes the development and implementation of the Automation Design Advisor Tool (ADAT). ADAT is being developed with NASA support to assist aviation designers throughout all phases of design in creating systems that ensure effective and efficient human-automation interaction on the modern flight deck. The tool can be applied to both new "blank slate" designs, and to improved versions of existing technologies. In particular, the current version of the tool evaluates proposed Flight Management System (FMS) designs in terms of their ability to support pilots in instructing and monitoring the automated system. ADAT identifies potential design deficiencies, provides specific (re)design recommendations, and offers access to summaries of empirical research on the underlying reasons for and the effectiveness of solutions to breakdowns in pilot-automation coordination.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS3 -- NextGen: Under Construction -- Works in Progress to Enhance Aviation Operations

NextGen: Under Construction Works in Progress to Enhance Aviation Operations BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Paul Picciano; Amy L. Alexander
The limitations of the current National Airspace System (NAS) have necessitated the planning and development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The core objectives of NextGen include increasing the safety and efficiency of air traffic management as well as expanding throughput at the nation's most congested airports. However, NextGen advances will also precipitate changes in the fundamental structure of air traffic operations, which could have profound effects on how humans, technology, and policy interact. Robust means for design and evaluation are needed to ensure success. Panel members will discuss current works in progress devised to facilitate NextGen objectives.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS4 -- Bridging the gap between Human Automation Interaction Modeling and Flight Deck Design

Bridging the gap between Human Automation Interface Analysis and Flight Deck Design Guidance BIBAFull-Text 36-39
  Michael Feary; Tom McCloy; Christopher Wickens; David Kaber; Amy Pritchett; Lance Sherry
Next generation aviation operations will place a much greater dependence on automation usage, and therefore additional emphasis needs to be placed on the evaluation of human automation interaction in the design and evaluation of these systems. Additionally, new airworthiness regulations and regulatory certification processes are beginning to focus on the design and verification testing of the pilot-automation interaction. Current human computer interaction analyses (computational human performance models and task analysis methods) are not effectively usable within the constrained timeline of real world design and certification processes. Fundamental and theoretical work is needed to develop methods and tools that will provide designers and regulators with the means of testing and providing useful feedback about the efficacy of these interactions.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS5 -- Air Traffic Control and Flightdeck Strategies

Controller Interventions to Mitigate Potential Air Traffic Conflicts BIBAFull-Text 40-44
  Deepti Surabattula; Michael Kaplan; Steven J. Landry
An experiment was conducted to obtain empirical evidence that controllers, in addition to detecting and resolving expected losses-of-separation, intervene to mitigate potential conflicts that would not result in a loss of separation assuming proper compliance by both pilots. Participant controllers controlled traffic that contained aircraft expected to lose separation as well as others that would not lose separation, but were configured in such a way that a loss of separation could occur quickly if one of the aircraft did not comply with their clearance. Binary logistic regressions performed on the aircraft that were subjected to control by the aircraft provides evidence that this mitigation set improves the predictive power of a model to identify aircraft to which the participants applied control. Moreover, a regression performed on the aircraft for whom controllers provided informative commands, particularly traffic identification calls, demonstrated differences between the loss-of-separation aircraft and the mitigation aircraft. The results have implications for understanding strategies used by air traffic controllers when deciding for what aircraft controllers will intervene.
Are There Standard Conflict Resolution Maneuvers in Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 45-49
  Esa M. Rantanen; Christopher D. Wickens
We analyzed samples of aircraft track data involving conflict alerts and subsequent resolution maneuvers from five U.S. air route traffic control centers. Vertical conflict resolution maneuvers were used in the majority of the cases examined. Within the vertical dimension, reductions of current vertical change (climb or descent) were collectively the most frequent resolution maneuver type, but descents were about three times as frequent as climbs. Three contingency analyses were performed to test for independence between conflict geometries and subsequent resolution maneuvers. The results show that conflict resolution maneuvers do not seem to be independent from conflict geometries. Additional analyses on conflict angles and vertical speed differences between aircraft as continuous variables revealed disproportionately fewer turns on crossing courses than on opposite or same courses. These results provide critical baseline information for understanding just how large departures from the current ingrained practices the advent of the NextGen air traffic management infrastructure may bring about, particularly in extremely safety-critical tasks such as airborne conflict resolutions. Pilots' conflict resolution maneuver preferences have received some attention, but corresponding research on air traffic controllers' practices is almost nonexistent. Moreover, our results emerged from objective data through objective analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first time analyses like these have been applied to data like these.
Tower Controllers Response Behavior to Runway Safety Alerts BIBAFull-Text 50-54
  Julian Sanchez; Elida C. Smith
As decision support tools to improve runway safety are introduced into Airport Traffic Control Towers, it is critical to understand their impact on controller performance. A Tower Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) simulation was conducted to evaluate the behavior of Local controllers in the presence of tower-based runway safety alerts. The results of this study suggest controllers like to gather as much information about the situation, within a reasonable amount of time (usually less than 5 seconds), before they initiate the action of issuing instructions to the aircraft involved in the emergency.
Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System BIBAFull-Text 55-59
  Sarah V. Ligda; Arik-Quang V. Dao; Kim-Phuong Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste; Walter W. Johnson
Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.
Effects of Video Weather Training Products, Web-Based Weather Briefing, and Local Versus Non-Local Pilots on GA Pilot Weather Knowledge and Flight Behavior BIBAFull-Text 60-64
  William Knecht; Jerry Ball; Michael Lenz
This study explores 1) whether video weather training products significantly affect general aviation (GA) pilot weather knowledge and weather-related flight behavior, 2) use of modern Web-based weather preflight briefing products, and 3) whether local Oklahoma GA pilots differ appreciably from non-local pilots in weather knowledge or weather-related flight behavior. No highly significant, meaningful, simple effects were found for two 90-minute video weather training products on weather knowledge or subsequent flight safety on a simulated flight involving deteriorating weather. A data-collecting emulation of www.aviationweather.gov suggests that mere time spent on preflight briefing, pages viewed, and page view duration alone are not adequate predictors of either quality of preflight briefing nor subsequent flight safety. Finally, no important differences between local and non-local pilots were seen, implying that FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute flightdeck studies are generalizable to the national population of U.S. GA pilots.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS6 -- Aviator Performance and Displays

Pilot Performance Based Selection of Engine Display Features BIBAFull-Text 65-69
  Jeffrey Armentrout; David Hansen; Terri Hall
Two tests were conducted to evaluate enhancements to the operator interface of the C-5 AMP engine display format. Proposed enhancements of interest were the addition of a grey filled arc within the engine gauges to reflect current state, the addition of a red box to indicate a shutdown engine, and the addition of scale markings to N1 and fuel flow gauges. The objective of the tests were to 1) evaluate the addition of the grey arc to aid in N1 determination and engine-out recognition 2) evaluate the addition of the "red box" graphic to aid in engine-out recognition and 3) evaluate scale markings as an aid for setting target N1 and fuel flow values. The first test involved presentation of one of four engine format variants to the subjects for 75 to 360 milliseconds. Subjects reported N1 and any engine that might be shutdown. The addition of the grey filled arc and red box had a significant effect on N1 determination. The grey filled arc did not improve engine out recognition but the red box did. Addition of grey arcs to all gauges showed no significant improvement over having that feature on N1 alone. In the second test subjects set a target fuel flow or N1 value for 4 engines in the shortest time possible with and without scale markings. The addition of scale markings significantly improved time to set target N1.
The Influence of Individual Differences in Perceptual Performance on Pilot Perceptions of Head-Up Display Clutter BIBAFull-Text 70-74
  Karl A. Kaufmann; David B. Kaber
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of individual differences in pilot perceptual abilities on their experience of head-up display (HUD) clutter during a simulated instrument approach. Pilot contrast sensitivity, useful field of view (UFOV) and field dependence were assessed using standardized instruments. When these measures were included in a model of perceived clutter based on pilot subjective ratings of HUD configurations in terms of display clarity, contrast, density and similarity of elements, the predictive utility of the model modestly increased. Contrast sensitivity was found to be the most influential perceptual ability, with UFOV also being a predictor of perceived clutter. High contrast sensitivity for higher spatial frequencies was associated with higher ratings of overall clutter, while greater contrast sensitivity for moderate spatial frequencies was associated with lower ratings of clutter. Better performance on the UFOV measure of divided attention ability was associated with lower ratings of clutter, while better performance on the selective attention processing speed scale was related to higher clutter ratings. However, these variables had a much smaller degree of influence on clutter ratings than contrast sensitivity.
Factors influencing the effectiveness of simple obstacle-related graphical depictions for head-mounted displays BIBAFull-Text 75-79
  Dennis B. Beringer; Kali Holcomb
An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate construction of synthetic imagery, presented in a binocular, stereoscopic, see-through head-mounted display (HMD) for depicting obstacles commonly encountered in helicopter operations. In Phase 1, participants examined still images to identify obstacles from graphics depicting two levels of ground-plane representation and three levels of object complexity (depth). They then rated the depictions and responded to perspective-view still images of an obstacle field, indicating which areas corresponded with obstruction-free locations. Context played a major role in identifying obstructions, and presence of guy-wire references was important, both for identification of towers and of areas in the forward view that would be free from obstructions. Preliminary flight-simulator trials indicate pilots having experience with power-line flying interpret the representations literally and not schematically or generically.
Effect of Communications Headset, Hearing Ability, Flight Workload, and Communications Signal Quality on Pilot Performance in an Army Black Hawk Helicopter Simulator BIBAFull-Text 80-84
  Kristen L. Casto; John G. Casali
Cockpit noise, flight workload, and hearing loss all likely influence U.S. Army pilot performance; however, hearing loss flight waiver decisions are largely based on audiometric evaluation results. Twenty Army helicopter pilots (two hearing level groups) participated in this study. The pilots flew three flights in a full motion-base Black Hawk helicopter simulator, each involving a different headset configuration as well as varying flight workload levels and varying communication signal quality in a counterbalanced ordering. Objective flight performance parameters of heading, altitude, and airspeed deviation and air traffic control (ATC) command readbacks and subjective measures of workload and situation awareness were measured. Results support a conclusion that factors other than hearing thresholds and speech intelligibility in a quiet environment should be considered when evaluating Army helicopter pilots' flight safety with regard to hearing sensitivity. Results also support a recommendation that hearing-impaired pilots use assistive communication technology and not rely on passive-attenuation headsets worn over foam earplugs.
Display type effects in military operational tasks using UAV video images: Comparison between two types of UAV feeds Mini and MALE (Medium-Altitude-Long-Endurance) UAVs BIBAFull-Text 85-89
  Yaniv Minkov; Yuval Lerner; Ronny Ophir; Tal Oron-Gilad
The increased usage of new technologies in combat requires measuring tools and guidelines that will enable maximal compatibility between technology and users' needs. Specifically, using video feeds retrieved by dismounted soldiers from different types of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may affect the efficiency level of using such machines. This work follows our previous studies on the type (e.g. size) of displays required by dismounted soldiers to process video feed from UAVs. Twenty two former infantry soldiers with no experience using UAV video feed participated. Three displays were examined using two video feed types (MALE and Mini UAVs) in four different task types (description, direction, orientation, and response). Performance and subjective data were collected. Results show no effect (only some trends) for display type, but significant effect for the interaction between video feed type and task type and display type.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS7 -- Training and Measurement at the Extremes: Developing and Sustaining Expert Team Performance in Isolated, Confined, Extreme Environments

Training and Measurement at the Extremes: Developing and Sustaining Expert Team Performance in Isolated, Confined, Extreme Environments BIBAFull-Text 90-93
  Sallie J. Weaver; Eduardo Salas; Kathryn E. Keeton; Judith M. Orasanu; Stephen M. Fiore; Jason P. Kring; Jeffrey S. Bradshaw
As exploration of new frontiers continues, the need for team training in extreme environments grows. Operating in isolated, confined, and extreme environments (ICE) demands novel approaches to team performance measurement, as well as new strategies and methods for ensuring teams members are (1) equipped with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes critical for effective team performance over time, and (2) are supported by just-in-time training or other resources when breakdowns in performance inevitably occur. This panel brings together a range of experts in human performance in extreme environments to provide a comprehensive overview and discussion of the most current approaches and trends regarding team training and performance measurement in ICE environments.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS8 -- Human-Technology Interaction in Air Traffic Control Operations

  Daniel J. Hannon
The Federal Aviation Administration is implementing the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems, with greater reliance on surface surveillance sensors to provide a virtual representation to controllers of ground activity, reducing the need for controllers to look out-the-window (OTW). This study investigated how presently available technology can be used as a virtual control tower by the controller workforce. Thirty-two human-in-the-loop scenarios were conducted in an air traffic control tower simulator with different equipment configurations and under different operating conditions. Six recently retired controllers participated. Team performance on airport operations was comparable when surface surveillance information was provided, with or without the OTW view under good visibility. Advantages were found for surface surveillance when visibility was reduced. Mental workload was lower when surface surveillance was available under low visibility conditions, and reliance on radio communications also decreased. Subjective ratings indicate that controllers are most comfortable using some combination of existing technology and procedures for adapting to a virtual tower. The results are discussed with respect to future systems for controllers.
The Evaluation of Data Communication for the Future Air Traffic Control System (NextGen) BIBAFull-Text 99-103
  Sehchang Hah; Ben Willems; Kenneth Schulz
Data communication (Data Comm) between controllers and pilots is one of the core initiatives in the development of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). We evaluated the effect of the following factors on Data Comm: human-machine interfaces, the proportion of Data Comm equipped aircraft in the sector, and data-communication failures. Our experimental results showed that controllers preferred the most flexible human-machine interface, the Combined mode. The significant contribution of Data Comm occurred at the equipage level of over 50%. The Data Comm failure by an individual aircraft did not give a noticeably negative effect, but partial and system-wide failures did. Data Comm would relieve some of controllers' activities, but it will add new tasks and force them to change their work habits. Our experimental results and concerns presented in this paper will help the FAA design an efficient Data Comm system and a training program.
Field (Data) Stream: A Method for Functional Evolution of the Air Traffic Management Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) BIBAFull-Text 104-108
  Hayley J. Davison Reynolds; Richard A. DeLaura; Michael Robinson
A method coupling field evaluation with operations data analysis is presented as an effective means to functionally evolve a decision support system. The case study used to illustrate this method is the evaluation of the Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT), a decision support tool to improve departure efficiency in convective weather in New York air traffic facilities. It was only through a combination of quantitative performance data analysis and field observation to identify key elements of the decision making process that the designers were able to determine the most critical departure management decision requiring support, leading to significant improvements in departure efficiency.
Developing Target Symbicons for the Future Terminal Air Traffic Control Environment BIBAFull-Text 109-113
  Ferne Friedman-Berg; Kenneth Allendoerfer; Atul Deshmukh
Current air traffic control target symbols are holdover designs developed for obsolete display technology to depict radar surveillance uncertainty. Given new technological capabilities and new surveillance techniques, it is time to reexamine the target symbology for a new generation of air traffic control displays. Symbicons (Smallman, St. John, Oonk, and Cowen, 2001a, 2001b) are a combination of icons and symbols that code meaningful information using simplified visual coding. This assessment focuses on creating and evaluating novel designs for target symbicons for Terminal Radar Approach Control displays while incorporating human factors standards and best practices. In this study, we evaluated different candidate symbicons that conveyed information such as aircraft category and aircraft conformance. We examined the heuristics controllers use that make certain symbicons better candidates to represent different aircraft categories. We discuss the almost universal agreement among the controllers for the tested aircraft conformance symbicons.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS9 -- The Next Generation Air Transportation System: Data Communication

  Danny Benbassat; Levent Ileri
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is an ambitious enterprise that promises to transform the national air transportation system by 2025. One hallmark of NextGen is the use of data, instead of voice, communications. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Planning and Operations Office (AJP-6), Concept Development & Validation group (AJP-66) has been working with government, industry, and academia leaders to test the efficiency, safety, and usability of data communications via human-in-the-loop and part task studies. This symposium includes a portion of the work conducted in this research program.
Evaluations of Data Communications in Tower, TRACON, and En Route Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 116-120
  Kenneth R. Allendoerfer; Todd R. Truitt; Ben Willems
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has embarked on a large effort to create the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen will prepare the National Airspace System to accept increasing air traffic levels and complexity in a safe and efficient manner. Data Communications (Data Comm) is one of the core technologies of NextGen. The use of Data Comm will improve information exchange between pilots and air traffic controllers. In 2009, the FAA conducted three human-in-the-loop experiments to address the use of Data Comm in the Airport Traffic Control Tower, the Terminal Radar Approach Control, and the En Route airspace. The experiments focused on human factors aspects of air traffic control tasks under a variety of conditions including varying percentages of aircraft equipped for Data Comm, different interface designs, and changes in roles of responsibilities of air traffic controllers.
The Impact of Data Communications Messages in the Terminal Area on Flight Crew Workload and Eye Scanning BIBAFull-Text 121-125
  James R. Comstock; Brian T. Baxley; Robert M. Norman; Kyle K. E. Ellis; Cathy A. Adams; Kara A. Latorella; William A. Lynn
This paper, to accompany a discussion panel, describes a collaborative FAA and NASA research study to determine the effect Data Communications (Data Comm) messages have on flight crew workload and eye scanning behavior in busy terminal area operations. In the Next Generation Air Transportation System Concept of Operations, for the period 2017-2022, the FAA envisions Data Comm between controllers and the flight crew to become the primary means of communicating non-time critical information. Four research conditions were defined that span current day to future equipage levels (Voice with Paper map, Data Comm with Paper map, Data Comm with Moving Map Display with ownship position displayed, Data Comm with Moving Map, ownship and taxi route displayed), and were used to create arrival and departure scenarios at Boston Logan Airport. Preliminary results for workload, situation awareness, and pilot head-up time are presented here. Questionnaire data indicated that pilot acceptability, workload, and situation awareness ratings were favorable for all of the conditions tested. Pilots did indicate that there were times during final approach and landing when they would prefer not to hear the message chime, and would not be able to make a quick response due to high priority tasks in the cockpit.
Effect of Party Line Loss and Delivery Format on Crew Performance and Workload BIBAFull-Text 126-130
  Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Sara K. Gee; Kelley Baker; Maricel Medina-Mora
This experiment sought to gain insight into the potential loss of situational awareness that could arise from the switch from radio-based verbal communications between pilots and controllers to the delivery of non-time-critical information through data communications (Data Comm). Specifically, this study examined the effect that loss of the party line and changes to the delivery format for clearances and other flight-relevant information had on pilot situational awareness and workload. Data suggest that both the loss of the party line and the use of Data Comm as a delivery mechanism for clearances affected performance and workload.
Service for Equipage Impact Assessment BIBAFull-Text 131-135
  Beth L. Blickensderfer; Albert J. Boquet; Ryan Blanding; Tripp J. E. Driskell; Clyde Rinkinen; Martin Lauth
One aspect of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is using datalink communications rather than voice. To encourage aircraft owners and operators to invest in the technology necessary for datalink, the FAA has proposed switching from a "first-come, first-served" to "best-equipped, best-served" air traffic management strategy (Federal Aviation Administration, 2009). The purpose of this study was to present the datalink concept and the "service for equipage" strategy to current stakeholders and to elicit their opinions on the matter. Eight current air traffic controllers, two pilots, and one Airline Operations Center dispatcher were presented with four scenarios to discuss in a focus group. The results indicated several conditions under which controllers would use datalink.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS10 -- Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation BIBAFull-Text 136-139
  Mary K. Kaiser; Christopher S. Allen; Immanuel Barshi; Dorrit Billman; Kritina L. Holden
As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

AGING: A1 -- Safety and Physical Performance with Aging

Examination of older females grip characteristics BIBAFull-Text 140-144
  C. B. Irwin; C. C. Kage; K. G. Gruben; M. E. Sesto
Loss of grip strength due to aging has been widely reported by researchers but other factors may also be influential in age-related hand function declines. For instance, older adults have demonstrated a propensity to orient fingertip forces in a manner different from younger adults. Additionally, a slowing in the maximal rate of force development due to aging has been found in muscle groups ranging from the biceps to the quadriceps. These grip characteristics may independently, or concurrently, affect hand function. Using the Multi-axis (MAP) dynamometer, we evaluated the ability of younger and older adult female participants to rapidly generate a maximal voluntary grip exertion. The maximum grip force, rate of force development (N/sec) and grip force vector orientation were measured. Older female participants had 69% the grip force, 62% the rate of force development, and had grip force vector orientations shifted 5.9 degrees as compared to younger female participants. The ability to use one's hands is critical for completing activities of daily living and retaining independence. The differences in grip characteristics measured in this study may improve our understanding of the loss of function in older adults' hands more than the decline in grip strength alone.
Comparative Analyses of Functional Reaches of Older Mexican American Adults BIBAFull-Text 145-149
  Grisel Ventura; Rajeev Senapati; Luis Diaz; Arunkumar Pennathur; Luis Rene Contreras; Julia Bader
Older Mexican American adults have greater difficulty in performing activities of daily living (ADL) compared to other older adult groups. Differences in functional upper extremity anthropometry measures may help explain higher incidences of ADL difficulties among older Mexican American adults. Hence, as a first step, the objectives of this study were to compare baseline limiting outer fingertip and grip reaches of older Mexican Americans with published and available functional anthropometry data from other older adult groups. Older Mexican American females and males, aged 60-85+, recruited from Senior Centers in the City of El Paso, participated in the study. Stature, vertical fingertip and grip reaches, and horizontal fingertip and grip reaches, among other dimensions, were measured. Summary statistics, percentiles, and correlations between dimensions were generated for elderly Mexican American females and males. For overall comparison of Mexican American older adult anthropometry with other older adult groups, data available from several other studies in the Older Adult Data compendium was used. Overall comparisons of weighted means of available reach dimensions between older Mexican Americans and other older adult groups showed significant differences in most functional reach dimensions. Older Mexican American adults were found to have significantly different functional anthropometry than other groups.
  Robert A. Hall; Paul J. Componation; Sandra L. Carpenter; Pamela O'Neal
One-third of the elderly population falls one or more times annually. Older adults are more susceptible to falling and are more susceptible to serious injury. Falls are the greatest killer of those 75 years of age and older. Additionally, active older women, compared to active older men, are more likely to fall and are twice as likely to experience serious injury from a fall. Methods used to prepare individuals to avoid falls -- from an economic point with no consideration for the emotional cost -- are break-even at best when comparing the cost of preventing a fall to the medical costs of a resultant fall. This paper reports on a 10- month intervention study of 121 women, 65 years of age and older, to determine whether a low-cost repetitive intervention consisting of visualization and repetition would decrease the occurrence of falls. In the study, the number of falls in the treatment group, excluding repeat fallers, was less (11%) than the control group although not to a level of statistical significance. Nevertheless, benefits were gained from the study. The women almost exclusively reported that their awareness to hazardous situations was heightened by the study and some reported changing their approach to hazardous situations in order to decrease their exposure to harm. There is some indication that to be most effective, a fall intervention program should be ongoing to the extent as permitted by economic considerations. Suggestions for future study are included.
Developing a New Driving Simulator Task to Assess Drivers Functional Object Detection BIBAFull-Text 155-159
  Richard R. Goodenough; Johnell O. Brooks; Matthew C. Crisler; William L. Logan
A new driving simulator task was developed with the long-term goal of aiding rehabilitation specialists who work with drivers who may have functional impairments. This simulated driving task was designed to measure a driver's ability to respond to two types of visual stimuli -- brake lights of a lead vehicle and targets presented at different eccentricities along the horizon. Three driving scenarios were developed for the study. The first two were used to examine the effect of A-pillar occlusion on the target detection task. The target locations used in the third scenario were chosen to examine the effect of eccentricity on target reaction time when the participant was required to make head movements to locate and respond to targets. This third scenario revealed age-related differences in the capability to locate and respond to visual stimuli in the periphery of the driving environment. This may be due to the decrements in psychomotor ability observed in older adults. This scenario is expected to have utility in clinical settings.
Older and Younger Drivers Beliefs about Motor Vehicle Features to Benefit Their Safe Driving BIBAFull-Text 160-164
  Soyun Kim; Michael S. Wogalter; Christopher B. Mayhorn
Because there are age-related perceptual, motor, and cognitive declines and because people are living longer, there has been increased concern about older drivers' ability to operate motor vehicles safely. This research examined older and younger adults' perceptions regarding a set of 28 motor vehicle features/aspects according to the extent to which they believed it may help their safe driving. Several features were judged as more important than others regarding safe driving. Although both age groups predominately gave similar evaluations, some features/aspects differed significantly between the two age groups. Older adults believed that vehicle door openings should be easier to get into and out of, preferred analog displays, and labels on the dashboard that were bigger and brighter, and held less strong beliefs that current vehicle controls and displays are easy to use than did younger adults. Implications and design recommendations are discussed. A list of vehicle features that are potentially beneficial to older drivers is presented.

AGING: A2 -- Aging and Cognitive Function

Exploring Age-Related Differences in Prospective Memory Inside and Outside of the Lab BIBAFull-Text 165-169
  Paul Y. Kim; Christopher B. Mayhorn
Age differences in the performance of two prospective memory tasks (activity-based and event-based) were investigated both in laboratory and naturalistic settings. Forty young and 40 older adults participated. First, the participants came to the lab and answered ninety trivia questions with embedded prospective memory tasks. Second, they were required to come to a local mall (naturalistic setting) a few days later to complete various prospective memory tasks. Results indicated that both age groups performed the event-based task followed by activity-based task better in the lab than in the naturalistic setting. The young performed the tasks better than their older counterparts in both contexts, though the effects failed to reach statistical significance. An interesting finding was that older participants performed the naturalistic event-based task better than the young participants. These findings suggest that converting activity-based tasks into event-based tasks may help people accomplish their daily prospective memory tasks more successfully.
  Ann E. Lambert; Jason M. Watson; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer
Older adult drivers' disproportionate involvement in traffic fatalities coupled with growing population projections for this age group present a need for public policy that regulates the safety of our roadways. Before such a policy can be developed, a highly predictive model of the cognitive factors responsible for successful driving performance is necessary. The present study investigated the relationship between age and cognitive control on simulated driving performance to develop a predictive model for individual driving ability. Visual attention and working memory capacity of young adult college students and community dwelling older adults were tested using Useful Field of View and Operation Span which are thought to measure aspects of attention. These scores were correlated with participants' simulated driving performance. Preliminary results indicated that attentional measures are important predictors of driving performance. Results are discussed in terms of implications for public policy related to driving and aging.
Do Younger and Older Adults Differentially Depend on an Automated System BIBAFull-Text 175-179
  Sara E. McBride; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Various factors, including trust, system reliability, and error type have been found to affect how people interact with automated systems. Another variable that is becoming increasingly important is the role of age in human-automation interaction. As automation continues to emerge in numerous domains, including the home, older adults will likely interact with these types of systems to a greater extent than ever before. Therefore, understanding if age-related changes in cognition, such as diminished working memory capacity or processing speed, affect how older adults use automated systems is critical to ensure these systems are designed and implemented effectively. This study examined the role of age in a simulated dual task environment using an automated aid. Younger adults outperformed older adults in both tasks. When the automation was incorrect, younger adults exhibited less dependence than older adults. Further, when older adults verified the automation's suggestion, they took significantly more time to do so than younger adults. Additionally, older adults reported greater trust in the automation and higher workload compared to younger adults.
Impact of Health Knowledge on Older Adults Comprehension of Multimedia Health Information BIBAFull-Text 180-184
  Laura D'Andrea; Dan Morrow; Elizabeth Stine-Morrow; Matthew Shake; Sven Bertell; Katie Kopren; Jessie Chin; Thembi Conner-Garcia; James Graumlich; Michael Murray
We studied hypertensive older adults' processing of multimedia (text and picture) displays of hypertension information, and how reading patterns related to hypertension knowledge and passage comprehension. Eye movements of 23 older adults were tracked as they studied 4 text-picture passages. Eye movements were analyzed during and after participants first read the passage. Compared to the less knowledgeable participants, more knowledgeable participants spent a greater proportion of time looking at the text than the pictures when first reading passages, but focused more on pictures than text afterwards. This pattern of fixation time was also associated with more accurate passage comprehension.
Feedback Requirements for Older Adult Learning: Do Cognitive Abilities Matter BIBAFull-Text 185-189
  Christopher M. Kelley; Anne Collins McLaughlin
A century's worth of research has failed to identify the amount of feedback necessary to learn a new task (cf. (Schmidt & Bjork, 1992; Van Merrienboer & Sweller, 2005). Some argue less feedback is beneficial in acquisition as it provides conditions similar to those needed for retention (Schmidt & Bjork, 1992); others advocate more feedback will reduce the cognitive load of the learner thus freeing up the resources needed for learning (McLaughlin, 2007; McLaughlin, Rogers, & Fisk, 2006; Sweller, 1988). To test the model feedback requirements are determined by the cognitive resources of the learner and the demands imposed by the task (McLaughlin et al., 2006), a simple cue-based learning exercise was created. Cognitive resources was controlled for by using participants with documented declines in cognitive resources, older adults (Horn & Cattell, 1967; Salthouse & Babcock, 1991). Results indicated feedback requirements for a cue that drew from fluid abilities differed from a cue that drew from crystallized intelligence suggesting feedback requirements may be based on individual ability levels. Theoretical and applied contributions are also discussed.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC1 -- Research and Methods Pertaining to EEG

Temporal Sequences of Neurophysiologic Synchronies can Identify Changes in Team Cognition BIBAFull-Text 190-194
  Ronald H. Stevens; Trysha L. Galloway; Chris Berka; Adrienne Behneman
Neurophysiologic synchronies (NS) are the second-by-second co-expression of the levels of cognitive measures by individual members of a team. Previously we showed that the NS obtained from EEG-derived measures of engagement (EEG-E) were not random across a variety of teamwork situations, but changed with changing task demands. In this study we hypothesized that the expression of different NS may represent unobserved states of the team and that the sequence of NS expression may contain long memory relevant to the performance of the team. To test this hypothesis we performed hidden Markov modeling of the EEG-E NS streams from novice and expert Navy submarine piloting and navigation teams and show that the dynamic expression of states derived from these models identified short and long-term changes in the behavior of teams.
Comparison of Multiple Physiological Sensors to Classify Operator State in Adaptive Automation Systems BIBAFull-Text 195-199
  Grant Taylor; Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Keryl Cosenzo; Denise Nicholson
Automating tasks alleviates operator resources to be delegated to other demands, but the cost is often situation awareness. In contrast, complete manual control of a system opens the door for greater human error. Therefore, an ideal situation would require the development of an adaptive system in which automation can be triggered based on performance of a particular task, time spent on the task, or perhaps physiological response. The latter pertains to the goal for this particular study. Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and eye tracking measures were recorded during six multi-tasking scenarios to assess if any one single measure is best suited for future implementation as an automation invocation. EEG showed the greatest potential for that purpose.
EEG Spectral Analysis of Workload for a Part-task UAV Simulation BIBAFull-Text 200-204
  Daniel M. Roberts; Brian A. Taylor; Jane H. Barrow; Geoffrey Robertson; George Buzzell; Ciara Sibley; Anna Cole; Joseph T. Coyne; Carryl L. Baldwin
Electroencephalography (EEG) has the prospect of providing a means to gauge operator workload in a manner that does not intrude on the task being performed. Specifically, it has been proposed that the technique could be used as a method to speed the learning of a task, by adjusting the task to suit the state of the learner. The present study recorded EEG while participants performed a simulated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance task. Analysis of power in three EEG frequency bands of interest found differences between the types of task being performed; however more complex analysis may be necessary to discern levels of difficulty within the task.
EEG Pattern Analysis for Physiological Indicators of Mental Fatigue in Simulated Air Traffic Control Tasks BIBAFull-Text 205-209
  Deepika Dasari; Chris Crowe; Chen Ling; Min Zhu; Lei Ding
Objective: This study was designed to identify potential neurophysiologic markers and patterns of mental fatigue among air traffic controllers in their work environment. Background: The monitoring of mental fatigue in air traffic controllers has been of interest as their tasks involve high cognitive workload and are also critical to the safety of the public. Method: High-density electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to record 2-hour long air traffic control studies in eleven participants. Participants were asked to perform realistic tasks in a simulation, to operate a virtual air traffic control system. Fourier Transforms were used to estimate EEG power spectrum, statistical tests were implemented to reveal EEG spatial pattern changes caused by the time-on-task. The concept of mental state transition was introduced to study the development of certain mental states which are related to the mental fatigue. Results: The observation of EEG spectral data over a period of time revealed statistically significant changes spatially localized to central and parietal cortices. Rhythmic EEG activity within theta, alpha, and beta bands indicates transitions among mental states, which appear to be promising indicators for the development of mental fatigue. Mental fatigue indicated by the transition of mental states was estimated to approximately 70 minutes after the time on task. Application: This study can build the foundation to develop promising technologies for real time monitoring of mental fatigue, which will increase public safety and proper human resource planning.
Evaluation of a Dry Electrode System for Electroencephalography: Applications for Psychophysiological Cognitive Workload Assessment BIBAFull-Text 210-214
  Justin R. Estepp; Jason W. Monnin; James C. Christensen; Glenn F. Wilson
Advances in state-of-the-art dry electrode technology have led to the development of a novel dry electrode system for electroencephalography (QUASAR, Inc.; San Diego, California, USA). While basic systems-level testing and comparison of this dry electrode system to conventional wet electrode systems has proved to be very favorable, very limited data has been collected that demonstrates the ability of QUASAR's dry electrode system to replicate results produced in more applied, dynamic testing environments that may be used for human factors applications. In this study, QUASAR's dry electrode headset was used in combination with traditional wet electrodes to determine the ability of the dry electrode system to accurately differentiate between varying levels of cognitive workload. Results show that the accuracy in cognitive workload assessment obtained with wet electrodes is comparable to that obtained with the dry electrodes.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC2 -- The Basic versus Applied Research Dilemma

  Lauren E. Reinerman-Jones
The timeless basic versus applied research debate continues with what appears as no middle ground. Augmented Cognition researchers, particularly, are faced with the dilemma of merging laboratory results into applicable systems, i.e. developing and applying real-time physiological measures to integrate into human-computer systems. Insight to that disparity might be gleaned by revisiting this age-old debate of whether basic and applied research operate at opposite ends of the spectrum or perhaps on a more narrowed continuum. A few items to be addressed include a solution between the two camps, methods for bridging the gaps between laboratory and field experiments and then to advanced development, and the importance of mediation occurring within knowledge and practice. The panelists are challenged to make recommendations for investigators in augmented cognition and related fields to overcome the limitations of working in a controlled laboratory or a field environment and to achieve the most useful findings.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC3 -- Transfer: From the Laboratory to the Real World

Transfer: From the Laboratory to the Real-World BIBAFull-Text 218-219
  Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Denise Nicholson
The basic versus applied research debate for decades has carried through to all sciences and their sub-disciplines. Recent books highlight the challenges encountered in Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) regarding laboratory and real-world research (Chebykin, Bedny, & Karwowski, 2008; Proctor &Van Zandt, 2008; Vicenzi, Wise, Mouloua, & Hancock, 2009; Wickens & McCarley, 2008). Given that the basic versus applied research dispute forges on, a panel is composed for the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2010 Conference to revisit the more traditional issues surrounding the debate. The panelists will address whether basic and applied research are on opposite ends of the spectrum or if the gap between those two extremes has merged. They are challenged with making recommendations to overcome the limitations of working in a controlled laboratory or a field environment and to achieve the most useful findings.
Functional Fidelity, Context-Matching, and Individual Differences in Performance BIBAFull-Text 220-224
  Gerald Matthews; Joel S. Warm; Lauren E. Reinerman Jones; Lisa K. Langheim; Svyatoslav Guznov; Tyler H. Shaw; Victor S. Finomore
Conventional personality questionnaires are often only weak predictors of operational performance. A major problem is that personality effects are moderated by contextual factors which may be mismatched across laboratory and real-world studies. Context mismatch threatens the 'functional fidelity' of laboratory performance tasks; the extent to which the individual behaves as they would in the operational environment. Three research strategies for enhancing the functional fidelity of laboratory studies of individual differences are proposed. First, contexts relevant to specific personality traits may be developed in the laboratory. For example, socially threatening environments may be necessary to find meaningful effects of neuroticism. Second, traits linked to a specific performance context may be employed. The validity of traits for driver stress vulnerability supports this approach. Third, psychophysiological responses to simulations of the cognitive demands of the work environment may be used. Our recent work shows that stress and hemodynamic responses to short high-workload tasks predict longer duration sustained performance.
Theoretical Implications and Practical Applications of the a-b Signal Detection Theory Model for Human-Automation Interaction BIBAFull-Text 225-229
  Ernesto A. Bustamante
The purpose of this research was threefold: 1) Present the a-b Signal Detection Theory (SDT) model as an alternative theoretical framework to overcome the limitations of traditional SDT, 2) Provide basic empirical support to validate the adequacy of the model, and 3) Show the potential generalizability of the model to different domain-specific areas within applied settings. The results from the basic empirical study suggest that the a-b SDT model provides a more accurate theoretical framework for examining the underlying processes involved in signal detection and decision making. Furthermore, the findings from the domain-specific study show the potential applicability and generalizability of the a-b SDT model for examining human-automation interaction. The end product of this work is particularly important for researchers and practitioners who are interested in applying a basic fundamental framework for examining how sensory, perceptual, and cognitive factors may affect humans' decision-making accuracy and response bias while interacting with automated systems in a wide range of applied settings.
Training Transfer Design Theories Revisited for Application to Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 230-233
  Kim Sprouse; Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Denise Nicholson
Training transfer, a dated issue, takes new perspective when considering designing a virtual environment (VE) best suited for application to the real-world. A review of three key design theories is provided. An outline follows of the basic components, limitations, and future directions for Identical Elements Theory, Principles Theory, and Near and Far Transfer Theory. Discussion surrounding theory applicability to a variety of fields including route mapping, medical, and pilot training encourages serious evaluation of the evidence supporting any one theory capable of accounting for all training transfer from VE systems and the probability of training capable of transferring for all fields.
  James L. Merlo; Nathaniel Drake; Benjamin J. Schmidt
Ten West Point cadets between the ages of 18 and 24 were tested in their ability to build a complex structure using directions provided by either PointnTalk, a purpose built asynchronous multimodal communications tool developed by Collaborative Work Systems (CWS), Inc., or the well known Microsoft program PowerPoint. Cadets then used the opposite system, PointnTalk or PowerPoint respectively, to create their own presentation of an instructional dialogue directing someone how to complete the same complex structure. The results showed that PointnTalk instructions took longer to administer, but that the tool proved to be better at communicating higher level processes and produced superior performance in successful task completion of the participant built instructions. Results support multimodal communication theories and natural language communication strategies for effective asynchronous communication.
What basic-applied issue is there BIBAFull-Text 239-243
  William S. Helton; Simon Kemp
Human Factors (HF), or ergonomics, is the scientific discipline concerned with the interactions among humans and built systems. Because human factors research is transparently applied, HF researchers often find themselves in a supposed tug-of-war between the basic and applied scientific research communities. We provide an argument in this paper that there really is no meaningful distinction between basic and applied science. We provide two historical examples, one medieval and one modern, demonstrating that a fundamental impetus of all psychological research has always been application. Human Factors is not unique in this respect. We suspect the basic-applied distinction has been propagated to suppress scientists' wages and provide some parting advice to HF researchers in dealing with this issue.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC4 -- Measuring Workload using Physiological Measures such as Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD)

Transcranial Doppler Assessment of Workload Transition in a Complex Task BIBAFull-Text 244-248
  L. M. Cerruti; J. R. Estepp; W. D. Miller; J. C. Christensen
Previous research has demonstrated that the level of performance achieved for a given workload level is affected not only on task demands and individual differences, but also by sequential effects of prior workload. The majority of this research has been done with vigilance-type tasks, wherein performance is an intermittent response to critical signals. Workload is then varied either by adjusting the signal rate or adding a secondary task. This study sought to demonstrate that workload can be assessed with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) in addition to performance and other physiological measures, and that workload transition results generalize to more complex tasks. TCD and electrocardiographic (ECG) data were collected while participants performed the Multi Attribute Task Battery (MATB, Comstock & Arnegard, 1992). Two levels of workload were individually defined based on performance via a pretest calibration procedure; one level was relatively easy with a mean composite TLX score of 23 and the other relatively difficult with a mean composite TLX score of 63. These two levels were run in isolation and in transition runs that switched from one to the other halfway through. TCD and ECG revealed that both blood flow velocity and heart rate increased with increasing task difficulty, while the transition in task difficulty produced non-significantly lower performance than runs of consistent difficulty. The physiological data provides evidence that additional physical resources are demanded and consumed in response to the change in task difficulty, while performance data collected to date has not revealed transition effects in the complex task.
Using Transcranial Doppler Sonography to Measure Cognitive Load in a Command and Control Task BIBAFull-Text 249-253
  Tyler H. Shaw; Laura Guagliardo; Ewart de Visser; Raja Parasuraman
Previous work has explored the possibility of measuring the functional state of the operator to drive the implementation of physiological adaptive aiding. Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD), which has shown promise as an index of cognitive resource utilization in vigilance or sustained attention tasks, may provide a time and cost efficient alternative to traditional measures used to assess operator functional state. In the current study, participants performed a command and control simulation under varying levels of task load: a low task load condition in which enemy threats incurred at a steady pace, and a high workload trial in which the number of enemy threats increased unpredictably at two points within the scenario. Reaction time to engage and destroy enemies, and the efficiency of protection of a no-fly zone, were superior in the low than in the high load condition. Furthermore, an automated decision aid facilitated better performance in both task load conditions. As the demands of the task increased unpredictably in the high task load condition, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) increased in a similar manner for the first task load transition, but not for the second. Results suggest that the TCD measure may be useful in monitoring the dynamic changes of operator workload in unpredictable environments, but additional studies are needed to validate its use for physiologically-driven adaptive automation.
  Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Terence Soule; Stuart A. Ragsdale; Steffen Werner
An essential component of augmented cognition (AC) is developing robust methods of extracting reliable and meaningful information from physiological measures in real-time. To evaluate the potential of skin conductance (SC) and pupil diameter (PD) measures, we utilized a dual-axis pursuit tracking task where the control mappings repeatedly and abruptly rotated 90° throughout the trials to provide an immediate and obvious challenge to proper system control. Using these data, a model-building technique novel to these measures, genetic programming (GP) with scaled symbolic regression and Age Layered Populations (ALPS), was compared to traditional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for predicting tracking error and control-mapping state. When compared with traditional linear modeling approaches, symbolic regression better predicted both tracking error and control mapping state. Furthermore, the estimates obtained from symbolic regression were less noisy and more robust.
The Effect of an Extrinsic Incentive on Psychophysiological Measures of Mental Effort and Motivational Disposition when Task Demand is Varied BIBAFull-Text 259-263
  Katie C. Ewing; Stephen H. Fairclough
The operationalisation of user psychological state is essential for physiological computing systems. The present study investigated the sensitivity of different psychophysiological measures to task engagement in a cognitive challenge scenario. A repeated measures design manipulated working memory demand and financial incentive. Low, high and impossible levels of cognitive challenge were created by combining memory demands with required standards of performance. 20 participants completed two blocks of the task, once with a financial incentive and once without. Performance, EEG, blood pressure, ECG, respiration and pupillometry were measured during task completion along with subjective reports of motivation and effort. Results showed sensitivity to demand for all EEG measures, blood pressure and heart rate variability (0.1Hz component). Sensitivity to incentive was found for EEG lower alpha suppression, heart rate and blood pressure. No effects were found on pupillometry and respiration data. Implications for the development of a real time cognitive monitor are discussed.
How Does Day-to-Day Variability in Psychophysiological Data Affect Classifier Accuracy BIBAFull-Text 264-268
  G. F. Wilson; C. A. Russell; J. W. Monnin; J. R. Estepp; J. C. Christensen
Combined psychophysiological measures have been used to determine mental workload in operators, but the day-to-day reliability of these measures has not been determined. Data were collected four times over a one month period. Two classifiers were trained with these data and their ability to correctly discriminate between two levels of task difficulty with new data was tested. Both classifiers very accurately discriminated between the two levels of task difficulty using data collected on the same day as the training data. However, the accuracy was considerably reduced when tested on data from days different from the training data. The implications for application of these procedures are discussed.


  M. E. Hassall; P. M. Sanderson; I. T. Cameron
Accidents in the process industries can be attributed, at least in part, to human causes. Hazard studies are commonly used in industry to identify and manage risks. This paper describes a methodology, called HumHID, which potentially improves hazard identification associated with human factors. The approach is based on cognitive work analysis (CWA) techniques, human factors/error taxonomies and the blended hazard methodology (BLHAZID). A desktop case study is used to illustrate the application of the methodology. The results show that a combination of CWA, human factors/error taxonomies and BLHAZID techniques provides a structured means of identifying hazards associated with human activity as well as showing the causality behind the hazards which can be used to guide redesign work.
  Maryam Ashoori; Catherine Burns
Cognitive work analysis (CWA) is a relatively new human factors perspective for analyzing complex sociotechnical systems. However, it does not yet have specific tools and techniques that allow it to address teamwork explicitly enough to provide good guidance on how to support teams and collaboration. In this paper, Decision Wheels are introduced as an extension to the Decision Ladders for representing collaboration in teamwork environments. This extension would be a significant contribution to both CWA methodology and human factors methods for team situations. It would enable human factors practitioners to understand the cognitive work of teams better, and to design better collaborative systems for teamwork environments.
A Cognitive Task Analysis for Cyber Situational Awareness BIBAFull-Text 279-283
  Samuel Mahoney; Emilie Roth; Kristin Steinke; Jonathan Pfautz; Curt Wu; Mike Farry
Cyber Network degradation and exploitation can covertly turn an organization's technological strength into an operational weakness. It has become increasingly imperative, therefore, for an organization's personnel to have an awareness of the state of the Cyber Network that they use to carry out their mission. Recent high-level government initiatives along with hacking and exploitation in the commercial realm highlight this need for general Cyber Situational Awareness (SA). While much of the attention in both the military and commercial cyber security communities is on abrupt and blunt attacks on the network, the most insidious cyber threat to organizations are subtle and persistent attacks leading to compromised databases, processing algorithms, and displays. We recently began an effort developing software tools to support the Cyber SA of users at varying levels of responsibility and expertise (i.e., not just the network administrators). This paper presents our approach and preliminary findings from a CTA we conducted with an operational Subject Matter Expert to uncover the situational awareness requirements of such a tool. Results from our analysis indicate a list of preliminary categories of these requirements, as well as specific questions that will drive the design and development of our SA tool.
Human Control in Mineral Processing Plants: An Operator Centered Investigation BIBAFull-Text 284-288
  Li X; Horberry T; Powell M
Minerals Industry Safety and Health Centre and Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia Mineral processing plants present a complex and dynamic process control environment where human operation is widely regarded as the bottleneck of overall plant performance. This paper presents an initial field study to investigate factors and issues that affect successful human performance in this domain from human factors perspective. The methods used were in-situ observation, interviews, survey and review of documentation. A total of 20 operators were studied at two different types of Australian mineral processing plants. The results indicate 1) current information in the control room was not effectively organized and presented in a way that supported human supervisory control activities, and 2) various organizational issues such as insufficient operator training and poor shift handover significantly impacted the quality of human control. As a result, human control inevitably fell into a typical passive mode. Even worse, controllers often distrusted or rejected the use of alarms and new technologies in their work place. This work demonstrates the successful case study of applying human factor research methods in a novel domain. The outcome of this field study has successfully stimulated new industry interest and support for further research aimed at improving human and system integration.
Person-in-the-Loop Testing of a Digital Power Plant Control Room BIBAFull-Text 289-293
  Emilie M. Roth; James Easter; Robert E. Hall; Leonard Kabana; Kenji Mashio; Satoshi Hanada; Timothy Clouser; Gilbert W. Remley
There is renewed interest in building new commercial nuclear power plants. Unlike existing plants that have traditional control rooms with large control boards, new plants will have compact digital control rooms. The transition to digital control rooms introduce opportunities for enhanced support (e.g., integrated displays; improved alarm systems; computerized procedures) as well as potential new challenges (e.g., shift from open to private workspaces; changes in workload distribution resulting from reduced control room crew size). This paper describes two simulator tests that were conducted as part of a person-in-the-loop test program to support development and validation of a control room for the US-APWR evolutionary pressurized water reactor plant. While the results are presented in the context of evaluation of a particular digital control room design, they have applicability to design of compact digital control rooms more generally, and point to areas where more research is needed.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE2 -- Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Simulations and Games in Human Factors

Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Simulations and Games in Human Factors Research BIBAFull-Text 294-298
  Mark S. Pfaff; Laurel Allender; Wayne D. Gray; Michael D. McNeese; David J. Mendonca; Melanie C. Wright
Much has been already been said about what simulations and games can provide that other research methodologies do not. But the complexity and richness of the results they afford in human factors research is matched by the complexity and cost of their conception, design, implementation, and validation. Though this may seem a daunting challenge to those considering such platforms for their own research, this panel aims to air the promises and pitfalls of simulations and games by sharing historical exemplars, lessons learned, and current issues in their use for human factors research. The panelists represent decades of experience in military, medical, and civilian research domains and have worked through abundant successes and failures in this area. Key issues of discussion will include cases which stand out as exemplary instances of using simulations and games in human factors research, particularly those that produced results that would have been unattainable by other methods, the challenges and constraints of participant pools (e.g. naïve subjects, access to domain experts, and suitable compromises), development of viable and engaging simulations (e.g., the problem of software written by grad students, for grad students), collection of accurate and meaningful data, and the generalizability of such game and simulation platforms as well as the adaptability of off-the-shelf solutions.


Squeezing the Balloon: Analyzing the Unpredictable Effects of Cognitive Workload BIBAFull-Text 299-303
  Jason Ralph; Wayne D. Gray; Michael J. Schoelles
Cognitive workload effects behavior like squeezing a balloon. If you squeeze at one place, it pops out at another, and it is hard to predict where it's going to pop out. Understanding workload requires understanding the control of cognition at the 1/3 to 3s-time span during which cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations become bound together into interactive routines. Interactive routines constitute unit tasks (3 to 30 s), and unit tasks constitute subtasks (30s to 3min). To reduce cognitive workload and overload, the Functional Resource Hypothesis maintains that an optimal allocation of interactive routines to task performance would be based on the functional resource of time not modality. Some of the implications of this hypothesis are investigated in an empirical study that varied memory load as well as the demands on the eyes, visual attention, auditory cognition, and motor operations. A microanalysis of the data revealed tradeoffs between groups in their pattern of resource allocation that were compatible with the Functional Resource Hypothesis and led to surprising behavioral effects.
Development of the Human Robot Interaction Workload Measurement Tool (HRI-WM) BIBAFull-Text 304-308
  Rosemarie E. Yagoda
Humans interacting with robots face a complex task. Often the exchanges are mediated through an interface and impact the workload associated with a particular task. Within a human-robot system, an operator's perceived workload is very important. Effective workload measurement strategies are needed to ensure optimal human-robot interaction. Building upon traditional workload measures, the development of the human-robot interaction workload measure is introduced. The human-robot interaction workload measure provides several advantages beyond traditional subjective workload measures while providing a comprehensive account of the workload associated with human-robot systems.
Influence of Team Leaders Situation Awareness on their Teams Situation Awareness and Performance BIBAFull-Text 309-313
  Haydee M. Cuevas; Cheryl A. Bolstad
In complex operational environments, such as found in the military, it is necessary to consider not only the situation awareness (SA) of individual team members, but also the SA of the team as a whole. Given their important role in military combat operations, we hypothesized that the SA of team leaders (e.g., unit commanders) may have a significant influence on the SA and subsequent performance of those under their command. Accordingly, the overall objective of this research was to evaluate how much of the variance in a team's SA can be accounted for by the individual SA of the team's leader. To test our hypothesis, we performed an analysis of data collected at three experiments involving complex military operations. Results highlight the significant role of leaders' SA on their team's SA.
Predicting Shared Situation Awareness in Teams: A Case of Differential SA Requirements BIBAFull-Text 314-318
  Lelyn D. Saner; Cheryl A. Bolstad; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Haydee M. Cuevas
In this paper, we report our efforts at developing a valid approach for measuring and predicting shared situation awareness (SA) in teams performing in complex operational environments. Participants were assigned to one of 4 teams (Navy, Army, Special Operations, or Joint Service) and completed a simulated military rescue operation training exercise. We developed procedures to measure the degree of shared SA between team members and to improve the accuracy of shared SA scores. The measures were then used to evaluate five potential predictors of shared SA (experience similarity, shared task knowledge, cognitive workload similarity, communication distance, organizational hub distance). We examined the relationship of these factors to specific queries that assessed different types of SA information requirements. Results indicated that four factors had significant relationships with shared SA, but that the factors related to each query changed in relation to the type of SA assessed by the query. We discuss the implications of these results for predicting shared SA under different situational conditions.
  Anand Tharanathan; Peter Bullemer; Jason Laberge; Dal Vernon Reising; Rich Mclain
It is important for console operators to maintain good situation awareness while monitoring process operations. A key component that helps operators achieve better situation awareness is how the information about the process is displayed on their console. Most oil and gas refineries still utilize traditional schematic displays and connecting lines between equipments to present process information. In this study, we designed a functional layout for an overview display. This layout shows the same process parameters as a traditional schematic display, but in a different format. Eighteen plant operators viewed both displays to monitor a crude unit process and their situation awareness was measured. Results indicated that operators' situation awareness was significantly higher when they monitored the process on a functional display compared with a schematic display. The implications of the findings for continuous process control are discussed.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE4 -- Decision-Making and Decision Strategies

Mapping Biases to the Components of Rationalistic and Naturalistic Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 324-328
  Lisa A. Rehak; Barb Adams; Micheline Belanger
People often create and use shortcuts or "rules of thumb" to make decisions. The majority of time, reliance on these heuristics helps us to perform efficiently and effectively. Yet, this reliance can also promote bias, or systematic error. Our review of the literature suggests that both decision-making approaches that are rational and natural are likely to be subject to a range of biases. Unfortunately, the available literature provides very little discussion of what aspects biases are likely to impact within each of these processes. In the absence of this discussion, we have attempted to combine our knowledge of the bias literature and the decision-making literature to explore what biases are likely to impact various components of each decision-making process. Includes the following biases: availability, representativeness, anchoring & adjustment, confirmation, hindsight, overconfidence, framing and affect.
  Patricia C. Brennan; Poornima Madhavan
We investigated the effects of different decision frames and incentives on training in a simulated airport security screening task using a 3 (frame: analytical, affective, comparative) x 2 (incentive: positive, negative) x 4 (trial block) design. Performance was measured by criterion settings, sensitivities, and detection response times. Results indicate that participants in the analytical frame (i.e., emphasis on gaining/losing points) outperformed participants in both the affective (i.e., emphasis on saving/losing lives) and comparative frames (i.e., emphasis on performing better/worse than peers). These results have implications for training airport luggage screeners in the real world in that eliciting strong emotions override our reason and logic and lead participants to perform poorly in discriminating between signal and noise.
Motivation-Expectation Space as a representative structure for decision strategies BIBAFull-Text 334-338
  Angela Li Sin Tan; Martin G. Helander; Boon Kee Soh
Introduction: In a cognitive system, human operators work with automation to achieve their goal. However, there are times when the human operator cannot interpret what the automation is doing. This can create dangerous communication gap particularly if the automation provides the wrong advice. This paper proposes the Motivation-Expectation Space (MES) as a representative structure for bridging the gap. Review: The MES has its theoretical foundation from research in Cognitive System Engineering. It represents the goals, means, causes, and effects in an orthogonal structure. These four components were repeatedly observed in research related to decision strategies. The MES was assessed against the information requirements for improving automation trust and dependency and found to suffice in supporting most of the requirements. Contribution: The structured representation of these elements in the MES would likely facilitate the interpretation of the decision strategies, making it easier and faster for the human to understand what the automation is doing. Parallels were also drawn between MES and Situation Awareness to suggest the potential value MES can bring to research in Cognitive System Engineering.
Decision Strategy Types and Situation-Contingent Selection Mechanisms: A Review and Some Field Data BIBAFull-Text 339-343
  Roland Gasser
Decision research has revealed a variety of adaptive strategies that experts use when making decisions; however, there is no widely accepted model of how experienced decision makers choose such a strategy to solve a particular decision problem. Within most decision-making models that include a selection mechanism, decision strategies are selected according to cost-benefit trade-offs. These models assume that the selection is based on an evaluation of the subjectively expected utility of a correct decision and the effort the decision maker is willing to make in the situation at hand. In opposition, there are research findings showing that proficient decision makers mainly seem to select strategies based on recognition of the decision situation and a history of successful applications of a certain strategy. In this context I discuss findings from a field study in production planning and scheduling that are contrary to predictions from cost-benefit models. In accordance with recent scholarly work on routine decisions, I suggest that decision-strategy selection mechanisms based on recognition are a valid theoretical background for the design of future decision support systems. Accordingly, the cognitive engineering focus would shift from accuracy maximization and effort reduction to situational differentiation and strategy learning.
A Comparison of Asset versus Criteria Allocation Decisions in Military Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 344-348
  Shaun Hutchins; Patricia McDermott; Michael Barnes
The effectiveness of complex, dynamic, and stochastic decisions require an understanding of the tradeoffs between decisions and the facility to perform what if analyses of alternatives. Set in the context of future combat systems, the current study explored features of a robotic asset allocation decision for a surveillance and reconnaissance task. Decision features explored included the method of interaction with plan data, possible decision bias, and robustness following a change in planning assumptions. Findings suggest that planning decisions made from a predetermined set of optimal plans may be faster and more effective than creating plans from scratch if the planning assumptions remain constant. However, plans created from scratch may more deeply engage the planner in the planning conditions, and consequently, result in plans that more effectively handle changes in the planning assumptions.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE5 -- Cognitive Engineering in Health Care

Assessing the Effects of Humanoid Robot Features on Patient Emotion during a Medicine Delivery Task BIBAFull-Text 349-353
  Manida Swangnetr; Biwen Zhu; Kinley B. Taylor; David B. Kaber
Human perceptions of the "humanness" of robots have been found to be influenced by face, voice and interactivity features. These features have been studied individually in a human robot interaction (HRI) and facial features appear to be strongest in promoting positive human emotions. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of combined humanoid robot features on human emotions during a medicine delivery task. Seven robot prototypes with various combinations of face, voice and interactivity features were developed and classified in terms of levels of humanness. A "Wizard of Oz" experiment was conducted in which 32 subjects received and accepted a simulated bag of medicine from each of the robot prototypes. Both subjective (arousal and valence ratings) and physiological (HR and GSR) measures were collected as indicators of participant emotional states. Results revealed robot configurations with higher levels of humanness promoted positive emotions. Arousal and valence ratings and the HR response had utility for predicting emotions. We also found that additional humanoid features lead to higher GSR ratings, but the trend was not strictly linear with the pre-defined level of robot humanness.
Option Generation and Decision Making In Critical-Care Nursing BIBAFull-Text 354-358
  Paul Ward; Jason Torof; James Whyte; David W. Eccles; Kevin R. Harris
The recognition-primed decision (RPD) model and Take the First (TTF) heuristic assert that successful and experienced decision makers typically generate relatively few options, and generate a satisficing, or the best, option first. Moreover, the TTF heuristic suggests that as more options are generated the likelihood that the best option will be selected is reduced. An alternative proposal suggests that the ability to anticipate the outcome of a situation is actually positively related to the number of options generated. To test these opposing claims we compared high and low performing critical-care nurses on three simulated critical care scenarios and measured their option generation behaviors and the courses of action pursued. Consistent with RPD and TTF, the data suggest that high performers generate fewer options than low performers during situational assessment. However, counter to RPD and TTF, the current data suggest that the selection of options generated later in the process may actually facilitate better outcomes. Implications for the design of instruction and training materials are discussed.
Opportunities in IT Support of Workflow Information Flow in the Emergency Department Digital Imaging Process BIBAFull-Text 359-363
  R. J. Fairbanks; T. K. Guarrera; A. B. Bisantz; M. Venturino; P. L. Westesson
The goal of this study is to examine workflow and information flow in the emergency department (ED) digital imaging process to identify features of an optimized system. Radiological imaging (x-rays, CT scans, etc) is unique in the ED setting, as the need for fast turn-around time and interactive communication between radiologists and emergency physicians is different than that of most other healthcare settings. The information technology systems which are used by both radiologists and emergency physicians to support these processes have been designed with a focus on the routine workflow of radiologists. We report the results of 14 hours of naturalistic observations of the use of digital imaging systems by a total of 22 ED and radiology staff. A hierarchical task analysis and an information process diagram are presented, and disparate theories that groups in the system have about other groups were discovered, particularly in the communication of clinical information.
Identification of Relationships between Work System Parameters and Fatigue in Registered Nurses: A Data Mining Approach BIBAFull-Text 364-368
  Linsey M. Barker; Kalyan S. Pasupathy
Fatigue is a factor that affects nurse performance in the workplace. Previous research has investigated the relationships between work system parameters and fatigue; however, no study has considered multiple work system parameters simultaneously, and how they affect multiple dimensions of fatigue. This study used Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) to mine work system parameters and their multiple interactions on perceptions of mental, physical, and total fatigue dimensions in registered nurses. Results showed that multiple work system parameters were associated with changes in fatigue levels across mental, physical, and total fatigue dimensions. These findings expand our understanding of the relationships between work system parameters and fatigue and provide valuable information to improve the design of nursing work systems, in order to retain qualified nursing personnel and ultimately improve both patient- and provider safety.
  Frank A. Drews; David Fawcett
System control is a challenge in many everyday activities and professional contexts. Unfortunately, it is not clear how much of the cognitive demand of controlling a system depends on the specific type of the system under control. This question is especially important for comparisons between natural and technical systems. The current study examines tracking performance and cognitive demand when controlling different systems. Similar to Durso and Drews (2010) we distinguish between natural and technical systems. Control performance was evaluated using four different conditions that representing aspects of different system types. Control performance was worst when controlling a system that had features of a natural system, where control performance of a technical system was best. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the design of displays to support controllers in a wide range of domains needs to specifically incorporate features that are specific to a systems nature.


Misuse of automation: The impact of system experience on complacency and automation bias in interaction with automated aids BIBAFull-Text 374-378
  Juliane Reichenbach; Linda Onnasch; Dietrich Manzey
The study investigates how complacency and automation bias effects in interaction with automated aids are moderated by system experience. Participants performed a supervisory control task supported by an aid for fault identification and management. Groups differed with respect to how long they worked with the aid until eventually an automation failure occurred, and whether this failure was the first or second one the participants were exposed to. Results show that negative experiences, i.e., automation failures, entail stronger effects on subjective trust in automation as well as the level of complacency and automation bias than positive experiences (correct recommendations of the aid). Furthermore, results suggest that commission errors may be due to three different sorts of effects: (1) a withdrawal of attention in terms of incomplete cross-checks of information, (2) an active discounting of contradictory system information, and (3) an inattentive processing of contradictory information analogue to a "looking-but-not-seeing" effect.
Human vs. Algorithmic Path Planning for Search and Rescue by Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 379-383
  Shih-Yi Chien; Huadong Wang; Michael Lewis
Substantial automation will be needed to allow operators to control the large teams of robots envisioned for search and rescue, perimeter patrol, and a wide variety of military tasks. Both analysis and research point to navigation and path planning as prime candidates for automation. When operators are isolated from robot navigation, however, there may be loss of situation awareness (SA) and difficulties in monitoring robots for failures or abnormal behavior. Operator's navigational strategies are quite complex and extremely changeable at foraging tasks in unknown environment reflecting background knowledge and expectations about human and natural environments. These considerations are missing from automated path planning algorithms leading to differences in search patterns and exploration biases between human and automatically generated paths. Effectively integrating automated path planning into multirobot systems would require demonstrating that: 1-automated path planning performs as well as humans on measures such as area coverage and 2- use of automated path planning does not degrade performance of related human tasks such as finding and marking victims. In this paper we seek to compare the divergence between human manual control and autonomous path planning at an urban search and rescue (USAR) task using fractal analysis to characterize the paths generated by the two methods. Area coverage and human contributions to mixed-initiative planning are compared with fully automated path planning. Finally, the impact of automated planning on related victim identification and marking tasks is compared for automated paths and paths generated by previous participants.
A Learning Process: Old Strategies, New Tools BIBAFull-Text 384-388
  Tom Robinson
In this paper we look at a study that examines how expert problem solving behavior changes when computer software, specifically the math software package Maple, is used to help in the problem solving process. We examine two theoretical frameworks, naturalistic decision making and distributed cognition, that help us draw out conclusions from our observations of the participants' behavior. Our study involved the observation and recording of problem solving sessions where the participants were sometimes provided with software to assist with the problem solving. We observed that the high level strategies that the participants used when the software was available were often the same as when the software was not available. This led us to the conclusion that encouraging new users of the software to continue to use their old problem solving strategies while learning the software is a valid way of managing cognitive load during the learning process while not impeding the new users from learning to use the software efficiently and effectively.
Stages and Levels of Automation: An Integrated Meta-analysis BIBAFull-Text 389-393
  Christopher D. Wickens; Huiyang Li; Amy Santamaria; Angelia Sebok; Nadine B. Sarter
Function allocation between human and automation can be represented in terms of the stages & levels taxonomy proposed by Parasuraman, Sheridan & Wickens (2000). Higher degrees of automation (DOA) are achieved both by later stages (e.g., automation decision aiding rather than diagnostic aiding) and higher levels within stages (e.g. executing a choice unless vetoed, versus offering the human several choices). A meta analysis based on data of 14 experiments examines the mediating effects of DOA on routine system performance, performance when the automation fails, workload and situation awareness. The effects of DOA on these four measures are summarized by level of statistical significance. We found: (1) an inverse relationship between routine performance and workload as automation is introduced and DOA increases. (2) a weak positive relationship between routine performance and failure performance, as mediated by DOA. (3) A strong mediating role of situation awareness in improving both routine and failure performance.
Exploring the Dynamics of Resilience BIBAFull-Text 394-398
  Robert L. Wears
Resilience is a complex of behaviours seen in complex work systems, whereby they are able to largely meet their fundamental goals despite threats and challenges to their work and even their existence. It is not something a system has, but rather something a system does. Because resilient behaviour (or lack thereof) is manifested over time, the dynamics of resilience are of interest. Studies of resilience to date have been largely descriptive, but understanding of how resilient performance comes about, and especially how we might enhance it, or recognize that a system is losing it, has been difficult. This work uses system dynamics models to develop inductively a theory of activities resulting in resilient performance in complex systems, and to elaborate on previous representations of system resilience. Such models might be useful in two ways: explaining how resilient behaviours observed might come about; and exploring the temporal dynamics of changes in state (for example, suggesting leading rather than lagging indicators of performance).

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE7 -- Accelerated Learning: Prospects, Issues, and Applications

  Robert R. Hoffman; Dee Andrews; Stephen M. Fiore; Stephen Goldberg; Terence Andre; Jared Freeman; J. Dexter Fletcher; Gary Klein
An effort is under way to roadmap for investigations aimed at developing robust and broadly-applicable methods for "accelerated learning" (Hoffman, et al., 2009). This includes methods for: (1) Facilitating the acquisition of expertise in mission or organization-critical specializations and (2) Retaining that expertise in the form of both personnel capabilities and organizational knowledge. Achievement of the objective will be made possible through a collaboration of scientists and government specialists in areas of training and expertise studies. Panelists will discuss differing perspectives on the concept of accelerated learning, highlighting prospects, issues, and methodological challenges.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE8 -- Design and Evaluation of Human-system Interfaces

Guidance for Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems BIBAFull-Text 403-407
  John O'Hara; James Higgins; Stephen Fleger; Valarie Barnes
Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear-power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions, including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a "team player" supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: Levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration.
  Phillip L. Morgan; John Patrick
Typically, interface design attempts to minimize cognitive load by providing immediately accessible task-relevant information. However, this may have the unintended consequence of encouraging display-based strategies that minimize the degree of cognitive processing; a claim made by the soft constraints hypothesis (Gray, Sims, Fu, & Schoelles, 2006). Increasing information access cost (IAC) induces a more memory-based strategy, and has been shown to improve performance following interruption in a visuospatial copying task (Morgan, Patrick, Waldron, King, & Patrick, 2009). An experiment investigates whether the positive effect of increased IAC on interrupted performance extends to a problem solving task. A mouse movement and time delay to access information provoked a strategy that facilitated resumption and continuation of problem solving from memory, improved problem solving efficiency, and added no extra time cost to problem completion. The findings highlight the value of considering design solutions in light of the importance of different task performance criteria.
Automated Aid Evaluation for Transitioning UAS Camera Views BIBAFull-Text 413-417
  Gloria Calhoun; Lamar Warfield; Nicholas Wright; Sarah Spriggs; Heath Ruff
Control applications involving multiple Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) will often require the operator to switch attention between UASs and their respective camera views. An automated aid that transitions between camera views is under evaluation. Instead of discretely switching from the camera view for one UAS to the camera view for another, a transition format is presented. With this format, the camera imagery seamlessly fades into a synthetic imagery correlate of the real video image and then uses a "fly-out, fly-in" metaphor over several seconds, finishing with a transition back from synthetic to real video imagery at the new camera viewpoint. The results from the present simulation evaluation provide support that an automated camera view transition aid can improve task performance and situation awareness. Moreover, the results show potential benefits of allowing an operator to decide where and when the fly-in segment starts.
The AlphaACT Decision Support System for Emergency Responders BIBAFull-Text 418-422
  An T. Oskarsson; C. Reed Hodgin
We first present cognitive psychological theories relevant to crisis decision making. Next we describe the AlphaACT™ (Alpha Advanced Crisis Technology) decision support system, a software application designed to support a range of military and civilian emergency responders. The essential components of the system are as follows: (a) a user interface that walks the decision maker through a multi-step decision process inspired by the recognition-primed decision model and case-based reasoning theory; (b) a pattern recognition engine that prompts the user for diagnostic information and retrieves similar cases; and (c) a community-wide shared knowledge base of cases that grows as the system is used. AlphaACT's objective is to train and enable responders in crisis situations to think like experienced decision makers, and to quickly build their store of available experiences. The first AlphaACT application under development will support key decisions made by first responders managing a hazardous materials emergency.
Evaluation of an Ecological Interface Designed for Military Command and Control BIBAFull-Text 423-427
  Daniel S. Hall; Lawrence G. Shattuck; Kevin B. Bennett
Since the inception of the Force XXI Digitization program, the U.S. Army has fielded numerous systems attempting to use computational technologies to improve command and control of tactical operations. In reality, designers have inadequately considered both the role of the human and the constraints of this complicated work domain in the implementation of these systems. A prototype interface (RAPTOR) was developed to leverage powerful perception-action skills, thereby providing improved decision making and problem solving support. A laboratory experiment was conducted using a synthetic task environment. Sixteen US Army Officers participated in a mixed design experiment that involved two interfaces (RAPTOR and Baseline) and two scenarios (attack and counter insurgency). Dependent measures included situation awareness, decision making, and workload. The results indicate that the RAPTOR interface produced significantly better performance; they provide a strong validation of the theoretical framework (Cognitive Systems Engineering and Ecological Interface Design) and design principles (direct perception and direct manipulation), that guided its development. Applications of this study include specific interface design strategies for military command and control work domains.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE9 -- Supporting Teams and Communities of Practice

Advancing Complex Sociotechnical Systems Design Using the Community of Practice Concept BIBAFull-Text 428-432
  Adam Euerby; Catherine M. Burns
Facebook, Twitter, Google, and the proliferation of mobile devices exemplify the social transformation the world is undergoing. In these large scale rapid changes, traditional tools are showing their limits. Complexity theory, self-organization, and adaptability show promise in understanding recent developments such as social networking. As a response, this paper outlines the challenges of designing for complex sociotechnical systems that support self-organization, adaptability, and learning. The Community of Practice (CoP) concept is shown to have strong fundamental alignment with complex sociotechnical systems design and offers a revealing social dimension to the challenges outlined. To illustrate this, several opportunities in complex sociotechnical systems design using the CoP perspective are discussed.
  Katherine Hamilton; Vincent Mancuso; Dev Minotra; Rachel Hoult; Susan Mohammed; Alissa Parr; Gaurav Dubey; Eric McMillan; Michael McNeese
This paper provides a detailed explanation of the link between NeoCITIES, a crisis management simulation of emergency response teams, and team cognition. Descriptions of the NeoCITIES simulation structure, interface, and modifications are provided, along with its functionality in effectively studying team cognition. The paper focuses on three commonly examined constructs within the team cognition literature, namely, team situation awareness, team mental models, and information sharing.
Teams for Teams Performance in Multi-Human/Multi-Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 438-442
  Pei-Ju Lee; Huadong Wang; Shih-Yi Chien; Michael Lewis; Paul Scerri; Prasanna Velagapudi; Katia Sycara; Breelyn Kane
The present study addresses the interaction between automation and organization of human teams in controlling large robot teams performing an Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task. We identify three subtasks: perceptual -- visual search for victims, assistance -- teleoperation to assist robot, and navigation -- path planning and coordination. For the studies reported, navigation was selected for automation because it involves weak dependencies among robots making it more complex and because it was shown in an earlier experiment to be the most difficult. Two possible ways to organize operators were identified as assignment of robots to particular operators or as a shared pool in which operators service robots from the population as needed. The experiment compares two member teams of operators controlling teams of 12 robots each, in the assigned robots conditions or sharing control of 24 robots in the shared pool conditions using either waypoint control or autonomous path planning. Automating path planning improved system performance. Effects of team organization were equivocal.
Understanding Cognition in Team Collaboration through use of Communications Analysis BIBAFull-Text 443-447
  Susan G. Hutchins; Tony Kendall
Macrocognition has been conceptualized by researchers in a number of ways depending on the perspective of the different disciplines. For this research the focus is on cognition in collaboration contexts, where problem solving teams collaborate on short-term situations which require rapid action to be taken against specific missions. We employed an empirical process for evaluating a model of team collaboration by analyzing and coding transcripts or chat logs that transpired during several real-world problem-solving events. Traditional collaboration systems are domain independent, thus they do not always support the difficult cognitive aspects of the task. The goal for the research reported here is to understand the role of cognition in teams who are collaborating to solve challenging, unique, information-rich problems and to apply this understanding to make recommendations for collaboration support.


What makes Real-World Interruptions Disruptive Evidence from an Office Setting BIBAFull-Text 448-452
  David M. Cades; Nicole E. Werner; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Zara Arshad
With the constant barrage of cell phone calls, emails, instant messages, calendar reminders, and more, interruptions have become a common and consistent occurrence in our daily lives. The majority of the literature on interruptions to date has been based on controlled laboratory experiments and it is not yet completely clear how these results will translate into naturalistic settings and/or if there are certain features of interruptions and resumption that are not observable in the controlled setting. The current study is an exploratory study of how interruptions manifest in the naturalistic environment. We found that when working on computer-based tasks in real-world environments, external interruptions are more disruptive than internal interruptions. However, no reliable difference was shown in resumption time when resuming from multiple interruptions as opposed to single interruptions, and when resuming a different task as opposed to resuming the same task that was interrupted.
Voluntary Versus Forced Task Switching BIBAFull-Text 453-457
  Marie P. Panepinto
Research on task switching has focused on the relatively well known task switching cost, an increase in RT on a trial directly following a switch. Two main issues with previous studies raise concerns about their external validity (1) they typically use short and arbitrary tasks in comparison to real work situations and (2) the vast majority force participants to switch rather than allowing them to do so voluntarily. The current experiment utilized two longer lasting tasks (document proofreading and a Sudoku puzzle) to more closely resemble real world situations and four task switching groups. One group switched voluntarily, one was forced without warning, one was forced with a cue that a switch would be coming, and one served as a no switch control group. Performance, reaction time, and mental workload (NASA-TLX) were measured. Task switch groups did not differ on these dependent variables, and no task switching cost was observed. The failure to find a task switching cost lends support to the proposition that previous lab studies may not adequately resemble real world scenarios, and that micromanaging small tasks may not be comparable to switching between comparatively longer lasting tasks.
Factors Affecting Interrupted Task Performance: Effects of Adaptability, Impulsivity and Intelligence BIBAFull-Text 458-462
  David M. Cades; David G. Kidd; Eden B. King; Patrick E. McKnight; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
Interruptions are a disruptive force in both our professional and personal lives. In order to develop the most comprehensive mitigation strategies, it is essential to gain insight into what factors affect the disruptiveness of interruptions. Although a significant body of research has approached this problem from the systems and tasks sides, the role of specific cognitive traits affecting interrupted task performance has been largely overlooked. In this study, participants completed measures of intelligence, adaptability, and impulsivity-reflexivity in an effort to determine whether these traits influence interrupted task performance. Intelligence scores were found to predict primary task latency, secondary task accuracy and the ability to resume the primary task following an interruption.
The Effect of Interruptions and Global Placekeeping on Postcompletion Error Rates BIBAFull-Text 463-467
  Jennifer M. Chen; Raj M. Ratwani; J. Gregory Trafton
A postcompletion error occurs when the final step of a task is omitted because the main goal of the task is thought to be completed (Byrne & Bovair, 1997). Postcompletion errors are more likely to occur after interruptions (Ratwani, McCurry & Trafton, 2008). Global placekeeping cues (Gray, 2000) allow a user to track their progress in a task and may be a method for reducing the rate of postcompletion errors. A computer-based procedural task with a postcompletion step was used in this experiment to determine how the interaction of global placekeeping cues with interruptions would affect postcompletion errors. These results suggest that global placekeeping cues reduce the postcompletion error rate after interruptions, but that global placekeeping does not completely eliminate postcompletion errors.
The Four-Second Supervisor: Multi-Tasking Supervision and Its Support BIBAFull-Text 468-472
  Mark F. St. John; Mary Ann King
Supervision is a broad term that covers a wide range of task environments and cognitive activities. Here, we describe one specific type called multi-tasking supervision. It involves rapidly assessing a set of distinct systems or situations and determining where attention is needed moment by moment. Multi-tasking supervision is a key component of many command and control, and other, tasks. This paper focuses on understanding the cognitive needs of multi-tasking supervision and developing support concepts for it. First, we place multi-tasking supervision within the context of other types of supervision. Next, we consider the types of tasks and work environments that are appropriate for multi-tasking supervision. Finally, we discuss computer display concepts for supporting multi-tasking supervision.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE11 -- Judgment and Decision Making Behavior in Complex Systems

Information Source, Sequential Revision of Belief, and the Order Effect BIBAFull-Text 473-477
  Elliot E. Entin; Daniel Serfaty
The sequential revision of beliefs gives rise to a phenomenon referred to as the order effect due to two heuristics, anchoring and adjustment and contrast and inertia, as decision makers strive to incorporate confirming and disconfirming evidence. We hypothesized that the sources of new information would impact the order-effect. Results showed that confirming information from intelligence officers (experts) had a stronger effect on belief adjustment than information from a trusted friend, whereas disconfirming information from a trustworthy friend had a stronger impact than information from intelligence officers. A rationale for the differential effect of information source is discussed.
Humans matching fingerprints: Sequence and Size BIBAFull-Text 478-481
  Matthew B. Thompson; Jason M. Tangen; Renee Treloar; Kathleen Ivison
Television shows like 'CSI' can give the impression that matching crime-scene fingerprints is fully automated. But it is actually humans (fingerprint experts) who ultimately decide whether a crime-scene print belongs to a suspect or not. Despite this fact, there have been no published, peer-reviewed studies directly examining the extent to which experts can correctly match fingerprints to one another. In two experiments presented here we aim to determine the factors affecting accuracy using non-expert participants and test (1) whether the advantage found for the sequential presentation of faces applies to prints and (2) whether the amount of information in a print matters.
Natural Break Points: Utilizing Motor Cues when Multitasking BIBAFull-Text 482-486
  Christian P. Janssen; Duncan P. Brumby; Rae Garnett
We investigate how people utilize motor preparation time under varying task objectives as a cue to switch between tasks when dialing and driving. Previous research has shown that people tend to switch between tasks at positions where a chunk of digits is retrieved from memory. If the number of chunks is minimized, do people use motor preparation time as a cue to switch between tasks instead? A study was conducted in which participants drove a simulated vehicle while also dialing two phone numbers that contained sets of repeating digits. Participants tended to switch between tasks after typing in a complete set of repeating digits. This effect took precedence over cognitive cues, and was robust when different relative priorities for the two tasks were adhered to (focus on driving, or on dialing). However, when participants prioritized driving they invested more in steering control. Limitations and implications of the work are discussed.
Politeness Effects in Directive Compliance: Effects with Power and Social Distance BIBAFull-Text 487-491
  Christopher A. Miller; Tammy Ott; Peggy Wu; Vanessa Vakili
We present a theory of perceived politeness and its sociological functions derived from the work of Brown and Levinson (1987) and then extend that theory toward a cognitive model of politeness and its effects on human decision making. We then report the results of an experiment in which participants' directive compliance behaviors and attitudes are examined under conditions varying the amount of politeness or rudeness used and the power or familiarity relationship between the participant and the directive giver. Results show significant impacts of politeness on a variety of directive compliance behaviors, and show accuracy for predicting the relationship of Social Distance on perceived politeness and directive compliance. Predictions about the role of Power relationships were generally not as effective.
  Maia B. Cook; Harvey S. Smallman; Frank C. Lacson; Daniel I. Manes
Operating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) requires quickly replanning routes to satisfy multiple complex three-dimensional (3D) mission constraints. How well do conventional two-dimensional (2D) displays support replanning? What are users' intuitions about alternate display formats, given the trend towards user-configured displays? Previously, we developed a realistic replanning task, and measured time and accuracy for satisfying UAV mission constraints. With present-day 2D displays, performance was particularly poor in complex mountainous environments (Cook, Smallman, Lacson, & Manes, 2009). In the current work, to address this shortfall, we designed novel displays to support replanning, and measured performance and intuitions for three canonical display formats: (1) baseline 2D, a proxy for current UAV displays, (2) augmented 2D, with integrated replanning constraints, and (3) perspective 3D, comparable in features to the augmented 2D. Using the three formats, participants replanned UAV routes compromised by closed airspace and repositioned ISR targets, over flat and mountainous terrain. Replanning was slowest and most error-prone for baseline 2D in flat terrain, and error severity was greatest for perspective 3D in mountainous terrain. However, users' intuitions strongly favored perspective 3D. Overall, time and accuracy were best for augmented 2D, and better performance with augmented 2D relied less upon higher spatial ability. Results highlight the mismatch of users' intuitions with performance, and the role of individual differences. The study informs the design of future replanning displays and lays the foundation for introducing and visualizing automated path planning solutions.

COMMUNICATIONS: C1 -- From Vocal Cords to Mobile Computing: Understanding How We Communicate

Infrasonic Measures as an Index of Workload BIBAFull-Text 497-501
  Christopher K. McClernon; Mathew A. Middendorf; Gregory J. Funke; Michael J. Harter; Benjamin A. Knott
This study investigated whether sub-auditory, infrasonic measures of vocal cord microtremors are sensitive to workload manipulations in a collaborative command and control task. Research participants performed 16 hours of simulated military command and control scenarios during which time task demand and access to collaborative tools were manipulated. NASA-TLX scores were used to assess subjective workload while infrasonic measures of vocal cord undulations were used as an objective measure of workload. The results of this study suggest that during high task demand trials infrasonic measures increased. In addition, during trials with access to collaborative tools that have previously been found to decrease subjective workload, infrasonic measures also decreased. Subjective workload scores and infrasonic measures were also found to correlate during trials. These results provide promising empirical evidence for the efficacy of this nonintrusive, non-invasive measure of operator workload.
  Bonny Parke; Alan Hobbs; Barbara Kanki
Shift handovers occur in many safety-critical environments, including aviation maintenance, medicine, air traffic control, and mission control for space shuttle and space station operations. Shift handovers are associated with increased risk of communication failures and human error. In dynamic industries, errors and accidents occur disproportionately after shift handover. Typical shift handovers involve transferring information from an outgoing shift to an incoming shift via written logs, or in some cases, face-to-face briefings. The current study explores the possibility of improving written communication with the support modalities of audio and video recordings, as well as face-to-face briefings. Fifty participants participated in an experimental task which mimicked some of the critical challenges involved in transferring information between shifts in industrial settings. All three support modalities -- face-to-face, video, and audio recordings, reduced task errors significantly over written communication alone. The support modality most preferred by participants was face-to-face communication; the least preferred was written communication alone.
Using Location History to Identify Patterns in Mobile Users Visits to Establishments BIBAFull-Text 507-511
  Joshua B. Hurwitz; David J. Wheatley; Keshu Zhang; Young Seok Lee
The goal of this study was to assess the performance of two algorithms for using mobile GPS data to identify patterns in users' visits to stores, restaurants and other establishments. Over a 1-month period, subjects carried GPS data loggers when traveling in their local area, and made daily reports of their visits to establishments in a voicemail or email diary. The results showed lower accuracy in using GPS data to estimate durations of visits to larger buildings. However, when establishment categories were ranked by visit frequency and duration, the GPS-derived rankings matched those derived from the diary data at a level that was significantly greater than chance.
Errors of Disclosure in Computer Mediated Systems BIBAFull-Text 512-516
  Alan B. Poole; Kelly E. Caine; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
People frequently use information and communication technologies such as cell phones and email to mediate the transfer of private information. Often, this information is intended to be shared only with the recipient or recipients, and, in turn, kept from everyone else. However, people sometimes make errors when disclosing private information. These errors can occur when the intended information is sent to an unintended person or persons, when unintended information is sent to the intended person, or a combination of both. Fifteen adults (aged 19-23) were interviewed using the critical incident method to elicit past instances of erroneous disclosure. The interviewer sought to understand the circumstances surrounding incidents of erroneous relays of private information. Participants reported an average of 3.67 (SD = 1.59) instances of erroneous disclosure, or misclosure per person. Most reported errors involved email and other familiar technologies, with various designed-based causes. These findings point towards specific design features common to many information and communication technologies such as predictive text and button proximity that may lead to erroneous disclosure.
Theoretical Discussion of CAMOCS and RIAS Communication Models to Support Healthcare Information Technology Development BIBAFull-Text 517-521
  Jennifer Cloud-Buckner; Jennie J. Gallimore; Rosalyn Scott
The increasing use of healthcare information technology has a direct, sometimes negative, effect on communication between physicians and patients. Many studies have evaluated how patient-provider interactions are affected by the implementation of an already developed technology. Instead, we propose that research in understanding and modeling communication should inform healthcare IT design so that systems can support the communication that needs to exist. This paper briefly describes two communication models (one based in healthcare and one based in business organizational communication), their similarities and differences, and research outcomes related to their use when evaluating communication in the healthcare domain. We then describe how these models might be combined and used as an underlying model to inform and validate design for healthcare IT.

COMMUNICATIONS: C2 -- Team Communications

Information Sharing in Distributed Teams BIBAFull-Text 522-526
  Arwen E. Hunter; Linda G. Pierce
Better understanding of information sharing in complex, distributed environments is critical for enhancing distributed team operations. This paper examines information sharing among distributed team members in an applied Army setting, with focus placed on precursors to information sharing, the importance of perceived interdependence and trustworthiness of distributed teammates for information sharing, and the effect of information sharing in these complex environments on team states and processes such as the building of trust and team cohesion. Importance is placed on better understanding the processes affecting information sharing in a distributed environment, influencing both research and practice involving distributed team collaboration.
The Effect of Affective State on Virtual and Face-to-Face Group Performance BIBAFull-Text 527-531
  Mary Dzindolet; Mercedes Spencer; Lani Malcolm; Brittney Wigley; Courtney Glazer; Linda Pierce
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affective state and virtuality on group creativity, negotiation, and information exchange. Over 100 students watched a film clip to induce a positive or neutral mood and performed tasks as dyads or triads either face-to-face or distributedly. Although the affective state manipulation did not affect performance, the more positive affect the groups reported, the more words the groups used to communicate. Distributed groups did not generate more ideas or act less cooperatively than face-to-face groups. However, face-to-face triads performed better on the information exchange task than distributed triads; distributed dyads outperformed face-to-face dyads. An interaction between affective state and group type was also found for trust in the computerized communication medium. Implications are discussed.
Effectiveness of Team-building and Teamwork in Virtual Worlds BIBAFull-Text 532-536
  Rachana S. Ranade; Joel S. Greenstein
Given the increasing importance of globalization and collaboration, this research investigates the possibility of training globally dispersed teams using the virtual world Second Life. Three meeting conditions, the 3D virtual world Second Life, a combination of face-to-face and Second Life and face-to-face were evaluated. Thirty randomly assigned 3 person teams performed an ice-breaker session and then a team-building activity in each meeting condition. Four dependent variables were measured: task completion time; quality of task performance; subjective satisfaction with the process based on group cohesiveness, perception of the process and satisfaction with the outcome; and subjective satisfaction with the communication modality. Following data collection, univariate analyses were used to analyze each dependent variable to determine the differences, if any, among the meeting conditions. The results did not show significant differences for performance and subjective satisfaction with the process across the meeting conditions; however they did show significant results for subjective satisfaction with the communication modality. The Second Life and face-to-face conditions were rated more highly than the combination condition. This study indicates that the participants found the virtual world productive, enjoyed the experience of using this environment and believed that they could communicate and collaborate in it effectively. Even though participants indicated little previous experience with Second Life, this study found that it has potential as an alternate team meeting space. Cost analyses suggest that in the long run the expense of using a virtual meeting space will be lower than the cost of using face-to-face meetings for globally dispersed teams. Future research could include looking at larger group sizes, other types of team work, different team-building activities, or the effect of features of the virtual meeting space on team performance and user experience.
  Bart Brickman; Tanya Yuditsky
Air Traffic Flow Management is a complex, dynamic domain. Until recently, Federal Aviation Administration Traffic Managers were required to coordinate the implementation of traffic management initiatives through a series of telephone calls. In this paper we describe the development of an automated process, Electronic Coordination, to replace the majority of those calls. We adopted a user-centered multidisciplinary design team methodology to develop the concept and address design challenges. User validation and testing of the concept were integrated into the process and occurred iteratively throughout development. Post deployment user feedback and lessons learned are also discussed.
  Chad C. Tossell; Philip T. Kortum; Clayton W. Shepard; Ahmad Rahmati; Lin Zhong
The goal of this study was to examine three interfaces for handheld mobile computing (HMC) on the iPhone and then assess against a standard personal computer (PC) interface. While designers originally envisioned similar performance between HMC and PC, our results indicate differences between these platforms. However, specialized mobile sites and applications (Apps) greatly enhanced HMC performance on the iPhone. In particular, mobile content that required larger amounts of data entry benefited much more from these sorts of interfaces than mobile content for data acquisition.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS1 -- Investing in User Research

Investing in User Research: Making Strategic Choices BIBAFull-Text 547-550
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Kelly Braun; Dennis Wixon; Seema Swamy; Krista Van Laan; Chauncey Wilson
This panel examines the relationship between methods and business strategy: how should an organization spend whatever budget it has for user research? Despite the many in-depth explorations of user experience research methodology, practitioners -- especially user experience managers -- still struggle with the challenge of choosing the research that will add the most value to their company's products and services. This panel will reveal how and why some of the best managers in the human-computer interaction community make these decisions.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS2 -- Physical Issues in Computer Systems

Neck Biomechanics and Multiple Wide Computer Displays BIBAFull-Text 551-555
  Matt J. Camilleri; Michael C. Bartha; Cynthia J. Purvis; David M. Rempel
Computer workstations are increasingly being fitted with multiple large displays. Display placement influences head posture and neck symptoms but the effects of multiple displays are not well known. This study evaluated the placement of two wide displays over a large range of heights and distances. Twenty participants performed internet search tasks with the search window at thirty-six positions, defined by three distances from the eyes (50 to 86 cm), three gaze angles (0 to 28° below the eye horizon), and four lateral distances from the mid-sagittal plane (13 and 32 cm to the left and to the right). Motion capture equipment tracked head and neck postures and simulation software calculated muscular capacities. Regression analyses demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) effects of gaze angle on neck flexion, lateral angle on neck rotation, and the interaction of gaze angle and lateral angle on neck lateral flexion. The moment generating capacities of the trapezius and splenius muscles, and the self-selected display positions, suggest that increases in wide display's field-of-view should be biased vertically (upward).
Fatigue Evaluation of a MH-60 Helicopter Input Device BIBAFull-Text 556-560
  Brian R. Johnson; Regan Hanson; Nick Andrew; D. Craig Tennant; Jeffrey P. Gay
A preliminary report from a crew station working group (CSWG) suggested that the 0° orientation (from an aerial view) of a new trackball for the MH-60 may introduce undue fatigue for operators. Feedback from the CSWG suggested that this fatigue may be reduced by rotating the trackball inboard in order to keep the wrist straight. To investigate this, in Experiment 1 participants used the trackball for an extended period of time (90 minutes) from various angles (0°, 12°, and 90°). The results from Experiment 1 suggested that 12° was the preferred angle, but qualitative comments suggested that more cant was needed. To address this, in Experiment 2 the angle of the trackball was adjustable from 15° to 35°. Linear regression models estimated the optimal angle to be approximately 25°, confirming the earlier qualitative comments from Experiment 1. Given the broad range in preferred angles, a rotatable trackball was recommended. Furthermore, the qualitative comments from Experiment 1 and 2 were organized into various categories in order to provide additional recommendations for the design of the trackball.
  Alan Hedge; David Feathers; Kimberly Rollings
The effect of using five different optical mice on cursor positioning task performance and on wrist posture was investigated. The 5 mouse designs included 1 conventional mouse, 2 angled mice and 2 vertical mice. Results showed that performance was significantly different for the 5 mice for the cursor point-and-click tasks and cursor dragging tasks. Task performance was slowest for the traditional mouse and fastest for the vertical mice. Wrist extension was lowest for the slanted mouse designs and highest for the vertical mice. The results show that performance and posture were affected in opposite ways by these different mouse designs, and that the design features that promote good performance may compromise good wrist posture and vice versa. Overall, an adjustable-size slanted mouse design may offer the best combination of neutral posture and performance.
  Sacha N. Duff; Curt B. Irwin; Jennifer L. Skye; Mary E. Sesto; Douglas A. Wiegmann
As touch screen technology improves in functionality and decreases in price, these input devices are becoming increasingly more integrated into daily life. People are frequently required to interact with touch screens at places ranging from their local grocery stores to airport check-in kiosks. Since it is becoming necessary for people to use touch screens in order to access needed products or services, we conducted an experiment to examine how individuals with varying motor control disabilities perform on a simple number entry task. Since some individuals may also be wheelchair users, and the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines allows for the touch screen to be approachable by a wheelchair user from the front or parallel (side), the effect of approach on performance was also evaluated. Participants with and without motor control disabilities, including wheelchair users, performed a number entry task on a number pad with different combinations of button and gap sizes, while seated at a touch screen kiosk. Results revealed that participants with motor control impairments had significantly more inaccurate touches overall than participants without. Performance from the front orientation was significantly more accurate than from the side for all participants, regardless of the presence of a motor control disability. Results from this study may be used to guide design of touch screen accessibility for individuals with motor control disabilities and wheelchair users.
Effects of User Age and Zoomable User Interfaces on Information Searching Tasks in a Map-Type Space BIBAFull-Text 571-575
  Donghun Lee; Cheolhyun Jeong; Min K. Chung
A zoomable user interface (ZUI) is a useful function to help users deal with large information spaces displayed within a screen. However, ZUI usability has not been sufficiently studied. Its problems may be more crucial for older users than younger ones. This study examined the effects of three zoom foci (original-center, re-center and dynamic) and two zoom scales (100% and 400%) for the younger and older adults on mouse-based information searching tasks in a map-type space. Twenty four subjects participated in the experiments by answering a pair of questions. Task completion time, number of operations and number of errors were measured, and a satisfaction rate was collected. Older adults used the ZUIs less efficiently than younger ones. The effects of zoom focus methods varied with the zoom scales regardless of the age groups. The participants preferred using the dynamic focus regardless of zoom scale and using the re-center focus with the 400% scale. We discuss potential implications of the age-related performance differences and the effects of ZUI functions, and suggest some ZUI design guidelines in conclusion.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS3 -- Usability and Evaluation

Scaling Usability in Terms of Requirements: A Method for Evaluating User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 576-580
  Martin L. Fracker
Software usability should be scaled in terms of the probability that a user interface will meet established usability requirements. This paper describes a scaling procedure that first estimates the distribution of common usability metrics and then calculates the probability that a user interface will meet a specific requirement. A series of Monte Carlo simulations showed that even with a small sample of usability test participants, the scaling procedure remained unbiased and could accurately differentiate usable from unusable user interfaces.
Disability and Orientation-Specific Performance During a Reciprocal Tapping Task BIBAFull-Text 581-585
  C. B. Irwin; S. N. Duff; J. L. Skye; D. A. Wiegmann; M. E. Sesto
Reciprocal tapping tasks have frequently been used to quantify user performance and motor control system function. This experiment used a reciprocal tapping task to examine differences in performance for participants oriented both in front and to the side of a touch screen. Evaluating performance in different orientations for touch screen users is important because public spaces and workplaces may have barriers which preclude touch screens from always being operated from directly in front. Additionally, building design standards may require a wheelchair user in a public building to operate a touch screen from the side because there may not be enough clearance to orient their wheelchair in a manner which allows them to only operate the screen from the front. Participants with motor control impairments affecting the upper extremity and participants without upper extremity motor control impairments completed a study examining reciprocal tapping performance while using a touch screen. Both groups included wheelchair users. Results indicate the orientation of the user, with respect to the touch screen, influences the number of taps which can be completed in five seconds and the amount of force used to activate the buttons. Both variables are negatively affected when the touch screen is oriented to the side of the user. Additionally, users with motor control impairments affecting the upper extremity completed fewer taps and had longer dwell times on the buttons than participants with nonimpaired upper extremities. This experiment helps us begin to understand the impact of user interface position but more research, including more ecologically valid tasks for the user, is needed.
Designing Flight Information Displays for Quick Information Access: A Case Study of an International Airport BIBAFull-Text 586-589
  Asanka S. Rodrigo; Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Increased air travel has made the provision of the optimal amount of information to travelers a necessity. Flight information is shown on electronic or mechanical display boards, but finding the required information can take some time depending on the display layout and content. This paper investigates the information configuration for quick access of flight information. Seven potential grouping methods were tested. Search time depends on the layout of information (p < 0.001). Search was fastest when the information was arranged in the order of airline logo, airline name and arrival or departure time.
Identifying Aggregate Scanning Strategies to Improve Usability Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 590-594
  Joseph H. Goldberg; Jonathan I. Helfman
Automated analysis methods are needed to convert eye tracking data into meaningful descriptions of high-level scanning strategies that can help usability professionals understand how designs are viewed. Prior techniques for analyzing eye tracking sequences, or scanpaths, are limited in their ability to find aggregated visual search strategies for a group of observers. We describe a pattern analysis tool that finds clusters of sequentially matching patterns among multiple scanpaths. Scanning strategies are clustered hierarchically, then represented as aggregate scanpaths. The tool can also match scanpaths against a hypothetical scanning strategy, input by mouse gesture. Use of the pattern analysis tool was demonstrated using a 114-participant eye tracking dataset in which several aggregate scanning strategies were identified. Matching against a hypothetical, counter-clockwise scanning strategy was also included in the demonstration. The analysis tool provides a valuable resource for aggregating or grouping scanning strategies, a vital step toward generalizing eye tracking results to guide design recommendations for improving usability.
When a User Interface is Good Enough: User Ratings in UI Design BIBAFull-Text 595-599
  Martin L. Fracker; Michal Heck; George Goeschel
When is the usability of a new user interface design good enough to stop trying to improve it? To answer this question, we propose that usability ratings should be scaled in terms of specific usability criteria, and we evaluated this proposal in an iterative user interface design effort. We also tested our hypothesis that usability ratings arise from the interaction of three user interface dimensions: content, functionality, and layout. We found that scaling usability ratings in terms of specific requirements was effective in identifying when to stop iterating a design, and that ratings of the UI dimensions predicted the usability ratings.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS4 -- Input and Display

Comparison of Mouse and Keyboard Efficiency BIBAFull-Text 600-604
  Richard C. Omanson; Craig S. Miller; Elizabeth Young; David Schwantes
In many corporate settings, users are required to quickly execute commands. Three methods of issuing commands were compared: 1) selecting a menu item with a mouse (Menu-Mouse condition); 2) selecting a menu item with a keyboard shortcut (Menu-Keyboard condition); and 3) selecting a toolbar item with a mouse (Toolbar-Mouse condition). Users performed one of the three methods across 90 trials and had their speed assessed in blocks of 30 trials. Overall, the Toolbar-Mouse method was the fastest, while the Menu-Keyboard condition showed the most improvement. A GOMS-based model is presented that accounts for differences among methods. This work confirms the use of toolbars for common commands, but also suggests that for heavily-used interfaces, keyboard shortcuts can be as efficient as toolbars and have the advantage of providing fast access to all commands.
To Customize or Not to Customize The Use of a Customization Tool to Augment Information Indexing in a Computer Desktop Environment BIBAFull-Text 605-609
  Yi Wang; Wei Dong; Wai-Tat Fu
We studied when and how people will use a customization tool that helps users offload information indexing to the external environment to augment finding and re-finding of information in a computer desktop environment. An experiment was conducted to study how the cost and benefit of customization may influence when and how participants customize, and how the customization may help them find and re-find information. Results showed that participants were sensitive to the cost and benefit of customization. In general, participants performed more customization when the cost was low and when the benefit was high. Customization was also found to influence their information indexing strategy. Implications to design of customization tools for information indexing were discussed.
Contact location offset to improve small target selection on touchscreens BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Mohamed Sheik-Nainar
Target size recommendations found in the literature for touchscreen mobile devices take into account finger inaccuracies in order to provide good selection accuracy. These recommendations are violated when a virtual QWERTY keyboard is designed into a mobile interface. Small targets increase the severity of finger occlusion, resulting in higher selection errors. It has been observed that an offset exists between the intended landing location and actual finger contact location. An experiment was conducted to study the contact offset and how it is affected by different target size, gender, finger used, and prior experience using handheld touchscreen device. Results show that irrespective of target size, users tend to aim towards the center of the target, and that an offset exists between the target center and actual contact. Mean value of the offset lies beneath and to the right of the target center for right handed users. Providing this offset globally by shifting the reported finger contact location or locally by shifting the target active area could greatly improve small target selection.
An Analysis of Game Controller and Touchscreen Devices for Input Into a Complex High-Information Display BIBAFull-Text 615-619
  Lauren Ogren; Jason H. Wong
Recently, there has been rapid growth in different methods of providing input into a computer system. Increased familiarity with the unique button layouts of game controllers and direct manipulation touchscreen devices has afforded an opportunity to evaluate how these new input methods can increase efficiency of computer systems that involve the display of complex, densely-packed information. Here, alternative button layouts (through various game controllers) and touchscreen devices were used to navigate through a simulated workflow in a submarine contact management task. Task completion time and errors were recorded, and results show that only some of the alternative input devices sped up the time it takes to cycle through a commonly used workflow. Implications for integration of these devices with already-existing systems are discussed along with future research directions.
Comparison of Date Entry Methods: An Update for the Internet Age BIBAFull-Text 620-623
  Tom Tullis; Marisa Siegel
This study examined seven methods for date entry on the web, including text input, selection using dropdown menus or radio buttons, and combination approaches. The focus was on the entry of dates that may be many years in the past, such as a date of birth. A total of 776 participants, randomly assigned to one of the seven methods, each entered ten dates in an online study. Speed and accuracy were measured, and subjective ratings of task ease were collected. The methods with three separate text-entry fields for month, day, and year, either with or without auto-tab, were the fastest and received the highest task ease ratings. However, they also had the highest error rates. Three separate dropdowns for month, day, and year yielded the lowest error rate. The implications of these results for the design of web forms are discussed.

DEMONSTRATIONS 1 -- Portable Tools for Human Factors

Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT): Human Performance Modeling for Improved System Design BIBAFull-Text 624-625
  Charneta Samms
Identifying human factors issues before systems are built and demonstrating the importance of those issues to decision makers outside the human factors community is difficult. Modeling and simulation (M&S) has become a critical part of tackling this challenge, but the true impact of M&S is made when the results can be translated into predictions that are important to the decision makers such as future system performance. Through the use of the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT), analysts are able to quantify the effect of human operator performance on system performance. IMPRINT is a task network modeling tool designed to help assess the influence of the human operator on system performance throughout the system lifecycle. This demonstration will provide a brief overview of IMPRINT and its capabilities and highlight new features that provide enhanced modeling capabilities and better results visualization. It will also feature a look at the new Multimodal Interface Design Support (MIDS) tool plug-in that provides users with analysis specific multimodal design guidelines they could be implemented into the system design to minimize mental overload and improve system performance.
A Hand-held Data Tool Design for Teachers BIBAFull-Text 626-630
  Suzanne Rhodes
Formative feedback systems provide rich opportunities for teachers to reflect on and adjust instruction to learn about and better meet student needs. However, data tools that support teachers' practice in the classroom are often left out of school data system designs. Via a Design-Based Research approach we collaborated with 11 elementary school teachers, leaders, and staff to examine educators' student data collection practices and iteratively design tools to support classroom teaching and learning within the school's and district's Data-Driven Instructional System. This paper illustrates how our hand-held data tool design supports and extends teachers' practice.
ECOVRD A Tablet PC-Based Tool to Support Observational Studies BIBAFull-Text 631-635
  Ute Fischer; Deepak Jagdish; Abbas Attarwala
This paper introduces a new Tablet PC-based tool (called 'ECOVRD,' Event Coding and Visual Representation of Data) to facilitate real-time classification of live or video-recorded individual and team behavior. The tool is easy to use as its design exploits the possibilities that the touch-based interface of the tablet PC provides. ECOVRD is highly versatile: coding categories are user-defined and can capture instances of behavior or the duration of behavior. In addition, a note-pad feature enables users to enter observations as text. ECOVRD also includes a visualization module that provides users with graphic data summaries and basic statistics for immediate feedback. Thus, it will be useful both to the research community and in applied settings, for instance to support professional coaching or training. This paper discusses the salient design and interaction aspects of ECOVRD, and its improvements over existing systems.
NextSim: A Portable Human Factors Research Simulator for Future ATC Concepts BIBAFull-Text 636-639
  Francis T. Durso; Eric J. Stearman; Scott Robertson
In this demonstration, we report on the development of a low fidelity air traffic control simulator that allows researchers to investigate human factors issues related to various NextGen concepts, like flow corridors, continuous descent arrivals, and sky-based separation. NextSim also allows the researcher to collect a number of performance, workload, and situation awareness measures.

DEMONSTRATIONS 2 -- Real-World Human Factors Demonstrations

Reasoning about Information Needs vs. Information Conveyed: Computational Design, Evaluation and Consistency Analysis BIBAFull-Text 640-644
  Christopher A. Miller; Jeffrey M. Rye; Peggy Wu
We previously developed a core representation for computationally comparing the information an operator needs to perform a task and the information provided by a user interface. This representation is based on information theoretic properties, thus it can be applied to a wide variety of work domains and information and display types. In prior work, we used this capability to dynamically and automatically reconfigure cockpit displays for military cockpits. More recently, we adapted this approach to the task of evaluating and critiquing display format designs for NASA's space operations. The representation and reasoning approach generalizes well to describing information types in procedural domains and the tool can analyze sets of display formats for sets of procedures, propose format improvements against a procedure set, project how changes to procedures will affect the suitability of existing formats, and project how changes to formats will improve or reduce their suitability for given procedures. Most recently, we have proposed extensions to evaluate and support "configuration consistency" of interfaces, within a system over time, across systems and even across vehicles and their associated work domains.
Interventions for Overhead Drilling: A Demonstration BIBAFull-Text 645-646
  David Rempel; Alan Barr; Ira Janowitz
Construction workers suffer from high rates of musculoskeletal injuries to the shoulders and arms. One of the most physically demanding tasks is drilling holes overhead into concrete or metal ceilings. The job involves standing on a ladder, holding a four kg drill overhead with one hand, and pushing it upward with 245 N of force for one to two minutes while drilling the hole. This demonstration presents the culmination of a five year research project to develop and field test different devices to reduce the fatigue and musculoskeletal risk factors associated with this task. Over the study period seven devices were developed and evaluated for usability by over 100 commercial construction workers. This demonstration will present the device most preferred by the workers and also discuss the findings on productivity, arm force, shoulder posture and head posture. The authors have no commercial interests in the device.
ReadingMate: The Impact of a Content Stabilization Technique on Reading-While-Running Performance BIBAFull-Text 647-651
  Bum chul Kwon; Ji Soo Yi
The goal of this study is to help people read while running on a treadmill, which is challenging because runners' eyes should be adjusted to vigorous, mainly vertical, movements. To unload the burden on the eyes, we developed a technology, called "ReadingMate," which basically adjusts the positions of content (e.g., text) on a computer display along with the head movements of a runner. To test the effectiveness of ReadingMate and the influence of visual cues from surrounding environments, we conducted a two-factor within-subject study with 20 participants. ReadingMate showed statistically significant effects on decreasing various adverse experiences, such as shaking, dizziness, distraction, and fatigue. However, we failed to find evidence showing that visual cues disrupt the effects of ReadingMate. The study partially proved that ReadingMate could help runners read while running on a treadmill.

EDUCATION: E2 -- The Future of Human Factors Education

The Future of Human Factors Education: Practices and Needs from the Perspectives of Academia, Government, and Industry BIBAFull-Text 652-656
  J. Christopher Brill; Anthony D. Andre; Barry Beith; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Valerie J. Gawron; Christopher B. Mayhorn
This paper is intended to reflect the thoughts and opinions of panel discussants on the status and future of formal education in human factors and ergonomics. Major themes include the need for students to develop analytic abilities within the context of the scientist-practitioner model and the continued splintering within the field of Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) by area of practice. Suggestions for meeting market demands include developing increasingly flexible curricula while encouraging students gain domain-specific knowledge and skills. Others support the "tried and true" scientist-practitioner model.

EDUCATION: E3 -- Teaching, Learning, or Both

Learning by Doing: Understanding Skill Acquisition Through Skill Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 657-661
  Anne Collins McLaughlin; Wendy A. Rogers
Learning-by-doing is a well-established pedagogical tool. This approach was incorporated into a semester-long course on skill acquisition. The primary goal for the course was to explore general issues in skill acquisition, transfer, and retention from both a methodological and a substantive perspective. Students read articles from the research literature on motor, perceptual, and cognitive skills; expertise, automaticity, and training. The research articles were selected to provide a foundation for theories of learning, models of skill acquisition, and controversies about optimal training methods. Each student also selected a skill to acquire during the semester and committed to practice 3-8 hours per week. This learning-by-doing aspect of the course included maintaining a journal, creating measures of their skill, participating in weekly discussions about their skill acquisition efforts, writing an integrative review paper about the domain of their skill, and demonstrating their improvement across the semester. The students reported that the course provided a valuable overview of skill acquisition in general and that their personal experiences augmented their learning. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences with this successful pedagogical method with others interested in teaching courses on skill acquisition. Sample syllabi are available on request from either author.
A New Approach to Laboratory-Based Learning in an Introductory Ergonomics Course BIBAFull-Text 662-666
  Kim Graves Wolfinbarger
Laboratory-based learning plays an important role in the introductory Ergonomics course at the University of Oklahoma. Qualitative analyses of technical reports over several semesters revealed repeated problems. Students were unfamiliar with academic publications, did not know how to report results, and had difficulty interpreting results. In addition to these problems, other difficulties arose. Students felt overwhelmed. Some developed a dislike for the field of human factors. Several cited the labs as the source of their dissatisfaction. To address these problems, we adopted a new approach to conducting the laboratory portion of the course. We sought to increase student engagement, support learning through scaffolding, increase the rate and quantity of feedback, and provide team-development opportunities. Students' performance in data analysis and technical writing improved over the previous year and throughout the semester. Satisfaction with the course as a whole and the laboratory section in particular improved. We are pleased with the results and plan to continue refining the course design. We hope that this article will inspire discussion of effective techniques in ergonomics laboratory instruction.
Gaining Ground: Merging Cognitive Load Theory with Human Factors Principles BIBAFull-Text 667-671
  Joseph R. Keebler; Scott Ososky; Florian Jentsch; Thomas Fincannon
Although considered one of the best in the world, in many ways America's educational system is not living up to its expectations. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to learning and training through integrating human factors (HF) is not a novel idea, yet it seems that further work can still be done to increase outcomes. This paper intends to investigate the similarities and differences of the theory of cognitive load (CLT), which is used extensively in instructional design, with various fundamental human factors constructs (workload, flow state, and transfer appropriate processing.). This may help to increase understanding between the fields, as well as find important similarities and differences between the given theories to increase the benefits of instructional design.
Teaching Healthy Computing Skills to High School Students via Participatory Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 672-676
  Sahika Vatan Korkmaz; Carolyn M. Sommerich
When today's students graduate from college and start their first job, many have close to twenty years of computer use exposure and some of them also have discomfort associated with this exposure. This discomfort may be due, in part, to a lack of training, from schools or other sources, in healthy computing habits (such as taking breaks, reducing awkward postures and postural fixity, etc.). A long-term goal of this line of research is to improve the health of students. In this study students were introduced to the concept and principles of healthy computing. The specific aim of this study was to recruit a small group of students to learn, in a participatory fashion, about healthy computing and then to assist them to develop means for effectively conveying their knowledge to other students. The objective of this paper is to explain the methodology that was utilized in the study and to provide evidence of its effectiveness.
Teaching HCI Design Principles Using Culturally Current Media BIBAFull-Text 677-680
  Michelle L. Rogers
Human-computer interaction (HCI) design principles are often difficult to describe and teach. Not only do many students believe the design of interfaces to be common sense, but they often come from disparate fields to study HCI. In an effort to assist faculty in developing successful HCI curricula, five (5) sample pairings of design concepts and popular media are presented. Key HCI design principles and concepts are demonstrated using relevant, current media examples that the students may have had previous exposure to. Initial use of these tools has proven to be promising in terms of engaging students and increasing understanding.

EDUCATION: E4 -- Visualizing Innovative Uses of Technology and Devices for Engaging College Students in Active Learning

  Carolyn Sommerich; Richard Sesek; Nancy Stone; Sharon Joines; Tonya Smith-Jackson; Eric Wiebe
This session will provide attendees with several new ideas and examples for using older and newer types of technology and devices in order to appeal to the visual learner in every student. As described by Felder & Brent (2005), "A goal of instruction should be to equip students with the skills associated with every learning style category, regardless of the students' personal preferences, since they will need all of those skills to function effectively as professionals." Although we are educators and many of our doctoral students aspire to go into academia, our primary focus in the course of our training was most likely not education, per se, but engineering, psychology, human factors, or some other discipline. It is often the case that subject matter experts do not also formally acquire expertise in teaching methods. According to Wankat & Oreovicz (1993)(pg 1), "The majority of engineering professors have never had a formal course in education." Some people do have natural gifts for teaching, but Wankat & Oreovicz (1993)(pg 1) believe that "It is possible to learn how to teach well." This belief, as well as the belief that educators want to teach well, are primary motivators for organizing this session, which has been designed to provide current and aspiring instructors with some additional knowledge and methods for enhancing their pedagogic skills.

EDUCATION: E5 -- Teaching the Future Human Factors and Ergonomics Professionals

Teaching the Future Human Factors and Ergonomics Professionals to Solve Practical Problems BIBAFull-Text 684-687
  Beth L. Blickensderfer; Albert J. Boquet; Noelle D. Brunelle; James A. Pharmer; Scott A. Shappell
Instilling future Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) professionals with the knowledge and skills to solve complex problems is vital for the future of our field. Solving HF/E related practical problems requires a strong foundation in applicable theories and research as well as a variety of other skills. In terms of teaching students the key foundational knowledge, most consider HF/E degree programs a success. Along with this foundational knowledge, however, HF/E professionals need a variety of skills including skills in problem solving, skills in applying research to practice, and skills enabling them to work effectively on interdisciplinary teams. The purpose of this panel is to generate discussion regarding the current challenges that HF/E practitioners face in tackling the needs of industry and government and how HF/E related degree programs are addressing these issues. To accomplish this, five panelists will provide a variety of perspectives. One panelist provides the perspective of U.S. Department of Defense military system acquisition. Another panelist provides the perspective of working as a system safety engineer at an aircraft manufacturer. The three remaining panelists provide the perspective of educators and researchers. The universities that these three panelists represent offer bachelor, master's, and doctoral degrees in human factors, systems, and industrial engineering.

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED1 -- The Impact of Environmental Design

Restricted vs. unrestricted space for L-turns: A debate in environmental design BIBAFull-Text 688-692
  Mahiyar Nasarwanji; Caroline Joseph; Victor Paquet
Wheeled mobility device users face challenges in terms of access to the built environment and maneuverability within the built environment has received limited attention. As the wheeled mobility device user population has changed drastically in the recent years, there is a need to update accessibility standards and develop reliable methods for testing user performance in the built environment. This paper presents a comparison of restricted and unrestricted space requirements for angle turns (L-turns) with the aim of highlighting differences between space requirements in these situations and comparing the results to current accessibility standards. One hundred forty wheeled mobility device users completed L-turns to the best of their ability in a restricted space environment, and thirteen performed the same maneuver in an unrestricted space environment. Data indicates that although entrance dimensions of the turns are similar between the restricted space and unrestricted space groups, there is a significant difference between exit dimensions. This suggests that when unrestricted space is utilized, users may adopt different strategies and paths when executing their turns. Additionally, a comparison of the study results, both in the restricted and unrestricted conditions, to current accessibility standards indicates that a large proportion of individuals may not be able to successfully complete L-turns in compliant built environments. In the design of the built environment, researchers and designers should consider space requirements, ease of execution and time of execution simultaneously to create comfortable and accessible environments for normal and urgent circumstances.
Green Ergonomics: Advocating for the Human Element in Buildings BIBAFull-Text 693-697
  Alan Hedge; Kimberly Rollings; Jennifer Robinson
Certification in the LEED rating system for green buildings traditionally has focused on strategies for increasing energy efficiency and lowering indoor air pollutant emissions by selecting appropriate and natural or recyclable materials. However, designing an energy efficient workplace and low pollution workplace doesn't necessarily equate with creating a healthy and productive workplace. In November 2008 the USGBC introduced 1 credit for good ergonomic design and programs in the Innovation sections of the rating system. This paper outlines the requirements of this ergonomics credit and it presents a case study of a building that has received LEED credit for their successful ergonomics program.
Effects of Ramp Slope and Height on Usability and Physiology during Wheelchair Driving BIBAFull-Text 698-702
  Chung Sik Kim; Donghun Lee; Jeehea Lee; Sunghyuk Kwon; Min K. Chung
A ramp is the basic type of an assisting device for wheelchair users. Although the height of a ramp is an important design element, it has not been considered in prior studies. Therefore, in this study, the ramp slope and height are considered as independent variables. To analyze the effects of the slope and height, five levels of slope (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12 and 1:14) and three levels of height (15 cm, 30 cm and 45 cm) are considered. For the dependent variables, the total time and velocity were considered as performance measures, pulse rate changes and EMG signals of four related muscles (extensor carpi radialis, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid) were considered as physiology measures, and perceived discomfort while ascending and descending were considered as perceived discomfort measures. As a result, differences among performance, physiological characteristic and perceived discomfort for the five slopes increased as the height increased. Additionally, slope effects were minor when the height was low (15 cm). In summary, there was no significant difference between 1:10 and 1:12 (as suggested by ADAAG). In addition, slope effects were minor at a low height; thus, a slope of 1:8 can be recommended if the installation space for a gentler ramp is not sufficient.
Children as Research Subjects: Methodologies for Collecting Data in Inclusive Indoor Play BIBAFull-Text 703-707
  Marisa Topping; Abir Mullick; Sarah Endicott; Wooyoung Sung; Gourab Kar
This paper discusses the benefit of using children with and without disabilities as research subjects for a project about indoor play place and playthings. This paper also describes how to engage children in a study and about tools used to facilitate communication with adults. Methodologies described in this paper utilize skills children already have (drawing, sorting, talking and answering questions) to inform researchers of their play preference and needs.

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED2 -- Rethinking Elder Design

  Rani Lueder; Daryle Gardner-Bonneau; Wendy A. Rogers; Neil Charness
Rani Lueder, will discuss the implications the findings from her industrial design class projects at Art Center College of Design in Pasadena involving elderly simulations to evaluate products and environments. Class projects emphasized simulations of the functional limitations of elders aged 80+ years to evaluate the design implication of anthropometric, cognitive / psychosocial, physical / motor coordination, visual, hearing and kinesthetic dimensions.
   In an informal poll of a small group of HF professionals, opinions were divided about whether or not "baby boomers" would find themselves left behind by technology when they reached the age of 65, like many of today's older adults seem to be. Technologies that used to be simple (phones, cars) have gotten increasingly complex, and one could argue that usability, overall, has decreased for everyone. But are there things we can do that can help ensure that older adults never find themselves on the "wrong" side of the digital divide? I think there are some universal rules that can be applied that would help, but the question is whether the profession will actually apply them.
   Dr. Rogers will discuss the sequence of including older adults in the testing of future home technologies: starting with focus groups and interviews, testing of initial prototypes in the Human Factors & Aging Laboratory, wizard-of-oz testing in the Aware Home Residential Laboratory, and then field testing in older adults' homes.
   Dr. Charness will discuss the CREATE system, which includes an emphasis on design guidelines that incorporates consideration of a range of elder design considerations that include perceptual changes, cognitive changes, psychomotor changes, attitudes and the physical and social environment and their effect on how well a technology or a tech training program works for older adults.
   His presentation will include a discussion of practical considerations, including how to design a time-out interval for inputting text messages on a cell phone (a rare case where what works for older adults doesn't work for younger ones). He will also discuss examples from his research for the NRC on human factors in home healthcare.

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED3 -- Information Technology and Design -- the Big Picture

A Field Observation of Display Placement Requirements for Presbyopic and Prepresbyopic Computer Users BIBAFull-Text 709-713
  Paul Allie; Michael C. Bartha; Douglas Kokot; Cynthia Purvis
User-selected display placement for young computer users (prepresbyopes) and older computer users with presbyopia, wearing multifocal lens correction, has been observed in field settings, but not while both groups used the same display size or illumination technology. A field study was conducted to examine placement of an 18.5-inch, widescreen LCD display for prepresbyopes and presbyopes using multifocal lens correction. Both groups viewed the 18.5" display for four days as they performed their usual computer tasks at their workstations. Multifocal wearers selected a display height that was lower than computer users who did not have presbyopia. As a result the eye-to-screen angle for presbyopes was significantly lower than prepresbyopes. The findings potentially affect proper design and selection of adjustable display supports. Measures of gross body posture and text size were also collected. Multifocal wearers did not choose seated postures different from prepresbyopes. Additionally, the majority of both groups viewed text at arc angles smaller than ANSI/HFES 100-2007 and ISO 9241-3 recommendations.
The Relationship between Computer-Related Discomfort and Everyday Activities BIBAFull-Text 714-717
  Nancy A. Baker
Computer use is a risk factor for musculoskeletal discomfort which is associated with reduced productivity and work performance. However, little is known about the effect of computer-related discomfort on the performance of daily activities. This paper describes the severity of discomfort and problems with daily activities and demonstrates the associations between discomfort and daily activities. 75 computer-users rated the severity of their computer-related discomfort and the severity of daily activity problems. Analysis suggested that while the majority of computer users experienced mild discomfort and no problems with daily activities, a minority experienced moderate to severe discomfort and problems. Multiple regression analyses indicated that severity of discomfort was associated with severity of problems and that the back and right arm/hand had the greatest frequency of associations with problems of daily activities. These results underline the toll that computer-related discomfort can have on all activities in a workers life.
Designing Culturally-informed Consumer Health IT: An Exploration and Proposed Integration of Contrasting Methodological Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 718-722
  Rupa S. Valdez
As the locus of health care migrates from institutional to home- and community-based settings, designers face news challenges in developing consumer health information technology (health IT) to support patients and informal caregivers with their new self-care and self-management responsibilities. For such technologies to be appropriately designed, they must be aligned, in part, with the cultural context within which these consumers are embedded. Designing culturally-informed consumer health IT is challenging partly because of the tensions that exist between engineering and cultural anthropological approaches to studying the intersection of culture and technology. This paper proposes both a framework for conceptualizing these tensions and a potential embedded, sequential integration of these approaches to capitalize on the strengths and mitigate the weaknesses of each methodological perspective.
  Nancy A. Baker; P. A. Karen Jacobs
U.S. healthcare reform demands that ergonomically trained health professionals reassess how they deliver their services. One innovative strategy to deliver ergonomic assessment and modification is tele-ergonomics. This practice-oriented paper will describe the process of developing the Tele-rehabilitation Computer Ergonomics System (tele-CES). The tele-CES will be a valid and reliable systematic program using existing previously validated ergonomic instruments. This program will allow ergonomically trained health professionals to: 1) remotely assess the computer workstation, which will eliminate several barriers to access experienced by computer operators; and 2) based on the assessment, generate explicit participant-specific workstation modification recommendations. These recommendations will be easily implemented; reduce pain, discomfort, and fatigue; and eliminate barriers to productivity. The tele-CES will be developed as a collaboration between ergonomically trained health professionals in multiple locations in the US, tele-rehabilitation experts, and consumers. This system will reduce the personal cost of obtaining expert ergonomic assessments and interventions and provide an evidence-based and systematic program of completing ergonomic assessments remotely.

FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: FP1 -- Forensics Challenges in Human Factors and Ergonomics

So Your Consumer Product Complies With The Voluntary Safety Standard Now What BIBAFull-Text 728-732
  Shelley Waters Deppa; Carol Pollack-Nelson; Elaine D. Allen
While voluntary standards can improve the safety of consumer products by setting minimum safety requirements, such standards are rarely all encompassing and should not be relied upon as the sole criteria for product safety. A product can meet the technical requirements of a voluntary standard yet still pose serious hazards. This paper explores the limitations of voluntary standards through specific examples and recommends additional actions and resources to conduct a thorough product safety evaluation.
Helmet Use in Sledding: Do Users Comply with Manufacturer Warnings BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  Genevieve M. Heckman; Erin M. Harley; Irving Scher; Douglas E. Young
Sledding, like other recreational sports, is associated with inherent risks of injury in which behavioral factors may influence the accident and injury modes. In the present work, we examined the rate of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage and its relationship to various environmental and user characteristics at three popular sledding sites in California. Experimenters measured speeds and collected observations of equipment type, helmet use, sledder age and gender, along with on-product warnings and safety information for some of the products observed during data collection. The recorded sledder speeds were within the range of impact speeds for which helmets have been shown to reduce the likelihood of head injury. Despite this, and despite the prevalence of on-product warnings recommending helmet use, the observed usage rate of protective equipment while sledding was less than 5 percent for all sledders. Given the importance of helmets in reducing the risk of head injury in snowsports, these findings have important implications for the snowsport and broader safety community.
Stick-and-fall: A previously unstudied type of fall BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Kenneth Nemire; David A. Thompson; H. Harvey Cohen
A stick-and-fall event, previously unstudied, is described as a fall on a walkway with no apparent tripping hazard and characterized by the sole or heel of the swinging foot catching on the surface of a level walkway to cause the foot to "stick" to the surface and result in a possible stumble or fall. Four separate case studies are provided to describe example stick-and-fall events that resulted in litigation. Relevant walkway, shoe and pedestrian factors unique to stick-and-fall events are examined as well as factors that are shared with typical trip, slip and stumble events. Discussion includes potential for future research.
Case Study: Wheelchair Conspicuity at Night BIBAFull-Text 743-747
  Kenneth Nemire
A forensic case study is presented in which an automobile collided with a wheelchair at night. Analyses determined that the combination of low visual contrast of the wheelchair and driver against the nighttime background, the poor illumination on the street, and the probable, and erroneous, expectation of the wheelchair driver that he was visible to the automobile driver and therefore could safely cross the street, caused this collision and injury. An analysis of NEISS data conservatively estimated that almost 900 collisions of motor vehicles and wheelchairs occur each year in the United States. There currently are no federal regulations to enhance conspicuity of wheelchairs as there are regulations to enhance the conspicuity of bicycles. Such regulations are needed.
Reducing Subjectivity When Attempting Auditory Scene Recreation in Accident Reconstruction BIBAFull-Text 748-752
  Farheen S. Khan; Joseph B. Sala; Steve R. Arndt
It is well-established that acoustic, psychoacoustic, and cognitive parameters can affect sound perception and response. Over the last several decades, there has been an increase in the amount of research on auditory stimuli and their effect on human perception and response. Objective techniques to evaluate acoustic signals have become an essential part of several industries and their application in accident reconstruction can also prove beneficial. Specifically, objective techniques that employ the appropriate technology to record and play back accurate representations of an auditory scene would allow for researchers and triers of fact to experience the auditory stimuli that could otherwise only be quantified or described through technical measurements. These efforts will significantly improve evidentiary value, analyses, and conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to present a case for the use of this technology within the accident reconstruction field in order to accurately represent a receiver's perception of a sound. This proposition is partially based on the authors' experience in using this technology to capture sound scene information in previous litigation work.

FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: FP2 -- Forensics Issues in Accessible Housing Design and Usability

The Current State of Legal, Design and Residential Usability Issues for People with Various Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 753-756
  Ilene B. Zackowitz
One of the many challenges facing people with disabilities today is finding accessible housing, since the abilities and disabilities of this group vary widely. The Fair Housing Act was enacted to prevent housing discrimination and covers private multi-family housing and requires that all ground floor apartments (including condominiums) and all floors of elevator buildings of four or more units, built for first occupancy after March 13, 1991, comply with the Act. There is disagreement among experts about how best to accommodate people with disabilities. This panel will bring together experts to discuss the current state of legal, design and usability issues for people with disabilities.

GENERAL SESSION: GS1 -- President's Forum

2010 PRESIDENTS FORUM Medical Human Factors, Human Performance Modeling: What Every Human Factors Engineer Should Know BIBAFull-Text 757
  Paul A. Green; James Bagian
We go the HFES Annual Meeting to get an overview of our field, but we usually go to niche sessions that focus on presenting specific experimental results. The goal of this session is to begin to get HFES members to think more strategically about the content of the Annual Meeting. In this session, two accomplished presenters will talk about developments in their respective areas of expertise -- what we know, what we don't know, what new developments pertain to other areas of human factors/ergonomics, and where other fields of interest can contribute to medical HF/E and human performance modeling.

GENERAL SESSION: GS2 -- NRC Committee on Human-Systems Integration

  William S. Marras
The inclusion of automation has been critical for increased safety and efficiency in complex systems such as aviation and process control, but one unintended consequence for human operators is boredom. In many phases of operation (i.e., en-route flight over the Atlantic and full-power nuclear power plant operations), operators are monitoring interfaces, waiting for the unlikely system anomaly. Such highly automated environments require levels of vigilance that are difficult for operators to maintain, and resulting boredom increases the likelihood of operator distraction, which ultimately can affect system performance if operators miss or respond late to critical events. This presentation will highlight the problems of sustained attention and boredom in highly automated environments. Panelists will discuss areas of future research as well as review other efforts of the Committee on Human-Systems Integration.

GENERAL SESSION: GS3 -- Head to Head: Remote Usability Testing Takes on Live Usability Testing in the HFES Ultimate Fighting Challenge

Head to Head: Remote Usability Testing Takes on Live Usability Testing in the HFES Ultimate Fighting Challenge BIBAFull-Text 759-762
  Ania Rodriguez; Marc L. Resnick
Remote usability testing is emerging as a popular approach through which evaluators can test technology interfaces on a large number of participants quickly and inexpensively. Two types of remote studies have been employed, either with a moderator interacting remotely with the participant or in an unmoderated format. But without a moderator, or even when the moderator is present but not collocated with the participant, there is some question as to whether the results can match the validity, reliability, and acceptability of a live testing paradigm. This session is a novel format that pits the two in a head-to-head challenge during the conference session. The audience is asked to be a part of the session as test participants and/or results evaluators. The session is divided into three modules. In the first module, a remote unmoderated study was conducted on the HFES.org web using the current state of the art for remote, unmoderated testing. The other two modules are conducted live during the conference session. In the second module, a moderated remote study is conducted with the moderator located in other room but with the participants in the conference session room. In the third module, a live study is conducted with a moderator collocated with the participants in the conference session room. These two modules also use state-of-the-art techniques for these methods. The final time block of the session is used to interactively discuss the differences in the results with the audience. They are able to decide for themselves the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

GENERAL SESSION: GS4 -- Transforming the Energy Economy -- The Role of Behavioral and Social Science

Transforming the Energy Economy the Role of Behavioral and Social Science BIBAFull-Text 763-765
  Tom Sanquist; Mithra Moezzi; Edward Vine; Thomas Sheridan
Human factors engineering can provide a unique set of concepts and methods to facilitate transforming the energy economy to less resource intensive utilization. While this has not been a traditional endeavor for the profession, new developments in technologies associated with the smart grid, and a need to understand and modify consumption patterns represent new opportunities. This panel assembles experts in behavioral science and energy analysis to discuss the various ways that the human factors and ergonomics profession can contribute to enhancing energy efficiency, conservation and greenhouse gas reduction.

GENERAL SESSION: GS6 -- Blasphemy or Pragmatics? When NOT to Follow User-Centered Design Techniques

Blasphemy or Pragmatics When NOT to Follow User-Centered Design Techniques BIBAFull-Text 766
  Anthony D. Andre; Jay Elkerton; Steve Portigal; Cordell Ratzlaff; Dan Saffer; Dan Rosenberg
This invited panel brings together several high-profile members of the HCI community for an exciting, if not controversial, discussion and debate. Each is well versed in the principles and best practices of user-centered design, user experience research, and design innovation. How do they respond to the emerging topic of when NOT to use conventional user-centered design techniques? Are those who suggest this just stirring up controversy? Or are there pragmatic business constraints that require us to sometimes divert from our established practices? Our panelists will address this provocative issue as well as other contemporary issues that are at the forefront of HCI. Come and join us for what is sure to be an educational and stimulating session that could change your future approach to user-centered design and user experience research.

GENERAL SESSION: GS7 -- Facilitating University-Industry Collaborations in Human Factors and Ergonomics

Facilitating University-Industry Collaborations in Human Factors and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 767-768
  Wendy A. Rogers; Barry Beith; Jerry Duncan; Mica Endsley; Peter Hancock
There are many benefits of university-industry collaborations in the field of human factors and ergonomics. Such collaborations can yield high-quality scientifically based solutions to industry challenges and provide unique opportunities for students to work on complex and interesting problems. However, there are also challenges that can impede the success of these collaborations such as mismatched expectations, unclear communications, and bureaucracies on both sides. For this discussion panel we have two university researchers and three industry members. We will discuss benefits and challenges of university-industry collaborations, share experiences from how we have been able to maximize the benefits and minimize the challenges, and have an interactive discussion with the audience regarding how best to facilitate successful university-industry collaborations.

GENERAL SESSION: GS8 -- Sleep Across Military Environments

Sleep Across Military Environments BIBAFull-Text 769-773
  Petra Alfred; Gary Boykin; Lynn Caldwell; Harris Lieberman; Panigiotis Matsangas; Nita Lewis Miller; Valerie Rice; ? Nancy
This focus of this discussion panel is on the effect of sleep on human performance in different military environments or contexts. Panelists will discuss a wide range of topics including how to address fatigue among Air Force pilots, the impact of sleep on performance in Army Advanced Individual Training, the effects of adjusting Army and Navy recruits' sleep schedules during training, the existing gaps in addressing sleep needs on naval vessels, the impact of sleep loss and other stressors on dismounted warfighter performance, and the effects of chronic inadequate sleep on cognitive readiness. It is important to understand both the differences in the effects of sleep in these environments, as well as the commonalities that can be applied to multiple environments and operators. Our panelists include some of the foremost sleep experts of today, as well as others who examine sleep in their human performance research. Participation in this panel will include discussing their latest research, offering practical applications, and engaging the audience in discussions of cross-disciplinary applications, including areas for collaboration across military and civilian services and environments. Finally, panelists and audience members will and share ideas about directions for future sleep-related research.

GENERAL SESSION: GS9 -- General Ergonomics

  Likun Zhang; Caroline G. L. Cao
During laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon's hand-eye coordination is often disrupted by the incongruent mapping between the orientation of the endoscopic view and the actual operative field. This can lead to higher mental load and deteriorated performance for the surgeon. This study investigated the effect of visual-motor misalignment on laparoscopic surgery performance. Twenty-four subjects participated in a dynamic point-and-touch task, with 8 image rotations under different optical axes and different endoscope locations in a simulated laparoscopic surgery environment. Performance was best when the endoscopic image was perfectly aligned with the actual task space (0° image rotation), but degraded progressively as a function of deviation from perfect alignment. Subjects' performance maintained a consistent pattern across 8 image rotations regardless of optical axis orientation and endoscope location. Therefore, it is recommended that any solution to restore the visuomotor congruency in laparoscopic surgery should first align the image with the task space.
Optimal Handle Size to Minimize Internal Impact of Flexor Tendons BIBAFull-Text 779-782
  Shi-Hyun Park; Jesun Hwang; Brian D. Lowe; Andris Freivalds
Failure to properly consider tendon and applied forces in designing a hand tool can have harmful effects on users. Previous study has indicated that flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon forces can be up to 3.7 times the external forces. These values are indirect estimates derived from biomechanical models developed for the hand. However, these include many assumptions and may not be accurate. Therefore, direct measurement of tendon forces using a cadaver model provided novel insights into measuring internal impact of flexor tendons generated by power grip motion and then determining optimal handle size reducing internal tendon loads. In the result, there was a negative relationship between handle diameter and grip force, which showed that the grip force decreased from 38.3 to 23.0 N, as the cylindrical handle diameter increased from 30 to 60 mm. Thus, the highest grip force was generated on the smallest handle size (30mm), and the lowest grip force was on the largest diameter handle (60mm). In terms of the ratio of the internal tendon force to the external grip force, the internal tendon load on the smallest handle size (30mm) was, for external grip force F, 4.2F and the largest handle showed 7.0F (i.e. seven times the applied external force). These relationships should be useful for the design of handles that require power grip motion. Consequently, this study provided novel insights into the direct measurement of internal impact of flexor tendons generated by power grip motion with handles.
Effect of Flooring on Discomfort and Behavioral Responses to Prolonged Standing BIBAFull-Text 783-787
  Neal Wiggermann; Monroe Keyserling
Prolonged standing is a common requirement in the workplace and is a well-known cause of discomfort. This experiment investigated the effect of material properties of flooring surfaces on perceived discomfort during prolonged standing. Behavioral responses to prolonged standing such as fidgeting (or weight-shifting between feet) were also analyzed. Participants stood for four hours on each of four "anti-fatigue" mats and a hard surface (control condition) while discomfort ratings and in-shoe pressures on the feet were recorded. Results showed that discomfort ratings did not significantly differ among mats, but all mats were more comfortable than the hard floor during the fourth hour of standing. The frequency of fidgeting was affected by flooring surface and was correlated to discomfort. The results indicate that if differences in discomfort between these mats exist, they require a longer standing duration to be observed. The behavioral results provide a possible proxy measurement for discomfort, as well as information that can be used to direct future physiological and biomechanical research.
  Patrick Waterson; Cara Pilcher; Sian Evans; Jill Moore
Every year a significant number of young children are injured as a result of accidents that occur on board trains in Great Britain. These accidents range from being caught in internal doors, slips, trips and falls and injuries caused by seats. We describe our efforts working with RSSB to design a new set of safety signs in order to help prevent such accidents occurring. The research involved running a set of workshops with young school children (aged 4-10, n=210) and showing them examples of existing train signs and gathering the requirements for new designs. A second set of workshops with these children was used to evaluate the new signs based on the outcomes from the earlier workshop. We describe our findings alongside a set of outline guidelines for the design of safety signs for young children, A final section outlines possibilities for future research.
Human Centric Environmentalism: Opportunities for the Human Factors Community to Contribute to Global Environmental Solutions BIBAFull-Text 793-797
  Elizabeth Phillips; Brittany Sellers; Stephen M. Fiore
Previous psychological research into human induced causes of environmental change has stemmed largely from a behavior modification approach and has shown only modest results. We suggest that the lack of long term success in this area may be due to the lack of attention toward the underlying design dimensions to these problems. In this paper, we attempt to illustrate that by using our understanding of design principles related to human behavior and performance, the human factors community has the unique potential to make significant strides in improving these underlying design dimensions. Along these lines, applicable research areas include cognitive decision making, product design, surface transportation, and environmental design. We argue that, by shaping technologies in a way that is both user friendly and environmentally benign, the science of human factors has the potential to grow in new areas of research -- areas that are not only theoretically relevant but also of societal importance.

GENERAL SESSION: GS10 -- Monitoring and Signal Detection

The Short Stress State Questionnaire and High Event Rate Target Detection BIBAFull-Text 798-801
  William S. Helton; Paul N. Russell
Stress is an important aspect of operational settings. This article presents the results of a study providing further validation of a short multidimensional self-report measure of stress-state, the Short Stress State Questionnaire (SSSQ; Helton, 2004). We investigated stress during high event rate target detection tasks. In previous target detection studies using the established Dundee Stress State Questionnaire two phenomena have been consistently reported: (1) an increase in Distress over the task and (2) the highest post-task state correlate with target detection performance is Engagement. In the present experiment in which 40 participants performed high event rate target detection tasks, both phenomena were replicated with the SSSQ. The 24-item SSSQ appears to be a useful measure of stress-state applicable in a wide variety of settings of interest to Human Factors practitioners.
  Sian Miles; Bill Macken
Processes involved in discrimination of targets from non-targets differing by a single critical feature were explored. Participants learned 80 target nouns (singular and plural), and were tested on 120 nouns: 40 targets, 40 similar non-targets (plurality changed between study and test), and 40 novel non-targets. Speeded (250ms, 1000ms) yes-no judgments were required after each test item. In Experiment 1, participants were informed before study, or after study but before recognition, that the test contained non-targets similar to targets by virtue of a plurality change. Controls received no such instructions. Target/non-target similarity instructions reduced false alarms to similar non-targets and enhanced discrimination only when participants were informed before study, and at the 1000ms response interval. In Experiment 2, one group of participants was oriented to the specific discriminating feature before study, while another group was instructed that the task was difficult and to invest considerable effort at study. Specifically orientating participants to the critical feature change again improved discrimination and reduced false alarm rates, while merely emphasizing the requirement for effortful encoding did not. Detailed monitoring and control of target/non-target discrimination are effective in reducing false recognition only if the necessary discriminating features are deliberately encoded at study, and if sufficient time is given for deliberate retrieval at test.
Methods for gathering and analyzing information seeking behaviour in electronic resource discovery systems BIBAFull-Text 807-811
  Hanna Stelmaszewska; B. L. William Wong; Penelope M. Sanderson
This paper reports on the use of a combination of cognitive task analysis techniques -- such as observations with 'think aloud', the Critical Decision Method (CDM) interviews and Cued Recall -- to identify and understand what students and researchers do when searching for scholarly material using various electronic resource discovery systems. It describes the use of Emergent Themes Analysis to discover broad themes across all the data sets collected. This paper also presents a visual representation of the process of information seeking developed during data analysis that allowed the patterns of activities to emerge and show the relationship between different actions. Overall, it is that the use of multiple research methods can reduce the limitations of individual methods and provides complementary insights.

HEALTH CARE: HC1 -- Human Factors Contributions To Medication Safety

Human Factors Contributions toward Medication Safety BIBAFull-Text 812-815
  Ben-Tzion Karsh; Sandra K. Garrett; Michelle L. Rogers; A. Joy Rivera-Rodriguez; Jenna L. Marquard; Tosha B. Wetterneck
Preventable patient harm due to errors in medication ordering, transcribing, dispensing and administration is a significant problem as discussed in the Institute of Medicine's 2007 report "Preventing Medication Errors". Additionally, the report states that there are "enormous gaps in the knowledge base with regard to medication errors" and that the current methods available to solve this problem are inadequate (IOM, 2007, p2). Consequently, human factors research can contribute to the solution for this national problem by addressing the complexity in current medication systems and by designing user-centered solutions that support the real complex cognitive work of the clinicians. Panelists in this session, who have been funded by the federal government, private industry, and fellowships, will briefly share their human factors research on medication systems and then discuss how human factors researchers and practitioners can contribute to medication safety goals.

HEALTH CARE: HC2 -- Electronic Health Records: Physician's Perspective on Usability

Electronic Health Records: Physicians Perspective on Usability BIBAFull-Text 816-820
  Robert M. Schumacher; Lyle Berkowitz; Paul Abramson; David Liebovitz
The usability of electronic health records (EHRs) has received increased attention as it has been identified as one of the key barriers to adoption of EHRs. Every day, health care workers face many usability issues with EHRs such as workflows that do not match clinical processes, alert fatigue (both visual and audio), information overload and frustration with what is perceived as excessive clicks during routine tasks. All this contributes to frustration, and, ultimately, impacts patient care. But what does it mean to have a 'usable' application? Why are EHRs hard to use? This panel brings together practicing physicians trained in medical informatics to provide their unique and front-line perspective on what the real issues are with EHRs and how human factors affects usage. We will address three questions: (1) Why is usability a hard problem in EHRs? (2) From a user's view, what is the cost of poor usability? And (3) what can be done to increase adoption and usage of EHRs in the clinical setting?

HEALTH CARE: HC3 -- Supporting Cognition and Decision Making in Clinical Work

Supporting cognition and decision making in clinical work BIBAFull-Text 821-825
  Paul N. Gorman; Joshua Richardson; Alissa Russ; Laura G. Militello; Yan Xiao
Clinical decision support systems and other health information technologies are being implemented in healthcare organizations to enhance clinician performance by helping to overcome the limits of human cognition. In spite of gains achieved with these systems, significant problems remain, including unexpected complexity and sometimes harmful effects, and persistent use of paper-based cognitive artifacts. This panel will explore current research that is meant to help us better understand the implications of clinical decision support and cognitive support, and develop novel approaches that are intended to take better advantage of the complementary capabilities of human and machine cognition.

HEALTH CARE: HC4 -- Just What the Doctor Ordered? The Role of Cognitive Decision Support Systems in Clinical Decision Making and Patient Safety

Just What the Doctor Ordered: The Role of Cognitive Decision Support Systems in Clinical Decision-Making Patient Safety BIBAFull-Text 826-829
  Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Sallie J. Weaver; Ben-Tzion Karsh; Stephanie Guerlain; David Metcalf; Jenna L. Marquard; Paul Gorman
Human expertise is limited by both cognitive workload and the boundaries of attention. With the spread and integration of healthcare informatics, cognitive decision support (CDS) technologies have been suggested as a means for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare. The current panel brings together leading human factors and medical experts in the fields of decision-making, design, and human-system interaction to provide their insight and perspective on the following question: What contributions can human factors science bring to bear on (1) the design, (2) integration, and (3) training necessary for effective CDS implementation?

HEALTH CARE: HC5 -- Health Care Workflow, Research Implications

Development of a Research Agenda at the Intersection of Industrial and Systems Engineering and Health Care: Implications for Human Factors and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 830-834
  Rupa Sheth Valdez; Edmond Ramly; Patricia Flatley Brennan
In September, 2009, AHRQ and NSF convened a workshop in which experts in the fields of industrial and systems engineering (ISyE) and health care explored critical areas of research at the intersection of both fields. The objectives were to 1) articulate a vision for an ideal health care delivery system, 2) determine why current efforts to apply ISyE knowledge to health care have not resulted in meaningful change, and 3) propose a research and action agenda that should be pursued to enable the field of ISyE to substantially contribute to the realization of an ideal health care delivery system. This paper presents the vision of the ideal health care delivery system and elements of the research agenda that are salient to the field of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). The ideal health care delivery system was defined as one that is new, patient-centered, and engineered. The research agenda emphasized knowledge innovation related to systems monitoring, modeling, and modification, but also included items related to transfer of existing ISyE knowledge and integration and prioritization of knowledge in both fields. Recognizing that human factors and ergonomics is much larger than ISyE, this paper is also presented to the HFES community to identify which other perspectives may need to be included.
Distractions and Interruptions in the Intensive Care Unit: A Field Observation and a Simulator Experiment BIBAFull-Text 835-839
  T. Grundgeiger; P. M. Sanderson; C. Beltran Orihuela; A. Thompson; H. G. MacDougall; L. Nunnink; B. Venkatesh
Distractions and interruptions are frequently mentioned as sources of errors in healthcare research, and laboratory research has shown that they can disrupt cognition. However, the current evidence that distractions and interruptions cause patient harm is mixed. In two studies in an intensive care unit, we investigated whether and when distractions and interruptions might lead nurses to forget critical care tasks. Study 1 was an observational study using a mobile eye tracker. It investigated which properties of an interruption influence resumption times and how nurses manage distractions and interruptions. Study 2 was a controlled experiment in a full-scale patient simulator. It investigated whether reminders improve nurses' ability to remember routine tasks when multitasking and resume interrupted routine tasks. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the studies.
The Workflow of Computerized Medication Ordering in Primary Care is Not Prescriptive BIBAFull-Text 840-844
  Alissa L. Russ; Jason J. Saleem; M. Sue McManus; Richard M. Frankel; Alan J. Zillich
While the potential benefits of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) are well recognized, little is known about how prescribers have integrated electronic medication ordering into other aspects of patient care. As part of a larger investigation of computerized medication alerts, we observed and opportunistically interviewed 20 primary care prescribers at a major Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC). Participants were recruited from each of the VAMC's 5 primary care clinics and included physicians, nurse practitioners, and clinical pharmacists. Prescribers were observed as they ordered mediations via the CPOE system during routine patient care. In total, observations included 91 routine patient encounters across 66.5 hrs of observation. This paper provides illustrative case examples of how prescribers have integrated CPOE into medication decision-making processes and other patient care tasks. Results demonstrate that CPOE workflow varies widely among prescribers. In addition, results indicate that there are trade-offs associated with using CPOE with the patient in the exam room versus outside of the exam room. Findings may have implications for provider-patient relationships, workflow efficiency, and medication safety, and may ultimately enhance the effectiveness of CPOE in primary care.
  Leigh A. Baumgart; Ellen J. Bass; Jason A. Lyman; Sherry Springs; John Voss; Gregory F. Hayden; Martha A. Hellems; Tracey R. Hoke; Katharine A. Schlag; John B. Schorling
Participating in self-assessment activities may stimulate improvement in practice behaviors. However, it is unclear how best to support the development of self-assessment skills, particularly in the health care domain. Exploration of population-based data is one method to enable health care providers identify deficiencies in overall practice behavior that can motivate quality improvement initiatives. At the University of Virginia, we are developing a decision support tool to integrate and present population-based patient data to health care providers related to both clinical outcomes and non-clinical measures (e.g., demographic information). By enabling users to separate their direct impact on clinical outcomes from other factors out of their control, we may enhance the self-assessment process.
  Cakil Sarac; Rhona Flin; Kathryn Mearns; Jeanette Jackson
As part of an organization's safety management strategy, it is important to assess the level of safety climate with a valid instrument. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) based on a sample of clinical staff from Scottish acute hospitals and to determine the suitability for Scottish healthcare setting. The data were collected from 1966 clinical staff (estimated 22% response rate) from one acute hospital from each of seven Scottish Health Boards. In order to test the psychometric properties of the questionnaire, a split-half cross-validation technique was used. The data were randomly split into two, and Exploratory (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted on the calibration and validation data sets to investigate and check the original US model fit from a Scottish sample. EFA results showed a 10 factor optimal measurement model. The CFA were then performed to compare the model fit of two alternative models (10 factor alternative model vs. 12 factor original model). It was demonstrated that both factor structures performed equally well in a Scottish sample. Furthermore, reliability analyses of each component yielded satisfactory results. Therefore no modifications are required to the original 12 factor model which is suggested for use since it would allow researchers the possibility of cross-national comparisons.

HEALTH CARE: HC6 -- Patient Safety in the Operating Theatre

  Tanja Manser; Rhona Flin
The aim of this symposium is to present and discuss recent research on the factors shaping safe and efficient performance in the operating theatre. Ten years ago, it was not generally accepted that a significant number of surgical patients were harmed not as a result of underlying illness or disease but as a result of their treatment. Detailed incident analyses and studies of behavior in the operating theatre revealed that factors such as decision making, situation awareness, coordination and leadership play a contributory role in the multifaceted nature of adverse events.
   The papers included in this symposium address these issues applying a spectrum of theoretical and methodological approaches. The emergent findings of these studies have important implications for future research as well as training and organizational design. For design recommendations to be useful in clinical practice they require an in-depth understanding of the strengths and vulnerabilities pertaining to the clinical work environment. This is reflected by the fact that this symposium brings together teams of clinicians and human factors experts in discussing their most recent research.
  Michaela Kolbe; Barbara Kunzle; Eniko Zala-Mezo; Michael J. Burtscher; Johannes Wacker; Donat R. Spahn; Gudela Grote
We explored the functions of team monitoring and talking to the room (undirected talk to relay relevant information or comment on the performance of real-time self behavior) for effects on team interaction and performance in 27 anesthesia teams in the clinical setting. Immediate reactions to team monitoring and talking to the room were investigated by means of lag sequential analysis. As expected, we found that in high performing teams, immediate consequences of team monitoring were speaking-up and providing unsolicited assistance. Talking to the room led to further talking to the room and substituted explicit coordination. The results highlight the relevance of team monitoring and talking to the room for team coordination and performance in dynamic healthcare environments.
  Lucy Mitchell; Rhona Flin; Steven Yule; Janet Mitchell; Kathy Coutts; George Youngson
Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance and developing tools for rating and training those skills. The focus of studies to date has been surgeons, anaesthetists, or the whole team, with less attention paid to other professionals. The aim of the study was to develop a behavioural rating system for non-technical skills of the scrub practitioner (nurse/technician). This paper reports an interview study, as part of a task analysis, to identify the critical non-technical skills for this role, and the development of a prototype behavioural rating system. Experienced scrub practitioners (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9), from four Scottish teaching hospitals, were interviewed using a semi-structured design. Data that described generic non-technical skills were extracted from the interview transcripts and thereafter, psychologists and panels of perioperative practitioners (n = 4) used an iterative process to develop a skills taxonomy. Three categories of non-technical skills were identified as critical for safe and effective scrub practitioner performance. These were; situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management. Three underlying skill elements for each of the three categories were labeled by the expert panels and they provided examples of good and poor behaviours for each of these skill elements, drawing on their domain knowledge. The reliability and psychometric properties of the prototype skills taxonomy and behaviour rating system are currently being tested using standardized, simulated scenarios.
A preliminary investigation of surgeons leadership in the operating room BIBAFull-Text 867-871
  Sarah Henrickson Parker; Steven Yule; Rhona Flin; Aileen McKinley
Background: There is widespread recognition that non-technical skills, including leadership, are essential for an effective, efficient and safe team performance. However, the empirical literature on specific skills required for effective leadership within the intraoperative setting is limited and inconclusive. Method: Observations (n=23 operations) were conducted in operating rooms (OR) from three teaching hospitals in Scotland to gather data on intraoperative leadership behaviours. This analysis focused on the role of the lead surgeon. These were coded according to a task- and team-oriented structure, using seven leadership constructs identified in the surgical literature. Results: Leadership behaviours were categorised with acceptable inter-rater reliability. The analysis showed that as intraoperative leaders, surgeons exhibited both task- and team-oriented behaviours. They most frequently engaged in team-oriented leadership behaviours, namely 'guiding and supporting' followed by 'communication and coordination' behaviours. Discussion: This study is the first step in developing an empirically derived scale to measure and evaluate surgeons' intraoperative leadership. Future studies will investigate the relationship between the leadership behaviours identified here, team performance, and patient safety outcomes. Better understanding of intraoperative leadership can lead to improved surgical team performance, which could impact patient safety in the operating room.
Analysis of Error Management Strategies during Cardiac Surgery: Theoretical and Practical Implications BIBAFull-Text 872-875
  Douglas A. Wiegmann
Preventing errors that threaten patient safety is a priority within all healthcare specialties. One approach is to increase the resiliency of healthcare systems by improving error management processes and by making systems more error tolerant. Research has shown that a key marker of surgical excellence is the ability of a surgical team to successfully manage errors and unexpected events during surgery. Proactively improving error management during surgery is difficult however because little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in error recovery or the situational factors that impact successful error management processes. This paper describes a systematic analysis of errors and error management processes during cardiovascular surgery. Results are used to develop a theoretical framework that captures the complexity of cognitive and situational factors involved in error management. The utility of this model in identifying areas within healthcare systems that can be redesigned to improve patient safety will be discussed.
Improving Patient Safety in the Heart Room Through Simulation BIBAFull-Text 876-878
  Steven K. Howard; James I. Fann
Simulation-based training in health care has been gaining momentum recently. Simulation of cardiac surgical procedures is now becoming a reality. Rehearsal and practice of simple tasks (knot tying) and complex tasks (managing emergencies) are a hallmark of high reliability teams. Simulation allows for individuals and teams to undergo deliberate practice for these situations and many feel that this will positively impact patient outcome and safety.
  Renaldo C. Blocker; Ashley Eggman; Robert Zemple; Chi-Tao Elise Wu; Douglas A. Wiegmann
The objective of this study is to develop a reliable Tablet-PC based observational tool for identifying work systems factors that impact cardiac surgical care. Using the tool we observed 26 open heart surgeries over a five-month period. In thirteen of the 26 observations, both observers stood in the same location and in the other thirteen cases the observers stood in different locations within the operation room (OR). The surgical cases typically last five hours and were conducted in multiple operating rooms within the hospital and with mixed surgical teams. There was an average of 8.49 flow disruptions per hour related to work system factors with an average of 42.45 disruptions per case. Results revealed that inter-rater reliability in identifying work system factors that disrupted surgical flow was roughly 87% when observers were standing in the same location. However, when standing in different locations, the reliability decreased to an average of 75%.

HEALTH CARE: HC7 -- Human Factors in the Operating Room

  Sacha N. Duff; T. Christopher Windham; Douglas A. Wiegmann; Jason Kring; Jennifer D. Schaus; Robert Malony; Albert Boquet
The operating room is one of the most complex work environments in healthcare; it is estimated that at least 7% of adverse events due to medical error occur in the operating room. Flow disruptions are events that cause a "break" in the primary surgical task, or the loss of any team member's situational awareness. From the "systems" perspective, flow disruptions are often a symptom of a latent failure somewhere within the system. An empirical link between flow disruptions and surgical errors in the OR has been established; therefore, identifying and classifying the specific flow disruptions present during different types of procedures should facilitate the development of evidence-based interventions. The goal of this study was to identify and classify flow disruptions during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (camera-assisted gallbladder removal) and open inguinal and umbilical hernia repair procedures. Results of this study include revealed seven categories of disruption that emerged inductively from the data collected. These were: communication, coordination, external/extraneous source, training/supervisory, equipment/supplies, patient factors, and environment.
Automation in Surgery: The Impact of Navigated-Control Assistance on the Performance, Workload and Situation Awareness of Surgeons BIBAFull-Text 889-893
  Maria Luz; Stefan Mueller; Gero Strauss; Andreas Dietz; Juergen Meixensberger; Dietrich Manzey
The present study investigates performance consequences of a new approach of automated support for surgeons. "Navigated-Control" (NC) represents an advancement of image-guided navigation that does not only support the surgeon in navigating through a patient's anatomy, but also can stop the surgical device if it comes too close to risk structures which need to be protected to ensure patient safety. It is explored, how NC affects different aspects of surgical outcome, workload and stress, and situation awareness. Fourteen advanced students of medicine performed a simulated Mastoidectomy with and without NC support. The results reveal that NC support can reduce both, the risk of intra-operative injuries, as well as the physiological stress level of surgeons. However, "cost effects" emerged with respect to subjective workload, and a reduced spare capacity compared to unsupported surgeries. These latter effects do not seem to be related to the principle of NC but technical constraints of current implementations.
Exploring Human Factors in Endoscope Reprocessing BIBAFull-Text 894-898
  Emily A. Hildebrand; Russell J. Branaghan; Qiawen Wu; Jonathan Jolly; Theodore B. Garland; Mistey Taggart; Monica A. Nguyen; Dana R. Epstein; Judith Babcock-Parziale; Victoria Brown
The goal of this research is to study the human factors that influence the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes. This paper will report on the preliminary findings from a heuristic evaluation of current reprocessing procedures from an ongoing multi-method study and will discuss the implications of the results for future research purposes.
Anthropometric Assessment of the da Vinci Surgical Robot BIBAFull-Text 899-903
  Matthew Marshall; Matthew Lux; Jean Joseph
The purpose of this paper is to describe an ergonomic assessment of a da Vinci Surgical Robot. The use of surgical robots has significantly enhanced the surgeon's control and visualization during minimally invasive surgery. In turn, these technological advances have translated into significant benefits to the patients compared to traditional laparoscopic techniques. However, use of surgical robots requires that surgeons sit for extended periods at a surgical console from which they control the robotic arms and view the surgical procedure through a high resolution viewer. This can lead to sustained trunk and neck flexion, resulting in discomfort in those regions. The system was analyzed through observational assessment and anthropometric modeling. The results of the analysis indicate that the current adjustability of the da Vinci console is sufficient for a large majority of the population, but individuals shorter than 60" or taller than 72" face challenges in using the system.

HEALTH CARE: HC8 -- Process Improvement in Health Care

Patient transport cards support formal and informal coordination in a hospital department BIBAFull-Text 904-908
  T. Xiao; P. M. Sanderson; M. Lee
The importance of coordination in hospitals is well recognized. A better understanding of existing work practices is needed to design and implement effective collaborative technologies. In this field study, we reveal how a cognitive artefact, a patient transport card, originally developed to support a formal patient transport process was subsequently integrated into other informal coordination practices to facilitate: (a) awareness of patient arrival, (b) identification of patient's wheelchair or bed, and (c) transport scheduling decisions. We conclude with implications for current and future research on collaborative artefacts as well as the design and implementation of collaborative technologies.
  Anne Collins McLaughlin; Grace E. Anxieter; Amanda T. Hemmer
Inadequate hand hygiene for healthcare workers is one of the most common sources of pathogen transmission in hospitals. In the current study nurses were surveyed as to their level of hand hygiene knowledge, internal locus of control, and risk assessment of specific scenarios. Scenarios were manipulated as to the person involved, the location of possible transmission, and the level of risk in the scenario. Results indicated a need for product designers and hygiene educators to focus on hospital surfaces, worker beliefs, and increasing hand hygiene education.
Preventing Hospital Acquired Venous-Thromboembolism by Utilizing Clinical Pathway Methodology to Reduce Cognitive Errors BIBAFull-Text 914-918
  J. B. Rousek; A. Polich; C. M. Masek; J. T. Knezevich; G. M. Etherton; M. S. Hallbeck
Hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and preventable adverse event with hospitalized patients described as being at 100 times greater risk than people in the community. The purpose of this study was to compare the ease-of-use and required cognitive effort during the use of two chemoprophylaxis assessment and assignment protocols to identify the protocol with the highest usability and effectiveness. The two compared protocols consisted of the current risk stratification (protocol R) and a proposed intent-to-treat method (protocol I). The purpose of the intent-to-treat protocol was to use clinical pathway methodology to reduce the amount of cognitive effort utilized by resident physicians during the treatment of VTE. Forty-one medicine residents participated in an online comparison of the two different protocols (R and I) for treating VTE prophylaxis using six unique patient scenarios. Statistical analyses found that protocol I (52.8 sec.) produced significantly faster mean scenario completion times than protocol R (79.6 sec.) along with significantly (33%) more correct chemoprophylaxis assignment outcomes over all six scenarios and scenario difficulty levels (easy, medium or hard). The results of this study indicate that protocol I enhances performance by reducing cognitive errors, completion time and unnecessary protocol steps by using the proposed clinical pathway methodology.
Chronic Disease Management: Improving Continuity of Care with Human Factors Engineering BIBAFull-Text 919-923
  Laura Lin Gosbee
The management of chronic disease by patients in the home care setting can involve a varied and complex set of tasks. Food allergy, a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition, is used as a case study to explore the role that human factors engineering can play to improve the continuity of care of patients. In order to gain insight into the cognitive demands involved in the management of this chronic disease, a cognitive task analysis was conducted to identify and characterize the critical decision making tasks confronting food allergy patients. This can provide valuable input to the design and development of tools and resources for use by the clinical practitioner and patient alike. Such tools can: assist the clinical practitioner with teaching patients; assist patients in daily tasks involved in managing their condition; and assist patients (or their families) in teaching others who may care for a pediatric patient with food allergy. It is hoped that such an improvement in continuity of care can lead to better disease management by patients.

HEALTH CARE: HC9 -- How Design Impacts Health Care

Medication Container Look A-Likes: Does Color Matter BIBAFull-Text 924-928
  Elise Teteris; Jeff K. Caird
With the heightened interest on medication mix-ups in the media, improvements to patient health and safety are a natural focus for research in medical human factors. Specifically, this project sought to answer the question 'Does Color Matter?' with respect to medication containers/labels and their contribution to look-a-like medication mix-ups. Participants were asked to rate the perceptual similarity of pairs of medication ampoules and vials. Ratings were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). A three dimensional solution provided the best fit of the results. Participants rated medication ampoules as highly similar if they shared the same glass color (dimension 1), label color (dimension 2), and label pattern (dimension 3). Ratings of medication vials were similar if they had similar glass color (dimension 1), label pattern (dimension 2) and label color (dimension 3). The results of this study show that color is an important feature used by nurses when judging medications on their similarity. Discussion centers on the practical implications of the results on medication look a-like confusions.
Design of a New Epinephrine Auto-Injector to Minimize Use Errors BIBAFull-Text 929-931
  Stephanie Guerlain; Evan T. Edwards; Eric S. Edwards
Currently marketed epinephrine auto-injectors, designed for single-use in an allergic emergency, are prone to unintentional use errors (e.g., holding the device upside down, causing injury to the administrator and, more importantly, no dose for the patient). A simulated use study showed that two alternative designs for a new epinephrine auto-injector, developed using human factors engineering, can reduce such hazards and were significantly preferred by subjects in all age groups tested. Further clinical testing is required before such a pharmaceutical device can be introduced into the market.
Integrated Information Displays for ICU Nurses: Field Observations, Display Design, and Display Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 932-936
  S. H. Koch; N. Staggers; C. Weir; J. Agutter; D. Liu; D. R. Westenskow
Preventable adverse events are one of the leading causes of patient mortality in hospitals. Many of these adverse events occur in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) where nurses often work under cognitive, perceptual, and physical overloads. One contributing factor to these overloads is the display of treatment orders, monitoring information, and equipment status on numerous, spatially separated information displays. If these separate displays were combined into a single integrated display at the bedside, the display could potentially reduce nursing workload and improve nurse awareness of the patients' treatment plans and physiological status. We performed a study with three parts. First, we observed ICU nurses at work and found that task-relevant information was often presented in a sub-optimal format, it was unavailable at the point of care and/or it was laborious to retrieve. Second, we designed an integrated information display that presents the information needed by nurses at the patient bedside in a more optimal format. Finally, we evaluated paper-based prototypes of both the integrated display and existing ICU displays with pilot participants. The results for participants in a pilot study showed that nurses using the integrated display could answer questions about the patient's status and treatment significantly faster and more accurately. Integrated displays could potentially reduce adverse events in ICUs and reduce cognitive overloads.
Supportive Living Resident Suite Evaluation: Using Simulation to Evaluate a Mock-up BIBAFull-Text 937-941
  Jonas Shultz; Susan Chisholm
To address the growing population of seniors, Alberta Health Services plans to provide 11,700 supportive living resident suites over the next decade. Before finalizing the design standards and guidelines for these facilities, a mock-up residential suite was constructed, outfitted with all necessary furnishings and equipment, and used to evaluate the proposed design. Evaluation of the physical space and accessibility for residents' and clinical tasks were accomplished using simulation, think aloud protocols and extensive debriefing sessions. Scenarios were created that focused on commonly-occurring tasks identified by frontline staff as being problematic for both residents and staff. These scenarios were then carried out by seniors and a variety of healthcare professionals to simulate expected room usage. Evaluation of the scenarios indicated that sufficient space was available in the design; however, areas prone to congestion were also identified. Recommendations to improve the design of the residential suite were made to improve accessibility (of cupboards, light switches and electrical outlets), storage (of power scooters / wheel chairs), and bathroom configuration (of emergency pull cord and grab bar locations).
  Korey Johnson; Aga Bojko
This paper discusses the use of magnitude estimation, a method with roots in psychophysics, as a tool for evaluating user experience. Using two healthcare-related case studies for illustration, we describe the advantages and disadvantages of applying this method, relative to more traditional ranking and rating scales. We also discuss lessons learned and provide recommendations for researchers considering the use of magnitude estimation to evaluate user experience.

HEALTH CARE: HC10 -- Health Care Handover and Patient Safety

  Tanja Manser; Steven K. Howard
The current literature shows a growing awareness that high-quality handover practices (i.e. mechanisms for transferring information, responsibility, and authority) are critical to ensure continuity of care and patient safety. Inadequate patient handover consistently appears as a factor contributing to adverse events, across healthcare settings and practitioners. Impacts of inadequate handover include delays in diagnosis and treatment, redundant activities such as additional procedures and tests, longer hospital stays, decreased patient and provider satisfaction etc. It has been pointed out that handover processes are highly variable in quality and structure and that there seems to be a lack of consensus about the primary purpose of patient handover resulting in diverse measurement approaches and a broad spectrum of interventions to improve handover. The aim of this symposium is to present recent conceptual, empirical and implementation work on patient handover in a variety of clinical settings and to discuss implications for patient safety.
Social Norms on Deviations from Prescriptive Handoff Practices BIBAFull-Text 949-952
  Emily S. Patterson
Numerous quality improvement projects on patient handoffs have been conducted in the last decade. Most of these projects intervene with a prescriptive model for conducting handoffs. This exploratory pilot study re-analyzed an existing repository of de-identified field notes on handoffs to answer the question: How do healthcare personnel react when deviations from prescriptive handoff practices are detected? We discuss how these findings suggest that prescriptive interventions may fail without having clear expectations for peer-to-peer positive feedback for appropriate deviations during contingencies and negative feedback when deviations increase risks to what is judged to be an unacceptable level.
Discourse and Process Analyses of Shift Change Handoffs in Emergency Departments BIBAFull-Text 953-956
  Robert L. Wears; Shawna J. Perry
The need for 24 x 7 x 365 service in emergency departments (EDs) requires physicians and other health professionals to work in temporally delimited shifts. Handoffs between on-coming and off-going workers at shift changes are used to bridge gaps in care and to prepare the on-coming party to assume the ongoing work of care safely and effectively. We audio-recorded shift change conversations at 4 North American EDs and analysed them using a conversational framework. We compare these conversations among ED workers to reports of similar handoff conversations occurring between ED physicians and hospitalist at the time of patient admission. We found receiving parties in ED shift changes to be more active in the elicitation of information, rather than being passive recipients of information. This suggests that a co-construction or distributed cognition framing of handoffs may be more useful in understanding and improving handoffs than the information transfer framing commonly assumed by medically oriented researchers, at least in this setting.
Improving actual handover behavior with a simulation-based training intervention BIBAFull-Text 957-961
  Matthew B. Weinger; Jason M. Slagle; Audrey Kuntz; Arna Banerjee; Jonathan S; ?. Schildcrout; Nathaniel D. Mercaldo; Dan France; Theodore Speroff; Jim Bills; Ken Wallston
A simulation-based training intervention to improve patient handovers between anesthesia providers (APs) and Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) nurses (RNs) in adult (VUH) and pediatric (VCH) PACUs, was developed, implemented, and evaluated. The intervention included didactic webinars, an electronic handover report tool, a 2-hour simulation-based training session and a 1-hr "refresher" course several months later. Training focused on interpersonal skills and overcoming obstacles to effective handovers. Trained nurses observed and evaluated 981 actual PACU handovers over 12 months using a standardized rating tool. A different blinded observer scored pre- and post-training simulated handovers. A culture survey was administered before and after the intervention. After training, handover quality improved significantly with more than 70% of handovers rated as "effective" in both PACUs (P<0.001). The training status of the handover giver (AP) was the critical determinant of handover effectiveness. Following full implementation, new (untrained) clinicians performed effective handovers suggesting culture change and/or implicit training.
The Use of Resources during Shift Hand-offs in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 962-966
  Avi Parush; Yolande Simoneau; Tara Foster-Hunt; Margot Thomas; Judy Rashotte
The nursing handoff is a fundamental aspect of continued patient care that involves the transfer of vital medical information through various means. This project qualitatively examined nursing dyads to determine the types of resources used during handoffs and their frequency through the theoretical framework of distributed cognition. Forty handoffs between nurses, with experience ranging from 3 to 40 or more years, were observed within the intensive care unit of a pediatric hospital. The findings revealed that a variety of resources were referred to and appear mildly correlated with handoff durations, where more experienced individuals displayed a greater frequency of resource use in prolonged handoffs.
Doctors Handovers in an Acute Medical Assessment Unit: A Hierarchical Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 967-971
  Michelle A. Raduma-Tomas; Rhona Flin; Steven Yule; Steven Close
Doctors' shift handovers have not been well documented, so handovers in an acute medical assessment unit (AMAU) were examined by conducting a hierarchical task analysis (HTA). To construct the HTA, activities doctors engaged in pre-handover, during handover, and post-handover were observed. Interviews and a focus group were also conducted to create the HTA. Findings showed that there are critical tasks that should be completed at each phase of the handover process. But these were sometimes omitted, especially in the pre-handover stage, resulting in extended or delayed handover meetings. Doctors believed that various safety nets were in place to catch any omitted information. Post-handover activities involved prioritizing tasks. However, doctors who had received handover believed that their period of responsibility and accountability for transferred patients was likely to be too short, and therefore expressed that prioritizing tasks for every patient was inefficient. Future research should examine handovers in the context of organizational resilience, and include other clinical staff that influence the information provided at handover.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP1 -- Prediction of Performance for Devices, Age, Workload, and Error

Extended Fitts law in Three-Dimensional Pointing Tasks BIBAFull-Text 972-976
  Yeonjoo Cha; Rohae Myung
This study explored an extended three-dimensional Fitts' law that is more suited for the pointing task than the conventional Fitts' law. The experiments were conducted under the manipulation of the distance to the target, size of the target, and direction of the target's location that can be described by two angles, θ1 and θ2. Considering the starting point as the center of coordinates, θ1 is the angle between the positive z-axis and the target location and θ2 is the angle between the positive y-axis and the projected target location on the x-y plane. From the experimental results, we confirmed that all four variables significantly affect the movement time. As we extended the index of difficulty of the conventional Fitts' model by incorporating θ1 and θ2, we established an extended Fitts' model that showed better accordance with the empirical data than the conventional Fitts' model, in terms of the r2 and the standard error of the residual between the measured movement time and the predicted value.
Applying CPM-GOMS Analysis for Predicting and Explaining Two-Handed Korean Text Entry Task on Mobile Phone BIBAFull-Text 977-981
  Jiseung Back; Rohae Myung; Daesub Yoon
In this study, we employ CPM-GOMS analysis for explaining physical and cognitive processes and for quantitatively predicting when users are typing Korean text messages on mobile phones using both hands. First, we observe the behaviors of 10 subjects, when the subjects enter keypads with both hands. Then, basing upon MHP, we categorize the behaviors into perceptual, cognitive, motor operators, and then we analyze those operators. After that, we use the critical paths to model three task sentences. Also, for the sake of comparison between the actual data and the results predicted from our CPM-GOMS model, we empirically tested 30 subjects and concluded that there were no significant differences between the predicted values and the actual data. With the CPM-GOMS model, we can observe the human information processes composed on the physical and cognitive processes. Also we verified that the CPM-GOMS model can be well applied to predict the users' performance when they input text messages on mobile phones using both hands by comparing the predicted total task time with the real execution time.
A Principled Account of the Older Adult in ACT-R: Age-Specific Model Human Processor Extensions in a Mobile Phone Task BIBAFull-Text 982-986
  Tiffany S. Jastrzembski; Christopher Myers; Neil Charness
In previous research, Jastrzembski & Charness (2007) estimated weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, & Newell (1983) Model Human Processor (MHP) model, and successfully validated a subset of those parameters with age-specific GOMS models for two mobile phone tasks across two mobile phone devices. The current research extends the mapping of MHP parameters to the ACT-R cognitive architecture (e.g., Anderson, 2007), and transitions age-specific MHP parameters into theoretically-plausible ACT-R models of older adult performance. We argue that the incorporation of theoretically-motivated MHP parameters into ACT-R will produce better fits to empirical data than default ACT-R parameters, and the use of those theoretically-principled parameter values will provide designers with more precise insight concerning why hardware/software designs/devices work or fail as a function of age. We test these hypotheses in the same mobile phone domain used to validate the age-specific MHP parameters in previous research and our findings demonstrate that age-specific ACT-R models using elemental MHP parameter values achieve better fits than default ACT-R parameters. This research may provide designers and human factors engineers the ability to inspect details of human performance at a finer grain of resolution than is currently available, help determine the cause of specific errors resulting from hardware/software design, cognitive workload, or user characteristics, and support the development of age-sensitive technologies.
Predicting operator mental workload using a time-based algorithm BIBAFull-Text 987-991
  Wenbi Wang; Brad Cain; Xiao Long Lu
Existing workload algorithms based on the Multiple Resources Theory (MRT) provide an effective approach for diagnosing operator overload caused by interference among concurrent tasks, however, their ability to handle overload in single task conditions is limited. We argue a time-based algorithm, developed on the Information Processing (IP) model of workload (Hendy, Liao, & Milgram, 1997), provides a viable solution to address this limitation. In this study, we proposed a new algorithmic implementation of the IP model in the context of task network modeling. The new algorithm was implemented in a JAVA program and tested on an existing model of a Bakan vigilance task. The results obtained from the new algorithm demonstrated the feasibility of this solution. By integrating resource-based and time-based algorithms, analysts will be able to diagnose more accurately system performance breakdowns caused by operator overload.
Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking BIBAFull-Text 992-996
  Matthew L. Bolton; Ellen J. Bass
Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP2 -- Human Performance Modeling in the Aerospace Domain

Integrating Systems Theory, Cognitive Systems Engineering and Psychophysiology in Performance Analysis BIBAFull-Text 997-1001
  Arne Norlander
Based on research in the emergency management and military domains this paper reports on research and development of theories, methods and tools for modeling, analysis and assessment of performance in precarious time-critical situations and missions. We describe case studies, field studies, and experiments using a combined systems theory, Cognitive Systems Engineering and psychophysiology framework. We performed identification, modeling, and synthesis of Joint Tactical Cognitive Systems, and their inherent command, control, and intelligence activities. The dynamics of tactical missions are of a specific nature, and determined and forward exploitation and control of these real-time, safety-critical operational dynamics are vital for success in a wartime or disaster scenario. We found significant relations between workload, time pressure, catecholamine levels in saliva samples, and cognitive complexity.
Validating Human Performance Models of the Future Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 1002-1006
  Douglas Wong; Brett Walters; Lisa Fairey
NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will provide transportation for crew and cargo to and from destinations in support of the Constellation Architecture Design Reference Missions. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) modeling is one of the design methods NASA employs to estimate crew performance in the CEV. During the early development of the CEV, NASA and its prime Orion contractor Lockheed Martin (LM) sought out an effective, low-cost method for developing and validating human performance DES models. This paper focuses on the method developed while creating a DES model for the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking (RPOD) phase to the International Space Station. Our approach to validation was to attack the problem from several fronts. First, we began the development of the model early in the CEV design stage. Second, we adhered to NASA's modeling and simulation development standards. Third, we involved the stakeholders, NASA astronauts, subject matter experts, and NASA's modeling and simulation development community throughout. Fourth, we applied standard and repeatable methods to ensure the model's accuracy. Lastly, we applied the data from a separate human-in-the-loop RPOD simulation, which provided us an additional means to estimate the validity of the model. The results showed that a majority of the DES model was an accurate representation of the current CEV design.
Deriving Cursor Control Device Expectations for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 1007-1011
  Michael C. Dorneich; Jeff A. Lancaster; Christopher J. Hamblin; Olu Olofinboba; Robert E. DeMers
A unique challenge for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is the need for a novel cursor control device (CCD) that allows the crew to interact with display formats while seated and restrained. Display formats will contain "controllable elements" that will be used for input by astronauts, and will most likely not be laid out in a rectilinear grid. A four-way "caged" castle switch on the CCD was designed to travel only to controllable elements toward decreasing erroneous cursor movements. The ability of the four-way castle to intuitively navigate the cursor from a user perspective is a vital consideration. A cursor expectations study was conducted to understand dominant user expectations for CCD movements when controllable elements are not arranged on a rectilinear grid. Algorithms were developed that governed cursor movement in such a way as to match the dominant user expectations, to support the development of user mental models for cursor behavior, and to guide designers when laying out display formats.
Multiple Identity Tracking and Entropy in an ATC-like Task BIBAFull-Text 1012-1016
  Ryan M. Hope; Esa M. Rantanen; Lauri Oksama
This research investigated an observer's ability to track and maintain multiple uniquely identified objects in a dynamic environment similar to ATC. The experimental task consisted of tracking a set of moving objects for twenty seconds. The objects were 6-character strings; three letters followed by three numbers. After tracking the objects for twenty seconds, the participants were instructed to locate a target-object. The time required to find the target object was recorded. The number of objects and the magnitude of direction changes (entropy) were manipulated. We found (1) a highly significant effect of increasing response times as a function of number of objects, (2) a marginally significant effect of entropy, decreasing response times as a function of entropy, and (3) a significant effect of displacement, increasing response times as a function of objects' displacement.
Unpacking the Temporal and Interactive Effects of Stress on Individual and Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 1017-1021
  Aaron S. Dietz; Sallie J. Weaver; Mary Jane Sierra; Wendy L. Bedwell; Eduardo Salas; Stephen M. Fiore; Kimberly Smith-Jentsch; James E. Driskell
Long-duration space flight demands prolonged exposure to a myriad of stressors which manifest and interact over time. Despite a significant body of work dedicated to identifying, mitigating, and managing the effects of stress on performance, a clear theoretical foundation explicating the ways in which interactions among stressors occurs, as well as how and when stress develops chronically remains unclear. Additionally, it is not yet well understood how such temporal and interactive effects impact performance at multiple-levels of analysis, including both individual and team performance. The current paper presents an innovative theoretical approach for unpacking these complex relationships, forming a foundation for understanding their impact on dynamic episodes of individual and team performance.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP3 -- Modeling Human Performance Dimensions in Dynamic Tasks and Environments

Left. No, Right Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) BIBAFull-Text 1022-1026
  Christopher D. Wickens; John W. Keller; Ronald L. Small
A computational model was developed to predict the spatial-cognitive difficulties imposed when the operator must transform information along up to 6 degrees of freedom between a display (viewed at different orientations), and either a cognitive understanding or a compensatory control. The model applies to pilots, robotics operators, navigators or surgeons using endoscopic procedures. Penalties (in workload, errors or time) in the frame of reference transformation (FORT) are based on psychological findings in spatial cognition, such as mental rotation, depth compression, population stereotypes and verbally mediated strategies. We present the graphical user interface for exercising the model; then show how we have applied it to an astronaut space-shuttle, Hubble rendezvous sequence. Finally we validate the model against two existing data sets, one for cognition and one for control. The model could be used as the basis for both a design analysis tool and a real-time operator aiding system.
NeoCITIES: A Simulated Command and Control Task Environment for Experimental Research BIBAFull-Text 1027-1031
  D. Benjamin Hellar; Michael McNeese
In this paper we describe the design of a new experimental research platform to study human decision-making in command and control environments. NeoCITIES is a scaled worlds simulation of emergency dispatcher interaction. This paper describes the most recent enhancements to the NeoCITIES Simulation, now available in version 3.0. As a research platform NeoCITIES 3.0 provides a reliable scoring model for evaluating human task performance and an extensive modular graphical user interface for the investigation of cognitive aids. NeoCITIES was developed to study the effectiveness of cognitive artifacts within a simulated command and control environment in a simulated extreme events scenario.
Expert Decision Making in Landmine Detection BIBAFull-Text 1032-1036
  Christian J. Lebiere; James J. Staszewski
Previous study has shown that an understanding of expert performance expressed as a cognitive model represents a valuable training asset, with uses ranging from improving training design to informing feedback in intelligent tutoring systems. This paper presents performance data from an expert landmine detection operator, and a general cognitive model of frequency-based decision-making applied to the specific task of making mine-vs-clutter decisions based on sequences of discrete stimuli. The functional capabilities of the model are studied in a general testbed, then its performance is directly compared to that of the expert. Further extensions and applications of the cognitive model are discussed.
A Preliminary ACT-R Model of a Continuous Motor Task BIBAFull-Text 1037-1041
  Michael D. Byrne; Marcia K. O'Malley; Melissa A. Gallagher; Sagar N. Purkayastha; Nicole Howie; Joel C. Huegel
Cognitive architectures such as ACT-R and EPIC are being applied to human factors research problems with increasing frequency. However, it is unclear whether such systems can model continuous motor tasks that were once staples in the field but have since been largely displaced by more cognitively-oriented problems. Recent research on a challenging continuous motor control task has revealed interesting patterns in skill acquisition that appear compatible with the learning mechanisms present in ACT-R. However, what was not clear was whether ACT-R could model expert performance in a high-frequency motor control task. Unmodified, ACT-R could not. However, by making some small changes in ACT-R's motor system and capitalizing on ACT-R's ability to imagine visual objects, ACT-R was able to achieve expert-level performance in this task. Whether ACT-R will be able to mirror the skill acquisition data is still an open question.
Integrating Physical and Cognitive Human Models to Represent Driving Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1042-1046
  Helen J. A. Fuller; Matthew P. Reed; Yili Liu; Ann Arbor
This research addresses the divide between cognitive and physical human models by integrating a cognitive human model with a physical human model. This new combined model uses the advantages of each type of model to overcome the weaknesses of the other. The capabilities of the new integrated model are evaluated in terms of modeling a task scenario with both cognitive and physical components: driving while performing a secondary in-vehicle task. The result is the Virtual Driver model.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING: HP4 -- Advances in Modeling Situation Awareness, Decision Making, and Performance in Complex Operational Environments

Advances in Modeling Situation Awareness, Decision Making, and Performance in Complex Operational Environments BIBAFull-Text 1047-1051
  Cheryl A. Bolstad; Haydee M. Cuevas; Erik S. Connors; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Peter W. Foltz; Nathan Ka Ching Lau; Walter J. Warwick
As organizations continue to evolve and integrate even more advanced information technology capabilities, traditional cognitive models of human performance, both at the individual and team level, must similarly mature in order to flexibly adapt to the challenges faced by teams performing in today's complex operational environments. The overall goal of this panel session will be to highlight advances made in modeling situation awareness, decision making, and performance in a variety of domains and applications. The panelists draw from their varied experiences in academia and industry to offer their commentary on a diverse range of approaches to modeling these complex cognitive processes. The panel also seeks to identify critical areas warranting further investigation.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID1 -- Individual Differences in Affective Traits and States

  James L. Szalma; Grace W. L. Teo
The present study tests an extension of the Maximal Adaptability Model of Stress (Hancock & Warm, 1989) that incorporated individual differences into the model (Szalma, 2008). The purpose was to investigate how the task characteristics of information rate (event rate) and information uncertainty (number of displays to be monitored) interact with participant personality (Neuroticism) to affect the performance, workload, and stress associated with a cognitive vigilance task. Results supported claim by Szalma (2008) that the maximal adaptability model should be modified to include person characteristics.
  Almira Kustabayeva; April Rose Panganiban; Gerald Matthews
Tactical decision-making may be an emotional experience for an operator. Emotion, whether extrinsic or intrinsic to the task, may bias attention to task critical information. The current study used a feedback manipulation to induce positive and negative affect (PA and NA) during a decision-making task requiring information search. In a task based on a rescue scenario, participants were randomly assigned to either a "success" or "failure" condition and instructed to evaluate the costs and benefits of different routes along separate legs of the rescue mission, similar to reaching a "fork in the road." Feedback was effective in manipulating emotion. PA and NA were significantly correlated with information sampling frequencies, but no general mood-congruent bias was found. Instead the role of mood appears to depend on the general affective context, a finding interpreted in relation to the mood-as-input hypothesis. The practical relevance and limitations of the study are discussed.
Skill-based differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying failure under stress BIBAFull-Text 1062-1066
  Joel Suss; Paul Ward
Studies of "choking under pressure" suggest novices choke because attention is distracted away from the primary task. In contrast with the traditional research on stress and performance, where additional resources made available with increasing skill can ameliorate the effects of stress, experts are thought to degrade because stress draws attention to, and disrupts, previously proceduralized performance. Two kinds of dual-tasks, extraneous and skill-focused, were used to examine skill-based differences in attentional demands of a live-fire, handgun shooting task. Expert and novice police officers completed shooting trials under moderate time pressure. Contrary to choking research findings, the performance of experts was not adversely affected by skill-focused attention whereas novices were. This pattern was also reflected in a range of process measures. The results challenge currently accepted explanations of choking under pressure, and suggest that the degree to which expert performance is cognitively mediated may be greater than previously assumed. Implications for traditional theories of skill acquisition and for training to perform in stressful environments are discussed.
The role emotion and gender play in the choice of commuting by bicycle: A preliminary study from Christchurch, New Zealand BIBAFull-Text 1067-1071
  Tak C. Woo; William S. Helton; Paul N. Russell
In this study, 35 women and 18 men completed a detailed questionnaire in order to determine the possible role emotion and individual differences have on the decision to commute by bicycle. Measured affect regarding cycling did not significantly correlate with support for pro-cycling policies. There was, however, a significant interaction between affect regarding cycling and gender when predicting actual time spent using bicycles. Positive affect towards cycling was significantly related to riding time for men, r = .56, but not women, r = .03. This result is intriguing given that men expressed less support for pro-cycling policies, less support for the environmental-social benefits of cycling, but actually spent more time commuting by bicycle than women. Marketing bicycle commuting may need to be considered in light of these gender differences. For some users, a lofty pro-sustainability message may not be as persuasive as advertising the thrills associated with bike commuting.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID2 -- Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills and Abilities

A Multivariate Test Battery for Predicting Vigilance BIBAFull-Text 1072-1076
  Gerald Matthews; Joel S. Warm; Tyler H. Shaw; Victor S. Finomore
It has proved difficult to predict individual differences in vigilance from standard psychometric tests. We report a study that explored the utility of a multivariate battery in predicting vigilance on a task requiring monitoring of a tactical display. A two-phase design was employed. Participants performed a short vigilance task (SVT) prior to the longer criterion monitoring task. We investigated the predictive ability of cognitive ability, personality, performance on the SVT, and stress responses to the SVT. Four versions of the criterion task were used, to test generalization of predictive validity. Key predictors of vigilance were found to include ability, SVT performance, and subjective task engagement and coping. Multiple regression analyses suggested that together these predictors explained about 30% of the variance in vigilance (with some differences for prediction of different task versions). Results are discussed in relation to the resource theory of vigilance, and the practical issues arising from selecting vigilant operators.
Predicting Complex Spatial Working Memory Fatigue Vulnerability Based on Individual Differences in fMRI Images BIBAFull-Text 1077-1081
  Laurie Larsen Quill; Kristie Nemeth; Lynn Caldwell; Regina Schmidt; Jason Parker; Brian Taylor; Nicole Arbuckle
The effects of mental and physical fatigue can significantly impact how we interact with our daily environment. Furthermore, these effects exhibit a high level of variance across individuals. Advances in technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are offering new opportunities to characterize the effects of sleep deprivation on individuals. In this paper, we investigate the use of advanced fMRI modalities in resting wakefulness as correlated with performance on a spatial working memory task after sleep deprivation. Findings show that fatigue vulnerability to performance decrements on complex spatial working memory tasks in healthy participants can be predicted by fMRI images taken during resting wakefulness.
Allowing for Individual Differences in Auditory Warning Design: Who Benefits from Spatial Auditory Alerts BIBAFull-Text 1082-1086
  Jane H. Barrow; Carryl L. Baldwin
An auditory spatial Stroop paradigm was used to examine the effects of semantic and spatial audio cue conflict on accuracy and response time. Participants responded to either the semantic meaning or the spatial location of a directional word, which was either congruent (i.e. the word "right" being presented from the right) or incongruent (i.e. the word "right" being presented from the left). Navigational strategy was also assessed to determine if individual differences on this measure could affect responses to semantic or location information. An interaction between task type and navigational strategy indicated that people who preferred a verbal strategy responded faster to semantic content and people who preferred a spatial strategy responded faster to location information. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of the design of collision avoidance systems.
Modeling Human-Automation Team Performance in Networked Systems: Individual Differences in Working Memory Count BIBAFull-Text 1087-1091
  Ewart de Visser; Tyler Shaw; Amira Mohamed-Ameen; Raja Parasuraman
As human-machine systems grow in size and complexity, there is a need to understand and model how human attentional limitations affect system performance, especially in large networks. As a first step, human-in-the-loop experiments can provide the requisite data. Secondly, such data can be modeled to provide insights by predicting performance with a large number of vehicles. Accordingly, we first carried out an experiment examining human-UAV system performance under low and high levels of task load. We also examined the effects of a networked environment on performance by manipulating the number and relevance of network message traffic from automated agents. Results showed that in conditions of high task load, performance degraded. Moreover, performance increased with the help of relevant messages, and decreased with irrelevant, noise messages. Furthermore, a simple correlation showed a fairly strong connection between working memory scores and our collected performance data. Using regression to model this data revealed that a simple linear equation does not provide for very accurate modeling of different aspects of decision making performance. However, inclusion of the OSPAN working memory capacity measure improves prediction capability considerably. Together, the results of this study show that human-automation team performance metrics can be modeled and used to predict performance under varying levels of traffic, probability of assistance, and working memory capacity in a complex networked environment.
Cognitive Abilities and the Measurement of World Wide Web Usability BIBAFull-Text 1092-1096
  Susan G. Campbell; Kent L. Norman
Usability of an interface is an emergent property of the system and the user; it does not exist independently of either one. For this reason, characteristics of the user which affect his or her performance on a task can affect the apparent usability of the interface in a usability study. We propose and investigate, using a Wikipedia information-seeking task, a model relating spatial abilities and performance measures for system usability. In the context of World Wide Web (WWW) site usability, we found that spatial visualization ability and system experience predicted system effectiveness measures, while spatial orientation ability, spatial visualization ability, and general computer experience predicted system efficiency measures. We suggest possible extensions and further tests of this model.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE1 -- Upper Extremities and Computer Workstations

Hand Positions and Forces During Truck Ingress BIBAFull-Text 1097-1100
  Matthew P. Reed; Sheila M. Ebert-Hamilton; Suzanne G. Hoffman
Many truck drivers are injured each year due to falls while getting into and out of their vehicles. Design guidelines for steps and handholds are not based on biomechanical data and do not reflect a systems approach to design. As part of a broader effort to improve ingress/egress safety, a laboratory study was conducted to quantify driver postures and motions for a wide range of step and handhold configurations. Data from thirty men and women with a wide range of body size were analyzed to determine the location of the right hand and the force exerted on the aft handhold during the initial phase of ingress. Drivers grasped the external handhold at between 90 and 110 percent of stature above the ground. Peak hand forces averaged 25 percent of body weight, although heavier drivers did not exert significantly more force. Handhold position affected hand force only when the lower step was relatively far from the handhold.
Task Activities, Postures and Work Performances among Computer Operators in a State Agency BIBAFull-Text 1101-1104
  K. Han Kim; Stephen S. Bao; Barbara Silverstein
The use of computer keyboard and the associated work posture have been reported as major risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms in computer work, but their specific interactions have not been clearly identified. In this study, insurance bill processing workers at a state agency were monitored using a time-lapse camera and software to track their computer activity during a full workday. Then overall task distributions, postures, and keying performances were measured and analyzed. Observations indicated that compared to other types of tasks, typing constitutes the longest daily duty among these workers, occupying 41% of their time. While workers are typing, their posture deviates least frequently from a predetermined set of neutral angles; the peripheral joints, which include the wrists and neck, deviate more frequently from neutral than the central joints including the back and shoulders. Overall the results indicate that typing tasks are less significantly associated with awkward posture than other types of office work.
Effects of Font Size on Muscle Activity BIBAFull-Text 1105-1109
  Yasser Elouri; Magdy Akladios; S. Camille Peres; April Amos
A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of display font size on muscle activity, using surface electromyography (SEMG) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). The study showed that volunteers performing the experiment on small font size increased left hand flexor and neck extensor muscles activity. There was also a significant difference in RULA grand scores based on posture angle measures between the three tasks that subjects performed. In addition, there was an effect of time on upper body posture and subjective measures. There was no impact of font size on the dominant hand deltoid and trapezius, or left and right hand extensor muscles. In general, the results suggest that software developers should be sensitive to font size while designing software. The results also suggest that computer users should have better knowledge regarding the benefits of increasing the font size on their displays.
User-preferred position of computer displays of different sizes and configurations BIBAFull-Text 1110-1114
  Gwanseob Shin; Sudeep Hegde
User-preferred position of the computer display and the keyboard were quantified to determine how the size and/or the number of computer displays (19", 24", 27.5", and dual 19" LCDs) influence the positioning of the computer workstation components. Nineteen subjects performed a data entry task for 20 minutes with periodic repositioning of the display and the keyboard to their most comfortable setting. Subjects placed displays significantly (p<0.05) further as the size of display changed from 19" to 27.5" while maintaining the viewing angle to the top and center of display at or near eye height. Preferred position of the keyboard was not influenced by the display size. Results of this study indicate that the dimensions or adjustability of a computer workstation should be determined with consideration of the display size to accommodate both the keyboard and the display at their most preferred positions.


Comparison of Anthropometry of US Electric Utility Field Workers to North American General Population Databases BIBAFull-Text 1115-1119
  Kyle Saginus; Richard Marklin; Stephen Freier; Patricia Seeley; Amy Stone
The primary purpose of this anthropometric study was to determine whether conventional anthropometric databases of the US general population are applicable to the population of US electric utility field workers. Based on anecdotal observations, electric utility field workers seemed to be taller and larger than the general population. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were recorded from 187 male field workers from three US electric power utilities. The anthropometric data from field workers were compared to seven well-known conventional anthropometric databases for North American males, including Central American. In general, the male field workers were taller and heavier than the people in the reference databases for U.S. males. The field workers were up to 2.3 cm taller and 10 to 18 kg heavier on average than the reference databases. When designing for electric utility field workers, designers and ergonomists should consider the population of intended users and the data from this study.
Application of Electric Utility Workers Anthropometry To Clearance Between Vehicle Pedals and Adjacent Structures BIBAFull-Text 1120-1124
  Stephen Freier; Patricia Seeley; Richard Marklin; Kyle Saginus
Many electric utility fleet vehicles -- notably pickups and vans -- have limited clearance between the accelerator and brake pedal for workers who wear larger shoe sizes and even larger boots. The objectives of this study were to establish a analysis protocol for determining safe clearance between pedals and adjacent structures and then apply this protocol to existing utility fleet vehicles to determine which vehicles have adequate clearance for safe driving. Three sources of data were measured:1) detailed dimensions of the cabs of 16 common utility vehicles 2) anthropometric dimensions of 187 male electric utility field and generating station workers, including boot size and 3) width, length, and height of work boots, snow shoes, and rain slickers. Analysis revealed that many common fleet vehicles provide inadequate foot clearance between the pedals and adjacent structures, thus creating an unsafe driving condition. The approach of data collection and analysis of this study can be applied to other types of vehicles in order to determine the safety of pedal design, particularly risk of "unintended acceleration."
  Enrique de la Vega Bustillos; Karla Lucero Duarte; Octavio Lopez Millan
Due to the lack of anthropometric information in northwest Mexico, we made an anthropometric study to know the workers physical characteristics and use this information in the design or redesign of workstations. The study was divided in three phases. The first one was the anthropometric study of 1342 automotive industry workers in northwest of Mexico. The study includes 40 body dimensions of 1072 males and 270 females personalized to be used in the third phase. These data are compared with anthropometric characteristics of population reported in four Mexican places and a Colombian study. The second phase includes the workstations and critical process requirement studies. In the third one, a system is develop where combines workers physical characteristics and workstations lay out and process requirements with the purpose of assigned workers to the best suited workstation. The benefits of this project are: increase workers satisfaction and product quality and reduce economic, medical and union complains.
Computer Input Devices Race and Gender: Is there a mismatch between anthropometry and input device design BIBAFull-Text 1130-1133
  Sean Hwang; Peter W. Johnson
Studies have shown an association between intensive computer use and the onset and development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. However, the evidence for possible health effects related to computer input device design and operator anthropometry is limited. The aim of this study was to systematically examine relationships between the current sizing of computer input devices and key anthropometric differences, based on gender and race, in adult computer users. Computer input devices appear to be designed based on anthropometric clearance issues to accommodate the largest users (95th percentile Western males). Based on this current design, less than 6.1% of the worldwide population would "fit" the current pointing device and keyboard design standards. Finger mass is a critical component for determining device activation forces When comparing male and female hand anthropometry, finger mass accounted for the largest anthropometric difference with the 50th percentile females' hand only 73% the mass of the 50th percentile males'. With respect to similarities, in virtually every aspect of seated workstation anthropometry (i.e. furniture requirements), the 50th percentile Western female very closely approximated the 50th percentile Asian male. The findings of this study indicate that gender and race base differences in workstation design are small relative to the differences in input device activation forces based on hand anthropometry. It appears that the current "one size fits all" paradigm used to design computer input devices may not be optimal. Smaller devices with lower activation forces could benefit a large percentage of the world population.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE3 -- Pioneers of Ergonomics -- Karl Kroemer and Colin Drury

  Karl H. E. Kroemer
"Human engineering the keyboard" was the topic of my 1970 technical report (AMRL-TR-69-141), re-printed 1972 in Human Factors 14(1), 51-63. Now, 40 years later, it is of some interest to revisit that topic.
  Colin G. Drury
The service sector of enterprise is increasing in size compared to manufacturing. To properly serve enterprises and individuals, Human Factors / Ergonomics (HFE) needs to be ahead of this trend rather than catching up. The IETG has a long history of theory and intervention endeavors in manufacturing and also in service industries. This paper provides data on the importance of service industries, and how a broader practice of industrial ergonomics can provide more impact on the enterprise and its workforce.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE4 -- Occupational Safety: The Past, Present, and Future

  Thurmon E. Lockhart
It has been almost 30 years since the first publication of the NIOSH Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting (1981). This guide has been successfully applied by ergonomists worldwide and demonstrated itself a very powerful tool for task design and injury prevention. The main objective of this panel, is to bring together the original authors of this guide in order to 1) share their experience of the early endeavor, 2) comment on the current development of industrial ergonomics, and 3) discuss valuable issues that should be addressed in the future. This panel session is sponsored by Liberty Mutual and the Industrial Ergonomics and Safety Technical Groups.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE5 -- Hand Tool Ergonomics -- Past, Present, and Future

  T. Armstrong; David J. Cochran; Peter A. Bleed; Jia-hua Lin; Andris Freivalds; Robert G. Radwin; David M. Rempel
Hand tools are used in nearly all occupations and industries. Modern tools have been enhanced with advance materials, external power and electronics. Some tools no longer have a mechanical connection between the hand and the work object, e.g., joysticks, computer mice and hand controls used for robotic surgery hand tools. Still it is widely recognized that tools must fit the user and task to achieve best possible performance. Failure to consider the user and task can result in acute or chronic injuries. Examination of tools from different applications and from different times offers many important lessons for tools designers and users. Panelist in this session will use historical and contemporary examples, models and standards recommendations for selection and design of tools.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE6 -- Gait and Stability

Characteristics of Gait in Restricted Vertical Space Versus Unrestricted Walking BIBAFull-Text 1149-1153
  Sean Gallagher; Jonisha Pollard; William L. Porter
Upright walking is not a viable gait option in work environments that have restricted vertical space, such as underground low-seam coal mines (< 1.2 m vertical height). In such circumstances, stoop-walking and crawling must be used. The objective of the current manuscript is to assess the difference between free cadence walking versus stoop-walking (under a 1.2 m ceiling), four-point crawling (hands and knees), and two-point crawling (knees only), both with and without kneepads. Compared to upright walking, stoop-walking resulted in a 24% reduction in gait velocity and exhibited reduced stride length (1.04 versus 1.51 meters). Four-point crawling further slowed gait (to 0.50 m/s) and showed evidence of both trot-like and pace-like interlimb coordination patterns. Gait speed for two-point crawling was only 0.32 m/s.
  Xiaoyue Zhang; Thurmon E. Lockhart
The emerging technology of virtual reality (VR) used in motor rehabilitation might bring in challenges to elderly users' locomotion safety. The objective of this study was to investigate such effects of virtual environment (VE) exposure to the dynamic stability of lower extremities by using a head mounted display (HMD). Twelve healthy elderly were randomly assigned with real world or VR walking conditions. Maximum Lyapunov exponents (maxLE), which served as a general measurement of dynamic stability, were assessed for real world walking, VR walking in the initial phase and VR walking in the habituated phase. Significant degradation of stability at the initial phase and remarkable recovery of stability after VE habituation were found at five lower extremity landmarks out of six, suggesting potential problems for the elderly to accept VR based interventions and the importance of habituation to a new perturbation. Meanwhile, across all walking conditions, dynamic stability was found to be increased from ankles up to hip joints. And a novel method for computing maxLE appeared to be reasonable and feasible for analyzing treadmill walking trials which were relatively short.
Force distribution at the handhandle interface for grip and pull tasks BIBAFull-Text 1159-1163
  Justin G. Young; Michael E. Sackllah; Thomas J. Armstrong
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how surface pressure distribution at the hand/handle interface changes during gripping and pulling and to enhance understanding of coupling between hands and grasped objects. Two pressure-sensing arrays were wrapped around a 3.18 cm diameter cylindrical handle which was fixed to a six-axis load cell. Six male subjects grasped the fixed overhead instrumented handle and performed two exertion types: downward pull exertions of 30, 60, and 90 percent of their measured grip strength and a maximal isometric grip exertion. Consistent with previous studies, the greatest pressure was exerted on the distal segments of the phalanges and at the base of the thumb and palm during maximum isometric gripping. However, when pulling, pressure on the palm (underside of the handle) was negligible. Most pull pressure was distributed over the fingers unevenly in a bimodal distribution, with the greatest pressures occurring on the proximal side of the hand followed by the fingertips. This supports the hypothesis that friction acts through the soft tissues of the fingers and creates an increased normal force in the direction of proximal segments (i.e. "belt friction"). When the surface of the handle is lumped into 5 equal zones, the observed bimodal trend is lost, with the greatest average pressure observed at the top of the handle corresponding to the pull direction. This discrepancy highlights the importance of resolution when making conclusions about applied hand forces. Future research is needed to investigate pressures on handles of different size and surface friction to develop comprehensive models of hand/object coupling.
  Haluk Ay; Anthony Luscher; Carolyn Sommerich
For some time now, automobile manufacturers, torque tool manufacturers, and biomechanics researchers have shared a common objective to reduce musculoskeletal injuries associated with DC torque tool use. To attain that goal, a better understanding of factors that contribute to these injuries has been pursued through human subjects laboratory testing, field research, and biomechanical modeling. A testing rig was recently developed that builds upon much of this prior research. The rig provides a means to simulate the effects experienced by an operator using a right angle torque tools, in part, by controlling the stiffness and mass properties of the rig. The rig also uses a database of human biomechanical properties and responses to interpret measured handle force and displacement. This rig will be used to objectively evaluate new tools and identify appropriate tool settings for specific task conditions, such as joint hardness and target torque.
The Effect of Bracing Availability on Force-Exertion Capability in One-Hand Isometric Pulling Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1169-1173
  Monica L. H. Jones; Matthew P. Reed; Don B. Chaffin
In activities of daily living and industrial tasks people encounter obstructions in their environment that kinematically limit the postures that they can achieve. These obstructions can also provide an opportunity for additional support such as bracing with the hand, thigh or other body part. The reaction forces acting at hand or body coupling, which are in addition to those acting at the feet and task hand, may support some percentage of body weight, allow modification to postural behavior strategies, or provide the ability to generate oppositional forces relative to the task force. The effects of kinematic constraints and associated bracing opportunities on isometric hand force were quantified in a motion-capture study of 25 men and women with a range of body size. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of bracing availability on force-exertion capability. Analyses of one-hand maximal pulling tasks demonstrated that the additional force reaction surfaces enable participants to exert more force at the task hand, by 31% on average, but these values were greatly affected by the location and utility of the constraint and the specified force direction.


Lifting from a Conveyor BIBAFull-Text 1174-1177
  Sangeun Jin; Boyi Dai; Xiaopeng Ning; Gary A. Mirka
This study aimed to achieve a better understanding of the effect of the load speed on lifting kinematics and kinetics while lifting from a conveyor. The inertial characteristics of a load moving on a conveyor have the potential to influence lifting technique and low back stress. Participants in this study lifted loads from a conveyor with four load speeds (0 m/s, 0.7 m/s, 1.3 m/s, and 2.4 m/s) while trunk motions and ground reaction forces were monitored. Results revealed that increasing horizontal load speed generated greater sagittal angle and greater lateral ground reaction forces but significantly lower trunk accelerations. The results suggested that the participants maintained a more flexed trunk posture under the higher load speed conditions and utilized the inertia of the load to reduce the peak accelerations of the torso.
Lifting Kinematics and Kinetics during Simulated Boat Motions BIBAFull-Text 1178-1181
  Xiaopeng Ning; Gary Mirka
The purpose of current study was to investigate the effects of vertical ground accelerations induced by simulated wave motions on trunk muscle activation and trunk kinematics during manual materials handling tasks. Sixteen subjects performed lifting, lowering and static weight-holding tasks under ten different combinations of load mass and vertical acceleration of the ground surface (ten different effective loads). The results showed that this effective load had a significant effect on the peak sagittal plane angular acceleration during lifting and peak sagittal plane angular deceleration during lowering. The EMG results indicate that the boat motions tend to amplify the effects of the slant of the lifting surface.
Hand Placement and Risk Assessment by the LMM Model BIBAFull-Text 1182-1184
  Omid Haddad; Gary A. Mirka
Previous studies have shown a variety of hand placement locations employed by workers performing manual lifting tasks in industry. In this study, participants used four different hand placement locations to lift a box of variable weight and starting height. As they performed these lifts, the motions of their torso were captured using the lumbar motion monitor and these trunk kinematics were then input into the LMM low back injury risk assessment model. The results showed significant effects of all three independent variables with asymmetric hand placement locations generating the highest level of risk: 20% in the symmetric, 5kg condition as compared to a high of nearly 40% under the asymmetric, 10kg condition. These results indicate that hand placement is a relevant variable to consider when designing manual materials handling tasks.
Validation of Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation and 3D SSP Model to Predict Risk of Work-Related Low Back Pain BIBAFull-Text 1185-1189
  Sruthi Vasudev Boda; Parag Bhoyar; Arun Garg
This study is based upon data collected for a large scale, multi-site prospective cohort study of work-related low back pain (WLBP). The aim of this study was to validate the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) and the 3D Static Strength Prediction Model (3D SSPM) to predict the risk of WLBP. Complete baseline and follow up data on job physical exposure and WLBP status were available on 258 workers free of WLBP at baseline. Relationships between job physical factors and incident cases of WLBP were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. There was evidence of association between load moment and the Lifting Index calculated from the RNLE and incidence of WLBP, and no evidence of association with estimated compressive force on L5/S1 disc and percent capable population. It is concluded that the RNLE is predictive of future risk of WLBP.
Use of MRI to Investigate Lumbar Muscle Inflammation as a Potential Cause of Low Back Pain BIBAFull-Text 1190-1194
  Susan Kotowski; Kermit Davis; Lisa Lemen
Understanding of how back pain manifests has been the focus of a considerable amount of research. Although there are several pathologies known to cause low back pain, a significant number of individuals still fail to receive a definitive diagnosis as to the cause of their pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the level of muscle inflammation measured using MRI and perceived pain ratings. A lifting task was performed to achieve lumbar musculature fatigue, and induce muscle pain. Prior to, immediately following, and 24-hours post lifting, pain levels were recorded and MRI scans were conducted to document inflammation levels in the lumbar muscles. All of the participants elicited significant fatigue during the lifting task that resulted in considerable pain immediately following and 24-hrs after the fatiguing exertions. Inflammation levels varied by time-period, decreasing unexpectedly immediately following the lifting task, but increasing 24-hrs following the lifting task. Although the results were not definitive in establishing whether lumbar muscle inflammation is a cause of low back pain, the results provided several interesting findings warranting further investigation. Future work will need to focus on the temporal patterns of muscular information and pain development.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE8 -- Medical Applications

Risk Assessment and Application of Engineering Controls to Reduce the Number of Occupational Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Large Pharmaceutical Production Facility BIBAFull-Text 1195-1199
  Allen S. Yagjian
The high number of discomfort and lost work time cases in one department of a large pharmaceutical production facility, created a unique opportunity for ergonomics study and intervention. The first step in the project identified the three highest risk tasks using safety incident data. Each task was analyzed for ergonomics risk factors. Interventions were developed and implemented for these tasks. Biomechanical and subjective data were collected before and after all interventions to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. Three-dimensional dynamic flexion of the lower back data were collected using a Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM). Electrogoniometers were used to measure wrist flexion. We used a force gauge, scale, and a tape measure to assess moments, forces, and weight. Subjective data were collected by questionnaire. A quantitative comparison of the subjective and electronic data showed reduced risk factors for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) of the wrist and back for all three tasks. All the interventions were shown by empirical methods to reduce the risk factors for WMSDs. The interventions were permanently implemented.
Understanding the Physical Risk Factors Affecting Cervical Musculoskeletal Disorders BIBAFull-Text 1200-1204
  Ashish D. Nimbarte; Fereydoun Aghazadeh; Yun Sun
In spite of strong epidemiological evidence associating neck or cervical spine disorders with forceful arm exertions common at workplaces, effect of such exertions as causative of neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) is currently not well understood. In this study the effect of isometric lifting tasks at elbow, shoulder and overhead heights on the activities of two major neck muscles, sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck muscle) and upper trapezius (posterior neck muscle), was evaluated by using electromyography (EMG). Thirty healthy participants performed isometric lifting tasks exerting 25%, 50% and 75% of their respective maximum strengths at neutral and extended neck postures. Activities of sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius increased with the increase in the lifting weights and heights. Extended neck posture caused a higher load on the neck musculature than the neutral posture. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a positive load-response relationship between forceful arm exertions and activation of the neck muscles.
Ergonomics of Colonoscopy: Wrist Postures of Gastroenterologists Performing Routine Colonoscopy BIBAFull-Text 1205-1209
  David L. Lee; David Rempel; Alan B. Barr; Amandeep Shergill
The purpose of this study was to investigate the bilateral wrist postures of gastroenterologists who perform routine colonoscopy. Gastroenterologists are exposed to upper extremity musculoskeletal risk factors such as high pinch forces, sustained muscle loading, and awkward postures; however, to date, no studies have specifically quantified the wrist postures associated with routine colonoscopy. Four experienced gastroenterologists performed 3 to 5 routine colonoscopy procedures while bilateral wrist extension/flexion and radial/ulnar deviation postures were measured using biaxial electrogoniometers. Peak (90th percentile) wrist extension angles in both wrists (42.6° left; 36.0° right), radial deviation for the left wrist (23.0°) and ulnar deviation for the right wrist (17.83°) across all 4 phases of the colonoscopy procedures exceeded the injury threshold limit values of 26.6°, 17.8°, and 12.1°, respectively, based on carpal tunnel pressure (Keir et al., 2007). The findings suggest that the wrist postures required during routine colonoscopy may present a risk for musculoskeletal injuries at the wrist and forearm.
Participatory Ergonomics Applied to Mammographers Work BIBAFull-Text 1210-1213
  Carolyn Sommerich; Steven Lavender; Elizabeth Sanders; Sabrina Lamar; Kevin Evans; Sharon Joines; Wei-Ting Yen
A participatory ergonomics process has been initiated, the aim of which is to work with mammographers to develop interventions that will improve their work conditions and reduce their occupational exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal discomfort. Mammography is an understudied occupation, but worthy of attention, based on the number of workers and the elevated prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort they experience. The presentation describes the research methodology and results from the first stages of the process.
Cognitive Load Assessment of a Vibrotactile Posture Feedback Chair BIBAFull-Text 1214-1218
  Ying (Jean) Zheng; John B. Morrell
In this paper, we evaluate the cognitive load of using a vibrotactile posture feedback chair while performing standard office tasks. Our specific application is seated posture guidance in the office environment. We have instrumented a standard office chair with sensors and vibrotactile actuators to detect and correct a user's seated posture in real-time. A pilot study with 20 subjects (age 25±3.2 years, weight 71.6±17.7kg) was conducted to determine the impact on performance in a typing task while responding to the vibrotactile feedback. We found that 55% of the subjects showed statistically significant decrease in typing performance (p<0.05) during the phases with feedback compared to the phases without feedback. However, 70% of the subjects exhibited an improvement in typing speed from the first to last feedback phases. These findings suggest that although the feedback system temporarily induces greater cognitive load, the load decreases with increased familiarity with the feedback system.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE9 -- Construction and Warehouses

Quantitative Ergonomics Exposure Assessment for Floor Coverers in the Greater Boston Area BIBAFull-Text 1219-1223
  Xiaolu Jing; Scott Fulmer; Priya Darshini Dasgupta; Lu Yuan; Bryan Buchholz
Floor Coverers have a high prevalence of knee related injuries. The objective of this study is to quantify whole body ergonomics exposure for Floor Coverers in the greater Boston area. A total of 6213 observations (about 100 hours) were made on 49 Floor Coverers by 7 trained observers in 8 construction sites. Awkward leg postures were common. "Kneeling/Crawling" was observed 61.2% of the time. Nonneutral trunk postures were observed frequently. "Severe Flexion" was observed 36.6% of the time, "Mild Flexion" 12.9%. "Manual Material Handling" was observed most frequently during "Hardwood Floor" (36.1%). Hand tools were used more frequently (32.6%) than power tools (5.2%). "Severe Trunk Flexion" did not always lead to heavy trunk load with kneeling postures. Leg postures should be considered before trunk postures were converted to trunk loads. Awkward leg postures are a big problem for Floor Coverers. A majority of the tasks happened near or on the ground.
Biomechanical risk factors for knee disorders in Carpenters BIBAFull-Text 1224-1228
  Scott Fulmer; Xiaolu Jing; Lu Yuan; Priyadarshini Sengupta Dasgupta1; Brad Schugardt; Ann Marie Dale; Laura Punnett; Bryan Buchholz1
Years of occupational health research in construction indicated that more information was needed to help bring proper attention to specific suffering by certain construction trades. In this study, knee disorders in Carpenter specialties were examined by observation and expert opinion in order to rank specific factors of exposure. Ergonomic profiles for an exhaustive taxonomy of their work were found. A comparison of validated methods of exposure assessment was useful in identifying key factors of exposure, and to strengthen the epidemiologic link between the task-exposure matrix and outcomes of knee disorder.


Developing Ergonomic Interventions to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders in Grocery Distribution Centers BIBAFull-Text 1229-1233
  Steven A. Lavender; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Monica R. Johnson; Zaid Radin
The purpose of this work was to explore intervention concepts aimed at addressing the workers' needs in grocery distribution centers. Worker interviews indicated that many of the items that they handle are heavy, including cases of meat (up to 80 lbs), juice, water, and detergent. Management and safety personnel who participated in a brainstorming focus group session indicated key ergonomic issues include the weight of the meat cases, extended reaching, and even more specifically, overhead reaching. Intervention ideas discussed during the brainstorming indicated a need for mechanisms that reduce reach distances by keeping product close to the order picking aisle and mechanisms that relieve the physical burden of handling heavy product from their storage slots onto the order-picker's pallet jack.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE9 -- Construction and Warehouses

  Monica R. Johnson; Steven A. Lavender; J. Mac Crawford; Paul A. Reichelt; Antonio R. Fernandez
The primary goal of this study was to understand the adoption of specific voluntarily used ergonomic interventions aimed at the musculoskeletal needs of EMS workers. According to previous research in the areas of information technology, acceptance and diffusion of innovation, worker's perceptions and attitudes impact the adoption of an intervention. Prior research identified the lateral transfer of patients as a frequently performed strenuous task performed by EMS workers. The intervention introduced is a transfer-board, designed and biomechanically validated to assist with these lateral transfers. In the current study EMS workers were surveyed to determine which factors most closely correlated with their intention to use the transfer-board. The data suggest that the perception that it is easy to use, the patient is safer while using the transfer-board, the transfer-board is compatible with other pieces of equipment and the smoothness of the patient transfer when using the transfer-board are all factors that may predict adoption.

INTERNET: I1 -- Harvesting Innovation in the Industry: Prescriptions for Breakthrough Products

Harvesting Innovation in the Industry: Prescriptions for breakthrough products BIBAFull-Text 1239-1243
  Felix Portnoy; Victoria Bellotti; Arnie Lund; Dan Russell; Kristian Simsarian; Luke Wroblewski; Marc Resnick
Innovation is a key element for the future of human factors, both as a discipline and as a professional society. However, formal training of innovation processes is absent from the human factors curriculum. Furthermore, published studies about innovation methodologies in human factors manuscripts are scarce. Consequently, practitioners are relying on their own experience and intuition to introduce novel product development techniques in their organization. Therefore, the goal of this panel is to discuss the innovation techniques that are employed by some of the most innovative companies in the technology domain. Human factors and user experience team leaders will present how they have formulated innovation strategies among team members and their impact on product development.

INTERNET: I2 -- Internet and Social Systems

The Influence of Aesthetic and Usability Web Design Elements on Viewing Patterns and User Response: An Eye-tracking Study BIBAFull-Text 1244-1248
  Davin Pavlas; Heather Lum; Eduardo Salas
The merging of usability and aesthetics is one of the more promising contemporary trends in user interface research. This focus on total user experience rather than a subset of user interaction necessitates more holistic examinations of web interfaces and user response. To this end, a study examining user response to a variety of usability and aesthetic web interface elements was conducted. Eye tracking was used to measure participant fixation on individual interface elements. These data were examined in order to expand the field's understanding of how usability and aesthetics influence user response to web sites. Significant effects were found for specific usability and aesthetic elements, including use-oriented elements such as search boxes and more abstract elements such as expressive aesthetic items. Based on these results, implications for future research and theory are offered.
An Investigation of the Usability of Image-based CAPTCHAs BIBAFull-Text 1249-1253
  Kapil Chalil Madathil; Githin F. Alapatt; Joel S. Greenstein
Objective: This research investigates the usability of image-based CAPTCHAs using performance, eyegaze and subjective measures. Background: Several forms of image-based CAPTCHAs have recently been developed. Few studies have been conducted to examine their usability. Method: Twenty participants received training using four different CAPTCHAs: Asirra, ESP-PIX, SQ-PIX and IMAGINATION. The participants were then asked to complete the CAPTCHA challenge using five CAPTCHAs of each type. The participants were subsequently asked to complete the computer system usability questionnaire (CSUQ) and the NASA Task Load Index test. Upon completing all the tasks, the participants completed a final post-test subjective questionnaire ranking the CAPTCHAs based on preference. Results: Statistically significant differences among the CAPTCHAs were found for all dependent variables other than task completion time. Conclusion: Participants preferred Asirra and ESP-PIX to the other two CAPTCHAs.
Selecting and Utilizing Metrics for an Internet-Based Community of Practice BIBAFull-Text 1254-1258
  John W. Ruffner; Anne C. Brodie; Christine L. Holiday; Timothy H. Isenberg
The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) is the technical center for ammunition logistical support and knowledge for Department of Defense military and civilian personnel worldwide. As such, DAC, through an ammunition community of practice (CoP), ensures warfighters get real answers in real time within the right work context. This paper discusses the development of the ammunition community of practice for the worldwide ammunition community and identifies metrics used to determine the value of the CoP to its members.
Increasing Trust In Online Shopping Environments Increases Purchasing Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1259-1263
  Tyler Campbell; Bruce N. Walker
Trust has been shown to be a critical factor in promoting online purchasing behavior. This study tested the ability of three website modifications to increase levels of trust and intent to purchase. Previous theory dictates that trust is akin to certainties in the presence of uncertainty. Three easily implementable website features were chosen to reduce uncertainty, thus creating trust and in turn increase economic activity. Options on shopping websites of (1) overnight delivery, (2) in-store pick-up, and (3) a live video stream of a business's facilities were tested for effects on trust and usefulness via survey. The results suggest there are significant increases in at least some measures of trust and other correlates of purchasing behavior for all three suggested website enhancements.
A Novel Tool to Track and Analyze Qualitative Usability Data: Lessons Learned from the VAs Personal Health Record BIBAFull-Text 1264-1268
  Scott A. Russell; Jason J. Saleem; David A. Haggstrom; Alissa L. Russ; Neale R. Chumbler
We developed a User-Testing Database to be able to process a greater amount of user data, from multiple sources of data, at a much finer level of granularity, and to be able to aid in a more sophisticated analysis, including specific queries of usability data than a typical "manual"-based usability analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate our User-Testing Database as applied to a usability assessment of the Veterans Affairs (VA) My HealtheVet personal health record. The usability test included 24 Veterans who completed a series of scenarios in the usability lab at a Midwest Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC). The User-Testing Database facilitated reduction of data gathered from video review, facilitator notes, and debrief notes into 1160 observations that were sorted into conceptual bins and summarized for the designers of the personal health record. From creation of the database to completion of the reports took four months and did not require extensive knowledge of qualitative analysis techniques. We argue a User-Testing Database can allow other usability studies to increase the number of participants and the granularity of the data without prohibitively increasing the amount of time and experience required to process the data gathered.

MACROERGONOMICS: ME1 -- Management Perspectives on Creating and Building User Experience Departments: A Panel Discussion

  Carl W. Turner; Ravi S. Adapathya; Mark S. Hoffman; M. Lund; Ronald G. Shapiro; Leslie G. Tudor
Building a new user experience department requires skills in management, team development, organizational design, and strategy. There are few published resources specifically targeted at human factors analysts who have accepted the challenge of creating a UX department. All of the panelists have successfully developed UX departments in large organizations, and will discuss their lessons learned in the process of building their teams.

MACROERGONOMICS: ME2 -- Health Care Recovery: How the Science of Human Factors Is Challenging Health Care to Move Patient Safety Forward

Healthcare Recovery: How the Science of Human Factors is Challenging Healthcare to Move Patient Safety Forward BIBAFull-Text 1274-1276
  Sallie J. Weaver; Deborah DiazGranados; Robert L. Wears; Emily S. Patterson; Rhona Flin; Paul Gorman
The current panel brings together a variety of expertise to bear on two critical questions: (1) How is the science of Human Factors challenging healthcare to move patient safety forward and (2) How will this role evolve given recent calls and mandates for healthcare reform? Specifically panelists will discuss issues related to healthcare informatics, team-centric approaches to care, and human-system integration factors related to medical error and care quality.

MACROERGONOMICS: ME3 -- The View from the Top: Macroergonomics in Action

  Annette Shtivelband; John Rosecrance
Change is an inevitable part of organizational health and survival. Yet, the process of implementing change can be problematic. This presentation will introduce a novel framework for implementing organizational change and focus on a major theme of the process -- gaining organizational buy-in. Fifty in-depth interviews were conducted with professionals who had experience implementing ergonomic change processes in organizations nationally and internationally. The majority of participants were members of, or recommended by, the Macroergonomics Technical Group of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Qualitative data from the interviews were analyzed with the help of the software program NVivo. At the end of the presentation, the audience will be familiar with best practices and lessons learned to gain organizational buy-in for implementing an ergonomics change process.
  Celal Gungor
The objective of this study was to better understand the knowledge and opinions of managers in the American furniture manufacturing industry regarding Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) and to explore significant relationships between company size and managers' awareness on HF/E. The furniture manufacturing industry has a high occupational injury and illness rate and HF/E awareness is vital to improve worker safety and health. A web-based survey was used to gage managers' awareness of HF/E. Development, pre-test, and review stages followed to design the final survey. Sixty-four managers participated in the survey. This study shows the awareness level of managers depended on company size. Smaller companies were less likely to provide HF/E training programs to both managers and employees, additionally; smaller companies were less likely to have a team or department for HF/E interventions or for establishing HF/E programs in their organizations. The main reason for lower commitment to HF/E in small companies is owners, managers, and employees had a low awareness about the importance of HF/E to improve their occupational injury and illness rates. For example, 75 percent of the managers surveyed rated their HF/E knowledge level as poor, fair, or average. Some of the managers were not aware of available information resources about HF/E. A considerable number of managers believed that HF/E resulted in more regulations to follow and higher cost in training new employees. Without managers' commitment and support, the success of HF/E programs is not likely. In summary, our findings indicate managers in small companies are not well informed of the importance HF/E awareness plays in controlling their injury and illness rates. Therefore, we feel managers of any sized company especially smaller companies should be introduced to available HF/E resources and the benefits of HF/E.
School Leadership View of Human and Organizational Factors in Performance Management: A Comparative Analysis of High- and Low-Performing Schools BIBAFull-Text 1287-1291
  Sara Kraemer; Elisabeth Geraghty; Deborah Lindsey; Cynthia Raven
This study explored data use in schools, and human and organizational factors associated with performance management systems between high- and low-performing schools in Milwaukee Public Schools, a large urban school district in southeastern Wisconsin. Specifically, this research investigated school improvement planning and use of different types of academic data for decision support from the viewpoint of school leadership. Interviews with principals and observations of school improvement planning meetings were conducted to identify and describe (1) dimensions of data and data use and (2) the human and organization factors in school-based performance management systems between high- and low-performing schools. Implications for macroergonomic analysis in school-based performance management systems and differentiated designs for school support are discussed.
  Schwatka N; Ermann E; Hoffmeister K; Rosecrance J
Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in terms of occupational injuries, illnesses, and deaths. Agricultural safety training, injury prevention programs, and safety regulations lag behind other comparable industries. The present study involved a macro-ergonomic approach to understand and improve safety climate on Colorado farms. Safety climate was defined as the perceptions of employees regarding the way safety was managed, and the subsequent safety behaviors that employees tend to engage in. Using a sample of Colorado corn farmers, the first two phases of this study utilized survey and interview data to establish that safety climate was important and valued, but required better safety training implementation. The study's final phase developed, implemented, and evaluated an educational safety seminar focusing on the application of safety climate. By integrating macro-ergonomic methods with the psychological construct of safety climate, this study cultivated safer work practices in agriculture.
Identification of the Human Factors Contributing to Maintenance Failures in a Petroleum Operation BIBAFull-Text 1296-1300
  Ari Antonovsky; Clare Pollock; Leon Straker
Structured interviews (N=38) were conducted with maintainers in a petroleum company who were asked to discuss a maintenance failure with which they were familiar. The interview structure was based on the Human Factor Investigation Tool -- HFIT (Gordon, 2001) which in turn was based on the Model of Human Malfunction (Rasmussen, 1982). HFIT proved to be a useful instrument for identifying the pattern of human factors that recurred most frequently in maintenance-related failures. Of the 27 human factors identified, the three most frequent were found to be Assumptions (79% of cases), Design & Maintenance (71%) and Communication (66%). Of equal interest, were the factors that were infrequently mentioned such as Procedure Violations, Supervision, and Work Quality.

MACROERGONOMICS: ME4 -- Trust in Sociotechnical Systems

  Enid Montague; Kerry Mcguire; Steve Fiore; Rich Holden; Greg Fitch; John Lee
The purpose of this panel is to provide a general overview and discussion of trust relationships in sociotechnical systems. The panel will be composed of five well-known experts in complex systems research and will offer differing views on the concept of trust in these systems. The panel will consist of a brief introduction sociotechnical and macroergonomic theory followed by a comprehensive overview of conceptualizing trust as a sociotechnical construct. The range of concepts discussed in this panel include: trust in and through technologies, interpersonal trust in virtual teams and virtual agents and trust in particular domains such as health care, and driving. This panel will highlight successful projects or approaches to conceptualizing trust in complex work systems that include individuals, groups and technologies.


Effect of Brightness of Assisted Target Detection Cues in a Simulated Search and Rescue Task BIBAFull-Text 1306-1310
  Wayne Giang; Allan Keefe; Jocelyn Keillor
Assisted target detection (ATD) systems are designed to direct the user's attention to relevant areas of the display, but the majority of the research into the use of such systems does not consider the design of the cue itself. Within a search and rescue (SAR) context, there is a possibility that cues designed to facilitate effective search could in fact distract a SAR operator's search of the terrain, reducing the probability of locating a crashed aircraft. In order to determine if salience matters in the design of an ATD system for video-based sensor systems, it is important to study the impact of highly salient cues on visual search. In a previous experiment where the saliency of a cue was varied using different levels of cue brightness in a search task with static imagery, it was found that the more salient cues produced faster response times without any detrimental effects on accuracy. In the present experiment we used dynamic imagery from a SAR simulator. We found that cues of different brightness improved the sensitivity (d') of participants when compared to conditions in which no cues were available, but there was no evidence of any differences between the different levels of cue brightness. These findings suggest that cue brightness may not influence the salience of cues as much as one might expect in the context of a full-motion simulation. Other visual dimensions such as visual onsets or colour may potentially play a larger role in determining the saliency of ATD system cues when used in a task involving motion such as SAR.
Density Guides Visual Search: Sparse Groups are First even when Slower BIBAFull-Text 1311-1315
  Katherine A. Tarling; Duncan P. Brumby
How do people efficiently locate content in a display? We investigate the effect of text layout on how people decide which area of a display to search first. Using a visual search paradigm, participants were required to locate a known target within a two-column display, in which items were grouped into semantic clusters, and the physical distance between items varied. For 'mixed' trials, the distance between items in each column was varied. Results showed that participants preferred to search the sparser of the two columns first, even though they were faster at locating the target in the denser column. This finding suggests that participants were adopting an inefficient search strategy for locating the target item. Discussion focuses on the implications for models that assume people rationally adapt their search strategy to maximize the gain of task-relevant information over time.


Tactile Change Blindness in the Detection of Vibration Intensity BIBAFull-Text 1316-1320
  Thomas Ferris; Kiana Stringfield; Nadine Sarter
A variety of data rich complex domains stand to benefit from the introduction of tactile displays that offload the visual and auditory information channels. Yet, a better understanding of factors that affect tactile information processing is needed to ensure the robustness of these interfaces. Recent research has shown, for example, that the sense of touch can be affected by phenomena that are analogous to visual change blindness, which describes the surprising difficulty in detecting changes to a visual scene when these changes coincide with masking stimuli or blank inter-stimulus intervals. To date, tactile change blindness has been demonstrated only for changes in the number of body locations where vibrations were presented. The present study examined whether change blindness is observed also in the context of detecting changes in vibration intensity and whether the introduction of a secondary task during vibrotactile presentations exacerbates these effects. The findings show that a 300-ms vibrotactile masking stimulus and a 600-ms "mudsplash" sequence of stimuli significantly degrade performance in detecting coincident intensity changes, as do intensity changes that occur gradually instead of abruptly. Change detection was significantly worse in dual-task (vs. isolation) conditions for only the "mudsplash" presentations. Implications of these effects for the design of tactile displays that encode information in vibration intensity are discussed.


Enhanced Auditory Menu Cues on a Mobile Phone Improve Time-Shared Performance of a Driving-Like Dual Task BIBAFull-Text 1321-1325
  Yarden Moskovitch; Myounghoon Jeon; Bruce N. Walker
The growing trend of using mobile phones and other in-vehicle technologies (IVT) while driving has spurred research on driver distraction, its effects and alleviation (Ashley, 2001; Young & Regan, 2007). The present study used a dual task in which 21 undergraduates navigated a mobile phone contact list for a target name (secondary task) while playing a computer game representative of driving (primary task). The phone menu was enhanced with two audio navigation cues: traditional text-to-speech (TTS) and spearcons (i.e., compressed speech). These cues were tested with and without visual display of the contact list. Spearcons in conjunction with TTS enhanced performance on the primary task while having no negative effect on the secondary task. Auditory menus reduced perceived workload and increased subjective ratings. Results are discussed in terms of multiple resources theory and practical mobile phone menu design.
Checking it Twice: Age-related Differences in Double Checking During Visual Search BIBAFull-Text 1326-1330
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Dayna R. Touron; Wendy A. Rogers; Christopher Hertzog
Visual search is an integral part of functioning in everyday life and a primary component of some occupational tasks. Older adults typically exhibit longer response times on visual search tasks compared to younger adults. Mechanisms proposed as explanations of these age-related differences include general slowing of the speed of information processing, amount of internal noise, attentional capacity, selective attention, and inhibition. This study evaluated the possibility that age-related differences in visual search may be partly due to older adults double checking to a greater degree than younger adults. Older adults did in fact double check more so than younger adults. Moreover, speed stress instructions reduced double checking behavior as well as age-related differences in double checking.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP2 -- Getting the Buzz: What's Next for Tactile Information Delivery?

  Karla Allan; Timothy White; Lynette Jones; James Merlo; Ellen Haas; Gary Zets; Angus Rupert
As a result of continuous technological advances, information delivery is becoming multi-modal and complex. In many professions (e.g., air traffic control, combat operations) an abundance of information is delivered simultaneously over the visual and auditory sensory channels resulting in cognitive overload and leading to performance degradation over time. The Multiple-Resource theory suggests that offloading information from overtaxed sensory modalities to other modalities can reduce workload (Wickens, 2002). If properly implemented, tactile displays -- i.e., devices used to present information to the user by stimulating the skin -- may be a viable solution in reducing sensory and cognitive overload from the visual and audio channels. Shifting information to the tactile (touch) channel or judicious use of tactile information in conjunction with auditory and/or visual cues can lead to a reduction in cognitive and perceptual overload and an increase in positive performance outcomes. The primary objective of this panel is to discuss the most promising developments in tactile research and how the next steps can lead to new application areas or to specific products. The panelists -- representing academia, the military, and industry, can collectively speak to diverse tactile information delivery methodologies, their respective applications, and challenges for the path forward. Some applications have already been realized in aviation, robotics, medicine, and commercial products and these will be described. Ultimately, this panel session is expected to inspire interest in tactile information delivery and to identify promising pathways for research leading to new application areas and specific application products.


  Matthew Johnston; Kelly Hale; Par Axelsson
The System for Tactile Reception of Advanced Patterns (STRAP) is capable of displaying complex information through tactile actuators on a user's torso. Non-verbal communication requirements from a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) task and tactile design guidelines resulted greater than 60 distinct tactile symbols for communication and a context free grammar. This empirical evaluation is the first step in validating the STRAP system as a complement to traditional communication methods such as military hand and arm signals and radio. Nine participants were trained on the entire tactile language to a 90% criterion and were asked to utilize a small subset of the vocabulary while completing room clearing tasks using a virtual desktop simulation. The results show no significant difference in room clearing performance when haptic versus verbal communications were provided, indicating that the STRAP system shows promise as a complementary communication device. Improvements to both the tactile display and symbols are discussed as a means to improve recognition of haptic commands and overall system utility.
Postural activity and motion sickness among drivers and passengers in a console video game BIBAFull-Text 1340-1344
  Xiao Dong; Thomas A. Stoffregen
We investigated the influence of vehicle control (driver vs. passenger) on postural activity and motion sickness in the context of a console video game. Using a yoked control design, individuals participated as driver-passenger dyads. Within dyads, individuals participated alone, with Driver sessions being recorded and played back to corresponding Passengers. Passengers were more likely than Drivers to report motion sickness. During game exposure, Drivers tended to move more than passengers. Yet participants who later became motion sick moved differently than those who did not, with changes in movement variability of the head and torso. The results confirm that control of a simulated vehicle reduces the risk of motion sickness, and that postural instability precedes motion sickness. The results can be used to guide the design of driving simulations and video games.
A Comparison of Cerebral Hemovelocity and Blood Oxygen Saturation Levels During Vigilance Performance BIBAFull-Text 1345-1349
  Matthew E. Funke; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; Michael Riley; Victor Finomore; Gregory J. Funke; Benjamin Knott; Michael A. Vidulich
This study compared measures of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and blood oxygen saturation (rSO2), during the performance of a 40-min vigilance task. Observers monitored a simulated air-traffic control display for flight path deviations which occurred in a unidirectional or a multidirectional context. CBFV and rSO2 measures were secured from the medial cerebral arteries in the left and right cerebral hemispheres and from the corresponding frontal lobes, respectively. Performance efficiency was greater in the unidirectional than the multidirectional condition and declined over time in both conditions, more so in the multidirectional condition. This pattern of results was paralleled in different ways by the two hemodynamic measures. A result of this sort challenges the assumption of a close tie between cerebral blood flow and oxygen saturation (Siesjo, 1978) and supports recent findings (Mintun et al., 2001) that cerebral blood flow and oxygen levels are not tightly coupled in active brain states.
  M. Sage Jessee
The mental workload construct is examined along with visual workload in order to discriminate the relationship between the converging constructs. Six ocular activity variables were measured in order to test convergent and discriminant properties with regards to visual and mental workload. Three pilot crews flew six flight scenarios in which subjective and physiological mental workload measures were analyzed across task difficulty and task differences (pilot on-controls versus pilot off-controls). Results indicate less subjective mental workload for the hover task compared to the action on contact task and greater ocular fixation duration variability for the lower difficulty task. Blink interval was greater for the pilot on-controls and saccadic extent was greater for the pilot off-controls. Data suggest that blink interval and saccadic extent are diagnostic of different aspects of visual workload, whereas fixation duration variability is sensitive to mental workload.


Evidence of Clutter Avoidance in Complex Scenes BIBAFull-Text 1355-1359
  Maura C. Lohrenz; Melissa R. Beck
Eye tracking results from a recent visual search experiment suggest 1) people avoid searching in highly cluttered regions of displays, and 2) people tend to start searching in regions with lower clutter and progress to regions with higher clutter as needed. Subjects searched for a symbol randomly placed in displays containing varying amounts of clutter, measured with the C3 clutter metric (Lohrenz et al., 2009). Displays were categorized as having low, medium, or high "global" clutter (average clutter for the display). Displays were gridded into 100 cells, and a "local" C3 value was calculated for each cell. An eye-tracker monitored search behavior. On average, with low and medium global-clutter displays, subjects searched in areas with local clutter similar to the displays' global clutter; with high global-clutter displays, subjects searched in areas with significantly lower local clutter (relative to global clutter). The average clutter of cells in which subjects searched plateaued at C3=6.4 (on a scale from 0 to 12), suggesting a measurable limit to the amount of clutter through which subjects are able (or willing) to search.

POSTERS: POS1 -- Posters 1

Using Eye Tracking to Examine Age-Related Differences in Web Site Performance BIBAFull-Text 1360-1364
  Jennifer C. Romano
The U.S. population is increasing, people are living longer, technology is moving forward, and the amount of older adults using computers is greater than ever. The percentage of older adults who are connecting to the Internet has grown more than any other age group. However, Web sites are often not designed with older adults in mind, and the cognitive difficulties that are inherent with age are often not taken into consideration. Using Census Bureau data, this paper addresses changes in population and technology, and using eye-tracking data from a usability study conducted at the Census Bureau, this paper demonstrates age-related differences in Web site performance. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.
Test-Retest Reliability of Functional Anthropometry and OARS Survey among Older Mexican American Adults BIBAFull-Text 1365-1368
  Rajeev Senapati; Grisel Ventura; Luis Diaz; Luis Rene Contreras; Arunkumar Pennathur; Julia Bader
The aim of this study is to assess test-retest reliability of functional anthropometry measures and the Older American Resources and Services (OARS) survey among older Mexican American adults. A healthy sample of 30 Older Mexican American adults was selected from senior recreation centers. For functional anthropometry 20 variables were measured in the participants, and the participants were also asked to fill the OARS survey. All the participants responded to both the test again after two weeks and helped to assess the test-retest reliability of functional anthropometry measures and the OARS Survey. Pearson correlation analysis of the results indicates that the results of the anthropometric test and the OARS survey for the first administration and second administration were significantly positively correlated.
Effects of Visual Input on Standing Balance Control when Back-Carrying External Loads BIBAFull-Text 1369-1372
  Xingda Qu; Xinyao Hu
The objective of this study was to identify how visual input affects upright balance when external loads are applied. Two independent variables were thus investigated: visual input and loading conditions. Visual input was manipulated by simply using eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. External loads were set at 10kg and back-carried using a school backpack. During data collection, the participants were instructed to stand upright on a force platform as still as possible with feet parallel and together. The root measure square distance and mean velocity of COP were used as dependent measures to quantify balance control behaviors. Univariate ANOVA revealed that all the dependent measures significantly increased in the eyes-closed condition versus eyes-open condition when back-carrying external loads, indicating that deprived vision might lead to less postural stability and increased fall risks. In addition, the effects on balance caused by visual input were not affected by loading conditions. Findings from this study demonstrated that visual input plays an important role in the control of balance under different loading conditions. This information could be useful, especially when developing interventions for the improvement of balance in the condition where external loads are applied.
The Impact of Head Orientation on Multi-segmental Torso Coordination during the Transition from Sitting to Standing BIBAFull-Text 1373-1377
  Molly B. Johnson; Richard E. A. Van Emmerik
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess how changing the orientation of the head to the trunk would impact the mobility and coordination of multiple torso segments during a common postural transition. Background: The dynamic relationship of the head to the trunk has a major impact on vestibular, visual, and neck muscle stretch receptor sensory feedback. Integration of sensory feedback is necessary to regulate postural control, which is necessary for the performance of daily and occupational activities. During upright stance, head extension induces postural sway (Vuillerme & Rougier, 2005); however, postural control within the torso may also be impacted. Methods: Eleven male and thirteen female, healthy, young subjects performed the sit-to-stand movement starting from standardized sitting conditions. Each subject performed four sit-to-stand trials with each of three different head orientations: extended, flexed, and neutral. 3-D kinematic data were analyzed for six torso segments: head, cervical, upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, lumbar, and pelvis. Sagittal range of motion was calculated for torso joints composed of adjacent segment pairs. Cross correlations and time lag to maximum cross correlation were analyzed for all possible pairs of torso segments for normalized sit-to-stand trials. Results: Moving from sitting to standing elicited greater range of motion of most torso joints with the head extended compared to with the head flexed or neutral. Cross correlations at zero lag and maximum cross correlations for most torso segment pairs were lower with the head extended compared to flexed or neutral. The lag to maximum cross correlation was higher for all non-adjacent torso segments with the head extended compared to flexed or neutral. Conclusion: Extending the head on the trunk increased mobility within the trunk and decreased temporal coordination between multiple torso segments. These findings suggest that changing the relationship of the head to the trunk induces postural instability within the torso in a healthy population during a postural transition. Application: Increased mobility and reduced stability within the torso during postural transitions could increase occupational risk for falls and injuries, such as low back pain. Avoiding unnecessary head extension could decrease the likelihood of postural instability and subsequent injury risk.
  Christopher A. Sanchez; Russell J. Branaghan; James Z. Goolsbee
Given the increasing use of small screen devices to gather and provide important information, a critical question is how learning and problem solving performance is impacted by collecting data on a small device. This study investigates how learning and application of information differs when it is gathered using a small screen device versus a normal size desktop display. Results indicate that while factual recall is equivalent across interfaces, small screen devices appear to reduce how well participants apply these rules towards correct solutions. Further, it appears that solution time is also increased by using a small screen device. These results suggest that while these small technologies are convenient for fact gathering and other simple uses, there is a potential tradeoff when this learned information must be used in complex and appropriate ways.
Slip Sliding Away II -- Slip Resistance of Dress Socks on Indoor Flooring BIBAFull-Text 1382-1386
  Anne Mathias; David G. Curry; Conor Donnelly; Luke Drendel
Laboratory testing was conducted to assess the slip resistance of men's dress socks on typical household flooring surfaces under wet and dry conditions. This study was conducted as a follow-up to a previous work on the slip resistance of athletic socks. Both of these studies attempt to fill the void of published data regarding the coefficient of friction between an indoor walking surface and the foot of a pedestrian wearing socks (rather than shoes). Eight different dress socks as well as a Neolite "shoe" were tested on wood and textured vinyl floors under both wet and dry conditions.
   The results in this study indicated that in terms of slip resistance, it makes little practical difference to a walker wearing loose-weave, non-nylon dress socks whether the flooring is wet or dry. Socks with tighter weaves, such as nylon socks, are significantly less slip-resistant on wet floors than under dry conditions.
Show-all-Links: Identifying Hyperlinks in Websites that use Non-Standard Formatting BIBAFull-Text 1387-1390
  David Sharek; Michael Wogalter
Many websites adhere to their own custom style guides and no longer follow traditional usability standards such as the once ubiquitous, blue, underlined text link. Users may miss important information by not knowing which elements are clickable and which are not. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not an option to highlight all the hyperlinks (links) on a website would help users locate all of the page's available image and text-based links. All participants were shown two different websites and asked to click on all design elements that they thought were links. In the experimental condition, participants had the option of using a keyboard shortcut key that, when pressed, would highlight all the links on the website. In the control condition, this option was not available. Significantly more participants in the experimental condition found all of the links compared to the participants without the highlight option. If the design of a website prevents developers from implementing easily-discoverable links, developers should consider adding an option that can highlight all of the links on a website.
Affective Characterization of Touch and Look-and-Feel from Multivariate Analysis of Questionnaire Responses BIBAFull-Text 1391-1395
  Sangwoo Bahn; Joobong Song; Taebeum Ryu; Myung Hwan Yun
Customer's satisfaction is a critical factor to a product's success and identifying key affective response factors, which customers mainly perceive, is critical to satisfy customers. This study aims to identify the key affective response factor for the evaluation of passenger car interior material using affective design methods. Related variables of satisfaction consisting of 10 affective response variables associated with look-and-feel and touch feel of a surface material were systematically identified through literature survey, customer reviews, and expert opinions. 30 users and 30 designers evaluated 41 different crash pad samples using a questionnaire survey with 7-point semantic differential scale and 100-point magnitude estimation scale. Based on the survey results, 'softness' was identified as the key affective response factor of satisfaction for car crash pad. Also, the relationship between softness and its related engineering variables was identified and modeled. It is expected that the results could suggest the suitable combinations of material properties for the maximum appeal and satisfaction of the user.
  J. Bern Jordan; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
Many accessibility problems of devices and user interfaces could be avoided if the needs of people with disabilities were considered during the design process. This paper describes an accessibility experience lab module which introduces participants to both the barriers associated with disabilities and the impact that simple design changes can have on those barriers. The core of the lab is an experience session where participants are given functional limitations along with tasks at paired stations so they can compare their experiences on devices with inaccessible and accessible designs. For seven years the experience lab has been a part of the curriculum for first-year engineering students at the University of Wisconsin, and over 1700 students have completed it. In the popular lab, the students are engaged and report interest and insights into design for disabilities. Materials are available at www.trace.wisc.edu/training/explab/.
Menu Design Based on Expert Knowledge Structures: A Validation BIBAFull-Text 1401-1405
  Christine M. Covas-Smith; Kenneth D. Jackson; Russell J. Branaghan; Craig Eidman
This project evaluated the effectiveness gained by redesigning a user interface based on the knowledge structure of domain experts. Scenario-based simulation enables realistic training in synthetic environments. As the instructor remains essential to facilitating effective scenario-based training, their user interface should be efficient. Previous research modeled knowledge structures used to redesign a menu within a scenario generation interface. The current research evaluated the redesigned menu based on the ascertained knowledge structures. To evaluate the redesigned menu, participants were timed as they selected target items in the original and redesigned menus. Results indicated that experienced users selected items in the redesigned menu significantly faster, and preferred the redesigned menu to the original. Thus, this result demonstrates tangible benefits to organizing menus according to expert knowledge, even when users are familiar with a menu structure. Using methods that follow the general principles presented here will enable designers to uncover expert knowledge and efficiently configure user interfaces, thereby improving training effectiveness.
Gestural Interaction With In-Vehicle Audio and Climate Controls BIBAFull-Text 1406-1410
  Chongyoon Chung; Esa Rantanen
Among the most distractive in-vehicle interactions are audio and climate controls. If these interactions were as easy and spontaneous as natural language, driving could be much safer. Through this research it was found that drivers preferred gestural language to voice language when the control was simple and repetitive; subsequently, gestural interactions with secondary in-vehicle tasks were investigated. Following the principle of "eyes on the road and hands on the wheel", a steering wheel design with two touch pads on the wheel to recognize gestures was conceived. The physical design of the steering wheel incorporated good ergonomics and anthropometric data, while gesture stereotypes assigned to a number of in-vehicle controls were determined empirically by two experiments. The new steering wheel design does not have any buttons, which may contribute to driver distraction, yet it incorporates 19 functions through natural thumb-gestures. This compares favorably with most current steering wheel designs, which have more than 11 buttons and 13 functions on the average.
Click This: A Study on Optimizing Toolbar Placement in Computer Graphical User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1411-1415
  Daniel Hor; Igor Dolgov; Jeremy Schwark; William Graves
Toolbars in computer graphical user interfaces are usually placed at the top of the program window. Yet our study showed that people typically responded fastest when toolbars are placed on the left or right side, despite the four sides being of equal distance from the center of the screen. Furthermore, responses were slowest when toolbars were placed at the bottom. We also found that participants performed significantly slower when presented with multiple toolbars and when toolbar position was unpredictable.
Privacy Issues and User Attitudes Towards Targeted Advertising: A Focus Group Study BIBAFull-Text 1416-1420
  Harry Zhang; Claudia Guerrero; David Wheatley; Young Seok Lee
A focus group was conducted with a total of 25 participants to explore and identify the privacy and user acceptance issues associated with targeted advertising. Three scenarios were studied: one providing advertisements and coupons to a mobile device based on shopping behaviors, another delivering advertisements to a mobile device based on location and online activities, and the third presenting TV advertisements based on viewing patterns. It was found that targeted advertising was generally preferred to non-targeted advertising but users wanted to control the type, quantity, frequency, range, and context of the advertisements received. It was also important that advertisements be based on personal data that users are willing to share and that targeting not be intrusive or embarrassing. Targeted advertisements that offered discounts or financial benefits were most preferred.
Usability Evaluation of Two Social Networking Sites BIBAFull-Text 1421-1424
  Javier Rivera; Fleet Davis; Mustapha Mouloua; Pascal Alberti
This paper examines differences between the two most popular social networking sites (Facebook and MySpace) in terms of their usability and design heuristics. First, we discuss a brief history on social network websites that have dominated the Internet in popularity and then declined over time due to major setbacks or system design failures. Second, we discuss usability heuristics and how they can be incorporated to social network websites to improve their chances of success among users. Lastly, we present a study in which we have used an adapted usability questionnaire based on these usability heuristics. This usability questionnaire compares Facebook and MySpace by rating them across eight dimensions such as simplicity, usefulness, functionality, consistency, proficiency, satisfaction, behavior, and needs for improvement. There was a significant difference between both social networks, indicating that Facebook was rated the highest on usability over MySpace.
Optimizing Successful Turn-taking in Spoken Dialog Systems BIBAFull-Text 1425-1429
  Silke M. Witt; Walter Rolandi; Elaine Zuber; Ted Brooks; Araceli Master TuVox; Rebecca Loose
A major challenge in the design of spoken dialog systems is determining how long a system should wait -- or time-out -- before providing some instruction to a caller who is silent in response to a question. This study examined the impact that various time-out values had on the responses to three different question types. The results show that time-out values of 2 and 2.5 seconds caused the most instances of system and caller talking at the same time. The data also shows that these turn-taking issues have an effect on subsequent interactions between system and caller.
Potential Performance Costs Associated with Large-Format Tiled Displays For Surgical Visualization BIBAFull-Text 1430-1434
  Will Seidelman; C. Melody Carswell; Cindy H. Lio; Russell C. Grant; Michelle Sublette; Matt Field; Brent Seales; Duncan Clarke
Twenty-five participants performed a surgical training task on a large format display created from one projector or by tiling the images from a 4-, or 9-projector array. Utilizing a large-format display consisting of tiled projector images brings the potential benefits of increased display size with the potential threats to performance of inherent visual artifacts. The effect of these artifacts on performance and subjective workload was assessed. Results indicate that while display size did not affect performance on the surgical task, differences in mental workload were observed. Although a global measure of workload indicated that the tiled displays were the least demanding to use, participants reported deploying additional but highly specific cognitive resources when using these same displays. Their resource shifts seemed to involve adjustments to the perceived control gains created by enhanced size and also degraded ability to compare target sizes in the larger display, possibly due to the obscuring effect of tile edges.
Walking and Jogging: An Analysis of Pedestrian Stopping Times and Distances BIBAFull-Text 1435-1439
  Matthew Wood; Thomas Ayres; Rajeev Kelkar; Rajeeb Khatua
When faced with a potential hazard, a pedestrian may need to change course, stop, maintain speed or accelerate. Logically, this must involve both a delay phase (to perceive a hazard and formulate a response) and an action phase (e.g., to arrest forward momentum in a stopping response). Qualitatively, the decision and response processes are similar to those an individual faces while driving an automobile or riding a bicycle, but very little research has been found on this subject for pedestrians. In the current study, jogging or walking subjects were asked to stop quickly in response to an auditory signal, and data were extracted from video recordings of the trials. The reaction time phase observed in the study was similar to prepared reaction times in other settings. The halting phase visibly began with a change in body angle, with rapid deceleration following the subsequent heel strike. Both the time and the distance to stop required from a jog or walk can be important for analysis of vehicle-pedestrian collisions and other mishaps.
Marine Accident Investigation and Analysis with Focus on Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 1440-1444
  Hongtae Kim; Seong Na; Hyejin Kim; Wookhyun Ha
This paper proposes a human factors analysis method that contains a cognitive process model, a human factors analysis technique and a marine accident causal chain focused on human factors. In this paper, the cognitive process model that can be used as a tool to identify unsafe acts, decisions or conditions is discussed in detail, and 18 towing vessel collision accidents are analyzed to identify related unsafe acts. Then the human factors analysis technique which is based on the well-established human factors frameworks such as SHELL model and Reason's Generic Error Modeling Systems (GEMS) framework is used to identify underlying factors that cause those identified unsafe acts to occur. Lastly, in order to derive the optimum safety barriers, the marine accident causal chains are used.
Influence of LOC and Ethnicity on Adoption Decisions in the Use of Safety Technologies and Training in the Roofing Industry BIBAFull-Text 1445-1449
  Jessi L. Kane
The construction industry has been slow to adopt new technologies; therefore, this pilot study found it beneficial to evaluate the relationship between Locus of Control (LOC), ethnicity, and technology and training adoption decisions. The following research questions were proposed: 1) To what extent do Hispanic and non-Hispanic workers differ in LOC? 2) In adoption decisions? 3) How confidently can LOC be used to predict adoption decisions? 4) How confidently can adoption decisions be used to predict LOC? The study utilized secondary data collection. The quantitative data (103 participants; 79 non-Hispanic and 24 Hispanic) was analyzed with JMP 8. Results showed a significant difference between the two groups in both LOC and adoptions decisions. The qualitative data (29 participants; 13 non-Hispanic and 16 Hispanic) underwent content analysis using Atlas.ti. This study serves as a starting point for other research interested in developing technology adoption programs for this and possibly other populations.
  Kristin E. Oleson; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Heather C. Lum; Anne Sinatra
Two groups of first, third, and fifth grade children were interviewed about their mental models of computers. The first group was interviewed in 1999, and the second in 2009. In both data sets, children as young as 6 years of age generated well developed analogies for computers. However, the 2009 data showed that children are increasingly able to generate these analogies at a younger age. Further, the types of analogies generated differed as a function of time, with those interviewed in 1999 more likely to describe perceptual qualities of computers (e.g., it is square), and those interviewed in 2009 relating computers to both cell phones and entertainment devices. Children's knowledge of technology provides a glimpse into the future user's mindset.
Organizing a Human Factors Educational Event at SAS BIBAFull-Text 1454-1458
  Cheryl L. Coyle; Lisa Whitman; Leslie Tudor
In an attempt to increase knowledge and awareness about the many ways in which the human factors teams at SAS contribute to product design, we planned and executed a company-wide usability demonstration event. Twenty-five stations encompassing usability-related demonstrations were featured. Various contests held throughout the duration of the event, as well as a lively, color-coordinated overall design, contributed to the exciting and celebratory nature of the day. The energetic atmosphere of the event attracted hundreds of attendees who enjoyed learning about the integration of human factors into the development of our company's products. Our poster describes the event's planning strategy, design, execution, outcome, and lessons learned.
Human Habitation in a Lunar Electric Rover during a 14-Day Field Trial BIBAFull-Text 1459-1463
  Harry Litaker; Shelby Thompson; Robert Howard
Various military and commercial entities, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have conducted space-cabin confinement studies. However, after an extensive literature search, only one study was found using a simulated lunar rover (LUNEX II), under laboratory conditions, with a crew of two for an 18-day lunar mission. Forty-three years later, NASA human-factors engineers conducted a similar study using the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) in a dynamic real-world lunar simulation at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. The objective of the study was to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data on the vehicle's interior volume with respect to human-system interfaces, crew accommodations, and habitation over a 14-day mission. Though part of a larger study including 212 overall operational elements, this paper will discuss only the performance of fifty different daily habitational elements within the confines of the vehicle carried out by two male subjects. Objective timing data and subjective questionnaire data were collected. Results indicate, much like the LUNEX II study, the LER field study suggest that a crew of two was able to maintain a satisfactory performance of tasks throughout the 14-day field trail within a relative small vehicle volume.
The importance of ground truth: An open-source biometric repository BIBAFull-Text 1464-1467
  Morgan J. Tear; Matthew B. Thompson; Jason M. Tangen
Advances in forensic technologies and procedures seek to produce better and more efficient policing for safer societies. Little is understood, however, about how effectively the human forensic professional employs such technologies, or the cognitive and perceptual processes of judgment and decision making the forensic professional engages in during the course of evidence evaluation. For this, experimenters need materials that approximate the realism of crime scene evidence, while ensuring the ground truth about the source of this information. These two goals are often incompatible. We discuss the development of an open-source biometric repository to address the issue of ground truth. This repository contains a range of crime related materials such as fingerprints and palm-prints, shoe-prints, faces, handwriting, voices, and irises. Our goal is to provide a large, open-source repository of forensic information, where certainty of the source in built into the system, to help advance research on identification by humans and technology.
Poultry Growers Control Strategies and their Evolution BIBAFull-Text 1468-1472
  Patricia R. Ferrara; John D. Lee
This paper presents a model for understanding the evolution of worker strategies in rural northern Mozambique, an industrially developing agricultural region. We reviewed administrative data on grower productivity from an integrated poultry operation, visited three grower chicken houses, and followed-up with informal discussions with the integrator, examining tasks and strategies related to productivity. Defining strategy as a mode of behavior that demands a resource profile and generates a performance profile that depends on the environment, we discuss examples of strategies and their adaptation over three time horizons. These time horizons are exemplified in the poultry growing domain as the critical brooding period following birth, the weekly routine within a growing cycle, and the span of months comprised of several growing cycles. Responding to observed flock characteristics, growers used behavioral indicators of health to adjust temperature; used heuristics to adjust feed based on measured weight; and constructed items to reduce exposure of the flock to disease. Growers adapted strategies according to the work context. Heat control strategies, for example, varied seasonally. Viewing strategy change in the context of a self-regulation model in which growers actively control their work environment reveals interactions over time horizons, which range from minutes to months, and link micro and macro-cognition. The self-regulation model also suggests that strategy change creates experiences that enrich the grower's conceptual models and improve skills, which in turn enable new strategies. Investigating growers' control strategies can reveal interactions between micro and macro-cognition that influence strategy development and change.

POSTERS: POS2 -- Posters 2

A Cognition-Based Control System for Autonomous Robots BIBAFull-Text 1473-1477
  Webb Stacy; Joseph V. Cohn; Alexandra Geyer; Tracey Wheeler
Most approaches to controlling autonomous systems require extensive pre-mission preparation, intensive effort by the human operator, or have strong limitations on the range of possible missions that can be accomplished. In this paper we describe an approach called Cognitive Patterns that promises to alleviate these challenges by replicating three key processes of human cognition -- pattern generation, perception/action, and adaptation -- and instantiating them in a new architecture which can then be embedded into an autonomous system. An early version of this approach connected high-level knowledge representations in an ontology with a robot's sensing and acting abilities. The advantages of this approach were then demonstrated in a simulation environment. A more refined version, based on lessons learned and called Cognitive Patterns Knowledge Generation, can deal with anomalies, unexpected events, and uncertainties, and is also described in terms of its components, their interactions, and benefits.
The Relationship of Closure Speed and Training on Target Identification for Unmanned Vehicle Operators BIBAFull-Text 1478-1482
  Elizabeth Phillips; Javier Rivera; Thomas Fincannon; Aaron S. Dietz; Ariel Afek
This investigation explored differences in armored vehicle recognition training by supplying 2D images of 3D models at different views. Additionally, the relationship between the spatial construct of closure speed and target identification was examined. Participants were administered three tests of closure speed, and then trained on armored vehicle recognition with 2D images of 3D models at more angles than typically given with line drawings supplied to soldiers. Results did not show a significant difference between the training conditions on a tank recognition task. Examining the relationship between performance on closure speed tests and tank recognition performance scores showed mixed results. Implications of this research may include considerations for selection and training of future unmanned vehicle operators.
Supervisory Control of Robots Using RoboLeader BIBAFull-Text 1483-1487
  Jessie Y. C. Chen; Michael J. Barnes
We investigated the effectiveness of RoboLeader, an intelligent agent that could help the human operator control a team of robots, for enhancing the overall human-robot teaming performance. We compared the operators' target detection performance in the 4-robot and 8-robot conditions. The results showed that the participants detected significantly fewer targets with 8 robots vs. 4 robots. Although there were no significance differences between the RoboLeader and Baseline (no RoboLeader) conditions for target detection, the Roboleader group reduced their mission completion times by approximately 13% compared to Baseline. Those participants with higher spatial ability detected more targets than did those with lower spatial ability. Participants experienced significantly higher workload with 8 robots compared to the 4-robot condition, and those with better attentional control reported lower workload than did those with poorer attentional control.
Stereoscopic Displays for Robot Teleoperation and Simulated Driving BIBAFull-Text 1488-1492
  Jessie Y. C. Chen; Razia N. V. Oden; Caitlin Kenny; John O. Merritt
A three-part experiment was conducted to investigate the usefulness of two types of 3D stereoscopic displays (SDs) for simulated indirect-vision driving (with various terrains) and live robot teleoperation. Results showed that, overall, participants completed their tasks significantly faster when they used an SD in 3D mode compared to the baseline 2D/monoscopic mode. They also navigated more accurately with SDs in 3D mode. The results also showed that the system with active 3D shutter glasses appeared to be more effective in supporting faster responses and task completion times than the system using passive polarized 3D glasses. Participants' self-assessed "simulator sickness" and workload after interacting with the two SD systems did not differ significantly between displays or between the 3D vs. 2D modes of operation.
  Michael Barnes; Florian Jentsch; Jessie Y. C. Chen; Ellen Haas; Keryl Cosenzo
US Army researchers and support contractors are involved in a multi-year effort to understand the impact of human-robot interaction (HRI) and teaming for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) in future and current Army conflicts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize human-robotic principles derived from these programs. The principles cover both problems and solutions evaluated over the more than six years of experimentation. We discuss the implications of Soldier teaming, survivability, multitasking, automation and the importance of individual differences for HRI. Mitigation strategies related to individual differences and training regimens are discussed. We also explicate results related to multimodal interfaces and adaptive systems.
Evaluating the Benefits and Potential Costs of Automation Delegation for Supervisory Control of Multiple UAVs BIBAFull-Text 1498-1502
  Tyler Shaw; Adam Emfield; Andre Garcia; Ewart de Visser; Chris Miller; Raja Parasuraman; Lisa Fern
Previous studies have begun exploring the possibility that "adaptable" automation, in which tasks are delegated to intelligent automation by the user, can preserve the benefits of automation while minimizing its costs. One approach to adaptable automation is the Playbook interface, which has been used in previous research and has shown performance enhancements as compared to other automation approaches. However, additional investigations are warranted to evaluate both benefits and potential costs of adaptable automation. The present study incorporated a delegation interface into a new display and simulation system, the multiple unmanned aerial vehicle simulator (MUSIM), to allow for flexible control over three unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) at three levels of delegation abstraction. Task load was manipulated by increasing the frequency of primary and secondary task events. Additionally, participants experienced an unanticipated event that was not a good fit for the higher levels of delegation abstraction. Treatment of this poor "automation fit" event, termed a "Non-Optimal Play Environment" event (NOPE event), required the use of manual control. Results showed advantages when access to the highest levels of delegation abstraction was provided and as long as operators also had the flexibility to revert to manual control. Performance was better across the two task load conditions and reaction time to respond to the NOPE event was fastest in this condition. The results extend previous findings showing benefits of flexible delegation of tasks to automation using the Playbook interface and suggest that Playbook remains robust even in the face of poor "automation-fit" events.
The Influence of Perceived Task Difficulty and Importance on Automation Use BIBAFull-Text 1503-1507
  Jeremy Schwark; Igor Dolgov; William Graves; Daniel Hor
Automation use can be analyzed by looking at compliance rates (agreeing with automated alerts) and reliance rates (agreeing with automated nonalerts). The authors investigated how compliance and reliance rates in a target detection task depend on the perceived difficulty and importance of the trials and on the feedback given after each trial. Results show that focusing on trial importance significantly increased participants' compliance rates while reliance rates remained stable. When no feedback was presented, participants were more likely to comply with the automated aid in trials they perceived as difficult, but this trend reversed when importance was introduced and correlated with difficulty.
Differential Effects of Likelihood Alarm Technology and False-Alarm vs. Miss-Prone Automation on Decision-Making Accuracy and Bias BIBAFull-Text 1508-1512
  Rylan M. Clark; Aana M. Ingebritsen; Ernesto A. Bustamante
Alarms are implemented into automated systems to focus human operators' attention on potentially problematic conditions. Some automated alarm systems are false-alarm prone (FP) and others are missprone (MP) due to the nature of their setting and designer-imposed parameters. Binary alarm technology (BAT) and likelihood alarm technology (LAT) represent two methods of alarm implementation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of LAT combined with FP vs. MP automation on human decision-making accuracy and bias. This study utilized a 2 x 2 between-groups experimental design. Alarm technology (BAT vs. LAT) and type of automation (FP vs. MP) were systematically manipulated as independent variables. Decision-making accuracy and bias served as dependent measures. This experiment provides evidence for the advantages of LAT used in FP automation over alternative alarm configurations. Results supported hypotheses regarding a predicted interaction of alarm technology and type of automation for both decision-making accuracy and bias. FP automation with LAT elicits urgency-based responses that reduce bias toward false alarms and significantly increase overall decision making accuracy. This alarm configuration may best be applied to similar diagnostic tasks performed with unmanned aerial vehicle displays and aircraft flight decks.
Effects of False-Alarm vs. Miss-Prone Automation and Likelihood Alarm Technology on Trust, Reliance, and Compliance in a Miss-Prone Task BIBAFull-Text 1513-1517
  Randy B. Davenport; Ernesto A. Bustamante
We investigated the effects of false-alarm prone (FP) vs. miss-prone (MP) automation and the effects of likelihood alarm technology (LAT) on trust, reliance, and compliance. One hundred participants completed simulated unmanned aerial vehicle missions consisting of two primary tasks and a secondary weapon-deployment task aided by automation. It was predicted that MP automation would increase trust, LAT would increase trust, FP automation would increase reliance, and MP automation would increase compliance whereas LAT would decrease compliance when used with a FP system. Results indicated that trust was higher with the FP system, reliance was higher with the FP system, and compliance was higher with the MP system. This paper further informs the relationships among trust, reliance, and compliance, and it adds to our understanding of operator behavior in miss-prone tasks. Practical applications of this research include improving automation design and choosing the appropriate type of automation to implement for specific situations.
Human Factors Training in Aviation Maintenance: Impact on Incident Rates BIBAFull-Text 1518-1520
  Rosemarie Reynolds; Elizabeth Blickensderfer; Adria Martin; Kevin Rossignon; Vaida Maleski
Since 1999, aircraft maintenance personnel in the European Union (EU) have been required to take human factors training. This training is not required in the United States (US). The relative rates of maintenance-related incidents in the US and the EU were compared prior to and after the implementation of mandatory human factors training in the EU. Prior to 1999, the rates of maintenance-related error for the EU and the US were not statistically different. In the years following the implementation of mandatory human factors training in the EU, the difference in rates for the US and the EU became statistically significant. Our results suggest that human factors training may be valuable in reducing maintenance-related error in aviation.
PilotATC Communication Conflicts: Implications for NextGen BIBAFull-Text 1521-1525
  Kathleen L. Mosier; Paula Rettenmaier; Matthew McDearmid; Jordan Wilson; Stanton Mak; Lakshmi Raj; Judith Orasanu
In the planned NextGen aviation operations, it will be critical to ensure shared situational understanding and cooperative problem solving between aircrews and ATC (Air Traffic Controllers). A first step in predicting how future changes will impact flight crews and ATC is to examine the present system and to pinpoint problematic areas that may be ameliorated or exacerbated by advanced automation and heavier traffic density. Method: We coded ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports identified as having communication conflicts between pilots and ATC. Results: Results describe types of conflict, operational context, phase of flight, operator states, and situations conducive to communication conflicts, risk perception differences and inappropriate resolution strategies. Limitations -- Characteristics of the ASRS database guarantee that it is a rich source of data, but also impose inherent limitations with respect to generalization. Implications: This research will enable us to better predict NextGen aircrew/ATC communication breakdowns and conflicts resulting from specific situations and/or operator states.
Distribution of Peripheral Vision for a Driving Simulator Functional Field of View Task BIBAFull-Text 1526-1530
  George D. Park; Catherine L. Reed
Although previous studies have assessed the allocation of central and peripheral vision in functional field of view (FFOV) tasks, few studies have directly assessed changes in the FFOV within a driving environment. By modifying a typical FFOV task paradigm with central and peripheral target tasks occurring in a low-fidelity driving simulation, a method of assessing the allocation of peripheral vision resources was developed. Two experiments were conducted to: 1) validate the FFOV task in a driving simulation environment, 2) assess peripheral attention distribution due to the simulation background, and 3) assess peripheral attention distribution due to a basic vehicle steering task. In Experiment 1, the central and peripheral task performance of 17 college undergraduates (8 males, 9 females) was compared when provided a blank white screen versus the driving simulation background (i.e., driver's vehicle moving on a winding road towards a distant horizon). In Experiment 2, the central and peripheral task performance of 27 college undergraduates (19 male, 8 female) was assessed when provided the same driving simulation background as in Experiment 1, but with the additional task of controlling the vehicle's lane position. Both experiments used a central, two-choice object recognition task that varied in object display speed (160, 260 ms) with a concurrent peripheral target detection task that varied in eccentricity (10, 20, 30° visual angle) and radial position (4 cardinal, 4 oblique). Results from both experiments indicated a successful replication of a FFOV task with poorer peripheral task performance as peripheral targets increased in display speed and eccentricity. Analysis of peripheral target localization accuracy performance suggested a lower visual field dominance and a differentiated pattern of peripheral attention allocation for the driving environment and when the participants were performing the steering task.
Measuring drivers frustration in a driving simulator BIBAFull-Text 1531-1535
  Yi-Ching Lee
The objective of the current study was to measure the effect of frustration on drivers' performance and scanning efficiency in a driving simulator. We hypothesized that unsafe driving would be elicited by a combination of manipulating frustrating events in the external driving environment while inducing a sense of time pressure within the driver. Two age groups of drivers drove through several frustrating situations on the road while trying to reach a destination within a limited time. The induced frustration decreased drivers' awareness of potential distractions, mental state, and potential danger in driving environment. When compared to younger drivers, older drivers had a more efficient scanning routine and safer vehicle control. This study speaks to the need for emotionally engaging simulated driving scenarios to produce more realistic driver performance.
Determining the Accuracy and Acceptance of Using Driver Interface Display Components and Fuel Economy Information Types BIBAFull-Text 1536-1540
  Michael E. Rakauskas; Justin S. Graving; Michael P. Manser; James W. Jenness
If novel displays in the vehicle are not easily understood, they may increase driver distraction and result in higher crash risk. In this way, improving the usability of in-vehicle displays may decrease crash risk. However when there are a large number of interface design options, it is difficult to quickly determine which will be the most beneficial. The goal of this evaluation was to identify fuel economy display components and information types that would have the highest potential to improve accuracy and acceptance. Participants were more accurate at identifying fuel economy level when viewing information presented on horizontal bar display components with reference points. Subjective scores suggested that a balance of instantaneous and long-term information types was associated with greater interface acceptance. Results of this rapid assessment show the utility of supplementing objective accuracy measures with subjective acceptance metrics when considering multiple user interface designs.
The Effects of Text Messaging on Driver Distraction: A Bio-Behavioral Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1541-1545
  Mustapha Mouloua; Amber Ahern; Edward Rinalducci; Pascal Alberti; J. Christopher Brill; Adrian Quevedo
This study was designed to empirically examine the effects of text-messaging on driver distraction. Thirty participants were required to perform a driving simulation task while text-messaging using a cellular phone device. Driving errors as measured by lane deviations, crossing the median, crashes, etc., were recorded and analyzed as a function of the distracter. Physiological measures (EEG) were also recorded during the driving phases to quantitatively measure the participant's level of cortical arousal. It was hypothesized that text-messaging would affect driving ability and the level of cortical arousal. The results indicated higher levels of arousal and a prevalence of the theta frequency (4-7 Hz), which is associated with distractibility as a result of text-messaging activity. In addition, participants showed an increased number of driving errors as a function of text-messaging distractibility. These results have major implications for in-vehicle systems design, traffic safety, and driver attention and workload.
A Binary Response Method to Determine the Usability of Seven In-Vehicle Fuel Economy Displays BIBAFull-Text 1546-1550
  Justin S. Graving; Michael E. Rakauskas; Michael P. Manser; James W. Jenness
We employed a binary response method to evaluate the usability of seven fuel economy displays. The displays were set to show various levels of fuel economy and then static images of the displays were generated. Participants were presented the images and asked to indicate if the information on the fuel economy display indicated fuel economy was greater or less than an arbitrary average fuel economy. A display that consisted of a binary metric of fuel economy and an incremental metric of acceleration best facilitated the determination of fuel economy.
Gender Differences in Simulator Sickness In Fixed- versus Rotating-Base Driving Simulator BIBAFull-Text 1551-1555
  Andre Garcia; Carryl Baldwin; Matt Dworsky
This experiment compared simulator sickness between males and females as a function of fixed-base versus rotating base platforms. Eight males and eight females drove through two routes in a driving simulator. One route was presented in fixed-base mode and another was presented in motion-base with a .5 to 1 ratio of motion (physical world to virtual world). Routes and fixed versus motion mode were presented in counterbalanced order. Measures of simulator sickness on the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (Kennedy et al., 1993) were obtained after each route. As predicted, males reported lower levels of simulator sickness than females. A non-significant trend for this gender effect to be diminished in the rotating versus stationary condition was observed. Results warrant additional investigation into the potential for motion-based platforms to reduce the incidence and severity of simulator sickness in populations at greater risk of experiencing these negative consequences (i.e., females and older adults).
  Massimiliano Pau; Federica Corona; Bruno Leban; Elisa Priolo; Marco Pau
School is a person's first workplace and, from the age of six, children experience activities such as lifting, pulling and carrying a load (typically in the form of a backpack) which often represents an important percentage of their body weight. Among the possible consequences originated by back overload we have balance impairment and altered plantar pressure distribution, which however have been scarcely explored in children. On the basis of these considerations, this study intends to assess modifications in sway parameters, foot-ground contact area and pressure distribution introduced by backpack carriage in Italian primary school children. Two 30-second trials (with and without backpack) were performed directly at a school on a regular school day to collect data on sway area, centre of pressure path length, maximum displacement range in Antero-Posterior and Medio-Lateral directions, foot-ground contact area and pressure distribution. The results show a significant load-induced increase in all sway parameters and the existence of a linear relationship between sway area and backpack weight. Contact area also varies linearly with load and peak pressure values are significantly altered by the presence of a backpack in midfoot and forefoot, with increases up to 30%. These findings, together with the fact that about half the children carry a load exceeding 15% of their body weight, suggest that concern about severe postural alterations associated with carriage of overweight backpacks, remains justified.

POSTERS: POS3 -- Posters 3

Creation of User-Centered Reports for Patients and Medical Professionals BIBAFull-Text 1561-1565
  R. F. W. Beeco; J. O. Brooks; W. Logan; M. E. Cress; V. Hirth; J. A. Gomer; L. F. Smolentzov
Systematic approaches for presenting medical information to seniors have not been widely explored and published. Prior to incorporating a mobility and physical functioning measure into clinical practice, meaningful and understandable reporting formats were needed for patients. It was important for seniors with varying educational and cognitive levels to understand the information. Testing was conducted in three phases with 28 participants in the final phase. Volunteers included seniors with a broad range of physical functioning. Focus groups and interviews evaluated prototype reports using several presentation styles, graph orientations, and levels of detail/abstraction. Ease of incorporation into both paper and electronic medical records was also considered. The final product reflects the preferences of the older participants as well as design constraints and consideration for how the reports would be presented in paper and electronic format. To maximize health literacy, all medical reports would benefit from user-centered design.
Evaluation of an ambient color coded display to communicate changes in the patients condition to ICU nurses and improve the therapeutic environment BIBAFull-Text 1566-1570
  S. H. Koch; M. Gorges; C. Weir
PROBLEM STATEMENT: For Intensive Care Units (ICUs) patients frequent noise, confusing patient monitors and loud alarms decrease the quality of stay, and may event extend its length. Nurses frequently enter the patient's room to check the patient monitor to become aware of changes, potentially disturbing patients and family. Ambient displays can communicate changes by subtly changing the environment, and have been shown to be unobtrusive and not disturbing to its users. An ambient display, visible from the doorway, would allow nurses to be aware of patient changes before alarms occur.
   OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis is that color coded ambient displays using the standard vital sign colors are intuitively understood by clinicians and can communicate deviations in patient state.
   METHODS: We designed an ambient display, which communicates changes in patient's vital signs by changing its background color. A heuristic evaluation was performed, followed by an intrusive questionnaire of nurse without prior explanation of the color-coding.
   RESULTS: The results of the heuristic evaluation indicated that simultaneous changes could not be displayed. In the intrusive evaluation nurses correctly identified patient changes 73% of the time. Additionally, nurses correctly recalled 92% of vital sign colors used on their current patient monitor.
   DISCUSSION: Our findings confirm that color coded ambient displays using the standard vital sign colors are intuitively understood by clinicians and can communicate deviations in patient state. Future research needs to evaluate ambient displays in real ICU environments and identify nurses, patients' and families' reactions to such displays.
  Cindy H. Lio; C. Melody Carswell; Stephen E. Strup; John S. Roth; Russell Grant
Naturalistic observations of two fifth-year surgical trainees in the OR revealed that they struggled with specific tasks during several seemingly straightforward laparoscopic surgical procedures. Retrospective think-aloud reports of the trainees and their attending surgeons on those tasks in video clips and NASATLX ratings further shed lights on trainees' specific challenges. Results showed that trainees' inadequate cognitive skills rather than poor technical skills could be their greatest hindrance in performing those tasks. Specifically, the trainees seemed to focus their attention on immediate urgent tasks and failed to plan strategically for action sequences or manipulations. NASA-TLX results further showed that trainees and attending surgeons differed in their perceptions of effort, performance, and frustration in performing those isolated tasks. These preliminary data suggested that a gap exists between trainees and the more experienced surgeons on their attention allocation strategies, which may indicate the need to emphasize cognitive skills training such as multitasking during the practice of surgical skills outside the OR.
The Elements of a Hand Held Device for Nurse Access to Home Healthcare Monitors BIBAFull-Text 1576-1580
  Jason A. Telner; John Beane; Liana Kiff; Cameron Brackett; Greg Lillegard
Home-based patient monitors have limited access for field nurses when they are away from their desktop computers and central monitoring station software. The major consequences of this are delayed responses to patient problems, possibly leading to less effective treatment. Further, nurses' laptops lack mobility and versatility, which often makes it difficult for them to quickly access patient information during a variety of tasks. Using nurse demographic information, requirements gathering, and observations from 15 nurses, a design concept for both a longer-term nurse hand held device with a touch screen interface, as well as a simple cellular telephone application that can receive SMS messages on patient problems from the central monitoring station were proposed. It was anticipated that after successful user testing with nurses on the simpler cellular telephone application, that a more capable application could be developed for their cellular telephones with the ability to send and receive information from the central monitoring station.
Dual-View Displays for Minimally Invasive Surgery: Does the Addition of a 3-D Global View Decrease Mental Workload BIBAFull-Text 1581-1585
  M. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; Q. Han; R. Grant; C. H. Lio; G. Lee; M. Field; D. Staley; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke
Technological innovations are at the forefront of advances in minimally invasive surgery. Reduced visual and haptic cues, along with frame-of-reference problems with location and scale can cause surgeons to become disoriented. While most laparoscopic surgeries are performed via the use of a limited, single-scope, two-dimensional (2-D) view presented on a monitor in the operating room, there is demand for the availability of three-dimensional (3-D), global views. We compared workload, task-completion time, and the ability to recreate spatial mental representations between study participants who used the current scopeview display and those who used a dual-view display that included both the scope view and a computationally generated global view. We found no statistically reliable improvements for the dual-view display over the single-view display for any of our criterion measures, although trends were toward a dual-view advantage for workload in all tasks and accuracy in the reconstruction task, despite participants' claims that they did not utilize the global view during the experiment. Future research is needed to better understand the information available on global views that can enhance performance during surgical tasks and participants' decisions regarding when to use different views to support their performance.
Communication in the tele-ICU BIBAFull-Text 1586-1590
  Kerry McGuire; Pascale Carayon; Peter Hoonakker; Adjhaporn Khunlertkit; Douglas Wiegmann
Objective: To systematically describe communication between tele-ICU (Intensive Care Unit) nurses and bedside nurses in multiple ICUs, the strengths and weaknesses of communication in the tele-ICU and possible solutions for improving communication. Background: Nurses in tele-ICUs function in virtual teams whose configuration and membership is constantly and rapidly changing. This research examines communication and technological support for communication in the multiple virtual teams formed by tele-ICU nurses and ICU nurses. Methods: A case study research approach using mixed data collection methods. One tele-ICU that monitors 16 ICUs in 12 hospitals across the US participated in this study. Results: Tele-ICU nurses spend 26% of their time in communication-related activities. Fifteen percent of tele-ICU nurses surveyed reported getting incorrect information from ICU nurses and 40% reported that they are not informed in a timely manner about a change in patient status. Frequency of communication between tele-ICU and ICU nurses depends on several factors such as time of day and intensivist coverage in the ICU. Tele-ICU nurses develop and employ unique strategies for communicating with ICU nurses. Conclusion: Tele-ICU nurses use many approaches and techniques when communicating with multiple ICUs. Additional research needs to generalize these findings.
  J. Faucett; R. Newcomer; T. Kang; R. Eversley
Occupational injury is a prevalent problem in long-term care. However, there is a noticeable lack of research related to workers providing Personal Assistance Services (PAS) -- the personal care and housekeeping tasks that enable elderly and other disabled adults to live in community settings. We conducted a statewide computer assisted telephone survey of PAS providers (n=855) from California's In Home Supportive Services program to describe the homecare environment and its impact on the worker's health and ability to provide care. PAS providers reported on a variety of household and personal care tasks, including client lifting and transfers, as well as on barriers to care delivery. A total of 262 providers (31%) reported musculoskeletal symptoms or acute injuries causing at least moderate pain (defined as 'prominent' problems) that had occurred in the prior 12 months; 25% of that group (n=65) reported 12 or more episodes in the previous 12 months of probable work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Because of these prominent problems, 26 workers missed work, 54 changed their work duties, and 12 had to drop work hours or clients.
Development of a hierarchical taxonomy for standardization of microvascular surgery BIBAFull-Text 1595-1599
  Denny Yu; Steve J. Kasten; Thomas J. Armstrong
Although widely practiced in the medical field, the current "see one, do one, teach one" surgical training model introduces a wide variety of variation between surgeons. Without a standardized procedure, causes of medical errors and relationships between surgery and outcomes are hard to identify. The proposed study will utilize work method techniques to develop a hierarchical taxonomy of essential tasks which will help identify and measure the effects of surgical techniques on patient outcomes. Video data of microvascular anastomosis was recorded and task decomposition analysis was completed for two full procedures. The resulting analysis was used to create a hierarchical taxonomy describing the surgery in the varying granularity levels of job, task, subtask, element, and motion. The taxonomy can be effective in identifying technique and tools variations at different levels. Future work includes linking the surgery variables to outcome measures and creating protocols for training and evaluating students in surgery.
A Survey of Nurses Self-reported Prospective Memory Tasks: What Must they Remember and What do they Forget BIBAFull-Text 1600-1604
  Nicole Fink; Richard Pak; Brock Bass; Michael Johnston; Dina Battisto
Although a nurse's job is inundated with prospective memory (PM) demands, and studies show that PM failures are a key component of adverse medical events, only one study has examined prospective memory in nursing (Grundgeiger, Sanderson, MacDougall, & Venkatesh, 2009). The purpose of the current study was to complement existing research with self-reports from 25 nurses on the PM tasks they must remember and those they forget. Results revealed that nurses most frequently perform episodic tasks, and these tasks can be further classified to better explain when nursing PM demands arise and what the demands consist of. A more specific categorization of nursing PM tasks enables researchers to focus on specific design solutions. We provide examples of such re-design recommendations intended to alleviate PM demands.
Does Teaming Up Make You Less Vulnerable to Task Interruption BIBAFull-Text 1605-1609
  Sebastien Tremblay; Francois Vachon; Daniel Lafond; Helen M. Hodgetts
Omnipresent in everyday multitasking environments task interruptions are usually detrimental to individual performance. Here, we examined whether teaming up renders an individual less vulnerable to interruptions in complex and dynamic situations. We employed a microworld to simulate command and control in a crisis management situation and to examine the relative impact of interruptions on operators working in a functional dyad versus operators working alone. While task interruption was detrimental to efficacy in supervisory control of both single and team interrupted operators, the latter were less vulnerable than the former. However, teaming up did not translate into faster resumption time, a consequence of the overhead attributable to coordination and communication requirements of collaborative work. These findings suggest that in complex and dynamic environments working in a small team confers more resistance to task interruption than working alone and speed of interruption recovery is no guarantee of quality of recovery.
Team Performance and Adaptability in Crisis Management: A comparison of cross-functional and functional teams BIBAFull-Text 1610-1614
  Dube. Genevieve; Tremblay. Sebastien; Banbury. Simon; Rousseau. Vincent
Crisis management (CM) is a facet of command and control (C2) characterized by complexity and uncertainty, in addition to high time pressure. In order to meet the challenges of this kind of unpredictable crisis situations, teams must be able to adapt and coordinate in an effective way. The functional structure (i.e., each team member is allocated a unique functional role) is the most common in CM, but it is not necessarily the most efficient one. Structures that encourage independence and flexibility, like the cross-functional structure (i.e., team functions are shared across all team members), could promote much better performance in this kind of situations. We compared these two structures, functional and cross-functional, in a dynamic situation of CM. C3Fire, a forest firefighting simulation, was used to compare team structure on the basis of performance (process gain), communication, coordination and adaptability. Cross-functional team structures presented a better process gain, a more efficient coordination, and less communication. Surprisingly, no differences were seen regarding adaptability.
Some Good and Bad with Spatial Ability in Three Person Teams that Operate Multiple Unmanned Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1615-1619
  Thomas D. Fincannon; Scott Ososky; Florian Jentsch; Joseph Keebler; Elizabeth Phillips
This study reports findings regarding the influence of spatial ability of each operator on a three person team on workload and performance. Sixty six participants were randomly assigned to the role of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operator, and intelligence officer (leader) to create a total of 22 teams, and spatial ability was assessed with Part 5 of the Guilford-Zimmerman Aptitude Survey. Findings indicated that spatial ability of the UAV operator and UGV operator improved reconnaissance, and while spatial ability of the UAV operator improved reacquisition of objectives after reconnaissance, spatial ability of the intelligence officer hindered team performance on this second task. A rationale for these results was developed with findings from the Multiple Resource Questionnaire (MRQ). Discussion focuses on the relationship between spatial ability and visual perception in complex teams.
Cracking the Bullwhip: Team Collaboration and Performance within a Simulated Supply Chain BIBAFull-Text 1620-1624
  Simon Banbury; Shaun Helman; James Spearpoint; Sebastien Tremblay
The current study explored the role of collaboration in team performance using a computer-based simulation of a supply chain called the Beer Game developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In SCM simulations, as in real life, a 'bullwhip' effect leads to a drop in profitability of the supply chain. The inclusion of Human Factors knowledge within the domain of SCM provides a rich source of understanding of bullwhip-related phenomena experienced by managers. In this paper we describe a technique called 'Cognitive Network Tracing' which is used to examine the processes by which supply chain members make decisions and engage in communication in such scenarios. We examined the influence of different levels of Situation Awareness (SA) information given to supply chain members, and the influence of individual- or team-focused instructions, on a variety of measures of performance, communication, and SA. Results showed that team-focused groups of participants achieved better supply chain management performance than individual-focused groups of participants, but only when they were given information about current demand level in the supply chain. It is concluded that "Management Flight Simulators", such as the Beer Game, have validity as tools to examine team collaboration and performance in management scenarios.
Expert Detection of Improvised Explosive Device Emplacement Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1625-1629
  Nancy J. Cooke; Cynthia Hosch; Steven Banas; Bruce P. Hunn; James Staszewski; John Fensterer
The objective of this study was to uncover the cognitive underpinnings of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) emplacement detection expertise possessed by United States Army Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Mission Payload Operators (MPOs) who have a proven history of success at this task. Specific issues of interest include identifying strategies used to detect IED emplacement threats, as well as identifying indicators and cues associated with IED emplacement to provide the basis for future training. We reviewed existing training programs and interviewed MPOs with varying levels of in-theater experience. Initial data gathered was verified by presenting video recordings from UAS sensors depicting possible IED emplacement activity to an additional group of experienced MPOs. These videos were used to elicit cues and strategies used to identify potential threats. Results of this study highlight tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) employed by experienced MPOs. The results also emphasize the need for training on IED emplacement detection and support the presentation of feedback from tactical ground units to reinforce effective search strategies. Finally, there is support for the development of realistic IED emplacement indicators in the visual models, supporting simulation for use as an unclassified training tool for initial and reinforcement training.
  Michael T. Curtis; Crystal Maraj; Monica Ritman; Florian Jentsch
This study investigated the impact of feedback interventions on a perceptual aviation training task. Previous research on feedback suggests that knowledge of results and conceptual feedback can facilitate learning in certain contexts. Using an aviation discrimination training module, we sought to examine this influence in perceptual training and collected data from 52 volunteer participants. Initial results suggested that there was no noticeable difference between feedback and non-feedback conditions with respect to post-training performance. However, an interesting finding stemming from the average reaction times during training was that knowledge of results may alter response strategies in training: Whereas the no-feedback and conceptual feedback groups required significantly more time for their responses during training than either in the pre- or post-test (suggesting that they needed time to "think through" their responses in the training), the knowledge-of-results group was not only faster than the other groups in training, but its respondents also did not show the increase in response times during training that was so characteristic of the other two conditions. We concluded that this suggested that knowledge of results allowed participants to respond quickly and without the need of time to "think through" their responses. Based on the outcome of this study, we discuss the training implications for training perceptual tasks that rely on accurate and timely action.
Component versus Holistic Visual Search Training for Improvised Explosive Detection BIBAFull-Text 1635-1639
  David Schuster; Brittany Sellers; Javier Rivera; Stephen M. Fiore; Florian Jentsch
In this study, we investigated X-ray screener performance on improvised explosive device (IED) detection within a perceptual discrimination training paradigm. We looked at the effects of a particular IED discrimination training intervention (holistic IED versus IED components) on detection when tested using realistic stimuli that varied the level of clutter overlap and overall difficulty in terms of clutter quantity. Results suggest that holistic training has benefits for performance during testing when threats are partially occluded. The results are discussed in the context of additional research directions and training design issues.
  Katherine Hamilton; Susan Mohammed
The current study examined how training type (cross-training vs. team coordination training) influenced team performance under varying environmental conditions (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate students (176 dyads) from a large northeastern university participated in the study. Data were collected through the NeoCITIES 1.0 simulation, which is a simulated task environment of an emergency management team. Findings indicated that training type had a significant impact on performance, such that dyads receiving cross-training had higher levels of performance than those receiving team coordination training. However, this effect did not vary across environmental conditions.
Como vaAssessing X-ray Security Screening Detection following Training with and Without Threat-item Overlap BIBAFull-Text 1645-1649
  Brittany Sellers; Javier Rivera; Stephen M. Fiore; David Schuster; Florian Jentsch
This study examined threat identification within a perceptual discrimination training paradigm for an x-ray baggage screening task. It explored how manipulations of item overlap (critical contour overlap, noncritical contour overlap, and no overlap) altered detection of actual threat items. The results suggest that threat detection by participants in the overlap groups was superior, but that this may have been due to changes to a more liberal response criterion. Further, participants trained without overlap were superior at determining that no threat was present. The data suggest that this shift in criterion may be due to a varying degree of understanding of what constitutes the critical components of a threat item. The discussion centers on how to develop training interventions which addresses this criterion shift while maintaining higher levels of detection.

POSTERS: POS4 -- Posters 4

Development of a novel measure of situation awareness: The case for eye movement analysis BIBAFull-Text 1650-1654
  Kristin Moore; Leo Gugerty
Situation awareness (SA) is a measure of an individual's knowledge and understanding of the current and expected future states of a situation. While there are numerous options for SA measurement, none are currently suitable in dynamic, uncontrolled environments. The current research explored the relationship between direct measures of SA and eye tracking measures as a first step in the development of an unobtrusive measure to be used in environments not suited for existing SA measurement methods. Results showed that the more individuals fixated on an important aircraft in an air traffic control task, the higher their SA for that aircraft. The study also provided evidence that the way operators allocate attention (i.e., distributed widely or narrowly) affects their SA, as well as their task performance. The results indicate that eye tracking may be a viable option for measuring SA in environments not conducive to current direct SA measurement techniques.
  Jacquelyn M. Crebolder; Joshua P. Salmon; Raymond M. Klein
A study was conducted to investigate the switching cost of changing the location of a visual alert while participants performed a high intensity, multi-display task. Based on the proposition that the spatial window of attention can be extended to include relevant, though non-task-related information, it was hypothesized that response times to the alert would increase immediately following a change in location and then recover. Generally, results showed that this was not the case, but instead response time increased several minutes after the change in location and then recovered. Further investigation revealed that age and expertise (defined as experience with tasks involving multiple displays or video gaming), were strong moderators of the effect of slowed response after switching. Less experienced adults showed an immediate and significant cost that was not shown at all, or was shown later, by more experienced adults. Older adults showed a switching cost that was absent in younger adults. The results suggest that experience with a specific task, or more general video game experience, can guard against the cost associated with moving an alert to a new, relatively untrained location.
  J. L. Szalma; P. A. Hancock
In many modern environments noise is a pervasive and influential source of stress. Whether it is the acute result of impulse noise or the chronic effects of prolonged exposure to active machinery the challenge of noise faces many who must accomplish vital performance duties. While noise can have diffuse effects which are shared in common with any chronic form of stress, its influence can also vary as a function of the characteristics of the task and of the noise itself. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of those influences so that their most harmful effects can be mitigated, their most beneficial effects exploited and any residual effects incorporated and synthesized into selection, training and design strategies to facilitate human performance.
Attentional Locus and Ground Dominance in Control of Speed During Low Altitude Flight BIBAFull-Text 1665-1669
  Eric J. Adamic; Joseph Behre; Brian P. Dyre
During simulated low-altitude flight, participants' control of speed is based on the optical flow rate projected by the ground, even when changes in altitude make this information unreliable and other sources of speed information, such as the flow rate of a cloud layer above the flight path, could help to provide more valid information (Wotring, 2008). This study examined whether this ground bias in perceiving speed could be overcome by using a secondary visual search task to manipulate the attentional focus away from the ground. A task requiring participants to visually scan for potentially-colliding planes either above or below the horizon was coupled with a speed maintenance task similar to the task used by Bennett, Flach, McEwen & Russell (2006) and Wotring, Dyre, & Behre (2008). We found that altitude disturbances induced inappropriate speed control in a similar manner independent of whether the secondary task required the attentional focus to be directed above or below the horizon. These results suggest that ground bias in speed control is robust even when attention is directed above the horizon by a secondary visual task.
Analyzing Sub-Optimal Human-Automation Performance Across Multiple Sessions BIBAFull-Text 1670-1674
  Gayle Hunt; Stephen Rice; Kasha Geels; David Trafimow
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the interaction between operator strategy and consistency over time. Background: Sub-optimal human-automation performance is a phenomenon whereby combining human operators with diagnostic aids results in performance that is less than desirable. Rice, Trafimow and Hunt (in press) used Potential Performance Theory (PPT) to show that strategies account for little of the variance in sub-optimal performance, and that most of the decrements are due to operators inconsistently using these strategies. The current study looks at these issues across multiple sessions. Method: 20 participants spent four sessions searching for enemy helicopters in aerial images of Baghdad; the task was augmented by a 70% reliable diagnostic aid that provided recommendations during each trial. Results: Consistency accounted for improvement in observed scores early on, despite no gains to strategy, while improvements in strategy accounted for increased observed performance in the later sessions, despite no gains to consistency. Individual data were also analyzed separately, showing various reasons for improvement across time. Conclusion: Both consistency and strategy play important roles in observed performance during human-automation interaction. Application: This study points to a topic that designers and users of automated systems should carefully consider.
The Mental Rotation Of Objects Presented In An Underwater Environment BIBAFull-Text 1675-1678
  Anthony R. Selkowitz; Valerie K. Sims
Fifty-Six undergraduates completed a series of mental rotation exercises involving levels of underwater spatial mental model activation. The mental rotation exercises were performed after achieving ninety percent accuracy on a brief training exercise. It tested whether underwater experience had an effect on mental rotation performance. Same/different responses were measured using reaction time and accuracy. Results indicated differences based on background, stimulus type, position, and or gender. Future studies will explore types of training to alleviate the differences found in the current study.
Team Member Personality, Performance and Stress in a RoboFlag Synthetic Task Environment BIBAFull-Text 1679-1683
  Svyatoslav Guznov; Gerald Matthews; Joel Warm
Effective teamwork is an important component in the control of multiple unmanned vehicles (UVs). Personality traits of individual team members may be a factor influencing overall team performance and individual levels of perceived workload and stress. In this study, a multiple UV environment was simulated by use of the RoboFlag game. Participants played the RoboFlag game individually or in two-person teams and were presented with this sequence of task-phases: RoboFlag alone, RoboFlag with a secondary task, RoboFlag alone. It was predicted that the RoboFlag performance would relate to 'Big Five' personality traits. It was also expected that Neuroticism would relate to higher workload and stress, especially in more demanding task conditions. The results suggested that the influence of personality is generally limited, but may sometimes be important. Specifically, high Neuroticism individuals showed higher workload and stress in a team player condition, which may impose social as well as task demands.
Modeling the Workload-Performance Relationship BIBAFull-Text 1684-1688
  Daniel N. Cassenti; Troy D. Kelley; Richard A. Carlson
Human factors research is often focused on the mental workload that is required to perform a task or set of tasks with the goal of reducing workload to make systems easier to manage. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) includes an algorithm to predict mental workload. The algorithm was developed using subject matter expert ratings of workload tasks. We aimed to enhance this capability by developing algorithms using data from four new studies investigating change in performance as demands on mental resources increase. The results indicate three task types of similar difficulty and one task type of much greater difficulty. We then map these to our hypothesized workload function. Finally, we propose a way forward in modeling performance as a function of workload in IMPRINT.
Mental Workload Measures of Auditory Stimuli Heard During Periods of Waiting BIBAFull-Text 1689-1693
  Philip Kortum; S. Camille Peres; Kurt Stallmann
A study of 105 university students examined whether the length or type of Auditory Progress Bar (APB) used in a telephone on-hold situation had an impact on users' subjective mental workload. Auditory cues can be designed into APBs to provide information to the caller regarding the approximate duration of the hold time. Previous research has found that the majority of callers tend to multi-task during on-hold situations. Thus the design of any stimuli presented while the caller is on hold should take this into account. To do this, it is important for designers to understand how APB design might impact callers' mental workloads. In the current study, participants experienced one of three APB design types (cello, sine, electronic) in four different lengths (30, 60, 120 and 240 seconds). An on-hold call center experience was simulated using a computer-generated interactive voice response system and workload data was collected using the NASA-TLX. The results of this study indicate that the type of APB does not appear to have a significant impact on callers' assessment of mental workload, but that the duration of the stimuli does.
Workload Causes Chaotic Fluctuation of Human Voice BIBAFull-Text 1694-1698
  Kakuichi Shiomi
The chaotic fluctuation of human voice is possible to calculate by SiCECA (Shiomi's Cerebral Exponent Calculation Algorithm) which adopt time-local definition of chaotic characteristics of time series. As results of experiments, follows were observed in chaotic fluctuation of human voice. The chaotic fluctuation of human voice, named CE (Cerebral exponent) showed correlation with speaker's psychosomatic condition. The value dependency on individuals was very small. If influences of recording equipments and environment are properly estimated, CE will be useful to evaluate speaker's arousal level.
  Grace W. L. Teo; James L. Szalma
The present study examined the Maximal Adaptability Model of Stress (Hancock & Warm, 1989) by investigating how the task characteristics of information rate (event rate) and information structure (display uncertainty) affect performance on a cognitively demanding signal detection task. Performance as well as perceived workload and stress were measured. Results supported a performance-workload association rather than performance insensitivity, but the pattern of decline in adaptation to task-induced stress generally conformed to the maximal adaptability model: At lower levels of demand the change in accuracy and workload was smaller, but at higher demand these changes increased in magnitude.
Anticipating Workload: Which Facets of Task Difficulty are Easiest to Predict BIBAFull-Text 1704-1708
  M. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; R. Grant; W. Seidelman; D. Clark; B. Seales
Prospective workload measures are used to assess individuals' expectations about tasks they are facing, how difficult they think the tasks will be and how well they expect to perform. In this study, 43 participants used the NASA-TLX subjective workload scale to predict the difficulty of surgical training tasks. The goal of the study was to determine the accuracy of their predictions and whether the act of assessing tasks before performing them affected their judgments post-performance. Regarding initial performance, results showed that participants formed prospective judgments that were consistent with their retrospective judgments, but they underestimated physical demands. After only minimal practice, however, their retrospective judgments deviated from both the experimental group's initial predictions and the control group's initial retrospective assessments. Anticipating mental demand was particularly challenging. No significant differences were found between the control and experimental conditions for post-performance assessments, suggesting that pre-performance assessment of workload has no effect of post-performance judgment of task difficulty.
A Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks, Logistic Regressions, and Classification Trees for Modeling Mental Workload in Real-Time BIBAFull-Text 1709-1712
  Allan Fong; Ciara Sibley; Anna Cole; Carryl Baldwin; Joseph Coyne
The use of eye metrics to predict the state of one's mental workload involves reliable and accurate modeling techniques. This study assessed the workload classification accuracy of three data mining techniques; artificial neural network (ANN), logistic regression, and classification tree. The results showed that the selection of model technique and the interaction between model type and time segmentation have significant effects on the ability to predict an individual's mental workload during a recall task. The ANN and classification tree both performed much better than logistic regression with 1-s incremented data. The classification tree also performed much better with data averaged over the full recall task. In addition, the transparency of the classification tree showed that pupil diameter and divergence are significantly more important predictors than fixation when modeling 1-s incremented data.
On the Development of Training Principles for Intuitive Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 1713-1716
  A. S. Boydstun; R. Patterson; B. Pierce; L. M. Park; J. Shannan
Many decisions made in real-world situations involve a form of intuitive pattern recognition. One way to investigate training principles for developing this type of decision making utilizes implicit learning in an immersive environment, where training stimuli are generated by a finite-state algorithm. In the current study, we investigated the effects of manipulating training-sequence length and algorithmic complexity in an immersive implicit-learning paradigm. Results: training-sequence length interacted with algorithmic complexity such that performance was best when training-sequence length was long and the algorithm was simple, and when training-sequence length was short and the algorithm was complex. When training intuitive decision making, training-sequence length should be matched to algorithmic complexity.
Aiding Complex Decision Making Through Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 1717-1721
  Joseph Juhnke; Dan Delaney; Tracey Wheeler; Brian R. Johnson; Joseph Cohn
Military personnel must perform in complex contested environments, where the challenges of decision making under fatigue or duress are common. An increased situational awareness will support individual and team decision making; however, current technological aids often obstruct real-world views and provide limited shared situational awareness. To overcome these difficulties, we are currently developing an Intelligent Augmented Reality Model (iARM) framework that will include: 1) an open source operating system that supports geolocation/triangulation, 2) data services that integrate voice, video, and images for facial/object recognition and pattern analysis, and 3) a hardware platform that integrates a computer processor, encrypted wireless, camera/video, and visor display. iARM will address various issues confronting soldiers today. Currently, access to information may be slow and inaccurate, information may be context-ignorant, systems do not learn over time, and handheld devices may distract from environmental information. iARM's primary goals are to improve decision making through increased situational awareness and reduced cognitive load during duress. Functioning as part of the human-machine system, iARM would provide military support across multiple domains. For example, iARM could present a flee path or create a model to enhance collective memory from a historical perspective by sensing environmental cues. This support would be presented via a naturalistic and unintrusive information display, augmenting the field environment.
Is Operators Compliance with Alarm Systems a Product of Rational Consideration BIBAFull-Text 1722-1726
  Rebecca Wiczorek; Dietrich Manzey
Most theories about operators' responses to alarm systems suggest that the operators' behavior is guided by their trust towards the system which in turn results from the subjective perception of system properties, namely the perceived reliability of the alarm system. However, some doubts about that assumption have arisen as recent research has not proven the mediating effect of trust. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between alarm system properties, trust, and behavior. The alarm reliability was varied while keeping the other system properties constant. It was found that participants' response-rates to alarms were predicted by their perceived alarm reliabilities. However, no mediation by trust could be established. These results suggest that operators' behavior is not always guided by their trust towards the system. Under specific circumstances their compliance rather depends on rational consideration regarding the most efficient strategy.
Tele-Operation Through Apertures: Mission Impassable or Mission Undrivable BIBAFull-Text 1727-1731
  Elizabeth A. Schmidlin; Keith S. Jones
Previous research has shown that search and rescue robots get stuck. We ask why. Perhaps operators attempt to drive through apertures larger than the robot, but too small to be driven through unhindered. If this is the case, then operators should base their decisions to enter apertures on their ability to drive the robot instead of other physical dimensions. This assumes that operators are cognizant of their abilities to drive the robot through the aperture. To test this assumption, participants viewed an image transmitted from a camera mounted on a robot and drove towards apertures of varying width. Half of the participants judged whether the robot could pass through, half judged whether they could drive the robot through. Finally, all participants attempted to drive the robot through the aperture. Results indicated that pass-ability judgments were accurate, but drive-ability judgments were not. Implications for training and interface design are discussed.
Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography: A Method for Studying Behavioral Selections in Daily Activities BIBAFull-Text 1732-1736
  Muneo Kitajima; Masato Nakajima
As human beings, we select our next behavior that should maximize our satisfaction by making use of the meme of our past experiences and by processing input from the environment and individual intrinsic state by appropriately allocating available cognitive resources. The underlying processes have been simulated by the Model Human Processor with Real-Time Constraints (MHP/RT) (Toyota and Kitajima, 2010). Based on MHP/RT, this paper proposes Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE), a new study method for understanding human behavior selections in daily life. When a study field is specified, CCE defines critical parameters by conducting qualitative MHP/RT simulations, and then designs ethnographical field observations and recordings of elite monitors' behavior in the space defined by the critical parameters. Structured interviews follow in order to obtain the participants' history of behavioral development. Analysis of the interview results aid in developing models of present behavior selections and chronological changes. A case study of CCE that deals with spectators' repetitive visits to a ballpark is presented in this paper.
A Novel Information Trail Model for Information Transformation in Cognitive Work Systems BIBAFull-Text 1737-1741
  Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Ann M. Bisantz
This paper presents a new model and methodology, called information trail model for documenting and understanding cognitive and sociotechnical elements when humans in a work system use artifacts and transform information to achieve their goals. In a complex system, humans create and manage complexity by self-organizing and engaging in action-stimulating behavior (stigmergy). In the model, humans create artifacts and work practices, and transform information to organize themselves purposefully. The transformation and stringing together of traces of information creates information trails for work goals, resulting in the information trail model. Different individuals create and represent the trails of information in a multitude of artifacts. Information trails capture latent work practices and information transformed by humans. Hence, the trails embed the emergent strategies that humans may use. Design implications of the information trail model are discussed.
Revised GOMS Operator for Drag and Drop BIBAFull-Text 1742-1746
  Young Joo Jeon
This article briefly discussed ways to overcome the limitations of existing GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection) models and primarily focused on the human processing of cognition and perception which was widely discussed yet a moot issue. Regarding mouse activities, especially drag-drop, the experiment demonstrates a significant difference between the predicted and empirical results in terms of time. The reason was found to be the following: in empirical testing, participants were swift in executing dragging behavior, whereas in NGOMSL modeling, not penetrated parameters of internal/external operators become sequential components that cause the metrics (e.g., movement time) to be computed serially. Based on other studies on mouse activity, the operator of the original NGOMSL is revised to include accurate cognitive process. In the validation, by implementing the revised GOMS operator, differences between the model execution time and the empirical duration, as measured when certain software is used, are evaluated. As a result, the revised GOMS model with new operators is proven to be effective and provides an estimate that deviates from the empirical value by at most 7%.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD2 -- Designing Products with Emotion: Fad, or Here to Stay?

Designing Products to Evoke an Emotional Connection in Users BIBAFull-Text 1747-1751
  Melroy E. D'Souza; Peter A. Hancock; Henriette C. M. Hoonhout; Kelly Krout; Phillip J. Ohme; Erin K. Walline
Nowadays, companies are building products (e.g. iPhone, Wii, Xbox360, 1.2" Flat Panel TVs, Dyson Ball™, etc.) that literally strike at the heart-strings of users through the emotional connection they seek to establish with customers. It is no longer just about ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction, functionality, but more around building holistic experiences that differentiate products/services and create a strong emotional attachment. In this panel we hope to bring greater awareness of this topic and discuss how the Human Factors community can play a more prominent role in developing products and services that deliver a "wow" experience.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD4 -- New Concepts in Product Design

User-centered Systems Engineering Knowledge Management Framework for Design Modeling of Future Smart Cities BIBAFull-Text 1752-1756
  Tareq Z. Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski; Ben Amaba
Employing human factors and user-centered systems engineering methodology and design principles to the development of smart cities has the potential of establishing a novel field of research. This paper introduces a novel human factors knowledge management framework for collaborative education, design and modeling of the next generation of smarter cities. A conceptual framework and practical applications of systems engineering approaches to support smarter cities development is proposed. The human systems component in collaborative systems engineering aims to ensure that human considerations for learners and designers have a prominent place in the integrated design and development of sustainable, smarter cities throughout the total system lifecycle. Future challenges that collaborative human and systems engineering techniques are likely to face in this domain are also discussed.
The Emotional Impact of Surface and Prototyping Properties in Product Design BIBAFull-Text 1757-1761
  Bertina Lee; Carolyn G. MacGregor
The emotional experience of products can have enormous impact on the overall experience: happy users are more accepting and open-minded. Being able to improve users' moods through product interaction has clear benefits and is currently the focus of designers all over the world. The purpose of this study is to help establish generalizable and useful relationship(s) between design parameters specific to the sense of touch and the emotional response to tactile experiences. Participants (N=16) explored blocks of varying roughness, hardness, fidelity (a real or virtual object), and affordance (whether or not the object lends itself to being tactually explored). In terms of surface properties, increases in texture roughness elicits more negative emotional responses (p≤0.013) while changes in hardness showed no effect. In terms of prototyping factors of fidelity and affordance, surprisingly a decrease in stimuli fidelity elicited more favourable emotional responses (p≤0.052) and lower affordance conditions generated faster response times (p≤0.032). In addition, males gave emotional responses in less time than females (p≤0.03). These results are discussed in terms of cognitive processing as well as product prototyping, packaging and displaying.
Transgenerational communication through affective imagery in mood boards BIBAFull-Text 1762-1765
  Yusuke Yamani; Jason S. McCarley; Deana McDonagh
Hedonomic design aims to make products not just easy to use, but pleasurable. Toward this goal, designers often use mood boards of abstract visual images to represent the aesthetic and affective response they would like their designs to evoke. We studied the effect of aging on viewers' ability to understand the meanings of abstract images selected by designers to express specific affective concepts. Young adult and older adult participants made visual judgment on the affective images. Data showed no age-related differences in the judgment accuracy. Results suggest that elderly adults can extract emotional meanings from young designers' mood boards as well as do young adults, and that affective product semantics may communicate similar meanings to users of different age group.
Sliders Rate Valence but not Arousal: Psychometrics of Self-Reported Emotion Assessment BIBAFull-Text 1766-1770
  Danielle Lottridge; Mark Chignell
Emotional reactions are increasingly recognized as an important part of experiences with technology, and there is a need for rigorous investigation into the collection of self-reported emotional data. We examine the capture of continuous, quantitative, affective self-reports as a complement to existing methods of evaluating human-system or product interaction. This experiment investigated 12 participants' use of a single slider (for valence, from very negative to very positive) and two sliders (for valence and arousal) in response to approximately 45 minutes of a nature video. Individual differences and physiological data (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were recorded. Emotion ratings were significantly related to skin conductance, which both differed significantly across chapters with different video content. We observed a learning effect, where participants' response times to probe questions decreased across blocks. Cognitive load appeared higher in the two-slider condition, with a possibly larger learning effect, and significantly longer dwell times, when compared to one slider. Arousal self-ratings were contradicted by skin conductance measures. We conclude with recommendations concerning the use of sliders for assessment of emotional user experience.
Product Archetype of Personal Computers as an Expression of the Collective Unconsciousness of People on their Heros Journey BIBAFull-Text 1771-1775
  Hugh E. McLoone
Human-technology interaction research has benefited from the insights of cognitive psychology and, more recently, from research on human emotion and affect. Yet, there is a dearth of research that goes deeper into the human mind towards imprinting, instincts, and the collective unconscious. The goal of this study was to uncover the product archetype(s) of personal computer experiences. Young adult men and women were asked to recall their very first personal computer experiences. The narrative structure of these earliest recollections matched several of the stages of the archetypal hero's journey as described by Joseph Campbell in his book The Hero with a Thousand Faces. The personal computer appeared to be an alchemical tool or book for success on each person's journey, offering the magic and power of game play, communication, information, creativity, sensory interactions, and portability.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD5 -- Methodology For Creating An Anthropometric Database For Workstation Setup Using CAESAR, NATICK, and NHANES

  Scott Openshaw; David Trippany
Current workstation setup and design guidelines are based on anthropometric databases from military subjects who were measured over 25 years ago. This panel discussion will explore the methodology used to implement a civilian anthropometric database (CAESAR -- Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource) in creating specifications for workstation guidelines and design. Discussion will include general methodology used, data variables that were chosen, statistical methods, data weighting methodology and cleaning of the dataset by eliminating certain outliers. Panelists will present their approach to the problem and seek discussion from the audience to understand the pros and cons of their methodology in formulating the foundation for an anthropometric guideline based on a civilian population rather than a military dataset.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD6 -- Ergonomics and Anthropometrics in Product Design

  Wonsup Lee; Sunghye Yoon; Heecheon You
Measurement protocols for hand anthropometry have been studied for ergonomic product design. The present study developed a 3D semi-automatic measurement protocol (3D-SAMP) which semi-automatically measures various hand dimensions using a 3D scanner. The 3D-SAMP was compared with the conventional direct measurement protocol (DMP) to examine its effectiveness. The 3D-SAMP consists of (1) fabricating a plaster cast of the hand, (2) placing landmarks on the plaster hand, (3) scanning the plaster hand with a 3D scanner, (4) automatically identifying the positions of the landmarks on the digital hand, and (5) automatically extracting hand anthropometric measurements (lengths, widths, thicknesses, and circumferences). An evaluation experiment was conducted and found the 3D-SAMP preferred to the DMP in terms of reliability, efficiency, and ease of measurement.
  Bernadette J. Brown-Clerk; Justin B. Rousek; Bethany R. Lowndes; Sandra M. Eikhout; Bradley J. Balogh; M. Susan Hallbeck
A novel device was developed that will allow laparoscopic surgeons to hand-operate standard electrosurgical equipment, eliminating the use of electrosurgical foot pedals, which typically cause static, unstable and non-neutral body positions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the optimal ergonomic placement of the novel electrosurgical hand controls integrated into a standard laparoscopic grasper to optimize functionality. Three distinct hand control designs were evaluated by 26 participants during the performance of four basic inanimate laparoscopic electrosurgical tasks. Hand control actuation force and user preference were evaluated for each hand control design. The results indicate that hand control design 1 (CD 1) resulted in the ability to generate significantly greater actuation force for three of the four tasks (P < 0.05). Additionally, CD 1 was subjectively rated significantly better for comfort and ease-of-use compared to the other two hand control designs (P < 0.05). As a result, CD 1 was determined to be an advantageous ergonomic design placement for the novel electrosurgical hand controls integrated into a standard laparoscopic grasper.
Determination of Bicycle Handle Diameters Considering Hand Anthropometric Data and User Satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 1790-1793
  Joonho Chang; Kihyo Jung; Jesun Hwang; Yuncheol Kang; Seokgi Lee; Andris Freivalds
Ergonomic product design considering both anthropometric variability and user preference is required for harmonizing the target users and products. In this study, bicycle handle diameters for three size categories were determined by considering anthropometric variability and preference. To design the bicycle handles, a four-step process was applied: (1) define anthropometric data, (2) develop size chart, (3) define a design equation, and (4) determine design values. In the first step, the 1988 US Army data was chosen as anthropometric data for the design target population. In the second step, to develop a size chart of bicycle handle, hand length and circumference were selected as key dimensions by principal component analysis on six representative hand dimensions. Next, a size chart of three categories (small: 175.5 mm, medium: 186.7 mm, and large: 196.2 mm) were derived by K-means clustering analysis for hand length and circumference. In the third step, the design equation accounting geometrical relationship between the sizes of two key dimensions and diameters of bicycle handle was adopted from a relevant existing research. In the last step, design values (40.9 mm, 43.5mm, and 45.7 mm) for each size category were calculated by inputting the sizes of the key dimensions to the design equation. To evaluate user satisfaction level of the bicycle handles, a user testing of three handle prototypes was conducted for 17 participants with various hand sizes. The test results showed that satisfaction scores for each hand group were significantly higher at the corresponding size category.
Postural benefits for children and adults when using the mouse next to a small keyboard BIBAFull-Text 1794-1796
  Peter W. Johnson; Ling Cui
Studies have shown that there are adverse performance and postural impacts when children use standard, adult-sized computer mice; however, the impact of children using adult-sized keyboards has been less rigorously evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any postural and performance differences when children and adults used the mouse next to a standard 104 key keyboard with a numeric keypad compared to a small, more compact keyboard without a numeric keypad. A total of 42 subjects, including 28 adults and 14 children between the ages 6-8 participated in the study. Subjects were asked to perform a series of standardized point-and-click tasks using a standard-sized mouse with both the standard and small keyboard. During mouse operation arm abduction and forearm rotation were measured using overhead photographs, and mouse performance was characterized by measuring movement times and the time it took to press-and-release (click) the left mouse button. Compared to the standard keyboard, both children and adults had less arm abduction (p < 0.10) and external rotation of the forearm (p < 0.05) when using the mouse next to the small keyboard. When comparing children to adults, children worked with significantly more arm abduction with both keyboards; however there were no significant differences between children and adults in internal and external rotation of the forearm. When comparing performance, children took almost twice as long to move the mouse between targets (p < 0.05) and were slightly faster when operating the mouse next to the small keyboard. In addition, compared to adults, it took children twice as long to press and release the mouse button. The study findings indicate that children would benefit from a postural standpoint if computer manufacturers sold, and schools and parents purchased, computers with smaller keyboards. The two-fold difference between children and adults in the time it took actuate the mouse button indicate that mouse button activation forces may need to be lower for children.
  Sharon Joines; Siwen Liu; Ashley Vercco
Grip strength has been well studied in conjunction with product and individual characteristics including age. Design characteristics for products targeted to older adults frequently include larger or chunkier handles or grips. To understand motivation for these design choices, this investigation assessed grip strength at 5 grip spans of 31 participants in two age groups. The downward shift in the grip strength/span curve can be attributed to the decrease in strength with age associated with loss of type II muscle fibers in all muscles (which was more pronounced for male participants). However, there was no shift in the grip strength/span curve peak to a wider grip. Thus the affinity for chunkier handles (increased volume, contact surface area, and grip span) and grip designs for older adults is not motivated by a shift in peak grip strength over the tested grip span.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD7 -- User-Centered Methods For New Product Concept Development

  H. C. M. (Jettie) Hoonhout; Stanley Caplan; William Green; Jennifer Watts-Perotti; Wendy A. Rogers
When developing a successor of an existing product, it is relatively easy to involve consumers in the early stages of the process -- one could for example observe them using the current products, and discuss with them what could be improved. However, when creating products from 'scratch', consumers might find it difficult to articulate future needs, to appreciate the potential and limitations of new technologies, or think about possible applications. So, consumer "co-creation" in the early creative phase will require alternative approaches towards user requirements definition, concept development, and concept feedback. A range of different approaches to include the consumer perspective early in the development process will be presented. Furthermore, implications from a Human Factors perspective will be discussed.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD8 -- User-Centered Approaches to Product Design

Investigation of Relative Mobile Phone Size Preference Using Interactive Genetic Algorithms BIBAFull-Text 1807-1811
  Dan Nathan-Roberts; Yili Liu
There are 4.6 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide, yet relatively little is known about what leads to a highly desirable phone design. This study employed an Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA) to identify the relative importance of physical factors in mobile phone design, calculating factor preference ratios and the limits of user discriminability between levels of the factors. Ten participants interacted with a GUI running the IGA to iteratively evolve their preferred design. Screen size, button spacing, and phone radius were varied independently. Results showed that users strongly preferred their final designs over initial ones, validating the use of an IGA in this application. Vertical screen size and button spacing were significantly different between the first and last iterations. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed horizontal screen size preference varied between participants, and vertical screen size and phone radius were correlated. Future research needs are discussed, including testing the effect of prompt on design preference.
An Analysis of Natural Motion for Product Design: Refrigerator Half-Guard Installation Part Design BIBAFull-Text 1812-1816
  Jangwoon Park; Sujin Kim; Heecheon You
Ergonomic product design which considers users' natural-use motion is of importance to improve the usability and satisfaction of a product. A five-step process of product design was developed in the present study by measuring and analyzing users' natural product-use motion with a motion capture system. The developed process was applied to the ergonomic design improvement of a half-guard installation component of a refrigerator; new guard designs (diagonal and arc shape) were developed with the process and evaluated in terms of validity during the development as two measures (task satisfaction and similarity of natural motion). According to the evaluation result, the satisfaction at putting in- and out-task of new guard designs (diagonal and arc shape; 6.3 ± 0.5 points) was significantly higher than that of existing guard designs (3.3 ± 1.0 points); the difference between natural motion and product-use motion in new guard designs (1.0 ± 0.3 cm) was significantly less than that of existing guard designs (nipper and rectangular shape; 2.0 ± 0.2 cm). The proposed process of natural motion analysis and product design is widely applicable to ergonomic product design and evaluation.
Harnessing the Users Mental Power to Enhance Website Creativity: The Meta-design Approach to Web Personalization BIBAFull-Text 1817-1821
  Liang Zeng; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
Use of the meta-design approach to facilitate web personalization is proposed, so as to enhance website creativity under the paradigm of Web 2.0. Then, a study is reported that investigates the influence of user-driven personalization on website creativity and on web user behavior. Results showed that a web service that supports creative personalization features by way of the meta-design approach can significantly enhance user-perceived creativity of the site and thus trigger more of the user's intention of adoption/use. Additionally, perceived attractiveness (PA) is found to be a significant predictor of web user behavior. The provision of user-driven personalization facilitated by the meta-design approach opens another source for website creativity, and the endeavor of engaging customers in the co-creation process would foster consumer acceptance of the web service.
Development of the Inclusive Indoor Play Design Guidelines BIBAFull-Text 1822-1826
  Sarah Endicott; Abir Mullick; Gourab Kar; Marisa Topping
There are no guidelines that help with designing inclusive indoor playthings and spaces. Consequently, the design of indoor playthings and spaces has followed an intuitive approach of "good design" not grounded in research, investigation or testing. Through research using a variety of methods, characteristics were identified that makes a plaything or play environment universally inclusive. The results of the research were used to develop Inclusive Indoor Play Design Guidelines. The Guidelines were tested and successfully implemented by designing and developing inclusive indoor play environments and playthings.
  Marita A. O'Brien; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Successful performance with novel technologies may be enhanced if prior knowledge can be used to guide the interaction. However, knowledge alone may be insufficient to minimize age-related differences in technology interactions. The goal of the present study was to examine age-related differences in the use of a novel everyday technology, the Flip video camcorder, when experience with comparable technologies was controlled. Younger adults and older adults with a similar level of general technology experience were video recorded as they completed three tasks while thinking aloud. Comparisons of self-reported prior experience with technologies comparable to the Flip indicated similar, significant levels of experience. In spite of similar experience, younger adults performed significantly faster than older adults on two of the three tasks. Younger adults were also more likely to perform optimally on these tasks. In contrast, older adults were more likely to only partially complete two of the three tasks. Older adults were also more likely to report higher cognitive workload and lower satisfaction with their performance. These findings suggest that designers need detailed assessments of users' knowledge of comparable technologies and proposed design features to mitigate performance differences in a diverse user population.

SAFETY: S1 -- Safety Communications: Do You Get It?

Evaluating Hazard Symbols for the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for Hazard Communication BIBAFull-Text 1832-1836
  Robert G. Hesse; Nicholas H. Steele; Michael J. Kalsher; Claudia MontAlvao
Sweeping globalization has resulted in unparalleled economic growth, including increased international trade of hazardous chemicals. Fundamental differences between nations trading these materials, including language, literacy rates, cultural values, and technical and governmental infrastructures has created an urgent need for a common system of risk communication to reduce the occurrence of deaths and serious injuries that result from unintended chemical exposures. To accomplish this goal, the United Nations (UN) created the Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) in 1992. Unfortunately, there was no requirement for testing of the GHS labeling components, including pictograms intended to depict specific hazards, before their deployment. In Experiment 1, twenty GHS hazard pictograms were subjected to comprehension testing in two non-student samples from the U.S. and Brazil, respectively. In Experiment 2, alternatives for five of the GHS pictograms that were least well understood were created and then re-tested for comprehension. Several of the new pictograms outperformed their "original" GHS counterparts in terms of comprehension and participant preference. Overall, the results of testing showed that only a small portion of the original GHS hazard pictograms reached acceptable levels of comprehension. Therefore, additional systematic work is needed to develop GHS pictogram alternatives that effectively convey safety hazards to a global audience.
Hazard Connotation of Fire Safety Terms BIBAFull-Text 1837-1840
  Michael S. Wogalter; Jesseca R. Israel; Soyun Kim; Emily R. Morgan; Kwamoore M. Coleman; Julianne West
Knowledge about the level of danger associated with fire hazards is crucial for avoiding injury when dealing with hazardous materials. Participants (N=107) comprised of undergraduate students and non-student adults rated 12 one- and two-word phrases based on the extent of fire haza