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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2014 Annual Meeting 2014-10-27

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting
Location:Chicago, Illinois
Dates:2014-Oct-27 to 2014-Oct-31
Publisher:HFES
Standard No:hcibib: HFES14; TA 166 H794
Papers:498
Pages:2401
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. Aerospace Systems: AS1 -- Human Factors in Aviation
  2. Aerospace Systems: AS2 -- Unmanned Aircraft Systems
  3. Aerospace Systems: AS3 -- Breaking Down Barriers to UAS Integration: Addressing Technology Challenges
  4. Aerospace Systems: AS4 -- Naturalistic Flying Studies: Innovation in Aviation Safety Research
  5. Aerospace Systems: AS5 -- Research in Long-Term Human Performance in Space: Methods and Implications
  6. Aerospace Systems: AS6 -- Air Traffic Control
  7. Aerospace Systems: AS7 -- Remotely Piloted Aircraft: A Human-Systems Integration Perspective
  8. Aerospace Systems: AS8 -- Safety and Communications
  9. Aging: A1 -- Transportation in an Age-Diverse Society
  10. Aging: A2 -- Older Users' Needs: Flying, by Lifestyle, and at Home
  11. Aging: A3 -- Managing Illness: Individual and System-Level Factors
  12. Aging: A4 -- Aging Potpourri: Fall Prevention, Force Control, Technology Adoption, and Attentional Failures
  13. Augmented Cognition: AC1 -- Measuring Workload in Dynamic Environments
  14. Augmented Cognition: AC2 -- Augmented Cognition in Complex Environments
  15. Product Design: PD4 -- Wearable Product Design
  16. Product Design: PD1 -- Physical Interfaces
  17. Product Design: PD2 -- User-Centered Product Design Award
  18. Product Design: PD3 -- General Human Factors and Industry
  19. Product Design: PD5 -- Potpourri
  20. Product Design: PD6 -- Modern Tactics and Tech
  21. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE1 -- Interruptions
  22. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE2 -- High-Stress Work
  23. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE3 -- Cognition/CSE
  24. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE4 -- How to Tell a "Good" Cognitive Task Analysis?
  25. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE5 -- Teams
  26. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE6 -- Human Trust in Other Humans, Automation, Robots, and Cognitive Agents: Neural Correlates and Design Implications
  27. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE7 -- Interface Design
  28. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE8 -- DM/Decision Aids
  29. Communication: C1 -- Mediated and Person-to-Person Communication
  30. Communication: C2 -- Human Factors in Cyber Warfare
  31. Computer Systems: CS1/I -- User Experience Day Keynote -- Starting Up in the New Era of Human Factors
  32. Computer Systems: CS2/I -- Future Visions of the User Experience
  33. Computer Systems: CS3/I -- User Experience Day Best Paper Competition, Sponsored by CSTG
  34. Education: E1 -- Innovations and Trends in Human Factors Education
  35. Education: E2 -- The Paradox of Human Factors: Exemplification of and Potential Solution to a Broken System of Science
  36. Education: E3 -- Recommendations for Fostering a Successful Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Student Chapter
  37. Education: E4 -- Variance in Academia: It Is Not All R1's Out There, and Even Those Are Not What You Think
  38. Environmental Design: ED1 -- Office Work
  39. Environmental Design: ED2 -Consequences of New Devices and Apps for Environmental Design
  40. Environmental Design: ED3 -- HF in Vehicle Interiors and Other Environments
  41. Forensics Professional: FP1 -- Forensic Potpourri
  42. Forensics Professional: FP2 -- Dealing with Dubious Testimony Provided by Opposing Experts
  43. General Sessions: GS1 -- Past President's Forum -- Our Society in 2025: The Need for Change...
  44. General Sessions: GS2 -- General Sessions Lectures 1
  45. General Sessions:
  46. General Sessions: GS5 -- General Sessions Lectures 2
  47. General Sessions: GS7 -- The Grand Challenges for HFES and HF/E Profession: The Fellows' Perspective
  48. General Sessions: GS8 -- Meet the HFES Journal Editors
  49. General Sessions: GS9 -- Getting Published
  50. General Sessions: GS10 -- New Directions in Human Reliability Analysis for Oil and Gas, Cybersecurity, Nuclear, and Aviation
  51. Health Care: HC1 -- Consumer Health Care Information Systems
  52. Health Care: HC2 -- Managing Interruptions in Health Care: From Theory to Practice
  53. Health Care: HC3 -- Understanding Caregiver Tasks
  54. Health Care: HC4 -- Medical Team Handoffs: Current and Future Directions
  55. Health Care: HC5 -- Design of Health-Care Products and Systems
  56. Health Care: HC6 -- Surgical Performance and Simulation Training
  57. Health Care: HC7 -- The Work and Work Systems of Patients: A New Frontier for Macroergonomics
  58. Health Care: HC8 -- Electronic Health-Care Systems
  59. Health Care: HC9 -- Health-Care Collaborations: Improving Patient Quality and Safety Using Team and Systems Engineering Approaches
  60. Health Care: HC10 -- Interruptions and Teams
  61. Health Care: HC11 -- Tailoring Cognitive Task Analysis Methods for Use in Healthcare
  62. Health Care: HC12 -- Clinician Workload Concerns: Physical and Cognitive
  63. Health Care: HC13 -- Methodologies for Evaluating Health-Care Performance
  64. Human Performance Modeling: HP1 -- Speech and Alarms
  65. Human Performance Modeling: HP2 -- Using Empirical Research and Human Performance Modeling to Predict Astronaut Performance in Long-Duration Space Missions
  66. Human Performance Modeling: HP3 -- Information and Cognition
  67. Human Performance Modeling: HP4 -- Modeling in Control and Training
  68. Human Performance Modeling: HP5 -- Monitoring, Vigilance, and Performance Degradation
  69. Human Performance Modeling: HP6 -- Ergonomic Aspects of Clinical and Surgical Procedures
  70. Human Performance Modeling: HP7 -- Sensors, Biometrics, and Behavior
  71. Individual Differences: ID1 -- Vigilance, Monitoring, and Automation
  72. Individual Differences: ID2 -- Cognition and Performance I
  73. Individual Differences: ID3 -- Cognition and Performance II
  74. Interactive Posters & Demos: POS1 -- Interactive Posters & Demos
  75. Interactive Posters & Demos: POS2 -- Interactive Posters & Demos
  76. Internet: I1/CS -- Ergonomics and Tools
  77. Internet: I2/CS -- Usability and Usable Metrics
  78. Internet: I3/CS -- Design, Development, and Usability
  79. Internet: I4/CS -- Usable Interactions
  80. Macroergonomics: ME1 -- Macroergonomics and Sociotechnical Methods: Current and Future Directions
  81. Macroergonomics:
  82. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE2 -- Physiological Research in Ergonomics
  83. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE3 -- Physical Demands on the Upper Extremity
  84. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE4 -- Ergonomics Exposure Assessment
  85. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE5 -- Low Back Disorders
  86. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE6 -- Applied Ergonomics
  87. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE7 -- Aging, Obesity, and Beyond: Assessment of Work and Implications for Healthy Work Environment
  88. Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE8 -- Vision and Falls
  89. Perception & Performance: PP1 -- Driving
  90. Perception & Performance: PP2 -- Haptics
  91. Perception & Performance: PP3 -- Displays and Imaging
  92. Perception & Performance: PP4 -- Metrics and Methodology
  93. Perception & Performance: PP5 -- Visual Search and Cognition
  94. Safety: S1 -- Child Injury: Forensic Human Factors Points to the Need for Better Product Designs
  95. Safety: S2 -- Hazards and Warnings
  96. Safety: S3 -- Safety Evaluations and Training
  97. Student Forum: SF2 -- Aging and Cognition
  98. Student Forum: SF3 -- Education, Training, and Performance
  99. Student Forum: SF4 -- Potpourri
  100. Student Forum: SF5 -- Product Design
  101. Student Forum: SF6 -- Surface Transportation
  102. Surface Transportation: ST1 -- Cognitive Training and Driving
  103. Surface Transportation: ST2 -- Driver Assistance and Vehicle Automation
  104. Surface Transportation: ST3 -- Evaluation, Alerts, & Warnings
  105. Surface Transportation: ST4 -- Naturalistic Driving Research
  106. Surface Transportation: ST5 -- Survey-Based Driving Safety Research
  107. Surface Transportation: ST6 -- Mobile Phone Use and Roadway Safety
  108. Surface Transportation: ST7 -- Driver Distraction
  109. Surface Transportation: ST8 -- Driving Behaviors & Measurement Methods
  110. Surface Transportation: ST9 -- Eye Tracking and Driving Safety Research
  111. Surface Transportation: ST10 -- Driver Behaviors and Driving Simulation
  112. System Development: SD1 -- Human Factors in Systems Design
  113. System Development: SD2 -- The U.S. Army Acquisition Process and Close MANPRINT Encounters of the "Early" & "Agile" Kind
  114. System Development: SD3 -- David Meister Award: Best Technical Paper
  115. Test & Evaluation: TE1 -- Test & Evaluation in Support of System Development
  116. Training: T1 -- Training and Instruction in a Military Context
  117. Training: T2 -- Training and Simulation for Skill Acquisition
  118. Virtual Environments: VE1 -- Gaming Technology for Critical Thinking: Engagement, Usability, and Measurement
  119. Virtual Environments: VE2 -- Current Research in Simulations, Virtual Environments, and Games
  120. Virtual Environments: VE3 -- Me and My VE Part 3

Aerospace Systems: AS1 -- Human Factors in Aviation

Examination of Anthropometric Databases for Aircraft Design BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Robert E. Joslin
Presently there is no prescribed anthropometric database provided or specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations, hence aircraft designs often utilize legacy anthropometric databases that may not reflect the target pilot population. This study was an information synthesis of anthropometric databases for aircraft design. The findings indicated that, although most current aviation designs have utilized legacy anthropometric data, there are a sufficient number of valid existing and emerging anthropometric databases that include body dimension measurements and weight/mass measurements compiled from data sets gathered either through large surveys, or statistically derived, that are representative of the target pilot population. Furthermore, new scanning technologies, along with more sophisticated statistical techniques for matching/forecasting target populations from legacy anthropometric databases, have enhanced the ability to effectively and efficiently gather these data on a periodic basis, hence anthropometric data that are not representative of the pilot population should no longer be accepted as a limitation in aircraft design. The one area that demands further study are current data for human-strength/control force measurements. Although there have been some recent small-scale surveys conducted to gather these data, there is a paucity of any current large-scale comprehensive human strength/control force data applicable to aircraft design.
Touch Screens on the Flight Deck: The Impact of Touch Target Size, Spacing, Touch Technology and Turbulence on Pilot Performance BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Sonia Dodd; Jeff Lancaster; Andrew Miranda; Steve Grothe; Bob DeMers; Bill Rogers
There is widespread interest in the aviation industry in using touch screen controls on the flight deck. While earlier research efforts have explored touch screen use in aircraft, relatively recent advancements in both hardware and software suggest that renewed attention to touch can help inform its use in modern aircraft. A study was conducted using a medium-fidelity motion flight simulator to investigate how touch target size, touch target spacing, and touch technology impacted pilot data entry performance, workload perception, and fatigue in varying levels of turbulence. The results are intended to support the development of guidelines and recommendations for the integration of touch screen controls into the flight deck.
A Flight Simulator Study to Evaluate Manual Flying Skills of Airline Pilots BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Andreas Haslbeck; Paul Kirchner; Ekkehart Schubert; Klaus Bengler
This paper reports an experimental study with the objective to assess pilots' raw-data-based flight performance which is affected by long-term practice and structured training. Fifty-seven airline pilots with different levels of aviation experience scheduled on an Airbus fleet, representing contrary levels of practice and training, had to fly a simulated 45 minutes approach and landing scenario while flight performance data were objectively recorded. The level of practice and training was found to have a significant influence on manual flying skills. Pilots with low levels of practice and training showed a large variance in manual flight performance; pilots with high levels of practice and training demonstrated high and homogenous performance.
Human Teaming Changes Driven by Expectations of a Synthetic Teammate BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Mustafa Demir; Nancy J. Cooke
Current automation that behaves as a teammate may be rejected by human teammates due to a lack of human-like mental models, a sense of self, essential communication and coordination abilities, and trustworthiness. This experiment was conducted with all-human teams to 1) establish baseline team performance and communication data for later comparison with human-synthetic teams and 2) to understand how human teammate behavior changes when human teammates believe they are interacting with a synthetic teammate. The teams that were told that the human Air Vehicle Operator (AVO) was synthetic liked the AVO more, perceived less workload, and gave the AVO more suggestions compared to teams told that the AVO was a remote human. These effects speak to human expectations regarding synthetic teammates or more generally, automation.

Aerospace Systems: AS2 -- Unmanned Aircraft Systems

UAS Sense and Avoid System Interface Design and Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Gloria L. Calhoun; Crystal A. Miller; Thomas C. Hughes; Mark H. Draper
A key challenge to integrating unmanned aerial systems (UASs) into the National Airspace is providing a means for UASs to sense and avoid (SAA) other aircraft. Additionally, successful applications of a SAA system will depend on the degree to which the operator understands the rationale for its maneuvers/decision aids and can interact with the system to tailor and/or override the automation. This paper describes two interface prototypes for the Jointly Optimal Collision Avoidance (JOCA) SAA system that differed in feedback provided on the algorithm's state and planned maneuvers. Results from an operator-in-the-loop simulation are also presented. Although performance was generally similar with both interface types, the participants rated their ability to maintain safe separation from other aircraft and overall situation awareness as better with the interface that provided more visibility into the SAA algorithm's intent.
Adapting a Human -- Automation Trust Scale to an Air Traffic Management Environment BIBFull-Text 26-30
  Sarah Hunt; Lynne Martin; Joey Mercer
Survey of Operators' Unmanned Aircraft Systems Experience BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Xiaochen Yuan; Jonathan M. Histon; Steven Waslander
The routine integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into controlled airspace is a pressing challenge around the world. In order to identify what information surveillance systems need to detect and display about the UAS, air traffic controllers and pilots were surveyed. Participants were asked a wide range of questions regarding their experience with UAS and information requirements under different conditions. This paper focuses on understanding operators' previous experiences with UAS. Close to 60% of controllers and 42% of pilots reported having had some form of experience with UAS. Approximately the same proportion of controllers reported UAS operating in airspace designated for UAS operations as those reporting operations in low and high density regions of airspace and near standard flows in their airspace.
Survey of Operators' Information Requirements on Individually Operated Unmanned Aircraft Systems BIBAFull-Text 36-40
  Xiaochen Yuan; Jonathan M. Histon; Steven Waslander
Integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into controlled airspace will depend on identifying what information surveillance systems need to detect and display about the UAS to air traffic controllers and pilots. Pilots and controllers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of their information requirements about UAS and the availability of that information in current operations. It was found that the most commonly identified information requirement for both pilots and controllers was the altitude of a UAS followed by the planned maneuvers of the UAS. For controllers, having previous UAS experience was most associated with an increased requirement for information on a UAS model/type and ground speed, as well as the weight and mission of the UAS. For pilots experience with UAS increased the most the requirement for knowledge of the operator of a UAS. Interestingly, for pilots, the requirement for every other information element stayed constant, or decreased when comparing perceptions of those with and without experience.

Aerospace Systems: AS3 -- Breaking Down Barriers to UAS Integration: Addressing Technology Challenges

Breaking Down Barriers to UAS Integration: What are government agencies doing? BIBAFull-Text 41-43
  Robert J. Shively
This symposium brings together researchers from NASA, the FAA, DoD and academia who have been investigating human factors barriers to UAS integration into the NAS. Participants will describe NASA's five year effort, work on defining minimum information elements for detect and avoid, acceptable levels of automation, acceptable time for UAS pilots to respond to ATC and DoD efforts on air born sense and avoid.
Human-Machine Interface Development for Common Airborne Sense and Avoid Program BIBAFull-Text 44-48
  Mark H. Draper; Jessica S. Pack; Sara J. Darrah; Sean N. Moulton; Gloria L. Calhoun
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are starting to access manned airspace today and this trend will grow substantially as the number of UAS and their associated missions expand. A key challenge to safely integrating UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS) is providing a reliable means for UAS to sense and avoid (SAA) other aircraft. The US Air Force is addressing this challenge through the Common Airborne Sense and Avoid (C-ABSAA) program. C-ABSAA is developing a sophisticated 'sense-and-avoid' capability that will be integrated onboard larger UAS. This paper summarizes human factors activities associated with enabling this revolutionary capability. Existing knowledge was reviewed and crosschecked to formulate a first draft set of minimum information requirements for SAA tasks. A gap analysis spawned an intruder depiction study and an operator requirements survey. Finally, operator interface prototypes were designed to support: 1) a minimum information set for SAA, as well as 2) the availability of several advanced situation assessment and maneuver guidance aids. Through collaboration with NASA's UAS in the NAS project, these concepts were incorporated into a UAS ground control station for formal evaluation through a high fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation.
NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS: A Report on the Human Systems Integration Phase 1 Simulation Activities BIBAFull-Text 49-53
  Lisa Fern; R. Conrad Rorie; R. Jay Shively
In 2011 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began a five-year Project to address the technical barriers related to routine access of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Planned in two phases, the goal of the first phase was to lay the foundations for the Project by identifying those barriers and key issues to be addressed to achieve integration. Phase 1 activities were completed two years into the five-year Project. The purpose of this paper is to review activities within the Human Systems Integration (HSI) subproject in Phase 1 toward its two objectives: 1) develop GCS guidelines for routine UAS access to the NAS, and 2) develop a prototype display suite within an existing Ground Control Station (GCS). The first objective directly addresses a critical barrier for UAS integration into the NAS -- a lack of GCS design standards or requirements. First, the paper describes the initial development of a prototype GCS display suite and supporting simulation software capabilities. Then, three simulation experiments utilizing this simulation architecture are summarized. The first experiment sought to determine a baseline performance of UAS pilots operating in civil airspace under current instrument flight rules for manned aircraft. The second experiment examined the effect of currently employed UAS contingency procedures on Air Traffic Control (ATC) participants. The third experiment compared three GCS command and control interfaces on UAS pilot response times in compliance with ATC clearances. The authors discuss how the results of these and future simulation and flight-testing activities contribute to the development of GCS guidelines to support the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. Finally, the planned activities for Phase 2, including an integrated human-in-the-loop simulation and two flight tests are briefly described.
Minimum Visual Information Requirements For Detect and Avoid in Unmanned Aircraft Systems BIBFull-Text 54-58
  Ferne Friedman-Berg; Jonathan Rein; Nicole Racine
Measured Response for Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment BIBAFull-Text 59-63
  Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Gregory Morales; Dan Chiappe; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste; Robert Jay Shively
The U.S. Congress passed the FAA Modernization and Reform Act in 2012, which calls for a plan to integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). For UAS to be allowed to operate in the NAS, they will be required to 'act and respond as manned aircraft do.' FAA regulations require that pilots respond promptly to air traffic controller (ATCo) commands. However, they do not quantify what an acceptable latency is. We maintain that research needs to be carried out to identify an acceptable latency in UAS responding, known as the 'measured response.' While the measured response can be broken down into several components, the present paper provides an overview of how latencies in verbal communication and command execution can impact Pilot-ATCo communications and acceptability ratings when single and multiple UAS are operating in a simulated NAS environment.
UAS Measured Response: The Effect of GCS Control Mode Interfaces on Pilot Ability to Comply with ATC Clearances BIBAFull-Text 64-68
  R. Conrad Rorie; Lisa Fern
The present study examined the effects of three different control mode interfaces on unmanned aerial system (UAS) pilots' ability to comply with air traffic controller (ATC) traffic clearances. Pilots controlled a simulated UAS with a waypoint-only interface, an auto-pilot interface and a manual, stick and throttle interface. Researchers recorded pilots' 'measured response' at several stages of ATC-pilot interaction, which consisted of verbal response times, initial response times, initial edit times, total edit times, and overall compliance times. Results indicate that pilots are best able to comply with ATC clearances when provided with auto-pilot and manual control inputs. Limitations to the present study and future analyses are discussed.

Aerospace Systems: AS4 -- Naturalistic Flying Studies: Innovation in Aviation Safety Research

Naturalistic Flying Studies: Innovation in Aviation Safety Research (Discussion Panel) BIBAFull-Text 69-71
  Carlo Caponecchia; Christopher Wickens; Michael Regan; Richard Steckel; Greg Fitch
Measuring the performance of operators, and how they interact with complex systems is a key issue in identifying risks and improving safety. Naturalistic studies in some transport domains, chiefly road driving, have yielded significant advances in our understanding of road user behavior and road safety. Naturalistic studies of flying are only starting to develop around the world. This discussion panel focuses on the challenges and opportunities presented by 'naturalistic flying studies', in which pilot behavior is automatically recorded continuously by video, GPS, accelerometers and other sensors. Data acquisition systems for recording pilot behavior in light aircraft are now available, at reasonable cost. This panel will facilitate the sharing of experiences across road and aviation domains of this relatively new data collection and analysis method, and the building of collaborations with, and learning from, naturalistic human factors investigations in these and other domains. Naturalistic flying studies can provide a unique range of information including: exposure data; quantification of risk; the nature and rate of system violations; accident and incident data; normative data by age, experience and operator state; the opportunity to validate simulator, performance and self-reported data; and the ability to evaluate the relative efficacy of new equipment, procedures and safety interventions (see Regan et al 2013). Considering the capabilities of naturalistic human factors investigations, panelists will reflect on the priority research areas for naturalistic flying studies and the unique opportunities they present for aviation safety. Issues that may distinguish the aviation context from other domains in which naturalistic studies have been conducted will also be considered.

Aerospace Systems: AS5 -- Research in Long-Term Human Performance in Space: Methods and Implications

Research in Long Term Human Performance in Space: Methods and Implications BIBAFull-Text 72-76
  Christopher A. Miller; Ute Fischer; Kim Smith-Jentsch; Steve W. J. Kozlowski; Kathleen Mosier; Ms. Peggy Wu; Mihriban Whitmore
Team interactions, performance, and cohesion, as well as individual psychosocial states, are increasingly recognized and studied contributions to overall system performance, but few teams will ever live and work together as closely for as long as those supporting proposed deep space missions like those to Mars or the asteroids. Yet studying team dynamics and the factors which affect them during space exploration is extraordinarily challenging since no such team performance data yet exists. The members of this panel are participating in various NASA-sponsored research efforts to explore long duration team interactions in space exploration contexts. The lessons they are learning, as well as the techniques they are developing to study this challenging problem, will serve to inform not only human space exploration over the next few decades, but also team performance and relationships in a wide variety of earth-based domains in which humans must work with each other to accomplish demanding tasks over the long term and/or in Isolated, Confined, and Extreme (ICE) environments.

Aerospace Systems: AS6 -- Air Traffic Control

Air traffic controllers' visual scanning, aircraft selection, and comparison strategies in support of conflict detection BIBAFull-Text 77-81
  Ziho Kang; Ellen J. Bass; Douglas W. Lee
When aircraft are not aligned into orderly streams, air traffic controllers (ATCs) will likely need to develop visual scanning strategies to enhance their conflict detection performance given their limited perceptual and cognitive resources. In this work, visual scanning, aircraft selection, and aircraft comparison are investigated. Twenty-five active professional ATCs detected conflicts in a simulated enroute environment. After the trials, the ATCs documented their visual search and conflict detection strategies. Analysis of the written information shows that the visual scanning methods can be classified into six categories (circular, linear, augmented, regional, density-based, and proximity-based). The aircraft selection methods fall into three categories (select aircraft that are at same altitude, at same altitude and converging, and at same altitude and in close proximity). The aircraft comparison methods fall into five categories (attend to altitude changes, speed (or speed differences), speed and angle/bearing, overtake, and projection). The proposed integrated process incorporates the categorizations by accommodating the visual scanning strategies into the overall process.
Design and Evaluation of the Closed Runway Operation Prevention Device BIBAFull-Text 82-86
  Hunter Kopald; Shuo Chen
The MITRE Corporation was asked by the Federal Aviation Administration to perform an initial operational feasibility analysis on a speech recognition-based concept called the Closed Runway Operation Prevention Device (CROPD). This paper describes the activities conducted as part of the design and evaluation of the CROPD and outlines how a human-centered perspective of the system and operational environment informs the specifications of user interface design and system functionality.
A Human Systems Integration Framework for Air Traffic Management System Design and Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 87-91
  Emily M. Stelzer; Hunter Kopald; Raymond M. Stanley; Valerie Gawron; Kurt Rammelsberg; Robert C. Flynn
The Federal Aviation Administration is working to modernize the systems used by air traffic controllers through the agency's vision of the Next Generation Air Transportation System. These systems are acquired through the FAA's Acquisition Management System (AMS) process. To date, human factors analysis is included in this process, though improvements can be made in the alignment of human systems integration principles with these systems engineering processes. This paper provides a recommended human systems integration framework to support air traffic management system design, and examines two potential cases in which the framework can be used to support the process.
An Air Traffic Control Simulation Fidelity Definition and Categorization System BIBAFull-Text 92-96
  Colin Dow; Jonathan Histon
Air traffic control is an industry that relies heavily on simulation, yet there is little domain-specific research to inform its use for training. Based on the literature and interviews with personnel at an air navigation service provider, this paper proposes a definition of air traffic control simulation fidelity as well as a simulation categorization system. The definition serves as an objective reference that captures all the components of the work environment that can affect the perceived fidelity of a simulation. The categorization system presents a consistent and structured tool for being able to easily compare and differentiate simulation environments. Further validation work is also discussed.
Can We Automate Compliance to Collision Avoidance Resolution Advisories? BIBAFull-Text 97-101
  Amy R. Pritchett
The Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) was designed to prevent mid-air collisions by portraying a time-critical 'resolution advisory' (RA) to the pilot. Complying with a TCAS RA is generally considered the safest course of action and takes priority over all other forms of air traffic management; however, pilot compliance with TCAS RAs is surprisingly low. One proposed solution is an 'Auto-RA' function which couples the autoflight system to TCAS such that, when the autopilot is engaged, it automatically executes any corrective RAs. This paper describes a study in an integrated flight deck / air traffic control simulator examining how pilots interact with TCAS with and without an 'Auto-RA' function. A prior study found that pilots allowed the autoflight system to fly the RA maneuver in 83% of the runs, but the situations where the pilots disconnected the Auto-RA function generally involved scenarios where pilots received confusing guidance from the RA, and conflicting instructions from air traffic control. Further, once clear of the conflict, pilots appeared to have trouble remembering which autoflight modes they had had engaged before the RA, and air traffic instructions requiring particular speed or altitude targets that were effectively erased by the Auto-RA function. Thus, this study particularly focused on particularly problematic traffic encounters, and on situations where the Auto-RA might disrupt pilots from meeting a specified air traffic restriction.

Aerospace Systems: AS7 -- Remotely Piloted Aircraft: A Human-Systems Integration Perspective

Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: A Human Systems Integration Perspective BIBAFull-Text 102-104
  Nancy J. Cooke; Winston, Jr. Bennett; John Dougherty; Valerie Gawron; Kelly Neville; Leah Rowe; Lawrence Shattuck
For over a decade the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS, but also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems -- UAS or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles -- UAV) has been the continued focus of a community of scientists and engineers. Their efforts have been highlighted in various workshops, conferences and books and range from the design of effective ground control stations to crew coordination, spatial disorientation, supervisory control of multiple vehicles, soda straw views of camera feed, and training and selection. Much progress has been made. But new problems are surfacing of a different, more complex nature. Current pressing issues such as the integration of UAS in the national airspace, training and certification of civilian pilots, or exploitation of sensor data from these platforms and concomitant privacy concerns fall within the scope of the discipline of Human Systems Integration (HSI). This panel will highlight several human systems integrations issues surrounding RPAS and will engage the audience in discussion of those issues.

Aerospace Systems: AS8 -- Safety and Communications

Surprise, Attraction, and Propagation: An Aircraft is No Place for a Catastrophe BIBAFull-Text 105-109
  Nicholas Kasdaglis; Paul Oppold
The management of off-normal operational events, such as an aircraft in-flight loss of control, present a formidable challenge to the stakeholders of commercial aviation. This paper posits that present solutions to off-normal events are grounded in linear models of accident causation that are insufficient in today's complex socio-technical domain -- where change propagates through systems to produce instability and system state shifts. These prior methods of system safety are predominately predicated upon the notion that system failure can be mitigated to acceptable levels of risk by using defenses, constraints, and controls in design and practice; such perspectives also influence post-accident investigation and remediation. This paper provides a new theory of aircraft accident causation, Catastrophic Information Entropy Theory (CIET), which offers that an increase in information entropy during an off-normal event, produces emergent changes in system state that prevent a return to normal flight. Therefore, in the face of run-time accident factor propagation, surprise, and attractors, the management of off-normal events, utilizing rigid feed forward procedures may make recovery inaccessible. CIET suggest that existing safety strategies need to be expanded to include the recognition of the time-critical role of the pilot, who must attempt to understand and control a complex system which is behaving in a novel and emergent way. CIET offers a theoretical perspective from which aviation stakeholders can design tools for actionable solutions for pilots during real time emergent events and tools for post-event analytic approaches.
Considerations Toward a General Aviation Controller-Pilot Datalink Communication Display BIBAFull-Text 110-114
  Christopher J. Hubacek; John E. Deaton
This study proposed the design of a graphic user interface by which pilots will be able to receive and send text messages through the on-board avionics equipment. Although the technology exists in select commercial applications, it has yet to be implemented in General Aviation (GA) operations. Because GA avionics capabilities are not as extensive as those in commercial operations, certain features required simplification or exclusion from the development consideration. The first task involved gathering user needs data from a sample of pilots through the use of an online survey. The survey provided data for user display design preferences and projected comfort of using controller-pilot datalink communication (CPDLC) methodologies in certain phases of flight. The study culminated with the development and initial usability evaluation of an interactive wireframe model. After navigating through each of seven scenarios, participants completed the After Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ) to provide feedback on the perceived ease of use and time to complete a task. At the conclusion of all scenarios, the participants completed the System Usability Scale (SUS), providing additional insight to aspects of the user experience (UX).
The Impact of Communication Delay and Medium on Team Performance and Communication in Distributed Teams BIBAFull-Text 115-119
  Ute Fischer; Kathleen Mosier
Long duration space missions will involve communication delays of up to 20 minutes one way, a reality that will make it challenging for space crews and flight controllers to coordinate and pool their efforts, especially when unforeseen problems occur that may require extensive collaboration. The present study was conducted to examine how communication delay will impact distributed team performance, and whether communication media will moderate or exacerbate its effect. Method: Twenty-four teams of three were assigned the roles of space crewmember (2 participants) or flight controller (1 participant) and had to collaborate remotely on computer-based tasks simulating failures in the spacecraft's life support system. Communication medium (text vs. voice) was a between-group variable; presence/absence of communication delay was a within-group variable. Performance variables included time to repair system failures and number of incorrect repairs. Audio-recordings of team members' voice communications were transcribed and logs of their chats uploaded for further analysis. Results and discussion: Teams took significantly longer to repair system failures when team communication was asynchronous rather than synchronous. While communication medium had a significant effect when team interactions were synchronous, it had no differential impact under time-delayed conditions. Preliminary communication analyses suggest that under time-delayed conditions, successful teams in each media condition were those who adapted to the constraints of their communication medium to establish shared task understanding.
Identifying Emerging Human Factors Risks in North American Airline Operations: A HFACS Analysis of Accident and Incident Investigation Reports BIBAFull-Text 120-124
  Jingru Yan; Jonathan Histon
In order to provide insight into the emerging human factors risks in North American commercial aviation operations, this paper identifies the major aircrew human errors in recent airline operation accidents and incidents. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was used to categorize 267 accident and incident final reports, obtained from National Transportation Safety Board and Transportation Safety Board of Canada investigation report databases from 2006 to 2010. The results show that Unsafe Acts and Preconditions of Unsafe Acts are still the most prominent human factors risks, whereas trend analysis for 10 major HFACS categories shows that the violation increases compared to previous study. The study also finds that Crew Resource Management is still one of the prominent causal factors and that there is a growing demand for training. The study will support safety departments developing corresponding risk mitigation methods to improve aviation safety.
An Eye-tracking Study of Information Sampling and Decision-making Under Stress: Implications for Alarms in Aviation Emergencies BIBAFull-Text 125-129
  Aleksandra Stankovic; Michael R. F. Aitken; Luke Clark
The objective of this study was to probe the cognitive processing of cockpit warning displays in emergency situations by assessing the effects of acute stress on information sampling and decision-making using eye tracking equipment. A novel image-matching computer task based on the Matching Familiar Figures Task (MFFT) was designed to provide a measure of cognitive impulsivity. The stress induction procedure involved a challenging manual response task coupled with unpredictable and uncontrollable bursts of loud, aversive noise, and a matched neutral control task. Healthy participants (n=40) completed the task under two conditions: neutral and stress. Participants under stress made more image matching errors and visually sampled less in terms of both saccade count and dwell time on the MFFT, and made a greater number of responses without having first sampled all information areas displayed on the screen at least once ('premature closure'). The findings of this study may have useful implications for the design of visual information displays across a variety of industries, particularly aviation.

Aging: A1 -- Transportation in an Age-Diverse Society

Transportation in an Age-Diverse Society BIBAFull-Text 130-134
  Bridget A. Lewis; Carryl L. Baldwin; Susan T. Chrysler; James P. Foley; Peter A. Hancock; Sheila G. Klauer
In our rapidly diversifying society the needs of sometimes vastly different populations must be considered. The current population is made up of a greater number of older adults, 'Baby Boomers' and younger adults 'Millenials' than the current middle aged-adult population. These two generations have consistently forced change on many fronts, and will continue to do so, particularly in the area of transportation. This panel is intended to address transportation research and design needs in our ever-diversifying society, from driver-interface (DVI) design to public transportation needs, from increased safety systems to the integration of technology for our navigation of various forms of transportation. Specifically, needs that might require researchers to consider the design of systems to address the sometimes conflicting abilities, desires, cultural and demographic factors, and personal goals related to age groups separated by anywhere from 20 to 60 years in age. Panelists included have a broad range of expertise working with technology, transportation, and both older and younger adult population groups.

Aging: A2 -- Older Users' Needs: Flying, by Lifestyle, and at Home

Qualitative and Quantitative Study of Older Japanese, German, Brazilian and US Air Travelers -- the BEST AGE study BIBAFull-Text 135-139
  Dianne McMullin; James Angerer; Rush Green; Fernando Stancato; Flavia Ciaccia; Aristides Cintra; Alexandre David; Embraer Donald Morgan; Melody Mastaw; Frank Ruggiero
Increases in air travel, disposable income, and median age around the world suggest that the needs of the older traveler will have an increasing impact on the air travel system. Embraer, Boeing and GMA Research, Inc. conducted focus groups, fly-along ethnographic observations and on-line surveys with older air travelers in Japan, Germany, Brazil and the United States. Difficulties walking long distances, accessing overhead bins, operating automated check-in kiosks and in-flight entertainment systems, and entering and exiting seats were common themes. The relatively limited space and perceived sanitary conditions within the lavatories also posed limitations for many older travelers. However, a striking number of older travelers report a desire to continue travelling as often or more frequently in the future.
Qualitative and Quantitative Study of Older German and US Flight Attendants -- the BEST AGE study BIBFull-Text 140-144
  Dianne McMullin; James Angerer; Rush Green; Fernando Stancato; Flavia Ciaccia; Aristides Cintra; Alexandre David; Donald Morgan; Melody Mastaw; Frank Ruggiero
Designing Aging-In-Place Technologies to Reflect the Lifestyles and Precious Artifacts of Urban and Rural Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 145-149
  Ginger White; Robyn Evans; Kay Connelly; Kelly Caine
Technology has the potential to support aging in place to enable older adults of all backgrounds to live with dignity and autonomy in their own home for as long as they wish. However, perceptions, needs, and prototype technologies are often studied using convenience samples of older adults comprised of mid to high socioeconomic status (SES) individuals. Such populations do not represent the individuals who may benefit most from aging in place technologies, namely low-SES older adults. In this paper, we present findings from nine 8-hour long contextual observations of low-SES older adults living in rural and urban settings. We organize our findings and implications around the themes of SES status, daily routines and home characteristics. We highlight differences and similarities between rural and urban low-SES populations and discuss implications for design including designing for connection including creating 'heirloom technologies', and designing for lifestyle including space, time, family and supporting rituals.
Understanding Younger and Older Adults' Needs for Home Organization Support BIBAFull-Text 150-154
  Cory-Ann Smarr; Shelby K. Long; Akanksha Prakash; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Home organization is a common problem for people of all ages. Possible consequences of not being organized at home include loss of time and money; decreased task efficiency and focus; and increased strain on interpersonal relationships. However, there is little empirical research on people's specific needs for home organization across the lifespan. Participants (10 younger adults, 10 older adults) completed questionnaires and participated in semi-structured interviews investigating their needs for and factors impacting home organization. Home organization was important to participants, yet a majority of them were not fully satisfied with it. Younger and older adults reported various spaces they considered most and least organized in their homes. Both age groups reported that the number of items in a space, the plan for organizing the items, and having a place for all of the items contributed to a space being organized versus not organized. Design considerations for a support system or tool based on these findings are discussed.
Understanding Older Adults' Health and Social Memory Needs in the Home BIBAFull-Text 155-159
  Akanksha Prakash; Ayah Mostafa; David B. Mitchell; Wendy A. Rogers
Understanding the role of environmental support that home offers and the measures older adults take to deal with memory issues can provide useful insights in the design of memory support systems. One of the main objectives of this research was to understand the nature and context of memory failures and successes older adults experience in the home. In particular we compared the specifics of memory issues within health and social domains and the strategies and support aids used to address those issues. Self-reports about memory functioning were gathered from 26 independently living older adults (65-80 years in age) through structured interviews and a memory questionnaire. Overall, more problems, more frequent forgetting, and less effective strategies were reported for remembering names and conversations compared to other social/interpersonal activities and health-related tasks. We infer that strategies and memory supports that work for prospective memory do not work as well for retrospective social tasks.

Aging: A3 -- Managing Illness: Individual and System-Level Factors

Intentional and Unintentional Medication Nonadherence -- Comparing Older and Younger Adults BIBAFull-Text 160-164
  Jamie Ng; Seung Ki Moon; Taezoon Park; Wah-Pheow Tan
Medication is often prescribed for the management of chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that a substantial proportion of patients do not adhere to the medication regime as prescribed by their doctors. In the recent years, medication-taking behaviors have been considered from a reasoned decision-making perspective, where medication nonadherence is categorized into unintentional (due to suboptimal cognitive performance) or intentional (due to doubts about the necessity of the medication) factors. To better understand the factors leading to medication nonadherence, we surveyed 347 participants to understand their medication adherence behavior, reasons for nonadherence, medication management strategies and interests in medication knowledge. We compared between older and younger adults and found significant differences in their attitudes towards medication adherence. Younger adults were found to be less adherent, with higher reports of unintentional medication nonadherence, than older adults; while pillbox use was not found to be associated with age nor adherence level.
Using Focus Groups to Examine Prospective Memory Strategies in the Medication Management of Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 165-169
  Nicole Fink; Natalee Cartee; Richard Pak
Older adults often strive to maintain an independent lifestyle. However, in order to live independently in the community, it is necessary that older adults are able to take responsibility for their own health-related tasks including medication management and health-related appointments. Successfully managing these health-related tasks requires the use of prospective memory (PM), yet the research documenting the specific PM tasks people encounter when managing health-related tasks is scant. The current paper describes a focus group study aimed at identifying PM tasks that older adults must remember and those they forget, as well as an examination into the current strategies used to assist with managing medications and health-related appointments.
Understanding Care Coordination for Chronically ill Patients BIBAFull-Text 170-174
  Sarah Kianfar; Pascale Carayon; Ann Schoofs Hundt; Peter Hoonakker
Care coordination is important for chronically ill patients who need assistance from a variety of care professionals, and often transition through different care settings. This paper provides an overview of coordination and its implications for the care of chronically ill patients. Using 12 interviews of different healthcare professionals involved in coordinating care of chronically ill patients, we provide examples of care coordination situations (e.g., patient discharged home with home health services) and identify coordination activities (e.g., communication for arranging resources, building relationships to facilitate information exchange, monitoring patients to plan follow up care) performed by different healthcare professionals.
Facilitators and Barriers to Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration in the Redesign of the Family-Centered Rounds Process BIBAFull-Text 175-179
  Anping Xie; Pascale Carayon; Randi Cartmill; Yaqiong Li; Elizabeth D. Cox; Michelle M. Kelly
A human factors approach to healthcare system redesign emphasizes the involvement of multiple stakeholders in the process. This study identifies work system factors facilitating and hindering the collaboration of multiple stakeholders in a healthcare system redesign project. We interviewed 10 stakeholders participating in the redesign of the family-centered rounds process in a pediatric hospital, and conducted qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts using the work system model of Smith and Carayon-Sainfort (1989). Various facilitators and barriers to stakeholder collaboration in healthcare system redesign were identified, such as personal characteristics, team characteristics, organizational structure and culture. Results of this study can be used to improve the process used to redesign healthcare work systems and processes that involve multiple stakeholders.
Ineradicable System Vulnerabilities in the Anesthesia Pre-Filled Syringe Medication Management Process BIBAFull-Text 180-184
  Yushi Yang; A. Joy Rivera; Christopher Fortier; James Abernathy
Pre-filled medication syringes (PFS) are injection devices that were recently introduced into the anesthesia medication management process to enhance safety, affordability, and convenience. However, it is still uncertain how well PFS integrate within the process and whether they effectively eliminate the system vulnerabilities (SV) associated with the traditional self-filled medication syringe (SFS) process. Two Human Factors Engineers conducted observations of 17 general surgery cases with either SFS or PFS. Aggregating the observation data, four ineradicable SV in the process with PFS were identified. Participants rated these ineradicable SV based on their occurrence, their severity to patients, and the disruptiveness to the operating room (OR) workflow. Results show that while PFS resolve SV to some degree, they are not panacea to all the problems in the anesthesia medication management process. Organizational-level interventions are needed for the elimination of all SV.

Aging: A4 -- Aging Potpourri: Fall Prevention, Force Control, Technology Adoption, and Attentional Failures

Functional and Biomechanical Assessments of A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model: A Pilot Investigation BIBAFull-Text 185-189
  Ranjana K. Mehta; Jian Liu; Ashley E. Shortz; Aya Yoshikawa; Shin D. Lee; Robert B. Pankey; Samuel D. Towne; Matthew L. Smith; Doris Howell; Marcia G. Ory
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader model (AMOB/VLL), an evidence-based falls prevention program, on improving balance and mobility. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults completed an eight-week AMOB/VLL program. Pre/post assessments of biomechanical and functional outcomes of balance during single and dual-task trials, as well as perceptions of fear of falling, were compared using pairwise t-tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Our findings suggest that while improvements in functional indicators of mobility and perception regarding fear of falling were observed, biomechanical and functional assessments specific to balance during the single-task trials remained unaffected by the intervention. Interestingly, the group exhibited improvements in biomechanical measures during the dual-task trials. Since AMOB/VLL primarily focuses on restructuring participants' perceptions about falls and only includes generalized exercises, including balance-specific training within the program can potentially improve balance outcomes among older adults.
Age and Gender Differences in Force Control Capabilities by Force Control Phase BIBAFull-Text 190-194
  Baekhee Lee; Hyunji Park; Kihyo Jung; Byung Wha Lee; Duk L. Na; Heecheon You
The present study is intended to analyze effects of age (6 levels; 20s 70s), gender (2 levels; male, female), and hand (2 levels; left hand, right hand) on force control capabilities by force control phase (initiation, development, maintenance, and termination). The force control capabilities by phase was quantified as initiation time (IT), development time (DT), maintenance error (ME), and termination time (TT) using a finger dynamometer. Thirty healthy people by combination category (e.g., 30s, male) of age group and gender participated in the experiment (n = 360). IT (20s:70s = 1:1.24) and TT (1.33) increased linearly, DT (1.29) and ME (2.07) increased quadratically with age. ME of female was significantly 36% (20s & 30s: 16%, 40s & 50s: 28%, 60s: 42%, 70s: 67%) larger than that of male. Hand effects on DT and TT were significant; however the mean difference between both hands was very slight (< 2%). A normative force control data by force control phase with 4 age groups (20s & 30s, 40s & 50s, 60s, and 70s) and gender (male, female) was established, and would be applicable to evaluation criteria for early detection of a variety of patients with brain injury types (e.g., subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment, svMCI).
Age-related Differences in Attentional Failures during Driving: A Self-report Measure BIBAFull-Text 195-199
  HeeSun Choi; Jing Feng
Older drivers experience increasing risks of vehicle crashes. This increase in crash risks has been associated with age-related declines in attention. To assess attentional failures during driving, we develop a self-report measure, the Attentional Failures during Driving Questionnaire (AFDQ). In this paper, we describe the development of the questionnaire and our preliminary effort to examine its reliability and validity via an online survey. The results demonstrated a high level of internal consistency of the questionnaire. In addition, we found that self-reported attentional failures during driving are not only associated with self-reported attentional and cognitive failures during other daily activities, but also related to unsafe driving behaviors and self-efficacy in driving. Our results also showed significant age-related differences in the AFDQ score: old-old drivers (age 75+) reported a higher level of attentional failures during driving than middle-aged drivers (age 25-64) and young-old drivers (age 65-74). These preliminary results indicate the potential use of AFDQ as a measure of attentional performance during driving for older drivers.
Older Adults' Changes in Intent to Adopt Wellness Management Technologies BIBAFull-Text 200-204
  Kimberly C. Preusse; Tracy L. Mitzner; Cara Bailey Fausset; Wendy A. Rogers
Individuals are becoming more involved in managing their own health. Health self-management technologies have the potential to help older adults remain well by promoting exercise and a good diet. However, older adults may or may not decide to adopt wellness management technologies. Adoption is a process and the intent to adopt may change over time. Sixteen older adults (8 females; M age=70.06, SD=3.09; range=65-75) used one of two wellness management technologies (the Fitbit One or myfitnesspal.com) over a 28-day period. Initially, all participants were open or neutral to adopting their technologies. After 28 days, 12 participants intended to adopt and 4 participants did not intend to adopt. The diary data revealed that over time, adopters made more positive comments than non-adopters. Both adopters and non-adopters mentioned perceived ease of use praises and complaints, whereas only adopters mentioned praises regarding usefulness. Results are interpreted within the frameworks of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (Venkatesh et al., 2003) and the diffusion of innovation (Rogers, 2003). Changes in intent to adopt suggest that experience is important in the adoption decision. Adoption of wellness management technologies by older adults may increase if designers attend to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness factors identified in this study.

Augmented Cognition: AC1 -- Measuring Workload in Dynamic Environments

Investigating Workload Measures in the Nuclear Domain BIBAFull-Text 205-209
  Joseph E. Mercado; Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Daniel Barber; Rebecca Leis
Research into human-system interaction, specifically focusing on workload, has intensified in the nuclear domain. Past research on workload in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) domain has attempted to use both subjective and physiological measures of workload, yet the sensitivity of the workload measures used in past experiments is unknown. This initial experiment will guide future research in the NPP domain by identifying whether the NASA-TLX, EEG, and ECG are sensitive to detecting workload changes in common NPP Main Control Room (MCR) tasks. Results suggest the three workload measures did not reveal expected differences between task types in the NPP MCR context.
Workload from Nuclear Power Plant Task Types Across Repeated Sessions BIBAFull-Text 210-214
  Rebecca Leis; Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Joseph Mercado; Daniel Barber; Brandon Sollins
Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators complete multiple types of tasks within Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs). Due to the potential serious consequences of committing an error, it is important to determine if the workload (WL) demands operators encounter are at acceptable levels. This study investigates whether there are workload differences are distinct between task types and if there is a difference between each task type over multiple sessions in a simulated environment. Previous research supports that EEG, ECG, and the NASA-TLX are sensitive to changes in WL. The present preliminary experiment sought to investigate WL changes for experienced participants over a number of sessions and task types. During each session, participants completed tasks derived from a combination of EOPs and subject matter expert input that consisted of checking, detection, and response implementation task types. WL changes were measured through EEG, ECG, and NASA-TLX responses. The results indicate that WL differences were found among the different task types, but not sessions. The implications for these findings are discussed in detail.
Cognitive State Assessment: Examination of EEG-based Measures on a Stroop Task BIBAFull-Text 215-219
  Lee W. Sciarini; Jefferson D. Grubb; Philip G. Fatolitis
This effort investigated the ability of a neurophysiological measure to detect changes in workload during a task which is sensitive to cognitive function. A growing collection of research suggests that physiological measures such as EEG can be used to inform the adaptation of systems. However, it has been proposed that such measures often provide a gross interpretation of cognitive workload during complex tasks and are not sensitive to differences in specific cognitive function. To understand the utility of neurophysiological measures for human-machine interaction, we must know if these measures are sensitive to tasks which are sensitive to changes in cognitive function. To begin to answer this question, we investigated the sensitivity of Advanced Brain Monitoring's EEG-based measures to changes in workload experienced during a Stroop task. Results indicated that ABM's workload measure can detect changes associated with the attentional demands and cognitive processes linked to the ability to inhibit word naming during tasks involving semantic interference. This indicates that changes in workload associated with the ability to inhibit competing cognitive processes can be identified using neurophysiological workload measures.
The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment BIBAFull-Text 220-224
  Margaret A. Bowers; James C. Christensen; F. Thomas Eggemeier
Interest in workload transitions is centered on the hypothesis that transitions from one level of task difficulty to another may negatively impact performance on those tasks, and result in potentially critical impacts on professionals such as air traffic controllers and emergency medical staff. The current study sought to determine the effect of workload transitions on participants' neurophysiological signals and performance. Participants completed trials in the Air Force Multi-Attribute Task Battery (AF-MATB; Miller, 2010), while Electroencephalography (EEG), Electrocardiography (ECG) and Electrooculogram (EOG) signals were recorded. All participants completed AF-MATB trials that delivered consistently low or high task difficulty, and trials that transitioned from an easy level to a difficult level and vice versa. Additionally, participants completed the NASA Task Load Index to assess subjective workload, and the shortened Dundee Stress State Questionnaire to measure subjective task-related stress during their testing sessions. Analyses of the performance data provide limited support for a negative impact of transitions from hard-to-easy, and the analysis of both the NASA Task Load Index and of the shortened Dundee State Questionnaire did not reveal any significant differences related to workload transitions. Analysis of the EEG data revealed that temporal gamma oscillations rapidly changed following a transition and settled after easy-to-hard changes in task difficulty, but settled more slowly after the task transitioned from hard-to-easy. Frontal theta oscillations, in contrast, exhibited consistently rapid settling which may indicate rapid changes in working memory utilization and conflict resolution (Gevins, et al., 1997). These EEG results suggest potential for further research.
Exploring the feasibility of using functional tissue pulsatility imaging to measure cognitive load during an abbreviated vigilance task BIBAFull-Text 225-229
  Raul Ramirez; Von Botteicher; Tyler Shaw; Siddhartha Sikdar; Raja Parasuraman
The increasing complexity of human-machine interaction and system monitoring require increased awareness of operator's workload levels to increase safety and productivity in operational environments. Subjective workload scales are subject to operator biases, possible intrusiveness, and low temporal sensitivity. Physiological measures have recently been used because of their ability to bypass many of these limitations and provide more objective and sensitive measures of workload. Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD), for instance, is unobtrusive, has good temporal sensitivity, and is sensitive to workload effects on a variety of tasks, but is limited by its low spatial sensitivity. A new imaging measure, functional Tissue Pulsatility Imaging (fTPI), measures tissue velocity through ultrasound and provides similar temporal resolution but higher spatial resolution than TCD. This study explored the feasibility of using fTPI as a measure of mental workload. Participants performed 10 minute low and high event rate air traffic control vigilance tasks. The NASA-TLX was used to as a measure of subjective mental workload. Performance accuracy results reveal that task performance was worse in the high event rate task than in the low event rate task. Tissue velocity measured through fTPI showed significantly more tissue velocity in the right hemisphere, which is supported by previous TCD research. Further, fTPI results suggest that workload for the right hemisphere was higher for the high event rate task as compared to the low event rate task. The similarities between the tissue velocity results and previous TCD research support fTPI as a viable method for obtaining higher spatial resolution measures of mental workload.

Augmented Cognition: AC2 -- Augmented Cognition in Complex Environments

Augmented Cognition using Real-time EEG-based Adaptive Strategies for Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 230-234
  Hussein A. Abbass; Jiangjun Tang; Rubai Amin; Mohamed Ellejmi; Stephen Kirby
Future air traffic systems aim at increasing both the capacity and safety of the system, necessitating the development of new metrics and advisory tools for controllers' workload in real-time. Psychophysiological data such as Electroencephalography (EEG) are used to contrast and validate subjective assessments and workload indices. EEG used within augmented cognition systems form situation awareness advisory tools that are able to provide real-time feedback to air-traffic control supervisors and planners. This augmented cognition system and experiments using the system with air traffic controllers are presented. Traffic indicators are used in conjunction with EEG-driven cognitive indicators to adapt the traffic in real-time through Computational Red Teaming (CRT) based adaptive control mechanisms. The metrics, measures, and adaptive control mechanisms are described and evaluated. The best mechanism to improve system efficacy was found when the system allowed for real-time adaptation of traffic based on engagement metrics driven from the EEG data.
Using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to Evaluate the Neurocognitive Effects of Transient Events: Design Matrix Mixed Effects Analysis BIBAFull-Text 235-239
  Ryan McKendrick; Raja Parasuraman
A spatial memory task with an event related design was used as a proxy for showcasing a design matrix regression on fNIRS data for neuroergonomic studies of complex tasks involving transient workload transitions. The analysis identified a region of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) in which oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) was increased during memory maintenance. Task performance negatively modulated HbO2 in this brain region during memory maintenance. The results show that neural effects specifically within the period of memory maintenance, as opposed to other cognitive components (e.g., encoding or retrieval) can be reliably identified. Similar analytical methods could be used for the analysis of cortical hemodynamics in more complex tasks involving transient events (e.g., workload transitions) and in related neuroergonomic applications.
Automation Complacency: Using Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Change Attention Allocation BIBAFull-Text 240-244
  Brian D. Kidwell; William D., Jr. Miller; Raja Parasuraman
Automation complacency has been considered by some to result from a state of mindlessness. An attentional framework offered by Parasuraman and Manzey (2010) has suggested that automation bias and complacency may be overlapping functions of the same central cognitive process, with attentional resources as the shared mechanism. Non-invasive brain stimulation methods present novel ways to manipulate attentional resources and influence operator allocation of attention. Study results indicate that positive stimulation affects complex task performance, although not necessarily evenly across task function. Stimulation effects on complacency potential may be modulated by an operator's automation bias. This has broad implications for interface design, as well cognitive theory of human-automation interaction.
Submarine Navigation Team Resilience: Linking EEG and Behavioral Models BIBAFull-Text 245-249
  Ronald Stevens; Trysha Galloway; Cynthia Lamb
Advances in the assessment of submarine piloting and navigation teams have created opportunities for linking behavioral observations of team performances with neurodynamic measures of team organization, synchrony and change. Submarine navigation teams (n=12) were fitted with EEG headsets and recorded while conducting required navigation simulations. In parallel, their performances were assessed for team resilience by two evaluators using a team process rubric adopted by the Submarine Force. EEG models of team synchrony were created symbolically which identified times when there was increased across-team cognitive organization induced by the simulation and / or interactions with other crew members. One set of these organizations was observed in the 10 Hz EEG frequency band and coincided with the periodic activity of updating the ship's position (e.g. Rounds). There were also periods of increased team synchrony between 25-40 Hz which were present during some Rounds events but were more prominent with task changes or when the team was stressed. More resilient teams had fewer periods of team synchrony and these were of smaller magnitude than those found in less resilient teams. These results indicate that both routine and unexpected activities trigger increased neurophysiologic synchrony / coherence in teams and that periods of persistent synchrony may signal a team being challenged.

Product Design: PD4 -- Wearable Product Design

Human Factors Considerations in the Design of Wearable Devices BIBAFull-Text 205-209
  Vivian Genaro Motti; Kelly Caine
Wearable devices have great potential to support several application domains ranging from medical and safety critical, to leisure and entertainment. Wearable devices' solutions are promising, and extensive research has been conducted in this domain since the early 90's. However most of these works focuses on the feasibility of individual solutions. As such, the human aspects are often neglected, which can decrease not only the acceptance levels for novel devices, but also their sustained engagement. To facilitate the consideration of human factors in the early design stage, we present and define a list of 20 human-centered design principles. We explain how each principle can be incorporated during the design phase of the wearable device creation process. By adopting these principles, we expect practitioners to achieve better wearable solutions, improving the user acceptance, satisfaction and engagement for novel applications.
Older Adults' Perceptions of a Neckwear Health Technology BIBAFull-Text 1815-1819
  Elena T. Gonzalez; Adrienne M. Jones; Linda R. Harley; Daniel Burnham; Young Mi Choi; W. Brad Fain; Maysam Ghovanloo
Many gerotechnology devices are intended to help older adults improve health self-management and maintain independence. By including older adults throughout the design process, health technologies can be designed to meet their unique needs and preferences. This study investigated older adults' perceptions of prototypes for a Wireless Event detection and Adherence Monitoring System (WEAMS). The WEAMS is a neckwear technology that would have the capability to assist with managing medication, tracking activity levels, and detecting falls. Twelve older adults (Mage = 77.7; SD = 7.13; 9 female, 3 male) completed in-home interviews on wearable health technologies and evaluated three non-functioning WEAMS prototypes on various aspects of ease of use, comfort, and desirability. Participants preferred prototypes with discrete design features and that were easy to put on and take off. Open-ended participant comments revealed a strong preference for the system to blend in with the user's attire and not draw unwanted attention. Moreover, this study found perceived need to be an important factor in older adults' acceptance of the WEAMS. Findings from this study will guide the design of the WEAMS neckwear and future wearable health technologies.
Development of an Ergonomic Bus Seat Profile Design Protocol BIBAFull-Text 1825-1828
  Jangwoon Park; Hyewon Lee; Younggeun Choi; Kwangae Park; Moonjin Kim; Heecheon You
The profile of a bus seat needs to be designed ergonomically for better seating comfort. The present study is intended to develop an ergonomic bus seat design protocol based on seat comfort evaluation and seat profile analysis. The proposed seat profile design protocol consists of five steps: (1) seating comfort evaluation, (2) seat profile measurement, (3) preferred design feature identification, (4) new seat profile design development, and (5) new seat profile design validation. In the comfort evaluation step, 48 participants evaluated 7 parts (headrest, upper-back support, lumbar support, seatback bolster, hip support, thigh support, and seatpan bolster) of 12 existing bus seats from various ergonomic aspects including fitness of shape and overall comfort. In the profile measurement step, the profiles of seatback and seatpan for the bus seats were scanned and analyzed. In the preferred design identification step, preferred design features of the bus seats were identified based on the comfort evaluation results. In the design development step, the identified preferred design features were applied to developing the prototype of an improved bus seat. Lastly, in the validation step, the new bus seat was compared with the reference bus seat by seating comfort evaluation. The proposed bus seat seat (M = 4.79, SD = 1.22) was found superior to the reference bus seat (M = 4.32, SD = 1.16) at the seatback and seatpan parts. The proposed seat profile design protocol would be applicable to design various types of seats used in bus as well as passenger cars.
Pedestrians' Willingness to Seek Out, Purchase, and Wear Conspicuity-Enhancing Athletic Garments BIBAFull-Text 1829-1833
  Ashley A. Stafford Sewall; Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski; Drea K. Fekety; Richard A. Tyrrell
Most traffic-related pedestrian fatalities occur at night, and insufficient conspicuity of pedestrians' clothing is recognized to be a key causal factor. In an effort to explore the demand for conspicuity-enhancing garments we examined the attitudes of 166 university students about nighttime conspicuity problems and their interest in (and willingness to purchase) these clothing items. We found that when it comes to their own conspicuity at night pedestrians are too often overconfident and uninformed. Participants generally believed that wearing brightly colored clothing or a reflective vest made them visible to drivers at night and generally did not believe that wearing reflective markings on their ankles and wrists would make them more visible than a reflective vest. Despite having reported that visibility issues were usually not important factors when purchasing athletic garments, most participants reported being willing to pay slightly more for athletic garments (shorts, shirts/jackets, and shoes) that contain reflective markings.

Product Design: PD1 -- Physical Interfaces

Evaluation of Stability and Effect of Gripping Method on a Laser-Induced Liquid Jet Hand Applicator for Usability Improvement BIBAFull-Text 1786-1789
  Takashi Kato; Tatsuhiko Arafune; Toshikatsu Washio; Yasushi Yamauchi; Atsuhiro Nakagawa; Yoshikazu Ogawa; Teiji Tominaga; Ichiro Sakuma; Etsuko Kobayashi
We developed a pulsed laser-induced liquid jet (LILJ) system to dissect tumor tissues while preserving fine blood vessels within deep and narrow working spaces and evaluated its utility and safety. However, the hand applicator of LILJ is heavy for the operator because of the torque generated by some of the accessories. Consequently, the operator cannot work with precision. To overcome this problem, we ergonomically redesigned the hand applicator of LILJ. Here, we report an assessment of the redesigned hand applicator's usability and stability that were evaluated by using the torque generated around the center of gravity of the hand applicator and the hit probability. We considered the load on the hand by force measured using a force-sensitive sensor attached to the hand applicator. We showed that three out of five subjects were able to generate enough force equally to stabilize the position of the proposed hand applicator after a disturbance was generated and were able to reduce the force enough to control the disturbance.
The typing performance and preference costs of reducing tactile feedback and tactile landmarks in tablet keyboards BIBAFull-Text 1790-1794
  Dan Odell; Eric Faggin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tactile landmarks and tactile feedback on keyboard typing under real-world conditions. Four keyboards were tested, representing a range of tactile landmarks versus no landmarks, tactile feedback versus no tactile feedback, and the ability to rest the fingers on the keys vs. keys that triggered when simply touched. Participants completed a typing task on each of the keyboards while their performance and preference was collected. The conventional keyboard with tactile landmarks, tactile feedback, and the ability to rest the fingers was significantly better than the other options both in terms of performance and preference. The capacitive keyboard, which had tactile landmarks but no tactile feedback, nor the ability to rest fingers on the keys without triggering them performed the worst in terms of accuracy and preference, showing that tactile landmarks alone do not ensure good performance.
Evaluating both Physiological and Biomechanical Strains in Women Using Different Hoe Handle Designs BIBAFull-Text 1795-1799
  Kiseok Sung; Andris Freivalds
Physiological and biomechanical strains were investigated in women using four different handle designs for hoe. Electromyography (EMG), energy expenditure, and task workload were measured while using four different hoes: a conventional hoe with 1) the normal (N) handle, 2) the second (S) handle, 3) the T-grip with arm supporter (TA) handle, and 4) the second with T-grip and arm supporter (STA) handle. Each handle strained different regions of the body. The S handle was significantly better for minimizing the erector spinae muscle EMG. The TA handle required less effort on the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), but more effort on the posterior deltoid. From the STA handle, no interaction was found between the S and TA handle. The results from energy expenditure analysis indicated that the workload in hoeing involves mainly a pushing and pulling motion of the shoulder (r = .923). In comparison with the N handle, the additional handles caused a significantly greater workload, but there was no significant difference between those three handles.

Product Design: PD2 -- User-Centered Product Design Award

2014 Product Design Technical Group Stanley Caplan User-Centered Product Design Award BIBAFull-Text 1800
  Stan Caplan; Dianne McMullin
The Product Design Technical Group (PDTG) presented its 13th annual User-Centered Product Design Award at a special session. The award recognized excellence in both product design and in the methods used to specify and achieve the design. This special session consisted of presentation of the award to the winner and the winner's presentation about the design and development of the product.

Product Design: PD3 -- General Human Factors and Industry

Are Human Factors Professionals Needed for Product Development? BIBAFull-Text 1801
  Walter Herbst
Walter Herbst was invited by the Product Design Technical Group to give a keynote address on product development at the first of the Group's meeting sessions. As an expert in product development, he has a long career in both industry and academia. His presentation focusses on the product development cycle and the roles of Industrial Design and of Human Factors in supporting it. His perception of Human Factors' role may challenge your current thinking about it.
Developing a Scoring Matrix to Evaluate the Usability of Consumer Packaging: A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 1802-1806
  Cara Bailey Fausset; Andrew Baranak; Sarah K. Farmer; Elizabeth L. Mann; Christina N. Harrington; Chandler E. Price; Jerry B. Ray
The goal of the current study was to test a scoring matrix for evaluating and quantifying the difficulty of use of consumer packaging for an older adult population. Scores range from 0 to 100; the lower the score, the less usable the packaging design. Twelve older adults (9 females, 3 males; M age = 69.5) completed an online survey in which they evaluated 15 everyday packaging types on frequency of use and difficulty of the functional tasks required for use (e.g., pick up and carry, remove seal, open, dispense, close). Blister packaging scored the lowest (M = 71.5) and could benefit the most from redesign. Microwave meal packaging scored the highest (M = 85.8), but this was the only score computed without all participants; only five participants reported using microwave meals. Pull tab cans scored second highest with a mean score of 84.2. In this pilot study, we are laying the groundwork for creating a tool to systematically evaluate and quantify the usability of all packaging types.
Perspectives on the Training of Human Factors Students for the User Experience Industry BIBAFull-Text 1807-1811
  Christian A. Gonzalez; Mahtab Ghazizadeh; Mac Smith
We surveyed 140 HFES student members and found that nearly 80% of students were considering a future career in UX. In contrast, only 12% felt that their training has prepared them extremely well for a UX career. An analysis of 40 UX job postings revealed that while these positions required some human factors related skills, 37% of their job requirements emphasized design familiarity and programming skills. Students indicated that gaps in their education and preparation represent the largest challenge they face in entering the UX field. They further identified the broad definition of UX and lack of access to industry positions as other challenges in transitioning to UX professionals. It is recommended to focus on increasing HFES's relevance to students interested in future UX careers.
Usability of Human Factors Research in Design: Advice from Users of Science to Producers of Science BIBAFull-Text 1812-1814
  Esa Rantanen; Keith Karn; Neal Wiggermann; Christopher Koch; Michael Lau; Alisa Rantanen
There exists a disconnect between users of the science of human factors, that is, designers and practitioners, and producers of the science, that is, human factors researchers. Research results are primarily disseminated by articles published in scientific, peer reviewed journals, that are often targeted to other scientists, not designers or practitioners. Human factors standards and guidelines are intended for designers and human factors practitioners, but finding and accessing standards relevant to specific design problems is difficult as well. We convened this panel in order to focus on designers' needs for human factors data, standards, and guidelines, and to seek solutions to what appears to be a communication problem between human factors researchers and the users of their results.

Product Design: PD5 -- Potpourri

Consumers' Perceptions About Autopilots and Remote-Controlled Commercial Aircraft BIBAFull-Text 1834-1838
  Rian Mehta; Stephen Rice; Scott R. Winter; Korhan Oyman
Trust, willingness, and comfort to fly on an airliner is a large factor in the consumer's travel plan decision process. This research aims to further understand consumers' opinions on the set-up of the cockpit in terms of number of pilots, and seeks establish a line of studies geared towards the development of future cockpit set-ups. The foundation of which will be invaluable to the future of the aviation industry, and could potentially be the stepping-stone to the future. The study asks participants from the United States and India to rate their trust, willingness and comfort to fly on a commercial flight piloted by three different cockpit scenarios: a traditional two pilot cockpit; a hybrid with one pilot in the cockpit and one remote control pilot on the ground; or two remote control pilots on the ground. The research shows, as predicted, that participants would trust the traditional set-up more than the hybrid mix, while having negative feelings of trust towards the completely automated aircraft with two remote control pilots on the ground.
Form or Function? Expanding Upon Human Factors Perspectives in Design BIBAFull-Text 1839-1843
  James Parker
Human factors has contributed significantly to the understanding of human behavior in applied settings but still has much to learn about design. Neglected areas of research include areas in design aesthetics, user emotion, user satisfaction, and their impact on user behavior. Research in marketing, design, consumer behavior, business strategy, and within the human factors field are presented as evidence of the importance of these topics. This article highlights where the traditional human factors approach to design fails and suggests where human factors practitioners can draw from research efforts to expand its understanding of human performance and behavior in complex systems.
Initial Biomechanical and performance implications of weapon design: Comparison of bullpup and conventional configurations BIBAFull-Text 1844-1848
  Richard T. Stone; Rob Mayer; Bryce Rosenquist
Considerable debate exists among police and military professionals regarding the differences between conventional configuration weapons, where the magazine and action are located ahead of the trigger, and bullpup configuration, where they are located behind the trigger (closer to the user). To date, no published research has attempted to evaluate this question from a physical ergonomics standpoint, and the knowledge that one style might improve stability, reduce fatigue, or result in superior performance is of interest to countless military, law enforcement, and industry experts. In this study, a live-fire evaluation of both weapon styles was performed using a total of 48 participants. Shooting accuracy and fluctuations in biomechanical stability (center of pressure) were monitored while subjects used the weapons to perform standard drills. The bullpup weapon designs were found to provide a significant advantage in both respects, even while subjects showed considerable preference toward the conventional weapons. Although many mechanical and maintenance issues must be considered before committing to either platform, it is clear in terms of basic human stability that the bullpup is the more advantageous configuration.

Product Design: PD6 -- Modern Tactics and Tech

A Comparison of Prototyping on Paper (POP) Software and Traditional Paper Prototyping for Developing Mobile Products with Optimal User Experience BIBAFull-Text 1849-1853
  Molly C. Martini; Melissa A. B. Smith; Robert J. Youmans
Prototyping is a quick and effective way to facilitate iterative conceptual design, and allows user experience researchers to test the user experience of early conceptual designs. The current study compared usability testing that was supported by traditional paper prototyping methods with testing that was supported by a new iPhone software application called Prototyping on Paper (POP). POP supports testing and development by allowing uploaded images to be linked together to form virtual interactive prototypes. Usability testing was carried out on an actual smartphone product that is currently under development called 'Fleet,' a product that provides travelers with crowd-sourced information about commercial air travel. Data from the user testing showed that participants slightly preferred interacting with POP in comparison with traditional paper prototyping, but no reliable differences were found in terms of user performance. Test facilitators also showed no reliable preference between the two techniques. The increased level of interactivity POP offers and its ability to better model actual interactions on a mobile device makes it a novel prototyping technique for smartphone applications that should be considered by usability experts.
Effects of target location and display position on touch performance of desktop touchscreen interface BIBAFull-Text 1854-1858
  Hwa-yeong Kang; Gwanseob Shin
Finger touch interface has been less popular for desktop touchscreens than for mobile IT devices, and it could be attributable to difficulties in reaching and conducting touch gestures comfortably and accurately. In the current study, performance variation of tap gesture by target location and display position was quantitatively evaluated to generate empirical data that can be used to determine proper target location and display position for improving usability of desktop touchscreen interface. Twenty one participants in three handedness groups participated in a laboratory experiment. Touch error, time to complete a single tap gesture, and a hand of choice for tap gesture were measured while conducting repetitive tap gestures on fifteen distributed targets in two positions (upright, near flat) of a 23' touchscreen display. Results found significant differences (p<0.05) in the performance measures and hand preference between target locations. Greater touch error and shorter completion time were observed from targets on the lower area of the display. To improve the usability of desktop touchscreen, it is recommended to place targets in lower areas with larger sensing area or target size. It is also recommended to determine proper target location and size depending on user's individual handedness.
Informing the Use of Vibrotactile Feedback for Information Communication: An Analysis of User Performance across Different Vibrotactile Designs BIBAFull-Text 1859-1863
  Yulin Wang; Barbara Millet; James L. Smith
Feedback is important for Human Factors and Human-Computer Interaction designs. Since vibrotactile feedback has its own advantages such as no requirements of visual/auditory attention and robustness to surrounding noise, it is a valuable alternative to visual and auditory feedback designs. A literature review was conducted on empirical vibrotactile studies. Based on the 24 studies identified, a statistical analysis was conducted to investigate user performance across vibrotactile designs. Results indicated that using on/off vibration feedback for notification of new events resulted in the fastest responses (M = 1.1 sec.). In contrast, mapping vibrations to complex information yielded slower responses (M = 3.0 sec.) but still high accuracy (~84.8%). Moreover, no significant moderator effect of decision complexity, cue availability, decision urgency, and vibration location was found. Overall, the study findings can shed light on further vibrotactile designs for information communication. Results also provide references for measuring user performance of such designs.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE1 -- Interruptions

The Effect of Visual Cues on How People Handle Interruptions BIBAFull-Text 250-254
  Stephan Huber; Michael Weng; Tobias Grundgeiger; Penelope Sanderson
People in work domains such as healthcare are often interrupted. As a result, they sometimes forget to resume their prior task, which may lead to undesirable consequences. In many cases, strategies such as deferring an interruption for a while can help people lower the risks imposed by interruptions. Using two computer-based tasks, we investigated whether visual cues make people more likely to defer an interruption until their current task is finished. Our study participants worked on an arithmetic task and were interrupted from time to time by an animated character inviting them to play Tic-Tac-Toe. Results showed that participants were more likely to defer accepting the interruption and to complete the arithmetic task if the arithmetic task contained visual cues that indicated the location of the next steps, than if it did not. The findings suggest that equipment with appropriately designed visual cues might encourage people to defer interruptions and finish their current tasks. Further research is needed to understand exactly how visual cues promote deferral strategies.
Do Interruptions Affect Content Production? BIBAFull-Text 255-259
  Cyrus K. Foroughi; Nicole E. Werner; M. Cameron Hatcher; Anthony J. Lopez; Taha W. Zafar; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
Interruptions have become a persistent annoyance in our lives; they reduce performance in many domains. Traditional interruption research uses time and errors as measures of disruption. However, in creative tasks, time and errors may not be suitable measures of disruption. This study investigates how interruptions affect content production in a creative task as the amount of content created can be a better indicator of the effect of interruptions. Interruptions were found to reliably reduce the production of content while outlining and writing essays. Moreover, interruptions in both conditions (outlining and writing) reliably reduced the final quality of essays. A carry-over effect from impoverished outlines appeared to have reduced quality of the final essays.
What Happens When You Can't Press Pause? The Effect of Interruptions on Detecting Threats in A Simulated Closed-Circuit Television Surveillance Feed BIBAFull-Text 260-264
  William D., Jr. Miller; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Terry Stanard
The present study investigated the effect of interruptions on the ability to detect and report threatening behaviors on 20-second clips of simulated low frame-rate closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage. Participants reviewed clips and were occasionally interrupted approximately halfway through and asked to complete a secondary task for 20 seconds. When the interruption expired, participants resumed viewing the clip, either from where the clip left off or from a later point in time. An analysis of the threats reported by participants revealed that after being interrupted, threats in clips that resumed exactly where they were interrupted were more likely to be detected. If the clip resumed at a later point in time, participants were less likely to recall the threats they had observed before the interruption. This finding highlights the particularly disruptive nature of interruptions in a naturalistic setting and necessitates further investigation into how these effects can be mitigated.
Interruption Practice Reduces Procedural Errors at the Post-Completion Step BIBAFull-Text 265-269
  Kevin Zish; J. Gregory Trafton
Mitigating the effects of interruptions is important for tackling the increasing number of possible disruptions at home, at work, and online. Previous work has shown that the benefits of practice can decrease the amount of time it takes to resume a task after an interruption. This paper demonstrates that the same benefit can be extended to error rates at the post-completion step in a simulated computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system. This example of a real-world procedural task demonstrates that a general increase in interruptions leads to changes in performance for the final step of the task.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE2 -- High-Stress Work

Staying in the Zone: The Cognitive Components Associated with Offshore Drillers' Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 270-274
  Ruby C. Roberts; Rhona Flin; Jennifer Cleland
Situation Awareness (SA) issues are often identified as contributing factors to drilling incidents, most recently in the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Two studies aimed to identify the cognitive components required for offshore drillers to develop and maintain SA whilst controlling subsea hydrocarbon wells. In study one, critical incident interviews were conducted with 18 experienced drilling personnel. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis, producing a framework of cognitive processes that enable drillers to build up an understanding of what is happening in the well bore and surrounding environment, predicting how the situation may develop. In the second study, analysis of 24 hours of observations (in-vivo and video) from a high fidelity well control simulator suggest behaviors such as monitoring and crew sharing information contribute to the drillers' SA. The findings highlight the importance of SA for safe and effective performance in drilling and are being used to develop a cognitive task analysis.
The Good Stranger Frame for Police and Military Activities BIBAFull-Text 275-279
  Gary Klein; Helen Altman Klein; Brian Lande; Joseph Borders; James C. Whitaker
We sought to understand how some police officers and military personnel are more effective than others at increasing civilian good will following encounters. Such officers can be termed 'Good Strangers' (GSs). We conducted Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) interviews with 17 U.S. police officers and 24 warfighters (Marines and Army soldiers). The CTA interviews yielded a total of 92 incidents, which were used to identify critical skills for training warfighters to become GSs. These skills supported a professional identity as a GS -- seeking opportunities to increase civilian trust in police/military. Increasing trust from civilians requires skills in gaining voluntary compliance, building rapport, de-escalating conflicts, trading-off risk versus trust building, and taking the perspective of civilians.
Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Probe Option-Generation in Law Enforcement BIBAFull-Text 280-284
  Joel Suss; Patrick Belling; Paul Ward
Option-generation paradigms have been employed successfully to investigate skill-based differences in performance, particularly in complex, dynamic, and/or uncertain domains. However, although knowledge of option-generation behavior (e.g., number of options generated, frequency with which the criterion best option is selected) is informative, the underlying basis for the observed option-generation behavior is not always apparent. To address this issue, we probed option-generation behavior using cognitive task analysis. Experienced and less-experienced law enforcement officers first observed temporally-occluded video simulations, and then completed an option-generation task. The cognitive task analysis comprised elicitation of retrospective verbal reports of thinking, followed by video-stimulated recall; analysis of these data revealed information that potentially explains the observed option-generation behavior and provided information relevant to the design of decision-making training.
An Integrative Simulation to Study Team Cognition in Emergency Crisis Management BIBAFull-Text 285-289
  Michael D. McNeese; Vincent F. Mancuso; Nathan J. McNeese; Tristan Endsley; Pete Forster
Teamwork has become one of the hallmarks of emergency crisis management (ECM). Success in managing emergency situations is highly dependent on teams working together to accomplish prioritized goals. Therefore, given the importance of teamwork, team cognition has been realized as an important component to address the emerging complexity, extreme workload, and uncertain conditions that can underlie emergency response. Many variables affect teams and their subsequent cognition. Understanding the effects of awareness, attention, temporality, common ground, team mental model development, and culture on team cognition provides insight into effective and efficient management of emergencies. As a research group, for more than a decade, we have studied team cognition within the context of ECM through the basis of simulations using the NeoCITIES platform. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences using the NeoCITIES platform to conduct basic team cognitive research and share our visions for future research trajectories for the greater Human Factors community.
Cognitive Processes Supporting Recognition in Complex and Dynamic Tasks BIBAFull-Text 290-294
  Patrick K. Belling; Joel Suss; Paul Ward
Previous research has shown that anticipation is one of the best determinants of skill in numerous complex and dynamic domains, such as law enforcement, driving, aviation, surgery, and sport (for a review see Ward, Williams, & Hancock, 2006). Likewise, recognition ability has formed the cornerstone of much of the naturalistic decision making literature for the last 3 decades (e.g., Klein, Calderwood, & Clinton-Cirocco, 1986). In this research, we examined whether skill at anticipating the outcome of a dynamic situation would predict recognition skill, over and above domain-general measures of cognitive ability. We expected that domain-general cognition would account for some of the variance in recognition skill, but that anticipation skill would explain additional, unique variance. Counter to our expectations, anticipation skill did not explain significant unique variance. Instead, only one of the domain-general cognitive measures -- spatial ability -- was predictive of recognition skill, suggesting that training for improvement in recognition skill should be skill-specific.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE3 -- Cognition/CSE

Characterization of Information Automation on the Flight Deck BIBAFull-Text 295-299
  Rachel Dudley; Michael C. Dorneich; Emmanuel Letsu-Dake; William Rogers; Stephen D. Whitlow; Michael Dillard; Erik Nelson
This paper summarizes the results of analyses to identify characteristics of flight deck information automation systems which can lead to potential human factors issues. Information automation systems are responsible for the collection, processing, analysis, and presentation of information to the flightcrew. Information automation systems can pose human factors issues and challenges particular to this type of automation. This paper presents a formal definition of information automation and identifies characteristics and associated human factors issues in the domain of aircraft flight deck systems. A method was developed to identify a set of consistent and independent characteristics of information automation. Characteristics, a set of properties or attributes which describe its operation or behavior, can be used to identify and assess potential human factors issues. This effort lays the groundwork for providing data to support the development of recommendations specific to different characteristics of information automation.
Assessment of Cognitive Components of Decision Making with Military Versions of the IGT and WCST BIBAFull-Text 300-304
  Quinn Kennedy; Peter Nesbitt; Jon Alt
The U.S. Army is focused on improving leader decision making, yet little is known as to how military officers develop optimal decision making. Two key components of optimal decision making are reinforcement learning and cognitive flexibility. Thirty-four military officers completed military versions of two standard cognitive assessments, the Iowa Gambling Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, while their eye movements were tracked. Results indicated that the military versions of these tasks successfully provided objective assessments of reinforcement learning and cognitive flexibility. Preliminary analyses of eye movements provide insights into the subjects' decision strategies. Training implications of the results are discussed.
System State Awareness: A Human Centered Design Approach to Awareness in a Complex World BIBAFull-Text 305-309
  Nicholas Kasdaglis; Olivia Newton; Shan Lakhmani
Situation Awareness is a popular concept used to assess human agents' understanding of a system and any error that may occur due to poor understanding. However, the popular conception of situation awareness retains assumptions better suited for linear, controlled systems. When assessing complex systems, rife with non-linear, emergent behaviors, current models of situation awareness frequently place much of the burden of system failure onto the human agent. We contend that the traditional concept of a fully controlled system is not the best fit for a complex system with networked loci of control, especially during abnormal system states. Instead, we recommend an approach that focuses on agents' adaptation to environmental cues. We discuss how the concept of situation awareness, when enmeshed in the assumption of linearity, insufficiently deals with extended cognition, reliability, adaptation, and system stability. We conclude that an approach focusing on System State Awareness (SSA), instead, facilitates the adaptation of system goals during off-normal system states. Thus, SSA provides the theoretical underpinning for design of distributed networked systems that improve human performance in complex environments.
Using Cognitive Task Analysis to Investigate the Contribution of Informal Education to Developing Cyber Security Expertise BIBAFull-Text 310-314
  Michael Champion; Shree Jariwala; Paul Ward; Nancy J. Cooke
Current education systems must respond to meet the increasing need for cyber security and information technology (IT) professionals. However, little research has been conducted on understanding the development of expertise in cyber security and IT, the efficacy of current systems designed to accelerate expertise and/or train cyber security and IT professionals, and the perceived efficacy of these systems rated by the professionals themselves. Moreover, virtually no research exists with respect to the benefit of traditional (classroom-based) formal education compared to informal (self-taught) learning in these complex settings. This paper attempts to address these questions through the use of an online survey of professionals and a follow-up interview with professionals examining this question.
An Investigation of Human Decision-Making in a Human-Robot Team Task BIBAFull-Text 315-319
  Elizabeth Phillips; Scott Ososky; Florian Jentsch
This paper presents initial insights from an exploratory analysis of human decision making in a human-robot teaming scenario. A cognitive model in the form of a decision tree was developed using local and national police foot pursuit protocols. Participants were asked to read through a series of hypothetical scenarios involving a Soldier and a robot engaging in a foot pursuit of a person of interest. Participants made decisions at each node of the decision tree and then a tactical decision concerning which member of the team should engage in the pursuit. Initial results revealed that individual decision nodes were not associated with participants' choice in who should engage in the pursuit. Trust in robots, however, was significantly associated with the participants' choices.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE4 -- How to Tell a "Good" Cognitive Task Analysis?

Discussion Panel: How to Recognize a "Good" Cognitive Task Analysis? BIBAFull-Text 320-324
  Emilie M. Roth; John O'Hara; Ann Bisantz; Mica R. Endsley; Robert Hoffman; Gary Klein; Laura Militello; Jonathan D. Pfautz
Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) has become part of the standard tool set of cognitive engineering. CTAs are routinely used to understand the cognitive and collaborative demands that contribute to performance problems, the basis of expertise, as well as the opportunities to improve performance through new forms of training, user interfaces, or decision aids. While the need to conduct CTAs has become well established, there is little in the way of available guidance with respect to 'best practice' for how to conduct a CTA or how to evaluate the quality of a CTA that has been conducted by others. This is an important gap as the range of consumers of CTAs is expanding to include program managers and regulators who may need to make decisions based on CTA findings. This panel brings together some of the leaders in development and application of CTA methods to address the question: Given the variety of methods available, and the lack of rigid guidance on how to perform a CTA, how does one judge the quality of a CTA?' The goal of the panel is to explore points of consensus with respect to 'best practice' in conducting and evaluating a CTA, in spite of differences in particular CTA methods, as well as to draw insights from unique and provocative perspectives.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE5 -- Teams

Characterizing naval team readiness through social network analysis BIBAFull-Text 325-329
  Jan Maarten Schraagen; Wilfried Post
Characterizing a team's level of readiness in an efficient and objective way is important for organizations such as the military. Current methods to characterize real-time team interaction know limitations that may be addressed by social network analysis techniques. The purpose of the current field study was to investigate the usefulness of these techniques by applying them to two naval teams, one more experienced than the other. We observed how these teams responded during an actual training exercise to a comparable scenario and recorded their communication processes. The descriptive, non-inferential, results showed that, at the network level, the more experienced team displayed higher levels of information sharing and team member participation compared to the less experienced team. At the actor level, the team coordinator played a much more central role in the more experienced team, whereas in the less experienced team this role was taken up by various other team members.
Cognitive Work Analysis Beyond Human Factors and Engineering: Application to Military Doctrine and Strategy Development BIBAFull-Text 330-334
  Neelam Naikar; Alanna Treadwell; Ashleigh Brady
This paper extends the application of cognitive work analysis (CWA) beyond the fields of human factors and engineering by demonstrating its use for military doctrine and strategy development. A case study is presented that shows how CWA was applied to refine the logic, rigor, and coherence of Australian air power doctrine and strategy. The value of this approach is assessed in terms of its impact, uniqueness, and feasibility, and some limitations of the current study and ideas for future research are considered. By cultivating a richer appreciation of military philosophical, strategic, and operational concepts, CWA can lead to the more powerful implementation of these ideals.
Towards a Team Mental Model of Collaborative Information Seeking during Team Decision-Making BIBAFull-Text 335-339
  Nathan J. McNeese; Madhu C. Reddy; Evan M. Friedenberg
Team decision-making (TDM) is composed of many activities. One important aspect of TDM is information seeking, particularly collaborative information seeking (CIS). Within CIS research, the role of team cognition and the development of team mental models (TMMs) have not been well-studied. In this paper, we examine the development of TMMs during CIS activities. Utilizing qualitative knowledge elicitation methods, we conducted an exploratory laboratory-based study of student teams working on CIS tasks. We report on how the teams describe TMM development, the teamwork and taskwork aspects of the TMM, and the attributes supporting TMM development. The results highlight that the process of TMM development during CIS is similar to TMM development research reported in other studies. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first research to attempt to understand the role of team cognition in CIS and describe the development of a TMM specific to CIS.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE6 -- Human Trust in Other Humans, Automation, Robots, and Cognitive Agents: Neural Correlates and Design Implications

Human Trust in Other Humans, Automation, Robots, and Cognitive Agents: Neural Correlates and Design Implications BIBAFull-Text 340-344
  Raja Parasuraman; Ewart de Visser; Eva Wiese; Poornima Madhavan
Performance in many work environments depends on appropriate levels of trust being established between humans and their colleagues, as well as with various automated agents. Although there is a large literature on trust, it is diversified according to academic discipline, with little contact between or integration across disciplines. Empirical studies directly comparing and characterizing the similarities and differences between human-human and human-automation trust are relatively rare. Additionally, the neural mechanisms of trust have only been studied in the context of interpersonal trust and not human-automation trust. This panel represents an initial attempt to bridge these gaps. The panelists will discuss recent research aimed at characterizing human-human and human-agent trust in relation to one another and with respect to the underlying neural mechanisms. Finally, the panelists will discuss the design and training implications of these recent research findings.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE7 -- Interface Design

Is more information better for dismounted soldiers? Display-layout considerations of multiple video feed from unmanned vehicles BIBAFull-Text 345-349
  Tal Oron-Gilad; Yisrael Parmet
Dismounted operational tactics are often aided by unmanned vehicles (UVs). The challenge for dismounted soldiers who receive video feed from UVs is in their ability to understand the global picture of the conflict area and to identify potential threats. A possible way to enhance soldiers' awareness is to display simultaneous ground and aerial views of the area. This study examined three possible display layout and toggle mechanism for the video feeds provided. Thirty former infantry soldiers with no experience using UV video feed participated. Objective performances and subjective ratings were analyzed. Performance scores in Identification and Orientation were superior in the Split and Combo layouts that allowed seeing both aerial and ground feeds at the same time. The Combo layout was also most preferred by participants and provides an operational advantage over the Split screen. Still, more practice may be needed for dismounted soldiers to utilize video feed from UAVs.
Using iconic cues to recover from fixation on tablet devices in the cockpit BIBAFull-Text 350-354
  T. Loveday; M. W. Wiggins
Tablet devices are increasingly used as electronic flight bags in general aviation. However, there are risks associated with the use of such devices in the aviation context, particularly if the pilot becomes fixated and loses situation awareness. The present study investigated the effectiveness of presenting iconic cues and generic icons on a tablet device interface as a means of reengaging pilots with aircraft flight systems following a failure. The results indicated that the participants were faster to respond to simulated aircraft failures when icons were associated with the cause of the failure, and slower when they were associated with a related aircraft indicator or with a generic event. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Visualizing Human Factors and Ergonomics Publications: Word clouds and Word networks BIBAFull-Text 355-359
  John D. Lee
Objective: This paper explores the strengths and limits of word clouds and word networks in visualizing the field of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). Background: Large volumes of textual data present unique analysis and visualization challenges. Visualization techniques for these and other types of data must balance the need to make graphics engaging, accessible, and informative. Method: The analysis considers 11,911 abstracts from two decades of papers published in 11 HFE journals. A common graphical representation of text data -- word clouds -- is compared with word networks. Results: Word clouds and word networks both reveal key terms of HFE, but word networks provide additional information regarding the semantic structure of the field. Restyling what has become known as the 'mullet of the internet' could make a valuable contribution to analyzing textual data. Conclusion: Like other visualization techniques, word networks offer more insight, but with the cost of being less accessible than the simpler word clouds. Application: Word networks offer a promising alternative to word clouds in providing a more complete view of textual data than is possible with word clouds.
Indication of Direction with Digital Map -- Effects of Display Size and Time Constraints BIBAFull-Text 360-364
  Per-Anders Oskarsson; Jonathan Svensson; Björn J. E. Johansson; Charlotte Hellgren
Dismounted soldiers today use digital support for navigation and presentation of direction, and most likely such support will become standard equipment. Therefore, it is important to investigate how factors such as display size and performance time influence the ability to transform information on the map to positions in the terrain. An experiment was performed with two display sizes (3.5-inch and 9.7-inch). The participants' task was to indicate direction to positions in the terrain represented by target symbols on a digital map with four different time limits (5s, 10s, 15s, and 20s). Participants with low spatial ability (measured by PTSOT) had lower precision with the small display, whereas participants with medium and high spatial ability performed equally well with both displays. When the time limit was shortened, task load increased, but performance was not affected. The results also confirm that important aspects of spatial ability can be discriminated by PTSOT.
Assessment of Alternative Interfaces for Manual Commanding of Spacecraft Systems: Compatibility with Flexible Allocation Policies BIBAFull-Text 365-369
  Dorrit Billman; Debra Schreckenghost; Pardis Miri
Astronauts will be responsible for executing a much larger body of procedures as human exploration moves further from Earth and Mission Control. Efficient, reliable methods for executing these procedures, including manual, automated, and mixed execution will be important. We evaluated a new procedure system that integrates step-by-step instruction with the means for execution. While the system allows automation, the critical first step, investigated here, is effectiveness supporting manual execution. We compared manual execution using the new system to a system analogous to the manual-only system currently in use on the International Space Station; we assessed whether manual performance with the new system would be as good or better than with the legacy system. This lays the foundation for integrating automated execution into the flow of procedures designed for humans. In our formative study, we found speed and accuracy of procedure execution was better using the new, integrated interface over the legacy design.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE8 -- DM/Decision Aids

Maps, Space-time Cubes, and Meta-Information for Understanding Path Information: A Comparative Analysis BIBAFull-Text 370-374
  Ann Bisantz; Jean-Francois D'Arcy; Dana Kerker; Sudeep Hegde; Peiqu Guan; Martin Voshell; Ryan Kilgore
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the usefulness of different geospatial representations in interpreting paths and activities of individuals moving through a complex spatial environment. Three-dimensional 'space-time cubes' were compared to more traditional two-dimensional map displays both with and without animation/playback of the movements. Additionally, we investigated whether or not providing overlaid meta-information about individuals' possible locations in between known ('sensed') locations would improve performance. Results indicated that there were no advantages to, and some indications of increased workload, due to the 3D representation, perhaps because of challenges in interpreting the third (time) dimension. However, providing meta-information about possible locations supported performance when it was necessary for participants to recognize potential meetings or other events that did not occur at sensed locations. Geospatial displays used to support interpretation of movement tracking (e.g., for use in intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications) should compute and provide meta-information about possible paths between sensed locations. Additionally, if a third (time) dimension is included, additional training and support may be required.
The influence of Chinese-Western Bilingualism on Rationality in Decision Making Behavior BIBAFull-Text 375-379
  Na Chen; Patrick Pei-Luen Rau; Nan Thomas Yao
This study aimed to investigate the influence of bilingualism on the decision making behavior of Chinese-Western bilinguals. Three tasks, including gain-loss asymmetry, loss aversion and myopic loss aversion, were conducted with 30 Chinese-Western bilingual participants. The results indicated that Chinese-Western bilinguals behaved more rationally in a Chinese language context than in an English language context.
Benefits of Decision-Support by Likelihood versus Binary Alarm Systems: Does the number of stages make a difference? BIBAFull-Text 380-384
  Rebecca Wiczorek; Dietrich Manzey; Anna Zirk
Recent research has shown that the use of 3-stage likelihood alarm systems (LAS) has the potential to mitigate performance deficits associated with the use of binary alarm systems (BAS). The additional likelihood information can guide operators' behavior and improve their decision-making accuracy. Comparisons of LAS with different numbers of stages are missing so far. Therefore, the current study compared a BAS with a 3-stage LAS and a 4-stage LAS. Participants were found to make significantly fewer wrong decisions with the 4-stage LAS than with the other two systems, and still significantly fewer errors with the 3-stage LAS compared to the BAS. We found that this performance benefit resulted from a reduced number of false alarms, whereas no difference was found with regard to misses. Results are further discussed with regard to their theoretical implications for LAS and threshold setting in BAS.
Role of an Anthropomorphic Agent in Environmental Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 385-389
  Molly Liechty; Poornima Madhavan
Computer agents can significantly impact the manner in which people perceive information and make choices. This study examined the effectiveness of an anthropomorphized computer agent (a Polar Bear) versus a simple text box at two levels of reliability on participants' receptiveness to information about climate change and subsequent environmentally friendly behavior. Participants (N=110) answered questions about climate change while receiving the assistance of one of four computer agents comprising either an anthropomorphic agent (Polar Bear) or text box at 90% or 60% reliability. Results revealed that dependence on the anthropomorphic Polar Bear agent did not significantly differ from dependence on information conveyed via the Text Box agent; however, accuracy on the environmental quiz was greater for participants assisted by the Polar Bear agent under 90% reliability but lower than those assisted by the Text Box under 60% reliability. This study demonstrates that in some contexts the decision aiding advantages of anthropomorphic characters are selective and may be dependent largely on the agent's demonstrated reliability at helping users reach their end goal.
Supporting Representation Management in Intelligence Analysis through Automated Decision Aids BIBAFull-Text 390-394
  Martin Voshell; Sean Guarino; James Tittle; Emilie Roth
Intelligence analysts -- overloaded with complex and disparate data -- must incorporate information into cohesive and convincing narratives and explanations. For analysts, data overload can result in developing premature conclusions and limit their ability to effectively conduct comprehensive analyses. Historically, automated decision aids designed to help with these processes have largely failed analysts in managing a fundamental work tradeoff between analytic narrowing and broadening because software tools too often attempt to supplant analyst reasoning, rather than support the iterative process as a whole. Instead of such brittle approaches, previous research suggests analysts would benefit from automation that supports a collaborative partnership throughout the analysis process. The research and development described in this work began with a cognitive analysis of practicing analysts, entailing literature review, interviews, and walkthroughs with a software prototype. Findings from the cognitive analysis were translated into design requirements for decision aids that support representation management across multiple intelligence products. The findings provide insight into under-supported cognitive and collaborative work in modern intelligence analysis with implications for the future design of useful automated decision aids.

Communication: C1 -- Mediated and Person-to-Person Communication

The Importance of Intonation During Perceptions of Non-Understanding During Full and Partial Readback Responses in Radio Communication BIBAFull-Text 395-399
  Jaime C. Auton; Mark W. Wiggins; Ben J. Searle
The readback/hearback protocol is a communicative procedure used to minimize the risk of communication errors over the radio or telephone in high-risk environments. This protocol requires the receiver of a verbal instruction to repeat or 'read back' the instruction to the sender to ensure it has been heard correctly. It is a common assumption that a correct readback confirms that a receiver has understood an instruction. However, an operator can accurately repeat an instruction while concealing their lack of understanding of the instruction. Previous research has highlighted the importance of intonation as a prosodic cue to aid in the detection of non-understandings during readback/hearback exchanges over the radio. As deviations from the standard readback procedure occur frequently, it is unclear whether intonation is equally as useful in the detection of non-understandings when contained within a partial readback response. Using an international sample of hydroelectric power generation operators, the current study assessed whether the use of a full readback leads to a greater perception that the receiver has understood the instruction compared to a partial readback. It also examined the utility of intonation during perceptions of non-understanding upon hearing a full readback versus partial readback response. The results indicated that full readback responses attracted a greater assumption of understanding compared to partial readback responses (but only for native English speakers), and that intonation was only used to detect non-understandings during partial readback responses that lacked the semantic information contained within a full readback. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Using cerebral hemovelocity to measure workload in a complex vigilance task with display redundancy BIBAFull-Text 400-404
  Kelly Satterfield; Tyler H. Shaw; Victor Finomore
Command and Control (C2) operators are responsible for monitoring multiple communication channels for long periods of time. One of the potential drawbacks of this important role is that these operators can experience a high degree of mental workload. The manner in which critical information is presented can influence the intelligibility, and thus, the workload of these tasks. To date, visual and auditory presentation of communication has been the primary focus of exploration regarding the manner in which critical information is disseminated to C2 operators. However, this research exploring auditory or visual only displays has been unsuccessful in preventing a performance decrement. Redundant displays may provide a solution. In this study, 45 operators monitored for the presence of critical phrases during a 40-min vigilance session with 1 of 3 different displays: auditory only, visual only, or a display with redundant auditory and visual information. Workload was measured using cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and the NASA-TLX. Performance accuracy results revealed that the redundant display and visual only display facilitated more accurate performance than the auditory only condition, and that reaction times were faster for the redundant display condition than the visual only condition. Results pertaining to the physiological measure revealed that CBFV declined significantly over time, and a three way hemisphere x period x display condition interaction revealed that both hemispheres experienced a decrement in the visual and auditory conditions, but this effect was lateralized to the right hemisphere for redundant display conditions. Workload ratings from the NASA-TLX were insensitive to differences in workload for the different display conditions. Results are interpreted in terms of a resource model of vigilance performance and the cerebral lateralization of vigilance tasks.
Effects of Cognitive Biases on Distributed Team Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 405-409
  Vincent F. Mancuso; Victor S. Finomore; Katherine M. Rahill; Elizabeth A. Blair; Gregory J. Funke
Over the last several years, teams that collaborate across geographic, temporal and cultural boundaries are becoming common in the modern workplace. While these 'distributed teams' provide organizations with numerous benefits from an operational and cost standpoint, there are still numerous challenges associated with them. One such issue that has yet to be explored is how well-known cognitive biases may impact distributed decision making. In this paper, we present an initial exploration of confirmation bias and its propagation in distributed team collaborations. Using the ELICIT task environment, we manipulated the order of information provided to teams. Our hypothesis was that serial order would influence the significance teams placed on information, such that they would overweigh incorrect information presented early in the task, thus inducing a team cognitive bias. Our results conformed to that hypothesis, i.e., when incorrect information was presented early, teams appeared to apply greater focus on that information in subsequent discussions, and they reported incorrect answers more often, suggesting the influence of a confirmation bias in their deliberations. These results highlight the need for continued research on team cognition and team cognitive biases, particularly in complex, distributed environments.
Best of Both Worlds: Evaluation of Multi-Modal Communication Management Suite BIBAFull-Text 410-414
  Elizabeth A. Blair; Katherine M. Rahill; Victor Finomore; Kelly Satterfield; Tyler Shaw; Gregory Funke
Effective communication is critical to successfully carrying out a task, especially in military operations. Real-time planning, coordination, and directives must be transmitted to operators in order to properly execute their mission. To improve our warfighter's communication effectiveness, researchers in the Air Force Research Laboratory have developed a network-centric multi-modal communication monitoring suite. Past studies have shown an advantage of this tool compared to traditional radio and chat tools. However studies have also shown that multimodal displays do not always outperform single modality displays, especially in multi-tasking environments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Air Force developed multimodal communication suite compared to radio and chat only displays during a multi-tasking communication monitoring and compensatory tracking task. Results indicated that the multimodal display offers the best of both worlds, in that access to the suite provided superior performance to the radio display for communication monitoring and to the chat display for the tracking task. This evaluation aids in the testing and development of the newly developed multimodal communication management suite.

Communication: C2 -- Human Factors in Cyber Warfare

Human Factors in Cyber Warfare II: Emerging Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 415-418
  Vincent F. Mancuso; James C. Christensen; Jennifer Cowley; Victor Finomore; Cleotide Gonzalez; Benjamin Knott
Cyber operations offer a unique environment in which the lines between cognition and technology are constantly blurred. Within the greater research community, current work often focuses solely on the technology, often only acknowledging the human in passing, if at all. More recently, the Human Factors community has begun to address human-centered issues in cyber operations, but in comparison to technological communities, we have yet to scratch the surface. Even with publications on Cyber Human Factors gaining momentum, we still lack a complete and holistic understanding of the domain itself, creating a major gap in the field. The purpose of this panel is to continue to expand the role Human Factors in cyber research by introducing the community to current work being done, and to facilitate collaborations to drive future research. We have assembled a panel of scientists across multiple specializations in the Human Factors community to have an open discussion on how we can leverage previous work in human factors and current work in cyber operations to continue to push the bounds of the field.

Computer Systems: CS1/I -- User Experience Day Keynote -- Starting Up in the New Era of Human Factors

Starting Up in the New Era of Human Factors BIBFull-Text 419
  Drew Davidson; John Roa

Computer Systems: CS2/I -- Future Visions of the User Experience

Future Visions of the User Experience BIBFull-Text 420-421
  Erik Wakefield; Marc Resnick; Charles Mauro; Sanjay Batra; Zach Weiner; Stephen Wilcox

Computer Systems: CS3/I -- User Experience Day Best Paper Competition, Sponsored by CSTG

Human-What Interaction? Understanding User Source Orientation BIBAFull-Text 422-426
  Jacob Solomon; Rick Wash
Interaction with internet-connected computing devices involves interaction with many distinct agents or sources simultaneously. Hardware, operating systems, web browsers, networking devices, and servers all influence the user experience, as do the engineers and programmers who designed them, the companies or organizations that have developed the systems, other users on the web, and various third-parties such as advertisers. We argue that users cannot be simultaneously engaged towards all of these sources of interaction, and instead must orient themselves to only a subset at any given time. We propose a model of source orientation based on literature from psychology, communications and human-computer interaction. This model describes how users select their source orientation when interacting with computers. We also present examples of how this model can be applied to promote usability in computing systems.
Simulation of Workflow and Threat Characteristics for Cyber Security Incident Response Teams BIBAFull-Text 427-431
  Theodore Reed; Robert G. Abbott; Benjamin Anderson; Kevin Nauer; Chris Forsythe
Within large organizations, the defense of cyber assets generally involves the use of various mechanisms, such as intrusion detection systems, to alert cyber security personnel to suspicious network activity. Resulting alerts are reviewed by the organization's cyber security personnel to investigate and assess the threat and initiate appropriate actions to defend the organization's network assets. While automated software routines are essential to cope with the massive volumes of data transmitted across data networks, the ultimate success of an organization's efforts to resist adversarial attacks upon their cyber assets relies on the effectiveness of individuals and teams. This paper reports research to understand the factors that impact the effectiveness of Cyber Security Incidence Response Teams (CSIRTs). Specifically, a simulation is described that captures the workflow within a CSIRT. The simulation is then demonstrated in a study comparing the differential response time to threats that vary with respect to key characteristics (attack trajectory, targeted asset and perpetrator). It is shown that the results of the simulation correlate with data from the actual incident response times of a professional CSIRT.
Tablet Interaction Accuracy and Precision: Seated vs. Walking BIBAFull-Text 432-436
  Sean T. Hayes; Eli R. Hooten; Julie A. Adams
Smart phone and tablet mobile devices have changed the way individuals interact with computers. Users can complete tasks efficiently 'on the go' using a mobile device's touch screen; therefore, it is important to investigate touch interaction as it pertains to a mobile (i.e., walking) user. A user evaluation was conducted using a tablet to present a target selection task within a map-based interface. Participants interacted with the mobile device while seated or while walking in an uncontrolled indoor environment. As expected, the mobile target selection error is significantly higher for the mobile users; thus requiring the targets' effective widths to be significantly larger for mobile users. A primary contribution of this paper is a recommended target width model for mobile users. A further contribution finds that target selection offsets with tablets are consistent with those of mobile phones, in spite of differences in form factor and finger used.
Human Factors of Cyber Attacks: A Framework for Human-Centered Research BIBAFull-Text 437-441
  Vincent F. Mancuso; Adam J. Strang; Gregory J. Funke; Victor S. Finomore
Cyber security has been a growing focus within the human factors community. Over the last several years, human-centered cyber research has provided valuable insights into the cognitive and collaborative work within cyber operations, but has largely ignored how the genesis, intentions, methods and outcomes of cyber attacks impact human-related outcomes. Leveraging insights from other, more technologically focused communities, the goal of this paper is to synthesize previous work and to present a unified, descriptive framework of cyber attacks. Our framework, which consists of three dimensions, adversarial, methodological, and operational, aims to maintain the rich interactions between the components of a cyber attack while offering a further abstraction useful to future human factors research. We present each dimension in terms of the previous techno-centered research, demonstrate how the human factors community can contribute to our understanding, and ground each within the context of the StuxNet virus.

Education: E1 -- Innovations and Trends in Human Factors Education

Learning Team Theories and Measurement through the Game Pandemic BIBAFull-Text 442-446
  Joseph R. Keebler; Deborah DiazGranados; Dustin C. Smith
Teamwork is paramount in many modern day career fields. It is important for HF students and professionals to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitudes requisite for excellent teamwork and to grasp the many hurdles that exist in appropriately measuring its major constructs. Although theories can be imparted didactically, and ideas for measurement discussed, conducting team based research continues to be extremely difficult in particular for measuring team behaviors. This article discusses a potential remedy to this issue through the team-based game 'Pandemic©'. This game has players work together on teams of 2-4 individuals whose goal is to cure the world from a set of 4 diseases that are eradicating humanity. It forces individuals to be resourceful and work together -- and exemplifies many of the behavioral, attitudinal and cognitive components of teamwork. This article will discuss a) the major theories of teamwork that should be taught alongside this game as an in-class activity, b) the KSAs, team processes, and measurable outcomes that Pandemic entails, and c) an example of ways to integrate the game into semester long activities to give students insight into teamwork and teamwork measurement.
Reducing Boredom Using Scent to Improve Constructs Critical to Learning BIBAFull-Text 447-451
  David L. Jones; Sara Dechmerowski; Razia Oden; William Pike
Boredom is an emotion that can have negative consequences in learning environments. Odor research has demonstrated that scents elicit strong emotional responses during exposure; however, there is limited research on how to leverage odors to reduce boredom. The present study examined the impact of four ambient odors (peppermint, cinnamon, lavender, and urine) on boredom, motivation, and engagement. Results revealed that cinnamon significantly reduced feelings of boredom; however, peppermint, lavender, and urine did not significantly impact boredom. Results also demonstrated that the presence of boredom significantly decreased motivation and engagement. These findings indicate that boredom is an important connection between odors and their effect on constructs critical to learning. The results of this study can be applied to educational settings, workplaces, and other boredom-prone settings.
Connecting Students to the Community through Ergonomics Projects BIBAFull-Text 452-456
  Brooke Cannon; Lesley Strawderman; April Heiselt
April Heiselt, Mississippi State University At Mississippi State University, students participated in a service-learning project as part of the Industrial Ergonomics course in the department of Industrial and Systems Engineering. The project was completed with community partner, N & W Farms. N & W Farms is a sweet potato farm and distributor with operations including cleaning, sorting, packaging, and shipping sweet potatoes. These operations allowed students to apply their ergonomics and design skills learned in the course as well as acquire a better understanding for how engineering can be applied to benefit the community. This paper will showcase the tools used by the students for the project, a summary of how students applied those tools, and how successful students were when using these tools to find solutions to ergonomic and operations problems at N & W Farms.
Human Factors Methods in a Design Cycle Framework BIBAFull-Text 457-461
  James H. Creager; Wesley R. Wardlaw; Megan Hardy; Gabriel Pappalardo; Addison B. English; HeeSun Choi
Understanding when, why, where, and how to use human factors methods is a key skill for human factors practitioners. Experienced professionals are very skilled at selecting methods appropriate to the task at hand, but the skill is a result of years of exposure. The current study examines the value of organizing human factors methods into a framework that relates and integrates information in meaningful ways to aid non-experts in selecting appropriate methods. The product design cycle is proposed as a viable framework for addressing this issue, though it is only one of many possible frameworks. Recommendations for future work include the development of additional frameworks targeting other audiences.
Linguistic Analysis of Archival Human Factors Jobs Data BIBAFull-Text 462-466
  Limor Hochberg; Ravdeep Johar; Esa Rantanen
To continually track changing skills and knowledge requirements for human factors professionals in the labor market, an archival human factors jobs database was created. The database contains relevant information from human factors job announcements, including required degree and field of education, required and preferred experience, and information from the job descriptions. The primary purpose of the database is to facilitate longitudinal analyses of employers' expectations. Results from these analyses should be used in the design of academic human factors programs and curricula to better prepare future human factors professionals meet such expectations upon their graduation. In this paper we describe a natural language processing approach to analysis of human factors jobs data. Several trends emerged from our analyses. Although we defer drawing conclusions from these trends until later, until the database contains much more data that are more evenly distributed in time, our methods are detailed here for others to make use in analyses of the jobs data freely available in the database.

Education: E2 -- The Paradox of Human Factors: Exemplification of and Potential Solution to a Broken System of Science

Human Factors as both the Embodiment of and Potential Solution to a Broken System of Science BIBAFull-Text 467-471
  J. Christopher Brill; Ben D. Lawson; Francis T. Durso; Peter A. Hancock; Scott Shappell
The objective of this panel was to discuss issues critical to the modern practice of science, with a specific focus on how we train students to operate within a system that often slows scientific innovation. Chris Brill provided opening remarks to frame the discussion and introduce the panelists. Ben Lawson briefly summarized the most significant problems affecting modern science and how they limit discovery, stifle innovation, and reduce quality. The remaining panelists then provided brief opening remarks in response to Lawson's summary. Specifically, Frank Durso addressed how the current research and funding environments affects student training and career advice. Peter Hancock addressed how risk-averse sponsors and business models prohibit innovative research. Scott Shappell discussed how different Human Factors and Ergonomics (heretofore referenced as HF/E) career paths lead people to and from their roles as scientists. Specifically, he discussed how to prepare students for flexibility in the changing landscape of the business of science. The panel then turned to facilitated discussion with panelists and audience members. Specific themes included the business of science in relation to educational practices, the applied nature of HF/E training within the scientist/practitioner model, and implications of short-term funding schedules on education and research practices. The panel concluded by discussing how HF/E scientists/practitioners may be uniquely qualified to offer potential solutions to the above problems from educational and systemic perspectives.

Education: E3 -- Recommendations for Fostering a Successful Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Student Chapter

Discussion Panel Recommendations for Fostering a Successful Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Student Chapter BIBAFull-Text 472-476
  Jennifer Leavens; Adam G. Emfield; Vindhya Venkatraman; Rashmi Payyanadan; Nicole Werner; Thomas M. Gable
This panel is comprised of current and prior student chapter officers, who will be discussing five selected themes influencing the success of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) student chapters. These themes include: 1) administrative support, 2) chapter branding and funds, 3) chapter collaboration, 4) social activities, and 5) educational activities for chapters. We believe that these five pillars are necessary in providing a solid foundation for a successful and engaged chapter. Within each section, we discuss challenges and successes that our chapters have experienced. Additionally, we end with recommendations and suggestions that we hope other student chapters -- HFES and otherwise -- can use to bolster their group. We hope that these recommendations can foster the future success of aspiring Human Factors and Ergonomics Society student chapters.

Education: E4 -- Variance in Academia: It Is Not All R1's Out There, and Even Those Are Not What You Think

Variance in Academia: It is not all R1's out there and even those are not what you think BIBAFull-Text 477-481
  Nicholas Kelling; Gregory M. Corso; Haydee M. Cuevas; Joseph R. Keebler; S. Camille Peres; Bruce N. Walker
There is a growing concern regarding our academic community that academia has become a less than optimal option for new graduates. As our discipline is strongest when there is an appropriate balance between academia and industry, maintaining a strong academic workforce remains critical. However, apprehension exists on the mind of students regarding the viability of academic careers. Of specific concern is a very high expectation for tenure. Although such expectations may be accurate for some high performing institutions, a more accurate depiction is needed regarding the variance of academic positions. This panel will allow for an open discussion between those interested in academic careers and a multitude of differing academic experiences. Although tenure will be a major component discussed, interactions will also include best practices and tips for academic success.

Environmental Design: ED1 -- Office Work

Proactive Office Ergonomics Really Works BIBAFull-Text 482-486
  Alan Hedge; Jonathan Puleio
Over 200 employees at a software company completed comprehensive surveys before and after moving to a new headquarters building with customized ergonomic workstations. The company has a proactive ergonomics program and all employees received ergonomics training. Questions asked about features of their workstations, workplace environment, work-related musculoskeletal and visual health and well-being (job satisfaction, happiness). Results showed substantial improvements in comfort, health, workstation environment conditions and wellbeing with the ergonomic workstations.
A Summary Description of OERC's Research Funding Process BIBAFull-Text 487-489
  Thomas J. Albin
The Office Ergonomics Research Committee (OERC) is a consortium of companies who work to advance ergonomic research and to disseminate research findings for use in designing and managing work places, systems, processes, and products. A unique aspect of OERC is its membership, which consists of both product designers and end-users. The resulting dialog between members results in a fertile interaction of ideas regarding gaps in the research base concerning computer-related work, which in turn shapes the OERC research agenda. During the past six years, OERC has funded 24 studies on various topics such as sit/stand work, mouse design, gestural input, lighting, and student computer use. In this presentation, the organization of OERC, its process for determining research priorities, the funding process, and the research that has been funded are described. OERC has proven to be an effective tool for the advancement and promotion of the human factors and ergonomics knowledge base regarding computer use.
A Conceptual Hierarchy for Ecologically Valid Open-Plan Office Research BIBAFull-Text 490-494
  Rodney C. Middlebrooks; Troy B. Hayden; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson
The use of open plan offices (OPOs) continues to increase globally. This increasing usage is often justified by the need to support more collaborative office work. Such practices as office hoteling, and touchdown stations using OPO designs are perceived to provide cost savings based on the more efficient use of space. However, the advantages of OPOs continue to be challenged in the literature, and many studies have identified negative consequences for work performance and worker satisfaction. As a complex sociotechnical system, OPOs have been difficult to study in any way that yields ecologically valid results. Research on OPOs has been conducted and can be separated into two primary categories: 1.) Controlled studies in laboratories; and 2.) Survey-based studies eliciting workers' perceptions. There is a need for an organizing body of concepts and parameters to conduct OPO research that is ecologically valid and less constrained by the need for internal validity at the cost of realism. In this project, the research team developed a conceptual hierarchy (CH) to design an ecologically valid replication of an OPO. The CH provides a structural framework to conduct a single study or series of studies to explore work behavior in OPOs.
Occupancy Quality Predictors of Office Worker Job Satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 495-499
  Thomas J. Smith
Objective: To reassess previous observations regarding workplace design factors that have the greatest influence on employee perceptions of job satisfaction, and to extend the analysis to an investigation of the degree to which job satisfaction may be influenced by additional design factors. Background: Prior studies suggest that job satisfaction and occupancy quality are inextricably linked. A distinct focus of this work has been on the link between physical work environment quality and job satisfaction. Method: A 227-item survey was administered online to a total of 345 office workers employed in eight different office sites. The survey solicited respondent rankings of job satisfaction, and of levels of different attributes of occupancy quality. Results: Job satisfaction is positively correlated with productivity, and with overall employment, job, and organization quality, but not with age and with compensation and work station quality. Conclusion: Findings show mixed agreement with prior results, and also reveal new predictors of job satisfaction heretofore unrecognized. Application: Results should benefit employer decision-making regarding HF/E design interventions to improve office worker job satisfaction.
Some Considerations About Human Factors In Environment Design: What Interior Design and Architects Say BIBAFull-Text 500-504
  Gilberto Rangel de Oliveira; Claudia Mont'alvão
The design process has been discussed for a long time. From the Cartesian to romantic point of view, many authors propose distinct approaches to include users in this process. This paper presents a discussion on whether or not design methods are used by designers and architects. To illustrate design processes of these professionals, an exploratory survey was conducted. The intention was to find out details about design practice and additional information about the knowledge and application of human factors/ergonomics by these professionals in the built environment projects. In this paper, just the results related to human factors/ ergonomics topics are presented and discussed.

Environmental Design: ED2 -Consequences of New Devices and Apps for Environmental Design

Effects of Environment and Input Technology on Human Working memory for Medical Charting Information BIBAFull-Text 505-509
  Angela Spangler; Alan Hedge
This study investigated the role of the location updating effect (the memory deficit associated with passing through a doorway) and input technology (paper, a tablet PC or a laptop) on working memory for medical charting information, because in many hospitals physicians and nurses often leave the patient bedside to enter their medical information elsewhere. 48 participants watched medical scenario videos (note taking was allowed) and recalled patient information onto a medical chart presented either as a paper chart or electronically on a tablet, and a laptop, presented in randomized order. Post-video, each P either entered a new room through opening 3 doorways, walked back and forth in the original room for the same duration, or simply waited while seated for the same duration. The items to be recalled included demographic information, narrative information related to medical history, numeric data in the form of vital signs and medication data in a checkbox format. Results show that significantly more items were recalled to paper (13.5) compared to either the laptop (11.8) or tablet (9.7). There was no evidence of a location updating effect.

Environmental Design: ED3 -- HF in Vehicle Interiors and Other Environments

Ambulation Aid Use and User Performance for Transit Vehicle Interior Design BIBAFull-Text 510-514
  Clive D'Souza; Xinhui Zhu
Public transportation plays an important role in shaping urban quality of life. However, urban transportation design and policy-making lacks a strong human factors knowledge base for accommodating a functionally diverse ridership including the aging and mobility impaired. This study examines seating configurations in contemporary low-floor buses and user performance for mobility impaired passengers. Task times in sitting and rising were obtained in a laboratory study using a static full-scale low-floor bus mock-up from -- cane users (n=10), walker users (n=22), persons with visual impairment (n=17), and without any impairments (n=17). Significant differences in sitting and rising times across longitudinal vs. transverse seats by user group are demonstrated along with regression estimates to facilitate design evaluations. Implications of these findings, recommendations for improved low-floor bus designs and the relevance of ergonomics methods for safety, usability, and efficiency are presented.
The Effects of Driver Speed Prediction-Based Battery Management System on Li-ion Battery Performance for Electric Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 515-519
  Jingyan Wan; Changxu Wu
The electric vehicle (EV) technologies have received great attention due to the potential contributions to reducing emissions and energy consumption. The relatively short travel distance and battery lifetime of EV are major concerns for consumers. It is suggested that driver behavior plays important role in determining EV battery's electric current and heat generation, which have effects on travel distance of EV and its battery lifetime. To address this problem, the current work proposes a Driver Speed Prediction-Based Battery Management System (P-BMS). P-BMS is able to innovatively predict both electric current and temperature of EV battery based on driver behavior, proactively manage and control both electric current and temperature level of the EV battery in order to minimize energy consumption and maximize both travel distance of EV and EV battery lifetime. Results suggest that P-BMS can significantly reduce energy, extend travel distance in one charge and prolong EV battery lifetime.
Aircraft Seat in- and Egress Differences between Elderly and Young Adults BIBAFull-Text 520-524
  Willem Lijmbach; Peter Miehlke; Peter Vink
An aircraft interior should be adjusted to the needs of elderly, but research data in this area are limited. Especially, in- and egress could be an issue. In this paper differences in strategies between elderly and students are studied in a mock-up by analyzing video recordings of the in- and egress in seat rows. It shows that elderly take significantly more in- and egress time, especially for the non-aisle seat. Elderly also use more often support by touching arm rests and backrests. The in- and egress of PRMs could be improved to give the right support, perhaps by redesign and to assign PRMs to special seats.
Designing Classroom Routines to Promote Physical Activity in Children BIBAFull-Text 529-533
  Martha J. Sanders
Physical inactivity, a risk factor for childhood obesity, may contribute to difficulties with learning, social participation, and chronic disease in adulthood. This study examined the efficacy of ABC for Fitness™, a classroom-based physical activity program, at improving physical fitness in third grade students in two school districts. The sample included 229 students with 110 in the intervention and 129 in the control groups. Outcome measures included body mass index, curl-ups, push-ups, ½ mile run, and flexibility. Over a five month period, intervention schools showed greater improvement than controls in curl-ups and push-ups with trends toward significance in flexibility and ½ mile run. The study demonstrates the potential for designing classroom environments that promote physical fitness in children. Macro-level challenges for implementing programs in school systems are presented.

Forensics Professional: FP1 -- Forensic Potpourri

Human Factors Gone Awry -- Why Current Efforts Fail To Adequately Address Suffocation Hazards of Infant Sling Carriers BIBAFull-Text 534-538
  Shelley Waters Deppa; Elaine D. Allen
Infant sling carriers are hands-free, fabric carrying devices used to secure an upright or reclined infant to a caregiver. With traditional, unstructured slings, safety depends solely on the wearer's use and knowledge of how to wrap an infant onto the caregiver, since safety is not passively designed into the product. In recent years, semi-structured slings with seemingly simple instructions began being marketed to make slings easier to use. However, infants younger than 4 months of age are suffocating in both unstructured and semi-structured slings. This paper describes research undertaken to identify factors contributing to suffocation, explains why efforts to improve product usability instead created new suffocation hazards, why better warnings and instructions fail to adequately address these hazards, and thus why the government and industry should adopt more effective options to address this deadly hazard.
When Eyewitnesses Misremember: The Delicate Balance Between Forensic Investigation and Memory Evidence Assessment BIBAFull-Text 539-543
  Marc L. Resnick
Eyewitness testimony is a critical component of U.S. jurisprudence in both civil and criminal proceedings. Witnesses are relied on to recount key events, behaviors, and circumstances that contribute to findings of fact surrounding alleged criminal acts or circumstances that are the subject of civil dispute. The contribution of eyewitness testimony depends critically on the reliability of the witnesses' memory of the events they are describing. Unfortunately, there are significant limits of human episodic memory that may degrade or distort these memories. Compounding this challenge is the poor metacognitive awareness of memory's limitations. Eyewitnesses may overestimate the quality of their memory in accuracy and precision. They may be unaware of the potential for false details to merge into their episodic memories of an event. Jurists are similarly unaware of the limitations of memory and may rely too heavily on eyewitness testimony when resolving cases. But acknowledging and accounting for the limitations of memory has costs. Without eyewitness testimony many cases would not be viable, so there is a societal need to tolerate these limitations in order to have a working legal system. Human factors professionals, who are testifying as investigators in the case, may be the only source through which jurors can be informed of memory's limitations when general memory experts are not admitted to testify solely for that purpose. When performed capably, this testimony can significantly improve the outcomes of legal proceedings.
Reported Risk Behaviors and Perceived Riskiness of Activities Using a Risk-Taking Scale by Adolescents and Young Adults BIBAFull-Text 544-548
  Alexandra N. Vredenburgh
Human factors forensic consultants often need to evaluate the reasonableness of conduct in the course of their investigations. Many cases involve adolescents who, in general, have a reputation for being more likely to engage in risky behaviors. The present study evaluates and compares risk perception and risk-taking behaviors of adolescents and young adults. The Domain Specific Risk Taking Scale was used to obtain reported levels of risk-taking and perceived risk attitudes regarding four commonly encountered content domains: ethical, health/safety, social, and recreational; an additional subscale evaluating eating disordered behavior was created for this study. The results indicate that adolescents reported a higher likelihood of risk-taking behavior than young adults on the recreational subscale, but were no different than young adults for the health/safety, social and eating disorder subscales. Adolescents perceived unethical behavior as lower risk, and were more likely to participate in such behaviors. Adolescent risk perception for health/safety, recreational, social and eating disorders subscales were not found to be different than that reported by the young adults.
A Framework for Analyzing Intersection Timing and Red Light Collisions BIBAFull-Text 549-553
  Thomas Ayres; Chris Dyrby; Rajeev Kelkar; Tate Kubose
It is not surprising that many multi-vehicle collisions occur at intersections, as intersecting streets present potential conflict situations where vehicle paths can cross one another. What does surprise both naïve observers and many professionals involved in accident investigations (e.g., accident reconstructionists, human factors scientists, lawyers) is the explanation that most red light running accidents happen only when the vehicle violating the red light enters the intersection approximately 4 to 6 seconds or more after the light has turned red. This paper provides a framework to study the conditions under which red light running collisions occur. This framework is applied to real-world intersection geometries and red light running collisions captured on video. A comparison of observational and crash data indicates that only a small fraction of red light running results in collisions. The mathematical framework can be used to develop likely timing scenarios in accident investigation, and can be expanded to study motor vehicle collisions with bicyclists or pedestrians.
Case Study: A Novice Unlicensed Child Operator of a Motorized Dirt Bike Versus an Ambulance Driver BIBAFull-Text 554-558
  Alison Vredenburgh; Eugene Vanderpol
While most motor vehicle operators must obtain a driver's license, which requires training and a test, child operators of motorized dirt bikes can use these vehicles without any training or experience. In this case, a 10-year-old boy was riding a dirt bike in the desert for the first time. The area where he was riding had desert-like sand and dune conditions on both sides of a 2-lane highway. The boy received some oral instructions from a family friend, and then spent a few hours riding in the dirt. Towards the end of the day, an off-duty ambulance was driving down the highway. The child stopped at the side of the road, looked towards the ambulance, which was the only vehicle on the road in either direction, and then proceeded to cross, clearing the roadway. The ambulance driver panicked, left the road and struck the dirt bike 30 feet off the side of the road in the dirt. The boy suffered a traumatic brain injury with permanent brain damage. Human factors issues from both motor vehicle operators' perspectives will be discussed.

Forensics Professional: FP2 -- Dealing with Dubious Testimony Provided by Opposing Experts

Dealing with Dubious Testimony Provided by Opposing Experts BIBFull-Text 559-561
  Richard J. Hornick; Alison Vredenburgh; Kenneth R. Laughery; Jake L. Pauls; Michael S. Wogalter

General Sessions: GS1 -- Past President's Forum -- Our Society in 2025: The Need for Change...

Our Society in 2025: The need for change... BIBAFull-Text 562
  Eduardo Salas; Frank Durso; Andrew Imada
The future is here, and so is the need to adapt to the changing times. Join us for an engaging forum as we explore what's next for both the HF/E field and the Society. Together, let's share ideas on how HFES can adapt its conferences, member needs, and organizational structure to embrace change, focus on the future, and continue to advance the science of HF/E.

General Sessions: GS2 -- General Sessions Lectures 1

Top-Down and Bottom-Up Definitions of Human Failure Events in Human Reliability Analysis BIBAFull-Text 563-567
  Ronald Laurids Boring
In the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question is crucial, however, as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PRAs tend to be top-down -- defined as a subset of the PRA -- whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) often tend to be bottom-up -- derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.
The Influence of Mental Workload and Information Reliability on Aerial Search Performance BIBAFull-Text 568-572
  J. W. Harden; J. P. Bliss; A. Bernard; S. Jarsaillon
Western society continues to become increasingly technological and, by extension, automated. It should come as no surprise, then, that researchers have devoted a considerable amount of time and effort to identifying and understanding psychological constructs, such as cognitive workload and trust, as they apply to the relationship between human and machine, especially in the military domain. The current research seeks to expand on past work by considering the joint influence of workload and system reliability on operator trust, as well as performance, as measured by accuracy in identifying a target stimulus, reaction time, and situation awareness. Results suggested that task workload had a significant impact on all measured aspects of operator performance, but not trust in the automated system. Surprisingly, system reliability had no statistical effect on operator performance or measured trust.
A Systems Approach to Diagnosing and Measuring Teamwork in Complex Sociotechnical Organizations BIBAFull-Text 573-577
  Sacha N. Duff; Katherine Del Giudice; Matthew Johnston; Jesse Flint; Bonnie Kudrick
This paper presents a novel approach to diagnosing and measuring teamwork in complex sociotechnical systems. First, the underlying theoretical constructs that have inspired the development and use of a multi-level model to study team phenomena from a general systems perspective are presented. Next, in an attempt to theoretically ground the construct, 'flow state' will be presented as an isomorphic variable in a multi-level model, meaning it is represented similarly at the system, team, and individual level. Approaching processes embedded in organizations from this perspective allows diagnosis of the systemic influences that contribute most to the variance in performance, identification of pervasive latent systemic failures, and the development of a tailored taxonomy of behavioral teamwork dimensions, which can then be translated into metrics to measure teamwork within any observable complex process.

General Sessions:

National Research Council Board on Human Systems Integration Panel: Applying Human-Systems Integration to Safe Patient Handling and Mobility BIBAFull-Text 578-580
  Barbara Wanchisen; Nancy J. Cooke; Pascale Carayon; Sara Czaja; Bill Marras; Kate McPhaul; David Rempel; Barbara Silverstein
The National Research Council's Board on Human-Systems Integration has organized this session. An initial presentation by the NRC BOHSI will provide information on recent projects and updates. Then a panel will discuss the application of human-systems integration (HSI) to the issue of safety patient handling, an issue of growing concern given the high rate of injuries during patient handling activities. The focus of the panel will be on issues related to the scope of the problem, an HSI perspective of patient handling, and the design and implementation of safe patient handling and mobility programs. We will engage the audience in a discussion of these issues to help refine our project in this area.

General Sessions: GS5 -- General Sessions Lectures 2

Rating of Dog Breed Differences: Insights for Quadropedal Robot Design BIBAFull-Text 581-585
  Kristin M. Finkbeiner; Paul N. Russell; William S. Helton
Dogs have attracted the attention of biomimetic roboticists, for example, Sony's Aibo. Properly designed robots may be able to elicit similar perceptions as dogs. It is important then to analyze the attitudes that people have towards dogs, in particular salient features like breed-membership. In the present paper we developed an electronic questionnaire to assess the existing mental models and categorizations of dog breeds. Subjects were asked to rate representatives of 48 different dog breeds with a 7-point Likert Scale for specific behavioral traits. Based on exploratory data analysis techniques, we found four clusters of breeds: Cluster 1 (Higher Drive, Useful, and Nice), Cluster 2 (Higher Drive, Useful, and not so Nice), Cluster 3 (Higher Drive, not so Useful, and not so Nice) and Cluster 4 (Lower Drive, not so Useful, and Nice). Implications for quadropedal robot design based on pertinent existing perceptions of dog breeds and their traits are discussed.
Postural Risks Associated with Laptop Use on a Bed BIBAFull-Text 586-590
  Katherine Bubric; Alan Hedge
Laptop use is associated with a number of musculoskeletal risk factors, however there is a deficit of research pertaining to their use in any context other than a traditional desk and chair. Because laptops are designed to be portable, they are utilized in a wide variety of configurations, some of which may place the user at risk of injury. The current study examines the postural risks associated with three configurations females frequently report employing while using a laptop computer while on a bed. Differences in both posture and choice of configuration are examined as potential explanations for previously noted differences in the prevalence of discomfort associated with laptop use between males and females.
Usability of Human Factors Standards BIBAFull-Text 591-594
  Abhishek Swaminathan; Esa Rantanen
Adherence to human factors/ergonomics standards is critical to a good design project. No other resource can provide a designer with specifications based on sound science than a good standards book or info-guide. However, designers usually come up with ideas to solve problems and leave the manufacturing and technical specifications to the engineers. Although they may be aware of the basic user needs, designers rarely look at standards to justify their design thinking and validate their design processes. The two studies reported in this paper investigated the awareness of, accessibility, and usability of human factors/ergonomics standards among college students and their professors in design-oriented programs, as well as among practicing designers. The results are drawn from data obtained through an online survey and a focus group study. Although the participants' awareness of relevant standards was good, the accessibility of the standards was problematic. The Internet is the dominant means of accessing human factors information today, and online accessibility of human factors standards is imperative if they are to be used in design.

General Sessions: GS7 -- The Grand Challenges for HFES and HF/E Profession: The Fellows' Perspective

The Grand Challenges for HFES and HF/E Profession: The Fellows' Perspective BIBAFull-Text 595
  Waldemar Karwowski; S. Camille Peres; Anthony D. Andre; Nancy J. Cooke; Andrew S. Imada; John D. Lee; William S. Marras
As agreed by many HFES members, there is a pressing need to develop a unified vision for our Society, our discipline, and our profession that will guide HFES over the next 25 years and beyond. The main goal of this panel session is to discuss a long-term vision for our Society that reflects our common aspirations and that considers the profound technological, economic, social, and cultural transformations of the global society. Such a vision should help us to influence the development of our discipline worldwide and lead the HF/E the profession into the future.

General Sessions: GS8 -- Meet the HFES Journal Editors

Meet the HFES Journal Editors BIBAFull-Text 596
  C. Melody Carswell; Patricia R. DeLucia; Amy R. Pritchett; Carol Stuart-Buttle
The three outstanding HFES journals serve to publish the results of human factors/ergonomics research, case studies, and applications to design. During this panel, each of the HFES journals editors in chief (EIC) will present a brief overview summarizing the unique features and objectives of his or her journal. Attendees will come away with (a) an appreciation for the journal that would be most appropriate for their work, (b) an understanding of the manuscript review process, (c) an awareness of the most common mistakes that authors make when submitting to each of the journals, and (d) tips for increasing the likelihood that a manuscript will ultimately be published. Following the presentations, the EICs will answer questions from the audience.

General Sessions: GS9 -- Getting Published

Getting Published BIBAFull-Text 597-600
  Haydee M. Cuevas
Arguably, the hallmark of scientific research is to have impact, both theoretical and practical, and to enhance scientific and technological understanding. One of the most commonly accepted means by which to achieve this impact is to promote broad dissemination of research findings through peer-reviewed journal publications. Yet, getting one's work published can be a daunting endeavor. This alternative format presentation proposes to address this important need by providing attendees with meaningful and practical guidelines for getting published, drawing from the extant literature and the presenter's professional experience. An interactive format will be utilized to ensure a high level of audience participation and increase the value of the information beyond the presentation. The goal is to have attendees leave with useful knowledge that they can immediately apply to get started on publishing their work.

General Sessions: GS10 -- New Directions in Human Reliability Analysis for Oil and Gas, Cybersecurity, Nuclear, and Aviation

Panel Discussion: New Directions in Human Reliability Analysis for Oil & Gas, Cybersecurity, Nuclear, and Aviation BIBAFull-Text 601-603
  Harold S. Blackman; Ronald Boring; Julie L. Marble; Ali Mosleh; Najmedin Meshkati
This panel will discuss what new directions are necessary to maximize the usefulness of HRA techniques across different areas of application. HRA has long been a part of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the nuclear industry as it offers a superior standard for risk-based decision-making. These techniques are continuing to be adopted by other industries including oil & gas, cybersecurity, nuclear, and aviation. Each participant will present his or her ideas concerning industry needs followed by a discussion about what research is needed and the necessity to achieve cross industry collaboration.

Health Care: HC1 -- Consumer Health Care Information Systems

An Investigation of the Factors that Predict a Healthcare Consumer's Use of Anecdotal Healthcare Information Available on the Internet BIBAFull-Text 604-608
  Kapil Chalil Madathil; Joel S. Greenstein; Reshmi Koikkara
This paper investigates the individual characteristics of consumers who use anecdotal healthcare information available on the Internet. Secondary analysis of the data from the preliminary release of the Pew Internet & American Life Project's September 2012 Health Tracking Survey informed this investigation. The dependent variable was the use of anecdotal healthcare information available on the Internet. The independent variables included demographics, quality of life, health status and the use of public report cards. Public report cards include performance data provided by federal agencies on healthcare providers, nursing homes, and hospitals to inform healthcare consumers on the variability of healthcare quality. A logistic model was developed to assess the characteristics of anecdotal information users. The analysis found that age, gender, educational level and health status were significant predictors of a consumer's use of anecdotal information available on the Internet. This study also found that healthcare consumers who use public report information are highly likely to look at anecdotal information on the Internet. Because of comprehension issues related to public reports, consumers may give more weight to anecdotal information found online, a situation that is well documented. Such anecdotal information can potentially jeopardize the utility of reports generated by Federal entities, as it potentially distracts consumer attention from more reliable measures of quality. Accordingly, this paper calls for further investigation to identify effective ways to communicate the high variability of the accuracy of anecdotal information available on the Internet.
Persuasive health educational materials for colorectal cancer screening BIBAFull-Text 609-613
  Laura G. Militello; Morgan R. Borders; Nicole B. Arbuckle; Mindy E. Flanagan; Nathan P. Hall; Jason J. Saleem; Bradley N. Doebbeling
This paper describes an effort to design and evaluate persuasive educational materials for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Although CRC screening is highly effective, screening rates in the US remain low. Educational materials represent one strategy for educating patients about screening options and increasing openness to screening. We developed a one-page brochure, leveraging factual information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and national guidelines, and strategies for persuasion from the human factors and behavioral economics literatures. We evaluated the resulting brochure with adults over the age of 50. Findings suggest that the educational brochure increases knowledge of CRC and screening options, and increases openness to screening. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the new one-page brochure and an existing multi-page Screen for Life brochure recommended by the CDC. We interpret these findings as indication that the more practical and potentially less intimidating one-page brochure is as effective as the existing multi-page Screen for Life brochure.
Personal Health Record Design Preferences for Minority Diabetic Patients BIBAFull-Text 614-618
  Kailyn Cage; Luis Santos; Carley Scott; Monifa Vaughn-Cooke
Facilitating treatment adherence (diet, exercise, medication, self-management technology use) among patients with a chronic disease poses a significant challenge to health care providers, particularly among minority populations. Racial and ethnic minorities experience higher rates of chronic disease prevalence and mortality and lower rates of health literacy, which has been widely linked to inferior health care quality. Health Information Technology (HIT) is a critical component of chronic disease treatment and has the ability to support patient self-management through the use of a Personal Health Record (PHR). However, current PHR systems are not designed for the largest and highest-risk segment of the chronic disease population, which are minorities. In an effort to address racial and ethnic disparities in PHRs, this research aims to evaluate minority design preferences in the patient population, develop a design database, and develop several design alternatives for use in future PHR testing and implementation. In this pilot, we focused on one of the highest risk chronic disease populations, African American diabetics. Data was collected from the Howard University Hospital Diabetes Treatment Center, using a previously launched patient portal as a baseline for all research activities. This research has the potential to inform PHR vendor design decision-making and future regulatory guidelines for HIT.
Usability of an Electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) Among a Diverse Group of Adults BIBAFull-Text 619-623
  Jessica Taha; Joseph Sharit; Sara J. Czaja
Electronic personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to perform a number of health-related tasks through a web-based portal. However, little is known about the usability of these PHRs. This study investigated the usability of a simulated PHR among 107 adults aged 40 to 85 years. Participants performed 15 common health management tasks including finding an upcoming appointment time, reviewing test results, and managing medication dosages. Task performance was video recorded and analyzed to determine the source of any performance difficulties. Usability data was also captured through questionnaires and post-study interviews. Results indicated that participants had difficulty using hyperlinks within the PHR to find information and difficulty interpreting information in the tables and graphs. However, participants' perceptions of the PHR were positive and they were very receptive to the idea of using PHRs to help them perform a number of health management tasks.

Health Care: HC2 -- Managing Interruptions in Health Care: From Theory to Practice

Managing Interruptions in Healthcare: From Theory to Practice BIBAFull-Text 624-628
  Raj Ratwani; Zachary Hettinger; Juliana Brixey; A. Joy Rivera; Lacey Colligan
While there are several theoretical accounts of interruptions and numerous empirical studies that have examined the impact of interruptions in laboratory settings, our understanding of interruptions in healthcare is in its infancy. Understanding and managing interruptions in healthcare can be particularly challenging because of the diversity of clinical environments and the importance of interruptions in delivering effective care in some settings. Our expert panel will review the theoretical and practical aspects of interruptions and facilitate a meaningful discussion on how to advance the study of interruptions in healthcare. The discussion will focus on patient safety implications of interruptions and methods to better manage interruptions in complex clinical environments.

Health Care: HC3 -- Understanding Caregiver Tasks

Understanding Contextual Decision Making by Assisted Living Caregivers: Implications for Training and Design Supports BIBAFull-Text 629-633
  Sara E. Bowman; Wendy A. Rogers
Many older adults reside in assisted living communities due to increased difficulty managing health conditions or performing activities of daily living (e.g., bathing, toileting, walking). A primary goal of assisted living communities is to help residents maintain their health and well-being. One method by which this is accomplished is that caregivers continually monitor residents for cues that might signal problems or concerns, and then respond appropriately. However, very little is known about this form of decision making done by caregivers working with assisted living residents, including whether decision making changes with increasing experience. To investigate these questions, direct care workers from assisted living facilities took part in a scenario-based interview during which they responded to hypothetical care situations with older residents. The explanations participants generated for the various scenarios were classified as either general or specific, with the majority of explanations coded as specific. Specific explanations were primarily that the situation was the result of a physical health issue. The type and number of explanations varied widely from scenario to scenario. Lastly, the data from the current study did not reveal consistent differences between the two levels of experience that were examined. This research has implications for the design of future training programs for direct care workers and also highlights the potential need for decision support systems in this domain.
Caregiver Needs from Elder Care Assistive Smart Homes: Children of Elder Adults Assessment BIBAFull-Text 634-638
  A. Leah Zulas; Aaron S. Crandall; Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Assistive smart technology is positioned to assist familial caregivers with their elderly relatives, especially in home care situations. These technologies show great promise in providing high quality data to caregivers about their family members. There are many published successes on gathering and modeling data about older adults who need assistance, but little work on effectively delivering this data to caregivers. This research reports on interviews with informal familial caregivers being introduced to these kinds of technologies and what utility it may provide to them in caring for their loved ones. Interviews suggest that nutrition, sleep quality, medication compliance, safety, and general mobility are of central concern. User interface designers need to keep in mind familial caregivers may have very little technical support and will likely need more assistance in learning a new technology than nursing staff. Caregivers also describe a need for catching behavioral edge cases, as every individual has slightly different needs. When designing user-facing tools, extra attention to the needs of caregivers will ensure assistive smart homes will be effective tools in home care.
Gaze and viewing patterns in microsurgery: Task analysis in the operating room BIBAFull-Text 639-643
  Denny Yu; Jackie S. Cha; Steven J. Kasten; Thomas J. Armstrong
Gaze disruptions in surgery have been associated with suboptimal surgical workflow, and human factor tools have been developed to quantify these events in cardiovascular and laparoscopic surgeries. Disruptions to workflow may be a particular concern in microsurgery because looking away from the microscope can cause the surgeon to lose view of delicate and precise tasks occurring at the surgical site. However, these viewing patterns in microsurgery have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to quantify the gaze and viewing patterns during the microsurgery procedure. Event-based task analysis was performed for 14 surgeons performing microsurgery. Results found that average length of procedure was 70±33 minutes. Surgeons were observed to primarily interact with microscope 83±9% during microsurgery. Surgeons were observed to look away from the microscope in order to examine the tool area, patient site, and rest. Frequency of gaze away from the microscope was observed to be 11 disruptions per 10 minutes. Observed gaze demands of microsurgery and the limited opportunity for rests may impact surgeon performance and their risk for musculoskeletal fatigue.
A Method for Aggregating Strategies Across Individuals: Managing a Lack of IV Access BIBAFull-Text 644-648
  Sarah E. Gregg; Ashley N. Ferguson; Francis T. Durso
Strategies are key to resilience. Operators in dynamic environments use a variety of strategies to accomplish their goals while keeping workload manageable. Research has been conducted to elicit the kinds of strategies operators use to accomplish their goals, but there is currently no method to systematically aggregate strategies to produce composite strategies across multiple operators. The purpose of the present study was to consider multiple approaches to aggregating strategies across operators to arrive at a systematic and reliable methodology. This methodology is then applied to strategies generated by four pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) nurses. These nurses were interviewed on how they would manage the threat of an inability to gain IV access on a patient in an acute situation. The composite strategies the nurses produced are then discussed in detail.
Work Status of Individuals with Advanced Cancer BIBAFull-Text 649-653
  Abigail Terhaar; Ju-Whei Lee; Amye Tevaarwerk; Mary Sesto; Douglas Wiegmann; Michael Fisch
Lengthening survival times for advanced cancer patients emphasizes the importance of continuing to work after diagnosis. Information and tools are necessary to help these individuals remain working. Before we can develop interventions, we must understand how advanced cancer affects employment. We analyzed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group's (ECOG) 'Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP)' study to investigate what factors were associated with employment of 680 advanced cancer patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients identified as stably working (Group A) to patients no longer working (Group B). Improving ECOG performance status, race/ethnicity, receiving hormonal treatment, and decreasing symptom interference were significantly associated with continuing to work. Human factors engineers (HFEs) can help create strategies to mitigate some physical and cognitive workloads that result in work interference. The HFE's role should increase as the number of advanced cancer patients working rises.

Health Care: HC4 -- Medical Team Handoffs: Current and Future Directions

Medical Team Handoffs: Current and Future Directions BIBAFull-Text 654-658
  Keaton A. Fletcher; Wendy L. Bedwell; Michael Rosen; Ken Catchople; Elizabeth Lazzara
Patient handoffs can look very different depending on the context, but regardless of the situation, they are a major vulnerability in patient care. The current regulations of resident work-hours have increased the frequency of handoffs, thereby increasing the risk to patients and the need to understand how to optimize the procedure. Moreover, the time pressure that many handoffs from one department to the next face pose a unique set of teamwork and communication challenges that need to be further explored. This expert panel will engage in discussion regarding the current state of medical team handoffs: in multiple contexts, how to use technology and the environment to increase their efficiency, and the role of human factors in creating a safer patient handoff.

Health Care: HC5 -- Design of Health-Care Products and Systems

Usability Testing of Medication Packaging in a Pharmacy Environment BIBAFull-Text 659-663
  Kevin Cluff; Mary Mathieu; Anke Schreiber; Denise Schulz; Amanda Weller; Ji Zhou
To better understand the pharmacy medication dispensing process and its relationship with packaging and labeling, two studies were conducted: one was a contextual inquiry involving the interview of 13 experienced pharmacists and pharmacy technicians; the other was a usability test of 30 pharmacists and pharmacy technicians specifically related to a particular product family in a simulated pharmacy environment. The interviews of the contextual inquiry provided the basic understanding of the prescription's journey from doctor to patient in the US. The usability study also provided information about a prescription's journey and the importance of safeguards that exist in a real pharmacy environment to prevent dispensing errors.
User Placement of a Visual Aid for Detecting Critical Signals in Fetal-Heart Rate Tracings: A Yoke-Control Study BIBAFull-Text 664-668
  Amanda J. Ashdown; Mark W. Scerbo; Brittany L. Anderson-Montoya; Lee A., II Belfore; Alfred Z. Abuhamad; Stephen S. Davis
The present study examined the ability of participants to detect critical signals embedded within dynamic fetal-heart rate (FHR) tracings using a visual aid. Participants inspected tracings for deviations in the FHR under different levels of heart rate variability. One group was given control over placement of the visual aid. A second yoke-control group monitored the same presentation of critical signals and aid placements but could not alter the visual aids. In phase 1, student participants placed the aid and in phase 2 the experimenter placed the aid. Performance was compared to a control group that had no aids. The results showed that no group detected all critical signals but those who placed the aid performed better than those who had no aid across all levels of heart rate variability. However, the benefit of the visual aid for the yoke-control participants was limited to the condition where the experimenter placed the aid. These results suggest that a visual aid can improve performance, but that it does not completely overcome the challenge detecting critical signals in FHR tracings.
Glucometer Design for Patients with Vision and Mobility Impairments BIBAFull-Text 669-673
  Luis Santos; Obhafuoso Olumese; Monifa Vaughn-Cooke
Patient self-management technologies are a critical component of chronic disease care. Although these technologies are intended to support patient activities, low device usability and exclusion of the patient from the design process can produce design impediments that may negatively impact patient adherence and hence treatment outcomes. These design risks are compounded if the patient has a disability (vision, mobility, hearing), which is a large percentage of the chronic disease population. We aim to develop a patient-centric design method to evaluate self-management technology usability for disabled patients, specifically focusing on handheld device use for diabetics. Our goal is to identify modular hardware and software design components (buttons, screen, casing, etc.) that support or hinder use, with the ultimate goal to inform design decision making. An initial expert usability analysis (hierarchical task analysis, usability heuristics) was performed for 13 glucometers (diabetes self-management technology). The usability analysis informed the design of an experiment to test disabled user performance and satisfaction for several meter interaction tasks. Prior to performing the study in the diabetes patient population, common diabetes disabilities were simulated in healthy subjects through the use of glasses (retinopathy, glaucoma) and gloves (arthritis, neuropathy) to evaluate the experimental protocol. Results suggested a preference of participants for large text, large protruding buttons, and contrast color between case and buttons to facilitate locating buttons. Long-term goals of this research are to support medical device manufacturers to better design handheld devices for high-risk populations and inform Food and Drug Administration handheld medical devices design guidelines.
Tactile Displays of Pulse Oximetry in Integrated and Separated Configurations BIBAFull-Text 674-678
  Mia McLanders; Chiara Santomauro; Jimmy Tran; Penelope Sanderson
Vibrotactile displays have been trialled in a variety of cognitively demanding domains, including healthcare. Previous work suggests that vibrotactile displays can be used to inform clinicians of patient status, particularly when the displays are alarm-style alerts in surgical or critical care. The goal of the present study is to evaluate how well a common measure of patient well-being -- pulse oximetry -- can be communicated via an upper-arm vibrotactile prototype. Pulse oximetry includes two important vital signs: heart rate and oxygen saturation. Two displays were tested in a between-subjects design: (1) the Separated display presented heart rate first, followed by oxygen saturation; and (2) the Integrated display communicated both vital signs simultaneously. Participants identified five ranges of heart rate and three levels of oxygen saturation with very high accuracy (>90%), regardless of display type. Although participants' identification accuracy improved marginally with practice, their initial high level of performance was achieved with minimal training. Findings will inform a broader program of research in which we aim to test whether vibrotactile displays might be useful as a part of multi-modal patient monitoring.
Mechanical and Cardiopulmonary Responses To The Use of a Newly Designed Leg Simulator BIBAFull-Text 679-682
  Ahmed Radwan; Dale Scalise-Smith
Axillary crutches are convenient for use but they impose certain physical and cardiovascular demands that not everyone can tolerate. ED Legsim™ is a newly designed assistive device considered as a viable alternative for assisted ambulation. In this study, Twenty-seven normal participants walked using the ED leg simulator, axillary crutches and unassisted. Participants reported that the simulator had less cardiopulmonary impact, as indicated by heart rate response and perceived exertion, when the six-minute walk test was performed. Participants exhibited similar impact patterns and vertical ground reaction force values to that of normal walking as measured by force plates. Given these important findings, practitioners should examine the effectiveness of the ED Legsim™ for individuals with lower extremity impairments, restricted weight-bearing status, particularly those with a compromised cardiopulmonary system.

Health Care: HC6 -- Surgical Performance and Simulation Training

Comparison of Force Matching Performance in Conventional and Laparoscopic Force-Based Task BIBAFull-Text 683-687
  M. S. Raghu Prasad; M. Manivannan
Laparoscopic instruments have limited haptics feedback. Hence, novices tend to exert excessive force which leads to tissue trauma. In laparoscopic surgery, no external information is available on the magnitude of excessive force. Therefore, novices should be trained to accurately perceive their own force output. This study analyzed the force perception of 18 novices in the absence of external information, by comparing the isometric force matching performance of index finger (i.e. used in conventional procedures) in extended arm posture with that of laparoscopic instrument in a force-based probing task. The study also examined the effect of handedness on force perception. A contra-lateral force matching paradigm was employed to analyze the matching performance of the novice subjects. Interestingly, matching error was found to be lower for laparoscopic instrument. An effect of handedness was visible for laparoscopic instrument only. The dominant hand overestimated the forces of non-dominant hand. The results can be used as a performance metric to evaluate the force perception of novices in laparoscopic force skills-training tasks.
Supporting Procedural and Perceptual Learning in Laparoscopic Surgery BIBAFull-Text 688-692
  Y. Lou; J. T. Flinn; S. Ganapathy; P. Weyhrauch; J. Niehaus; B. Myers; C. G. L. Cao
Expertise in surgical performance requires mastery of both technical skills such as suturing, and nontechnical skills such as perceptual and procedural knowledge. 'Refresher-training' after skill decay due to nonuse should consider the fact that non-technical skills often decay faster than technical skills. To support the re-learning of perceptual and procedural knowledge, this study examined the effectiveness of different design factors for digital training material. The factors considered included modality/fidelity of representation (illustration/cartoon vs. realistic/video images) and task difficulty (easy, medium, and difficult). Results suggest that low fidelity images are better for perceptual learning, and are equally effective as high fidelity images for procedural learning. The level of difficulty of the procedures did not affect performance in this study of novices, but may be an important factor with more experienced trainees. Time and error results indicate that refresher training in perceptual and procedural knowledge should begin with a procedural task to review surgical steps, followed by a perceptual task, to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness.
Influence of altered visual feedback on neck movement for a virtual reality rehabilitative system BIBAFull-Text 693-697
  Karen B. Chen; Kevin Ponto; Mary E. Sesto; Robert G. Radwin
This paper investigates altering visual feedback during neck movement through control-display (C-D) gain for a head-mounted display, for the purpose of determining the just noticeable difference (JND) for encouraging individuals with kinesiophobia (i.e. fear avoidance of movement due to chronic pain) to effectively perform therapeutic neck exercises. The JND was defined as .25 probability of detecting a difference from unity C-D gain (gain=1). A target-aiming task with two consecutive neck moves per trial was presented; one neck move had varying C-D gain and the other had unity gain. The VR system was able to influence neck moves without changing locations of the target. Participants indicated whether the two neck movements were the same or different. Logistic regression revealed that the JND gains were 0.903 (lower bound) and 1.159 (upper bound) as the participants could not discriminate a 55° turn, ranging from 49.7° to 63.7°. This preliminary study shows that immersive VR with altered visual feedback influenced movement. The feasibility for rehabilitation of individuals with kinesiophobia will next be assessed.
Development and Usability Testing of Dr. Liver™: A User-Centered 3D Virtual Liver Surgery Planning System BIBAFull-Text 698-702
  Xiaopeng Yang; Hee Chul Yu; Younggeun Choi; Wonsup Lee; Jaedo Yang; Hongpil Hwang; Ji Hyun Kim; Baik Hwan Cho; Heecheon You
The present study developed a user-centered 3D virtual liver surgery planning system called Dr. Liver™ to assist surgeons in preoperative planning of liver surgeries such as living donor liver transplantation and tumor resection. Use scenarios of Dr. Liver were developed through literature review, benchmarking, and interviews with surgeons. The major functions of Dr. Liver include (1) 3D reconstruction of the liver, vessels, and tumors from abdominal CT images, (2) virtual resection simulation for liver surgery planning, and (3) volumetric measurement of the liver, vessels, tumors, remnant, and/or graft. Novel image processing algorithms were developed and implemented into Dr. Liver for accurate and efficient liver surgery planning. Various user-friendly features such as a hierarchical interface were integrated into Dr. Liver for better usability. The usability of Dr. Liver was systematically evaluated with eight medical doctors from three different medical centers using various performance and preference measures. Dr. Liver received a high score of user satisfaction (6.1 ± 0.2) as measured using a 7-point Likert scale. Dr. Liver will be used in preoperative liver surgery planning for safe and rational liver surgery.
A Comprehensive Methodology for Examining the Impact of Surgical Team Briefings and Debriefings on Teamwork BIBAFull-Text 703-707
  Katherine E. Law; Emily Hildebrand; Joao Oliveira-Gomes; Susan Hallbeck; Renaldo C. Blocker
The adoptions of briefing and debriefing protocols have evolved from the Joint Commission's initiative to improve communication and safety in the operating room. Briefing normally occurs prior to incision and is used to discuss and confirm critical information, while debriefing occurs during or after surgery. Debriefing provides a unique opportunity for individuals and teams to immediately reflect on their performance, allowing them to more easily identify errors and develop plans to improve their next performance. Studies have shown that using briefings and debriefings improve communication and teamwork. However, there is still much to learn about the value of both for surgical teams. This paper presents a robust methodology for examining and measuring the impacts of surgical team briefings and debriefings on teamwork. The methodology includes (1) audio/video recording the surgical care process, (2) prospective observations using a validated electronic data collection tool, (3) pre- and post-surgery surveys, and (4) individual surgical team member interviews. The current paper describes the methodology to obtain a robust and comprehensive data set for analyzing the impacts of briefing and debriefing on teamwork; the results of the surgeries recorded using this methodology will be presented in subsequent papers.

Health Care: HC7 -- The Work and Work Systems of Patients: A New Frontier for Macroergonomics

The Work and Work Systems of Patients: A New Frontier for Macroergonomics in Health Care BIBAFull-Text 708-712
  Rupa S. Valdez; Richard J. Holden; Ann S. Hundt; Jenna L. Marquard; Enid Montague; Daniel Nathan-Roberts; Calvin K. Or
To maintain and improve their health, patients perform many non-paid activities that may be conceptualized as self-care and self-management work. However, within the domain of health care, macroergonomists have almost exclusively focused on analyzing the work and work systems of those employed by the health care system rather than those served by it. This panel will focus on how macroergonomics principles and models originally developed within an institutional context may be adapted for the contexts in which patients are embedded. The discussion will be grounded in specific analyses of patients' work and work systems within domains such as consumer health information technology design, self-care work performance, transitions of care, and patient safety. During each of these presentations, panelists will focus on lessons related to the conceptual, methodological and practice-related challenges of understanding and affecting patients' work and work systems that may be applied by other researchers.

Health Care: HC8 -- Electronic Health-Care Systems

Challenges in the Electronic Consult Process for Diabetes Treatment: A Systems Approach BIBAFull-Text 713-717
  Stephen Harrell; Jennie Gallimore; Brian Zoll; Corinne Mowrey; Pratik Parikh; Steed Benson; Brian Burke
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) created an electronic consult to increase access to specialty care. This system has the potential to improve access, reduce the number of face-to-face appointments, reduce travel and decrease chronic disease expense. Evaluation of the process is occurring at the same time as implementation. The purpose of this research was to perform a systems and human factors engineering analysis of the e-consult system. Using a mixed method approach we decomposed the e-consult process by analyzing the e-consults and interviewed system users. The e-consult program supports diabetes treatment but the system requires improvement. We describe seven areas of focus for system improvement. The recommendations provided serve as a requirements framework for electronic health record system upgrades.
Electronic health records: effects of clutter and stress on physicians' information search and noticing performance BIBAFull-Text 718-722
  Nadine Moacdieh; Travis Ganje; Nadine Sarter
Electronic health records (EHRs) in emergency departments (EDs) store and display important medical information and thus play a critical role in medical diagnoses. However, current EHR designs often result in display clutter, a condition where a large amount of poorly organized information is displayed. This can cause delays in finding and noticing relevant information. Clutter may be especially problematic under conditions of stress, which is known to degrade people's perceptual capacities. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of EHR clutter and stress on physicians' ability to search for and notice important information during medical diagnosis procedures. Three simulated EHR pages were developed for this study. Participating physicians were presented with typical ED patient scenarios and the relevant EHR page for each patient. They were required to search the EHR displays to answer a specific question related to each patient and, based on their review of the EHR, they had to confirm or refute a proposed diagnosis. Performance measures and subjective feedback were collected. In general, results showed that clutter increased the time to find a given search target and the time to extract important information, as well as the number of missed targets. The effects of clutter were most pronounced for the EHR page that displayed unorganized lists of medical data, where the presence of stress also exacerbated the effects of clutter on response time. These results emphasize the need to develop display countermeasures to overcome the effects of display clutter in hospital as well as other environments.
Making Sense of Patient Safety Event Data: Leveraging the Power of Visualization BIBAFull-Text 723-727
  Allan Fong; Seth Krevat; David Bauer; Gabriel Spencer; Raj Ratwani
Over the past two decades, the focus on capturing and understanding patient safety events has led to the development of several initiatives and programs in hospitals across the country to increase the reporting of these events. Computerized reporting systems are an integral part of these programs. With these systems going live, hospitals now have databases that contain large numbers of patient safety event reports. Now, the challenge is to make sense of and effectively analyze the data by examining trends and predicting future events. The purpose of this practice-orientated paper is to describe and demonstrate how to apply advances in information visualization techniques and methods to patient safety event data with the goal of making these data more understandable and actionable. We will discuss the process of how we developed patient safety event visualizations for a multi-hospital healthcare system and provide visualization techniques, resources, guidelines, and practical examples.

Health Care: HC9 -- Health-Care Collaborations: Improving Patient Quality and Safety Using Team and Systems Engineering Approaches

Improving Quality and Safety through Human Factors Collaborations with Healthcare: The System Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety BIBAFull-Text 728-732
  Tosha Wetterneck; Michelle M. Kelly; Pascale Carayon; Mary Sesto; Amye Tevaarwerk; Michelle Chui; Jamie Stone; Peter Hoonakker; Al Musa; G. Talley Holman; John Beasley
Multiple reports from the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, (IOM 2001; Reid et al., 2005; Kaplan et al., 2013) have called for the use of human factors engineering (HFE) and systems engineering principles and methods/tools to improve health care delivery. Yet, the integration of engineers into health care settings and the education of clinicians and other health care professionals on human factors and systems engineering principles and methods/tools remain in its infancy. A recent editorial by Xiao and Fairbanks (2011), discusses a small, but growing presence of professionals who are 'bilingual' in both human factors and medicine. Indeed, Carayon (2011) identified human factors as an innovation that will require diffusion into healthcare through the use of HFE methods and tools, increasing the health care professional knowledge of HFE, and the hiring HFEs in healthcare organizations. To achieve the goal of integration, there will be many 'models' of healthcare -- human factors collaborations, from experts working together from their different 'silos' to true bilingualism. SEIPS, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (Carayon et al., 2006), aims to integrate human factors and systems engineering with healthcare disciplines. Our panel of SEIPS-affiliated engineers and healthcare professionals represents many different types of collaborations across this spectrum and their work spans multiple healthcare settings and disciplines, including: ambulatory primary care, inpatient pediatrics, community pharmacy, and oncology.

Health Care: HC10 -- Interruptions and Teams

Exploring Interruptions in the Wild: How are Interruptions Experienced in Dynamic Action Teams? BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  Nicole E. Werner; Richard J. Holden
In the healthcare domain, interruptions to procedures have the potential to result in severe patient harm and in some cases can be fatal. However, it is difficult to determine whether this holds true for complex healthcare team environments that may not mirror the interruption anatomy studied in the laboratory. The investigation of interruptions in trauma resuscitation teams can provide insight into how these complex healthcare teams are affected by interruptions and what types of interruption management strategies are in place to mitigate potential adverse effects. The goal of this qualitative inquiry was to determine how interruptions are experienced and managed in the dynamic environment of trauma resuscitation. The results have provided the first insights into interrupted task performance in a complex healthcare team environment.
The Use of Multiple Methods to Explore the Impact of Interruptions on Intravenous (IV) Push Delivery BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Tara McCurdie; Varuna Prakash; Patricia Trbovich
Despite the safety-critical nature of healthcare, it is an interrupt-laden domain. Patient safety organizations have long called for a reduction in interruptions to healthcare workers, in an effort to reduce the likelihood of preventable medical error occurring during patient care. The goal of this research was to examine the impact that interruptions have on nurses' task performance during medication administration, specifically intravenous (IV) push delivery, and the development of appropriately designed interventions to mitigate the potential harmful effects of interruptions on patient safety. IV push administration errors have been found to be common, and occur when doses are administered faster or slower than recommended. Direct observations found that nurses were interrupted every time they administered an IV push, sometimes more than once. Furthermore, the percentage of nurses who made errors when performing IV pushes during simulated scenarios was significantly higher when interrupted than in the uninterrupted condition. Data collected through focus groups qualitatively described perceptions and preferences that led to the design of a successful and appropriate intervention to solve this important patient safety problem.
Identifying Interruption Clusters in the Emergency Department BIBAFull-Text 743-747
  Allan Fong; Margaret Meadors; Neil Batta; Mike Nitzberg; A. Zachary Hettinger; Raj Ratwani
Interruptions can adversely affect human performance, particularly in fast-paced and high-risk environments. Much of the research on interruptions has been laboratory based and the extension of these methods to real-world settings has been challenging and limited. This paper discusses the development and usage of a new tool, TaskTracker, to increase understanding of interruptions in the emergency department. With the data collected from this tool we identified several temporal groupings of interruptions, what we define as interruption clusters. We found significantly more clusters during self-initiated computer tasks. In this setting, we also observed the tendencies of assistants, technicians, students, and nurses to interrupt attending physicians in clusters. A deeper understanding of who engages in interruption clusters and why may provide insights for future systemic strategies that could facilitate better communication patterns.
Building High Performance Surgical Teams: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Team Consistency BIBAFull-Text 748-752
  Yan Xiao; Susan Hallbeck; Renaldo Blocker; Sarah Parker
Surgical team members are typically defined by professional roles. In many surgical teams, membership changes as staffing decisions are subject to considerations other than keeping surgical teams consistent. These considerations may include staffing patterns on the day of surgery and at the time of a surgical case. Teamwork skill training and safety culture have been emphasized, although much is known about the contribution to team performance from team consistency. We review the literature on cognitive and psychosocial benefits of consistent surgical teams. Although empirical evidence base for consistent surgical teams is lacking, we believe that the theoretical justifications may lay the groundwork for future research on the impact of deliberate staffing decisions by organizations, to complement the current emphasis on individual teamwork knowledge, skills and attitude. We also outline some of barriers based on our experience in our respective healthcare organizations.
Team Briefings in the Gynecological Operating Room: A Cognitive Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 753-757
  Emily A. Hildebrand; Russell J. Branaghan; M. Susan Hallbeck; Renaldo C. Blocker
Briefings are suggested to be an important mechanism for establishing and maintaining cohesive teams. However, there is still much to learn about briefings and how best to design and implement them for surgical teams in the operating room. Currently, there are no formally recognized protocols or methodologies for conducting surgical team briefings. This research reports preliminary findings from an effort to develop a model of team briefings for gynecological surgical teams. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using techniques derived from Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (Millitello & Hutton, 1998) with thirteen surgical team members spanning six different roles including surgeon, surgical resident, registered nurse, certified surgical assistant, certified scrub technician, and anesthesia. Findings reveal that informational needs are consistent across the team but also vary by individual role, illustrating the importance of addressing all stakeholders in potential interventions. Implications for the development of a team briefing model are discussed.

Health Care: HC11 -- Tailoring Cognitive Task Analysis Methods for Use in Healthcare

Tailoring Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) Methods for Use in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 758-762
  Laura Militello; Cindy Dominguez; Patricia Ebright; Brian Moon; Alissa Russ; Charlene Weir
Cognitive task analysis (CTA) methods are most widely known for their contributions to military, nuclear power plant, and aviation research. In recent years, however, these methods have been adapted and applied with increasing frequency to address issues in healthcare. CTA methods have been used in the context of designing and integrating health information technology, in pursuit of improved patient safety, and as a means to improve education and training. This panel will 1) reflect on strategies for tailoring CTA methods for use in a range of healthcare settings, 2) highlight challenges to conducting CTA in healthcare settings, and 3) highlight important contributions of CTA in addressing challenging issues in healthcare today.

Health Care: HC12 -- Clinician Workload Concerns: Physical and Cognitive

Postural stress experienced by vaginal surgeons BIBAFull-Text 763-767
  Xinhui Zhu; Ladin A. Yurteri-Kaplan; Robert E. Gutman; Andrew I. Sokol; Cheryl B. Iglesia; Amy J. Park; Victor Paquet
Increasing attention has been drawn to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among surgeons in various medical specialties; however, the risk of work-related MSDs among gynecologic surgeons has not received much attention. This study aimed to investigate the postural load among gynecologic surgeons for various surgical tasks during vaginal surgery. The frequency and percentage of duration of awkward upper body postures experienced by vaginal surgeons during eleven different vaginal surgical tasks observed during thirteen surgeries were collected using a new observational ergonomic job analysis tool, Ergonomic Posture Assessment in Real Time (ErgoPART). Results indicate that the postural loading is high for many surgical tasks but that the frequency and duration of awkward neck, shoulder, and trunk postures is variable across tasks. Surgeons' postural load was significantly higher for the transvaginal hysterectomy compared to others. This task, in particular, is a candidate for ergonomics interventions designed to reduce postural stress.
Detrimental Effects of an Electronic Health Records System on Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Health Professionals BIBAFull-Text 773-777
  Alan Hedge; Tamara James
A survey of 204 health professionals (physicians, physicians' assistants and nurse practitioners) in private diagnostic clinics of a major healthcare system was conducted after the introduction of an electronic health records (EHR) system. Results showed considerable daily use of computers in various configurations and some 90% of respondents said the EHR had substantially increased their daily computer use. Less than half of the health professionals found the EHR easy to use. Almost half of the physicians said that use of the EHR reduced their face-to-face interactions with patients. Around two-thirds of respondents reported increased frequency of neck, shoulder and back discomfort and some 50% reported an increased frequency of right wrist discomfort since introduction of the EHR. Results demonstrate the importance of incorporating ergonomic workstation designs and ergonomics education when an EHR is being implemented.
Relationships between Wellness, Fatigue, and Intershift Recovery in Hospital Nurses BIBAFull-Text 778-782
  Linsey M. Steege; Kalyan S. Pasupathy; Diane Drake
Fatigue and recovery have been associated with health, safety, and performance outcomes in hospital nurses. There is a growing emphasis on fatigue risk management and health promotion programs to support nurses and promote quality in hospitals. However, little is known about the relationships between fatigue and wellness measures in nurses. This study used a tree-based classification method to identify associations between self-reported fatigue, recovery and wellness measures in a survey study of hospital nurses. Significant relationships between multiple wellness measures and acute fatigue, chronic fatigue, and intershift recovery levels were identified. Specifically, the findings include critical levels of wellness measures where fatigue and recovery change. These findings have implications for ongoing efforts to develop effective fatigue management programs in this population.
Body Posture during Simulated Tracheal Intubation: Comparison of the Effects of Video Laryngoscopy and Direct Laryngoscopy BIBAFull-Text 1184-1188
  T. Grundgeiger; O. Happel; J. Grundgeiger; N. Roewer
Tracheal intubation is an important procedure in anesthesia and emergency medicine. The standard intubation technique is direct laryngoscopy using a Macintosh blade; however, video laryngoscopy has become common and research has shown several advantages of video laryngoscopy over direct laryngoscopy. In the present study we investigated whether video laryngoscopy resulted in the intubating person adopting a more ergonomic body posture than direct laryngoscopy. To this end, 25 medical students were video-recorded intubating a manikin using a GlideScope® or a Macintosh blade. Using the GlideScope® resulted in smaller deflections for all analyzed posture angles than using the Macintosh blade. Similarly, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (Hignett & McAtamney, 2000) indicated that the GlideScope® resulted in a body posture less likely to induce injuries than the Macintosh blade. Overall, video laryngoscopy using a GlideScope® resulted in a more ergonomic posture compared to the Macintosh blade.

Health Care: HC13 -- Methodologies for Evaluating Health-Care Performance

Using Video Recorded Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Scenarios to Test Agreement between Clinicians' Assessments BIBAFull-Text 783-787
  Izhak Nadler; Omer Globus; Liat Pessach-Gelblum; Zipora Strauss; Amitai Ziv
Clinicians in Neonatal Intensive Care Units are required to perform assessments under extreme pressure to determine the illness severity of neonates. Currently there is no reference that indicates the clinical condition of a neonate according to its vital signs. Agreement between clinicians' assessments can provide initial indication for the clinicians' ability to systematically perform assessments. Agreement was tested between 16 clinicians who viewed 31 recorded cases and scored the illness severity of a neonate mannequin in each case. The agreement level was fair (0.28), but high correlation between the assessments (0.8<r<0.94) suggests that the clinicians were able to systematically score the cases, and they had similar interpretation about the relative illness severity between cases. Future studies are required to determine the sources for the relative low agreement level and to identify means for improvement. Establishment of a valid reference early warning score is essential to guide the assessment.
Using a context-sensitive ranking method to organize reversible causes of cardiac arrest in a digital cognitive aid BIBAFull-Text 788-792
  Meera Ramachandran; Joel S. Greenstein; Michael McEvoy; Matthew D. McEvoy
Medical doctors typically identify reversible causes associated with cardiac arrest by recalling them from memory, using a mnemonic. External techniques, such as cognitive aids (e.g., iPad-based applications), have been shown to produce an increase in performance in medical diagnosis. We studied two alternative approaches to the traditional method of using mnemonics to identify reversible causes of cardiac arrest. One approach displayed the causes in alphabetical order (alphabetical scheme) while the other approach displayed causes ordered by their relevance to the patient-context (context-sensitive scheme). We recorded performance and usability measures for these two approaches in two simulated cardiac arrest scenarios for each group. It took significantly longer for the participants to identify the causes using the context-sensitive scheme. However, the context-sensitive scheme resulted in significantly fewer unnecessary keystrokes. The two schemes did not differ significantly in terms of their usability ratings.
Evaluation of hands-on clinical exam performance using marker-less video tracking BIBAFull-Text 793-797
  David P. Azari; Carla M. Pugh; Shlomi Laufer; Elaine Cohen; Calvin Kwan; Chia-Hsiung (Eric) Chen; Thomas Y. Yen; Yu Hen Hu; Rebecca D. Ray; Robert G. Radwin
This study investigates the potential of using marker-less video tracking for evaluating hands-on clinical skills. Experienced family practitioners attending a national conference were recruited and asked to conduct a breast examination on a simulator that presents different clinical pathologies. Videos were taken of the clinician's hands during the exam. Video processing software for tracking and quantifying hand motion kinematics was used. Videos were divided into two segments: a general search segment and a mass exploration segment. The general exploration segments exhibited motion patterns which included 72% faster movement and 73% higher acceleration across clinical pathologies. The most complex pathology exhibited 14% greater displacement for pressing/rubbing than for general exploration. Marker-less video kinematic tracking shows promise in discriminating between different examination procedures, clinicians, and pathologies.
Quantifying Physician Activities in Emergency Care: An Exploratory Study BIBAFull-Text 798-802
  Joanna Abraham; Thomas G. Kannampallil
Emergency departments (ED) are prototypical complex environments. Physician activities in these settings are characterized as episodic, dynamic and collaborative. Using an exploratory study supported by observations, physician shadowing and interviews, we characterize the physician's activities in an ED including the nature of activities, the time allocated for these activities, how these activities are distributed across the unit and the susceptibility of these activities for interruptions. We found that approximately one-fourth (~25%) of the physician activities (e.g., direct patient care) were localized at specific locations in the unit, while the rest of the activities (e.g., communication) were distributed across the unit and were less predictable. The non-localized activities had a likelihood of interruptions. The results have important implications for mitigating the physician workload, and the design of technologies for monitoring such complex settings.
Towards the Development of a Resilience Engineering Tool to Improve Patient Safety: The RETIPS Approach BIBAFull-Text 803-807
  Sudeep Hegde; John Wreathall; A. Zach Hettinger; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Robert L. Wears; Ann M. Bisantz
Over the last few years, patient safety research has seen a paradigm-shift marked by the advent of Resilience Engineering (RE). Findings from the team's previous research on the efficacy of root-cause analysis in improving patient safety revealed the potential to analyze existing resilient system properties and leverage the same in system-design and improvement. A multi-phase research plan to develop a lessons-learned system for resilience engineering in healthcare is described. The focus of this paper is the first phase, which involved critical-incident interviews to elicit detailed information from frontline health care workers regarding real-life examples of resilience. 14 interviews were conducted with clinicians and nurses from a large, multi-hospital medical system. Multiple examples of resilience and factors pertinent to patient safety were extracted and aligned with system capabilities which are the cornerstones of resilience -- learning, responding, anticipating and monitoring. Resilience was also seen to manifest at various levels of the work organization. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the critical incident interviewing method to analyze resilience in a healthcare organization. The data from the interviews will further be used to develop a Resilience Engineering Tool to Improve Patient Safety (RETIPS) that can be implemented organization-wide for reporting and analysis of resilience-based cases.

Human Performance Modeling: HP1 -- Speech and Alarms

Modeling Driving and Sentence Comprehension Dual-task Performance in Queueing Network-ACTR BIBAFull-Text 808-811
  Shi Cao; Yili Liu
Modeling driving performance in multi-task scenarios is important for both the examination of human performance modeling theories and the evaluation of in-vehicle interfaces. Previous driving performance models mainly focused on driving tasks with perceptual-motor components. The current study focuses on modeling a dual-task driving scenario containing a sentence comprehension component that involves complex cognitive processes. The model was built in Queueing Network-ACTR (QN-ACTR) cognitive architecture implementing a QN filtering discipline that has been previously proposed and tested for scheduling multiple task demands. A comparison of empirical and modeling results demonstrated that this filtering discipline is necessary for modeling the dual-task of lane keeping and sentence comprehension.
A Cognitive Architectural Account of Two-Channel Speech Processing BIBAFull-Text 812-816
  David E. Kieras; Gregory H. Wakefield; Eric Thompson; Nandini Iyer; Brian D. Simpson
An important application of cognitive architectures is to provide human performance models that capture psychological mechanisms in a form that can be 'programmed' to predict task performance of human-machine system designs. While many aspects of human performance have been successfully modeled in this approach, accounting for multi-talker speech task performance is a novel problem. This paper presents a model for performance in a two-talker task that incorporates concepts from the psychoacoustic study of speech perception, in particular, masking effects and stream formation.
Modeling the Effect of Loudness and Semantics of Speech Warnings on Human Performances BIBAFull-Text 817-821
  Yiqi Zhang; Changxu Wu
The quantitative prediction and understanding of human performances in the responses to speech warnings is an essential component to improve warning effectiveness. Queuing network-model human processor (QN-MHP), as a computational architecture, enables researchers to model dual-task information processing. The current study enhanced QN-MHP by modelling the effect of loudness and semantics on human responses to speech warning messages. The model predictions of crash rate were validated with two empirical studies in collision warning systems with resultant R squares of 0.73 and 0.77, respectively. The developed mathematical model could be further utilized in optimizing the design of speech warnings to achieve most safety benefits.
An Approach to Model Checking the Perceptual Interactions of Medical Alarms BIBAFull-Text 822-826
  Bassam Hasanain; Andrew D. Boyd; Matthew L. Bolton
The perceptibility of auditory medical alarms is critical to patient health and safety. Unfortunately concurrently sounding alarms can interact in ways that can mask one or more of them: render them imperceptible. Masking may only occur in extremely specific and/or rare situations. Thus, experimentation is insufficient for detecting it in all of the potential alarm configurations used in medicine. Therefore, there is a real need for computational methods capable of determining if masking exists in medical alarm configurations. In this work, we present such a method. Using a combination of formal modeling, psychoacoustic modeling, temporal logic specification, and model checking, our method is able to prove whether a configuration of alarms can interact in a way that produces masking. This paper motivates and presents this method, describes its implementation, demonstrates its power with an application, and outlines future developments.
A Process Model of Trust in Automation: A Signal Detection Theory Based Approach BIBAFull-Text 827-831
  Jorge Zuniga; Malcolm McCurry; J. Gregory Trafton
This paper discusses the first experiment in a series designed to systematically understand the different characteristics of an automated system that lead to trust in automation. We also discuss a simple process model, which helps us understand the results. Our experimental paradigm suggests that participants are agnostic to the automation's behavior; instead, they merely focus on alarm rate. A process model suggests this is the result of a simple reward structure and a non-explicit cost of trusting the automation.

Human Performance Modeling: HP2 -- Using Empirical Research and Human Performance Modeling to Predict Astronaut Performance in Long-Duration Space Missions

Using Empirical Research and Human Performance Modeling To Predict Astronaut Performance In Long-Duration Space Missions BIBFull-Text 832-833
  Brian Gore
Using Empirical Research and Computational Modeling to Predict Operator Response to Unexpected Events BIBAFull-Text 834-838
  Angelia Sebok; Christopher Wickens; Benjamin Clegg; Robert Sargent
This paper describes an effort to model and predict astronaut performance during sudden workload transitions in long duration missions. Our approach to the work is heavily based on empirical research. We have performed a set of meta-analyses 1) to identify the quantitative effects of poor sleep on task accuracy and task completion time, and 2) to develop a model of operator task selection during multitasking. We are currently developing a model, based on a literature review, to predict the effects of automation design factors on operator task performance. This paper gives an overview of the project, presents the overall model of operator performance during a workload transition, and describes the empirical and theoretical underpinnings of a model that predicts the effects of automation design on operator performance.
Effects of sleep restriction, sleep inertia, and overload on complex cognitive performance before and after workload transition: a meta analysis and two models BIBAFull-Text 839-843
  Christopher D. Wickens; Lila Laux; Shaun Hutchins; Angelia Sebok
We describe performance models and meta-analytic data in a period before and after an unexpected workload transition typical, for example, of a catastrophic automation failure, experienced by a fatigued operator. We first present meta-analytic findings on the effects of sleep restriction and sleep inertia on the complex cognitive performance that might typify such a 'failure response'. We then present a workload overload task management model whose parameters are based on meta-analyses, relevant to predicting multi-task performance in the post-transition phase performance (independent of sleep disruption effects). We cite the lack of research intersecting these two areas.
The effects of automation-induced complacency on fault diagnosis and management performance in process control BIBAFull-Text 844-848
  Benjamin A. Clegg; Alex Z. Vieane; Christopher D. Wickens; Robert S. Gutzwiller; Angelia L. Sebok
Operators of automated systems can develop complacency, impairing their ability to respond in a timely and appropriate fashion when automation fails. This study sought to examine the impact of an instructional manipulation of attentiveness, in terms of engagement and accountability, on fault diagnosis and fault management. Participants trained on the operation of a simulated process control task, with instructions varied to induce higher or lower attentiveness to the task. After several routine faults within the system, a fault occurred along with a failure of a previously available diagnostic and management aid, and shortly after a second failure occurred. The first failure was associated with significant impairment of diagnosis and management, but comparatively few differences between attentiveness groups. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for a model of human-automation interaction.
Workload overload modeling: An experiment with MATB II to inform a computational model of task management BIBAFull-Text 849-853
  Robert S. Gutzwiller; Christopher D. Wickens; Benjamin A. Clegg
Task switching choice was examined building from a model of task overload management. An experiment using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB) was undertaken to explore the influence of two parameters of the model, task priority and task difficulty. Participants were free to switch between the four component tasks, with the number of switches and task choice for conflicting events observed. A unique post-experiment survey measured subjective ratings of task attributes. We found that task difficulty, by reducing switching, and task priority, which determined whether increased task difficulty increased time in task, significantly influenced task switching predominantly in line with our predictions. The specific role of priority in multi-task management, and future directions including time-on-task related effects and the role of operator fatigue, are discussed.

Human Performance Modeling: HP3 -- Information and Cognition

Integrating Behavior Modeling with Data Mining to Improve Human Error Prediction in Numerical Data Entry BIBAFull-Text 854-858
  Cheng-Jhe Lin; Changxu Wu; Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongsec
Human errors in numerical data entry can lead to serious consequence but it is difficult to predict those errors because mechanisms of human errors vary and no contextual clues are available. This study suggests integrating human behavior modeling and data mining as an advanced method to predict human errors. Human behavior modeling utilized top-down inference to transform interactions between task characteristics and conditions into general inclination of an average operator to make errors, while data mining parsed psychophysiological measurements into individual's likeliness of making errors on a trial-by-trial basis through bottom-up analysis. Specifically, an enhanced Queuing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP) generated modeling features to be combined with real-time EEG features that were collected in a realistic numerical typing experiment, and potential errors were predicted by detecting error-associated features by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers before responses. The detection could be made as early as 300 milliseconds beforehand, and the results showed that integration improved the LDA classifiers' performance by 31.7% in keenness (d') and by 12.5% in area under ROC curve (AUC) from that of using EEG only. The integration may help implement future adaptive augmented system to prevent cognitive breakdown by determining appropriate automation/augmentation levels.
An Empirical Model of Cultural Factors on Trust in Automation BIBAFull-Text 859-863
  Shih-Yi Chien; Michael Lewis; Zhaleh Semnani-Azad; Katia Sycara
Trust is conceived to be an important factor mediating an individual's reliance on automation. Studies have shown individual and cultural differences as well as tasking context significantly affect an individual's development of trust behaviors. This paper reports preliminary progress in developing a psychometrically grounded subjective measure of trust in automation. A total of 110 items from 8 existing instruments were considered for inclusion in this instrument using Amazon Mechanical Turk to supply samples. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the dimensionality of the data, with 42 items selected for continued refinement. Our proposed model comprises 3 main constructs (performance expectancy, process transparency, and purpose influence) along with 3 types of moderators (cultural-technological contexts, individual, and cultural differences).
Effects of information access cost, confidence judgment and overconfidence bias on information retrieval strategy and task performance BIBAFull-Text 864-868
  Jessie X. Yang; Taezoon Park; Christopher D. Wickens; Martin G. Helander
Information access cost has been reported to be one determinant of one's information retrieval strategy. However, the 'expected gain' of an information retrieval strategy has not received much attention. The present study aimed to examine the effects of confidence judgment and overconfidence bias, besides the information access cost, on the choice of information retrieval strategy and task performance. The results showed that both information access cost and confidence judgment of memory accuracy affected information access attempts, and overconfidence bias harmed information retrieval performance.
Modeling the Effects of Positive Affect on the Knowledge Availability of Declarative Memory BIBAFull-Text 869-873
  Sungjin Park; Rohae Myung
In applying psychological research to real-world situations, understanding the impact of positive affect as a cognitive moderator represents an important challenge. In this paper, we explore the cognitive mechanisms responsible for the improvements in performance and flexibility, in subjects performing a word fluency task. Moreover, a methodology with ACT-R is proposed, to describe the effect of positive affect on the word fluency task. The results show that simulated results of the computational model achieved by the proposed method were highly correlated with the average number and proportions of retrieved words from subjects on the word fluency task.
Cognitive Process Model of Astronaut Decision Making during Lunar Landing BIBAFull-Text 874-878
  Zarrin K. Chua; Karen M. Feigh
The addition of a cognitive process model with other subsystem models would greatly aid conceptual design by allowing mission designers to fully explore the impact of different function allocations. This paper presents the development of a cognitive process model of astronaut decision making during the selection of a final landing site. The model is based on empirical data collected from an experiment conducted with members of NASA's Astronaut Office. Inputs to the model include sensor data, expected landing area, and a sensor operation alert. The model outputs chosen landing site coordinates and decision time and can also provide information regarding the cues that factored into this decision.

Human Performance Modeling: HP4 -- Modeling in Control and Training

Modeling driver control behavior in both routine and near-accident driving BIBAFull-Text 879-883
  Gustav Markkula
Building on ideas from contemporary neuroscience, a framework is proposed in which drivers' steering and pedal behavior is modeled as a series of individual control adjustments, triggered after accumulation of sensory evidence for the need of an adjustment, or evidence that a previous or ongoing adjustment is not achieving the intended results. Example simulations are provided. Specifically, it is shown that evidence accumulation can account for previously unexplained variance in looming detection thresholds and brake onset timing. It is argued that the proposed framework resolves a discrepancy in the current driver modeling literature, by explaining not only the short-latency, well-tuned, closed-loop type of control of routine driving, but also the degradation into long-latency, ill-tuned open-loop control in more rare, unexpected, and urgent situations such as near-accidents.
Evidence for a fundamental property of steering BIBAFull-Text 884-888
  Ola Benderius; Gustav Markkula
In this paper, a general and fundamental property of steering is demonstrated: It is shown that steering corrections generally follow bell-shaped profiles of steering rate. The finding is strongly related to what is already known about reaching movements. Also, a strong linear relationship was found between the maximum steering wheel rate and the steering wheel deflection, something that indicates a constant movement time for the correction. Furthermore, by closer examination of those corrections that cannot be described by a single bell-shaped rate profile, it was found that they typically can be described using two or, in some cases three or four, overlapping profiles, something which relates to superposition of motor primitives.
Modeling McRuer delay and gain parameters within recorded aircraft state data BIBAFull-Text 889-893
  Steven J. Landry
A study was conducted to identify potential markers for low- and high workload within continuous control data. These markers include derived parameters, such as error, as well as modeled parameters. With respect to the modeled parameters, a parameter tracking system has been developed for modeling the gain and delay with which pilots respond to deviations from desired state values, such as altitude, course, and speed. The system models these parameters based on the McRuer crossover model where the mean-squared error between the modeled parameters and the actual values has been minimized. Several potentially distinguishing markers for identifying excessively low- and high workload levels were found, including measures of error duration, extent, and modeled parameters of operator gain and delay.
Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study BIBAFull-Text 894-898
  Peter Berggren; Björn J. E. Johansson; Erland Svensson; Nicoletta Baroutsi; Nils Dahlbäck
A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable 'Frustration' emerges, which now can be included in the model.

Human Performance Modeling: HP5 -- Monitoring, Vigilance, and Performance Degradation

Validation of Scanning and Complacency Models for Robotic Arm Control BIBAFull-Text 899-903
  Christopher D. Wickens; Huiyang Li; Nadine Sarter; Angelia Sebok; Marc Gacy
We develop an automation complacency model of the human operator/supervisor of a robotic arm designed for space missions. Manual performance and two degrees of automation are modeled for arm trajectory control in a 3-segment scenario: a visual guidance support to manual control, and a full automatic control. The automation functions perfectly for several trials but then unexpectedly fails, in the same manner for both conditions. We model complacency-based visual scanning, and how that scanning will predict differences between conditions in the noticing of automation failures. Both scanning across the workspace and failure detection are validated with human-in-the-loop simulation data.
Catastrophe Models for Cognitive Workload and Fatigue: Memory Functions, Multitasking, Vigilance, Financial Decisions and Risk BIBAFull-Text 904-908
  Stephen J. Guastello
The cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue and their supporting research program evolved in response to numerous difficulties encountered in previous research. The two cusp models separate the two processes, which have the same temporal dynamic structure but different contributing variables, using an integrated experimental design that tests them both in the same situation. This presentation describes the structural models, experimental tasks, and principles of elasticity-rigidity, compensatory ability, minimum entropy, and the performance-variability paradox. Results from the series of six studies are summarized and discussed.
An ACT-R Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance BIBAFull-Text 909-913
  Daniel Gartenberg; Bella Z. Veksler; Glenn Gunzelmann; J. Gregory Trafton
Performance on tasks that require sustained attention can be impacted by various factors that include: signal duration, the use of declarative memory in the task, the frequency of critical stimuli that require a response, and the event-rate of the stimuli. A viable model of the ability to maintain vigilance ought to account for these phenomena. In this paper, we focus on one of these critical factors: signal duration. For this we use results from Baker (1963), who manipulated signal duration in a clock task where the second hand moved in a continuous swipe motion. The critical stimuli were stoppages of the hand that lasted for 200, 300, 400, 600, or 800 ms. The results provided evidence for an interaction between condition and time-on-task, where performance declined at a faster rate as the signal duration decreased. In this paper, we describe an ACT-R model that uses fatigue mechanisms from Gunzelmann et al. (2009) that were proposed to account for the impact of sleep loss on sustained attention performance. The research demonstrates how those same mechanisms can be used to understand vigilance task performance. This illustrates an important foundation for predicting and tracking vigilance decrements in applied settings, and validates a mechanism that creates a theoretical link between the vigilance decrement and sleep loss.
Breathing Carbon Dioxide (4% for 1-Hour) Slows Response Selection, Not Stimulus Encoding BIBAFull-Text 914-918
  Max Vercruyssen
This experiment sought to determine whether breathing carbon dioxide (CO2), a toxic environmental stressor known to impair reaction time, slows human information processing in the stimulus encoding or response selection stage, or both, and whether this effect is influenced by time-on-task and exposure duration. In a 2 X 2 X 2 X 4 (Gas X Degradation X Compatibility X Time-on-Task) within-participants design, six highly practiced (more than 10,000 trials) healthy young male participants performed a serial choice reaction time (SCRT) task while breathing either 4% CO2 (with 50% O2) or room air (0.03% CO2 and 21% O2) for 60 minutes. Task variables manipulated were stimulus degradation (intact vs. degraded) and stimulus-response compatibility (high vs. low). Data from each 20-min SCRT test were subdivided into 5-min and 2-min intervals to determine the effects of time-on-task (and exposure duration). There were significant increases in SCRT from breathing carbon dioxide (p =.004), degrading the stimulus (p <.001), lowering compatibility (p =.004), and increasing time-on-task (p =.020). Lowering compatibility served to exaggerate the impairment produced by carbon dioxide inhalation (p =.038). Time-on-task (and exposure duration), however, did not interact with gas, degradation, or compatibility. Thus, SCRT, analyzed according to the Additive Factors Method (Sternberg, 1969, 1998), (1) was sensitive to the degrading effects of breathing CO2 at an undetectable concentration that did not produce clinical symptoms, (2) determined the locus of this effect was associated with the response selection stage of processing, (3) demonstrated that the progressive deterioration in performance due to increases in time-on-task (and exposure duration) affects both the stimulus encoding and response selection stages in a similar manner, and (4) ruled out alternative explanations by showing the results did not vary with distribution analyses, data trimming, error analyses, and analyses for tradeoffs of speed-accuracy, SCRT-DT, and other performance operating characteristics.
Identification of Motion Sick Individuals: A Classification Method Accounting For Non-Specificity BIBAFull-Text 919-923
  Panagiotis Matsangas; Michael E. McCauley
The identification of 'motion sick' individuals is a challenge because of 'misreported' motion sickness, i.e. symptoms developed from reasons unrelated to the nauseogenic stimulus. A behavioral method is proposed to address the confounding effect of the non-specificity associated with motion sickness and sopite syndrome symptoms. The proposed method is based on a within-subject approach with three classification groups; symptoms occurring in static conditions are used as normative to classify whether an individual is motion sick in motion conditions. Participants without any symptoms in both static and motion conditions are classified as 'Asymptomatic.' If symptom severity in motion conditions is greater than the static, the participant is identified as motion sick (Symptomatic). If symptom severity in motion is less than or equal to the static condition, it is considered that the individual is reporting symptoms not attributable to motion sickness and is excluded from analysis. As part of a broader study, the proposed method was applied in a laboratory experiment and the corresponding results are compared against two alternative methods. The utility and problems of the proposed method are discussed.

Human Performance Modeling: HP6 -- Ergonomic Aspects of Clinical and Surgical Procedures

Ergonomic Aspects of Clinical and Surgical Procedures: Discussion Panel Proposal BIBAFull-Text 924-928
  T. Armstrong; C. Cao; S. Hallbeck; R. Radwin; D. Rempel
This discussion panel aims to identify ergonomic concerns, solutions and research needs, physical stresses, and outcomes related to clinical and surgical procedures. This session will begin with formal presentations to demonstrate current ergonomic concerns and research initiatives associated with clinical and surgical procedures to frame the panel discussion for the second part of the session. Discussion of different procedures will help to identify solutions and research needs that relate to a broad range of ergonomic problems. Questions will be collected from the attendees and speakers and organized so as to guide the panel discussion and to engage all of the speakers in the discussion to achieve the symposium aims.

Human Performance Modeling: HP7 -- Sensors, Biometrics, and Behavior

Research of a Kinect-Based Dhm to Capture and Simulate the Human Behavior BIBAFull-Text 929-933
  Xiaomin Zhang; Zhelin Li; Yurun Huang; Lijun Jiang
In order to conduct ergonomic assessments of product using real-time data of human behavior in the digital virtual systems, this study developed a real-time acquisition and simulation of human behavior system based on Kinect. This paper studied joint point matching, digital human data structure and motion data calculation. Combining with Open Inventor graphics engine, the research used human behavior data to conduct the dynamic simulation in DHM. The accuracy between the data processing method of Kinect and manual measurement also was analyzed. The results show that the method can achieve accurate real-time acquisition of human behavior. This method has been integrated into the human factors analysis software SAMMIE conducted case studies and achieved good result.
Extraction of Encumbered Anthropometric Measures from Whole-Body Scan Data BIBAFull-Text 934-938
  Monica L. H. Jones; Matthew Lamb; Jen M. V. Shih; Lois A. Sy; Allan A. Keefe
Accurate capture of encumbered anthropometry is critical to ensure that the analysis and design of military platforms and workspaces account for the additional space required for clothing and PPE equipment. To examine the effect of encumbrance on spatial claim, a method was developed to obtain scan-extracted measures from detailed whole-body shape data. This analysis focused on comparing cross-sectional measures extracted from 3D scan data with measurements of the same participants obtained by traditional 1D techniques, while donning different levels of clothing and equipment.
Combined Task and Physical Demands Analyses towards a Comprehensive Human Work Model BIBAFull-Text 939-943
  Philip S. E. Farrell; David W. Tack; Edward T. Nakaza; Jordan Bray-Miners; Cristopher M. Farrell
Task analyses and physical demands analyses are combined to identify common and extreme postures and postural sequences, durations, frequency, and forces for Griffon Helicopter aircrew tasks, mission phases, and whole missions. The result is a comprehensive model of tasks and associated physical demands from which one can estimate the accumulative neck loads and moments caused by Night Vision Goggles usage. Combining task and physical demands analyses yields a methodology for building a model of human work where information processing and physical demands are equally important for finding effective solutions to work issues.
Human Factors Simulation Using Demographically Tuned Biomechanical Models BIBAFull-Text 944-948
  Vincent De Sapio; Darren Earl; Rush Green; Katherine Saul
We have developed a set of tools based on the OpenSim simulation framework that allows for input of anthropometry, muscle geometry, and measured strength capability to generate demographically tuned models from a core generic musculoskeletal model. The strength tuning capability exploits an algorithm that adaptively tunes muscle parameters in generic Hill-type muscle models to generate performance data consistent with ergonomic subject studies of specific demographic populations (e.g. elderly populations). Following the tuning of the generic model to generate a demographic-specific model, human performance in a variety of scenarios can then be analyzed. Currently, the model is in a prototype phase and has been applied to scenarios modeling elderly passengers interacting with airplane interior features including overhead bins and lavatories. The next phase of development will include manufacturing scenarios with input based on motion capture and worker demographics, including strength measurements.
A Prototype Toolkit for Sensing and Modeling Individual and Team State BIBAFull-Text 949-953
  Bethany K. Bracken; Noa Palmon; Victoria Romero; Jonathan Pfautz; Nancy J. Cooke
Teams of individuals working together toward a common goal must be skilled at multi-tasking to perform their own work while maintaining shared attention across the team. Experimenters who study team performance can use cutting edge methods to assess physiological, neurophysiological, and behavioral underpinnings of optimal performance; however, this requires an adequate understanding of how these signals correlate with individual and team performance. We designed a toolkit to support experimenters in evaluating individual and team performance in a laboratory setting, in testing and validating models of performance, and in developing and validating augmentation strategies to improve performance. Our toolkit provides a framework that flexibly integrates current and emerging sensors. The data fusion tool fuses time-synchronized sensor data to assess performance. The model-building and execution toolset enables experimenters to choose previously entered models, adapt these models according to the current experiment, or develop new models to test. The real-time assessment tool enables experimenters to monitor the state of individual subjects and the team as a whole (e.g., stress, workload, focused attention) throughout the experiment, and how these states relate to performance. This information is then used by the real-time augmentation tool, which suggests augmentations to optimize that performance. Together, these tools provide a proof-of-concept prototype of a flexible modeling tool that would allow sensor inputs to be used to model and predict both individual and team performance.

Individual Differences: ID1 -- Vigilance, Monitoring, and Automation

Cognitive Flexibility and Sustained Attention: See something, say something (even when it's not there) BIBAFull-Text 954-958
  Ivonne J. Figueroa; Robert J. Youmans; Tyler H. Shaw
Researchers investigating the relationship between individual differences and sustained attention tasks do not clearly find marked traits and abilities that are predictive of vigilant performance. Yet, this important research is applicable to tasks like driving, TSA monitoring, Air Traffic Control, and even for the Department of Homeland Security's civilian campaign, 'See something, say something.' In this paper, we take an individual differences approach to uncover the relationship between cognitive flexibility and sustained attention. Twenty-nine undergraduate students from George Mason University participated in this study for course credit. The Youmans Cognitive Flexibility Puzzle (Gonzalez, Figueroa, Bellows, Rhodes, & Youmans, 2013) was used to assess cognitive flexibility, and a modified version the Air Traffic Controller (ATC) task (Hitchcock, Warm, Matthews, Dember, Shear, Tripp et al., 2003) measured sustained attention. Mixed ANOVAs were used to analyze performance on the ATC task (hits, false alarms, reaction times). Highly flexible individuals were faster to respond despite missing signals and committing errors. Implications are discussed.
The Robustness of Affect Manipulations in Vigilance Paradigms BIBAFull-Text 959-963
  Rachel R. Phillips; Poornima Madhavan
Previous research has shown that vigilance tasks result in decreased affect ratings. However, studies have not examined the effectiveness of valence manipulations presented in discrete manipulation sessions over the course of a vigilance task, nor how repeated exposure to an affect manipulation would impact the perceptions or effectiveness of the manipulations. To that end, 109 participants from a large southeastern university completed three affect manipulations (of either positive, negative, or neutral valence) over the course of a 700 image visual search task and rated the manipulation stimuli and their own experiences in terms of valence and arousal. Results revealed no changes in the perceptions or effectiveness of the negative manipulations over time. However, those in the positive condition perceived their stimuli as less positive over time and were resistant to affect restoration at the end of the experiment. Results are discussed in relation to implications for experimental design when attempting to examine the effects of affect over a vigilance task.
The Effects of Individual Differences on Vigilance Training and Performance in a Dynamic Vigilance Task BIBAFull-Text 964-968
  G. Teo; T. Schmidt; J. Szalma; G. Hancock; P. Hancock
Efforts to mitigate the vigilance decrement include training with feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR). However, the influences of individual differences on vigilance training and performance are not well understood. Based on previous studies on individual differences in vigilance, the present study investigates the impact of feedback, as well as six individual differences variables (i.e. Attentional Control, Boredom Proneness, Cognitive Failures, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism) on several performance measures. Results indicated that, in general, individual differences did not affect performance or training effectiveness. Hence, KR training may be effective for most operators confronted with monitoring tasks.
The Effect of Neuroticism on Vigilance Performance: A Transcranial Doppler Investigation BIBAFull-Text 969-973
  Arielle Mandell; Alexandra Becker; Aaron VanAndel; Andrew Nelson; Tyler H. Shaw
Selecting for vigilance assignments remains an important factor in human performance research. Recent research using personality measures as selection criteria has revealed mixed results in the predictive utility of personality on vigilance performance. The current study revisits the potential relationship between vigilance performance and one personality facet, trait neuroticism, in light of two opposing theories. The first theory suggests that neuroticism reduces vigilance performance due to an increase in self-referential worry. The second posits that neurotics can compensate for increased worry and other distractions by allocating increased attentional effort to the task, resulting in similar or improved performance. Neuroticism was assessed using the neuroticism facet of the NEO-PI-R. Using Transcranial Doppler Sonography, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was measured during completion of a 12-minute abbreviated vigilance task. Performance and CBFV data indicate that 1) high and low neuroticism participants displayed similar performance, and 2) a higher neuroticism score is associated with higher CBFV levels in the first period and a greater CBFV decrement over time on task. The association between neuroticism and high CBFV levels indicates that these individuals were recruiting additional cognitive resources in order to achieve similar performance to participants who are lower in neuroticism. Results are discussed in terms of theories that suggest that high levels of neuroticism can result in similar performance by allowing for increased on-task effort allocation at the cost of increased resource expenditure.
Psychophysiological Metrics for Workload are Demand-Sensitive but Multifactorial BIBAFull-Text 974-978
  Lauren E. Reinerman-Jones; Gerald Matthews; Daniel J. Barber; Julian, IV Abich
Various psychophysiological indices of mental workload exhibit sensitivity to task demand factors, but the psychometrics of indices has been neglected. In particular, the extent to which different metrics converge on a common latent factor is unclear. In the present study, 150 participants performed in four task scenarios based on a simulation of unmanned vehicle operation. Scenarios required threat detection and/or change detection. Both single- and dual-task scenarios were used. Workload metrics were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), functional Near Infra-Red (fNIR) and eyetracking. Subjective workload was also assessed. Several metrics were appropriately sensitive to the differing levels of task load presented by the four scenarios. However, factor analysis identified multiple factors, each of which was associated with a single response system only, with no general factor. Caution should be used in assessing workload in the individual operator.

Individual Differences: ID2 -- Cognition and Performance I

Variability in Human Performance -- the Roles of Context Specificity and Closed-Loop Control BIBAFull-Text 979-983
  Thomas J. Smith
Objective: This report briefly addresses sources of variability in five different domains of human performance: movement behavior, cognition and learning, performance under displaced feedback, human error performance, and social and team performance. Results: In every case: (1) context specificity makes a key contribution to variability observed with these domains; and (2) a control systems interpretation can be applied to account for the basis of these effects. Conclusion: This analytical approach can readily be extended to other performance domains, such as variability in complex sociotechnical systems. Application: Given that HF/E science is primarily concerned with performance-design interaction, it can be argued that an emphasis on the contribution of design (context) to performance variability has a scientific and practical significance for the field that far exceeds the possible influence of innate biological factors on such variability.
Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity and Stress as Predictors of Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 984-988
  Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Avonie Parchment; Gerald Matthews; Daniel Barber; Stephanie Lackey; Grace Teo
Predicting decision making may be essential for personnel selection. The present study aimed to predict sustained decision making using measures of subjective state and physiological response to a short task battery. Volunteers completed a short battery of decision tasks, followed by a dynamic task simulating business decision making. Subjective stress state and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) responses to each task suggested that sustained decision making may induce stress and fatigue. Some positive associations were found between CBFV responses to the short battery and long task performance. The right hemisphere CBFV responses taken during the long task correlated highly with long task performance. These findings suggest that hemodynamic response to a verbal task, like the short battery, may provide an effective means for predicting subsequent decision making effectiveness. The findings also suggest that CBFV may access multiple resources required for sustained decision making, localized in left and right hemispheres.
Development of the Team Workload Questionnaire (TWLQ) BIBAFull-Text 989-993
  James Sellers; William S. Helton; Katharina Näswall; Gregory J. Funke; Benjamin A. Knott
In the present paper we developed the Team Workload Questionnaire (TWLQ). Despite extensive workload studies, little research has been conducted on the workload experienced by teams. Team workload has largely been ignored by research with no validated theory constructed or dedicated team workload measures available to researchers and practitioners. The TWLQ items were generated based on the NASA-TLX and team workload theory. We examined 216 members of sports team completing a team workload measure after games or practice. Principal Axis Factoring method with Direct Oblimin rotation indicated three separate factors for the TWLQ with the factors classified as Task Workload, Team Workload, and Task-Team Balancing. The TWLQ may be a useful subjective measure that can be used to assess the workload demand in team tasks. It provides researchers a tool to advance the understating of team workload and gives practitioners the means to assess the workload demands of team tasks.
Executive Functioning Protects Against Stress in UAV Simulation BIBAFull-Text 994-998
  April Rose Panganiban; Gerald Matthews
Increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) results in a demand for suitable operators, however current selection methods may be inadequate. Transitioning to multiple UAV operation highlights attentional control ability as a criterion for selection. The current study examined the role of executive functioning (EF) in performance of a UAV simulation where high task load and evaluative stress are present. EF task performance was related more strongly to subjective stress than to performance. Specifically, high inhibitory ability may protect operators from experiencing stress processes such as worry, distress, appraisal of threat and situational uncontrollability. The findings presented add to the understanding of how EF may preserve operator's mental well-being and protect against stress, although replication of the present findings is required.
Individual Differences in Driver Over-Confidence: Implications for Stress, Error and Managing Impairments BIBAFull-Text 999-1003
  Ryan W. Wohleber; Gerald Matthews
This study aimed to extend understanding of individual differences in over-confidence in driver safety. First, we discriminated general driving confidence from confidence in coping with impairments such as fatigue and distraction. Second, we discriminated three aspects of overconfidence specified in terms of a recent Bayesian belief updating model of over-confidence (Moore and Healy, 2008): overestimation, overplacement and overprecision. Calibration tasks were used for this purpose. Results showed that the magnitude of overconfidence differed across the various metrics, and different metrics were only modestly intercorrelated. Confidence in handling impairment appears to be distinct from general confidence. Both forms of confidence were negatively related to dislike of driving but related differently to other aspects of driver behavior and stress. Risk factors related to self-estimation (violations, thrill-seeking) may be distinct from factors related to overplacement (aggression). Discrimination of multiple metrics for driving overconfidence may support better matching of safety interventions to the individual driver.

Individual Differences: ID3 -- Cognition and Performance II

Exploring the Relationship between Planning and Prospective Memory: Describing the Role of Working Memory Task Load BIBAFull-Text 1004-1008
  Paul Y. Kim; Christopher B. Mayhorn
Articulatory suppression / manipulations of working memory (i.e., poetic language) were examined in relation to planning and prospective memory, memory for actions to be performed in the future. Two experiments were conducted to explore these individual difference measures. Experiment 1 required participants to answer 90 trivia questions and complete embedded time- and event-based prospective memory tasks. The 36 participants were divided into three equal groups: no working memory (WM) load, low WM load, and high WM load. Results from that experiment were surprising because prospective memory performance did not vary by type (event-based versus time-based) and WM load did not influence prospective performance. Experiment 2 required participants to do an errand-planning task and complete embedded time- and event-based prospective memory tasks. The 36 participants, who did not participate in Experiment 1, were also divided into three groups that varied by WM load: no WM load, low WM load, and high WM load. One interesting finding was prospective memory performance correlated with a measure of planning: the Tower of Hanoi task. These experiments, their findings, and general implications are discussed.
Cognition and Physiological Response: Towards a Model of Validated Physiological Measurement BIBAFull-Text 1009-1013
  Ashley M. Hughes; William G. Volante; Kimberly Stowers; Kevin Leyva; James M. Oglesby; Tiffany Bisbey; Eduardo Salas; Benjamin A. Knott; Michael A. Vidulich
Complex tasks in large and error-prone environments require unobtrusive, unbiased and real-time measurement of cognitive variables to promote safety and to achieve optimal performance. Despite the prevalence of physiological measurement of cognitive constructs and cognitive performance, such as workload, little has been done to justify the inference of cognitive states from physiological measures. We develop a framework based on the extant literature to provide the groundwork for further validation of physiological measurement. Specifically, we leverage theoretically-grounded conditions of measurement to aid in investigating the logical sampling and construct validity for use of such metrics. Further meta-analytic investigation is warranted to validate the model and justify use of physiological measures.
Individual Differences in Cognitive Strategy During Reactive Task-Set Switching BIBAFull-Text 1014-1018
  Molly C. Martini; Christian A. Gonzalez; Robert J. Youmans
Researchers who employ traditional laboratory task-set switching paradigms often assume that their participants are using only one strategy to complete switch moves. In the current study, we hypothesized that real world task-set switching behaviors are facilitated by multiple processing strategies, including fast 'heuristic' strategies that are employed when switching is routine, and slower 'reasoned' strategies that are used less often when heuristic strategies fail. In this study, 151 undergraduate students from George Mason University volunteered to complete the Youmans Cognitive Flexibility Assessment (YCFA), a computer-based, reactive task-set switching paradigm that takes the form of a simple puzzle game. Participants' reaction time data suggests that they tried to utilize both heuristic and reasoned strategies to make task-set switches, and that they only used reasoned strategies when heuristic strategies failed. The data also revealed that participants quickly abandoned reasoned strategies when heuristic strategies once again become successful. We conclude by providing some guidance for system designers regarding the speed with which humans who are employing reasoned approaches to task-set switching will abandon them once heuristic approaches again become successful, and by discussing the implications of our findings for safe system design.
Examining Relations of Driver's Self-Confidence Level with Automotive Instrument Cluster Reading Performance BIBAFull-Text 1019-1023
  Sang-Hwan Kim; Mengyao Xu; Heather Harrelson; Rama Kishore Akshay Pedamallu; Brian Weiss; Claudia Escobar
The objective of this study is to understand which mechanism of instrument cluster reading performance is associated with drivers' self-ratings on confidence level relating to general mental/physical abilities and daily life habits as well as age and gender. Sixty drivers, consisting of forty elderly drivers and twenty young drivers, participated in the study. Participants completed a self-assessments questionnaire, which asked about their level of self-confidence in various aspects of their life, as well as a controlled experiment using a driving simulator to collect actual reading performance including speed and accuracy as well as eye movement profile for the information reading. Individual data analysis on each of subjective ratings and reading performance confirmed senior drivers' degraded specific aspects of self-confidence level and reading performance such as longer information acquisition and processing time. Consequently a structural equation model revealed how self-confidence level and reading performance are related by mediation of age.

Interactive Posters & Demos: POS1 -- Interactive Posters & Demos

The Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) as a Tool for Human Factors Professionals BIBAFull-Text 1024-1027
  Anne M. Sinatra; Benjamin S. Goldberg; Robert A. Sottilare
The Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) is an open-source domain-independent intelligent tutoring system (ITS) framework. It provides the tools and capabilities to design a complete ITS, manage student instruction, and serve as a testbed for experimentation and analysis. GIFT was developed to provide a cost-effective and efficient means for developing ITSs that have interchangeable parts and can be reused. Additionally, GIFT provides the ability for human factors professionals to develop and run complete experiments in a computer-based environment. This demonstration will provide an introduction to GIFT, along with the motivation behind its design. Further, a demonstration of the tools that are useful to human factors practitioners and psychologists will be provided, and examples of courses that have been developed using GIFT will be shown.
Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) as a Compensatory Aid for Sensory Loss BIBAFull-Text 1028-1032
  J. Christopher Brill; Ben D. Lawson; Angus Rupert
The Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) began as a sensory cue to counteract pilot spatial disorientation. More recent adaptations of TSAS provide feedback for postural instability and spatial cues for persons with hearing loss. This demonstration included a brief presentation on past TSAS developments and recent applications. Attendees experienced an interactive demonstration of the TSAS hover-drift countermeasure for helicopter pilots, as well as recent applications of vibrotactile cues for looming, for postural stability, and for aiding target localization in pilots with noise-induced hearing loss.
Enhancing Spatial Orientation in Novice Pilots: Comparing Different Attitude Indicators Using Synthetic Vision Systems BIBAFull-Text 1033-1037
  Alice Gross; Dietrich Manzey
Spatial disorientation (SD) is a common factor in aviation accidents, especially in novice pilots. An experiment was carried out to determine which of four different attitude indicator concepts in combination with two different display backgrounds (abstract vs. synthetic landscape) proves to be the most beneficial for novice pilot performance. Inexperienced pilots had to recover from unusual attitudes by using the standard moving-horizon display, a moving-aircraft display, a frequency-separated display, and a 'mixed' display, with the latter two representing hybrid concepts with movements of both aircraft symbol and horizon bar. Participants performed the task of recovering from unusual attitudes most efficiently with hybrid display concepts, suggesting that these display concepts prevent figure-ground reversals and associated pilot errors. Outcomes of the study suggest that the implementation of hybrid display concepts as a backup option when unwillingly entering Instrument Flight Conditions could be a solution for preventing SD in novice pilots.
The LABY Microworld: A Platform for Research, Training and System Engineering BIBAFull-Text 1038-1042
  Jean-Paul Imbert; Helen M. Hodgetts; Robert Parise; François Vachon; Sébastien Tremblay
The LABY microworld, a functional simulation of Air Traffic Control (ATC), captures the underlying processes involved in electronic air traffic management with a simplified version of the operational human-machine interface. LABY is a computer-based human-in-the-loop dynamic environment whereby a controller must issue directional commands to guide aircraft along a predetermined route, while avoiding potential conflicts and dealing concurrently with other incoming information. It can be used for human factors research or system engineering purposes, or configured specifically for use with expert controllers for the training of non-technical skills in ATC. We present a use case of LABY, comparing the efficiency of input devices for ATC: Input times using the mouse were quicker than with the stylus, but error was not greater. We discuss the potential of LABY for system engineering, training and research purposes.
Time Pressure Has Limited Benefits for Human-Automation Performance BIBAFull-Text 1043-1046
  Casey Tunstall; Stephen Rice; Rian Mehta; Victoria Dunbar; Korhan Oyman
It has been posited that under time pressure, humans tend to comply more often with automation recommendations. Previous research has shown that time pressure can enhance human-automation performance when reliability of the automated aid is high. In the current study, time pressure and difficulty level of the target detection task was manipulated. The results of this study show that human-automation performance was benefited by time pressure, but only in the condition when the task was difficult and the automation was highly reliable.
Startle and Surprise on the Flight Deck: Similarities, Differences, and Prevalence BIBFull-Text 1047-1051
  Javier Rivera; Andrew B. Talone; Claas Tido Boesser; Florian Jentsch; Michelle Yeh
Envisioned World Research: Guiding the Design of Live-Virtual-Constructive Training Technology and its Integration into Navy Air Combat Training BIBAFull-Text 1052-1056
  Sarah Sherwood; Kelly Neville; Derek "Baffle" Ashlock; John "Bam Bam" Mooney; Melissa Walwanis; Ami Bolton; Taylor Martin
The Navy is investigating the use of Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) simulation to train F/A-18 pilots. LVC, which introduces computer-generated tracks into live training, will be embedded into Navy air combat training, an extremely complex and nuanced system. This paper describes research conducted to facilitate the integration of this new technology into the existing training system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 air combat professionals to understand their training system and the ways LVC technology could affect its safety and effectiveness. Results reported here focus on ways LVC technology could be employed to benefit air combat training. Associated research required to determine the best LVC design requirements for enabling those employment strategies within Navy training were also identified. A case is made for the utility of this type of future-system exploration research; such research is invaluable to systems acquisition, which frequently involves making changes to existing complex systems.
An Investigation of the Effects of Material and Incline Angle on a Foot Restraint System for the International Space Station BIBAFull-Text 1057-1061
  Aleksandra Stankovic; Lynn Geiger; Alexandra Hilbert
This study presents a human factors assessment of the foot restraint system used aboard the International Space Station. We examine pressure distribution maps of 3 different restraint materials (elastic strap; canvas strap; metal bar) at 2 incline angles (0 and 20 degrees plantar flexion) to explore potential system improvements. Our findings reveal that the canvas strap yields the most optimal combination of broadly distributed pressure while maintaining a high subjective evaluation of comfort and security. Foot restraint angle was found to be most critical for modulating pressure distribution in high-force conditions, suggesting that inclination improves security and decreases injury risk in high-force work areas.
Sense and Avoid: Operator Separation of Unmanned Aircraft in Conflict Trajectories BIBAFull-Text 1062-1066
  Sheryl L. Chappell; Everett A. Palmer
This study explored the ability of operators to provide separation between three unmanned aircraft using basic cockpit traffic displays. Four groups of three general aviation, instrument-rated pilots flew cross-country flights controlling simulated twin-engine unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). They were required to maintain 2 nautical miles (nmi) horizontal and 500 ft vertical separation from all other aircraft. To examine the effect of two important safety factors, the flights were conducted with and without communication among the operators and with and without variable accuracy in the displayed traffic location due to degraded sensor quality. Twenty four different three-dimensional traffic conflict trajectories with three UASs, were repeated randomly for each of the four experimental conditions for each group. Of the 1152 aircraft encounters 12.8% were in violation of separation minimums. Eighteen of these were closer than 400 ft vertically or 1.6 nmi horizontally. The minimum separation of all aircraft pairs was 293 ft and 0.13 nmi. No difference in minimum separations was found due to the presence of communications, the variable accuracy of traffic position, or the participant group. The type and time of evasive maneuvers showed no effect when displayed horizontal position accuracy was variable. When operators were able to communicate and coordinate their maneuvers, the time to resolve the conflict was reduced. Participant groups varied significantly in: time of conflict resolution, frequency and type of maneuvers, control activity, reported amount of threat, confidence, satisfaction, and appraisal of the efficacy of their communications. The findings of this study serve as a benchmark for the development of sense and avoid procedures and minimum equipage standards for operating UASs in the airspace over the United States.
Evaluation of a Peripherally-Located Instrument Landing Display with High-Order Control of a Non-Linear Approach and Landing BIBAFull-Text 1067-1071
  Zach A. Spielman; Ryan T. Evans; Jordan D. Holmberg; Brian P. Dyre
We compared the precision of simulated-fixed wing aircraft landing approaches with two different head-up display (HUD) formats: a) the MIL-STD-1787B Instrument Landing System and b) a virtual peripherally-located optical flow ILS HUD. Within each display condition we compared a three second quickened display to a real time non-quickened display. Non-pilot participants used simplified controls to guide a landing simulation under night conditions with extremely poor visibility using Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Participants followed a non-linear flight and approach path under the two display and quickening conditions. While quickening was found to have no significant effect, the peripheral optical flow ILS afforded greater overall precision in flight path control. The findings suggest an increased ability to extract rate-of-change information from the peripheral optical flow ILS affording improved spatial orientation.
Work Injuries Among Therapists In Physical Rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 1072-1076
  Bernadette McCrory; Judith M. Burnfield; Amy R. Darragh; Jane L. Meza; Sonya L. Irons; Pavel Chernyavskiy; Angela M. Link; Gregory Brusola
Background: Physical therapists in rehabilitation settings often perform heavy lifting, repetitive forceful tasks and endure long periods of static or awkward postures. These work conditions put therapists at increased risk of work-related injuries (WRIs). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) at 14 randomly selected rehabilitation facilities to determine the prevalence and severity of work-related injuries in physical rehabilitation. Results: A majority of respondents reported their most severe pain or discomfort within the last year affected their back, lasted 24 hours to 1 week, occurred once every 2-6 months, and was rated as moderate on the 0 to 10 pain scale. The 1-year prevalence of WRIs among PTs and PTAs working in physical rehabilitation was 32%. Sixty percent (60%) of those reporting pain/discomfort had mechanical patient lifts available within their work area. Less than half reported using mechanical patient lifts before or during/after their work-related pain. Conclusion: More than 65% of rehabilitation PTs and PTAs experienced work-related pain due to therapeutic activities including patient handling and movement. It is critical to understand therapists' technology usage barriers, redesign technology to meet end-user needs, and develop technology-based best practices that promote both worker safety and patient outcomes.
Relation between perceived effort and the electromyographic signal in localized low-effort activities BIBAFull-Text 1077-1081
  Gadi Korol; Amir Karniel; Itzik Melzer; Adi Ronen; Yael Edan; Helman Stern; Raziel Riemer
Hand-based human-machine interfaces are complex tasks that involve repetitive or sustained movements and postures of the hands that can lead to overuse syndromes of the musculoskeletal system. Consequently, it is important to minimize the physical effort that occurs at these interfaces. The evaluation of physical effort can be performed either by subjective evaluation of the relative perceived effort (e.g., Borg scale) or by objective physiological measurements (e.g., electromyography -- EMG). However, the relation between these two measures has not been sufficiently studied for localized low-effort activities. This study investigated the relation between EMG and Borg ratings, as well as the issue of gender differences during low-effort activity of forearm muscles. Nine females and nine males performed eight different hand gestures (localized low-effort activity), during which EMG signals were recorded from six forearm muscles and Borg ratings were obtained. On average, the female subjects rated the gestures as less effortful than the male subjects, and also demonstrated a higher positive correlation between the EMG and Borg ratings. Furthermore, the linear model that was fitted for predicting the Borg ratings based on gender and the combined activity of muscles provided an R-squared value of approximately 0.3.
Muscle Response to Different Socket Wrench Configurations BIBAFull-Text 1082-1084
  Patrick Dix; Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan
Evaluation of manual hand tools play an important role in producing better designs that are targeted to fit the user, maximize comfort, and minimize the risk of injury. The goal of this study was to evaluate and quantify the muscle response due to a horizontal wrenching task while using four socket wrench configurations: two handle types and two handle lengths. Eleven participants in this study were instructed to loosen a bolt three times using each of the tool combinations in a random order. Activity from twelve muscles was recorded using wireless surface EMG sensors. Both the handle length and the grip type were observed to have a significant effect on the overall muscle activity. Between 5-32% reduction in muscle activity was seen in all muscles due to the longer handle, and the padded handle further reduced muscle effort by up to 13%. These findings indicate the importance of tool configuration selection in order to reduce the required force application, improve posture and reduce muscle effort required for the wrenching task.
The Effects of Posture on Force Estimations Using Surface Electromyography BIBAFull-Text 1085-1088
  Jessica L. Gall; Callie L. O'Donnell; Kimberly A. Dembinski; Jay M. Kapellusch
Surface electromyography (sEMG) has shown promise in estimating grip forces while people are performing tasks; however, equipment and analysis procedures remain complex for use by practitioners in industry. The objective of this study was to quantify error in grip force estimations associated with changes in hand/wrist posture using simple methods and off-the-shelf sEMG equipment. Eight healthy, college-aged females participated in the study. Six sEMG sensors were placed radially around the forearm. Subjects applied 15%, 45%, and 75% of maximum power grip strength in seven different postures (neutral, 15, 30, and 45 degrees extension, and 15, 30, and 45 degrees flexion). sEMG signals were calibrated using linear regression and used to predict grip force. Predicted grip force was statistically compared to applied grip force measured by a digital dynamometer. The results suggest that radial electrode placement can generate reasonably accurate static force estimations regardless of MVC and across most postures, but extreme posture estimations do not appear accurate without corrections.
Impact of Loading and Rest Intervals on Muscle Inflammation BIBAFull-Text 1089-1093
  Tianqi 'Tenchi' Gao; Sean Gallagher
The efficacy of many existing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) treatment and preventive approaches remains unclear in current literature. Instead of applying additional measures that generate additional costs, redesigning the job in a MSD preventive way in the first place could be a cost effective and health promoting alternative. Manipulating rest intervals and load-repetition combinations within the work time and workload capacity constraints could qualify one of the beneficial alternatives. The purpose of this study is to determine whether different load-repetition combinations and rest intervals with different frequencies and durations would have an impact on the inflammatory response of the muscle and the development of MSDs within certain constraints -- predetermined total work time, total rest time and total work volume. In this study, a total of 24 healthy college men with homogenous anthropometry measures will be randomly assigned to a 19-minute bicep eccentric exercise task including a total of 4-minute rest time. The total workload for all eccentric exercise treatment combinations is 27 times the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MIVC). Within the shift, the subjects will be randomly assigned to 90% MIVC or 30% MIVC workloads; each subject will also be assigned with 2 minutes or 0.5 minute rest intervals. This pilot study uses the recoverable short-term delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) analogous to the long-term MSDs to imitate muscle inflammation and healing processes in MSD cases. Three physical responses: serum CK level (a quantitative marker for skeletal muscle microtrauma), MIVC (a good measure of the degree of muscle recovery), and muscle soreness are measured before exercise and at days 1, 2, 4, 8 post-exercise of the human elbow flexor muscles. A two-factor (loading and rest interval) factorial regression model will be established for muscle inflammatory response. The findings of the study would assist in understanding the effect of loading and rest on muscle inflammatory response and healing process as well as designing jobs with suitable rest intervals and load-repetition balance to prevent MSDs at manufacturing settings. The statistical regression model could provide guidance to implement ergonomic assessment tools.
The Effects of Fluorescent versus LED Lighting on Soldier Tasks in Military Tents BIBAFull-Text 1094-1098
  Breanne K. Hawes
It has been shown that lighting can have an effect on human health, cognition, perception and behavior. There is a gap in the literature pertaining to the effects of light emitting diode (LED) technology on humans, and a gap on lighting in military living environments. This is especially important considering that current research and design efforts are attempting to distinguish whether newer LED lighting technologies are the best choice for military use. Building on past work, the current study examines effects of LED and fluorescent lighting technologies on military relevant tasks in an attempt to examine how lighting may alleviate certain military stressors (workload, interpersonal conflict, concerns about living conditions). Results of this study add to the research base comparing LED and fluorescent lighting.
Zooar: Zoo Based Augmented Reality Signage BIBAFull-Text 1099-1103
  Nicholas Kelling; Angela Kelling
This work describes the development of an augmented reality (AR) based informational signage system for zoological parks. Pre-development surveys detailed an interest in technology implantation while also highlighting significant limitations in the educational success of classical signage. The development of this AR system focused on integrating available technology while reinforcing the unique atmosphere of a zoological setting. This integration culminated in a system that has the potential to allow for greater personalized connections to be made between visitors and exhibited animals while not sacrificing the naturalistic surroundings and with minimal cost the zoo.
Human Factors Study on Light Modulation in Indirect Office Lighting BIBAFull-Text 1104-1108
  Jo Olsen; Jeremy Spaulding; Ernest, Jr. Davey; Charles Ring
Our goal is to provide insight into the human experience of light modulation to help achieve the specific application goals of indirect office lighting. This paper explains experimental development and design, and results from a human factors experiment for an indirect office lighting application. 18 subjects experienced working for a day in a 4x4 meter office equipped with an extended cove, housing LED light modules, providing indirect lighting that varied at 2 light modulation levels and a no modulation control condition. The light modulated at a frequency of 100 Hz due to the electronic design of the rectification of the AC line voltage. The results show that subjects had little to no response for the 29% light modulation level and the 0% control. Considerable undesirable response was measured with 100% modulation. In addition we see considerable variation from subject to subject. The type of information contained in this paper is used in making decisions on design trade-offs by product development teams.
Conceptual Development of a Personalized Learning System for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevention BIBAFull-Text 1109-1113
  Dorian Davis; Steven Jiang
Advancing personalized learning has been identified as one of the grand challenges by the National Academy of Engineering. It is an approach that customizes the delivery of information based on different learning groups. Personalized learning provides choices and flexibility in how, what, when and where we learn. It also allows the user of the system to actively participate in the development of their learning. This re-search aims to study personalized learning designed for preventive care of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Health Information System. User-centered design will be applied during the design process. A framework will be developed for the design of a personalized system that individually adapts to learning styles.
A Comparison of User Preference for Mouse and Touchpad with Windows 8 Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1114-1118
  Stephan Kotin
The Windows 8 operating system is noticeably different from prior Windows operating systems and contains features that are designed with a touch interface in mind. The current study investigates user preference for PC indirect input devices when using the Windows 8 operating system without an available direct touch interface. Subjects first completed a performance task (Winfitts) with each input device. Subjects were trained on how to use Windows 8 edge-swipe features with both input devices. After training, subjects were asked to complete a task list of Windows 8 specific gesture tasks using either a laptop touchpad or a mouse. After completing the tasks with both input devices, users completed Likert scale ratings about their interaction with each input device. Finally, subjects were asked which input device they would overall prefer when using windows 8. We hypothesize that there will be a preference for the touchpad over the mouse. Contrary to the hypothesis, results showed a significant user preference for a mouse when using the Windows 8 operating system, as well as when executing Windows 8 specific interactions.
First Look: Examining the Horizontal Grid Layout using Eye-tracking BIBAFull-Text 1119-1123
  Christina Siu; Barbara S. Chaparro
Previous research has shown that users scan traditional text-based web pages using an 'F-shaped' pattern. Evidence of this pattern exists because of the hierarchical structure of search engine result pages (SERP). With the recent implementation of Windows 8, search results are presented as a horizontal grid rather than a list. Due to the structural differences between the list and grid layouts, it is reasonable to postulate that users would exhibit dissimilar scanning patterns between layouts. This study compared the eye-tracking data of two SERP layouts (grid vs. list) with two types of tasks (informational vs. navigational) to observe differences in gaze patterns. Results indicated that users viewed the top left quadrants of the grid layout the most. However, there was little consensus as to how the results were ordered in the grid, unlike the list layout.
More Information May Reduce Errors for Novice Users: Usability Testing and Redesign of the Square Register App BIBAFull-Text 1124-1128
  Lawton Pybus; Michelle Taub; Hallie Clark; Caleb Furlough
The popular Square Register app was tested and redesigned for better initial performance using human factors methods. The research team interviewed both current and potential users who expressed concerns and questions about the nature of the app. We conducted further usability tests to evaluate weaknesses in the app interface and to guide redesigns. We created semi-functional prototypes to test the benefits of these design recommendations. Results were mixed, but partially support including additional information in the app for the benefit of novice users. Issues found during prototype use are discussed.
Taking Emergency Warnings Seriously BIBAFull-Text 1129-1133
  Daphne E. Kopel; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin
The purpose of this research was to explore perceptions of emergency alert systems used by universities. After an averted crisis at the University of Central Florida, students were surveyed about how the event changed their perception of the university's emergency alert system. Students retrospectively rated themselves as not taking the emergency alert system seriously, but after the campus-wide lockdown on March 18th, 2013, students appeared to have a more favorable perception of the service overall. Females were more interested in safety than males. Several personality traits were also related to safety concerns: participants high in Agreeableness take the emergency alert system more seriously and participants high in Neuroticism questioned safety protocol more often. Those who scored high on Locus of Control want to be able to take action towards how the emergency alert system could affect them. Students would not admit that they failed to take the alert system seriously and they also claimed that other students took the system even less seriously than themselves. Future research should continue to explore users' preferences in order to determine what makes a warning appear more serious than others, as well as investigate university alert systems in areas more susceptible to natural disasters or with a high crime rate.
Manual Distractions of Ambulance Drivers: Light-and-siren vs. Non-light-and-siren Travel BIBAFull-Text 1134-1138
  T. Grundgeiger; M. Scharf; J. Grundgeiger; R. Scheuchenpflug
Emergency medical services personnel are involved in more transportation accidents and have higher fatality rates than do other professions, and traveling with light-and-siren is particularly risky. One factor that might contribute to transportation accidents is driver distraction. We investigated what kind of manual secondary tasks -- distractions that require the driver to take at least one hand off the steering wheel -- ambulance drivers face and compared the relative frequency and proportion of time spent in manual operations not related to driving for light-and-siren travel vs. non-light-and-siren travel. The results indicate that ambulance drivers face more manual distractions when traveling with light-and-siren than non-light-and-siren. In particular, operating the light-and-siren system is causing most of the manual distractions. We discuss the results and potential implication for practice.
The Relationship Between Task-level and Test-level System Usability Scale Scores BIBAFull-Text 1139-1143
  Amber Callan; Philip Kortum
This study examined whether the average usability score for a series of tasks was the same as the usability score for the product if usability was measured only after all the tasks had been completed. Fifty participants completed a set of tasks for five websites and fourteen mock voting ballots. Subjective usability assessment was made with the System Usability Scale (SUS). Participants completed the SUS either after each task (five or fourteen SUS administrations, respectively) or after completing the entire set of tasks (one SUS). The results show that the average SUS scores for the task-level assessments were significantly higher than the SUS scores for the test-level assessments. Results were similar for the ballot and website conditions. Task-level SUS scores on the Honda websites (M = 65.5) were significantly higher than the test-level SUS scores (M = 42.8), p < 0.0001. Similar results were observed in the ballot condition, where task-level usability assessments were higher (M = 59.5) than test-level assessments (M = 38.5), p < 0.0001. Practitioners and those interpreting SUS scores need to be aware of how these experimental differences can lead to different assessment metrics.
Assessing Sailor and Civilian Gestural Optimal Relationships for Multi-touch Gestures and Functions in Computer Applications BIBFull-Text 1144-1148
  Jaclyn B. Baron; Hope Turner
Assessing Human-Automation System Safety, Efficiency, and Performance: Developing a Metrics Framework BIBAFull-Text 1149-1153
  James M. Oglesby; Kimberly Stowers; Kevin Leyva; Aaron Dietz; Shirley Sonesh; Shawn Burke; Eduardo Salas
Automation is an important and widely utilized component in work environments across many domains; it is useful for completing tasks too dangerous or cumbersome for personnel to complete by themselves. Despite its benefits, potential issues can occur that may impact safety and efficiency in the overall human-automation system. To realize the benefits of automation, designers must be able to measure and assess the levels of safety and efficiency. This paper will discuss a theoretical framework to guide the development and selection of metrics for assessing human-automation interaction.
Training for Collaborative Problem Solving: Improving Team Process and Performance through Metacognitive Prompting BIBAFull-Text 1154-1158
  Travis J. Wiltshire; Kelly Rosch; Logan Fiorella; Stephen M. Fiore
Increasing complexity in socio-technological systems of domains such as aviation, aerospace, and the military gives rise to equally complex problems. Solving these complex problems requires the collaborative efforts of teams who are able to not just integrate their collective knowledge, but also to monitor and regulate their collective problem solving performance. Unfortunately, current training practices have not yet been developed to promote the metacognitive processes necessary for teams to successfully solve problems in these complex domains. In this paper, we outline a theoretical framework based on the systematic use of metacognitive prompting to improve collaborative problem solving. Our goal is to explicate a theoretically and empirically grounded instructional strategy with testable propositions in support of the development and empirical evaluation of training for complex problem solving.
A Comparison of the Micro-Adaptive and Hybrid Approaches to Adaptive Training BIBAFull-Text 1159-1163
  Wendi L. Van Buskirk; Natalie B. Steinhauser; Alyssa D. Mercado; Carla R. Landsberg; Randy S. Astwood
Recently, there has been a push to investigate state-of-the-art approaches in computer-based training (CBT) that have the potential to be as effective as one-to-one tutoring. One promising method is Adaptive Training (AT). However, there are a number of different AT approaches as well as numerous variables that can be adapted and scant research to guide training system designers. In our study, we compared four different AT approaches within the context of a military task. While there were no significant differences in performance scores during training, our learning gain results support the notion that a Hybrid Approach to AT is more effective than a Micro Approach during the most difficult training scenarios and regardless of the variables that are adapted. It is possible that this result is due to a reduction in germane cognitive load when the starting difficulty matches a learner's spatial ability. Implications for the design of future AT systems are discussed.
Novelty and Retention for Two Augmented Reality Learning Systems BIBAFull-Text 1164-1168
  Brady Patzer; Dustin C. Smith; Joseph R. Keebler
Studies were conducted to measure novelty and learning retention while utilizing augmented reality (AR) in two learning systems. The first taught participants the basics of guitar and either a melody or scale using an AR guitar with an LED-embedded fret board. The guitar provided digital representations of learning patterns that users would otherwise need to visualize during the learning process. Results of three studies indicate that participants using the AR learning tool were able to perform more of the melody or scale after two-weeks. The second taught participants the basic functioning and anatomy of the heart, using either an AR model or a fiberglass model. Learning and technology acceptance were measured. Results indicated that the AR learning tool was as effective for participant learning when compared to the conventional fiberglass model learning tool. Furthermore, the AR learning tool was rated more enjoyable, curiosity inducing, and easier-to-use than the fiberglass model.
Building a Simulated Medical Augmented Reality Training System BIBAFull-Text 1169-1173
  Joseph R. Keebler; Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Brady Patzer
Medical decision-making largely depends on the caregiver's fundamental knowledge of anatomy. To this end, the authors discuss a cost-effective augmented reality system for simulated medical research and education. First, we define augmented reality. Second, we will review the history of augmented reality in medical training. Third, we will discuss some of the human factors principles associated with augmented reality training systems. Fourth, we will describe our insight and methods for building a Simulated Medical Augmented Reality Training (SMART) system, which can be used as an alternative training tool for medical and anatomy students. Finally, we will outline five steps that can be taken to build a SMART system.
Development of a Hybrid Reality Display for Welders through Applied Cognitive Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1174-1178
  Will Seidelman; Michael Lee; Travis M. Kent; C. Melody Carswell; Bo Fu; Ruigang Yang
With the current trend toward semi-autonomous welding systems, the typical duties of a skilled welder are likely to transition from that of manual operator to a more supervisory role. The shifting demands on welders necessitates novel welding displays to support an increased variety of tasks. The current work utilizes applied cognitive task analysis to identify the needs of expert welders, specifically in regards to the identification of important sensory cues useful when monitoring the welding process in real-time. Results are presented in a cognitive demands table in a manner intended to be useful to multidisciplinary teams engaged in the development of future welding platforms.
Leveraging Features of Human-Technology Teams to Support Mental Models in Future Soldier-Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 1179-1183
  Elizabeth Phillips; Scott Ososky; Florian Jentsch
The future vision of military robotics is one in which robots will serve as integrated members of Soldier-robot teams. Robots will possess capabilities that will transition their role from functional tools to working teammates. Because robots and Soldiers will be deployed in environments characterized by uncertainty, complexity, and violence, it is imperative that Soldiers have accurate mental models of what their robotic teammates can do, cannot do, and will likely do. In this paper, we present the conclusions of a review into metaphors for facilitating accurate mental models of robotic teammates. Emphasis was placed on investigating existing human-technology teams (i.e., human teaming with automated systems including autopilot in cockpits, driver assistance systems, and personal assistant applications among others) for features that can support accurate mental models for Soldiers in future Soldier-robot teams.
The Use of Stereoscopic Depth in an Automotive Instrument Display: Evaluating User-Performance in Visual Search and Change Detection BIBAFull-Text 1184-1188
  Joseph Szczerba; Roger Hersberger
Automotive instrument displays commonly use telltale indicators to inform drivers of vehicle system status or to alert them to system underperformance. For greatest usability, telltales should be easy to locate with any change in status being readily apparent. An instrument cluster was designed with telltales presented in a stereoscopic plane closer to the observer and tested for usability in a desktop study. Participants answered questions regarding the presence or absence of specific telltales on the display. Usability was assessed by measuring the reaction time to locate a telltale and the sensitivity of the participants' response to a change in telltale presence. The results indicated that the use of stereoscopic depth on telltales in an automotive display can improve user-performance when the number of telltales presented in 3D is restricted to three or less.
Evaluation of MILSTD 2525 Glyph Features in a Visual Search Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 1189-1193
  Navaneethan Siva; Alex Chaparro; Evan Palmer
MILSTD 2525 is a document that outlines the composition and use of a set of standardized symbology by the US Department of Defense to represent vehicles, equipment and personnel on tactical interfaces. These symbols are primarily multivariate glyphs that visualize the status of military units. This study selected a subset of commonly used glyph features in order to investigate their relative efficiency in a search paradigm. Performance across the different features as well as within levels of each feature was examined. Stimuli were tested using an oddball search paradigm with set sizes of 6, 12 and 18. The dependent variables of interest were search efficiency, RT, and accuracy. Results show that search asymmetries occur with MILSTD 2525 glyph features and that these features differ in search efficiency from one another. The authors discuss the relative search performance of these features and implications for glyph design.
Performance of a Sonification Task in the Presence of Verbal, Visuospatial, and Auditory Interference Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1194-1198
  Michael A. Nees; Bruce N. Walker
An experiment examined performance with sonifications -- a general term for nonspeech auditory displays -- as a function of working memory encoding and the demands of three different types of interference tasks. Participants encoded the sonifications as verbal representations, visuospatial images, or auditory images. After encoding, participants engaged in brief verbal, visuospatial, or auditory interference tasks before responding to point estimation queries about the sonifications. Results were expected to show selective impact on sonification task performance when the interference task demands matched the working memory encoding strategy, but instead a pattern of general working memory interference emerged in addition to auditory modal interference. In practical applications, results suggested that performance with auditory displays will be impacted by any interference task, though auditory tasks likely will cause more interference than verbal or visuospatial tasks.
Auditory-Spatial Executive Function across Spatial Frames of Reference BIBAFull-Text 1199-1203
  Andre Garcia; Ederlyn Tanangco; Daniel Roberts; Carryl Baldwin
An experiment utilizing an auditory-spatial Stroop paradigm was created to assess whether participants are better able to attend to spatial or semantic information across near and far regions of space. Participants were instructed to attend to either the semantic information of a stimulus or identify the location of where the stimulus came from, depending on the condition. The sounds came from speakers that were physically located in either near space (peripersonal region of space) or far space (extrapersonal region of space) and the words were either 'near' or 'far.' Results indicate that participants in general were quicker at responding to the semantic condition than the location condition. Furthermore, consistent with findings of many other Stroop-like experiments, there was a significant difference between congruent and incongruent trials in both task conditions. The results of this investigation provide additional insight into how people process different types of information across near and far regions of space.
Friendly Fire and the Proportion of Friends to Foes BIBAFull-Text 1204-1208
  Kyle M. Wilson; Kristin M. Finkbeiner; Neil R. de Joux; James Head; William S. Helton
Losses of inhibitory control may be partly responsible for some friendly fire incidents. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, 1997) may provide an appropriate empirical model for this. The current investigation aimed to provide an ecologically valid application of the SART to a small arms simulation and examine the effect of different proportions of enemy to friendly confederates. Seven university students engaged in a small arms simulation where they cleared a building floor using a near-infrared emitter gun, tasked with firing at confederates representing enemies and withholding fire to confederates representing friends. All participants completed three conditions which were differentiated by the proportion of enemies to friends present. As hypothesized, participants failed to withhold responses more often when the proportion of foes was higher, suggesting that a prepotent motor response routine had developed. This effect appeared to be disproportionately more substantial in the high foe condition relative to the others. Participants also subjectively reported higher levels of on-task focus as foe proportions increased, suggesting that they found this more mentally demanding. Future research could examine closer the nature of the performance reductions associated with high proportions of foes, as it appears that this is more complex than a simple linear relationship.
Observing the Smart TV-Viewing Experience by a Diary-Based Observation Method BIBAFull-Text 1209-1213
  Ilsun Rhiu; Ye Lim Rhie; Ga-Won Kim; Myung Hwan Yun
This study aims to observe user's experience longitudinally in a natural context of use by using DRM (Day Reconstruction Method). DRM is an observation technique that periodically surveys user's experience and evaluates it systemically. In addition to emotions collected by existing DRM, we also investigated contextual information using structured questionnaires. Each questionnaire was conducted for one episode which is composed of specific actions that are taken, context of each episode, and detailed description of mood and emotion at that time of episode occurrence with detailed reason. For a case study, DRM for the smart TV-viewing was conducted. As a result, users showed different TV-viewing behaviors depending on the day of the week. DRM also showed that users typically did not use the majority of the technical functions provided by the modern TV sets popularly used today. Moreover, we figured out that many secondary activities were conducted concurrently together with TV-viewing. The study suggested that a diary-based observation technique proposed in this paper can be used to analyze the context efficiently and quantitatively without bias.
Improving the Diagnosis of Potential Concussion Victims in American Football through Hampel Tackling Criterion BIBAFull-Text 1214-1218
  Morgan L. Hampel; Richard T. Stone
This study takes a look at form tackling within American Football. The Hampel Tackling Criterion (HTC) metric was created as a tool to help coaches, trainers, players, and others involved with the sport, identify potential tackles that could have resulted in head injuries. After completion of a HTC analysis, a final score is reported and will identify the hit as either Low, Medium, High, or of Very High Risk. Twelve participants were shown eleven different videos and asked to analyze them using the HTC. Between the participants, there was 61% overall agreement of where the tackles should be ranked (in terms of risk level). These findings solidify the HTC as a useful tool for people of all backgrounds in identifying tackles that could have resulted in a head injury.
Musculoskeletal Risk to Physical Therapists during Overground Gait Training: A Case Report BIBAFull-Text 1219-1223
  Bernadette McCrory; Amanda Harlow; Judith M. Burnfield
Background: Physical therapists have a disproportionately high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) that may be attributed to the substantial physical support and facilitation they provide during physical rehabilitation. Over the last decade, safety efforts have focused primarily on patients. To decrease the incidence and prevalence of WMSDs, health and safety hazards affecting physical therapists need to be addressed.
   Method: Two semi-quantitative ergonomic assessment tools, the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA), were used to evaluate a physical therapist's posture during three overground gait training sessions, which included three sit-to-stand transfers. The tools stratified the therapist's posture into a WMSD risk level and accompanying action level.
   Results: The REBA stratified the therapist's posture into the very high risk level, implement change now during the sit-to-stand transfer and high risk level, investigate and implement change soon during overground gait. The RULA stratified the therapist's posture into action level 4, investigate and implement change immediately for both the sit-to-stand transfer and overground gait.
   Conclusion: Physical therapists are at high risk for WMSDs while performing sit-to-stand transfers and overground gait training. Urgent implementation of engineering and administrative controls is needed to reduce the risk of injury for physical therapists.
Survey Results for Rural Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) VelociRFTA and Future Human Factor Considerations BIBAFull-Text 1224-1228
  Conne Bazley; Peter Vink; Dan Blankenship
With the uncertainty of light rail for public transportation in the USA, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a growing trend. The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) has been in operation since 1983, and functions as a Regional Transportation Authority. RFTA is the second largest public transit system in Colorado, after Denver Rapid Transit Delivery (RTD). RFTA is also the largest rural public transit system the United States of America (USA) and BRT VelociRFTA is the first Rural Bus Rapid Transit system in the USA. Results are positive for rider satisfaction and bus and bus station safety and comfort from a recent customer survey of RFTA's VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit Program service and amenities. Ridership is up 22% for RFTA overall from 2013 with the introduction of the VelociRFTA BRT in the fall of 2013. Survey results will assist in training, productivity, well-being and sustainability for the existing and future RFTA programs. HFE recommendations for an updated dispatch control room are scheduled for fall of 2014.

Interactive Posters & Demos: POS2 -- Interactive Posters & Demos

Unmanned Vehicle Control HCI for Amphibious Operations BIBAFull-Text 1229-1232
  Michael R. McWilliams; Glenn A. Osga
The operator control software demonstrated is the result of a multiyear research effort conducted by SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) investigating Human-Computer Interface (HCI) issues associated with operating unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). The primary focus of this effort was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of HCI enhancements made to an existing control system, with the goal of supporting simultaneous operation of multiple USVs by a single operator. Design enhancements included; integrated video and graphics displays, synthetic speech output for alert messaging, and implementation of a hand-held (game-type controller) as the primary input device. Significant improvements in operator performance were observed with the enhanced design during a simulated mission scenario. While overall results were encouraging, the researchers conclude that improvements in on-board sensor capabilities and obstacle avoidance systems may still be necessary to safely support simultaneous operation of multiple USVs in heavy workload situations.
Veils: An Ecological Interface for Computer Network Defense BIBAFull-Text 1233-1237
  Kevin B. Bennett
This paper briefly describes a prototype interface for computer network defense (CND) that has been developed using the cognitive systems engineering (CSE) / ecological interface design (EID) framework. This ecological interface is referred to as VEILS (Versatile Ecological Interface for Lockdown network Security). VEILS supports CND by collecting and integrating network defense information from a variety of sources including intruder detection / protection systems, firewalls, and system logs. VEILS was designed to be consistent with three principles of EID. The innovative displays represent the affordances of the work domain in a manner that is compatible with human visual processes (i.e., direct perception). The capability to specify both information content (different types) and information extent (scope) is supported entirely through intuitive and natural control input including point, click, and drag (i.e., direct manipulation). Finally, interface resources are used to choose alternative viewing perspectives, to highlight functional relationships across displays and to support effective navigation (i.e., visual momentum).
Demonstration and Evaluation of an Eyes-Free Mobile Navigation System BIBAFull-Text 1238-1241
  Andres Calvo; Victor Finomore; Thomas McNitt; Gregory Burnett
Loss of awareness in one's immediate surroundings can have devastating results when navigating. For instance, military operators must often navigate in unfamiliar environments and must be able to detect nearby threats to survive. Visual displays such as paper or digital maps can draw visual attention away from one's environment. We developed a navigation display that guides a user through a series of waypoints by playing a 3D audio tone over headphones or vibrating a tactor on an array around the torso. We evaluated the navigation display by having participants navigate through 32 waypoints in an open field. In addition to evaluating auditory and vibrotactile cues, we considered an analog visual cue, an allocentric map, and an egocentric map. Participants were able to reach all waypoints in every condition. Results suggest that the participants reached waypoints fastest with the egocentric map. Additionally, participants were slightly faster with the auditory cue than with the vibrotactile cue. Subjective workload and usability questionnaires found that both of these conditions were not mentally demanding and highly usable. These results help support the development of eye-free mobile navigation tools.
USee: A Mobile Usability Research Tool Using Google Glass BIBAFull-Text 1242-1246
  Jibo He; Barbara S. Chaparro; Christal Haskins
The rapid increase in mobile devices (such as smartphone, tablet, smartwatch, and Google Glass) has resulted in the need for more usability research of mobile applications and devices. However, tools for usability testing in a mobile environment are lacking. This demonstration introduces a new mobile usability research tool called uSee, which uses Google Glass, a smartphone or tablet, a smartwatch, and a computer for research observation and communication. With uSee, remote observers can view the scenes directly from a camera mounted near the users' eye, which offers researchers a scene from the users' point of view. Alternatively, a researcher can wear Google Glass and use the uSee application to record user video and communicate with remote observers. In addition, usability researchers can log important events by simply tapping the Google Glass stem. This demonstration will show how uSee can serve as a tool for mobile usability research as well as discuss the pros and cons of the tool.
Identifying Potential Usability Challenges for Xbox 360 Kinect Exergames for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1247-1251
  Elena C. Marinelli; Wendy A. Rogers
Many older adults could benefit from additional exercise. In 2011, over 54% of adults between the ages of 65 and 74 and 68% of adults ages 75 and above did not meet the 2008 U.S. Federal Physical Activity guidelines for either aerobic or muscle strengthening activities, according to the National Center for Health Statistics (Schiller, Lucas, & Peregoy, 2012, p. 100). Exergames, video games where players engage in physical activity, could help older adults elevate their levels of physical activity in order to gain associated health benefits. However, most exergames on the market are not designed for older users. Two exergames for Microsoft Xbox 360 with Kinect were evaluated using heuristic task analysis and heuristic evaluation with consideration of older adults' abilities and limitations. Implications for developing training programs to maximize effective use of exergames for older adults are discussed.
How Do I Handle My Life Now? Coping and the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist -- Military Version BIBAFull-Text 1252-1256
  Valerie J. Rice; Cory Overby; Gary Boykin; Angela Jeter; Jessica Villarreal
Approximately 13 to 30% of service members returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Institute of Medicine, 2012). The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between self-identified PTSD and self-reported coping abilities. Active duty and veteran volunteers (n=77) took the PTSD Checklist -- Military Version (PCL-M), 26 were identified as having high PTSD scores (+PTSD) and 51 were identified as having low scores, such that they would not be suspected of having PTSD (-PTSD). Volunteers took the self-reported Brief COPE Inventory. Using independent samples T tests, those with +PTSD used dysfunctional coping strategies of Behavioral Disengagement (giving up, helplessness) t(32.735)=2.898, p=0.007; Venting (focusing on distress and venting emotions) t(36.537)=2.264, p=0.030; and Self Blame (self-criticizing and self-fault) t(38.147)=4.161, p<0.001 more often than those with -PTSD. These results provide information on the coping skills of those with self-identified +PTSD, according to the PCL-M. Further research and engaging new recruits and those with PTSD in learning positive coping skills are recommended.
Focused Ethnographic Observations: Cues to Medication Administration BIBFull-Text 1257-1261
  Noah J. Wheeler; Patricia R. DeLucia; Karen A. Esquibel; J. Adam Randell; James G. Stevenson; Todd Gage; Kai Zheng
Detecting Differences in Communication During Two Types of Patient Handovers: A Linguistic Construct Categorization Approach BIBAFull-Text 1262-1265
  Zachary Woods; Brian Hilligoss; Andrew Duchon; Nicholas Beecroft; Emily S. Patterson
Patient handovers are a critical point in the patient care process. Software to identify differences in communication content and strategies across different types of patient handovers could be helpful in customizing physician training programs. To determine whether there were differences, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software was used. The primary measure was the LIWC output score, which is the frequency of mention of words in a construct category divided by the total number of words in the handover transcript. Two types of constructs were investigated: 1) content, which included name/age, care plan, prognosis, and family, and 2) strategy, which included questioning and collaborative cross-checks. We hypothesized that the Emergency Department (ED) to hospital transfer compared to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) sign-outs would have more discussion of family and less of the patient's prognosis, as well as more collaborative cross-checks. A two-tailed t-test was used to detect differences. One hypothesis was confirmed, that there was less discussion of prognosis in the ED as compared to the ICU handover. Unexpected findings were less discussion of the care plan and more questioning in the ED as compared to the ICU handover. Findings confirm that both communication content and strategies are different for the two types of patient handovers and that an automated analysis approach can detect differences across a set of handover transcripts.
Barriers to Infection Control due to Hospital Patient Room Factors: A Secondary Analysis of Focus Group and Interview Transcripts BIBAFull-Text 1266-1270
  Emily S. Patterson; Jenna Murray; Sanghyun Park; Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders; Jing Li; Radin Umar; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Kevin D. Evans; Steven A. Lavender
Infection control is of central importance when designing hospital rooms, particularly to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Existing room design standards include private rooms, toilets, and showers, ample space between a patient's bed and a family member's bed, and separate spaces for clean and dirty nursing activities. We investigated various hospital room factors that make it challenging for staff to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with multiple stakeholder groups as part of a larger research effort to generate guidelines for hospital room design. Transcripts were generated for eight of these stakeholder groups, including housekeeping staff, and qualitatively analyzed for emerging themes. The insights suggest additional areas for consideration during the design of hospital rooms, in particular the need for standardized, dedicated locations for supplies brought into the patient room and inclusion of the perspective of housekeeping staff in the design process.
Recurrence Quantitative Analysis of Postural Sway using Force Plate and Smartphone BIBAFull-Text 1271-1275
  Charles C. Chung; Rahul Soangra; Thurmon E. Lockhart
Although modern medicine and new medical technologies offer enormous potential to improve diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, mortalities from fall accidents are steadily on the rise for the elderly. Since postural stability characteristics are considered to be important in maintaining functional independence free of falls and healthy life style especially for the growing elderly population, there is an imminent need in inexpensive and portable device that can assess balance. While inertial sensors embedded in smartphone are seen as an alternative to force plate (ground truth) to unobtrusively assess postural stability in home environments, no study has yet reported the non-linear physiological information captured by smartphone affixed at pelvic region. By using recurrence quantitative analysis (RQA), this study investigates non-linear dynamical features of postural sway measured from force plate and smartphone. The resultant position vector of postural sway from the two systems was highly coherent and was used for non-linear analysis. Even though most of RQA measures collected from the projected postural sway using the smartphone were significantly different than measures collected using the force plate, deterministic characteristics of postural sway were not found significantly different. This study opens new prospects of easy clinical testing using postural variables that may be relevant for assessing fall risks at home and patient environment in future.
Information Presentation in Decision Making Support for Colorectal Cancer Screening BIBAFull-Text 1276-1279
  Liang Wang; Barrett S. Caldwell
Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of death among both genders. Since early detection can significantly improve patients' survival rate, one of the physician's primary obligations is to develop adequate screening plans to achieve early detection. Instead of using operational research models to make screening decisions for physicians, we proposed a decision making support tool to help physicians with their decision making process. Specifically, an information presentation interface is developed on top of a mathematical model to better deliver and illustrate the result of cost and benefit analysis for physicians' final decision making.
A Preliminary Study of Surgeon Stress Measures During Randomized Controlled Trials of 4-port vs. Single Incision Cholecystectomies BIBAFull-Text 1280-1284
  B. R. Lowndes; J. Bingener-Casey; M. S. Hallbeck
With various minimally invasive approaches in the field of surgery and new techniques entering rapidly, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these different practices. Information about the impact on both patient and provider can be gained through research investigations. Since the workload placed on the surgeon may influence patient outcomes, this study measured levels of stress and fatigue for the surgeon participating in an NIH randomized control trial of single incision versus 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Through the administration of the SURG-TLX for 22 Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies and 24 4-port cholecystectomies, physical workload was the only measure statistically different between 4-port and SILC (P=0.028). There was a significant difference in the duration (P=0.029) based on the procedure that was completed. Mental stress was highly correlated to many of the variables in the Surg-TLX and duration, degree of difficulty, and complexity were all highly correlated. This research shows how the SILC procedure can cause more stress on the surgeon. When the situation is combined with longer surgeries, higher complexity, and a higher degree of difficulty, the patient outcomes may be at risk.
Barriers to Effective Preoperative Handover Communication in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 1285-1289
  Amanda Lorinc; David Roberts; Jason Slagle; Jamie Tice; Daniel France; Matthew B. Weinger
We sought to better understand the preoperative neonatal intensive care unit to operating room (NICU-to-OR) handover process and to elicit barriers to effective handovers. We first conducted observations of NICU-to-OR handovers to ascertain current handover practices, including the participants involved, handover content, as well as barriers and facilitators of effective handovers. We then developed a survey tool to assess the generalizability of our findings to other NICUs across the country. The resulting pilot data highlight key areas for future research and potential interventions to improve the quality of NICU-to-OR care transitions.
Enhanced Hand Function Assessment Using Pressure: Mapping and Low Cost Motion Capture BIBAFull-Text 1290-1294
  Rosemarie Figueroa; Shwetarupalika Das; Thomas Armstrong; Charles Woolley; Kevin Chung
Hand injuries affect our ability to manipulate objects, and existing tools are useful in determining if patients have difficulty performing tasks. The Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTT), is a widely used test for functional motor assessment that reflects activities of daily living. But current tools, including the JTT, do not measure compensatory behavior. This study aimed to investigate the use of a low cost motion capture system to evaluate compensatory behavior of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patents during a JTT assessment. Youth and Older control groups were used as a basis for comparison of RA patient performance. Results of the JTT itself illustrated how RA patient can perform some tasks more quickly than control groups. However, the JTT only evaluates completion times of each task, not how the participant performed the activity. Including Range of Motion measurements during this JTT assessment indicated that there are significant differences in the Range of Motion of RA patients in comparison to both young and older control groups. For example, hand displacement results for the RA participants were significantly greater than those of the older control. This demonstrates that the integration of motion capture analysis with the JTT gives a more comprehensive assessment of hand function.
To Verify or Not to Verify, That is The Question: Voters' use and expectations of voting verification methods BIBAFull-Text 1295-1299
  Claudia Ziegler Acemyan; Philip Kortum
Recently developed secure, end-to-end voting systems are designed to allow voters to confidentially verify on the internet that their ballot selections are cast and counted correctly. In response, this research paper characterizes both voters' desire to actually use vote verification methods and the format of verification that users expected. 767 registered voters participated in a 2012 pre-election poll. Respondents were queried about their confidence in current voting systems, if they would want to be able to verify the accuracy of their ballot after voting in an election, and the preferred verification format to be used in future voting methods. The findings demonstrate voters' confidence in current voting systems could be improved, possibly by being able to verify that their votes were cast and counted accurately. Voters indicated that they would want to be able to check on their votes in future elections. In addition, there was not a single form of verification that was preferred by most respondents -- meaning a verification form that fulfills all users' expectations would need to be developed. In order to increase voter use and acceptance of secure, voter verifiable voting methods, these findings should be considered when developing the next generation of systems.
Eye Movement Behavior During Confusion: Toward a Method BIBAFull-Text 1300-1304
  Patricia R. DeLucia; Doug Preddy; Paul Derby; Anand Tharanathan; Sriharsha Putrevu
The purpose of the present study was to develop a methodology to identify when a user is confused while using a product. Eye movements were measured to determine whether they reflect confusion while users completed tasks with two simulated devices. First, two devices that differed in subjective ratings of confusion were identified. Then eye movements and task performance were measured while experienced and inexperienced users conducted nine tasks with the devices. The relationship between eye movement and confusion measures depended on the task and the user group. Results provide a foundation for developing methods to identify and predict user confusion on the basis of eye movements, and ultimately to design products to avoid confusion.
Motorcycle Clutch Grip Strength BIBAFull-Text 1305-1309
  Megan O. Conrad; Richard W. Marklin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maximum grip force a user can exert on a motorcycle clutch. In a laboratory setting subjects (57 male; 34 female, 95% right-handed) were asked to exert maximum grip strength using their left hand on an actual motorcycle clutch that was instrumented with a load cell. The clutch was capable of being fixed in 5 different positions, allowing maximum grip measurements at A=5.0 cm, B=6.5 cm, C=8.0 cm, D=9.5 cm, E=11.0 cm grip spans. Average maximum grip force for females (179 N) was exerted at the 5.0 and 6.5 cm grip spans, while males exerted their highest force (334 N) at the 6.5 and 8.0 spans. For all grip spans, male subjects exerted significantly higher grip forces than female subjects (p<0.05). Additionally, females ranked 6.5 cm span (B) as the most comfortable grip span, while males ranked the 8 cm span (C) as highest for comfort. Data collected in this study can be applied to motorcycle clutch design or other lever controls that require a planar grip operated by the hands, particularly the left hand.
Effects of Grip Curvature and Size of Hand on Comfort for the Unimanual Operation of Handheld Touchscreen Device BIBAFull-Text 1310-1313
  Sung Hee Ahn; Sanghyun Kwon; Byungki Jin; Wonjoon Kim; Myung Hwan Yun
This study aims to investigate the effect of size of a hand and curvature of handheld touchscreen devices on comfort when unimanually using the devices. By rated subjectively and recording EMG, comfort was measured for the use of three mock-ups of the device with different curvatures; one had flat surface and the others had curvatures of 400R and 100R for each. During the experiment, tapping, typing and dragging tasks were performed and the participants evaluated comfort subjectively and objectively. A difference among curvatures was analyzed as well as a difference among participant groups classified by size of their preferred hand. The results indicated that curvature of the handheld touchscreen devices affected neither muscle activities nor subjective comfort level. Moreover, size of hand was found to affect comfort objectively measured, but not the one subjectively rated. Overall, this study suggests that comfort measured subjectively does not consistent with comfort measured by objective data. Also, users' hand size may be more critical factor than curvature of handheld touchscreen determining comfort of touch screen use.
Can Incongruencies Between Prospective and Retrospective Ease-of-Use Perceptions Affect Post-Use Satisfaction Ratings? BIBAFull-Text 1314-1317
  M. A. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; W. Seidelman; M. Lee; T. Kent
Consumers' expectations about the usability of products may be an important contributor to their overall satisfaction with a design. The purpose of this study was to explore how incongruencies between predicted usability and actual usability of a design affect a user's post-use satisfaction ratings for a design. Participants predicted the usability of two stove designs and then used the designs to perform a task. Interactive stoves had varying degrees of burner-knob s-r compatibility. In general, the relative dissatisfaction associated with the 'hard' design compared to the 'easy' design was dependent on the initial usability prediction of the participant. Participants who initially predicted the design would be difficult-to-use had lower satisfaction ratings for easy-to-use designs than participants who initially predicted the same designs would be easy-to-use. These finding suggests that making a product look easy-to-use may be as important as actually making it easy-to-use, therefore designers should consider designing for both initial impressions of usability as well as actual usability.
Zebra-Striping: Visual Flow in Grid-based Graphic Design BIBAFull-Text 1318-1322
  Michael Lee; Travis Kent; C. Melody Carswell; Will Seidelman; Michelle Sublette
Grids, matrices, and tables are commonly used to organize information. A number of design techniques and psychological principles address how viewers' eyes can be guided through a visual work. Designers refer to such objectives as "creating visual flow." One common technique, 'zebra-shading,' is intended to guide eyes through the grid by alternating shaded and unshaded rows or columns. However, the effects of these manipulations have largely not been explored experimentally. We will review the techniques designers use to guide the eyes of their audience, associated psychological foundations, and outline some research done on the graphic design of a specific type of grid: tables. Then, we will describe an experiment wherein participants conducted a visual search task in grids with different shading manipulations. The analysis showed data trending toward improved response time when the target followed the shading.
Do People Understand their Home HIV Test Results? Risk Literacy and Information Search BIBAFull-Text 1323-1327
  Katrina M. Ellis; Edward T. Cokely; Saima Ghazal; Rocio Garcia-Retamero
HIV testing is recommended for most adults regardless of risk. Unfortunately, the high sensitivity and specificity of home HIV tests may often be misinterpreted. Here, we assessed risk comprehension in a sample of young adults who received the manufacture's home HIV test brochure. Results indicated that most participants accurately answered some risk-relevant questions (e.g., what is the test sensitivity?). Individual differences in numeracy predicted more thorough review of relevant risk information and were associated with some superior inferences (i.e., estimating false negative rates). However, regardless of numeracy, participants tended to dramatically overestimate the probability that a positive test result was a true positive (i.e., the positive predictive value), showing marked overconfidence in their incorrect interpretations. Results highlight current strengths and limits of the standard informational brochure. Implications and opportunities for improving risk communication in Home HIV testing are briefly discussed.
The Language of Lies: A Content Analytic Approach BIBAFull-Text 1328-1331
  T. Driskell; L. Neuberger; J. E. Driskell; C. S. Burke; E. Salas
Past research on deception detection has demonstrated the diagnostic value of attending to verbal content (e.g., message content) over nonverbal cues (e.g., gaze aversion; Vrij, 2008). Moreover, research has also demonstrated the value of computer-based text analysis programs for distinguishing truthful from deceptive communications (Hauch, Masip, Blandon-Gitlin, & Sporer, 2012). The aim of this research is to add to the corpus of studies examining linguistic features of deceptive communications by comparing existing linguistic models (e.g., Newman, Pennebaker, Berry, & Richards, 2003) to our own approach. Based on our model, the results demonstrated that lies contain more affective words, are less detailed, and are more uncertain. Implications are discussed.
The Impact of Task Skill and Team Familiarity on Shared Knowledge and Collective Efficacy BIBAFull-Text 1332-1335
  Rosemarie Reynolds; Elizabeth Blickensderfer
In this paper we addressed one aspect of team cognition, namely shared knowledge, and investigated the relationship between shared knowledge and collective efficacy. The task was doubles tennis; participants were 160 adults, for a total of 80 teams. Data was collected via self-report questionnaires. As we had suspected, there was a strong, positive relationship between collective efficacy and shared knowledge (r = .5, p < .05). Using hierarchical regression, we also found that team familiarity was positively related to shared knowledge, while both task skill and team familiarity were positively related to collective efficacy.
Leveraging Social Judgment Theory to Examine the Relationship between Social Cues and Signals in Human-Robot Interactions BIBFull-Text 1336-1340
  Travis J. Wiltshire; Sierra L. Snow; Emilio J. C. Lobato; Stephen M. Fiore
No Time, No Problem: Mental State Attributions Made Quickly or After Reflection Do Not Differ BIBAFull-Text 1341-1345
  Emilio J. C. Lobato; Travis J. Wiltshire; Sarah Hudak; Stephen M. Fiore
We describe an experiment that examined mental state attributions as a function of manipulated response speed. Based upon dual-process theories of cognition, the purpose was to examine the degree to which rapid versus reflective judgment might alter these attributions. Participants were presented with a theory of mind task and instructed to either respond as quickly as possible or to reflect on the stimuli before answering. Although, instructions did produce significantly different response times, there were no significant differences in the attributions made by participants. These results are interpreted as supporting a view of social cognition positing that people immediately interpret perceived social cues in the environment to produce social signals that inform the attributions made of another's mental state. We discuss this in the context of socio-cognitive theories and their relevance to interdisciplinary approaches to understand and improve human-machine interactions and the development of social intelligence in machines.
Applying Usability Measures to Assess Textbooks BIBAFull-Text 1346-1350
  Philip Kortum; Michelle Hebl; Frederick L. Oswald
The assessment of usability is a common task for human factors professionals. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a survey tool that has been supported empirically as a psychometrically robust, valid and highly adaptive way to measure subjective usability. One area in which the SUS has not been applied yet, but could have direct and important applicability, is in the assessment of textbooks. Although usability (and a SUS score) is not typically thought of as a textbook metric, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) metrics of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction map well onto key attributes that describe a good textbook. Here we describe the results of an initial effort to explore using the SUS to measure textbook usability. A total of 319 participants completed the SUS and indicated the usability of the textbooks required in their classes in a given semester. In total, participants rated 169 unique textbook titles. Results showed that only 32% of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) textbooks were rated as acceptable, with almost twice as many non-STEM textbooks (63%) rated as acceptable. Specific attributes of textbook design that support usability are discussed.
"Not All Visual Media Are Helpful": An Optimal Instructional Medium for Effective Online Learning BIBAFull-Text 1351-1355
  Whitney I. Lehtola; Stephen M. Gemignani; Jared T. Sutherland; Myounghoon Jeon
With an increasing online learning population, many questions are arising as to the best way of teaching online. A number of common methods incorporate visual formats into the teaching method. Currently, an area lacking in research is which visual format communicates material most effectively to students. In this study, the focus was on discovering whether it is more effective to use an audio-pictorial video rather than an audio-text video. Sixteen undergraduates participated in this study. Each group was exposed to one of three test conditions: audio-video, audio-text, or audio-only (control). The participants were then asked to complete the task of making a unique paper airplane. As our hypothesis, the results showed that the audio-video group had significantly higher completion rates for the task than the other two groups, which showed no difference from each other. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive load theory and multiple resources theory, and a practical recommendation is provided recommending the use of a live audio-video format to teach students online.
Effects of Multimedia Interactivity on Spatial Task Learning Outcomes BIBAFull-Text 1356-1360
  Dar-Wei Chen; Richard Catrambone
Prior research has produced mixed results regarding the usefulness of interactivity in multimedia learning. In this study, participants learned to solve part of a Rubik's Cube using either a tutorial with interactive features or a passive (video-based) tutorial. Participants with low spatial ability benefited more from interactivity than those with high ability, though no performance main effects were found between the tutorials. Targeted use of interactivity could be effective in engaging students and helping them learn.
Seeing is Believing: The Use of Data Visualization to Identify Trends for Cycling Safety BIBAFull-Text 1361-1365
  Jacob Quartuccio; Simone Franz; Christian Gonzalez; Naomi Kenner; David M. Cades; Joseph B. Sala; Steven R. Arndt; Patrick McKnight
Big data sets can be cumbersome and difficult to understand. User-centered and interactive graphical displays help communicate messages from large and complex data as well as provide a new method to identify data trends outside of tabular or statistical analysis. Human factors researchers can utilize data visuals to not only develop but also answer questions that previously proved difficult through visual exploration. This approach is especially relevant to the field of surface transportation research where complex plots can incorporate both temporal and geospatial data in an easy-to-digest format. As a proof of concept, this paper demonstrates how bike-sharing and historical bicycle collision incidents can meaningfully merge to produce graphical displays that readily identify and communicate potential infrastructure problems for safety. Through the use of Bayesian modeling and geospatial mapping, our analysis identifies two primary trends worth further consideration and research to consider for cyclist safety in Chicago.
The effects of taboo-related distraction on driving performance BIBAFull-Text 1366-1370
  Michelle Chan; Christopher R. Madan; Anthony Singhal
Driver distraction is an important risk factor in motor vehicle crashes. Roadside billboards containing negative and positive emotional content have been shown to have differential effects on driving, however, little is known about the impact of taboo information. Taboo information more reliably evokes emotional arousal than other emotional information and can lead to greater attentional capture due to its inherent 'shock value.' We examined the potential for driver distraction from four different types of information presented on roadside billboards: highly arousing taboo words, moderately arousing positive and negative words, and non-arousing neutral words. Results showed that taboo words were associated with better lane control and memory recall compared to the other word types. Our findings suggest that taboo words captured the most attention, but also led to a more careful driving style. One possible explanation is that drivers may be narrowing their attention to the driving task when highly aroused.
Examining Bicycle Safety on a College Campus: Observations and Rationale for Unsafe Cycling BIBAFull-Text 1371-1375
  Eric Lavetti; Sara McComb
Riding a bicycle is a popular, environmentally friendly, and cost effective alternative to automobiles as a method of transportation as well as an activity for recreation and fitness. An important aspect of bicycle safety includes why cyclists ride in unsafe ways. Observations were conducted to establish a baseline rate in which cyclists committed violations. The research determined that violations do indeed occur and at a very high frequency. After the baseline was established, interviews were conducted to better understand what factors contributed to unsafe cycling behavior. The results indicate several specific reasons the observed violations occur. Further research is needed to determine cyclists' rationale for unsafe cycling behaviors that could put them at risk.
Texting behind the Wheel and Beyond: A Look at Problematic Habits BIBAFull-Text 1376-1380
  Bradford L. Schroeder; Valerie K. Sims
Texting while driving is a dangerous behavior that is heavily researched. However, there are other problematic texting habits that are less well-researched. A study was performed to examine other potentially problematic texting behaviors in addition to texting while driving. Furthermore, individual differences in cognition and feelings of control were examined in relation to these texting habits. Participants completed several self-report surveys assessing texting habits, cognitive wisdom, and locus of control. It was found that those who text while driving also tend to text more during a movie, while in class, and while stopped in the car at a red light or traffic jam. It was also found that a somewhat high proportion of participants endorsed potentially problematic texting behaviors such as texting while stopped in the car and texting while about to fall asleep. It was concluded that one of the major issues with problematic texting relates to reductions in situation awareness. Additional human factors implications are discussed.
Media Richness, Team Behaviors, and Task Complexity on Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 1381-1385
  Nancy J. Stone
Student groups worked a maze problem in a high or low media rich environment, with distributed or shared materials, with or without training on effective communication. Training did not affect performance, but groups with shared information had greater levels of performance. The media rich environment was debilitating, contrary to expectation. A training and materials interaction suggests that teamwork behaviors can decrease group performance when the task is easy, but increase performance on a more difficult task. Best predictors of performance suggest different types of behaviors have greater impact in different settings, and giving and seeking situation awareness might suggest a group is experiencing problems with the task.
Older Driver Detection of a Roadway Obstacle at Night BIBAFull-Text 1386-1390
  David G. Curry; Shaun Pergande
This paper represents an extension of a 2007 HFES Annual Meeting paper (Curry et al, 2007). The original paper focused on the nighttime detection of obstacles stopped along the sides of active road-ways by drivers between 20 and 60 years of age. The current paper focuses on a similar detection task, but utilizes a considerably older driver sample. It has been well-recognized for a number of years that driver visual capabilities begin to decline rapidly as the age of the motorist increases. This study was designed to quantify the relative detection distances of a variety of target vehicle characteristics by older, aware motorists on a darkened roadway.
Online and Software Licensing Agreements: User Beliefs and Expectations of Risks BIBAFull-Text 1391-1394
  Michael S. Wogalter; Matthew Ryan Hayes
The present study examines individuals' reported awareness of risk associated with online licensing agreements including whether it is safe to agree to them. Attributions and associated user behaviors are assessed. Results indicate that most users report that they do not read any of the online agreements presented to them and others report reading only portions of them. Despite this, users click 'OK' to terms that they do not know, yet can do little about, if they want to use online applications and software. Other beliefs associated with accepting licensing agreements are described. Implications for people's interactions with online licensing agreements and the perceived risks associated with them are provided.
Effect of Multiple Resource Competition on Driving Performance Using an In-Vehicle Information System BIBAFull-Text 1395-1399
  Toru Hagiwara; Takumi Kamada; Yutaro Suzuki; Toshiro Hashimoto; Tatsuya Iwasa; Toshitake Kawai
The present study aims to clarify how four different combinations of input and output resources affect driving performance, because usage of information devices based on non-visual and non-manual interface during driving is configured as distracter recently. The primary task consisted of following a lead vehicle at a constant headway while that vehicle changed speed according to a predefined rhythm. The secondary task, which involved using a surrogate user interface, consisted of four different tasks to assess interference with the driver's attentional resource during driving. To achieve the objective, we conducted a field experiment on a test track using 14 participants. The results suggest that the smallest effects on driving-relevant metrics were for the combination of auditory stimuli and verbal response, and that the greatest effects were for the combination of visual stimuli and manual response.
Social Role as one Explanatory Link between Individual and Organizational Levels in Mesoergonomic Frameworks BIBAFull-Text 1400-1404
  Martha J. Sanders
Social role theory focuses on organizational expectations for individual behavior in identified social roles. Social role theory may explain how individuals, organizations, and social systems interrelate around particular ergonomics issues in complex organizations. This paper explores social role theory as an explanatory theory that links individual behavior with organizational role expectations in cross-level mesoergonomic frameworks. This paper presents two applications of cross-level research to the mesoergonomic framework as proposed by Karsh (2006). Social role theory many enable ergonomists to better understand relationships among levels in sociotechnical systems and examine how ergonomic programming may best serve complex social systems.
Barriers and Facilitators Affecting the Adoption of Ceiling Lift Interventions in Nursing Homes BIBAFull-Text 1405-1409
  Sanghyun Park; Steven A. Lavender; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Emily S. Patterson
Ceiling lifts have been implemented in skilled nursing facilities to reduce the physical demands associated with patient-handling activities. However, despite the apparent ergonomic advantages of using such interventions, multiple studies have reported the reluctance of health care professionals to use the provided ceiling lifts. This study investigated factors that affect the adoption of ceiling lift interventions and considered a process that involves individuals progressing through multiple stages of change that ultimately lead to an intervention's use. Eighteen participants from three nursing homes, who have had opportunity to use ceiling lifts, completed a survey and were interviewed afterwards. Four physically demanding tasks where ceiling lifts would benefit the healthcare provider were examined with regard to their adoption stages and the factors that affect their use. The findings show that for obviously physically demanding tasks, most participants fully adopt the use of a ceiling lift. However, when using a ceiling lift leads to a decrease in work efficiency or could result in adverse effects, a participant's tolerance of physical demands increases beyond recommended levels and results in the use of compromised lift methods.
Individual Differences in Human-Agent Teaming: An Analysis of Workload and Situation Awareness through Eye Movements BIBAFull-Text 1410-1414
  Julia L. Wright; Stephanie A. Quinn; Jessie Y. C. Chen; Michael J. Barnes
Studies investigating the effects of level of autonomy (LOA) on workload and performance in human-agent teams typically utilize subjective measures, but do not often incorporate physiological measures. This paper examines how well eye movement data collected in a recent experiment converges with the findings suggested by the subjective measures. Several eye behavior measures (fixation count, average fixation duration, blink rate, saccade amplitude and pupil diameter) were evaluated, and findings based on these compared to findings of NASA-TLX and situation awareness questionnaires. In addition, individual differences due to perceived attentional control were evaluated. Findings indicate that the physiological measures account for variance in workload that typical subjective measures may not, as they are more sensitive to individual differences among participants.
Relationship between Variations in Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms and Warfighter Performance BIBAFull-Text 1415-1418
  Patrick Mead; Elizabet Haro; Ryan Mackie; Lorena De Los Santos; Rachel Lund
Previous research has demonstrated potential links between variations in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performance on various cognitive tasks. This study replicated the methods previously used to investigate such relationships and attempted to extend the methods to comparing genetic variations and operational warfighter performance during naval training tasks. The goal was to determine if such methods could be applied to operational performance metrics and, if so, could the results of such investigations be utilized to enhance warfighter training programs and system designs. The study investigated the relationship between various SNPs in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (rs6265) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (rs4680) genes and performance on working memory, cued visual-spatial attention, and surface warfare combat tasks. Study results showed no significant effects with respect to cued visual-spatial attention but did indicate significant effects for BDNF allele 'A' carriers regarding working memory accuracy. Finally, due to the limited types of training metrics that could be collected, statistical analysis of the link between genetic variation and warfighter performance could not be performed. However, the lessons learned from this study may provide guidance for future studies in such comparisons.
Multimodal spatial discrimination in the face of uncertainty: The effects of action video game expertise BIBAFull-Text 1419-1423
  Eric T. Greenlee; David B. Boles
The current study expands upon previous research that has demonstrated perceptual and attentional superiority of action video game (AVG) players. Here, the effects of AVG expertise are further examined by measuring visual-spatial and auditory-spatial discrimination performance under varying degrees of spatial separation and ambiguity. AVG players (experts) and novices completed a visual and an auditory spatial discrimination task in which error rates and reaction times (RTs) were recorded. Data analysis of 58 participants (29 experts, 29 novices) revealed that, compared to novices, experts were better able to discriminate spatial location in both the auditory and visual modalities. Additionally, in the auditory condition, experts were able to overcome moderate spatial ambiguity, while novices could not. These results indicate that action video game expertise should be considered when selecting operators for tasks requiring spatial precision in multiple modalities.
Human or Superhuman: Individual Differences in the Perception of Technomorphism BIBAFull-Text 1424-1428
  Heather C. Lum; William J. Shelstad; Megan H. Harris; Matthew M. White
Traditionally, robotics are created to be user friendly from a human standpoint but recently a different theory has emerged which focuses on how the technology we use may influence how human-like we perceive each other to be. This study investigates how individual differences play in to someone's propensity to technomorphize. The first focus was on whether those in an engineering or programming field were more likely to technomorphize than those in other fields. The second focus was to continue the validation process for the technomorphism scale and examine how machine-like humans may be perceived. Results from this study showed that those in an engineering field or programming field are more likely to technomorphize than those in different fields.
Are you Committed Cathy, Reluctant Rita or Negative Nancy? Defining User Personas for a Technology-Based Wrist-Worn Eating Monitor BIBAFull-Text 1429-1433
  Michael L. Wilson; James N. Salley; Eric R. Muth
Self-monitoring of energy intake is a critical element of a successful weight loss plan. However, current methods to monitor energy intake are cumbersome and prone to under reporting. The present study examined how individuals used a new energy intake monitoring tool, the Bite Counter to adjust their eating behavior to a targeted bite limit. Data were collected from 30 female participants examining their compliance with using the device as well as their adherence to eating limits based on bite count. Three distinct compliance personas were developed based on the shared behaviors and traits of device users: Committed Cathy (the rapid adopter, seldom misses tracking eating activities), Reluctant Rita (often forgets device, always has an excuse) and Negative Nancy (will not wear or use the device). These personas will inform future experimenters on how to improve usage instructions in order to increase participant compliance with using technology-based eating behavior monitoring tools.
Measuring Sisu: Development of a Tool to Measure Mental Toughness in Academia BIBAFull-Text 1434-1436
  Susan Amato-Henderson; Darnishia Slade; Amber Kemppainen
Sisu is a Finnish term loosely translated as endurance or resilience in the face of adversity. In the athletic arena, the construct of Mental Toughness (MT) similarly describes the ability of some top athletes to overcome challenge and persist. We sought to measure sisu, or mental toughness, within an academic context in an effort to understand if mental toughness may be one of the missing puzzle pieces in understanding individual differences in persistence in STEM majors and careers. Exploratory factor analysis yielded similar constructs underlying academic MT as compared to athletic MT. This preliminary research provides the first step in creating a reliable and valid tool to assess MT in academics. Further research establishing the reliability and validity of this construct is warranted given the finding that several MT factor correlations with academic self-efficacy existed. We believe the ability to identify and quantify one's MT will serve as an important variable in understanding individual differences in challenging situations.

Internet: I1/CS -- Ergonomics and Tools

A Comparison of the Performance of Webcam vs. Infrared Eye Tracking Technology BIBAFull-Text 1437-1441
  Liz Burton; William Albert; Mark Flynn
This study compares results obtained using the SMI infrared and Sticky webcam eye tracking technologies. Participants viewed a series of images twice, once using each technology. A comparison of the results shows that the infrared equipment is more accurate for smaller images, particularly those farther from the center of the screen. Infrared technology is also a better option when it is important to capture dwell time. For larger images, however, the webcam technology achieved accuracy similar to SMI infrared in capturing the percent of participants who fixated on a particular stimulus. For testing that uses reasonably sized images and avoids the periphery of the screen, the webcam system appears to be a viable alternative for determining whether the stimulus is noted. This finding has implications for how eye tracking may be used as part of market research and usability testing.
Combining Speed and Accuracy into a Global Measure of Performance BIBAFull-Text 1442-1446
  Mark Chignell; Tiffany Tong; Sachi Mizobuchi; William Walmsley
Response time and accuracy are two of the most frequently collected dependent measures. Tradeoffs between speed and accuracy are often observed, both between people, and between experimental conditions. In this paper we consider how speed, and accuracy, can be combined into a single, overall measure of performance. We consider two different approaches that adjust accuracy scores based on observed speed of responding and we examine how well those measures work with different data sets. We then present a third approach that combines standardized speed and accuracy scores. We show how this latter approach can represent the data fairly well regardless of which (if any) speed-accuracy tradeoff occurs in the data. We also show how this measure can be further generalized by applying differential weightings to the standardized scores of speed, and accuracy, respectively. We conclude by discussing the value of the measure for use in analyzing human performance data where continuous indicators of accuracy or error can be collected or constructed relatively easily. Our goal in developing the global measure of performance is not to accurately model the speed-accuracy relationship, but rather to create a measure that is more sensitive to experimental differences and causal relationships than either speed or accuracy alone.
Differences in the three-dimensional typing forces between short and long travel keyboards BIBAFull-Text 1447-1450
  Margaret Hughes; Peter W. Johnson
Keyboards with shorter key travel are becoming widespread yet it is unknown whether there are any biomechanical differences in the typing forces when using these keyboards. If one keyboard promotes typing with more force, this may increase the risk for developing an upper extremity disorder. A total of 17 subjects typed on two short travel keyboards (<2.5 mm) and one long travel keyboard (4.0 mm). The magnitude and angle of the typing forces were measured in the x-, y- and z-axes using a thin, three-dimensional force platform. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences between the short and long travel keyboards in the magnitude and direction of the typing forces and the keystroke durations. In addition we wanted to determine whether there were typing force differences between key rows, hands, and fingers. Keyboards with shorter key travel resulted in less extreme angles and smaller magnitudes for forces applied in the x and y directions. Shorter travel distances were associated with smaller peak and mean vector sum forces and shorter keystroke durations. Although these results indicate keyboards with shorter key travel affect typing biomechanics, it is uncertain whether the small differences in keystroke durations and applied typing forces are physiologically meaningful and would reduce a computer user's risk for developing an upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder.
A comparison of upper body kinematics and muscle activation between sit and stand computer workstation configuration BIBAFull-Text 1451-1455
  Michael Y. Lin; Michelle Robertson; Ana Barbir; Marvin Dainoff; Sohit Karol; Jennifer B. Garza; Jack T. Dennerlein
Very few studies considered the movement constraints imposed by the computer workstation during office computer work. The impact of computer workstation on user's muscle and joint coordination is not yet understood. This study examined three workstation configurations (sitting and standing with elbow desk height, and sitting with elevated desk) and analyzed their corresponding posture, muscle effort and inter-joint and muscle coordination. We found that sitting computer workstation with an elevated desk associated with more non-neutral postures and increased muscle load, particularly on the shoulders. Properly set up sitting and standing workstations resulted in similar median values for postures and muscle loads, but standing workstation allowed for greater muscle dynamic ranges and could be beneficial for short duration mouse tasks. Identifying effects of non-optimal configurations can lead to interventions to help decrease risks of developing musculoskeletal disorders.
Laptop Heat and Models of User Thermal Discomfort BIBAFull-Text 1456-1460
  Han Zhang; Alan Hedge
The heat from some laptop computers has resulted in reports of toasted skin syndrome and even skin burns. Although standards exist to limit the maximum temperature of electronic devices to prevent skin burns, few studies have been done on the thermal discomfort associated with laptop heat production. Consequently, a survey and temperature measurement was conducted among 100 laptop computer users. Cumulative logistic regression for ordinal responses was used to model the reported user thermal discomfort scores and to explore the possible factors that may affect thermal comfort. A positive relationship between discomfort scores and laptop surface temperatures was found.

Internet: I2/CS -- Usability and Usable Metrics

Framing of Summary Risk/Safety Information and App Selection BIBAFull-Text 1461-1465
  Jing Chen; Christopher S. Gates; Robert W. Proctor; Ninghui Li
Participants recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk performed a series of tasks in which they chose two Android apps from a list of six. Summary risk/safety information for each app was displayed in the form of one to five filled circles: The number of filled circles specified increasing risk for half of the participants and increasing safety for the other half. This summary information influenced the participants' decisions, particularly when the app had high user ratings and when the decision was framed in terms of safety rather than risk. Participants indicated that they attended more to the risk/safety information when it was conveyed as amount of safety, and they showed better comprehension of what the index was conveying for safety as opposed to risk. The results imply that development of a valid risk/safety index for apps will improve users' app-selection decisions, particularly if that information is displayed as amount of safety.
One Phish, Two Phish, How to Avoid the Internet Phish: Analysis of Training Strategies to Detect Phishing Emails BIBAFull-Text 1466-1470
  Olga A. Zielinska; Rucha Tembe; Kyung Wha Hong; Xi Ge; Emerson Murphy-Hill; Christopher B. Mayhorn
Phishing is a social engineering tactic that targets internet users in an attempt to trick them into divulging personal information. When opening an email, users are faced with the decision of determining if an email is legitimate or an attempt at phishing. Although software has been developed to assist the user, studies have shown they are not foolproof, leaving the user vulnerable. Multiple training programs have been developed to educate users in their efforts to make informed decisions; however, training that conveys the real world consequences of phishing or training that increases a user's fear level have not been developed. Conveying real world consequences of a situation and increasing a user's fear level have been proven to enhance the effects of training in other fields. Ninety-six participants were recruited and randomly assigned to training programs with phishing consequences, training programs designed to increase fear, or a control group. Preliminary results indicate that training helped users identify phishing emails; however, little difference was seen among the three groups. Future analysis will include a factor analysis of personality and individual differences that influence training efficacy.
Biologically-Inspired Human-Swarm Interaction Metrics BIBAFull-Text 1471-1475
  Caroline E. Harriott; Adriane E. Seiffert; Sean T. Hayes; Julie A. Adams
Human-swarm interaction is an emerging field encompassing questions related to biology, robotics, computer science, human-computer interaction, and psychology. Swarms are large groups of individual entities that enact group behaviors; biological examples include fish, birds and insects. Swarms overwhelm humans' abilities to monitor and interact with each entity. Human-robot and human-computer interaction metrics are inappropriate to describe human-swarm interactions alone due to the interaction challenges posed by swarms. It is unknown precisely how humans respond to interacting with swarms. The theory is that biological swarm metrics may be appropriate for analyzing human-swarm interaction. Nine human-swarm interaction metric categories derived from the biological and robotic swarm literature are presented, including example metrics from each category. This paper opens the discussion regarding what types of existing swarm metrics may be applicable and what categories of metrics will be important for human-swarm interaction assessment.
Assessment of Unmanned Vehicle (UxV) Control Interfaces Using a Holistic Usability Method BIBAFull-Text 1476-1480
  Alexandra B. Proaps; Eric T. Chancey; James P. Bliss; Peter Crane
The primary purpose of this project was to objectively assess the usability of two proprietary control interfaces for UxV operation. Interface evaluations frequently rely on subjective measures and (to a lesser degree) operational performance to judge quality and usability. The concept of performance is often multidimensional, particularly in the case of unmanned vehicle (UxV) operation. We adopt a more holistic approach to usability by triangulating physiological, performance, and subjective data to better consider both cognitive and performance attributes of performance. To assess usability and performance aspects associated with the two candidate UxV control interfaces, we have completed multiple efforts. After completing a thorough literature review, a cognitive task analysis, and multiple heuristic evaluations of our data logging software and the interfaces to be evaluated, we pilot tested one interface with novices and experts using our proposed usability method. This paper serves as an overview of our usability testing method which includes subjective, physiological, and performance assessments of error rates, workload, stress, attention, ease of use, and learnability. We present some initial conclusions from our pilot test using expert military UxV and novice operators. Finally, we present initial evidence for the success of our usability approach.
A Survey Applying the Concepts of Creation and Consumption to Common Tasks and Assessing Preferred Device Usage Between Desktops and Tablets BIBAFull-Text 1481-1485
  Theresa K. Guarrera-Schick; Li Lin; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Ann M. Bisantz
Tablets, although initially used as personal, entertainment devices, are more frequently appearing in the work environment. It has been suggested, but not empirically verified, that tablets are best suited for tasks where information is 'consumed' whereas 'creation' tasks are better suited to desktop or traditional computers. A survey was administered in order to better understand how tasks may be classified as consumption or creation tasks, and to determine if a relationship exists between this categorization and user preference to complete a task with a tablet or a traditional computer. Participants classified 57 tasks/applications according to consumption/creation dimensions, and according to their preference to complete the task on a tablet or desktop computer. Results indicate creation and consumption are not mutually exclusive categories and that device preference is not directly related to these categories. Results of this work may be used in the further design, development and evaluation of applications across devices.

Internet: I3/CS -- Design, Development, and Usability

Communication is More than Verbal: The Role of Clients' Documents in Requirement Solicitation BIBAFull-Text 1486-1490
  Wei Zhang; Robert Pastel
The software development process is a collaboration between developers, users experience experts, clients and other stakeholders. Several teams of Computer Science students developed citizen-science Android applications, working with scientists, the application clients and domain experts. We studied the applications' development and determined the progress and performance of the teams by interviewing team members, studying their emails records, and documents shared by the scientists. The results from usability tests were used to measure the performance of the teams in terms of software correctness and usability. Our results showed that communication between clients and developers during the software development process is more complex than verbal. The quality of the documents shared by the clients is important.
High variability in Summative Usability Test methods & reporting among clinical informatics vendors complying with Federal certification requirements BIBAFull-Text 1491-1495
  Christine Buchanan; Anthony Threatt; Matthew B. Weinger; Anne Miller
The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) has been tasked with managing the integration of usability best practices into electronic health record development but, has provided little guidance on how to conduct Summative Usability Testing (SUT). We reviewed three aspects of SUT in four publicly available SUT vendor reports. Significant deviations from human factors engineering (HFE) and user-centered design (UCD) best practices and clear methodological errors were found in all four reports. The main sources of variation involved non-representative participant selection, instructions that led participant performance, and varied interpretation of results reporting requirements. Although ONC has made significant gains in implementing best practice UCD approaches, more explicit guidance may be needed to enhance integrity and reduce variation.
User Experiences with Open Access Knowledge Sharing Platforms: Preliminary User-Centered Design Implications for Complex Data-intensive Domains BIBAFull-Text 1496-1500
  Jongsoon Park; Joseph L. Gabbard
In this paper, we present a preliminary study to seek to find user experience implications for encouraging collaborative research cultures in complex data-intensive research fields by placing more design focus on user experience and context of use. One hundred thirty-one participants responded to a number of self-reporting measures. We characterize current user experience in open access knowledge sharing platforms, perceived usefulness and ease of use. We then address areas to further expend in applying user experience design to support complex data-intensive domains. Finally, we discuss opportunities to enhance user experiences and address practical issues faced by UX professionals.
Introducing an Automated System: Effects on Perceptions and Use of the System BIBAFull-Text 1501-1505
  Laura H. Barg-Walkow; Wendy A. Rogers
As automation becomes ubiquitous, it is important to know how differences in introducing automated systems will affect human-automation interactions. There are two main ways of introducing expected reliability of an automated system to users: explicitly telling operators what to expect or giving operators experience using the system. Additionally, the expected level of system reliability in an introduction can be higher-than, lower-than, or the same as the actual system reliability. This study systematically investigated the effect of introductions initially and over time on: 1) perceptions of reliability and system usage, and 2) human responses to automation (e.g., compliance, reliance, and overall dependence) for 60 undergraduates across two days. We found that explicit statements introductions had a greater effect on perceived system reliability than did initial exposure introductions, particularly initially. There were few initial differences between introduction formats on system usage. In general, system use stayed the same or increased as time using the system increased. These results can be used to inform how automated systems are introduced to users; depending on intended perceptions and uses of systems, different introductions should be considered.
Project ASPIRE: The Development of a Game for Resilience Training BIBAFull-Text 1506-1510
  Katelyn Procci; David R. Garcia; Christopher Bratta; Christopher Wong; Stephanie Formanek; Kara Colley; Julian Montaquila; Clint Bowers
The U.S. Marine Corps' OSCAR program teaches resilience skills to warfighters. This paper describes the design and development process of Project ASPIRE, a light-weight, Flash-based game that serves as a practice environment for the skills learned in OSCAR. Rapid, iterative development/usability cycles were used to identify the ways in which the game could be improved. The results of these usability evaluations are discussed, and general recommendations for the design of training games are provided.

Internet: I4/CS -- Usable Interactions

Cognitive Authentication and Narrative Passwords BIBAFull-Text 1511-1515
  Connor Hoover; Steffen Werner; Rajal Cohen
The need for secure and usable cognitive password systems has been recognized for many years. While graphical passwords present one promising approach, this study focuses on the use of short stories to create 'narrative passwords'. Users are presented with a flash fiction (<1000 words) that contains interchangeable elements randomly selected for their story. These elements form the password to be remembered later, while the remainder of the story serves as a memory context to create a strong binding of the items in memory. The results of an initial pilot study using narrative passwords show that participants can retain a sufficient amount of information over a period greater than a week. The system itself acts as a memory cue, such that recognition memory performance has the potential to increase over time.
Is "chart junk" useful? An extended examination of visual embellishment BIBAFull-Text 1516-1520
  Huiyang Li; Nadine Moacdieh
Although many well-cited theories or guidelines for visualization design advocate 'minimalism', designers tend to include a wide variety of visual embellishments in their charts. Researchers have examined the effects of visual embellishment on comprehension and memorability of charts under specific conditions, such as charts with a small number of data points that were viewed with no time limit (Bateman et al., 2010). This paper extends previous studies and investigates the effects of visual embellishment given different time limits for viewing these charts. Similar to the Bateman et al. (2010) study, we compared embellished charts (selected from the work of Nigel Holmes) and plain, grayscale charts, but we limited our selection to those that consisted of larger data sets (10 or more data points). Results showed that the presence of a time limit affected comprehension and short-term recall performance, while the type of chart significantly affected short-term recall. In addition, the type of chart affected the time needed to review the chart while answering the questions. Participants found Holmes charts more attractive and memorable.
Using Cursor Hints to Supplement a Less Interruptive Desktop Notification BIBAFull-Text 1521-1525
  Ya-Hsin Hung; Mina Ostovari
In this study we designed an assistive notification mechanism that did not interrupt users' primary task so that they could focus on their main activity in a desktop environment. When a notification appeared in the peripheral area of the users' field of view, we gave hints such as the color of cursor or a label to cursor to lead their attention to the notification that was originally outside of users' field of view. To test our mechanism, we performed a multi-task experiment in a desktop environment with a word-finding game and the mouse cursor hints. The result revealed that the color hint as well as label hint coming from the cursor could increase the accuracy of participants' ability to aware of the notification and decrease their subjective frustration while having little effect on their primary task. This implies that these approaches can be a potential assistive mechanism to current notification systems in a desktop environment.
Effects of Item Grouping on Selection Efficiency BIBAFull-Text 1526-1530
  Richard C. Omanson; Craig S. Miller; Sonetta V. Joseph
The effects of grouping items into categories were assessed for three methods of selection: 1) selecting a toolbar item with a mouse (Toolbar method); 2) selecting a menu item with a mouse (Menu method); and 3) selecting a menu item with a keyboard shortcut (Keyboard method). Users performed one of the three methods across 270 trials and had their speeds assessed in blocks of 30 trials. For each method, half the users selected items from a single menu or toolbar while the other half selected items from two menus or toolbars. Overall, the Keyboard method was the fastest, followed by the Toolbar method. When two menus or toolbars were used, users reported making category decisions regardless of the method used. With the Menu method, category decisions did not slow performance because they were offset by faster item selection due to fewer items in each menu when two menus were used. With the Toolbar method, the effect of fewer items in each toolbar when two toolbars were used was less pronounced. With the Keyboard method, there was no effect of fewer items in each menu because users recalled the keyboard shortcuts without looking at the menu items. These findings, coupled with past research that proficient use of the Keyboard method requires more trials than the other methods, confirm the use of toolbars for infrequently-used interfaces and keyboard shortcuts for frequently-used interfaces.
How Emotions Influence Trust in Online Transactions Using New Technology BIBAFull-Text 1531-1535
  Catherine Tislar; Jason Sterkenburg; Wei Zhang; Myounghoon Jeon
Online trust has recently become a critical issue, due to widely publicized information leaks, account hacking, and privacy breaches. This study investigates whether or not emotions have effects on trust in online transactions, particularly when a new technology is involved. We explored the effects of happiness and sadness on participants' choice of a payment method for online transactions. Forty-four undergraduates participated in online transactions with a prototype webpage after either happiness or sadness induction, compared to a neutral group. Different emotion mechanisms would predict different effects of each emotion. Results showed that when the item cost was relatively low ($10), a higher percentage of participants in both emotion conditions selected a novel payment method than those in a neutral condition. With more expensive items ($50 and $100) the number of participants who chose the new option equally increased across all conditions because participants could benefit relatively a large amount of discount (10%) from the novel payment method. Various emotion mechanisms are discussed with our results.

Macroergonomics: ME1 -- Macroergonomics and Sociotechnical Methods: Current and Future Directions

Macroergonomics and Sociotechnical Methods Current and Future Directions BIBAFull-Text 1536-1540
  Patrick Waterson; Michelle M. Robertson; Pascale Carayon; Peter Hoonakker; Richard Holden; Lawrence Hettinger
The development of methods for the design of work environments has a long history within human factors and ergonomics (Hendrick, 1991; Stanton et al., 2013). Recent discussions have centred on the effectiveness of macroergonomic methods in facilitating improvements to workplace design. The aim of the panel will be to summarise these and other debates surrounding methods within HFE. The panel will first discuss the use of mixed methods within macroergonomics and the role these can play in applying a whole systems approach to the design of work (Carayon), as well as validating research findings (Hoonakker). Holden will describe his use of macroergonomic methods with chronically ill patients in community settings. New approaches involving the use of methods to facilitate participatory approaches towards health and safety interventions (Robertson) and simulation (Hettinger) will also be discussed as part of the panel. The panel will conclude with a consideration of the trade-offs between scientific and practice-oriented criteria for assessing the effectiveness of methods (Waterson).

Macroergonomics:

Macroergonomics in Healthcare: Past, Present and Future of the Seips (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) Approach BIBAFull-Text 1541-1545
  Pascale Carayon; Ayse P. Gurses; Richard J. Holden; Barbara King; Shawna Perry; Patrick Waterson; Tosha Wetterneck
In this panel, various researchers describe their macroergonomics research in healthcare with a particular focus on their use and adaptation of the SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety (Carayon et al., 2006; Carayon et al., 2014). The panel discussion addresses questions on the past, present and future of macroergonomics research in healthcare, in particular regarding complex healthcare problems such as care transition and system redesign.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE2 -- Physiological Research in Ergonomics

Investigation of Triggering Force by the Index Finger for Optimal Trigger Design Using a Cadaver Experiment BIBAFull-Text 1546-1550
  Joonho Chang; Andris Freivalds; Neil A. Sharkey; Yong-Ku Kong; Hyun-Min Kim; Kiseok Sung; Dae-Min Kim
This study determined the optimal trigger grip span for the index finger and contact location between the index finger and trigger, using a cadaver experiment. Three fresh-frozen right male cadaveric hand specimens without any medical problem were employed, and the index finger motion simulator (IFMS), consisting of 1) support frame, 2) force measurement system, 3) motion delivery unit, and 4) operation system, was developed to support and control the specimens. The experiment consisted of two phases: triggering force was observed as a function of 1) grip spans (40, 50, 60 mm) and 2) three contact locations on the middle of the distal to the middle of the medial phalange. Also, three levels of total tendon forces (FDP + FDS: 40, 70, and 100 N) were applied to both phases. As a result, at Phase I, the maximum triggering forces, 8.9, 15.0, and 20.0 N, were obtained at 50 mm grip span for total tendon forces respectively. At Phase II, The contact location on the middle of the medial phalange showed the maximum triggering forces, 10.1, 18.2, and 28.2 N, for the total tendon forces respectively. Force efficiency, triggering force to tendon force ratio, showed approximately 10 to 30% of internal tendon force was converted into external trigger force. On the basis of the results of this study, 50 mm grip span and the contact location on the middle of the medial phalange were recommended for optimal trigger design.
Ergonomic Risk and Homogeneous Exposure Groups BIBAFull-Text 1551-1555
  S. A. Miguez; M. S. Hallbeck; P. Vink; P. V. C. Rodrigues
This study shows what employees in the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) area within private Brazilian companies think about the relationship between ergonomic risks and Homogeneous Exposure Groups (HEG). Thirty-seven professionals from different market segments answered a questionnaire via Google Docs. The results show that 75.6% of the companies sampled use HEG in order to map occupational risks. Within those companies, 54% include ergonomic risks in their HEG, which has negative consequences to both employees and employers in these companies.
A Proposed Relationship between Time and Load to Quantify Fatigue BIBAFull-Text 1556-1560
  Shaheen Ahmed; Kari Babski-Reeves; Janice DuBien; Heather Webb
Research has shown that both workload and time are associated with fatigue; however, a functional relationship does not exist. This study observed sixteen participants in their workplace (computer programming and simulation) to quantify the workload-time-fatigue relationship for sedentary tasks. Equal numbers of participants were observed in the morning and afternoon sessions. Workload was measured both subjectively and objectively; while fatigue was measured using the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and a modified Borg scale. Forward selection stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the underlying mathematical relationship between workload, time, and fatigue. Results indicate that for sedentary tasks, fatigue is a hyperbolic function of workload and time; meaning an inherent interaction-only relationship between workload, time, and fatigue exists. Therefore, an individual can work for longer periods of time if the workload is minimal, and vice versa.
Do Inflammatory Responses to Eccentric Exercise Suggest a Fatigue Failure Process? BIBAFull-Text 1561-1565
  Sean Gallagher; Michael Porter; Patrick Almas; Yousif Abulhassan
Recent evidence strongly suggests that force and repetition interact in a consistent manner to affect musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk, likely due to an underlying fatigue failure process in affected tissues. This pilot study evaluated whether a force-repetition interaction was present with respect to inflammatory responses of elbow flexor muscles after eccentric exercise. 24 subjects performed eccentric contractions with 6 assigned to each of 4 force and repetition combinations. Dependent measures included MRI data on edema in the muscle (day 2 versus day 0), relaxed elbow flexion angle, and isometric strength (both obtained days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 post-exercise). Significant force-repetition interactions were found for relaxed elbow angle at days 2 and 4 post-exercise (p < 0.05), and for days 2 and 4 for isometric strength (p < 0.05).
Ergonomic Intervention of Reduced Reach Force and Rate Attenuates High Repetition High Force Induced Bone Osteopenia in Distal Forelimb Bones BIBAFull-Text 1566-1570
  Mary F. Barbe; Nisha X. Jain; Steve N. Popoff; Ann E. Barr-Gillespie
Using a rat model of overuse, we have shown that prolonged performance of a high repetition high force (HRHF) reaching and grasping task (12 weeks) induced significant osteopenic changes in distal forelimb bones that were attenuated by 8 weeks of ibuprofen treatment. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of an ergonomic intervention of switching rats from a high repetition high force (HRHF) task to a reduced force and reach rate task. Trabecular structure in distal radius and ulna bones was examined in young adult rats performing one of three repetitive handle-pulling tasks for 12 wks: 1) HRHF, 2) low repetition low force (LRLF), or 3) HRHF task for 4 wks and then the LRLF task for 8 wks (HRHF-to-LRLF). Distal forelimb bones of HRHF rats showed enhanced bone resorption. In contrast, HRHF-to-LRLF rats showed no bone resorptive changes, and instead showed increased bone formation. These findings support the idea of reduced workload as an effective approach to management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and begin to define reach rate and load level boundaries for establishing activity ranges for such interventions.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE3 -- Physical Demands on the Upper Extremity

Evaluation of Contact Pressure and Biomechanical Exposures on Different Work Surface Hardness BIBAFull-Text 1571-1574
  Jeong Ho Kim; Lovenoor Aulck; David Trippany; Peter W. Johnson
Contact pressure has been identified as a risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in various occupational settings. Given that contact pressure over the palmar aspect of the wrists may increase risks for MSDs, the present study was designed to determine whether a work surface with a soft leading edge could reduce contact pressure and subjective musculoskeletal discomfort without affecting task performance during a series of standardized computer work tasks. Using a repeated-measures blinded experimental design with eighteen subjects, during the performance of a series of standardized computer work tasks, contact pressure, computer work performance and perceived fatigue in the upper extremities were evaluated and compared between a conventional hard-edge and soft-edge work surface. The results found that contact pressure and perceived fatigue in the wrists were lower on the soft-edge work surface compared to the conventional hard-edged work surface (p's < 0.03), whereas no differences were found in computer task performance between the two work surfaces. The study findings showed that soft-edge work surface reduced contact pressure in the wrists and the reduction in contact stress may reduce the risks for developing work-related MSDs when working at the computer.
Hand/Arm Forces with Pneumatic Nail Gun Actuation Systems BIBAFull-Text 1575-1579
  Brian D. Lowe; James Albers; Stephen D. Hudock
A biomechanical model is presented to estimate cumulative user hand/arm force associated with two pneumatic nail gun trigger systems. The contact actuation trigger (CAT) can fire a nail when the user holds the trigger depressed first and then 'bumps' the nail gun safety tip against the workpiece. With a full sequential actuation trigger (SAT) the user must press the tip against the workpiece prior to activating the trigger. The SAT is demonstrably safer in reducing traumatic injury risk, but increases the duration (and magnitude) of tip force exertion. Time integrated hand force was calculated for a single user from measurements of the tip contact force with the workpiece and transfer time between nails as inputs to a quasi-dynamic model of nailing in two task orientations. Application of the model shows the hand/arm force dependence upon the orientation of the workpiece in addition to the trigger system. Based on standard time allowances from work measurement systems (i.e. MTM - 1) the model results suggest that efficient application of tip contact force with the SAT would reduce total hand/arm force exertion attributable to this trigger system for this user. The present model is useful for considering differences in cumulative hand/arm force exposure between the SAT and CAT systems and the user perceptions and practices that result from these differences.
Screwdriver Bit Head Design -- Effect of Phillips, Straight, and a Hybrid Design on Torque, Axial Force, and Effort Ratio BIBAFull-Text 1580-1584
  Mark D. Hickok; Richard W. Marklin; Mark L. Nagurka; Guy Simoneau
Advancements in fastener technology have been complemented by the development of new types of screwdriver bits. While designs may vary, so may the force application requirements placed on the tool user. The primary objective of this experiment was to analyze the relationship between user applied torque and screwdriver bit design. A further objective was to utilize the results to develop an effort metric by which bits of different designs can be compared. Three types of screwdriver bit designs (straight, Phillips, and combination of straight/Phillips (ECX™)) were tested to determine how the design affects the amount and type of force applied by the user when performing a fastening task. The designs were tested to simulate fastener tightening and loosening operations. Sixteen participants were tested in this study. The data suggest there is no difference in user torque exertion between the ECX™ bit, Phillips, and the straight bit designs in either direction, 2.61-2.97 Nm for pronation and 2.63 -2.85 for supination. Mean axial force was significantly less for the Phillips (67 N) than the other 2 bits (72 and 80N). Although there was no significant effect of bit head design on maximal torque and axial force, the data suggest that the Phillips bit design may allow subjects to exert less axial force, which would result in a higher biomechanical effort ratio. A greater effort ratio would produce greater torque for the same axial force or the same torque for a lower axial force. Mean effort ratio for the Phillips bit was 3.6 N/N (Sup) and 4 N/N (Pro) and approximately 3.0 for the other two combinations of bits and directions. Subjective assessment indicated that users overwhelmingly preferred the Phillips bit design.
Comparison of Exposure to Repetitive Upper Arm Motions and Non-neutral Upper Arm Postures between Apple Harvesting with Ladders and Mobile Platforms BIBAFull-Text 1585-1589
  Ornwipa Thamsuwan; Lovenoor Aulck; Kit Galvin; Peter W. Johnson
In attempts to improve productivity in agriculture, a harvest-assisting mobile platform has been developed and is being evaluated for use in Washington State apple orchards; however, its ergonomic effect on work postures and repetitive motions has not yet been characterized. The purposes of this study were: 1) to compare physical exposures between two methods of apple harvesting: a conventional ladder and a newly-developed mobile platform, and 2) to develop systematic methods for characterizing work repetitions, specifically in the upper arms. Using self-contained tri-axial inclinometers with built-in memory, upper arm inclinations were continuously monitored from twenty male workers over a full day of apple harvesting. At the beginning and the end of work shift, Borg CR10 scales were used as self-report measures of perceived fatigue in the shoulder. Postural exposures were characterized as the percent of time the upper arm postures exceeded specified angle ranges. Repetition was evaluated using changes in upper arm angles ranging from 5 to 30 degrees. In terms of prolonged postural exposures, repetitive work exposure and perceived fatigue in the shoulders, the workers using the mobile platform had less physical stress compared to the workers using the ladders. In addition, the upper arm repetition rates were high (over 15 repetitions per minute) for both harvesting methods. A more systematic study of the harvesting methods is needed to characterize differences in repetition rates and productivity between the mobile platforms and ladders. However, the results indicate that the mobile platform could improve workability and may enable more diverse workers to participate in harvesting activities.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE4 -- Ergonomics Exposure Assessment

Creating Custom Human Avatars for Ergonomic Analysis using Depth Cameras BIBAFull-Text 1590-1594
  Matthew P. Reed; Byoung-Keon Park; K. Han Kim; Ulrich Raschke
Ergonomic analysis of industrial tasks is often conducted through the use of human figure modeling software, such as the Jack software from Siemens. Typically, figures are scaled by inputting overall anthropometric dimensions, such as stature, body weight, and erect sitting height. This paper presents a method for rapidly generating a figure that matches the body dimensions and shape of an individual. A system with two Microsoft Kinect depth cameras is used to gather shape data. A statistical body shape model (SBSM) generated from analysis of over 250 men and women is used to fit the data. The output of the shape fitting, expressed as a set of 20 principal component scores, is input to the same male or female SBSM implemented in the Jack software. The result is a figure model that closely matches both the size and shape of the scanned individual. This methodology will be useful for a range of applications for which having a customized manikin is advantageous.
An Ergonomic Evaluation of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Spacesuit Hard Upper Torso (HUT) Size Effect on Mobility, Strength, and Metabolic Performance BIBAFull-Text 1595-1599
  Christopher R. Reid; Lauren R. Harvill; Jason R. Norcross; Elizabeth A. Benson; Scott A. England; Karen Young; Sudhakar L. Rajulu
Introduction: The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive methodology to assess the suit fit and performance differences between a nominally sized extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) spacesuit and a nominal +1 (plus) sized EMU. Method: This study considered a multitude of evaluation metrics including 3D clearances and pressure point mapping to quantify potential issues associated with using off-nominal suit sizes. Results: There were minimal differences with using a plus suit size. Discussion: Analysis of the results indicates that future suit size evaluations should consider this ergonomic approach to understand and mitigate potential suit fit and performance issues.
An Equation for Estimating Hand Activity Level Based on Measured Hand Speed and Duty Cycle BIBAFull-Text 1600-1604
  Oguz Akas; David Azari; Chia-Hsiung (Eric) Chen; Yu Hen Hu; Thomas J. Armstrong; Sheryl S. Ulin; Robert G. Radwin
We are developing video processing algorithms for automatically measuring the ACGIH TLV® hand activity level (HAL) using marker-less tracking of hand movements. An equation for computing HAL ratings directly from tracked kinematics, rather than using a frequency-duty cycle (DC) look-up table, more readily lends itself to automated processing. Videos from the 33 Latko et al. (1997) jobs were digitized and analyzed using marker-less tracking, and hand root mean square (RMS) speed (S) was measured. A linear regression model was developed for predicting the average observer rated HAL based on the measured hand RMS speed and DC. Since the videos did not contain distance calibration, speed was quantified in pixels/s and normalized by the distance of each worker's hand breadth, measured in pixels. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed using the US Army (1991) hand anthropometry data to determine how variation is introduced in the equation as hand breadth varies. The resulting equation was HAL= -1.06 + 0.0047 S + 0.053 DC and it predicted HAL ratings within ±1. The development of an accurate equation for estimating HAL ratings should enable use of automated and objective measurement in practice. While expert observer HAL ratings offer speed and efficiency, use of objective measurements based on worker hand kinematics should provide greater reliability, as well as offering specific engineering aspects of the job that may be addressed for reducing exposures and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, automated videos analysis may help improve the speed and efficiency of making objective measurements in practice.
The Low Back Cumulative Trauma Index: Development of a Low Back Disorder Exposure Assessment Tool Based on Fatigue Failure Theory BIBAFull-Text 1605-1607
  Sean Gallagher; Richard F. Sesek
Recent evidence strongly suggests that force and repetition interact in a consistent manner to affect the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), likely due to an underlying fatigue failure process in affected tissues. However, no MSD tools to date have been based on fatigue failure theory. The present proposal describes a basis for incorporating fatigue failure theory in a new low back exposure assessment tool: the Low Back Cumulative Trauma Index (LBCTI), and provides an illustration of the effectiveness of such an approach using an existing database on low back disorder (LBD) risk. The LBCTI demonstrated a dose-response relationship to LBD risk.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE5 -- Low Back Disorders

Efficiencies in Imaging Diagnostics of the Lumbar Spine BIBAFull-Text 1608-1611
  Chip Wade; Boyle Cheng
While low back pain is one of the most prevalent, if not the most prevalent reasons for visits to physicians, a majority of patients with low back pain cannot be given a definitive diagnosis. The current standard of care for function assessment of the lumbar spine focuses on uncontrolled patient directed motion which results in increased inter-patient variability and diagnostic misclassifications. The purpose of the current paper is to compare the measurement variability of lumbar spine motion when diagnosed using measurements of intervertebral motion taken from standard flexion extension bending radiographs (FE) between uncontrolled and controlled motion and to assess the rate of diagnostic misclassification errors (false positives and false negatives) in the detection of lumbar instability. 109 patients (57 asymptomatic, 52 symptomatic) were consented in the prospective investigation. The research was designed to compare studies involving FE to controlled motion bending radiographs (CCBR) using the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA) within the same patient. Measurement variability was determined by the mean and standard deviation of intervertebral rotation when evaluated by 9 independent observers evaluating each of the 109 patients FE and CCBR. The resulting standard deviation of the intervertebral rotation determinations was used as the measure of variability. Sensitivity (true positive rate) and specificity (true negative rate), were constructed using asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients in order to determine true positive (TP) and true negative (TN) appointments. The analysis was compared to known threshold of 25° (IVR) to determine the rates of false negatives (FN) and false positive (FP) rates. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as TP/(TP/FN) and TN/(FP+TN), respectively. There was statistical greater measurement variability in intervertebral rotation in FE when compared to CCBR (both standing and lying). When comparing measurement variability between FE and CCBR, results indicate between a 26% to 46% decrease in measurement variability under CCBR compared to FE. These findings are consistent across asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Sensitivity measures were 6.2% (VMA 12.6%, FE 6.4%) greater in the VMA test compared to the FE. Specificity measures were 8.4% (VMA 99.1%, FE 90.7%) greater in the VMA test compared to the FE. The current standard of care for functional testing of the lumbar spine utilizes uncontrolled FE with a manual data evaluation process. Recent developments in using computerized imaging processes has improved, however there remains variability in patient bending due to the self-selected rate and position of the bending. CCBR results in a significant reduction in measurement variability of intervertebral rotation measurements. Reducing measurement variability would be expected to improve the efficacy rates of surgeries indicated for these conditions.
The effects of position and size of drywall on the physical demands for installers BIBAFull-Text 1612-1616
  Lu Yuan; Bryan Buchholz
The present study utilized an integrated biomechanical modeling approach that was previously developed by the researchers to investigate the effects of position and size of drywall on the physical demands for drywall installers. If the drywall sheets were stored vertically instead of flat, it reduced the required muscle contraction forces and joint reaction forces at the low back and shoulder approximately 8% on average during drywall installation. In particular, the L4/L5 disc compression forces and the absolute values of L4/L5 anterior-posterior shear forces decreased 6.1% and 8.5%, respectively, and at the shoulder during lifting the forces of rotator cuff muscles decreased 9.8%, and the coracohumeral ligament forces decreased 12.8%. The reaction forces at both the GH (glenohumeral) and SC (sternoclavicular) joints were reduced 7.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The larger size (e.g., 4x12 and 4x16) of drywall sheets increased the physical burden for the installers tremendously and could expose them to a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. In some simulations the average low back lateral shear forces increased to 1675 N and 2152 N, respectively. These forces are well above the 1000 N recommended for a single lift. These results indicated that it would be physically too difficult or even impossible for one person alone to lift bigger and heavier drywall sheets. Therefore, sound engineering (e.g., lifting tables) and/or administrative (e.g., two-person team work) solutions to handling oversized drywall sheets are strongly recommended.
The influence of hand load on lumbar-pelvic coordination during lifting task BIBAFull-Text 1617-1621
  Boyi Hu; Xiaopeng Ning; Maury A. Nussbaum
Manual material handling (MMH) tasks such as weight lifting are very common in many industries. The effect of hand load on lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) coordination during lifting was investigated in this study. Twelve male subjects performed sagittal symmetric lifting tasks with or without load in hand; meanwhile lumbar kinematics data were recorded. Results of the current study demonstrated a significant difference of lumbar-pelvic coordination between the two conditions. Subjects tended to show more in-phase CRP pattern when lifting a load. Also, when lifting a load subjects' lumbar-pelvic motion pattern made their torso generated larger loading on the L5/S1 joint. The findings of this study can be used to better understand how hand load influences lifting biomechanics.
The Effect of Load Holding Height on Trunk Biomechanics during Sudden Loading BIBAFull-Text 1622-1626
  Jie Zhou; Xiaopeng Ning; Ashish Nimbarte
Sudden loading during manual material handling poses a significant risk of back injury. The present study investigated the effect of load holding height on trunk biomechanics (trunk flexion angle and L5/S1 joint compression force) during sudden loading. Eleven subjects were recruited to perform sudden loading tasks with a 6.8 kg load, while maintaining upright standing posture and holding load at three different height levels in the sagittal plane. It has been found that load holding height significantly affected L5/S1 joint compression force and trunk flexion angle. With a lower load holding height, peak L5/S1 joint compression force decreased by 17.5%. According to these findings, it is suggested that holding load at a lower level could help reduce the risk of low back injury.
Effects of Seated Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Repetitive Asymmetric Lifting Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1627-1628
  J. P. Mehta; S. A. Lavender; R. J. Jagacinski; C. M. Sommerich
This study investigated physiological and behavioral changes to 60 minutes of repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations (WBV). Our results demonstrated that behavioral changes when lifting after exposure to WBV would increase the risk of low back disorder.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE6 -- Applied Ergonomics

Analysis of Work in an American Coffee Shop in Honduras BIBAFull-Text 1629-1632
  Nicholas A. Higgins
The purpose of this study was to conduct a human factors and ergonomics exploratory evaluation of an American international coffee shop located in the developing country of Honduras. Task analysis and ethnography techniques were utilized, observing and interviewing workers to determine basic tasks, task performance, and any issues encountered in the workplace. Analyses revealed aspects that may potentially affect task performance including multitasking, overload, and environmental factors (e.g., lighting, workspace layout, and signage). Recommendations are then provided to enhance the interaction between workers and coffee shop environments in the developing world.
Critical Analyses of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Practical Solutions in Construction BIBAFull-Text 1633-1637
  Sang D. Choi; Lu Yuan; James G. Borchardt
This study reviews and synthesizes the findings in recent literature addressing work-related musculoskeletal injuries and disorders (MSDs) and practical solutions in the construction industry. Seven construction occupations (carpenters, masons, electricians, sheet metal workers, roofers, ironworkers, plumbers) are included to identify trade-related MSD risk factors. Effective intervention requirements are identified to meet the challenges that construction contractors face in the field. Typical intervention strategies include site-specific ergonomics programs, engineering controls, ergonomic hand tools selection/design, and worksite stretching program. The 'good practices' presented in this paper could be a valuable approach to reducing common MSDs including sprains and strains, pain and discomfort at back, neck/shoulders, wrists/hands, and knees, improving worker morale, lowering workers' compensation costs, while increasing productivity and profitability in the construction industry.
Ingress and Egress to Utility Trucks -- Design of Steps and Stairs BIBAFull-Text 1638-1642
  Kyle Saginus; Richard Marklin; Patricia Seeley; Amy Stone
The design of the structures that workers use to enter and exit utility trucks can affect the safety of workers. Workers can access the truck via the cab or via the truck bed on the side or rear. Large vehicles, such as aerial trucks in a utility fleet, can increase the risk of a slip or fall because of its taller height above the ground. The authors conducted a study for EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) that included measurements of the steps and stairs of 29 electric fleet vehicles and a review of the standards related to structures for ingress and egress. The authors present design configurations of steps, stairs, and pullout ladders for access to utility trucks from the cab, side, and rear. These examples include specific dimensions of the riser height and tread width, depth of stairs, and stair inclination angle. Design of access to the bucket of an aerial truck is not included. Ergonomists and vehicle designers can use the comparison table of standards along with the design examples to help them design ingress and egress structures for trucks that may reduce the risk of a slip or fall.
Biomechanical Evaluation of a Lift Assist Device while Using a Light Weight Jackhamer BIBAFull-Text 1643-1647
  Blake Johnson; Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan
There are currently relatively few interventions designed to decrease the risk of injury while operating a jackhammer. One intervention that is aimed at reducing the risks of overexertion and repetitive lifting injury is the lift assist attachment. However, research on the effectiveness of this device is non-existent. This study investigated the effectiveness of the lift assist device through the muscle activity and grip pressure variations while using a light weight jackhammer. The lift assist reduced grip pressure by 31%, along with the left and right Bicep Brachii muscle activity by 49% and 45% respectively. These results show that the effort required to lift the jackhammer is being reduced through the use of the lift assist. With less effort required by the operator, the risk of an overexertion or repetitive lifting injury is decreased.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE7 -- Aging, Obesity, and Beyond: Assessment of Work and Implications for Healthy Work Environment

Aging, Obesity and Beyond: Implications for Healthy Work Environment BIBAFull-Text 1648-1652
  Rammohan V. Maikala; Lora A. Cavuoto; Wayne S. Maynard; Robert R. Fox; Jia-Hua Lin; Jian Liu; Martin Lavallière
The aging workforce, increase in obesity, and lack of exercise and physical activity are changing the landscape of work environments in the industrialized world. The goal of this panel is to make ergonomics and safety professionals aware of the importance of examining health and wellness issues, aging, obesity, and other modifiable health risks pertaining to occupational health. The first of seven presentations will cover an evidence based wellness continuum that describes specific factors that can motivate healthy work environments. The second presentation discusses the challenges and implications of the aging workforce with emphasis on the role of ergonomics in maintaining health, wellness and working contributions of the aging workforce. In general, muscle mass and muscle strength decrease with age, however the third presentation examines if such age-associated changes are evident during one-handed isometric pulling. Stratifying injury risk in overweight and obese populations is still a challenging endeavor. The fourth presentation demonstrates the biomechanical consequences of gait (a)symmetry due to being overweight and the risk of falling. There is an increasing evidence of obesity influencing every organ system adversely in the human body, including the brain. The fifth presentation examines the association between work performance of obese and non-obese individuals during incremental repetitive lifting and change in their cerebral hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory responses. An interaction between aging and obesity in addressing the risk for involvement in a motor vehicle crash is discussed in the sixth presentation. The final presentation focuses on understanding the integrated efforts of physiological systems such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle within the context of aging, obesity and physical activity.

Occupational Ergonomics (formerly Industrial Ergonomics): OE8 -- Vision and Falls

High heels on human stability and plantar pressure distribution: Effects of heel height and shoe wearing experience BIBAFull-Text 1653-1657
  Vaniessa Dewi Hapsari; Shuping Xiong; Shaofei Yang
Many women wear high heeled shoes (HHS) on a daily basis to increase the femininity and attractiveness, making these shoes remain popular despite the negative effects surrounding HHS. This study aimed to investigate the effects of HHS wearing experience and heel height on human stability and foot plantar pressure distribution. Thirty young healthy women consisted of two groups, inexperienced and experienced high-heel wearers, participated in a standing balance test to measure their foot plantar pressures and stability limits when they wore shoes of four different heel heights: 0cm (flat), 4cm (low), 7cm (medium), and 10cm (high). Experimental results showed that the increased heel height shifted the force and peak pressure from the rear foot and mid foot regions to the forefoot and toe regions and the center-of-pressure location moved towards medial anterior side of the foot. Human stability limits were worsened significantly with the increased heel height, especially when it reached 7cm. HHS wearing experience provided certain advantages to the wearers on plantar pressure distributions and the limits of stability, shown by more appropriate pressure distributions and larger excursions and better directional controls in the forward and back directions.
Joint Kinetics While Walking on an Irregular Sloped Surface BIBAFull-Text 1658-1661
  Chip Wade; Scott P. Breloff; Mark S. Redfern; Bob O. Andres
Occupations, such as railroad work, which requires the worker to perform job functions on irregular surfaces are physically taxing. Previous research and epidemiology have suggested a potential link between walking surface characteristics and injury. However, to date few studies have investigated the impact of irregular surfaces, flat or sloped, on gait dynamics. The current study investigated gait dynamics on a sloped irregular surface in twenty healthy adult men. The participants walked along 2 distinct sloped surfaces [No Ballast (NB), and Mainline Ballast (MB)]. Lower body motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) signals from lower extremity muscles were collected. Three dimensional joint moments were calculated at the hip, knee and ankle during the down slope step on the walking surfaces. Parameters of interest were moment ranges. Results showed joint moment ranges were generally larger for MB compared to that of NB in the down slope leg. The results suggested walking on ballast increases joint moments at the ankle and knee of the down slope leg during walking on an irregular sloped surface.
Using a Desk-Compatible Recumbent Bike in an Office Workstation BIBAFull-Text 1662-1666
  Jay Cho; Andris Freivalds; Liza Rovniak; Kiseok Sung; Johanna Hatzell
Prolonged seated posture in a sedentary office workstation is one of the major reasons that is causing the rising trend in obesity. To promote exercise in the office, this study investigates in using a desk-compatible recumbent bike in a workstation from two aspects. One is to provide workstation design guidelines that would accommodate 95% of the U.S. population. The other is to see if reading and typing can be carried out without hindrance. Twelve participants were required to select their preferred workstation settings and perform the reading and typing tasks while pedaling at three different conditions: no cycling, 10 and 25 watts. By using the anthropometric variability and the user preference from the sample, the adjustable range of the workstation settings for the general U.S. population was derived: seat height 382 -- 455 mm, desk clearance 692 -- 835 mm, desk depth 595 -- 832 mm, and required minimum total distance 1243 -- 1487 mm. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that reading comprehension was not affected while pedaling (p>0.05), but typing was affected at higher watts (p<0.001).
Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Strategy and Performance of Expert and Novice Control Room Operators BIBAFull-Text 1667-1671
  Christina Koffskey; Laura H. Ikuma; Craig Harvey; Fereydoun Aghazadeh
The strategies of expert and novice petrochemical control room operators were investigated using eye-tracking as they monitored and corrected a crude refinement simulation. Plotted scan paths were used to investigate the differences in eye behavior of three expert control room operators and six novice students. The effects of expertise and interface type on participant eye movements were evaluated. Scan path analysis revealed that monitoring strategy and interface type influenced how quickly participants were able to detect changes on-screen, though monitoring strategy did not depend on expertise level. Overall, eye-tracking successfully identified the effects of monitoring strategy and interface type on performance.
Potential for using Smartphone Accelerometers in Non-laboratory Environments BIBAFull-Text 1672-1675
  Rahul Soangra; Thurmon E. Lockhart; Christopher W. Frames; Jian Zhang; Seong Hyun Moon; Jongsoon Park
In recent years, there has been rising interest in using accelerometers as an alternative instrument to measure the center of pressure. Accelerometers are inexpensive, small, sensitive, and can be readily used in non-laboratory environments. In addition to this, smartphones with built-in accelerometers add to their capability with real-time processing of data from sensors. Clinicians and researchers are currently in disagreement from whether these measurements provide the same physiological information about the participant's balance. In this study, twelve participants were asked to wear smartphone on their right ASIS using a belt clip and stand still on the forceplate. The data was synchronized using a tap by the right foot and collected over a fifty second period for analysis. Various linear and non-linear measures were extracted from the time series of resultant principal component (PC) scores. The results show high correlation in the COP time series from the two instruments (R=0.86).

Perception & Performance: PP1 -- Driving

Tele-operation Training: The Effect of Exploration on Driveability Judgments BIBAFull-Text 1676-1680
  Miriam E. Armstrong; Keith S. Jones; Elizabeth A. Schmidlin
Successful tele-operation during Urban Search and Rescue requires tele-operators to make accurate driveability judgments, that is, judgments about whether they can drive a robot through an aperture. No research has yet examined which factors during training are responsible for improvements in driveability judgments. We hypothesized that a condition with exploration during training would lead to higher judgment accuracy than one without. For exploratory purposes, we also included a condition with exploration and feedback, which replicated the procedure of previous tele-operation studies. Participants made driveability judgments in 1 of 3 conditions, which varied participants' training: Exploration and Feedback, Exploration and No Feedback, and No Exploration and No Feedback. Accuracy in the Exploration and No Feedback condition was higher than in the No Exploration and No Feedback control, and was not different from accuracy in the Exploration and Feedback condition. The results imply that exploration may be necessary and sufficient for improving driveability judgments.
Designing take over scenarios for automated driving: How does augmented reality support the driver to get back into the loop? BIBAFull-Text 1681-1685
  Lutz Lorenz; Philipp Kerschbaum; Josef Schumann
Highly automated driving allows the driver to temporarily turn away from the driving task, meaning he or she does not have to monitor the system. This leads to the challenge of getting the driver back into the loop, if the automation reaches a system boundary. This study investigates, whether augmented reality information can positively influence the take over process. Therefore we evaluated two augmented reality concepts. The concept 'AR red' displays a corridor on the road to be avoided by the driver in a take over scenario. The concept 'AR green' suggests a corridor the driver can safely steer through. Results indicate that the type of augmented reality information does not influence take over times, but considerably affects reaction type. Visual inspection revealed higher consistency in driving trajectories for participants following the proposed corridor of 'AR green' concept as compared to trajectories of drivers confronted with the restricted zone of 'AR red'.
Highly automated driving with a decoupled steering wheel BIBAFull-Text 1686-1690
  Philipp Kerschbaum; Lutz Lorenz; Klaus Bengler
Future cars will almost certainly provide an increasing level of automation. Under certain conditions, they will allow the driver to withdraw from the control loop and deal with non-driving related tasks. To provide a convenient and safe user interface for this case, it can be advantageous to have the steering wheel de-coupled from the steering link and stationary. In this study, we evaluated two alternative steering wheel concepts. The first concept represents a state of the art steering wheel that decouples from the steering link and remains stationary at an angle of 0° during highly automated driving. In the second concept, the steering wheel shows the same behavior but does not have visible spokes. Hence, it does not display its physical orientation to the driver. Using a dynamic driving simulator, we evaluated the concepts in a comparison drive and a take-over scenario in a curve. A permanently coupled state of the art steering wheel served as control condition. Results show that the decoupling was only noticed by a small number of participants. Further, no negative impacts on the take-over process could be determined. The steering wheel with no visible spokes led to an even better performance compared to the control condition.
Determining Language for Human to Robot Navigational Commands BIBAFull-Text 1691-1695
  A Teo G.; A Reinerman-Jones L.; A Barber D.; A Hudson I.
Robots that collaborate with humans must be equipped with interfaces that support deeper and richer interaction. Such interfaces may involve the understanding and production of speech. This calls for an understanding of speech and natural language in various contexts. The present study investigates the preferred words and phrases used in giving directions to a robot teammate in an intelligence and surveillance reconnaissance (ISR) mission. Results indicate that participants may have had a perceptual mental model that influenced choice of words or phrases. Recommendations for future research include examining the factors that affect development of schemas when interacting with robots.
Modeling route complexity ratings BIBAFull-Text 1696-1700
  H. Schwartz-Chassidim; J. Meyer; Y. Parmet
We develop a predictive model of the perceived complexity of routes in road maps, taking into account the properties of the road, the task and the map display. Sixty subjects ranked the complexity of 120 routes on scales between 0 and 10. Half of them described the route verbally before rating it. Subjects also completed a questionnaire about the influence of different variables on the route complexity. A linear regression model explained much of the dependent variable's variance (R2 = 0.63). The number of turns and rotations, the perceived density of the map and route length were significant predictors. Describing the route before rating it may lower its apparent complexity. Subjects' assessments of the contribution of different variables to perceptions of route complexity differed from the actual contribution of the variables in the models. The model of perceived route complexity can be used to design road maps that minimize the user's cognitive load.

Perception & Performance: PP2 -- Haptics

Vibrotactile Stimuli Parameters on Detection Reaction Times BIBAFull-Text 1701-1705
  Eric T. Chancey; J. Christopher Brill; Adam Sitz; Ulrike Schmuntzsch; James P. Bliss
Signaling system designers are leveraging the tactile modality to create alarms, alerts, and warnings. The purpose of this research was to map detection reaction times (RT) toward tactile stimuli with various parameter manipulations. We employed a 3 (wave form) × 3 (inter-pulse interval) × 3 (envelope) within subjects design. The dependent measure was detection RT. Twenty participants (15 female) responded to 270 tactile stimuli. ANOVAs indicated three two-way interactions. Generally, shorter inter-pulse intervals led to quicker RT and the fade-in envelope led to longer RT, when compared to envelopes starting at the maximum amplitude. Square and sinusoidal waves tended to prompt quicker RT than the noise wave. The strength of these relationships, however, depended upon the presence of the other parameters. Designers can use the results of this study to effectively and appropriately assign tactile parameter manipulations to signals that require varied levels of response urgencies.
Tactile Change Blindness in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Task BIBAFull-Text 1706-1710
  Sara A. Lu; Nadine Sarter
One promising means of overcoming data overload in complex domains is through the introduction of tactile displays, which can offload the overburdened visual channel. However, the effectiveness of tactile displays depends on taking into consideration attentional systems and the limitations of the human perception. One important question is the extent to which the tactile modality is susceptible to change blindness, i.e. the failure to detect even large and expected changes when these changes coincide with a 'transient' stimulus. Recent research has demonstrated an analog of change blindness in the tactile modality for pattern change recognition. The present study examined whether tactile change blindness, as well as crossmodal visual-tactile change blindness, occurs in the context of search and monitoring tasks, and whether it is affected by the addition of a secondary task. The application domain for this experiment was simulated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle control. The findings confirmed the occurrence of tactile change blindness; however, no crossmodal change blindness was observed and change detection was unaffected by the addition of a secondary search task. Overall, this research add to the knowledge base in multimodal and redundant information processing and can inform the design of multimodal displays for complex, data-rich domains.
Redundancy Gain or Cost? Performance Effects of Redundantly-encoded Tactile Displays in Multitask Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1711-1715
  Wil-Johneen Ardoin; Thomas K. Ferris
Redundant displays, those that display the same message via multiple sensory channels, are widely accepted as beneficial based on the idea that redundancy offers the potential to effectively distribute processing resources and thus avoid the overload of a high-demand processing channel. While some studies have found performance gains with use of redundant displays, others have shown performance costs. This study investigated whether redundancy in a 'multi-code' display -- which allows message decoding by engaging either spatial or nonspatial processing resources -- would produce redundancy gains or costs under varied concurrent task processing requirements. Results showed dual-task performance was worse when tasks required the same processing code. Redundantly-encoded signals displayed promise for reducing processing interference, a performance gain, but may also negatively affect performance due to a higher overall processing load. The findings illustrate the effects of processing code redundancy on multitasking performance and add to the body of knowledge in information processing.
Exploring the Emergent Perception of Haptic Beats from Paired Vibrotactile Presentation BIBAFull-Text 1716-1720
  Shiyan Yang; Kathryn Tippey; Thomas K. Ferris
Haptic beats, an analogous presentation to auditory beats, can be generated when a vibrotactile actuator is driven by a signal that contains two different activation frequencies. In contrast to a combined signal stimulating one location, this study explored to what extent haptic beats can be perceived as an emergent property when separate body locations are stimulated at two different frequencies. Consistent with previous findings, haptic beats were reliably perceived with paired presentations on the same fingertip; previously-unexplored locations on the palm, wrist, and elbow also supported the perception of beats. However, haptic beats were not perceived when stimuli were presented to distant locations, such as on different hands, suggesting that haptic beats most likely involve a localized mechanical integration rather than neural integration. These results have implications for the design of complex haptic displays for various domains, such as driving, navigation, medicine, and immersive virtual reality.
Investigating Effects of Task-related Factors in Pinch Gestures for Multi-touch Applications BIBAFull-Text 1721-1725
  Cheng-Jhe Lin
Using pinch gestures, i.e., using finger span and hand location to control the size and location of the object simultaneously, is a popular type of interaction in multi-touch applications. However, there is a lack in literature regarding effects of moving amplitude, direction, and target width on performance in time and accuracy for pinch operations. The current study recruited 27 participants to perform a realistic 2D synchronous pinch task with various amplitudes, directions, and target width settings. The results showed that the moving amplitude only affected time but not accuracy, while the direction and target width influenced both. Users tended to perform accurate pinch operations when the target is small, while their accuracy was limited possibly due to biomechanical factors when the target is large. The study also found diagonal movements were beneficial for pinch operations in accuracy, while time performance of lower-right movements in pinch gesture suffered from blocking effect. Implications of those findings in design of multi-touch applications are discussed.

Perception & Performance: PP3 -- Displays and Imaging

Display Optimization for ICG Medical Imaging: A Subjective Evaluation Approach BIBAFull-Text 1726-1730
  Jeff T. Flinn; Amie Miller; Jonathan M. Saxe; Caroline G. L. Cao
A medical imaging technique known as Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence cholangiography can potentially improve safety and reduce cost in minimally invasive surgery, but is not widely used. Refinement of existing ICG imaging prototypes would facilitate more widespread use of the technology. The goal of this research was to optimize the display of an ICG imaging prototype, post-hoc. Images produced by the prototype were systematically manipulated by altering brightness and contrast levels, and corresponding changes in perceived image quality were measured. Results showed that perceived image quality increased when either brightness or contrast of the original image was increased by 10% and 20%, respectively. With high quality images, similar manipulations of brightness or contrast did not improve the perceived image quality, nor did they degrade the perceived image quality significantly. These adjustments are expected to increase the overall clinical utility of the prototype as the perceived quality of the images most in need of improvement was enhanced.
The Effects of Stereoscopic Depth on Vigilance Task Performance and Cerebral Hemodynamics BIBAFull-Text 1731-1735
  Eric T. Greenlee; Gregory J. Funke; Joel S. Warm; Victor, Jr. Finomore; Robert Patterson; Laura E. Barnes; Michael A. Vidulich; Matthew E. Funke
The current study examined the effect of stereoscopic depth cues on vigilance performance and cerebral hemodynamics as reflected in cerebral bloodflow velocity (CBFV). During a 40 min continuous vigil, participants took the role of a flight engineer in a simulated fuel transfer task involving a circular gauge in which a vertical line was embedded. In a 2D condition, critical signals for detection were cases in which the vertical line was tilted slightly to the right. In a 3D condition, a stereoscopic display projected a 3D image in which critical signals were cases wherein the vertical line appeared to be located in front of the circular gage. The overall level of signal detections was greater in the 3D than in the 2D condition. Moreover, detection scores in the 2D condition showed the vigilance decrement, a temporal decline over time, while those in the 3D condition maintained relative stability. In both conditions, CBFV was greater in the right than in the left cerebral hemisphere and declined significantly over time. The results provide the initial demonstration that 3D displays can enhance performance in tasks requiring sustained attention and that right hemispheric control may be involved in vigilance performance with both 2D and 3D stimuli.
Representation of Radar Image's Timestamp in the Cockpit BIBAFull-Text 1736-1740
  Lesheng Hua; Chen Ling; Rickey Thomas
Data-linked mosaic NEXRAD images can be more than 14 minutes old by the time they reach the cockpit for use by pilots (Elgin & Thomas, 2004; Novacek et al., 2001; Yuchnovicz et al., 2001). Unfortunately, research has indicated that pilots may not be fully aware of the delay (Yuchnovicz etc., 2001) and that it can adversely affect their decision-making and performance (Chamberlain & Latorella, 2001). The experiment reported here evaluated the effects of three types of timestamp representation methodologies on participant's accuracy for quick assessments of delay of NEXRAD mosaic radar images. The three types of timestamps investigated were 'direct age', 'clock' and 'UTC' with three levels of delay (short, medium and long). Twenty-one participants compared two radar images, via their timestamps, to determine which one was more recent. The results indicated that 'direct age' timestamp resulted in the highest accuracy and fastest response time, and was considered as intuitive and easy to perceive for participants.
Reproduction of Displacement with Haptic Feedback in 3D Space BIBAFull-Text 1741-1745
  Jinling Wang; Caroline G. L. Cao
This paper studied the ability of human subjects to replicate hand displacements in the contralateral limb. In this task, the subject was asked to use the dominant hand to replicate the direction and distance of displacement felt by the non-dominant hand while a force was applied to the dominant hand. A three-factor within-subject repeated measures design was used. The three factors were force type (no force, small constant force, large constant force, small spring force, and large spring force), direction (right, left, up, down, front, and back), and distance (40 mm, 60 mm, and 70 mm). Each combination of factors was repeated 5 times so that each subject performed a total of 450 trials, in a randomized order. The results confirmed that human subjects are able to replicate the displacements and a better performance could be achieved when a resistance force was applied on the dominant hand. Performance of the task in the right and left directions was poor compared to the other four directions. On average, subjects overestimated the displacement except for movements to the right of body midline. The implications for self-tuning in haptic perception are discussed in the context of surgical simulation and training.

Perception & Performance: PP4 -- Metrics and Methodology

Statistically Lay Decision Makers Ignore Error Bars in Two-Point Comparisons BIBAFull-Text 1746-1750
  Henry Scown; Megan Bartlett; Jason S. McCarley
An experiment tested statistically lay decision makers' use of error bars in a graph reading task. Participants viewed two-point dot plots, with each point representing a sample mean. Across conditions, means were accompanied by error bars of different sizes. Graphs were described as plots of consumer product ratings, and participants were asked to judge whether the products represented in each graph were rated differently or about the same. Signal detection analysis showed no influence of error bars on participants' sensitivity or bias, and on average performance was poorer and far more liberal than predicted by a simple decision rule that classified the two data points as different if their error bars did not overlap. Results suggest that non-expert graph readers make little use of error bars in drawing.
Crossmodal matching: Validation of a more reliable technique BIBAFull-Text 1751-1755
  Brandon J. Pitts; Nadine B. Sarter
Multimodal displays, i.e., displays that distribute information across multiple sensory channels (mainly vision, hearing, and touch), have received considerable attention in recent years. To be effective, their design needs to be based on a firm understanding of how information is processed both within and across modalities. However, most studies on crossmodal information processing, to date, suffer from a methodological shortcoming: they fail to perform crossmodal matching to ensure that modality is not confounded with other stimulus properties, such as salience. One reason for this shortcoming is the fact that there is no agreed-upon crossmodal matching technique, and that existing approaches suffer from limitations. The goal of the present study is to develop and validate a more reliable crossmodal matching method that employs repeated matching. To this end, six participants were asked to use this technique and match a series of 54 modality pairings involving vision, audition, and touch. Results show that the intra-individual variability of participants' matches was significantly less than observed in an earlier technique that involved bidirectional matching and visual feedback. The findings from this research confirm the need for improved crossmodal matching procedures and for employing them in advance of conducting experiments on multisensory information processing.
Interaction of Movement Difficulty due to the Misalignment Effect and Response Latency: Connections to Fitts' Law and Implications for System Latency Requirements BIBAFull-Text 1756-1760
  Stephen R. Ellis; Bernard D. Adelstein
In previous reports we measured and analyzed the Misalignment Effect Function, a function describing the decrement in human performance due to rotation between operators' display and control axes. This prior work allowed us to determine difficulty-matched sets of rotations for a generalized 3D Fitts-like movement task. We consequently are now able to study the interaction of system latency and movement difficulty in a highly generalized way in a virtual telerobotic environment using wide variety of conditions and targets. Our targets are located on a spherical shell near our participants' starting point in a high dynamic fidelity virtual environment. Analysis of participants' ability to make movements to these targets has revealed a purely multiplicative interaction between control latency and task difficulty. Interestingly, we show that this the observed interaction supports work on Fitts' Law by E.R. Hoffmann and that it depends upon accounting for an internal human processing latency of 250 ms. Our data suggest that the interaction varies nonlinearly due to task difficulty in a manner consistent with Hoffmann's results. We propose a descriptive equation to reflect the observed interaction that can be seen as a spatiotemporal generalization of Fitts' Law. Our results provide a basis for generalizing latency requirements for reference tasks that may be varied in difficulty in a manner analogous to the Fitts' Index of Difficulty.
Creation and Validation of a Perceptual-Cognitive Skills Competency Model BIBAFull-Text 1761-1765
  Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Naomi Malone
The goal of this project was to create a stage model that can assist instructors in assessing the skill level of Marines working toward mastery in the area of perceptual-cognitive skills. Specifically, this paper describes the design, development, and validation process we followed to create a competency model that defines the levels of performance and behaviors required to develop expertise in each of the taxons delineated in the Perceptual Training and Skills Taxonomy. The paper begins with a description of how the model fits into the overall project and then provides a rationale for the model based on existing research. Following initial development, focus groups were used to validate the Competency Model of Perceptual-Cognitive Skills with experienced military personnel and ensure that it not only reflects current literature but also accurately depicts real-world situations.
The Effects of a Workload Transition on Stress over Time BIBAFull-Text 1766-1770
  Erik Prytz; Mark W. Scerbo
The present study explored the effects of a workload transition on three dimensions of stress: task engagement, distress, and worry. Previous research on the effects of workload transitions has generated conflicting results. It was suggested that the concept of a continuous stress appraisal process could potentially resolve these prior conflicting results. A digit-processing task with high and low task demands was used to test this suggested explanation. Subjective reports of stress were measured both one minute and six minutes posttransition to show changes over time. The results showed that a workload transition affects each of the three stress dimensions differently such that task engagement declined over time, distress decreased following a high-to-low transition six minutes posttransition, and worry increased following a transition. These results suggest that distress and worry are more sensitive to workload transitions than task engagement. Further, the appraisal process may partially explain the prior conflicting findings by accounting for changes in stress over time.

Perception & Performance: PP5 -- Visual Search and Cognition

Cyber Vigilance: Effects of Signal Probability and Event Rate BIBAFull-Text 1771-1775
  Ben D. Sawyer; Victor S. Finomore; Gregory J. Funke; Vincent F. Mancuso; Matthew E. Funke; Gerald Matthews; Joel S. Warm
Cyber security operators in the military and civilian sector face a lengthy repetitive work assignment with few critical signal occurrences under conditions in which they have little control over what transpires. In this sense, their task is similar to vigilance tasks that have received considerable attention from human factors specialists in regard to other operational assignments such as air traffic control, industrial process control, and medical monitoring. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine if cyber security tasks can be linked to more traditional vigilance tasks in regard to several factors known to influence vigilance performance and perceived mental workload including time on task, the probability of critical signal occurrence, and event rate (the number of stimulus events that must be monitored in order to detect critical signals). Consistent with the results obtained in traditional vigilance experiments, signal detection on a 40-minute simulated cyber security task declined significantly over time, was directly related to signal probability, and inversely related to event rate. In addition, as in traditional vigilance tasks, perceived mental workload in the cyber task, as reflected by the NASA Task Load Index, was high. The results of this study have potential meaning for designers of cyber security systems in regard to psychophysical factors that might influence task performance and the need to keep the workload of such systems from exceeding the information processing bounds of security operators.
Measuring performance in multiple-target visual search BIBAFull-Text 1776-1780
  Kelly S. Steelman; Jason S. McCarley
Naturalistic visual search tasks, such as radiographic image screening, often contain more than one target and require the searcher to not only report the presence of anomalies, but to also indicate their specific locations. The requirement to localize multiple targets precludes the use of common signal detection performance measures that assume only a single response per display. Chakraborty (2008) has validated two measures of sensitivity, A'1 and A1, for use in free response localization tasks like radiology. These measures, however, require the searcher to report confidence ratings for each anomaly, a demand that is not always practical or naturalistic. The current work examines whether these measures would be effective in a case in which confidence ratings were not reported. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of target discriminability and instructional bias on A'1, A1, and d'eq. Experiment 3 examined the effect of bias imposed by differences in target base rate. Across three experiments, neither A'1 nor A1 was entirely resistant to shifts in bias, but the effect of the bias manipulations on A'1 was small in Experiments 1 and 2 (ω² ≤ .05) and non-significant in Experiment 3. Although d'eq was not significantly affected by the bias manipulation in Experiments 1 & 2, it was strongly affected by target base rate in Experiment 3. The results suggest that, of the three measures, A'1 can serve as the most useful measure of sensitivity in multiple-target search tasks.
Attentional Capture for Simple Shapes from Gamified Visual Search Training BIBAFull-Text 1781-1785
  Evan Palmer; Lindsey Davies; Duy Nguyen; Marcus