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Proceedings of the Joint IEA 14th Triennial Congress and Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 44th Annual Meeting 2000-07-30

Fullname:Joint IEA 14th Triennial Congress and HFES 44th Annual Meeting
Note:Ergonomics for the New Millennium
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2000-Jul-30 to 2000-Aug-04
Publisher:HFES
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-13-8; hcibib: HFES00; TA 166 H794
Papers:1491
Pages:4933; 744 803 866 768 800 952
Links:Online Proceedings | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2000-07-30 Volume 44
    1. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Trust and Certainty in Automation [Research]
    2. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Plan Continuation Errors: A Factor in Aviation Accidents? [Single-Session Symposium]
    3. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Engineering Methods [Research]
    4. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Mental Models [Single-Session Symposium]
    5. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Performance in Teams [Research]
    6. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Automation Design [Research]
    7. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Situation Awareness Measurement and Modeling [Research]
    8. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Engineering Design [Research]
    9. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Processes [Research]
    10. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Aspects of Dynamic Situation Management [Single-Session Symposium]
    11. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Situation Awareness Design and Analysis [Research]
    12. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Work Analysis: Research and Applications [Single-Session Symposium]
    13. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Auditory Warning Signals: New Concepts and Approaches [Single-Session Symposium]
    14. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Computer-Based Training and Automation [Research]
    15. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Human-Centered Computing for Aerospace Applications [Single-Session Symposium]
    16. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Understanding and Preventing Human Error [Research]
    17. 1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Ergonomics Posters
    18. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Novel Approaches to Software Interface Design [Research]
    19. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium: Lessons from History (Cosponsored by ITG & CTG) [Invited Address]
    20. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Like a Vergence: How to design user interfaces for the computer/TV/INTERNET port/phone/appliance of the near future
    21. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Issues in Application Input and Output [Research]
    22. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Lessons from Application Design [Research]
    23. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Social and Cultural Implications of Technology in the New Millennium (Cosponsored by ITG & CTG) [Panel]
    24. 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Computer Systems Posters
    25. 1: COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Communications [Research]
    26. 1: COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Telecommunications [Research]
    27. 1: COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Communications [Research]
    28. 1: COMMUNICATIONS: Communications Posters
    29. 1: INTERNET: Usability of the World Wide Web [Research]
    30. 1: INTERNET: Web Design: Future Home for Human Factors? [Single-Session Symposium]
    31. 1: INTERNET: Human Factors Research on Usable Web Design [Research]
    32. 1: INTERNET: Developments in Web Research and Practice [Single-Session Symposium]
    33. 1: INTERNET: Ergonomic and Network Applications Using the Internet/Intranet [Research]
    34. 1: INTERNET: Internet Posters
    35. 1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Interaction Technologies and Modeling for Virtual Environments [Research]
    36. 1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Perception and Performance in Augmented Reality [Research]
    37. 1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments: Issues in Training and Practice [Research]
    38. 1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Immersion and Side Effects in Virtual Environments [Research]
    39. 1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments Posters
    40. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Ergonomics: Lessons from the Past [Research]
    41. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Ergonomics: The Direction of the Future [Research]
    42. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Modeling [Multiple-Session Symposium]
    43. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Theory to Practice Relationships of Cognitive Modeling [Research]
    44. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Modeling and Simulation [Research]
    45. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Modeling in Engineering Design Research [Research]
    46. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics and Computer Work [Multiple-Session Symposium]
    47. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Workload during Computer Keyboard and Mouse Use [Research]
    48. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Computer Monitors: Vision and Musculoskeletal Health [Research]
    49. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Workstation and Seating Design [Research]
    50. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Computer Input Device Design [Research]
    51. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Office Intervention Studies and Health Outcomes [Research]
    52. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Modeling Human Performance in Systems [Multiple-Session Symposium]
    53. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Tools for Modeling Human Performance in Systems [Research]
    54. 1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Application and Demonstrations of Human Performance Modeling Technology [Research]
    55. 2: COST-EFFECTIVE ERGONOMICS: Cost-Effective Ergonomics: Case Studies [Research]
    56. 2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomic Research in Environmental Design I [Research]
    57. 2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomics Applied to Product Design [Research]
    58. 2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomic Research in Environmental Design II [Research]
    59. 2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomics in Urban Design [Research]
    60. 2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Environmental Design Posters
    61. 2: EDUCATION: Human Factors and Safety Education [Research]
    62. 2: EDUCATION: Ergonomics Education [Research]
    63. 2: EDUCATION: HFES Education: Potpourri [Research]
    64. 2: EDUCATION: Education Posters
    65. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Organization Decision Making and Continuous Improvement [Research]
    66. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Participatory Ergonomics and Work Satisfaction [Research]
    67. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Ergonomic Interventions Concepts and Research [Single-Session Symposium]
    68. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Learning Organizations [Research]
    69. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Role of User Participation in Change Process [Research]
    70. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Teams, Organizational Climate, and Safety Culture [Research]
    71. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Network Groups, Technologies, and Information Societies: A Macroergonomics Perspective [Research]
    72. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Automation, Production, Scheduling in a Macroergonomics Framework [Research]
    73. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Quality in the Public Sector [Single-Session Symposium]
    74. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Organizational Analysis, Methods and Design [Research]
    75. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Integrated Management Systems (IMS) in Small and Medium-Sized Companies [Single-Session Symposium]
    76. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Work Organization Design, Worker Behavior, and Performance [Research]
    77. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Managerial Roles and Motivational Issues: Macroergonomic Considerations [Research]
    78. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Stress, Hazardous Environments, and Injuries: A Macroergonomics Framework [Research]
    79. 2: MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomics Posters
    80. 2: TRAINING: Advances in Training Research [Research]
    81. 2: TRAINING: Situation Awareness and Embedded Thinking [Research]
    82. 2: TRAINING: Human Performance Models in Training Systems [Single-Session Symposium]
    83. 2: TRAINING: Group and Team Training [Research]
    84. 2: TRAINING: Designing Training for Industry and Military Applications [Research]
    85. 2: TRAINING: Defining Situation Awareness in a Military Aviation Training Community: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Training [Single-Session Symposium]
    86. 2: TRAINING: Training Posters
    87. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Corporate Initiatives in Ergonomics
    88. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Corporate Initiatives in Ergonomics [Research]
    89. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics and Total Quality Management
    90. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Plenary Address
    91. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: TQM Issues: A European Perspective [Research]
    92. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality and Ergonomics in Consumer Product Design [Research]
    93. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Factors in Inspection [Research]
    94. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality in Design [Research]
    95. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality in Information Systems [Research]
    96. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality in Design [Research]
    97. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Macroergonomic Methods and Tools for Improved Performance and Well-Being: Symposium Overview
    98. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Introduction to Macroergonomics [Research]
    99. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Knowledge and Service Work Environments [Research]
    100. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Social Impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) [Research]
    101. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Industrial Environments and the Impact of Intelligent Manufacturing [Research]
    102. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Community and Public Environments [Research]
    103. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Future Trends in Management of Hazardous Environments [Panel]
    104. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Government (e.g., Military) Environments [Research]
    105. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Health Care Environments [Research]
    106. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: The Process of Ergonomic Training and Its Impact: From the Analysis to the Transformation of Work Situations
    107. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: General Introduction to the Symposium and Theoretical Frameworks [Research]
    108. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Improving Professional Knowledge and Skills through Ergonomic Work Analysis I [Research]
    109. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Improving Professional Knowledge and Skills through Ergonomic Work Analysis II [Research]
    110. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training Programs: The Evaluation of Their Outcomes and Implementation I [Research]
    111. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training Programs: Evaluating Their Outcomes and Implementation II [Research]
    112. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training Programs: Toward Transformation of Work Situations [Research]
    113. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics
    114. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics, Part I [Research]
    115. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics, Part II [Research]
    116. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work Design in the 21st Century
    117. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Macroergonomic Analysis of Work Systems Design in the 21st Century [Panel]
    118. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Production Systems Design and Automation of Work in the 21st Century [Research]
    119. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Factors Research Needs in Internet Design [Research]
    120. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Design of Education and Training in the 21st Century [Panel]
    121. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work Design and Community Design in the 21st Century [Research]
    122. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work in Extreme Environments in the 21st Century [Research]
    123. 2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work Design and Community Design in the 21st Century [Research]
    124. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: To Automate or Not to Automate: Quantitative Methods for Automation Design in Human-Machine Systems [Single-Session Symposium]
    125. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Implementing Highway-in-the-Sky (HITS) Technology: Issues and Answers [Single-Session Symposium]
    126. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Flight Psychophysiology [Panel]
    127. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Situational Awareness and Cognition in Aerospace Systems [Research]
    128. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Performance in Aerospace Systems [Research]
    129. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Advanced Aerospace Systems [Research]
    130. 3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aerospace Systems Posters
    131. 3: AGRICULTURE: Agriculture Posters
    132. 3: CONTROL ROOMS: Control Rooms Poster
    133. 3: HUMAN RELIABILITY: Human Reliability Poster
    134. 3: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: Individual Differences: Theory and Measurement [Research]
    135. 3: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: Individual Differences: Topical Issues [Research]
    136. 3: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: Individual Differences in the Performance of Physical Tasks [Research]
    137. 3: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: Individual Differences Posters
    138. 3: POWER SYSTEMS: HFE Methods in Power Systems [Research]
    139. 3: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY IN ERGONOMICS: Psychopsyiology Indices of Mental and Emotional Load [Research]
    140. 3: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY IN ERGONOMICS: Psychophysiological Measures of Work Stress [Research]
    141. 3: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY IN ERGONOMICS: Psychophysiology in Ergonomics Posters
    142. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Designing In-Vehicle Information Systems [Research]
    143. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Toward Understanding Driver Behavior [Research]
    144. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Driver Misperception and Driving Safety [Research]
    145. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Human Factors in Specialty Road Vehicles [Panel]
    146. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Making Secondary Controls a Primary Concern [Research]
    147. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Driver Roles with Automation: Keeping in Charge [Research]
    148. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Drivers and Crashes: Collision Warning System [Research]
    149. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Taking the High Road: Simulator Studies [Research]
    150. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Toward Comfortable and Efficient Man-Machine Interaction in Cabins of Vehicles [Single-Session Symposium]
    151. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Human Factors Issues in Driving Performance [Research]
    152. 3: TRANSPORTATION: Transportation Posters
    153. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Sustained Visual Performance [Research]
    154. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: The When and How of Using 2D and 3D Displays for Operational Tasks [Single-Session Symposium]
    155. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Motion Perception and Dynamic Displays [Research]
    156. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Symbolic and Analog Displays [Research]
    157. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Emerging Trends and Future Directions of Mental Workload Research [Single-Session Symposium]
    158. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Target Acquisition and Visual Search [Research]
    159. 3: VISUAL PERFORMANCE: Visual Performance Posters
    160. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: The Changing Nature of Control Centre Ergonomics
    161. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Process and Strategies [Research]
    162. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Case Studies I [Research]
    163. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Case Studies II [Research]
    164. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: The Ecological Approach to Human-Machine Systems
    165. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Design of Ecological Interfaces [Research]
    166. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Evaluation of Ecological Interfaces [Research]
    167. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics in Agriculture, Forestry and Food Production
    168. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Musculoskeletal Disorders in Agriculture and Food Production [Research]
    169. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality of Working Life in Agriculture, Research, and Training Needs [Research]
    170. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Occupational Safety and Health [Research]
    171. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Hand Tools in Agriculture and Forestry [Research]
    172. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Occupational Safety and Health II [Research]
    173. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Nonverbal Auditory Displays [Research]
    174. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Verbal Auditory Displays [Research]
    175. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Spatial Auditory Displays [Research]
    176. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Auditory Displays and Adverse Environments [Research]
    177. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Methodological and Conceptual Issues for Auditory Displays [Research]
    178. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Auditory Controls (Automatic Speech Recognition) [Research]
    179. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance: Panel Discussion [Panel]
    180. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Improving Human Performance in the Aircraft Maintenance Environment [Research]
    181. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Usable Products for the Aircraft Maintenance Industry: Application of Human Factors Research [Research]
    182. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Current Status of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Power Systems [Research]
    183. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Application of Technology to Address Human Factors and Ergonomics Topics [Research]
    184. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Environment, Community, and Life-Cycle Considerations [Research]
    185. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Accident Investigation and Modeling of Human Reliability
    186. 3: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Detailed Investigations on Factors Shaping Human Reliability [Research]
    187. 4: PLENARY SPEECHES: Promoting Employment Opportunities for Older Adults: Opportunities and Chanllenges for Human Factor Engineering
    188. 4: PLENARY SPEECHES: The Magnitude, Science Base, and Solutions for One of the Largest Occupational Health Problems in the United States
    189. 4: AGING: Work Ability and Performance Issues with an Aged Workforce [Research]
    190. 4: AGING: Environmental Support and Age-sensitive Design [Single-Session Symposium]
    191. 4: AGING: Is Age a Key Human Factor To Be Considered as We Enter the New Millennium? [Single-Session Symposium]
    192. 4: AGING: Transportation-Related Issues and the Aged [Research]
    193. 4: AGING: Assisted Living and Related Issues [Research]
    194. 4: AGING: Cognitive and Performance Factors Related to the Older Worker [Research]
    195. 4: AGING: Aging Posters
    196. 4: FORENSICS: Warning Compliance: Measuring Behavioral Effectiveness [Single-Session Symposium]
    197. 4: FORENSICS: Basic Concepts in Professional Forensic Ergonomics: Defined or Debunked? [Panel]
    198. 4: FORENSICS: Allocation of Responsibility for Consumer Product Accidents [Single-Session Symposium]
    199. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Medical Device Design [Research]
    200. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Designing for Medical Work Domains: Challenges, Directions, Opportunities [Panel]
    201. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Design for Persons with Disabilities [Research]
    202. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors in the Surgical Operating Room [Single-Session Symposium]
    203. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Advanced Interfaces for Medicine [Research]
    204. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Hospital Ergonomics I [Research]
    205. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Hospital Ergonomics II [Research]
    206. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Musculoskeletal Disorders [Research]
    207. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Workload and Performance [Research]
    208. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Patient Monitoring Technology: Friend or Foe? [Single-Session Symposium]
    209. 4: MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Medical Systems and Rehabilitation Posters
    210. 4: SAFETY: Design of Warnings [Research]
    211. 4: SAFETY: Case Studies in Safety [Research]
    212. 4: SAFETY: Safety Culture Management Issues [Research]
    213. 4: SAFETY: New Developments and Challenges in Risk Management [Single-Session Symposium]
    214. 4: SAFETY: Safety and Risk Analysis [Research]
    215. 4: SAFETY: Safety Research in the 20th Century -- Have We Made a Difference? [Panel]
    216. 4: SAFETY: Transportation Safety [Research]
    217. 4: SAFETY: Safety Monitoring and Reporting [Research]
    218. 4: SAFETY: Industry-Specific Safety Analysis [Research]
    219. 4: SAFETY: Safety Posters
    220. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Manual Materials Handling [Research]
    221. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Standards [Research]
    222. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: The Effectiveness of Training on Lifting Techniques and Worker Selection Protocols in Preventing Back Injuries in Distribution and Logistics Operations [Research]
    223. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Behavior Modification [Research]
    224. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Slips, Trips, and Falls Accidents [Research]
    225. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Tribology Related to Slips, Trips, and Falls [Research]
    226. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Biomechanics Related to Slips, Trips, and Falls [Research]
    227. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Global Challenges in Science, Technology, Design, and Regulation [Single-Session Symposium]
    228. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Global Standardization of Human Factors for Medical Devices and Systems [Panel]
    229. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Factors Perspectives on Medical Device Requirements for the Global Market [Research]
    230. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Advanced Technology Applications for Product Design [Research]
    231. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Beyond 2000: Charting a Course for User-Centered Medical Equipment [Colloquium]
    232. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Hand Ergonomics
    233. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Prediction of Hand Forces and Fatigue [Research]
    234. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Gloves, Handles, and Applications [Research]
    235. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Hand and Wrist Workload [Research]
    236. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Occupational Biomechanics of the Low Back
    237. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Determining Net Moments around the Lumbar Spine: Validity and Applicability [Research]
    238. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Estimating Forces on the Spine: Validity and Applicability [Research]
    239. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Predicting Low-Back Injury: Biomechanical and Epidemiological Perspectives [Research]
    240. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomic Applications of Biomechanical Models of the Low Back [Research]
    241. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Occupational Safety and Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison
    242. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of OSH Systems: Strategies and Changes [Research]
    243. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of OSH Systems: Regional Aspects [Research]
    244. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Strategies and Actions for Occupational Safety and Health in the Company Level [Research]
    245. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Rehabilitation Ergonomics
    246. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Theoretical and General Aspects [Research]
    247. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Biomechanics of Sitting and Lying [Research]
    248. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Thermal Comfort for People with Physical Disabilities [Research]
    249. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Usability in Rehabilitation [Research]
    250. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Computer and Visual Work: Primary Prevention [Research]
    251. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training for Rehab [Research]
    252. 4: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Return to Work [Research]
    253. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Lifting Research I [Research]
    254. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Handtools [Research]
    255. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Evaluation Tools [Research]
    256. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Psychosocial Issues [Research]
    257. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomic Analysis I [Research]
    258. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Potpourri I [Research]
    259. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Intervention Research I [Research]
    260. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Multimedia Video-Based Data Acquisition and Analysis Applications for Ergonomics Research [Single-Session Symposium]
    261. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Intervention Research II [Research]
    262. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Lifting Research II [Research]
    263. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Exposure Assessment [Research]
    264. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Intervention Research III [Research]
    265. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Lifting Research III [Research]
    266. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Ergonomic and Usability Issues with Accessibility in the Development of Systems for the Public Sector [Single-Session Symposium]
    267. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomic Analysis II [Research]
    268. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomic Analysis III [Research]
    269. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Potpourri II [Research]
    270. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Biomechanical Modeling [Research]
    271. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Seating [Research]
    272. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Intervention Research IV [Research]
    273. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Work Organization [Research]
    274. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Automotive Ergonomics [Research]
    275. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Thermal Stress [Research]
    276. 5: INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Industrial Ergonomics Posters
    277. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Job Analysis and Musculoskeletal Disorders [Research]
    278. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Musculoskeletal Disorders in Children and Nurses [Research]
    279. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Musculoskeletal Disorders of Upper Extremities [Research]
    280. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Intervention Studies for Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders [Research]
    281. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders I [Research]
    282. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders II [Research]
    283. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Ergonomic Intervention Studies for Improved Musculoskeletal Health [Single-Session Symposium]
    284. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Musculoskeletal Ill Health in the Cleaning Industry [Single-Session Symposium]
    285. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Estimating Muscle Load Using Surface EMG Amplitude [Single-Session Symposium]
    286. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Interpreting EMG Results [Single-Session Symposium]
    287. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: The Role of Epidemiological Studies in Ergonomic Research [Panel]
    288. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Soft Tissue Pathomechanics and Its Application to Ergonomics [Panel]
    289. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Epidemiology in Musculoskeletal Disorders [Research]
    290. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Video Terminal Unit and Musculoskeletal Disorders [Research]
    291. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders III [Research]
    292. 5: MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: Musculoskeletal Disorders Posters
    293. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Overview and General Papers [Research]
    294. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Surveillance and Monitoring [Research]
    295. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomic Assessment I [Research]
    296. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomic Assessment II [Research]
    297. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomic Solutions and Interventions I [Research]
    298. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomic Solutions and Interventions II [Research]
    299. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Articles
    300. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Synthetical Methods, Criteria, and Indicators for On-the-Field Exposure Assessment I [Research]
    301. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Synthetical Methods, Criteria, and Indicators for On-the-Field Exposure Assessment II [Research]
    302. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Articles
    303. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Organizational and Technical Work (Re)Designing with Upper Limb Repetitive Movements: Physiological Criteria, Applicative Experiments, International Norms, and Regulations [Research]
    304. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Reemployment of Subjects Affected by Upper Limb WMSDs: Comparison of Experiments and Results [Research]
    305. 5: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Health Care Workers [Research]
    306. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Understanding Users for Product Design [Research]
    307. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Individual Differences for Product Design [Research]
    308. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Product Design for Workstations [Research]
    309. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Safety and Health [Research]
    310. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Methodologies and Analysis [Research]
    311. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Potpourri [Research]
    312. 6: CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Products Posters
    313. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: National Perspectives on Ergonomics [Research]
    314. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Who Are We and Where Are We Going? [Research]
    315. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Research Issues [Research]
    316. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: New Problems, New Solutions [Research]
    317. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Emerging Issues [Research]
    318. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Cultural and Global Issues [Research]
    319. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Improving Work Environments [Research]
    320. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Tomorrow's Ergonomics [Research]
    321. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Human Factors of Construction [Research]
    322. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Human Factors and Public Safety [Research]
    323. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Assessing Physical Discomfort I [Research]
    324. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Ergonomic Guidelines in Hospital Design [Research]
    325. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Measuring and Enhancing Productivity [Panel]
    326. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Theoretical Perspectives [Research]
    327. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Workload -- Mental or Physical? [Research]
    328. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Anthropometry in Design I [Single-Session Symposium]
    329. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Children, Computers, and Classrooms [Single-Session Symposium]
    330. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Anthropometry in Design II [Single-Session Symposium]
    331. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Analyzing Equipment Design [Research]
    332. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Assessing Physical Discomfort II [Research]
    333. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Muscle Exertion Caused by Computer Input Devices [Research]
    334. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: Kansei Engineering [Single-Session Symposium]
    335. 6: GENERAL SESSIONS: General Sessions Posters
    336. 6: SPECIAL SESSIONS: Demonstrations I
    337. 6: SPECIAL SESSIONS: Establishing a Human Factors Career in the New Millennium: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions [Panel]
    338. 6: SPECIAL SESSIONS: Demonstrations II
    339. 6: SPECIAL SESSIONS: Mock Trial: Human Factors Contributions to Litigation Involving Adaptive Cruise Control [Panel]
    340. 6: STANDARDS: Standards: VDTs and Control Rooms [Research]
    341. 6: STANDARDS: Software Usability and Standards for the Next Millennium: Key Issues and Future Challenges [Panel]
    342. 6: STANDARDS: Standards: Physical Workload [Research]
    343. 6: STANDARDS: User Involvement in International Standardization [Panel]
    344. 6: STANDARDS: Standards: Sitting, Vision, Heat, and Education [Research]
    345. 6SD: Development of a Multi-Modal Watchstation for 21st Century Naval Command and Control [Single-Session Symposium]
    346. 6SD: Concepts and Methods for HSI [Research]
    347. 6SD: Approaches and Tools of System Design [Research]
    348. 6SD: Human System Integration (HSI) in Naval Platform Design [Single-Session Symposium]
    349. 6SD: Where the Human Meets Technology: A Look at the HSI [Research]
    350. 6SD: System Development Posters
    351. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: The Changing Nature of T&E: What Questions Should We Be Asking? [Single-Session Symposium]
    352. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: Usability Testing [Research]
    353. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: Recent Advances in the Critical Incident Technique [Single-Session Symposium]
    354. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: T&E Methodology: Workload, Reliability, and Validity Issues [Research]
    355. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: T&E Methodology: Physiological Issues and a Database [Research]
    356. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: Testing and Evaluation of a Multimodal Watchstation Individual and Team Command and Control Workspace [Single-Session Symposium]
    357. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: T&E: Potpourri [Research]
    358. 6: TEST AND EVALUATION: Test & Evaluation Posters
    359. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Asian Ergonomics in the New Millennium
    360. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Vision of Asian Ergonomics: The Trend of Ergonomics Development in Korea [Panel]
    361. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Asian Ergonomics in the New Millennium [Research]
    362. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Digitizing and Modeling [Research]
    363. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: 3D Anthropometry: New Capabilities, New Challenges [Research]
    364. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: International Anthropometric Variation [Research]
    365. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Linking Anthropometry and End Products [Research]
    366. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Characterizing Population Variability [Research]
    367. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Communicating with Designers
    368. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Communicating with Designers I [Research]
    369. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Communicating with Designers II [Research]
    370. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomic Design by Means of Human Models
    371. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Models: State of the Art [Research]
    372. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Models in Vehicle Design [Research]
    373. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Models: Data Acquisition and Management [Research]
    374. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Advances in Modeling Research [Research]
    375. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics on Both Sides of the Atlantic
    376. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics on Both Sides of the Atlantic I [Research]
    377. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics on Both Sides of the Atlantic II [Research]
    378. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Inclusive Design and Usability
    379. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Inclusive Design and Interface Customization [Research]
    380. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Inclusivity: Guidelines and Data [Research]
    381. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Aesthetic Intelligence, Qualitative Research, and Inclusivity [Research]
    382. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Techniques and Methods of Design for Usability I [Research]
    383. 6: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Techniques and Methods of Design for Usability II [Research]

HFES 2000-07-30 Volume 44

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Trust and Certainty in Automation [Research]

Reducing Over-Reliance on Task-Guidance Systems BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Jennifer J. Ockerman; Amy R. Pritchett
Task-guidance systems are unsensored, computer-based systems that remind a user of the actions required to complete a task. These systems have various forms, including electronic procedures. Over-reliance, which has been documented as an issue with automation and decision-aiding systems, may also be a problem for task-guidance systems, despite their passive nature. This paper describes task-guidance systems and over-reliance on task-guidance systems as background, and then provides the results of a study into reducing this over-reliance on task guidance systems and thereby improving performance.
Assessment of Operator Trust in and Utilization of Automated Decision Aids under Different Framing Conditions BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Younho Seong; Ann M. Bisantz
Computerized aids may be used to support decision-making in a variety of complex, dynamic arenas. Of interest in these systems is the extent to which operators utilize and trust such systems, particularly under conditions of potential failure. A theoretical framework to describe potential factors affecting these issues, and an experiment to investigate the role of failure cause on trust and system utilization, are described. Results provide some support for factors in the theoretical framework, and also demonstrated the use of an empirically developed trust scale.
Mathematical Modeling of Trust in Automation: Trust, Distrust, and Mistrust BIBAFull-Text 9-12
  Makoto Itoh; Kenji Tanaka
The purpose of the present study is to understand how people place trust in automation, how the degree of trust can increase or decrease, and how the automation can become mistrusted. We propose a new method of mathematical modeling of trust that explicitly takes into account the operating condition of an automated system. The dynamic aspects of trust, i.e., predictability, dependability, and faith, are involved in the model. Thus far, we have obtained the following findings: (i) Mistrust, such as false distrust or false trust, are special cases of this model. (ii) Uncertainty plays an important role in mediating between dependability and undependability when trust changes. (iii) The proposed model of trust explains the finding in previous studies that decreased trust due to transient fault can easily recover.
Utilizing Graphical Formats to Convey Uncertainty in a Decision Making Task BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  Richard Finger; Ann M. Bisantz
Understanding how to effectively display uncertain information has become increasingly important as decision aids are able to provide operators with situational estimates and their associated uncertainty. This paper describes an experiment in which degraded icons were used to convey uncertainty. Results indicated similar performance using degraded images or numeric probabilities, suggesting that the use of degraded images may be a viable method for displaying uncertainty.
Staff Actions and Alarms in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Yuval Bitan; Joachim Meyer; David Shinar; Ehud Zmora
Operators of complex systems must perform routine actions while attending to and responding to unexpected events. The current study extends previous laboratory experiments on the performance of such complex tasks to the analysis of the medical staff's actions in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Observations showed that the attendants usually do not respond directly to warnings given from monitors, but that the sequence and timing of actions is affected by the warnings. The staff initiated most actions. There was no evidence for discrete decision points, but rather a continuous flow of activities. However, the overall pattern of actions corresponds to the predictions from analytical scheduling methods. These results and other observations of the staffs actions were analyzed in terms of "naturalistic decision making" and analytic decision analysis.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Plan Continuation Errors: A Factor in Aviation Accidents? [Single-Session Symposium]

Symposium Presentation Plan Continuation Errors: A Factor in Aviation Accidents BIBFull-Text 21
  Barbara Burian; Lynne Martin
Weather-Related Decision Errors: Differences Across Flight Types BIBAFull-Text 22-25
  Barbara K. Burian; Judith Orasanu; Jim Hitt
Aviation incidents involving poor weather may be related to cognitive and contextual factors that lead pilots to continue with flights in the face of cues suggesting that doing so could be hazardous (i.e., commit "plan continuation errors" or PCE). To test this, 276 ASRS incident reports involving in-flight encounters with weather were analyzed. Part 91, 135 and 121 operations were found to differ significantly in their relative frequency of commission of PCEs. Factors such as hours of pilot experience, poor visibility, and crew conflict were related to the performance of a PCE. Different factors were related to PCEs committed within the three Part operations.
The Role of Context and Progressive Commitment in Plan Continuation Error BIBAFull-Text 26-29
  C. Elaine McCoy; Algis Mickunas
Plan continuation error is grounded in progressive commitment. This brief discussion utilizes an alternative, complementary methodology to explore the relationship of context to plan fixation in plan continuation error. This study augments a more comprehensive, data-based research effort that seeks to identify how context contributes to General Aviation pilot errors in weather-related decision-making. Context should be broadly considered as a complex configuration of relevant events or phenomenon that may be considered the domain within which the pilot makes the weather-related decision.
Error-Challenging Strategies: Their Role in Preventing and Correcting Errors BIBAFull-Text 30-33
  Ute Fischer; Judith Orasanu
Two studies were conducted to identify effective communication strategies for calling attention to problems and getting action on them from other crew members. In Study 1, pilots in both crew positions relied primarily on one status-consistent strategy to request action of another crew member: Captains generally preferred to use commands, while first officers predominantly used hints. However, when asked to rate the effectiveness of various strategies in Study 2, captains and first officers favored communications that appealed to the crew concept rather than to any particular status-based model.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Engineering Methods [Research]

A Model of Communication in Support of Distributed Anomaly Response and Replanning BIBAFull-Text 34-37
  Renee Chow; Klaus Christoffersen; David D. Woods
This paper proposes a descriptive model of the contents of communication among distributed practitioners engaged in the cognitive work of anomaly response and replanning. The model was used for a re-analysis of data on coordinative activities in response to an anomaly in a past space shuttle mission, and for a new analysis of log-based communication among flight controllers during normal space station operations. The model was found to be useful for supporting the discovery of patterns in communication among practitioners in complex work domains by providing a "coding scheme" that transforms domain-specific data into domain-independent protocols. The results of these model-based analyses have important implications for the design of computer-supported cooperative work.
Analysis of Cognitive Attitudes to Commercial Films on basis of Eye Tracking Data BIBAFull-Text 38-41
  Hirotaka Aoki; Kenji Itoh
The present paper proposes a method for analyzing viewers' cognitive attitudes to commercial films (CF) on TV based on the eye-movement recording (EMR) technique and scenario description of a CF. In this method, a scenario is described in a time-line transition of displaying CF ingredients in a scene. CF ingredients are classified into three groups in terms of involvement of advertised claims: direct claimed items, indirect claimed items and no-claim involved items. This classification allows us not only to provide with a framework for analyzing EMR data but also to estimate claimed quantity containing a CF. A viewer's EMR data during watching a CF is transcribed according to this scenario description scheme. His/her cognitive attitudes to a particular CF are analyzed mainly based on two attitudinal measurements that can be generated by the EMR transcription combined with the scenario description. One measurement, effective gaze ratio, is relating to how intensively a viewer watches a CF. The other measurement, claim perception ratio, is an index for estimating how well a viewer acquires claims or messages regarding an advertised product, service or organization from the commercial film.
   A series of experiments were carried out with four subjects to obtain their eye-movement data using an ASL 4000 tracking system. Each subject performed six CF-watching sessions each of which was conducted on a different day using the same sixteen commercial films. The proposed method was applied to the experimental data to analyze the viewer's cognitive patterns to CF's. The obtained cognitive attitudes are discussed from relations between their individual attributes such as watching style of CF's and daily TV watching hours. Based on these results, we mentioned some implications on design parameters of CF's such as frequency of changing scene, and effects of celebrity.
Considering Individual Differences in Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 42-44
  Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimaraes; Jose Luis Duarte Ribeiro
This paper describes a project conducted to evaluate the mental representations of the three people involved with a real life supervisory control system i.e., operators, experts and designers. Each personas mental model of the supervisory system was derived from the "commented drawing" technique, i.e., the drawing and the explanation given when the subject was asked about the system's functioning and operation. The comparison of the drawings could provide an idea whether subjects have different concepts about the functioning and operation of the same system. It is clear that experts engineers and operators have different ideas about the functioning and operation of the same system.
A New Differential Access Hypothesis: Exploring the effect of working Memory Demands on the Validity of Knowledge Acquisition Techniques BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Deane Cheatham; Sharolyn Converse; Todd Barlow; Susan Kahler
The differential hypothesis predicts that some knowledge acquisition techniques are most efficient at capturing either declarative or procedural knowledge. The type of knowledge captured may also be impacted by the type of working memory evoked by the knowledge acquisition technique and by the performance task. In the present study, the type of working memory evoked by a knowledge acquisition technique and by a spatial or verbal task were matched or mismatched. It was hypothesized that a match between the type of working memory evoked by the knowledge acquisition technique and by the performance task would improve the predictive validity of models captured by knowledge acquisition. Card sorting and a verbal task were expected to evoke echoic working memory, while conceptual graphing and a spatial task were expected to evoke iconic working memory. The predictive validity of each knowledge acquisition method for each task type was evaluated by calculating correlations between knowledge acquisition data and task errors. Study results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between card sorting and verbal task errors, and between conceptual graphing and spatial task errors. The correlations between conceptual graphing and verbal task errors, and between card sorting and spatial task errors were not significant. These findings indicate that card sorting was valid for capturing knowledge of verbal but not visual information, while conceptual graphing was valid for capturing knowledge of visual but not verbal information.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Mental Models [Single-Session Symposium]

The Place and value of Mental Models BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  John R. Wilson
This symposium is concerned to assess the current status and value of the mental model notion in human factors/ergonomics. These themes will be critically assessed in this paper, in particular questioning whether the notion is accounted for by other ideas and theories.
The Effect of Different Styles of Human-Machine Interaction on the Nature of Operator Mental Models BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Neville Moray; Colleen Butler
The well-known Sheridan and Verplank scale of human-machine interaction suggests that there will be considerable differences in the kind of mental model operators will acquire of systems which they control. This paper reports the use of observing responses and Markov modelling to try to identify such differences in mental models. The method detects differences in the way in which operators allocate attention to aspects of the system as a function of the Sheridan-Verplank level of interaction. Such differences are believed to reflect differences in the causal properties embodied in the mental models.
Analyzing Shared Mental Models BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Janice Langan-Fox; Anthony Wirth; Sharon Code; Kim Langfield-Smith; Andrew Wirth
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the notion of shared cognition and team mental models (Klimoski & Mohammed, 1994). While a number of techniques have been developed to measure mental model similarity dyadically, team mental model measurement has eluded researchers. This presents a problem for the evolution of the team mental model concept in psychology and the establishment of its validity, for example, as a predictor of team performance. The primary aim of this paper is to describe the application of randomization tests as a new method for measuring mental model similarity at the team-level, that is the measurement of team mental models.
Situation Models: An Avenue to the Modeling of Mental Models BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Mica R. Endsley
The concept of a mental model is well ensconced in the human factors literature. Mental models are used to explain a wide variety of human behavior and designers are directed to design to fit the mental model of the user. Its real utility in practical application remains beyond our grasp, however, due to significant difficulties in creating usable representations of these mental models that can provide descriptive and predictive capabilities. This paper explores the concept of mental models and a highly related concept, the situation model. Through the situation model, a method for abstracting user knowledge and creating usable models of their mental model is explored. This technique shows promise as a means of more effectively capturing this elusive construct.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Performance in Teams [Research]

Agent-Based Aiding for individual and Team Planning Tasks BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  Terri L. Lenox; Terry Payne; Susan Hahn; Michael Lewis; Katia Sycara
Intelligent aiding strategies were evaluated for a team planning task. The MokSAF interface agent links an Artificial Intelligence (AI) route planning agent to a Geographic Information System (GIS). Through this agent, the user specifies a start and an end point, and describes the composition and characteristics of a military platoon. Two aided conditions and one non-aided condition were examined. In the first aided condition, a route-planning agent determines a minimum cost path between the specified end points. The user is allowed to define additional "intangible" constraints that describe situational or social information. In the second aided condition the same knowledge of the terrain is used to plot the best route within bounds specified by the user. In the control condition the user draws a route without help. The reported study found across the board advantages for agent-based aiding when routes were merged in a team-planning task.
Field Study to Evaluate Models of Team Decision-Making BIBAFull-Text 69-72
  David W. Roberts; Christine M. Mitchell; David A. Thurman; Alan R. Chappell
Teams are often critical components of complex systems. Moreover, design of intelligent team training and aids depends on robust computational team models. To date, however, research has focused on computational models of individual decision-makers. No general computational team models exist. Models that do exist are typically quite primitive and restricted in domain of application. (Pew & Mayor, 1998) Thus, flexible, scalable, computational models of team decision making are urgently needed. In this paper, we describe a field study and proposed modeling extensions to the OFM/OFMspert methodology to represent team decision making. Specifically, this paper describes an initial extension of an OFM/OFMspert model for air traffic management (ATM), modeling the interaction between airline dispatchers and pilots-in-command of individual aircraft.
Assessing Team Situation Awareness in Simulated Military Missions BIBAFull-Text 73-76
  Eileen B. Entin; Elliot E. Entin
We developed a measure of team situation awareness (SA) to capture team members' shared mental model of the team. The measure assesses the congruence among team members about what actions they were performing at salient events during a simulated mission. We used this measure in a research program investigating adaptive architectures for command and control (A2C2). As hypothesized, the measure of team SA was positively correlated with team performance and process measures in three A2C2 experiments in which it was used. The relationship between team SA and a teamwork measure that is comprised of such underlying team processes as coordination behavior and communication behavior supports the underlying premise of a link between team mental models and team SA. Team SA was negatively correlated with a measure of team workload, suggesting that increased levels of workload adversely affect team SA.
Effect of Communication Medium on Virtual Design Teams' Workload BIBAFull-Text 77-80
  Janeen Hammond; Craig M. Harvey; Richard J. Koubek
The movement toward distributed collaborative work groups or virtual teams by organizations has initiated a myriad of questions specific to human factors research. Distributed team members, linked through technological interfaces, may vary in location, discipline, company loyalties, and culture. While virtual teams are necessary in this environment of time compression, distributed resources, increasing dependence on knowledge-based input, and the integration of information and telecommunication technologies, there is an increasing need to understand factors influencing distributed work group performance. Communication research has demonstrated that as communication signals are narrowed by medium restraints, the communication process changes and group members adopt new communication strategies. This study hypothesized that a group's mental workload would increase as the communication bandwidth was constrained. Results show that audio and video groups did not perceive significantly different overall workloads; however, both exceeded that of face-to-face groups.
Team Decision-Making Strategies: Implications for Designing the Interface in Complex Tasks BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Sheryl L. Miller; Leonard Adelman; E. DeVere Henderson; Michael Schoelles; Cedric Yeo
Two longitudinal experiments were designed to challenge teams performing a time-critical aircraft identification task (Team Argus). In the first experiment, it was predicted that teams would use different strategies to maintain performance across increasing levels of time pressure. However, at some point these strategies would become inadequate, and performance would not be recoverable. The identification of these critical temporal stress levels and strategies suggested interface design modifications that would help teams maintain performance longer. The findings obtained were then used to inform improved interface designs, that would mediate the effects of time pressure. The successfulness of these interface changes were evaluated in the second experiment, comparing team performance on the same task using perceptually-aided and cognitively-aided interfaces and the original un-aided interface.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Automation Design [Research]

Distance: A Metric for Flight Deck Design and Function Allocation BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Paul C. Schutte
Designing the appropriate level of automation has always been difficult. Too much automation and the human operator may become cognitively disjoint from the task at hand. Too little automation and the operator may be overwhelmed by the task of translating higher level goals into lower level commands. This paper builds on research in the topic areas of human-centered design, levels of automation, and function allocation to provide a lexicon of metaphors and metrics to be used for setting context dependent interface points. This lexicon is explicated using examples from commercial aviation.
Journey's End: Will Vehicle Automation make skilled Drivers Redundant BIBAFull-Text 89-92
  Mark S. Young; Neville A. Stanton
Recent advances in technology have meant that an increasing number of vehicle driving tasks are becoming automated. Such automation poses new problems for the human factors specialist, with particular concern about the effects of automation on driving performance. A body of research is building up which suggests that drivers cannot recover from automation failure, yet they can cope with a similarly critical scenario in manual driving. The current paper investigates whether recovery from automation failure is affected by level of driver skill. Learner drivers were compared to expert drivers under two levels of automation, with a failure of longitudinal control in each condition. Clear differences in response patterns were found, with more experts and fewer learners responding to the failure under high levels of automation. It is concluded that the issue of skill with automation is one which requires more attention than is currently forthcoming from the human factors community.
Levels of Automation in Process Control BIBAFull-Text 93-96
  Neville Moray; Daniel Rodriguez; Ben Clegg
Although the Sheridan-Verplank Scale to describe levels and modes of human-machine interaction has existed for more than 20 years little systematic work has been done to evaluate the properties of the different levels. This paper describes the first stages of a program to compare Sheridan-Verplank level, system reliability, and quality of automated assistance on productivity, trust, operator self-confidence, and fault management in process control.
Human Factors issues in Implementation of AA to Complex Systems BIBAFull-Text 97-100
  Kheng-Wooi Tan; David B. Kaber; Jennifer M. Riley; Mica R. Endsley
This paper presents a constrained review of human factors issues relevant to adaptive automation (AA) including designing complex system interfaces to support AA, facilitating human-computer interaction and crew interactions in adaptive system operations, and considering workloads associated with AA management in the design of human roles in adaptive systems. This work is intended to compliment earlier reviews, which have offered detailed information on topics central to AA (including dynamic function allocation strategies and triggering methods). The review demonstrates the need for research into user-centered design of dynamic displays in adaptive systems. It also points to the need for discretion in designing transparent interfaces to facilitate human awareness of modes of automated systems. Finally, the review identifies the need to consider critical human-human (or crew) interactions as well as AA induced operator workload in designing adaptive systems. This work describes important branches of a developing framework of AA and contributes to the general theory of human-centered automation.
Effect of Intelligent Instruction on Students' Mental Models and Performance BIBAFull-Text 101-104
  Susan E. Kahler; Sharolyn A. Converse; James Lester; Deane Cheatham; Gary Stelling
The effects of two types of Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction (ICAI) and a non-intelligent tutoring system on the development of students' mental models and on performance was explored. One of the two ICAI systems provided both principle-based and task specific advice while the other provided task specific advice only. The non-intelligent CAI provided no advice. The problems presented to students increased in difficulty as the student progressed. It was hypothesized that the mental models of students who interacted with the ICAI that provided both principle-based and task specific advice would be most similar in structure to a "gold standard" model, and that these students would also exhibit the best performance. It was also hypothesized that students who were exposed to the ICAI that provided only task specific advice would perform better, and exhibit more accurate and detailed mental models than would students who interacted with the CAI that provided no advice. Study results indicated that students in both ICAI conditions achieved a higher similarity index, fewer errors, and faster task time, than did students in the no advice group. However, there was no significant difference between the two ICAIs for any of these measures. There was a significant interaction between version and problem difficulty for task time. As problem difficulty increased, task time increased for both of the two ICAI conditions, but not for the no-advice condition. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the predictive validity of the Pathfinder measure, and in terms of the appropriate use and design of ICAI.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Situation Awareness Measurement and Modeling [Research]

A Methodology for Measuring the Judgmental Components of Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Richard Strauss; Alex Kirlik
Situation awareness (SA) research has highlighted many important problems concerning the ability of operators to cope with opaque interfaces in complex systems. This same research, however, has shown that SA can be extremely difficult to measure. We therefore provide a methodology for measuring one functional aspect of SA: the operator's ability to judge the state of the task environment on the basis of uncertain information. The approach is based on Judgment Analysis and Brunswik's lens model and its modern extensions.
Evaluation of a Computational Model of Situational Awareness BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Mark D. Burdick; R. Jay Shively
Although the use of the psychological construct of situational awareness (SA) assists researchers in creating a flight environment that is safer and more predictable, its true potential remains untapped until a valid means of predicting SA a priori becomes available. Previous work proposed a computational model of SA (CSA) that sought to fill that void. The current line of research is aimed at validating that model. The results show that the model accurately predicted SA in a piloted simulation.
An Exploratory Investigation of Relationships between Situation Awareness and Performance in an Attack Helicopter Domain BIBAFull-Text 113-115
  Eileen B. Entin
As part of a research program studying display concepts to increase tactical situation awareness (SA) in the attack helicopter domain we investigated the relationship between SA and performance. In order to test this relationship empirically, we developed two measures of SA that could be assessed independently of performance, a detailed measure and a high-level measure. In three phases of a simulated attack helicopter mission the detailed measure, but not the high-level measure, was significantly correlated with a measure of performance. The results offer conditional empirical support for a relationship between SA and performance.
Cognitive Integration: A Study of How Decision Makers Construct Understanding in Evolving Contexts BIBAFull-Text 116-119
  Lawrence G. Shattuck; John M. Graham; James L. Merlo; Sehchang Hah
Technology provides military decision makers with more data than they can possibly use. Commanders and staffs must sort through and combine relevant data to develop understanding. This process, which we call cognitive integration, was investigated in a tactical simulation using 21 experienced active duty Army officers (former battalion commanders) and 21 novice officers (no battalion command experience) as participants. Quantitative and qualitative data yielded significant differences between the experienced and novice groups. In addition, data analysis led to the development of several important design principles that will be used to build a decision aid prototype to assist commanders in integrating data.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Engineering Design [Research]

Designing Soft Controls for Process Control BIBAFull-Text 120-123
  Diego Y. Rivera
The design of soft controls involves understanding the control characteristic of process components, identifying the cognitive tasks involved in executing control actions and then selecting the appropriate process information required to support operators in performing these tasks. Based on this analysis, soft control windows should be designed to include physical and functional support information, control preconditions and the alarm state of all indications. This information should be integrated with the current state of the equipment and its associated control mechanisms.
Testing the Impact of Instrumentation Location and Reliability on Ecological Interface Design: Control Performance BIBAFull-Text 124-127
  Dal Vernon C. Reising; Penelope M. Sanderson
Recent research has shown that an ecological interface for a simulated pasteurization plant leads to most effective failure diagnosis performance only if the interface is supported by an adequate set of sensors. In this investigation we examine the effect of interface on control performance, focusing especially on between-subjects variability in control actions taken and state variable values. Results provide some support for the idea that when the interface is supported by an adequate set of sensors, an ecological interface produces less between-subjects variability in the values of higher-order state variables, but more between-subjects variability in the number of control actions taken. We interpret these findings to indicate that when goals and higher-order properties of a system are revealed through effective interface design, the degrees of freedom for action at lower levels are more fully exploited, which is all the better to achieve the higher-order purposes of control.
Usability Evaluation of a New User Interface for an Infusion Pump Developed with a Human Factors Approach BIBAFull-Text 128-131
  Karin Garmer; Erik Liljegren; Anna-Lisa Osvalder; Sven Dahlman
In medical care, the infusion pump is one of the most common pieces of technical equipment and it is often involved in handling-incidents. In order to improve usability and reduce errors, a new user interface for an infusion pump has been designed with a human factors approach. The purpose of this study was to determine if the new interface could reduce the number of handling-errors and problems, and to find out if the interface needed to be further developed. For this purpose usability tests were performed with nurses at three different hospital wards. The results showed that the number of mode errors and arisen problems were reduced for the new interface compared to the existing interface. However, the usability tests showed that there is still a potential to improve the new interface further. The results also showed that the number of errors was very high when handling these infusion pumps. This is an indication of that this area is important to study further. A conclusion was that usability testing is an important complement when redesigning interfaces with a human factors approach.
Setting the Requirements for a User-Friendly Infusion Pump BIBAFull-Text 132-135
  Erik Liljegren; Anna-Lisa Osvalder; Sven Dahlman
The infusion pump is a commonly used piece of equipment at the Intensive Care Unit. The pumps often are from different manufacturers and have different handling characteristics. The ICU is a dynamic environment, with periods of calm interrupted by periods of very high activity and mental load. Infusion pumps are often involved in reported incidents. The purpose of this study was to set requirements for a user interface for an infusion pump using a systematic human factors approach. The method used consisted of field studies at an ICU, a critical evaluation of two pumps presently used at this ICU and an analysis of reported incidents which involved infusion pumps. Both pumps in the evaluation had a number of latent errors. Two types of incidents relating directly to the user interface were found, both of which could be traced back to latent errors. A number of requirements were set with the purpose of reducing the risks of the two types of incidents occurring and reducing the mental load of the user. Using these requirements, a new interface for an existing volumetric pump was designed.
VTS Operator Performance and acceptance of a Short-Term Path Prediction Display in a Low Density Traffic Area BIBAFull-Text 136-139
  Erik Wiersma; Dominic Jarvis; Goran Granholm
Vessel traffic management and control systems are employed to ensure the safety and efficiency of maritime traffic. In search for optimal support of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators in performing their task, tools are developed continuously. This paper describes how the real users of the systems (VTS operators and managers) were involved in the design and testing of new tools. This was achieved by creating a user forum for discussing the results of the research. At the same time a performance based method for measuring situation awareness of VTS operators (SATest) was developed tested and implemented.
   As an example of the procedure used, one such tool is presented. The tool tested in this experiment is a path prediction tool for VTS use in a non-dense traffic area -- (the Finnish archipelago). The tool predicts the future path position of vessels one-minute ahead. To see whether this tool could have implications for grounding avoidance monitoring by VTS, it was presented to the user forum and tested using SATest. This paper presents the results of the tests.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Processes [Research]

A Study on basic Metaphors in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 140-143
  Eric Min-yang Wang; Alan Yu-hsing Huang
The use of metaphors in the design of human-computer interaction (HCI) has been increasing as the graphic user interfaces (GUIs) have become popular in recent years. The main advantage of using metaphors in HCI design is to utilize and extend the concepts that already exist in computer users' long-term memory, to analog represent the functions and operations of the computer systems and reduce the users' mental workload. Therefore, the efficiency of an HCI and the usability of a computer system may largely determined by the appropriateness of the metaphors used. This study collected and analyzed a number of existing HCI metaphors and developed guidelines for determining basic metaphors that should be used in the design of HCI to maximize the intelligibility and minimize the intended users' mental workload. As a conclusion, basic metaphors should have four important properties: (1) The source of basic metaphors must be from the intended users' knowledge domain. (2) The intelligibility of visual metaphors determines the correctness of the user's responses. (3) The operational features of metaphorical components should be the same as those of metaphor sources. (4) The metaphors used in a specific human-computer interface should be of the same conceptual domain.
Studies on Endogenous and Exogenous Visual Selective Attention BIBAFull-Text 144-147
  Chen Zhao; Kan Zhang; Huahai Yang
Studies of mechanisms underling orienting of attention in visual space usually provide subjects with advance cues. These cues indicate the probable locations of targets to facilitate localizing and discriminating the targets. Direct peripheral cues and symbolic central cues are believed to activate different exogenous and endogenous modes of orienting. To further investigate the possibility of auditory symbolic cues to activate endogenous visual selective attention, three experiments are presented in this paper. Experiment 1 compared visual and auditory symbolic cues. Results showed that valid auditory cues come with inhibition rather than facilitation at Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) shorter than 500ms, while valid visual cues showed significant facilitation even at the shortest SOA (100ms). At longer SOA, both cue show facilitation. It was suggested that there exists a super-modal mechanism, but the visual and sound cues have important difference in activating visual selective activities. Experiment 2 tested the effect of a peripheral cue on the discrimination of targets with different eccentricities. Results showed that the peripheral onset captured attention involuntarily and the spatial-temporal character was more consistent with the hypothesis of a spotlight model of attention shift than that of a zoom-lens model or a spatial gradient model. The attention spotlight needed 25 ms to move 1 visual degree. Experiment 3 presented the peripheral onset following either visual or sound symbolic cues, and showed that a peripheral onset could not capture attention when attention was focused on locations incompatible with the onset location. When the peripheral onset was consistent with the cue, facilitation in reaction time was found. The difference between visual and sound cues was also found. The study findings might contribute in improving computer displays designed to special and complex environment.
Keeping North in Mind: How Navigators reason about Cardinal Directions BIBAFull-Text 148-151
  Leo Gugerty; Daniel deBoom; Joseph C. Jenkins; Rebecca Morley
An experiment was conducted to test whether misalignment effects found when people use maps to determine left and right turns also occur when they make cardinal-direction judgments. Prior research has shown that when an egocentric reference frame, such as a map, is misaligned with a person's egocentric reference frame, people take longer to determine left and right turns. Using both a static task and a dynamic, flight-simulator task, this experiment showed that when exocentric (map) and egocentric reference frames are misaligned, cardinal-direction judgments can be severely impaired, more so than direction-of-turn judgments. Analysis of participants' verbal protocols suggests that people use both mental rotation and non-rotational strategies in making cardinal-direction judgments.
Managing Attention by preparing to Forget BIBAFull-Text 152-155
  Erik M. Altmann; Wayne D. Gray
In dynamic task environments, human operators must update their memory for what is true of the current situation. This updating depends on forgetting old information, and this forgetting in turn places constraints on how an item is encoded in the first place -- the cognitive system must prepare to forget. Functional decay theory accurately predicts how long this preparation takes -- concentrated use of an item for about 5 sec requires an additional 1 sec for initial encoding. This quantitative prediction illustrates the potential of functional decay theory for evaluating cognitive workload.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Aspects of Dynamic Situation Management [Single-Session Symposium]

Cognitive Aspects of Dynamic Situation Management BIBFull-Text 156
  Jean-Michel Hoc
About the Planning Difficulties in Managing Dynamic Environments BIBAFull-Text 157-160
  A. Van Daele; F. Carpinelli
Over the past 15 years a growing of European studies has led to an emphasis on managing dynamic environments in the laboratory (micro worlds) and in natural situations (field studies). This paper underlines the main planning demands linked to the dynamicity of the environment. It puts in evidence an invariant result from numerous empirical studies : the reduction of complexity by the operator. This reduction makes it at the same time possible to decrease the demands of the situation and to increase the cognitive resources available to master it. Two main strategies to reduce the complexity are described: the strategies that narrow the spatiotemporal field and the ones that broaden this field. These strategies are linked to the expertise of the operator and to the dynamic characteristics of the situation. Some implications in the design of computer supports are suggested.
Task Analysis does count in making the Abstraction Hierarchy Concrete: Evidence from a Pressurized Water Reactor Situation BIBAFull-Text 161-164
  Patrice Terrier; Jean-Marie Cellier; Ophelie Carreras
Proponents of the Ecological Interface Design framework have recently highlighted two important assumptions: (a) the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) would only be a representation of the work domain, not a task representation; (b) the development of an ecological display that presents information at different levels of abstraction should be based on a full implementation of the Abstraction Hierarchy. However, as revealed by our field studies, these assumptions might dismiss the role of task analysis in making the AH concrete. First, the presentation of mass balance and energy balance in an ecological display is important because these kinds of equilibrium constitute what the operator should maintain. Second, the use of an AH and its implementation in an effective work situation will probably be state-specific. Important parameters to be monitored, mass and energy balances that should be assessed, change as a function of the overall state of the process.
Cognitive Cooperation in Dynamic Situations: Lessons Drawn from Fighter Aircraft Piloting and Air-Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 165-168
  Jean-Michel Hoc; Anthony Loiselet; Rene Amalberti
In many dynamic situations, which are highly goal directed and temporally constrained, most of the cooperation difficulties (e.g., problems between humans and automation) can be reasonably addressed by adopting a cognitive viewpoint. Cooperation is taken as the management of interference between individual activities to facilitate the team members' subtasks and the team's common task when there is one. Thus, planning models are of great relevance in identifying cooperation difficulties and supporting cooperative activities. Studies on individual activity in dynamic situations have stressed the importance of the elaboration and maintenance of a current representation of the situation, (an extension of situation awareness). The concept of COFOR (common frame of reference) generalises this idea to teams. Two series of results drawn from rapid process control situations where there is insufficient time to converse at length (air traffic control and double seat fighter aircraft) show that COFOR activities are first invested into the recall and confirmation of plan, task allocation, and decisions at key points before action completion The investment in prevention reduces the risk of fatal interference, or missed action.
Training and Development of Expertise in Dynamic Situation Management BIBAFull-Text 169-172
  Renan Samurcay
A constructivist model of expertise development in dynamic situation management is described with the aim of contribution on training design and management. Four dimensions of the activity are considered: planning, temporality, cooperation and working with tools. Competence behind the expertise is described as an interaction of various types of knowledge such as conceptual structure of task, individual and collective resource management and instrumental knowledge. The cognitive difficulties encountered by learners are analyzed for each dimension. Some issues such as conceptual models and support for reflexive activity in training design and management are discussed.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Situation Awareness Design and Analysis [Research]

Intent Recognition and Situation Awareness in Transport Activities BIBAFull-Text 173-176
  Sophie Dusire; Christophe Munduteguy
Driving a car or piloting a plane are both activities taking place in a dynamic and shared environment. Sharing the environment will generate more or less interactions between protagonists. Those interactions might modify the context. The awareness of such dynamic situation imply both to identify other's current action, and to anticipate their intentions. Through two studies, results confirm the building process underlying operator's situation awareness during the activity and presents new requirements for the future embarked information systems.
Effects of Experience and Uncertainty during Dynamic Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 177-180
  David A. Kobus; Steven Holste
This study investigated decision response times in dynamic tactical scenarios in which participants interacted with a virtual command post environment. Fifty-two Marines were asked to observe a tactical situation and to formulate a battle plan as quickly as possible. Two scenarios differing in the level of information certainty were presented. Participants were required to assess a developing situation, determine the tactical leverage point, form a plan of action, and issue battle orders. Results show that situation assessment time was significantly greater for the High Experience group than the Low Experience group. However, once situational assessment was complete, the selection of a course of action was significantly faster for the High Experience group. In addition, the time needed to execute a course of action was significantly less for the highly experienced individuals under conditions of high uncertainty, However, under conditions of low uncertainty, level of experience produced no statistically significant differences in response execution. Results suggest that information processing for situation assessment and response selection may become more parallel or overlap as content domain experience increases.
Vibrotactile Displays for Improving Spatial Awareness BIBAFull-Text 181-184
  Anil K. Raj; Steven J. Kass; James F. Perry
This paper discusses the effects of tactile cueing on performance in a fixed base simulated helicopter hover task. Sixteen active-duty military helicopter pilots participated in a repeated measures two minute stationary hover test. Participants performed the hover task under four treatment conditions; tactile cueing (on/off) and secondary arithmetic task (on/off). Following each 2-minute hover, participants reported subjective situation awareness using the five point China Lake Situation Awareness Scale (CLSA). Total time on target improved with tactile cueing with a significant task by display interaction. Performance on the arithmetic task remained consistent across conditions and no significant change was seen on CLSA scores between the tactile/no tactile conditions. Results demonstrate that tactile cues can be used to improve performance in spatial tasks, such as hovering a helicopter, especially in the presence of distracting secondary workload tasks. The lack of a significant difference in SA scores may be more related to the pilots' overall high confidence in their SA, despite their variation in performance, and highlights some of the difficulties encountered when attempting to measure SA.
Situation Awareness Problems in General Aviation BIBAFull-Text 185-188
  Richard W. C. Shook; Marco Bandiero; John P. Coello; Daniel J. Garland; Mica R. Endsley
Situation awareness (SA) is widely recognized as critical to success in the aviation environment. Most research to date has focused on SA in highly experienced military or commercial airline pilots. Yet, general aviation (GA) pilots, usually far less experienced and trained, fall prey to the vast majority of aviation accidents. Fifty-eight experienced flight instructors completed a survey on SA problems in GA operations. It found a wide range of SA problems across GA pilots at various levels of experience and in all phases of flight, although some factors appear to become less problematic with experience. Areas where problems are the most acute are identified and recommendations are made for improving SA in GA pilots.
The Effect of Task Load and Shared Displays on Team Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 189-192
  Cheryl A. Bolstad; Mica R. Endsley
In this study, we empirically tested the effects of two types of shared displays and varying workload levels on the formation of team situation awareness (SA). Results support the use of certain types of shared displays for enhancing team performance. The way in which people use shared displays is actually quite complex and related to the workload level. The use of an abstracted shared display was found to be beneficial for enhancing team performance, while the use of shared displays that completely duplicated the other team members displays were found to be detrimental. Under low workload levels, no performance enhancements or problems were found associated with either shared display type. In high and moderate workload conditions, the significant benefits of the abstracted shared display were most apparent. Changes in team interaction style were found to accompany the use of the different types of shared displays. This study supports a model of Team SA and expands on previous research on shared displays.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Work Analysis: Research and Applications [Single-Session Symposium]

Cognitive Work Analysis: Research and Applications BIBAFull-Text 193
  Kim J. Vicente
This symposium describes research motivated by cognitive work analysis, a framework for the analysis, modeling, design, and evaluation of complex sociotechnical systems. This discussant's overview describes some of the themes that cut across the four papers in the symposium.
The Abstraction Hierarchy and its Extension beyond process Control BIBAFull-Text 194-197
  Dal Vernon C. Reising
Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy -- more recently called the abstraction-decomposition space (ADS) -- has been used for years within the process control domain and is increasingly being used to analyze and model 'intentional' systems. The ADS has been the basis for Work Domain Analysis and Ecological Interface Design. However, the researchers new to the 'Danish' approach to cognitive engineering have often found using the ADS to be difficult and confusing, particularly when applying it to systems outside process control. A 'new' set of labels associated with the five levels of the means-ends dimension of the ADS are suggested. These new labels suggest a much tighter logical relation between means-ends levels and thereby make it more clear what characteristics, functions, and resources of a domain belong at what level of abstraction. Second, an illustration of how these new labels might extend the ADS to intentional systems will be presented and discussed.
The Use of Work Domain Analysis for the Design of Training Systems BIBAFull-Text 198-201
  Gavan Lintern; Neelam Naikar
In this paper we argue that specifications for training equipment must be based on statements of mission-system functionality. To develop a good description of functionality is a difficult technical challenge, and the methodology of Work Domain Analysis has been developed for that purpose. However, a Work Domain Analysis does not fully specify the devices that are needed for training. Other forms of analysis and inference are needed to resolve issues of criticality, instructional functions, implementation of functions in a training device, and fidelity of training device features. In this paper we explain the means of moving from functional requirements as developed by a Work Domain Analysis to specifications for training equipment.
Evaluating Design Proposals with Work Domain Analysis BIBAFull-Text 202-205
  Neelam Naikar; Penelope M. Sanderson
A demanding task in procuring complex military platforms is determining whether proposed designs will function effectively in the relevant work context. Conventional evaluation methods offer a limited perspective that focuses on the technical performance of designs in a small range of predictable mission scenarios. In this paper, we advocate Work Domain Analysis, a technique which describes the functions, priorities and values, and purposes of a work domain independently of particular scenarios. This framework focuses the evaluation of designs on functional properties that are relevant to a wide variety of situations, including unanticipated contingencies. Work Domain Analysis also offers a useful framework for examining human-system integration solutions. We illustrate how these concepts were used by the Australian Defence Force for the procurement of an Airborne Early Warning and Control system.
Temporal Coordination Control Task analysis for analysing Human-System Integration BIBAFull-Text 206-209
  Penelope M. Sanderson; Neelam Naikar
Evaluating whether prospective air defense systems will effectively integrate the activities of humans and computers is a pressing issue for developers and purchasers of such systems. We need effective ways of modeling human-system integration while such systems are under development and while the possibilities for action are underspecified. We present a Cognitive Work Analysis-based analytic framework under development for characterising air defense control tasks and also for characterising the larger framework in which such control tasks must be coordinated. The challenge is to produce a formative rather than descriptive or normative model, within which broad logical and temporal constraints can be represented, so revealing possibilities for action as events unfold.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Auditory Warning Signals: New Concepts and Approaches [Single-Session Symposium]

Auditory Warning Signals: New Concepts and Approaches BIBAFull-Text 210
  Yan Xiao; F. Jacob Seagull
The importance of auditory warning signals has long been recognized by designers, yet the design of current auditory warnings are often cited as fundamentally flawed by numerous shortcomings. This symposium, using the medical domain as the context, begins by introducing the status quo and trends in auditory warning design, and discusses the current problems within this setting. We continue with a presentation of the efforts of the International Organization for Standards (ISO) to improve auditory warnings for current and future medical devices. Informative auditory signals are discussed in the final two presentations, focusing first on techniques using "earcons," "sonification," in general, and then examining how these continuous and intermittent auditory warnings and informative displays could support the users' tasks.
Auditory Warnings in the Medical Work Domain: An Overview of Critical Issues BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Matthew B. Weinger
This presentation provides an overview of domain specific and more general issues critical to the successful design of auditory warnings for medical devices. Successful design requires a thorough understanding of the unique aspects of the medical environment as well as an appreciation of the varied needs and abilities of the diverse user population (e.g., physicians, nurses, patients, etc.). Auditory warnings in the medical arena should not only assist in event detection but also facilitate diagnosis and treatment. False alarms remain an important concern. Many clinical devices now employ integrated or centralized warning strategies, and standardized auditory tones. With these devices, it is necessary to observe the visual display to mentally discern and prioritize all active warnings. A better approach in some circumstances may be the use of novel information containing warnings (e.g., "earcons" or encoded auditory displays). Additionally, there is a need for more "intelligent" warnings based on patient- and situation-(context) specific information. Adjusting warning thresholds as each patient's condition evolves would decrease false alarms, mitigate noise pollution, and reduce user's stress and workload. Regardless, a user-centered HFE design process should be used whereby all proposed auditory warnings are designed in an iterative fashion with continuous user input and evaluation, including rigorous testing by HFE professionals of end-users in the expected use environment.
Standardization of Interface Design for Medical Devices: International Electrotechnical Commission and International Organization for Standardization Medical Alarm Systems BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  John Hedley-Whyte; David S. Sheridan
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 9703-1 addresses only visual aspects of alarms and defines alarm categories and visual indicators and degrees of urgency. The approach taken is to limit the proliferation of different alarms in order to avoid confusion and minimize the distraction of hospital staff not directly responsible for devices that are in the alarmed condition. ISO 9703-2 addresses auditory alarms. The purpose is to specify the auditory component of alarm signals to be used to draw attention to the fact that the medical device has detected a disturbance and to indicate the degree of urgency. Some of the criteria considered during development of the sounds include optimal signal recognition in a relatively noisy environment, maximum transmission of information at the lowest practicable sound pressure level, ease of learning and retention by operators who have to respond to the various signals, and perceived urgency of the sounds. ISO 9703-3 deals with the allocation of alarm principles. To allocate a priority to a particular alarm it is necessary to evaluate the risk to the patient of the event that the alarm indicates. A Joint Working Group of ISO and IEC is considering the application of similar principles to all medical devices with a view to consideration in the upcoming third edition of IEC 60601-1, Medical Electrical Equipment -- Part I -- General Requirements for safety.
A Design for Auditory Display BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Meera M. Blattner
Auditory messages in home, office, and medical environments consist of little more than beeps, bells, and buzzers. Warning signals are particularly inappropriate for these environments because they startle, annoy, but do not inform listeners as to the source of the difficulty. As home automation becomes prevalent, unpleasant sounds will not be tolerated. Earcons are musical sounds that are easy to learn; yet designed to inform listeners of the status of automated systems. We discuss problems such as simultaneous sounds and levels of urgency below.
Auditory Alarms: From Alerting to Informing BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  F. Jacob Seagull; Yan Xiao; Colin F. Mackenzie; Christopher D. Wickens
The current alarm and warning systems in medical domains are integrated into patient monitoring devices and are centered around the concept of alerting operators to potential problems without specifying the specific nature of the problem. In contrast, informative auditory alarms and warning systems have been proposed for next-generation monitoring equipment. These "auditory displays" would present meaningful diagnostic information to care providers while not interrupting their other activities, and not demanding visual attention. Our work has documented the problems in the critical care setting with alarms. We report here the results of observations made during experiments conducted using eye-tracking techniques to determine patterns of information during real and simulated anesthesia cases. We classify monitoring behaviors into four categories of information seeking, and discuss the implications of these behaviors for design of informative auditory displays.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Computer-Based Training and Automation [Research]

GT-CBITS: Addressing change in the Workplace through Computer-Based Training BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Alan R. Chappell; Christine M. Mitchell
Change characterizes complex-dynamic systems, including the practitioners' role and required knowledge. Almost all change in these systems requires training. Moreover, as change is expected to be ongoing, so too will training. GT-CBITS (Georgia Tech Case-Based Intelligent Tutoring System) is an architecture for an intelligent tutor designed to teach highly skilled practitioners in complex-dynamic systems. GT-CBITS uses a case-based teaching approach that allows the training curriculum to be easily extended. This paper discusses some of the capabilities of the tutor and presents an example implementation.
An Apprenticeship Approach for the Development of Operations Automation Knowledge Bases BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  David A. Thurman; Christine M. Mitchell
Operations automation is automation that replaces, wholly or in part, operational activities currently carried out by human controllers in complex systems. It is intended to be neither 'black-box' nor 'human-tended' automation, but rather automation that functions independent of human control and yet still facilitates its inspection and repair as necessary. This paper describes research to develop an apprenticeship approach to developing a knowledge base to support such automation. The result is both a human-centered automation approach and a software architecture, Apprentice, to support this approach. Apprentice enables human operators to create the knowledge base for operations automation by performing their normal control activities. Apprentice watches and compares them with those specified in the knowledge base, noting discrepancies between the knowledge base and operator activities. Graphical knowledge base editing tools are then used -- by the domain practitioners -- to modify, refine, or extend the knowledge base as required to account for the detected discrepancies.
The Importance of Student Models in Intelligent Tutoring for Complex-Dynamic Systems BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Alexander B. Quinn; Christine M. Mitchell; Alan R. Chappell; Wm. Michael Gray
Many computer-based training systems present instruction linearly, with exactly one path through the system that each student must follow. Students have little control over the pace, content branching, or flow of instruction. Student modeling within intelligent tutoring systems addresses these issues by interpreting student behaviors, representing the student's knowledge, and providing personalized instructional content. However, there is disagreement over the necessary content and structure of student models and their general utility. This paper discusses the development of an intelligent tutoring architecture with two instantiations that use sophisticated student models. Similar tutors with scaled-down student models will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the differing student modeling approaches.
The VPROF Tutor: Teaching MD-11 Vertical Profile Navigation using GT-ITACS BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Wm. Michael Gray; Alan R. Chappell; David A. Thurman; Michael T. Palmer; Christine M. Mitchell
The VProf Tutor is a computer-based intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that teaches the use and understanding of vertical profile navigation modes to MD-11 pilots. This ITS is a proof-of-concept implementation of GT-ITACS (Georgia Tech-Intelligent Tutoring Architecture for Complex Systems). GT-ITACS is a domain- and platform-independent intelligent tutoring system shell designed to train operators of complex-dynamic systems. This paper introduces the features of GT-ITACS, using the VProf Tutor to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Human-Centered Computing for Aerospace Applications [Single-Session Symposium]

Human-Centered Computing for Aerospace Applications BIBAFull-Text 243
  Michael G. Shafto; Anthony R. Gross; William J. Clancey
NASA and the aerospace community are embarking on a broad range of new programs that promise to provide greatly enhanced system capability and performance, along with reduced costs for development and operations. The technologies being used to achieve mission and program objectives include intelligent agents and autonomous systems that provide self-directed and goal-oriented behavior. One of the key system-design approaches that will enable such systems is human-centered computing. This design approach seeks to balance mission tasks appropriately between human and machine intelligence, while enhancing unique human performance capabilities.
Human-Centered Computing for NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs BIBAFull-Text 244-247
  Anthony R. Gross; Madeleine M. Gross
NASA is embarking on many aerospace programs that promise to provide greatly enhanced system capability and performance, along with reduced development and operational costs. A principal approach to accomplishing these objectives, human-centered computing, will involve powerful information technologies including human performance modeling capabilities. The new NASA human-centered computing initiative takes a systems perspective, and seeks to leverage and support human intelligence and flexibility with the power and capabilities of increasingly sophisticated machine systems. This perspective promises a changing human-automation systems balance of work and new task allocation strategies. This presentation provides a discussion of the role of human-centered computing in several key advanced NASA aeronautics and space programs, such as the Advanced Air Traffic Technology (AATT) Program, the Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the X-33 Technology Demonstrator Program, and the Mars Pathfinder mission. The new Intelligent Systems (IS) Research Program that supports this approach will also be described.
Human-Automation Interaction: Modeling the Information Environment BIBAFull-Text 248-250
  Michael G. Shafto
Formal models are required to analyze the behavior of human-automation systems. This requirement follows from the number and variety of factors, and of interactions among factors, in such systems. The level of complexity of current and planned human-automation systems defies intuitive analysis. Fortunately, recent advances in the theory and practice of modeling have demonstrated the low cost and substantial benefits of formal analyses of real problems in human-automation interaction. This paper briefly notes some of the recent advances in this domain.
Human-Centered Computational Support in Space Transportation BIBAFull-Text 251-253
  Valerie L. Shalin
This paper focuses on the distributed planning of activities in space transportation, specifically for trajectory operations for the United States Space Shuttle Program. Faced with limited resources and vehicle capabilities, flight controllers attempt to develop a trajectory that is acceptable (if not optimal) for the Flight Control team. However, any time during a flight, new context might arise that necessitates revisions. To explore alternative responses flight controllers make use of multiple models of the relevant objects in orbit. A promising role for human centered, computational support lies in establishing the functional requirements of these models. The presentation will discuss three functions of such models, related to the human processes that attribute meaning to representations.
Preparing for the Unexpected: Making Remote Autonomous Agents Capable of Interdependent Teamwork BIBAFull-Text 254-257
  Jane T. Malin
Autonomous agents on remote planets present new challenges for human-centered computing. Remote processing plants will operate autonomously for extended periods of time. When unexpected problems occur, control systems will shift from autonomous operation to interdependent teamwork with flight controller teams on Earth. Communication will be limited in bandwidth, infrequent and delayed. This paper presents human-centered design concepts for remote autonomous agents derived from study of flight controller teams, and current work on architectures, scenarios and user interface designs.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Understanding and Preventing Human Error [Research]

GT-COMET: An Architecture to enhance Error Tolerance in Safety-Critical Systems BIBAFull-Text 258-261
  Michael T. Palmer; Alan R. Chappell; David A. Thurman; Christine M. Mitchell
To address the problem of human error in safety-critical systems, the GT-COMET (Georgia Tech Consequence Modeling for Error Tolerance) architecture is proposed. This architecture provides task management assistance to enhance error tolerance by helping human operators detect and correct potential errors before they have serious operational consequences. GT-COMET extends the OFM/OFMspert methodology, which attempts to match detected operator actions with actions expected by a normative model. Mismatches between detected actions and model expectations represent potential errors, and GT-COMET uses the likely consequences of these potential errors to construct task management reminders so the operators can correct errors before the system is adversely affected. This paper presents an overview of the GT-COMET architecture and its proof-of-concept implementation for pilots of an MD-11 aircraft.
Role of the Spatial Frames of Reference in the Genesis of the Action Slips BIBAFull-Text 262-265
  Francesco Di Nocera; Alessandro Couyoumdjian; Fabio Ferlazzo
Within the classical approach by Norman (1981), action slips are essentially due to activation and triggering of a unappropriate schema. The aim of this study was to investigate action slips starting from the consideration that action is always performed in a space. In our hypothesis, spatial frames of reference could be conceptualized as low level schemata, able to be activated and triggered. Occurrence of slips was recorded for pairs of stimuli located in different spaces (that is when a shift between the two spatial schemata occurred) and for stimuli located in the same space. Results suggest that spatial frames of reference can be usefully conceptualized as low-level schemata and that simultaneous activation of different frames may underlie the genesis of action slips.
Reducing Errors in Automated Cockpits through Cognitive Engineering Principles BIBAFull-Text 266-269
  Sheryl L. Chappell
Most navigational errors in automated aircraft are the result of incorrect input to the aircraft's autoflight system. The complaint is heard that the pilot is not "in the loop." These concerns can be traced directly to the information available to the pilot. If we evaluate the task of navigating a highly-automated aircraft from a cognitive engineering perspective, we can design flight deck procedures that minimize the navigational errors and increase the detection of those errors before they result in an undesirable outcome. This paper evaluates what control action the pilot takes, what information is needed to verify the correctness of the control input, and what can be done to get the needed information when it is needed. Actual incidents of navigational errors resulting from improper input are reviewed. It is argued that both pilots should verify the input to the flight management system at the time of input. This is the only reliable means of detecting input errors. Procedures are recommended for pilot confirmation at the time of input that take advantage of human cognition to reduce the probability that input errors will go undetected.
Errors in searching for Abstraction Hierarchy Information BIBAFull-Text 270-273
  Catherine M. Burns
The abstraction hierarchy (Rasmussen, 1985) is a modelling framework proposed for the design of displays to aid problem-solving. The model links information along two dimensions -- means-end links of abstraction, and part-whole links of decomposition. While these links connect the model, little research has directly explored the perceptual support of these links. Based on one abstraction hierarchy for a simulated power plant, we designed three graphical displays that provided differential perceptual support for means-end links. The displays provided space-time, only spatial, or only temporal integration of means-end links. Subjects performed a link-spanning information search task using one of the displays. Significant differences were found in search accuracy and in the types of errors that occurred when using the three displays. This research sheds light on the integration of means-end information in ecological displays and demonstrates a novel information search task for evaluating large ecological displays.
Analysis of Tactical Missions: Integrating Systems Theory, Cognitive Systems Engineering and Psychophysiology BIBAFull-Text 274-277
  Arne Worm
Based on research in the emergency management and military domains this paper reports on research and development of theories, methods and tools for modeling, analysis and accident prevention in precarious time-critical air traffic control, process control, emergency response and military operations. We describe case studies, field studies, and experiments using a combined systems theory, Cognitive Systems Engineering and psychophysiology framework. We performed identification, modeling, and synthesis of Joint Tactical Cognitive Systems, and their inherent command, control, and intelligence activities. The dynamics of tactical missions are of a specific nature, and determined and forward exploitation and control of these real-time, safety-critical operational dynamics are vital for success in a wartime or disaster scenario. We found significant relations between workload, time pressure, catecholamine levels in saliva samples, and cognitive complexity.

1: COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: Cognitive Ergonomics Posters

Examining the Validity of Real-Time Probes as a Metric of Situation Awareness BIBFull-Text 278
  Debra G. Jones; Mica R. Endsley
Systems, Scenarios, and Simulation: Is there a role for Human Factors BIBFull-Text 279
  Mark W. Scerbo
Performance And Process Measure Relationships In Transitioning From A Low To High Fidelity Simulation Environment BIBAFull-Text 280
  Elliot E. Entin
Entin (1999) reported that after sufficient training with a six-node non-traditional optimized C2 architecture, teams performed higher with it than with a six-node traditional non-optimized C2 architecture. Moreover, teams performing with a four-node non-traditional optimized C2 architecture performed as well as the six-node traditional non-optimized C2 architecture. Entin (1999) also noted that the various team process measures supported the performance outcome and predicted performance.
   The prior work was performed employing the low fidelity Distributed Dynamic Decision making III (DDD-III) research simulator. The DDD offers a high degree of experimental control, on-line data collection, as well as a high level of abstraction. Part of the charge of the Adaptive Architecture for Command and Control project is to investigate whether findings ascertained within the low fidelity DDD environment can be replicated in a high fidelity simulation environment. The current study was a partial response to this charge.
   The scenario and forces used with the DDD experiment were adapted to the marine's MAGTIF Tactical Warfare Simulation (MTWS) environment. Because of the watershed nature of this study several technical issues were examined (e.g., the effects of the presence or absence of trained operators and the benefit of operator training). Further resource limitations precluded replicating the earlier design, but it was possible to examine the team process and performance relationship for the four-node -- six-node comparison.
   Nineteen officers enrolled at the Naval Postgraduate School were partitioned into five four-node teams that participated in eight trials and three six-node teams that participated in six trials. Twelve participants received intensive MTWS operator training and all received general MTWS familiarization training.
   Results showed that as in the previous experiment, teams employing the four-node optimized architecture where able to perform at the same level as teams using the six-node non-optimized architecture. It would seem that the optimization of the four-node architecture is able to compensate for the 33% reduction in team staff.
   In the previous experiment the team process measures significantly predicted performance outcome. The regression analysis revealed a multiple R of .86 (p<.02), that accounts for 73% of the variance. Findings for the current experiment revealed a similar relationship and pattern. The multiple R is .82 (p<.03), accounting for 68% of the variance. Moreover, the process measures in the equations were quite similar across the two experiments. We conclude that we were successful in transitioning the scenario and mission from a low to high fidelity simulation environment.
   Entin, E.E. (1999). Optimized command and control architectures for improved process and performance. Proceedings of the 1999 Command & Control Research & Technology Symp., NWC, Newport, RI.
The Cognitive based Design process in Decision Support System BIBAFull-Text 281
  Wang Chau-Hung; Lin Tsai-Duan
In this research we will propose a DSS design process based on human cognitive, called CDP (Cognitive based Design Process), as shown in Figure. The CDP is separated into two parts: One is based on cognitive difference, and designs different interfaces according to the difference of user's demands, then emphasizes friendly human-computer communication; the other is based on human-computer task-allocation and adaptable assistance system design.
Organization of the work based on the Ergonomic Perspective of the Attendances of Collective Emergencies (Catastrophes) BIBAFull-Text 282
  Silvia Regina Teodoro Pinheiro; Mario Cesar Vidal; Jose Orlando Gomes
This poster deal with an university project joining Fluminense Federal University and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that seeks the interactive action university / community, having as objective the construction of the knowledge of unexpected situations: the accidents with multiple victims. The present project is about the encounter of the opportunity of creation of a dialogue space between the university and public and private institutions to contribute with the planning of the activities of accident prevention and emergency rescue.
Cue Utilization in a Visually Demanding Task BIBFull-Text 283
  Masha Maltz; Joachim Meyer
Factors affecting Memory for Dynamically changing System Parameters: Implications for Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 284
  John S. Rhodes; Gregory E. Benoit; David G. Payne
Factors that delimit the performance of human operators monitoring dynamic information are essential considerations for interface designers. Using a procedure pioneered by Yntema and colleagues (1962, 1960), the present research examines the effect of the configuration of visual information (i.e., whether the subject is presented with multiple objects mapped to a single attribute or multiple attributes mapped to a single object) on subjects' memory for that information. Results suggest that the similarity between bits of information, rather than how the information is organized, is the critical factor in determining memory performance for dynamic information. These results suggest implications for the design of visual displays.
Form and Texture Effects on Product Image BIBFull-Text 285
  Shih-Wen Hsiao; Chen-Yuan Liu
The Role of Expertise in selecting informations from Documents in a Dynamic Environment Supervision Activity BIBFull-Text 286
  Helene Eyrolle; Jacques Virbel; Patrice Terrier
The Relation between Hip Time and Alpha Spectrum Power of Eeg in Cognitive Shift from the Knowledge-Based to Rule-Based BIBAFull-Text 287
  Mitsuhiko Karashima; Murako Saito
This study focused on the relation between the Human Information Processing (HIP) time and the alpha spectrum power of EEG in the shift from Rasmussen's knowledge-based to rule-based through an experiment. The results of the experiment suggested that the decrease of the HIP time did not mean the decrease of the cognitive activity when the cognitive shift was in progress.
Persistence of Echoic Memory Trace as a Function of Presentation Level BIBAFull-Text 288
  Eric H. Williams; Carryl L. Baldwin
Previous empirical research has demonstrated that even within clearly audible ranges (45-70 dB with less than 35 dB background noise), people tend to make more errors and take longer to respond to even simple auditory tasks as the presentation level of auditory stimuli decreases when attentional processing requirements are high (Baldwin, 1997, Baldwin, Struckman-Johnson, Galinsky, & Williams, 1999). The observed decrease in performance with decreasing decibel level may be due to shorter echoic memory traces, which could exacerbate demands on attentional resources during periods of high mental workload. In order to examine this hypothesis, participants were asked to listen to sets of tones and verbally indicate whether the second pattern in each set matched the first pattern while simultaneously performing a loading task involving simulated driving. Tonal sets varied according to the decibel level of presentation (60, 65, & 70 dB) and the delay period between presentation of the first tonal pattern and presentation of the second comparison pattern (2 s, 3 s, or 4 s). As predicted, a significant interaction between delay time and presentation level was observed with participants making more errors and requiring greater time to respond in the 4 s delay condition, particularly in the lower 60 dB presentation level condition. Population aging and associated increases in the incidence of hearing loss are occurring at a time when verbal displays are increasingly being used in complex environments. Additionally, the need for persons of diverse language backgrounds to communicate in occupational environments with less than optimum acoustical environments make design accommodations that facilitate cognitive processing of speech in complex systems imperative. Slight increases in presentation level may be one way to facilitate the communication process by increasing the duration during which verbal material may be accessed for processing.
Concept Acquisition and Artificial Plasticity BIBAFull-Text 289
  Malcon Anderson Tafner; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
Cognitive Ergonomics lies in the frontier of Cognitive Psychology and Artificial Intelligence. We call 'processes', the observed behaviors of individuals in some specific situation one wants to study. Mechanisms are theories explaining why we observe the processes we do. Simulators, able to implement these mechanisms in a computer, are the most powerful tools used by Cognitive Ergonomists for validating their hypothesis.
Child Spontaneous and Creative Actions seen as Existencial and Relational Indicators to Actual Working Activities and Human Associations BIBAFull-Text 290
  Miguel de Simoni; Jose Roberto Dourado Mafra
The aim of this paper is to discuss the utilization of children's wisdom in the adults working groups. We call attention to relationships that inside children groups are stated in a spontaneous and integral basis, and to adults are in a formal and not integral basis, to working activities. Its the origin of a several modalities of diseases attributed to labor activities, but, in fact, comes from people insertion at work with out taking in account its playing characteristics. Observing the children's playing modes we can have a source of wisdom to the work systems designers develop projects considering the playing and spiritual aspects that holds the human work.
Content versus Graphics in the Ecological Design of Interfaces BIBFull-Text 291
  Randy J. Pagulayan; Thomas A. Stoffregen
Knowledge Structure Instantiation: Implications for Measurement and Transfer BIBFull-Text 292
  Stephen M. Fiore; Randall L. Oser; Haydee M. Cuevas
Duration of Events in the Control of Dynamic Processes BIBAFull-Text 293
  Ophelie Carreras; Jean-Marie Cellier; Patrice Terrier
This research shows the importance of perceiving rhythmic regularities in the temporal structure of the environment for adjusting precisely actions to events duration in dynamic process control. Rather than using metric durations, it seems that subjects construct approximate knowledge about typical durations of events. The temporal representation guiding behavior seems to be built on the basis of a partial ordering of temporal extensions.
Cognitive Aspects of reading Information from Video Display Terminals BIBFull-Text 294
  Daniel K. Mayes; Valerie K. Sims; Jefferson M. Koonce
The Compatibility Effects between Cue and Stimulus BIBAFull-Text 295
  Yanfang Liu; Kan Zhang
Effects of symbolic compatibility between cue and stimulus were investigated within a precueing paradigm when there was no stimulus-response compatibility. The results showed that the compatibility effects appeared when the cue and stimulus was dimensional overlapped, and the effects were affected by the time duration between them and the probability of the cues.
The Concept of Work and it's Subjective Understanding Process: An Attempt BIBAFull-Text 296
  Ricardo Triska
This paper deal with the concept of work and it's subjective understanding process, in which the environment is noted as a major factor of dependence. In order to offer a reference, a daily national TV news report is taken for analysis where it's news reporting model delimitate the real message sent by the news "sponsors". Considering the continental characteristic of Brazil, this subliminal approach can promote a code to be repeated instead a message to be understood. A few chats and scheme are showed to demonstrate the connections between the news subject and the TV understanding interest.
Improvement of Product Development and Enhancement of Perceived Quality through Mental Maps BIBAFull-Text 297
  Marco Antonio Regnier Pedroso; Denise Maria Woranovicz Pedroso
The text below shows the importance of mental maps as a support of products development. The relevance of the concept of innovation is also considered, as well as the symbolic elements, as a way of diminish the gap between research and materialization of projects.
Brazil Attorney's Language as a case study of an operative language BIBAFull-Text 298
  Heliete Rosa Bento; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
Operative languages studies are a main issue in Cognitive Ergonomics, Usually the goal of these studies is to minimize the difference between Functioning Logic and User Logic (Richard, 1992). Our goal in this article is a little different. We will use operative language for building a cognitive map. We apply the methodology for Lawyers just for validating this kind of approach. There is nothing against applying the same methodology for other contexts.

1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Novel Approaches to Software Interface Design [Research]

The Usage of Virtual Models to Generate and Evaluate Alternatives in Product Design BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Julio C. Augusto da Silva
This paper aims at the usage of computer technology in product design, as an aiding tool for both developing and evaluating alternatives. For that matter the machine is used as a tool which is able to model three-dimensional geometries and images with such a level of realism, which allows a aesthetic evaluation of the product, saving work time and minimizing mistakes. In spite of the advantages within, its usage in creative stages of the project is still problematic, due to implantation errors or over expectation. A research was done to determine the best way to implant the system and the realistic expectance level.
Data Logging: Higher-Level Capturing and Multi-Level Abstracting of User Activities BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Jim Helms; Dennis C. Neale; Philip L. Isenhour; John M. Carroll
Data logging has been a standard, but under utilized, software evaluation technique for single-user systems. Large volumes of objective data can be collected automatically and unobtrusively. This data, however, is usually in the form of low-level system events, making it difficult to analyze and interpret meaningfully. In this paper we extend traditional logging approaches to collaborative multi-user (groupware) systems. We also show how data captured at a higher level of abstraction can characterize user-system interaction more meaningfully. Lastly, we show how higher-level data abstracted from logging can be more effectively combined with data from other usability methods.
Procedural Consistency in the User Interface BIBAFull-Text 307-310
  Benjamin L. Somberg
Existing user interface standards focus largely on issues related to the "look and feel" of the user interface, and thus they cannot be used to achieve procedural consistency. A new approach to standards, known as functional user interface standards, articulates a common user model for performing specific sets of tasks. The functional user interface standards rely upon object-oriented technology to define a set of platform-independent user interface objects which may be employed by a designer to construct a compliant design. These objects operate as reusable components in much the same way that software components are reused to facilitate the production of software. This new approach has been used to generate applications that may differ with respect to their appearance, but are consistent with respect to the procedural model presented to the user.
Changes in Error Rates During Mouse Pointing Tasks Paced by Estimated Movement Time Given by Fitts'-Law BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Kentaro Kotani; Ken Horii; Yutaka Kitamura
Fitts' law can provide HCI engineers with a means to predict the time length necessary for the completion of such tasks because the predicted movement time by the law is generally robust and accurate. These studies, however, did not discuss the issue with the relationship between Fitts' law parameters and error rates when the tasks are performed. The objective of this study is to show empirically and discuss changes in error rates during pointing tasks paced by varying movement time including TEST, estimated movement time given by the IDs. Two sets of experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to obtain constants of the Fitts' law equation by the linear regression model through various IDs. The second experiment was to show the relationship between time constraint and error rates. Results of the first experiment showed that the individual ID-Movement time relationship was well-fitted to the model with an average R2 of 0.959. The second experiment showed that the average error rate was 21% at the estimated movement time, which was much higher than that reported by Card, et al. (1983). The data were then analyzed by using the logistic regression. The results implied that a feedback movement in the pointing task is significantly disturbed by the attention to the pace during the task.

1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium: Lessons from History (Cosponsored by ITG & CTG) [Invited Address]

Usability Methods at the Millennium: How we got here and where we might be going BIBAFull-Text 315-318
  Douglas J. Gillan
This paper proposes that usability methods can be organized into a three-dimensional space. The dimensions of this method space are (1) the genesis of the method, (2) the function of the method, and (3) the point(s) in the design that the method is typically used. The paper exemplifies and explains each dimension by discussing where on the dimension certain methods might fall. The future of usability methods is discussed by examining (1) how new methods might be developed within the space defined by the three dimensions (inner space methods) or (2) how new methods might require extending a dimension (outer space methods).
Past, Present and Future of User Interface Software Tools BIBAFull-Text 319
  Brad Myers
This is an excerpt of a much longer work: Brad Myers, Scott E. Hudson, and Randy Pausch, "Past, Present and Future of User Interface Software. Tools," ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction, To appear in the Special Millennium Issue, 2000.

1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Like a Vergence: How to design user interfaces for the computer/TV/INTERNET port/phone/appliance of the near future

Like a Vergence: How to design user interfaces for the computer/TV/INTERNET port/phone/appliance of the near future BIBAFull-Text 320-322
  Douglas J. Gillan
At the start of the new millenium, an important technological development is the vergence of information technologies, communications, and entertainment, currently known as "New Media". What implications does this technological integration have for user interface design? This panel will address this issue, with specific emphasis on
  • advocating for users in a rapidly-changing design environment
  • the user's attention as a critical resource
  • the importance of initial usability for new media technologies
  • new metaphors for new technologies
  • new interaction paradigms needed with broadband information availability
  • anticipating the (as yet) unforeseen uses and users of converged technology
  • 1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Issues in Application Input and Output [Research]

    Can Icon Animation Enhance Human Performance -- Or is it Just Another Gimmick BIBAFull-Text 323-326
      Norman D. Schwalm; Vered Shaviv
    This study addresses the question of whether there is value to the use of animation in icon design over and above that of attracting attention. Specifically, the study asks if there is any basis in human performance for recommending for or against the use of animation in icon design. The objective was to examine the effect of animation on icon comprehension and preference at two levels of complexity, as measured in the context of a supermarket-shopping computer program. Results suggest that animation can contribute to users' comprehension of icons that represent commands, and that this contribution may be greater for commands of higher levels of abstraction. Specifically, it appears that simple icons are more comprehensible than complex ones for commands of lower levels of abstraction, while complex icons are more comprehensible than simple ones for commands of higher levels of abstraction. Moreover, animation of complex icons that represent abstract commands may improve icon comprehension far more than animation of either simple or complex icons that represent less abstract commands. The notion that animation can be used intelligently to improve human performance in HCI is supported. Further research is encouraged to identify ways in which levels of command abstraction can be measured reliably, and to establish guidelines for the level of abstraction at which complexity and animation should be introduced into icon design.
    Development and Evaluation of Symbols and Icons: a Comparison of the Production and Focus Group Methods BIBAFull-Text 327-329
      Scott A. Macbeth; William F. Moroney; David W. Biers
    The prolific use of symbols in a wide-array of industries requires an understanding of how to develop meaningful symbols. We hypothesized that subjects interacting in a focus group environment would develop more meaningful symbols than a comparable group of subjects working as individuals. Two methodologies for developing symbols were compared, the Focus Group (FG) method and the Production Group (PG) method. Both groups developed symbols based on 17 different symbol scenarios. Under the FG condition, 24 subjects worked in four separate groups of six subjects. Under the PG condition, 26 subjects received the same scenarios but worked independently. A subject pool of potential symbol users (N = 72) then ranked the meaningfulness of the symbols developed for each scenario. Between four and eight symbols were evaluated for each scenario, with an equal number of symbols from each development method represented. For the 17 sets of symbols developed, the FG condition developed the top ranked symbol 13 times and the PG condition developed the top ranked symbol 4 times (X2 (2) = 4.76, p = 0.029). Further analyses revealed that, when significant differences in meaningfulness were obtained between the top-ranked FG symbol and the top-ranked PG symbol (10 of the 17 comparisons), the FG method produced more meaningful symbols (X2 (2) = 3.60, p=0.057). Furthermore, the FG method required less than one-third of the developmental time required by the PG method.
    Representing Dynamic Mouse Commands in Static Displays: Developing Graphical Symbols BIBAFull-Text 330-333
      Rachelle N. Oman; Michael S. Wogalter
    Participants used either a Likert scale or a ratio scale to rate their preferences for graphical symbols illustrating the mouse motions of click, double-click, drag, click and drag, and left click. Through an iterative design process, symbols were selected and modified as they were rated. After several iterations, 54 participants evaluated the accumulated symbol set. In general, participants preferred symbols that were less abstract and more literal representations of the intended mouse actions; this is contrary to how these commands have been illustrated in printed computer documentation. Intermediate abstract symbols were rated almost as high as the literal symbols, and had the advantage of illustrating some mouse commands that could not be easily created with a literal symbol. Several design recommendations for symbols in computer instructions and symbols for other purposes are offered.
    Using Multiple Specialized Keyboards on Touch Screen Displays: is Switching Keyboards Distracting to Novice Users BIBAFull-Text 334-337
      Gary Capobianco; Mark D. Lee; Sally Cohen
    This study was designed to investigate effects of using multiple specialized keyboards within the context of a simple data entry task. Twenty-four participants with minimal or no computer experience were asked to enter name and address data as well as choose a personal identification number (PIN) utilizing three data entry conditions. The first condition utilized a QWERTY keyboard exclusively, the second utilized a numeric keypad for the PIN and the third utilized a numeric keypad for the ZIP code, telephone number and PIN. The offset of the keys on the QWERTY keyboard was also manipulated. Results suggest that switching keyboards has no effect on data entry time or accuracy. Additionally, no significant effect was found for keyboard offset. User preferences as well as applications to design and limitations on generalizability are discussed.
    Integrating Speech and Manual Input Devices in Multimodal Cad Systems BIBAFull-Text 338-341
      Halimahtun M. Khalid
    This paper reports an investigation of integrating the use of speech recognition and manual input devices in a multimodal CAD system. A functional integration of systems components helped to simplify the system, while optimising the functionality of each input device within the multimodal framework. The system was configured by allocating CAD commands and alphanumeric data to each input device using the frequency of use principle. Two alternative multimodal CAD systems were compared to an all-speech input system using data obtained from 24 subjects. A one-way mixed ANOVA design was used, with the system type as independent variable, and behaviour and performance measures as dependent variables. Behaviour was quantified in terms of frequency and duration of eye movements, hand movements and speech verbalizations, while performance was measured on product quality and production costs. The hybrid systems improved user behaviour, but the inflexible mapping of input devices to task items created memory and confusion problems for users. There were also behaviour and performance tradeoffs in using the systems. The findings raised potential design issues for a multimodal CAD system integrating speech and manual input.

    1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Lessons from Application Design [Research]

    Development of a Model for Determining The Impact of Password Authentication Practices on Information Security BIBAFull-Text 342-345
      Deborah Sater Carstens; Pamela McCauley-Bell; Linda C. Malone
    This research focuses on the development of a model for evaluating the human impact that password authentication issues are having on the security of information systems. Through observational analysis, organizational policy, and retrospective analysis, researchers created a model for predicting the vulnerability that a particular set of conditions will have on the likelihood of error in an information system. The methodology for the experiment and analysis of the results are presented. The findings indicate that human error associated with password authentication can be significantly reduced through the use of passwords which are comprised of meaningful data for the user and which meet the information technology community requirement for strength of password. The details of this study are provided as well as the human factors implications in information security.
    User-Centered Design in Practice: A Medical Tele-Consultation Management Application BIBAFull-Text 346-349
      Dimitris Nathanael; Nicolas Marmaras
    This paper presents and discusses the design process and the solutions adopted for the development of an information technology system aimed to assist the management of medical tele-consultations. The adopted user-centered design approach, the thorough work analysis carried out at the initial stages of the design process as well as the fact that the ergonomists headed the development team, resulted to a system achieving high usability and acceptance by the users.
    Individual Operator Compliance with a Decision-Support System BIBAFull-Text 350-353
      Mark A. Wise
    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between five individual factors and compliance with advice from a decision-support system. Rates of compliance were also compared for two different types of computer advice: specific and nonspecific. Results suggest that there is no significant difference in compliance rates between the two types of advice. However four of the individual factors (gender, trust in the advice, previous task performance, and self-confidence in the task) were significantly related to compliance with the nonspecific advice, while one factor (trust in the advice) was significantly related to compliance with the specific advice.

    1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Social and Cultural Implications of Technology in the New Millennium (Cosponsored by ITG & CTG) [Panel]

    Pull Us Together or Push Us Apart Social and Cultural Implications of the Internet BIBFull-Text 354
      Monica A. Marics

    1: COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Computer Systems Posters

    Hypermedia Human-Computer Interaction and Cognitive Psychology BIBAFull-Text 355
      Marcio Matias; Vivian Heemann; Neri dos Santos
    Hypermedia is compelling designers to deal with the problem of designing and managing large, diverse and complex collections of hypermedia objects. So, hypermedia design needs contributions from several disciplines, including: cognitive psychology, design, computer science and human factors. This paper addresses a connection between cognitive psychology and hypermedia; and presents a compilation of general guidelines about hypermedia design.
    Interface Usability a Study on Researcher-Computer Dialogue BIBFull-Text 356
      Anamaria de Moraes; Robson Santos; Jorge R. Lemos de Aguiar; Vitor Bellicanta Pinheiro
    Human Factors in Information Security Methods BIBFull-Text 357
      Robert W. Proctor; Mei-Ching Lien; E. Eugene Schultz; Gavriel Salvendy
    Usability of User Interfaces of Computer-Aides Industrial Design Systems BIBFull-Text 358
      Alexander Nikov; Roumen Jijanov
    Changes in Applied Force to a Touchpad During Pointing Tasks BIBAFull-Text 359
      Motoyuki Akamatsu; I. Scott MacKenzie
    We measured the force applied to a touchpad and a mouse during pointing tasks for large and small targets. At the end of selection tasks, changes in the applied force with the touchpad were different from those with a mouse. These differences may be the source of performance differences between the two devices.
    The Development, Deployment, and Evaluation of a User Interface Guidelines Web Site BIBAFull-Text 360
      Todd Barlow; Amy Glass; Natalie LaPrade
    This poster discusses the development of an intranet site containing graphical user interface (GUI) design standards, its deployment, and the analysis of its use.
    Limitations of Using Mouse-Over with Menu Item Selection BIBFull-Text 361
      Barbara S. Chaparro; Gary Minnaert; Chad Phipps
    On Determining the Relative Importance of Word Processor Functions and Deficiencies BIBAFull-Text 362
      Jonathan D. Levine; Michael S. Wogalter
    An initial group of participants identified features, functions, and problems encountered in two commonly used word-processing programs (MS Word and Corel WP). A second group of users assessed the relative importance of correcting existing problems and adding or enhancing existing features and functions. Problems and needed features were identified and believed to be important enough to warrant the attention of software designers.
    Choosing Between a Backspace and/or a Clear Key for Error Correction by Inexperienced Users on Touch Screen Keyboards BIBFull-Text 363
      Mark D. Lee; Gary D. Capobianco; Sally M. Cohen

    1: COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Communications [Research]

    A Longitudinal Study of Residential Internet Usage Among Elementary Students BIBAFull-Text 364-367
      Faith McCreary; Roger Ehrich; Melissa Lisanti
    The PCs for Families Project is a three-year field experiment which studies how ubiquitous access to network technology in both the classroom and home impacts rural elementary students and their families. The project sends a network computer home with participating families, trains all family members in its use, offers on-call technical support, and provides free residential Internet services. A proxy server records home Internet usage so that family usage patterns can be determined. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of how 24 fifth grade students utilized the Internet during their first year in the project and of the factors which influenced usage. Experiment results have implications for both research (e.g., how student Internet usage changes overtime) and design (e.g., what features of the Internet posed challenges to the children).
    User Tolerance of Message Transmission Delay in Electronic Mail: a Cross-National Comparison BIBAFull-Text 368-371
      Piyusha V. Paradkar
    Speed of message delivery is an important factor when users make a choice of electronic mail over other forms of communication. Although e-mail promises close to instantaneous message delivery, delays ranging from a few seconds to several hours are commonly seen. In evaluating user tolerance for delay in message transmission for electronic mail, this study focuses on situational variables, individual personality characteristics and cross-national differences (US and India). Results from this study indicate that user tolerance for delay is dictated by situational factors rather than individual personality characteristics based on time perception. The three situational variables, Urgency of message, Content and Distance between the sender and receiver drive user tolerance for delay differently in the two groups. Personality factors measured by Type A behaviour scores and Speed and Impatience Ratings do not significantly affect delay tolerance. This study provides empirical evidence that users do have different message transmission needs based on speed in e-mail communication. It also adds to the understanding of the factors that providers will have to take into account when determining the options of message delivery.
    A Case Study of Videoconferencing in the Classroom: a Methodology for Measuring Interactions, Behaviors and Attitudes BIBAFull-Text 372-375
      Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss; Deborah I. Fels; M. Amor Talampas
    Videoconferencing is a valuable educational resource because it provides access to otherwise unreachable learning materials, it motivates students, and helps them improve their communication skills. Over the last four years we have developed a unique application of videoconferencing known as Wayne Gretzky's PEBBLES (Providing Education By Bringing Learning Environments to Students). This is a video-mediated communication system that has been designed to link a child in the hospital with his/her regular classroom. Analysis of video tape data from a six-week case study documenting the frequency of interactions and usage behaviors indicate that the student was able to spend most of her in-class time focussing on the academic tasks assigned to the class despite some technical difficulties and distractions in her local environments. Audio difficulties persisted throughout the study and must be improved in future design iterations of the system.
    An Ergonomic Evaluation for Designing an Efficient User-Oriented Audio/Video Telecommunications System BIBAFull-Text 376-379
      Min-Yong Park; Hee-Sok Park
    The objective of this research was to establish and quantify the relationship between the physical degradation factors of multimedia telecommunications (teleconferencing) system and subjective human perception. A field survey of real users was first carried out to determine customers' major complaints and corresponding system degradation factors. A prototype teleconferencing simulator was then developed in two separate sound-treated chambers equipped with audio/video equipment running under a custom-developed software program. The experiments using the semantic differential methodology were performed utilizing 26 paid participants (14 college students and 12 housewives). The results indicated that audio/video synchronization and the frame rate were the main system factors for both subject groups, but different pattern of factors' influence was found according to the group, implying that the system configuration would hopefully accommodate the characteristics of the end users. Also, a single quality index, reflecting several human perception highly correlated with user satisfaction, was developed to evaluate telecommunication systems as a guideline for system preference. The results provide some fundamental data on the human subjective perception of multimedia telecommunications quality, and further can help establish the quality standards to enhance service level.
    Interface Development for a Child's Video Conferencing Robot BIBAFull-Text 380-383
      Anastasia Cheetham; Cynick Young; Deborah I. Fels
    The PEBBLES communication system, designed to link children in the hospital with their regular classrooms, has progressed through three major development and evaluation phases. Many of the design and human factors issues (e.g., daily curriculum planning and co-ordination between two teachers in distant locations, and the need for an appropriate attention device) discovered through this process are unique from other video-mediated communication systems because PEBBLES must support both academic and social tasks with children as users. While technical limitations such as bandwidth and audio fidelity remain as problems to solve with PEBBLES, the system has been successful in providing students with a high level of telepresence in their classrooms.

    1: COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Telecommunications [Research]

    User Preferences in the Footprint and Weight of Cellular Phones BIBAFull-Text 384-386
      Cristina Bubb-Lewis; Harry E. Blanchard
    This study examines the issues of footprint and weight of small cellular phones. 20 cellular phone users completed a paired-comparison procedure to evaluate different size and weight models. The indicated a preference as well as which model they would like to carry and which they would like to use from a comfort standpoint. The results showed that the models that preferred traditional handset shape while reducing overall size were preferred. Smaller models were preferred when portability was discussed, but participants wanted to use more traditional sizes when considering comfort. This preference was supported in real phone rankings as well. Lighter models were also preferred and non-standard interfaces were not well liked.

    1: COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Communications [Research]

    Sounds Good to me: Global Investigation of Auditory Feedback BIBAFull-Text 387-390
      Cynthia A. Sikora; Linda A. Roberts
    The use of auditory feedback signals in multimedia communications devices was investigated internationally. Specifically, subjects in the United States, Singapore, India and Turkey evaluated musically based sound feedback. Subjects paired the sounds with communications functions. They also provided ratings of their confidence with the pairing, pleasantness of the sound, appropriateness of the sound for a business environment, and how well the group of sounds fit together as a family. Findings indicate that the reliability of mapping sounds to intended functions does not vary across countries. Functional mapping performance was uniformly low. The subjective ratings for the sounds overall indicated that, although all subjects rated the sounds above average, US subjects rate the sounds significantly higher than two of the three other countries included in the study. More detailed analysis of the differences isolated the variance to two function feedback sounds. It may be that the country differences found for these two musical feedback signals were attributed to cultural familiarity with the sound or the function.
    Human Factors Guidelines for Interactive Voice Response Systems BIBAFull-Text 391-394
      Bill Killam
    There are currently three efforts on-going to develop guidelines for Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems, though the data from these organizations are not yet publicly available. Lacking guidelines to follow, the question of what skills are required to produce a usable system remains open. It has been asserted that knowledge of human factors engineering is sufficient for this task. Our training is in human factors engineering, specifically interface design and usability testing, but not with IVR systems. So, when we were presented with the task of critiquing and redesigning a nationally fielded IVR system, we found ourselves in a position to test this assertion. Our experience of developing guidelines for the IVR system we analyzed, and the results of usability testing the existing design against an alternative design we developed, lends credence to this assertion.
    A User Interface Design Requirement Document: What's Wrong With It BIBAFull-Text 395-398
      Hongzheng Cindy Lu
    This paper analyzes the changes in a Graphical User Interface (GUI) design requirement document from the time that the document was baselined to the time that the software system was delivered to the customer. The purpose is to find out where the most changes are in order to develop strategies to improve the efficiency of delivering GUI requirements. One hundred and seventy modification requests, which include 266 requested changes against a baselined GUI requirement document were analyzed. The requested changes were classified into three categories: Wrong Information, Missing Information and System Changes. It was found that 62% requested changes fell into the Wrong Information category, 18% were in the Missing Information category and 20% were in the System Changes category. In the Wrong Information category, most of the changes were due to inconsistencies within the document (39%) followed by wrong information on screens (28%) and wrong processing rules (24%). Nine percent requested changes were due to inconsistencies between the GUI and other system components such as the server. In the Missing Information category, most of the requested changes were about missing processing rules (60%). In the System Changes category, most of the changes were about enhancing system performance or usability (45%). The changes due to server or other related system requirement changes accounted for 38%. Some suggestions made to reduce the errors in the document include: to review the document thoroughly, to conduct synchronization reviews between system documents, and to conduct walk through/usability studies on the prototype before baselining the document.
    Application of Ergonomics in the Design of Public Payphones BIBAFull-Text 399-402
      Rabindra Nath Sen; Kok-leong Liew
    The present study aimed at investigating user's preferences for public payphones and addressed some of the issues associated with extra services, comfort and satisfaction levels or user-friendliness on the existing features and ergonomic design of public payphone. The study also looked into the merits and demerits of the existing payphone facilities.

    1: COMMUNICATIONS: Communications Posters

    User-Centered Public Telephone Design -- A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 403
      Chien-Hsiung Chen; Chih-Chun Lai; Chia-Ching Hsu; Wei-Ping Lin
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an innovative, user-centered public telephone design that facilitates users' visual and verbal interactions. The concept of user-centered design was incorporated in the overall iterative interaction design process. The authors hope that by using this user-centered public telephone, users are able to communicate with each other in a more efficient and effective way.

    1: INTERNET: Usability of the World Wide Web [Research]

    Web Site Usability, Usefulness, and Visit Frequency BIBAFull-Text 404-407
      Alfred T. Lee
    A study was conducted to assess the effects of Web site usability on user ratings of site usefulness and site visit frequency. The effects of network connection speed on site usability and usefulness were also assessed. An on-line survey questionnaire was administered to users of Geographical Information System (GIS) Web sites. Usability ratings of five main Web site tasks, a comparative usability rating of the site with other GIS sites, rated usefulness of the site, mean load, time of site pages, and other Web site and user data were collected from 51 respondents. A model describing the relationship among variables is described providing quantitative measures of the unique contributions of each variable to usability, usefulness and visit frequency. For the sites in this study, a site's comparative usability and usefulness rating was found to be influenced primarily by how highly the user rated the ease with which information could be found on the site and the reading of textual information. Both comparative usability of the site and site usefulness contributed uniquely to site visit frequency, but were not correlated with each other. Mean load time of Web site page contents, the average time it takes for site to load page contents, did not reliably influence the ease with which site tasks were performed or the comparative usability rating of the site. The utility of a quantitative model describing how variables affect site usage is discussed as are possible reasons for the absence of a reliable effect of mean page load time on site usability and usefulness are also explored.
    Electronic Shopping in the Music Domain BIBAFull-Text 408-411
      Claire Dormann
    This paper discusses factors related to the design of electronic shops. The assessment of the music mart serves as the starting point for this discussion. To facilitate purchasing, search engines should be designed to be compatible with consumers and products characteristics. Moreover a stronger tie between shop design and purchasing behaviour should be considered. The importance of enhancing the shop design to facilitate purchasing is also highlighted. Particularly in this domain, the role of affect could prove critical for persuading consumers to buy.
    Experience and WWW Searching, or the Search for the Www Expert BIBAFull-Text 412-415
      A. Thatcher
    Observational, log-file and post-task interview data were collected from forty subjects while they were engaged in a directed search task and a general purpose browsing task. This data was used to determine the search strategies of experienced and novice users on the two tasks. These results suggest that the search strategies vary according to the task and according to experience. It is suggested that experienced users' strategies differ more on the two tasks than novice users. These results are discussed in relation to previous published literature on WWW cognitive search strategies.
    The World Wide Wait: Effects of Delays on User Performance BIBAFull-Text 416-419
      Paula R. Selvidge; Barbara Chaparro; Gregory T. Bender
    This study investigated the effect of web page download delays on user performance. Participants completed tasks on a major airline web site with varying download delays of 1 second, 30 seconds, and 60 seconds. The dependent measures included lostness, frustration, task success, and task difficulty. Delays did not affect lostness, but frustration was increased by the longer download delays of 30 and 60 seconds.
    The Position of Static and On-off Banners in WWW Displays on Subsequent Recognition BIBAFull-Text 420-423
      Raymond W. Lim; Michael S. Wogalter
    With the growing popularity of the World Wide Web (WWW), more companies are advertising on the Internet with the intention of influencing purchasing decisions. While companies would like to capture people's attention every time a banner ad appears on a viewer's computer screen, there is some research that suggests that they do not. In Experiment 1, static display of banners at each of the four corners of the screen was investigated using a subsequent recognition test. Experiment 2 examined more locations on the screen with on-off banners. The results of both experiments showed that participants better recognized the content of banners positioned on the top left and bottom right corners than the top right and bottom left corners. Experiment 2 showed that participants were more likely to recognize the content of on-off banners that positioned closer to the center of the screen than those at the edges of the screen. Implications for attention capture and distraction are discussed with respect to producing more effective advertisements and communicating priority information are discussed.

    1: INTERNET: Web Design: Future Home for Human Factors? [Single-Session Symposium]

    Web Design: Future Home for Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 424
      M. W. Riley; R. Ram Bishu
    In the last few years, the number of businesses establishing a presence on the World Wide Web (WWW, web) has grown exponentially. It is just a matter of time before the web becomes a primary source of information for a large part of the world. Increasingly, the web will serve as a place where the majority of all transactions are carried out -- financial, social, educational -- and it is clear that there are going to be many, diverse users of this medium. The web will not only be used by the technologically elite but will also embrace a wide range of users. In short, the web will have an audience that is truly global. An examination of these web sites reveals a gross misunderstanding of the medium, resulting in sites that lack useful content for the user. Human factors issues in this regard are plenty and challenging. A thorough understanding of the various human attributes and human factors that comprise a web site's intended audience is necessary. Unfortunately, from the appearance of some existing designs, it appears as if developers are designing for their clients rather than for end users. Good design is a balance of numerous issues including cost, time aesthetics, layout, and navigation resulting in an interface and experience for the end users. Equally interesting, and somewhat more challenging, are the human factors of the process of web design itself. Typically, the players in this are the clients, end users, and design and development organizations. Interactions among the clients (who own the web site), users (expected users of the site), different sections of the implementors (designers, developers) pose challenges on its own. The intent of the colloquium is to address these concerns and lay out a blue print for some proactive human factors work. The speakers and their respective topics are:
    Extracting End-User Characteristics When Designing for the Internet BIBAFull-Text 425-428
      Hugues Belanger; Nick Iozzo
    Cognitive design is a systems approach to designing a human-computer interface that draws from a combination of the behavioral sciences, software engineering, and computer science to design an expandable system that is useful and easy to use. It is a critical, up-front part of the design process and provides the focus for a multi-disciplinary approach to user-centered design. This paper reviews the various phases of cognitive design, as well as how the nature of the web industry often requires the process to be modified. A case study is presented to illustrate how the design process can be adapted and still follow sound cognitive design principles.
    Cognitive Ergonomics for Websites: From Concept to Realization BIBAFull-Text 429-432
      Scott M. Confer; Sanjay Batra
    Our design process which integrates distinct techniques, knowledge, and experience from fields of cognition, human computer interaction, systems engineering, and usability engineering is used to formulate new Internet based ventures. New business ventures begin with an idea that is incubated using a specialized process for strategizing, conceptualizing, and gaining funding for actual development. Cognitive ergonomics is integral in focusing early conceptual work toward the end-user with a "concept car" presented to sell the idea in the early design stage. Methods are further detailed for later stages of design within a consulting environment. Organizational challenges are discussed in relation to implementing this design process.
    Cognitive Impact of Telepresence on Online Retail Environments BIBAFull-Text 433-436
      Ajoy Muralidhar; Jenn Meyer; David Abrams; Ram Bishu
    As web users become more sophisticated, online businesses are forced to find innovative ways to interact with their customers in order to capture and retain their interest long enough to actually complete an online sale. Savvy buyers have to be wooed with more than price comparisons, online rebates and to-your-door shipping. Visual Telepresence is becoming increasingly popular as a means of capturing and retaining audience interest by providing customers with a sense of "being there." In the offline world of bricks and mortar, both specialty shops and large retail chains have invested millions of dollars in the appearance and "feel" of the store, product displays, and product placement. By creating Visual Telepresence -- a way to view products and retail spaces in real time -- merchants can provide a sense of interactivity not previously possible in online shopping. The experience of purchasing anything or visiting tourist locations online, etc., becomes more "real," as web-based visual telepresence gives users a sense of being connected. Newly developed applications enable users to take control of their viewing experience by zooming in on and around a product to examine it closely with real time pictures. By providing online shopping enhanced by Visual Telepresence, merchants create a compelling user experience and increase the chance of completing an online sale. These technological developments provide a rich field of study for the human factors professional, as there is very little empirical research available to validate the effectiveness of telepresence in online Ecommerce.
    Human Factors of the Web Design Process BIBAFull-Text 437-440
      Ram R. Bishu
    In a recent keynote address on future of ergonomics, Wilson stated that ergonomists, instead of focussing on the traditional man, machine and environment component, should refocus on the interaction among these components. (Wilson, 1999). Nowhere is this truer than in the process of web design. Simply stated a web page is really a page, off the information highway, that has the information the User needs. The beauty of the Web is that, that information could be of any imaginable kind. In the last few years, the number of businesses establishing a presence on the World Wide Web (WWW, the web) has grown exponentially. It is just a matter of time before the web becomes a primary source of information for a large part of the world for all needs. Procedurally the steps in design include cognitive design, visual design, technical design, technical development and testing. Typically cross-functional teams are set up to perform the design process. Information ergonomics and interaction ergonomics are the main issues in the iterative design process. The importance of cognitive ergonomist who plays a pivotal role in the design process is discussed.

    1: INTERNET: Human Factors Research on Usable Web Design [Research]

    Searching Within Websites: A Comparison of Three Types of Sitemap Menu Structures BIBAFull-Text 441-444
      Michael L. Bernard; Barbara S. Chaparro
    This study compared search performance and satisfaction with three types of sitemap menu structures. In one type (Index), the hyperlinks were organized alphabetically. Another type (Full) organized hyperlinks according to a specific category. The third type (Restricted) initially presented only category topics, and displayed the respective hyperlinks after the user clicked on that particular category. Results indicate that although users did not perform significantly better with any of the sitemaps, they were significantly more satisfied and found the searches to be easier with the Full and Restricted sitemaps than with the Index sitemap. In the ranking of the three sitemaps, the Full sitemap was most preferred.
    Web Access for Visually Impaired People Using Active Accessibility BIBAFull-Text 445-448
      M. Zajicek; I. Venetsanopoulis; W. Morrissey
    This paper addresses the implications of integrating assistive software for blind and visually impaired people, with mainstream Microsoft Software. The case under discussion is the integration of a simplified Web browser for the blind and partially sighted called BrookesTalk, with Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 using Microsoft Active Accessibility (MSAA). Microsoft Active Accessibility provides hooks that enable Microsoft mainstream software products to be integrated with special assistive software. This facility was used to build the integrated system BrookesExplorer.
    Web-Based Interface Design for Teleoperation BIBAFull-Text 449-452
      Dezhen Song; David B. Kaber
    This article focuses on web-based teleoperation system design. We review current web-based telerobotic systems and identify human factors issues associated with them. Subsequently, the difficulties and challenges of interface design for web-based teleoperation are analyzed from the perspectives of system implementation and human factors. A prototyped web-based system was developed to further explore the design problems. An empirical study involving comparison of different prototype design options is described. On the basis of the research, several design guidelines were formulated for future work in this area.
    Depth Vs Breath in the Arrangement of Web Links BIBAFull-Text 453-456
      Panayiotis G. Zaphiris
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of depth and breadth in the arrangement of web link hierarchies on the user preference, response time and errors. An experiment is reported, where previous menu depth/breath tradeoff procedures are applied to the web link domain. The variables evaluated were five different web page linking strategies with varying depth and breadth. The results indicate that task completion time increases as the depth of the web site structure increases.
    Visual Display Screen Clutter Metrics BIBAFull-Text 457-460
      Daniel McCrobie
    This paper explores the use of conjoint analysis as a measure of the subjective evaluation of clutter on avionics displays. As new systems are added to glass-cockpit aircraft they are overlaid onto existing systems and more and more symbology is present on these displays. Conjoint analysis provides an easy way to systematically analyze the clutter and to estimate what pilots will think is a cluttered display. An example of this application is provided and the results are promising.

    1: INTERNET: Developments in Web Research and Practice [Single-Session Symposium]

    Developments in web Research and Practice BIBAFull-Text 461-464
      Shawn Lawton Henry; Wendy A. Chisholm
    This session presents recent work that is likely to impact web design and usage in the near future. The presentations cover a range of topics, including: a remote testing methodology for websites that pulls from usability testing and traffic analysis; lessons learned from usability testing an electronic bill presentation and payment (EBPP) system; coverage of stakeholder objectives in multimedia and how they can be in conflict; a web browser that integrates visual, speech, and non-speech sound output to provide web access for people who are visually impaired; and a study that analyzes shape as a user's representation of an information space which embraces both the spatial components of navigation and the semantic components of comprehension.

    1: INTERNET: Ergonomic and Network Applications Using the Internet/Intranet [Research]

    Ergonomics@Ford.Com: Using the Intranet to Enhance Program Effectiveness BIBAFull-Text 465-468
      Susan M. Evans; Helen R. Kilduff; Bradley S. Joseph; Elizabeth H. Turner
    Ford Motor Company's Automated Evidence Book, known as ErgoRx, is a Web-browser-based application that permits plant-level Local Ergonomics Committees (LECs) to manage the process for identifying, tracking, resolving and sharing ergonomic concerns with reduced administrative burden. The Intranet application also allows Corporate and Division ergonomics personnel to view LEC concern data remotely and obtain measures of program effectiveness directly.
    A Work Domain Analysis for Network Management BIBAFull-Text 469-472
      Catherine M. Burns; Ed Barsalou; Cynthia Handler; Johnson Kuo; Kevin Harrigan
    Computer networks are pervasive and critical to the operation of today's businesses. While most of us take computer networks for granted, network managers who must configure, operate, and fix faults in computer networks face a daunting task that becomes more complex everyday. Ecological interface design has been shown to be a promising approach for complex systems such as power plants or petrochemical systems. Computer networks are a very different work domain characterized by rapid technological change, extreme decentralization, and the existence of "soft" components. This paper presents the first work domain analysis of this new domain creating an abstraction hierarchy for general signal transfer systems and general computing networks. It shows how the abstraction hierarchy can be applied to this new domain and presents the initial work on an ecological interface design for network management.
    Research Using the Internet to Complete Ergonomics Assessments of Offices BIBAFull-Text 473-476
      Elizabeth Kestler; Henry Romero
    A method was developed for completing office ergonomic assessments using the Internet specifically designed for non-complex situations, and particularly as a proactive measure. However, it is as effective reactively, if the musculoskeletal disorder symptoms are not too complex. The system was tested in a major energy services firm as well as across a group of people interested in musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the office. The online recommendations are similar to those developed by an onsite assessment. People were satisfied with the results. The benefits of the approach were seen in time to complete the assessment being cut by 57% and the total cost reduced by 73%. In nearly 20% of the online assessments, an onsite assessment was recommended due to complex or severe MSD symptoms. Even accounting for the additional cost of the onsite assessments, this method resulted in a cost reduction of approximately 50% and 37% reduction in time to complete the assessments.
    Utilizing Internet Technology for Ergonomic Training BIBAFull-Text 477-480
      Kevin Byrne
    The world is witnessing an explosive rise in the utilization of internal computer networks and the Internet. Ergonomic programs can benefit from many powerful features of these networks, including widespread availability, compatibility between computer platforms, ease of updates, and centralized data storage and retrieval. Potential benefits to ergonomic training programs are self-directed learning, anytime/anywhere delivery of information and tremendous potential for data tracking.
    Awareness of Ergonomics in User Interface Design of Instructional Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 481-484
      Mirac Banu Gundogan
    Computer Technology together with a web-based life is no longer a preference. The Internet provides a wide variety of resources, among which, web sites designed for instruction require special attention on the basis of ergonomics and user interface design. This study is concerned with the interface design of instructional sites for children aged 8-12. When designing for children, basic design principles may not be satisfactory to achieve a pleasant solution. A technically proficient end product that efficiently operates bright colours, larger fonts, animations and sound may not be instructive at all unless it takes the learning process into consideration. Current research indicates successful learning experiences must personally engage each student with active rather than passive participation. Even if the World Wide Web (WWW) is defined as boundless and immeasurable, still the instructional materials on the web need to be agreeable with the real world educational criteria. Awareness of ergonomics appears to be necessary not only for the design team who is to form the end product but also for the end users- children, parents and teachers in this case.

    1: INTERNET: Internet Posters

    Usability Testing for Chinese Web Portals in Taiwan BIBFull-Text 485
      Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
    Preference Versus Performance: Designing User: Names for the Chinese Population in Taiwan BIBFull-Text 486
      Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
    Evaluating the Transparency of Web Search Engines BIBFull-Text 487
      Mickey L. Monaghan; Anthony D. Andre
    Navigational Aids in the World-Wide Web: A Multidisciplinary Survey BIBFull-Text 488
      Stephania Padovani; Mark W. Lansdale

    1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Interaction Technologies and Modeling for Virtual Environments [Research]

    Generation of Virtual Man Models Representative of Different Body Proportions and Application to Ergonomic Design of Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 489-492
      Enrico Eynard; Enrica Fubini; Melchiorre Masali; Maurizio Cerrone; Antonio Tarzia
    To get early and reliable evaluations of preliminary 3D design on workplaces and vehicles it is essential to utilise manikins corresponding as much as possible to actual persons.
       This paper describes a methodology to generate body typologies from anthropometric data of Italian population, identifying realistic combinations of anthropometric measurements actually found among real subjects. We applied these results to Jack, a software with an interactive virtual human model able to be manipulated by adjusting individual joints to simulate realistic postures. We then made a postural comfort comparative test, using the new manikins and standard Human Scale manikins obtaining quite different results: in particular, with the former manikins we found lower comfort indexes because they show a higher global variability, important to consider when designing systems fitting the characteristics of a large part of the population.
    A Comparison of Biomechanical Evaluations Within Two Human Simulation Models BIBAFull-Text 493-495
      Allison Stephens; Helen R. Kilduff
    The use of simulation in the manufacturing environment is becoming more prevalent with the cost saving being realized in the elimination of costly prototype equipment and products. An additional benefit of manufacturing simulation is the ease of applying human simulation to the environment. If the expectation is only to see: the human model interact with manufacturing equipment and facilities, then the decision of what human model is needed is not that difficult. Correct Anthropometry would be the main criteria. The potential to utilize human simulation to predict risk of injury is very possible if a true representation of the biomechanical human is simulated, thus making the selection of human model very critical. The human model must be truly modeled after the joints, bones and angles found in humans, not a robot modified to look like a human. This paper will discuss an evaluation process of two human simulation models currently available on the market.
    Methodological Differences Using a Computer Manikin in Two Case Studies: Bus and Space Module Design BIBAFull-Text 496-498
      Anders Sundin; Marita Christmansson; Roland Ortengren
    The computer manikin software Jack was used in two different case studies analyzing ergonomics. A comparison was made on how Jack was used in the two case studies. In the first, Jack was used in the design phase of a new Volvo bus model. A group was formed to work with a special part of the bus chassis design, namely cables and tubes. The group aimed to create an ergonomically correct and efficient assembly production. The group consisted of designers, production engineers and researchers. Jack was used late in this process for analysis of assembly work situations resulting from the design. In the second case study, an analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola, a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS). In this study, Jack was used early in the design process before any flight hardware production. When comparing the two studies, differences were found regarding the approach of the mimics of zero-gravity activities relative shop floor assembly work, and also of the modeling of Jack body postures. Animations were found more useful in the zero-gravity environment. Beside the treatment of co-ordinate systems, the process of file transfer was almost identical. In both case studies benefits of the use of Jack analysis, and resulting design impact according to this, seem to be equal despite when the analysis were carried out in the design process.

    1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Perception and Performance in Augmented Reality [Research]

    Discriminability of Prediction Artifacts in a Time-Delayed Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 499-502
      Jae Y. Jung; Bernard D. Adelstein; Stephen R. Ellis
    Overall latency remains an impediment to perceived image stability and consequently to human performance in virtual environment (VE) systems. Predictive compensators have been proposed as a means to mitigate these shortcomings, but they introduce rendering errors because of induced motion overshoot and heightened noise. Discriminability of these compensator artifacts was investigated by a protocol in which head tracked image stability for 35 ms baseline VE system latency was compared against artificially added (16.7 to 100 ms) latency compensated by a previously studied Kalman Filter (KF) predictor. A control study in which uncompensated 16.7 to 100 ms latencies were compared against the baseline was also performed. Results from 10 subjects in the main study and 8 in the control group indicate that predictive compensation artifacts are less discernible than the disruptions of uncompensated time delay for the shorter but not the longer added latencies. We propose that noise magnification and overshoot are contributory cues to the presence of predictive compensation.
    Effects of Visual Interface Design, and Control Mode and Latency on Performance, Telepresence and Workload in a Teleoperation Task BIBAFull-Text 503-506
      David B. Kaber; Jennifer M. Riley; Rong Zhou; John Draper
    Human-machine interfaces that facilitate telepresence are speculated to improve performance with teleoperators. Unfortunately, there is little experimental evidence to substantiate a direct link between the two. Further, there are limited data available on technological and psychological factors that affect telepresence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of interface design configuration, and control mode and latency on teleoperation performance, telepresence, and workload in a pick-and-place task. It was conducted to enhance understanding of the concept of telepresence and promote future development of telepresence-based guidelines for teleoperator systems. An experiment was conducted in which subjects were required to control a telerobot in a simple pick-and-place task through a virtual reality (VR) interface with or without live-video feedback on the motion of the robot. Rotational or translational motion control of the robot was studied under four control latencies ranging from 0 to 4 seconds. Results demonstrated significant benefits of using VR in conjunction with video feedback to control the telerobot. Rotational control appeared to better meet user expectations of robot motion control than modes involving translations of joint positions. Performance with the VR interface without live video feedback appeared to be sensitive to control latency. Correlation analysis provided further evidence of a positive link between telepresence and performance.
    A Taxonomy of Technology: Defining Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 507-510
      R. S. Kalawsky; A. W. Stedmon; K. Hill; C. A. Cook
    This paper outlines a functional decomposition of Augmented Reality (AR), from both a technological and human factors perspective, with a view to providing a coherent and structured framework for its development and evaluation in the future. Without a formal framework to underpin the description and development of AR technology, confusion may arise in comparing systems and applications. The proposed framework allows for the user's capabilities to be described in all their sensory detail, which, in turn, furnishes the taxonomy with a power to account for these in the development of advanced technologies. This toplevel analysis can then be decomposed into discrete elements representing the enabling technologies that make up a given AR domain. This provides a much richer descriptive power within the framework and consistent criteria for comparing systems, applications and indeed conventional human-computer interfaces with AR. Furthermore, as it is a 'usercentred' approach, the framework does not assume that visual augmentation is the only means of providing an AR facility. Implicit in the framework is the notion that AR can be delivered through other sensory augmentation, even if the technical means is not available at the moment. In this way, the taxonomy offers a concise and precise means of categorising the technology, understanding the application, and, ultimately, supporting the user of an AR system.
    Effects of Cue Reliability, Realism, and Interactivity on Biases of Attention and Trust in Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 511-514
      Michelle Yeh; Christopher D. Wickens
    This experiment seeks to examine the relationship between three advanced technology features (presentation of target cueing -- and the reliability of that data, image reality, and interactivity) and the attention and trust provided to that information. Sixteen military personnel were asked to detect targets camouflaged in terrain, presented at two levels of scene detail, while performing a terrain association task. Half the subjects actively navigated through the terrain; the other half passively viewed the control path of an active navigator. Cueing was presented for some of the targets, and the reliability of this information was manipulated at two levels (100% and 75%). The results revealed that the presence of cueing aided the target detection task for expected targets but drew attention away from the presence of unexpected targets in the environment. This attentional tunneling was mediated by cue reliability; unexpected targets, presented in conjunction with a cued object, were detected more often when cueing was only partially reliable. Neither image reality nor interactivity directly influenced trust in the display.
    Comparison of Space Perception Between a Real Environment and a Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 515-518
      Jungsun Yoon; Eunhee Byun; Nyang S. Chung
    Virtual reality technologies are being applied to diverse industrial fields. However, the degree to which a virtual environment is faithful to a real one has not been assessed rigorously. This paper assessed the fidelity of a virtual environment to a real environment. More specifically, it examined 3 major issues: (1) Are a real room and an equivalently modeled virtual room perceived same? (2) How accurate are the estimated sizes and ratios? (3) Does presentation order affect subjects' estimation? We employed a real room and an equivalently modeled virtual room in the experiment. The sizes of the room elements are as follows: width 258cm, depth 380cm, and height 245 cm. Seven females and five males ranging in age from 20 to 42 years served as subjects. All subjects experienced the real room and the virtual room, and the presentation order of the rooms was counterbalanced. Subjects experienced the virtual room wearing the HMD. After subjects observed each room, they were asked to answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire included items on the perception of the physical and psychological properties of the room. The space perceptions in both rooms were not significantly different. When the estimated sizes in both conditions were compared with the actual sizes, the estimations related to height in both conditions were different from the actual ones. This pattern of results suggests that virtual environments instead of the real ones could be used for design and architecture with the adjusted height. Further studies on human space perception using better navigation methods are needed.

    1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments: Issues in Training and Practice [Research]

    Collaborative Work Using Give and Take Passing Protocols BIBAFull-Text 519-522
      A. H. Mason; C. L. MacKenzie
    To effectively design computer simulations of shared environments, an understanding is needed of the basic informational requirements and underlying movement patterns generated by two people collaborating in these environments. Results from this study indicate that when passing objects in a natural environment, the fundamental movement patterns seen during simple grasping tasks are altered to accommodate the collaborative nature and social constraints of the task. When giving objects, although subjects reach further they reach more quickly than when the objects are taken. This result may indicate a social consideration taken by the passer to move quickly and efficiently over a long distance to transfer the object to the receiver. Thus, the receiver does not have to travel as far or as fast to receive the given object. However, when objects are taken, passers move more slowly and lift the objects higher. This result may indicate that the passer times their movement so that they are not waiting at the end of their movement for the receiver to reach the target. Thus, although the result of the task is the same (the receiver obtains the object), the underlying movement patterns differ with the goal and social constraints of the movement. These results may be used to develop predictive algorithms when designing virtual and augmented environments. Future experiments will concentrate on the nature of visual and haptic information required for both the passer and receiver to effectively perform a passing task in an augmented environment.
    Team Communications in a Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 523-526
      James E. Cotton; Donald R. Lampton
    A networked simulation environment, known as the Fully Immersive Team Training (FITT) system, was employed to study team interactions in a virtual environment. The investigation was designed to evaluate the influence of various instructional strategies (demonstration, coaching, or replay) on team performance. Performance was evaluated on a variety of dimensions, with an emphasis on team communications. Results of the experiment indicated that teams receiving instruction in the form of an expert demonstration performed communications-related tasks in closer conformance with protocols than a control group receiving only an instruction manual. This may suggest that expert demonstrations are an effective strategy for training teams in communications tasks in virtual environments. The limitations of current communications-analysis strategies, and suggestions for their improvement, are discussed.
    Learning and Training Simulator Virtual Reality Development for Parachute Descent BIBAFull-Text 527-529
      J. Y. Ruisseau; L. Todeschini; P. Gorzerino
    Nowadays, in some critical domains like military operations, operator's performance is directly and strongly linked to the situational awareness and the control of the situation this operator may have, and thus, the learning and training of the techniques to be performed. New means of technique may be necessary to improve capacities of operators immersed in new situations. This paper describes such an approach, based on virtual reality techniques, for individual training and, in the future, for group training.

    1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Immersion and Side Effects in Virtual Environments [Research]

    Simulator Sickness Symptoms During Team Training in Immersive Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 530-533
      Donald Ralph Lampton; Mar Esther Rodriguez; James Eastham Cotton
    Fifty-five women and 38 men recruited from local colleges practiced building-search missions in Virtual Environments using the Fully Immersive Team Training research system. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was administered before the first immersion, and after each of up to 5 immersions of approximately 8 minutes duration. Mean SSQ total severity scores and participant comments indicated that symptoms abated after the first immersion, then for some participants symptoms increased with subsequent immersions. For each of the 5 immersions eye strain was the most frequently reported symptom. 9% of the participants, all women, dropped out because of reported simulator sickness.
    Simulator Sickness in a Virtual Environments Driving Simulator BIBAFull-Text 534-537
      Ronald R. Mourant; Thara R. Thattacherry
    Some users of virtual environments experience adverse effects known as simulator sickness. Common symptoms are generally grouped into nausea, oculomotor discomfort, and disorientation. This research examined whether the severity and type of simulator sickness differs due to the type of driving environment or the gender of the driver. Three environments with variations in driver workload were developed: Highway, Rural, and City. Tests were conducted using Northeastern University's Virtual Driving Simulator. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and postural stability tests, were used to gather data before and after participants drove the virtual environments based driving simulator. In comparison with past research, a different SSQ profile was found in that most of the symptoms reported were in the oculomotor discomfort category. This included eye strain, headaches, difficulty focusing, and blurred vision. Subjects who drove the Highway or Rural Road environments had more symptoms than those who drove the City environment. This indicates that vehicle velocity may be a factor in driving simulator sickness since subjects drove 60 mph in the Highway and Rural Road environments, but only 25 mph in the City environment. In both the before and after tests, females had less postural stability than males. Females also had a greater increase in oculomotor discomfort symptoms than males. Additional research is needed to determine why females experience more simulator sickness than males.
    Individual Characteristics and Experiences of Virtual Reality Induced Symptoms and Effects (Vrise) BIBAFull-Text 538-541
      Sarah Nichols
    Virtual Reality Induced Symptoms and Effects (VRISE) include both "positive" effects, such as the feeling of presence in a Virtual Environment (VE) or enjoyment of the use of Virtual Reality (VR), and "negative" effects, such as postural instability or sickness symptoms. The severity and nature of these effects can be influenced by VR system design, VE design, circumstances of use and individual participant characteristics. This paper presents an experiment that examines the effects experienced by 78 participants after a 30 minute period of VR use. The influence of a number of participant characteristics was assessed, and gender, motion sickness history, VR attitudes and immersive tendencies were found to have some influence on the experience of VRISE. Appropriate methods of minimising the level of negative effects experienced are discussed.
    Age Differences in a Virtual Reality Entertainment Environment: a Field Study BIBAFull-Text 542-545
      Robert C. Allen; Michael J. Singer; Daniel P. McDonald; James E. Cotton
    The data presented below was collected at a Virtual Reality (VR) amusement center in Orlando, FL. This study is exploratory, i.e., an initial attempt to try and uncover factor(s) that may interact with age when determining user enjoyment of a VR ride. In addition, we measured each participant's state of wellbeing to see how the VR rides in the center impacted our participants. 28 people participated in the study. Three age groups, Young, Middle, and Old, were established from our sample (meanage = l1, 28, and 50, respectively). Significant correlation's between age and several survey questions were found. Although one person dropped out there were no significant differences in sickness scores, either between age groups or collapsed across groups.

    1: VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments Posters

    Evaluating Human Goal-Directed Activities in Virtual and Augmented Environments BIBFull-Text 546
      C. L. MacKenzie; K. S. Booth; J. C. Dill; K. Inkpen; S. Payandeh
    Potential Benefits of Olfactory Stimulation in Virtual Environments (Ves) BIBFull-Text 547
      Wallace Sadowski; Mike Guest
    Designing Virtual Environments to Enhance Human Performance BIBFull-Text 548
      Kay M. Stanney; Susan Lanham; Robert S. Kennedy; Robert Breaux

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Ergonomics: Lessons from the Past [Research]

    Toward Ecological Validity of Research on Cognition BIBAFull-Text 549-552
      Jean-Michel Hoc
    Psychology is one of the main disciplines that have been implied in the development of cognitive ergonomics. For a long time, at least from the sixties, some researchers in psychology have contributed to cognitive ergonomics with the aim of elaborating basic psychological knowledge, (a) with high ecological validity, and (b) with clear relevance to application. This paper stresses the value of this perspective for psychology as well as cognitive ergonomics, and evaluates the results of such an enterprise.
    Human Work in the Call Centres BIBAFull-Text 553-556
      Sebastiano Bagnara; Francesca Gabrielli; Patrizia Marti
    Many people are currently working in call centres and much more are expected to work in them in the near future. Call centres are in a sense "modern factories" where services are delivered through information and communication technologies. This paper describes the technological evolution and discusses some aspects of human and work organisation in call centres. The final part of the paper focuses on a crucial issue commonly to be faced in call centres: the building up of organisational memories.
    Cognitive Ergonomics Past, Present, Future: 10 Lessons Learned (10 Lessons Remaining) BIBAFull-Text 557-560
      John Long
    This paper reviews the past, present and future of Cognitive Ergonomics, as a discipline. The past, and in particular its shortcomings, is characterised in terms of an earlier description offered by Long (1987). The present is characterised in terms of the lessons assumed to have been learned by Cognitive Ergonomics, since that publication. The future is characterised in terms of lessons, which still remain to be learned. Last, the paper raises some general issues concerning Cognitive Ergonomics.
    An Outsider's view of Cognitive Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 561-563
      David Meister
    The following is an outsider's view of cognitive ergonomics (what it is, what it attempts to do, etc.), based on a review of its recent literature.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Ergonomics: The Direction of the Future [Research]

    Cognitive Ergonomics in New Territories BIBAFull-Text 564-567
      Wan Chul Yoon
    With the rapid progress of information technology, the work environments that cognitive ergonomics is concerned with are changing; the interaction with physical systems is increasingly logically organized while new large-scale logical systems are emerging. Logical systems, having been mainly dealt with by HCI experts, are now integrated in scale and based on social dynamics. As more emphasis is necessary on interaction rather than the interface of those systems, they become a mandatory subject of cognitive ergonomics. The importance of large-scale logical systems escalates with the global advance of knowledge society. Corporations, with new production and commerce paradigms, are transforming into knowledge organizations to present design and operation issues to cognitive ergonomics. Cognitive ergonomics should adapt to this change in problem domains as they present different emphases on the topics and ingredients of cognitive systems.
    Cognitive Engineering Challenges of Managing Swarms of Self-Organizing agent-based Automation BIBAFull-Text 568-571
      John D. Lee
    Function allocation, mode errors, and misuse of automation have become increasingly important research topics as technology has become more sophisticated. These and related problems will emerge as critical research issues as self-organizing, agent-based automation becomes more prominent. While current research has studied how people control a small number (2 to 10) of agents, the future will likely introduce the challenge of supervising hundreds of agents. Complex automation that is built from hundreds of loosely connected intelligent agents may exhibit powerful new adaptive behaviors. This emergent behavior may not be an intuitive extension of individual agent behavior. Addressing the challenge of this new technology will require a theoretical understanding of human behavior that goes beyond a task-based description of well-defined scenarios. Several important research questions include: What is the best way to support effective management of the agents? How can potential problems among the agents be identified and predicted? What display concepts are most effective for controlling large numbers of agents? How can the emergent agent behavior constrained so that it is comprehensible to human operators?
    Enhancing the Applicability of approaches to the Design of Cognitive Working Systems BIBAFull-Text 572-575
      Francoise Darses
    While cognitive ergonomics has undoubtedly imposed itself as a scientific discipline, it is still only applied in an approximative fashion by consultant ergonomists in their day-to-day work of analysing and improving socio-technical systems. The cognitive analysis of work often draws more on the intuition derived from operators' cognitive activities than from the results of rigorous methodological approaches. From my point of view, this hampers the expansion of cognitive activity as a vehicle for transforming socio-technical systems. Developing practical means (techniques and methods) for applying cognitive ergonomics is thus a challenge we have to face for the future, if this discipline is to contribute fully to the improvement of working systems on a daily basis.
    A Vision for Cognitive Engineering in the Early Twenty First Century BIBAFull-Text 576-579
      Guy Boy
    Cognitive engineering has grown from the need to better understand human-centered design of information-intensive systems such as new generation aircraft cockpits. Objects have affordances whether they are natural or artificial (artifacts). The analysis of the concept of affordance leads to a functional view of human cognition. Cognitive functions that are useful for the use of artifacts are defined along with three attributes: a role, a context of validity, and a set of resources. Cognitive function allocation among human and machine agents is a key issue that leads to the definition of co-reliability of human and machine agents in terms of co-operation, co-adaptation, co-dependency and situation awareness. Such a cognitive function analysis involves new approaches of human cognition that are more phenomenological than the currently used methods based on cognitivism. This paper initiates a debate on these issues.
    Cognitive Ergonomics: Requisite Compatibility, Fuzziness and Nonlinear Dynamics BIBAFull-Text 580-583
      Waldemar Karwowski
    From the system design viewpoint, the main issue in ergonomics is to determine the requisite, or absolutely essential compatibility of the artifact-human system, and use it as a reference point for system improvements. Cognitive ergonomics aims to assure such requisite compatibility in the functioning of the artifact-human-systems with respect to complex and uncertain (cognitive) inter-relationships between system users, machines, and the environments. Such analysis must account for natural fuzziness and nonlinear dynamics of human cognitive processes. This paper examines some of the critical issues and methodological needs for future development of cognitive ergonomics. The modelling paradigm with respect to cognitive performance on physical tasks is also discussed.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Modeling [Multiple-Session Symposium]

    Cognitive Modeling BIBAFull-Text 584
      Holger Luczak
    Cognitive modeling can be understood as a conceptual basis to describe the nature and role of human cognition in the field of man-machine systems. Information processing conceptions are used to explain the processes that humans use to perform tasks such as problem solving or interacting with a computer.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Theory to Practice Relationships of Cognitive Modeling [Research]

    Utility of Cognitive Models BIBAFull-Text 585-588
      Holger Luczak; Christopher Schlick
    In ergonomics the approach of cognitive modeling is crucial for the design of human-machine systems. With regard to the user interface design of future manufacturing systems eleven requirements for cognitive models are introduced. These requirements are used to evaluate a total of five cognitive models with regard to three ergonomic design paradigms: (1) the design of decision support systems, (2) the design for minimized stress and strain, and (3) the design for wholistic tasks and personal development. The evaluated cognitive models include Caccibue's Cognitive Simulation Model, Card's et al. Model Human Information Processor, and Rasmussen's Model of Human Performance. In addition, two explicatory models are evaluated: Newell's Unified Theories of Cognition and Anderson's ACT-R model. The results demonstrate a superiority of the Rasmussen approach concerning the first and third design paradigm. Concerning the second design paradigm Newell's Unified Theories of Cognition have the best evaluation result.
    Models of Cognition and the Power to Predict BIBFull-Text 589-591
      Erik Hollnagel
    Are Observers ever really Complacent when Monitoring Automated Systems BIBAFull-Text 592-595
      Neville Moray
    A recurring worry in recent applied research on the role of humans in highly reliable automated systems has been the fear of "complacency', or the tendency to trust automation too much, with the consequence that faults or abnormal function go undetected. Existing evidence does not support the conclusion that operators are complacent. Rather, it supports the notion that in any complex dynamic system even an operator who is well calibrated with respect to the probability of faults, who shows eutactic behaviour, and who behaves optimally cannot be expected to detect all faults. The question of what strategy should be adopted when monitoring a highly reliable system is discussed.
    Using Cognitive Task Analysis to build a Cognitive Model BIBAFull-Text 596-599
      Gary Klein
    Cognitive ergonomics offers the potential to influence system development by describing how systems can be designed to improve the: way cognitive functions are being performed. One means of taking cognitive functions into account is by developing cognitive models. Cognitive Task Analysis methods can be used to develop explanatory models of cognitive functions.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Modeling and Simulation [Research]

    Mental Representations as Mirror of Function Allocation and Control Strategies in a Simulated Chemical Plant BIBAFull-Text 600-603
      Cornelia Ryser; Gudela Grote
    In order to fulfill supervisory control tasks in automated systems, a human operator needs to have an adequate mental representation of the process and the technical system. The development of such representations depends on both the technically provided control opportunities, as determined by the allocation of functions between the technical system and the human operator, and the use the human operator makes of such opportunities as expressed in the chosen control strategies in process monitoring, failure diagnosis and process intervention. At the same time, operators' mental representations of a system influence the choice of control strategies.
       A study will be presented that aims at describing this relationship between function allocation, control strategies and mental representations in a quasi-experimental setting. Apprentices of a Swiss chemical company operated a simulated plant with varying degrees of automation and with process disturbances of varying severity. Observations and interviews were used to obtain data on control strategies, while the apprentices' mental representations of the process and the technical system were inferred from written process protocols and structural diagrams drawn after the experiment.
    Simulation of Rule-Based behavior for a Multimodal Interaction Task with Stochastic Petri Nets BIBAFull-Text 604-607
      Christopher Schlick
    Based on a laboratory study of a multimodal interaction task, an approach for modeling rule-based behavior with stochastic Petri Nets is introduced. A reference task network is developed and is compared to alternative models from the mathematical theory of stochastic processes with the help of dynamic discrete-event simulation. The results of inferential statistics demonstrate the superiority of the reference task network.
    The Application of a Cognitive Model as a Human Factors Decision Support System for Design Teams BIBAFull-Text 608-611
      James Eilbert; Kevin Bracken; Gwendolyn E. Campbell; Bruce McDonald
    The push in the Navy to design and build new ships that can be effectively manned with dramatically fewer sailors raises key Human Factors issues that must be addressed in the system design process. To promote the understanding of these issues and their solutions throughout the system design team, an effort is currently underway to develop a software agent, called the Executive Advisor (EA). This agent will alert and advise systems engineers and the rest of the engineering team regarding human factors issues and analyses appropriate to the current stage of the system design process. The EA is being built with a cognitive modeling tool called iGEN, in order to (a) enable context-sensitive reasoning about relevant human factors issues, and (b) facilitate human-agent dialogue. The capabilities and structure of the agent will be described.
    Empirical Investigation of a Workspace Model for Chemical Engineers BIBAFull-Text 612-615
      Martin Wolf; Christian Foltz; Christopher Schlick; Holger Luczak
    This paper presents the concept of a groupware-system suited for the early stages of a chemical design process. Within the scope of the system's development, a requirement analysis was carried out at an international chemicals group. Based on this analysis, at first a new conceptual model and after it a groupware concept was developed, which considers the particularities of the chemical design processes, especially the mental models of chemical designers. By evaluating this concept, the concept's practical relevance was demonstrated and further specific requirements of the groupware system were defined.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Cognitive Modeling in Engineering Design Research [Research]

    Use of Cognitive Walkthrough for Evaluation of Cockpit Design BIBAFull-Text 616-619
      Martin G. Helander; Orjan Skinnars
    This paper outlines the use of cognitive walkthrough for design and evaluation of an airplane cockpit. Designers need methods that can help predicting the outcome of proposed design features at an early stage of design and later during design alterations and updating. Since the design of a military aircraft may take 10-15 years, it is important to develop evaluation methods other than user testing. This report proposes the use of Cognitive Walkthrough (CW) to evaluate the Pilot-Cockpit Interface.
    Cognitive modeling of design problem solving BIBAFull-Text 620-622
      Winfried Hacker
    There is a couple of models of engineering design. However empirical results could not verify them so far. One reason might be the conceptualization of design in terms of cognitive micro-processes. A re-interpretation of engineering design as a goal-directed working activity suggests to apply Activity Theory for modeling of design. Starting from empirical results this suggestion is discussed for five essential characteristics of the design process. The characteristics are compatible with the general notions of Activity Theory.
    Knowledge Representation for Engineering Design based on a Cognitive Model BIBAFull-Text 623-626
      Ludger Schmidt; Holger Luczak
    For the computer-support of knowledge-based human information processing, it is necessary to look at the representation of the information as well as designing an appropriate interface considering the ergonomics of human-computer interaction. Related to the established methodology for the design of technical systems, the cognitive model of an abstraction hierarchy was used as a framework for a task-appropriate knowledge representation in every phase of the design process. Based on a design task from the field of mechanical engineering, this concept was implemented as a software prototype. In an empirical study the practical applicability and usefulness of this concept were investigated. Trajectories of design problem solving were recorded and analyzed.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics and Computer Work [Multiple-Session Symposium]

    Ergonomics and Computer an International Multisession Symposium BIBAFull-Text 627
      David Rempel
    Work with computers is expanding within all industrial sectors, finance, service, health care, manufacturing, food and others. Not only is computer work replacing other types of work, but the hours that people spend in front of the computer continues to rise. Furthermore, advances in software and hardware constantly change the way we work with computers. For example, within the past 10 years the mouse has replaced the keyboard for many applications. Therefore, it is critical for members of our association to stay abreast of the research, policy and future directions of the human factors and ergonomics issues surrounding computer work.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Workload during Computer Keyboard and Mouse Use [Research]

    Motor Unit Activation Pattern of the right Trapezius Muscle (Descending Part) during Resting, Typing and Tapping BIBAFull-Text 628-631
      Th. Laubli; M. Kitahara; T. Wellig; H. Krueger
    Neck pain is prevalent among computer users and it is postulated that it may be due to continuous firing of single motor units. This study describes the activation pattern of motor units in the trapezius muscle of healthy subjects and the following questions are examined: i) Do some persons not completely relax their neck muscles and does such a motor behavior induce constant activity of single motor units? ii) Does auditory attention or fast repetitive finger movement induce constant activity of single motor units in the trapezius muscle? Three male and three female subjects performed three tasks (resting, tapping, typing) during three minutes. Three channel intramuscular EMG was registered from the descending part of the trapezius muscle using four wire electrodes. The three minute recordings of each session were divided into ten second segments which were separately analyzed with the MAPQuest program. MAPQuest allows the complete decomposition using a modified Viterby algorithm. The results showed that the trapezius muscle was active in one subject while relaxing, in two subjects while inputting, and in five subjects while tapping. Long lasting single motor unit firing was observed in two subjects while inputting and in one subject while tapping. We conclude that in the trapezius muscle continuous motor unit firing may be induced by typical computer work and that its intensity depends both on individual and task characteristics. The measurement period was too short to draw definite conclusions and, for further discussion, it is necessary to evaluate longer periods.
    Computer Mouse Work differences between Work Methods and Gender BIBAFull-Text 632-635
      Jens Wahlstrom; Joakim Svensson; Peter W. Johnson; Mats Hagberg
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different work methods with computer mouse had an effect on musculoskeletal load and to study whether there were any gender differences in performance and/or musculoskeletal load. Thirty experienced computer mouse users (15 men and 15 women) performed a text-editing task using two different work methods to operate the mouse. Women worked with higher muscular activity in the forearm, applied higher relative forces to the sides and button of the mouse and worked with more extreme postures in the wrist than men. Differences were also found between the two different work methods used to operate the mouse.
    Musculoskeletal Workload during Non-Linear Video Editing BIBAFull-Text 636-639
      B. R. Jensen; B. Laursen
    Today, video editing in TV production is mainly performed using digital computer systems. The aim was to evaluate the musculoskeletal workload among the technicians performing digital (non-linear) video editing. Six technicians volunteered in the study and they performed nonlinear video editing during a normal day. As a reference they performed a multidirectional computer mouse task. Muscle activity (EMG) was recorded from the forearm muscles (m. extensor carpi radialis, m. extensor digitorum and the forearm flexors) and from the shoulder/neck region (right and left m. trapezius, neck muscles (right side)). Perceived exertion was rated according to a CR-10 scale. The perceived exertion located to hand/wrist, forearm/elbow and shoulder and neck increased during the working day. Very few or none EMG gaps were found for the forearm extensor muscles during work. A static loading of the neck and the forearm extensor muscles was found during non-linear video editing despite the low number of input device operations per time (mouse clicks and keystrokes) and a well adjusted work place where the forearms were supported most of the working time. This may be related to high demands on precision in time and constrained working postures with the hands alert on keyboard and mouse and the eyes focused on monitors for the major part of the working time. Finally, eye blink frequency was found to be very low during non-linear video editing.
    Motor-Unit Recruitment in the Trapezius Muscle during a Computer Typing Task BIBAFull-Text 640-643
      Mikael Forsman; Laila Birch; Qiuxia Zhang; Roland Kadefors
    The possible linkage between intense computer work and chronic shoulder pain was studied on the basis of the motor-unit overuse theory. By using a four-lead wire-electrode intramuscular electromyography was recorded from the upper trapezius muscle of seven healthy subjects during a computer typing task. The task consisted of text entry from a manuscript. Motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) were tracked using an automatic classification program with possibilities for manual corrections. The duration of the work task was 10 min. After 5 minutes typing, one surface and three intramuscular EMG channels were sampled in periods of 20 seconds each minute (5 periods in total). For the surface EMG, the maximum voluntary electrical activation was measured, for normalization, in the end of the experiment. One to twelve units were identified per subject (median 6, totally 40). In six of the seven subjects at least half of the motor units were identified in all five minutes (in total, 22 of 34). ). In the seventh subject, four units that were identified in minutes 6 and 7 were substituted by five others that were active in the remaining three minutes. The surface EMG RMS values ranged from 1.3 to 8.5 {percent}MVE (mean, 4.7). Since many of the motor units were active in all periods, the basic hypothesis was supported, but since others were active in a subset of the periods, it is was concluded that long time measurements are needed to anatomize the recruitment pattern during enduring work with computer input devices.
    Tissue Oxygenation and EMG during Computer Mouse Work and Submaximal Isometric Wrist Extensions BIBAFull-Text 644-647
      Pernille Kofoed Nielsen; Bjarne Laursen; Gita Murthy; Bente Rona Jensen
    Sufficient tissue oxygenation (TO2) is essential for muscle function in general. However, it is not known to which extent TO2 is influenced during different low-level contractions. The aim was to study the interaction between EMG activity and TO2 during computer mouse tasks and submaximal isometric contractions at load levels corresponding to levels that occur during repetitive work in industry.
       Eight healthy subjects performed multidirectional computer mouse tasks (40 and 60 clicks/min) with the right arm. In addition, 1-minute isometric wrist extensions at 5, 15 and 25 {percent}Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) were performed. Further, a 15 {percent}MVC wrist extension until exhaustion was performed. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure TO2 of m. extensor carpi radialis. EMG was recorded from m. extensor carpi radialis and m. extensor digitorum.
       During mousing the EMGRMS activity was in general higher during the high speed compared to the low speed task. Muscular load of the forearm has isometric characteristics to a high degree. No significant difference in TO2 was found between the two mousing speeds. During the isometric contractions EMGRMS increased and TO2 decreased with increasing contraction level. The mean endurance time at the 15 {percent}MVC wrist extension was 22.6 min. The average exerted force remained constant though fluctuations in the force increased as a function of time, indicating impaired force control due to development of fatigue. During the endurance task the EMGRMS activity increased and the EMGMPF decreased, indicating electromyographic signs of muscle fatigue. Within less than one minute TO2 decreased significantly relative to resting values. No further decrease was seen during the endurance contraction. Point of exhaustion was not related either to a gradual or a sudden decrease in TO2. Although the average exerted force remained constant, sudden changes in EMGRMS was seen in some subjects especially in the last part of the contraction, indicating changes in force distribution between muscles. This is assumed to be a fatigue-preventing mechanism. These changes in extensor carpi radialis muscle activity were reflected as opposite changes in TO2-levels. A cross correlation analysis showed a correlation between in extensor carpi radialis muscle activity and TO2, time displacement=3.4 sec, r=-0.31. This indicates that the changes in EMG activity precede the changes in TO2-level.
       In conclusion, TO2 was inversely related to muscle activity and exerted force. A steady state level below resting level of TO2 was found during the prolonged fatiguing isometric contraction. Point of exhaustion could not be explained either by a gradual or a sudden decrease in TO2.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Computer Monitors: Vision and Musculoskeletal Health [Research]

    Position of the Forearm and VDU Work BIBAFull-Text 648-649
      Arne Aaras; Ola Ro
    Workload when using a mouse as an input device was examined in a laboratory study. Two positions of the forearm were compared. One mouse gave an almost neutral position whereas the traditional mouse required a pronated one. The muscle load was recorded by electromyography (EMG) from the extensor digitorum communis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and trapezius muscles. The muscle load of the forearm was significantly less when using a mouse operated with an almost neutral position of the forearm compared with a pronated one.
       In a prospective field study, a significant reduction was reported regarding pain intensity and frequency for wrist/hand, forearm, shoulder and neck after an intervention with the new mouse (p<0.009). All the participants reported pain at commencement. The control group using the traditional mouse reported only small changes in the pain level (p>0.24).
    Factors to consider in selecting appropriate Computer Monitor Placement BIBAFull-Text 650-653
      Carolyn M. Sommerich; Sharon M. B. Joines; Jennie P. Psihogios
    Two studies were designed to explore visual and musculoskeletal strain associated with computer monitor placement. Effects of viewing angle, monitor size, keyboard familiarity, and task were studied in a lab setting. Outcome measures assessed visual and musculoskeletal strain, preference, and performance. To follow-up, participants in a field study were exposed to two of the placements tested in the lab. Preferences were split, but for most field subjects matched the placement associated with the least neck discomfort. Results of these studies and others suggest that, in consideration of individual differences and task requirements, the best solution may be providing users with a range of placement options and the ability and training to explore them.
    Evaluation of the Ergonomic Aspects of Portable Personal Computers with Flat Panel Displays (PC-FPDs) BIBAFull-Text 654-657
      Maria Beatriz G. Villanueva; Hiroshi Jonai; Midori Sotoyama; Susumu Saito
    Adverse effects may accompany the increased popularity of portable computers (PC-FPDs). This paper evaluated the ergonomic aspects of PC-FPD use in two (2) experiments. The first phase studied the posture, muscle load, complaints and performance of the subjects. Ten subjects performed a text-entry task for 5 minutes using a desktop computer and 4 PC-FPDs of various sizes. Viewing and neck angles were lower and the trunk was more forward inclined while using the PCFPDs. Muscle activities of the neck extensor during work with PC-FPDs were also higher than for the desktop computer. Increasing discomfort and difficulty of keying validated by decreasing performance with smaller PC-FPDs were noted. The second experiment looked at the effect of FPD tilt on body and eye positions and luminance. Another 10 subjects were asked to transcribe sentences using a 13.3-inch FPD with the screen set at tilt angles from 100 to 140 degrees. The results showed that at a 100-degree tilt, the subjects assumed a relatively upward gaze, longer viewing distance, wider elbow angle and forward trunk inclination with the chair height set the lowest and the computer set farthest from the edge of the table. These findings may be explained by the intent of the subjects to obtain the best viewing parameters. The subjects had the greatest difficult using the computer at this tilt angle. This setting was also least preferred during the experiment. Our studies show the need for ergonomic guidelines specific for PC-FPD use.
    Research Activities on the Ergonomics of Computers in Schools in Japan BIBAFull-Text 658
      Susumu Saito; Midori Sotoyama; Hiroshi Jonai; Masahiro Akutsu; Madoka Yalani; Tatsuya Marumoto
    Recently, Japanese government took positive steps financially to introduce computers into schools and to promote the use of the internet in school environments. A proactive approach must be taken to eliminate the foreseeable ergonomic problems from the use of these new technologies. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) has had discussions on the topics concerned. The postural and visual characteristics of young students, ergonomic improvements of workstations for the school children, operating conditions of PCs in junior-high schools, questionnaire surveys on the ergonomic aspects of computers in schools were discussed in the JES symposium held in 1999. In conclusion, the introduction of computers in schools should be given more careful consideration and the development of ergonomic guidelines for the use of computers in schools should address the prevailing social needs.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Workstation and Seating Design [Research]

    The TCO Office Checker A Tool for Ergonomic Work Place Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 659-662
      M. Andersson; T. Berns; L. Klusell
    In the mid 80's, The Swedish confederation for white collar workers, the TCO, successfully launched it's first ergonomic testing tool -- The Screen Checker. The Screen Checker made it possible for end user groups to formulate requirements regarding ergonomics for VDU's. The Screen Checker was developed further and the releases of TC092, TCO95 and TC099 have put new standards regarding aspects of office equipment, aspects based on ergonomics and ecology. The TCO "de facto" standards are now used in several countries world wide and the number of office equipment, that are included in the standard, has been increased for each new release. TCO started during 1999 to develop a tool that primarily is targeting the ergonomics in office furniture. A group of researchers has been established as reference group and end users are taking an active part in the project. The development process is based on the user centred design approach as defined in ISO 13407. When the tool is ready, the user will manage the entire process, including context analysis and ergonomic evaluation of their own office furniture. Initially, the tool is based on paper but it will be transferred into a web-based product in a second step. This paper will give an in depth description of the development process and the outcome of it.
    Creating the Seating Clinic and Design Studio -- A Participatory Approach to Seating Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 663-666
      K. Noro; H. Oyama; R. Tanaka; G. Fujimaki
    There is a significant information gap between users and seating developers. To bridge the gap, The Seating Clinic and Design Studio was established in 1999 at Waseda University. The purpose of the Studio is to select or design a well-fitting chair for each individual. Seating problems are also solved. This Studio is divided into two sections: The first section is concerned with the measurement and the development of seating. The second section is a showroom of recommended office chairs. This showroom is open to the public and users can learn the best way to sit on a chair and how to adjust a chair. This paper will report how the gap was bridged.
    Evaluation of Flexible Offices BIBAFull-Text 667-670
      H. Brunberg
    Two studies of flexible office were made in one private company and one unit in a local government. The aims of the evaluations were slightly different. In the private company sellers and technicians were interviewed about learning and co-operation in the new office. In the local government social workers were asked by a questionnaire and interviews about how their work were influenced by the new environment. The results show that a flexible office is not a general environment suiting all kinds of work; it depends on what is characteristic in the work. The work must be analysed very carefully in order to get knowledge of how the design of the physical environment may support the work activity.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Computer Input Device Design [Research]

    Inputting to a Notebook Computer BIBAFull-Text 671-674
      Carolyn M. Sommerich
    Inputting to a notebook computer (NPC) can differ from inputting to a desktop style computer. NPCs are self-contained, so if no peripherals are used, the user works with the keyboard layout and style and location of pointing device provided by the manufacturer. In contrast to standard external keyboards, there are few redundancies provided on an NPC keyboard. Another important difference is keyboard location -- because the monitor and keyboard of most NPCs are joined, the user must make a location choice that will potentially compromise body comfort in one or more regions. This paper focuses on some inherent restrictions to inputting on a self-contained NPC.
    Working Conditions and Musculoskeletal Disorders among Male and Female Computer Operators BIBFull-Text 675-677
      Ewa Wigaeus Hjelm; Lena Karlkvist; Mats Hagberg; Maud Hagman; Eva Hansson Risberg; Anita Isaksson; Allan Toomingas
    Measurement of Stiffness and Damping Characteristics of Computer Keyboard Keys BIBAFull-Text 678-681
      Richard W. Marklin; Mark L. Nagurka
    The tactile feel of a computer key is the composite of static and dynamic components, which include stiffness and damping. A computer-controlled test rig that can measure computer key displacement, velocity, and contact force was designed and constructed and used for testing of computer keys. The hypothesis of this study is that mechanical damping of computer keys occurs (i.e. contact force is a function of travel speed), thereby possibly playing a significant role in explaining the association between computer keyboard usage and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Preliminary results show that a computer keyboard key with a rubber dome mechanism dissipates energy during a depression-return stroke as the velocity of travel increases, indicating the presence of mechanical damping.
    Finger Muscle Activity During Use of Different Pointing Devices BIBAFull-Text 682-684
      David Rempel; Melissa Jacobson; Rich Brewer; Bernard Martin
    The purpose of this study was to compare surface and fine wire EMG amplitude measures from the extrinsic index finger muscles while subjects performed computer based pointing tasks with four different pointing devices. Fifteen subjects, without a history of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders were recruited to this laboratory study. Fine wires were inserted into the extrinsic index finger movers and surface EMG electrodes were placed over the same muscles. Maximum voluntary contractions were performed for each muscle group. Subjects then performed two standardized pointing tasks, one involving repeated clicking of the mouse button and the other involving repeated dragging. The RMS EMG signals were filtered, normalized to MVC, and amplitude probability distribution functions at 10, 50 and 90% were calculated. Subjects also rated fatigue and discomfort associated with each devices and tasks. Summary measures of the EMG and subjective ratings will be evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance for the two conditions and four devices.
    A Biomechanical Assessment of Alternate Keyboards using Tendon Travel BIBAFull-Text 685-688
      D. E. Treaster; W. S. Marras
    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of alternate keyboard designs on the tendon travel of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). A repeated measures experiment was conducted with 10 keyboard conditions. Independent variables were Pitch (positive vs negative pitch), Roll (zero vs positive roll) and Yaw (zero vs positive yaw). Dependent variables were tendon travel with anthropometric data collected as covariates. Subjects also adjusted the Pitch, Roll and Yaw angles on an adjustable keyboard to their preference for one condition.
       Fifteen experienced touch typists (8 women, 7 men) typed a standard text. Wrist and finger goniometers, developed in the Biodynamics Laboratory at Ohio State University, provided data on joint kinematics for the wrist, MP, PIP, and DIP joints. Regression equations were used to calculate tendon travel from joint angle. Tendon travel was used as an indicator of the internal biomechanical loading.
       The results showed that alternate keyboards can change tendon travel by as much as 11%. Positive pitch keyboards produced significantly lower amounts of tendon travel than negative pitch. A highly significant Gender effect was also found: male subjects showed higher tendon travel across all test conditions. This gender difference was only partially explained by differences in hand anthropometry.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Office Intervention Studies and Health Outcomes [Research]

    Office Intervention Studies and Health Outcomes: The Effect of Telephone Headsets on working Posture and Musculoskeletal Symptoms BIBAFull-Text 689-691
      Elizabeth Simpson; Peter Buckle
    This field intervention study compared the working postures and reported musculoskeletal symptoms of participants, while using both a traditional telephone handset and a telephone headset. Twenty-six subjects from a variety of occupations participated in a cross over design. Working postures and self-reported symptoms were recorded and then compared following a month using a handset and a month of headset use. Working posture was significantly improved with the headset. A significant reduction in self-reported neck pain during the period of headset use was found.
    Effect of Four Computer Keyboards in Computer Users with Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders BIBAFull-Text 692-695
      Pat Tittiranonda; David Rempel; Thomas Armstrong; Stephen Burastero
    Eighty computer users with musculoskeletal disorders participated in a six-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of four computer keyboards on clinical findings, pain severity, functional hand status, and comfort. The alternative geometry keyboards tested were: the Apple Adjustable Keyboard [kbl], Comfort Keyboard System [kb2], Microsoft Natural Keyboard [kb3] and placebo. Compared to placebo, kb3 and to a lesser extent kbl groups demonstrated an improving trend in pain severity and hand function following six months of keyboard use, However, there was no corresponding consistent improvement in clinical findings in the alternative geometry keyboard groups compared to the placebo group. Overall, there was a significant correlation between improvement of pain severity and greater satisfaction with the keyboards. These results provide evidence that keyboard users may experience a reduction in hand pain after several months of use of some alternative geometry keyboards.
    Efficacy of Office Ergonomics Education BIBAFull-Text 696-699
      Paula C. Bohr
    The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries associated with computer use is increasing. Education has been advocated as a prevention method for reducing the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal injuries. Although the inclusion of education in musculoskeletal injury prevention programs has become a popular practice, the efficacy of educational programming is poorly defined in the literature. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of worker education programs in preventing musculoskeletal injuries in a population of reservation center employees who spend the majority of their work day using the computer. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three study groups (control, traditional education, or interactive education). Data collection utilized self-report surveys and observational checklists to collect data prior to intervention and at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Preliminary analysis of the data seems to indicate that, overall, education does have some impact on worker comfort, work area configuration, and worker postures.
    Effects of an Ergonomics Intervention among Hospital Billing Department Employees BIBAFull-Text 700-703
      Bradley A. Evanoff; Jeanne H. Button; Laurie D. Wolf
    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a frequent problem among office workers. We studied the effects of an ergonomics intervention among employees of a large hospital billing department.
       Methods: This prospective intervention trial involved employee education sessions on office ergonomics and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders, plus workstation modifications.
       Results: 115 employees of a hospital billing department participated in the initial program and 59 completed 4-year follow-up questionnaire. The 4-year post-intervention period was marked by decreased risk of OSHA-reportable injury (RR=0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78). Total lost days declined from 63.2 to 6.4 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE). Annual workers' compensation costs declined from 432/FTE to 185/FTE. These improvements were significantly greater than those seen in the hospital as a whole. The proportion of employees with musculoskeletal symptoms declined on short-term follow-up. These changes in injury and cost occurred in the setting of increasing job demands and decreasing job satisfaction.
       Conclusion: Substantial reductions in work-related musculoskeletal disorders were seen following an ergonomics intervention among office workers.
    21st Century Workstations Active Partners in Accomplishing Task Goals BIBAFull-Text 704-707
      Glenn A. Osga
    As the new century starts early design efforts are underway for a new class of US Navy ships with design requirements to significantly reduce operational crew size and associated costs. The trend for crew optimization is made all the more difficult with increased mission demands and breadth of tasks to be accomplished. New weapons and sensors will increase the tactical options available to commanders, but significant changes in current design must be made for fewer personnel to handle the workload. Automated functions can have profound implications for the workstation design, increasing warfighter need for multi-tasking across automated systems. Workstation design trends that may be necessary to support this work environment are: increased visual workspace, features that focus on multi-tasking, and system monitoring of task progress with the ability for system assistance based on dynamic monitoring of task progress and monitoring of human state while at work. The workstation of the future becomes actively involved in assisting the human progress through multiple tasks. This is in stark comparison to the passive partnership between workstation and human today.
    Computer Workstations of the Future BIBAFull-Text 708-711
      Galen Cranz
    Most thinking about workstation design takes the Western configuration of chair-and-table for granted. However, Cranz (1998), Mandal (1984) and others have argued that the conventional right angle seated posture is detrimental to physical health. This paper describes the alternative postures, such as perching, lounging, standing, and most importantly, movement, which could be incorporated into the workplace. Changing the workstation requires changing the office as a whole, in turn requiring that we abandon the factory model of office management and design in favor of a new combination of den, club, meditation hall and gymnasium.
    Personal Wearable Computer Systems BIBAFull-Text 712-715
      William J. Weiland; Wayne W. Zachary; James M. Stokes
    While the development of advanced digital communication technologies may tie future workers more and more closely to their computers, these and other emerging technologies can also free future workers from being anchored to a specific physical location. High bandwidth wireless communications, ultraminiaturized computational devices with low energy demands and long battery life, and personalized interface technology will be integrated into low profile wearable computers that allow workers full mobility. When populated with personalized intelligent cognitive agents, the wearable system will also support lifelong learning needs and job performance support needs customized to the individual wearer.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Modeling Human Performance in Systems [Multiple-Session Symposium]

    Modeling Human Performance in Systems BIBFull-Text 716
      Ron Laughery

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Tools for Modeling Human Performance in Systems [Research]

    Tools for Modeling Human Performance in Systems through Green-Colored Glasses: An Army Perspective BIBAFull-Text 717-720
      Laurel Allender
    Providing an authoritative representation of human behavior has recently been recognized as essential for modeling and simulation of system performance. Even earlier; however, the Human Research & Engineering Directorate of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory was working to do just that in a tool called IMPRINT, (the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool). IMPRINT enables a quantitative portrayal of human performance. Task network modeling is implemented with embedded data and sound psychological methods in an easy-to-use interface, all of which has been subjected to intensive verification and validation. IMPRINT is being used today to influence system design and acquisition decisions. Several examples of applications to Army systems are discussed, with implications ranging from detailed equipment design to force-on-force effectiveness. Of course, "more research needs to be done," but in the meantime, human performance modeling is ready for use.
    Task Network Modeling and the Micro Saint Family of Tools BIBAFull-Text 721-724
      Ron Laughery; Susan Archer; Beth Plott; David Dahn
    Over the past fifteen years, a set of tools has emerged for modeling human performance in complex systems that evolve around the concept of task network modeling. Task network models of human performance begin with a functional decomposition of human activity (e.g., a task analysis). Then, by adding sequencing information, timing information and information on how human activity is related to other system behaviors, a model of human performance is created. Micro Saint was the first tool to support task network modeling. However, from this basic concept, tools have emerged that incorporate first principles of human behavior such as human response to workload and performance shaping factors. This set of tools has become known as the Micro Saint "family" of human performance modeling tools. The family of tools and the types of problems they solve are the topic of this paper.

    1: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Application and Demonstrations of Human Performance Modeling Technology [Research]

    Human Performance Modeling: Identification of Critical Variables for National Airspace Safety BIBAFull-Text 725-728
      Brian F. Gore; Kevin M. Corker
    Computational human performance modeling tools have been under development for over 50 years to generate human performance predictions for studying complex human behaviors that possess high costs associated with failures. A common measure for analysis from the digital human modeling tools is operator workload. One complex behavioral environment that is being explored by international regulatory and airline operations groups and is likely to reflect workload differences is known as "free flight". "Free flight" in the United States is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) strategic goal for system capacity and for Air Traffic Services to improve accessibility, flexibility, and predictability in the national airspace in order to reduce flight times, crew resources, maintenance, and fuel costs. The experimental scenarios used to explore "free flight" arc based on the full "free flight" concepts anticipated by Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation (RTCA) in the year 2025. These concepts explore the farthest out parameters of the aviation system. An evaluation of predicted behavioral costs associated with current day and "free flight" operations was performed using two "first principles" models, Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) and the Integrated Performance Modeling Environment (IPME). In analyses of a common scenario, both tools revealed increases along a seven-point, four-channel workload scale from current (MAir MIDAS = 0.77, MIPME = 1.24) to "free flight" operations (MAir MIDAS = 1.15, MIPME = 1.96). The inclusion of a handoff and an emergency event was found to increase the workload levels of the virtual operators within both software tools and provided different performance profile predictions depending on the operator's role in the NAS when faced with such a rule set change as the one proposed by the RTCA (Air MIDAS current day -- Mground = 0.84, MAir = 0.71; IPME current day -- Mground = 1.85, MAir = 0.62; Air MIDAS "free flight" -- Mground = 0.77, MAir = 1.53; IPME "free flight" -- Mground = 2.07, MAir = 1.84). These findings support the notion of initially using models for exploration of variables for inclusion in costly simulation studies. A validation effort of these findings with human-in-the-loop data is required and anticipated.
    New Types of Intelligent Agent Applications BIBAFull-Text 729-732
      Michael J. Young
    The effective advocacy of human performance modeling research requires scientists to look for opportunities to apply their embryonic technologies in novel areas. We describe three instances where human performance modeling technology is being used to solve problems of high interest to the Air Force.
    The Application of Human Performance Models in the Design and Operation of Complex Systems BIBAFull-Text 733-736
      Gwendolyn E. Campbell; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers
    For years, systems designers have used models of hardware and software to support the system design process. Recently, there have been technological advances in modeling all aspects of human performance. The paper will describe four specific applications of human performance modeling that we are exploring to support both the design and operation of complex systems, such as future Navy ships. Specifically, this technology can be used during system design to generate team design concepts, to provide decision support for systems engineers trying to follow a human engineering process, and to allow simulation-based evaluation of human performance. During systems operation, this technology can be used to provide decision support, adaptive aiding, and automation to the operator(s). We believe that human performance modeling technology has matured to the point where it can play a significant role in both the design and operation of future complex systems, reducing both cost and risk.
    Applications for Executable Cognitive Models: A Case-Study Approach BIBAFull-Text 737-740
      Wayne Zachary; Joan Ryder; Thomas Santarelli; Monica Z. Weiland
    Recent theoretical advances in the understanding of expert-level cognition have enabled the creation of software systems and tools that mimic the cognitive performance of human experts. These human performance models are termed cognitive models because they explicitly represent peoples' internal information processing mechanisms and knowledge. While the initial set of cognitive models and cognitive modeling systems focused on developing and testing psychological theory, a second generation of cognitive modeling tools has emerged, with a focus on creating cognitive models for use in application contexts. The range of practical uses of executable cognitive models covers design applications (for use in cognitive engineering), operational applications (for use within a fielded system), and training applications. The various possibilities are exemplified through a series of case-studies representing successful applications in interface design, decision and performance support, and intelligent training.
    Model-Based Team Design BIBAFull-Text 741-744
      Jean MacMillan; Michael J. Paley; Yuri N. Levchuk; Daniel Serfaty
    The introduction of new technology, along with cost pressures to "do more with less," are forcing organizations to re-engineer their team structures and processes. We have developed a systematic, formal, quantitative model-based approach for designing teams. The team model specifies tasks to be accomplished, interdependencies between tasks, resources available to accomplish the tasks, and a set of goals and constraints for the team. We optimize a multi-variable objective function to develop a team design that specifies the tasks performed and the resources controlled by each team member and the authority structure and communication links for the team. We are currently designing teams in a number of military domains -- Joint Task Forces, Navy shipboard command centers, Air Force Air Operations Centers, and Air Force AWACS teams. This paper will use examples from these domains to point out similarities and differences in the team-design problem across domains.

    2: COST-EFFECTIVE ERGONOMICS: Cost-Effective Ergonomics: Case Studies [Research]

    A Simple Cost Benefit analysis for an Ergonomics Train-The-Trainer Program BIBAFull-Text 1-3
      Kim Baxter
    Cost justifying ergonomics interventions is becoming a necessary and important component of any ergonomics program. An ergonomics "Train-the-Trainer" program was established at TELUS in response to recommendations from a study on upper extremity musculoskeletal injuries among telephone operators. The training resulted in the formation of local "experts" or ergonomics teams, who were expected to provide in-house expertise in ergonomics and to assist in the promotion of ergonomics activities in the office on a regular basis. Since the inception of the local teams, there has been a reduction in the incidence and costs of reported upper extremity musculoskeletal injuries in Operator Services. An analysis was undertaken in order to quantify the total savings in dollars that resulted from this program, including savings in claim costs and savings in days lost. Based on the calculations, it was reported that the Ergonomics "Train-the-Trainer" program had resulted in total direct cost savings to TELUS of 163,000 over a two year period. This information was provided to Operator Services management and members of the local ergonomics teams. Ongoing support for the teams and analysis of musculoskeletal injury trends will continue.

    2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomic Research in Environmental Design I [Research]

    The Distance Working Laboratory BIBAFull-Text 4-7
      Tone Petrelius
    This two-part paper initially focuses on the need to enhance our knowledge of the types of demand that must be devised in the future to ensure high quality ergonomic, or in other words efficient, distance working places. Work carried out at the "Distance Working Laboratory", which began in 1997, is reviewed. In 1999 this interdisciplinary lab was renamed "The Future Lab".
    Bringing Ergonomics to the Design of a Behavioural Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 8-11
      Jacqueline B. Barnett
    The application of ergonomics is important when considering the built environment. In order to create an environment where form follows function, a detailed understanding of the tasks performed by the individuals who will live and work in the facility is required. Early involvement in the project is key to maximizing the benefit of ergonomics.
       At Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada, this early intervention was embraced during the design process of a behavioural care unit for aggressive patients. The ergonomist was involved in three phases of design; user needs analysis, block schematics and detailed design.
       The user needs and characteristics were established using a combination of focus groups, interviews, direct observation, task analysis and critique of current working environments. The challenge was to present the information to the design team in a useful manner. The format chosen was a modification of Userfit (Poulson 1996) that outlined the various characteristics of the patient group and the design consequences with "what does this mean for me" statements.
       During the block schematics phase an iterative design process was used to ensure that the ergonomic principles and the user needs were incorporated into the design. Ergonomic input was used in determining the room sizes and layout and to ensure work processes were considered. Simple mock-ups and anthropometric data assisted in illustrating the need for design changes. Examples that highlight the areas of greatest impact of ergonomic intervention include the patient bathrooms, showers and tub room. Significant changes were made to the design to improve the safety of the work and living space of the end users.
       One of the greatest challenges was having an appreciation for the individual goals of the team members. Ensuring there was adequate space for equipment and staff often resulted in recommendations for increased space. This in turn would increase the cost of the project. The architect and, later in the project, the engineer had goals of bringing the project in on budget.
       The final design was very much a team effort and truly the result of an iterative process. The sum of the individual contributions could not match the combined efforts. It was only through the ergonomic contributions in this early design phase that the needs of the staff, patients and families could be so well represented. The success of the iterative process provides the foundation for bringing ergonomics considerations into the early design stages of future projects.
    Analysis of the Correlation among Thermal Dissatisfaction and Productivity in the Indoor Environment with VDT BIBAFull-Text 12-15
      Luiz Bueno da Silva; Francisco Antonio P. Fialho; Antonio Souto Coutinho; Marcio Botelho da F. Lima; Antonio Augusto de P. Xavier
    This paper presents an investigation hold on a Bank Agency Compensation Department about the correlation between productivity and thermal dissatisfaction indicators, through the use of Pearson's coefficient (r). The criteria for measuring thermal comfort conditions were based on PMV indexes (Predicted Mean Vote), and PPD (Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied), according ISO 7730/1994 norm. Productivity was measured through the use of a computer program developed for running in a UNIX platform. The results show a meaningful correlation between thermal dissatisfaction and productivity, when the central air conditioning system was working satisfactorily.
    Design of New Food Technology: Social Shaping of Working Environment BIBAFull-Text 16-19
      Ole Broberg
    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment.

    2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomics Applied to Product Design [Research]

    Ergonomics as Mediator within the Product Design Process BIBAFull-Text 20-23
      Ralph Bruder
    As a consequence of an increasing complexity of products using procedures a human-centered-design process is more and more important. This thesis can be based on the success of user friendly products on market but also by looking at new regulations concerning human-centered design (e.g. pr EN-ISO 13407). Within an user-centered design process there is a need for a continuous balancing between interests of users and producers. This mediating role can be fulfilled by persons with an ergonomic background. The potentiality of ergonomic for the initialization, accompaniment and evaluation of an user-centered design process was demonstrated within the product development of a new electronic pipette.
    Ergonomic Research Applied in the Design of Pre-School Furniture: The Mobipresc 3.6 BIBAFull-Text 24-27
      Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; Jose Carlos Placido da Silva
    This research describes the application of a scientific and technological model of Ergonomics in the design of pre-school furniture. The constant presence of the desk in early education and its influence in the relationship between the user and his educational environment determined the necessity of this project. The pre-school desk was considered as a "work station", where the joint aspects of education and child anthropometry substantiate the problem. The review of the Historical application of Ergonomics in the Design of children's products consolidated the importance of this report. The development of ergonomic research, characterised by investigations of the Brazilian child's Anthropometric Data and Biomechanical Features, resulted in dimensional parameters of the user and physical characteristics of the present furniture. These elements, together with a comprehension of activities and needs in the preschool, were connected with aspects of bibliographical revision to result in a series of recommendations for design. Through the methods of Ergonomic Design, a new proposal for the pre-school desk was developed, denominated "Mobipresc 3.6".
    Ergonomics Methodology for Comparative Study of Street Furniture in Different Cities BIBAFull-Text 28-31
      Claudia R. Mourthe; Joao Bezerra de Menezes
    Street furniture is available in all public area of cities the world. A garbage can, a newsstand, a pole, a bus shelter, a road sign, take an important role in the quality of life a city. The interactive role between public place and people influences and is influenced by social behaviour and regional cultural expressions. The purpose of this work is to analyse the street furniture of three Brazilian states. It was also analysed the context and surrounds that they were designed and built, as well as their interaction with the citizen's life. Our approach considers a comparative analysis of historical, social-cultural, environmental and function aspects verifying the importance of this equipment on the interaction between the public spaces and the users as long as the influence of local cultures and extra-territorial standards.
    A Morphing Method for Shape Generation in Product Design BIBAFull-Text 32-35
      Shih-Wen Hsiao
    A morphing method for product design is proposed in this study. In this model, a feature-based method is first used to construct a CAD model of a product. The image perception of the product is then quantified by using 'semantic difference (SD)' and the relationships between the morphed shapes and image words are analyzed with 'gray theory'. A consultative computer program is then constructed based on these basic data. With this program, the designer can start to develop design ideas and will quickly obtain a product form that fits the demanded image by inputting an image word. Though the form design for a LCD monitor is taken as an example in this study, this method can also be used to develop other products.

    2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomic Research in Environmental Design II [Research]

    Architectural Ergonomics and Sustainable Design: A Model Proposition BIBAFull-Text 36-39
      Cristina Gennari
    The paper explores the links between architectural ergonomics and sustainable design in a way to be instrumental guidance for holistic integration. The main objective of the proposed model is to outline a strategic view of the process of promoting an integrated understanding of systems when bringing architectural ergonomics issues and sustainable design issues into consideration.
    Ergonomics and Ecological Principles of a Sustainable Site Planning in the Industrial Estate BIBFull-Text 40-43
      Claudia Ledo Galano

    2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Ergonomics in Urban Design [Research]

    Psychosocial Elements of Urban Space for an Ergonomic Analysis BIBAFull-Text 44-47
      Olavo Fontes Magalhaes Bessa; Anamaria de Moraes
    This study was carried out in Alfenas (population: 60,000) in the interior of Brazil. A list of some psychosocial aspects identified in the urban space was prepared to help in the ergonomic studies. A photo-study was conducted at the central square (downtown) aimed at enabling use of these items as tools.
    An Ergonomic Approach for the Cycleway Signaling System in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil BIBAFull-Text 48-51
      Claudia Mont' Alvao; Fernanda Gusmao; Marcelo Lins de Magalhaes; Leonardo Macedo Arena; Marcus Vinicius Levin Fernandes
    This paper presents an ergonomic approach about the cycleway signaling system of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The main problem detected was that the cycleway has a particular signaling system. So, some assystematic observations and task analysis studies were carried out. The signs were also compared to those established by Brazilian National Road Transportation Code (CTB), it was also verified that they have no similarities. As a result, we present recommendations, aiming improve the safety of cyclists, pedestrians and car drivers.
    Relevance of Research Methods for the Design of Urban Open Public Spaces for Persons with Visual Impairments BIBAFull-Text 52-55
      Marta Dischinger; Vera Helena Moro Bins Ely
    In spite of the advances in high technological research creating devices to support spatial orientation of visually impaired persons, they still confront a difficult situation in public urban spaces, which are seldom accessible to them. Design solutions aiming to improve their accessibility means to enhance their perception and understanding of space, to increase their possibilities of orientation and of taking independent decisions, and also to enable them participate in the city life. For a design of this kind it is necessary to understand their rights as citizens, and their particular needs and problems arising from the reduction, or absence of vision. To reach understanding of the problem, from another frame of reference that is not visual, it is essential to develop special research methods to analyse urban spaces, and to obtain first-hand information about spatial experiences of visually impaired persons.
    Urban Environmental Language and Spatial Organization BIBAFull-Text 56-59
      Vera Lucia Nojima
    In order to verify the incidence of some aspects related to communication in urban space studies, this paper approaches first the notions of perception and interpretation of cities in the works of the geographer, Milton Santos; of the architect, Gordon Cullen; of the urban designers, Kevin Lynch and Amos Rapoport, and the semiotics master, Lucrecia D'Alessio Ferrara. The purpose is to characterize urban design as an interdisciplinary system of environmental communication. This system expresses the development of a field of design professions and the preparation of the professionals combining design knowledge and skills of different areas of design professions (urbanism, architecture, ergonomics and graphic design) with a general understanding of the communication and educational processes.
       This paper aims to show that spatial organization and the circulation system can not be seen independent of environmental communication, which provides the information the users will need to solve the wayfind problems. Environmental education has to be based on perceptual, cognitive and behavioral development.
    Eco-Design and Materials Selection for Street Furniture; A Necessarily Ergonomic Approach in Urban Design BIBAFull-Text 60-63
      Braga de Assuncao; Jairo J. D. Camara
    This paper intends to show some urban design case studies developed during a two year master graduate research conducted by the first author, directed by the second author, in the research line of design and materials selection of the REDEMAT-UFOP/CETEC/UEMG. In dealing with street furniture design the research was faced basically with urban design matters, but the theme requires knowledge developed in other areas, such as industrial design and materials engineering. Because of the interdisciplinarity naturally present in this case the researchers came to ergonomics as the best organizing methodology to approach the issue established. Some of the conclusions in the main research work showed that in spite of the many complexities faced in such cases, the interdisciplinarity necessarily present and the whole complex issue of street furniture can best be dealt with if and when the ergonomic methodologies are employed. Because that's a simple methodology that can be easily understood and well employed by design professionals from different areas.

    2: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Environmental Design Posters

    Environmental View and Color for a Simulated Telemarketing Task BIBFull-Text 64
      Nancy J. Stone
    Ecotourism and Sustained Development as a Third World Country Best Choice for an Enterprise BIBAFull-Text 65
      Christianne Coelho de Souza; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
    This paper presents ecotourism as an alternative for nature preservation, and sustainable development in poor countries whose natural resources are the focus of interest of more powerful nations. In spite of a discourse favoring nature preservation, what we have is a NIMBY (not in my backyard) approach where poor countries are turned into garbage deposit for the rich ones.
    Experimental Consideration of Age Dependence of Walker's Visual Range BIBFull-Text 66
      Nana Itoh; Tadahiko Fukuda
    PD (Proprioceptive Derivation) The Principle to derive the Optimum Setting including Instrument layout for Dental Treatment BIBAFull-Text 67
      Toshio Taniguchi; Masao Aono; Jitsuro Iwao; Yasuyuki Terui; Masato Miyahara
    Proprioceptive derivation -- Dental treatment requires the high finger control for accuracy in the range from 0.2mm to 2.5mm and 3 degree in angle. The optimum conditions for precision work with a long span of attention should be analyzed, in relation to the gravity center of the earth, in the vertical axis (Z), the right-left axis (X) and the antero-posterior axis (Y).
    ErgoKnowMe -- Computer-Based analyses and Management of Knowledge in the Assessment of working Environments BIBAFull-Text 68
      Walter Hackl-Gruber; Marcel Morscher; Gerald Schwendenwein
    Our client and partner, a public accident-insurance company (equivalent to the Worker's Compensation Insurance in the U.S.), has shifted their focus towards the consultation in the designing and redesigning of workplaces. Therefore, after conducting a series of careful analyses, we ascertained that a computer-based system would greatly assist these experts with their analyzing and consulting projects. This viable system, called "ErgoKnowMe", was successfully tested both in the laboratory and in the field.
    Ergonomics Analysis in the University Hospital/UFSC/Brasil BIBAFull-Text 69
      Alessandra Fernandes de Melo; Leila Amaral Gontijo; Andre Luis Pavan; Bianca Lautenschlager
    As the time passes, the habits and the people's demands move. More and more, the people are complaining for better work conditions and life. (Dull and Weerdmeester, 1995).
       For that, its work conditions more and more need adaptations, seeking the health, the safety, the comfort, among other, that are the practical objectives of the ergonomics'.
       With the diffusion of the use of computers, the work positions with terminals of computers are turned frequent in industries and offices demanding like this a larger attention to the new works that it creates, (Iida, 1992).
       With this frequent use of the computer, it is demanded that the body adopts a static posture during the work day, with the fixed attention in the screen and the hands on the keyboard. Thus, the work in computer terminals can provoke consequences for the worker's health from the visual fatigue, muscular pains in the neck and shoulders, and pains in the tendons of the fingers, due to the ergonomic inadequacy and the demands of the task (Iida, 1992).
       Therefore, this article says respect to an ergonomic analysis in a work position, accomplished as requirement of the discipline of Ergonomic Engineering of the Work having been chosen the Section of General Registration (SRG) of the University Hospital (HU). It can intend the elaboration of a notebook of responsibilities of ergonomic recommendations that it will allow to establish the several specifications about the future situation, that says respect to the environmental factors and organization.
    Environmental Conditions of the Work Organization for the disabled People BIBAFull-Text 70
      Ewa Gorska
    A disabled person in a company is affected by a number of various environmental conditions. Among these the most important are such as organizational, technical, social, economic and, finally, legal working conditions. The standard and quality of the just mentioned conditions determine significantly the way in which a disabled person performs the assigned tasks and duties in the company and it also helps to create the individual sense of self-fulfillment and work satisfaction. What is more, at the same time the level of environmental conditions influences directly work efficiency and profits of the company. It must be clearly stated that working conditions do not appear immediately and spontaneously -- they need careful planning and modern organization. This research paper presents the environmental conditions and discusses a model design of the work organization for the disabled people.

    2: EDUCATION: Human Factors and Safety Education [Research]

    Incorporating Service Learning in an Introductory Human Factors Course BIBAFull-Text 71-74
      Gary J. Klatsky
    The integration of service learning opportunities within an academic experience has enhanced the academic performance of the students and provided them with a sense of community and social involvement. The use of service learning was expanded by incorporating into a human factors course. Students evaluated the ergonomic design of elder care facilities in Oswego, NY. Through a literature review, interviews with residents and staff and their own evaluations, students assessed the ergonomics of two elder care facilities and presented their assessments to the facilities' administrators. All of the goals of the service learning component were met. Students were given a "real world" human factors problem to address, they provided information to the elder care facilities that will improve the quality of care provided to the residents, and the students developed a greater awareness of the needs of the elderly population.
    Teaching Applied Experimental Psychology using a Living Laboratory BIBAFull-Text 75-78
      Marcie R. Benne; Arthur D. Fisk
    Five principles of high-performance skill training were integrated into our undergraduate engineering psychology/human factors laboratory. This was accomplished by applying what we refer to as a living laboratory concept. The living laboratory is a focused field experience that practices the skills of a human factors professional. The skills exercised by this living laboratory included information gathering, analyzing practical problems, generating solutions and communicating with clients. The students learned to utilize tools such as task analyses, function analyses, function allocations, traffic flow analyses, and questionnaires. Their project was to design an educational and user-friendly instructional system for a popular exhibit at a local zoo. The zoo's education staff played the role of the "client" for the students and required the students to report on their solutions in relation to the zoo's goals and the exhibit's purpose. These same general skills can transfer to other living laboratories. The advantages of the living laboratory model include the exercise of high performance skills along five criteria as suggested by training research.
    Research Experience for Undergraduates -- Motivating and Retaining Bright Engineering Students BIBAFull-Text 79-82
      Marc L. Resnick; Martha A. Centeno; Ronald Giachetti
    From 1997-2000, the National Science Foundation has funded a research program at Florida International University with the purpose of encouraging bright engineering undergraduates to pursue graduate degrees and careers in engineering. The program was initiated because of a realization that the first two years of the undergraduate curriculum is full of math-intensive courses that undergraduates find to be very difficult and often perceive them as irrelevant. As a result, many good students get disillusioned with engineering and transfer to other majors. Our hypothesis is that if they get involved in applied projects early in their academic programs and have a chance to participate in real engineering design, they will be motivated to complete their engineering degrees. The long term success of the REU program cannot be measured until the careers of these students are established. However, immediate results can be seen both quantitatively and anecdotally. At the completion of each academic year and summer session, participating students fill out questionnaires about their experience in the program and their plans for the future. Their responses indicate a strong likelihood for retention in engineering. The students' actions also indicate success. Several of the students have pursued internships and other extra curricular activities in the subject areas of their projects, suggesting that they plan to pursue these areas further. Early participation in research projects clearly provides motivation for students.
    Occupational Ergonomics Case Studies to enhance safety and Health Education BIBAFull-Text 83-86
      Tracey M. Bernard
    This paper reviews the use of occupational case study projects to give graduate students in an Ergonomics and Biomechanics course hands-on practice in relevant skills translatable to their future profession. For the case study, student teams assess work (a job) to recommend control strategies through use of evaluation techniques such as: checklists, surveys, questionnaires, and anthropometric, biomechanical and psychophysical methods. Over forty studies have been performed by student teams over nine semesters. These have included evaluations of office ergonomics, hand-intensive assembly processes, grocery/department store cashiers, manual handling of drums, transfer of hospital patients, and maintenance/waste disposal crews. When presenting their work, students have stated they feel a sense of accomplishment at having completed a real-world, relevant, ergonomics project.

    2: EDUCATION: Ergonomics Education [Research]

    Teaching Ergonomics using a Systemic and Systematic Approach in an Interdisciplinary Design Environment BIBAFull-Text 87-90
      Anamaria de Moraes
    The aim of this paper is to present how to teach an "ergonomizing" action based on a systemic and systematic approach. The following program has been used, since 1981, in ergonomics courses for industrial designers, safety engineers, work medicine, work nursing. All students have to chose an industry or part of a manufacturing plant, an office or human-task-system involving clerical work, a computerised information system, or a traditional information system to implement an "ergonomizing" action.
    Computer Ergonomics for Teachers and Students BIBAFull-Text 91-93
      Inger M. Williams; Tom Cook; Tami Zigler
    To define the need for computer ergonomics among elementary public schools (Kindergarten -6th grade) a survey was conducted in 228 schools in Oregon, USA. Two hundred eighteen teachers, 32%, responded. The survey addressed issues related to: students' computer workstation set up and work habits; teachers' perception of students postural and visual comfort level during computer use in school; teacher education in ergonomics and computer skills; teachers' views on a computer ergonomics education program and ways to introduce it into school activities. A pilot program presented as a free ergonomic resource web site was developed based on the survey results.
    The Effectiveness of Human Anatomy Instruction as a Function of Media Style BIBAFull-Text 94-97
      Sonali K. Pathak; James P. Bliss
    Computer software and the Internet provide multimedia interactive learning environments. Because of the potential to use multimedia tools to enhance educational environments, it is important to determine which modalities enhance retention most. Differences between pre and post-tests were compared for groups receiving lecture (LEC), lecture combined with an educational CD-ROM (CD-ROM), or lecture with World Wide Web access (WWW). The CD-ROM group was expected to perform best because of dynamic illustrations and audio sound narration, supporting dual modalities for working memory coding. The WWW group scores on a post-test were expected to learn better than the LEC group, but not as well as the CD-ROM group. As predicted the CD-ROM group had the most improvement from pre to post-test, followed by the LEC and the WWW groups. This suggests that using animated graphics with audio narration benefits learning. Our findings also suggest that Web sites can benefit from the inclusion of interactive media.
    Standardization of Requirements to Ergonomic Knowledge and Skills of a Bachelor in Professional Pedagogics BIBAFull-Text 98-100
      A. Asherov
    The article deals with the procedure of formulating the requirements to ergonomic knowledge and skills of bachelors of professional pedagogics who are going to train future workers in machine-building and toolmaking. The whole procedure consists of 7 stages. A part of these stages is similar for bachelors of all technical specialities. The scope and contents of the requirements at the final stages of the procedure are determined by the level and sphere of the activity of the future specialist. The acquired knowledge and skills are a component part of educational-qualification characteristics for a bachelor, the characteristics being the object of standardization.
    Biomechanics Web-Course: An Exploratory Study BIBAFull-Text 101-104
      Yuen-Keen Cheong; Craig M. Harvey
    From ordering books to searching for cheap airline tickets, the Internet is infiltrating our daily lives. One place where its use is definitely exploding is in the classroom. The Internet affords the instructor the opportunity to provide interactive learning situations in place of more traditional passive methods. This paper discusses the development of an interactive web-based biomechanics module for an undergraduate Introduction to Ergonomics course. An exploratory study found that student performance on a test was equal regardless of whether they were self-taught using web-based material or the textbook. These initial results raise questions as to the characteristics of a successful web-based course.

    2: EDUCATION: HFES Education: Potpourri [Research]

    Evaluation of Computer Assisted Instruction in the Secondary Education Environment BIBAFull-Text 105-108
      Daniel Pazos; Marc L. Resnick
    While computers are often seen as a panacea for many of the limitations of secondary education, research has shown that poor implementation of computer-assisted instruction can decrease student learning. School systems that implement computer technology into their teaching processes need to consider issues such as the nature of the academic content, the sequencing of its presentation, the technological experience of the students, the usability of the computer software and hardware, and the type of feedback provided to students. Software applications must be selected judiciously for best results. This research has two components. In the first study, a broad-based, naturalistic implementation of computer assisted instruction in a high school was investigated. The study covered several course subjects, academic tracks, and student grade levels. Student performance was compared using final course grades for each student. The results showed differential affects of computer-assisted instruction depending on student grade level and track. The second component was a strictly controlled study of eleventh grade students' performance on weekly English vocabulary tests. In this controlled study, students' grades were significantly improved by the computer-assistance software. These studies support the hypothesis that computer-assisted instruction can be used to improve student learning, but suggest that implementation must follow specific guidelines.
    In search for Pedagogical Indicators for evaluating educational material BIBAFull-Text 109-112
      Araci Hack Catapan; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
    This study presents an ergonomic-pedagogic evaluation of educational software. The focus of this work is centered in the evaluation of two properties. One of them is ergonomic -- usability -- and another is pedagogic -- learning. The developed methodology consists in application of the following evaluation techniques: verification list (Ergolist) to verify the applicability and conformity indexes, and Interaction Rehearsal to verify the integration among these properties, taking as pedagogic presupposition the classification of learning objectives system by Bloom. The general results indicate that exist integration among these criteria, and that the integration of them can facilitate learning.
    Preparing to Watch TV: A Training Model for Accessing Captions for Students who are Deaf BIBAFull-Text 113-116
      Margaret S. Jelinek Lewis; Dorothy W. Jackson
    Adding captions to televised programs was a media modification to enable accessibility of television to people with restricted access to the audio components, such as those who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Captioned television for the deaf is becoming quite common. In the United States, television captions are generally in written English; however, the English literacy rate among people who are deaf is quite low. Therefore, this research explored a way to make captioned television usable by its intended audience. An instructional method was implemented among a group of junior high school students who are deaf, to train them to be attentive to certain types of information by facilitating their acquisition of knowledge and critical viewing. The initial implementation of the training suggests a need for improving deaf students' access to their prior knowledge to apply to reading comprehension and language related skills. The results of the two-week training of no increase in captioning comprehension bring into question the issue of true accessibility and the utility of the format of captioning as presently developed.
    Ergonomic Product Design Course Format (ENP 161- Human Factors in Product Design) BIBFull-Text 117-120
      John G. Kreifeldt
    HFES Members' and Students' Career Influences: A Survey BIBAFull-Text 121-124
      David W. Martin; Michael S. Wogalter; Meredith F. Yarbrough
    Surveys were sent to 150 members and 150 student affiliates of HFES asking how they first learned about the field and what or who was the major influence in choosing their career. Approximately half learned about it as undergraduates and about a third as graduate students, usually from a professor. About a third learned about it during work or internship. The survey also asked respondents to indicate what examples they would use to represent the field to a naive listener. Most frequently cited examples included applications in human-computer interaction, aviation/space, ground transportation, and the workplace.

    2: EDUCATION: Education Posters

    A Factor-Analytic approach to knowledge Areas used in Human Factors Positions BIBFull-Text 125
      Lori Rhodenizer; James A. Pharmer; Clint A. Bowers
    An Evaluation of the Swedish Master's Programme in Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 126
      Sara Saellstrom Bonnevier
    The Swedish Master's Programme were evaluated. The aim of the evaluation was to find out whether the program itself was adapted to the needs, abilities and limitations of the students. Also, to find out how an ideal conference system should be designed. The results showed that the program was well adapted for one third of the students, and that the remaining students primarily wished to change the communication process through the conference system. Suggestions concerning how an ideal conference system should be designed was also given.
    The Framework for Forming of Ergonomic Terminology BIBAFull-Text 127
      Miroljub Grozdanovic
    The terminology of today in system ergonomics, demands suitable revision; renewal and supplementation of notions, so that the contemporary ergonomic scientific thought would be comprehensible for both the researchers and the users.
    Analysis of the changes in Activity in a School after Installing SGQ ISO 9000 BIBAFull-Text 128
      Fernando Toledo Ferraz; Claudio Fernando Mahler
    This paper is the result of a process of intervention in a special school for the mentally impaired. The team worked under the sponsorship of a state incentive program for disseminating quality in the Rio de Janeiro state organizations. The purpose of the intervention was to formalize administrative procedures and educational practices in the institution. After the school was awarded the ISO 9000 certificate, an assessment was made of the impact of this new system on the perceived workload and in the contents of the tasks performed by the people.
       The methodology used consisted of assessing the contents of activities at times before and after the implementation of the SGQ. A questionnaire was also used to assess the perception of the employees on changes with regard to the clarity of their roles, perceived work load, level of interpersonal conflict and facility to perform routine activities.
       The conclusions point to significant changes with regard to the clear understanding of the responsibilities and role of the employees. There seems to be no significant statistic changes regarding the workers' attitude towards the organization. The implementation of the SGQ, in its turn, does not seem to have significantly affected the levels of interpersonal conflict in the organization under study.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Organization Decision Making and Continuous Improvement [Research]

    About Company'S Motive for Continuous Organizational Improvement: A Structural, Methodical and Mental Approach BIBAFull-Text 129-132
      Juergen Ruhnau
    Companies that have successfully aroused continuous organizational improvement processes considered structural, methodical and mental aspects. The improvement of sequences and processes could realized by business process reengineering approaches. The methods to manage and control improvement processes are borrowed from organizational design and Kaizen. And in the end the common generation of the understanding for the need for continuous improvement and for the motivation to act are mental requirements. The paper presents the results of a long term case study investigating a successful continuous organizational improvement project on a working system producing automotive components.
    Macroergonomics for Coalition Operations BIBAFull-Text 133-136
      Nancy J. Heacox; Ronald A. Moore; Robert J. Smillie
    Today, a U.S. military operation is most frequently a coalition operation. The challenges inherent in military operations are exacerbated by the complexity of coalition operations. The U.S. military must often design and carry out a plan that involves multiple coalition partners, many of whom come from other cultures. Coalition operations are also high stakes operations that garner much attention worldwide. A macroergonomics perspective was used to analyze coalition operations; in this view, the coalition operation is a virtual organization. The complexities of coalition operations, their frequencies and high stakes were driving forces behind a project to apply organizational architectures and decision support technologies for planning and managing these operations. Vulnerabilities were identified in the operations execution process in areas of inter-group communications and coordination. A decision support system is currently being designed for collaborative, real-time use by coalition partners to address these vulnerabilities.
    Organisational Design in Small Companies A Study of Diffuse Work Organisations BIBAFull-Text 137-140
      Lena Abrahamsson
    This paper describes a conceptual framework for a study of work organisational structures in small companies. The goal is to gain a greater understanding of both strategic and unconscious organisational design processes in small companies. The starting-point of the analysis is the diffuse and informal "family" type of work organisation and the step to a more strategic and formal work organisation. In the paper gender theory is used when discussing internal organisational obstacles for growth and organisational forming processes. Gender plays perhaps a more important role in small companies than in large companies. Therefore the small company may have a development quite contradictory to its own sound origins. During the growing process there is a risk that the small company develops a rigid and inflexible organisation based on old gender pattern.
    Mental Stress Assessment Tool Box BIBAFull-Text 141-144
      Walter Hackl-Gruber; Christine G. Haiden; Andreas Wittmann
    A Mental Stress Assessment Tool Box was developed in order to reduce mental stress and assist in improving an employee's work environment, particularly the organizational structure. The Box consists of tools which support occupational health and safety experts with analyzing mental stress loads in organizations and implementing changes for reducing mental stress. The assessment consists of three steps: Description of Organization, Rough Analysis, Detailed Analysis. The detailed analyses is in the form of a workshop. This approach enables the employees to learn about their stress and allow them to participate in the change process.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Participatory Ergonomics and Work Satisfaction [Research]

    In the Beginning Principles and The B-Fore Model for Participatory Ergonomics and Design BIBAFull-Text 145-148
      Jurgen Held; Helmut Krueger
    Despite user involvement, the problems of acceptance and sustainability of systems design still remains. The thousands of methods of traditional, user-centred or co-operative design supports the view, that the problem solving isn't the problem, but the problem is the mutual understanding of the problem. The presented work analyse design experiences, derive principles in participatory design practices and develop a model -- not of design stages -- but of the roles, tasks and processes in the interactions of designers and users. Result is a structure of four principles: simplicity, confrontation, character of games and overview. The developed B-fore model shows the importance of reciprocal changes of the processes "show-recognise" and "explain-understand". This lead to a co-operation of interpretations before ('B-fore') the co-operation in actions of problem solving begins.
    Successful Change Concepts in Small- and Medium-Sized Companies a Long-Term Perspective BIBAFull-Text 149-152
      Tilmann Hasselhorn
    This paper presents a multiple-case study, evaluating the long-term evolvement and success of two different organizational change concepts in five Swedish small- and medium-sized companies (SMEs). The two concepts studied, group-work concepts and suggestion schemes, were evaluated according to eight criteria, which are believed to especially support a long-term enhancement of employee participation in SMEs.
    Worker Involvement in a Quality Management Program and Perceived Impact on Job Characteristics: Results From a Study in the Public Sector BIBAFull-Text 153-156
      Craig A. James; Alvaro D. Taveira; John Lund; Francois Sainfort
    Although Quality Management (QM) programs are theoretically related to positive employee outcomes such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, there is little empirical evidence to support this relationship. It was predicted that employees who were involved in QM programs, through either quality improvement projects or formal training, would perceive QM as having a positive effect on their jobs. The hypotheses were only partially supported. Training was significantly related to one out of five outcome measures, while project involvement was significantly related to two out of the five measures, with one effect approaching significance. The results are discussed in the context of the lack of formal activity within the organization in recent years. The implications for future studies of programs such as QM are also discussed.
    Successful Outcomes of an Ergonomics Process Using an Ergonomics Task Force BIBAFull-Text 157-160
      Alison R. Heller
    With the first state ergonomics regulation in place and more on the way, employers are now being held accountable for ergonomic. compliance. Employers are increasingly interested in realizing benefits with ergonomics, despite regulations. In this study, an ergonomics process is introduced which includes a participatory approach through the development of an Ergonomics Task Force. This participatory approach using labor and management to apply ergonomic principals demonstrates significant and substantial benefits for a variety of organizations from a public safety agency to an educational facility (2) to a banking entity, a hospital and a biotechnology firm. This study identifies the numerous ways that organizations are benefiting from an ergonomics process using an ergonomics task force as the source of in-house expertise.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Ergonomic Interventions Concepts and Research [Single-Session Symposium]

    Ergonomic Interventions Concepts and Research BIBAFull-Text 161-164
      David LeGrande; Janet Cahill; Frank Conway
    The development of cooperative ergonomic intervention research between labor and the scientific community is necessary to develop an objective data base to resolve workplace safety and health problems or deficiencies as well as adequately determine which measures reduce/prevent worker health problems related to improper workplace ergonomics. Under the direction of its Occupational Safety and Health Department, the Communications Workers of America (CWA) has established such an approach. The Union has sponsored and conducted numerous scientific investigations with scientists in academia and the federal government that have produced important and useful scientific information regarding workplace ergonomics. This paper discusses the approach developed by CWA as well as successful ergonomic intervention efforts.
    Office Ergonomic Interventions: Strategies and Practices BIBAFull-Text 165-168
      Michelle M. Robertson; Marie Robinson; Peter Chen
    Organizations today are seeking ways to use the work environment as a means of improving worker effectiveness, prevent work related musculoskeletal disorders and to enhance worker health and well-being. This paper presents three case studies where companies have designed, implemented and evaluated office ergonomics Interventions. Incorporating a work systems design approach can provide an effective framework for successful office ergonomics interventions.
    Intervention Research for Reducing Musculoskeletal Injuries BIBAFull-Text 169-172
      Pascale Carayon; Marla C. Haims; Peter L. T. Hoonakker; Naomi G. Swanson
    One longitudinal intervention study was conducted at a government agency to examine the effectiveness of a macroergonomic approach for implementing work organization interventions aimed at reducing musculoskeletal injuries. The intervention used a variety of methods, including worker participation, job enrichment, and teamwork to achieve a successful implementation. In this paper, results are presented on the questionnaire data. Results show the importance of psychosocial work factors, such as group characteristics and concerns for job future.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Learning Organizations [Research]

    Cross-Cultural Comparison of Company Organization Structure BIBAFull-Text 173-176
      Bakri Osman Hamad; Klaus-Dieter Frohner
    This study tends to quantify some differences of developed and developing countries in the field of human resources. Due to different social and cultural milieus, no global solution is available to fit each country. This fact necessitates a special examination for countries according to their cultural context. In this part of the study, the cultural and social influential elements of the working force in a developing country were examined. The specific elements of satisfaction and production driving force with accordance with the motivation factors were defined. Variables that are most associated with individual performance, behavior and social structure that govern the inter-personnel relations were specified.
    Macroergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries -- Case Study Iran BIBFull-Text 177-180
      H. Shahnavaz; F. Heiali; K. H. Emami
    Cultural Aspects in Learning Organizations Design BIBAFull-Text 181-184
      Gustavo Loureiro Fialho; Neri dos Santos; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
    Century's end is being signaled by a new way of thinking and acting. In order to survive, organizations need to be contemporaneous, adapting themselves to needed changes. In modern organizational environment is more and more evident the need of being competitive and innovative. Every company, in order to attain their goals, must be prepared to implement new proceedings for following the daily occurring transformations. Downsizing, re-structuring, re-engineering, and other efforts did not answer the question on how to keep organizations apt for following this continuous changing flow. Learning Organizations are a new proposal for answering these questions. The need for flexibility demands a continuous knowledge acquisition of changes occurring in the environment and the cognitive ability for processing this information. This paper intends, in a first moment, to present an organization model based in Maturana and Varela autopoiesis theory, and then, explore the possibilities of organization learning.
    Macroergonomic Paradox of Entrepreneurship and Economic Renewal BIBAFull-Text 185-188
      Leszek M. Pacholski
    The reorientation of the production enterprise management strategy in the economically undeveloped countries is accompanied by the temporary phenomenon of a macroergonomic paradox. It consists in the worsening of the 'ergonomicity' level in the production system of an enterprise in spite of the improvement in the economic condition of a company. However, sustaining a positive economic tendency results in improving the above-mentioned level of 'ergonomicity'. In the long run the process of influencing the 'ergonomicity' level by an economic transformation is characterised by the phenomenon of 'alternating' periods of paradox and rationality.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Role of User Participation in Change Process [Research]

    User Centered Design, Training and Innovation. Organizational Change and Development in the Municipality of Rome BIBAFull-Text 189-192
      Giacinto Matarazzo; Annamaria Graziano
    In January 1999 a change management Project named "Organizational change and development in the Municipality of Rome -- Local Taxes Office" began. The main objective was to simultaneously improve: (a) the effectiveness of the information system; (b) the organizational climate; (c) the quality of service provided to citizens; (d) the effectiveness of personnel communications. The Project was based on participatory ergonomics principles aimed at empowering people at any level of the organization. The Project is still in progress. In this paper some methodological aspects and preliminary results are presented and discussed.
    From Health Needs Assessment to Ergonomic Actions. How to Initiate a Participatory Change Process BIBAFull-Text 193-196
      Mairiaux Ph; Muller M; Vandoorne C
    A health promotion process has been launched within a large Belgian university hospital. This presentation outlines the organisational background of the whole process and the rationale underlining the choice of the methodologies used to survey the health needs of the health care workers and to define priorities. In order to elicit effective participation from the staff members, several questions have to be addressed in the transitional phase between problem situations assessment and ergonomic intervention: which channels use to disseminate the information about the survey results, what role for the top management of the hospital and for the ergonomic experts, which support methodologies should be provided for initiating the change process?
    Experts Versus Participants BIBAFull-Text 197-200
      Johan Karltun; Jorgen Eklund
    Participation has been of great interest in organizational development as well as in the field of ergonomics and total quality management (TQM) for many years. However, many aspects of participation are still not well understood. The aim of this paper is to contribute towards a better understanding of the expert versus the participant in change and how these relate to each other. The conclusions drawn are that the expert and the participant build their legitimacy in change on different knowledge and political bases. The expert participates in change on his professional basis, representing an outside perspective, mutually related to management and not personally affected by the change. The participant bases his participation on an extensive knowledge of the workplace, delegated power, subordinate position towards management and he represents an inside perspective as he is personally affected by the change.
    The Patient as an Organizational Agent in a Hospital BIBAFull-Text 201-204
      Mario Cesar Vidal; Luciana Drucker; Paulo Sergio Soares da Silva; Jean Marcel Faria Novo
    The present paper derives from our experience with the qualifying program in Hospital Ergonomics. The subject we are pointing at is the rebuilding of this hospital system by joining efforts -- Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital and the GENTE/COPPE. In the describing phase of the ergonomic intervention we've noticed the important role played by patients in the management of their medical dossier. This organizational phenomenon was not a simple dysfunction but a frequent informal procedure, an undesirable macroergonomic effect of the major organizational politics.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Teams, Organizational Climate, and Safety Culture [Research]

    Transition to a Teambased Client-centered Work Organisation in Administrative Service Work A Focus on Effectiveness, Empowerment and Quality BIBAFull-Text 205-208
      Gard G
    A new work organisation has been introduced in administrative service work in the surveying company in Sweden during 1997 and 1998. The focus has been on empowerment, effectiveness and quality. The new work organisation implies 1) a transition to a teambased organisation implying a change in competence required, from specialist to generalist knowledge and 2) a change to a more client-centered organisation. The aim of this paper is to describe the personnels' perception of this transition process a short period after the start with a focus on empowerment, effectiveness and quality aspects. All surveyors in five regions in Sweden participated, in total 640 surveyors. A tailored questionnaire about the content of the transition process and the Teamwork Profile were used. Positive effects of the transition process were noted, as improved job control, more varied job content and improved cooperation with clients. The change in qualification from being a specialist to being a generalist in a team were highly related to group cohesion, supervisory support and job control as well as to overall effectiveness and flexibility of groupwork. All these aspects were also related to continuous improvement practices in the surveying organisation. A focus on empowerment, effectiveness and quality is needed for continuous improvements of the surveying work organisation.
    Reducing Occupational Accident and Injury Rates Through Safety and Macroergonomic Education of Future Managers BIBAFull-Text 209-212
      Jonathan D. Stubbs; Mats Danielsson; Kjell Ohlsson
    Prevention of large-scale accidents (often called organizational disasters) is of growing importance in today's industrial organizations. Organizational disasters where large numbers of people and wide geographic areas are affected can mean serious economic and operation disruption to an organization. The role of managers in the prevention of organizational disasters is described as critical. However, typical manager attitude towards organizational disasters is that occurrence is unlikely. This attitude causes them to neglect prevention strategies and activities. Shaping the attitudes of future managers during their university level training (e.g., in MBA programs) through a class in ergonomics and safety is described as one means to shape manager attitudes. Psychological models of attitude formation and behavior show that an attitude is stronger when there is learning about a topic. Greater knowledge and interest may later prevent organization disasters when students become managers. There would likely be an additional benefit of greater awareness of existing ergonomics and safety programs that guard against small, single worker accidents.
    Industry Experience with Behavior-Based Safety Programs: a Survey BIBAFull-Text 213-215
      Joseph M. Deeb; Mary E. Danz-Reece; Tamara J. Smolar
    Over the last decade, a growing amount of attention and popularity in the industry has been focussing on implementing Behavior-Based Safety Programs (BBSP). With that popularity has come impressive changes in how people work, incident rates, and costs. The goal of this survey was to compile and summarize existing site reviews, critiques, and experiences with BBSP and identify key elements that are recommended to achieve a successful program. The results, in general, showed that BBSP appear to be associated with impressive changes varying from improved Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR) to a significant decrease in the frequency of at-risk behavior. Specific guidelines and lessons learned from this survey are discussed.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Network Groups, Technologies, and Information Societies: A Macroergonomics Perspective [Research]

    Groupware, Learning and Viability of a Process of Change in the Information Society BIBAFull-Text 216-219
      Marcio Botelho da Fonseca Lima; Luiz Bueno da Silva; Leila Gontijo; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
    To establish conjectures on groupware, learning and viability of a process of change in the information society, this paper is divided in three parts. Firstly, it states consecrated authors' recent contributions in Strategy and Innovation Economics. In the second part the probable characteristics of the structures evolution of companies that will act in the environment of the information society are presented. Finally, under a critical-comparative approach, the consistency of theoretical statements exhibited in this paper are evaluated. Two development models are brief presented. The Eastern model presents common properties to the institutional characteristics that support the learning in regions of the Southeastern Asia and of Japan. The western model encompasses similarities with the institutional characteristics that emerge in Occidental Europe and in the United States. In conclusion, it can be said that the western model seems to operate reasonably in economies strongly developed in great scale, such as the one from United States, while in emergent economies, as the one from Brazil, its effectiveness becomes incipient.
    Enhanced Production Processes Through Network Groups BIBAFull-Text 220-222
      Mikael Blome; Per Odenrick
    Increased focus on core activities in manufacturing companies makes cross-organizational collaboration necessary to develop and produce complex products or systems. To enhance the production process efficiency of a network, companies have to go beyond formal routines and learn about each other's, and thus their common, production process. The interaction between members of an organization and outside scientists encourages the members to reflect on their work. To improve a business there is a need of diversity, but also a need for understanding different viewpoints. Thus, it is necessary to create constructive conflicts among a variety of viewpoints.
    Human Factors Issues in Video Teleconference Meeting Performance: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 223-226
      Delia Grenville; Brian M. Kleiner; Mila Denson; Steve Anderson
    The use of visual telephony is steadily becoming a business necessity. However, human factors issues in video teleconferencing (VTC) work systems can determine whether the benefits of VTC are fully realized. VTC meeting environments are augmented by visual displays, auditory systems, computer hardware and software. This generates complexity of managing these systems during the meeting. Furthermore, when managing these systems, other human factors issues arise such as systematic function allocation and training for the facilitator, technographer, and team members.
    Introduction of Electronic Communication Technology into Schools BIBAFull-Text 227-230
      Eric N. Wiebe
    Surveys and site-based interviews and observation were used to examine the introduction of electronic mail (e-mail) into three elementary schools. A contingency model of technology adoption by organizations was used to develop the instruments and interpret the results. Surveys were given to all of the school staff to capture information on key factors such as: expectations for e-mail, influence of peers and administrators, training, technical support, and other logistical factors. On-site observation was used to expand on the findings of the surveys. Strong differences were seen between the schools in their use of the new email system and in their responses to questions pertaining to various contingency factors. In addition, significant correlations were found between the contingency factors and self-reported e-mail usage. The results of this study not only point to the importance of attending to the contingency factors identified in this study, but emphasizing that many other factors play a role in the adoption of technology in organizations. These results have implications not only for future introductions of technology into schools, but also for the business community.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Automation, Production, Scheduling in a Macroergonomics Framework [Research]

    Assessment of Production Planning and Scheduling Work Using Ergonomic Work Analysis BIBAFull-Text 231-234
      Martina Berglund; Johan Karltun
    Production scheduling is an important and complex activity in manufacturing enterprises. Increasing market demands concerning service has to be managed, often within reduced time space and decision latitude. This paper reports findings from studying scheduling in a Swedish sawmill with the twofold aim to describe and analyze scheduling work and to assess ergonomic work analysis as a method for this. The conclusions drawn were that sawmill scheduling work was complex and that the scheduler was exposed to a high degree of uncertainty. The scheduling in practice was performed by a group of people, relating to different parts of the entire business processes in the company. The scheduling tools, developed by the individual schedulers, were efficient and flexible complements to the MPC-system. Finally, ergonomic work analysis proved to be a useful method for analyzing scheduling work, although there may be difficulties in distinguishing between the prescribed work and work as it is actually carried out.
    Human Factors and Ergonomics in the Planing of Production BIBAFull-Text 235-238
      Per Langan Jensen
    The integration of ergonomics in design and planing has always been an ambition within ergonomics, but experience show that it is an ideal difficult to bring into practice. Presently tools, methods and procedures are asked for. This paper argues -- by presenting an overview of existing recommendations -- that this is not actually what presently is needed especially not form research and development. It is suggested that a better understanding of change processes in organisations and especially of the role of the change agent is needed, and an understanding based on understanding organisations as political arenas is advocated.
    Transfer of Production Planning and Scheduling From Staff to Production Personnel in a Complex Maintenance Company BIBAFull-Text 239-242
      Martina Berglund
    In decentralized production organizations based on target-oriented production teams, production scheduling is often transferred from staff to the production teams, which may influence how the work tasks are carried out. The objectives of this case study was to gain understanding of why and how the production scheduling process was changed in a company that introduced production teams with increased responsibility for scheduling. A second objective was to analyze the demands that were made on the production scheduling system from the production teams to be able to fulfill their work requirements. Conclusions drawn were that a change in production scheduling was necessary if the production teams were to fulfill the demands put on them and that production through the decentralization was empowered to demand such change. The change of production scheduling included development of manual scheduling sheets, which proved to be successful in terms of meeting the production teams' needs for reliable production data and visualized production status.
    Computer-Aided Visualization a Tool to Support Change Processes BIBFull-Text 243-246
      Fredrik Rassner; Per Odenrick
    The organizational efficiency through automation: An Ergonomics Issue BIBAFull-Text 247-248
      Ana Elizabeth Moiseichyk; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
    Surviving and growing in a world characterized by competitiveness in a global scale and by continued and unexpected changes, has been a paradigm for the organizations. With the globalization process, which is a reality, the technological evolution and the complexity of the modern world, new needs have appeared in the working position realm. The concrete fact is that transformations alter the work-man, man-machine, man-productive system relations besides the kinds of workers. The man-machine relation is really important in the organizational environment because the technological advances may motivate the worker as well as scare and unqualify him. So, no ergonomics analysis through working signs may be an excellent tool to help in the adaptation of the worker to the working position and also detect and settle the points which must be emphasized and modified to obtain the organizational efficiency.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Quality in the Public Sector [Single-Session Symposium]

    Quality Institutionalization in a Public Service Organization: Management Implications Derived from the City of Vienna Study BIBAFull-Text 249-252
      Christian Korunka; Dieter Scharitzer
    The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of the implementation of quality-related changes (New Public Management, NPM) in a public service organization on perceived quality institutionalization, customer satisfaction and employees' strain and satisfaction.
       The study was realized in a single-case longitudinal design. The case consists of a large municipal service organization responsible for the area's public housing system. Organizational changes include a comprehensive organizational restructuring process (including the opening of 10 customer service units), the development of a new, consequently customer-centered orientation, and a general process-and quality orientation. Measurements were taken in each of the service units before the organizational change, and in two stages of the change process.
       This paper focuses on management implications based on the results of this study.
    The Development and Application of an Instrument for Measurement of Quality Institutionalization BIBAFull-Text 253-256
      Francois Sainfort; Pascale Carayon; Michael J. Smith; Ying-Jung Yen; John Lund; Alvaro Taveira; Craig James; Peter Hoonakker; Christian Korunka
    In this paper, a questionnaire survey aimed at measuring the institutionalization of Total Quality Management is presented. The core part of the questionnaire is a set of questions on Quality institutionalization that are based on the Malcolm Baldrige award criteria. Data was collected from 494 employees in two public sector organizations in the Midwest. Various analyses were conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the questions on Quality institutionalization. Factor analysis led to the creation of five scales of TQM institutionalization: leadership, human resources, quality processes and results, customer focus, and information and data analysis. Analyses demonstrated the good validity and reliability of the instrument for measuring TQM institutionalization.
    Total Quality Management and Teamwork in the Public Sector: the Wisconsin Department of Revenue Study BIBAFull-Text 257-260
      Peter Hoonakker; Mary McEniry; Pascale Carayon; Christian Korunka; Francois Sainfort
    In this study, survey questionnaire data was collected on employees' perception of Total Quality Management (TQM). A total of 1278 employees of the Wisconsin Department of Revenue participated in the study. TQM implementation and teamwork can both have positive and negative effects on job design and psychosocial factors, and therefore, on quality of working life. Results showed that teamwork in the context of TQM had positive impact on several job and organizational characteristics and job satisfaction, but also some negative impact on work pressure and job strain. Further research is necessary to understand whether these effects are actually caused by working as a team.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Organizational Analysis, Methods and Design [Research]

    The Decline of the Hierarchy and the Problem of the of Modern Organization BIBAFull-Text 261-264
      Maria Tereza Sacramento; Leila A. Gontijo
    This article will evaluate the question of authority. Firstly, it will review the concept of organisation and the concept of the hierarchy of power, and secondly it will take from the well-known theories of organisations, the concept of authority as an active principal of equilibrium and order. This question begins from the problems which arise from changing the process, and the expectation of adapting the productive processes to a global level. Putting in place these models of management transference, their rapid absorption and resistance can have the effect of destabilising economies and the way in which they develop.
    The Function of Corporate Identity in Organizational Culture BIBAFull-Text 265-268
      Andrew Kirwin
    The Organizational Culture model, derived from the Socio-technical systems model, is a tetrahedron of socialization (human factors), organization, technology and identity, existing in a sphere that represents the external environment. While the facets of organization, technology and human factors have been explored in depth; there has been little focus on the importance of corporate cultural identity (where corporate means organizationally pervasive) in establishing cultural functionality. The original Park Hill data was reanalyzed to test if there is any significant, quantifiable association between cultural identity and organizational functionality. Determination of such an association would provide a foundation for new methods of both organizational and community assessment and change management.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Integrated Management Systems (IMS) in Small and Medium-Sized Companies [Single-Session Symposium]

    Integrated Management System (IMS) in small and medium enterprises BIBAFull-Text 269-272
      Manfred Rentzsch; H. R. Ameli
    The Integrated Management System is a method which, when properly employed, provides for an operating result that is economically effective in the broader sense, socially and environmentally compatible in terms of design and can be made outwardly visible on the basis of the products and can be permanently documented. Such success is brought about if the management system not superimposed onto the company in "formal" terms, but rather is established as an integrated system and, as such, imbued with life by company personnel.
       From the "inside out" means that initiatives are generated from within the process and/or the activity and the performance goals of company management involved in quality assurance, environment protection and industrial safety are correspondingly oriented to this end. The scientific basis for tbis is provided by the theory on psychological regulation of work activities. Management is understood, on the one hand, as a institution and, on the other, in the functional sense as a control process at the function levels of leadership, planning, production, personnel, technology and resources. The performance goals mentioned can be effectively realized via interactive actions within the individual function levels. When it comes to the establishment of an IMS, inclusion of the employees involved in the process is an essential feature that is required for continuous improvement. The methodological procedure is described and the results obtained thereby are presented on the basis of examples from the metalworking industry.
    Occupational Health and Safety Management as an Element of Integrated Management Systems in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises BIBAFull-Text 273-276
      Andreas Wittmann; Walter Hackl-Gruber
    Small and medium-sized enterprises often implement Integrated Management Systems with the elements occupational health and safety, quality management and environmental management in order to avoid redundancies and to harness synergies among these matters. For the first step, a theoretical model for Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management is developed. This goal of this model is to introduce a holistic approach to business management. The characteristics of the prospective OHS Management Model are worked out based upon OHS's legal obligations. Further contents of three health concepts already developed in the field of work and organizational psychology are added. In the second step of empirical investigations of how OHS Management Systems are embedded in and connected with Quality and Environmental Management Systems in small and medium-sized companies, a series of case studies were carried out.
    Chances and risks of process-oriented integrated management systems BIBAFull-Text 277-280
      Petra Winzer; Helge Braunholz
    In this paper we describe a method for building and actualisation of an integrated process-oriented management system. The idea is a generic approach, with the object to create management systems, being in accordance to the demands of different stakeholders. This is achieved by systemizing and focusing of the demands in the forefield of the management system creation process. The described method was successfully applicated in several enterprises. One field of research in our special subject is the development of general instruments and models to help the enterprises in all phases of this generic approach.
    From Quality Management System to the Integrated Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Field of Manufacturing BIBAFull-Text 281-283
      Guenther Neef; Lothar Wieczorek
    The successful implementation of a QMS opens a variety of advantages to keep up competitive positions. To benefit fully from these potential strengths of the company it is important in the next years to implement integrated management systems, planned and implemented by participation of employees. The employers commitment is based upon integration and co-operation from the very beginning.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Work Organization Design, Worker Behavior, and Performance [Research]

    Ergonomics in Total Quality Management BIBAFull-Text 284-287
      Lewandowski J
    The paper gives fundamental principles of new approach to ergonomic aspects in the Total Quality Management of enterprises. This approach concerns total look at ergonomic problems of enterprises. These problems regard following issues: human-being - machine - environment system, the role of ergonomics in the quality assurance system, ergonomic aspects of product, ergonomic aspects of human-being, workstation, environment, organization of work, the influence of occupational safety on quality. These problems have been presented in the paper. The role of each of them in the assurance of "Quality of Life" has been discussed.
    Network Organizations Design: A Study Case of Outsourcing in a Brazilian Hospital BIBAFull-Text 288-291
      Jose Orlando Gomes; Mario Cesar Vidal; Tahar Hakim Benchekroun
    Through a combination of macro-managerial and micro-situated approaches, we study the impact of outsourced hospital equipment maintenance contracts upon real activity in three sensible points of a Hospital, The study shows clearly the distinction between an organization conceived through the co-activity involving organic and outsourced personnel, in opposition to the need for a cooperating collective.
    Evaluation of Productivity Before and After an Ergonomic Intervention BIBAFull-Text 292-294
      Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimaraes; Daniela Fischer; Fabiane Ely; Carlos Alberto Diehl
    This paper analyses the effect of an ergonomic intervention on the productivity of an electrical meter manufacture. Intervention included workstation and environmental analysis and design, work organization and product (the electrical meter) analysis and design. Problems were raised and commented with workers and managers. Solutions were discussed and two major decisions were taken: the assembly line would be replaced by a cell manufacturing system and workers would be trained for multifunctionality, i.e., they would be trained to work in all sections of the plant. Productivity tended to increase depending on the assemblage complexity and plant layout. Workers reported less fatigue and hiher motivation after ergonomic intervention.
    Development of Work Organization and Productivity in a Small Industrial Company -- A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 295-296
      Curt R. Johansson; Per Odenrick
    The aim of the present study is to describe and analyze the preconditions for simultaneous development of productivity and work organization in a small company based on action research using the Hourglass model. The ongoing change process in the company is aiming at developing the competence of personnel and management in order to enhance relations with customers and the market. Its special focus is how external factors can improve productivity.
    Practice of ergonomics management in industrial design BIBAFull-Text 297-299
      Thibault Jean-Francois
    In Europe, a lot of industrial projects, in particular on the processing industries, integrate ergonomics approach in design projects. This paper sums up practising of jointly consultants and scientists who developed a type of ergonomics management in eight projects of building plants between 1991 to 1999. This practice shows connections between macro ergonomics and microergonomics approaches.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Managerial Roles and Motivational Issues: Macroergonomic Considerations [Research]

    System for Appraisal of Company Managerial Staff BIBAFull-Text 300
      Aleksandra E. Jasiak; Grzegorz Dahlke
    The paper presents the concept of a computer-aided system for periodical evaluations of middle and top managers conceived as a universal human resource management tool.
    Personality Traits as Predictors of Managerial Performance: a Study of Hotel Managers BIBAFull-Text 301-304
      Alison G. Vredenburgh; Hal W. Hendrick; Ilene B. Zackowitz
    The purpose of this study was to determine which personality traits would predict the success of general managers in the service-oriented hotel industry. It evaluated the differences in personality traits between high and low performing managers in a geographical division of a major international hotel chain. Thirty-one male participants responded to the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, a multi-dimensional personality inventory. T-tests indicated that the high and low performing managers differed the most on three personality variables: ascendance, emotional stability, and objectivity. Comptrollers scored consistently with the low-performing general managers; thus based on these results, they are likely to be poor candidates for promotion into top management. The three personality traits found to be the best predictors in this study are comparable to three of the "Big 5" personality factors that have previously been linked to job performance. The combined prediction of these three subscales accounted for 65% of the variance between the high and low performing groups. The original Guilford-Zimmerman contains 300 questions; thus a shortened version of this instrument tailored for the hotel industry that assesses only these three traits could be developed. This method would be a practical and useful means of predicting which candidates would best be suited for top management in the hospitality industry.
    An Analysis on a Middle Management Aspect by the Method of Macro Logic BIBAFull-Text 305-308
      Rinzou Ebukuro
    The investigation has been made on the middle level managers in very rough style only asking [Please describe your ideas or opinion how to improve this serious company situation]. An operational matrix regarding the company management using the key words extracted from reply sheet was composed for checking their consciousness on costing and quality control, since the company was facing very serious financial states, and the problem of the figure of products defective. Only 6-vague reply among 86 regarding the costing and no reply on the quality control were found in their description. Five years after of this investigation the brilliant history of this company was closed. The situation is analyzed and discussed on the theory of macro logic. The operational matrix composed in such a way may bring out the managers hidden unconscious mentarity on the operational management.
    Analysis of Motivational Issues in the Work Environment A Case Study from the Banking Sector BIBAFull-Text 309-311
      Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimaraes; Flavio S. Fogliatto; Flavio Belmonte
    This study analyzes the relationship between people and their work environment. More specifically the study concentrates on elements responsible for the motivation and satisfaction of individuals in their workplace. A case study from the banking sector illustrates the discussion, being structured as follows. We start by collecting and analyzing data on the current working conditions; employees are surveyed using questionnaires for data collection. Next, items to be modified for working conditions improvement are identified. Finally, improvement strategies are outlined and implemented. A second survey is conducted on the same employees to identify the set of items that most influenced their attitude regarding their workplace. Multivariate statistical analyses techniques were used in the data analysis. Conclusions are drawn on the influence of improvements on the level of motivation and satisfaction of employees regarding their workplace.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Stress, Hazardous Environments, and Injuries: A Macroergonomics Framework [Research]

    Organizational Environment as a source of stress An Ergonomics View BIBAFull-Text 312-314
      Ana Elizabeth Moiseichyk; Gilberto Alexandre de Campos; Heliete Rosa Bento
    There are many behavioral disturbances in modern man as well as psychosomatic disturbances, like stress. In a highly competitive job market, where the means of work and information are rapidly transformed, one of the stress factors is the professional insecurity. There are also other factors linked to the organization of modern production such as: the space factor and the psycosocial and intersubjective relations of the working environment. The modern organization of work produces stressing conditions which may develop psychosomatic disturbances in the productive agents. Although the professionals feel capable of acting in some places of work, the fast transformations in modern world create some insecurity which provoke anxiety leading to stress. Due to this process, the cognitive ergonomics is formally integrated to the productive system; integrating to the business charts and assuming a technical feature to the extent that it has helped in the transformation of knowledge into production force, so as to measure the work for the man.
    A Diagnostic Procedure for Preventing Musculoskeletal Injuries (MSIs) BIBAFull-Text 315-318
      Archer K. M. Engineer-Ergonomist; Leclair C. Ergonomist
    Generally speaking, the application of ergonomics approaches by participants focuses on analyzing and redesigning workstations and production lines. These approaches facilitate the implementation of solutions, and are worthwhile in cases where a limited number of workstations present MSI risk factors and the problem is well-defined. Very often, however, the station-by-station approach does not allow companies to deal with systemic dysfunctions, where several workstations have to be taken into account at the same time. We have therefore developed a diagnostic procedure for dealing with generalized problems within companies. This procedure was tested in a sports equipment manufacturing company. The project was carried out with a view to offering the company guidance in terms of the actions it should take to prevent MSIs and improve productivity.
    Integration of Ergonomics and Ecology -- Activity Analysis Based Knowledge Transfer as Methodologic Approach Applied to Solve Severe Health and Environmental Hazards of the Metallurgic Industry in North West Russia BIBAFull-Text 319-322
      Walter Ruth; Ekaterina Ruth-Balaganskaya
    Working conditions of the metallurgic industry on Kola Peninsula, Russia are extremely hazardous. These industries also cause large scale environmental pollution. While the ergonomic problems still are mainly neglected, the destroyed forests and other effects on nature have been studied by ecologists, so far without considerable improvement. The situation from both aspects can be improved by integrating methods from ergonomics and ecology. Thereby knowledge transformation becomes a key issue. While Ecology has no methods for analysis of human activity and transfer of knowledge, Ergonomics can provide both. Ergonomically based 'Ecological Optimisation' in the industry can encourage environment and ecosystem to recover with limited costs. As a result it will also be possible to bring the severe working conditions into focus for improvement.
    Traffic Safety Sceneries in a Service Company: A Macroergonomic Model BIBAFull-Text 323-326
      Mario Fernando Petzhold; Miriam Raja Gabaglia Preuss
    The present study employed the model of the Competence Circle to evaluate behavioral and attitudinal elements involved in employees' competence for driving. Following a Decision Theory model, the initial situation was assessed and values and goals were considered, aiming at desired final results.

    2: MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomics Posters

    Ergonomics in an Electrical Meter Assembly Plant BIBFull-Text 327
      Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimaraes; Daniela Fischer; Tatiana Pastre
    Macroergonomic Design a New Methodology for Ergonomic Product Design BIBFull-Text 328
      Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimaraes; Flavio S. Fogliatto
    Macroergonomic Design of a Computerized Office BIBFull-Text 329
      Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimaraes; Julio Carlos de Souza van der Linden
    A Disposition Toolkit for Creation and Support of Workshop Production Structures BIBFull-Text 330
      Alexander Nikov; Bettina Keil; Hartmut Enderlein
    Interactive Order Picking Scheduling with Searching Aids for Distribution Centers BIBFull-Text 331
      Kuo-Hao Tang; Li-Chen Tsai; Chien-Hui Pan
    Restoring and Restraining Mechanisms A Study of Why Organisational Changes Fail BIBAFull-Text 332
      Lena Abrahamsson
    This summary describes an analysis of restoring and restraining mechanisms in organisational changes and it focus on the question why organisational changes fail. The change projects studied are planned and rather comprehensive changes of work organisations aiming to organisational change in companies -- strategies for flexibility, productivity, learning, continuous improvements, quality and growth. The paper discusses organisational structures, change processes and the effects of gender order. The case studies showed that it is difficult to handle a strongly gender segregated work organisations with gender neutral perspectives.
    Life Spiral Analysis BIBAFull-Text 333
      Mirian Loureiro Fialho; Bruno Hartmut Kopittke; Francisco Antonio Pereira Fialho
    This paper describes several approaches for Life Cycle Analysis, suggesting the integrated use of then for a better understanding of any process. Following a kind of autism, men are always understood as being outside of these processes. We are concerned with manufacturability, zero emission, and others, but not with the consequences of the work on men, main concern of Ergonomics. Infra-psychological (frustration, anxiety), and inter-psychological (conflict, stereotypes on how to behave in a group) aspects can not be forgotten.

    2: TRAINING: Advances in Training Research [Research]

    Evaluation of a Novice Driver Cd-Rom Based Training Program: A Simulator Study BIBAFull-Text 334-337
      Michael. A. Regan; Thomas J. Triggs; Stuart T. Godley
    The Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) in Melbourne, Australia, recently completed research which culminated in the development of a CD ROM-based perceptual and cognitive skills training product for young novice car drivers. This paper describes the design of an experiment, using an advanced driving simulator located at MUARC, to evaluate the instructional effectiveness of the product.
    Field Evaluation of an Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Problem-Solving Skills in Transfusion Medicine BIBAFull-Text 338-341
      Jodi Heinz Obradovich; Philip J. Smith; Stephanie A. Guerlain; Sally Rudman; Jack W. Smith
    A previously reported study indicated that, when used by an instructor as a tool to assist with tutoring in a class laboratory setting, use of the Transfusion Medicine Tutor (TMT) resulted in improvements in antibody identification performance of 87-93% (p<.001). Based on input from teachers requesting that TMT be designed for use without the presence of an instructor, a second study on the use of TMT without instructor assistance found that performance improved by 64-66% (p<.001). Thus, under "controlled" field study conditions, the data indicate that TMT can be used very effectively. As a follow-up, we therefore conducted a third study to assess the perceived usefulness and satisfaction with TMT of teachers and students in an "uncontrolled" setting, namely when they chose whether, when and how to use it on their own. TMT was mailed to 7 sites for this evaluation. In exchange for a free copy of the kit, the instructors (and their students) were asked to fill out questionnaires. Results of these questionnaires are summarized.
    Making Instructions Visible: Implications for Training and Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 342-345
      Tom Kontogiannis; Nadia Linou
    Forcing operators to comply to a training method may increase workload in remembering instructions and deny opportunities for exploiting other strategies. A means for increasing learning flexibility would be to manipulate the design of the user interface in ways that prompt trainees to recall past instructions or develop their own strategies. An experimental study is described that manipulates the ratio of visible instructions on the interface to the expository (or verbal) instructions. A new interface has been tested that presented several "tale-tell" signs to help trainees discover diagnostic rules. A group of subjects T(new), that used the new interface, became more accurate in fault-diagnosis than another group T(old) that practised on a conventional panel; both groups were provided with the same technical story. On transfer to two other tasks, the T(new) group maintained a better performance to the T(old) group, but only for a subset of the fault scenarios; superior performance was also observed in relation to a third group trained in heuristics. Finally, the new interface enabled the T(new) group to achieve equivalent performance to a fourth group that received both a technical story and a set of heuristics but used the conventional panel.
    Effects of Variable-Priority Training on Automation-Related Complacency: Performance and Eye Movements BIBAFull-Text 346-349
      Ulla Metzger; Jacqueline A. Duley; Rameez Abbas; Raja Parasuraman
    The effectiveness of variable-priority training in reducing automation-related complacency was examined. Participants were trained under one of three attention allocation strategies, whole task (WT), part task (PT), or variable priority (VP). They subsequently monitored an automated system while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks. Eye movements were recorded to investigate attention allocation strategies. Results pointed to a trend for VP training to reduce complacency, compared to WT or PT training. The relationship between performance in each of the three training groups and eye movements to the automated task was inconsistent.
    Simulating Spatial Memory Challenges Confronting Astronauts BIBAFull-Text 350-352
      Wayne Shebilske; Travis Tubre; Tim Willis; Amber Hanson; Charles Oman; Jason Ericson
    We tested 3D spatial memory for 59 college students in a 50-cm x 50-cm x 50-cm cube. An aperture in the center of each of the cube's six surfaces revealed a picture on a computer monitor. The pictures' locations and orientations changed to simulate multiple perspectives. A pre-trial icon indicated the simulated body orientation, entrance hatch (the picture behind the head), and the target. A trial began with no pictures, and the trainee pressed a key to indicate the target's remembered position. A trail concluded with pictures, and the trainee pressed a key to indicate the target's actual position. Visual orientation illusions suggested that supine trainees should perform better. Memory errors did not support this prediction. Groups who started erect and switch to supine were similar to groups that did the opposite, except for the first 12 trials in which the Erect-Supine Group was better.

    2: TRAINING: Situation Awareness and Embedded Thinking [Research]

    Applying Digital Training Technologies to Shape User Representations BIBAFull-Text 353-356
      Carl W. Lickteig
    Training methods are needed to apply the power of digital technology to shape user representations. This paper examines how digital training methods might shape users' mental representations to improve pattern and situation recognition skills. The methods described exploit the ability of digital technology to control information representations and training conditions. These methods may apply to numerous educational and training contexts. The method application examples illustrate how computers could help soldiers develop more meaningful battlefield representations.
    Pilot Situation Awareness Training in General Aviation BIBAFull-Text 357-360
      Mica R. Endsley; Daniel J. Garland
    While the majority of research on the topic of situation awareness has been focused on designing better systems, significant interest also exists in finding ways to improve SA through training. This paper describes an ongoing program that is directed at developing programs for training SA in general aviation pilots. Factors that have been found to pose problems for SA in pilots are reviewed and directions are established for creating programs for improving SA through training.
    Measuring Situation Awareness in Training Systems: A Multivariate Approach BIBAFull-Text 361-364
      Dennis A. Vincenzi; Robert T. Hays; Alton G. Seamon
    The Virtual Environment for Submarine Ship Handling Training (VESUB) project developed, demonstrated, and evaluated the training potential of a VE-based training system. Based on perceptual and cognitive task analyses, and input from subject matter experts, 15 performance variables were developed. These variables were combined and analyzed using multivariate techniques that provided a measure of situation awareness and general ship handling ability. These 2 new variables were then analyzed using an ANOVA with experience (novice or experienced) as the between subjects variable, and scenario session (pre-training or post-training) as the within subjects variable.
       The results indicated a significant improvement in situation awareness and general ship handling ability for both novice and experienced trainees. The VESUB training system provided the training needed to produce significant performance improvements for novice personnel who knew very little about ship handling, and also provided significant refresher training for experienced personnel. The use of multivariate analyses of specific embedded task measures provided an empirical link between situation awareness and human performance.
    On-Line Training Feedback: Does It Help BIBAFull-Text 365-368
      Catherine A. Cook; Alison L. Young; Amanda M. O'Shea; Lucy E. McLaughlin
    Currently in the Royal Navy, any training feedback provided during a team training exercise at sea or in the full training simulator is delivered by a human instructor "as required", with the majority of feedback provided in a post-exercise debrief. An automated embedded training system would enable the provision of feedback in real-time during a training session to be standardised, but could provide an almost unlimited amount of feedback. The aim of this research is therefore to identify the benefits of providing on-line feedback, and to develop guidelines for future advanced training systems. This paper describes work that has been carried out to identify existing feedback principles, and to evaluate their utility in the context of a complex, real-time computer-based task. A series of experiments was conducted using a simulation of elements of a Naval Anti-Air Warfare decision making task, with Naval operators as participants. This paper describes the experimental test-bed and provides an overview of the experimental programme. Preliminary results from the first experiment are reported, comparing trainee performance and retention when on-line feedback is provided, with a control condition of no feedback.

    2: TRAINING: Human Performance Models in Training Systems [Single-Session Symposium]

    Human Performance Models in Training Systems BIBFull-Text 369
      Amy E. Bolton; K. Ronald Laughery; Janis A. Cannon
    The Diagnostic Utility of Fuzzy System Modeling for Application in Training Systems BIBAFull-Text 370-373
      Gwendolyn Elizabeth Campbell; Wendi Lynn Buff; Amy Elizabeth Bolton
    While there are many different computational modeling techniques capable of predicting human decision-making outcomes, training applications require modeling techniques that are also diagnostic of human decision-making processes. Multiple linear regression, a commonly used modeling technique in Psychology, makes overly restrictive processing assumptions such as that of additivity. A relatively new modeling approach, fuzzy system modeling, bears some striking similarities to current theories of categorization and cognition. In this research, we compare the diagnostic utility of multiple linear regression to fuzzy system models. Specifically, decision-making data are modeled using either linear regression or fuzzy system models, and trainee models are compared to an expert model built with the same technique. Discrepancies between the trainee and expert models are noted and qualitative feedback is generated. The diagnostic utility of each technique is evaluated by measuring changes in performance after model-based feedback is provided to the trainees.
    Comparison of Cognitive Model Uses in Intelligent Training Systems BIBAFull-Text 374-377
      Joan Ryder; Thomas Santarelli; Jackie Scolaro; James Hicinbothom; Wayne Zachary
    Cognitive models are human performance models that represent human knowledge and internal information manipulation processes. Many uses of cognitive models in training systems have been proposed in the literature, but actual applications have lagged behind, and comparative assessments are rare. To fill this gap, experiences in applying cognitive models in several different intelligent tutoring/training systems are reviewed and compared. All the applications were developed using the same cognitive modeling framework (COGNET) and software (iGEN). The models fall into two main categories:
  • expert performance models, used for tracing knowledge and actions, and
  • instructional agents, used to predict, observe, and diagnose trainee use of
       specific knowledge sets and skills. Comparisons focus on the model development process and the efficacy of the resulting system. A set of preliminary conclusions on the selection and development of cognitive models in training systems is offered.
  • Eye-Movements During Unit-Task Execution in a Complex Problem-Solving Situation BIBAFull-Text 378-381
      Myeong-Ho Sohn; Scott A. Douglass; Mon-Chu Chen; John R. Anderson
    We have studied the performance of subjects as they acquired skill in the Georgia Tech Aegis Simulation Program (GT-ASP) with a particular focus on their eye movements. Our task analysis showed that the GT-ASP breaks down into the selection of unit tasks and the execution of these unit tasks. We focused on the Identification unit-task. Our results showed that most of the practice benefit in Identification came from increasing efficiency during cognitive process, in which people make inferences and decisions on the basis of the currently available information. We also analyzed eye fixations when people perform this unit-task. Participants showed different fixation patterns, depending on what portion of the unit-task was being executed. Fluency in a dynamic complex problem-solving seems to be achieved by efficiency in cognitive as well as perceptual processes.
    Application of Bayesian Network Modeling in a Training Support Tool BIBAFull-Text 382-385
      Thomas Carolan; Shelly Scott-Nash; Ron Laughery
    The instructor/trainer is a key decision making element in the training and assessment cycle designed to support performance in complex environments. There is an identified need for innovative tools and methods for instructors to use to evaluate performance in simulation based training environments. Bayesian network methods are being investigated as part of a project to provide integrated assessment, debrief and analysis support tools for instructors in an advanced tactics school.

    2: TRAINING: Group and Team Training [Research]

    Does Group Training Work For Adults: A Study on Computer-Based Shop Floor Control Training BIBAFull-Text 386-389
      Kuo-Hao Tang; Li-Chen Tsai; Chien-Hui Pan
    This research investigates how group training impacts experienced workers in computer-based cognitive tasks, and use both mean performance and performance variance to address issues regarding training efficiency. The analysis suggests that lower achievers are benefited more from group training, and the performance variance for the individual group is significantly larger than groups of two and three trainees.
    Improving Teams' Interpositional Knowledge Through Cross Training BIBAFull-Text 390-393
      Nancy J. Cooke; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers; Preston A. Kiekel; Krisela Rivera; Rene'e J. Stout; Eduardo Salas
    Recent investigations of team training have demonstrated advantages of cross training team members in the positions of other team members. Such benefits have been attributed to increases in interpositional knowledge. In an attempt to reduce the time demands of cross training, a conceptual cross-training condition that targeted teamwork knowledge was compared to traditional full cross-training and two control conditions. Three-person teams were assigned to a training condition and participated in two synthetic helicopter missions. Outcomes, team process behaviors, team situation awareness, taskwork knowledge, and teamwork knowledge were measured. Results indicated weak support for the benefits of full cross-training on team performance, yet minimal support for conceptual cross-training. Further, teams cross-trained in the traditional manner acquired more teamwork and taskwork interpositional knowledge than teams in any other condition. Both types of interpositional knowledge were correlated with team performance.
    Empirical Validation of Team Training Id-Guidelines BIBAFull-Text 394-397
      Marcel P. W. van Berlo
    With respect to team training, traditional instructional design (ID) guidelines, mainly aimed at training at the individual level, seem to be insufficient given the different nature and characteristics of teams and team performance. In order to provide adequate support, guidelines have been developed supporting the analysis of team tasks, and the design of team training scenarios. This paper discusses an approach to the empirical validation of these guidelines and the implications for further research on ID for team training.
    The Statistical Modelling of Team Training BIBAFull-Text 398-401
      Amanda M. O'Shea; Matthew C. Hankins
    The aim of this research is to assist the Royal Navy in the evaluation of team training. This has included providing the specification for T-TESS (Team Training Evaluation Support System) -- a tool that assists training authorities, managers and/or practitioners who are not experts in statistical procedures with the identification of appropriate measurement data and data analysis. The ultimate aim is to incorporate T-TESS into future embedded training systems to facilitate the identification and analysis of a variety of sources of objective data (e.g. keystroke, head/eye-tracking, and on-line individual and task characteristics data). In the provision of support for training evaluation, though, the system is also of great value today. This paper therefore describes the development of T-TESS from both present and future perspectives. This development has included the identification of a theoretical model of the determinants of team training performance, the transformation of this theoretical model into a statistical model (derived using structural equation modelling procedures) to underlie the system, and the specification of the interface. Finally, an attempt to validate a subset of the statistical model is presented.
    Modeling Training Effects in Computer Generated Forces BIBAFull-Text 402-405
      Rick Archer; Brett Walters; Amy Yaw
    The use of Computer Generated Forces (CGF) in simulations ranges from small human performance models to large scale Advanced Distributed Simulations (ADS). CGF have been used to assess human performance aspects of system designs and to augment man-in-the-loop simulators with friendly and opposing forces to make simulated battlefield training exercises realistic. However, the current human performance models and ADS available to system designers, trainers, and resource allocation analysts do not include the effects of training on the performance of the CGF. For the most part, the CGF entities in these simulations reflect a constant level of training, This paper discusses a methodology for modeling the effects of training in CGF and other human performance models.

    2: TRAINING: Designing Training for Industry and Military Applications [Research]

    Double Evolution A Computer-Based Quality Management System for Enterprise-Specific Training BIBAFull-Text 406-409
      Carlos Pereira
    This paper deals with the development and implementation of a computer-based quality management system for enterprise-specific training. The system can be used by both training organisations and enterprises. It gives training processes a structure and it provides instruments that can be used for the assurance and evaluation of the quality of training.
    Cognitive Engineering of Training for Adaptive Battlefield Thinking BIBAFull-Text 410-413
      Karol G. Ross; Linda G. Pierce
    Individual military decision-makers and the military staff, as a decision-making team, are currently under increased pressure to make quick assessments more often and under more unusual conditions than ever before. Advances in information technology, changing operational missions, and re-designed, "flattened" organizations all contribute to the new performance requirements. U.S. Army leadership has defined the general skill underlying the performance requirements as "adaptive thinking." Our goal was to further the systematic and early development of that ability during officers' careers. We used a learning model derived from cognitive theory and a descriptive model of military expertise to engineer training interventions. We developed two training interventions that embody the learning model in this specific domain of expertise. We also identified research needed to further clarify how the learning model should be used in training development in the military as well as in other training settings.
    Creating Ergonomics Awareness in Industrially Developing Countries BIBFull-Text 414-417
      Houshang Shahnavaz

    2: TRAINING: Defining Situation Awareness in a Military Aviation Training Community: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Training [Single-Session Symposium]

    Defining Situation Awareness in a Military Aviation Training Community: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Training BIBFull-Text 418
      Randall L. Oser
    Transitioning Sa Theory and Research into Practical Training Guidance: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 419-422
      Jennifer E. Fowlkes; Danielle C. Merket; Randall L. Oser
    The present effort describes approaches that were applied to transition situation awareness research to address the needs of a military training community. First, a multidisciplinary team allowed us to incorporate research and theory in regards to SA, envision how it could be applied to support ISD products, and incorporate the expertise of members of the operational community. Second, a goal directed training situation analysis enabled us to identify key aspects of the training environment that helped guide the identification of methods that would work. Finally, a multi-method approach allowed us to apply behavioral, cognitive, and ISD approaches to better understand how to define, measure, and train SA in this environment. Such approaches may be applied to transition other complex cognitive constructs from research to applied realms.
    Application of an Event-Based Situation Awareness Methodology: Measuring Situation Awareness in an Operational Context BIBAFull-Text 423-426
      Laura M. Milham; John S. Barnett; Randall L. Oser
    The focus of the present paper is on the application of an event-based approach to the assessment of situational awareness (SA). Event-based approaches present measurement opportunities by systematically introducing exercise events or capitalizing on naturally occurring events in order to evaluate targeted competencies (such as behaviors related to SA). This approach works well for assessment of SA because events can be used to elicit behaviors that are often covert; monitoring the environment, for example. Typically, event-based approaches are applied in a laboratory setting, such as a flight simulator, where it is possible to control the introduction of events. In the present application, the event-based approach was applied to assess SA performance during dynamic flight events, where precise control could not be exerted. The ways in which the application was and was not successful, and ways in which this approach can be used to present training feedback are presented.
    Convergence or Divergence of Expert Mental Models: The Utility of Knowledge Structure Assessment in Training Research BIBAFull-Text 427-430
      Stephen M. Fiore; Jennifer Fowlkes; Laura Martin-Milham; Randall L. Oser
    In this paper we discuss the impact of differing knowledge structure measurement techniques on assessing instructor mental models for behaviors associated with Situation Awareness. Our goals were, first, to investigate the degree to which an expert model for such behaviors actually exists, and second, to determine the degree to which experts, varying along a number of dimensions, assess these behaviors using differing knowledge structure measurement techniques. The results show substantial agreement in concept relatedness across differing measures, but less agreement across differing expert groups. Our discussion focuses on the differing measures and their ability to assess the knowledge structures associated with experts differing in their training roles and we review the implications of these findings for training researchers.
    Theory and Data as Input to Traditional ISD Products BIBAFull-Text 431-434
      Joseph D. Sheehan; Randall L. Oser
    This paper presents a theoretically-based methodology that was used to enable the development of instructional objectives and media recommendations for training Military Flight Officers in Situation Awareness (SA). The research was conducted during a Training Situation Analysis already in progress. A set of behaviors theoretically linked to SA was empirically validated during 12 training flights at a Naval air station. Data was also collected concerning the criticality and difficulty to perform for each behavior, and the adequacy of the current training aircraft and simulators to provide the required training. Finally, two measures of structural knowledge were used to elicit mental model representations to identify the relationships among the behaviors. The process serves as an example of theory-to-practice in a real-world context.

    2: TRAINING: Training Posters

    Transfer of Training Between 3-D Computer-aided Design (CAD) Systems BIBAFull-Text 435
      Eric N. Wiebe
    During the late 1980's and early 1990's many mechanical design groups in manufacturing were faced with the movement from computer systems based around 2-D Computer-aided Design (CAD) systems to 3-D modeling systems. A common issue at the time centered around 2-D to 3-D CAD system transfer of training issues (Gattiker, 1992). More recently, many of these companies are faced with a new transfer of training issue, this time surrounding the move from one 3-D CAD system to another. This issue has become particularly pronounced with the increased mobility of industry professionals and the emergence of more cost-effective (thus, more widespread) Windows-based modeling systems.
       Shneiderman (1998) has proposed a model of human-computer interaction, the Object-Action Interface (OAI) model, which provides a structure for understanding how users transfer real-world tasks to the computer interface of a software package. Part of this transfer process involves the translation of higher-level task strategies (the semantic level) into software specific commands (the syntactic level). Previous research has indicated that many of the most popular 3-D modeling packages all contain commands/tools which support the same higher-level modeling strategies for modeling simple parts. In contrast, all of the packages have different interface elements, which create different syntaxes for achieving these higher-level goals.
       The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that, with minimal training, users can transfer their established high level modeling strategies between packages (thus preserving an important element of efficiency and effectiveness). This transfer will take place once they have mastered the basic syntax necessary to execute their strategies.
       Individuals holding at least an intermediate level of expertise on a specific modeling software package (Pro/ENGINEER) were recruited to model a specific part on this package. In a second phase of the experiment, they were then asked to model the same part on a different modeler that they had never worked on before (SolidWorks). These two modelers were very similar in their part modeling functionality, but had markedly different surface interface characteristics. The second phase of the experiment was run as a 'coached walkthrough' (Mack & Robinson, 1992). The investigator stayed with the user and acted as a resource when the user had questions about how to use the software. The user's interaction with the software was recorded on videotape while all utterances were recorded simultaneously on the audio track of the video.
       The results of the study clearly showed the initial conflict when there were syntactic differences between the software tools in executing a specific modeling strategy. A majority of these conflicts, however, did not reoccur once they were resolved by the investigator/coach at the time of first encounter. There was also clear evidence as to the ease in which original higher-level task strategies could be preserved on the new system. The results of this study demonstrated clear differences between the transfer of syntactic and semantic level knowledge from one 3-D modeling system and another. The results of this study also has implications for the design of training programs, pointing to the importance of delineating between software package-dependent and -independent skills and knowledge.
    A Preliminary Evaluation of an Advanced Embedded Training System BIBFull-Text 436
      Daniel P. McDonald; Lori G. Rhodenizer; Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers
    Ergonomic Analysis of Movement Retraining of Computer Users: A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 437
      William A. Pereira; Pat Tittiranonda; Stephen R. Burastero
    Two groups of movement retrained computer users with prior computer-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders underwent qualitative orthogonal video motion analysis. Ergonomic analysis of subjects' computer use habits suggests that movement retraining may decrease risk factors for work related musculoskeletal disorders and therefore warrants further study.
    Integral An Interactive Tool for the Web-Based Training of Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 438
      Ralph Bruder; Matthias Rotting
    In a joint effort of four German universities a web-based training tool for teaching ergonomics was developed. In addition to "classical" computer-based training, the INTEGRAL system allows students from different universities to collaborate. One major aim of INTEGRAL is the autonomous development and evaluation of design solutions by the students.
    Difference of Exploratory Behavior in Computer Skill Training According to the Occupational Status of Trainees BIBFull-Text 439
      Hiroyuki Umemuro
    Human Factors Design and Training Issues in the Development of a Night Driving Training Aid BIBFull-Text 440
      John W. Ruffner; Kim G. Woodward; Dino Piccione
    A Study of On-Line Lesson Structure and Student Learning Styles While Interacting with Computer-Assisted-Instruction (CAI) BIBFull-Text 441
      Matthew R. E. Romoser; Ray E. Eberts

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Corporate Initiatives in Ergonomics

    Corporate Initiatives in Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 442-445
      Goran M. Hagg
    Some basic elements of corporate initiatives in ergonomics are reviewed. Different types of programs are identified such as interventions and continuous processes. Other elements are health surveillance, work station design and choice of tools, product design, quality aspects, participative aspects and education, training and information. The implementation of ergonomics programs vary substantially depending on type of company and company policies and organisation. It is concluded that ergonomics programs are beneficial in most enterprises. A participative approach as well as ergonomics expertise are crucial ingredients for a successful program. The most successful programs are integrated with the over all strategy of the enterprise.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Corporate Initiatives in Ergonomics [Research]

    Assessment Tools for the Prevention of Musculo Skeletal Disorders (MSDs) on Assembly Lines Follow Up of Medical Data Since 1995 BIBAFull-Text 446-449
      M. Moreau
    The work situation assessment at Peugeot Citroën has allowed a follow-up of specific ergonomic criteria, from designing to launching a vehicle. The part mounting is evaluated early at the design stage by a unique method, where work stations were assessed by the production center's local method until 1999. From this date, a unique method will replace these different evaluations. The medical indicators recorded from 1995 to 1999 showed a general decrease in MSDs on assembly lines, and variations linked to important reorganizations of the work conditions.
       These assessments allowed the company to put in place an inventory of ergonomic needs drawing on a definition of ergonomic aims. These aims are integrated into the specifications of the design and the industrialization of the vehicle. Consequently, results must be obtained. The follow up of Musculo Skeletal Disorders, combined with assessment results, were useful in auditing the achievement of the ergonomic targets on the shop floor. The "Vibration-Frequency" factors and the "Mental requirements" were not analyzed in the assessment tools.
    Ergonomic Self Reliance A Structured Approach BIBAFull-Text 450-453
      Roman Piotrowski
    Ergonomics in industry takes many forms and a variety of techniques are applied for the data collection of ergonomic concerns.
       At the Rover Group (BMW) Swindon site, chosen shop floor associates are trained in the principles of ergonomics. They lead all ergonomic assessments with the full support of the local production manager known as the ABA plan owner.
       This Ergonomic "facilitator" uses an ergonomic assessment sheet known Associate job Analysis A.B.A. developed by BMW AG Germany. This takes the form of simple charts to store issues categorised as Red Amber or Green (RAG) concerns. It can effectively deal with local and departmental issues using an ergonomic approach.
       The author, who is the site ergonomist, will share results of the activities within their environment and explain the principles of Ergonomic Self-Reliance and the infrastructure that supports it.
    Ford Motor Company Global Ergonomics Process BIBAFull-Text 454-457
      Bradley S. Joseph
    The use of ergonomic principles in the design of automobile assembly and manufacturing operations has become an important part of a comprehensive health and safety process as well as an integral part of the engineering systems. Ford Motor Company has developed an ergonomics process to manage issues related to injury and illness (e.g., musculoskeletal diseases) and to ensure the appropriate use of human resources on the plant floor. The ergonomics program uses joint labor and management teams to identify and evaluate jobs and develop and implement solutions. This paper summarizes the Ford Motor Company efforts in implementing and maintaining the program. Key strategies are outlined that provide important links to internal organizational units that are critical to fully utilize the ergonomics process. In addition, the paper outlines differences between proactive and reactive efforts and shows the importance of using the information generated by the initiatives for process improvement.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Ergonomics and Total Quality Management

    'Ergonomics And Tqm BIBFull-Text 458
      Jan Axlesson; Ram R. Bishu

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Plenary Address

    Quality, Globalization and The Future of Work BIBAFull-Text 459-462
      Colin G. Drury
    The whole world is in the process of massive changes in the way in which business is conducted. Under the loose heading of globalization, we have seen an interrelated set of changes driven by a number of converging factors. These same global changes have in turn sparked new forms and balances of organisations. Eventually, these effects must be accompanied by new ways in which people will perform within organisations. We are moving towards globalization of production, customers, capital and workforce concerns. While the quality revolution was one of the driving forces behind globalization, there is now an impact of its very success back onto quality. With slack removed from work systems, quality is demanded for efficient, effective operations, but quality itself can suffer under the impacts of downsizing, longer working times and instant demands for change.
    Towards a Framework for Quality of Interactions between Humans, Technology and Organization BIBAFull-Text 463-466
      Jorgen Eklund
    Cases from production as well as product use support that quality for the end customer can only be performed if there is quality in all processes and work activities leading to the delivery of the product or service. A conditional requirement is that these work activities are free from risks of accidents, health impairments and that they promote well-being for the employees. An integrated ergonomics and quality approach is therefore to focus the interactions that take place within the work activities, and between humans, technology, organization and environment. Finally, a framework is proposed for this. It supports a methodology to analyze the interactions that take place.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: TQM Issues: A European Perspective [Research]

    Quality and Ergonomics Management Toward an Emerging Integrated Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 467-470
      Jan R. C. Axelsson
    Although there are many conceptual similarities in-between the areas of quality and ergonomics, and despite that several indicators point to the fact that poor ergonomics causes quality deficiencies, there are up to date few examples of integrated improvement efforts. As a consequence there is also lack a well-grounded common theory. To overcome some of the gaps this paper outlines a conceptual framework for an integrative approach to the development of quality and ergonomics in concert -- the reasoning and results based on a extensive research program involving experience from twenty-five Swedish organizations during a period of eight years.
    Total Quality Management in the Public Sector: A Comparison between the USA and France BIBAFull-Text 471-474
      Pascale Carayon; Jean-Louis Coujard; Francois Sainfort
    This paper examines the development and applications of TQM in the public sector, in particular in the USA and in France. Issues related to the implementation process and the content of TQM in the public sector are discussed. Two cases provide data on actual implementations of TQM in the public sector. Both cases are local government agencies, one located in the State of Wisconsin, USA, and the other one in the Eastern region of France. Using Hofstede's model (1997), similarities and differences between the cases are discussed in light of cross-cultural characteristics.
    Tqm in Germany Experiences and Perspectives Concerning Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 475-478
      Klaus J. Zink
    Discussions of TQM and Ergonomics mainly refer to continuous improvement and people involvement based on respective forms of work organization. Concerning TQM one has to state that German companies started quite late with such activities. Whereas employee involvement was much earlier part of other concepts, which did in most cases not survive due to the character of (timely) limited and fragmented programmes. In introducing a European Excellence Model the idea of TQM got an increased interest in Germany. Therefore people involvement and respective forms of work organization are part of this development -- but also other ergonomic topics. The use of this model for the promotion of occupational health and safety is also shown.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality and Ergonomics in Consumer Product Design [Research]

    Design Reviews for Robustness in Product Development BIBAFull-Text 479-482
      Peter Kammerlind; Per Persson; Jens-Peder Ekros
    Today Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a well-known method to understand customers needs and to translate them into design attributes. This makes QFD very helpful in the product development process (PDP). This paper promotes Design Reviews (DRs) as an important part of the PDP. DR together with QFD becomes an interesting approach to achieve robustness in product development. This is especially important when product concepts are transferred between different factories, in different parts of the world, within the same company. This is illustrated with a case study in the manufacturing industry.
    Applying User-Centered Design in the Context of the Deming Quality Cycle: The Design and Development of a Server Computer BIBAFull-Text 483-486
      Melroy E. D'Souza
    There are many different tools and methodologies in the field of human factors for user-centered design. Similarly, other fields have tools and methodologies that enable practitioners in those fields to perform their work. Although these tools may be used most productively within their specific fields, they might contain elements that lend themselves to being applied in other domain areas. The field of quality engineering has been around for a while and has many useful tools. The similarity in the goals of the fields of human factors engineering and quality engineering suggests that there could be certain methodologies and tools in the area of quality engineering that, practitioners of human factors might find useful and applicable to the development of products and services from a user-centered perspective. This paper explores the application of user-centered design in the context of the Deming Cycle to the development of a server computer in an actual organization. It also provides examples of actual issues that were identified during the "check" phase of the Deming Cycle, and describes the actions that were performed to address these issues.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Factors in Inspection [Research]

    A System to Understand Human-Machine Function Allocation Issues in Visual Inspection BIBAFull-Text 487-490
      X. Jiang; J. Bingham; R. Master; A. K. Gramopadhye; B. J. Melloy
    Product inspection is an important step in ensuring product quality with one of its most important tasks being visual inspection. If an inspection is to be successful, it is critical that the various functions constituting an inspection task be performed optimally. An inspection task typically consists of the following functions: orientation, search, decision-making, and recording. Orientation and recording, essentially manual activities, are best automated. The search and decision-making functions, however, are essentially cognitive activities and have been shown to be the most important determinants of inspection performance that system designers need guidance in allocating. With the customer demand for zero defects in products, 100% inspection using automated systems has seen more frequent application than traditional sampling inspection using human inspectors. Despite the advantages of automation, these inspection systems often fail to meet expectations primarily because they ignore humans' ability in pattern recognition, as rational decision-makers and their flexibility to adapt to new situations. Thus, designers of systems which include an inspection component need guidance on human/machine function allocation to ensure that the inspection is performed at the very least adequately and, preferably, effectively and efficiently. In response to this need, this paper describes a system that will facilitate the conducting of controlled studies to address issues related to human machine system design and function allocation in visual inspection. The system simulates the search and decision making functions of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) inspection task. The system can operate in three separate modes: (1) human inspection mode -- where all the functions are performed by the human, (2) automated inspection mode -- where all the functions are performed by the computer and the role of the human is that of a supervisor, and (3) hybrid inspection mode -- where inspection functions can be allocated to the human, the machine or both.
    The Effects of Individual Differences and Training on Paced and Unpaced Aircraft Visual Inspection Performance BIBAFull-Text 491-494
      Stacey Chen; Anand Gramopadhye; Brian Melloy
    The aircraft maintenance system is a complex one with many interrelated human and machine components. Inspection is the first critical step in locating and identifying non-conformities that are later removed or fixed as part of maintenance. Thus, inspection constitutes a critical step in the overall maintenance process. Significantly, 90% of all inspection, which is visual, is conducted by human inspectors. Moreover aircraft inspection is often performed under varying pacing conditions. If we are to provide the general public with a safe and reliable air transportation system, inspection must be performed effectively, efficiently and consistently over time. However, past studies in human inspection have reported large individual differences in inspection performance. Even though it is difficult to eliminate errors completely, continuing emphasis must be placed on identifying interventions to reduce errors and improve consistency in performance.
    The Use of a High Fidelity Simulator to Improve Aircraft Inspection Performance: The ASSIST Program BIBAFull-Text 495-498
      Anand K. Gramopadhye; Brian Melloy; Hector Him; Scott Koenig; George Nickles; Jamie Bingham; Jillian Kauffman; Jatin Thaker; Reena Master
    The aircraft maintenance industry is a complex system consisting of several interrelated human and machine components. The linchpin of this system, however, is the human. Recognizing this, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has pursued human factors related research. In the maintenance arena the research has focused on the aircraft inspection process and the aircraft inspector. Training has been identified as the primary intervention strategy to improve the quality and reliability of aircraft inspection. In response to this need, the paper outlines the development of a high fidelity inspection training simulator (ASSIST: Automated System of Self Instruction for Specialized Training) focused on improving aircraft inspection performance and ultimately aviation safety. The research was funded by the Federal Aviation Administration and conducted by the Advanced Training Systems Laboratory of the Department of Industrial Engineering, Clemson University and was conducted in cooperation with Delta Airlines and Lockheed Martin Aircraft Center.
    Can TQM Be Quantified BIBAFull-Text 499-502
      Jason J. Saleem; Brian M. Kleiner
    Total quality management is a team-based approach to the improvement of processes for the continual satisfaction of customers. Thus, three core values are common to TQM efforts: continuous improvement, customer satisfaction and teamwork. There have been some broad attempts to quantify the effects of continuous improvement, customer satisfaction and teamwork. However, we have argued previously that many TQM efforts start too late and end too soon. Starting late means that TQM is often not given strategic thought, for example in deciding strategically, which processes to improve. TQM often ends too soon in the sense that it stops at the process level and does not proceed to the human-machine interface (i.e., ergonomic) level. It is argued that participatory ergonomics, a staple method in macroergonomics, can benefit TQM efforts by bringing such efforts "down to" the ergonomic level. This paper presents our recent attempts to quantify the effects of participation.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality in Design [Research]

    Human Interaction in the Manufacturing Design Process BIBAFull-Text 503-506
      Robert L. Getty
    The human element pervades all company processes, from proposal, design, manufacturing, quality control and product support. Cost effective processes can be best achieved when the human element is totally integrated with technology. Traditional human engineering design methodologies applied to company processes optimizes the relationship of people that comprise the organization with the technology that is the foundation of the organization. Process ownership is essential for the achievement of the goals of quality. This ownership occurs by applying macroergonomics precepts by integration of the personnel system with the technological factors to achieve product delivery to a satisfied customer within the external environment of market forces. The application of human engineering design principles will be discussed followed by the quality focus of the LMTAS company processes. This paper will review LMTAS quality goals to show the elements that form the foundation of The Fighter Enterprise to make it the contractor of choice for tactical fighter aircraft.
    Human Aspects in Process Improvement BIBAFull-Text 507-510
      Max A. Chin
    This paper intends to compare two major process improvement programs, Re-engineering and Total Quality Management (TQM), with the focus of human aspects. Reengineering is a result-focused and IT technology-centered approach for radical process change. Lack of employment involvement usually results in unexpected resistance to such process innovation. On the other hand, TQM focuses on continuous improvement with using all available human and capital resources. In addition to customer, TQM emphasizes both management and employee involvement for constant incremental improvement. The human-centered strategy emphasizes the value of people in process improvement. From the human aspect, these two programs are complementary. The emphasis of human value also rebuilds the paradigm of process evolvement from short-term innovation to a long-term improvement.
    Design Cost Savings and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 511-514
      Michael W. Riley; Robert L. Dhuyvetter
    Designing products includes many issues which have an impact on the life cycle of a product. Design costs include the cost of the design for the product's functional needs and the cost of the design for associated needs. Examples of associated needs are design for assembly, design for serviceability, design for compatibility, and design for manufacturability. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how applying appropriate ergonomic principles during design can reduce many life cycle costs. Relating potential cost savings attributed to ergonomics can be useful as a tool in decision support systems. An example is used to demonstrate the range of potential impacts of ergonomic driven design strategies. Reducing costs in one design focus area often impacts another design focus area negatively. By estimating the status (best to worst) of the current design performance measures and normalizing results, the impacts of changing design parameters are seen.
    The Quality of Footwear Fit: What we know, don't know and should know BIBAFull-Text 515-518
      Ravindra S. Goonetilleke; Ameersing Luximon; Kwok L. Tsui
    Even though fit ranks as one of the most important considerations in the purchase of a shoe, the quality of fit has no metric and is hence poorly assessed. Manufacturers, retailers, and customers tend to use trial and error techniques to improve footwear fit. This approach is rather cumbersome and very unscientific. In this paper, we present a methodology to assess and thereby quantify footwear fit so that comfort can be predicted and consequently improved lasts and shoes can be produced that match different shapes of feet.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality in Information Systems [Research]

    Integration of Information Technology and TQM BIBAFull-Text 519-522
      Lotfollah Najjar; Ram R. Bishu
    The purpose of this study was to determine if IS managers were familiar with the basic concepts /tools and potential benefits of TQM. This was accomplished by administering a questionnaire to a sample of IS managers who currently work for business units. The results have implications for both IS managers and researchers. IS managers were familiar with the language of TQM, but did not really understand its underlying philosophies and/or principles. The IS manager must be willing to commit to the TQM strategy for the long run. Also, most IS managers believed that top management leadership is a critical factor in their success.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Quality in Design [Research]

    Service Quality Starts with Employees BIBAFull-Text 523-526
      Juliet M. Getty; Robert L. Getty
    There are several integral steps involved in moving form the employees' work environment toward an increase in the profitability of a company. A high quality physical and cognitive workplace leads to satisfied employees who are capable of better performance. Better performance, combined with improved attitudes transfers itself into quality service delivery. Customers naturally respond to better service and empathy from employees with their willingness to purchase the service. "Internal" customers, the employees, respond with their willingness to provide the service. It is proposed, therefore, that an organization's effort to improve the financial bottom line must first focus on its internal customers before it can expect its external customers to respond. The utilization of ergonomic precepts enhances the service delivery personnel/customer interface and produces processes that result in satisfied customers.
    Quality Concerns of Web Design Process BIBAFull-Text 527-530
      Dahai Liu; Ibraheem S. Tarawneh; Ram Bishu
    This paper discusses the issues pertaining to web quality. The web quality is defined in terms of the design process of the web sites as well as the presented information. Within each term a set of criteria was developed that affect the web quality. These sets of criteria are applicable for both web page design guidelines and web page evaluation and improvements. A simple quantitative evaluation model was given using these criteria, the model is based on the AHP methodology.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Macroergonomic Methods and Tools for Improved Performance and Well-Being: Symposium Overview

    Macroergonomic Methods and Tools for Improved Performance and Well-Being: Symposium Overview BIBAFull-Text 531-534
      Brian M. Kleiner
    A symposium brings together some of the world's most respected researchers and practitioners to discuss the latest methods and tools of macroergonomics. Specific sessions include: Introduction to Macroergonomics; Knowledge and Service Work Environments; Impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT); Industrial Environments and the Impact of Intelligent Manufacturing; Community and Public Environments; Hazardous Environments; Government (e.g. military) Environments and Healthcare Environments.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Introduction to Macroergonomics [Research]

    Participatory Approaches to Work Systems and Organizational Design BIBAFull-Text 535-538
      Ogden Brown
    Participatory approaches to work systems and organizational design are identified and examined. Each approach advocates worker involvement and organizational change. The development of participation in the workplace is discussed, and the evolution of participatory practices in work systems and organizational design is presented, from early research on decision making, through the participative management and human relations movements, to the organization-wide high involvement ergonomics of today. Issues arising from the implementation of high involvement ergonomics are also identified.
    Introduction to Macroergonomics BIBAFull-Text 539-542
      Hal W. Hendrick
    The origin and development of macroergonomics as an identifiable sub-discipline of human factors/ergonomics is reviewed. The concept of macroergonomics, including the underlying empirically developed sociotechnical systems model, is summarized. The relation of macro-to micro-ergonomics, and the synergism that is possible when the two are harmonized and consistent with the organization's sociotechnical characteristics, is explained.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Knowledge and Service Work Environments [Research]

    Old Paradigms for New Jobs in Call Centers BIBAFull-Text 543-546
      F. L. Mascia; R. Marx; G. Arbix
    Organizational structure, working process and task's conception based on tayloristic paradigms became common in call centers in Brazil. Considering work as a simple repetition of procedures have consequences in terms of productivity, quality and worker's health. Actually the task is complex and cannot be strictly formalized.
    The Structure of Tasks at Call Centers: Control and Learning Difficulties BIBAFull-Text 547-550
      L. I. Sznelwar; M. Zilbovicius; R. F. R. Soares
    The organizational structures of "Call Centers" are based on standardized and rigorously controlled tasks. This article, based on studies done in companies located in São Paulo, Brazil, during the 90s, discusses the difficulties of learning and work-related anxieties present in these types of organization.
    Ergonomics and Customer-Operator Interactions BIBAFull-Text 551-554
      Pierre Falzon
    The growth of services as a major economic activity necessitates to pay more attention to the understanding of service situations. According to the analyst, four kinds of status are given to the customer in service situations and are discussed. Three categories of service situations are presented: commercial interactions, advisory tasks, social work and personal care-taking. Lastly, three levels of management of service interactions are identified: transactional, contractual, relational.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Social Impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) [Research]

    Intellectual Capital, Communication, and Information in Organisations and Communities BIBAFull-Text 555-558
      James J. Keenan
    The focus here is on the relation of informatic systems to intellectual capital in work organisations. Intellectual capital is frequently viewed as having several ingredient capitals, for example: human capital, internal structure capital, external structure/customer capital, and innovation capital (for example, Edvinsson & Malone, 1997). Edvinsson and Sullivan define intellectual capital as knowledge that can be converted into value (1996:358). I argue that intellectual capital in organisations and other collectivities includes three sets of assets: core capitals of organisational actors, communication capital, and community or social capital. Informatic systems enhance intellectual capital by facilitating the development and use of core knowledge and motivation capitals and the communication and community capitals that are the principal ingredients of intellectual capital as viewed here. Defining the relatively hidden assets of knowledge, motivation, communication, and communities of practice as capital that is essential to the competitive advantages and other successes of organisations underscores the fiduciary responsibility of organisational actors, executives and managers, system designers and operators, and, ultimately, all stakeholders to empower, encourage, and reward value-adding intellectual capital in organisations. The intellectual capital perspective provides a way to conceptualise the always present and often hidden factors which need to be designed, developed, renewed, and otherwise managed in socio-technical systems. The general idea of intellectual capital applies to collectivities of any scale or scope, from small groups through work enterprises to settlements, communities, and whole nations.
    Home of the Future and ICT Integration of Professional and Private Roles BIBAFull-Text 559-562
      L. Bradley; G. Bradley
    The overall purpose of the research project concerns changes in future living and working conditions with emphasis on the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The objective of the reported pilot study has been to explore the US future trends of living and working from and at home at the increased use of ICT related services and products. "Homing from Work" and "Working from Home" are both key issues. The method has been explorative, using expert interviews with leading research institutes, universities, and high tech companies. A model has been developed for the analyses of the "Home of the Future" and factors effecting "What is a future Home?". From the model problems are derived e g: What human needs and behavior are related to the home and home environment? What new behaviors evolve on the border between technology and human needs? What are the main social trends? What are the main hypotheses that could be phrased from an international comparative perspective?
    Understanding the User in Electronic Commerce BIBAFull-Text 563-566
      Margherita Bracci; Oronzo Parlangeli; Michele Mariani; Sebastiano Bagnara
    Electronic commerce has rapidly become a reality giving rise to significant changes in the relationship between vendor/client and thus deserving a deep analysis. In the present scenario, businesses are called upon to provide products that are becoming more and more like services, and the client is invited to enter into a form of relationship marketing. In reference to this aspect of the development of electronic commerce, the present paper proposes a taxonomy of user/client behavior with reference to three factors a) the behavior of users in regard to the supplier of products b) the behavior of users within the Net c) the way in which users process the information content of messages elaborated by product supplier.
    Networks, ICT Level and Social Consequences-An Integrated Model for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises BIBAFull-Text 567-570
      Stig Vinberg; Gunnar Gelin; Karl W. Sandberg
    This paper focus on conditions and relationships between factors in small and medium sized enterprises related to organizational change and information technology level using an integrated and empirically founded model. Data comes from a study of small and medium sized enterprises in the northern part of Sweden. The design combines a quasi-experimental approach with ideas on concept-driven development and network building research. Concepts and data analysis are multi-level -- an individual level with leaders and co-workers in the enterprises as units, and an organizational level, with the enterprises as units. Empirical results of network activities, ICT-level, change competencies, ergonomic and psychosocial tension are presented and related to other relevant research.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Industrial Environments and the Impact of Intelligent Manufacturing [Research]

    Making technology work in intelligent manufacturing by participative simulation BIBAFull-Text 571-574
      P. Vink; F. van Eijnatten; J. Goossenaerts; G. Grote; J. Stahre; R. van der Berg
    Nowadays it is essential to anticipate on fast changes in production due to turbulent and demanding markets. The manufacturing workforce, e.g. specialized staff, management and production personnel, plays a crucial role in this process. Therefore, the EU-project 'PSIM' is started. PSIM is Participative Simulation environment for Integral (i.e., involving logistics, technology and human factors) Manufacturing enterprise renewal. Its long-term goal is to enable participative improvement in assembly operations, supported by advanced simulation software. This paper is an abstract of the project description.
    Process Organization as a Determinant on Team Development and Maturity BIBAFull-Text 575-578
      Georg Stawowy; Holger Luczak
    Numerous German companies experience a slow down in team work two to three years after the implementation. Therefore, stability of work organization gains importance as a strategic goal. Based on a literature review on team development a model to describe team development as a basis for the definition of team maturity is presented in this paper. Furthermore, a classification of team tasks in addition to a chosen model of team development lead to a model to explain the relationships among process organization, team tasks and the level of social-psychological development. The underlying hypothesis are finally formulated. Following, a company case study with 28 teams has been conducted to research the tasks within a flow production line and to assess in 48 interviews with members of 14 teams the achieved level of team maturity.
    Organizational Impacts on Effectiveness of Self-Directed Team Work Organization BIBAFull-Text 579-581
      Ralf Wimmer
    Tn the last decade, in the German industry self-directed work teams (SDWT) became a tremendous significance as a work organization for simultaneously improving productivity, flexibility and motivation. Several field and case studies show economical and social effects of seli-directed work teams, but just as much show the opposite. This leads to the conclusion, that effects (and risks) of self directed work teams depend on complex and interconnected influences. Current researches focus on attributes of organizational structure and the process of implementation of self directed work teams. Additionally, we assume that the maturation of self-directed team work organization and organizational impacts like leadership, formalization of communication or degree of professionalism have to be taken in account.
    Intelligent Macroergonomics Approach for Evaluation of Integrated Manufacturing, Organization, Human Resources, and Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 582-585
      Jussi Kantola; Waldemar Karwowski
    This paper presents an intelligent-based macroergonomic approach to integration of Manufacturing System, Organization, Information Subsystem and Human Resources. The purpose of this approach is to aid in planning and evaluation of the overall design quality of the IMS systems from the macroergonomic point of view. The proposed method can be used to evaluate the overall design quality of the IMS system prior to implementation, or to evaluate an existing IMS system, to compare alternative IMS system designs, and to do "what-if" type analysis about the effect of system improvements on the quality of integration between technology, organization and people.
    Transfer of Ergonomics Know-How: An International Perspective BIBAFull-Text 586-587
      Gavriel Salvendy
    A framework for studying and transferring ergonomics knowledge across national and cultural lines is proposed. A model for cluster in ergonomics into specialized disciplinary areas and a way to document the science base of each is presented.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Community and Public Environments [Research]

    Understanding Context: Transculturation and Imposed Change BIBAFull-Text 588-590
      Andrew Kirwin
    Community development is a long process of inquiry, program development, and deployment. There are many impediments to successful development, and many methods for implementing change. One issue that often thwarts development is the rejection of change through transculturation by the community. Understanding and modeling transculturation can improve development by increasing the predictability of stakeholders response to change, and providing a template for designing change that is congruent with existing cultural norms.
    Educational Quality A Macroergonomics Approach BIBAFull-Text 591-594
      Leah C. Newman
    The institution of education has been one of many institutions that has been negligent in the nurturing and development of underrepresented groups in society. This institution has all but failed this significant segment of the population and, as a result, has failed society as a whole. Providing access to equal educational opportunities is vital to the survival of our communities, and society as a whole. Statistics suggest that by the millennium, underrepresented populations will encompass a large portion of the population. If our society is to remain competitive, not only will it be necessary to better develop the concept of equal educational opportunity but it will also be imperative to put these ideas into practice. The global village in which we find ourselves makes it essential that we focus on areas such as creating a diverse pipeline for future engineers and scientists. If we are to meet the demands of the 21st century, it is necessary that we focus on the academic environment and the education of our young people. A qualitative research approach was used to help extract information regarding student success and/or failure in the College of Engineering at a large Midwestern university. This research integrates principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) and systems design in an effort to identify those factors that hinder or enhance the educational performance and success of underrepresented student populations pursuing higher education in engineering and science.
    Driving Macroergonomics Home: A Community Ergonomics Conceptualization BIBAFull-Text 595-598
      William Schmitz
    The proliferation of medical device technology is profound. Hospitals and clinics traditionally "housed" medical technologies and the technological environments (ICUs, ORs, and ERs). Today, medical technologies have transferred into homes (hospice care, home chemotherapy, and WEB TV cardiac rehabilitation). While the goal of macroergonomics is to fully harmonize work systems at both the macro-and microergonomic levels, it fails to address the service interfaces of a community based health care system. The integration of concepts from macroergonomics and community ergonomics is proposed here to help health care professionals deliver quality services to patients and clients. An example of the community ergonomics process, from the home health care perspective, is presented.
    The Role of Macroergonomics in Large-Scale Sociotechnical Systems BIBAFull-Text 599-601
      Tapas K. Sen
    In recent years, the involvement of macroergonomists in sociotechnical systems has been primarily concentrated in business and industry. However, that role needs to expand into other areas of our society. As technology becomes an integral part of our lives, all social systems, such as the education system, are virtually becoming sociotechnical systems. Technological innovation is changing the way knowledge can be delivered to the learners. To successfully capture the new benefits of high technology and meet the growing demands for lifelong learning, the current US education system needs to change. Macroergonomics has a critical role to play in this transformation process to ensure that the redesigned education system is efficient and effective in its response to the changing needs of the workplace.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Future Trends in Management of Hazardous Environments [Panel]

    Future Trends in Management of Hazardous Environments Panel Summary BIBAFull-Text 602-605
      Thomas J. Smith
    Coming decades almost certainly will see a continuing process of change in the nature and distribution of workplace and environmental safety hazards and risks. This session discusses fiiture trends in the management of hazardous environments, particularly in terms of how such management can benefit from the application of macroergonomic principles and methods. Thomas Albin points out that although the application of ergonomics will remain a key strategy for abating musculoskeletal problems in the workplace, there is need for a broader systems approach to ergonomics program design. Michael Smith deals with new types and patterns of hazards and risks related to the emergence of new technologies. Markku Mattila addresses future trends in management of workplace hazards from a Scandinavian and European perspective, including the integration of ergonomics and quality management. Victor Koscheyev and Gloria Leon discuss future needs and trends in systems management of large-scale disasters and in the psychological consequences of human exposure to such disasters. Thomas Smith notes that a number of prevailing concepts and practices in the safety profession remain contrary to the principle of 'fitting the job to the worker,' and that perhaps the greatest challenge facing the safety and hazard management field in the decades to come will be to broaden the acceptance and application of this principle to enhance safety performance in the workplace.
    Participative Approaches for Evaluating the Hazards of New Technology BIBAFull-Text 606-609
      Michael J. Smith
    New technology is transforming the workplace and bringing with it hazards that were unknown a few decades ago. New chemicals, plasma gases, biotechnology, new electronic devices, robots, and genetic engineering are being introduced so quickly that we do not know if they pose new threats to health until after they have been in wide use. These new technologies challenge our current state of knowledge about health hazards and our ability to control potential hazards. A major concern is that there currently are not enough resources to handle traditional safety and health hazards, and that these new challenges will tax the capabilities of our current health and safety resources. It is very likely that the potential hazards posed by new technology may not be amenable to traditional safety and health approaches. A major difficulty is that we just do not have enough knowledge about these new technologies or their potential harmful effects to be able to make good judgments. Knowledge about potential health hazards is lacking, and because these technologies have only been around a short time, epidemiological evidence on long term health effects is not available. Our challenge then is to develop new hazard assessment and surveillance methods to deal with emerging technologies. Participative approaches hold promise for successful programs.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Government (e.g., Military) Environments [Research]

    Advancing Socio-Technical Systems Design via the Living Laboratory BIBAFull-Text 610-613
      Michael D. McNeese; Karl Perusich; Joan R. Rentsch
    The natural, living world provides the backdrop for the practice of participatory ergonomics. By addressing the salient issues of complexity, context, distributed cognition, and team situational awareness in this world, the advocation of the Living Laboratory concept is presented. Socio-technical systems design is reflected through the joint integration of various Living-Lab outcomes such as fields of practice, tools, technologies, qualitative models, scaled worlds, and in situ evaluations. A wholistic approach is derived by looking at these outcomes as a basis to bind together the cognitive, social, technological, and organizational constraints that design must consider to be effective.
    Natural System Metaphors for Supporting Collaboration in Air Force Applications BIBAFull-Text 614-617
      Margo Deckard; S. Narayanan; Michael T. Cox
    Mixed-initiative settings involve situations where humans and computers are tasked together to accomplish a set of goals. For these goals to be successfully executed, humans and software agents must work together. This paper examines natural systems such as the brain, the immune system, population ecology, and economics for potential metaphors of facilitating collaboration. Each of these natural systems has salient common characteristics including the ability to represent collaboration as well as competition in distributed networks. This article provides an overview of an ongoing research effort that attempts to unlock these metaphors towards building computational models for planning problems in Air Force applications.
    Constructing a Battlespace to Understand Macroergonomic Factors in Team Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 618-621
      Karl Perusich; Michael D. McNeese
    As socio-technical systems increase the capability to acquire, analyze, and disseminate information, the concept of a multi-dimensional battlespace has been developed as a means to understand the ways a myriad of socio-cognitive / macroergonomic factors interact and impact the execution of a plan of action. Defined within this battlespace are various ways in which individual actors and teams of actors can access information and the impact their decisions will have on the overall evolved problem space. Although convenient for conceptualizing the many complexities and dimensionalities involved in the modern military decision making environment, a specific battlespace often lacks substance. Being aware of the dynamics and intricacies of the battlespace is a key determinant of whether team situation awareness is present, so without a contextual definition it has little value in understanding or improving the military decision making process. In this paper, the methods and results of constructing a battlespace using fuzzy cognitive maps will be described. The example was developed as part of a multi-team exercise that constructed rules of engagement for tasking various Air Force assets dealing with SCUD attacks in a hypothetical North Korean attack against South Korea.
    Ergonomics and Workforce Vitality BIBAFull-Text 622-625
      Jessica Barlow; Robert L. Getty
    Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS) has launched a Workforce Vitality program with the objective to spawn an environment where people believe they not only are empowered, but also have an obligation to speak up whenever they see something that needs to be changed or improved. Banners or slogans are not part of this program. It is a commitment to see a new way of doing business. Soon after the program was introduced, the highest percentage of suggestions was to have the work areas improved to meet ergonomic criteria. Once the employees and management saw the potential for ergonomics improvement io their work area, this requirement became equal with quality and productivity as an objective. This paper will review the LMTAS Workforce Vitality Program and draw parallels with ergonomic improvements. Such a comparison will show that the objectives of the Workforce Vitality program are complemented with ergonomics.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Health Care Environments [Research]

    Nursing in the New Millenium: Touching Patients' Lives Through Computers BIBAFull-Text 626-629
      Shirley M. Moore
    Common nursing functions, previously done in face-to-face interactions, are beginning to be done using computer interactions, thus changing the work environment of nurses. This paper reports experiences from a series of projects about the potential impact of electronic care delivery systems on nurses' work systems. Nurses' attitudes towards technology, values central to nursing practice and nursing functional roles are important factors to consider when designing computerized nursing care delivery systems.
    Representing Nursing Knowledge: Applications for Database Design BIBAFull-Text 630-633
      Josette Jones; Patricia F. Brennan
    With the integration of health information available on the World Wide Web (WWW) in clinical practice, information management becomes more important than ever before. Although an on-line system could provide nurses with timely and convenient access to health information for discharge teaching, most nurses still rely on traditional practices such as written discharge notes and brochures. Nurses find the volume of information on the WWW overwhelming, the task of sorting out irrelevant and inaccurate information too difficult, and the time to search for information too long.
       Professional use of these resources requires an alternative organization, such as data repositories (i.e. electronic databases.) These are organized collections of information resources with indexes that support precise and sensitive retrieval. The paper reflects on consideration that organizing and indexing of on-line health information resources for professional use has a pragmatic facet: meet actual and future needs and requests for information. Hence, an information resource should not only be analyzed in and of itself but should also be analyzed from the point of view of what questions it may or may not answer in the future. To search effectively, both indexers and searchers must understand the language used to represent the documents. The concepts that nurses most likely will use to seek information are domain-specific and reflect their practice. Several nursing knowledge representation systems or terminology models sexist but the question arises as to whether their understanding and use makes them adequate representations for consistently effective searches. The paper also reports on the results of indexing WebPages using a medical (including nursing) controlled vocabulary (MeSH).
    A Data Verification Process for Improving Operating Room Performance BIBAFull-Text 634-637
      Tonia J. Anderson
    This paper outlines a data verification process for surgery records. The process focuses on identifying invalid records and standardizing data fields for large scaled analyses that measure surgery department efficiencies and surgeon performance. An overview of the purpose and development of the process is given. Results from over thirty hospitals indicate that the most common verification category involves incomplete records. It is planned that the conference presentation will further discuss the impact of data verification on performance improvement initiatives in the operating room as well as overall guidelines for data-driven projects in the hospital environment.
    A Model for Economic Evaluation of Health Technology BIBAFull-Text 638-641
      Mary Ellen Murray; Patricia Flatley Brennan
    A production process model of resource utilization is proposed as a way to guide economic evaluation of health care technology. The model is illustrated in a project that is a three-year study being directed by Dr. Patricia Flatley Brennan through application to an existing randomized clinical trial, the "HeartCare" project. The purpose of the original study, HeartCare, is to study the impact of an Internet-based technology on nursing practice and patient outcomes. This model provides a structure to analyze costs of the research technology from three time perspectives: (1) development of the technology, (2) implementation, and (3) maintenance of the technology. Patient perception of the value of the technology was also studied. The economic analysis uses two strategies, cost analysis and willingness to pay (WTP) to evaluate the HeartCare research project.
    Human Centred Design Considerations for Multidisciplinary Chronic Heart Failure Disease Management Technology BIBAFull-Text 642-645
      Gyda Bjornsdottir
    Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is a multi-faceted syndrome associated with high mortality and morbidity, as well as high health care costs from both patient and healthcare system perspectives. Optimal CHF disease management involves a high degree of information management and processing, for patients and providers, as well as timely and appropriate information sharing between them. Nurses have long been important conductors of information between patients and the healthcare system, and can provide a valuable perspective on the design of interactive information technology (IIT) to support multidisciplinary sharing of health information. The complimentary perspectives of holistic nursing and human-centred engineering design are discussed in evaluating multidisciplinary information needs and information management needs regarding CHF disease management of home-based CHF patients in Iceland, the author's home country.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: The Process of Ergonomic Training and Its Impact: From the Analysis to the Transformation of Work Situations

    The Process of Ergonomic Training and Its Impact: From the Analysis to the Transformation of Work Situations BIBFull-Text 646
      Sylvie Montreuil; Marie Bellemare; Diane Berthelette

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: General Introduction to the Symposium and Theoretical Frameworks [Research]

    Ergonomic Work Analysis, Training And Action: New Paths Opened by the Interconnection of Approaches BIBAFull-Text 647-650
      Marianne Lacomblez; Sylvie Montreuil; Catherine Teiger
    The work presented since 1991 (Paris) at the Symposiums of the IEA Congresses specialized in the theme "Ergonomic work analysis and training" has demonstrated the main development lines of the place of training in and by work analysis in the practices and theoretical problematics of ergonomists and other work professionals. There is a progressive integration of concepts, objectives and intervention fields (training of work actors, professional training) which were distinguished in the past. New paths are opening up. In a participatory approach, these new paths are being used to organize training and action in work environments as well as individual and collective development. In particular, interdisciplinarity is helping this development while enabling ergonomists to obtain a clearer identification of their originality. The risks of the failure of an action and the conditions for its success are also being more clearly defined.
    How to Surpass Impossible Tasks in Work Life Transition BIBAFull-Text 651-654
      Kirsti Launis; Anna-Liisa Niemela; Tarja Kantola
    In the change process the workers feel motivated and satisfied, but they also experience significant stress, fatigue and feelings of incompetence related to the transitions. Most of the stress, fatigue and feelings of incompetence related to transitions at work seem to derive from tasks which, in spite of training programs, are experienced as impossible double bindings by the workers. Our ethnographic observations and interviews in four different organizations showed that impossible tasks were common, especially in situations of change. In our study, we have identified, documented and analyzed in detail the most salient impossible tasks in the various work activities in different types of change processes. Between May and August 1999 we have had five different interventions with five work units (in four organizations). In these processes the work units had first analysed the impossible tasks they had encountered. The analysis phase includes the near history of the work unit and its activity, and more real life data concerning the impossible task. The impossible task has then been overcome by systematic interventions in real life situations. The analysis and data has been sent to the planners and managers, and dialogues have been started with them. At the end of the projects, the work unit will evaluate the results they have obtained and the development and learning process they have gone through. In the analysis of the process we have used the theoretical tools of Cultural Historical Activity Theory.
    Dramaturgy of Work Life Transfer of Knowledge as Key Issue in Ergonomic Interventions, Theoretical Framework and Applications BIBAFull-Text 655-658
      Walter Ruth
    For successful ergonomic intervention the ergonomist should become a catalyst of change leaving the expert role. Human Interactive Methods (HIM) are characterized by involving the "problem owners" to become committed to actively dealing with the problems. HIM is part of a wider theoretical framework "The Dramaturgy of Work Life" (DWL) in which the Transfer of Knowledge becomes a key issue. The design process can be described as a play where different actors create different parts. The rules of the play have to be adapted to the language of the user giving her/him a fair chance to act her/his part. Otherwise it is inadequate to speak of Participative Ergonomics. Examples from industry, service, health care, education and culture enterprises illustrate the application of DWL and HIM.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Improving Professional Knowledge and Skills through Ergonomic Work Analysis I [Research]

    The Effects of Work Process Modelling in an Essential Organizational and Technological Change BIBAFull-Text 659-662
      Anneli Leppanen
    Work process and the conceptual mastery of it can be improved in a development program based on systematic analysis and modelling of the work process. In this study the results of the development program based on modelling of the work process were studied on a paper machine, which had given a considerable proportion of it's staff to the new paper machine installed in the mill. As a result productivity of the old production line decreased. A development program to develop the work process itself and the staffs conceptual mastery of it was organized to recover from the situation. The workers, foremen, production engineers and experts of different areas of paper production participated in the modelling of the process. During the modelling process the staff made 101 proposals to develop the work process of the old paper machine. Development of conceptual mastery of work, work characteristics and well being of the personnel were also studied during the change process. The study followed up the groups staying on the old production line (n=23) and leaving for the new one (n=18). The two basic groups were also compared with the new groups coming from outside (n=37 for the old production line, 60 for the new one). The careers of the workers, work, and job satisfaction improved during the change process in both groups followed up. And although those who stayed on the old production line were older and less educated than the other groups, there were no differences between the groups in the conceptual mastery of work or in the assessments of work, job satisfaction or other indicators of subjective well-being.
    Learning from the Self Confrontation of the Ergonomist Interviewer BIBAFull-Text 663-666
      Bernard Pelegrin
    The self confrontation set up by the ergonomist usually concerns the operator. Here we apply the self confrontation -- and methods taken from Linguistics -- to the Ergonomist to understand the fine mechanisms of the intercomprehension between the Ergonomist-Interviewer and young interviewees. They face an important problem of rehabilitation. The Ergonomist helps them to prepare the skills assessment they have to submit to.
       This study is based on knowledge derived from interactionist linguistics and socio-linguistics. It helps in the knowledge of the profession of Ergonomist. It leads to the definition of a double notion : the 'Epiphore-habitity' couple defined as what enables to gain in clarity, background and precision, here and now, in the course of the interview.
    Identification and Prevention of Accident Risks through the Development of Self-Analysis-of-Work Competencies Among Industrial Workers BIBAFull-Text 667-670
      R. Vasconcelos; M. Lacomblez
    This paper presents the theoretical and methodological principles as well as some results of an action-research project conceived and implemented by work psychologists, in strict co-operation with a group of industrial workers of a medium size metallurgic company. Its objective was the identification and prevention of accident risks through the empowerment of a small group of workers with competencies of ergonomic self-analysis of their work. Worker's practice in real work situations was used as a stimulus for the (re)cognition of work competencies and working conditions by the workers themselves, process that was reinforced by moments of group discussion. All group sessions were recorded on videotape for further analysis. The first results obtained are quite satisfactory: a significant decrease in the number of accidents in the section; transformation proposals formulated by the workers themselves, some of which already implemented; a notorious enrichment of worker's verbalisations about the work situations concerned.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Improving Professional Knowledge and Skills through Ergonomic Work Analysis II [Research]

    The Process of Ergonomic Training and ITS' Impact: From the Analysis to the Transformation of Work Situations Introduction to Session 3: Improving Professional Skills through Ergonomic Work Analysis BIBFull-Text 671
      Anneli Leppanen
    On-the-Job Mentoring in a Machine Shop: An Important But Imperfect Experience for Apprentices BIBAFull-Text 672-675
      C. Chatigny; E. Cloutier; S. Lefebvre
    An exploratory study carried out by researchers in anthropology, workplace health and safety and ergonomics raised questions about the dynamics of knowledge construction in connection with age, experience, culture and work organization. In a machine shop participating in an on-the-job mentoring program, it was observed that official mentors play a secondary role compared to other workers, and that several factors influence mentoring relationships.
    An Experience of Participatory Ergonomic Work Analysis BIBAFull-Text 676-679
      L. I. Sznelwar; F. M. G. Vezza; L. N. Zidan
    This paper presents and discusses the experience of Ergonomic Work Analysis with the participation of groups of operators together with ergonomists in telephone answering jobs at Call Centers. It describes objectives and methodology and discusses the results of this field intervention for diagnosing work problems related to the occurrence of MSD.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training Programs: The Evaluation of Their Outcomes and Implementation I [Research]

    Symposium the Process of Ergonomic Training and Its Impact: From the Analysis to the Transformation of Work Situations Session 4: Training Programs: The Evaluation of their Outcomes and Implementation BIBFull-Text 680
      Laerte I. Sznelwar
    Foremen and Experts as Trainers in a Modeling Process BIBAFull-Text 681-683
      Eva Tuominen; Soili Klemola; Anneli Leppanen
    A training program based on modeling of the work process was carried out in a production line. The foremen and experts were taught to be able to lead the modeling process for the teams. The foremen need new skills and tools to handle their new roles as "coaches" or change agents. The intervention showed that the foremen and experts of the organization adopted the modeling method that has been previously used led by consultants. At the same time they had opportunities to practice their new roles in fostering the development of the work process. The evaluations of the program showed that the modeling process was regarded as useful for the teams as well as for developing the entire work process.
    Analysis of the Difficulties Encountered by the Participants in a Participatory Ergonomic Process BIBAFull-Text 684-687
      M. St-Vincent; M. Laberge; M. Lortie
    This communication discusses the difficulties encountered by an ergonomics group's participants in two different plants in an ergonomic analysis of varied tasks. During work meetings attended by the ergonomists, the two ergonomics groups analyzed three jobs using an analysis tool developed by the researchers. The participants' difficulties were identified from an analysis of the content of the ergonomists' interventions during the meetings. The results obtained from the analysis of the second job revealed significant differences between the two plants. In plant 1, the participants' difficulties were expected learning-related difficulties, while in plant 2, the difficulties were unexpected and major. In this latter plant, most of the ergonomists' interventions were integrated into discussion cycles and were related to high intensity difficulties. The results indicate that the participants had difficulties that related to their representation of the basic concepts and objectives of ergonomics; they also had difficulty detailing the solutions and did not recognize the benefit of collaborating with company engineers. The results suggest that ergonomics committees' learning is related to company culture and establishes the limits of the ergonomist's role when he fails to change the participants' representations.
    Implementation Evaluation of a Participatory Ergonomics Program BIBAFull-Text 688-691
      Denis Allard; Marie Bellemare; Sylvie Montreuil; Micheline Marier; Johanne Prevost
    This paper presents the results of an implementation evaluation for a participatory ergonomics project, in two plants run by a company involved in primary aluminium processing. The logbooks kept by the ergonomists, together with observations of project meetings and post-intervention interviews with Ergo group members, were the basic materials used in analyzing the implementation. The analysis includes a comparison between the projected and actual outcomes of the project, examines the contextual factors that explain the gaps observed, and questions the principles underlying the intervention. The results point to the need for ergonomists to have a dynamic vision of implementation evaluations, which will allow them to adjust and refine their intervention theory.
    Using Participatory Ergonomics to Design and Evaluate Human Factors Training Programs in Aviation Maintenance Operations Envrironments BIBAFull-Text 692-695
      Michelle M. Robertson
    Case studies where a participatory approach was used to design, implement and evaluate human factors training programs within in aviation maintenance operations environment is presented in this paper. A systematic evaluation model with five levels of training effectiveness measures was used to measure the effects of two human factors, maintenance resource management training programs. Positive gains from participatory ergonomics related to these human factors training programs are given.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training Programs: Evaluating Their Outcomes and Implementation II [Research]

    Training Programs: Evaluating their Outcomes and Implementation: Part 2 Session 5 BIBFull-Text 696
      Catherine Teiger
    Work analysis in a public health center: the evaluation of a training and education program BIBAFull-Text 697-700
      G. Rulli; B. Maggi; A. Cristofolini; G. De Nisi
    The purpose of the paper is to illustrate the evaluation of the results of the analysis of work directed towards prevention, and the connected training and education program, in a local health center. The Method of Organizational Congruencies was used, contemporary, for the analysis and the modification of the work process by workers, and for education and training towards an ergonomic approach to work situations. The evaluation of the results and the impact of training based on the verification of changes in a work process, oriented towards efficacy, efficiency and workers' well-being, allowed to overcome the limits of evaluations based on the simple appreciation by the participants or on the simple acquisition of specific technical abilities.
    Evaluation of the Outcomes of an Occupational Health and Safety Training Program BIBAFull-Text 701-704
      D. Berthelette; L. Desnoyers; F. Gilbert; N. Leduc
    We are evaluating the outcomes of an occupational health and safety training program provided by a Quebec union whose objective is to increase member's ability to participate in injury prevention through union action. In a previous exploratory study we identified the 32 themes of the OHS training program and the learning outcomes pertaining to each of these themes. We used a pretest posttest control group design in order to evaluate the program's outcomes. Questionnaires were distributed to intervention (n=40) and control groups (n=47) whose respective response rates were 100% and 89.4%. We used logistic regression in order to measure the respective effects of OHS program exposure and of the pretest results on the posttest results. In addition, we controlled for the potential confounding effects of the following variables: length of experience as a union delegate or as a member of occupational health and safety committee, previous exposure to an OHS training program, and presence in the delegate's firm of other workers previously exposed to the OHS training program under study. We report on one of the themes of the OHS training program that we identified: the legal right for a worker to refuse to execute a dangerous working activity. The results show that the training on that theme produced most of its expected outcomes.
    The Conditions for Apprenticeship in a Work Situation: Margins of Maneuver and Resources to be Changed by the Individual, the Group and the Organization BIBAFull-Text 705-708
      C. Chatigny
    An ergonomic analysis of the learning conditions and strategies in two types of occupations demonstrates the existence of various degrees of use and construction of organizational, human and material resources. These strategies are individual and collective, and focus on an increase in the margin of maneuver for doing and learning how to do the work in an efficient way. They play a major role but are developed and implemented under conditions that often make them costly because they are limited by the margin of maneuver imposed by the companies.
    Systematic Evaluation of Office Ergonomics Training Programs BIBAFull-Text 709-712
      Michelle M. Robertson; Marie Robertson
    This paper presents a systematic evaluation process to measure the effectiveness and benefits of office ergonomic training programs. Positive effects of such training is illustrated by two case studies involving office environment technologies. Successful components of office ergonomics training are also described.
    The Use of Ergonomic Work Analysis to Understand the Transfer of Knowledge and Skills Made by VDT Users from Training to Preventive Action BIBAFull-Text 713-715
      Louis Trudel; Sylvie Montreuil
    A qualitative evaluation of 11 VDT users, who participated in a training program (2 x 3 hours) for the prevention of musculoskeletal problems, investigated the extent of the application of the taught principles in everyday work. An ergonomist has collected data over a 2 to 3 day period for each trainee (six months after the training sessions), through an ergonomic work analysis in situ and semi-structured interviews. Cases analysis and a cross analysis of the cases permitted to a better understanding of the transfer of knowledge and skills process, from the training program to preventive action. These elements lead to a better identification of problems in applying taught principles by the trainee and the means to readjust the training program.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Training Programs: Toward Transformation of Work Situations [Research]

    Work Analysis and Work Changes through Onsite Ergonomics Training for Small Groups BIBAFull-Text 716-719
      Ana Isabel B. B. Paraguay
    This paper deals with two case studies of onsite training on Ergonomics for small groups of non-OSH professionals from two state-owned companies from São Paulo State, Brazil. Both (1997 and 1998) training programs aimed at enabling small group of employees to function as an intern Ergonomics Committee. Their main and first task was to identify, evaluate, control and prevent risk factors and WRMD -- Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, with or without the support of external consultant / ergonomists. This paper identifies and discusses main difficulties arising from such training programs and implementing work transformations. Some of the main difficulties may arise from the scheduling of short-term courses (36 to 48h of classes) for non-OSH professionals that are not used to group work, learning on matter as WRMD. Difficulties also originate from the nature of the task: (try) to enable mostly non-ergonomists / non OSH professionals to develop group-guided actions on matter that sometimes require immediate action, specialized knowledge and long-term experience in the field of Ergonomics and diagnosis of a company's demand. Last but not the least, the paper also points out key factors to work transformations: the placing of training programs within a company's OSH policy and context; group formation criteria for such training programs; course schedule, content, planning and evaluation; the need for full discussion of the short-term and the long-term results of the training program as well as of the follow-up of any work transformations.
    From Training in Ergonomic Diagnosis to Finding Solutions: Assessment of Ergo Groups That Used Participatory Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 720-723
      Sylvie Montreuil; Marie Bellemare; Johane Prevost
    The goal of this article is to present the training given to ergonomic groups to teach them how to transform work situations in a company producing primary aluminium. It presents the transition from the ergonomic diagnosis (9) conducted by the groups (7) to the solutions they considered during a brainstorming session, the weighing of the solutions and, finally to the ideas retained for industrial transformation projects. The results show that the most numerous ideas and those that were most often retained concerned equipment-tools category. Of the ideas expressed, 50.5% and 40.5% were retained for transformation projects in the "equipment-tools" and "layout" categories, respectively. In this study, the ability of the ergonomics-trained groups to find relevant solutions for the prevention of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) seems undeniable to us.
    From Diagnosis to Transformation: How Projects are Implemented in a Participatory Framework BIBAFull-Text 724-727
      M. Bellemare; M. Marier; J. Prevost; S. Montreuil; N. Perron
    In this paper, we use a project management approach as a basis for describing the process of implementing changes as part of a musculo-skeletal disorder (MSD) prevention program in two primary aluminium processing plants. In this participatory program, seven Ergo groups produced nine diagnoses, leading to 40 change implementation projects, 23 of which were subsequently carried out over a period of 18 months. A qualitative analysis based on several data sources, including the personal logs of four ergonomists responsible for monitoring the Ergo groups, led to the identification of the following variables: scope, sector, project ownership and project management. It also showed how these variables influenced project outcomes. A number of elements are proposed for consideration when preparing and implementing this type of program.
    Training programs: towards transformation of work situation BIBAFull-Text 728-731
      Elisabeth Wendelen
    This paper discusses an experience of training in ergonomic work analysis (EWA).
       Two ergonomists of the National Institute for Research on Working Conditions (INRCT, in French) trained a group of employees in the Brussels plant of a multinational company.
       This training took place after having checked about fifty VDU (video display unit) workplaces.
       None of these 50 VDU users was aware of the possibilities of adjusting his or her specific workplace. The manager and the union decided to train one or two persons in each department, to enable them to answer minor questions of their unit's employees relating to adjusting their own workplace. It was agreed that more difficult problems raised by the employees would be transferred to external experts.
       The paper seeks to analyse the impact of this experience on the VDU workers: are they able to change their working conditions? What exactly did change?
       To conclude, some conditions necessary for the success of such training programmes are highlighted.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics

    Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics BIBFull-Text 732
      Robert Henning; Michelle Robertson

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics, Part I [Research]

    Psychophysiology: The Missing Link in Macroergonomic Models of Musculoskeletal Disorders BIBAFull-Text 733-734
      Lawrence M. Schleifer; Ronald Ley; Thomas W. Spalding
    This presentation proposes that psychophysiology is a bridge between macroergonomic factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is argued that the causal role of macroergonomic factors in musculoskeletal disorders is best understood through the application of psychophysiological models, methods, and measures. A psychophysiological approach provides for a more definitive and finer grain analysis of the relationship between macroergonomic factors and musculoskeletal disorders than is possible with correlational epidemiological studies. It is concluded that psychophysiology provides a biological plausible explanation for how work stress factors contribute to musculokskeletal disorders.
    Psychophysiological Aspects of Macroergonomic Approach to Design of Complex Technological Systems (An Example of Power Industry) BIBFull-Text 735-738
      Alexander Burov
    Social Psychophysiology of Teamwork during Continuous Tracking BIBAFull-Text 739-742
      Robert A. Henning; Wolfram Boucsein; Monica Gil
    Team proficiency may depend on the extent of social-physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity, heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task that simulated teleoperation. Social-physiological compliance for each physiological measure was scored separately using weighted coherence and cross correlation of the physiological changes occurring in both participants (e.g., the cross correlation of the breathing pattern of the first team member with the breathing pattern of the second team member). Direct visual feedback between participants was systematically manipulated. Multiple regression analyses revealed that many coherence measures and one correlation measure were predictive of team performance. While social-visual contact had no impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. These results provide correlational evidence that social-physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. Possible macroergonomic applications are discussed including assessment of team situation awareness, adaptive automation based on team biocybernetics, and objective evaluation of interface designs for computer-supported cooperative work.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Psychophysiology in Macroergonomics, Part II [Research]

    Determinants of Perceived Teamwork: Examination of Team Performance and Social Psychophysiology BIBAFull-Text 743-746
      Monica C. Gil; Robert A. Henning
    Team situation awareness (SA) has not received the same amount of research attention as individual SA. Given a lack of established relationships between objective and perceived measures of teamwork, as well as between team psychophysiology and perceived teamwork, the present study examined these potential relationships during a two-person, continuous tracking task. Seventeen two-person teams of undergraduates performed a computer-based, simulated teleoperation task. This investigation tested for relationships between objective performance measures (task completion time, team tracking error, coordination and collision damage), psychophysiological measures (electrodermal activity, heart inter-beat interval and respiration), and three subjective measures (team coordination, task engagement and task difficulty). The results suggest that objective team performance and some social psychophysiological measures (heart cross-correlation) contribute to team member perceptions of teamwork. Theoretical and practical implications of using all three techniques to assess team SA are discussed.
    Psychometric Properties of the 0.1 Hz Component of HRV as an Indicator of Mental Strain BIBAFull-Text 747-750
      Peter Nickel; Friedhelm Nachreiner
    Legal regulations in the EU concerning the evaluation of mental workload require that suitable and practical methods for the assessment of mental workload at the workplace are needed. Currently the 0.1 Hz component of heartrate variability (HRV) is considered an attractive and promising measure of mental strain. However, systematic and comprehensive studies investigating the psychometric properties of this cardiovascular measure are still missing. Therefore this problem has been addressed experimentally: If the 0.1 component of HRV is a valid measure of mental strain it should discriminate between mental load produced by different types of tasks (diagnosticity) and different levels of difficulty (sensitivity). Comparing psychophysiological, performance, and subjective data the results for the psychophysiolgical data cannot be interpreted as support for a sufficient sensitivity and diagnosticity of the 0.1 component of HRV as a measure of mental strain. This cardiovascular indicator does not meet conventional requirements to be used in mental and especially cognitive workload evaluation. However, there is evidence that the 0.1 component of HRV is more likely to indicate emotional strain (stress reactions) or general activation.
    Observation of Visual ERP in Real Time BIBFull-Text 751-752
      Akihiro Yagi; Yuji Takeda

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work Design in the 21st Century

    Work Design in the 21st Century Panel Summary BIBAFull-Text 753-756
      Thomas J. Smith
    This summary outlines major themes introduced during a multiple-session symposium series devoted to the topic of work design in the 21st century. The 6 sessions in the series address the future of work design in relation to: (1) macroergonomic analysis of work systems design; (2) production systems design and automation of work; (3) human factors research needs in internet design; (4) design of education and training; (5) work design and community design; and (6) work in extreme environments. Session chairs participated in a 7th panel session to offer perspectives on the future of work design in relation to session topics. These perspectives are summarized here. The panel co-chair, Michael Wade, also provides a perspective on future trends in the integration of work and recreation. Collectively, the session and panel participants provide a rich body of judgment and opinion regarding the trajectory and evolution of work design in the coming decades, as well as likely reciprocal interactions between changes in work design and transformations in performance of human sociotechnical, organizational and socioeconomic systems.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Macroergonomic Analysis of Work Systems Design in the 21st Century [Panel]

    Macroergonomic Analysis of Work Systems Design in the 21st Century BIBAFull-Text 757
      Andy Imada; Brian M. Kleiner; Mitsuo Nagamachi; Holger Luczak; Noe Palacios; Arno Tomasini; Andrew S. Imada
    This panel will focus upon work systems design from a macroergonomic perspective. The panel will investigate the future of work systems from the viewpoint of: (1) an activity performed by; (2) humans with particular characteristics; (3) in a context. The researchers and practitioners on the panel have focused on one or more of these dimensions of work design/redesign, product design or organizational design. The design of 21st Century systems must take this broader perspective. In the same way, this panel mirrors the diversity of backgrounds, cultures and contexts for future work systems.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Production Systems Design and Automation of Work in the 21st Century [Research]

    External Forces on the Work System: A Framework for Human Factors Implications BIBAFull-Text 758-761
      Colin G. Drury
    Human factors/ergonomics only occasionally addresses its own future, but business and political forces are changing so rapidly that we must do so now. Globalization of business, made possible by information technology and political desire, is affecting many aspects of our profession, from increased work pace to re-location of jobs. These changes in turn impact human factors issues as diverse as errors in human computer interaction and the incidence of musculo-skeletal disorders. This paper presents a framework for considering the impact of these changes on the practice of human factors/ergonomics so that we may plan for the future rather than be overwhelmed by it.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Human Factors Research Needs in Internet Design [Research]

    E-Commerce and Its Impact on Future HCI Work BIBAFull-Text 762-765
      Pawan R. Vora
    Increasing focus on e-commerce will change the way we look at human-computer interface design. In particular, we will need to be more customer-centric -- in addition to being user-centric -- and incorporate both usability and business objectives in our designs. Our designs will need to consider the end-to-end customer experience rather than focusing simply on the functional objectives of the application itself. The customer experience itself will determine how the users/customers view the company itself in terms of a viable and trustworthy brand on an off the Internet. To achieve these goals, we will need to address some fundamental issues related to the ART (Access, Relationship, and Trust) of designing interfaces. Although our profession is well suited for this role because of our user-centric roots, the onus will be on us to step up to the challenge and own the end-to-end customer experience.
    Mass Customization and Web-Based Do-It-Yourself Product Design BIBAFull-Text 766-769
      Halimahtun M. Khalid
    In this millennium, some manufacturing will shift from mass production to mass customization as manufacturers adopt Web-based technologies to connect them directly with their customers; thereby changing the way companies operate in e-business. This paper highlights a Do-It-Yourself Design (DIYD) approach that enables customers to design their own product on the Web while the manufacturer produces it. DIYD assumes that customers can translate their own requirements to design. A generic set of customer needs is uncovered. These may be mapped on to functional requirements and design parameters using a hierarchical design approach. A case study among Malaysian and Hong Kong participants supported hierarchical design in Web-based DIYD of watches. To this end, Web-based design presents various human factors challenges: the modelling of customer needs, and the design of a usable web system that can realize design options.
    Theories and Models of Electronic Commerce BIBAFull-Text 770-773
      Martin G. Helander
    A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: Store Environment, Customer, and Web Technology. In the process of purchase, a customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, and to pay. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. At the same time it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. The paper summarizes existing research and theories, and provides a few suggestions for future research.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Design of Education and Training in the 21st Century [Panel]

    Design of Education and Training in the 21st Century BIBAFull-Text 774-775
      Ray Eberts
    This panel of experts will discuss the changes that are occurring in education and training. Several factors are fueling this change: aging populations, technology changes in the workplace, and the technology available to deliver educational material to students without regard to time or location. Many commercial enterprises are positioning themselves to capture the educational market. This discussion will address the human factors challenges in designing educational products for these new markets.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work Design and Community Design in the 21st Century [Research]

    Community Ergonomics and Quality Work Design in the 21st Century BIBAFull-Text 776-779
      William J. Cohen
    Community ergonomics (CE) was first described as a process to implement useful solutions for very poor inner city communities in the US. Its central feature is the creation of implemented solutions to meet target purposes and aspirations of participants in an effort to improve something. The CE process is based upon notions of industrial engineering, human factors and ergonomics, behavioural cybernetics, and Breakthrough Thinking. Naturally, it is a process well-suited for the work environment and can help to discern both the need for better work design and the opportunity for quality of life improvement through stage-dependant, purpose driven solutions. Design solutions vary across and within industries depending upon unique circumstances of individuals, technology, task demands, work environment, and organizational structure. It is the process of people and resources interacting in a structured manner over a period of time that leads to logical target solutions and purposeful achievement. The CE process can be effectively applied to the work setting where manual labour tasks can exact a high physical toll on employees, especially in the face of decreasing resources. The purpose of the application is to demonstrate that CE can redesign tasks and use of tools and technology to improve efficiency while enhancing the safety and health of employees.
    Developing the Quality of (Working) Life in a Community The Case of a French Region BIBAFull-Text 780-783
      Jean-Louis Coujard; Pascale Carayon
    The ergonomics and sociotechnical systems field has made a number of contributions to the improvement of quality of working life. Most of the contributions have tackled single organizations. Recently, ergonomists and sociotechnical system specialists have contributed to the quality of life in communities (i.e. the Community Ergonomics movement). In this paper, we present the case of a French region in which various efforts have been implemented to foster economic development and increase quality in the community. At the center of these efforts are the organizations of the region (both public and private organizations) and the linkages between those organizations. This case study is analyzed in light of models of job development and work design, in particular participatory approaches.
    Community Redevelopment: A Look at the Educational System and Its Impact on Work BIBAFull-Text 784-787
      Leah C. Newman
    Providing access to equal educational opportunities is vital to the survival of our communities, and society as a whole. Access to better educational opportunities would assist in creating viable pools of qualified workers. These individuals could contribute to the work force in many ways, as engineers, designers, service providers and entrepreneurs. This pool of workers would help to create and sustain economic power and stability. Statistics suggest that in the 21st century, underrepresented populations will encompass a large portion of the population. If our society is to remain competitive, not only will it be necessary to better develop the concept of equal educational opportunity, but it will also be imperative to put these ideas into practice. The lack of achievement in the elementary and high schools is beginning to manifest itself as seen in the college admission rates, college retention rates, as well as America's unemployment lines. The lack of foundation is creating a very unstable situation -- the educationally disabled child, who will evolve into an adult who is unable to succeed on his or her own. This can lead to an individual who is outside the system -- an individual who creates havoc in our communities. These problems are cyclical and, for the most part, each feeds on the other. In other words, the history that created a state of inferiority for these groups has created the inaccessibility to resources, that, in turn, evolved into the larger problem of low academic enrollments, high drop out rates and low/no employment. This conceptual paper attempts to address this issue of education and how it impacts the working environment.
    Application of Community Ergonomics Theory to International Corporations BIBAFull-Text 788-791
      Antoinette Derjani-Bayeh; Michael J. Smith
    This paper reviews the application of Community Ergonomics (CE) theory to the development of principles of operation for corporations with international divisions. These principles derive from macroergonomic and behavioral cybernetic theories.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work in Extreme Environments in the 21st Century [Research]

    A One Year Polar Scientific Expedition Analog to a Mars Mission BIBAFull-Text 792-795
      G. R. Leon; D. S. Ones; J. Shelton
    The Otto Sverdrup Centennial Expedition group consisted of an international team of 6 adults (3 married couples) and one child which spent a year traveling to and living in the Canadian Arctic. The group composition provided a unique analog to some of the speculations about the most appropriate group to select for long-duration Mars planetary habitation. This study examined individual factors, group interactions, and task performance over the course of the expedition. Subjects completed personality questionnaires, partner relationship, and work attitude and satisfaction measures prior to departure, and weekly rating forms during the Arctic period assessing mood, stress and coping, relationships, sleep patterns, energy and appetite, and work performance. Personal semi-structured interviews were also conducted approximately 9 months into the isolation period. In general, the group functioned well and expressed satisfaction with their performance. The primary stressors were feelings of confinement, lack of privacy, and personal hygiene issues. Frequently mentioned methods of coping were enjoyment of the Arctic environment, seeking support and sharing concerns with one's spouse, and daydreaming.

    2: MULTIPLE-SESSION SYMPOSIA: Work Design and Community Design in the 21st Century [Research]

    Physiological Considerations in the Design of Clothing and Protective Equipment for Extreme Environments and in Modeling Human Heat Exchange BIBAFull-Text 796-799
      Victor S. Koscheyev
    A new era is commencing in which the design of clothing and protective equipment is increasingly taking into account physiological data about human functioning in extreme environments. In these conditions, there is an intensive influence of environmental factors on body systems. Physiological in combination with other types of countermeasures that provide comfort are necessary for stabilizing homeostasis. This approach is extremely important for the design of heavy protective equipment that is widely used in such conditions as space, harsh terrestrial environments, undersea, and in military situations. A physiological overview of the human body for design and modeling purposes is presented, relying on extensive research findings on human thermoregulation and heat exchange using an experimental water circulating plastic tubing garment with the capacity for simultaneous cooling/warming of different body areas. The fingers have great potential as an informative site for providing accurate information about actual body heat status, developing an automatic feedback system between body heat content and the reactivity of the cooling/warming system, and improving modeling approaches.
    Avoiding Risky Teams in Risky Environments BIBAFull-Text 800-803
      Sheryl L. Bishop; M. Ephimia Morphew; Jason P. Kring
    Data from studies on real-world groups situated in extreme environments provides us insight into the many factors that impact group performance, health and well-being. Unlike simulation studies, the impact of environmental threat, physical hardship, as well as true isolation and confinement have proven to be key factors in individual and group coping. Results from several real world teams will be discussed with the intent of focusing on interpersonal, environmental and individual factors that affected functioning and well-being at both the physiological and psychological levels.

    3: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: To Automate or Not to Automate: Quantitative Methods for Automation Design in Human-Machine Systems [Single-Session Symposium]

    Human vs. Automation in Responding to Failures: An Expected-Value Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Thomas B. Sheridan; Raja Parasuraman
    A simple analytical criterion is provided for deciding whether a human or automation is best for a failure detection task. The method is based on expected value decision theory in much the same way as is signal detection. It requires specification of the probabilities of misses (false negatives) and false alamx (false positives) for both human and automation being considered, as well as factors independent of the choice, namely costs and benefits of incorrect and correct decisions as well as the prior probability of failure. The method can also serve as a basis for comparing different modes of automation. Some limiting cases of application are discussed as well as some decision criteria other than expected value.
    To Automate or Not to Automate BIBAFull-Text 5-8
      Peter A. Wieringa
    Systems are becoming more complex due to various technological developments (such as information and communication technology) and constraints (environmental, social and financial etc.). The first opens the possibility to make links to new domains (e.g. between product quality and profits or financial markets). The constraints encourage the introduction of automated systems designed to keep the process within a certain working range. Both, the technological developments and new constraints, increase the complexity of the system. We investigated the effect of the degree of automation and the effect of the degree of complexity on system and operator performance in various independent experiments. Definitions for the degree of complexity and automation are given and objective and subjective measures for these degrees were applied. The results suggest that an increase in the degree of automation above a certain threshold is not resulting in a proportional increase in system performance. In fact the results indicate that a further increase in the degree of automation is counter effective because it decreases the operator performance during abnormal operations and fault diagnosis. This is due to a loss of situation awareness and internal representation during normal operation before the fault is introduced. Other experiments done in our laboratory show that the operator perceived task complexity reaches its maximum when the operator is controlling in the order of 20 linked sub-systems under normal conditions. We will show that these observations are not only important for operator task alloca