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Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011-09-19

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2011-Sep-19 to 2011-Sep-23
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-39-1, 978-0-945289-39-5; hcibib: HFES11; TA 166 H794
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | Online Order Form
  1. Aerospace Systems: AS1 - Work Schedules and Fatigue Management Strategies in Air Traffic Control
  2. Aerospace Systems: AS2 - Impact of Automation in Aviation Systems
  3. Aerospace Systems: AS3 - Advanced Display Concepts for Aviation Systems
  4. Aerospace Systems: AS4 - Air Traffic Control: Impact of Technology
  5. Aerospace Systems: AS5 - Next-Generation Unmanned Air Vehicle Concepts
  6. Aerospace Systems: AS6 - Teamwork in Aviation Systems
  7. Aerospace Systems: AS7 - Tools for Designing, Evaluating, and Certifying NextGen Technologies and Procedures: Automation Roles and Responsibilities
  8. Aerospace Systems: AS8 - Training in Diverse Aviation Domains
  9. Aging: A1 - Understanding and Improving Older Adults' Health and Independence
  10. Aging: A2 - Designing Technology for the Older User
  11. Augmented Cognition: AC1 - Assessing Individual and Team Cognitive State
  12. Augmented Cognition: AC2 - Engineering and Augmenting with Psychophysiological Measurement
  13. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE1 - Team Performance
  14. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE2 - Current State of Human Factors in Systems Design
  15. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 - Tasks and Needs Analysis in Health Care
  16. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE4 - Effects of Interruption and Memory on Human Performance
  17. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: Panel
  18. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE6 - Measures and Methods in Complex Environments
  19. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE7 - Situation Awareness
  20. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE8 - Visualizations and Displays
  21. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE9 - Models of Cognitive Workflow and Readiness
  22. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE10 - Addressing Human-Automation Challenges for the Control of UAS
  23. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE11 - Human-Robot Interaction
  24. Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE12 - From Teleoperation to Teammate: Applying Theory and Method from the Cognitive and Computational Sciences to Create Human-Robot Teams
  25. Communications: C2 - Communications Potpourri
  26. Computer Systems: CS1 - Information Display and Control
  27. Computer Systems: CS2 - Human Factors in Games: Research and Development Challenges
  28. Education: E1 - The Practice of Pedagogy
  29. Education: E2 - The Science of Pedagogy
  30. Environmental Design: ED1 - Color and Wayfinding: Research in a Hospital Environment
  31. Environmental Design: ED2 - Environmental Design Potpourri
  32. Forensics Professional: FP1 - What Do Human Factors/Ergonomics Experts Have to Tell Juries That They Don't Already Know - But May Think They Know?
  33. Forensics Professional: FP2 - Participation on Voluntary Committees for Standards and Codes by Forensic Practitioners: A Win-Win Combination
  34. General Sessions: GS1 - Past President's Forum - Human Factors in NextGen Operations: Progress and Perspectives
  35. General Sessions: GS2 - National Research Council Board on Human-Systems Integration Special Panel Session: Human Factors and Home Health Care
  36. General Sessions: GS4 - Arnold Small Lecture in Safety
  37. General Sessions: GS5 - Health, Tiredness, and Workload
  38. Heath Care: HC1 - Meet the Human Factors Pre-Market Review Team from FDA
  39. Heath Care: HC2 - Studying Clinical Communication to Inform Health Information Technology Design
  40. Heath Care: HC3 - Impact of Electronic Medical Records on Clinical Workflow
  41. Heath Care: HC4 - Patient Safety Gone Mad? Translating Techniques from Industry
  42. Heath Care: HC5 - Human Factors Engineering in the Department of Veterans Affairs
  43. Heath Care: HC6 - Complex Health Care Environments: Intensive Care and Surgery
  44. Heath Care: HC7 - Physical Ergonomics in Health Care
  45. Heath Care: HC8 - Health Information Technology: Can There Be Meaningful Use Without Meaningful Design?
  46. Heath Care: HC9 - Mobile Technology: The Wave of the Future to Improve Health Care?
  47. Heath Care: HC10 - Human Performance in Health Care
  48. Heath Care: HC11 - Hand-Offs of Care in Health Care
  49. Heath Care: HC12 - Integrative and Encompassing Human Factors Design of Medical Work Units: Can It Be Done from the Outside?
  50. Heath Care: HC13 - Medical Devices and Human Error
  51. Heath Care: HC14 - Human Factors Education for Health Care Audiences: Ideas for the Way Forward
  52. Heath Care: HC15 - Novel Technologies Used in Health Care
  53. Heath Care: HC16 - Simulation in Health Care: One Size Fits All?
  54. Human Performance Modeling: HP1 - Human Performance Modeling with Cognitive Architectures
  55. Human Performance Modeling: HP2 - Human Performance Modeling in Critical Environments
  56. Human Performance Modeling: HP3 - The Application of Simulation Technology for Training in Military Medicine
  57. Human Performance Modeling: HP4 - Modeling Cognition
  58. Individual Differences in Performance: ID1 - Individual Differences in Human-Agent Interaction
  59. Individual Differences in Performance: ID2 - Individual Differences in Attention, Performance, and Workload
  60. Individual Differences in Performance: ID3 - Individual Differences in Cognitive Traits and Performance
  61. Industrial Ergonomics: IE1 - Computers and Upper Extremities
  62. Industrial Ergonomics: IE2 - Ergonomic Devices and Products
  63. Industrial Ergonomics: IE3 - Invited Address: David Rempel and Robert Radwin
  64. Industrial Ergonomics: IE4 - Work Processes and Driving
  65. Industrial Ergonomics: IE5 - Low Back
  66. Industrial Ergonomics: IE6 - Muscles, Fatigue, and Posture
  67. Industrial Ergonomics: IE7 - Ergonomics Processes and Special Populations
  68. Internet: I1 - Usability Engineering and the Web
  69. Internet: I2 - Mobile Devices and Cybersecurity
  70. Macroergonomics: ME1 - Macroegonomics Past, Present, and Future: A Tribute to the Late Hal Hendrick and to the Field of Macroergonomics
  71. Macroergonomics: ME2 - Under the Macroergonomics Umbrella
  72. Perception and Performance: PP1 - Multimodal, Tactile, and Haptic Perception
  73. Perception and Performance: PP2 - Attention and Workload
  74. Perception and Performance: PP3 - Visual Perception
  75. Perception and Performance: PP4 - Acoustics and Speech
  76. Perception and Performance: PP5 - Conducting Human Performance Research in Support of Current Military Operations: Implications for System Development
  77. Perception and Performance: PP6 - Perception and Performance Potpourri
  78. Posters: POS1 - Posters 1
  79. Posters: POS2 - Posters 2
  80. Posters: POS3 - Posters 3
  81. Posters: POS4 - Posters 4
  82. Product Design: PD3 - Product Design and Modeling
  83. Product Design: PD4 - Product Design, Investigation, and Assessment
  84. Product Design: PD5 - Product Design, Usability, and Accessibility
  85. Product Design: PD6 - Product Design, Evaluation, and Accidents
  86. Safety: S1 - Safety in Critical Systems
  87. Safety: S2 - Safety in Motion
  88. Safety: S3 - Safety in Everyday Life
  89. Safety: S4 - Safety Theories and Analyses
  90. Special Sessions: Demonstrations: SS2 - Demonstrations
  91. Special Sessions: Demonstrations: SS3 - Demonstrations
  92. Surface Transportation: ST1 - Not Your Normal Car Issues... Don't Let It Ride!
  93. Surface Transportation: ST2 - United States Department of Transportation (DOT) Human Factors Coordinating Committee (HFCC) Research Needs
  94. Surface Transportation: ST3 - Cognition and Emotion Topics in Transportation Research
  95. Surface Transportation: ST4 - Vision Is King
  96. Surface Transportation: ST5 - Unintended Acceleration: Human Factors Engineering Issues and Solutions
  97. Surface Transportation: ST6 - Headway, Speed, Acceleration, and Automation
  98. Student Forum: SF2 - Emoticons, Trust, and Virtual Agents: Student Research in Computing Interfaces
  99. Student Forum: SF3 - Human Factors in Health Care: Student Investigations of Stressors, Comprehension, and Diagnosis
  100. Student Forum: SF4 - Cutting-Edge Research in Biomechanics and Cognition
  101. System Development: SD1 - Limitations and Advantages of Autonomy in Controlling Multiple Systems: An International Perspective
  102. System Development: SD2 - System Development: From Guidelines Through Assessment
  103. System Development: SD3 - Human-Systems Integration Trade-Off Analyses: Lessons Learned in Support of Naval Surface Acquisitions
  104. System Development: SD4 - System Design Concepts and Methods to Support Cognitive Work
  105. System Development: SD5 - Tools for Battlefield Airmen: Where We've Been and Where We're Going
  106. Test and Evaluation: TE1 - The "Right Stuff" for Testing, Evaluating, and Analyzing Human Performance
  107. Test and Evaluation: TE2 - Test & Evaluation Lecture Session
  108. Test and Evaluation: TE3 - Human Factors Practitioners: Police or Partners?
  109. Training: T1 - Human Factors Training in Aviation and Health Care: What We Know Works Best and How to Put It Into Practice
  110. Training: T2 - Extreme Teams: Is a Paradigm Shift Required?
  111. Training: T3 - Analysis and Application of Training Methods
  112. Training: T4 - Training Complex Skills and Improving Training Systems
  113. Virtual Environments: VE1 - Investigations of Human and System Factors in Virtual Environments

Aerospace Systems: AS1 - Work Schedules and Fatigue Management Strategies in Air Traffic Control

Work Schedules and Fatigue Management Strategies in Air Traffic Control (ATC) BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Judith Orasanu; Thomas E. Nesthus; Bonny Parke; Alan Hobbs; Vicki Dulchinos; Norbert O. Kraft; Lori McDonnell; Barrett Anderson; Yuri Tada; Melissa Mallis
This panel will address the role of fatigue in air traffic control (ATC) operations and strategies for developing evidence-based fatigue risk mitigation strategies. Following an introduction to the history of ATC fatigue research, panelists will describe a two-part study with current air traffic controllers involving a web-based survey (available to all U.S. controllers) and validated objective measures of fatigue and alertness. Approaches to modeling and requirements for a Fatigue Risk Management System will be discussed.

Aerospace Systems: AS2 - Impact of Automation in Aviation Systems

Effectiveness of a Spatial Algorithm for Air Traffic Controller Use in Airport Surface Conformance Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Emily M. Stelzer; Kathryn A. Klein
The MITRE Corporation examined the effectiveness of a spatial algorithm to assess pilot conformance to assigned surface taxi routes. This capability, designed and developed by Mosaic ATM, is envisioned by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to be implemented as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to improve surface safety and efficiency. Thirteen participants were asked to serve as ground controllers in a tower simulator at The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD), moving simulated traffic from the ramp area to the runway edge while monitoring each aircraft's conformance to taxi clearances. Results indicate that the algorithm was sufficient for improving detection accuracy of pilot deviations. In addition, controllers reported high trust in the system, likely due to their ability to understand its simplistic logic and predict its behavior. However, the lack of predictive information resulted in alert onsets that were too late and failed to improve detection response time. Results suggest that spatial algorithms, which consider only the aircraft's position on the airport surface and use no predictive information, can be useful in supporting effective event detection, but that predictive information may be useful in maximizing their benefit.
Pilot workload under non-normal event resolution: Assessment of Levels of Automation and a Voice Interface BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Lisa C. Thomas
This study evaluated the effects of increased automation and voice interface on pilots' ability to resolve a non-normal flight deck event where automation performed all, some, or none of the checklist tasks. In addition, the number of voice messages was varied to inform the pilot of all, some, or none of the automation's actions. Subjective workload ratings indicated that pilots' workload was reduced when they were able to interact with the automation similarly to how they interact with a copilot, compared to conditions with too much, too little, or no automation. Pilots strongly preferred to have the automation perform tasks, and also to hear the associated voice messages. The results suggest that in order for increased automation to be an effective aid to the pilot, the appropriate level of automation needs to be determined. Pilots showed a clear preference for automation that performed a limited set of tasks and allowed them insight into the automation's actions.
The Crew Workload Manager: An Open-loop Adaptive System Design for Next Generation Flight Decks BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Michael C. Dorneich; Bretislav Passinger; Christopher Hamblin; Claudia Keinrath; Jiri Vašek; Stephen D. Whitlow; Martijn Beekhuyzen
This paper presents an open loop adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances in future, high-workload flight decks. Air traffic in Europe is expected to more than double by 2020. New technologies being proposed will significantly add to pilot roles and responsibilities, and has the potential to add further periods of high workload to pilot operations. The CAMMI (Cognitive Adaptive Man Machine Interface) program addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain by developing concepts that balance operator workload, support added future operator roles and responsibilities and resulting new task and information requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks. The Crew Workload Manager (CWLM) is a research prototype that objectively measures, compares, and displays the workload between pilots, and can recommend task sharing or automate lower order tasks as necessary. It is expected that the CWLM will minimize the time pilots spend in unbalanced workload conditions, and thereby reduce errors and pilot fatigue, and improve crew resource management. An evaluation plan is outlined that utilizes the novel Shared Aviation Task Battery.
Designing a Mixed-Initiative Decision-Support System for Multi-UAS Mission Planning BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Sylvain Bruni; Nathan Schurr; Nancy Cooke; Brian Riordan; Jared Freeman
Aptima and the Cognitive Engineering Research Institute are developing a mixed-initiative decision-support system for planning multi-Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) missions. The prototype capability is called MIMIC: Mixed Initiative Machine for Instructed Computing. At the core of the system is a model that employs machine learning algorithms to learn from operators during mission planning, and to use what is learned to aid subsequent mission planning tasks. This paper reports on the design of the prototype algorithms, the early interface design, and a series of three experiments performed to support the design of the system. First, machine learning algorithms were implemented that use Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) and Bayesian inference to learn a model of the human operator's strategies. Second, a mission planning graphical user interface was designed to enable an operator to conduct basic multi-UAS mission planning, and to allow MIMIC to easily capture operator actions. Finally, three experiments were conducted (1) to identify typical operator planning priorities, in order to define the model's features and to gather planning data to train the algorithms, (2) to evaluate the model by comparing its outputs to operators' self-assessments of priorities and goals, and (3) to test the model's ability to predict what an operator's next actions will be, and compare the predictions to the actual operator actions. The MIMIC project represents a step toward increasing levels of UAS autonomy allowing for multi-UAS control by single operators.
Moderating Effects of Alarm Technology, Type of Automation, and Information Processing Stage on Decision Making in UAS Operations BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  Joseph C. Vargas; Ernesto A. Bustamante
The goal of this research was to examine potential effects of alarm technology and automation type on decision-making accuracy and bias, as well as to investigate the differences in accuracy and bias in the two information processing stages of the two-stage signal detection theory model developed by Bustamante (2008a). We examined the influence of these factors in conjunction with decision support tools (DSTs) within the context of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). We compared false-alarm prone (FP) and missprone (MP) DSTs equipped with either binary alarm technology (BAT) or likelihood alarm technology (LAT). Results showed that accuracy was greater during the second stage of information processing, especially when individuals interacted with the FP system equipped with LAT. Results also showed that bias was lower when individuals interacted with the FP system equipped with LAT. This insight gained through this research in regards to the relationships between decision-making accuracy and bias with the use of DSTs is important in the design and application of effective DSTs.

Aerospace Systems: AS3 - Advanced Display Concepts for Aviation Systems

An Assessment of Pilots' Concurrent Use of Runway Entrance Lights and Surface Movement Control System Guidance System Stop Bars BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Kathleen McGarry; Emily Stelzer
Two Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulations were conducted to investigate the concurrent use of Runway Entrance Lights (RELs) and Surface Movement Guidance Control System (SMGCS) stop bars. The first study investigated use by 11 pilots who received training on the use of these lighting systems simultaneously, while the second study investigated use by 8 pilots who did not receive training. The commercial pilots were asked to taxi a mid-fidelity simulated aircraft under low visibility conditions. Results suggest that pilots who have not received the proper clearance from ATC are not likely to cross the illuminated stop bar, even when RELs extinguish indicating that the runway is not actively being used. In addition, RELs were found to generate stopping responses on 100% of trials for the trained pilots, and 67.5% of trials for the untrained pilots when they were erroneously cleared onto an active runway. While the lighting systems were effective in reducing the number of runway incursions, pilots ignored or did not respond to the RELs in 32.5% of trials in the untrained group. Though the performance data suggest that these lighting systems can enhance runway safety, some pilots' subjective reports indicate that the concurrent use of the systems could cause some confusion. Results point to the importance of an effective training program, and notification that the systems are concurrently being used in an airport environment to ensure their full effectiveness.
Designing a Flight Deck Predictive Weather Forecast Interface Supporting In-flight Trajectory Planning BIBAFull-Text 36-40
  Shu-Chieh Wu; Constance G. Duong; Robert W. Koteskey; Walter W. Johnson
It is envisioned that in the near future predictive weather forecasts will be available and assimilated into decision making processes for in-flight trajectory planning on the flight deck. However, there has been limited discussion on how in-flight trajectory planning for weather avoidance is to be made and executed. The present study examined three prototype methods by which predictive weather forecasts can be viewed in conjunction with tools to modify flight trajectories. Eighteen transport pilots participated in a part-task experiment where they were asked to modify flight trajectories using one of the three methods. Subjective evaluations by the pilots showed overall acceptance of the concepts behind all of the methods, with room for improvement in the implementation of each. No single method was found to be the clear winner based on performance results. Implications on designing interfaces to support weather decisions on the flight deck will be discussed.
Studying Collision Avoidance by Nearly Colliding: A Flight Test Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Jocelyn Keillor; Kris Ellis; Gregory Craig; David Rozovski; Robert Erdos
As the next generation of air traffic systems (NextGen) moves forward, human factors analyses related to warnings and graphical depictions of air traffic conflicts become increasingly important. Despite this, related human-factors research involving traffic has been conducted in simulation where the contributions of traffic display systems and ultimately visual detection of traffic cannot be fully assessed. We report a flight trial involving 12 deliberate near miss (as little as 160 ft) configurations of differing intercept angles. We evaluate the workload and track error of the intruder test pilot for flight trials in which a custom iPod™ Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)-driven display was used. Constant and variable error of trajectory tracks were differentially affected by the availability of three-dimensional real world information for the intercept approach. We consider the components of spatial representation common to planned interceptions and traffic avoidance and discuss the implications for the design of cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) systems and the role of automation in collision avoidance systems.
Transition of Attention in Terminal Area NextGen Operations Using Synthetic Vision Systems BIBAFull-Text 46-50
  Kyle K. E. Ellis; Lynda J. Kramer; Kevin J. Shelton; J. J. (Trey), III Arthur; Lance J., III Prinzel
This experiment investigates the capability of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) to provide significant situation awareness in terminal area operations, specifically in low visibility conditions. The use of a Head-Up Display (HUD) and Head-Down Displays (HDD) with SVS is contrasted to baseline standard head down displays in terms of induced workload and pilot behavior in 1400 RVR visibility levels. Variances across performance and pilot behavior were reviewed for acceptability when using HUD or HDD with SVS under reduced minimums to acquire the necessary visual components to continue to land. The data suggest superior performance for HUD implementations. Improved attentional behavior is also suggested for HDD implementations of SVS for low-visibility approach and landing operations.
What Happens When Data Communication Fails? -- A Simulation Study BIBAFull-Text 51-55
  Sehchang Hah; Ben Willems; Kenneth Schulz
One of the key enabling technologies required to achieve the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) goals is Data Communication (Data Comm) between controllers and pilots. It reduces voice communication congestion and errors. A concern about Data Comm is that it can fail. Our en route simulation experimental results showed that controllers talked with pilots more frequently after failure compared to the same scenario without failure. Workload also increased, but the difference was not statistically significant. We did not find any significant increase in the frequencies of clearances issued after failure. The participant controllers responded that partial and system failures were detrimental to their performance. They commented that the aircraft failure symbol needed to be more pronounced and that they would need help after partial and total system failures in heavy traffic. We present recommendations to alleviate the problems from Data Comm failure.

Aerospace Systems: AS4 - Air Traffic Control: Impact of Technology

Assessing the Human Contribution to Risk in NextGen BIBAFull-Text 56-60
  Michael W. Sawyer; Katherine A. Berry; Ryan Blanding
In an effort to modernize the National Airspace System, the Federal Aviation Administration has introduced the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The introduction of new systems and procedures as described in NextGen offers the potential for significant changes to the daily activities of air traffic controllers. Each change presents the opportunity for both positive and negative effects on the overall safety of the NAS and the role of the air traffic manager. This paper presents a methodology for prospectively identifying hazards to the performance of air traffic controllers as well as a summary of the categorization of the hazards by task. Scenarios describing NextGen airport departure operations and operations with varying levels of equipage presented the most significant human performance hazards. These identified hazards represent rich opportunities for future human factors research.
A Field Demonstration of the Air Traffic Control Tower Flight Data Manager Prototype* BIBAFull-Text 61-65
  Hayley J. Davison Reynolds; Maria Picardi Kuffner; Sarah K. Yenson
The development and evaluation process of the Tower Flight Data Manager prototype at Dallas Ft. Worth airport is described. Key results from the first field evaluation are presented, including lessons learned about making electronic flight information acceptable to controllers. Iteration of the field evaluation methods are discussed for practitioner benefit.
Human-in-the-Loop Investigation of Variable Separation Standards in the En Route Air Traffic Control Environment BIBAFull-Text 66-70
  Randy L. Sollenberger; Mark Hale
Human factors researchers from the FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center conducted a human-in-the-loop simulation to investigate variable lateral separation standards in the en route air traffic control environment. Twelve Certified Professional Controllers participated in the study. In addition to the typical 5-mile separation standard for the en route environment, we used reduced and increased separation requirements in the study. We simulated reduced separation requirements (i.e., 3 miles) using a Single Sensor Radar Site Adaptation as well as for aircraft with either Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast or Performance-Based Navigation equipment. We simulated increased separation (i.e., 10 miles) for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In addition, we simulated variable wake turbulence separation requirements for Airbus 380s and Very Light Jets. We also developed a set of support tools to assist the controllers in using the variable separation procedures. We identified several human factors issues that may affect air traffic controllers when using variable separation standards in the en route environment.
Frame Rate Effects on Visual Discrimination of Landing Aircraft Deceleration: Implications for Virtual Tower Design and Speed Perception BIBAFull-Text 71-75
  Stephen R. Ellis; Norbert Fürstenau; Monika Mittendorf
In order to help determine the required visual frame rate for the design of remote/virtual airport towers, thirteen active air traffic controllers viewed high dynamic-fidelity simulations of landing aircraft and decided whether the aircraft would stop before the end of the runway, as if to be able to make a runway turnoff. The viewing conditions and simulation dynamics replicated visual rates and environments of transport aircraft landing at small commercial airports. Three frame rates were used: 6, 12, and 24 fps. The frame rate that would be needed to produce asymptotic performance was estimated from a model fit to perceptual discriminability (d′) of the condition in which the aircraft would stop. The required frame rate appears to range from 30-60 fps, but definitive recommendations require further testing at a higher rate in the range of 45-60 fps. Errors and reports of judgment certainty show performance was roughly steady state. Anecdotal reports of increased apparent speed due to low frame rates are objectively confirmed. Some implications for the perceptual design of a remote tower are briefly discussed.
ATC-Monitoring When One Controller Operates Two Airports: Research for Remote Tower Centres BIBAFull-Text 76-80
  Christoph Moehlenbrink; Anne Papenfuss
The paper aims at understanding crucial variables that influence the control of visual attention of tower controllers. Novel concepts for aerodrome control of regional airports consider to remotely control two or more airports at a time from one remote center. A simulation experiment was set up where 12 professional tower controllers operated parallel traffic of two airports. Eye gaze recording and questionnaires were used. Two feedback loops are considered to influence the controllers monitoring behavior: The accessibility of the information of the "far-view" and controller strategies. The results show that both variables have a crucial influence on how often the controller updates the information of one airport. This implies that monitoring performance depends on system design and behavioral strategies. These dependencies can be applied to the design of novel ATC-workplaces.

Aerospace Systems: AS5 - Next-Generation Unmanned Air Vehicle Concepts

Designing Airspace Displays to Support Rapid Immersion for UAS Handoffs BIBAFull-Text 81-85
  Lisa Fern; Jay Shively
Future concepts of operations for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) will result in control paradigms whereby a single operator, or teams of operators, control multiple vehicles. This shift in control paradigms will require novel human-automation interfaces to help operators manage new demands placed on performance, workload and situation awareness (SA) as they manage task switching and handoffs between vehicles, payloads, missions, targets, and crew. A simulation experiment was conducted to compare the effects of various airspace display formats on operator workload, performance and SA. The experiment followed structured interviews conducted with U.S. Army and Air Force UAS operators in which airspace and clearance information was identified as one of the key issues for UAS operations and handoffs. Based on these interviews, a dedicated airspace transition display was proposed to support handoffs during UAS operations. Operators were tasked with taking over an ongoing UAS mission in order to evaluate four different airspace display formats: an Internet Relay Chat room window based on current military operations; a text-based transition page embedded in the Multi-Function Display (MFD); a graphics-based transition page in the MFD; and a graphical display overlaid directly onto the operators' current map display. Objective performance data, SA data, and subjective user ratings were collected. Results indicated improved task performance and SA, as well as lower workload ratings with the dedicated airspace transition displays compared to current baseline operations, with preference by operators given to graphical (as opposed to text-based) presentation formats.
Tools and Techniques for MOMU (Multiple Operator Multiple UAV) Environments; an Operational Perspective BIBAFull-Text 86-90
  Tal Oron-Gilad; Talya Porat; Lisa Fern; Mark Draper; R. Jay Shively; Jacob Silbiger; Michal Rottem-Hovev
Multiple operators controlling multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (MOMU) can be an efficient operational setup for reconnaissance and surveillance missions. However, it dictates switching and coordination among operators. Efficient switching is time-critical and cognitively demanding, thus vitally affecting mission accomplishment. As such, tools and techniques (T&Ts) to facilitate switching and coordination among operators are required. Furthermore, development of metrics and test-scenarios becomes essential to evaluate, refine, and adjust T&Ts to the specifics of the operational environment. To illustrate, tools that were designed and developed for MOMU operations as part of a US-Israel collaborative research project are described and associated research findings are summarized.
SUAVE: Integrating UAV Video Using a 3D Model BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Shafiq Abedin; Michael Lewis; Nathan Brooks; Sean Owens; Paul Scerri; Katia Sycara
Controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) requires the operator to perform continuous surveillance and path planning. The operator's situation awareness degrades as an increasing number of surveillance videos must be viewed and integrated. The Picture-in-Picture display (PiP) provides a solution for integrating multiple UAV camera video by allowing the operator to view the video feed in the context of surrounding terrain. The experimental SUAVE (Simple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Environment) display extends PiP methods by sampling imagery from the video stream to texture a 3D map of the terrain. The operator can then inspect this imagery using world in miniature (WIM) or flythrough methods. We investigate the properties and advantages of SUAVE in the context of a search mission with 3 UAVs.
Delegating to Automation: Performance, Complacency and Bias Effects under Non-Optimal Conditions BIBAFull-Text 95-99
  Christopher A. Miller; Tyler Shaw; Adam Emfield; Joshua Hamell; Ewart deVisser; Raja Parasuraman; David Musliner
We have advocated adaptable automation approaches -- those in which the human retains the role of instructing and tasking -- and specifically have used the metaphor of a sports team's "playbook". Several prior experiments have shown benefits to flexible play calling, so the present work focuses on performance in "non-optimal play environments" (NOPEs) where the defined plays are a poor fit resulting in a need to either modify them dynamically (provide additional instruction) or to abandon play-level automation and resort to more manual levels of control. We might expect that prolonged play usage under optimal conditions would result in automation complacency effects and even loss of training. In two reported experiments, we find little evidence for complacency effects and, instead, show that having access to plays sometimes provides benefits even during NOPE intervals where they were not (directly) useful.

Aerospace Systems: AS6 - Teamwork in Aviation Systems

Challenges of NextGen Technologies for Coordinated Decision Making and the Exchange of Information between Pilots and Controllers BIBAFull-Text 100-104
  C. Bearman; R. Miller; J. Orasanu
Introduction: This paper presents two studies that explore the implications of NextGen technologies for pilot/controller information exchange and coordinated decision making. Method: In Study 1 five participative focus groups were conducted with human factors experts. In Study 2 fifteen interviews were conducted with air traffic controllers. Both studies employed a thematic analysis. Results and Discussion: Results from Study 1 suggest that changes to pilot and controller information acquisition will alter rather than reduce breakdowns in coordinated decision making. Study 2 identified some basic issues in information exchange with NextGen technologies and suggests that some important non-operational information will be lost. Conclusion: The two studies highlight some important challenges that need to be carefully considered as the NextGen technologies move towards maturity.
Flexible Airspace Management Operator Roles, Task Distribution, and Coordination Mechanisms BIBAFull-Text 105-109
  Matthew J. Mainini; Paul U. Lee; Jeffrey R. Homola; Hwasoo E. Lee
A human-in-the-loop study was conducted to further test the potential benefits of the Flexible Airspace Management concept and to begin exploring the required coordination aspects of the concept. The air navigation service providers were able to dynamically alter sector boundaries to reduce traffic overload, thereby potentially increasing airspace utilization, increasing route efficiency, and minimizing excessive delays. Although prior studies have shown benefits of the concept, the operational procedures have yet to be sufficiently prototyped. To address this issue, the current study investigated the roles, task distribution, and coordination mechanisms involved in Flexible Airspace Management operations, specifically in regard to the Area Supervisor and the Traffic Management Coordinator positions. Results suggest that sharing the airspace management function between the Area Supervisors and Traffic Management Coordinators was appropriate and worked well when their roles were clearly defined and the Traffic Management Coordinators had the final authority for implementing the airspace configuration change. New data communication functions were prototyped to share airspace configuration proposals among the team members and the new functions were considered highly useful and usable. Coordination mechanisms that combined voice and data communication worked well and posed little difficulty to the operators.
Teamwork in an Emergency: How Distributed Leadership Improves Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 110-114
  Nadine Bienefeld; Grote Gudela
During highly stressful, dynamic, and life threatening situations such as an emergency on board an aircraft, decision making is subjected to particularly challenging conditions which increase the potential for errors. Several authors have studied traps for such errors in the cockpit, but to our knowledge so far, nobody has considered the role of the cabin crew, who have to closely collaborate with pilots in these situations. This study investigates decision making and distributed leadership (i.e. leadership functions are carried out by formal & informal leaders depending on situational demands) in 84 cockpit and cabin crews (N=504) during a simulated emergency in the A320 cabin-cockpit flight simulator. Results indicate that distributed leadership plays an important role in decision making and strongly correlates with the quality of the decision and crew performance. In crews who reached the correct decision (N=63) both formal and informal leaders displayed significantly more leadership behavior (M = 4.68, SE =.14, t (82) = 2.88, p < .01) than crews who made a wrong decision (N=21) (M =3.71, SE = .37). Interestingly, the effect of informal leadership, entered as a second factor into the hierarchical regression model, predicted crew performance even more strongly than leadership demonstrated by formal leaders. To conclude, we discuss the implications of those results for decision making in aviation and recommend changes in the design and content of CRM (Crew Resource Management) training which could also be useful for interdisciplinary teams in other high risk areas such as medicine, railway, power plants, policing or fire fighting.
Reliability and Validity of the SHAPE Teamwork Questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 115-119
  Meike Jipp; Anne Papenfuss
Teamwork is performance-determining in aviation; therefore, design decisions on novel flight guidance systems use teamwork quality besides individual estimates as a major criterion. The SKATE model and questionnaire was developed to assess teamwork. The revision of the questionnaire yielded the SHAPE teamwork questionnaire (STQ), whose reliability and validity was analyzed in this paper. A study with 12 professional tower controllers was conducted, during which airports were controlled applying a standard team situation in three simulation runs. The STQ was administered after each run. The reliability analyses showed that the Cronbach's Alphas of all six subscales were greater than α =.85. The criterion and construct validity analyses, however, revealed difficulties: The scales could not be replicated and the effect patterns with external criteria also opposed the expected ones. These results highlight the need to further analyze the STQ and the construct addressed by it, to be able to soundly decide on novel flight guidance systems.

Aerospace Systems: AS7 - Tools for Designing, Evaluating, and Certifying NextGen Technologies and Procedures: Automation Roles and Responsibilities

Framing the Design, Evaluation, and Certification Process for NextGen Technologies and Procedures: Automation Roles and Responsibilities BIBAFull-Text 120-122
  Tom McCloy; Michelle Harper-Sciarini; Frank Durso; Florian Jentsch; Barbara Kanki; William Rogers
To address the foreseeable safety and environmental issues associated with the projected increase in air traffic, an overhaul of the existing air traffic management system, referred to as NextGen, is underway. To support NextGen capabilities, a system of new technologies and procedures will replace or be integrated with current technologies and procedures. This overhaul will, no doubt, change a pilot's roles and responsibilities, in addition to challenging their existing and future interactions with flight deck automation. To address these challenges, current efforts are being made to develop taxonomies, guidelines, and recommendation that aid with designing, evaluating, and certifying NextGen technologies and procedures. The specific focus for these products is on mitigating pilot error that results from the poor design and integration of NextGen technologies and procedures. The goal of the proposed panel will be to introduce these products, and gain insight and receive feedback from the audience on their methodology and their practical application.

Aerospace Systems: AS8 - Training in Diverse Aviation Domains

Designing Realistic, Full-Mission, Human-in-the-Loop Aviation Simulation Studies: Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 123-127
  Shawn Pruchnicki; Barbara K. Burian; Bonny Christopher
The design of simulator based research can be an intimidating task for even an experienced researcher. We present some of the lessons learned from a complex simulator-based research study requiring sophisticated flight scenarios with realistic environmental conditions that was designed and conducted by a large group of researchers distributed across multiple sites. We offer readers both suggestions for approach to design as well as solutions to some of the problems we encountered.
Should Students Learn General Air Traffic Management Skills Before NextGen Tools? BIBAFull-Text 128-132
  S. S. Billinghurst; C. Morgan; R. C. Rorie; A. Kiken; L. P. Bacon; K.-P. L. Vu; T. Z. Strybel; V. Battiste
The goal of the present study was to determine whether the order of training of three specific NextGen tools (conflict detection, conflict probes, and Data Comm) affected student learning of air traffic management procedures, and, subsequently, their performance, workload, and situation awareness. We found that performance benefited from recent training of current-day air traffic management skills regardless of the order in which students were exposed to these skills. Overall, students were able to quickly learn how to use the NextGen tools implemented in the stimulation. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Utility of Motion and Motion-Cueing to Support Simulated In-Flight Rotary-Wing Emergency Training BIBAFull-Text 133-137
  Derek L. Pasma; Stuart C. Grant; Murray Gamble; Ronald V. Kruk; Chris M. Herdman
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the utility of three flight simulator motion conditions (fixed-base, motion-cueing seat, and full-motion) to support training of in-flight rotary-wing emergency recovery procedures. Military helicopter pilots were randomly assigned to two of three possible motion configurations and subject to three in-flight emergencies. Pilot handling ratings indicate wide acceptance of the training device in each of the three configurations. Subjective workload assessments showed no difference between motion configurations. Results will be discussed with reference to the importance of pilot simulator acceptance during flight training.
Pilot Error During Visual Flight Into Instrument Weather: An Experiment Using Advanced Simulation and Analysis Methods BIBAFull-Text 138-142
  Christopher M. Johnson; Douglas A. Wiegmann
This study details competing literature findings surrounding visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), and it utilizes advanced simulation to fulfill training inadequacies and bring clarity to the research. An experiment involving 16 visual-only pilots was conducted to simulate cross-country flight in marginal weather. Participants' abilities to aviate, navigate, communicate, and process weather information were measured and correlated with demographics and the pilots' abilities to adhere to visual flight regulations. 11 out of the 16 pilots committed violations, and the pilots' previous exposure to instrument weather made them better at collecting in-flight weather reports and obeying VFR regulations. Pilots that penetrated simulated IMC were found to be more reliant on cockpit automation such as autopilot and navigation equipment. Misuse of automation often lead pilots to become overwhelmed by IMC, and in severe cases, pilots displayed flight profiles characteristic of spatial disorientation and lost control of the aircraft or they wandered at dangerously low altitudes in zero visibility, putting them at risk for controlled flight into terrain. This study represents a validation of the advancement of weather simulation to improve flight training, practical examination, and investigation.
Automation Influence on Unmanned Aerial System Operator Training BIBAFull-Text 143-146
  John G. Blitch; Benjamin A. Clegg
The impact of the use of automation during training was investigated using an Unmanned Aerial System simulator. Participants were trained in a series of basic maneuvers, with half receiving automated support for some controls on a subset of maneuvers. A subsequent novel landing test showed poorer performance for the group that received assistance from automation during training. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Aging: A1 - Understanding and Improving Older Adults' Health and Independence

The Effects of Domain General and Health Knowledge in Processing General and Health Texts among Older Adults with Hypertension BIBAFull-Text 147-151
  Jessie Chin; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow; Dan Morrow; Xuefei Gao; Thembi Conner-Garcia; James F. Graumlich; Michael D. Murray
While there is much evidence that health knowledge supports understanding of health texts, little is known about the processing mechanisms underlying this effect. We used the moving window paradigm to examine attentional allocation to reading health and domain-general texts among older adults with hypertension who varied in verbal ability (general knowledge) and health knowledge. More knowledgeable readers allocated less time to word-level processing and more to conceptual integration. Domain knowledge further engendered earlier conceptual integration in the health texts, as measured by differential allocation to intrasentence integration but less at the end of the sentence compared to less knowledgeable readers. This suggests that knowledge gave readers a head start in building a textbase representation of the ideas conveyed by the sentence. Thus, knowledge helped structure comprehension by supporting conceptual integration. Implications for the design of patients' education materials are discussed.
Older Adults' Needs for Assistance as a Function of Living Environment BIBAFull-Text 152-156
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Tiffany L. Chen; Charles C. Kemp; Wendy A. Rogers
As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require assistance in their living environment (Administration on Aging, 2009), however it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance does not restrict their autonomy (e.g., Barkay & Tabak, 2002). Moreover, autonomy enhancement may improve older adults' functionality (e.g., Greiner et al., 1996). This paper provides an overview of older adults' diverse living situations and an assessment of their needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) when living in the community or in a long-term care residence, such as assisted living or skilled nursing. We also examine older adults' residential mobility patterns to understand potential unmet needs for assistance. This needs assessment highlights the specific areas that could benefit from human factors interventions to support older adults in making choice-driven decisions about where they live.
Can Virtual Reality Be Used As A Gait Training Tool For Older Adults? BIBAFull-Text 157-161
  Prakriti Parijat; Thurmon E. Lockhart
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Virtual Reality (VR) habituation on the kinematic and gait variability changes in older adults. Sixteen healthy older adults participated in the study. The experiment consisted of walking session on a walkway, followed by walking on the treadmill with and without a head mounted display of a VR scene. Kinematic data were collected using a motion capture system. Additionally, a cyber-sickness questionnaire was administered to the participants during and after the experiment to evaluate motion sickness symptoms. Statistical analyses indicated an increased variability in stride length, stride velocity, and step width during the initial 5-10 min in the VR. Kinematic data indicated an increased ankle plantar flexion, knee flexion, and trunk flexion in the initial VR period. All parameters approximated normal treadmill walking within 20 min of VR walking. The cyber sickness scores indicated no presence of cyber sickness during or after the VR experiment. It was concluded that the habituation time in VR may have significant effect on gait behavior in older adults and therefore it should be considered while designing a VR locomotion training study.
The Role of Age-Related Neural Timing Variability in Speech Processing BIBAFull-Text 162-166
  Brian A. Taylor; Daniel M. Roberts; Carryl L. Baldwin
Age-related difficulties in speech processing remain a concern, especially as technology continues to depend heavily on successful speech comprehension on the part of users. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have frequently been used to assess age-related changes in the processing of language. Specifically, the amplitude of the ERP is often compared between conditions or groups of interest. In constructing ERPs, many neurophysiologic responses are averaged together to reduce the contribution of uncorrelated background activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). However, if variability in the timing of each potential on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., "latency jitter") is confounded with a variable of interest, then the presence of amplitude differences observed in the average ERP might not be solely the result of genuine amplitude differences, but also timing variability. We examined the role latency jitter may play in the well-established observation of age-related changes in the processing of natural speech as indexed by the N400. Older and younger adults were presented with sentences that ended in either expected or unexpected final words. In agreement with previous findings, a reduction in N400 amplitude was observed in the older adults compared with the younger adults in response to the unexpected final words. However, analyzing ERPs on a single trial basis reveals the older adults to have significantly greater intra-subject variability in N400 latency for incongruent speech stimuli, in comparison to younger adults. This increased intra-individual latency variability may contribute to the smaller N400 amplitudes observed in each subject's average ERP. Age-related reductions in N400 amplitudes may indicate less precise timing of neurological processes. Conversely, they may indicate that the older brain exhibits greater specificity in the processing of individual sentence stimuli.
Effect of transfer with younger and older adults on control solution testing using two blood glucometers BIBAFull-Text 167-171
  Eric D. Carpenter; Christopher B. Mayhorn
As of 2005, 5.5% of the American population had some form of diabetes, with an increasing rate of diagnosis. Adults 65 years of age and over are at an increased risk for developing diabetes. Sixty-four participants completed 10 trials of control solution testing. MANOVA results indicated main effects of participant age and order of glucometer use on dependent variables. Follow-up ANOVAs revealed a main effect of age on task time, errors during training, and near transfer errors, and a main effect of glucometer use on rate of near and far transfer errors committed. Results and avenues of further investigation are discussed.

Aging: A2 - Designing Technology for the Older User

Understanding Predictors of Computer Communication Technology Use by Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 172-176
  John S. Burnett; Tracy L. Mitzner; Neil Charness; Wendy A. Rogers
Technologies have evolved to allow older adults the ability to communicate in a variety of ways, yet little work examines the perceptions that older adults have of these technologies. Our research explored older adults' use of computers for communication activities. We analyzed questionnaire data from two hundred and eighty-one participants with computer experience who answered questions about their background; the amount of experience they had with computers and other technologies, their perception of the importance of several communication activities for their quality of life, and how useful a computer is for those activities. A regression analysis explored the degree to which demographic variables, the importance of activities for their quality of life, and prior experience predicted respondents' attitudes about the computer's usefulness for communication activities. The findings, based on a group of older adult computer users, suggest that the importance of communication activities for an older adult's quality of life and their prior experience with computers are strong predictors of the perception of a computer's usefulness for communication activities. Previous research has found that one's experiences with a computer system are critical for adoption. Our work reaffirms that tenet, yet finds that the degree to which an activity is important for one's quality of life is also predictive of how useful a computer will be for that activity. Our findings also suggest that certain communication activities, such as email, are more preferred than other activities, such as chat groups. This present survey of experienced older adult computer users can guide development of training materials and products for older adults by informing designers of the ways by which older adults form perceptions about the usefulness of technologies.
Examining Age and Experience Differences in Use of Knowledge in the World in Everyday Technology Interactions BIBAFull-Text 177-181
  Marita A. O'Brien; Kristin Weger; Mary E. DeFour; Sarah M. Reeves
Competence in technology use during everyday activities is required for continued independence of older adults, and rapid technological changes have made effective design of learning support beyond formal training crucial to maintain this competence. Older adults have reported a preference for specific training and text manuals when they learn to use technologies, but no research has systematically examined what is actually used in everyday life. This study examined age and experience differences in the use of external support (knowledge in the world) over a ten day period. Interviews with participants about technology encounters during this period were analyzed. Three categories of knowledge in the world were identified: social support, instruction, and on-device information. Age differences were found in use of social support and instruction. Age and experience differences were found in use of on-device information. These results confirm the importance of good instructional support for older adults that accommodates age-related declines and differences in specific knowledge. Data also suggest that development of a simple and reliable method for older adults to obtain social support may help low technology older adults to more effectively use everyday technologies and to resolve problems.
Product Physical Interface Design Characteristics for Older Adults with Hand Use Limitations: Exploration of Users' Experiences BIBAFull-Text 182-186
  Wei-Ting Yen; Carolyn Sommerich; Steven Lavender; Sharon Flinn; Elizabeth Sanders
The aim of the study is to apply ergonomics and product design research methodologies in concert, including questionnaires, focus groups, and a collaborative design process, to explore the associations between product interface design characteristics and user experiences of older adults with hand use limitations. There is a research void in understanding the relationship between product interface design characteristics and hand dysfunction levels in older populations. Taking jar lids as an example of the product interface as the focus of this study, associations between jar lid design characteristics, e.g. diameter, height, shape, and texture, and the user experiences of older people with hand use limitations were explored. In addition, several new lid design features that could possibly improve user performance have been proposed and will be assessed. When investigating jar lid design characteristics, prior research has focused on healthy study participants. To the best of our knowledge, no prior published research specifically studied older people who were known to have difficulties opening or closing jar lids or who reported experiencing hand pain around the time of their study participation.
Video Game Design for Older Adults: Usability Observations from an Intervention Study BIBAFull-Text 187-191
  Laura A. Whitlock; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Jason C. Allaire
Video games are increasingly used as tools in therapeutic interventions, both for younger and older adults. However, relatively little is known about video game usability for older adults, and age-related changes may affect some older players' capacity to benefit from video games. We examined video recordings and open-ended questionnaire responses of 56 older adults taking part in a video game-based cognitive intervention study. Usability findings and recommendations for inclusive video game design for older adults are discussed.

Augmented Cognition: AC1 - Assessing Individual and Team Cognitive State

Can Behavioral, Neuroimaging, and Molecular Genetic Studies of "Cognitive Superstars" Tell Us How to Augment Cognition? BIBAFull-Text 192-196
  Raja Parasuraman
Some individuals exhibit very high levels of performance on perceptual and cognitive tasks -- they are "cognitive superstars." I report on such exceptional performance in individuals with extraordinary abilities on tests of vigilance, selective attention, and working memory, among others. Neuroimaging and molecular genetic data are also presented, in an exploration of the neural and hereditary basis of exceptional cognition. Extraordinary cognitive ability reflects a complex mix of factors including genetics, experience, and training. While it is difficult to generalize from individual case studies, and such cases are by definition, very rare, implications can be drawn for selection and training methods aimed at enhancing the normal range of cognition.
Adaptive Automation as a Task Switching and Task Congruence Challenge BIBAFull-Text 197-201
  Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Grant Taylor; Kimberly Sprouse; Daniel Barber; Irwin Hudson
Adaptive automation refers to a system capability that enables task sharing between a human operator and a system. The purpose for this type of collaborative sharing is to maintain a moderate level of task load, particularly in a multi-tasking environment. However, some costs might accrue from switching automation on and off, as is shown from task switching literature. Additionally, it is possible that congruency between task demand and the level of automation affects performance. Thus, before system-controlled adaptive automation is implemented into an operational environment, the goal for the present experiment is to examine the costs associated with turning automation on and off and to investigate the effects of demand/automation congruence. Analysis of the congruence effects revealed performance to benefit from higher levels of automation, regardless of task load. Task switching caused by adaptive automation was found to be detrimental to performance during periods of high task demand, but was beneficial during periods of low demand.
Workload Classification Across Subjects Using EEG BIBAFull-Text 202-206
  Ryan M. Hope; Ziheng Wang; Zuoguan Wang; Qiang Ji; Wayne D. Gray
EEG data has been used to discriminate levels of mental workload when classifiers are created for each subject, but the reliability of classifiers trained on multiple subjects has yet to be investigated. Artificial neural network and naive Bayesian classifiers were trained with data from single and multiple subjects and their ability to discriminate among three difficulty conditions was tested. When trained on data from multiple subjects, both types of classifiers poorly discriminated between the three levels. However, a novel model, the naive Bayesian classifier with a hidden node, performed nearly as well as the models trained and tested on individuals.
Method for Characterizing and Identifying Task Evoked Pupillary Responses During Varying Workload Levels BIBAFull-Text 207-211
  Allan Fong; Ciara Sibley; Joseph Coyne; Carryl Baldwin
Understanding when operators are experiencing high workload is important in the design and implementation of Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. Fortunately physiological metrics, such as pupillary reflexes, have been shown to correlate with increases in mental workload. This paper proposes an automated method for characterizing and identifying task evoked pupillary responses (TEPR) during various workload levels. This method captures findings and observations from previous TEPR studies in an automated algorithm. This algorithm characterizes the rate of pupil dilation and constriction into a TEPR area metric, which is then used to identify times of increased operator workload. Independent trial analysis shows the benefits of using the TEPR area for distinguishing different workload responses but additional investigation is needed to make the algorithm more robust to individual variability.
Mapping Neurophysiologic Synchrony Attractor States and Entropy Fluctuations during Submarine Piloting and Navigation BIBAFull-Text 212-216
  Ronald Stevens; Trysha Galloway; Peter Wang; Chris Berka
Our objective was to apply ideas from complexity theory to derive expanded models of Submarine Piloting and Navigation (SPAN) showing how teams cognitively respond to task changes and how this was altered with experience. The cognitive measure highlighted was an electroencephalography (EEG)-derived measure of engagement (EEG-E) that was modeled into a collective team variable termed neurophysiologic synchronies of engagement (NS_E) thus showing the engagement of each of 6 team members as well as the engagement of the team as a whole. We show that the dominant NS_E patterns were different for novice and experienced teams, and that experienced teams used a larger repertoire of potential NS_E patterns. Estimates of the Shannon entropy of the NS_E data streams provided a quantitative history of NS_E fluctuations which were associated with the efficiency of the SPAN teams in updating the ship's position.

Augmented Cognition: AC2 - Engineering and Augmenting with Psychophysiological Measurement

EEG Alpha Spindles as Indicators for Prolonged Brake Reaction Time During Auditory Secondary Tasks in a Real Road Driving Study BIBAFull-Text 217-221
  Michael Schrauf; Andreas Sonnleitner; Michael Simon; Wilhelm E. Kincses
Driver distraction accounts for a substantial number of traffic accidents. Therefore, the impact of auditory secondary tasks on driving performance was examined. In addition to performance measures, i.e. reaction time on emergency brakings of a leading vehicle, mental driver states were described by electroencephalographic (EEG: alpha spindles, alpha band power) as well as cardiac activity (ECG: heart rate variability). Results show that brake reaction time (RT) increased with time-on-task during all conditions (p<.001), and was significantly higher while performing the secondary task (p<.001). Physiological measures showed similar effects. Alpha spindle rate, alpha band power as well as heart rate variability (HRV) increased with time-on-task and were significantly different during the secondary task, indicating inhibited visual information processing and reduced concentration ability. This study shows that reduced driving performance measured by means of prolonged brake reactions during increased cognitive load elicited by auditory secondary tasks is indicated by EEG measures as well as cardiac activity, enabling the direct quantification of driver distraction in experiments during real road driving.
An eye movement analysis of contextual cueing effects BIBAFull-Text 222-226
  Molly M. Liechty; Poornima Madhavan
Contextual cueing is the implicit association of objects (or 'cues') in a visual scene due to repeated exposure, either spatially or semantically. Such associations can aid people in detecting a specific target more quickly and easily when it appears in a familiar context. The goal of this study was to investigate whether and how people utilize "distractors" as contextual cues during a visual target search. Ten undergraduate participants performed a luggage-screening task during which they were connected to an eye tracker. First, participants were trained using 25 luggage images, each of which contained a target (i.e., knife) and a specific distractor (i.e., iPod). During the post-training session, participants screened 100 bags with target base rate set at 50%. The bags contained, either, the distractor and the target (25 bags), the target only (25 bags), the distractor only (25 bags), or neither the distractor nor the target (25 bags). Participants' fixation counts, saccade counts, saccade amplitudes, and scan paths were assessed. It was found that in the presence of the distractor, participants demonstrated fewer fixations and saccades as well as shorter saccade amplitudes than in the absence of the distractor. This was particularly salient in the absence of the target. The results suggest a higher level of search efficiency when the distractor cue was present, and less organized and more aggressive search pattern in the absence of the distractor cue. We contend that participants formed an implicit association between the distractor and the target and used this association to improve the efficiency of their visual search.
A neurophysiological and behavioral investigation of tactile spatial exploration for sighted and non-sighted adults BIBAFull-Text 227-231
  Claudio Campus; Luca Brayda; Ryad Chellali; Cristina Martinoli; Guido Rodriguez
In this work we report on preliminary results about a new method to evaluate the cues used for constructing mental maps of virtual objects, presented through interaction with a tactile device. Both behavioral and neurophysiological metrics are considered to evaluate the process of identifying virtual structures, in both sighted and non-sighted adults. The possible dependency on the kind of virtual object or on the sensory impairment is investigated. Results also show similarities between sighted and non-sighted subjects in the identification process. Our method may facilitate researchers in understanding and assessing human-system integration in the context of touch-based interfaces for non-sighted people.
Effects of Emotional Priming on Visual Threat Detection BIBAFull-Text 232-236
  Kimberly E. Culley; Poornima Madhavan; Ray Heikens; Jeremy Brown
Research on the effects of negative emotions on risky decision making has shown that emotions significantly impact the perception of risk; anger reduces perceived risk and increases optimism whereas fear heightens perceived risk and reduces optimism. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three negative emotions on airport security screeners. Participants (n = 100) performed a simulated airline luggage screening task after being 'primed' with three emotion-inducing stimuli -- anger, fear, and sorrow. Results revealed that with sufficient practice, fear and sorrow induced appropriate levels of liberal responding thereby increasing hit rates but not false alarms. However, anger increased false alarms without a corresponding increase in hits. Sensitivities were not impacted significantly by emotional state. The results of this research have implications for developing training solutions to optimize decision making of security personnel.
Pupil Dilation as an Index of Learning BIBAFull-Text 237-241
  Ciara Sibley; Joseph Coyne; Carryl Baldwin
Physiological assessment of cognitive processes has become a topic of increased interest. The value of understanding and measuring brain function at work has the potential to improve performance. The emphasis of this paper is to discuss how pupil diameter can be applied to learning. The link between pupil diameter and task difficulty, or cognitive load, has been repeatedly demonstrated for the past 40 years. However there has been little work to date on measuring cognitive load during training or looking at how real time metrics of cognitive load could be used to adapt training. According to Cognitive Load Theory, cognitive load should be reduced as an individual learns a task and he/she relies more on long term memory than working memory. Ten participants completed a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle task in which they had to identify targets and report their direction of movement. There were three levels of increased difficulty. As expected, pupil diameter significantly dropped within each block as participants learned the task, and then increased again at the start of the next level of difficulty. The results suggest that pupil diameter may be a useful metric for assessing when an individual has transferred information into long term memory. Implications for how pupil diameter can be used to drive an adaptive training system are discussed.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE1 - Team Performance

The Mediating Effect of Perceived Task Complexity on Perceived Team Sharedness and Performance BIBAFull-Text 242-246
  James M. Oglesby; Kendra T. Brown; Davin Pavlas; Stephen M. Fiore; Eduardo Salas
An empirical study was conducted to observe macro-cognition and interpersonal interactions between team members during a collaborative resource management task. Teams consisting of three members each were instructed to work together to complete scenario objectives in a simulated military task environment. The task scenarios were manipulated to vary the complexity of the scenario objectives. An exploratory analysis of the results revealed a mediating effect of perceived complexity on the relationship between perceived sharedness and performance. Additionally, a partial mediating effect for perceived complexity on the relationship between perceived sharedness team knowledge building was found. Results indicate that perceived complexity of a collaborative task may play a greater role in the relationship between team level factors and performance than previously thought. Implications for these results are provided alongside suggestions for future research. Specifically, we call for research to determine the mechanism through which perceptions of task complexity influence collective performance.
Understanding Cognitive and Collaborative Work: Observations in an Electric Transmission Operations Control Center BIBAFull-Text 247-251
  Jodi Heintz Obradovich
This paper describes research that is part of an ongoing project to design tools to assist in the integration of renewable energy into the electric grid. These tools will support control room dispatchers in real-time system operations of the electric power transmission system that serves much of the Western United States. Field observations comprise the first phase of this research in which 15 operators have been observed over various shifts and times of day for approximately 90 hours. Findings describing some of the cognitive and environmental challenges of managing the dynamically changing electric grid are presented.
Evaluating a Macrocognition Model of Team Collaboration using Real-world Data from the Haiti Relief Effort BIBAFull-Text 252-256
  Susan G. Hutchins
On January 12, 2010, a massive earthquake ravished Haiti's capital city of Port-au-Prince. Throughout the relief effort the communications that transpired between responders were recorded in the All Partners Access Network (APAN) collaboration system. A lexical link analysis (LLA) provided a systematic way to select a subset of the large amount of data for analysis by selecting several themes to analyze from initiation to completion. We analyzed the collaborative information exchanges for the Haiti humanitarian assistance/ disaster relief effort by applying definitions of the macrocognitive processes included in a model of team collaboration. The goal for the research reported here is to understand the role of cognition in teams who are collaborating to solve unique, challenging, information-rich problems. Results indicate the task environment will influence which macrocognitive processes are used and evidence was found for several additional macrocognitive processes.
The Impact of Uncertainty Visualizations on Team Decision Making and Problem Solving BIBAFull-Text 257-261
  Xiao Dong; Caroline Hayes
This paper describes a study comparing two decision support systems (DSS) and their impact on team decision making processes. One DSS provided a simple way for users to describe and visualize the relative uncertainty in each alternative under consideration. The other did not. We found that the "uncertainty" DSS significantly improved designers' ability to assess whether or not they had sufficient information to choose the "best" from a set of alternatives. Additionally, teams that used the "uncertainty" DSS were far more likely to spend time discussing the uncertainty and how to manage it. These results indicate that a relatively simply visualization can change the way in which design teams think about design, and how they structure their discussions.
Team Performance and Communication within Networked Supervisory Control Human-Machine Systems BIBAFull-Text 262-266
  Ryan McKendrick; Tyler Shaw; Haneen Saqer; Ewart de Visser; Raja Parasuraman
The effects of task load, automation reliability and team communication on supervisory control performance were examined using a multi-UAV simulation with two operators. Performance was degraded by high task load and improved with an automated decision aid. In addition, team working memory, defined as the average of individual working memory capacity scores, was associated with superior team performance. Higher levels of task load increased the amount of information communicated by teams whereas the presence of an automated decision aid decreased the amount of information communicated by teams. The results are discussed in relation to models of team cognition for teams performing similar tasks in a shared, networked human-machine system.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE2 - Current State of Human Factors in Systems Design

Current State of Human Factors in Systems Design BIBAFull-Text 267-271
  Karen Feigh; Zarrin Chua; Chaya Garg; Alan Jacobsen; John O'Hara; William Rogers; John Shutko
Many papers at previous HFES Meetings have touched on the theme of how to either incorporate human factors earlier in the design process, including development of new methods and discussion of what existing methods and tools are applicable at the preliminary and conceptual design phases. To many HFES members, these questions are not an academic exercise, but daily challenges. The goal of this discussion panel is to summarize the current state of human factors in systems design, particularly outside of the context of human factors-centric operations and to assess the gaps in human factors methods to support the incorporation of human factors earlier in the design process. Panel members represent industry organizations who work daily to incorporate good human factors principles into design.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE3 - Tasks and Needs Analysis in Health Care

Control Task Analysis in Action: Collaboration in the Operating Room BIBAFull-Text 272-276
  Maryam Ashoori; Catherine Burns; Kathryn Momtahan; Barbara d'Entremont
Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is gaining momentum for analyzing complex socio-technical systems but it does not yet have the specific tools and techniques that allow it to address teamwork explicitly enough to provide good guidance on how to support teams. This paper focuses on expansion of control task analysis (ConTA), the second phase of CWA, to understand the collaborative decision making of a surgical team during Cesarean section surgery.
Recreation to nursing facilities tenant Coloring BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  Shinichiro Kawabata; Maki Nasu; Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
In Japan aging has proceed at a rapid rate and the number of dementias patient also increase commensurately. Coloring is suggested to have an effect to activate the brain and hopefully prevent dementias to reach advanced stage. In this study coloring was taken place at the pay home for the assisted-living resident as a part of recreation. The number of fall accident and nurse call was counted before and after the recreation. Moreover concentration level was examined during coloring work with a brain activity measuring instrument, to find out most effective writing equipment for an activation of the brain. The averages of fall accident decreased to 4.6 times from 10.7 times and the frequency of the nurse call decreased to average of 832 from 1469 per month. This result showed that coloring has favorable influence to nursing facilities tenant and so it is thought that coloring is an activity that should be taken as one of the recreations taken place at the senior care home.
A Cognitive Analysis of Color-Coded Wristband Use in Health Care BIBAFull-Text 281-285
  Scott D. Wood; James P. Bagian
In this paper we examine human factors involved in the use of color-coded wristbands by analyzing cases that resulted in adverse events. We consider such cases in terms of which stage of care the events occurred, the health care roles involved in the event, and the cognitive factors seen as most likely to be causative in the event. We discuss a common theme in this analysis, that perhaps we are expecting too much from color-coding, and propose a number of possible solutions and suggestions for improving patient safety. We conclude that relying on color alone for any health care task is both risky and ineffective.
Supporting the Management of Osteoarthritis Pain: A Needs Analysis BIBAFull-Text 286-290
  Sara E. McBride; Wang-Chin Tsai; Camilla C. Knott; Wendy A. Rogers
Osteoarthritis is expected to affect approximately 72 million older adults by the year 2030. It is one of the top causes of disability, mobility problems, and chronic pain among older adults. With so many individuals affected, it is important to identify how to effectively manage the pain associated with osteoarthritis. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the factors and knowledge critical to the successful management of osteoarthritis pain and to evaluate the management tools currently available to the general public. We conducted structured interviews with three subject matter experts (SMEs). The interviews identified critical variables in pain management, such as physical activity, mood, and medication taking behavior, as well as common misconceptions about pain management held by many older adults. In addition, we assessed the usability of available pain management tools with six older adults and conducted a heuristic analysis of several additional pain management tools available on the market. All of the tools reviewed were found to be lacking in several key areas, such as failing to include critical variables and difficulty integrating the data collected into a meaningful representation of one's pain experience. Resolving these issues will improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from osteoarthritis.
Needs Assessment for Certified Nursing Assistants Providing Personal Care BIBAFull-Text 291-295
  Jenay M. Beer; Jennifer M. Springman; Sara E. McBride; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Home health care allows individuals to receive care in a home setting rather than a medical facility. This increasingly popular alternative to health care has many benefits; however, providing health care in a home setting involves unique challenges and difficulties for the health care providers, such as certified nursing assistants (CNAs). Human factors interventions and technological supports may ease difficulties home health care providers experience performing caregiving tasks. However, for such interventions to be effective there is a need to understand patient care within the context of a home environment. The purpose of this research was to conduct a needs assessment to identify 1) personal caretask characteristics, including the context in which they are carried out, and 2) challenges encountered during these tasks. Eight CNAs participated in structured interviews where in they were asked to describe difficulties and frustrations experienced when performing the tasks of toileting, bathing, and transfer. The results were categorized as patient- or provider-based difficulties, as well as along dimensions related to the environment, device design, and social influences. These data provide an understanding of the complexity of each task, and a means of highlighting areas of difficulty to provide guidance for designers of assistive technologies and other supportive interventions.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE4 - Effects of Interruption and Memory on Human Performance

What Makes Us Resilient to Interruptions? Understanding the Role of Individual Differences in Resumption BIBAFull-Text 296-300
  Nicole E. Werner; David M. Cades; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Jessica Chang; Hibah Khan; Gia Thi
Interruptions are an inescapable reality in our lives and they sometimes lead to unfortunate consequences. Most of the interruptions literature focuses on aspects of the interruption task that makes them more or less disruptive to performance. However, it is important to consider what might make a person resilient to the deleterious effects of interruptions. This research seeks to explore the individual performer and the specific cognitive aspects that might make someone better or worse at dealing with an interruption. Based on the current theory, we predicted that participants with better working memory capacity and spatial abilities would be faster at resuming an interrupted task than those who scored lower on those measures. We found that those that scored higher on the working memory capacity measure were faster at resuming from an interruption and those that scored higher on one of the spatial ability measures (mental rotation) were faster at resuming. The paper folding task measure of spatial ability did not predict interrupted task performance.
Does Cognitive Lockup Depend on the Situation, on the Person, or on an Interaction of Both? BIBAFull-Text 301-305
  Meike Jipp; Christoph Moehlenbrink; Matthias Wies; Helge Lenz
This paper focuses on investigating (a) whether cognitive lockup can be provoked in an experimental setup in a realistic, generic cockpit simulator and (b) whether the occurrence of cognitive lockup further depends on the pilot or on an interaction between the aviation situation and the pilot. To investigate these research questions, an experiment was conducted during which pilots aviated two scenarios. Both scenarios reflect an approach situation in which the second autopilot failed as a first event and the runway was changed as a second event. The main difference of the scenarios is the timing of the autopilot failure and the runway change: In the experimental condition, the events occurred later in time, which reduced the time frame available for the briefing. While aviating, the aircraft's maximum deviation from the specified route was recorded. Statistical analyses showed that pilots were more drawn to cognitive lockup in the situation with more time-pressure resulting in a performance degradation in the aviation task. Aviation performance was further predicted by a significant interaction between the person and the situation, which shows a need to also consider person-related variables when explaining the occurrence of cognitive lockup.
The Effect of Incongruent Instruction/Execution Pairs on Working Memory BIBAFull-Text 306-310
  Carson Whitaker; Adrian Musters; Frank Drews
This study tests how information is encoded into working memory when the type of instruction is incongruent with a task. To determine where information is encoded in working memory interruptions will be used to disrupt performance. A spatial Lego® construction task and a verbal letter arrangement task will be compared. Operation Span will be measured against performance. The conclusions drawn from this study will impact the understanding of working memory which will help in discovering effective types of instruction and in dealing with interruptions.
How Performance Feedback and Reflection Affect Transactive Memory BIBAFull-Text 311-315
  Rick van der Kleij; Maarten Hoeppermans
Research on transactive memory has showed the positive effects of training together. This study investigated how feedback and reflection affect transactive memory in settings where there is no time for elaborate team training. Newly formed teams were given accurate, false or no feedback about their individual performance on a prior administration of an intellective task. Team receiving no feedback either were given time for reflection to discuss their prior performance or not. Our findings suggest the need to support newly-formed teams in their attempt to determine how expertise is distributed among its members along with the potential of feedback to create transactive memory systems.
Medication Adherence among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Current Practices and Potential Technology Solution BIBAFull-Text 316-320
  Ant Ozok; Aktta Patel; Huijuan Wu; Ayse P. Gurses
Lack of medication adherence among elderly has severe health-related and financial consequences, including being the likely cause of 10% of hospital admissions and 23% of nursing home admissions in the U.S. Older adults living independently in their houses and independent living facilities can benefit from assistance with the management of their medications especially as their cognitive abilities diminish. To understand medication adherence practices and barriers among older adults and their potential attitudes and potential acceptance of a technology intervention to improve adherence, we surveyed 65 individuals between the ages of 67 and 96 in an independent living facility. The average age of the sample was 83 and participants reported taking six prescription medications on average per day. Our results indicated an average adherence level of 63% among this population, with daily memorized routines being the most common practice to maintain adherence. Participants had positive attitudes regarding a potential self-managed adherence technology to improve their adherence and thought of it as potentially useful. Interestingly, participants did not show much interest in receiving help from their facility for their adherence. Findings can inform future efforts in the development and deployment of medication adherence technologies for daily use based on a human factors framework.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: Panel

Pioneers in Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making Research -- Foundational Contributions to the Science of Human-Automation Interaction BIBAFull-Text 321-325
  David Kaber; Peter Hancock; Richard Jagacinski; Raja Parasurman; Chris Wickens; Glenn Wilson
The objective of this Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making (CEDM) Technical Group (TG) panel is to recognize "Pioneers in Human-Automation Interaction Research" and to provide Annual Meeting attendees with knowledge of the origins of adaptive automation, control theoretic approaches to human performance, implications of levels of complex system automation for human performance, and methods for operator functional state classification. Based on their seminal contributions to research in these areas, Drs. Peter Hancock, Richard Jagacinski, Raja Parasuraman, Chris Wickens and Glenn Wilson will participate in the session. Dr. Hancock will provide a personal retrospective on adaptive automation. Dr. Jagacinski will draw parallels between manual control and decision theories. Dr. Parasuraman will trace the history of adaptive automation research. Dr. Wickens will discuss failures in conventional wisdom on human-automation interaction (HAI) and methods for systems design and Dr. Wilson will address the use of physiological measures for operator functional state classification in adaptive systems. The panel session is expected to promote further understanding among human factors researchers of concepts, theories and design principles of HAI and why we are at where we are today.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE6 - Measures and Methods in Complex Environments

Estimating User's Preferred Response Bias in an Automated Diagnostic Aid: A Psychophysical Approach BIBAFull-Text 326-329
  Jason S. McCarley; Joshua Rubinstein; Kelly S. Steelman; Leah Swanson
Operators often perform a target detection task better when assisted by a diagnostic aid of conservative response bias than when assisted by an aid of liberal bias. Little is known, however, about the factors that might influence the preferred level of automation response bias across task contexts. The present study used a psychophysical staircase technique to assess the influence of signal frequency and automation sensitivity on users' preferences. Subjects performed a signal detection task with the assistance of an automated aid, and were allowed to adjust the aid's response criterion across trials. A staircase procedure gauged the subjects' preferred level of automation response bias across factorially-manipulated levels of signal rate (25% vs. 75%) and aid sensitivity (d*prime; = 1.5 vs. 3.0). The preferred level of bias was generally conservative, but varied as an interaction of signal rate and aid's sensitivity.
A dynamic model of decision making in ATC: Adaptation of criterion across angle and time BIBAFull-Text 330-334
  Anita Vuckovic; Peter Kwantes; Andrew Neal
Signal Detection Theory (SDT; Green & Swets, 1966) is a well-established method for understanding performance on decision making tasks. Despite its popularity within the human factors community, this method does not take into account the dynamic nature of decision making and the speed-accuracy tradeoffs that affect performance (Balakrishnan, Busemeyer, MacDonald, & Lin, 2003). This study tested a model of decision making that accounts for the dynamic processes affecting performance. Tested within the applied context of an Air Traffic Control conflict detection task, the model provided a viable explanation of conflict decisions and decision times across a range of experimental conditions. At a practical level, a successful model of conflict detection may inform the development and assessment of design attempts aimed at assisting controllers achieve optimal performance outcomes and reduce their workload.
Mapping Ecologically to Modalities BIBAFull-Text 335-339
  Catherine M. Burns; Geoffrey Ho; G. Robert Arrabito
Ecological interface design (EID) is an approach to designing user interfaces that is based on the objective of providing functional system relationships to users in ways that reduce perceptual load. While EID has strong methods for determining the needed functional relationships through the analytical methods of Cognitive Work Analysis (Vicente, 1999), relatively little attention has been paid to establishing the design mappings that reduce perceptual load. We propose that different kinds of information should be assessed for perceptual fit to various modalities. In particular, those mappings that combine appropriate forms of reference with strong perceptual affordances will likely be the most successful. A case study applying this approach to the design of a multimodal ground control station for uninhabited aerial vehicle control is discussed.
How can they do it? A structured approach to the strategies analysis phase of Cognitive Work Analysis BIBAFull-Text 340-344
  Miranda Cornelissen; Paul M. Salmon; Daniel P. Jenkins; Michael G. Lenné
Cognitive work analysis is a widely applied method within Human Factors. To date, applications have mainly focused on the first two stages of the method -- Work Domain Analysis and Control Task Analysis. The latter stages have been neglected and are consequently not as well developed methodologically. This paper proposes an approach for strategies analysis, the third phase, which builds upon the output of the earlier phases and provides a structured, repeatable method for identifying potential strategies for completing control tasks. An Apple iPod is used to exemplify and evaluate the proposed approach. Future directions include validation of the approach with more complex systems.
Air Traffic Controller Operating Modes and Cognitive Complexity Regulation BIBAFull-Text 345-349
  Jonathan Histon; R. John Hansman
Observations of air traffic controller operating practices suggest that controllers operate in distinct operating modes in response to changes in the cognitive demands of the air traffic situation. These modes appear to correspond to differences in the use of structure-based strategies and abstractions identified primarily from rich but uncontrolled settings. In order to investigate the effects of manipulating traffic levels on controller use of structure, a part-task human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted. Participant actions are examined for changes in the use of standard flow and critical point abstractions and transitions between controller operating modes. The results provide evidence of transitions between distinct operating modes as participants modified their use of standard flows as traffic levels increased.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE7 - Situation Awareness

Effects of First Automation Failure on Situation Awareness and Performance in an Air Traffic Control Task BIBAFull-Text 350-354
  Arathi Sethumadhavan
The effects of first automation failure (e.g., Wickens & Xu, 2002) on performance of individuals in a subsequent failure trial when they worked with automated systems applied to different stages of information processing (e.g., Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000), was examined using the domain of air traffic control. The results revealed that even after exposure to an automation failure, individuals working with higher order automation continued to have lower situation awareness and were slower in responding to a subsequent automation failure compared to those in the information acquisition condition. Results from this experiment have practical implications for automation design and operator training.
Situation Awareness Reacquisition in a Supervisory Control Task BIBAFull-Text 355-359
  Daniel Gartenberg; Malcolm McCurry; Greg Trafton
External interruptions, task switching, distractions, and multi-tasking can all affect situation awareness (SA). This study focused on how SA is reacquired after a brief task-related break. Participants controlled multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, avoiding hazards and navigating vehicles to their target destination. In the dual-task condition, participants completed a payload sub-task after engaging a vehicle for mission completion. In the single task condition, participants did not complete the additional sub-task after engaging a vehicle for mission completion. Patterns of eye fixations were found that characterized instances when SA was being reacquired (dual task) and instances when there was continuous task performance (single task). After a task break, SA was reacquired by quickly scanning a diverse group of objects that had been previously looked at. When there was no task break, participants slowly fixated on a few objects that were novel. We interpret these findings as suggesting that when SA needs to be reacquired, previous goals and plans need to be reinstated, while during normal task behavior, participants seek novel and changing events. These findings support the Memory for Goals (MFG) model and the integrated framework for maintaining and recovering SA. We discuss implications for developing process models that evaluate SA in real-time.
Knowing What You Know: The Role of Meta-Situation Awareness in Predicting Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 360-364
  Arathi Sethumadhavan
To help operators handle increasing task demands, automated systems are increasingly being used in modern work settings. However, a potential consequence of such systems is the out of the loop performance syndrome, which refers to the reduced ability of operators working with high levels of automation support to take over manual control in the event of an automation failure (e.g., Wiener & Curry, 1980). One of the main factors considered responsible for this is a loss of operator situation awareness (SA; Endsley & Kiris, 1995). In order to improve SA and consequently improve performance, it becomes important to better understand the process of SA and the underlying factors that predict SA (e.g., Durso & Sethumadhavan, 2008). The role of meta-SA in predicting SA when individuals control air traffic with automation support is investigated in this paper. Results have practical implications for the development of SA training programs.
Team and Shared Situation Awareness in Disaster Action Teams BIBAFull-Text 365-369
  Haydee M. Cuevas; Rashaad E. T. Jones; Mary E. Mossey
Disaster Action Teams assist with American Red Cross disaster relief operations by providing support and services to people who are affected by local emergencies, such as fire or water damage to a home. Ensuring the successful performance of these teams requires promoting not only the situation awareness (SA) of individual team members, but also the SA of the team as a whole as well as their shared SA. In this paper, we demonstrate how the Goal-Directed Task Analysis methodology can be utilized to identify the critical information requirements of Disaster Action Teams, at both the individual and team level. We also illustrate how SA-Oriented Design Principles can be applied to meet their information demands by effectively presenting these information requirements.
Applying Knowledge and Confidence Information to Predict Achievement in Forecasting BIBAFull-Text 370-374
  Sarah Miller; Alex Kirlik; Nathan Hendren
In this paper, we explore the relationship between confidence and basic knowledge information collected prior to a forecast and forecast performance (i.e. achievement). Forecasters were asked at the beginning of the 2008 Major League Baseball season to predict end-of-year performance in five statistical categories for both hitters and pitchers. At the time of the initial forecast, participants were asked to rate the confidence in their forecast (0-100 scale) and were asked simple knowledge-based questions related to the player they were making forecasts about (e.g. player position and team). A regression analysis was used to compare the participant's performance on the statistical categories with their knowledge and confidence. In general, there was a significant relationship between performance in the statistical categories and both knowledge and confidence when compared individually. However, given both confidence and knowledge, confidence provides no additional significant information.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE8 - Visualizations and Displays

The Effects of Design Features on Users' Trust in and Reliance on a Combat Identification System BIBAFull-Text 375-379
  Lu Wang; Greg A. Jamieson; Justin G. Hollands
In a previous study, we found that users' trust in and reliance on an individual combat identification system is influenced by the system's reliability as well as users' awareness of the reliability. In this exploratory study we test the effects of design features of the same system on users' target identification performance as well as their trust in and reliance on the system. In a simulated task environment, we varied the automation activation mode (i.e., automatic vs. manual) and the presentation of the "unknown" feedback (i.e., explicit vs. implicit). Participants responded fastest when the "unknown" feedback was provided automatically with explicit indication. In addition, participants trusted the explicit "unknown" feedback more than the implicit feedback. However, neither reliance behavior nor identification accuracy changed significantly across conditions. This study has implications for the design of combat identification systems to achieve appropriate trust. In addition, the results suggest that when studying trust in automation using a simulation, it is important to simulate the design features.
Using Salience to Guide Searches in Digital Displays BIBAFull-Text 380-384
  Heidi S. Kramer; Frank A. Drews
Technological innovations including software applications and the internet have increased the ability to collect and store information. However, the increasing amounts of information are used by operators who are constrained by their limited cognitive processing capacity. One common approach to improve the search for information in digital displays is the concept of increased stimulus-driven salience to guide the user. To examine search efficiency, sufficiency and decision accuracy we conducted an experiment to explore the effect of the congruence of salience and relevance and the effect of salience manipulation (position or size). Our study adapted the Wason selection task and manipulated salience by size in a tag cloud and position in a list. The results show that increased salience of relevant items does not insure an optimal search. Care should be taken to match salience with relevance; however, increased salience should not be expected to promote a sufficient search with increased decision accuracy.
Interactive Visualizations to Improve Bayesian Reasoning BIBAFull-Text 385-389
  Jennifer Tsai; Sarah Miller; Alex Kirlik
Proper Bayesian reasoning is critical in a variety of domains that require practitioners to make predictions about the probability of events contingent upon earlier actions or events. However, much research on judgment has shown that people who are unfamiliar with Bayes' Theorem often reason quite poorly with conditional probabilities due to various cognitive biases. Owing to previous successes of visualization techniques for debiasing judges and improving judgment performance, we created an interactive computer visualization designed to aid Bayes-naïve people in solving conditional probability problems that would not require a training period to use, and would be flexible enough to accommodate many problem types. Results are suggestive that participants using our interactive visualization were able to substantially improve their Bayesian reasoning performance above that of previous debiasing methods. This finding has significant implications for expanding the toolbox of techniques that can be used to more accurately elicit predictions and forecasts from judges whose expertise lies beyond the realm of statistics.
Ambiguity and Content Mapping among Display Types BIBAFull-Text 390-393
  Jerred Holt; Kevin Bennett; John Flach
Abstract: The present study examines the efficacy of four display types. We tested digital, bar graph, polar graphic (Coury, Boulette, & Smith, 1989) and a coordinate display type. Participants completed a state classification task as described by Coury et al. Results indicate a clear performance difference among displays. The coordinate display showed significantly higher response accuracy and lower response times. The polar graphic display performed the poorest on both outcomes. Bar and digital displays demonstrated approximately equivalent performance. These results lend further support to the importance of ecological interface design and are consistent with the principles of semantic mapping. Directions for further study are discussed.
Comparing Rate-of-Change Cues in Trend Displays for a Process Control System BIBAFull-Text 394-398
  Shanqing Yin; Christopher D. Wickens; Pang Hong-Xiang; Martin Helander
This study explored whether explicitly presenting rate-of-change cues, an information that is otherwise only implicitly derived in today's process control operations, would benefit operator performance. Operators rely on rate-of-change (ROC) information to help anticipate and arrest problems and take early action. Currently ROC is derived implicitly via Trends displays, which plot historical data over time. A simulated experiment conducted using university undergraduates presented explicit rate-of-change (ROC) information, either in numerical or linear-shape format, into a modified Trends displays. Findings revealed performance improvement patterns and particularly strong performance benefits when ROC was presented in linear-shape format. Results provide first step towards integrating ROC representation into industry displays.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE9 - Models of Cognitive Workflow and Readiness

Energy Management in Large Enterprises: A field study BIBAFull-Text 399-403
  Antony Hilliard; Greg A. Jamieson
Energy managers are responsible for controlling business energy consumption. Wider adoption of energy management behavior would enable more efficient energy systems; however the costs of current energy management tools, tasks and training are beyond many small enterprises. Efforts to support more widespread energy management would benefit from better understanding the expert cognitive work performed at large enterprises. A preliminary study of this work was conducted by interview and participant observation. Energy managers apply skill in energy analysis, business management, and agreeable communication to cost-effectively monitor and report business-relevant energy findings. These activities are complicated by uncertainty in energy data and variability in business structure, which introduce tradeoffs between costs of social data interpretation and maintenance of complex datasets and models. To help clarify debate on appropriate design of energy management tools, tasks, and training, we propose four human-centered research topics of cues, trust, strategies, and sensors.
Cognitive Readiness at the Tactical Level: A Review of Measures BIBAFull-Text 404-408
  Rebecca A. Grier
The emerging concept of military Cognitive Readiness (CR) is focused on the research and assessment of an individual's potential for performance in the cognitively demanding area of military operations. In this paper, measures of CR for use in the tactical environment are reviewed. To frame this review, the paper begins with a discussion of the factors important to cognitive performance in military operations. Recommendations for future work towards the development of valid and practical CR measures for use in the tactical environment are also provided.
An exploratory study of workflow support for tactical teams BIBAFull-Text 409-413
  Mark F. St. John; Frank C. Lacson
Tactical teams need tools to support their collaboration and help coordinate their workflow. We developed the concept of workflow coordinating representations (WCRs) to provide a common workspace and coordination space. Two questions are whether there are general good design properties for WCRs, and whether there are limits to the types of tasks to which these properties can be applied successfully. Experiment 1 examined a range of design properties within a well-structured team task: collecting and analyzing biometric data during a maritime interdiction operation. Naïve participants performed the biometrics task and then rated the designs. A detailed WCR design that well matched the workflow of the task was rated more highly than other designs. Experiment 2 applied the detailed design to an ill-structured team task: planning a military rescue mission. There was a WCR for organizing the capabilities of each available asset and another WCR for laying out a detailed timeline of events. Simple maps of the mission area were rated more highly as a collaboration tool than the WCRs. The design properties that were effective for the well-structured task did not benefit the brainstorming nature of the ill-structured task, except for documenting a solution once the brainstorming was complete.
A Cognitively-Based Competency Model for Small Unit Counter-IED Performance BIBAFull-Text 414-418
  Razia V. N. Oden; Karol G. Ross; Iris D. Rivera; Jennifer K. Phillips
Competency modeling is the process by which skills and areas of knowledge to perform a task are identified and associated with that job, task, or mission. This technique is useful to uncover which particular knowledge and skill areas are required for successful completion of a specific job or task. This paper describes a cognitively-based competency model developed to understand the types of tasks performed at the small unit level for counter-IED operations for the purpose of developing assessment items. We conducted data collection using a simulation interview protocol with Warfighters, and multiple raters coded each interview to develop the competency model. The model consists of six competencies, some of which have multiple sub-competencies, and the underlying KSAs. This process is particularly useful in applied settings, and the pairing of this type of data collection method and the competency model process can be used in various domains, particularly cognitively challenging ones.
Improving Cognitive Effectiveness in Counterinsurgency Operational Planning BIBAFull-Text 419-423
  Raj Ratwani; Lou Lartigue; Lisa Chung; Darin Pepple; Kris Todd; James Zanol; Elan Freedy; Don Horvath
This paper describes a new software system that is designed to facilitate the cognitive processes of the operational planning team in counterinsurgency (COIN) environments. COIN environments pose many cognitive challenges to the operational planner; planners must maintain situation awareness, reason with numerous factors in the decision making process, and coordinate actions across echelons to ensure that long term goals are being met. The software system, called the Decision Infrastructure for Counterinsurgency Operational Planning (DICOP), provides an analytical framework for the operational planner that meets many of the cognitive challenges faced by the planning staff. DICOP provides a method for organizing and tracking relevant situational data, visualizing and modeling operational factors to facilitate decision making, and identifying and planning courses of action. These methods for improving cognitive effectiveness and the current field evaluation of DICOP in Iraq are discussed.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE10 - Addressing Human-Automation Challenges for the Control of UAS

Human-Automation Challenges for the Control of Unmanned Aerial Systems BIBAFull-Text 424-428
  Lisa Fern; R. Jay Shively; Mark H. Draper; Nancy J. Cooke; Chris A. Miller
The continuing proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in both civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges from how to bridge the gap between the demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Underlying many of these challenges is the issue of how automation capabilities can best be utilized to assist human operators manage increasing complexity and workload. The purpose of this discussion panel is to examine current research and perspectives on human automation interaction and how it relates to the future of UAS control. The panel is composed of five well-known researchers, all experts in the area of human-automation interaction. The range of topics that the panelists will discuss includes: how automation taxonomies can be applied to UAS design; opportunities to exploit automation capabilities in multi-vehicle contexts; current examples of automation research results, particularly in the area of multiple UAS control, and how they can be applied for future UAS; and how to design automation to maximize UAS mission effectiveness.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE11 - Human-Robot Interaction

Human Factors Issues with Operating Unmanned Underwater Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 429-433
  Geoffrey Ho; Nada Pavlovic; Robert Arrabito
There has been a great deal of human factors research on unmanned air and ground vehicles, but there is very little research examining the unique human factors problems associated with unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The lack of research is surprising considering the increased use and the envisioned future use of UUVs in military maritime operations. In this paper, it is argued that because the underwater environment is so harsh and challenging, operating UUVs presents human factors problems that are different from the challenges of surface unmanned systems. Several common human factors problems are discussed when using unmanned systems, including the loss of sensory cues and spatial awareness, the control of the remote vehicle, problems with situation awareness and workload, and problems with trust in automation. In each case, these issues are discussed with respect to underwater operations.
Effects of Alarms on Control of Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 434-438
  Shih-Yi Chien; Huadong Wang; Michael Lewis; Siddharth Mehrotra; Katia Sycara
Annunciator driven supervisory control (ADSC) is a widely used technique for directing human attention to control systems otherwise beyond their capabilities. ADSC requires associating abnormal parameter values with alarms in such a way that operator attention can be directed toward the involved subsystems or conditions. This is hard to achieve in multirobot control because it is difficult to distinguish abnormal conditions for states of a robot team. For largely independent tasks such as foraging, however, self-reflection can serve as a basis for alerting the operator to abnormalities of individual robots. While the search for targets remains unalarmed the resulting system approximates ADSC. The described experiment compares a control condition in which operators perform a multirobot urban search and rescue (USAR) task without alarms with ADSC (freely annunciated) and with a decision aid that limits operator workload by showing only the top alarm. No differences were found in area searched or victims found, however, operators in the freely annunciated condition were faster in detecting both the annunciated failures and victims entering their cameras' fields of view.
Location Label Speech Options Improve Robot Operator Performance BIBAFull-Text 439-443
  Daniel N. Cassenti; Troy D. Kelley; Erin Avery; Rosemarie E. Yagoda
Operators increasingly use speech communication to direct robots. Thus, research on how robot operators may most effectively use speech communication is increasingly important. If certain types of speech communication increase performance then it is incumbent on robot designers to produce robots that allow for these types of communication. An experiment was conducted as a follow up to a previous experiment (Cassenti, Kelley, Swoboda, & Patton, 2009) to test whether participants who were given the ability to use certain location labels performed better than those who could only give direction commands (i.e., turn right, move forward). The results indicated that robot performance was improved when participants could direct a robot using location labels. We interpret these results to suggest that robots which are designed to perform indoor navigation have improved performance when participants can use location labels for structural parts of a building (i.e., doors, halls, and rooms with numerical labels). We recommend that the robotic platform used in the present study be developed to recognize these location labels by incorporating visual recognition algorithms and map incorporation skills.
Asynchronous Control with ATR for Large Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 444-448
  Nathan Brooks; Paul Scerri; Katia Sycara; Huadong Wang; Shih-Yi Chien; Michael Lewis
In this paper, we discuss and investigate the advantages of an asynchronous display, called "image queue", tested for an urban search and rescue foraging task. The image queue approach mines video data to present the operator with a relevant and comprehensive view of the environment by selecting a small number of images that together cover large portions of the area searched. This asynchronous approach allows operators to search through a large amount of data gathered by autonomous robot teams, and allows comprehensive and scalable displays to obtain a network-centric perspective for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). In the reported experiment automatic target recognition (ATR) was used to augment utilities based on visual coverage in selecting imagery for presentation to the operator. In the cued condition a box was drawn in the region in which a possible target was detected. In the no-cue condition no box was drawn although the target detection probability continued to play a role in the selection of imagery. We found that operators using the image queue displays missed fewer victims and relied on teleoperation less often than those using streaming video. Image queue users in the no-cue condition did better in avoiding false alarms and reported lower workload than those in the cued condition.
Providing the Right Amount of Detail: Implications for Map and Icon Display in a Robotic Search Task BIBAFull-Text 449-453
  Patricia L. McDermott; Roger Chadwick; Jennifer M. Riley; Alia Fisher
An experiment was constructed to provide guidance regarding how much information should be displayed to operators performing remote robotic tasks. Display features were designed to address some of the challenges facing robotic operators -- reconciling views from different sources, understanding teammate location and orientation, and maintaining spatial awareness of the unmanned vehicle location in relation to mission-relevant landmarks. We added information about orientation and history to teammate position icons and tested their usefulness. In addition, we tested the usefulness of two different types of maps: a detailed satellite map and a more traditional block map. We found that the simple block map better supported performance in this context and that adding information to the position icon did not aid performance. Implications and rationale are discussed.

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: CE12 - From Teleoperation to Teammate: Applying Theory and Method from the Cognitive and Computational Sciences to Create Human-Robot Teams

From Teleoperation to Teammate: Applying Theory and Method from the Cognitive and Computational Sciences to Create Human-Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 454-455
  Randall Shumaker
The current generation of advanced robots essentially considers the external world, including humans, vehicles, and other robots, as navigational issues rather than as team members, opponents, or part of the ambient culture. But robotic systems need true Soldier-Robot Teams where each part of the team understands the roles, responsibilities, and required actions of the others and has the capability to provide the communication necessary to make the team successful. Accomplishing this within a mission context, accepted military doctrine, and social norms of the society in which the human-robot teams operate, represents a major theoretical and technological challenge for research in human-robot teams.
A Research Approach to Shared Mental Models and Situation Assessment in Future Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 456-460
  David Schuster; Scott Ososky; Florian Jentsch; Elizabeth Phillips; Christian Lebiere; William A. Evans
Understanding team cognition requires a multifaceted research approach, aimed at understanding individual and team cognition within and across humans and agents. Measurement and prediction of mental models and situation awareness (SA) of humans, robotic agents, and teams are needed to understand the knowledge required for advanced human-robot team performance. In this paper, we present a research approach to understanding shared mental models (SMMs) and SA with respect to human-robot teams. Having shared and accurate mental models will allow for human and robotic teammates to understand each other's roles and tasks and also provide a level of predictive behavior that allows teammates to anticipate each other's needs. Incorporating robotic agents' input into team SA will improve the adaptive capability of the team. Combined with SA, SMMs can provide a deeper understanding of the happenings in the mission environment.
Defining Next-Generation Multi-Modal Communication in Human Robot Interaction BIBAFull-Text 461-464
  Stephanie Lackey; Daniel Barber; Lauren Reinerman; Norman I. Badler; Irwin Hudson
With teleoperation being the contemporary standard for Human Robot Interaction (HRI), research into multi-modal communication (MMC) has focused on development of advanced Operator Control Units (OCU) supporting control of one or more robots. However, with advances being made to improve the perception, intelligence, and mobility of robots, a need exists to revolutionize the ways in which Soldiers interact with robotic team members. Within this future vision, mixed-initiative Soldier-Robot (SR) teams will work collaboratively sharing information back-and-forth in a fluid natural manner using combinations of communication methods. Therefore, new definitions are required to focus research efforts to support next-generation MMC. After a thorough survey of the literature and a scientific workshop on the topic, this paper aims to operationally define MMC, Explicit Communication, and Implicit Communication to encompass the shifting paradigm of HRI from a controller/controlled relationship to a cooperative team mate relationship. This paper presents the results from a survey of the literature and a scientific workshop that inform proposed definitions for multi-modal, explicit, and implicit communication. An illustrative scenario vignette provides context and specific examples of each communication type. Finally, future research efforts are summarized.
Human-Robot Teams Collaborating Socially, Organizationally, and Culturally BIBAFull-Text 465-469
  Stephen M. Fiore; Norman L. Badler; Lotzi Boloni; Michael A. Goodrich; Annie S. Wu; Jessie Chen
We describe an approach examining multi-level collaboration challenges by integrating social, organizational, and cultural factors for human-robot teams operating in the real world. We discuss the research at three levels of social interaction: within a team, within a social environment, and within a culture. We first describe research exploring psychologically and biologically inspired models of behavior to extend the capabilities of heterogeneous multi-human, multi-robot teams. We then discuss research issues that must be addressed to provide insights on how robots can correctly vary actions in response to cultural populations and geospatial environments by recognizing and properly interpreting human configurations, cultural artifacts and behaviors. The goal is to make it possible for robots to function effectively within dynamic operational and social situations.

Communications: C2 - Communications Potpourri

Text-Speak processing BIBAFull-Text 470-474
  James R. Head; William S. Helton; Ewald Neumann; Paul N. Russell; Connie Shears
There has been a steady shift from more traditional means of communication (e.g., hand written letters) to more electronically based (e.g., text messaging) (Crystal, 2008). This shift in communication style has influenced both civilian and military occupations (Turkoski, 2009; Finomore, et al., 2010). The current study investigated whether text-speak (method for shortening words or phrases) provides semantic value. A text-speak proficiency scale was also created in order to determine if the extent of text-speak use correlates with behavioral performance. Eighty-seven university students completed a masked priming experiment coupled with an 8-item text-speak scale. The masked priming experiment yielded significant priming indicating that text-speak primes are semantically meaningful, because they facilitate responding to their word counterpart even when the prime is processed unconsciously. The 8-item scale yielded a correlation between willingness to use text speak and magnitude of priming. These findings suggest that the 8-item scale may be useful in assessing text-speak behavior and aid in a better understanding of the role of text.
An Investigation on the Effects of Flow State on Team Process and Outcomes BIBAFull-Text 475-479
  Kyle Heyne; Davin Pavlas; Eduardo Salas
There has been an abundance of research on flow state at the individual level and it is often applied to experiences that are typically intended to be enjoyable (e.g., video games and sports). Research has shown that flow state can also be experienced in traditional work environments and several antecedents to its achievement in such environments have been identified. Despite this, there remains some ambiguity regarding the applicability of flow state to teams. Additionally, the majority of the research regarding the experience of flow state in teams revolves around athletic teams. In this paper an argument is presented towards the view that the effect of flow state on team performance is similar to the effect of flow state on individuals but with an additional impact on team processes. The experiment conducted yielded results suggesting a linkage between team flow state and team processes and performance for a complex planning task.
Evaluation Tools to Aid Command and Control Operators in Chat-Based Communication Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 480-484
  Kelly Satterfield; Victor Finomore; Courtney Castle; Joel Warm
Command and Control operators rely heavily on text-chat communications to efficiently plan, direct, coordinate, and control assets. This communication intensive environment imposes a high degree of workload on operators thus resulting in failures of detection or comprehension of messages. This study examined the performance and workload associated with monitoring chat communication with access to features that allow for speech-to-text input as well as the highlighting of keywords. Operators monitored and responded to the occurrence of critical signals presented during a 10-minute chat monitoring task. Performance was analyzed with regard to message detection as well as measures of perceived mental workload. Data showed that voice response results in more detections than typing and that keyword highlighting also aids in overall detection. Voice response and keyword highlighting can be beneficial tools to operators monitoring chat because they afford quick and accurate text input thus allowing operators to maintain awareness of their display and reduce their workload.
A New Method to Evaluate Gaze Behavior Patterns in Doctor-Patient Interaction BIBAFull-Text 485-489
  Jie Xu; Onur Asan; Enid N. H. Montague
Eye gaze behavior is considered an important aspect of doctor-patient nonverbal interaction process in a clinical encounter. Previous research shows that eye gaze behavior patterns works as part of a doctor's communication style and affects certain medical outcomes. New interventions (behavioral and technological) are continuously being introduced to the clinical encounters due to health care work system redesign and there is a need to evaluate the impact of these interventions on communication. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach to evaluate eye gaze behavior patterns using video coding and lag sequential analysis technique. Thirty-two clinical encounters with two interaction styles were analyzed. Differences and similarities in eye gaze behavior pattern were found in the two styles. Implications for interventions and evaluation in doctor-patient interaction are discussed.
Comparing Remote and In-person Collaboration in Three Virtual Tasks Using a Two-handed Interface BIBAFull-Text 490-494
  F. Jacob Seagull; Tameka Clanton; Arun Yoganandan; Jason Jerald; Paul Mlyniec
We describe an immersive and distributed 3D medical system that uses a Two-Handed Interface (THI) to enable intuitive interaction with multimedia objects and space. Previous studies have shown a THI to be useful compared to standard keyboard-and mouse interfaces. The current work examined the utility of a THI in virtual, avatar-to-avatar collaboration (i.e. two THI users in a shared virtual space, with one acting as a subject and one as a mentor). Twenty-five medically trained participants carried out the tasks of (1) navigation through virtual environments, (2) acquisition of shared visual perspective, and (3) precision manipulation of virtual objects. All tasks were carried out by each participant in face-to-face and in avatarto-avatar mentoring conditions. Results show avatar-to-avatar collaboration to be faster on all three types of tasks than face-to-face collaboration (p<.01). Using a THI, virtual telecollaboration was more effective than in-person collaboration in these virtual tasks.

Computer Systems: CS1 - Information Display and Control

Communicating Image Content BIBAFull-Text 495-499
  Lisa Tang; Jim A. Carter
While a picture is worth a thousand words, do you know what those words are communicating? The Internet is filled with visual graphics to present information, complement textual content, and/or add visual appeal. What happens if you or the user cannot see the images or visual content? How will you get the same information? Although containers for providing textual information (known as alternative text) for images already exist, most web pages do not utilize them. Even when alternative text is available, the descriptions are often vague and uninformative. This paper reports on activities to provide guidance, a procedure for describing images, and a tool to support the creation of informative alternative text for all types of images. Evaluations of the procedure and tool confirm the promise of this approach, and have identified several improvements to increase usability.
Video-based Performance Support Development for an Online Management Information System BIBAFull-Text 500-504
  John W. Ruffner; Amy D. Sammons; Wayne R. Tewkesbury
The U.S. Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) has a mission to provide ammunition and explosives safety instruction, training, and logistics support to Department of Defense (DoD) military and civilian personnel worldwide. To effectively support its ammunition readiness mission, DAC collects, organizes, manages and disseminates information and knowledge that is both current and pertinent to the ammunition community. A major component of the DAC Knowledge Management strategy is the use of an online management information system (MIS) for controlling the use of different classes of ammunition. A key tool for successfully using an online MIS is an online performance support system. We discuss our efforts to develop a video-based performance support system for the U.S. Army's Total Ammunition Management Information System (TAMIS), lessons learned, next steps, and the practice implications for the human factors, information technology, and knowledge management communities.
A Comparison of Communicative Modes for Map-Based Tasking BIBAFull-Text 505-509
  Eli R. Hooten; Sean T. Hayes; Julie A. Adams
Effective communication is critical to search and rescue, disaster response, and military operations. This paper discusses the design of a mobile, map-based tasking interface that leverages visual-communicative methods that will lead to facilitating effective communication to deployed personnel. A Communications Mode was developed to allow for the reliable and rapid transfer of information. The Communications Mode was tested via a user evaluation and found to be superior to auditory communication and as good as visual communication using paper maps for the communication of task-specific information.
Modeling the Orientation of Graphical Objects on Computer Displays Using Indented Mouse Wheels BIBAFull-Text 510-514
  Robert Pastel; Paul Ward
Graphic designers and model builders frequently rotate graphical objects on computer displays to make a drawing or scene. This experiment measured the movement time and error rate for participants to rotate sectors with various angular widths within larger target sectors with various angular tolerances, using a mouse wheel with discrete physical indentations. Tolerances were varied from very precise and difficult (a single mouse wheel position) to very gross and easy. The analysis modeled orienting by dividing the total movement time into three periods in order to determine the separate effects of the object angular width, angular tolerance and amplitude. The results explain that the mouse wheel with physically discrete indentions is particularly adept at precise orienting but slow at rotating the object through large angles.
Evaluation of Multiparameter Vibrotactile Display Designs to Support Physiological Monitoring Performance in Anesthesiology BIBAFull-Text 515-519
  Thomas Ferris; Nadine Sarter
The task set of anesthesiologists, like those of operators in many data-rich work domains, is characterized by heavy demand for visual and auditory resources. Employing tactile displays can offload some of this demand, potentially improving performance in tasks related to patient care during surgery, such as monitoring and managing multiple physiological systems. The current study compared anesthesiologists' performance in an immersive patient simulator under four different physiological data display configurations: standard visual and auditory displays alone, and with the addition of three different vibrotactile display designs. Findings show that physiological management performance improved with the vibrotactile displays, compared to with standard displays alone. The best performance was found with "continuously-informing" vibrotactile displays which increased signal salience as represented parameters approached unsafe levels. The findings from this study have implications for tactile display design, as well as the study of tactile and multimodal information processing in attentionally-demanding environments.

Computer Systems: CS2 - Human Factors in Games: Research and Development Challenges

Facing the Human Factors Challenges in Game Design: A Discussion Panel BIBAFull-Text 520-524
  Felix Portnoy; Rob Aseron; Maria Harrington; Kathleen Kremer; Tim Nichols; Veronica Zammitto
The game industry has been expanding exponentially in the past decades, mainly by making games more appealing to a wider audience. In addition, the level of complexity in control interfaces and graphics has increased steadily. As a result, there is a growing demand for human factors and ergonomics practitioners to ensure the users' engagement. Furthermore, the gaming domain provides an opportunity to expand human factors research in the academia. Therefore, the goal of this panel is to introduce the audience to the present research and development techniques that human factors practitioners utilize in this domain. Specifically, we will review and demonstrate the unique human factors challenges in Internet social games, console video games, and educational games for children and teens using a variety of unique interfaces, such as virtual reality, tactile controls, and gesture recognition.

Education: E1 - The Practice of Pedagogy

A Service Learning Case Study for the Ergonomics Classroom BIBAFull-Text 525-529
  Laura Stanley; Tawny Hoyt
Applications of human factors and ergonomics in the design process have great potential in a service learning setting. During the 2009 and 2010 fall semesters, a national competition for designing work aids for disabled persons was integrated as a service learning term project in a senior level undergraduate course entitled "Human Factors and Ergonomics I." This project provided students with hands-on experience in applying both engineering skills (based upon the ABET a-k outcomes) and ergonomics principles to designing for special populations. Throughout the semester students worked one-on-one with an assigned disabled client and the client's vocational aide in applying concepts learned during the course. The project's objective was to develop an assistive device that would empower their client with disabilities to overcome barriers to employment. This included enabling their clients to perform their jobs with greater ease and efficiency and in some cases with complete independence. In order to encourage a more widespread adoption of service learning within human factors and ergonomics education, this paper describes one application of a service learning project that can be applied across a variety of human factors and ergonomics courses.
Educational and Skill Needs of New Human Factors/Ergonomics Professionals BIBAFull-Text 530-534
  Esa M. Rantanen; William F. Moroney
The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society's Education and Training Committee and the Early Career Committee identified the need to evaluate the effectiveness of graduate education in the field of human factors/ergonomics and identify areas requiring improvement. Consequently, a survey was constructed for this purpose. Fifty-two new professionals responded to the survey. While most of these individuals come from the traditional fields of psychology and engineering, many represented multiple disciplines including architecture, safety, IT, and kinesiology. New professionals made heavy use of online non-refereed sources as well as professional websites. While no particular topic in their college experience was deemed superfluous, they indicated a need for design experiences, exposure to the processes used in the "hard" engineering disciplines, how to communicate as a member of an interdisciplinary team. The most common academic areas that the respondents wished had been addressed in greater depth during their educational experience were research methods and statistics, application of knowledge learned, and various aspects of design. The survey also validated the Ergonomist Formation Model of the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics (BCPE).
Applied Experimental Psychology: A Capstone Course for Undergraduate Psychology Degree Programs BIBAFull-Text 535-539
  Jenay M. Beer; Sara E. McBride; Anne E. Adams; Wendy A. Rogers
Learning-by-doing and a transgenerational educational format are incorporated into a semesterlong undergraduate capstone course. The goal of the course is to provide students with an understanding of the fundamentals of applied experimental psychology (e.g., applications of methods), and using that understanding in the context of design. Students participate in seminar-style class meetings and a weekly laboratory meeting. Every class meeting is devoted to discussing a reading assignment related to the fundamentals of aging, as well as a breadth of applied experimental psychology domains. The students are encouraged to engage in collaborative discussion to critique the main points of the reading. In the laboratory, each student learns about and applies human factors methods. The students work in teams and develop a project in which they apply their fundamental knowledge of experimental psychology to the domain of successful aging. Each team develops or redesigns a technology, device, or environment to aid older adults to live independently, maintain their health, and/or improve their well-being. Transgenerational education is promoted through the students' interaction with a panel of elders, who participate in user testing and feedback. The students and older adults alike reported that the course is beneficial. Students learned about the fundamentals of applying experimental psychology and aging, whereas older adults increased their awareness of technology development and how technology can impact successful aging.
The Impact of Disciplinary Balance on Interdisciplinary Teamwork: A Comparative Case Study of Interdisciplinary Product Design Teams BIBAFull-Text 540-544
  Kahyun Kim; Lisa D. McNair
This study presents results from a comparative case study of interdisciplinary product design teams from two consecutive years under non-balanced and balanced disciplinary conditions. The main difference between the two conditions was the hands-on exercise modules focusing on each discipline (e.g., electronic prototyping exercise) used for the balanced condition. The purpose of this paper was to examine cultural traits of different disciplines (Electrical & Computer Engineering, Industrial Design, and Marketing) using questionnaires and show the impact of disciplinary balance on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary product design teams through qualitative analysis of team meetings and products. The results indicated that the teams under the balanced disciplinary condition showed higher effectiveness. Implications and the future direction for the work are also described.
A Studio-Based Approach to Teaching Ergonomics and Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 545-549
  Laura Moody
This paper describes the development of a studio-based approach for teaching ergonomics and human factors to undergraduate engineering students. Studio-based methods in engineering education draw on the concept of a "design studio" as the basis for learning and applying fundamental skills and knowledge through a series of directed exploration and design projects under the guidance of the course instructor. The use of these methods for teaching foundational courses in ergonomics and human factors is especially promising, as laboratory experiences and design projects are often an integral part of the course.

Education: E2 - The Science of Pedagogy

Promoting Interactions with Technology: Review of a College-Wide Tablet PC Program BIBAFull-Text 550-554
  Kahyun Kim; Leanna M. Horton; Catherine T. Amelink
In this paper, we describe findings from an empirical review of a college-wide Tablet PC program at Virginia tech five years after the program's inception. Data were collected through a student survey (n=1090) and focus groups with students (n=21) and semi-structured interviews with faculty members (n=4) were conducted. The findings suggested that the use of Tablet PCs with collaborative software promoted various types of faculty-student (e.g. real-time feedback, active engagement) and student-student interactions (e.g., online collaboration for co-located teams, virtual meetings). Additionally, students who use Tablet PCs in more courses showed higher level of engagement in classroom interactions. Recommendations for incorporating Tablet PCs into classrooms based on the findings are discussed.
An Investigation of Learning Style and Discipline in a Human Factors Course BIBAFull-Text 555-559
  Mark C., Jr. Schall; Michelle L. Rusch; Geb Thomas; John D. Lee
This study investigated adjustments made to learning materials for an Industrial Engineering Human Factors course at a public research university in the United States. Adjustments were made in an attempt to improve student comprehension of course content. Modifications included creating alternative homework assignments, design exercises, active classroom learning lessons, and lecture presentations to accommodate learning styles defined by Kolb's experiential learning theory. The same instructor taught the course before and after adjustment. Performance scores (e.g. homework, quizzes, exams) were used to evaluate whether or not the changes in course materials were associated with an improvement in student comprehension of material. Results suggested that while the adjusted materials educated all learning styles similarly, they did not significantly improve student performance. Significant differences were found across various disciplines; however, adjustments reduced these differences over the course of the semester.
Ergonomics of Learning Environments -- Designs with Strong, Equivocal or Poor Returns on Educational Investment BIBAFull-Text 560-564
  Thomas J. Smith
This report introduces evidence for the conclusion that a common theme underlies almost all proposed solutions for improving the performance of K-12 students, namely their reliance on the design of educational system environments, features and operations. Two categories of design factors impacting such performance are addressed: (1) 10 factors reliably shown to have a strong influence; and (2) 10 factors with an equivocal or weak influence. It is concluded that: (1) student learning outcomes, and more broadly the edifice of education itself, are largely defined in terms of an extensive system of design factors and conditions; and (2) educators should emphasize allocation of resources to positive impact design factors.
Metacognitive Prompting as a Generalizable Instructional Tool in Simulation-Based Training BIBAFull-Text 565-569
  Logan Fiorella; Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt
Instructional strategies for improved learning often lack the ability to be applied to domains with differing learning goals. This study expanded on our previous work to investigate whether metacognitive prompting can be utilized as a broadly applied training intervention within a simulation-based training environment. Participants in the experimental group were provided metacognitive prompts following decisions made during simulation-based training scenarios and were compared to a control group that did not receive prompting. Results indicate that metacognitive prompting may enhance the acquisition of conceptual knowledge; however, it did not improve the ability to transfer this knowledge to a novel situation. The study also provided evidence of a possible interaction effect between self-reported cognitive load and condition, suggesting that prompting may provide learners with an enhanced capacity to attend to and process additional information present in their environment.
Learning from Multiphase Diagrams: Effects of Spatial Ability and Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity BIBAFull-Text 570-574
  Keith A. Kline; Richard Catrambone
High spatial ability or visuospatial working memory sometimes enhances peoples' ability to learn from good multimedia instructions and other times compensates for poor instructional designs. This pattern of enhancement and compensation might be an artifact of pairwise comparisons between instructional conditions. In the present study three instructional conditions were designed to examine both potential patterns of interaction. Participants learned about physical or biological systems from either text (the nominally poor instruction condition), text with a single phase diagram (the medium quality condition), or multiphase diagrams integrated with text (the good instruction condition). Greater spatial ability was associated with better learning in all three conditions, whereas greater visuospatial working memory was associated with better learning in the multiphase diagrams condition and unrelated to performance in the other two conditions. A main effect of instructional condition was also found, with better learning in the multiphase diagrams condition. The results have practical implications for instructional design and theoretical implications regarding the cognitive processes that underlie learning from multiphase diagrams.

Environmental Design: ED1 - Color and Wayfinding: Research in a Hospital Environment

Color and wayfinding: a research in a hospital environment BIBAFull-Text 575-578
  Marcia Rangel; Claudia Mont' Alvão
This paper presents some results of a larger study -- in human factors field -- designed to follow-up the interrelationships between users and the hospital environment, regarding its spatial orientation. Among some tools that were used, here are presented the results of a questionnaire that contains several questions about user's perception of hospital's environment, perception of colors, comparing it colors to a color scale and also questions proposed by Lawton and Kallai' Scale (2002) that compares wayfinding spatial strategies among gender.

Environmental Design: ED2 - Environmental Design Potpourri

The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers BIBAFull-Text 579-583
  P. Vink; S. van Mastrigt
One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about aspects which need to be improved in order to design a more comfortable aircraft interior. The results show clear relationships between comfort and leg room, hygiene, crew attention and seat. Passengers rate the newer planes significantly better than older ones, indicating that attention to design for comfort has proven effective. The study also shows that rude flight attendants and bad hygiene reduce the comfort experience drastically.
Research in Motion: A Case Study Evaluating the Accessibility of Public Transit in our Nation's Capital BIBAFull-Text 584-588
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
Although the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed by Congress two decades ago, there are still public facilities that have a long way to go in order to meet the goal of being "barrier-free." Unfortunately, some of these places include public transportation systems that many people with disabilities rely on daily. During a recent consulting job regarding accessibility and environmental design, we decided to put the public Metro system in Washington, DC to the test. We wanted to determine how easy it is to access and use the system for people who rely on wheelchairs. We were surprised that this case study revealed serious and multiple barriers to accessibility. We learned that many human factors issues regarding accessible design were not achieved by this system, even at a modest level.
Universal Design in Multi-Unit Housing BIBAFull-Text 589-593
  Tracy Needles; David Feathers
When applied to multi-unit or apartment buildings, Universal Design (UD) has the potential to enhance both the physical and psychological environment for a large number of tenants and guests. Combining both public and private spaces, apartment buildings are unique in their design, allowing UD to be more effective in its application. This research project used multiple methods and applied these methods to two existing apartment buildings: one that applied UD, one that did not, in order to explain the way UD effects this environment in practice. This research project shows that when applied effectively, UD can increase the perceived quality of private apartments and reduce architectural stigmas to provide a more accessible and functional environment for all. Although there is still a knowledge barrier to UD's widespread use, UD has the potential to have an impact on current and future tenants when applied to apartment buildings.
Evaluating the Impact of an Office Ergonomics Program BIBAFull-Text 594-598
  Alan Hedge; Jonathan Puleio; Vincent Wang
Workers in a New York City department participated in an office ergonomics training program and voluntarily completed a survey of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WRMSs). Results of the survey were used to guide ergonomic interventions and sixty days later employees voluntarily completed a follow-up WRMS survey. Complete data for full-time employees who had completed both surveys was analyzed (1,504 employees). Results showed significant reductions in the prevalence, frequency, severity and degree of debilitation with the ergonomic interventions for a number of WRMSs. Results also showed the effects of chair design characteristics on certain upper body WRMSs. Implications of this work are discussed.
Ergonomics and the Built Environment: Recommendations for Wall Outlet Height BIBAFull-Text 599-603
  Wenjiao Wang; Sharon Joines; Sean Vance
In United States, maids and housekeeping cleaners had an incidence rate of 64.4 for total exertions, 28.8 for lifting over exertions, 7.5 for repetitive motion injuries in 2008. This paper addresses the intersection of ergonomics and the built environment by exploring one aspect of the built environment (wall outlet height) on the user (occupant or employee). The results showed that for able body individuals, wall outlet heights located between 101-91 cm are recommended. For wheelchair users, lower heights (such as 61-71 cm) may be better design choices. To accommodate all participants, a mid-height location (e.g. 71 cm) is recommended.

Forensics Professional: FP1 - What Do Human Factors/Ergonomics Experts Have to Tell Juries That They Don't Already Know - But May Think They Know?

What Do Human Factors/Ergonomics Experts Have to Tell Juries That They Don't Know -- But May Think They Know? BIBAFull-Text 604-607
  Kenneth R., Sr. Laughery; Michael S. Wogalter; Kenneth E. Nemire; Alison G. Vredenburgh; Michael J. Kalsher
Product liability and personal injury litigation frequently involves circumstances where an injury or property damage occurred as humans were interacting with products and/or environments while performing some task. Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) professionals are often involved as experts in these cases. The question addressed here is what benefits do juries derive from HFE expert testimony. In this session five panelists with experience as expert witnesses each describe a case that illustrates HFE testimony. Examples of issues addressed are sensory/perceptual limitations, attention capture and capacity, and induced errors. The presentations focus on issues where expert testimony would likely benefit jury understanding technical topics about which jurors may know little about or have misconceptions.

Forensics Professional: FP2 - Participation on Voluntary Committees for Standards and Codes by Forensic Practitioners: A Win-Win Combination

Participation on Voluntary Committees for Standards and Codes by Forensic Practitioners -- A Win-Win Combination BIBAFull-Text 608-612
  Shelley Waters Deppa
This alternative format session synthesizes the experiences of five, diverse, forensic human factors practitioners who have actively participated in widely varying voluntary committees for standards and codes and found similar benefits of performing this work. Although such work is typically non-compensated, actively participating on voluntary standards committees can benefit society by improving safety standards and codes and simultaneously benefit the forensic human factors professional through contacts and networking, increased knowledge, technical expertise, and professional credibility. A strong need exists for more human factors input on voluntary committees. It is the authors' hope that sharing their individual experiences will persuade other forensic human factors practitioners to similarly join in this mutually beneficial volunteer work.

General Sessions: GS1 - Past President's Forum - Human Factors in NextGen Operations: Progress and Perspectives

Past President's Forum Human Factors in NextGen Operations: Progress and Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 613
  Kathleen L. Mosier; Tom McCloy; Dino Piccione; Alan R. Jacobsen; Paul Nelson; Melvin S. Davis
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will entail significant changes in roles and responsibilities of participants, more and more sophisticated automation, and requirements for precise flight to enable safe and efficient operations. Human factors research and development related to all aspects of human-system integration (HSI) comprise key components for the success of this initiative. A HSI Roadmap based on operational improvements and requirements for NextGen was developed to facilitate research and workforce support activities and capabilities. The intent of this forum is to discuss the most important NextGen HSI issues and the progress made on the HSI Roadmap. Additionally, representatives from the principal stakeholder groups will offer their perspectives on the complexities and challenges for NextGen operations.

General Sessions: GS2 - National Research Council Board on Human-Systems Integration Special Panel Session: Human Factors and Home Health Care

National Research Council Board on Human-Systems Integration Special Panel Session: Human Factors and Home Health Care BIBAFull-Text 614
  William S. Marras; Barbara Wanchisen; Sara J. Czaja; Chris Gibbons; Judith Mathews; Molly Story
Health care is increasingly occurring in home settings rather than in professional medical settings, and consumers are expected to engage in a wide range of health-care tasks using wide varieties of technology and equipment. The Board on Human-Systems Integration (BOHSI) at the National Research Council (NRC) recently provided oversight on a study funded by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality to examine the current state of health care in the home and identify existing problems and opportunities for improvement of care through the application of human factors/ergonomics knowledge and methods. This panel will present the highlights of the findings of that study, and panelists will discuss the increasingly important role of human factors engineering within home health care.

General Sessions: GS4 - Arnold Small Lecture in Safety

Managing Health Care Complexity -- Reducing Medical Errors Through Leadership Behavior Strategies BIBFull-Text 615
  Michael E. Frisina

General Sessions: GS5 - Health, Tiredness, and Workload

Exploring the Linkage between Facial Expression and Mental Workload for Arithmetic Tasks BIBAFull-Text 616-619
  Richard T. Stone; Chen-Shuang Wei
The measurement of mental workload is a commonly used and widely accepted means of assessing cognitively driven human performance tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage between facial expression and mental workload in the performance of arithmetic tasks. Eighteen participants were recruited and asked to perform various levels of arithmetic tasks. Classical subjective and physiological measures were used to track mental workload levels; these measures included NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX), Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT), and electroencephalogram (EEG). In addition we utilize and propose a new measurement based on facial expressions, coded with the Facial Action Coding System. The results showed that facial expression is a viable index for measuring mental workload.
Incorporation of Privacy and Usability for Remote/Home Healthcare Systems: Human Factors Considerations BIBAFull-Text 620-624
  Kyeong-Ah Jeong; Robert W. Proctor
Although specific privacy-related properties have been proposed for remote/home-based healthcare systems, usability issues relating to those properties have received little consideration. We review privacy-related problems that need to be addressed and identify many human factors considerations associated with implementation of the privacy properties for remote/home healthcare systems. Implementations that do not take the users into account will likely fail to accomplish their privacy and security goals.
An Efficient Method for Modeling an Individual's Perception of Postural Stress BIBAFull-Text 625-629
  Ogutu Jack; Woojin Park
Various Posture Analysis Tools (PAT), for example, OWAS and RULA, are currently used to evaluate and control work-related postural stresses. These tools do not consider substantial individual differences in the perception of postural stresses. Consequently, they do not provide an insight into the population stress distributions of different working postures. The limitations make it difficult to provide protections in individual-specific manners and accurately estimate the effects of job design at the population level. An alternative to the existing PAT is to develop individual-specific PAT and use them for protecting individuals. With a large database of such individual-specific PAT, population level analyses also become possible. As an initial effort towards individual-specific and population-level posture analyses, our goal is to develop a procedure for creating individual-specific PAT. Our hypothesis is that individuals' specific PAT can be represented as simple mathematical functions, referred to as posture-stress mapping (PSM) functions. To test the feasibility of the PSM function concept, a pilot study was conducted. As for the common basic function form, a weight sum of body joint moments was tested. Six subjects participated. Each subject performed a 20-second static posture holding trial for a set of 180 working postures and conducted a subjective rating of postural stress using the Borg CR10 scale. The six subjects differed from one another significantly in the distribution of the measured postural stresses justifying the needs for the individual-specific modeling approach. For each subject, the posture-stress dataset was divided to form a model test dataset and differently-sized model building datasets. Each of the model building dataset was fitted into the base function form. The resulting PSM function was used to predict the postural stress responses for the postures included in the model test dataset. Its prediction accuracy was evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted postural stresses. For two of the six subjects, their PSM functions were found to be able to accurately predict postural stresses of working postures. Overall, the current results suggest that individual-specific modeling of postural stresses seems feasible; however, different base function forms will need to be evaluated in the future.
The Relationship Between Self-reported Hours of Sleep, Perceptions of Tiredness and Academic Performance in a Military Training Environment BIBAFull-Text 630-634
  Petra E. Alfred; Valerie J. Rice
Prior research has demonstrated a relationship between a student's amount of nightly sleep and their grades. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep on weekdays and weekends, subjective feelings of tiredness, and academic performance among Health Care Specialist students at Ft. Sam Houston, TX. A survey was administered during the first two weeks of training and final academic performance was recorded (pass/fail status and final course average) for 153 student volunteers. Spearman rho correlations and Chisquare analyses were conducted on the ordinal data. Results indicate a positive correlation between weekday hours-of-sleep and weekend hours-of-sleep (p < .05). However, only self-reported hours of sleep on weekends was significantly correlated with academic performance (p < .05). An interpretation of findings, implications for course design, and ideas for future research are discussed.
Effects of Autonomous vs. Remotely-Operated Unmanned Weapon Systems on Human-Robot Teamwork and Trust BIBAFull-Text 635-639
  Julie N. Salcedo; Eric C. Ortiz; Stephanie J. Lackey; Irwin Hudson; Andrea H. Taylor
In the United States Military, 2011 marks the third year of a 25 year plan to increase the number of unmanned systems across the air, ground, and maritime domains. These systems perform as members of human-robot teams either autonomously or by remote-operation. The success of employing unmanned systems in coordination with human team members depends on system capabilities which support teamwork and trust. Weaponization of these systems introduces new concerns in teamwork and trust research. This paper presents research comparing the effects of autonomous and remotely-operated unmanned weapon systems on human-robot teamwork and trust. The results will contribute to the development of recommended roles and automation levels for future weaponized robotic systems.
Effects of a Third Party on Rapport in Investigative Interviews BIBAFull-Text 640-644
This research examined how the introduction of a third party impacts interviewee rapport in an investigative setting. It has been speculated that a "third person in the communications loop" during an investigative interview may negatively impact critical components of the information collection process, including the establishment of rapport. This exploratory research adopted an innovative content analytic approach using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) to examining the construct of rapport, a core aspect of the interview process. Based on the results of this study, rapport, as conceptualized by the three-component model of mutual attentiveness, positivity, and coordination, was not negatively impacted by the presence of a third party in an investigative context. This is practically important because many law enforcement interviews use multiple interviewers and this suggests that this practice will not have a negative effect on rapport in the interview. Additionally, the findings indicate that the anecdotal concern that "three is a crowd" and that the addition of a third party may impact rapport is unfounded.

Heath Care: HC1 - Meet the Human Factors Pre-Market Review Team from FDA

Meet the Human Factors Pre-Market Review Team from FDA (HFES'11 Healthcare Technical Group Invited Address) BIBAFull-Text 645
  Ronald Kay; Molly Story; Quynh Nguyen
The session will introduce you to FDA's process, priorities, and rationale for reviewing human factors content in pre-market submissions for new medical devices. Critical components of the review process will be highlighted: 1) the types of information FDA needs to see in a successful device submission in order to ensure prompt reviews, and 2) the types of data that provide sufficient evidence of reasonably safe and effective device use for the intended users, uses, and use environments. The presenters will also discuss FDA guidance documents, including the new and updated human factors guidance document and the human factors content contained in the new infusion pump guidance, as well as relevant national and international standards that can assist manufacturers in performing effective human factors design, evaluation and testing to ensure devices are optimally safe and effective during their use, and will also in assist in preparing the human factors component of new device submissions. The speakers will discuss human factors within the assurance case model, human factors issues related to non-average populations (including lay users and people with disabilities), and issues related to review of combination products, specifically pen- and auto-injectors. The session will be interactive, with the final portion reserved for audience questions and discussion.

Heath Care: HC2 - Studying Clinical Communication to Inform Health Information Technology Design

Studying Clinical Communication to Inform Health Information Technology Design BIBAFull-Text 646-649
  Ayse P. Gurses; Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Sarah Collins; Rhona Flin; Paul Gorman; Yan Xiao
Information technology has the potential to significantly improve communication and coordination in health care. However, current technologies frequently impede clinical communication. A major reason for this discrepancy is due to lack of consideration of how clinical communication and coordination of care occur, which requires studying "in the wild", such as using a human factors engineering approach. In this panel, the speakers will share their experiences regarding (1) how to study clinical communication and (2) what we can learn from studying clinical communication studies to inform future information technology design for health care. The panel members will address these questions based on their research studies and literature.

Heath Care: HC3 - Impact of Electronic Medical Records on Clinical Workflow

Evaluating the Impact of Technological Change in a Critical Care Unit: Towards a Model to Support Stakeholder Envisionment BIBAFull-Text 650-654
  Cara Stitzlein; Penelope Sanderson; Cristina Beltran Orihuela; Leanne Jack; Bala Venkatesh
The increased use of health information technology in hospitals brings with it a growing need to appreciate the contexts in which health information technology may be used. Information flow and workflow are directly affected by the implementation of such technology. We present first steps towards a method that will help stakeholders evaluate the impact of technological change on work practice sufficiently early to influence the design and deployment of such technology. By using models of information flow and workflow based on how work actually occurs, analysts may better understand the relationships between the healthcare work and the proposed technological change. Models must be descriptive of healthcare work, must help the analyst evaluate work, and must help the analyst make conjectures about change. In this paper we evaluate whether the model notation is ready for testing with representative analysts, to see if the models help them envision the effects of technologies on work.
Evaluating the Experience of Health Professionals During the Transition from Paper to Electronic Charting BIBAFull-Text 655-659
  Dana Douglas; Ant Ozok
This case study describes an evaluation of the process of medical staff transitioning from paper medical charting to electronic charting. The study focuses on the experiences of registered nurses in the pediatric intermediate care unit at a rural Pennsylvania hospital. The study was conducted to determine ways in which the transitional process can be optimized to increase the likelihood of successful system implementation and user acceptance. The evaluation included a user survey and a series of individual semistructured interviews with registered nurses who underwent the transition. The study took place approximately six months after the transition occurred and gathered information about the nurses' experiences and reactions before, during, and after the transition. This paper will discuss the findings from the survey and interviews, including the resulting recommendations for improving the transitional process as similar adaptations are made in other medical facilities.
Paper Persistence and Computer-based Workarounds with the Electronic Health Record in Primary Care BIBAFull-Text 660-664
  Jason J. Saleem; Mindy Flanagan; Laura G. Militello; Nicole Arbuckle; Alissa L. Russ; A. Lucile Burgo-Black; Bradley N. Doebbeling
With the United States national goal and incentive program to transition from paper to electronic health records (EHRs), healthcare organizations are increasingly implementing EHRs and other related health information technology (IT). However, in institutions which have long adopted these computerized systems, such as the Veterans Health Administration, healthcare workers continue to rely on paper to complete their work. Furthermore, insufficient EHR design also results in computer-based workarounds. Using direct observation with opportunistic interviewing, we investigated the use of paper- and computer-based workarounds to the EHR with a multi-site study of 54 healthcare workers, including primary care providers, nurses, and other healthcare staff. Our analysis revealed several paper- and computer-based workarounds to the VA's EHR. These workarounds, including clinician-designed information tools, provide evidence for how to enhance the design of the EHR to better support the needs of clinicians.
Clinical Workflow and Work System Assessment of Private Clinics in Hong Kong and Implications for Electronic Medical Record Development BIBAFull-Text 665-669
  Calvin K. L. Or; Katie Wong; Ellen Tong; Antonio Sek
The objective of this study is to perform a pre-implementation assessment of workflows in private primary care clinics in Hong Kong. Data were collected through direct observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews from December 2009 to March 2010. Seventeen health care providers (5 physicians and 12 clinical assistants) of five local private primary care clinics participated in this study. Our findings 1) illustrate the work and information flow and step-by-step details of clinical work processes and 2) reveal gaps and weaknesses in the current clinical work system for possible application of an electronic medical records (EMR) sharing system. This preliminary EMR pre-implementation study demonstrates the inadequacy of the current work system and work processes and indicates the improvement opportunities offered by information technologies.
Medtable: An EMR-Based Tool to Support Collaborative Planning for Medication Use BIBAFull-Text 670-674
  Vera Liao; Chieh-Li Chin; Stacey McKeever; Katie Kopren; Daniel Morrow; Katherine Davis; Elizabeth A. H. Wilson; Darren Kaiser; Michael Wolf; Thembi Conner-Garcia; James Graumlich
Medtable™ is an Electronic Medical Record (EMR)-integrated tool designed to address the significant problem of medication nonadherence, especially barriers related to patients' limited cognitive resources and ineffective patient-provider communication. Medtable™ supports the patient-provider collaboration needed to create effective medication schedules that are easy to implement by diverse patients. The tool builds on prior research and, through its integration with EMR systems, creates medication lists and schedules that are more easily updated, more accurate and more reliable. Used in clinical practice, it is expected to improve patient satisfaction, medication understanding and adherence, as well as health outcomes among patients struggling to manage multiple medications.

Heath Care: HC4 - Patient Safety Gone Mad? Translating Techniques from Industry

Techniques for Improving the Performance of Healthcare Teams: Learning from Aviation and Other HROs. BIBAFull-Text 675-676
  Paul O'Connor; Tom Reader; Eduardo Salas; Steven Yule; Thoralf Sundt; David Musson; Douglas Wiegmann
Over the last two decades the healthcare industry has increasingly adopted human factors and systems oriented approaches to improving safety. The majority of these approaches are not unique to healthcare, with their origins in other high hazard organizations such as civilian aviation. If correctly adapted to healthcare, these approaches can have a positive impact on patient safety. However, without care, there is a risk of developing an ineffective approach that is a waste of time and resources. The aim of this discussion symposium is to debate the issues around adapting research and practice from high hazard industries to healthcare. Particular emphasis will be on critical appraisal of applying techniques from aviation to healthcare including crew resource management, behavioral markers, simulation, sterile cockpit, and human error classification.

Heath Care: HC5 - Human Factors Engineering in the Department of Veterans Affairs

Human Factors Engineering in the Department of Veterans Affairs: Operations and Research Initiatives Related to Healthcare Information Technology and Medical Devices BIBAFull-Text 677-679
  Janine A. Purcell; Linda Williams; Jeanie Scott; Alissa L. Russ; Frank Drews; Ross Speir
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system currently includes 152 medical centers, with at least one in each state, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. VA operates more than 1,400 sites of care, including 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics, 135 community living centers (nursing homes), 47 residential rehabilitation treatment programs, 232 Veterans Centers and 108 comprehensive home-care programs. In 2010, the system supported 75.6 million outpatient visits and 679,000 inpatient admissions.1, 2 In 1999, the VA National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) was established to lead the VA's patient safety efforts and to develop a culture of healthcare safety throughout the Veterans Health Administration. The NCPS program promotes the use of human factors engineering methods that focus on how users interact with technology. Within the Department of Veterans Affairs various organizations have expanded the use of human factors engineering methods as a key element in addressing patient safety from a systems-based perspective. These entities include a range of groups that work in operational and research domains to identify and mitigate root causes of error with traditional medical devices and healthcare information technology to reduce the likelihood of patient harm while continuing to enhance and advance the design of healthcare tools and environments. The expertise of the panel members includes human factors and biomedical engineering, cognitive psychology, information science, healthcare information technology and informatics, and clinical knowledge of medical technology and nursing. Each panelist will briefly introduce the organization they work in, provide an overview of their human factors activities, and briefly describe example(s) of specific projects, with emphasis on the benefit or lessons learned via these activities. Attendees will learn strategies to apply human factors engineering in healthcare and deepen their understanding of human performance challenges in this domain.

Heath Care: HC6 - Complex Health Care Environments: Intensive Care and Surgery

Cognitive Factors Influencing The Management Of Interruptions During Surgical Counts BIBAFull-Text 680-684
  Ranieri Yung Ing Koh; Benedict Tiong Chee Tay; Xi Yang; Yoel Donchin; Martin Helander
Interruptions during surgical counts are critical gateways for adverse events to happen. It is important to understand the cognitive strategies nurses employ during interruptions of counts and to reduce the likelihood of adverse events. 45 counts of interruptions out of 141 surgical counts throughout 20 surgeries were recorded using an eye tracking system on 20 scrub nurses. It was observed that 62% of the interruptions occurred during the closure count -- one of the most important counts during a surgical procedure. An evaluation of the nature of the interruptions highlighted 5 main categories of interruptions, with 40% involving failure in working memory, and 53% involving active task prioritization that led to the break in task. The categories of interruptions were grouped under three key cognitive factors influencing effective interruption management and discussed. The three cognitive factors include 'working memory', 'active task prioritization' and 'prospective memory'. Future work includes secondary analysis on the surgical count videos, and post experimental interviews with the scrub nurses.
Observing and Categorising Process Deviations in Orthopaedic Surgery BIBAFull-Text 685-689
  L. J. Morgan; S. P. Pickering; K. C. Catchpole; E. R. Robertson; M. Hadi; P. McCulloch
This aim of this research was to identify events in the operating theatre process (described as glitches) during elective orthopaedic operations. Two pairs of observers, each consisting of a clinician and a human factors professional, examined primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasties, arthroscopies and knee ligament reconstructions in two UK hospitals. The categorisation procedure revealed 11 key areas of glitches within the collected data. Observations of 42 operations revealed 314 glitches within the 11 categories. The rate of glitches per operation ranged from 1 to 18, with an average of 8 per operation. Most commonly observed were distractions, equipment design and technical process deviation issues. A coordinated intervention to address a range of areas could benefit the efficiency and safety of orthopaedic surgery, and there are benefits in considering the standardisation of observation studies in the operating room.
Evaluation of the SPLINTS system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills BIBAFull-Text 690-694
  Lucy Mitchell; Rhona Flin; Steven Yule; Janet Mitchell; Kathy Coutts; George Youngson
Background: The Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative NonTechnical Skills (SPLINTS) system is a new tool for training and assessing scrub practitioner behaviours during surgical operations. Method: Experienced scrub practitioners (n = 34) attended a single day session where they received background training in human factors and nontechnical skills and were trained to use the SPLINTS system. They then rated the scrub practitioners' nontechnical skill performance in seven videorecorded simulated scenarios and completed a posttraining questionnaire. Results: Within-group agreement for all three skill categories, and for six of the nine elements, was acceptable (r wg&gt;.70). Participants could use SPLINTS to accurately score performance compared with expert ratings and were within one scale point of expert ratings in &gt; 90% of skill categories and elements. There was good internal consistency between elements and their categories (M<.2 of a scale point) and participants reported that the system was complete. Conclusion: The SPLINTS system was deemed adequately reliable, for rating scrub practitioners' nontechnical skills, using standardized filmed scenarios. Usability of the SPLINTS system in the real operating theatre environment is still to be assessed.
Development of a taxonomy for surgeons' intraoperative leadership BIBAFull-Text 695-699
  Sarah Henrickson Parker; Steven Yule; Rhona Flin; Aileen McKinley
Background: As the nominated or self-appointed leader of the surgical team, surgeons must demonstrate leadership along with technical excellence, in order to optimize performance and maximize patient safety in the operating room (OR). Method: A total of ten operating room discipline-specific focus groups from three hospitals in Scotland discussed intraoperative leadership. Surgeons' leadership behaviors were extracted from the focus groups and used to develop a preliminary taxonomy which was independently checked by six surgeons for accuracy and face validity. It was then used to code video recordings (n = 5) of live operations, to test interrater reliability of the leadership taxonomy. Results: Eight categories of surgeons' intraoperative leadership were identified from the focus groups. Overall interrater reliability was acceptable (kappa = .7). Discussion: The taxonomy is empirically grounded in focus group data as well as both the psychological and surgical leadership literature. The reliability of the system is acceptable. Future research should test the taxonomy to evaluate intraoperative leadership, in order to design a tool for training surgeons in intraoperative leadership.

Heath Care: HC7 - Physical Ergonomics in Health Care

Review of Test Methods Relevant to Medical Glove Design BIBAFull-Text 700-704
  Peter Mylon; Matt J. Carré; Roger Lewis; Nicolas Martin
From the available literature, test methods relevant to medical glove design were reviewed and compared. These covered areas including grip, friction, dexterity, tactility, active haptic sensing and medical application. As part of the review, medical practitioners were interviewed to determine the tasks that were most affected by gloves, or required the greatest degree of dexterity or tactility. The results were used along with previous findings and preliminary testing of the methods to select the most appropriate tests for medical glove testing, to suggest modifications and to outline possible new methods.
Novice And Expert Muscle Utilization And Wrist Postures During Simulated Endotrachial Intubation -- A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 705-709
  Adam de Laveaga; Michael C. Wadman; Laura Wirth; M. Susan Hallbeck
Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) is an airway procedure commonly used to secure the airway for a variety of medical conditions. Endotracheal tube placement is most commonly performed under direct vision of the glottis with the use of a standard laryngoscope and blade. Proficiency in ETI procedures requires significant clinical experience and insufficient data currently exists describing the physical ergonomics of successful direct laryngoscopy. The research objectives of this study were to examine how ETI time, error and practitioner biomechanics varied among clinical experience levels and hospital bed heights. The participant population included novice and expert subgroups recruited from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, and the department of Emergency Medicine. Using a standard laryngoscope handle and blade, participants performed ETI trials on an airway manikin trainer at a minimum and maximum bed height. Participants were evaluated based on ETI completion time, endotracheal tube placement, wrist postures and technique errors. Task completion time and ETI errors did not vary with hospital bed height. Muscle utilization did not differ significantly between bed heights or expert and novice participants. Experts exhibited greater wrist extension and less ulnar deviation during task trials. Expert participants grasped the laryngoscope differently than novice participants, resulting in less wrist manipulation required to achieve ideal instrument positions. By encouraging ideal hand and arm postures during ETI training and simulation, the opportunity exists to improve patient safety and reduce the significant learning curve associated with ETI procedures.
Evaluating the fit of operating theatre tables -- using basic ergonomics to help improve procurement of medical technology BIBAFull-Text 710-714
  Laurence Clift; Maxine Clift; Edward Elton
This paper discusses an appraisal of the fit of operating theatre tables to the surgical staff who have to use them. In total 55 tables were evaluated in 70 configurations. By identifying the ethnic profile of the surgical population, appropriate anthropometric data was obtained which provided a user-centred focus for the evaluation. Using basic dimensional data the range of adjustment of the height of each table was scrutinised to see if it was appropriate to accommodate the needs of the user in terms of reach for open and laparoscopic surgery as well as sight lines. It was found that the majority of tables failed to provide adequate adjustment to accommodate the needs of the users, with smaller users suffering the poorest fit. By converting the data comparison to a simple star rating scheme, a relatively complex ergonomic investigation could be made readily available to procurement professionals and help guide them into appropriate choices to enable them to secure best value in equipment selection and help prevent ongoing occupational ill health.
Alternative 2D and 3D Visualization Methods for Microsurgery: Posture, Performance, and Discomfort Analysis BIBAFull-Text 715-719
  Denny Yu; Michael Sackllah; Charles Woolley; Steven Kasten; Thomas J. Armstrong
The use of minimally invasive surgeries, like laparoscopy and microsurgery, is increasing due to its benefits to the patient; however, the equipment necessary for the surgeries imposes postural constraints on the surgeons and increases their risk for discomfort and injuries. In microsurgery, the microscope limits surgeon movement and the long length of the surgeries exposes surgeons to prolonged sustained postures. Stereoscopic displays may reduce these constraints and maintain surgeon performance. Six subjects with no surgical experience performed microsurgical skills tests using three visualization methods: 2D visualization, 3D visualization, and the traditional microscope. Task performance was measured through video analysis and subjective data was gathered on discomfort, posture, and equipment usability. Tasks performed on the microscopes had the highest performance efficiency and the least errors. The 3D visualization method had the lowest performance efficiency. However, subjects experienced higher back and neck discomfort using the microscopes. The 3D visualization method was ranked poorly in all usability factors and subjects particularly reported problems with focusing the depth of view. Although 3D visualization methods can provide stereoscopic information to aid in task performance and decrease postural constraints on the surgeon, hardware improvements are necessary before this technology can be easily accessible in healthcare.
Musculoskeletal Symptoms And Ergonomic Risk Factors Among Veterinary Ultrasonographers BIBAFull-Text 720-723
  David Gilkey; Elissa Randall; Chad Hansen; Anuja Patil; John Rosecrance; David Douphrate
This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of ultrasonography related musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among veterinary sonographers and associated ergonomic risk factors within the specialized industry. A 59 item survey questionnaire was administered via email and generated 246 responses among veterinary sonographers. Musculoskeletal pain related to performing ultrasound exams was reported by 62% of respondents. MSS were significantly associated with several risk factors including female gender (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 2.04-10.19), 5-year increases in age (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.10), previous work related trauma (OR, 6.86; 95% CI, 1.71, 27.40), and 15-45 degree shoulder abduction (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.11, 4.92).

Heath Care: HC8 - Health Information Technology: Can There Be Meaningful Use Without Meaningful Design?

Health Information Technology: Can there be meaningful use without meaningful design? BIBAFull-Text 724-728
  Ann M. Bisantz; Ben-Tzion Karsh; Robert L. Wears; Vicki R. Lewis; Jessica Ancker; Rollin J. "Terry" Fairbanks
Given the rising costs of health care, the current focus on improving patient safety, and the goals of reducing barriers to efficient healthcare access, there is a strong and rapid push towards the implementation of health information systems in a variety of health care contexts. This panel brings together individuals with experiences spanning human factors and system safety research, medical informatics, and clinical practice to provide a set of diverse but complementary viewpoints on what it will take to successfully, safely, and meaningfully design and implement health information systems.

Heath Care: HC9 - Mobile Technology: The Wave of the Future to Improve Health Care?

Mobile Technology: The Wave of the Future to Improve Healthcare? BIBAFull-Text 729-732
  Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Sallie J. Weaver; Andrew Raij; David Metcalf; Frank Drews; Meghan Dierks
Mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, personal digital assistants, and tablets) are evolving rapidly and growing exponentially in multiple facets around the globe. Specifically, mobile devices can be used as audio and video chat, reference guide, training tool, handoff facilitation, and decision support. Undoubtedly, there are clear advantages of leveraging this technology including automatic updates, portable and unobtrusive access to data, and time savings for documentation allowing clinicians more time for patient care. However, innovative technology brings new yet critical obstacles to overcome (e.g., usability and security). Thus, the current panel is designed to gather leading human factors and medical experts in the fields of clinical care, system design, and human-system interaction to provide their insight and perspective on the following question: What contributions can human factors science and medical experts combine to bring to bear on the development, implementation, and evaluation of mobile-based technology?

Heath Care: HC10 - Human Performance in Health Care

Differences between Physicians in Lumbar MRI Measures BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  Sue A. Ferguson; Riley E. Splittstoesser; William S. Marras
The purpose of this study was to quantify inter-rater reliability when measuring spinal structure dimensions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. A new open MRI machine was available that allowed patients be recumbent, sitting or standing during an MRI of the spine. A total of 39 low back pain patients were scanned for the study. Patients were scanned in seven postures including recumbent, sitting neutral, flexed, extended, standing neutral, flexed, and extended. Two medical professionals trained in neurosurgery were asked to make measurements on the lumbar spine scans. The scans included 22 axial slices and 14 sagittal view slices. At best the two physicians chose the same slice to evaluate on the MRI in 27 of 39 cases (69%). This study illustrates the differences between physicians when evaluating lumbar spine MRI as well as the subjective nature of medical decision making.
Action Video Gaming is Related to Surgical Performance: Time to Focus on Attention Rather than Dexterity in Surgical Training? BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  S. Yule; H. Jones; S. Henrickson-Parker; C. Driver; A. Neill; T. McAdam
Background: Surgical simulation is a worthwhile but expensive technology. Commercially available video games for the Nintendo Wii which focus on visual search and attention rather than dexterity may provide an adjunct to training using high fidelity simulation for surgeons. Method: The study was a within subjects design with n = 54 surgical residents. Participants completed one level of both an 'action' video game on the Nintendo Wii (Link's Crossbow Challenge), and 'dexterity' video game (Koroninpa: Marble Madness) and a standard surgical training task using a VR laparoscopic simulator. Results: Action video game score was significantly related to completion time of the surgical task (r = -.431, p<.01), controlling for laparoscopic experience. There was no relationship between the dexterity game and performance on the surgical simulator. Discussion: Although initially counter-intuitive, focusing on attention rather than dexterity skills once technical competence has been achieved may be a route to improve surgical performance in the operating room.
Using Brunswik's Probabilistic Functionalism to Test How Clinicians Make Judgments in Simulated Neonatal Resuscitation Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 743-747
  Izhak Nadler; Penelope M. Sanderson
Accurate clinical assessments are essential for providing appropriate patient care. However, clinicians do not necessarily make accurate assessments, either because they are overloaded with other tasks, or because the computation of assessments is ambiguous. We used Brunswik's probabilistic functionalism to study how clinicians assessed the clinical state of a mannequin when they viewed recordings of simulated neonatal resuscitation scenarios and when they performed simulated resuscitations. Seventeen clinicians individually assigned an Apgar (neonate illness) score to 30 pre-recorded scenarios and also to 9 scenarios in which they played a hands-on role. We computed a judgment policy for each clinician showing the relative importance of five clinical signs that constitute the Apgar score. The accuracy of clinicians' judgment policies was significantly correlated with the accuracy of their Apgar assessments for the pre-recorded scenarios (p<0.01) but not for the hands-on scenarios. The weighting for the clinical signs in the judgment policies was different from the unit weighting in the Apgar score itself. Brunswik's approach provided a useful framework for testing clinicians' assessments in simulated neonatal resuscitations. Future studies should determine the factors that affect accuracy in hands-on scenarios and test the applicability of the methods presented for other healthcare practice areas.
An Expert Perspective of Errors in Endoscope Reprocessing BIBAFull-Text 748-752
  Emily A. Hildebrand; Russell J. Branaghan; Brooke L. Neuman; Jonathan Jolly; T. B. Garland; Mistey Taggart; Dana R. Epstein; Judith Babcock-Parziale; Victoria Brown
Endoscope reprocessing has been identified as a complex procedure that, when completed incorrectly, can lead to patient outbreaks due to cross contamination. Most reported incidents cite human error as the cause, but little research to date has explored the human factors related issues surrounding reprocessing procedures. The purpose of this study was to interview experts in endoscope reprocessing to determine the most difficult steps and error prone tasks in the procedure as well as identify potential contributing factors to error. Relationships between tasks and contributing factors are examined and implications for future research are discussed.
Empirical Evaluation of Workload of the Radiation Oncology Physicist During Radiation Treatment Planning and Delivery BIBAFull-Text 753-757
  Prithima R. Mosaly; Lukasz M. Mazur; Marianne Jackson; Sha X. Chang; Katharin Deschesne Burkhardt; Ellen L. Jones; Jing Xu; John Rockwell; Lawrence B. Marks
In recent years, the practice of radiation oncology has changed due to several technological advances. As such, there is growing interest in the evolving nature of safety and operational challenges faced by radiation oncology professionals. This research focuses on physicists who play an important role in the radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery process. Specifically, the purpose of our research is to assess their workload levels using the NASA TLX method in order to identify tasks that might compromise patient safety. Based on empirical observations, this study provides practical suggestions for lowering workload levels that ultimately can reduce the probability of errors.

Heath Care: HC11 - Hand-Offs of Care in Health Care

Why Multidisciplinary Rounds are not Multidisciplinary: Examination of a Neonatal ICU Rounding Process BIBAFull-Text 758-762
  Huiyang Li; Sara Lu; Robert E. Schumacher; F. Jacob Seagull
Multidisciplinary rounds in the critical care environment have demonstrated improved communication, enhanced efficiency and better patient outcome. However, the mechanisms by which they work are not fully understood. Particularly, few studies have investigated the degree to which multidisciplinary rounds are indeed multi-disciplinary, and which factors contributed to their multidisciplinary nature. Very few tools have been developed to facilitate collaborative work for the rounding team. We attempt to fill some of these gaps by observing and evaluating multidisciplinary rounds in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We observed morning rounds on 44 patients and analyzed auditing records of rounds on 62 patients. Analysis focused on participation and contribution of different disciplines, interactions between rounding members, and dimensions of the multidisciplinary nature of rounds. The analysis showed wide variation in the level of participation and contribution across disciplines. The main factors that contributed to rounds' multidisciplinary nature fell into five categories, including number of participants, specific disciplines participating, and their interactions. A paper-based tool that was used to facilitate the rounds incorporated a significant amount of input from the nurses, but not other specialists. These findings suggest important implications in the implementation of multidisciplinary rounds and the development of information systems to facilitate collaboration.
Barriers and Facilitators to Timely Admission and Transfer of Patients from an Emergency Department to an Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 763-767
  Robert Stephens; Michael Cudnik; Emily Patterson
This ethnographic observational study identified preliminary barriers and facilitators to admission and physical transfer of patients from an emergency department to a medical intensive care unit. Process traces were constructed for eight ICU-bound patients, and aggregated process traces were constructed for communication events and patient handoffs. Barriers to timely admission and transfer include: 1) delays in obtaining proof of severity of illness, 2) difficulty maintaining synchronization across personnel, 3) difficulty uniting disparate sources of information, 4) delays in the readiness of admitting units, 5) needs of other ED patients, and 6) missing information updates. Facilitators include: 1) objective indicators of need for ICU placement, 2) personal communications with ICU personnel, and 3) frequent viewing of information updates. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Media Usage for Feedback Communication in an Outpatient Prescribing Setting BIBAFull-Text 768-772
  Ashley J. Benedict; Barrett S. Caldwell
Incentives have been encouraging more healthcare providers to implement electronic prescribing systems in their facilities. The change in media used to communicate the outpatient prescription impacts the use of media for additional pharmacy-patient and pharmacy-provider communications. Media (for the purpose of this report) are divided by mediated/unmediated technologies and synchronous/asynchronous communication processes. Forty-three pharmacists were surveyed on which media they use to communicate any clarifications or concerns with patients and providers based on the way the prescription is received (paper prescription, phone call, fax, electronic prescription). All of the pharmacists responded that they use the phone for clarification with providing physicians, no matter how the prescription was received. Fax and electronic were also listed as possible communication media. Pharmacists primarily used face-to-face for paper prescriptions and varied between face-to-face and phone for phone, fax, and electronic prescriptions for interactions with patients. As electronic prescribing systems are implemented in healthcare facilities, a feedback communication path should be established that results in the most efficient and effective sharing of information to reduce the risk associate with miscommunication and to decrease the rework of pharmacists and providers.
Work artifacts as a reflection of change in Intensive Care Units BIBAFull-Text 773-777
  Anne Miller; Kathleen Burns; Tonya Beattie; Chad Wagner
The demands of hospital patients are changing to the extent that adaptive changes in workflow or practice are becoming more evident. This paper presents a set of locally designed paper-based tools that are physical manifestations of responses to change, and that provide suggestions for health information technology design. Fifteen nurses were 'shadowed' during their shift handover and during the morning interdisciplinary round. Three paper-based tools with the context and reasons for their use are described as are potential vulnerabilities. Suggestions for improvement are made.
Clinical shift handoffs in Singapore: A three-phase prospective BIBAFull-Text 778-782
  Xi Yang; Ranieri Yung Ing Koh; Benedict Tiong Chee Tay; Kewin Tien Ho Siah; Yoel Donchin; Taezoon Park
A clinical shift handoff can be considered as a three-phase process, consisting of pre-handoff, handoff communication, and post-handoff. The majority of studies on clinical handoffs focused on the handoff communication. There is limited literature on how pre-handoff and post-handoff activities are conducted. This study aims to understand the handoff practice in a public hospital in Singapore from the three-phase process' point of view, to identify potential problems that may occur in such a setting, and to discuss potential interventions to enhance clinical shift handoffs.

Heath Care: HC12 - Integrative and Encompassing Human Factors Design of Medical Work Units: Can It Be Done from the Outside?

Discussion Panel: Establishing in house Human Factors expert teams to enable comprehensive design of medical work units BIBAFull-Text 783-787
  Daniel Gopher; Yoel Donchin; Pascale Carayon; Ben-Tzion Karsh; Matthew Weinger; Richard Cook
The present discussion panel addresses the need and possible approaches for providing integrative and inclusive human factors design of medical work units. An associated question is whether such a design perspective can be achieved without the instantiation of in house human factors teams. While recognition of the general importance and possible contribution of human factors to efficiency and safety of health care is on the rise and is accompanied by a rapidly growing body research and publications; to date its focus has been mainly on individual systems and isolated work procedures. An important overlooked requirement is for a coherent and inclusive design of the global work unit (operating theater, hospital ward, neonatal unit, etc, etc), much the same way in which the overall configuration of an airplane cockpit or a process control room are considered. Furthermore, can such an inclusive perspective of work units be achieved, unless health care institutes establish in house human factors teams? These are the topics to be evaluated.

Heath Care: HC13 - Medical Devices and Human Error

Supporting NRC Inspections of Byproduct Use in Medical Facilities BIBAFull-Text 788-792
  Laura G. Militello; William S. Brown; John Wreathall; Susan E. Cooper; Julie Marble; Christen Lopez
This paper describes an ongoing project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide decision support for a range of NRC staff, including staff concerned with inspecting medical facilities that use nuclear byproduct materials. Stereotactic radiosurgery was chosen as a case study to explore issues of human reliability and drive the design of a decision support job aid. Study of the evolution of one such device, the Gamma Knife®, over the past several years reveals a shift toward increased automation. The newest model eliminates specific errors associated with forgetting, calculation, and data entry experienced with earlier models of Gamma Knife technology. As a result of increased automation, it will be important that inspectors increase attention to potential automation-related errors and vulnerabilities. Updates to the job aid based on these analyses will broaden the human performance issues considered, increasing the relevance of the job aid for inspecting medical uses of nuclear byproduct materials, and for developing appropriate guidance.
Designing for Safety and Usability: User-Centered Techniques in Medical Device Design Practice BIBAFull-Text 793-797
  Chris Vincent; Ann Blandford
The design of systems affects the likelihood and nature of errors that people might make with them, and the ease of error recovery. If developers are to design systems that are less prone to errors propagating, they need to consider the users and user contexts. There are many techniques and resources available to support developers in this. In this paper we report on an interview study involving professionals from major manufacturers of medical devices, to better understand their development practices and the external forces that shape those practices. This identified barriers to user-centered design and corresponding opportunities for support. Results are divided into four themes. These are: collaborative working practices; understanding the user and their situation; providing adequate justification for the adoption of a user-centered approach; and the provision of clear guidance and support. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring that techniques are adequately justified, applied at the correct time, aligned with the development lifecycle and easy to adopt.
Bayesian Risk Identification Model (BRIM): A Predictive Model to Reduce Use Error Risk in Medical Device Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 798-802
  Kathryn R. Rieger; Mansour Rahimi
Increasing pressure from both regulatory agencies and the consumer market has expanded the need for medical use error reduction. BRIM integrates user performance with risk management to quantifiably predict human factors issues and illuminate design mitigation strategies during development of medical devices. Upfront analytical modeling permits a significant reduction in required expertise and application of empirical methodologies. BRIM asserts that a common set of performance influencing conditions (PICs) determine how a user will interact with a medical device and that a unique set of resulting human response failures (HRFs) manifest differently depending on the specific product interface design. Probability of HRF occurrence can be derived via a Bayesian Belief Network representation of PICs. By understanding the root causes of why a combination of interface, environment, or contextual influences lead to human error, we can predict how a product will perform with respect to human interaction. And, by testing BRIM's targeted set of design characteristics across human performance metrics, we can specify this use error likelihood per product interface.
Human Factors Implications for Standard Operating Procedure Development and Usability in Reprocessing Safety BIBAFull-Text 803-807
  Jerome Q. Sinocruz; Emily A. Hildebrand; Brooke L. Neuman; Russell J. Branaghan
The development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) in endoscope reprocessing is an oftneglected task with vital implications. At present, there is little to no organizational standardization or facilitation to aid SOP development. After critical analysis of several SOPs from various hospital organizations, recommendations are put forth focusing on the application of guidelines within human factors and instructional design. These recommendations are anticipated to encourage better procedural development, promote organizational standardization, and facilitate usability for the end users.

Heath Care: HC14 - Human Factors Education for Health Care Audiences: Ideas for the Way Forward

Human Factors Education for Healthcare Audiences: Ideas for the Way Forward BIBAFull-Text 808-812
  Alissa L. Russ; Laura G. Militello; Jason J. Saleem; Robert L. Wears; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Ben-Tzion Karsh
Within the last decade, there has been a growing emphasis on applying human factors principles in the healthcare domain, and although human factors is a well-established scientific discipline, it is still a relatively new concept for the healthcare community. Educating healthcare audiences on the goals, history, and contributions of the human factors discipline may dispel misconceptions; preserve the integrity of this scientific discipline; inform healthcare stakeholders about the value of human factors research; and increase the uptake of human factors principles in the healthcare domain. Panel members will share their views on human factors education for healthcare audiences, including their past experiences, personal successes, and insights on the challenges that remain. Panelists will also engage the audience in an open discussion to generate novel ideas on how to advance the healthcare community's understanding of the human factors discipline.

Heath Care: HC15 - Novel Technologies Used in Health Care

An Empirical Study of the Usability of Consenting Systems: iPad, Touchscreen and Paper-based Systems BIBAFull-Text 813-817
  Kapil Chalil Madathil; Reshmi Koikkara; Anand K. Gramopadhye; Joel S. Greenstein
While much research has been conducted on the software system architecture needed for capturing and managing patient consents and research permissions in health care facilities, limited information is available on the usability of such capture systems. Typically, a general consenting process involves the patients indicating their choices and then signing/initialing to verify these preferences. This study proposes four new ways of capturing these consents/research permissions using Apple iPad and touchscreen-based systems, investigating their feasibility and usability by comparing them to the conventional paper-based consenting process. Fifteen participants completed the consenting process using five capture systems: iPad-based system with pagination and scrolling interfaces, touchscreen-based system with pagination and scrolling interfaces and the paper-based system. After each consenting condition, the participants completed the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the computer system usability questionnaire (CSUQ), and a post-test subjective questionnaire ranking the consenting systems based on preference. Statistically significant differences among the consent capture systems were found for all dependent variables except for task completion time. The iPad and touchscreen systems with pagination interfaces were preferred.
Pilot Testing of Mobile Tablet Computers in Multiple Departments in a Hospital Setting: Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 818-822
  Jennifer Wagner; Dawn L. Moore
A 100-bed Midwestern hospital sought to introduce mobile/portable tablets into several areas in the hospital, including inpatient units and outpatient resident clinic, as a substitute for more traditional types of computers. A formal evaluation was set up, but never executed. Although the studies were not completed as designed (and there is not research data to report), this paper describes the practical lessons learned in undertaking this pilot project, both from a health information technology implementation perspective and a research perspective.
Improving Patient Safety With Hand Hygiene Compliance Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 823-827
  Geb Thomas; Philip Polgreen; Ted Herman; Deepti Sharma; Brian Johns; Howard Chen; Gregg Scranton; David Naylor; Michael Ireland; Tina McCarty; Tim Decker; Alberto Segre
Hand hygiene is important for patient safety; increasing hand hygiene compliance may reduce the frequency of healthcare-associated infections. This paper describes a distributed system that uses instrumented product dispensers and doorway monitors to systematically measure hand hygiene compliance as an alternative to compliance measurements by human observers, which is the current standard. The paper describes two experiments. The first experiment monitored 4,266 doorway crossings and 858 hand hygiene dispenser events for 4 patient rooms over 80 consecutive hours. The second experiment was part of a larger effort that included a direct comparison of a human observer with the automatically recorded observations. The results of the two experiments suggest that large quantities of data could be readily acquired, but the data was sensitive to several limitations not suffered by human observers including: distinguishing between single versus closely spaced multiple threshold crossings and distinguishing staff from patients and visitors. However, a direct comparison of human versus machine readings suggested that the system might overcome observational challenges faced by the human observers, providing more consistent and reliable measurements.

Heath Care: HC16 - Simulation in Health Care: One Size Fits All?

Simulation in Healthcare: One size fits all? BIBAFull-Text 828-830
  Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Sallie J. Weaver; Matthew B. Weinger; Moshe Feldman; Michael A. Rosen; Kyle Harrison; F. Jacob Seagull
Simulation has been rapidly adopted within the medical community as evidenced by the fact that clinical care providers from all backgrounds (e.g., residents, physicians, nurses, anesthesiologists, ancillary staff, etc.) and all institutions (e.g., hospital, training centers, and medical schools) have incorporated simulation into their training and education curriculums. Although simulators are becoming a staple in clinical education, simulation is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Thus, the objective of the current panel is to combine the expertise of leading human factors and clinical care providers in the fields of learning, simulation, human performance, and human-system interaction to provide their insight and perspective on the following questions: What are the issues to consider when developing, implementing, and evaluating simulation-based training across a broad spectrum of training, education, and improvement applications in the healthcare domain? What are the contributions that human factors science and healthcare experts can combine to effectively develop, execute, and assess simulation-based training in hospitals, training centers, and medical schools?

Human Performance Modeling: HP1 - Human Performance Modeling with Cognitive Architectures

An ACT-R Model of Commercial Jetliner Taxiing BIBAFull-Text 831-835
  Jeffrey C. Zemla; Volkan Ustun; Michael D. Byrne; Alex Kirlik; Kenyon Riddle; Amy L. Alexander
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) seeks to reduce gridlock at airports by, among other things, creating a more efficient surface taxi management system. Addressing this situation creates a difficult evaluation problem; how can new scheduling methods be tested? Present methods generally involve either expensive human-in-the-loop experiments or computer simulations that do not adequately represent the human component of system performance. We have developed an ACT-R model of commercial jetliner taxiing with the ultimate goal of aiding in both of these efforts. The X-Plane commercial flight simulation package provides an environment in which the model can act. That environment is populated with aircraft driven by recordings taken of real aircraft at Dallas-Fort Worth airport, which contain the actual positions of all aircraft on the taxi surface for a given time slice. This also provides us with a rich source of data for model validation, as the model can "replace" one actual aircraft, allowing comparisons between model-generated and pilot-generated trajectories.
Integrating Queueing Network and ACT-R Cognitive Architectures BIBAFull-Text 836-840
  Shi Cao; Yili Liu
Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and Queueing Network (QN) are two complementary but isolated cognitive architectures. The research reported in this paper aims to integrate the two architectures and benefit from their advantages so as to enhance cognitive modeling capabilities. The new combined architecture, named ACTR-QN, represents ACT-R as a QN whose servers are ACT-R modules and buffers and run the corresponding ACT-R functions. Task-specific knowledge and parameters are defined with ACT-R syntaxes. ACTR-QN provides real-time visualization of mental information processing in addition to ACT-R's text output traces and is verified with 20 tasks that have been modeled by ACT-R. The steps and benefits of further integration are discussed.

Human Performance Modeling: HP2 - Human Performance Modeling in Critical Environments

Deciding when to escape a mine emergency: Modeling accumulation of evidence about emergencies through Instance-based Learning BIBAFull-Text 841-845
  Varun Dutt; Michael Yu; Cleotilde Gonzalez
A decision to stop work and escape a mine in a mine emergency depends on the accumulation of evidence about the emergency over time. This evidence comes as situation attributes (e.g., smoke, fire, noise, etc.) from the work environment. In this paper, we investigate how a decision of when to stop work and escape a mine is influenced by the sequence in which evidence accumulates about an emergency. We model stop work decisions of miners from a cognitive modeling perspective, and create a model based on Instance-based Learning Theory (IBLT). Three risky mine-emergency situations are created where attributes communicating the risks are presented in increasing or decreasing sequences with the same total risk, and in a flat sequence with an intermediate total risk. An IBL model is calibrated to human data in the flat sequence and later generalized to the increasing and decreasing sequences. The model is evaluated based upon a situation-awareness measure of timeliness. We expected that on account of recency, human stop work decisions will be earlier in the increasing sequence compared to the decreasing sequence. Results reveal that both human's and model's stop work decisions are earlier in the increasing sequence compared to the decreasing sequence. We discuss future directions in this research.
Workload Modeling using Time Windows and Utilization in an Air Traffic Control Task BIBAFull-Text 846-850
  Pei-Ju Lee; Andreas Kolling; Michael Lewis
In this paper, we show how to assess human workload for continuous tasks and describe how operator performance is affected by variations in break-work intervals and by different utilizations. A study was conducted examining the effects of different break-work intervals and utilization as a factor in a mental workload model. We investigated the impact of operator performance on operational error while performing continuous event-driven air traffic control tasks with multiple aircraft. To this end we have developed a simple air traffic control (ATC) model aimed at distributing breaks to form different configurations with the same utilization. The presented approach extends prior concepts of workload and utilization, which are based on a simple average utilization, and considers the specific patterns of break-work intervals.
The relationship between Workload, Teamwork, Situation Awareness, and Performance in Teams: A microworld study BIBAFull-Text 851-855
  Peter Berggren; Erik Prytz; Björn Johansson; Staffan Nählinder
In modern military organizations teamwork performance is central, yet the underlying factors contributing to such performance are debated. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how several known teamwork measures relate to a prior model of operator performance (Nählinder et al, 2004). This study expands this model to the team level and in the command and control domain. Specifically, this paper studies the relationship between individual and team workload measures, situation awareness measures, and performance measures in 18 two-person teams. The study has two major findings: Firstly, the various team cognition measures statistically cluster into four meaningful concepts (workload, teamwork, situation awareness and performance). Secondly, a Structural Equation Model indicates that the relationship between the various individual and team measures can be described in a model resembling the model found in previous studies (Nählinder et al, 2004). In particular, the results show that the general workload in the microworld study has a negative effect on both teamwork and situation awareness. Teamwork, in turn, also affects situation awareness, which has major impact on performance.
Mathematical Modeling of Average Driver Speed Control with the Integration of Queuing Network-Model Human Processor and Rule-Based Decision Field Theory BIBAFull-Text 856-860
  Guozhen Zhao; Changxu Wu; Bo Ou
Quantitative prediction and understanding of driver speed control is important to prevent speeding behavior and design vehicle systems. Speed control is a complex behavior of driver longitudinal vehicle control, involving speed perception, decision making (setting a target speed), motor control (foot movement for pedal control), and vehicle mechanics. However, few of existing models is able to cover all of these important aspects together. To address this problem, the current work built a new mathematical driver speed control model with analytical solutions based on rigorous understanding of human cognitive mechanisms in driving, integrated Queuing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP, which already modeled driver lateral control) structure and Rule-Based Decision Field Theory (RDFT), and offered a relatively complete picture of driver speed control in free-flow driving settings. This new model can provide predictions with regard to driving speed, pedal angle and acceleration for average driver.
Modeling Operator Performance and Cognition in Robotic Missions BIBAFull-Text 861-865
  A. Marquis Gacy; Christopher D. Wickens; Angelia Sebok; Brian F. Gore; Becky L. Hooey
Control of the robotic arm on the International Space Station is a challenging endeavor, not only due to the high consequence of failure, but also because the limited number and arrangement of cameras greatly increases the difficulty of maneuvering the arm. There is great potential for automation to reduce such effort, but developing the right kind and degree of automation is a key concern. Mismatches between the perspective of the operator and the view of the robotic arm, and between the direction of control and response of the arm, contribute to performance degradations. In this paper we describe the development of a computational structure that combines a set of existent human performance modules to address such issues. These modules include the Frame of Reference Transformation (FORT), the Basic Operational Robotic Instructional System (BORIS), the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS v5), and the Salience, Effort, Expectancy, and Value (SEEV) attention model as applied in a simulation model of a robotic operator termed MORRIS.

Human Performance Modeling: HP3 - The Application of Simulation Technology for Training in Military Medicine

The Application of Simulation Technology for Training in Military Medicine BIBAFull-Text 866-869
  Valerie Rice; Petra Alfred; Raymond Bateman; Gary Boykin; Jacki Morie; Jack Norfleet; Mark Scerbo
The use of simulation in the training of health care professionals and patients includes diverse applications such as computer modeling, patient simulators, environmental simulations, gaming, static and dynamic holograms, the use of virtual patients or virtual environments, to name a few. This panel brings together experts on the use of simulation for training health care professionals and patients in a military health care setting. It is widely known that in the presence of War, the health care and rehabilitation of wounded warriors necessitates growth and development of medical practice, and the United States has now been engaged in War for ten years. The value of the information provided in this panel reaches beyond military medicine, as each panelist will discuss their topic with respect to current research and findings, and the application of results in both military and civilian settings. The panel will engage the audience in discussions of cross-disciplinary applications, including areas for potential collaboration across military and civilian services.

Human Performance Modeling: HP4 - Modeling Cognition

Modeling Performance Measures and Self-Ratings of Workload in a Visual Scanning Task BIBAFull-Text 870-874
  Daniel N. Cassenti; Troy D. Kelley; Herbert A. Colle; Elizabeth A. McGregor
Mental workload is the amount of demand on an individual's limited mental resources and thus is an important consideration in human factors research. This research focuses on workload from two primary methods of measuring it -- self-ratings of workload and performance. An experiment to test workload involved the manipulation of the number of tasks to be performed at once and the time available to respond to the task or tasks. The results show that performance changes by shifting between ceiling, linear decrease, and floor performance as workload increases. SWAT ratings of workload followed the same pattern. We conclude that the IMPRINT (Improved Performance Research Integration Tool; Archer & Adkins, 1999) modeling system should maintain its existing method of modeling self ratings of workload, but that they may make use of a new algorithm based on this data to model performance as workload changes.
Visual Search Versus Memory in a Paired Associate Task BIBAFull-Text 875-879
  Tim Halverson; Glenn Gunzelmann
The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) has been used to study various effects, like aging and fatigue. Multiple cognitive and perceptual processes, like associative memory and visual search, are prominently utilized in the DSST. Understanding how these processes contribute to execution of tasks like the DSST is important to human factors research, as moderators like age and fatigue may differentially affect these processes. This study investigates performance on variants of the DSST that emphasize either visual search or associative memory with experimentation and computational cognitive modeling. While there are similarities in performance across task variants, the observed data suggests that, when visual search is possible, people appear to not utilize memory to the extent they would if relying on memory alone. The modeling suggests that behavior differences in the DSST variants results partly from procedural (i.e. strategic) choices and partly from the demands of the tasks.
The Mutual Support Function Model: A Cognitive Model for Intelligence Analysis Supporting Irregular Warfare BIBAFull-Text 880-884
  Michael Farry; Eric Carlson; Samuel Mahoney
Modern intelligence analysis has evolved due to the focus on Irregular Warfare (IW) and the proliferation of network-centric environments. Given the ubiquity of those two themes in modern intelligence analysis, this paper seeks to provide a detailed cognitive model of intelligence analysis for IW, the Mutual Support Function Model (MSFM), based on the original Support Function Model (SFM) for intelligence analysis from (Elm et al., 2005). In addition to the three functions of Down Collect, Conflict and Corroboration, and Hypothesis Exploration from the original SFM, the MSFM considers two additional functions, Information Needs Management and Decision Selection. In addition to presenting this theoretical model, this paper also presents a discussion of how the model may be applied to operational environments through the development of tools. We also discuss strategies for introducing associated technology to the work environment in a suitable manner.
Human Total Ownership Cost in Complex Systems: Estimating Human Performance Cost in Environments with Multiple Layers of Technology BIBAFull-Text 885-889
  Tareq Z. Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski; Wilawan Onkham
In current practice, the Human Total Ownership Cost (HTOC) is often viewed as an acquisition cost -- that is, the cost of systems that does not consider human costs other than those related to the immediate staffing, training needs and requirements. The cost of human performance, in terms of both human capabilities and limitations, is directly related to the total ownership cost (TOC) of the technology. This paper summarizes ongoing efforts for modeling complex human performance cost drivers, for identification of critical elements that define the long term impact of human performance on system design, development, production, fielding, sustainment, and improvement, throughout the system life cycle. The overall aim is to develop a methodology to better assess and predict the total cost of human and human performance as relevant to acquisition of new technologies and systems. Future challenges that decision makers are likely to face in this domain are also discussed.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID1 - Individual Differences in Human-Agent Interaction

Adaptive Automation to Improve Human Performance in Supervision of Multiple Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles: Individual Markers of Performance BIBAFull-Text 890-893
  Haneen Saqer; Ewart de Visser; Adam Emfield; Tyler Shaw; Raja Parasuraman
Adaptive automation has been shown to offer flexible, context-dependent, and user-specific automation that can enhance human-system performance. While several invocation methods for adaptive automation have been proposed and tested in experimental settings, it is not clear which of these methods can practically be implemented in operational environments. It is therefore important to explore measures that are both predictive of individual performance and that can be easily administered in actual work environments. This study examined the efficacy of using both baseline manual performance and working memory capacity to predict future performance with automation. Participants were assisted by context-dependent adaptive automation during a simulated command and control task. Results showed that baseline performance without automation predicted overall human-automation performance. Working memory capacity did not predict overall performance, but did predict effective use of the automated aids, so that participants with higher working memory scores used the aids more effectively. These results suggest that effectiveness of human-automation teams can be predicted with quick, cost-efficient, easily measureable markers of performance and can therefore provide practical invocation strategies for adaptive automation.
Effects of Spatial Ability on Multi-robot Control Tasks BIBAFull-Text 894-898
  Shih-Yi Chien; Huadong Wang; Michael Lewis
Working with large teams of robots is a very complex and demanding task for any operator and individual differences in spatial ability could significantly affect that performance. In the present study, we examine data from two earlier experiments to investigate the effects of ability for perspective-taking on performance at an urban search and rescue (USAR) task using a realistic simulation and alternate displays. We evaluated the participants' spatial ability using a standard measure of spatial orientation and examined the divergence of performance in accuracy and speed in locating victims, and perceived workload. Our findings show operators with higher spatial ability experienced less workload and marked victims more precisely. An interaction was found for the experimental image queue display for which participants with low spatial ability improved significantly in their accuracy in marking victims over the traditional streaming video display.
Indexing Spatial Ability Across Team Size: The Influence of the Weakest Link, Strongest Link, and Aggregate Ability on Performance with Multiple Unmanned Systems BIBAFull-Text 899-903
  Brittany Sellers; Thomas Fincannon; Florian Jentsch
This study compared the effects of indexing individual differences in spatial ability and team size on performance with unmanned systems. The methods of indexing team spatial ability included measure of (a) the effects of the aggregate (mean), (b) the member that is the strongest link (has the maximum ability), and (c) the member that is the weakest link (has the minimum ability). These methods were considered in relation to the effects of team size. Results indicated that the method of indexing can moderate the strength of the relationship between spatial ability and performance. Interestingly, the impact of team size on a decision making task was moderated by spatial ability of the strongest link. Furthermore, the strongest link was also a greater predictor of reconnaissance than team size. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID2 - Individual Differences in Attention, Performance, and Workload

Relationship between a Self-Reported ADHD Questionnaire and Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features BIBAFull-Text 904-908
  William S. Helton; James Head; Paul N. Russell
Researchers have suggested a link between right-hemisphere dysfunction and reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In this experiment non-clinical participants completed the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) and performed a vigilance task requiring either global or local letter target discriminations. Global target discriminations have shown right hemisphere dominance and local target discriminations have shown left hemisphere dominance in brain imaging studies. While the global-local discrimination did not affect the results, the ASRS did significantly predict the decline of detections over time on task, e.g. the vigilance decrement. Thus, the ASRS may be useful in non-clinical populations as a predictor for vigilance performance.
Effects of Anxiety on Performance and Workload in an Air Defense Task BIBAFull-Text 909-913
  April Rose Panganiban; Gerald Matthews; Gregory Funke; Benjamin A. Knott
Air battle management (ABM) operations place high demands on operator attention; operator teams are required to manage an airspace cluttered with aircraft, identify changes in amity of entities and respond appropriately to these aircraft. Awareness of the severe consequence of errors in detection and the risk of physical harm may contribute to operator stress and anxiety. Operators high in trait anxiety might then be vulnerable to adverse consequences including excessive stress, workload and performance impairment. In addition, anxiety research shows a selective attention bias to threat-related information which may impact operator strategy. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of trait and state anxiety in dyads performing a simulated ABM task. In general, dyads high in trait anxiety appeared to cope fairly effectively with task demands, and performed better on defensive aspects of the ABM task. The role of trait anxiety in team composition is briefly discussed.
Reactive Task-Set Switching Ability, Not Working Memory Capacity, Predicts Change Blindness Sensitivity BIBAFull-Text 914-918
  Robert J. Youmans; Ivonne J. Figueroa; Olga Kramarova
Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) have been shown to predict how well people perform tasks that require directed attention, but the individual differences responsible for task-set switching and noticing behaviors are less well understood. In this study, 86 undergraduate students from California State University, Northridge completed a measure of WMC, a measure of cognitive flexibility, and attempted to identify disappearing objects in change-blindness slides. WMC was not related to our measure of cognitive flexibility or change detection, but cognitive flexibility was directly correlated with the ability to notice change. The findings suggest that the ability to notice sudden changes in an environment, an ability that is of paramount importance for the safe operation of complex machinery and systems, may be supported by individual differences that are independent of WMC.
Individual Differences in Multitasking Ability and Adaptability BIBAFull-Text 919-923
  Brent Morgan; Sidney D'Mello; Karl Fike; Robert Abbott; Michael Haass; Andrea Tamplin; Gabriel Radvansky; Chris Forsythe
Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent in people's personal and professional lives. Considerable research has attempted to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability, and more importantly, the ability to rapidly cope with changing task demands (adaptability). This question was assessed in an experiment wherein participants first completed a battery of individual differences tests of cognitive abilities, then multitasked in a flight simulator in which task difficulty was incrementally increased via three experimental manipulations. The results indicated that general aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability, but spatial ability was the dominant factor for adapting to increasing difficulty in this flight simulator task. We conclude by discussing the implications and applied aspects of these findings.
The Gorilla's Role in Relevant and Irrelevant Stimuli in Situation Awareness and Driving Hazard Detection BIBAFull-Text 924-928
  Andrew R. Dattel; Jason E. Vogt; Jessica K. Fratzola; Daniel P. Dever; Matthew Stefonetti; Chelsea C. Sheehan; Marissa C. Miller; Joseph A. Cavanagh
Thirty six undergraduate students participated in a study that compared inattentional blindness (IB) with situation awareness (SA), working memory (WM), and driving hazard detection. To test IB, participants watched the Invisible Gorilla video (Simon & Chabris, 1999) of a person dressed in a gorilla costume walking between players passing a basketball. Participants also watched a string of driving videos (automobile and motorcycle) from the driver's perspective. Participants answered SA questions (relevant to the driving task and irrelevant to the driving task) and identified driving hazards throughout the video. Participants' SA and hazard detection performance were compared to their IB (did see the gorilla, or did not see the gorilla), and their performance on counting completed basketball passes. In addition, participants' working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) were measured. Susceptibility to IB indicated longer response times for irrelevant questions related to the driving task when compared to relevant driving questions. Those who did not see the gorilla (DNS) also took longer to respond to irrelevant questions than those who did see the gorilla (DS). However, the two groups did not differ in the time taken to answer relevant driving SA questions. The DNS group outperformed the DS group on hazard detection performance. Finally, a trend suggested that individuals in the DNS group who had high WM were more accurate in pass counts. Conversely, individuals in the DNS group who had low WM were least accurate in pass counts.

Individual Differences in Performance: ID3 - Individual Differences in Cognitive Traits and Performance

The relationship between domain-relevant and abstract assessments of diagnostic reasoning ability BIBAFull-Text 929-933
  T. D. Loveday; M. W. Wiggins; J. M. Harris
Diagnostic reasoning is one of the primary functions of operators in complex technical environments. At present, the options available for assessing the aptitude for diagnostic reasoning are limited to abstract, general measures. However, such methods are perceived as unfair, irrelevant, and may not readily generalize to performance in the domain. The present study outlines a domain-sensitive approach to the assessment of diagnostic reasoning which uses stimuli drawn from the operational environment. Incorporating two tasks, feature identification and feature location, this approach was measured against abstract measures of two individual components of expert reasoning in the context of power system control. The results provide preliminary evidence to indicate that the tasks possess a level of concurrent validity. Implications for theory, research and job assessment are discussed.
Understanding the complexities of visual and verbal learners: A partial replication of Mayer and Massa (2003) BIBAFull-Text 934-938
  Randy S., Jr. Astwood; Carla R. Landsberg; Alyssa Mercado; Wendi L. Van Buskirk
As part of a larger experiment, we performed a factor analysis on eight measures of the verbalizer-visualizer dimension of learning. Our goal was to partially replicate Mayer and Massa's (2003) finding that the verbalizer-visualizer dimension is multifaceted. Another aim was to expand on the work done by Mayer and Massa by including measures of performance on a computer-based simulation task that included both visual and spatial elements. In general, we found support for the multifaceted nature of the verbalizer-visualizer construct. Results have implications for how to measure the verbalizer-visualizer construct.
Simulated Airline Luggage Screening: The Effects of Social-Cognitive Biases on Performance BIBAFull-Text 939-943
  Jeremy Brown; Poornima Madhavan
This study illustrates how social-cognitive biases affects the decision making process of airline luggage screeners. Participants (n = 96) performed a computer simulated task to detect hidden weapons in 200 x-ray images of passenger luggage. Participants saw each image for two (high time pressure) or six seconds (low time pressure). In addition, participants observed pictures of the "passenger" (representing five races and both genders) who owned the luggage. The "pre-anchor group" answered questions about the passenger before the luggage image appeared, the "post-anchor" group answered questions after the luggage appeared, and the "no-anchor group" answered no questions. Results revealed that participants under high time pressure had lower hit rates and higher false alarms than those under low time pressure. Significant interactions between passenger gender and race were found for the no-anchor group; there were no significant effects within the pre- and post anchor groups. Finally, participants had higher false alarm rates in response to male than female passengers.
Developing an Easy-to-Administer, Objective, and Valid Assessment of Cognitive Flexibility BIBAFull-Text 944-948
  Ivonne J. Figueroa; Robert J. Youmans
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to abandon an active cognitive strategy in favor of another, may predict successful performance in tasks that require divided attention, but measuring cognitive flexibility is challenging. Here, two studies assessed cognitive flexibility using Grant and Berg's (1948) Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and an easy-to-administer puzzle task under development. Three variables of flexibility in the WCST were hypothesized to predict puzzle performance. In Study 1, undergraduate students (n = 88) from California State University, Northridge completed both the WCST and the puzzle. Results indicated that only the variable 'trials to complete first category' reliably correlated with puzzle performance, therefore a revised puzzle was created. In Study 2, undergraduate students (n = 40) from the same university repeated the experiment, resulting in a stronger relationship between 'trials to complete first category' and the modified puzzle. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility can be measured using puzzles that require frequent strategy shifts like those reported here.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE1 - Computers and Upper Extremities

Ergonomic issues associated with the use of touchscreen desktop PC BIBAFull-Text 949-953
  Gwanseob Shin; Xinhui Zhu
In this laboratory experiment, potential ergonomic concerns associated with the use of a touchscreen desktop PC have been investigated by quantifying neck and shoulder muscle activities, subjective discomfort ratings, and user-preferred positions of the computer workstation in three different usage scenarios of touchscreen PC (no touch interface; standard keyboard for typing with display tapping; on-screen keyboard with display tapping). Results found significantly greater (p < 0.05) activity of neck and shoulder muscles and increments in subjective discomfort ratings associated with the use of touch interfaces such as the on-screen keyboard and display tapping. In addition, participants placed the touchscreen closer and lower with more tilt when using the touch interfaces. It was concluded that the use of a touchscreen in desktop PC setting could generate greater biomechanical stress and discomfort than a traditional setting, and it might be attributable to greater or more frequent arm and hand movement in floating arm postures.
Are there Differences in Typing Performance and Typing Forces between Short and Long travel Keyboards? BIBAFull-Text 954-957
  Margaret Hughes; Lavi Aulck; Peter W. Johnson
With keyboards gravitating towards thinner designs (shorter key travel distances) it is important to understand how these short travel keyboards may affect typing performance, typing forces and operator comfort. Using 15 subjects (7 males, 8 females), we wanted to determine whether there were differences in typing performance when computer operators typed on three keyboards with the same activation force (0.6 N) but with different key travel distances (2.0mm, 2.5mm and 4.0mm). During a 15 minute typing session on each keyboard, typing performance (speed and accuracy), typing forces and perceived fatigue ratings were measured. There were no differences in typing speed (p = 0.39), typing accuracy (p = 0.33) or keystroke durations (p = 0.15) across the three keyboards. However, typing force differences were measured (p < 0.003) with the longest travel keyboard (4.0mm) having higher mean and peak forces compared to the shorter travel keyboards (2.0 and 2.5 mm). These findings indicate that there is no apparent detriment in physical exposure or typing performance when using shorter travel keyboards.
Effects of armrest height on the neck and shoulder muscle activity in keyboard typing BIBAFull-Text 958-962
  Xinhui Zhu; Gwanseob Shin
Use of forearm support during typing is known to alleviate biomechanical stresses on user's neck and upper extremities but it is not known how the change in the armrest height influences the efficiency of the support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of armrest height on the myoelectric activity (EMG) of neck extensors, upper trapezius muscles and forearm muscles during keyboard typing. Twenty-four subjects performed a simple typing task with each of four different armrest conditions (no support, armrests at resting elbow height, armrests at 25% and 40% above resting elbow height) while their EMG amplitudes were periodically collected. Results found significantly greater (p<0.05) mean activity of neck and shoulder muscles associated with elevated armrest heights. Armrest at resting elbow height produced the lowest mean activity. Findings of this study indicate the importance of proper positioning of arm support during typing.
Influence of Object Weight and Terminal Orientation on Upper Limb Postures during Grasping, Holding, and Placing Cylindrical Object BIBAFull-Text 963-967
  Wei Zhou; Thomas J. Armstrong; Diana M. Wegner; Matthew P. Reed
This study examines the effect of object weight and terminal orientation on upper limb postures during grasping, holding, and placing cylindrical objects. An experiment including two sessions was conducted. In the first session, eight subjects grasped and held a horizontally located cylindrical object with varying weights (0.34, 2.04, 3.74, and 5.44 kg) using self-selected postures, then placed the object with self-selected target location and orientation. In the second session, five subjects grasped and held cylindrical object with varying weights, then positioned the object at a target location with specified orientation, i.e., either left or right end down. Eight posture categories for grasping the cylindrical object were identified based on upper limb posture. Multiple postural strategies for grasping, holding, and placing the objects were observed, influenced by an interaction between object weight and terminal orientation. These results show that posture selection in these tasks is influenced by force exertion and how the object is to be positioned.
Maximal Acceptable Torques of Highly Repetitive Screw Driving, Wrist Flexion and Extension with a Pinch grip, Ulnar Deviation, and Handgrip Tasks for Seven Hour Workdays for Male Industrial Workers BIBAFull-Text 968-970
  Vincent M. Ciriello; Rammohan V. Maikala; Niall V. O'Brien
The purpose of the study was to quantify maximum acceptable torques of six tasks performed on separate days but within the context of the same experiment. The six tasks were screw driving clockwise with a 40 mm handle and a 39 mm yoke handle; flexion and extension with a pinch grip; ulnar deviation with a power grip (similar to knife cutting), and a handgrip task (similar to a pliers task). A psychophysical methodology was used in which the subject adjusted the resistance of the task, and the experimenter controlled all other variables. Sixteen male industrial workers performed the six tasks at repetition rates of 15 and 25 motions per minute. Subjects performed the tasks for 7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 12 days. The subjects were instructed to work as if they were on an incentive basis, getting paid for the amount of work they performed. Symptoms were recorded by the subjects during the last 5 minutes of each hour. The results revealed that mean maximum acceptable torques ranged from 1.15 Nm to 1.88 Nm for screw driving, 2.26 Nm to 3.71 Nm for pinch flexion and extension, 3.88 Nm to 4.07 Nm for ulnar deviation, and 11.47 Nm to 13.98 Nm for the handgrip task. These values represented 15% to 35% (median of 23%) of maximum isometric torques depending on the repetition rate and the task.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE2 - Ergonomic Devices and Products

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Eco Pick Lift Assist: Could this device potentially prevent back and shoulder injuries in people doing pick-to-pallet jobs in distribution centers? BIBAFull-Text 971-974
  Steven A. Lavender; Pei-Ling Ko; Carolyn Sommerich
The objective of this work was to biomechanically evaluate a new type of lift-assist that could potentially be used by people as they move through distribution centers. Eleven participants moved 16.4 kg boxes from one pallet to another manually and using the Eco-Pick lift assist. Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured bilaterally in the Bicep, Deltoid, Latissimus Dorsi, and Erector Spinae muscles. The analysis showed that the 90th percentile and the 50th percentile normalized EMG values obtained from the Bicep, Latissimus Dorsi, and Erector Spinae muscles were reduced using the Eco-Pick assist. The Eco-Pick was advantageous to the deltoid muscles with the higher placement locations.
Effects of Scaffolding Equipment Interventions on Muscle Activation and Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 975-979
  Shruti B. Gangakhedkar; David B. Kaber; Prithima R. Mosaly
Examination of a local power utility's injury database revealed maintenance personnel to experience high injury rates. Maintenance jobs were analyzed using an ergonomic risk factor screening tool and scaffolding tasks, including walk-board tie-down and frame tube coupling, were found to pose high risks. Factors included high torques at joints and awkward posture positions. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize interventions to reduce risks and conduct experiments to assess the impact of interventions on worker muscle activation and performance. Nine male operators were recruited from the utility and participated in two tests of novel walk-board tie-down and frame coupling equipment. Muscle activation was measured using electromyography in scaffold assemble/disassemble tasks along with time-to-task completion. Results revealed plastic zip-ties and quick-clamping couplers to reduce mean normalized muscle responses and support performance comparable to conventional metal-wire ties and ratcheting clamps. These ergonomic interventions maybe implemented in other areas where scaffolding is used.
Ergonomic Interventional Design of an Articulating Arm for Echocardiography Application: Front-End Design and Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 980-983
  Radin Zaid Radin Umar; Carolyn Sommerich; Kevin Evans; Steven Lavender; Elizabeth Sanders; Wei-Ting Yen; Sharon Joines; Sabrina Lamar
Echocardiography is a growing field due to the dual trends in longer life expectancy and rising obesity levels. Several publications have reported high prevalence of musculoskeletal issues among cardiac sonographers due risk factors that include prolonged probe pinching, forceful exertions, awkward postures, and prolonged maintenance of static postures. A design of an articulating arm that uses a simple locking mechanism was envisioned to reduce these exposures. A participatory approach involving experienced cardiac sonographers was fully integrated into the design process. A functional prototype was assembled, and pilot tested among cardiac sonographers in a clinic setting. The device was well received and thought to have potential in addressing the previously identified issues. However, several design iterations and more comprehensive evaluations will be needed before the device will be ready for implementation in echocardiography settings.
Mechanical Power-Drive Reduces the Stress on the Back BIBAFull-Text 984-987
  Kermit G. Davis; Susan E. Kotowski; William S. Marras
Nursing continues to be an occupation that experiences high levels of low back and shoulder injuries. Transferring patients in a bed or stretcher is one potential handling task that could lead to back injuries. The loads on the back could potentially be reduced by utilizing a power-drive intervention and was the focus of the current study. Twelve participants completed the transferring conditions utilizing a general hospital bed and stretcher with and without power-drive. The peak and cumulative three-dimensional spine loads were significantly reduced (between 7.5% and 20%) when using the powerdrive. The results provide some evidence that the addition of a power-drive mechanism on a bed or stretcher could potentially be effect in reducing the risk of low back injuries for nurses who transfer patients often.
Ergonomic Evaluation of an Alternative Tool for Cake Decorating BIBAFull-Text 988-992
  Carisa Harris; Bingyune Chen; Ira janowitz; David Rempel
Cake decorating involves several hand intensive steps with high grip force during the application of icing. The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate forearm muscle activity, discomfort, productivity, and usability of a new device for cake decorating compared to the traditional piping bag method. Subjects (N=17) performed two hours of cake decorating tasks using two different devices. Muscle activity from three forearm muscles, posture, subjective hand and arm fatigue, and usability of each device were assessed. Outcome measures were evaluated using binomial, Wilcoxin Signed Rank test, and the paired t-test. Mean median (APDF 50%) muscle activity were significantly less for the new device across all three muscles, and posture analysis showed significantly less wrist extension. Subjects rated the new device superior for refill and comfort, and the traditional method better for accuracy. The new device significantly reduced grip force and awkward wrist posture, two important risk factors for distal upper extremity pain and disorders. However, the new device did not receive the best overall rating because of problems with accuracy and overflow, especially with smaller decorating tips.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE3 - Invited Address: David Rempel and Robert Radwin

Recent Findings from the Prospective NIOSH MSD Consortium Studies BIBFull-Text 993-994
  David M. Rempel
Automated Video Exposure Assessment of Repetitive Motion BIBAFull-Text 995-996
  Robert G. Radwin
A new method is described for automatically quantifying repetitive hand motion using digital video processing. The hand activity level (HAL) is widely used for evaluating repetitive hand work. Conventional methods using either a trained observer on site, or manual off site video analysis, are often considered inaccurate, cumbersome or impractical for routine work assessment. A simple paced load transfer task was used to simulate a repetitive industrial activity. Twelve participants were videoed performing the task for varying HAL conditions. The automatically predicted HAL was compared to the ground truth HAL measured using manual frame-by-frame video analysis. Hand kinematics using the marker-less single-camera video tracking algorithm were compared against an infrared 3D motion tracking system. This paper demonstrates proof-of-concept for automatic video-based direct exposure assessment.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE4 - Work Processes and Driving

The Effects of Mobile Computer Location in a Vehicle Cab on Muscle Activity and Joint Postures BIBAFull-Text 997-1001
  Kyle Saginus; Richard Marklin; Patricia Seeley; Stephen Freier
The objective of this research is to determine the best location to place a conventional mobile PC supported by a commercially available mount in a light truck cab. U.S. and Canadian electric utility companies are in the process of integrating mobile computers into their fleet vehicle cabs. There are no publications on the effect of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab on biomechanical loading, performance, and subjective assessment. Four locations of mobile computers in a light truck cab were tested in a laboratory study to determine how location affected muscle activity of the lower back and shoulders and joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrist. Placing the mobile computer closer to the steering wheel reduced low back and shoulder muscle activity required to use the mobile computer. Upper extremity joint angles were also closer to neutral angle. Locating the mobile computer close to the steering wheel reduces risk factors of injuries such as low back pain and shoulder tendonitis. Results from this study can guide electric utility companies in the installation of mobile computers into vehicle cabs. A recommendation for the initial location, with respect to the steering wheel, to locate the mobile computer is included. Results may also be generalized to other industries that use truck-like vehicles, such as construction.
Field assessment of biomechanical and physiological demands in sand and limestone bagging operations BIBAFull-Text 1002-1006
  Sean Gallagher; Jonisha Pollard; Nikky Manke; John Heberger
Bagging operations are common in the mining industry and are associated with numerous musculoskeletal injuries. To better understand the physical demands of bagging operations, field evaluations quantifying low back loading and physiological costs of bagging tasks were performed at two bagging operations. A biomechanical model employing electromyography (EMG) and goniometry was used to estimate lumbar compression and a portable metabolic system used to assess heart rate and oxygen consumption. Manual palletizing of bags was found to generate a load of approximately 1,500 Newtons on the spine, with a few larger loads of 2,000-3,000 Newtons. The average oxygen cost for stacking was 5.3 METS, indicating moderately intense physical activity. Bag filling resulted in lower lumbar loads and a reduced physiological cost (3.2 METS), or a moderate level of energy expenditure. Use of a vacuum hoist resulted in a 39% reduction in the peak compressive load on the worker's spine compared to manual lifting when palletizing 75-lb bags.
Impact of Shift Work on Physical and Postural Demands Among Nursing Aides in Long-Term Health Care Facilities BIBAFull-Text 1007-1011
  Chunhui He; Kermit G. Davis
Nursing aides is one profession that is dominated by shift work as care needs to be provided 24 hour a day and 7 days a week. To date, there is limited information about how the physical and postural demands vary across different shifts -- different lengths and times. Fifty-four nursing aides from local long-term health care facilities were observed for an entire shift to document the whole body postural response and physical activities. The results indicate a very active demand for nursing aides on the 8-hr day shift and a more sedentary demand on 8-hr and 12-hr night shifts. The discomfort felt by the nursing aides appeared to be more related to the job demands rather than the length of exposure (e.g. not that much difference between 8-hr and 12-hr shifts).
Work Variations and Musculoskeletal Stresses in Paced Production Operations BIBAFull-Text 1012-1016
  Vernnaliz Carrasquillo; Thomas J. Armstrong; S. Jack Hu
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that variations in assembly jobs increase workers' exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Variations can be caused by different factors such as, materials, material placement, product variety, work flow, etc., and they can require the worker to perform movements not considered in the calculation of the allocated time. Work variations may require workers to work faster and longer to keep up with paced work, which may increase repetition and reduce recovery time. On a moving line, workers may have to reach further to keep up with the work, which requires additional time and results in posture stress. An observational study was conducted in a moving assembly line where food trays were prepared for patients at a large hospital to test the proposed hypothesis. Frequency and quantity of work variations, and the frequency of reaching outside of the reach envelope and recovery time were compared. The variety of materials (along with their location), interarrival of the work object, whether or not the conveyor was moving, and the amount of tasks the worker needed to perform in addition to the main task of placing food on the tray were found to affect recovery time and reach. These factors increased the frequency of reaching outside the reach envelope and reduced the idle time for the station with the largest number and of variations.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE5 - Low Back

Disc Hydration Response to Simulated Stooped and Erect Postures BIBAFull-Text 1017-1021
  Kenneth Johannaber; Fadi A. Fathallah
Evidence suggests that prolonged exposure to stooped work is associated with the development of low back disorders, particularly those that affect the spinal intervertebral discs. While several studies have been done to analyze the biomechanical aspects of stooped work, very little research has focused on the effect of prolonged stooped work on disc hydration -- a critical component of disc health. This study explores the connection between stooped work and low back pain through controlled mechanical loading and quantitative analysis of disc hydration during in vitro simulated stooped and erect loading conditions of porcine discs. The results showed that stooped postures exhibit significantly decreased overall water content relative to erect postures. These results have implications for the injury mechanisms associated with stooped work, as disc hydration forms the foundation for overall disc health and proper function.
Can Twisting and Lateral Bending Motions be Controlled through Adjustments to Transfer Distance When Boxes are Lifted from Varying Heights? BIBAFull-Text 1022-1024
  Jay Mehta; Tae Hoon Kim; Steven A. Lavender
Work-related injury to the low back due to twisting and lateral bending motions has been well-documented for manual material handling tasks. Laboratory studies in the past have shown reduction in these motions of the spine by changing the workplace layout. This study investigated differences in spine motions as a function of transfer distance and origin lifting heights. Sixteen subjects were asked to move three boxes from different lift origin heights to a fixed destination for six transfer distances. The results showed that twisting motions decreases with transfer distance and initial lifting height. At lower lifting heights, lateral bending motions were significantly higher.
Estimation of Low Back Disorder Risk for the ACGIH TLVs BIBAFull-Text 1025-1028
  Ryan Z. Amick; Muci Chali Zarzar; Michael J. Jorgensen
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Lifting Value (TLV) lifting assessment method was designed to identify potentially safe lifting weights as a function of location of the lift, duration and frequency, assessed at the origin of the lift. However, there may be scenarios where the destination of the lift may present greater risk than the origin. This study utilized a measure of low back disorder risk to evaluate if the destination of a lift could be assessed in addition to the origin of the lift. Results indicated that the destination of the lift could be evaluated using the ACGIH TLV assessment method. Additionally, the TLVs identified by the ACGIH were consistent with low risk values of the measure of low back disorder risk utilized in this study.
A Simple Model of Changes in Lumbar Intervertebral Angles During Sagittal Torso Flexion BIBAFull-Text 1029-1033
  Riley E. Splittstoesser; Greg G. Knapik; William S. Marras
Objective: To create simple models of intervertebral angle that account for subject anthropometry and are simple to apply within biomechanical models. Background: Biomechanical models require accurate intervertebral angle data if they are to correctly partition calculated forces into compression and shear. Current intervertebral angle models either require extensive instrumentation or were developed using limited subject populations. Methods: MRI images were collected from 13 males and 13 females in a series of sagittally flexed postures. Measured intervertebral angles and anthropometry were used to create linear regression equations of the L5/S1 through T12/L1 motion segments. Results: The models are predictive of posture related intervertebral angle changes. Conclusions: Models of intervertebral angle developed here require simple measures that allow accurate prediction of changes in intervertebral angles that can be used in biomechanical models for predicting forces acting on the lumbar spine.
Spinal Loading and Immune Responses to Personality and Mental Load During Repetitive Lifting BIBAFull-Text 1034-1038
  Riley E. Splittstoesser; William S. Marras; Thomas M. Best
Objective: Investigate effects of interactions between biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors on spinal loading and inflammatory responses. Background: Current low back pain causation theories do not explain the difficulty making specific diagnoses based on low back imaging. Methods: Two groups of subjects possessing sensor or intuitor personality trait performed repetitive lifting with high or low mental workload. Spinal loading was assessed using a biomechanical model and immune markers were collected before and after lifting. Results: Mental loading was associated with a decrease in AP shear. Both exposure conditions were characterized by a time-regulate immune response evidenced by markers of inflammation, tissue trauma and muscle damage. Intuitors CK levels increased over sensors following the low mental workload condition but not for the high mental workload condition. Conclusions: An immune response exists to lifting and mental loading that is influenced by personality and mental workload.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE6 - Muscles, Fatigue, and Posture

Shoulder Muscle Oxygenation during Repetitive Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1039-1041
  Sue A. Ferguson; W. Gary Allread; Peter Le; Joseph D. Rose; William S. Marras
The purpose of this study was to quantify shoulder muscle oxygenation during repetitive shoulder exertions that were similar to motions found in automobile assembly tasks. Ten subjects participated in the study. There were three independent variables: 1) shoulder flexion angle; 2) frequency; and 3) force. The dependent measure was percentage change in muscle oxygenation for the anterior deltoid and trapezius. The results showed significant muscle oxygenation decreases for each of the main effects (shoulder flexion angle, frequency and force). The interaction of force and repetition was significant for the anterior deltoid, indicating that, as repetition increased the magnitude of the differences between the force levels increased. The interaction of repetition and shoulder angle was also significant. The results of this research illustrate that ergonomists need to consider the interaction of injury risk factors that may trigger musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder.
The role of force and repetition in musculoskeletal disorder risk BIBAFull-Text 1042-1046
  Sean Gallagher
While many epidemiological papers have examined the effects of force and repetition on musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk, relatively few have examined the effects of these factors in combination. Many papers that have examined both factors in combination provide evidence of an interaction between force and repetition in the development of MSDs. When biological tissues are tested to failure using varied levels of force and repetition, a similar interaction is observed. Taken together, these findings suggest that force and repetition should not be treated as independent risk factors for MSDs, but as factors dependent on one another. This paper further posits that fatigue failure models provide a useful framework that helps to explain the observed force-repetition relationship. A model is presented that summarizes the hypothesized role of force and repetition on tissue injury and repair.
Impact Of Extended Durations To Ballast And Postural Stability BIBAFull-Text 1047-1051
  Chip Wade; John C. Garner; Mark S. Redfern; Bob O. Andres; Jennica Roche
Railroad workers are exposed to a unique work setting of irregular walking surfaces. Research and injury statistics suggest a possible causal relationship between irregular walking surfaces and postural instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of extended duration of exposure to ballast on postural stability. Sixteen healthy adult males walked on a 7.62m x 4.57m (25ft x 15ft) walking surface of No Ballast (NB) or covered with Ballast (B). Participants were assessed on six NeuroCom® Equitest postural stability testing conditions prior to ballast surface and again every 30 minutes for 4 hours. Following at least 72 hours, participants repeated the protocol for a flat (NB) surface. Dependent variables were medial-lateral (M/L) and anterior -- posterior (A/P) sway velocity and root mean square (RMS) sway components. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between surface conditions and exposure time. Overall, the ballast surface condition induced greater sway parameters in each of the six-postural stability testing conditions for time interval and surface conditions. Walking on ballast for extended durations has a deleterious effect on postural stability compared to walking on a flat (NB) surface. The findings provide preliminary information for improve existing work practices for injury prevention.
Biomechanical Effects of a Personal Weight Transfer Device in the Stooped Posture BIBAFull-Text 1052-1056
  Brent L. Ulrey; Fadi A. Fathallah
Repetitive work in the stooped posture is a known risk factor for developing low back disorders (LBDs). Use of the stooped posture in the workplace is widespread throughout the world in agriculture, construction, and mining. In California alone, hundreds of thousands of agricultural field workers routinely utilize the stooped posture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a personal weight transfer device as a possible intervention to reduce the load on the lumbar spine, thereby reducing the risk of developing LBDs. Eighteen healthy subjects performed stoop posture tasks in a laboratory study designed to simulate harvesting of low-growing crops. Results showed that when wearing the device in the static stooped posture, biceps femoris activity was reduced by 17%, lumbar flexion was reduced by 12%, ankle plantar-flexion increased by 5%, and the lumbar erector spinae of those subjects who did not experience flexion-relaxation of the erector spinae was reduced by 26%. Hip and knee flexion were not significantly altered. The device was effective in reducing the back muscle activity in those subjects who did not experience flexion-relaxation. Low back pain sufferers have reduced, or no, relaxation of back muscles during stoop. Therefore, the device may be beneficial for those with existing LBDs, and who use the stooped posture routinely. By limiting lumbar flexion, and consequently reducing loads on the lumbar intervertebral discs, the device may reduce the risk of developing LBDs in the population of people who use the stooped posture.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE7 - Ergonomics Processes and Special Populations

Identification of Factors that Affect the Adoption of Ergonomic Interventions Among EMS Workers BIBAFull-Text 1057-1061
  Monica R. Johnson; Steven A. Lavender; J. Mac Crawford; Paul A. Reichelt; Karen M. Conrad; Antonio R. Fernandez
The primary goal of this study was to understand the adoption of specific voluntarily used ergonomic intervention aimed at preventing musculoskeletal injuries in EMS workers. According to previous research in the areas of information technology, acceptance and diffusion of innovation, worker's perceptions and attitudes impact the adoption of interventions. This research evaluated the adoption of an intervention that was designed to assist with the lateral transfer of patients as this has previously been reported as a frequent and strenuous task performed by EMS workers. The objective of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to determine which factors most closely affect its adoption. The model suggest that the perception that the intervention is relatively advantageous and easy to use, that the intervention is compatible with the task, having previous experience with similar tools and whether it was endorsed by champions who actively promote the use of the intervention are all factors contributing to the adoption of this ergonomic intervention.
Effectiveness of a library ergonomics training program BIBAFull-Text 1062-1066
  Lu Yuan; Gregory Culberson
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a library ergonomics training program. The training was aimed at teaching librarians to apply sound ergonomics principles in their daily work activities and to evaluate and adjust their own workstations, with an ultimate goal of reducing musculoskeletal symptoms. The pre-and post-training ergonomics knowledge tests were distributed to the 39 subjects that participated in the project. In addition, work environment and health questionnaires were administered to the subjects before and 2 months after the program to examine changes in self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms, computer workstation configuration, and other pertinent activities. The results of ergonomics knowledge tests indicate statistically significant improvement of librarians' understanding of ergonomics principles. There are also statistically significant positive changes in the questionnaire responses to the four specific questions: "break/rest every 2 hours', "hand/wrist positions', "handle more than 50 lbs', and "bend or twist at the waist to handle objects'. The changes in other categories of the questionnaire, including the presence and severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived control over the work environment, were not statistically significant; however, there was a trend toward positive improvement. Overall, the study findings accomplish the training program's objective of assisting librarians to improve ergonomics in the workplace and to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. The results of this study provide necessary foundation for an integrated participatory approach to reduce ergonomic injuries for librarians.
Participatory Ergonomics Applied to Sonographers' Work BIBAFull-Text 1067-1070
  Carolyn Sommerich; Steven Lavender; Elizabeth Sanders; Kevin Evans; Sharon Joines; Wei-Ting Yen; Sabrina Lamar; Radin Zaid Radin Umar
A participatory ergonomics process has been initiated, the aim of which is to work with cardiac, vascular, and diagnostic medical sonographers to develop interventions that will improve their work conditions and reduce their occupational exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal discomfort. Numerous surveys have been conducted that have identified sonographers as experiencing high rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. However, intervention research involving them is limited. The presentation describes the research methodology and results from the first stages of the intervention process.
Making Life Meaningful: Designing Workstations for Physically and Cognitively Impaired Adults BIBAFull-Text 1071-1075
  Shaheen Ahmed; Kari Babski-Reeves
Ergonomic solutions for the workplace are important for any employee but especially important for workers with disabilities. This project investigates the workstations of physically and cognitively impaired employees at a state funded work program. Two workstations, a sorting station for coat hangers and a sealing station for flatware packages, were analyzed for inefficiencies and ergonomic hazards. The hanger station was redesigned using anthropometric principles and workstation aids to improve the employees' capability to distinguish and sort the coat hangers. The positioning of the hangers was modified to improve the efficiency of the employees' movements by reducing reach lengths. The sealing station was altered by providing a new platform for aligning flatware packages and installing a lever to control the sealer such that the lever motion conforms better to reduce errors and force requirements. Field tests were performed and the redesigns were proven successful in improving the productivity of the employees.

Internet: I1 - Usability Engineering and the Web

Working Memory and Learning Underlying Website Structure BIBAFull-Text 1076-1079
  Steven Banas; Christopher A. Sanchez
A common usage of the world-wide-web is to seek out and gather important information for a specific learning goal. However, not all material is organized similarly, and assumed implicit conventions are often relied upon to guide users' search behavior. However, when explicit cues to the conceptual structure of the material are missing or lacking, are different learners more or less sensitive to gathering this implicit information which may be relevant for the learning task? This study examines the performance of high and low working memory individuals as they are asked to learn about plants from a Wiki-like website. Results indicate that learning underlying conceptual structure is indeed predicted by working memory, but not prior knowledge. This suggests that individual characteristics should be considered when designing learning technologies in the future.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Remote Asynchronous Usability Testing Using Amazon Mechanical Turk BIBAFull-Text 1080-1084
  Erik T. Nelson; Angelos Stavrou
Amazon's Mechanical Turk is an online service that connects people all over the world who are willing to work for monetary compensation with companies and individuals who need simple tasks completed that are best done by humans. This paper examines the benefits and caveats from the use of Mechanical Turk as a platform to conduct an online usability test. Our findings indicate that Mechanical Turk can be a very useful tool when it is employed to collect basic user generated data such as click time and location, text input, and subjective usability data. In situations where more complex usage data is required, Mechanical Turk can still be a valuable resource to run a pilot test to assist in determining potential usability problems. However, in its current form, Mechanical Turk has limitations and can only be used to assess websites; it cannot be relied upon to conduct a usability test on software without the use of a virtual machine.
Impact of User Experience and Negative Externalities on Internet Search Patterns BIBAFull-Text 1085-1089
  Molly M. Liechty; Poornima Madhavan
An eye tracker was utilized to examine decision-making processes of experts and novices during an internet search task. Twenty experienced homebuyers and twenty-five undergraduate students viewed homes on a simulated real estate website. Several of the homes included physical properties that had the potential to negatively impact individual perceptions. These negative externalities were either easy to change (Level 1) or extremely difficult to change (Level 2). Each house image was divided into 6 separate "interest areas' in order to evaluate where participants spent the greatest amount of time during the visual search task. Dwell times and number of fixations were analyzed. Results revealed that experienced homebuyers demonstrated a more direct and refined visual search process than novice student participants. Experts had longer dwell times, and a greater number of fixations with fewer saccades in very specific regions of an image. Experienced homebuyers reacted to homes with a Level 1 or Level 2 negative externality present differently from novice students. It was found that the house or image being seen did temper this reaction. These results demonstrate important considerations when designing user-friendly web interfaces for users with varying levels of task experience.
Investigating the Efficacy of Crowdsourcing on Evaluating Visual Decision Supporting System BIBAFull-Text 1090-1094
  Sung-Hee Kim; Sensen Li; Bum chul Kwon; Ji Soo Yi
Crowdsourcing recently became a popular approach to substitute time consuming and expensive human subject studies, but its application is generally limited to simple and short-term experimental tasks, such as testing visual perception. The goal of this study is to test if crowdsourcing is applicable to a more complicated user study. Thus, we replicated a controlled lab study of decision-making tasks with different sorting techniques using crowdsourcing. A total of 98 participants were recruited via the Amazon Mechanical Turk service, and they participated in the study remotely through web interfaces. Experiment results indicate that performance measures of our crowdsourcing experiment was not exactly equivalent to lab experiments. However, we found potential sources of problems that we can improve to make the crowdsourcing experiment more viable.
A Tale of Two Problems: Human Judgments of Visual Clusters and Data Collection via the Web vs. Paper BIBAFull-Text 1095-1099
  Bella Z. Veksler
A tale is told of two problems. The scientific problem is how do people decide that random groupings of targets belong in the same or different clusters. The practical problem is whether data collection using a web-based study distorts our results. A validation study was conducted to determine whether the clustering judgments made by participants using a web-based interface are comparable to judgments made by participants who did a paper-based version of the task. Previewing the results, there was a good deal of correspondence between paper and web-based responses.

Internet: I2 - Mobile Devices and Cybersecurity

Voting on a Smartphone: Evaluating the Usability of an Optimized Voting System for Handheld Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 1100-1104
  Bryan A. Campbell; Chad C. Tossell; Michael D. Byrne; Philip Kortum
The goal of this research was to assess the usability of a voting system designed for current-generation smartphones. Smartphones offer remote participation in elections through the use of pervasive technology and voting on these devices could, among other benefits, increase voter participation while allowing voters to use familiar technology. We developed a mobile voting system for the iPhone and compared its usability with traditional voting platforms. Results showed that the mobile voting system was not as efficient as the other voting methods in total interaction time. However, smartphone owners committed fewer errors on the mobile voting system than on the traditional voting systems. These results, along with others, are discussed along with several important design considerations for voting technology.
Visually-Cued Touch Gestures for Accurate Mobile Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1105-1109
  Sean T. Hayes; Eli R. Hooten; Julie A. Adams
Portable devices such as tablet personal computers can allow a user to perform tasks while walking. These devices provide new interaction opportunities and challenges. LocalSwipes is a new interaction technique that utilizes localized, multi-touch, radial stroke gestures to reduce the difficulty of interacting with large data sets on mobile devices. LocalSwipes adapts traditional point-to-click widgets to visually support gestural input. A user evaluation demonstrated that LocalSwipes results in fewer interaction errors and is preferred when compared to a touch-based interface incorporating traditional graphical user interface widgets.
The Influence of Trust and Privacy Risk-Taking on User Acceptance of Electronic Services that Collect Personal Information BIBAFull-Text 1110-1114
  Joshua B. Hurwitz
The goal of this study was to assess factors underlying user value judgments of services that collect personal data. A survey was used to present 6 scenarios describing various entertainment and mobile services, and to ask about the sensitivity of different types of data and about respondents' tendencies to take privacy risks and trust authorities to protect privacy. The results showed that respondents with greater trust and privacy risk rated the services more highly, and their ratings were less affected by adding data collection to the services. However, their average ratings of the services with data collection were more highly associated with data sensitivity than with service value. The results have implications for companies that use new channels, such as the Internet and mobile devices, to better understand their customer base.
Human Performance in Cybersecurity: A Research Agenda BIBAFull-Text 1115-1119
  Michael W. Boyce; Katherine Muse Duma; Lawrence J. Hettinger; Thomas B. Malone; Darren P. Wilson; Janae Lockett-Reynolds
This paper provides an overview of critical areas of human performance research required to support the development and deployment of effective cybersecurity systems. These areas include usability and security compliance, mitigation of human error and risk reduction, enhancement of situation awareness, and development of effective visualization tools and techniques. We describe the nature of the research and development efforts required to support effective human-centered design of cybersecurity systems and make specific recommendations for near-term work in this area.
Evaluating the Usability and Security of Input Masking Techniques BIBAFull-Text 1120-1124
  Kevin A. Juang; Joel S. Greenstein
The human remains the weakest link in computer security, and one popular method of breaching security is shoulder surfing: looking at a user's screen or keyboard as he or she enters sensitive input. Various masking techniques exist to hide text from shoulder surfers; the most common of these replaces entered text with bullets. Existing research focuses on how to improve the shoulder surfing resistance of bulletmasking, at a heavy cost to usability. We developed Purloin: an input masking technique designed to maintain the same level of security while increasing usability. We recruited pairs of participants (filling both user and shoulder surfer roles) and tested five different masking techniques on objective measures of usability and security, subjective measures of usability and workload, and user preference. We found that Purloin performed near the top in both usability and security and received the highest overall preference ranking. Bullet-masking was equally secure but less usable. The other masking techniques performed significantly worse than Purloin in either usability, security, or both.

Macroergonomics: ME1 - Macroegonomics Past, Present, and Future: A Tribute to the Late Hal Hendrick and to the Field of Macroergonomics

Macroergonomics Past, Present, and Future: A Tribute to the Late Dr. Hal Hendrick and to the Field of Macroergonomics BIBAFull-Text 1125-1129
  Petra Alfred; Valerie Rice; Brian Kleiner; Andrew S. Imada; Pascale Carayon; Michelle Robertson
This panel will be presented by the foremost authorities in the field of Macroergonomics as a tribute to the late Dr. Hal Hendrick. During the presentations and discussion, the panelists may choose to share their fond memories of Hal, while also focusing on the field of Macroergonomics, as Hal, the father of the discipline, would have wanted. Panelists will review the history of the development of the specialty, describe the inherent concepts, discuss the current state-of-the art, and project areas of future application and research. The diverse application areas will include methodologies for examining optimal work systems, participatory ergonomics, community and health systems, and solving specific work-related issues. The panel format will encourage audience-panelist interaction, allowing for a questions and answer session at the conclusion of the panel, as well as an opportunity for all of those involved in the field to share their unique experiences and insights. It is the aim of the panel to not only reflect upon the past, but look to the future of the field of Macroergonomics.

Macroergonomics: ME2 - Under the Macroergonomics Umbrella

Identifying Hazards in Primary Care: The Elderly Patient's Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1130-1134
  Steven D. Baran; Jamie A. Lapin; John W. Beasley; Paul D. Smith; Ben-Tzion Karsh
Background: The wide-reaching, complex, understudied primary care environment presents hazards to patient safety. Elderly patients visit physician offices more often, with more problems, while taking more medications -- increasing the complexity of the visit and the frequency of the hazards. Objective: Identify hazards in the primary care of elderly patients from the patient's perspective. Methods: Fourteen elderly patients in three focus groups with questions developed from 70 hours of direct observation. Hazards were coded from participant responses and 'what-if' analyses to capture both explicit and implicit hazards. Results: Thematic hazard analysis resulted in eight emergent, overlapping hazard themes: 1) fragmentation of care; 2) problems with information transfer between healthcare professionals; 3) problems with patient communication and feedback; 4) problems with paper and electronic health records; 5) medication management and expense; 6) physical and memory limitations; 7) reliance on others; and 8) delays and difficulties accessing care. Hidden hazards, not recognized by the patients or those caring for them, were identified and require further exploration.
Differences in Long-term Employment and Health Outcomes Between Those with and Without Cancer BIBAFull-Text 1135-1139
  Mahpara Faatin; Douglas Wiegmann; Amye Tevaarwerk; Mary Sesto
Early detection of cancer and improvements in cancer management have made long-term survival a reality for many cancer survivors. However, surviving cancer may lead to considerable short-and long-term side-effects resulting in work disability. The purpose of this project was to investigate differences in employment and health outcomes between long-term cancer survivors (&gt;10 years since diagnosis) and their noncancer sibling controls using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Employment outcomes included employment status, full- or part-time status and retirement status. Health outcomes included number of days spent in bed, fatigue and self-reported health status. The results of this analysis showed significant differences in employment and health outcomes between cancer survivors and controls. Cancer affected health outcomes and retirement status although age and gender were also important factors. Future research should evaluate risk factors for work disability and the ability of human factors engineering/ergonomics to optimize the fit between the demands of the work system and the capacity of the survivor.
The Relationship of Self-Reported Health to other Indices of Physical Health and Performance among Soldiers BIBAFull-Text 1140-1144
  Valerie J. Berg Rice; L. E. Banderet; Diane Marra; Jennie Butler
A single question on self-reported health (SRH) is often used as part of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance to describe populations and as an indicator of general health. However, little information exists on whether a single question of SRH is related to other indices of a person's health and fitness. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between SRH and other health-related self-disclosures, as well as physical performance. Demographic, self-report, and physical fitness data were collected from 579 US Army Health Care Specialist Trainees during their first two weeks of Advanced Individual Training. Physical fitness data was collected again after approximately 8 weeks and 16 weeks. Spearman Rho correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. SRH was positively correlated with self reports of past and current physical activity and physical abilities, and with the physical fitness portion of the Banderet Life Experiences Questionnaire (p < .05). SRH was positively correlated with three sets of physical fitness test scores, taken at three different times over a four-month training cycle. Past smokers rated their health lower than did non-smokers (p < .05). SRH was not related to self reports of sleep or perceptions of tiredness (p &gt; .05). Results indicate that a single question on self-reported health appears to be a good representation of a persons' perception of his or her own health and of physical fitness among active duty service members.
Safety Leadership from the Top: Identifying the Key Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 1145-1149
  Isabella Roger; Professor Rhona Flin
Clear commitment to safety from senior management is consistently cited as a cornerstone of safe organizations by industry regulators, accident investigators and safety experts. To date most research on senior managers explores their influence on key financial and business outcomes, while little empirical work investigates their influence on safety. This appears to be a major gap in the safety and management literatures in light of the major human, environmental and economic implications associated with leading safe operations. This paper presents findings from the first stages of a project which aims to develop an evidence-based safety leadership tool for senior managers. Results from a systematic literature review and interviews with subject matter experts (senior managers, health and safety professionals) indicate that key safety leadership functions of senior managers include: (1) Emphasizing safety as an organizational priority, (2) Establishing clear communication for safety, (3) Participating in safety activities, (4) Setting and maintaining safety standards, (5) Maintaining risk awareness and, (6) Motivating and supporting the workforce.
Problem solving in expert teams: Functional models and task processes BIBAFull-Text 1150-1154
  Jeffrey D. Onken; Barrett S. Caldwell
This paper presents a functional model (one that describes processes, interactions, and evolution of time) that describes the process of solving problems that takes place in a team of expert engineers and scientists. The context is real-time, safety-critical NASA spaceflight mission operations, specifically the team of flight controllers in the Mission Control Center (MCC). The model includes descriptions of the agents (the representation of the flight controllers) involved and abstractions of their expertise. The model describes abstractions of controller expertise in terms of character stats inspired by multiplayer role-playing games. The problem-solving process follows three stages: detection, isolation, and recovery. The middle stage is the most complex, with two different groupconsensus rules that depend on the difficulty of the problem.

Perception and Performance: PP1 - Multimodal, Tactile, and Haptic Perception

Auditory-Visual Redundancy in Vehicle Control Interruptions: Two Meta-analyses BIBAFull-Text 1155-1159
  Christopher Wickens; Julie Prinet; Shaun Hutchins; Nadine Sarter; Angelia Sebok
Two novel versions of a meta analysis were employed to assess the conditions of ongoing vehicle control task simulations in which (1) auditory presentation of an interrupting task were beneficial over visual presentations and (2) redundant (av) presentation was better than single modality presentation (providing redundancy gain). Altogether 29 studies were identified. The results revealed that the interrupting task benefited from auditory presentation, but the ongoing task (visual vehicle control task) generally did not. Performance of the visual interrupting task was slightly hindered by separation from the ongoing task. The redundancy analysis revealed that the interrupting task benefited from redundancy when it involved spatial localization and alerting and the accuracy of verbal communications; but suffered when speed of the verbal communications response was measured, and when the two visual channels were separated. Implications for multi-modal presentation of information on vehicle workstations are discussed.
Effects of Vibrotactile Stimulation for Sustaining Performance in a Vigilance Task: A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 1160-1164
  G. Robert Arrabito; Geoffrey Ho; Behzad Aghaei; Catherine Burns; Ming Hou
Supervisory control of uninhabited aerial vehicles requires vigilance, also termed sustained attention. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of short duration vibrotactile signals presented on the waist at intermittent periods as a countermeasure for sustaining performance in auditory and visual vigilance tasks that were equated in discrimination difficulty. Performance with the vibrotactile stimulation countermeasure was compared against performance with a rest break countermeasure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. The groups were defined by combinations of sensory modality (auditory or visual), and type of countermeasure (control, rest break, low vibrotactile signals, or high vibrotactile signals). For each sensory modality, participants performed a monitoring task that was comprised four 10-minute vigils. The administration of the rest break and vibrotactile countermeasures occurred following the third vigil for each sensory modality. The results of the pilot study showed greater performance improvement in the auditory modality than the visual modality. In the auditory modality, the two vibrotactile countermeasures appear to have some benefit for sustaining performance but not as much as the rest break, whereas, in the visual modality, the three countermeasures had no benefit for sustaining performance. These preliminary findings encourage further investigation of the efficacy of vibrotactile stimulation as a countermeasure for sustaining performance in a vigilance task for both auditory and visual modalities.
Perceptions of Temporal Synchrony in Multimodal Displays BIBAFull-Text 1165-1169
  Wayne Giang; Ehsan Masnavi; Catherine M. Burns
Current multimodal interfaces make use of several intra-modal perceptual judgements that help users "directly perceive" information. These judgements help users organize and group information with little cognitive effort. Cross-modal perceptual relationships are much less commonly used in multimodal interfaces, but could also provide processing advantages for grouping and understanding data across different modalities. In this paper we examine whether individuals are able to directly perceive cross-modal auditory and tactile temporal rate synchrony events. If direct perception is possible, then we would expect that individuals would be able to correctly make these judgements with very little cognitive effort. Our results indicate that individuals have difficulty identifying when the temporal rates of auditory and tactile stimuli in a monitoring task are synchronous. Changes in workload, manipulated using a secondary visual task, resulted in changes in performance in the temporal synchrony task. We concluded that temporal rate synchrony is not a perceptual relationship that allows for direct perception, but further investigation of cross-modal perceptual relationships is required.
Informing the Design of Multimodal Displays: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies Comparing Auditory and Tactile Interruptions BIBAFull-Text 1170-1174
  Sara A. Lu; Christopher D. Wickens; Nadine B. Sarter; Angelia Sebok
The expected air traffic growth will introduce new tasks and automation technologies. As a result, the amount of mostly visual cockpit information will increase significantly, leading to more interruptions and risk of data overload. One promising means of addressing this challenge is through the use of multimodal interfaces which distribute information across sensory channels. To inform the design of such interfaces, a meta-analysis was conducted on the effectiveness and performance effects of auditory versus tactile interruption signals. From the 23 studies, ratio scores were computed to compare performance between the two modalities. The impact of 6 moderator variables was also examined. Overall, this analysis shows faster responses to tactile interruptions. However, more complex and very urgent interruption signals are better presented via the auditory modality. The findings add to our knowledge base in multimodal information processing and can inform modality choices in display design for complex data-rich domains.
Haptic Sensitivity in Compliance Evaluation in a Tool-Wielding Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 1175-1179
  Sheng C. Wong; Cédric Dumas; Cristol Grosdemouge; Caroline G. L. Cao
This paper describes a methodology for establishing standardized tests of haptic sensitivity in a tool-wielding paradigm. A haptic-needle was developed to study compliance differentiation in a needle-insertion task, using a psychophysics experimental protocol. The relationship of applied force and position as a function of perceived tissue compliance was obtained from the recorded data. The Just-Noticeable-Difference (JND) for tissue compliance discrimination with the haptic needle was calculated. Results showed that the JND increased as compliance of the tissue increased. Compliance differentiation was easier when the layers of tissue were more different in compliance. These common trends suggest that the proposed methodology is valid and the haptic performance of human subjects can be quantified.

Perception and Performance: PP2 - Attention and Workload

The Effects of Task Type and Source Complexity on Vigilance Performance, Workload, and Stress BIBAFull-Text 1180-1184
  Grace Teo; James L. Szalma
The present study investigated the effects of task type (cognitive vs. sensory) and source complexity (number of displays to be monitored) of the performance, workload, and stress associated with vigilance. Results affirmed the utility of the cognitive-sensory task distinction of the vigilance taxonomy, although in contrast to previous research the cognitive task was associated with lower performance and higher levels of perceived workload and stress. The results also indicated that both task type and source complexity exhibited the typical performance-workload associations previously reported in research on sustained attention.
Team Vigilance: The Effects of Co-Action on Workload in Vigilance BIBAFull-Text 1185-1189
  Andre Garcia; Carryl Baldwin; Matthew Funke; Gregory Funke; Ben Knott; Victor Finomore; Joel Warm
Operator vigilance is a vital concern to the Human Factors/Ergonomic community in regard to cockpit monitoring, air-traffic control, border security, baggage inspection, the supervisory control of unmanned aerial vehicles, and the monitoring of anesthesia gauges, among others. Of key interest is the performance of teams of observers because of the reliance of modern operations on good teamwork. Previous literature has examined the efficacy of team vigilance performance by comparing the frequency of target detections by teams in comparison to those obtained by operators working alone. Team performance has consistently exceeded single-operator performance. The present study replicates this effect and provides the initial experimental investigation of the cost of being a team member. Results indicated that team members worked harder in terms of theta band activity, but reported similar subjective workload values when compared to that of single operators in the performance of a simulated UAV monitoring task.
Attentional and Mental Workload Demands in Nonverbal Communication BIBAFull-Text 1190-1194
  Elizabeth T. Newlin-Canzone; Mark W. Scerbo; Gayle Gliva-McConvey; Amelia Wallace
The present study applied assumptions of attention and working memory theories to tasks involving nonverbal (NV) communication. Thirty-six undergraduates interviewed for a job. Both type of interview (rote and improvisational) and type of observation (passive and active) were manipulated within groups. Participants were expected to observe fewer NV behaviors and indicate greater workload after active improvisational interviews. The results showed that participants detected fewer NV behaviors and reported higher mental workload when required to simultaneously participate in an interview and observe the interviewer, and particularly when they needed to improvise responses. These findings suggest that the ability to observe and possibly assess another's NV behaviors may be compromised when engaged in an active conversation.
Comparison of controller attention decrease during different break patterns in night shifts BIBAFull-Text 1195-1199
  Christiane Fricke-Ernst; Annette Kluge; Anna Kötteritzsch
Night shifts result in a high pressure on employees' health. Regarding air traffic control, they may also represent a safety issue. Research showed that cognitive performance is decreased at night (Monk 1996) and safety risks increase starting from the second working hour without a break (Folkard et al. 2005). Investigating a request to extend the middle part of a night shift due to little traffic, different break patterns are compared in terms of avoiding health and safety issues. 189 air traffic controllers (ATCOs) from the Eurocontrol Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre in the Netherlands were tested during night shifts lasting for 7.5 hours. During the night shift, two teams, each consisting of two air traffic controllers, were working: While one team was on break, the other took over. They were assigned to three break patterns, with four or five hours of break or a split of the night shift. Each team was tested three times during normal operation. They estimated their subjective sleepiness using a subjective measure, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and filled in an objective measure, the d2, to measure attention. Furthermore, one measurement took place during a regular day shift in order to control the night shift data. Results show that five hours of working without a break does not have a negative impact on attention compared to the two other work-break patterns. External validity is given, since the study was conducted during normal operation. However, it was not possible to control and evaluate all confounding variables, as this would have disturbed the ongoing safe working processes of the scheduled shifts. Therefore, future research that examines individual differences in attention and considers the different activities during the breaks of the ATCOs still needs to be conducted in order to clearly identify an optimal break pattern for night shifts.
Effects of Mental Workload and Operator Control on Perceived Usability BIBAFull-Text 1200-1204
  Christina Kokini; Sangwon Lee; Richard J. Koubek; Moon Seung Ki
In developing products or systems, the importance of usability has become increasingly emphasized over the past few decades. An important factor in understanding the usability of an application is the context in which the application is being used. As a part of addressing this issue, we manipulated two task characteristics (i.e., mental workload and operator control) and examined their effects on perceived usability, using a simulated home security system. The experimental results showed that there were significant effects of the mental workload/operator control features on perceived usability. Also, under high mental workload, the interaction between the mental workload and the operator control factors was not sufficiently supported. Possible reasons for the results and some implications for the findings are discussed.

Perception and Performance: PP3 - Visual Perception

An Empirical Analysis of the Gaze Behavior of Aircraft Pilots within a Highly Automated Aircraft-Air Traffic Control Environment BIBAFull-Text 1205-1209
  Meike Jipp; Uwe Teegen
An increasing level of automation in the flight cockpit more and more prevents pilots from receiving direct feedback from the aircraft. This lack may result in deficient situation awareness, which can degrade the dependability of the pilot-aircraft system substantially. To assist the pilot in maintaining a high level of situation awareness, adaptive situation assessment systems based on monitoring the pilot's gaze behavior may represent a means for future development. However, the measurement details need to be specified, and, much more important, the individual characteristics of pilot gaze change require exploration. For a highly automated environment, the impact of the aircraft's states and the communication with the air traffic control on the gaze behavior were investigated, but the study's conclusions are based on one professional pilot, only, which impedes generalization. Therefore, this paper aims (a) at replicating the effects of the aircraft's states and communication efforts on pilots' gaze behavior and (b) at analyzing whether there are inter-individual differences in the gaze patterns of pilots. For this purpose, the data of a study with twelve professional pilots were used for exploration. During the trial flights two scenarios were flown while the states of the aircraft, the communication with the air traffic control, and the pilot's gaze behavior were recorded. Data analytic procedure revealed significant interindividual differences. In addition, the results replicated the findings of the one-participant study: Especially the altitude of the aircraft and the special format of the communication impact the pilots' visual attention.
The (In)Accuracy of Estimations of Our Own Visual Acuity in the Presence of Glare BIBAFull-Text 1210-1214
  Stacy A. Balk; Richard A. Tyrrell
Headlights must balance two conflicting goals: maximizing visibility for the driver and minimizing glare to other drivers. Yet, recent increases in the number of complaints about headlights indicate a consumer focus on glare discomfort and not on poor visibility -- a known causal factor of nighttime crashes. This study, as part of a series of experiments, explored the relationship between subjective and objective consequences of glare. Twenty-four participants used a psychophysically based technique to estimate their visual acuity in the presence of three different glare intensities. Actual acuity and subjective reports of discomfort were also assessed. Observers' estimates of acuity significantly worsened as glare intensity increased, yet actual acuity was unaffected. Overall, estimates of the disabling effects of glare were more tightly correlated with subjective reports of glare-induced discomfort than with actual visual performance. These results, which are consistent with data obtained in the field -- using vehicle headlights as the glare source -- may help explain drivers' reluctance to use their high beams. The results also underscore the need to collect data on disability glare, not just discomfort glare, when evaluating new lighting technologies.
A practical Legibility Index: From Definition to Measurement Technology BIBAFull-Text 1215-1219
  Hongyi Cai
This study focused on developing a legibility index for text characters and its measurement technology in the field. This study first reviewed the conventional D/H ratio (LI = D/H, D is legibility distance, H is character height), and a recently redefined LI' = √(1/ω);, ω is the solid angle subtended by the legible target). LI' was aimed to replace the insufficient D/H ratio for common oblique viewing. Yet people's normal reading habit was not considered in LI', which lowers their reading performance at large viewing angles. Direct measurement of solid angle is also inconvenient in the field. This study thus improved LI', based on experimental data, as LI'' = √(1/ω) when 0° ≤ ξ < 66.8°; LI'' = √((0.062ξ-π)/ω), when 66.8° ≤ ξ ≤ 82.8° (ξ is the incident angle). An objective protocol aided by innovative high dynamic range photogrammetric techniques was also proposed for quick and reliable measurement of LI' in the field.
Effects of Eye Fixation on Visually Induced Motion Sickness: Are they Caused by Changes in Retinal Slip Velocity? BIBAFull-Text 1220-1224
  J. X. Yang; C. T. Guo; R. H. Y. So; R. T. F. Cheung
Watching slowly moving wide field-of-view patterns can cause symptoms of visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) in viewers. A within-subject full factorial experiment was designed to test two hypotheses: 1) when watching patterns rotating at 60 degrees per second (dps), eye fixation increases the peripheral retinal slip velocity leading to a reduction in the levels of VIMS; and 2) when watching patterns rotating at 7 dps, eye fixation increases the peripheral retinal slip velocity leading to an increase in the levels of VIMS. The experimental design used two levels of eye fixation (with and without). Nine participants (4 male and 5 female) were exposed to all four conditions with a week's break between each condition. Results indicated that when watching patterns rotating at 60 dps, eye fixation significantly increased the peripheral retinal slip velocity from 35 dps to 60 dps and reduced the levels of mean nausea from 3.6 to 2.7 (p < 0.01). When watching patterns rotating at 7 dps, eye fixation significantly increased the peripheral retinal slip from 2.6 to 7 dps and only slightly increased the levels of mean nausea. The implications of these results are discussed.
The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements BIBAFull-Text 1225-1229
  Anthony J. Hornof; Kyle E. V. Vessey
As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need to better understand fundamental human-machine interaction capabilities between a human and a computer via an eye tracking device. Prior research has explored the maximum rate of input from a human to a computer, such as key-entry rates in eye-typing tasks, but there has been little or no work to determine capabilities and limitations with regards to delivering gaze-mediated commands at precise moments in time. This paper evaluates four different methods for converting real-time eye movement data into control signals -- two fixation-based methods and two saccade-based methods. An experiment compares musicians' ability to use each method to trigger the playing of sounds at precise times, and examines how quickly musicians are able to move their eyes to trigger correctly-timed, evenly-paced rhythms. The results indicate that fixation-based eye-control algorithms provide better timing control than saccade-based algorithms, and that people have a fundamental performance limitation for tapping out eye-controlled rhythms that lies somewhere between two and four beats per second.

Perception and Performance: PP4 - Acoustics and Speech

Seeing with Sound: Creating a Training Module to Use Echolocation for Object Detection BIBAFull-Text 1230-1234
  Curtis Bower; Carlos Duarte; Jared Garrison; Lucas Reid; Joseph Seegmiller; Aaron Wilson; Denise H. Bauer; Michael Anderson; Andy Wixom
This project explored using ultrasonic reflections to effectively identify an object's size, distance, relative location, and solidity to improve the use of echolocation by the seeing impaired to "see" their surroundings. An interactive test program was created to train and assess the subjects' ability to detect differences within a variable. Two main factors, object type and position, had significant (p<0.001) effects on correct identification. Specifically, solid objects or those located in front of the subject were more correctly identified. The interactions of object/position (p=0.005) and distance/position (p=0.004) were also significant. Solid object located in front of the subject appeared to be easier to identify and a correct response for the location depended on the distance. The primary results provided evidence that an ultrasonic echolocation device may be a viable tool to aid the seeing impaired. However, more studies are needed to make more conclusive statements on the findings.
Data-To-Sound Mapping To Sonify Ongoing System Status In Continuous Manual Control Task BIBAFull-Text 1235-1239
  Yukio Horiguchi; Keisuke Yasuda; Hiroaki Nakanishi; Tetsuo Sawaragi
This study empirically examines parameter-mapping sonifications to represent the difference or error between the desired state and the current state of the system being controlled using the non-speech audio. Eight different types of data-to-sound mappings were prepared by which the error was mapped onto either or both of two acoustic parameters of intensity and frequency. The mappings were tested through an experiment using a one-dimensional tracking task. The experimental results shows the following points: 1) as for the tracking task, the mappings are preferable in which the sound intensity falls as the error decreases, 2) no audible sound when no error remains is effective because listeners can easily identify the achievement to the goal from the sound itself, and 3) it seems more effective to map the error to the intensity and frequency redundantly than only to either of them, if perceptual interaction between changes in loudness and pitch is considered enough.
Performance of Skilled Typists as a Function of Pacing, Response Complexity and Urgency in Numerical Hear-and-type Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1240-1244
  Cheng-Jhe Lin; Changxu Wu
Performance of skilled typists in numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses in response to verbally presented numbers, has practical and theoretical importance because it help understand perceptual-motor skills and error mechanisms. Effects of speech rates (500ms vs. 1000ms interval), urgency (elicited by monetary rewards) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing degraded both typing speed and accuracy, while urgency improved typing speed at the expense of decreasing accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. The results implied that common beliefs of fast speech and multi-finger typing being incentive to typing performance might not be true, and internalized urgency could play a more important role in error-making than external task demands.
An Examination of the Impact of Synthetic Speech on Unattended Recall in a Dichotic Listening Task BIBAFull-Text 1245-1249
  Anne M. Sinatra; Valerie K. Sims; Maxine B. Najle; Matthew G. Chin
Synthetic speech, which is generated by a computer, is widely used in both everyday situations (e.g. GPS devices; weather alerts) and the military (e.g. aviation). Synthetic speech is not identical to spoken speech, as it has a different pacing and varying pronunciations. Participants engaged in a Dichotic Listening Task in which they actively repeated information that was being presented in one ear, while ignoring their other (unattended) ear. The task was adapted and used both synthetic and spoken speech in the attended and unattended ears. It was found that when the unattended information was Spoken participants were more likely to hear an alert word ("fire") and familiar character names when engaging in a difficult task. When unattended information was in the form of Synthetic Speech less of these low-threshold words were reported by the participants. This research has important implications for the development and use of synthetic speech in high workload situations, and in alerts.
Musical Valence Affects Spatial Attention in a Likert Scale Rating Task BIBAFull-Text 1250-1254
  Jane H. Barrow; Carryl L. Baldwin; Janet E. Bourne; Lindsay Wenger
Music has wide usage in many situations in everyday life, and has been shown to affect a wide range of behaviors from basic line bisection to driving performance. One hundred fourteen participants performed a rating task on works of art in silence or while listening to music with a sad or happy valence. The results demonstrated a replication of earlier work on pseudoneglect in line bisection tasks when the ratings were performed in silence, but demonstrated a reversal of the effect when happy music was present and a negation of the effect when sad music was present. The presence of music and its valence impacted spatial attention as evidenced by ratings on a visual analog scale. The results are framed within theory regarding hemispheric specialization in the brain, and how the findings might be applied to situations in everyday life. Specifically, the results suggest a way to potentially ameliorate pseudoneglect on rating and response scales, improving the efficacy of such instruments in research and user experience environments.

Perception and Performance: PP5 - Conducting Human Performance Research in Support of Current Military Operations: Implications for System Development

Human Performance Research in Support of Current Military Operations BIBAFull-Text 1255-1259
  Pamela Savage-Knepshield; Alan Davison; William Harper; Frank Morelli; Elizabeth Redden; Barry Vaughan
Shoot, move, communicate, survive, and adapt are five of the most critical tasks that a Soldier will perform during combat. The extent to which Soldiers are successful at these tasks may ultimately determine not only their survivability, but also that of their unit. This panel, which is comprised of a mixture of human factors/ergonomics practitioners and researchers, discusses topic areas in which human performance issues play a critical role in current military operations. Topics include information overload in the visual channel, facial protection effects on shooting performance, video search techniques for widely defined targets, and the development of video training lanes for improvised explosive device detection. The underlying human performance issues and various approaches which have been taken to address them will be discussed. Understanding and predicting factors that influence human performance in these arenas is not only critical for the design of effective systems and programs of instruction, but also for overall mission effectiveness and Soldier survival. Panelists will discuss critical factors and insights that are generalizable across a wide range of products and industry sectors as well as those that warrant further investigation.

Perception and Performance: PP6 - Perception and Performance Potpourri

Spatial Perception and Robot Operation: Should Spatial Abilities Be Considered When Selecting Robot Operators? BIBAFull-Text 1260-1264
  Joshua A. Gomer; Christopher C. Pagano
Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between spatial perception abilities and robot operation under direct-line-of-sight and teleoperation viewing conditions. This study was an effort to determine if spatial ability testing may be a useful tool in the selection of human-robot interaction (HRI) operators. Method. Participants completed eight cognitive measures and operated one of four types of robots under tasks of low and high difficulty. Performance for each participant was tested during both direct-line-of-sight and teleoperation. Results. Spatial abilities are shown to be reliable predictors of directline-of-sight and teleoperation performance. Participants in this study with higher spatial abilities completed their tasks faster and with fewer errors. Participants with higher spatial abilities were also more successful at completing the task. Discussion. Applications of these findings are discussed in terms of teleoperator selection tools, HRI training, and human-centered design recommendations.
Measuring "Spidey Sense" in a Threat Detection Task: The Role of Physiological Arousal BIBAFull-Text 1265-1269
  Vladimir Zotov; Jocelyn Mary Keillor; Jerzy Jarmasz
Physiological sensations are reported by soldiers in relation to events that are only later found to be life-threatening. Despite these anecdotal reports, the role of physiological responses in detecting threats has not been established. Physiological measures were recorded while experienced (recently returned from Afghanistan) and novice (no experience in Afghanistan) soldiers watched different types of video: walking or driving in neutral environments, and driving in Afghanistan. Participants were asked to identify nonthreatening and threatening situations by button presses according to the video watched. Analyses of eye movements revealed that experienced soldiers displayed smaller saccade amplitude, more fixations, and wider scanning patterns for the "threat" videos than novices. Analyses of heart rate variability indicated that physiological stress levels were higher for the experienced soldiers, particularly for the "threat" videos. The results suggest that experienced soldiers scanned their environment for threat more systematically than novices, and that this was associated with higher physiological arousal, suggesting a role for affective as well as cognitive processing of stimuli in expert threat detection.
Effect of Digital Anesthesia on Multi-Finger Synergies during a Sub-Maximal Constant Force Production Task BIBAFull-Text 1270-1273
  Sohit Karol; Jae Kun Shim
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tactile feedback on multi-finger coordination, quantified by a synergy index using the uncontrolled manifold analysis. Twenty healthy, young volunteers were asked to press with all the four fingers on four, one dimensional sensors at 20% of their maximum voluntary force. A visual feedback of total force output was shown on a computer monitor. Tactile feedback was removed by administering ring block anesthesia. Results from this study suggest that the multi-finger synergies, the task errors as well as the flexibility of the motor system to produce the forces decrease significantly with the administration of anesthesia.
Spatial Judgments from Different Vantage Points: A Different Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1274-1278
  Erik Prytz; Mark W. Scerbo; Rebecca Kennedy
Todorovic (2008) reported that there are systematic errors in the perception of 3-D space when viewing 2-D linear perspective drawings depending on the observer's vantage point. Because Todorovic's findings were restricted to the horizontal plane, the current study was designed to determine whether the magnitude of these errors would be similar in the vertical plane. Participants viewed a 2D image containing rows of columns aligned on parallel converging lines receding to a vanishing point. They were asked to judge where in the physical room the next column should be placed. The results support Todorovic (2008) in that systematic deviations in the spatial judgments depended on vantage point for both the horizontal and vertical planes. However, the pattern of deviation differed between the two planes. While judgments in both planes failed to compensate adequately for the vantage point shift, the vertical plane induced greater distortions of the stimulus image itself within each vantage point.
Physical Design Tools Support and Hinder Innovative Engineering Design BIBAFull-Text 1279-1283
  Jooyoung Jang; Christian D. Schunn
Engineers use various physical tools -- including computers, smart boards, notes, and prototypes -- to support their design work. To reveal the characteristics of innovation-supporting environments, we examined the pattern of tool use in 43 interdisciplinary engineering design teams enrolled in a full-semester Product Realization course. Teams worked all semester on a single project, with each team being assigned a different industry-sponsored project. Group meetings were video-recorded. Team success was measured in terms of meeting client requirements, and groups were divided into high, medium, and low success. Successful teams were found to use smart board and prototypes consistently more often, whereas unsuccessful teams (i.e., low success group) used computer, laptop, and notes more often. Particularly, late adoption of prototyping was a key characteristic of unsuccessful teams. Further, smart board and prototype appeared to promote success at the level of subsystem as well as at the global level, by supporting elaborated ideation.

Posters: POS1 - Posters 1

What's on "Their" Mind: Evaluating Collaborative Systems Using Team Mental Models BIBAFull-Text 1284-1288
  Vincent Mancuso; Katherine Hamilton; Eric McMillan; Rachel Tesler; Susan Mohammed; Michael McNeese
In this paper we describe a methodology for utilizing team mental models as a basis for evaluating the usability and utility of collaborative systems. We present a case study of the evaluation of team mental models within the NeoCITIES 3.1 simulation. Paired comparison ratings, which are one of the most popularly used methods of team mental model assessment, were used to capture the team members' taskwork-related knowledge, which was then compared to ratings from subject matter experts. These analyses were the driving force behind several design modifications in the NeoCITIES interface. We discuss the limitations of the method and its implications within the scope of collaborative systems evaluation and the field of HCI.
Performance analysis of text entry with preferred one hand using smartphone touch keyboard BIBAFull-Text 1289-1292
  Joobong Song; Taebeum Ryu; Sangwoo Bahn; Myung Hwan Yun
Is performance in smartphone text entry better when using the preferred hand rather than the non-preferred hand? Among right-handed people, is the performance of users who prefer using their left hand in smartphone text entry worse than that of users who prefer using their right hand? The present study addresses these questions. Thirty young male undergraduate students were instructed to type a text message template using a thumb-based QWERTY smartphone with both hands, with only their right hand, and with only their left hand. The completion time and occurrence of errors were measured. All participants were right handed. However, when only one hand is available half of them preferred to use their right hand if they had to enter a text on the smartphone, whereas the other half preferred to use their left hand. In entering a text with only one hand, about 90% of the 15 righthand-preferred participants, and about 70% of the 15 lefthand-preferred participants performed better using their preferred hand than using their nonpreferred hand. However, the performance of the participants who performed better using their left hand was not worse than those who performed better using their right hand in smartphone text entry.
Effects of Socioeconomic diversity on iPod Touch Device Use in Real-World Environments BIBAFull-Text 1293-1297
  Chad C. Tossell; Jo R. Jardina; Philip T. Kortum; S. Camille Peres; Clayton W. Shepard; Ahmad Rahmati; Lin Zhong
The iPod Touch provides portable and personalized information, entertainment, and communication resources for users. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of user diversity on how these handheld mobile computers are employed in real environments. Using an unobtrusive, longitudinal methodology to collect data, we explored how different socioeconomic groups personalize and operate iPod Touches. The lower income group used the instrumented iPod Touch more often and for different purposes. Design implications for newer-generation handheld devices and content are discussed.
Formatted Text Improves the Communication of Credit Card Information: Effects on Response Time BIBAFull-Text 1298-1302
  Jesseca R. I. Taylor; Michael S. Wogalter
Understanding basic credit card information can be important for maintaining secure personal finances. Although considerable human factors research has examined safety communications and warnings to avoid risk of personal injury, little human factors research has been conducted on communications associated with financial risk. This study explored whether human factors principles can be applied to credit card information intended for consumers. People's decision-making performance was examined with respect to credit card application information given in two formats: less versus more structured format, with the latter involving information chunking and spacing. Participants (N=40) compared 16 pairs of credit card applications with the task of selecting one among each pair that was the better financial deal (i.e., that reduced financial risk or saved more money). Eight pairs had less formatting (in prose style) and eight pairs had more structured formatting. The results showed that the credit card applications with the more structured format significantly reduced comparison (decision) times but had only minor effects on response accuracy. Implications for formatting financial risk disclosures are offered.
Designing Better Healthcare Test Reports for Patients BIBAFull-Text 1303-1307
  Ila J. Elson
Electronic medical records are becoming a reality at hospitals and doctor's offices. They promise instant access but not instant understanding for the patient because they have always been designed for the clinician. This article provides some guidance in designing better healthcare test reports for the patients' needs through application of basic human information processing principles and software design patterns. Two common test panel reports given to patients either during review of annual physical examinations or during review of surveillance testing for cancer reoccurrence are provided and critiqued in this paper from the patient perspective. Then mockups of proposed next generation reports for patients during these types of doctor office visits are provided during the conference poster session. Human Factors practitioners and consultants in the healthcare informatics industry will find this information useful in designing electronic health records and reports for patients and consumers.
The Impact of Web Site Familiarity on User Performance When Critical Navigation Links Change BIBAFull-Text 1308-1312
  Philip Kortum; Lauren F. V. Scharff
The research in this paper examines the effect of web site familiarity on the impact of small changes in a site's primary navigation structure on user performance. Ninety-two participants performed multiple tasks on a web site, and then returned to the site either immediately or after a three-week delay to perform one of the original tasks again. Half the users had the critical navigation link on the first task, while half did not. On the second visit, the presence or absence of the link either remained consistent, or was the opposite of the condition experienced during their first visit. The addition of multiple tasks during the user's first visit to the website was expected to cause the memory of the path to the target to be less salient during subsequent visits, thus reducing the performance increase observed in prior studies. However, results show that web site familiarity did not have a significant effect on user performance in this task. One likely explanation for this finding is that there is a trade-off between the salience created for the correct information path gained by performing a single-task first visit and the familiarity gained through multiple forays through the site as the result of multiple task completion.
A "White-Space" Effect in Users' Anticipation of the Challenges Involved in Using Everyday Products BIBAFull-Text 1313-1317
  M. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; W. Seidelman; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke
Although the use of prospective workload judgments (i.e., judgments obtained from users prior to any actual interaction with a product) may be appealing for a variety of logistical reasons, a growing literature highlights the biases and metacognitive misconceptions that sometimes lead such judgments to be far from what is found in post-performance evaluations. The current study uses the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) in a prospective workload judgment task that employs two familiar stimulus sets from the human factors literature as to-be-rated designs: 1) control-burner arrangements on cooktops, and 2) control layouts for pointing tasks that vary in terms of Fitts' Law parameters. Participants made reliable errors (compared to known performance outcomes) when judging both stimulus sets. In general, lower workload judgments were associated with designs that had greater intervening white space between controls and displays/targets.
Effect of Text Format on Determining Tires' Date of Manufacture BIBAFull-Text 1318-1322
  Jesseca R. I. Taylor; Michael S. Wogalter
Previous research indicates that most consumers are unaware that older tires can deteriorate and lead to tread separation which could result in crashes. Even if they were to know about this hazard, the task of determining the date of manufacture (DOM) on tires is difficult. In the U.S., consumers must decode a 4 digit number at the end of a longer U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) identification number in small, black print embossed onto black sidewalls. Eighty-three participants (45 students and 38 adult non-students) were asked to decode 6 different date of manufacture (DOM) markings. Analyses showed that people have difficulty with determining dates in the current U.S. DOT format and that date formats resembling common U.S. date representations were more understandable to participants. Additionally, only half of the participants reported having knowledge of tire aging issues and few have looked at the DOT identification number before participating in this research. Discussed are implications for date formatting, followed by guidance on designing a more consumer-friendly DOM.
The Combat Medic Card Game for Emergency Medical Procedures: A Usability and Learning Study BIBAFull-Text 1323-1327
  Rebecca Lyons; Christine Allen; Sallie J. Weaver; David Metcalf; Clarissa Graffeo; Eduardo Salas
The primary objective of this study was to assess user reactions and perceptions of usability regarding the Combat Medic Card Game (CMCG). The CMCG was designed to serve as a supplementary study tool for individuals completing Combat Medic training in order to support and reinforce learning of emergency medical care procedures (e.g., hemorrhage management). In addition to collecting reaction and usability data, an exploratory study of user learning compared learning outcomes achieved using two different modes of card use: game play versus flash cards. Results suggested that users in the flashcard group were more likely to report perceived learning compared to users in the game play condition. However, declarative knowledge scores were not significantly different between conditions.
User Experience With Cybercollaboration Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1328-1332
  Esa M. Rantanen; Jessica L. Smagner
A usability survey of various cybercollaboration technologies with 32 questions was created and administered through the Rochester Institute of Technology's (RIT) Clipboard online survey tool. A total of 73 responses were received and analyzed. There was no participant consensus on what tools to include in "ideal" cybercollaborative environments. The inclusion or exclusion of specific tools and functionality are not critical to team success provided that basic affordances for document and data sharing are provided. Traditional usability issues were not widely cited as the main reason for a virtual team to be unsuccessful. The most critical aspects to ensure virtual team success were general communication and achieving consensus on the hypothesis. Therefore, "usability" in the broad sense of affording the effectiveness of collaboration through virtual environments can be best achieved through providing specific decision frameworks to enable team-wide accountability, participation, and documented acceptance of the hypothesis, as well as specifically addressing critical communication issues. Cybercollaborative technologies should allow for unencumbered interactions and communication between group members so as to not be distracting, while the true affordance of efficient collaborative work comes from setting processes that preemptively improve communication and decision-making where they are most likely to erode.
Improving Employment Outcomes of Breast Cancer Survivors: Development of a Web-Based Educational and Decision Support Tool BIBAFull-Text 1333-1337
  Mary Sesto; Rebecca Wachowiak; Amye Tevaarwerk; Mahpara Faatin; Susan Heidrich; Douglas Wiegmann
A major consequence of surviving cancer is that treatment-related symptoms can persist and result in work disability. This problem will continue to escalate as treatment becomes more successful and the workforce ages. Employment is a critical component of quality of life, yet no effective intervention exists to improve employment outcomes following a cancer diagnosis. An innovative, interdisciplinary approach to improve work ability was used to develop a web-based, information support system for breast cancer survivors. Strategies from human factors engineering (HFE), decision support, and oncology symptom management were used to develop the WISE (Work ability Improvement through Symptom management and Ergonomic education), a survivor-centered intervention. The conceptual framework for the WISE is based on a macroergonomics work systems model that evaluates aspects of the work system and its interaction with the individual. The content and format of the WISE is based on recommendations from subject matter experts and end users. Application of HFE methods may empower survivors to maximize employment and economic self-sufficiency. The purpose of this poster presentation is to report on the content development and refinement of the WISE.
Auditory Progress Bars: Estimations of Time Remaining BIBAFull-Text 1338-1341
  Adrian Garcia; S. Camille Peres; Paul Ritchey; Philip Kortum; Kurt Stallmann
Auditory Progress Bars (APB) were originally intended to augment Visual Progress Bars (VPB) to create multimodal displays. More recently, APBs have been tested in absence of VPBs for use in the on-hold telephone setting. In this setting, APBs are a viable option for communicating the probable time remaining in the on-hold wait. However, past studies measure the effectiveness of APBs retrospectively, which is appropriate for understanding how accurately callers can judge how long they have been waiting on hold, but is not appropriate for determining if APBs are intuitively communicating the probable time remaining in the wait -- which is more relevant to the caller's needs. Here, we measure the effectiveness of 3 distinct APBs prospectively which is more consistent with the caller's concern of how much longer the wait will be before their call is answered. Furthermore, we make APBs more similar to VPBs by playing the APB's endpoint before the APB's beginning point. We found evidence that the accuracy of prospective estimations is a product of APB design, and that the awareness of the endpoint has no affect on the accuracy of prospective estimations.
Evaluation Of Cognitive Workload From EEG During A Mental Arithmetic Task BIBAFull-Text 1342-1345
  Brice Rebsamen; Kenneth Kwok; Trevor B. Penney
We collected electroencephalographic (EEG) data from 16 subjects while they performed a mental arithmetic task at five different levels of difficulty. A classifier was trained to discriminate between three conditions: relaxed, low workload and high workload, using spectral features of the EEG. We obtained an average classification accuracy of 62%. A continuous workload index was obtained by low-pass filtering the classifier's output. The correlation coefficient between the resulting workload index and the difficulty level of the task was 0.6 on average.
Dynamic Cognitive Task Modeling of Complexity Discovery: A Mix of Process Tracing and Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1346-1350
  Gagnon Jean-François; Patrick Jeuniaux; Geneviève Dubé; Sébastien Tremblay
Task models can be very informative and provide invaluable guidance to the design of socio-technical artifact intended to provide external cognition and support to decision-making. In the case of developing support for strategic decision-making and complexity discovery, the modeling of task-related dynamic cognition is of prime importance. We report on the application of a method that combines hierarchical task analysis and process tracing -- dynamic cognitive task modeling (DCTM) -- as a means to inform the design process of a joint cognitive system (JCS) -- IMAGE -- that seeks to augment complexity discovery capabilities. The DCTM method provides a measure of human-system interaction and dynamic cognition that is empirical, unobtrusive, less sensitive to biases and well suited for the particularly challenging context of complexity discovery.
Understanding Dual Rover Communications using Social Network Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1351-1355
  Harry L., Jr. Litaker
Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission. SNA was used to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight crews, and planetary science. The analysis identified the communication network structure for the continuous communication scenario as being a split network. The major nodes for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of the structure. Concise among all team members identified a need for a more stable network structure with improved robustness of voice loops and better systems training/capabilities for scientific and operational data for all operators.
Qualitative Data Differences between a Focus Group and Online Forum Hosting a Usability Design Review: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 1356-1360
  Jennifer A. Cowley; Julie Radford-Davenport
Traditional usability assessment test methods often do not accommodate conventional resource constraints which typically result in testing renouncement; thus, new methods are needed. This case study reviews a new test method, the internet forum, and compares data outcomes related to participant participation between this forum and the traditional focus group. The same design review was hosted in all groups: two forum groups (n=28 and 7) and two focus group sessions (n=14 and 10). Data was coded to determine what percentage of the users responded to each posed question, how many user conversations occurred and how many design suggestions were provided. Thus, more participants responded to questions in the forum rather than the focus group but more forum conversations occurred comparatively. However, these conversations did not inspire more designs suggestions comparatively. Also, forum participants most often directly answered the questions and provided more design suggestions directly related to the questions posed while focus group participants offered more off-topic responses that provided important rich contextual information (e.g., explanation behind user requirements). Research implications, threats to validity and future work are also discussed.
Exploration of the Factor Structure and Internal Consistency of the Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ) BIBAFull-Text 1361-1365
  J. Christopher Brill; Mustapha Mouloua
The present investigation is part of a series of studies to develop a questionnaire for assessing propensity to engage in aggressive driving behavior. The 20-item Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ) was administered to a sample of 495 college students from two universities. The data were factor analyzed, yielding six factors accounting for 56% of the variance and representing distinct aspects of aggressive driving. The ADBQ was also found to have a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .77). Directions for future development and validation of the ADBQ are discussed.
Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory: A Monte Carlo Investigation BIBAFull-Text 1366-1369
  James L. Szalma; Maureen E. O'Connell
Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory (FSDT) has the potential of enhancing performance measures in detection tasks in which precision of Signal Detection Theory (SDT) analysis is limited by discrete mutually exclusive categorization of the state of the world and/or responses available to the observer. While there have been empirical efforts to demonstrate the benefits and tenability of FSDT, the question still remains whether traditional SDT computational procedures for measures of sensitivity and bias can be used with FSDT procedures. Through the use of Monte Carlo simulation and ROC analysis, the current study examined whether data analyzed by FSDT met the assumptions of traditional SDT on which sensitivity and bias measures are predicated. The results indicated that FSDT does in fact meet the normality and equal variance assumptions of SDT. However, the results also indicated that further theoretical elaboration of 'fuzzy criterion setting' is necessary.
Are We Becoming Super-Human Cyborgs? Examination of Technomorphism and the Creation of a Technomorphic Tendencies Scale BIBAFull-Text 1370-1374
  Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Shane E. Halse
While traditionally researchers have focused on making robotics more user-friendly from a human perspective, a new theory has begun to take shape in which the human makes decisions based on how a robot would. The following study examines the concept of technomorphism which is the attribution of technological features and characteristics to humans. Because there is very little empirical or theoretical research performed in this area, researchers set out to formally define technomorphism as well as create a scale to measure a person's propensity to use a technomorphic schema. The findings from this work should help fuel the desire of others in the field to think about the potential influences of technomorphism during the design and implementation of new devices as well as in how we technology may influence how we perceive each other.
A Useable, Online NASA-TLX Tool BIBAFull-Text 1375-1379
  David Sharek
For over 20 years, the NASA Task Load indeX (NASA-TLX) (Hart & Staveland, 1988) has been successfully used as a self-report measure of cognitive workload, yet emphasis on the usability and accessibility of the NASA-TLX as a research tool has remained lacking. A freely-available, user-friendly, online version of NASA-TLX is introduced (Sharek, 2009). Key features and benefits of the online version for researchers and participants are discussed.
The Evolution of Meta-Analytic Trends: Comparisons across Data Collection Intervals through a Specific Case Context BIBAFull-Text 1380-1384
  Kristin E. Oleson; Ryan Yordon; J. L. Szalma; P. A. Hancock
The present paper reports a meta-analysis on the effects of acoustic noise on performance for the studies from 2006-2011. These findings are compared and contrasted to the outcome of a previous meta-analysis of studies from 1900-2005 concerning the self-same influence. Such a comparison illustrates the evolution of acoustic effects but critically, it also renders crucial insights into the process of meta-analysis itself.

Posters: POS2 - Posters 2

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility BIBAFull-Text 1385-1388
  Shelby Thompson; Miranda Mesloh; Scott England; Elizabeth Benson; Sudhakar Rajulu
The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psid, and gloved at 4.3 psid. To test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force plate. Results showed that amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.
N-SEEV in SOAS: Predicting Time to Notice for Multi-Modal Cockpit Alerting Events BIBAFull-Text 1389-1393
  John W. Keller; Christopher D. Wickens; Ron L. Small
This paper presents the current work to extend the N-SEEV model of visual attention to both the auditory and tactile modalities in support a cockpit adaptive automation system for pilot spatial disorientation. Cockpit countermeasure systems use visual, auditory and tactile modalities to communicate problems to the pilot. The SOAS spatial orientation aiding system uses all three modalities to support a disoriented pilot. The system initiates increasingly intrusive countermeasure as it determines that the probability and severity of a detected disorientation is increasing. N-SEEV has been included within SOAS to support the change to countermeasure levels based on the prediction of the pilot noticing countermeasure onset. Previous versions of N-SEEV could predict a time-to-notice for the onset of a visual cockpit countermeasure. In this work, N-SEEV is extended to include noticing predictions for both the auditory and tactile modes.
From TVs to Phones: A Comparison of Adults' Mental Models of Computers in 1999 and 2009 BIBAFull-Text 1394-1397
  Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Anne M. Sinatra; Heather C. Lum; Anthony Selkowitz; Carrie E. Murphy; Kristin E. Oleson
The mental models that participants had about the common technological device of a computer were examined in 1999 and 2009. The participants were prompted with the question "What is like a computer?" in order to generate analogies that were used to access their mental models. Results indicated that more analogies were generated in 1999 rather than 2009. In addition there was a reduction in the amount of analogies generated by males. The top popular analogies produced in 1999 and 2009 were found to be different. These results suggest that the general knowledge base people have about computers has shifted in the past decade. Further, the individual differences that one has may impact their beliefs and knowledge about computers.
The Effects of Image Resolution on an Armored Vehicle Differentiation Task BIBAFull-Text 1398-1401
  Kristin E. Oleson; Joseph Keebler; Gian Colombo
Future usage of multiple unmanned vehicle (UV) assets by all branches of the United States military necessitates examination of the factors involved in efficient communication of information among human-robot teams. One area for concern is the transfer of visual information in the form of photographs or live feeds. This study explores the effects of image resolution on a relevant military task, namely that of vehicle differentiation. Images of four scaled armored military vehicles (M1A1 Abrams, M3A2 Bradley, T-72 and T-80) were recorded and compared across six digital image resolution levels for accuracy and response time. Results suggest that 15 ppi is the minimum image resolution needed during transmission of static visual communication.
Exploiting the Auditory Modality in Decision Support: Beneficial "Warning" Effects and Unavoidable Costs BIBAFull-Text 1402-1406
  François Vachon; Sébastien Tremblay; Alastair P. Nicholls; Dylan M. Jones
The rate at which technology continues to develop and permeate our lives is such that it has become increasingly easier, and thus more likely, for information to be presented to us via different modalities simultaneously. But to what extent does this confluence of information affect our subsequent judgment and performance? Furthermore, what are the implications for system design when this information is critical to saving our lives and others? This study uses a visual 'microworld' simulation of a naval anti-air warfare to investigate whether the content and priority of audio messages that accompany changes in the visual modality assist or hinder performance in the task (identification of change and evaluation of threats). Results indicate that although helping critical change detection, a critical warning in the auditory modality is not as efficient as its visual counterpart. Moreover, audio messages tended to bias threat evaluation towards perceiving objects as more hostile than they were in reality. Such findings have clear implications in regard to the costs and benefits of further exploiting the auditory modality in dynamic visual environments.
Interactions Among Target Salience, Eccentricity, Target Expectancy and Workload in an Alert Detection Task BIBAFull-Text 1407-1411
  Kelly S. Steelman; Jason S. McCarley
Attentional behavior in complex visual workspaces is driven by the physical and temporal characteristics of the display, the goals and knowledge of the operator, and task demands. Accordingly, to develop effective displays, designers must understand how these factors interact to influence attentional allocation within the display and the detectability of critical alerts. In the current study, participants performed a central highway-in-the-sky (HITS) manual tracking task and a peripheral alert detection task concurrently while alert eccentricity, salience, expectancy, and central task workload were manipulated. Eccentricity and expectancy effects were observed in both hit rates and response times (RTs). RT evinced interactions of salience with both eccentricity and expectancy, indicating that the absence of dynamic distractors allowed for more rapid detection of near alerts and more effective use of top-down attentional guidance in the detection of targets in high expectancy locations. Effects also manifested in PDT, with interactions between workload, salience, and target expectancy. Results demonstrate interactions among multiple bottom-up and top-down factors in the control of visual attention within a complex workspace.
Examining the Actors and Functions of an Airline Operations Center BIBAFull-Text 1412-1416
  Katherine A. Berry; John J. Pace
The operation and safety of the National Airspace System (NAS) is reliant on a multitude of actors and systems, which includes the members of the Airline Operation Center (AOC), whose primary job is to ensure flight safety (Sheremeta & Weitzel, 2005). The FAA's NextGen will constitute many changes within the NAS, and the effects of these changes need to be examined in respect to the AOC. However, before these changes can be examined in detail, it is necessary to have a baseline understanding of the current operations and actors of an AOC. In this study, AOC actors that are critical to the day-to-day operation of an AOC were identified and a functional allocation was performed. Using this research as a baseline, further research should be conducted to examine how those AOC actors and their functions will change with the implementation of NextGen.
The Effect of Gestalt Psychology on the System-Wide Trust Strategy in Automation BIBAFull-Text 1417-1421
  Nathaniel H. Bean; Stephen C. Rice; M. David Keller
Recent research has indicated that operators may utilize the system-wide trust strategy when presented with two automation aids of unknown reliability (Keller, Bean, & Rice, 2009; Keller & Rice, 2010; Keller & Rice, 2009). This is undesirable as operators may under-utilize reliable aids when they are paired with unreliable aids. Two variables derived from Gestalt psychology's law of similarity were employed in an attempt to overcome this effect: gauge shape congruence and operator knowledge of the aids' reliability. Results indicated that altering the gauge shapes had no effect on operator performance. However, providing aid reliability information to the operator did have a positive effect on operator performance. More specifically, operators reacted to alarms more quickly and reduced their false alarm rates; however, they did not improve their hit rates. Future work should be conducted to assess more fully the role of aid reliability information and Gestalt psychology as they relate to the system-wide trust strategy.
Modeling the Visual and Motor Control of Steering With an Eye to Shared-Control Automation BIBAFull-Text 1422-1426
  Franck Mars; Louay Saleh; Philippe Chevrel; Fabien Claveau; Jean-François Lafay
This paper describes a newly developed driver model that focuses on the control of car steering. The model represents visual anticipation of road curvature and compensation of lateral positioning error. It also incorporates a neuromuscular system, inspired by Hoult and Cole (2008), including an internal model of the steering system compliance, muscle co-activation by α and γ signals and the stretch reflex. Preliminary driving simulator experiments with five participants showed that the identification of model parameters yielded consistent results. Moreover, the model was able to steer the driving simulator by itself and showed a behavior similar to that of the human driver who provided the data for parameter identification. This model may be used for the design of automation for shared control of steering.
Operator Aid-Switching in a Case of Redundant Automation with Single-Aid Failure BIBAFull-Text 1427-1431
  Joshua Sandry; Jeremy Schwark; Gayle Hunt; Kasha Geels; Stephen Rice
Research exploring factors that affect an operator's use of automated systems has gained a great deal of attention over the years; however, it is only recently that an operator's simultaneous use of multiple automated aids has been investigated. The current study employed a target search task to examine how individuals utilize two automated aids when one of the aids fails and begins to decrease in reliability. More specifically, we were interested in investigating whether people would be able to switch from utilizing the failing aid (originally highly reliable) to the other aid (originally less reliable) when the failing aid became less reliable than the other aid. The results show that participants were able to consistently use the more reliable aid, even if this meant switching from one aid to the other. Practical implications are discussed.
A Model of Human-Robot Trust: Theoretical Model Development BIBAFull-Text 1432-1436
  Tracy Sanders; Kristin E. Oleson; D. R. Billings; Jessie Y. C. Chen; P. A. Hancock
This work explores the theoretical foundations of trust which provide the framework for the development of our model of human-robot team trust. The pragmatic purpose for this model is to provide a greater understanding of the factors that facilitate the development of human operator trust in robotic teammates. We predicate the model's structure with our findings from a quantitative meta-analysis that we have completed. Our approach categorizes the dimensions influencing trust in human-robot interaction. To date, we have explored human, robot and environmental-based factors. Our road map for model development and refinement is here outlined.
Towards a Quantification Scheme for External Representations in Team Cognition Research BIBAFull-Text 1437-1441
  Christopher W. Wiese; Davin Pavlas; Stephen M. Fiore
Understanding the impact of cognition on process and performance in teams is a dynamic research topic that requires continued development. In this paper, we posit that an underused and understudied element, external representations of cognition, could shed new light on how cognition influences team interaction and team outcomes. We present a framework meant to guide research in team cognition and to help the field begin to more systematically understand this construct and its implications for theory and practice.
Effects of Role and Location Switching on Team Performance in a Collaborative Planning Environment BIBAFull-Text 1442-1446
  Shannon Fouse; Nancy J. Cooke; Jamie C. Gorman; Ivonne Murray; Morgan Uribe; Aaron Bradbury
Using a collaborative planning environment, collaborative processes and team planning were studied during a non-combative evacuation scenario. Five-person teams were assigned to one of three conditions: role switching (RS), location switching (LS) and control. Based on plan scoring, team process scoring and individual knowledge measures, we found evidence that both RS and LS teams created better plans than control teams, and that this was not reflected in the amount of shared knowledge between team members. These results provide evidence for the Interactive Team Cognition theory of collaboration.
Physio-behavioral Synchronicity as an Index of Processes Supporting Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 1447-1451
  Adam Strang; Gregory J. Funke; Benjamin A. Knott; Joel S. Warm
Recent research suggests that synchronicity in physiological and behavioral responses during team tasks could provide an objective measure of processes underlying team performance. In this study, twenty dyads completed a series of trials in a variant of video game Tetris (Quadra). Task performance was divided between the participants such that they had to work interdependently to succeed. Team-paired cardiac interbeat intervals (IBIs) and postural sway (anterior-posterior head motion) were analyzed using Cross-Sample Entropy (CSEn) as indices of physiobehavioral synchronicity. Quantity of team verbal communication (number of words spoken) and a survey measure of team cohesion were also assessed. An increase in team performance was found to be associated with a decrease in IBI synchronicity, while an increase in team verbal communication was related to both an in increase postural sway synchronicity and team cohesion. Overall, this research supports the assertion that metrics of team synchronicity may serve as useful surrogate indices of team processes and performance.
Are Small Teams More Satisfying? BIBAFull-Text 1452-1456
  Linda Pierce; Clara Williams
Interviews were conducted at two geographically distributed FAA Technical Operations remote monitoring and coordination centers. The centers did the same type of work but were organized differently. The first center was organized into seven small teams of five to seven members. The second center assigned individuals to shifts with no set leadership or team membership. The centers operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week and all specialists worked rotating shifts. Satisfaction was negatively affected by high workload, perceived individual differences in effort, and shift work. Small teams were thought to improve satisfaction by ensuring that all team members carried their fair share of the workload and by providing emotional support. Shift flexibility, however, was seen as more difficult under the small team concept. Additional research is needed to determine the extent to which schedule flexibility is possible within the context of small teams.
Low-Level Predictors Of Team Performance and Success BIBAFull-Text 1457-1461
  Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Eduardo Salas
Low level cognitive measures were examined in the context of team performance and success. Specifically, eye tracking and vocal analysis were examined at the individual level to determine if this type of measurement could be used to predict team performance. The team consisted of 3 undergraduate participants who performed a simulated military planning task. The team had to work together to complete military objectives by rescuing refugees, and moving resources and military aids to different locations. Team performance and success were measured by number of objectives met and amount of time to design and execute the team plan. A stepwise linear regression analysis was run at both the team level and team variability for all operations. The results of the study suggest that low level measures such as eye movements and vocal analyses may be helpful in understanding computer mediated team processing.
A Risk Analysis of Fall-Related Injuries Using the NEISS Database BIBAFull-Text 1462-1466
  David A. Krauss; J. Jay Todd; Robyn Kim; Irving Scher
Slip-and-fall injuries are ubiquitous. People slip and trip on a daily basis, and often, these incidents result in falls. This paper examines the patterns of risk for slip-and-fall injuries in the United States using the Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). A dataset was extracted that is representative of the entire U.S. population for three years (2005-2007). The analyses reveal increased risk for women and elderly individuals. The risk of a slip-and-fall injury is twice as high for females compared to males over much of the lifespan, and each year one out of every 100 individuals over the age of 55 is expected to visit a hospital emergency room following a fall. In addition to characterizing the patterns of risk, possible explanations for the patterns are raised and discussed.
Predicting Performance, Subjective States and Coping Strategy in a Vigilance Task: The Role of Individual Differences BIBAFull-Text 1467-1471
  Grace Teo; James L. Szalma; Tarah Schmidt
The purpose for the present study was to examine how person and task characteristics affected the performance, workload, and stress of vigilance. Task type (sensory versus cognitive) and source complexity (1, 2, or 4 displays to be monitored) were the dimensions of vigilance examined, and several person characteristics selected based on an energetic-resource approach to vigilance. Relationships with cognitive traits were mostly influenced by task type and those of affective traits were moderated by both task and source complexity. Across outcome measures and predictors, the general pattern of results confirmed the argument that separate treatment of either task properties or task characteristics yields at best a limited understanding of the performance, workload, and stress associated with vigilance. Programmatic research should therefore examine trait-task interactions for specific combinations of taxonomic categories.
Procedure Classification: Putting Campbell's Objective Complexity Framework to Work for a Petrochemical Company BIBAFull-Text 1472-1475
  Rick Burks; S. Camille Peres
This paper describes the design of a procedure classification rubric for a large petrochemical company to be used in oil and gas process environments. The Research on the Interaction between Humans and Machines Lab (RIHM) at the University of Houston-Clear Lake was tasked with identifying the elements that contribute to cognitive complexity in procedures that should be considered when classifying procedures. Guidelines were provided with Human Factors emphasis, and a robust procedure classification rubric was developed using Campbell's objective complexity framework.
Review of Computerized Procedure Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms BIBAFull-Text 1476-1480
  David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; Ronald L. Boring
Computerized procedures (CPs) are recognized as an emerging alternative to paper-based procedures for supporting control room operators in nuclear power plants undergoing life extension and in the concept of operations for advanced reactor designs. CPs potentially reduce operator workload, yield increases in efficiency, and provide for greater resilience. Yet, CPs may also adversely impact human and plant performance if not designed and implemented properly. Therefore, it is important to ensure that existing guidance is sufficient to provide for proper implementation and monitoring of CPs. In this paper, human performance issues were identified based on a review of the behavioral science literature, research on computerized procedures in nuclear and other industries, and a review of industry experience with CPs. The review of human performance issues led to the identification of a number of technical gaps in available guidance sources. To address some of the gaps, we developed 13 supplemental guidelines to support design and safety. This paper presents these guidelines and the case for further research.

Posters: POS3 - Posters 3

Towards an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Perspective for Human-Robot Teamwork BIBAFull-Text 1481-1485
  Jonathan Streater; John Elias; Patricia Bockelman Morrow; Steve Fiore
We provide a context within the converging fields of team cognition and human-robot interaction (HRI) where the idea of perspective may be able to provide a useful framework for design. Thus, we explore perspective as it has been discussed across disciplines. Our goal is to begin an exploration of how perspective can be appropriately conceptualized and potentially instantiated within the context of social robots and human-robot team interaction, framing theory from the human sciences for design.
Towards Triadic Interactions in Autism and Beyond: Transitional Objects, Joint Attention, and Social Robotics BIBAFull-Text 1486-1490
  John Z. Elias; Patricia Bockelman Morrow; Jonathan Streater; Shaun Gallagher; Stephen M. Fiore
The concept of transitional objects from the British Object Relations school of psychoanalysis may offer insight into the affective aspects of the development of dyadic and triadic interactions. Furthermore the concept may be applied to the use of social robotics in autism research and therapy, with social robots in these settings perhaps functioning as transitional objects for autistic children. Possible applications in organizational contexts are suggested as well, along with considerations of future research relating transitional objects to the notions of primary and secondary intersubjectivity.
From Tools to Teammates: Toward the Development of Appropriate Mental Models for Intelligent Robots BIBAFull-Text 1491-1495
  Elizabeth Phillips; Scott Ososky; Janna Grove; Florian Jentsch
A transition in robotics from tools to teammates is underway, but, because it is in an early state, experience with intelligent robots and agents is limited. As such, human mental models of intelligent robots are primitive, easily influenced by superficial characteristics, and often incomplete or inaccurate. This paper investigates the factors that influence mental models of robots, and explores solutions for the formation of accurate and useful mental models with a specific focus on military applications. Humans must possess a clear and accurate understanding of how robots communicate and operate, particularly in military settings where intelligent, autonomous robotic agents are desired. Complete and accurate mental models in these hazardous and critical applications will reduce the inherent danger of automation disuse or misuse. Implications for training and developing appropriate trust are also discussed.
Measurement of Situation Awareness in Human-Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 1496-1500
  David Schuster; Florian Jentsch
Future robots may act as team members, capable of independently executing tasks and interacting with humans cooperatively and socially. These types of robots will occupy a niche between what is currently addressed by human-robot interaction (HRI) and what is considered to be teamwork. This paper addresses that need by providing innovative direction in the measurement of situation awareness (SA) while considering robotic agents as integral team members. We include relevant metrics for the measurement of individual SA within human-robot teams and present a model describing SA of the team. In doing this, we expand upon current methodologies for measuring SA so that they can be applied to future human-robot teams.
Effectiveness of RoboLeader for Dynamic Re-Tasking in an Urban Environment BIBAFull-Text 1501-1505
  Jessie Y. C. Chen; Michael J. Barnes; Stephanie A. Quinn; William Plew
RoboLeader is an intelligent agent that has the capabilities of coordinating a team of ground robots and revising route plans for the robots based on battlefield intelligence. Specifically, RoboLeader can support dynamic re-tasking based on battlefield developments as well as coordination between aerial and ground robots in pursuit of moving targets. In the current study, we manipulated the level of automation for RoboLeader as well as the presence of a visualization tool (which informed the participants about their target entrapment performance) in the RoboLeader user interface. Results showed that RoboLeader (Fully Automated condition) was more effective in encapsulating the moving targets than were the human operators (when they were either without assistance from RoboLeader or when they were partially assisted by RoboLeader). Participants successfully encapsulated the moving targets only 63% of the time in the Manual condition but 89% of the time when they were assisted by RoboLeader. Those participants who play video games frequently demonstrated significantly better encapsulation performance than did infrequent gamers; they also had better situation awareness of the mission environment. Visualization had little effect on participants' performance. Finally, participants reported significantly higher workload when they were in the Manual condition than when they were assisted by RoboLeader.
Embodied Cognitive Fidelity and the Advancement of Human Robot Team Simulations BIBAFull-Text 1506-1510
  Patricia Bockelman Morrow; John Elias; Jonathan Streater; Scott Ososky; Elizabeth Phillips; Stephen Fiore; Florian Jentsch
Embodied Cognitive Fidelity (ECF) offers both a theoretical framework by which simulation may be considered in terms of contemporary cognitive theory and a methodology for application in effective and useful simulation tools. We overview the context for simulation use in human robot teams and offer ECF as an alternative to other foci of fidelity. We identify the criteria and attributes expected of simulations with high ECF and propose future considerations for research.
Teaching Algebraic Concepts via Serious Games on a Tablet PC BIBAFull-Text 1511-1515
  Kristin E. Oleson; Amanda M. Surprenant; Tom Carbone; Lucas Blair
Schools and educators continue to explore new technology-based techniques and tools to enhance student education. However, within the subject area of mathematics, and specifically algebra, traditional methods of instruction such as using graphing paper and blackboards are still heavily relied upon. Using new technologies to extend these traditional methods could be used to enhance learning while keeping the format that has proven to work. Tablet-based PCs and serious games are two tools that could be used together to improve learning. This research is based on the serious game prototype developed by Tom Carbone, which utilizes the Tablet PC and an electronic version of graph paper. During the course of the present study, the tool was modified based on the findings from a usability analysis (expert review) and a focus group with educators. The information received from this group of studies began the validation process to show that Tablet-based PC games might be a profitable teaching tool for algebraic education, and future research should be conducted with end-users to gain their approval and insights.
So you Think you Know Football?: Effects of Individual Differences on Video Game Performance BIBAFull-Text 1516-1519
  Matthew D. Marraffino; Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Shane E. Halse; Bradley Lippman
A plethora of research has examined video games in the context of training and violence. However, little has been done in examining the individual differences that may exist as it relates to success or failure during game play. Few studies have focused on empirically testing usability and performance issues specifically related to sports games. In this study, a football simulation video game was used to investigate how video game experience interacts with football knowledge in explaining performance within the game. Football video game simulations are a complicated game that appears best played when the user has both knowledge of football and experience playing video games. This study has implications for the individual differences that dictate performance within games.
Using Flow Theory to Design Video Games as Experimental Stimuli BIBAFull-Text 1520-1524
  David Sharek; Eric Wiebe
The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of Flow Theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) in the development of a video game for specific use as an experimental stimuli. Flow Theory was used to manipulate the level of challenge and indirectly the level of perceived skill to create three design conditions: Boredom, Flow, and Frustration. Results showed that Flow Theory provide a strong theoretical framework for manipulating skill and challenge. The intrinsic characteristics of the game mechanics provided robust, real-time performance measures that were used in a manipulation check to ensure that the conditions that were intended to be designed were indeed designed. These performance measures also provide useful data that can be combined with self-report data to produce high measurement diagnosticity and sensitivity. Validated conditions of Boredom, Flow, and Frustration can be used in studies of training and decision-making.
Dark Vergence Posture and Simulator Sickness in a Head Mounted Display BIBAFull-Text 1525-1528
  Matthew St. Pierre; James Salley; Eric Muth; Jason Moss
This study explored the possible link between the occurrence of simulator sickness in a head mounted display (HMD) and the oculomotor variable of dark vergence posture (the distance at which the two eyes converge in darkness). We hypothesized that wearing the HMD would cause a change in dark vergence posture. We were also interested to see if there were any significant correlations between the change in dark vergence posture and simulator sickness. Participants made a total of 200 head movements during the 5 HMD trials. Participants' dark vergence posture was measured before and after the HMD trials. Participants experienced a significant inward shift in dark vergence posture after wearing the HMD.
Network latency and perceived fidelity of motion in a networked flight simulator BIBAFull-Text 1529-1532
  Christine M. Covas-Smith; Herbert H. Bell
We investigated the effect of delay in the transmission of position information on the perceived fidelity of motion in networked flight simulation setting. Observers rated perceived fidelity of motion and ability to perform a chase formation flight task for the simulated maneuvers of an F-16 under three conditions of constant network delay (50, 150, 300 ms), three conditions of variable network delay (± 0, 12, 25 ms), and two levels of smoothing, a position correction algorithm (no smoothing, smoothing across 1 sec). We found significant effects of variable delay and smoothing and that the greater contributor to decreased perceived fidelity of motion is variable network delay. Implications of these results will be discussed and suggestions provided as to when algorithms such as smoothing should be enabled.
Structural Measures of Intern ePortfolios in a NSF-funded REU Summer Program in Applied Psychology BIBAFull-Text 1533-1537
  Benjamin R. Stephens; Alexander P. Rivchun; Nathan D. Klein
Intern-constructed eportfolios, depicting their work in our NSF-funded REU summer program, were designed to facilitate training and assessment goals. We developed objective structural measures of these eportfolios to strengthen their descriptions and to explore their connections to training outcomes. ePortfolios from the past four years of a summer research program in applied psychology were assessed in terms of objective measures such as number of pages, number of hyperlinks, number of external pages, number of cross-links, number of documents, and the levels of the website in which these attributes were located. There was strong and significant hierarchical organization of these components in the interns' eportfolios, and differences in objective measures were associated with intern ratings of learning outcomes. These results indicate promise for objective eportfolio measures as an index of training outcomes as well as supporting program assessment goals.
Experienced CMV Driver Opinions of Advanced Driving Simulator Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1538-1542
  Justin F. Morgan; Scott Tidwell; Myra Blanco; Alejandra Medina; Richard Hanowski; Olu Ajayi
There is an increasing interest in providing refresher training for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. Truck driving simulators offer the potential to provide this type of training to CMV drivers in an efficient and effective manner. However, the success of truck simulator-based training depends on drivers' acceptance of the simulator and scenarios. The present study investigated 48 experienced CMV drivers' (across three trailer types and two levels of experience) opinion on the realism of 12 emergency maneuvers and 10 extreme conditions in a truck driving simulator. Drivers provided feedback as to the realism of each event in the simulation. Results indicated that, in general, drivers rated the scenarios as realistic as compared to the real-world equivalent situations. There was no pattern of differences between driver experience levels or operation types. These findings have implications for both future simulation-based training programs and future driving scenarios, and suggest that simulation-based refresher training may be accepted by drivers.
Developing a Bus Driver Training Program for a Driver Assistive System BIBAFull-Text 1543-1547
  Justin S. Graving; Peter A. Easterlund; Michael M. Manser
Minnesota has the highest number of Bus-only Shoulder (BOS) miles the United States. BOS lanes, which are slightly wider than the width of a bus, were established to allow buses to bypass traffic congestion. This paper describes an iterative methodology that was employed to create a training program for operating a Driver Assistive System (DAS) designed to facilitate driving a bus on BOS lanes.
Knowledge of Results and Diagnostic Power: Implications for Vigilance Training to Support Improvised Explosive Device Detection BIBAFull-Text 1548-1551
  J. L. Szalma; G. Teo; P. A. Hancock; J. S. Murphy
Improvised explosive devises (IEDs) represent the greatest threat to personnel deployed to combat zones. Improvements in the capacity to detect and neutralize these threats are therefore a crucial concern. Although technology can provide better protection against explosions and, perhaps, improve detection, IED detection will for the foreseeable future be dependent on the capacity of mounted and dismounted soldiers to sustain their attention over long periods of time. This capacity, vigilance, has been studied extensively in both laboratory and field settings over the past sixty years. In this paper the approach for training for vigilance, knowledge of results, is reviewed and the implications for designing IED detection training are identified.
The Visual Approach: Evaluating the Relative Impact of Perceptual and Conceptual Training BIBFull-Text 1552-1553
  Javier Rivera; Sara K. Gee; Michael Curtis; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Florian Jentsch
Developing an Effective Combat Identification Training BIBAFull-Text 1554-1558
  Joseph R. Keebler; Florian Jentsch; Irwin Hudson
Correctly identifying combat vehicles is a difficult task. As the military becomes more automated through unmanned vehicles (UVs), it will be important to make sure individuals are properly trained in the visual recognition and identification of combat targets. Due to the extensive amount of visual materials that can be used to study potential combat targets (in this case armored vehicles), it is pertinent to conduct empirical research to further evaluate the effectiveness of training media types. Through examining learning and performance outcomes, as well as individual experiences, it may be possible to better understand the effects of differing types of training media. This paper will strive to review some of the technologies that could be used for training combat identification, as well as review relevant cognitive and experiential factors that may affect training interactions, including learning, trainee enjoyment, technology acceptance and performance.

Posters: POS4 - Posters 4

Feminine Gender Role Constructs and Aggressive Driving Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 1559-1562
  Sarah Bell; Nathan Medeiros-Ward; David L. Strayer
Recent research indicates that there is a startling disparity between men and women in terms of aggressive driving behavior. While some of this research has focused on the relationship between sex and aggressive propensities while driving, almost none has actually taken into account gender role constructs as opposed to sex (Deffenbacher, Lynch, Filetti, Dahlen, & Oetting, 2003). The current study examined the relationship of gender role constructs and aggressive driving behavior in a driving simulator, which was used to induce frustration to elicit aggressive tendencies. As expected, participants with higher levels of feminine gender role expressed less physical, verbal and vehicular aggression than participants who adopted a more masculine gender role construct. Results also showed a significant relationship between feminine gender role construct and adaptive driving behaviors. Additionally, participants who adopted a masculine gender role construct, regardless of sex, expressed more physical aggression while driving and interpreted their arousal in a positive manner.
Individual Differences and Automation Choice in Simulated Driving BIBAFull-Text 1563-1567
  Catherine Neubauer; Gerald Matthews; Dyani Saxby; Lisa Langheim
Automated driving systems have the potential to lower driver workload, but may also induce fatigue and loss of situation awareness. This study investigated individual differences in fatigue response to automation that is under the driver's control. Of particular interest was the driver's choice of whether or not to use an automation option. The study included the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI), which assesses five personality traits that may control vulnerability to stress and fatigue: Aggression, Dislike of Driving, Fatigue Proneness, Hazard Monitoring, and Thrill Seeking. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, Automation Optional (AO) or Non-Automation (NA), and then performed a 35-minute simulated drive. Availability of automation failed to protect the driver from fatigue and distress; drivers in the AO condition actually showed poorer response times to a sudden traffic event. Individuals who chose to use automation in the AO condition showed higher levels of distress. DSI Fatigue-Proneness predicted higher levels of fatigue and stress, especially in automation-users. Thus, some individuals are especially prone to automation-induced fatigue, so that system designs should accommodate individual vulnerabilities.
Assessment of Driver Movements during Prolonged Driving Using Seat Pressure Measurements BIBAFull-Text 1568-1572
  Bo Wang; Xiaoping Jin; Bo Cheng; Xin Tao
Driver's physiological state changes with the increase of driving time. The current study used seat pressure to examine the driver movements (result from driver's physiological state changes) during prolonged driving. Two experiments were conducted in real vehicle and driving simulator, respectively. Ten male participants were divided into two groups to complete the two experiments, respectively. According to the results of the real vehicle experiment, moment center in the seat back and average pressures were found to have significant correlation with time. The results indicated that there were two kinds of movements: (1) participants turned their heads front, their backs became more curving, and their knees rose; (2) participants turned their heads rear, their back angles became larger, and their knees rose. The results of driving simulator experiment proved that the seat pressure was sensitive to movements, and proved that effects of driving movements (result from driving task) on the seat pressure were significant, which indicated the control of redundant movements, including driving movements, was very important in the study.
An Implementation of a Graded Deceleration Display in Brake Light Warning Systems BIBAFull-Text 1573-1577
  Nash Stanton; Roger Lew; Nolan Boyle; Rowdy J. Hope; Brian P. Dyre; Ernesto A. Bustamante
The purpose of this research is to assess the effectiveness of the Graded Deceleration Display (GDD) that is designed to replace the rear center high mounted stop lamp on automobiles. Licensed drivers were treated in simulation to both a standard brake light displays (binary) and the GDD display while the lead vehicle (LV) varied its deceleration magnitude and ramping behavior. Results entailed that the graded system produced more accurate behavioral responses during deceleration, fewer collisions, and a safer following distance than the binary system. Future research should be concerned with solidifying this framework so that it can be used to improve safety, effectiveness, and efficiency for vehicle transportation.
Effects and Evaluation of the Graded Deceleration Display on Driver Braking Performance BIBAFull-Text 1578-1582
  Rowdy J. Hope; Roger Lew; Nolan Boyle; Nash Stanton; Brian P. Dyre; Ernesto A. Bustamante
Driver braking performance is highly dependent on the driver's ability to estimate closing distance to the vehicle in front of them. Unfortunately, drivers often do not accurately perceive closing speed (Hoffman & Mortimer, 1996). Here, we examined whether providing graded deceleration magnitudes via an array of horizontally arranged brake lights (Graded Deceleration Display -- GDD) can improve driver braking performance over standard (Binary) displays. In simulation, participants followed a lead vehicle through a series of braking events where the maximum rates of deceleration were systematically varied. Drivers were instructed to follow the lead vehicle at a "safe and adequate" distance. The Graded Deceleration Display resulted in slightly longer reaction times although the braking responses were more accurate in relation to the deceleration of the lead vehicle. The GDD also resulted in longer following distances, which could be indicative of an increased margin of safety for following vehicles.
The effects of iPod Use on Driver Distraction BIBAFull-Text 1583-1586
  Mustapha Mouloua; Daniela Jaramillo; Janan Smither; Pascal Alberti; J. Christopher Brill
This study was designed to empirically examine the effects of iPod use on driver distraction. Thirty participants were asked to perform a driving simulation task while searching for songs using an iPod device. Driving errors were recorded and analyzed as a function of the distracter. Physiological measures (EEG) were also recorded during the driving phases in order to measure participant levels of cortical arousal. It was hypothesized that iPod use would affect driver distraction as measured by driving (lane deviations) performance and physiological (theta activity) measures. The results indicated that more driving errors occurred during the iPod (Mean=6.93) than the pre-iPod (Mean=3.27) or post-iPod (Mean=3.40) use. Similarly, the iPod device also resulted in a higher Theta activity when it was used with driving. Implications for driver assessment, training, safety, and design are also discussed.
The Effect of Pressurized Space Gloves on Operability of Cursor Controls, Mobility, and Strength BIBAFull-Text 1587-1591
  Shelby Thompson; Kritina Holden; Scott England; Elizabeth Benson
Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) researchers at Johnson Space Center (JSC), in collaboration with the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Team, performed a glove box study investigating operability of cursor controls, mobility, and strength of the participants while wearing pressurized gloves. Performance time was collected under a range of glove pressures (0, 0.8, 4.3, 6.3, and 8.1 psid), as well as bare-handed. Controls tested included a Castle switch, Rocker switch, and Trackball. The study was undertaken to determine impacts of operating controls under higher than nominal (i.e., &gt; 4.3 psid) suit pressures. Operability when using cursor control devices was tested with an interactive software task representative of the types of actions that will be required to interact with space vehicle displays (display navigation and selection of a target). Results indicate that cursor control devices can be operated at pressures up to 8.1 psid, albeit with some difficulty. With respect to mobility, increased pressure seemed to affect thumb mobility more than the fingers. As the number of participants was limited in this initial feasibility study, further studies should be performed with a larger number of participants to evaluate performance with different hand/glove sizes, as well as with alternative device designs that are more ergonomically flexible and forgiving of hand and finger dimension changes brought on by increases in pressure. Results from this study may have implications for other gloved task environments.
Back Straight Boys: Middle School Students' Initiative for Healthy Computing BIBAFull-Text 1592-1595
  Ethan Epstein; Brandon Loye; Michael C. Walsh; Sean Colford; Rhonda Epstein
The Christopher Columbus Awards Competition is a Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, or "STEM" program, which challenges middle school students to identify and solve a community problem by the application of science and technology. Four California students (collectively known as the "Back Straight Boys') worked as a team to address the issue of musculoskeletal problems associated with computer use. The prevalence of computer use both in schools and the work place continues to steadily increase. Globally, improper posture at computer workstations is a widespread problem. Studies have documented the negative impact of improper posture and the resultant musculoskeletal discomfort and pain experienced by students due to frequent computer usage. This project examined the posture habits of employees in an office environment and those of students in local elementary, middle, and high schools. The project also involved conducted trials while studying various types of feedback. This included the use of their prototype ergonomic device, the "Posture Pad", developed to provide continuous posture feedback to the user. Participants using the "Posture Pad" displayed significantly better posture 95% of the time. Participants who received instructions and verbal reminders without the sensory feedback had dramatic improvements in posture. However, these improvements were transient. This project raised the public's awareness to this growing problem and became a catalyst for the Back Straight Boys' advocacy for and interest in ergonomics.
A site-based ergonomic assessment of acoustics in school settings and the proposal of a fuzzy-logic metric BIBAFull-Text 1596-1600
  Patricia Bockelman Morrow
As hearing loss among youth becomes more common, a compelling body of research which indicates that the thirteen years of school, from grades kindergarten to twelve, may be contributing to the problem. A literature review examines current research in the areas of child hearing loss and noise in schools. A site-based study was conducted using a Sound Level Meter to sample noise on two school campuses. The results of the study were analyzed and reflect a noise level which exceeds ideal learning conditions and potentially endangers hearing. Based on these findings and those of other researchers, a rudimentary research proposal to develop a fuzzy-logic model of auditory risk is proposed.
The effect of kneepads on balance while kneeling or squatting BIBAFull-Text 1601-1605
  Jonisha P. Pollard; William L. Porter
In all industries, maintaining balance is essential to ensure that workers can safely perform their job duties. In low-seam underground coal mines, workers perform their duties while kneeling, squatting, and crawling with kneepads. In this study, researchers examined the effects of kneeling and squatting on balance measures under the right knee (for kneeling) and right foot (for squatting) with and without kneepads. Results showed that kneepads did not significantly affect balance. Posture had a significant effect on balance measures, with squatting postures showing reduced balance compared to the kneeling postures. For the kneeling postures, ground force measurements were also correlated to balance measures. Posterior tibial forces were shown to have the greatest correlation to mediolateral and anteroposterior average velocities. Force and balance measures highlight a compromise between loading and balance, where improved balance is achieved with increased knee loading.
A Study on the Combined Effect of Obesity and Load Carriage on Plantar Pressure Patterns of Primary School Children BIBAFull-Text 1606-1610
  Massimiliano Pau; Eleonora Saba; Marco Pau
From childhood, children are required daily to carry a load (necessary to perform their regular school activities) that is often beyond the limits established for adult workers. While some critical issues related to possible negative consequences in terms of postural alterations and onset of musculoskeletal diseases are well known and investigated, little information is available for the population of overweight and obese children, which appears to increase year after year. As their bodies are physiologically subject to a certain degree of overload, the addition of a supplemental load may induce further stress, the effects of which should be carefully evaluated. This study focuses on the foot-ground relationship, with special attention on plantar pressure distribution. The primary goal is to assess whether or not backpack presence alters in different ways the physiological pressure patterns in obese subjects compared with normal ones. To this end, 45 obese and overweight children (6-10 years old) and an equal sample of non-obese schoolmates matched for gender, age and height, were tested with a pressure platform to acquire the plantar pressure distribution in absence and presence of a backpack. Results show that the carried load induces similar increases in both groups, even though a significant shift of the center of pressure in presence of a backpack was found for obese female subjects. The very high pressure peaks observed in the obese population suggest that further studies are required to evaluate specific issues of the musculoskeletal system related to the combination of load carriage and obesity.
Cognitive Task Analysis for Assessment and Standardization of Central Venous Catheterization (CVC) Procedures BIBAFull-Text 1611-1615
  Jakeb D. Riggle; Michael C. Wadman; Bernadette Brown-Clerk; Bethany R. Lowndes; Elizabeth A. Thrailkill; Patricia K. Carstens; M. Susan Hallbeck
Central venous catheterization (CVC) presents the potential for many adverse events, including infectious and mechanical complications. Cognitive task analysis (CTA) has been shown to be an effective method of gathering information about procedures and their cognitive decision points. To help decrease the incidence of mechanical and infectious complications in CVC, a CTA was conducted using subject matter experts (SMEs), with the aim of creating a procedural and cognitive checklist for use in training. Data collected from one participant was used to create a CTA survey which was distributed to other SMEs. Information collected has been used to create a checklist that includes more procedural steps than found in literature, as well as defining a number of cognitive decision points. This checklist should improve the decision-making capabilities of novices. Future work will refine this checklist for inclusion in a standardized simulation-based CVC training program.
Eliciting Strategies from Expert Critical Care Nurses Using the Threat-Strategy Interview BIBAFull-Text 1616-1620
  Sadaf Kazi; Vlad L. Pop; Francis T. Durso; Christina Ryan; Charlene Cunningham
Although it has been recognized that operators in dynamic environments often use strategies to cope with changes in task demands and to maintain high levels of performance, there is a need for methodologies that focus on eliciting the information that operators use to select such strategies. This study administered the Threat-Strategy Interview to pediatric and cardiac intensive care unit nurses to elicit cues that aid in the recognition of threats to performance, strategies to manage those threats, and conditions that lead to the selection of each strategy. We hope to build a predictive model of strategy selection by expert nurses that could be used to teach expert strategies to novice nurses.
Pharmacist dispensing error: The effect of neighbourhood density and time pressure on accurate visual perception of drug names BIBAFull-Text 1621-1625
  A. Irwin; K. Mearns; M. Watson; J. Urquhart
Objective: Two potential causes of dispensing error; neighbourhood density and time pressure, were analysed using a lab-based dispensing task. Method: 60 participants were asked to select a target drug name from a selection of mock drug packets shown on a computer screen, where one or four similar non-targets might be present. Half of the group (30) completed the task under a 12 minute time limit. Results: The number of similar drug names present had a significant impact on performance; four non-targets increased reaction times and decreased accuracy in comparison to trials where only one non-target was present. An additional deficit in accuracy associated with the imposed time limit was found. Conclusion: The reported findings indicate that the number of similarly named products in proximity to a target medication can have an adverse effect upon selection accuracy. This adverse effect is increased when a time constraint is applied.
Do Operators Take Advantage of A Secondary, Global-Perspective Display when Performing a Simulated Laparoscopic Search Task? BIBAFull-Text 1626-1630
  M. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; W. Seidelman; R. Grant; Q. Han; M. Field; C. H. Lio; G. Lee; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke
Multi-display surgical environments have the potential to increase performance and efficiency while decreasing errors and workload. However as more and more information is required for complex task execution and decision making, we must continually assess how the information is presented and whether we are helping or hindering surgeons by providing more content. Most laparoscopic surgeries are performed utilizing a single, two-dimensional (2-D) display. In the current experiment, we compared display usage, subjective workload, and workload measured via eye-tracking data to determine the effectiveness of an additional three-dimensional (3-D) display for a simulated surgical search task. We found that while participants did use the additional display in less demanding conditions (e.g., with fewer search targets), they did not use the supplemental display in conditions with greater demands, and they did not receive a substantial benefit from the presence of the supplemental display in either condition. Both increased saccades per target and increased perceived workload via the NASA-TLX provided support that more workload was experienced in conditions with more targets. And while participants did perceive decreased workload for more targets when the 3-D display was available, eye-tracking metrics were not consistent with participants' subjective workload estimates. Since subjective workload ratings may be influenced by expectancies for benefits for the additional display, future research should attempt to understand this workload dissociation as well as breakdowns in the usage of supplemental displays as a function of task difficulty.
Effectiveness of a tool for structuring action plan after analysis of adverse event BIBAFull-Text 1631-1634
  Anthony Vacher; Alain d'Hollander; Sana El Mhamdi; Yves Auroy; Marion Izotte; Philippe Michel; Jean-Luc Quenon
Context: Methods and tools which enabled healthcare organization for learning from adverse events focus mainly on reporting and analysis phases. However, formulating appropriate action plan is also a difficult phase that current methods do not help us with. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a tool for structuring action plan for hospital risk managers. Method: A randomization procedure has been used to assign 56 voluntary hospital risk managers in two groups differing only by the use of the tool. Each group had to identify causes and formulate an action plan for two scenarios of adverse drug events successively. The first measure was realized without tool. In the second measure, only the intervention group used the tool. Results: The mean difference in the number of relevant actions proposed by participants between the two measures was statistically significant between the reference group (M = -0.6, SD = 2.2) and the intervention group (M = 1.3, SD = 2.2), t(53) = 2.96, p = < .01). In a linear mixed effects model for longitudinal data, the number of proposed actions was statistically higher in the intervention group with a difference of 2.4 actions, 95% CI [1.43, 3.40], p < .001 and 1.1 actions, 95% CI [0.02, 2.00], p < .05) for scenario 1 and scenario 2 respectively. Discussion: Our study confirms the effectiveness of the tool in two scenarios. Further studies could assess its effectiveness in other adverse events, its feasibility and acceptability by hospital risk managers before proposing its broad use.

Product Design: PD3 - Product Design and Modeling

Determination of Optimal Grip Span between a Bicycle Handlebar and a Brake Lever by Using a Two-Dimensional Biomechanical Hand Model BIBAFull-Text 1635-1639
  Joonho Chang; Jesun Hwang; Seung Ki Moon; Andris Freivalds
In this study, optimal grip span between a bicycle handlebar and a brake lever was determined by a two-dimensional biomechanical hand model. A three-step process was applied: (1) develop a two-dimensional biomechanical hand model, (2) determine input data for hand model simulation, and (3) conduct mathematical simulation. In the first step, in order to estimate tendon forces, joint constraint forces and total gripping support force at the metacarpal, a mathematical static hand model was developed based upon the hand anatomy and static equilibrium conditions. In the second step, US 50%ile hand length was selected as target population from the 1988 US Army data, and grip postures for five participants (average hand length = 18.2 cm and SD = 0.8) were measured to get joint angles (θ 1, &theta 2, and &theta 3) which are required for the hand model simulation, by using a dynamometer having adjustable grip spans such as 4, 5.2, 6.4, 7.6, and 8.8 cm. In the third and final step, mathematical simulation was conducted to determine an optimal grip span. Consequently, on given external load (grip force), 100 N, both total tendon forces and total gripping support force of the metacarpal showed monotonically increasing trend while grip span broadening from 4 to 8.8 cm. Also, minimum of both total tendon force and total gripping support force at the metacarpal was achieved at 4 cm grip span.
Center of Pressure Variations in High-Heeled Shoes BIBAFull-Text 1640-1643
  Thilina W. Weerasinghe; Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
The way in which a person's foot contacts a shoe surface can have short-term and long-term effects on the whole body. Most previous research on footwear has been carried out using commercially available shoes, and as a result the surface of the shoe with which the foot interacts has not been systematically investigated. A recent invention has allowed the design parameters of a shoe to be investigated. The wedge angle and midfoot conditions were varied, and their effects were modeled with psychophysical relationships. The results show that perceived feelings are closely related to the location of the center of pressure.
The Application of Toe-deletion and Ankle Deformation Technique in Shoe Fitting Assessment BIBAFull-Text 1644-1648
  Xiao Ma; Ameersing Luximon; Yifan Zhang
Customization and e-commerce are the new trends in footwear manufacturing and marketing. These methods of business have been promoting the increasing importance of footwear fit and comfort in addition to footwear fashion and style. Some methodologies have been established to quantify footwear fit, however much is needed to make the fit assessment usable. This paper presents a method for the error calculation between the foot and the shoe-last based on the modification of previous research. The proposed technique is very useful for the prediction of footwear fit related comfort. The first step in this method is the selection of a shoe-last based on the foot anthropometric data. The selected shoe-last was then converted to shoe shape by using algorithms proposed in this paper. For ease of interpretation, the errors between the foot and the deformed shoe-last were presented as mean, standard deviation and error mapping plots. The proposed method seems to be promising as it provides an improved an effective and accurate method for assessing the differences between the shoe-last and the foot.
Re-Inventing Anthropometry for Design of Ear-Mounted or Ear-Coupled Products BIBAFull-Text 1649-1653
  John A., Jr. Roebuck; John G. Casali
Anthropometry of the external ear provides basic data for ergonomic design of products that must fit the ear. However, many published documents on ear anthropometry present unclear descriptions, illustrations and titles for dimensions and landmarks. Reports on ergonomics-related ear anthropometry are few and limited in scope whereas pertinent medical documents are more numerous and often include more dimensions but have limited statistical information. To overcome such problems, ongoing work on expanded concepts for delimiting conditions of anthropometric dimensions was re-focused on ear anthropometry (1) in a document on guidelines for naming terminology and illustrations and (2) in a dictionary of delimiting conditions distilled from a general dictionary. Pertinent references were compiled into two new bibliographies. A translation of extracts from a medical thesis and anthropometric studies of audition devices are also described. Three illustrations from outstanding publications are presented.

Product Design: PD4 - Product Design, Investigation, and Assessment

An Ergonomic Design of Flight Suit Pattern According to Wearing characteristics BIBAFull-Text 1654-1657
  Eun-Jin Jeon; Jeong rim Jeong; Hee-Eun Kim; Seikwon Park; Hee-cheon You
The purpose of this research is to conduct a survey of the wearing characteristics of flight suits from current pilots and to design from this survey a new flight suit pattern suitable for the physical characteristics of Korean pilots. A pool of 563 pilots was surveyed in order to analyze the wearing characteristics. In order to confirm the improved effects of the newly designed suit compared to the current one, an evaluation was conducted by assessing the subjective satisfaction and objective functionality through a measurement of the range of motion. Results of the evaluation have shown that significant improvements have been made in the areas of suit that many of the respondents had indicated as being uncomfortable, such as neck circumference, armscye circumference, and crotch. This was achieved through increasing the ease in respective parts of the suit using anthropometric data of the pilot in the design process, thus correcting the pattern of the uncomfortable areas. The areas that showed the greatest improvements were the ones associated with lengthwise mobility; the fit and the mobility of the overall flight suits have ameliorated by a significant degree.
Assessing User Experience with Crutch Use: A Review of Literature BIBAFull-Text 1658-1662
  Christina Harrington; Sharon Joines
Usability and human-product interaction experience are of great importance when evaluating the current design and future improvements of any product. This literature review examines the current research being conducted on consumer experience with crutch use and identifies key elements related to this topic. A brief overview of product conceptualization regarding crutch design is provided including reports and studies addressing medical conditions resulting from crutch use. After assistive technology and patterns of crutch use are addressed, reports of discomforts and impedances pertaining to user experience are outlined. These usability and interaction topics inform the final discussion -- a proposed research study on the subject of consumer experience with crutches is described in relation to focusing on user experience with mobility-related assistive technology devices and possible crutch design interventions.
Thermal Properties of Reflective Helmet Exposed to Infrared Radiation BIBAFull-Text 1663-1665
  Uwe Reischl; Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
The thermodynamic properties of a model infrared heat reflective helmet were evaluated using an advanced thermal manikin technology. The aluminized model helmet was tested for infrared (IR) radiation attenuation properties. Total manikin heat gain and changes in surface temperature were documented for controlled IR radiation exposure levels. The results illustrate the benefits offered by an aluminized reflective surface in attenuating IR radiation and the advantages of using a spacer harness system to minimize radiant heat transfer from the helmet to the head.
Determining the Effect of Users' Mobile Phone on Design Preference via Interactive Genetic Algorithms BIBAFull-Text 1666-1670
  Dan Nathan-Roberts; Jarod C. Kelly; Yili Liu
This study uses an Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA), a design space searching method, to determine the degree to which a user's current mobile phone impacts their design preference, and how features in a product can change preference. IGAs mimic evolution by iteratively converging towards a design while exploring a design space through random mutations. 20 participants, 10 current Apple iPhone owners, and 10 non-iPhone owners were asked to use a web-based IGA tool to design touchscreen and non-touchscreen phones for dialing use only. Similar to other IGA mobile phone work (Nathan-Roberts & Liu 2010), the IGA varied screen size, button spacing, and phone radius independently. Results showed iPhone users, and non-iPhone users did have different design preferences, but that there was a bigger difference between touchscreen phone owners (iPhone and non-iPhone touchscreen phones), and non-touchscreen phone owners. Overall participants had significantly different preferences for touchscreen and non-touchscreen designs for all variables except for the vertical button spacing, and phone radius. This work is part of a larger research study of aesthetic ergonomics of mobile phones, specifically looking at usability, and the capacity of users to combine multiple goals in design. Future research needs are discussed, including further testing the effect of non-iPhone touchscreen phone ownership.
Design and Assessment of Ergonomics of Hand-Powered Pruning Shears Based On Gender-Specific Operating Strategy BIBAFull-Text 1671-1675
  Jesun Hwang; Joonho Chang; Seung Ki Moon; Andris Freivalds
The present study investigated the biomechanical and physiological loads when working with pruning shears of varying design. The objective of this study was to find usability issues on conventional pruning shears and integrate ergonomics into the design process to improve users' safety and health as well as performance. Effects of pruning shear design, gender, and hand size on muscle activities, grip force distribution, wrist deviations, and gender-specific operating strategy were studied in six male and six female participants while cutting wooden dowels with pruning shears. Three types of pruning shears were used, one conventional and two modified, either with a rubber grip-padded, or with a thumb grip attached to the upper handle. The results showed that (1) the two redesigned pruning shears minimized pressures on some critical hand regions and improved muscle activities, grip force distribution, and wrist deviations and (2) a large degree of wrist extension, greater use of the extensor digitorum (ED) muscle, and excessive squeezing force were women's operating strategies to overcome their biomechanical disadvantages due to small hand size and less muscle strength during pruning work. Based on this finding, it was concluded that conventional pruning shears have potential design problems related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and therefore ergonomic interventions should focus more on variations in user anthropometry and physiological responses.

Product Design: PD5 - Product Design, Usability, and Accessibility

Effects of 2D Online and 3D Virtual World Meeting Spaces on the Performance of a Concept Selection Task by Engineering Design Teams BIBAFull-Text 1676-1680
  Necmettin Firat Ozkan; Joel S. Greenstein
This research investigates engineering design teams' performance of a concept selection task in three meeting spaces: face-to-face, 2D online and 3D virtual world. Cisco Systems' WebEx and Sun Microsystems' Wonderland were used as the 2D online meeting space and the 3D virtual world, respectively. Twenty-four two-person design teams were formed and randomly assigned to one of the three meeting spaces. The teams performed a cell-phone concept selection task in the meeting space to which they were assigned. Four dependent variables were measured: task completion time, team satisfaction, self-evaluated process quality and expert-evaluated process quality. Following data collection, one-way ANOVA was used to analyze each variable to determine the differences, if any, among the meeting spaces. ANOVA results did not support rejection of the null hypothesis for any variable. These results suggest that 3D virtual worlds support design concept selection as well as 2D online meeting spaces and that both of these technologies are viable alternatives to co-located meetings when it is difficult or expensive to bring team members together for a co-located meeting.
Waving at Faucets: Primed Action Selection with Fictional Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1681-1685
  Amira Mohamed-Ameen; James M. Oglesby; Shan Lakhmani; Valerie Sims
Influences of priming on perceiving object-action has been explored, but not in the context of novel technologies. Previous research, including that of analogical reasoning and knowledge transfer, has suggested that priming with more unique methods of object interaction would facilitate faster and more accurate identification of prototypical/fictional operators. This study examined differences in priming traditional or modern technology on speed and accuracy of novel technology object-action selection. Those primed with traditional technologies exhibited more accurate action selection and faster reaction times, presumably due to positive transfer fostered by preexisting schemata. Searching for the object-activation in the modern technology group added cognitive burden, hampering participants' performance. Like Gibson et al. (1987), we found that those newly skilled in modern technology usage made longer environmental assessments than their counterparts before object-action selection. The application of this research implies that referencing more familiar designs can mitigate an unfamiliar, complex product design.
The Experience of Accessible Voting: Results of a Survey among Legally-Blind Users BIBAFull-Text 1686-1690
  Gillian E. Piner; Michael D. Byrne
The Help America Vote Act (2002) mandated that all polling places have an accessible method of voting available for those wishing to vote in federal elections. Unfortunately, there is presently little voting-specific data available to help guide the design of accessible voting systems for special segments of the population, such as visually impaired voters. We hope to fill this gap, and report on results from a questionnaire survey of 180 legally blind Americans of voting age to understand voting experiences and desired changes to improve voting technology. We found that most respondents vote in person at a polling location, and prefer audio voting systems with a recorded human male voice to other methods or options, including Braille. Important issues were identified. For example, lack of poll worker training with accessible technology was reported to be a problem by 24% of respondents, and was significantly more likely to be reported by those who had been assisted by a poll worker in the past. These results can help inform the design of future accessible voting interfaces.
Accessibility for People with Disabilities: Where Technology Helps and How Certain Disabilities are Being Left Behind BIBAFull-Text 1691-1695
  Michael A. Rodriguez; Maryamossadat N. Mahani
Considering the number of people with disabilities and also the increasing size of the aging population that will encounter age-related impairments, it becomes important to address the extent to which public places and workplace environments are made accessible and usable for people with disabilities. To address this issue we conducted practice-oriented research to gain an understanding of different tools and services that are available to people with disabilities in public places and typical work environments. Our goal is that by gaining an understanding of the current availabilities and missed opportunities, we will be able to identify the areas of potential improvement for enhancing accessibility. Our research suggests three areas in which to improve accessibility in public places and workplace environments: electronic/information technology (i.e., Section 508, WCAG, etc.), physical access (i.e., ADA), and physical design of equipment and tools (i.e., Section 508). The results indicate two major areas that cause the most problems for people with certain types of disabilities. One problem area is the design of equipment and other consumer products. The other is Web pages that are not designed in accordance with the accessibility requirements. These cause serious problems for people with mechanical and visual disabilities.
Introducing a New Usability Framework for Analyzing Usability in a Multiple-device System BIBAFull-Text 1696-1700
  Yunchen Huang; Lesley Strawderman
This paper fills in the theoretical gap in the existing usability evaluation literature by introducing a new usability framework: the Usability Paradigm for Multiple Device System (UPMDS). The traditional usability framework for single interface evaluation is not sufficient to analyze usability in multiple-device system, in which the interrelationship between the devices has an impact on user performance. Therefore, the transfer of learning paradigm was adopted. The UPMDS framework consists of two usability attributes: transferability and user perception, which were further decomposed into effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction, attractiveness. Three measurement types, behavioral cues, subjective ratings, and self reported results, were suggested to address the existing challenges in usability evaluation. Future research is suggested to utilize the concept of transfer of learning in the area of usability evaluation, and provide empirical validation to the current usability framework.

Product Design: PD6 - Product Design, Evaluation, and Accidents

The Role of Human Balance in Stepladder Accidents BIBAFull-Text 1701-1705
  Daniel Tichon; Lowell L. Baker; Irving U. Ojalvo
Ladder accidents account for nearly 200,000 hospital emergency room visits per year in the United States, with a large proportion of these being due to falls from stepladders (CPSC, 2010). This paper explores various aspects of human balance that are of particular importance for stepladder users with an eye towards better understanding, and reducing the number of, falls from stepladders. We review and discuss human balance literature that is relevant to stepladder use, as well as current ladder designs and standards, to better understand how and why losses of balance on stepladders occur. Based on these findings, we make recommendations concerning ladder design and user behavior that are expected to improve stepladder safety. Directions for further research in this area are also proposed.
Assessment of the Redesigned Asian Wok Handles BIBAFull-Text 1706-1710
  Vin Lim; Siwen Liu; Wenjiao Wang; Sharon Joines
The purpose of this study was to evaluate three Asian wok handles: one typical handle that is on the market, and two novel handles redesigned by the investigators. Typical woks for home use can cause wrist and forearm injuries because of the heavy weight, large size and unique cooking style associated with wok use. Redesigning the wok handle was considered one way to address this problem. The goal of the novel wok handle designs was to reduce physical effort, awkward posture and discomfort while cooking. By assessing the muscle activity, wrist posture, discomfort and preference during simulated cooking tasks using each of the three woks handles, it was possible to evaluate whether the redesigned wok handles perform better than the typical one. This study provided insight into wok handle design. Based on the data, we do not recommend the negative angled wok handle.
Evaluation of Driving Posture Prediction in Digital Human Simulation Using RAMSIS® BIBAFull-Text 1711-1715
  Jangwoon Park; Kihyo Jung; Joonho Chang; Jeongung Kwon; Heecheon You
For proper ergonomic evaluation using a digital human model simulation (DHMS) system such as RAMSIS®, postures of a humanoid for designated tasks need to be predicted accurately. The present study (1) evaluated the accuracy of driving postures of humanoids predicted by RAMSIS, (2) proposed methods to improve its accuracy, and (3) examined the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Driving postures of 12 participants in a seating buck were measured by a motion capture system and compared with those predicted by RAMSIS. Significant discrepancies (8.7° to 74.9°) between predicted and measured postures were observed for different body parts and driving tasks. Constraint addition and user-defined posture methods were proposed and their performance was assessed in terms of prediction accuracy. Of the two proposed methods, the user-defined posture method was found preferred by improving the accuracy of posture prediction by 11.5% to 84.9%. Both the posture prediction accuracy assessment protocol and user-defined posture method introduced in the study would be of use for practitioners to improve the accuracy of predicted postures of humanoids in virtual environments.
Child Computer Use and Anthropometry BIBAFull-Text 1716-1719
  Erin Hughes; Peter W. Johnson
Despite all of the literature that exists on ergonomic considerations for adult computer use, there is a deficit of established objective data on how computer input device designs may affect children. By applying the relevant anthropometric data from children to the design of computer input devices, we have developed recommendations which may lead to new standards for child- and gender-specific computer input device designs, specifically, regarding mouse size (length, width, height, switch location), and mouse-button activation forces. Trends yielded four major size delineations based on age and gender, which happen to correspond well with the conventional grouping of grades in school in the United States. The data support that children and adult females may benefit from stature proportionate mice based on anthropometry.

Safety: S1 - Safety in Critical Systems

Human Reliability Analysis for Computerized Procedures BIBAFull-Text 1720-1724
  Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc
This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.
Formulating Safety Performance Measures for Aircraft Landing and Runway Exit Maneuvers BIBAFull-Text 1725-1729
  Rahul Bhagat; Doug Glussich; Jonathan Histon; Frank Saccomanno
Runway excursions are one of the major causes of landing accidents. A framework has been developed to assess aircraft safety during landing and runway exit maneuvers using a safety performance approach, previously used extensively in road transportation. The safety performance of aircraft landings are examined through safety indicators that capture fundamental contributors to safe runway exits following landing. Safety indicators based on the flight data from landings of a major international airline are compared with published operational limits for safe operations. Results indicate that the operational limits alone are insufficient for establishing a safety profile during landing and runway exit maneuvers.
Study of perseveration behaviors in military aeronautical accidents and incidents: Analysis of Plan Continuation Errors BIBAFull-Text 1730-1734
  Léonore Bourgeon; Claude Valot; Anthony Vacher; Claude Navarro
Perseveration behaviours have been studied for several years in the aeronautical domain through the analysis of plan continuation errors. However, the cognitive processes underlying these behaviors and the factors responsible for them have usually been studied in isolation rather than conjointly. The goal of the current study was to identify cognitive processes and factors involved in perseveration behaviors in real-life aeronautical situations. Thirty investigation reports concerning accidents or incidents involving French military aircrafts were analyzed in order to reconstruct the decision sequences involved. For each decision point, we identified the way information indicating a change in the situation was processed. The results showed that in 54% of cases, perseveration behaviors were unrelated to failures of information processing. Instead, perseveration behaviors were mostly due to aircrews' excessive confidence in their risk management skills. Collaborative actions apparently played an important role, since the lack of synergy between crew members was identified by investigators as the second most-important factor of this type of perseveration behavior, and in 80% of cases in which recovery from perseveration occurred, it did so due to outsider intervention. Implications of these findings, and directions for future research, are discussed.
Operationalization of Learned Carelessness: An Experimental Approach BIBAFull-Text 1735-1739
  Frederik Aust; Christoph Moehlenbrink; Meike Jipp
The theory of learned carelessness offers an explanation why humans take unnecessary risks by omitting safety precautions against better judgment, but empirical research on learned carelessness is scarce. To test the theory 16 commercial aircraft pilots inspected flight plans on a multi-function display and the occurrence of flight plan errors was manipulated. Pilots rated effort of check performance, risk resulting from check omission and we measured the rate of falsely accepted erroneous flight plans. Participants who repeatedly encountered erroneous flight plans detected more errors during the test phase than participants who previously received only error-free flight plans (p < .01). The results provide evidence that subjective risk resulting from check omission affected the development of learned carelessness (p = .053), while effort of check performance displayed no effect (p = .80) due to invariance in ratings.
An Assessment of Safety Climate in U.S Naval Aviation BIBAFull-Text 1740-1744
  Paul O'Connor; Samuel E. Buttrey; Angela O'Dea; Quinn Kennedy
The purpose of this paper was to carry out a factor analysis of 23,968 responses by U.S Naval aviators to 12 items from the Command Safety Assessment Survey (CSAS), and identify whether there were differences in safety climate based upon rank or aviation community. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis techniques it was possible to establish a stable two factor solution. For factor one (personnel leadership) no significant effects of rank or aviation community were found. For factor two (availability of resources) although there was not a significant main effect of rank, there was a significant main effect of aviation community, and a significant interaction. These significant findings were attributed to the unique mission of training squadrons and the junior officers in them.

Safety: S2 - Safety in Motion

The effects of intersection threat and driver behaviors on pedestrian perceptions of safety BIBAFull-Text 1745-1749
  Amanda K. Emo; Matthew E. Funke; Gerald Matthews
Despite the attention that walking continues to receive, the attitudes and feelings that pedestrians themselves have regarding walking have largely been ignored. To address this gap in research 268 college students participated in a study to determine pedestrian appraisals of safety at varying levels of intersection threat and different driver behaviors (safe, distracted, and aggressive behaviors). Using the framework of the theory of planned behavior and the component process model of appraisal a questionnaire instrument was designed to assess pedestrians' feelings of safety, driver threat, control, and violation of social norms at intersections. Results indicate pedestrians report less control and increased violation of social norms as speed and number of lanes increase. Pedestrians reported feeling the least safe at intersections with distracted drivers and reported them as the highest violators of social norms. Implications of the findings for pedestrian safety countermeasure design, increasing walking behaviors, and including pedestrian perceptions in assessments of an area's overall walkability are discussed.
Evaluating whole-body vibration reduction by comparison of active and passive suspension seats in semi-trucks BIBAFull-Text 1750-1754
  Ryan P. Blood; Jack Dennerlein; Charlotte Lewis; Patrik Rynell; Peter W. Johnson
Truck drivers have one of the highest injury rates in the US workforce with the majority of injuries occurring in the low-back. Exposure to Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is thought to be a significant factor. This study compared difference in WBV exposures in sixteen drivers who drove a semi-truck over a standardized test route with a passive (air suspension) and electromagnetic vibration cancelling (active suspension) seat. Tri-axial WBV measurements of average weighted vibration (Aw), Vibration Dose Value (VDV), and Static Compressive Dose (Sed) were collected and compared between the two seats. Vehicle speed and location was collected with GPS loggers. The results show when compared to the passive suspension seat, the active suspension seat reduced Aw (p<0.001) and VDV (p<0.001) vibrations exposures by roughly 50%, with impulsive exposures (Sed) being reduced by approximately 20% (p=0.02). Based on the results the active suspension seat appears to have the potential to substantially reduce an operator's exposure to WBV.
The Impact of GPS Interface Design on Driving and Distraction BIBAFull-Text 1755-1759
  Audrey W. Fok; Timothy B. Frischmann; Ben Sawyer; Melissa Robin; Mustapha Mouloua
This study empirically examined the effects of keyboard type in a GPS system on driver distraction. Fifty-two undergraduate students were recruited to drive in a simulated environment while using either a QWERTY or ABCD keyboard embedded in a GPS interface. Driving errors, as well as bio-behavioral assessments, eye fixation durations, and EEG (Electroencephalography) theta frequency level were collected to determine the level of distraction and driving performance of participants. Significant differences in driving and distraction measures were found between driving with and without GPS data entry. Despite greater pre-existing participant skill in using two-handed QWERTY keyboards, no differences were found between the two keyboard types when used one-handed while driving. Implications for driver safety, in-vehicle systems design, and distraction research are discussed.
On the Costs of In-vehicle Assessment of Alcohol Consumption BIBAFull-Text 1760-1764
  Nathan Medeiros-Ward; David L. Strayer
Driving under the influence of alcohol poses a significant threat to community health and safety. One approach to thwart drinking and driving involves using an interlock device to test for alcohol consumption prior to driving. These devices measure blood alcohol concentration by breath and require drivers to pass a test before starting the vehicle and at a later re-testing during the drive. Relatively little work has been done to investigate the level of distraction potentially caused by these devices during re-testing. The current study compared the level of distraction of using an interlock device to single task driving and sending and receiving text messages while driving. Both the interlock device and texting resulted in small increases in lane deviation compared to single task baseline; however, participants looked away from the road significantly more often in the texting condition than the interlock condition. In terms of crashes and subjective reports of workload, the interlock device was higher than baseline but significantly lower than texting.
Foot Placement in Oblique Stair Descent BIBAFull-Text 1765-1768
  Jessica VandenBussche; Kaitlin M. Gallagher; Jason Young; Rob J. Parkinson; Jack P. Callaghan
Extensive research has been conducted on stair safety as a loss of balance due to a misplaced step on a stair can result in a fall and serious injury. One aspect of stair safety that has not been well studied is oblique (angled) stair descent/ascent. Since oblique stair geometry affects the distance travelled and the theoretical symmetry of one's stance, there are potential implications for fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are adaptations in foot placement that pedestrians demonstrate when descending stairs at oblique angles. Sixteen participants descended steps along two paths -- 0 and 45 degrees. Kinematic data of the lower limbs were collected to calculate average step length, average step width, and toe placement. The data suggest that pedestrians compensate for angled descent by narrowing their step width and using a biased foot placement relative to the step edges, such that the inside foot (the foot furthest from the flared side) lands further forward on the step than the outside foot (the foot closest to the flared side). These variations from straight stair descent provide a more symmetric stance for oblique stair descent and may reflect adaptations to reduce the risk of a misstep.

Safety: S3 - Safety in Everyday Life

Increased Comprehension of Warning Pictorials with Color Highlighting BIBAFull-Text 1769-1772
  Brannan R. McDougald; Michael S. Wogalter
Although symbols or pictorials are increasingly being used to communicate warning information, people's comprehension of them is not guaranteed and sometimes can be quite low. The current study sought to determine whether adding colored highlighting to the relevant components of a pictorial benefits comprehension of the warning. There were three highlighting conditions: more relevant parts were highlighted, less relevant parts were highlighted, or no highlighting. Each participant was shown pictorials in each of the three highlighting conditions and asked to write a short description about what each pictorial communicates. The results showed that participants were more likely to correctly understand the intended conceptual meaning of pictorials when the most relevant parts were highlighted in comparison to the other two conditions. Highlighting less relevant parts led to poorer comprehension than no highlighting at all. Appropriately color highlighting relevant parts of complex pictorial symbols could be a useful method of enhancing comprehension.
Reading Pages of a Consumer Product Manual Text and Warnings: Effects of Format Salience and Visual Cues on Eye Movements BIBAFull-Text 1773-1777
  Jennifer A. Cowley; Michael S. Wogalter
This study evaluated whether high or low salience product manual warning formats resulted in different frequencies of both reading and warning recall accuracy. Both experimental conditions constituted an amalgamation of warning and product manual format features. The low salience condition was comprised of a capitalized signal word, paragraph prose-style warning text, warnings integrated with page content with low salience visual cues whereas the high salience condition included an icon, signal word panel, bulleted warning text, warnings placed separately at the page bottom with high salience visual cues. Eye movements were recorded while participants read pages from product manuals followed by a warning recall test. No significant difference in the number of warnings read was found but visual cues in the high salience condition shifted foveal vision to the warnings significantly more often than the cues in the low salience condition. Warning recall was higher in the low salience condition than in the high salience condition, probably because of the particular task and formatting used. Caveats and study implications are discussed.
Safety Beliefs about Consumer Products BIBAFull-Text 1778-1782
  Soyun Kim; Michael S. Wogalter; Jesseca R. I. Taylor
This study examined people's safety perceptions concerning consumer products. Participants (n=129) were asked about their overall beliefs concerning safety of consumer products sold in the U.S. Beliefs regarding government and industry policies concerning safety were also collected. Results showed that participants gave ratings indicating believing that consumer products sold in the U.S. are safe. People tended to trust U.S. government's policies towards product safety. However, participants' responses indicate skepticism about manufacturers' motivations. Implications for HF/E research in risk communication are discussed.
Investigation of the Auditory Occlusion Effect with Implications for Hearing Protection and Hearing Aid Design BIBAFull-Text 1783-1787
  Kichol Lee; John G. Casali
Previous research has shown that auditory occlusion effects could inhibit people from using hearing protection devices or hearing aids, which raises safety and usability concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate occlusion effects as a function of insertion depth (shallow and deep), earplug type (foam earplug and medical balloonbased earplug), and excitation source (bone vibrator and self vocal utterance). Ten participants, six male and four female, completed the experiment. The ANOVA and post hoc tests conducted on the measured occlusion effects revealed main effects of insertion depth and earplug type, as well as an interaction effect between insertion depth and earplug type. The occlusion effect of deeply inserted earplugs was smaller than that of shallowly inserted earplugs by 11.2 dB. At deep insertion, the balloon-based earplugs produced an occlusion effect of 14.9 dB while the foam earplugs produced 5.9 dB.
Effectiveness of Advanced Bone Conduction Earphones for People Who Enjoy Outdoor Activities BIBAFull-Text 1788-1792
  Oh Chang-Geun; Kicheol Lee; Paul Spencer
This paper shows the effectiveness of advanced bone conduction earphones (BCE) for the people who enjoy outdoor activities with respect to entertainment degree and situational awareness (SA) degree. Experiments were conducted to determine the entertainment degree and the SA degree with objective and subjective perspectives by asking participants to walk on the indoor track and the treadmill in four different listening conditions; listening to music through advanced BCE, kernel type earphones, open type earphones, and no music. According to the results of the test on the indoor track, there was no difference in their walking pace between the conditions. Subjectively, the BCE had the same level of entertainment degree as conventional earphones, and higher SA degree than conventional earphones. Objectively, the SA degree was also higher with BCE than with the conventional earphones. These analyses show wearing advanced BCE can be an option to meet both the entertainment and safety purposes for the people who enjoy outdoor activities.

Safety: S4 - Safety Theories and Analyses

Evaluating The Utility of DoD Hfacs Using Lifted Probabilities BIBAFull-Text 1793-1797
  Peter B. Walker; Paul O'Connor; Henry L. Phillips; Robert G. Hahn; Walter W. Dalitsch
The Department of Defense continues to invest in the development and validation of several accident investigation and reporting methodologies geared toward the accurate analysis of human factors issues. Recently, a joint memorandum of agreement was signed by each of the military services to use the DoD Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). While a great deal of research has been devoted to assessing the validity of HFACS as applied to DoD mishaps, less research has focused on the utility of the model as both an accident investigation and reporting tool. The primary aim of this research was to apply lifted rule probabilities at the nanocode level within HFACS to identify common linkages within the DoD version of HFACS.
"Safety is everywhere" -- The Constituents of Maritime Safety BIBAFull-Text 1798-1802
  Gesa Praetorius; Margareta Lützhöft
Although maritime safety is one of the key terms in regulation, guidelines and recommendations, such as SOLAS (International Convention for the safety of life at sea (IMO, 1974), in the shipping domain, there is, to the best of our knowledge, neither an explanation of this specific type of safety nor any explicit understanding on how it is promoted by those who work on board of merchant vessel. This qualitative study approaches maritime safety from a crew perspective and discusses what constituents should be considered to be part of maritime safety.
Use Error Analysis in a Medical Device Product Development Cycle BIBAFull-Text 1803-1807
  Dean A. Hooper; Richard E. Hitchens
Product development organizations have well-established processes in assessing potential hazards for both process and design. However, these processes either do not apply to use error or they treat the human component of systems in a superficial, non-formal way. While some user-centered effort is directed at analyzing and reducing error, with a reliance on traditional user-centered activities, formal human factors methods that specifically address use error and regulatory needs are scarce. A formal Use Error Analysis (UEA) process was developed to identify potential use error during initial product design. This process generates an exhaustive, predictive list of use errors. Then potential users familiar with the product environment determine the frequency by which the error would occur and the severity of the effects. Once it is determined which errors should be mitigated, the process allows product risk assessment teams to determine the probable causes of the use error. These causes are directly addressed through system design or other mitigations as appropriate. The UEA process has been successfully incorporated into formal hazard analysis processes in an FDA regulated environment and used on numerous projects.
Classifying Injuries Occurrence in Motor Vehicles Collisions Using Artificial Neural Network BIBAFull-Text 1808-1812
  Dahai Liu; Desmond Solomon; Shawn Doherty; Leon Hardy
Vehicle collisions amount to a significant loss of life in America. This study used artificial neural networks as a means to predict the occurrence of injury of a vehicle collision. Using Neural Ware's Predict software a neural network structure was trained, tested, and validated using data from the 2006 and 2007 Florida Traffic Crash Database. The objective was to assess whether or not properly designed neural network architecture could adequately classify the levels of the "Injury Occurrence" output variable, given certain inputs such as demographic and environmental factors involved in crashes. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis was employed to objectively assess whether or not the neural network properly classified the levels of Injury Occurrence and to what extent. The artificial network's computational power was iteratively increased by adding hidden layers thus boosting its performance. a sensitivity analysis was used to find the level of contribution the input variables had on the "Injury Occurrence" output variable. Top three positive and negative most impacting factors were identified and the implications were discussed at the end of the paper.

Special Sessions: Demonstrations: SS2 - Demonstrations

Making Instance-based Learning Theory Usable, Transparent, and Understandable: Instance-based Learning Tool BIBAFull-Text 1813-1817
  Varun Dutt; Cleotilde Gonzalez
Although cognitive models of human behavior enjoy a rich history in cognitive psychology, they lack a widespread impact, partly due to the complexities of the modeling process including the need to know software programming. We will demonstrate a modeling tool, called IBLTool, which represents Instance-based Learning Theory (IBLT). IBLT is a theory of decisions from experience in interactive, dynamic environments. IBLTool addresses the complexity and programming challenges in cognitive modeling and helps in the development of cognitive models for a particular task. The IBLTool makes IBLT usable, transparent, and understandable for the cognitive modeling community. The tool uses graphical user interfaces to represent the modeling process and knowledge representations from the IBLT in a step-by-step manner. To derive predictions of human behavior in the IBLTool for a decision task, a task implementation, independent from the IBLTool connects and interacts with the tool interactively as a human would. Data about human behavior is collected as part of the task, while the IBLTool collects data about the execution of the model and its parameters. We will introduce IBLT and provide a step-by-step demonstration of building cognitive models with the IBLTool.
Attention-aware Human-Machine Interface to Support Video Surveillance Task BIBAFull-Text 1818-1822
  Xianjun Sam Zheng; Joeri Kiekebosch; Robert Rauschenberger
There is a growing and pressing need to monitor dense, unconstrained pedestrian crowds and to detect suspicious individuals, e.g., suicide bombers. However, this is a perceptually and cognitively challenging task for human operators, because they need to track and inspect a constant stream of moving people, to make real-time decisions, and also maintain a high level of vigilance. An attention-aware human-machine interface (HMI) is proposed and prototyped, which monitors human operators' attention allocation and supports eye gaze based interaction to support operator surveillance task. The goals are to reduce the operators' cognitive load and fatigue, and speed up visual search, thus enabling the surveillance of dense pedestrian streams with increased accuracy. A preliminary user study showed promising results for enhancing operators' detection performance using the attention-aware HMI, especially while searching at the high density crowds.
Cursor Control Device Test Battery BIBAFull-Text 1823-1826
  Anikó S´ndor; Kritina L. Holden; John W. Pace; Lockheed Martin
A software-based test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation. Five tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and four from studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focus on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. The test battery allows for standardized comparisons across input devices through use of a standard suite of basic tasks and data collection software. The test battery can also be used for other types of investigations (e.g., gloved vs. ungloved performance). The demonstration will showcase the software and give the audience the opportunity to operate various cursor control devices using the tasks in the test battery.

Special Sessions: Demonstrations: SS3 - Demonstrations

Collaborative Airport Traffic System (CATS) to Evaluate Design Requirements for an Airport Surface Departure Management System BIBAFull-Text 1827-1831
  Alicia B. Fernandes; Philip J. Smith; Dustin Johnson
Airport surface delays can impact operational costs, environmental emissions, and passenger satisfaction. Departure metering is one alternative approach to airport surface departure management intended to better manage such delays and associated costs. We introduce a simulation environment that can be used to explore human factors issues in the design of such procedures. This includes support for a novel role, the Departure Reservoir Coordinator, responsible for managing the metering procedure, a distributed adaptive planning task. Support for such a novel role can be explored in the Collaborative Airport Traffic System (CATS) simulation environment using prototype information displays, user interaction designs, and a capability for study participants to monitor the impacts of their actions on airport performance in real time. We intend to demonstrate the CATS simulation test bed that facilitates such studies in an effort to better understand human factors requirements for the design of collaborative airport surface departure procedures.
Demonstration of a Network-Centric Communication Management Suite: Multi-Modal Communication BIBAFull-Text 1832-1835
  Victor, Jr. Finomore; Dianne Popik; Ron Dallman; John Stewart; Kelly Satterfield; Courtney Castle
The Multi-Modal Communication (MMC) is a network-centric communication management suite developed to improve communication performance for Command and Control operators. This tool provides operators with the ability to manage communication from voice and text-based systems in a single intuitive, dynamic display. MMC captures, records, and displays radio and chat communications to the operator so that they have instant access and full control over all current and past information. In addition to aiding in the retrieval of information, speech intelligibility over the Radio channels is increased by spatially separating each of the radio channels to virtual locations around the operator via their headphones. The combination of these features provides operators with the tools necessary to monitor multiple communication channels for critical information and make quick and accurate decisions since it affords operators with greater situational awareness while also reducing their perceived mental workload.
Head Movement Module in ACT-R for Multi-display Environment BIBAFull-Text 1836-1839
  Hyungseok Oh; Seongsik Jo; Rohae Myung
The ACT-R cognitive architecture only deals with a single display interface, which needs to be expanded and improved so as to describe the real environment that needs more than a single display. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to describe human performance in a multi-display environment by developing the head module because the behavior of searching the object beyond the preferred visual angle of ± 15° could not be modeled with the visual module in ACT-R. The result shows that ACT-R model with the head module should be necessary when performing tasks in a multi-display environment. In addition, a separate ACT-R model was also developed when a different head movement pattern was involved such as a peripheral vision.
Demonstration of a Human Task Inventory to Support Rapid Emulation of Human Performance in Aviation Simulations BIBAFull-Text 1840-1844
  David T. Bauer; Amy L. Alexander; Paul M. Picciano
Simulation testbeds enable researchers in the aviation domain to study a wide variety of NextGen issues and are particularly useful in circumstances where human-in-the-loop testing is impractical or impossible. In such cases, human performance data is required to accurately represent operators within the simulation framework. We are developing the Human Task Inventory (HTI) to address this issue by providing a centralized repository of pilot and controller task performance data. This web-based tool will allow users to efficiently locate, evaluate, and export data. When possible, task data from multiple studies are combined to produce better estimates of response distributions. Users are also able to evaluate data sources and choose which sources to include in the calculations. Our demonstration will include an initial HTI prototype and a description of envisioned functionality.

Surface Transportation: ST1 - Not Your Normal Car Issues... Don't Let It Ride!

A Field Study of Haul Truck Operations in Open Pit Mines BIBAFull-Text 1845-1849
  Patrick Stahl; Birsen Donmez; Greg Jamieson
This paper presents findings from a field study of the operation of haul trucks in two open pit gold mines. Qualitative results relevant to the haul truck operator's work environment are presented, and the human factors challenges of the work are identified. Three specific issues that stood out from the study are discussed in detail. First, fatigue is identified as a major contributing factor to crashes and overall performance in open pit traffic, heightened by the specific work characteristics of a haul truck operator. Second, negative transfer is discussed as it interferes with the adaptation from one truck type to another: a consequence of inconsistent controls across different truck brands. Third, the under utilization of and the general posture of suspicion towards the dispatch system are reported, with a list of potential reasons related to automation characteristics.
Drivers' Decisions to Turn Across the Path of a Motorcycle with Low Beam Headlights BIBAFull-Text 1850-1854
  Michael G. Lenné; Eve Mitsopoulos-Rubens
Crashes involving a passenger car and a motorcycle, where the car is turning across the path of the motorcycle, are a major crash type of motorcycle riders. The incidence of such crashes could be reduced through improvements in motorcycle conspicuity. Operation of low-beam headlights on motorcycles has been discussed as one approach for improving the "sensory conspicuity" of motorcycles during daylight hours. Forty-three experienced drivers completed a series of trials in a driving simulator where their task in each trial was to turn ahead of an oncoming vehicle if they felt that they had sufficient room to do so safely. A key manipulation across trials was whether the oncoming vehicle was a motorcycle with headlights on, or a motorcycle with headlights off. Time gap (short, medium, long) was also manipulated. At short time gaps low-beam headlights may confer some benefit in gap acceptance by encouraging drivers to accept fewer gaps ahead of a motorcycle with headlights on than ahead of a motorcycle with headlights off. No statistically significant differences in gap acceptance between the headlight conditions were found at either the medium or long time gaps. Overall the present research provides support for the use of low-beam headlights as a tool through which to augment the conspicuity of motorcycles. It is proposed that further research aim to explore directly the precise mechanisms underlying the observed effects.
How Does Motion Influence the Use of Touch Screen In-Vehicle Information Systems? BIBAFull-Text 1855-1859
  Michael G. Lenné; Paul M. Salmon; Tom J. Triggs; Miranda Cornelissen; Nebojsa Tomasevic
While the use of in-vehicle touch screen devices is currently common in both military and civilian settings, the effects of motion on the use of such systems has not been researched extensively. This paper presents the findings from a driving simulator study that aimed to explore the influence of motion on task performance when using a touch screen device. The touch screen task was a mock battle management system intended for use in military surface transport vehicles. Twenty participants engaged in a series of battle management system tasks that required both the pull and push of information, for example, reading symbols and entering text. This was done while participants were seated in the front passenger seat in the simulator with an experimenter driving at a constant speed. High motion was simulated by driving along the road edge way, while low motion was simulated by driving along a sealed rural road. Motion profiles confirmed the greater amplitudes in acceleration across multiple axes of movement. The findings illustrate that almost all aspects of battle management system performance were degraded in the high motion condition, although the level of degradation was not as severe as participants gained more experience with the system.
Pedestrians' Estimates of Their Own Visibility at Night Are Not Reduced When Headlights Are Severely Weakened BIBAFull-Text 1860-1863
  Stephanie A. Whetsel; Rachel L. Rosenberg; Stacy A. Balk; Richard A. Tyrrell
Although it is clear that pedestrians typically overestimate how conspicuous they are to oncoming drivers at night, little is known about the factors that affect pedestrians' estimates of their own conspicuity. This study explored the extent to which pedestrians judge that their own conspicuity is affected by headlight intensity and their clothing. Forty eight participants walked to and from a parked vehicle until they felt they were conspicuous to the driver. Unknown to the participants, headlight intensity was manipulated between subjects by filtering the vehicle's high beams. Estimated recognition distances did not change with variations in headlight intensity even when up to 97% of the illumination from the headlights was blocked. This suggests that when pedestrians judge their own conspicuity they do not consider the magnitude of the headlight illumination that reaches them. Participants estimated that their recognition distances were only somewhat shorter when wearing black clothing relative to more reflective clothing. Together these findings underscore the need to educate pedestrians about their own nighttime conspicuity.
Pedestrians' perceptions of countermeasure efficacy in reducing risks at intersection crossings BIBAFull-Text 1864-1868
  Amanda K. Emo; Matthew E. Funke; Gerald Matthews
The opinions pedestrians have regarding the efficacy of safety countermeasures and how these countermeasures impact an area's walkability are currently not known. To address this gap in research 268 college students participated in a study to determine pedestrian appraisals of countermeasure efficacy at varying levels of intersection threat (determined by speed) and