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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting 2003-10-13

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting
Note:A Summit for People & Technology
Location:Denver, Colorado
Dates:2003-Oct-13 to 2003-Oct-17
Publisher:HFES
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-22-7; hcibib: HFES03; TA 166 H794
Papers:458
Pages:2150
Links:Online Proceedings | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2003-10-13 Volume 47
    1. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Space
    2. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Automation, Judgment, & Error
    3. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Maintenance
    4. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Human Factors Challenges in Future Air Traffic Management
    5. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Air Traffic Systems
    6. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Data Link Communications: Perspectives from the Air and Ground
    7. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Auditory & Tactile Displays
    8. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display Principles
    9. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display Studies
    10. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display studies
    11. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display Studies
    12. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aerospace Systems Posters
    13. AGING: Applying Modeling to Design for Older Populations
    14. AGING: Aging Potpourri
    15. AGING: Aging Posters
    16. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Analysis-Based Design for Practitioners
    17. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Knowledge Elicitation Methods
    18. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Human Performance Modeling
    19. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Decision-Making and Automated Decision Support: Theoretical and Applied Issues
    20. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Teams: Geographic Dispersion and Situation Awareness
    21. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Insights from Technical Work Studies in Healthcare
    22. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Communication Patterns
    23. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: From Executive Decision Making to Homeland Security: Cognitive Engineering Steps Out of the Box
    24. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Human Robot Coordination
    25. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Task Analysis for Decision Support
    26. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: New Methods in Cognitive Engineering
    27. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Musings in Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making
    28. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Automation
    29. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering for Displays
    30. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Processes
    31. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making Posters
    32. COMMUNICATIONS: Communications
    33. COMMUNICATIONS: Methods & Measurement
    34. COMMUNICATIONS: Applications
    35. COMMUNICATIONS: Input Issues
    36. COMMUNICATIONS: User Interface in Theory and Practice
    37. COMMUNICATIONS: Communication Posters
    38. CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Products
    39. CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Posters
    40. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Tools for Decision Support, Keyboard Input, and Multisensory Capacity
    41. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Tools for Globalization and Virtual Environments
    42. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Learning Styles, Web-Based Instruction, and Computer Grading
    43. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Teaching HF/E and Job Opportunities
    44. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Human Behavior and the Designed Environment
    45. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Dynamic Sitting -- How Much Do We Move When Working at a Computer?
    46. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensics
    47. GENERAL SESSION: The Etiquette Perspective for Human-Automation Relationships: Applications, Models, and Results
    48. GENERAL SESSION: Taking It Outside: Human Performance in Field Settings
    49. GENERAL SESSION: To Be or Not To Be: Manager or Individual Contributor?
    50. GENERAL SESSION: Taking It Inside: Issues in Information Processing
    51. GENERAL SESSION: The Many Facets of Antiterrorism: A Discussion of Cooperation and Collaboration among various Areas of Expertise
    52. GENERAL SESSION: Cognitive Factors in Homeland Defense: The Role of Human Factors in the Novel Intelligence from Massive Databases (NIMD) Project
    53. GENERAL SESSION: General Sessions Posters
    54. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Cognition, Decision Making, and Intelligence
    55. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences Potpourri
    56. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Considering the Importance of Individual Differences in Human Factors Research: No Longer Simply Confounding Noise
    57. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Performance Posters
    58. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper Extremity I
    59. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Stability and Gait
    60. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: MSD Risk Assessment
    61. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Fatigue/Low Back
    62. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Low Back
    63. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Ergonomics and the Aging Worker
    64. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Comprehensive WRMD Evaluations and Programs
    65. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomics (Practice Oriented Session)
    66. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper Extremity II
    67. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Industrial Ergonomics Posters
    68. INTERNET: Internet
    69. INTERNET: Internet Posters
    70. MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomic Methods for Technology and Personnel Applications
    71. MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomics in Health Care: Improving Work Design to Improve Employee and Patient Safety
    72. MACROERGONOMICS: Error, Safety, and the Practice of Medicine
    73. MACROERGONOMICS: Validation Engineering Approaches for Reducing Medical Errors
    74. MACROERGONOMICS: Impacting Medical Safety through Human Factors Design
    75. MACROERGONOMICS: Observational Measures of Team Process and Performance in Health Care
    76. MACROERGONOMICS: Sociotechnical Issues in Medical Systems
    77. MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomics Posters
    78. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Search & Attention: Underlying Perceptual & Cognitive Processes
    79. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: 3D Displays
    80. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Interpretation of Graphs & Displays
    81. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Vigilance, Stress, & Warnings
    82. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception and Performance Posters
    83. SAFETY: Warnings and Risk Communication
    84. SAFETY: Safety Potpourri
    85. SAFETY: Safety Posters
    86. STUDENT FORUM: Training Design Issues: From Research to Practice
    87. STUDENT FORUM: Student Career and Professional Development Day
    88. STUDENT FORUM: Getting Started in the Right Direction: Expert Advice for Preparing for Your Professional Career
    89. STUDENT FORUM: Cutting-Edge Research by Students-Part I
    90. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Trains, Trucks, and Advanced Technologies
    91. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Communication while Driving, Measures and Strategies Relating to Distraction, and Modeling Driver Steering
    92. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Surface Transportation Posters
    93. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Applying Human Factors to Systems
    94. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Explorations in Cognitive Work Analysis: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Future Systems
    95. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: System Development Posters
    96. TEST AND EVALUATION: Performance in Test and Evaluation
    97. TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation Potpourri
    98. TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation Posters
    99. TRAINING: Training Rapid Decision-Making Processes Required by the Dismounted Objective Force Leader
    100. TRAINING: Situation Awareness and Training Implications
    101. TRAINING: Training Design Issues: From Research to Practice
    102. TRAINING: Training Posters
    103. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Human Factors in Virtual Environments
    104. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Physical Simulation in Virtual Environments
    105. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Working in Virtual Environments
    106. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments Posters

HFES 2003-10-13 Volume 47

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Space

Space Suit Design Enhancements to Improve Size Accommodation and Mobility BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Nancy J. Currie; David Graziosi
Space suit fit and mobility can significantly affect an astronaut's performance when working in the demanding and extreme environment of space. Construction and habitation of the International Space Station necessitated an increase in the astronaut population resulting in greater variability in the anthropometric profile of crewmembers. The objective of the Small Extravehicular Mobility Unit Development Project was to expand the range of sizing accommodation and improve fit and mobility, specifically for small crewmembers. Modifications to the present suit design were evaluated during pressurized fitchecks in a laboratory environment with representative tools and equipment and in NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory to simulate the effects of microgravity. This project was successful in designing a space suit to accommodate a new anthropometric range of astronauts who cannot be provided with adequate fit in the existing space suit. Significant elements of this prototype are also promising candidates for future space suit designs.
A Theoretical Model of the Cognitive Link Between Stress and Performance for Long-Duration Spaceflight BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Jason P. Kring; Sara Goudarzi
Long-duration spaceflight (LDSF) crews experience significant physiological and psychological demands that can degrade performance and produce stress. Previous models to predict crew reactions to stress illustrate how demands influence performance, but not the underlying cognitive processes governing why combinations of events produce stress. The present paper describes a theoretical model of the relationship between spaceflight stressors, cognitive appraisal processes, and crew performance outcomes for LDSF. The model posits that during 5 stages, crewmembers undergo an appraisal process to first evaluate the threat imposed by the combined environmental stressors (e.g., workload, noise, crowding), and then evaluate their own capacity to manage the threat, resulting in either positive (capacity < threat) or negative (capacity < threat) performance expectations. Expectations then produce positive or negative physiological and psychological effects with direct implications for overall crew performance. This model is offered as a framework for continued study of the stress-cognition-performance relationship in spaceflight.
Human Information flow and Communication Pattern in Nasa Mission Control System BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Enlie Wang; Barrett Caldwell
This study is a preliminary effort to explore human information flow and communication pattern in an operation-critical and time-constrained collaboration environment such as NASA Mission Control System. Understanding information flow and communication pattern is a key step for improving the reliability and accuracy of a complex Human-Machine system. It also can be applied to design a better communication system for future NASA Mission Control Center operations. The information flow and communication pattern analysis based on NASA mission control training simulations indicates that there is no significant utilization difference among communication channels, however, the communication channel's burst rate is significantly affected by phase, mission and channel type.
Upgrades to the Caution and Warning System of the Space Shuttle BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Jeffrey W. McCandless; Robert S. McCann; Bruce R. Hilty
During a Space Shuttle mission, astronauts are alerted to off-nominal conditions via a Caution and Warning System that often generates a myriad of auditory and visual alerts. A key component of this system is the Fault Summary display, which contains text messages describing the malfunctions. The display often becomes cluttered with extraneous messages, increasing the difficulty of diagnosing a malfunction. Int an effort to improve the crew's diagnostic performance, increase their situational awareness and reduce their workload, the Caution and Warning System is being improved as part of the Cockpit Avionics Upgrade. In the first phase of the upgrade, the Fault Summary display is being redesigned with a more logical task-oriented graphical layout and multiple text fields for malfunction messages. In the second phase, the text fields will indicate only the source (i.e., root-cause) of the malfunction to prevent non-operationally useful messages from appearing on the display. These and other aspects of the upgrades are based on extensive collaboration among astronauts, engineers, and human factors scientists. This paper describes the human factors principles applied to upgrading the Caution and Warning System in the presence of inherent limitations associated with legacy manned spaceflight vehicles.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Automation, Judgment, & Error

An Approach to Modeling Error in Air-Midas Using Contextual Control Model BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Savita A. Verma; Kevin Corker; Amit Jadhav
Predictability of the possible avenues of human error is important for designing error recovery mechanisms in systems' interfaces. Our approach for modeling errors during the taxiing and pre-flight phase, involves using Hollnagel's (1993) Contextual Control Model (CoCoM). Hollnagel postulates that changes in the human's operational context make her switch control modes or cognitive strategies. Previously, Verma & Corker (2002) encoded rules to implement CoCoM for Air Traffic Controllers (ATCo) in the Air-MIDAS (Man-Machine Integrated Design and Analysis System) architecture. They defined the operational context as the number of simultaneous goals and the event horizon time required to successfully complete those goals, and also encoded behavior associated with three types of cognitive strategies -- unplanned, tactical, and strategic. In this study, new sets of rules are being coded for the pilots, such that changes in the context will cause the simulated operator to change cognitive strategies. The dependent variables of interest are cognitive strategies used by pilot-agents, workload, status of tasks (completed, aborted, working), and consequences of errors performed.
Effects of NEXRAD Graphical Data Resolution and Direct Weather Viewing on Pilot Judgments of Weather Severity and Willingness to Continue Flight BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  Dennis B. Beringer; Jerry D. Ball
We conducted a study to determine how variations in displayed NEXRAD weather data resolution interact with the pilot's direct view of weather. Each of 32 pilots was assigned to one of four groups; 8km, 4km, or 2km resolution, and a baseline condition without NEXRAD. Each flew the simulator from Santa Rosa, NM, with the intent to land at Albuquerque. Heavy precipitation moved into the area during the flight, and pilots were required to decide, using both the NEXRAD data and their out-the-window view, whether to continue or to divert to an alternate airport. Pilots spent more time looking at higher-resolution images than at the lower-resolution ones. Baseline- and 2km-condition pilots deferred their decisions longer than did the other two groups. Post-test NEXRAD image judgments reinforced the notion that higher-resolution images are likely to encourage pilots to continue flights with the expectation that they can fly around or between significant weather features.
Factors Impacting Coherence in the Automated Cockpit BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Kathleen Mosier; Nikita Sethi; Shane McCauley; Len Khoo; Jason Richards; Elizabeth Lyall; Jennifer Wilson; Greg Harron; Sharon Hecht
Research on automation bias and other heuristics and biases suggests that something about the nature or display of information in the automated environment may be encouraging non-rational cognitive processing and hindering the maintenance of coherence, or rationality and consistency in diagnostic and judgment processes, making operators susceptible to coherence errors. The purpose of this study was to track pilot diagnosis and decision making strategies for different types of problems as a function of three operational variables: a) source -- automated or other -- of the initial indication of a problem; b) congruence vs inconsistency of available information; and c) time pressure. Pilots responded to a series of scenarios on an interactive website by accessing relevant information until they could make a diagnosis and come to a decision about what to do. Pilots who were under time pressure took less time to come to a diagnosis, checked fewer pieces of information, and performed fewer double-checks of information. Diagnoses were more accurate when pilots experienced no time pressure, and diagnosis accuracy was significantly higher when information was congruent than when it was conflicting. Implications for training and automation use are discussed.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Maintenance

Task Analysis of General Aviation Inspection Activities: Methodology and Findings BIBAFull-Text 36-38
  Anand K. Gramopadhye; Rahul R. Desai; Shannon Bowling; Mohammad Khasawneh
General Aviation (GA) constitutes a significant, but often ignored, portion of the aviation system. It is crucial that GA be reliable if we are to ensure the safety of the overall air transportation system. The inspection/maintenance system, which is responsible for identifying and fixing defects, is a key component of this system. For this reason, it is critical to have a sound inspection and maintenance system. In response to this need, this paper reports task analyses of aircraft inspection operations at geographically dispersed GA facilities operated under the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 91, 135, and 145. Recommendations forthcoming from this analysis will be used to devise intervention strategies to improve inspection performance. As a first, this paper outlines the methodology used and the preliminary results obtained.
Effective Interventions in Rare Event Inspection BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Gulshan Panjwani; Colin G. Drury
Safe operation and airworthiness of the civil aviation fleet demands reliable inspection, often visual, of structure and components. Inspection involves both spatial and temporal uncertainty. Visual search failure and vigilance decrements are well-documented adverse consequences of spatial and temporal uncertainty. Whereas vigilance studies have typically been conducted over single prolonged session, the task of aircraft component inspection is a multi-session task. It was hypothesized that the vigilance findings from a single prolonged session would be applicable to multi-session tasks. Forty university students were recruited to perform a search task over 10 sessions. The two independent variables were the primary target rate and number of targets types. The probability of primary target detection did not exhibit a signal rate effect, but did show a multiple target effect. The analysis also suggested that the task differed significantly from a traditional vigilance task.
Do Language Barriers Result In Aviation Maintenance Errors BIBAFull-Text 46-50
  Colin G. Drury; Jiao Ma
The existence of maintenance and inspection personnel whose native language is not English suggests that language barriers may be causing performance errors. This project examines whether such errors exist, what patterns characterize these errors, what their contributing factors are and how effectively we can mitigate these errors. Any language errors would be communication errors by definition, so first we reviewed models of communication to search for characteristic error patterns. We identified two primary communication types relevant to aviation maintenance: synchronous communications (largely verbal and informal) and asynchronous communication (largely written and formal). We then analyzed several error databases (e.g. ASRS) and found that both the contributing factors and the use of recovery mechanisms were different for the two error types. Next, we analyzed survey data from 113 aircraft operators, covering their English speaking/reading abilities and use of mitigation strategies. There were significant differences across four world regions in the incidence of these two sets of factors. Neither of these data sources emphasized maintenance, so to discover more refined patterns of error, contributing factors and mitigation strategies, we conducted a series of focus groups at maintenance organizations. The patterns found were grouped, as expected, into synchronous and asynchronous. We developed classified lists of contributing and mitigating factors, which will be used in subsequent stages to quantify error incidence and test the effectiveness of mitigation strategies.
The Impact of Instructions on Aircraft Visual Inspection Performance: A First Look at the Overall Results BIBAFull-Text 51-55
  Caren Wenner; Floyd Spencer; Colin Drury
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of instructions on aircraft visual inspection performance and strategy. Forty-two inspectors from industry were asked to perform inspections of six areas of a Boeing 737. Six different instruction versions were developed for each inspection task, varying in the number and type of directed inspections. The amount of time spent inspecting, the number of calls made, and the number of the feedback calls detected all varied widely across the inspectors. However, inspectors who used instructions with a higher number of directed inspections referred to the instructions more often during and after the task, and found a higher percentage of a selected set of feedback cracks than inspectors using other instruction versions. This suggests that specific instructions can help overall inspection performance, not just performance on the defects specified. Further, instructions were shown to change the way an inspector approaches a task.
Using Vision Modeling to Define Occupational Vision Standards BIBAFull-Text 56-60
  Bettina L. Beard; Talissa A. Frank; Albert J. Ahumada
A methodology is introduced to assist in the construction of performance-based occupational vision standards. A simple image discrimination model is first calibrated using stimuli representative of airframe and powerplant cracks. It is then used to predict simulated crack visibility for cracks of different lengths and widths. Visual acuity declines are simulated using a Gaussian blur function on the crack images. Crack width is shown to be a salient cue for crack detection. This modeling technique can generate the data necessary to construct empirically-based occupational vision standards. Future research will validate model predictions with human psychophysical data.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Human Factors Challenges in Future Air Traffic Management

Human Factors Challenges in Future Air Traffic Management BIBAFull-Text 61-65
  Parimal Kopardekar; Raja Parasuraman; Earl Stein; Phil Smith; Water Johnson; Kevin Corker
Although current air traffic demand is not growing due to September 11, 2001 and economic slow down, it is expected that by 2007 the air traffic demand will start to become normal and grow again. Learning from the past, when the air traffic demand grows, it causes delays, a source of frustration to air travelers and financial loss. Increased air traffic also causes additional workload on air traffic controllers and traffic managers and is one of the potential sources of human error. The research community is arguing for enhanced research in the current situation hoping that we will be prepared when the air traffic demand starts to grow again. As a result, researchers continue to examine advanced air traffic management (ATM) concepts that will increase capacity, efficiency, predictability, and safety. Therefore, both the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continue to develop and examine a number of concepts: decision support tools (DSTs), procedures, and programs that attempt to address such demands.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Air Traffic Systems

The Impact of Automation Use on the Mental Model: Findings From the Air Traffic Control Domain BIBAFull-Text 66-70
  Ashley Nunes
The 'Free Flight' (FF) concept has been proposed as a means of reducing delay in the airspace system. However, concerns over lapses in a controller's situation awareness as a result of FF implementation have prompted an influx of new technologies aimed at helping controllers more effectively predict the future trajectories of aircraft thereby preserving situation awareness. Such aids are based on the principle of direct visualization, whereby future system states are presented without providing adequate information to the user as to how these states were generated. Usage of aids that employ this design principle can have adverse effects on the mental model given that the user is not forced to extensively think about the processes governing the prediction. Drawing on the results from an empirical study in the air traffic control domain, evidence of this concern is presented and it is argued that caution must be exercised when introducing these aids, given the possibility that such usage may compromise a controller's ability to problem-solve and acquire knowledge.
Identifying Controller Strategies that Support The Picture BIBAFull-Text 71-75
  Ashley Nunes; Richard H. Mogford
Air traffic controllers build up a comprehensive mental representation of the current traffic scenario, which is known as the 'picture.' This picture helps them ensure that aircraft are safely separated as they travel from one point to another in the airspace system. The maintenance of the picture is related to various strategies that controllers use to determine if a conflict exists between two aircraft. However, studies that deal with identifying such strategies are lacking. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to cohesively bring together the empirical literature that identifies these strategies and the instances in which they are used, to provide the reader with a basic set of strategies controllers use in conflict detection situations, and to discuss the application of such strategies in relates to controller training.
Potential Information Integration of A Surface Management System Concept With Other Air Traffic Systems BIBAFull-Text 76-80
  James M. Hitt; Stephanie Kreseen; Jacqueline Duley
NASA and FAA have identified the need for future air traffic control (ATC) automation tools to integrate with other existing or planned automation tools. Issues such as complementary decision support features (i.e. combining departure and arrival planning tools), limited display space in the FAA facilities, and the potential for performance benefits of integrating systems have driven the need to examine integration. NASA is currently leading the research and development of the Surface Management System (SMS). SMS is an information and decision support tool designed to aid ATC controllers and traffic managers in managing surface operations. This document provides an initial examination of the potential integration of the SMS concept to integrate with the Airport Surface Detection Equipment X-band (ASDE-X) and the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA).
Integrating Human Factors Issues in Technology Readliness Levels for Air Traffic Control Research BIBAFull-Text 81-85
  Paul Krois; Richard Mogford; Jacqueline Rehmann
Phases of concept exploration and development in air traffic control research are coordinated between the Federal Aviation Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration using Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). Objectives, outputs, and exit criteria for these TRLs tend to be defined at a higher level. More detailed human factors guidance was developed using a small cadre of human factors practitioners and researchers who assessed the relevance of twenty-three human factors issues for each TRL. Results showed increasing importance for the highest rated issues as a research capability matures across the TRLs, and an increasing number of issues are important at the higher TRLs. The findings argue for early involvement of human factors at lower TRLs, and that implementing offices should engage with researchers earlier than currently prescribed.
Validating a New Task Distribution between Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crew BIBAFull-Text 86-90
  Laurence Rognin; Nathalie de-Beler; Isabelle Grimaud; Eric Hoffman; Karim Zeghal
To address the validation of a new concept, based on the redistribution of tasks between air traffic controllers and flight crews, a joint validation framework has been defined. Indicators and metrics were proposed to assess similarly the impact of the new task distribution on four related dimensions: the human shaping factors, the activity, the efficiency and the safety. Examples were also proposed to highlight how closely the controller and the flight crew performances are, at every level of the validation framework.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Data Link Communications: Perspectives from the Air and Ground

Data Link Communications: Perspectives from the Air and Ground BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Carryl L. Baldwin; Immanuel Barshi; Danielle S. McNamara; Anthony D. Andre; Daniel Morrow; Veronika Prinzo; Karol Kerns
The national airspace system (NAS) has evidenced tremendous increase in commercial travel in recent decades. Although, aviation accidents have a relatively low rate of occurrence, efforts to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS remain a priority as illustrated by the FAA's zero accident philosophy and the ongoing programmatic research efforts of NASA (Wickens, Mavor, Parasuraman & McGee, 1998). Despite efforts over several decades to refine and standardize communication terminology and procedures, miscommunication between pilots and air traffic controllers (ATC) remains a persistent threat to aviation safety.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Auditory & Tactile Displays

Implementing Speech and Simulated Data Link Commands: The Role of Task Interference and Message Length BIBAFull-Text 95-99
  Mark W. Scerbo; Matthew R. Risser; Carryl L. Baldwin; Danielle S. McNamara
The present study investigated the ability of individuals to correctly execute different numbers of commands presented in speech and text format (simulating voice and data link communications). These commands were executed in the presence of different sources of task interference drawing upon visual, verbal, and central executive resources. The results showed that performance decreased as the number of commands in the message set increased from two to four, regardless of presentation format. Visual interference was less disruptive than both verbal and central executive interference. These findings have implications for the design of data link systems and suggest that during periods of high workload, communications should include fewer commands within a message set particularly when there is insufficient time to request clarification.
Effects of Spatial Intercoms and Active Noise Reduction Headsets on Speech Intelligibility in an Awacs Environment BIBAFull-Text 100-103
  Robert S. Bolia
An experiment was conducted aboard an E-3 Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft to assess the ability of spatial intercoms and active noise reduction (ANR) headsets to improve communications effectiveness for air battle managers. Eleven male participants completed four blocks of data collection using the Coordinate Response Measure under factorial combinations of spatialization, ANR, and target phrase location. Results indicate that the use of a spatial intercom led to greater intelligibility, and that ANR improved intelligibility only when used in combination with a spatial intercom. These results are discussed in terms of their applicability to current and future USAF application domains.
Comparing Quantitative Model Predictions to Experimental Data in Multiple-UAV Flight Control BIBAFull-Text 104-108
  Stephen R. Dixon; Christopher D. Wickens; Dervon Chang
Thirty-six licensed pilots from the University of Illinois Aviation Institute performed simulated military surveillance missions with one and/or two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Pilots were responsible for navigating each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following conditions: 1) a baseline condition with all manual flight controls and visual displays; 2) an auditory offload condition that provided auto-alerts and other relevant information to the auditory channel; and 3) an automation condition that provided auto-pilot control of the UAV. Pilots were responsible for mission completion, target search, and systems monitoring. Results indicate that the two offloads are beneficial in reducing task interference and overall workload. Three theories, with corresponding workload models, were discussed in order to evaluate predicted pilot performance. Single channel theory was able to explain some of results in the baseline condition, while single resource theory and multiple resource theory were better able to explain reduced task interference in the automation and auditory conditions.
Manual Versus Speech Input for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Station Operations BIBAFull-Text 109-113
  Mark Draper; Gloria Calhoun; Heath Ruff; David Williamson; Timothy Barry
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control stations feature multiple menu pages with systems accessed by keyboard presses. Use of speech-based input may enable operators to navigate through menus and select options more quickly. This experiment examined the utility of conventional manual input versus speech input for tasks performed by operators of a UAV control station simulator at two levels of mission difficulty. Pilots performed a continuous flight/navigation control task while completing eight different data entry task types with each input modality. Results showed that speech input was significantly better than manual input in terms of task completion time, task accuracy, flight/navigation measures, and pilot ratings. Across tasks, data entry time was reduced by approximately 40% with speech input. Additional research is warranted to confirm that this head-up, hands-free control is still beneficial in operational UAV control station auditory environments and does not conflict with intercom operations and intra-crew communications.
A Tactile Cockpit Instrument to Support Altitude Control BIBAFull-Text 114-118
  Jan B. F. van Erp; Hans (J.) A. Veltman; Hendrik A. H. C. van Veen
We tested the effect of a tactile torso display on keeping an instructed altitude during low level flight. The tactile instrument consisted of 64 vibrating elements attached to the torso, shoulders and thighs of the pilot. In a helicopter simulator, 12 student pilots flew under different conditions of vision (full vision and night vision) and the tactile instrument (none, a simple version and a complex version). The simple version presented the direction of the desired altitude. The complex version added the current motion direction. The participants performed an additional cognitive task during half of each scenario. We analyzed performance and subjective mental effort ratings. The results showed that the tactile instrument halved the altitude error without effecting the mental effort rating. This effect was present in full vision and in night vision conditions. There were no differences between both versions of the tactile instrument. We conclude that this emerging technology is a powerful support in a low-level flight without enlarging the pilot's mental effort.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display Principles

Ecological Interface Design in Aviation Domains: work Domain Analysis of Automated Collision Detection and Avoidance BIBAFull-Text 119-123
  Danny Ho; Catherine M. Burns
This paper describes Work Domain Analysis (WDA) applied to the domain of automated midair collision detection and avoidance as a first step in the design of improved ecological interfaces for automated traffic alerting displays. Three abstraction hierarchies (AH) modelling the aircraft, collision environment, and a traffic alerting system are presented, and the challenges of adapting the AH to enhanced displays will be examined. It will be shown that WDA is a feasible framework for establishing information requirements of flight and automated collision dynamics. Ecological Interface Design (EID) can then be applied to develop displays that invoke a greater trust in the automation.
Integrating Usability Methodologies to Assess Weather Avionics Systems BIBAFull-Text 124-128
  Peter D. Elgin; Kimberly R. Raddatz; John Uhlarik
Technological advances support the display of a wide variety of text and graphical weather information in the cockpit. These advances present new challenges for ensuring optimal human-computer interaction. Usability assessments can facilitate the optimization of this interaction. The current usability assessment combined specific components from several usability methodologies (e.g., formal usability inspection, contextual observation/interview, cognitive walkthrough, heuristic evaluation). Each methodology uniquely contributed to identifying and providing solutions for usability problems associated with two commercially available weather avionics systems. During pre user-testing, two human factors specialists developed benchmark tasks and established gold standard (optimal) action sequences necessary to complete the tasks. Six IFR-rated pilots participated in user-testing sessions where task completion time and input actions were recorded. During post user-testing, error plots were created to locate and diagnose usability bottlenecks. Finally, the bottlenecks were classified into violated heuristics and potential resolutions were offered.
Air Transport Pilots' Information Priorities for Surface Moving Maps BIBAFull-Text 129-133
  Michelle Yeh; Divya Chandra
The use of a surface map display for operations on or near the airport surface (taxi out, takeoff, final approach and landing, taxi in) is expected to enhance safety. There is a lack of research, however, detailing how the airport surface should be depicted to air transport pilots during taxi operations. In order to address this question, an information analysis was conducted in which air transport pilots provided self-reported ratings of need for display elements found on current airport diagrams or made available on prototype surface map displays for operations on or near the airport surface. The ratings highlighted the value of presenting runway location and traffic information across all operational phases and showed the changing utility for display elements across different phases of operations. Comparison of the air transport pilot ratings with general aviation pilot ratings showed general agreement as to which display elements were of high value. Differences between the two groups were largely attributable to differences in the nature of operations.
Investigating Display Integration in Candidate Synthetic Vision System Displays BIBAFull-Text 134-138
  Julie M. Stark
Displays augmented with Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies are being examined as a means to reduce the potential for low visibility aviation incidents and accidents. A study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to examine how display integration in candidate SVS display layouts affect flight performance and subjective mental workload. Display layout (integrated/less integrated), display view (SVS/Traditional), and workload (high/low) were manipulated in a within subjects design resulting in eight possible display configurations. Sixteen commercial pilots flew multiple approaches under simulated IMC conditions in a fixed-base flight simulator. As expected, the more integrated display layout facilitated superior performance on an integrated flight task. Displays augmented with SVS technology produced better flight performance independent of the amount of workload imposed on the pilot. Subjective workload was also affected by display integration such that less workload was reported for the more integrated display. Implications for this research are addressed and future avenues for research along this line are suggested.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display Studies

Effects of Viewpoint Displacement on Navigational Performance in Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 139-143
  Wenbi Wang; Paul Milgram
Viewpoint tethering, as a way of integrating information from both egocentric and exocentric frames of reference, has been proposed as a means of supporting efficient navigation in virtual environments. In this paper, we report our latest findings on the effects of tether length on navigational performance. Twelve volunteers participated in an experiment in which they were instructed to control an aircraft-shaped cursor flying through a set of virtual tunnels and to answer questions about the environment. Experimental results showed that: (1) subjects' global awareness performance improved with an increase of tether length; and (2) neither the short tether nor the long tether supported the best local guidance performance. Rather, the best performance was observed for an intermediate length tethered display. The existence of an optimal value for this parameter provides useful guidelines for the design of navigational system interfaces.
The Effectiveness of Various Attitude Indicator Display Sizes and Extended Horizon Lines on Attitude Maintenance in a Part-Task Simulation BIBAFull-Text 144-148
  J. Raymond Comstock; Leslie C. Jones; Alan T. Pope
Spatial disorientation (SD) is a constant contributing factor to the rate of fatal aviation accidents. SD occurs as a result of perceptual errors that can be attributed in part to the inefficient presentation of synthetic orientation cues via the attitude indicator when external visual conditions are poor. Improvements in the design of the attitude indicator may help to eliminate instrumentation as a factor in the onset of SD. The goal of the present study was to explore several display concepts that may contribute to an improved attitude display. Specifically, the effectiveness of various display sizes, some that are used in current and some that are anticipated in future attitude displays that may incorporate Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) concepts, was assessed. In addition, a concept known as an extended horizon line or Malcolm Horizon (MH) was applied and evaluated. Paired with the MH, the novel concept of a fixed reference line representing the central horizontal plane of the aircraft was also tested. Subjects' performance on an attitude control task and secondary math workload task was measured across the various display sizes and conditions. The results, with regard to display size, confirmed the "bigger is better" concept, yielding better performance with the larger display sizes. A clear and significant improvement in attitude task performance was found with the addition of the extended horizon line. The extended or MH seemed to equalize attitude performance across display sizes, even for a central or foveal display as small as three inches in width.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display studies

The Influences of Display Highlighting and Size and Event Eccentricity for Aviation Surveillance BIBAFull-Text 149-153
  Christopher D. Wickens; Emily K. Muthard; Amy L. Alexander; Patrick Van Olffen; Elizabeth Podczerwinski
The present experiments were designed to assess the influence of display size, display highlighting, and event eccentricity in a surveillance task. Pilots were asked to detect changes in the movement or altitude of weather systems or traffic aircraft, which were represented in integrated hazard displays. Experiment 1 examined change detection as a function of the distance of the event from ownship and the presence of the event in a highlighted or lowlighted hazard domain. Analyses revealed that change detection was superior for events that were in the highlighted display database and that performance was slightly degraded for more eccentric events. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the role of display size and event eccentricity. Analyses showed that change detection was unaffected by the size of the display, though performance was again degraded for changes located near the perimeter of the display. Findings imply that surveillance of the display perimeters will depreciate and additional methods should be used to ensure that attention is sufficiently directed to these areas.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Display Studies

Examining the Effects of Guidance Symbology, Display Size, and Field of View on Flight Performance and Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 154-158
  Amy L. Alexander; Christopher D. Wickens; Thomas J. Hardy
Two experiments conducted in a high-fidelity flight simulator examined the effects of guidance symbology, display size, and field of view (FOV) on flight performance and situation awareness within a Synthetic Vision System (SVS). In Experiment 1, 18 pilots flew highlighted and lowlighted tunnel-in-the-sky displays and a less-cluttered follow-me-aircraft (FMA) through a series of curved approaches over rugged terrain. The results revealed that both tunnels supported better flightpath tracking than the FMA due to the availability of more preview information. Increasing tunnel intensity had no benefit on tracking, and in fact, traffic awareness was degraded. In Experiment 2, 24 pilots flew a lowlighted tunnel display configured according to different display sizes (small or large) and FOVs (30° or 60°). Measures of flightpath tracking and terrain awareness generally favored the smaller display and the 60° FOV.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aerospace Systems Posters

Automatically Wrong BIBAFull-Text 159-163
  Valerie J. Gawron; Jeffrey H. Peer
Automation-induced errors have been causal factors in many recent aviation accidents. Until this study, no in-flight data were available to investigate the response of commercial pilots in responding to an automation-related accident scenario. As part of an evaluation of airplane upset recovery training approaches, 40 pilots were exposed to an aircraft accident in which automation was determined to be a factor. This accient was the China Airlines Airbus 300-600 accident in Nagoya Japan. The accident occurred during an ILS approach in which the aircraft began a steep pitch up due to an inadvertent activation of the Go Around Mode. A Veridian Learjet in-flight simulator was used to collect the data. An inflight simulator is a flyable aircraft whose stability and control characteristics and inceptor characteristics can be easily varied and changed while flying in order to emulate those of a simulated aircraft. Only twelve out of 36 pilots (i.e., 33%) recovered. Pilots responses in relation to the automation are discussed.
Synthetic Vision CFIT Experiments for GA and Commercial Aircraft: A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Lives BIBAFull-Text 164-168
  Lawrence J. Prinzel; Monica F. Hughes; Jarvis J. Arthur; Lynda J. Kramer; Louis J. Glaab; Randy E. Bailey; Russell V. Parrish; Michael D. Uenking
Because restricted visibility has been implicated in the majority of commercial and general aviation accidents, solutions will need to focus on how to enhance safety during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). The NASA Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies to help achieve these goals through the synthetic presentation of how the outside world would look to the pilot if vision were not reduced. The potential safety outcome would be a significant reduction in several accident categories, such as controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), that have restricted visibility as a causal factor. The paper describes two experiments that demonstrated the efficacy of synthetic vision technology to prevent CFIT accidents for both general aviation and commercial aircraft.
Peripheral Vision Effects on Spatial Orientation Driven by Focused Depth BIBAFull-Text 169-173
  Lars Eriksson; Katarina Johansson; Claes von Hofsten
Despite considerable efforts to diminish critical spatial disorientation incidents during flight, they persist at constant rate. In instrument meteorological conditions, significantly enhanced support of spatial orientation (SO) could be achieved by displays of peripheral visual flow with conformal horizon. Focused depth related effectiveness of peripheral visual flow needs however to be investigated because of the pilot is changing depth focus in the cockpit. This was investigated in two experiments by manipulating relative depths of peripheral/central presentations and measuring their effects on postural instability. The results show that focused depth close-by with peripheral displays further away have less impact on perceived SO than focusing further away with peripheral displays closer. We conclude that focused depth drives the effects of peripheral visual flow on SO, and implementation implications are shortly discussed.
Introducing a New Spacing Instruction. Impact of Spacing Tolerance on Flight Crew Activity BIBAFull-Text 174-178
  Eric Hoffman; Nayen Pene; Laurence Rognin; Karim Zeghal
To assess the benefits and limits of a new spacing instruction from flight crew perspectives, a pilot-in-the-loop experiment was conducted. Beyond assessing interface usability and overall feasibility, the experiments aimed at analysing the impact of various tolerance margins on flight crew activity and efficiency. Flight crew feedback was generally positive. Despite a new task in the cockpit, which requires appropriate assistance to contain workload, pilots highlighted the positive aspects of getting in the loop, understanding their situation (through goal-oriented instructions), and gaining anticipation. Results showed that even though the smallest tolerance margin (0.25NM) led to increased workload, the spacing deviation was usually below 0.5NM.
Pilot Attitudes in Comparing U.S. Army Glass Cockpit and Traditional Crew Station Designs BIBAFull-Text 179-182
  Clarence E. Rash; Gina E. Adam; Patricia A. LeDuc; Gregory Francis
The crew station instrument panel of U.S. Army rotary-wing cockpits has changed from one of traditional displays (e.g., gauges and dials) to one using multifunction displays (MFDs). The newer design is referred to as a "glass cockpit." Pilots generally approve of the introduction of glass cockpit designs, and there is significant evidence that commercial aircraft with glass cockpit designs have fewer accidents. However, a recent study of U.S. Army rotary-wing aircraft comparing accident rates between traditional and glass cockpit models of the same aircraft type found evidence for higher accident rates in the glass cockpit models. Since the design of future aircraft will almost certainly include glass cockpits, it is important to explain this finding. To identify characteristics of glass cockpit designs that might be contributing to the accident rate differences, pilots of both traditional and glass cockpit models of the OH-58 Kiowa and AH-64 Apache helicopters were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward traditional and glass cockpit designs in the areas of workload, safety, crew coordination, situational awareness, and training. The survey results suggest that the pilots of glass cockpit aircraft generally have more positive attitudes toward their cockpit than the pilots of traditional cockpit displays. Significantly, though, pilot ratings of some aspects of workload and training were more favorable for the traditional cockpit design than for the glass cockpit design, so further investigation on those areas offers the best chance of explaining the accident rate differences.
Beyond Levels of Automation: An Architecture for More Flexible Human-Automation Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 182-186
  Christopher A. Miller; Raja Parasuraman
Supervisory control has long been recognized as a design concept for enhancing the effectiveness of human-automation interaction, but real time supervisory relationships with automation have rarely approached the flexibility of human-human supervisory relationships. In part, this may be because our models of human-automation relationships -- primarily, Sheridan and Verplank's (1978) concept of Levels of Automation -- have been unidimensional and too coarse-grained. Parasuraman, Wickens and Sheridan (2000) acknowledged this limitation and extended the levels of automation model to include a second, albeit coarse-grained, dimension based on stages of information processing. We argue that, for the purpose of providing a detailed architecture to support collaborative delegation interactions, this process needs to be taken further. By applying the levels of automation spectra across a detailed task model of tasks in a work domain, we create a suitably complex and flexible model of task performance which can be shared between humans and automation and used as the vocabulary for delegation interactions. This architecture is illustrated in human tasking of multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles.
Effects of Automation Reliability on Human Monitoring Performance BIBAFull-Text 188-190
  Brian Oakley; Mustapha Mouloua; Peter Hancock
Human decisions to rely on automation of a simulated flight task were monitored in the present study. Participants performed the Multi Attribute Task (MAT) battery previously developed by Comstock and Arneguard (1990). Twenty-eight participants were tested for 7 different reliability levels. Decision accuracy, false alarm rates, and reaction time to simulated automation failures were collected for each participant over nine 10-minute sessions. The results indicated that the rate of automation failures detected varied inversely with automation reliability level. As automation level increased, detection rate decreased thereby indicating automation-induced monitoring inefficiency. However, the mean reaction time of correct detection rate decreased as automation reliability level increased. No significant effect of reliability was obtained for the false alarm rate data. The implications for training and systems design are also outlined.
Maintenance-Related Accidents: A Comparison of Amateur-Built Aircraft to All Other General Aviation BIBAFull-Text 191-193
  Nicole L. Nelson; Scott M. Goldman
In a previous study, Goldman, Fiedler, and King (2002) found that a little over 7% of the 1983-1999 National Transportation Safety Board general aviation (GA) accident investigation reports listed at least one maintenance-related error as the primary cause or factor. Amateur-built aircraft accounted for an average of 14% of these same general aviation maintenance-related accidents, even though amateur-built aircraft account for less than 3% of the GA hours flown. Using the 1983-2001 National Transportation Safety Board GA accident investigation reports, this study compares maintenance-related accidents for amateur-built and all other GA aircraft by type of maintenance procedure, airframe hours, phase of operation, and time since last inspection. For this 18-year sample of maintenance-related accidents, 413 involved amateur-built aircraft, and 3,262 involved all other types of GA aircraft. General aviation flight hours continue to increase: Amateur-built aircraft flight hours, alone, increased from under 300,000 hours in 1993 to about 900,000 in 2000.
Conflict Detection With Cockpit Display of Traffic Information: What Is It, What Has Been Found, and What Needs To Be Done BIBAFull-Text 194-198
  Xidong Xu
A task analysis is conducted for conflict detection relying on traffic information depicted on a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). The task can be performed in a dichotomous way (i.e., the judgment of either a conflict or not). Or optimally the conflict risk can be estimated based on continuous measures. Three such measures are identified, namely, the distance at the closest passage (DCP), the orientation at the closest passage (OCP), and the time at the closest passage (TCP). A literature review examines the factors that influence performance on conflict detection. It is shown that there are limited numbers of studies that have addressed the issue of conflict detection with the CDTI. Finally, given the CDTI's vital role in the free flight environment, it is recommended that the conflict risk be defined by the continuous measures, that effects of various factors on conflict detection performance be examined, and that ways be sought to improve human performance with the aid of automation.
Pilot Interactions With Alarm Systems in the Cockpit BIBAFull-Text 199-201
  Mustapha Mouloua; Richard D. Gilson; John Deaton; J. Christopher Brill
Aircraft systems are becoming increasingly automated to handle routine tasks, while pilots assume a supervisory role until something fails. Typically, when a subsystem experiences a fault or failure, the pilot receives a warning light or an auditory alarm. The goal of this study is to formulate new training guidelines and principles that will assist instructional developers in designing methods to help pilots deal more effectively with discriminating and prioritizing an array of diverse multi-channel alarms. Six studies were conducted to examine pilot interaction with alerting systems in the cockpit, using both accident/incident reports and empirical research. The findings provide an initial database for training alarm/alert response strategies in current and future systems. It is anticipated that this research will reveal alarm system performance benefits, and associated costs with modified training procedures, display techniques, and automation strategies. Further implications for effective pilot-alerting systems interaction are also outlined.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Spatial Audio Displays in a Simulated Airborne Command and Control Task BIBAFull-Text 202-206
  W. Todd Nelson; Robert S. Bolia
The effects of a spatial audio display on speech intelligibility were evaluated in a simulated Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) task environment. Ten trained Air Weapons Officers served as participants during a Close Air Support mission. Spatial audio, chatter level, and mission phase served as experimental factors and speech intelligibility was assessed using the Coordinate Response Measure. Results indicated that speech intelligibility was degraded during the most difficult mission segments, and that spatial audio alleviated, to a moderate extent, the degree of this degradation. In addition, spatial audio was associated with faster response times for correct identification of critical call signs. Overall ratings of perceived mental workload (NASA Task Load Index) indicated intermediate levels and failed to show an effect for the spatial audio manipulation. However, post-experimental questionnaires indicated that operators rated spatial audio technology as valuable for improving communications effectiveness. Accordingly, the present study is an important step in the transition of a mature interface technology that may significantly enhance critical communications in complex command and control environments.
Experimental Investigation of Predictive Probabilistic and Temporal Conflict Avoidance Displays BIBAFull-Text 207-211
  Jason Telner; Paul Milgram; Alexander R. Williamson
Numerous automated systems are currently in use to assist controllers during air and naval traffic management. However, inferring the future intentions and courses of numerous aircraft or ships at various points in time remains problematic due to a variety of control disturbances. In this paper, a new graphical display concept was evaluated. This display concept provides predictive information about the time, location, and probability of potential traffic conflicts in the form of topological contour displays that were superimposed onto conventional traffic information. Performances on two formats of the new graphical display were compared to a conventional display that does not present predictive traffic information. Participants in the study engaged in a ship control collision avoidance task by performing a series of ship manoeuvres to minimize the danger levels of potential collisions. Although the results of the study are pending, it is hypothesized that the new graphical displays will assist participants in making improved manoeuvring decisions to avoid potential conflicts compared to the conventional display.
The Concordance of Subjective Measures and Military Pilot Performance in a study of Human-Interaction with Automation in a Complex Simulated Environment BIBAFull-Text 212-216
  Scott M. Galster; Raja Parasuraman
Eight pilots with military experience completed a study of human-interaction with automation in a complex and dynamic air-to-ground search and destroy mission. Each pilot completed 32 ten-minute scenarios. Performance measures and subjective measures of mental workload, situation awareness, trust, confidence, and automation reliability were recorded after each scenario. An analysis of the agreement of the subjective measures between scenario types was performed. The results indicated that there was a high level of agreement between all of the subjective measures. Further, the subjective measures were similar, but not identical to the performance measures ranked by scenario type. Design implications are discussed.
Evaluation of an Exocentric Surface Guidance Display BIBAFull-Text 217-221
  F. D. Roefs; E. Theunissen; G. J. M. Koeners
The topic of this study was an experimental display system consisting of a taxi-guidance display (TD) and a navigation display (ND). The main purpose of the TD is supporting local guidance, whereas the ND mainly supports global awareness. Two issues have been addressed: (1) 'During taxiing, do pilots in fact use the TD for local guidance and the ND for global awareness?' and (2) 'What are the optimal parameter values for the TD?'. Based on recorded eye movements the first question can be answered affirmatively. Concerning the second issue it is concluded that the used reference parameter values are (close to) optimal. This is based on the parameter values selected by the participants and subjective measures.
Calibration of Confidence in Situation Awareness Queries BIBAFull-Text 222-226
  Frederick M. J. Lichacz; Brad Cain; Sejal Patel
Two experiments using a simulated Air Traffic Control task were conducted to examine the relationship between situation awareness and confidence under conditions of high and low temporal and perceptual demand. In the first experiment, participants were required to actively manipulate the aircraft on the radar screen. In the second experiment, the participants were required to passively observe the simulated air traffic. In both experiments, Endsley's SAGAT was used to query the subjects' SA and confidence in their responses. The results of this study revealed that whereas SA was affected primarily by perceptual demand, confidence was affected by both time pressure and workload. Moreover, the participants' under/overconfidence was affected primarily by perceptual demand. However, the participants were clearly overconfident in response to difficult SA queries and predominantly underconfident to easy SA queries. These results have implications for our understanding of the relationship between SA and performance in aviation research.

AGING: Applying Modeling to Design for Older Populations

Applying Modeling to Design for Older Populations BIBAFull-Text 227-231
  Lila Laux; Brian Peacock; Cathy Bodine; Neil Charness; Chris Edwards; Christian Lebiere; Nancy J. Cook; James Sullivan
The number of "older" people is increasing all over the world and the percentage of the population with age-related disabling conditions will continue to grow significantly as baby boomers age. To support this burgeoning population in maintaining their independence, we must identify how age-related changes degrade the ability to interact with systems and devices that meet basic needs, such as transportation systems, medical devices, and communication tools. We also need to be able to predict whether new products and environments will be usable by most older people. We suggest that modeling and simulation could be used to efficiently study these issues. Panel members who have experience with using modeling to study the interactions of products and users present their perspectives on the use of modeling to study age and system usability.

AGING: Aging Potpourri

Improving Comprehension of Medication Instructions in Older Adults with Heart Failure: A Patient-Centered Approach BIBAFull-Text 232-236
  Daniel Morrow; Michael Weiner; James Young; Douglas Steinley; Michael D. Murray
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with reduced functional capacity and quality of life among older adults. Complex CHF medication regimens challenge older patients' ability to adhere to these regimens, in part because of cognitive declines and poor communication. We developed patient-centered instructions for CHF medications as part of a pharmacy-based educational intervention to improve health-related outcomes and adherence among older adults with heart failure. The present paper reports a preliminary study to test whether the instructions were easy to understand compared to instructions for the same medications available in a large chain pharmacy. Thirty-two patients varying in education, literacy, and cognitive abilities were presented instructions with patient-centered or standard formats for familiar and unfamiliar medications. Answer time and accuracy for questions were measured while patients looked at the instruction. The patient-centered instructions were understood more quickly than the standard instructions. They were also understood more accurately for unfamiliar medications, while the standard instructions were understood more accurately for familiar medications. These findings suggest that patient-centered instructions may improve patients' medication knowledge compared to standard pharmacy instructions.
Medication Adherence Strategies for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 237-241
  Julian Sanchez; Timothy A. Nichols; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Much research has examined medication non-adherence from several perspectives such as the cognitive and social predictors of adherence and the effectiveness of physician recommended strategies for medication-taking. The purpose of this study was to capture and understand the medication adherence strategies used by older adults as well as to gather the source and self-reported success of these strategies. A structured interview methodology was used and nine older adults participated. Several medication adherence methods were reported and classified into six types of strategies by three judges. The strategies were association, location, visibility, planning, retrospective reminder, and using physical changes as a cue. These strategies were self-reported as highly effective. The results also indicated that older adults are likely to generate their own strategies as opposed to receiving them from their physician or reading them from a medications label. An understanding of these strategies can be valuable when designing medication-adherence devices for older adults.
Age-Related Differences in Reading Text Presented with Degraded Contrast BIBAFull-Text 242-246
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Reading is a daily activity for most individuals. Unfortunately, people frequently read in sub-optimal conditions (Charness & Dijkstra, 1999), which can degrade the perceptual quality of the text, such as reading a book in inadequate lighting or reading an electronic display in direct sunlight. Degraded text may affect older adults to a greater extent than younger adults because of age-related vision declines. However, readers may be able to compensate for text that is difficult to perceive by taking advantage of contextual information contained in language. This study examined age differences in this reading strategy, by comparing words that were highly predictable from their sentence context to words that were less predictable. In addition, text was presented in three levels of text/background contrast (high, medium, low) to explore the effects of contrast reduction. The findings of this study have implications for designing printed materials that facilitate reading for older adults.
Effects of Attentional Demand on Input Device Use in Younger and Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 247-251
  Anne C. McLaughlin; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthure D. Fisk
We investigated how different categories of input devices, direct and indirect, affected performance under different attentional conditions. We also examined the moderating effects of age on input device usability. Previous studies have found differences in performance between the two types of devices as well as interactive effects of age (e.g., Charness, 2001). Previously, researchers have suggested that attention is a key moderating variable predicting performance with an input device; however, no age-related studies have systematically manipulated attention when examining input devices. In the current study, younger and older adults used an input device, direct (touchscreen) or indirect (rotary encoder), to perform tasks under various attention allocation conditions. The tasks were comprised of on-screen controls which were then analyzed by the type of input device used. Age and attention allocation together were needed to predict usability of an input device. We discuss how these data can be used when making input and interface design decisions across user groups of different ages.

AGING: Aging Posters

Improving Visual Attention in Older Drivers BIBAFull-Text 252-256
  Kathy J. Sifrit; Alex Chaparro; Laszlo Stumpfhauser
Changes in visual attention which occur with normal aging have been shown to be predictive of crash risk in older drivers (Ball, Owsley, Sloane, Roenker, & Bruni, 1993; Owsley et al., 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine whether visual attention skills of older drivers were amenable to training. Participants were 40 volunteers aged 60 to 81. Following an initial visual attention assessment, 20 participants assigned to the training group completed five 30-minute visual attention training sessions. The remaining 20 participants were assigned to a control group. Following the training interval all participants once again completed a visual attention assessment. Results: At postesting, participants whose initial scores were poorest, and who received visual attention training achieved scores similar to those of participants with the best initial scores, while the control group members showed significantly smaller improvements.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Analysis-Based Design for Practitioners

Cognitive Analysis Based Design for Practitioners BIBAFull-Text 257
  Cynthia O. Dominguez; Patricia McDermott; Catherine Burns; Lisa Garrison; Nick Dinadis; Robert Eggleston; Mica Endsley; Cheryl Bolstad; Debra Jones; Jennifer Riley; Greg Jamieson; Tom Miller
The Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making community is struggling with how to formulate grand unifying theories, and with finding common ground in methods. Cognitive work and task analysis approaches encompass many methods for understanding and representing complex sociotechnical systems and the cognitive challenges faced by their users, as the basis for discovery and improvement of those systems. Clearly the conduct of cognitive work or task analysis cannot be "recipe-based," and is accomplished with varying approaches and methods driven by practical constraints of a project. This practice-oriented symposium will showcase five exemplars towards illustrating the common ground and differences in approaches that are currently in use. Papers will focus most extensively on taking the mystery out of the 'gap' between analysis and design. Each story will outline goals, approach and rationale, challenges, planned analysis and deviations implemented, how authors(s) transformed analysis into product, evaluation, and overall lessons learned.
From Analysis to Design: WDA for the Petrochemical Industry BIBAFull-Text 258-262
  Catherine M. Burns; Lisa Garrison; Nick Dinadis
When developing ecological displays for a large project, having consistent techniques for analysis and design are very important. This paper reports on six techniques that were used on a project for Syncrude Canada. The project used work domain analysis to develop ecological display concepts. At various points in the project, a total of eight analyst designers were involved. The six techniques reported here were used to maintain consistent results across the design team and to provide a systematic approach to move from a work domain analysis to a design on a large safety-critical project.
Work-Centered Design: A Cognitive Engineering Approach to System Design BIBAFull-Text 263-267
  Robert G. Eggleston
This paper provides an overview of an emerging cognitive engineering framework that can be used to guide engineering analysis and design decision-making. As the name implies, the Work-Centered Design (WCD) framework considers the design problem from the perspective of an analysis of work. It pays special attention to an analysis of aiding requirements, including issues about direct automation and form-based approaches for aiding. The paper provides a brief description of the WDC framework, identifies novel features and illustrates selected concepts with examples.
Situation Awareness Oriented Design: From User's Cognitive Requirements to Creating Effective Supporting Technologies BIBAFull-Text 268-272
  Mica R. Endsley; Cheryl A. Bolstad; Debra G. Jones; Jennifer M. Riley
Situation awareness is a fundamental construct driving human decision making in complex, dynamic environments. By creating designs that enhance an operator's awareness of what is happening in a given situation, decision making and performance can improve dramatically. The Situation Awareness-Oriented Design process provides a means to improve human decision-making and performance through optimizing situation awareness. This method has been used to develop and evaluate system design concepts in aviation, medical and information intelligence operations. It features three main components: SA Requirements Analysis, SA-Oriented Design Principles, and SA Measurement and Validation. This design process is user-centered, and derived from a detailed analysis of the goals, decisions and situation awareness requirements of the operator derived through a Cognitive Task Analysis methodology called Goal-Directed Task Analysis. The development of tool suites for supporting high levels of situation awareness in military command and control are presented to illustrate the use of the SA-Oriented Design process for translating the results of cognitive task analyses into to user-centered system designs.
Bridging the Gap Between Cognitive Work Analysis and Ecological Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 273-277
  Greg A. Jamieson
The Cognitive Work Analysis and Ecological Interface Design frameworks have garnered a great deal of attention in recent years. The former is used to analyze a complex work domain to identify the behavior-shaping constraints imposed by the work domain, control tasks, strategies, operator competencies, and socio-organizational factors. The latter informs the design of operator interfaces for complex systems. Although the two frameworks overlap, a gap remains between the analysis and design stages. This article shows one path across that gap. Aspects of both frameworks were applied to the design of an ecological interface for a petrochemical process. We discuss how the project was completed under realistic time and budget constraints, review several unanticipated obstacles that we encountered, and relate design examples to help overcome the gap between analysis and design.
Applying Decision-Centered Design to Damage Control for the Navy BIBAFull-Text 278-282
  Thomas E. Miller; Terry W. Stanard; Sterling L. Wiggins
Decision-Centered Design (DCD) was created so that the users of information technology (IT) have an advocate in the design cycle. DCD was created to increase the value of IT for the decision maker. It is a cognitive engineering approach to design that uncovers and models the cognitive expertise of users and conveys these insights to IT developers. DCD ensures that cognitive challenges are addressed in IT designs so that cognitive performance is improved. Other cognitive engineering approaches share these same goals, but DCD also has principles and processes that other cognitive engineering approaches may not share. This paper will use a Damage Control decision support system to illustrate the application of DCD.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Knowledge Elicitation Methods

Cognitive Processes and the Movement of Combat Rifle Teams in Urban Terrain BIBAFull-Text 283-287
  James B. Sampson; Michael J. Statkus; Robert J. Woods
Four combat training scenarios were executed to investigate cognitive factors that influence squad movement and tactical performance in urban terrain. Participants varied in levels of training and experience in urban warfare. Two fire teams and a squad leader (nine men) played Blue Force (BLUFOR) against an Opposition Force (OPFOR) of varying size. BLUFOR's mission was to enter the city then clear and secure a building of OPFOR and retrieve a POW or piece of equipment. Data collection involved after-action interviews with team leaders, overhead videos, questionnaires, and group discussions. Walking interviews were used to reconstruct leader awareness of cues, perceptions, decisions and actions during the exercise. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of Situation Awareness, Activity Theory and Recognition Primed Decision model frameworks. Implications for computer simulation modeling of individual soldier and small unit performance are addressed as well as the potential impact of new advanced technologies.
Elicitation by Critiquing: An Exploratory Study BIBAFull-Text 288-292
  Janet E. Miller; Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods
Knowledge elicitation methods uncover information about how a practitioner works in a field. However, these methods have the challenges of grounding in context, accessibility to experts and tasks, being laborious and time consuming, and repeatability. This study investigated a critiquing methodology's ability to address these challenges while still being authentic and generative. The domain investigated was military intelligence analysis, a field that experiences a constant turnover of workers. To maintain the highest level of productivity, the expertise of their military intelligence analysis practitioners must be understood. A study was done involving a novice performing a basic analysis task. Then, six experts with various backgrounds critiqued the novice's process. The results suggest that the critiquing method addresses the challenges of knowledge elicitation methods while being authentic and generative. The specific guiding question for addressing both issues was 'Can the critiquing method be used to help unveil expertise in intelligence analysis?'
Verbal Protocols in Real-Time Dynamic Decision-Making BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Cleotilde Gonzalez
This study presents the results from the analyses of verbal protocols elicited from inexperienced and experienced participants of a real-time, Dynamic Decision-Making (DDM) task. This research intends to complement a series of studies performed in DDM environments analyzing the cognitive structures and processes involved in learning in DDM. Results show that inexperienced and experienced participants differ in several ways: in the way they distribute attention to different parts of the system, in their awareness of the relationship of the attributes involved in the decision making process, and in their coordination to make decisions in real time. These results have been used to support the refinement of a cognitive model developed to explain how people learn in DDM tasks.
Similarity and Priority of the Submarine Officer of the Deck: Assessing Knowledge Structures BIBAFull-Text 297-301
  Katharine K. Shobe; Stephen M. Fiore
It is increasingly being recognized that understanding expert knowledge structures associated with critical decision processes may facilitate Naval personnel performance. Toward this end, system developers and training researchers attempt to identify critical components of expert operator assessment and knowledge. Differing domains of practice rely to varying degrees on perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Perceptual knowledge is relied upon for recognizing critical cues in the environment whereas conceptual knowledge is used to interpret the meaning and importance of these cues. We focus on conceptual knowledge given its importance in the submariner environment. Via analyses of submariner knowledge for concepts related to responsibilities for the Officer of the Deck (OOD) watchstander we examined how training may alter knowledge representation and priority of conceptual importance and how overlap in mental models may be due to amount of experience.
Using Psychologically Plausible Operator Cognitive Models to Enhance Operator Performance BIBAFull-Text 302-306
  Chris Forsythe; Michael Bernard; Patrick Xavier; Robert Abbott; Ann Speed; Nathan Brannon
Research by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is currently being conducted that seeks to embody human-like cognitive capacities in machines by transforming the human-machine interaction so that it more closely resembles a human-to-human interaction. This document reports on the initial phase of research and development by SNL in creating a capability whereby a machine-based cognitive model provides a realtime awareness of the cognitive state of an operator. In the capability referred to as "Discrepancy Detection," the machine uses an operator's cognitive model to monitor its own state and when there is evidence of a discrepancy between the actual state of the machine and the operator's perceptions concerning the state of the machine, a discrepancy may be signaled. The current project offers successful evidence that a machine may accurately infer an operator's interpretation of situations based on an individualized cognitive model of the operator.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Human Performance Modeling

Modeling Fatigue Degraded Performance in Artificial Agents BIBAFull-Text 307-310
  Jon French; Christina S. Morris
Maintaining alertness has always been a critical problem for personnel on shift work supporting around the clock operations. Recent trends involving reduced staffing and advanced electronic systems within protracted and continuous nightly operations have critically increased the need to diagnose and predict operator fatigue and its consequences. This paper describes an evaluation of a mathematical fatigue algorithm used to estimate fatigue as a result of extended duty days and fragmented or reduced sleep. A study is described comparing shift schedules during two weeks of maritime activity that demonstrates the algorithm's predictive capability. The study also provides the theoretical foundation for applying fatigue related action and reaction in artificial and simulated human agents in order to enhance military intelligence, mission planning, training, and rehearsal for a wide range of human operations.
Non-Intrusive Real Time Human Fatigue Modelling and Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 311-315
  Peilin Lan; Qiang Ji; Carl G. Looney
In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic model based on the Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) for dynamically modelling and detecting human fatigue. We first present a static fatigue model that captures the static relationships between fatigue, significant factors that cause fatigue, and various visual cues that are typically resulted from fatigue. The static fatigue model allows to spatially integrate fatigue evidences from different sources. It, however, fails to capture the dynamic aspect of fatigue. Fatigue is a cognitive state that is developed over time. To account for the temporal aspect of human fatigue, the static fatigue model is extended based on the DBNs. The dynamic fatigue model allows to integrate fatigue evidences not only spatially but also temporally, therefore leading to a more robust fatigue modelling and inference. The evaluation of the fatigue model with simulated data reveals the satisfactory performance of the proposed fatigue model. The dynamic fatigue model is then integrated with our computer vision module to perform non-intrusive real-time fatigue monitoring and detection.
Determining the Weights of Scheduling and Responding in the Control of a Dynamic System BIBAFull-Text 316-319
  Joachim Meyer; Yuval Bitan
Operators of complex systems combine actions they schedule and initiate, and actions they perform as responses to events (such as alarms). Previous studies showed qualitative changes in the effect of scheduling and responding, but no quantitative measures of the relative weight of scheduled and respondent actions were available. The paper suggests the use of standardized weights from logistic regression analyses as a possible measure. The measure was computed for responses of individual users in a study in which participants had to monitor three stations that required different rates of interventions. The experimental conditions differed in the reliability of a warning system that indicated a possible malfunction in a station and in the system's predictability. Logistic regressions were run to predict operator actions as a function of the time since the last action and of the information from the warning system. The weights were found to be sensitive to the diagnostic value of the warning indicator and the predictability of the system.
Operations Automation: A Concept and Design Methodology for Human-Centered Automation BIBAFull-Text 320-324
  Christine M. Mitchell
Operations automation is a concept and design methodology for human-centered automation. Operations automation is automation that carries out, in whole or part, activities currently performed by operations personnel. Humans, however, remain essential components of the system, but perform a significantly different role. When autonomous systems reach their inevitable limits, operations personnel troubleshoot, diagnose, and repair the automation.
   This paper describes research exploring requirements for effective operations automation. First, it describes two field studies of conventional automation. Second, it proposes operations automation as an extension of the operator function model (OFM) and its computational implementation, OFMspert. The OFM is a normative behavioral model; OFMspert predicts and interprets operation actions. As such, the OFM and OFMspert offer potential computational architectures with which to implement operations automation. Finally, the paper describes an empirical study comparing conventional and operations automation. Results suggest operations automation dramatically enhances the ability of operations personnel to identify and diagnose failures.
Fitting Human Data with Fast, Frugal, and Computable Models of Decision-Making BIBAFull-Text 325-329
  Gwendolyn E. Campbell; Amy E. Bolton
There is a long-standing debate regarding the extent to which human decision-making processes are "rational" in the formal sense of the word. One approach to evaluating and contrasting the psychological validity of multiple theories of decision-making is to statistically calculate the predictive validity of the algorithms and equations that instantiate those theories against actual human performance data. Previously, we presented the predictive validity results of linear regression and fuzzy logic models of decision-making data generated by participants in a military-like task (Campbell, Buff, Rhodenizer, & Dorsey, 1999). In this paper, we evaluate the predictive validity of four "fast and frugal" algorithms against these same data. While no single approach will resolve the debate regarding the nature of decision-making processes, each adds a piece to the puzzle. A better understanding of decision-making processes could improve our ability to train and provide performance support for all types of decision-makers.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Decision-Making and Automated Decision Support: Theoretical and Applied Issues

Looking Forward: A Simulation of Decision Aids in Tomorrow's Classroom BIBAFull-Text 330-334
  Hall P. Beck; Mary T. Dzindolet; Linda G. Pierce; Nancy Piatt
Although there are many examples of successful application, the introduction of decision aids into the home, school and workplace has frequently failed to produce expected gains. The present study sought to determine if undergraduates could effectively use a decision aid to improve their scores on a multiple-choice test. The design was a 2 (Aid Accuracy: 60%, 80%) x 3 (Trial Type: Aid Given On Request (OR), Aid Given On Every Trial (OET), No Aid Available). Results revealed a statistically significant Aid Accuracy x Trial Type interaction. Providing undergraduates with an aid that whose recommendations were correct on 60% of the trials did not enhance their test scores. However, equipping students with an was 80% accurate increased performance above the no aid condition. More molecular analyses yielded a series of results that further defined the effects of the decision aid on student performance. The most important of these was the discovery of a "mere presence" effect. Thirty 30 of 44 students requested no advice in the OR arrangement. With respect to information received, their OR trials were equivalent to the No Aid trials. Nevertheless, these students performed substantially better on the OR trials than on the No Aid trials. Thus, the decision aid had effects on performance that cannot be attributed to the information it supplied.
Automation Failures on Tasks Easily Performed by Operators Undermines Trust in Automated Aids BIBAFull-Text 335-339
  Poornima Madhavan; Douglas A. Wiegmann; Frank C. Lacson
Automation users often distrust diagnostic aids that are imperfectly reliable. The extent to which users' trust in automation is influenced by the simplicity of automation errors was explored. Participants (n = 30) performed 200 trials of a target-detection task using an imperfectly reliable automated aid. For the "easy-miss" group (n = 15) the automated aid missed targets only on easy trials and was accurate on difficult trials. For the "difficult-miss" group (n = 15) the aid missed targets only on difficult trials and was accurate on easy trials. A control group (n = 15) performed the task unaided. The easy-miss group trusted the aid less, was less accurate, and contradicted the aid more than the difficult-miss group, even on trials when the easy-miss aid was more reliable than the difficult-miss aid. Results suggest that the "easiness" of the aid's errors for the easy-miss group undermined automation trust and reliance. Potential future directions include examining whether easy false alarms affect user trust in a manner akin to easy misses.
Effects of Age on Utilization and Perceived Reliability of an Automated Decision-Making Aid for Luggage Screening BIBAFull-Text 340-343
  Jason S. McCarley; Doug A. Wiegmann; Christopher D. Wickens; Arthur F. Kramer
An experiment examined the effects of age on utilization and perceived reliability of an imperfectly reliable decision-making aid in a luggage x-ray screening task. Forty-five young adults and 45 elderly adults performed a simulated luggage screening task. Some subjects were provided the assistance of an automated decision aid with a hit rate of .90 and a false alarm rate of .25. Others performed the task with no aid. Signal-detection analysis revealed that automation improved sensitivity only for younger participants, suggesting a tendency for older participants to underutilize the aid's recommendations. Data also revealed unique patterns of individual differences in cue reliance among older and younger participants. Perceived reliability of the aid did not differ between age groups. Order of information presentation (with the aid's recommendation coming before or after the raw data) had little effect for either age group.
Imperfect Automation in Aviation Traffic Alerts: A Review of Conflict Detection Algorithms and Their Implications for Human Factors Research BIBAFull-Text 344-347
  Lisa C. Thomas; Christopher D. Wickens; Esa M. Rantanen
Automated warning and alert devices such as airborne collision avoidance systems (ACASs) represent a class of automation that is often found to be imperfect. The imperfections can be expressed as the number of false alarms or missed events. Most ACASs are constructed with a bias to prevent misses (which may have catastrophic consequences) and therefore, coupled with a low base-rate of conflict events, create high false alarm rates. In this paper, we review the adequacy of various CDTI warning algorithms that have been proposed and tested in addressing the false alarm issue, and the potential for multiple levels of alerting to mitigate the effects of false alarms on trust and reliance on the CDTI. We suggest new directions for future research, including evaluating the effects of false alarm rates on pilots' use of the CDTI, determining what strategies may enhance pilot tolerance of false alarms, and investigating the use of CDTI in conjunction with air traffic controllers.
Through the Lens: A New Approach to Decision Modeling under Free Flight BIBAFull-Text 349-353
  Pratik D. Jha; Ann M. Bisantz; Raja Parasuraman
Air traffic management (ATM) concepts of the future are committed towards significantly enhancing the capacity and making flying even safer. Since, these new ATM concepts will change the roles and responsibilities of pilots and the air traffic controllers, it is important that their impact on safety be evaluated. Many proposed schemes includes shifting the separation assurance function (maintaining safe distances between aircraft) to the cockpit from ground based air traffic control, and to assign a supervisory role to the air traffic controller, who would make decisions in exceptional cases. Some initial research in this direction has shown that controllers cannot intervene effectively without decision support tools like "conflict probes". Furthermore controllers and pilots have different strategies for resolving conflicts about separation and airspace. Accordingly, there is a need to better understand and classify the decision-making behavior of different agents in the future proposed ATM system.
   This paper presents a theoretical discussion outlining the application of the Lens Model of Brunswik to provide insight into some of the research questions posed in conflict detection and resolution by future ATM concepts. We illustrate the approach through an example case study.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Teams: Geographic Dispersion and Situation Awareness

Design Concepts for Distributed Work Systems: An Empirical Investigation into Distributed Teams in Complex Domains BIBAFull-Text 354-358
  Jodi Heintz Obradovich; Philip J. Smith
Coordination and collaboration across distributed teams during planning and execution activities present many challenges to organizations and operations, including military command and control. With the increase in spatially and temporally distributed work teams, it is essential to achieve an understanding of how distributed work can be effectively supported. In this paper, we discuss issues surrounding distributed work systems that were gained through a series of investigations, including (a) field studies, (b) structured interviews, (c) critical incident reports, (d) participation in concept experiments, and (e) literature reviews. Characteristics held in common by the domains explored include the following: high cognitive complexity, distribution of the work (and associated responsibilities) among many people, distribution of data and knowledge among many people, uncertainty about how scenarios will actually play out, and geographic and temporal distribution of the participants. The results of these investigations presented in the form of case studies, and design concepts to support distributed work systems are suggested.
A Cognitive Task Analysis of Coordination in a Distributed Tactical Team: Implications for Expertise Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 359-363
  Kelly Neville; Jennifer E. Fowlkes; Melissa M. Walwanis Nelson; Maureen L. Bergondy-Wilhelm
A Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) was conducted to examine distributed team coordination expertise. Knowledge associated with air wing strike team coordination challenges was elicited from E-2C Naval Flight Officers (NFOs) with varying levels of experience, and was assessed using a methodology consisting of multiple qualitative assessment techniques. Results include: (1) insight into the organizational structure of NFO team coordination knowledge; (2) rich representations of NFO team coordination knowledge that may be used to populate training and performance support tools; (3) experience-related differences in the use of knowledge and skill to support team coordination; and (4) knowledge and skill categories that support team coordination. Each of these results may contribute to the design of performance support tools and training guidelines, strategies, and content that enhances team coordination.
Beyond Milgram: An Experimental Study of Leader Presence BIBAFull-Text 364-368
  Keith Pangburn; Steven Freund; Holly Pangburn; Kip Smith
The US Army is changing the organizational structure of the combat strike unit to cover more distance and inflict greater damage with fewer soldiers. These changes involve a shift in the modes of command and control between soldiers and their leaders: leader presence on the battlefield will no longer be necessary. Initial experiences with this concept have raised a concern about the effectiveness and efficiency of remote command and control. In the experiments discussed here, we address this concern in an ecologically realistic simulation of a battlefield environment. We test the impact of leader presence at two levels (present and remote) on combat task performance. Participants' task was to shoot, move, and communicate with a leader. We found that participants were faster to move and shoot in the leader-present condition than in the leader-remote condition.
Measuring Shared and Team Situation Awareness in the Army'S Future Objective Force BIBAFull-Text 369-373
  Cheryl A. Bolstad; Mica R. Endsley
A simulation exercise was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a new Army force structure called Objective Force. This paper will describe how shared and team situation awareness (SA) were measured and analyzed in this experiment with regards to how well the new force structure supports both SA at the individual officer level, within teams and across teams. Shared and Team SA were measured using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT).
Tools for Supporting Team Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 374-378
  Cheryl A. Bolstad; Mica R. Endsley
Collaboration plays an important role in team tasks. Teams are also functioning more often in a distributed fashion. If individuals are to work efficiently in a distributed fashion they will need collaborative tools and systems to exchange information and most importantly Situation Awareness (SA). Little guidance exists as to which tools are appropriate for collaborative tasks or situations. The present paper presents a taxonomy of collaboration and, based on this taxonomy, information is provided on which classes of collaborative tools and techniques are most useful for different types of tasks and situations.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Insights from Technical Work Studies in Healthcare

The Messy Details: Insights from Technical Work Studies in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  Richard Cook; David Woods
The papers in this symposium demonstrate productive methods of coping with the messy details of technical work in healthcare. The studies demonstrate both how difficult it is to do rigorous studies of healthcare technical work and also how rewarding such studies can be. They prompt us to look at technical work studies more generally and ask why they are so well suited to research on the human factors of healthcare and what factors are important to their success.
How Cognitive Artifacts Support Distributed Cognition in Acute Care BIBAFull-Text 381-385
  Christopher Nemeth
In acute health care, tightly constrained teams of service providers perform complex procedures that routinely have significant consequences. Recent patient safety research encourages the use of decision support tools to improve human performance. Multiple hospital departments collaborate in a distributed cognition to balance the demand for health care with resources such as care providers, equipment and facilities. To plan and manage the balance, an anesthesiologist and a nurse coordinator predict resource availability, build consensus among team members, resolve disputes, plan resource allocation, assess and re-plan the balance between need and resources, speculate about future needs, create trial solutions, anticipate resource requirements, bump procedures and stash and husband resources. The Availabilities Sheet, Master Schedule, Operating Room (OR) Graph and OR Board are four cognitive artifacts used to support their work. Artifacts must, at a minimum, be reliable, informative, efficient, clear, accurate, and malleable. Improvements to these and other information tools will benefit team work processes and thereby enhance patient safety. An example demonstrates how cognitive artifacts are used to support distributed cognition.
Why Are They Not Responding to our Alarms Another Analysis of Problems with Alarms BIBAFull-Text 386-390
  Yan Xiao; F. Jacob Seagull; Fe Nieves-Khouw; Nancy Barczak; Sherry Perkins
Large healthcare organizations are complex socio-technical systems in many senses. Understanding how such complex systems adapt to their internal and external environment may help us devise effective strategies in building robust, high reliability organizations. In this paper we report findings of an in-depth study of auditory alarms in acute care settings as an attempt to study complex organizations. Investigations into incidents with adverse outcomes often lead to blames of not responding to auditory alarms which in most cases sound at audible levels. We interviewed a number of clinicians and stakeholders to understand the reasons why in some circumstances alarms are not responded to. The findings illustrate a spectrum of reasons that predispose care providers in certain responding patterns, such as large numbers of alarms, confusion of alarms, temporary episodes of high workload, external economic pressures, and proactive interventions at unit and organizational levels at improving quality of care.
Training Anatomy Recognition through Repetitive Viewing of Laparoscopic Surgery Video Clips BIBAFull-Text 391-394
  Stephanie Guerlain; K. Brook Green; Maranda LaFollette; Todd Mersch; Brian Mitchell; G. Reed Poole; Reid Adams; J. Forrest Calland; Viktor Bovbjerg; Edward Chekan
This study evaluated the use of a video-based training environment, to support training the perceptual "rules" necessary for situation assessment during laparoscopic surgery. The training system shows multiple examples of procedural steps using edited laparoscopic surgery videos to enforce absorption, expose the learner to varied anatomy, and stress crucial maneuvers. A between-subjects experiment with 30 medical students showed a ten percent increase in cognitive skills as measured by pretest/posttest sets of test questions as compared to a control group who had access to the same videos but in an unstructured format for the same amount of time (p<.05). This difference was attributed primarily to improvements in perceptual judgments, as opposed to improvements in procedural, strategic, declarative or counterexample knowledge. This study shows that video repetition is a potential means for training perceptual rule-based skills in an effective and efficient manner.
Barriers to Implementing Wrong Site Surgery Guidelines: A Cognitive Work Analysis BIBAFull-Text 395-399
  Michelle Rogers; Marta L. Render; Richard I. Cook; Robert Bower; Mark Molloy
In this paper, we explore the barriers wrong-site surgery guidelines face when applied in current work practice. Over 40 hours of direct observation of the entire care process (from initial consultation through post-operative care) were conducted. A breakdown in communication between surgical team members and the patient, operating room policy and procedures, incomplete patient assessment, staffing issues, distraction, and availability of pertinent information were identified by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) in 1998. In response to the high visibility of wrong-sited surgeries, the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) among others, developed guidelines intended to reduce the risk but failed to account for the dynamic complex environment. Several process elements emerged from our analysis of observation and interview data as they affected the outpatient surgical process of identification. This paper suggests strategies to enhance resiliency already present in the system.
Healthcare Safety: The Impact of Disabling Safety Protocols BIBAFull-Text 400-404
  M. M. Dierks; C. K. Christian; E. M. Roth; T. B. Sheridan; K. Dwyer; T. K. Gandhi; M. Gustafson; M. J. Zinner
With increasing attention to patient safety, hospitals and other clinical facilities are developing practice guidelines and protocols with the specific intent of reducing harm to patients. However, the introduction of these protocols can have unanticipated negative consequences and if followed rigidly can become 'disabling'. We use the manual count procedure that was designed to improve patient safety by reducing the likelihood of leaving an object (e.g., needle, sponge or instrument) inside a patient body cavity during a surgical procedure to illustrate this point. Using results from an observational study of nine complex operations we show that the count protocol can have unanticipated negative consequences that need to be considered in evaluating the net positive gain in patient safety. The study highlights the importance of evaluating the overall impact of proposed protocols when assessing their potential benefits to patient safety.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Communication Patterns

Adaptive Communication Patterns in Different Organizational Structures BIBAFull-Text 405-409
  Elliot E. Entin; Frederick J. Diedrich; Brian Rubineau
How do organizations cope with missions that are not well matched to their architectures, and consequently, what behaviors signal the need for structural adaptation? To explore this issue, we used model-based organizational design techniques to create mission scenarios that were either congruent (matched) or incongruent (mismatched) with two organizational structures. We focused our analyses on the role of communications by comparing the communication patterns occurring in the congruent conditions to those produced in the incongruent conditions. Results indicated that, for both functional and divisional organizations, communications increased when faced with incongruence. However, beyond volume of communications, there were differences in communication patterns. In the functional organizational structure team members changed their communication patterns (i.e., who talked about what), while in the divisional organizational structure team members did so to a much lesser degree. These data showed that strategy adaptation depends on the nature of organization's structure operating within particular mission environments.
Using Communication Patterns in the Design of an Adaptive Organizational Structure for Command and Control BIBAFull-Text 410-413
  John Graham; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Michael Doyle
What type of analysis should be used to inform design when both the future organizational structure and the experimental simulation are tenuous? Neither the application of a qualitative process tracing method nor low-level quantitative organizational designs are warranted. We hypothesized the analyses of high-level communication patterns in a role-playing exercise of a future organization structure would yield results that could both inform organizational design and shape iterative experimental designs. This study summarizes the comparison between communication patterns in an envisioned organizational structure and the actual patterns of information exchange of experienced military participants role-playing staff members in a future organizational design. The comparison between the hypothesized and actual communication performance indicated a different distribution of communication interaction from the expected. These results help guide both the future organizational concept as well as next iteration experiments.
Communication, Proximity, and Trust in Distributed Command and Control BIBAFull-Text 414-418
  Benjamin Swan; Beth Younger; Jana Smith; Molly Toll; Kip Smith
This paper discusses an empirical study of the effects of communication mode and trust on performance in a distributed command and control task. The study was motivated by the US Army's plan to transition from conventional ground forces to the Objective Force Warrior, an army of autonomous, dispersed individuals. We begin with a review of this change in organizational structure in the light of social impact theory. We then develop hypotheses relating trust, proximity, and modes of communication to team performance and discuss our laboratory experiment. Trust interacts significantly with both communication and proximity. The failure to reciprocate trust appears to make it more difficult for teams to communicate and to work face-to-face. If this result generalizes, it may have profound implications for the design of distributed work groups.
Message Overload from the Inbox to Intelligence Analysis: How Spam and Blogs Point to New Tools BIBAFull-Text 419-423
  David Tinapple; David Woods
Patterns of responses to "message overload" can be seen in the ways in which people adapt messaging systems and capabilities. Blogging is an effective and increasingly popular decentralized form of group communication that is proving useful in helping people find and share what is informative. We look to blogging for clues to new solutions to the problem of "data overload" in the world of email. These design solutions to email overload go beyond efforts to block spam, and are based on shifting the basic unit of organization toward communication relationships that allow patterns in communications to emerge.
Evaluation of Latent Semantic Analysis-Based Measures of Team Communications Content BIBAFull-Text 424-428
  Jamie C. Gorman; Peter W. Foltz; Preston A. Kiekel; Melanie J. Martin; Nancy J. Cooke
Team process is thought to mediate team member inputs and team performance. Among the team behaviors identified as process variables, team communications have been widely studied. We view team communications as a team behavior and also as team information processing, or team cognition. Within the context of a Predator Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) synthetic task, we have developed several methods of communications content assessment based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). These methods include: Communications Density (CD) which is the average task relevance of a team's communications, Lag Coherence (LC) which measures task-relevant topic shifting over UAV missions, and Automatic Tagging (AT) which categorizes team communications. Each method is described in detail. CD and LC are related to UAV team performance. AT-human is comparable to human-human agreement on content coding. The results are promising for the assessment of teams based on LSA applied to communication content.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: From Executive Decision Making to Homeland Security: Cognitive Engineering Steps Out of the Box

The Cognitive Engineering of Everyday Activities BIBAFull-Text 429-433
  Lawrence G. Shattuck; Jodi Heintz Obradovich
Cognitive engineers study complex systems in context Yet the same phenomena they observe in professional environments are also apparent in the everyday activities of people. In this paper, a case study is used to illustrate how the principles and theories employed to study complex cognitive systems are just as applicable for routine activities. The case study involves four people traveling from three different locations, meeting at an airport, and proceeding to a business meeting with a fifth person. Although the plan failed, the events surrounding the trip provide an opportunity to discuss cognitive engineering concepts such as planning and execution, replanning, coordination, and internal representations. The paper suggests that applying cognitive engineering methods to the study of everyday activities may provide valuable insights into more complex systems.
Toward Developing Situation Awareness Evaluation Strategies for Command and Control Environments BIBAFull-Text 434-438
  Laura G. Militello; Laurie L. Quill; Capt Kelly M. Vinson; Megan E. Gorman
This paper describes an initial effort to measure Situation Awareness (SA) in the context of logistics command and control (C2). Logistics Control and Information Support (LOCIS) is a prototype decision aid intended to allow a maintenance supervisor to perform his/her job more quickly without loss of SA. A literature review revealed that existing measures devised to assess SA in the context of aviation do not transfer well to C2 tasks. Therefore, existing measures of SA were adapted, and then piloted. Findings indicate that LOCIS provides support for building SA in the context of two specific tasks key to the maintenance supervisor job: preparing for the Daily Aircraft Maintenance Morning meeting and planning for a deployment. This small-scale study represents a first step toward assessing SA in C2 tasks.
Shared Mental Models at the Intra- and Inter-Team Level: Applications to Counter-Terrorism and Crisis Response tor Homeland Security BIBAFull-Text 439-443
  Stephen M. Fiore; Florian Jentsch; Clint A. Bowers; Eduardo Salas
Critical to meeting the needs arising from an increasing emphasis on homeland security is a fuller understanding of how to maximize the interactions among a diverse group of people and organizations. The complicating issue is the need to coordinate experts and teams of experts from differing disciplines. From a practical standpoint, because of the multidisciplinary requirements for effective homeland security, it is imperative that methodologies that can foster inter-individual (i.e., within team) and inter-organizational coordination (i.e., across departments or organizations) be investigated. From a theoretical standpoint, the operational concepts that drive the investigation and development of such methodologies must be identified. We suggest that the concept of shared mental models, arising out of research in the cognitive and organizational sciences, can be utilized in a program of research that explores the methods and tools to facilitate coordination in homeland security. Shared mental models can be applied to help our understanding of coordinated behavior at both the team level and the organizational level and, in this paper, we illustrate the relevance of this construct to both counter-terrorism operations and crisis response. We first discuss the shared mental model construct and follow this with a brief description of sample applications.
Applying Ecological Interface Design to the Driving Domain: The Results of an Abstraction Hierarchy Analysis BIBAFull-Text 444-448
  Heather A. Stoner; Emily E. Wiese; John D. Lee
Ecological interface design (EID) has been successfully applied in the domains of aviation, process control, and medicine. Until now, it has not been applied to the driving domain. This paper describes the results of applying the first step of EID, the abstraction hierarchy (AH) analysis, to the driving domain and then highlights key methodological differences. Key differences include heterogeneity at the level of functional purpose level, as well as the emergent domain constraints in which the other drivers define key work domain constraints. It is hoped that the information requirements identified here will help drivers form better mental models of driver support system (DSS) functions and assist in appropriate calibration of trust in these systems. This analysis demonstrates the generality of the AH analysis and provides an example that is substantially different from previous applications.
Situation Awareness Applications to Executive Dashboard Design BIBAFull-Text 449-453
  Marc L. Resnick
With the advent of mass customization, global financial markets, and Internet-based business models, executive decision making has an increased need for speed, scope, and accuracy. To meet these needs, IT vendors have created executive dashboards, systems that display visualizations of critical data via interfaces that pull from corporate data warehouses. While the visualization techniques they use take advantage of the latest technology and may support complex data analysis, these systems often fall short because they do not match the schema of the decision maker nor do they support situation assessment or awareness. A design process that considers a more naturalistic decision making perspective and uses cognitive engineering techniques such as ecological interface design would provide a significant improvement to the design of executive dashboard interfaces. However there are several challenges to applying current cognitive engineering methods to the executive decision making domain. This paper will present the executive decision making domain, illustrate how cognitive engineering principles are necessary for the design of executive dashboards, and present some methodological challenges to applying these principles.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Human Robot Coordination

Human Robot Coordination: Panel Overview BIBAFull-Text 454-457
  Rene J. de Pontbriand
In recent years, accelerating maturation of robotics technologies, such as machine perception and intelligent control technologies have led to a widening knowledge and experiential base serving as a springboard for expanded research.
   This maturation has led to increased engineering reliability, opening the way for more tractable human-robot research. The technology area from which a good deal of this work can draw inspiration and guidance is humans in automation (Parasuraman, Sheridan and Wickens, 2000), which lets us examine issues including air traffic controllers' multitracking or pilots' multi-tasking operations under conditions of time and other stressors. Among the issues the panelists will address are: How will human-robot teams dynamically reconfigure or gracefully degrade as assets are lost? How can people and robots make judgments of the robots ability to traverse or climb broken terrain? How can people manage multiple robots? How can robots and people build a shared awareness of the remote environment? What metrics will capture human-robot teamwork? Overall, human-robot team work is a new frontier for Human Factors.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Task Analysis for Decision Support

Hydro Scheme Control in a Deregulated Environment: Cognitive Work Models and Design Implications BIBAFull-Text 458-462
  Penelope Sanderson; William Wong; Sanjib Choudhury; Rizah Memisevic
Most studies of the human supervisor in the power industry have focused on how the reactor operator monitors the energy source and the containment of radiation and controls thermodynamic cycles, while serving base electricity loads. In contrast, the human supervisor of hydroelectric generation in a dynamic, deregulated, market environment, where control activity is motivated increasingly by market forces, has a surprisingly different role. Our goal in this paper is to note the particularly challenging features of the hydro power plant controller's world, particularly when dealing with a multi-site, multi-storage facility, with complex hydraulic arrangements, large generating units, and a focus on serving peak rather than base loads. We present results of cognitive work analyses that are informing investigations into more effective interface design for hydro scheme control and note challenges in formulating a framework for design.
Designing Work-Centered Performance Support Solutions for Operators of a Complex and Evolving System BIBAFull-Text 463-467
  Kelly Neville; Jerry M. Owens; Susan M. Eitelman; Charles A. Barba; Jack Ennis; Amanda Hafich; H. Barbara Sorensen
This paper describes the design of a performance support toolset to be used in a complex and changing satellite operations domain. In this paper, we focus on a subset of the design challenges encountered during the process of designing this toolset. This subset of design challenges includes enhancing intra-team communications in a time-limited environment; improving information comprehension; supporting users in both low and a high tempo operations; and supporting users in future conditions and during the transition to those future conditions. This paper is intended to demonstrate the valuable contributions of the research literature and of the domain experts who will be using the toolset to the design of work-centered solutions. In addition, this paper is intended to serve as a resource for other design efforts facing similar challenges.
Supporting Planning and Situation Awareness in Army Command and Control BIBAFull-Text 468-472
  Jennifer M. Riley; Mica R. Endsley
The planning process is the initial basis for tactical maneuvers and combat operations. Though plans are driven by the intent of the commanding officer, the quality of plans are heavily dependent upon the level of situation awareness of officers involved in the process. To support Army planning in command and control, it is important for us to understand planning and the challenges to providing the critical information underlying it. We conducted a theoretical investigation of maneuvers planning in combat situations. We used results from goal-directed task analysis, and insights from observations of Army training exercises and experiments, to make inferences on the activities carried out in preparation for tactical maneuvers. Our goal was to identify major characteristics of the planning process in current and future Army force structures. We were also interested in identifying human factors issues associated with planning in a rapidly evolving environment, and generating computer-based design concepts to support situation awareness and decision making.
Comparative Cognitive Task Analysis: The Cognition of Weather Forecasting BIBAFull-Text 473-477
  Susan S. Kirschenbaum
This paper expands on the traditional methodology of Cognitive Task Analysis (Schraagen, Chipman, & Shalin, 2000) (CTA) to disentangle the effects of task, tools, training, teamwork arrangements, and basic human cognition. CTA generalizes from numerous individuals performing the same task set in the same environment with the same toolset. Comparative Cognitive Task Analysis (C2TA) is based on replication, across both different individuals and different environments. We focus on the task of weather forecasting for Naval Air operations. Forecasters at US Navy (USN) and Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC) centers were studied as they developed forecasts. Similarities in workflow at both gross and detailed levels are attributable to characteristics of human cognition. Differences in time and frequency of tool usage are attributable to differences in available support. Taken together, these results suggest improvements in decision support systems for more timely weather forecasting by facilitating the common cognitive processes with improved tools.
Use of Critical Analysis Method to Conduct a Cognitive Task Analysis of Intelligence Analysts BIBAFull-Text 478-482
  Susan G. Hutchins; Peter Pirolli; Stuart Card
Intelligence analysts (IAs) engage in information seeking, evaluation, prediction, and reporting behavior in an information-intensive work environment. A Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) was conducted to capture data that will provide input to support development of a model of the IAs processes, biases, and analytic strategies. A hybrid method was used to conduct the CTA, including a modified version of the critical decision method -- the critical analysis method. The essential distinction was that participants were asked to describe an example of a strategic analysis problem. Procedures used to conduct the critical analysis method are described in this paper. Several factors contribute to making the IA's task challenging: (i) time pressure to produce reports in a shorter timeframe, (ii) a high cognitive workload, and (iii) difficult human judgments that are required regarding uncertain validity and reliability of the data. Human judgments are involved in considering the plausibility of information, deciding what information to trust, and determining how much weight to place on specific pieces of data. Intelligence analysis involves a complex process of assessing the reliability of information from a wide variety of sources and combining seemingly unrelated events. This problem is challenging because it involves aspects of data mining, data correlation and human judgment.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: New Methods in Cognitive Engineering

Comparing Findings from Cognitive Engineering Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 483-487
  Emily S. Patterson; Samuel A. Bozzette; Anh D. Nguyen; Jose Gomes; Steven M. Asch
Cognitive engineering evaluations are broader in scope than the more common usability test. In particular, organizational, team, and contextual factors that impact system "usefulness" are incorporated. In this paper, we propose a framework of factors commonly considered in cognitive engineering evaluations and illustrate the use of the framework in comparing findings from evaluations of two tools: HIV clinical reminders and a search and browse tool for intelligence analysts.
Putting Time (Back) into Dynamic Function Allocation BIBAFull-Text 488-492
  Michael Hildebrandt; Michael Harrison
This position paper discusses extensions to concepts of Dynamic Function Allocation (DFA) that could improve our understanding of the trade-offs involved in designing and operating human-automation systems. We suggest that current DFA paradigms, focusing predominantly on allocation along the human-automation resource dimension, may provide an insufficient basis for design decisions as they fail to take account of alternative function management strategies. Of these strategies, Dynamic Function Scheduling (DFS), the allocation of functions along the temporal dimension, is of particular interest, not least because scheduling is both a mature engineering discipline and a ubiquitous aspect of human behavior. Understanding these scheduling decisions requires consideration of the temporal properties of functions (e.g. continuous, periodic, sporadic, preemptable, interleavable), temporal requirements (e.g. deadlines), and the temporal properties of the agents, human or automatic (e.g. service rates, interruption handling, task switch costs, temporal reasoning abilities, control modes). The paper reviews engineering and human factors approaches that could support the representation, analysis and design of DFS.
Usar: A Game Based Simulation for Teleoperation BIBAFull-Text 493-497
  Jijun Wang; Michael Lewis; Jeffrey Gennari
We are developing simulations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Test Facility for Autonomous Mobile Robots (Urban Search and Rescue) in order to develop and test our strategies for Robots-Agents-People (RAP) team coordination and control. We have shortened the simulation development cycle to a mere two months by using a commercial game engine to provide high quality graphics and dynamics and taking advantage of the sophisticated development environments available for modern games. In this paper we present our architecture and approach for using engineering models, digital photographs, and physical measurements to rapidly produce game-engine based high fidelity teleoperation simulations.
A Methodology for Integrating Cognitive Engineering into Information System Analysis and Design BIBAFull-Text 498-502
  Ying Zhou; Catherine M. Bums
This paper introduces a methodology for integrating Cognitive Engineering into information System Analysis and Design (SAD). Work Domain Analysis (WDA) in CE is used to analyze and capture a large amount data and complex relationships in a work domain. In SAD, Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) and Entity-Relationship (ER) approaches are two important tools. Based on the captured data and relationships in the WDA model, DFD method is employed to further analyze data, data processing, and their relationships from the point of data flow. On the basis of creating WDA and DFD models, Entity-Relationship analysis methods uses normalization principles to optimize table structures, create the relationships among tables, and finally to create an Entity-Relationship Diagram. By applying the integrated methodology to the SAD of a database for health information, we created a system structure diagram, a work domain model, a DFD model, and an ER model. The methodology should emphasize human factors in Information System development, enhance the reliability of SAD and database integrity, and reduce system development time. The database is based on a three-tiered client/server system architecture and running on Oracle9i.
A Framework for Work-Centered Product Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 503-507
  Robert G. Eggleston; Emilie M. Roth; Ron Scott
We describe a comprehensive work-centered evaluation framework for assessing the value of new technology intended to support human performance. A key feature of the framework is that it spans three types of evaluation: (1) usability -- How easy is the aid to use? (2) usefulness -- How flexible and effective is it in aiding work? and (3) impact -- How (much) does it contribute value within the work organization? We argue that all three of these dimensions are important for advancing the product development and facilitating rapid transition of the product to the customer for deployment. A recent evaluation of a work-centered support system prototype is used to illustrate the multi-level work-centered evaluation approach, the types of insights that can be drawn from it, and a way to employ it in a cost effective manner.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Musings in Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making

Putting Working Memory to Work: Integrating Cognitive Science Theories with Cognitive Engineering Research BIBAFull-Text 508-512
  Stephen M. Fiore; Haydee M. Cuevas; Eduardo Salas
Human factors research has long included discussions of the importance of mental models when understanding human-human interaction and human-system interaction. Additionally, a small number of researchers in the field have included theories of working memory and related constructs in their research approaches. Nonetheless, little if any research has acknowledged the connection between these two very important constructs arising out of the cognitive sciences. In this paper we discuss recent theoretical and empirical developments on working memory from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience and relate these to our understanding of mental models. We show how the connection between these two concepts can facilitate a deeper understanding of issues associated with cognitive engineering and decision making research.
Converging on Error Management: A Review of Current Findings and Future Needs BIBAFull-Text 513-517
  Mark I. Nikolic; Nadine B. Sarter
For many years, the focus of research in the area of human error was the prevention of erroneous actions and assessments through training and design. However, errors are a fundamental aspect of human adaptation in complex systems and will never be eliminated completely. More recent approaches to error stress the need to minimize its negative consequences through support for error management, i.e., the detection, explanation, and recovery from erroneous actions. For the most part, these efforts have examined the first step in this sequence -- error detection. However, there continue to be gaps in our understanding of how operators explain and recover from errors. This paper reviews the current state of error management research and methods. Findings are presented from an ongoing converging operations approach to error management research. Finally, promising areas in which to make further advances in this field are identified.
Metaphors and Paradigms of Team Cognition: A Twenty Year Perspective BIBAFull-Text 518-522
  Michael D. McNeese
There are many ways to think about the occurrence of team cognition, how it plays out among team members, how technology and context impact its expression, and how interdependencies develop given changing circumstances and plans. Our intent is to develop a generic metaphor with systematic expansions that provide a thought simulation to further enhance researcher's conceptualization of teamwork and team cognition. Knowledge can be constructed using a metaphorical view that can help develop new constructs within team cognition theories, models, technologies, simulations, and contexts. The paper looks at specific condensation of selected constructs by reviewing the author's involvement in team cognition paradigms, simulations, and research (TRAP, CITIES, JASPER, DDD). Perspectives developed across twenty years of experience are utilized to highlight similar yet differing approaches to team cognition while yielding guidance and lessons learned in designing scaled world simulations.
Computer Aided Cognition to Support Problem-Centered Decomposition of Complex Problems BIBAFull-Text 523-527
  Michael McNeese; David L. Hall
Complex problems such as analysis of military situation assessment, homeland defense, diagnosis of the health of complex systems, medical diagnosis, and environmental monitoring require the ability to utilize a wide variety of data such as signals, images, textual information, and scalar data. The rapid evolution of micro-scale sensors, wideband communications, and microprocessors enables the collection and dissemination of huge amounts of data to be provided to a human analyst. Unfortunately, the analyst cannot directly understand nor process the data. Instead, analysts reason about high-level abstractions via language. A challenge exists to decompose general problems into detailed models that link to specific types of data (viz., problem centered decomposition) and to compose data into meaningful relationships to assist the understanding of semantic representations of abstract concepts. This paper discusses the challenge of problem-centered analysis (including problem centered decomposition and problem centered composition) and describes our efforts to develop cognitive aids to assist the analysis process for improved understanding of complex problems.
CHEX (Change History EXplicit): New HCI Concepts for Change Awareness BIBAFull-Text 528-532
  Harvey S. Smallman; Mark John
Current display technologies do not support users in the critical task of recovering their situation awareness by determining whether situations have changed in meaningful ways. By simply representing the current state of a situation, displays force users to rely on their own ability to extract changes by cognitively integrating events over time. A flood of recent experiments have demonstrated dramatic limitations in these cognitive processes, with humans unable to spot changes in simple scenes, even under optimal monitoring conditions (they show "change blindness"). Here, we develop and empirically evaluate a set of new HCI concepts, collectively called CHEX (Change History Explicit), for supporting improved change awareness in a naval air warfare domain in which users monitor an airspace. CHEX augments the human attentional system with a set of intelligent change detectors whose output is logged in a re-configurable table format that is linked back to the situation display. We show that CHEX is extremely effective both for maintaining situation awareness when monitoring a situation as well as when recovering situation awareness following an interruption. CHEX shows great promise for use in other domains as well.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Automation

Effects of Situation-Specific Reliability on Trust and Usage of Automated Air Traffic Control Decision Aids BIBAFull-Text 533-537
  Anthony J. Masalonis; Raja Parasuraman
Automation trust was explored in a human-in-the-loop Air Traffic Control simulation. Controllers were asked to detect closely approaching aircraft pairs, assisted by an automated tool whose reliability varied according to whether the scenario contained Free Flight (aircraft deviating from flight plans at will). Training on the causes of variable reliability, given to half the controllers, enabled them to appropriately trust the automation less (assessed subjectively) during Free Flight. The trained group also had higher Hit and False Alarm rates than the other group, and were more likely overall to unquestioningly accept the tool's judgments; this behavior sometimes aided task performance, but the training did not affect overall performance. A new System Confidence rating scale showed promise as a supplement to established Trust and Self Confidence ratings, as did a scale enabling participant reports of the degree of automation information use in making each decision. Implications for decision support design and training are discussed.
How are We Doing: Presenting System Confidence Information to Support Trust Calibration and Adaptive Function Allocation BIBAFull-Text 538-542
  John M. McGuirl; Nadine B. Sarter
The "strong but silent" design of many decision support systems (DSS) has contributed to problems such as automation bias and trust miscalibration. The present study examined whether these difficulties can be overcome by providing continually updated information regarding a system's confidence in its own ability to perform its task(s) accurately and reliably. The application domain for this research was in-flight icing. Two groups of pilots flew a motion-based simulator in simulated icing conditions and were assisted by a neural net-based DSS that detected, and identified the location of, ice accretion. One group of pilots received information about overall system reliability only, whereas a second group was presented with a trend display of system confidence. Pilots in the latter group were better calibrated in terms of when to follow the system's advice. They were also more likely to reverse their actions when system-recommended actions were unsuccessful. Consequently, they experienced fewer icing-induced stalls. The findings from this research will be discussed in terms of their implications for the design of decision aids and for adaptive function allocation in human-machine teams.
Authority in Adaptive Automation Applied to Various Stages of Human-Machine System Information Processing BIBAFull-Text 543-547
  Michael P. Clamann; David B. Kaber
The goal of this study was to assess the performance and workload effects of applying adaptive automation (AA) to four stages of human-machine system information processing (information acquisition, information analysis, decision-making, and action implementation) and facilitating dynamic function allocations (DFAs) through two levels of computer authority (suggestion and mandate). The research was to provide insight into any interaction between these aspects of AA design. It was hypothesized that higher level automation, such as information analysis and decision making, would be more compatible with computer mandated allocations, while lower levels, such as information acquisition and action implementation, would be more effective under partial human control (computer suggestion and human veto). Results demonstrated that the effectiveness of AA is dependent upon both the type of automation presented to an operator and the type of invocation authority designed into the system. Performance with AA of information acquisition was superior to performance under decision automation. When using automated assistance, human acceptance of computer suggestions was superior to computer mandates. The results of this study may serve as an applicable guide for AA design in future complex systems.
Effects of Task Duration and Type of Automation Support on Human Performance and Stress in a Simulated Battlefield Engagement Task BIBAFull-Text 548-552
  Kathleen McGarry; Ericka Rovira; Raja Parasuraman
Automation that is meant to assist the operator by reducing stress and workload may actually increase both. Automation can be imperfect, and as a result may add to uncertainty and degrade performance when it fails. In a complex and dynamic task environment, this may lead to increased stress, which in turn may be associated with inefficient use of automation. The present study examined the relative benefits and costs of imperfect information and decision automation in a simulated battlefield engagement task. Performance and stress were evaluated for short- (10 minutes) and long-durations (30 minutes) of the task. The cost of unreliable aiding-a decrease in accuracy of appropriate target engagement selection-was greater for the decision automation than for information automation, irrespective of task length. Unreliability also slowed response times more for decision than for information automation, but only when the task was long. Subjective reports of stress also increased in the longer automated conditions. The results show that automated decision aids can improve performance when reliable. However, the price of imperfect decision automation is reduced accuracy and increased stress compared to information automation, particularly when the task must be performed for long periods.
Team Coordination and Strategies Under Automation BIBAFull-Text 553-557
  Melanie C. Wright; David B. Kaber
This study evaluated the effects of different forms of automation on team communication and coordination in a complex decision making task. Two person teams performed a Theatre Defense task in which they defended a home base from enemy aircraft attack using two networked computer workstations. Four automation conditions were simulated with computer assistance applied to information acquisition, information analysis, and decision making functions across two levels of task difficulty. Dependent measures for the experiment included team performance, counts of different types of verbal communication, team coordination ratings by external observers, and team member subjective workload ratings. Results on coordination ratings, communication counts, and correlations between communication and team effectiveness measures agreed with historical research showing that high performing teams exhibit efficient communication and frequent planning and situation assessments. In general, it was observed that automation conditions that support these behaviors by removing or reducing requirements for continuous verbal information transfer allow more time for sharing of a wider range of situation assessment information and development of more effective team strategies.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering for Displays

The Effect of Display Modality on Decision-Making with Uncertainty BIBAFull-Text 558-561
  Santosh Basapur; Ann M. Bisantz; T. Kesavadas
This research compared visual (color), auditory (tone pitch), and tactile (vibration amplitude) displays of uncertainty in a threat avoidance task. Thirty participants used these displays to navigate through a simulated minefield, selecting paths that would minimize their chance of hitting a mine, while moving through the field as quickly and directly as possible. Results showed the participants in the visual condition to be the most conservative (safer but longer), while those in the auditory condition took the shortest (riskier) path. Interestingly, in terms of trial time, while all participants tended to improve their performance with respect to speed, participants in the tactile condition started out more slowly, but were similar in speed to the fastest, visual condition, by the end of the trials.
The Presentation of Risk and Uncertainty in the Context of National Missile Defense Simulations BIBAFull-Text 562-566
  Patricia McDermott; Shaun Hutchins; Michael Barnes; Corey Koenecke; Doug Gillan; Ling Rothrock
Risk perception and uncertainty management are important components of military decision making, especially in time-stressed and resource-limited environments. The purpose of this experiment was to understand the interaction of integrality of information, presentation mode, and information frame on situation awareness (SA) and decision-making (missile allocation) in a National Missile Defense (NMD) paradigm. Results of the information frame manipulation (expected gain v. expected loss) support earlier findings that subjects are loss averse. SA Accuracy was higher with graphical displays than alphanumeric displays. The implications for NMD are discussed.
Supporting System-Centered View of Operators Through Ecological Interface Design: Two Experiments on Human-Centered Automation BIBAFull-Text 567-571
  Hiroshi Furukawa; Raja Parasuraman
Human operators faced with an unexpected situation while controlling a complex system can take effective action if they are provided a system-centered view based on Ecological Interface Design (EID). To date there is only limited empirical support for the efficacy of EID in enhancing human-automation interaction. This paper presents results from two studies of EID in human-automation interaction, drawn from different domains, flight simulation and process control. In Experiment 1, use of an integrated display with an emergent perceptual feature was found to eliminate the automation complacency effect in monitoring for engine system malfunctions during a flight simulation task. In Experiment 2, a display with a multi-level representation of the intention of the automated controllers in a process control system was found to improve human-automation collaboration. These studies show that explicit visualization of the functional structure of a human-automation system in the interface supports the system-centered view in operators, thereby enhancing system performance.
Ecological Interface Design for Network Management BIBAFull-Text 572-575
  Pierre P. Duez; Kim J. Vicente
This paper describes an experimental investigation of Ecological Interface Design (EID) in computer network management. The constant potential for the addition and removal of devices, as well as change of configurations, makes this work domain more fluid than those previously studied under EID. Two interfaces were created for the University of Toronto campus network consisting of 220 nodes: a P interface based on existing design practices which presented primarily physical information and a P+F interface based on EID which presented both physical and functional information identified by an abstraction hierarchy analysis. Participants were required to use one of the two interfaces to detect and diagnose faults or disturbances in the network in real-time. Network size and fault load were both manipulated as within-participants variables. The P+F interface led to faster detection times, improved rates of detection under higher fault loads, and more accurate diagnoses under higher fault loads. These results suggest that the EID framework may lead to more robust monitoring in computer network management compared to existing interfaces.
Evaluating an Information Display for Clinical Decision Making in the Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 576-580
  Anne Miller; Penelope Sanderson
This paper reports the evaluation of a Recursive-Diagnostic Framework (RDF) based paper prototype for a clinical information system in the intensive care unit (ICU). Based on an observation of the reliability and validity of RDF concepts when applied to real-world data, it was hypothesised that an RDF-based information design might facilitate more efficient information processing by ICU medical and nursing staff. Eight nurses and four senior medical consultants participated in an experimental protocol that involved completing ICU tasks with patient data using conventional vs RDF designs. Nurses were asked to complete change detection tasks, whereas doctors completed diagnostic tasks. The results of the experiments show that nurses were able to identify significantly more changed parameters over broader time spans using the new design compared to the old. Doctors show greater levels of diagnostic agreement using the new design. These findings support the view that the structure of information in the new design better supports ICU roles and common situation awareness.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Processes

Timing of Discrete Actions: Evidence for Perceptual Dominance in Human Performance BIBAFull-Text 581-585
  Xidong Xu; Esa M. Rantanen
An experiment involving a street-crossing task is described. The subjects were required to release a pedestrian within a narrow window of opportunity to cross the road without being run over by vehicles. To test a number of hypotheses on whether timing of actions is driven by perceptual cues or some internal clocking mechanisms, the experiment involved conditions where the street-crossing task was either visible throughout trials or where the vehicles were removed, and coupled with a concurrent mental arithmetic loading task with either visually or auditorily presented stimuli The data support the hypothesis that when the stimuli remain visible, people predominantly rely on perceptual cues for timing discrete actions. Significant performance decrements were observed in the removal conditions Importance of the visual component in the task performance was supported by the larger performance decrement in the unmasked condition when the subjects' attention had to be divided between two sets of visual stimuli. When the primary task stimuli were removed, the clock counting seems to be the preferred strategy for the task under study.
Multimodal, Multitask Interaction Design: Challenging Long-Standing Unimodal Design Assumptions BIBAFull-Text 586-590
  Kelly S. Hale; Shatha N. Samman; Wendi L. Buff; Kay M. Stanney; Leah Reeves; Clint A. Bowers; Glenn Martin
As the technology that supports interactive systems advances, the possibility of leveraging a multitude of sensory systems becomes possible. By using multiple sensory processors, substantial gains in the information management capacity of the human-computer integral should be realized, and those with sensory losses can be better accommodated. The question becomes when multimodal information is presented, how should these multiple sources of information be coordinated, particularly when two or more tasks are performed simultaneously? While current design theories developed primarily for unimodal interaction can be drawn on, additional research is required to fully guide multimodal multitask interaction design. The current study seeks to extend unimodal design theories to multimodal systems and identifies some interesting differences in unimodal vs multimodal multitask interaction.
Exploring Cognitive Strategies for Integrating Multiple-View Visualizations BIBAFull-Text 591-595
  Young Sam Ryu; Beth Yost; Gregorio Convertino; Jian Chen; Chris North
Visualizing information is useful for finding patterns in complex data sets, but little research has been done on how people understand multiple-view visualizations (multiple visualizations presented simultaneously). A controlled experiment was performed using different combinations of visualizations and different task types as independent variables, and qualitative and quantitative data were collected. To collect the data psychological tests, logs of the participants' interaction, eye-tracking equipment, and video recordings were used. This paper reports a portion of the results from this experiment. Main findings include that, contrary to what was suggested in previous literature, the time cost for switching between different types of visualizations (context switching) may not be significant, and that displaying the data using the same type of visualization may cause interference. Orthogonal combinations appear to aid users in finding and recognizing patterns, and focusing attention and analogical reasoning on spatial relationships may be important cognitive abilities for the given tasks.
An Initial Investigation into the Cognitive Processes Underlying Mental Projection BIBAFull-Text 596-600
  Debra G. Jones; Elizabeth M. Quoetone; John T. Ferree; Michael A. Magsig; William F. Bunting
The objective of this study is to gain insight into the cognitive mechanisms that enable a person to project how a system or environment will change over time. Two potential mechanisms for mental projection are examined: (1) mental simulation (performing a mental play by play) and (2) pattern matching (identifying critical features of the situation and matching those with previous experience). A study was performed in cooperation with the National Weather Service Warning Decision Training Branch in which 28 severe weather warning forecasters participated in an interval-based simulation. At three decision points in this simulation, participants were asked to assess the threat level for tornado, wind, hail, and flash flood and to delineate their rationale for each assessment. Results are presented that support the existence of pattern matching and mental simulation strategies, that suggest different strategies may be effective in different situations, and that indicate forecasters utilize both strategies.
Comparison of the P300 and Other Workload Assessment Techniques in a Simulated Flight Task BIBAFull-Text 601-605
  Joseph T. Coyne; Carryl L. Baldwin
Emerging cockpit technologies, such as graphical weather information systems, frequently shift perceptual demands from auditory to visual channels. Establishing methods of comparing the mental workload required by visual versus auditory displays within multitask environments is critical to maintaining aviation safety. Toward this end, the current investigation used a secondary task paradigm to compare physiological (i.e. peak amplitude and peak latency of the P300 ERP component), subjective and behavioral performance measures of mental workload required by a visual and auditory flight task. Participants flew a simulated flight path scenario while responding to either single or multiple auditory and text-based ATC commands and performing a visual or auditory detection task. Results indicate the P300 component, detection accuracy, response time and TLX ratings were sensitive to the presence or absence of the primary flight task. Accuracy and response time distinguished between single and multiple task command conditions. Results provide support for the suitability of this dual task technique for comparing displays of different modalities.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making Posters

Effects of Situation Awareness Training on Novice Process Control Plant Operators BIBAFull-Text 606-609
  Johnell O. Brooks; Fred S. Switzer; Leo Gugerty
This study investigated whether situation awareness training over and above current training practices could increase novice process control operators' system performance and situation awareness. We examined the possibility of explicitly training novices in such a way that they could quickly acquire some of the functional characteristics of experts and thereby more quickly improve performance and avoid errors. To answer this question, 24 two-member crews controlled a simulated process control plant. Participants who were exposed to the situation awareness training had better overall system performance in terms of both system stability and deviation from optimal operating conditions. Surprisingly, paper and pencil measures of the operators' situation awareness showed no significant increase in situation awareness after training. It appears as if carefully designed training programs have the potential to significantly increase novice operators' performance.
I See What You're Thinking: Using Cognitive Models to Represent Working Memory Usage for Traffic Flow Management Decision Support Prototypes BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Steven Estes; Anthony J. Masalonis
A unique method was developed for explicitly and quantitatively representing working memory in an NGOMSL model (Estes, 2001). Applying this method, MITRE CAASD evaluated alternative designs of a research prototype for TFM ((Air) Traffic Flow Management). The NGOMSL modeling made it possible to quantify the physical workload and working memory benefits of an interface which integrates multiple steps into one window and one thread of interaction, as compared to the prototype's original design. It was found that the integrated design places little burden on working memory, more readily provides information about the task, and allows for less interaction with the interface. This design is planned for use in future TFM research, and some aspects of the design are already planned to be incorporated into operational TFM software.
The Use of Cognitive Feedback by Experts and Novices in a Judgment Task BIBAFull-Text 615-619
  Jiao Ma; Keith Kudrycki
Cognitive feedback (CFB) has been shown to increase performance in Multiple Cue Probability Learning (MCPL) tasks in both real life and experimental situations. Our experiment focuses on investigating how experts and novices behave differently in applying CFB, which is presented in forms of relative importance weights of each of the cues and the display of function forms (Weaver and Steward, 2000). We believe this study provided some interesting insight into how much domain knowledge is necessary to understand and apply CFB. The study examined how well novices and experts are able to process and use different types of feedback (i.e. CFB and Outcome Feedback) and hence determined which type is more useful for novices or for those with prior knowledge of the task. A total of 20 participants, 10 experts and 10 novices, were given a series of baseball statistics and asked to predict how many wins the team would have in a season based on these statistics. Performance measures (e.g. relative weighting accuracy, Lens Model measures), mental workload and judgment strategy were measured. Domain Knowledge was statistically significant for all weights except one less important cue, "stolen bases." In other words, domain knowledge impacts weighting accuracy greatly. Domain knowledge was also found to have a significant effect on judgment performance (i.e. Lens Model measures), such as accuracy and knowledge. Mental workload was significantly affected by CFB, but none of the other dependent variables were.
The Role of Experience in Operational Incident Commanders' Decision Making Expertise: Typical and Procedure-Based Decisions BIBAFull-Text 620-624
  Margaret Crichton
This study set out to identify the basis of decision making expertise by the operational incident commander in an industrial emergency response organisation, involving domain-specific problem solving strategies and skills, and knowledge developed through normal operations and training. Perspectives from NDM, and the specialised working memory component view in cognitive psychology were integrated as Engineers (n = 16) from a high risk industrial environment participated in a dual-task paradigm involving a context-specific computer-based decision task combined with a secondary visuo-spatial distractor task. Response times, quality, and difficulty of decisions, categorised as typical/atypical and procedure/no procedure, were examined across duration of experience (high experience/low experience). Results provide evidence of fast, high quality, low difficulty schema-based decision making. However being covered by a procedure did not assist fast recall from LTM. Targeted experiential training to develop schemas in LTM is emphasised.
Interface Design for Mobile Army Commanders BIBAFull-Text 625-629
  Kevin B. Bennett; Kyle Behymer; Craig Stansifer; Larry Shattuck; Chris Talcott; Silas Martinez
The progress in developing and evaluating a prototype interface for mobile, forward-positioned Army commanders is reported. This interface currently includes novel representations of friendly and enemy combat resources and control mechanisms to re-focus granularity of attention. Army domain experts contributed substantially to design and evaluation activities: existing and proposed interfaces were reviewed, iterative design feedback was provided, a simulated combat scenario was designed, and three empirical evaluations have been performed with Army officers as participants. The evaluations have compared the RAPTOR interface with a simulated version of the Army's current computerized interface (FBCB2); the RAPTOR interface has generally produced better performance. The next step is to incorporate graphical representations of plans into the interface. These representations will include information regarding time, space, objectives, and resources. The design goal is to facilitate comparisons between pre-planned objectives for the engagement and the actual progress that is being made. Ultimately these graphical representations should facilitate a commander's capability to determine when current progress toward goals and resource expenditures have deviated (either positively or negatively) from plan.
Understanding Distributed Cognition in Moderated Chat Rooms: A Preliminary Analysis BIBAFull-Text 630-634
  Edward J. Glantz; Michael D. McNeese
This study evaluates higher order perception, cognition, and individual-cultural differences under which moderated chat rooms may provide an effective alternative for students reviewing business information system course material in preparation for examination. Chat rooms comprise a form of groupware that can facilitate distributed cognition among higher education participants in the form of information-sharing. This study continues previous research (McNeese, et. al., 2002) that indicated problem solving and constructivist learning are socially constructed, situated in practice and context specific. The premise of this paper is that with proper design a cognitive task, such as students reviewing for exams, can be effectively supported even within the possible constraints of simple chat rooms. A potential benefit to students, based on previous research, is that groupware such as chat rooms can provide a constructivist learning environment and an equality of participation in group discussions (Benbasat and Lim 1993). Initial results indicate the possibility to create social constructs whereby students with limited individual problem solving capabilities can be trained in a naturalistic setting to successfully acquire and transfer knowledge.
Investigating the Effects of Modality and Instruction on Structural Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 635-639
  A. William Evans; Raegan M. Hoeft; Florian G. Jentsch; Clint A. Bowers; Erin Camizzi
Previous research has shown that individuals process stimuli differently based on the modality in which the stimuli are presented. In an effort to further understand how stimuli are processed and organized, the current study utilized card sorting in one of three media modalities (text only, picture only, and text and picture combined) and in one of two instructional styles (free sort or structured sort, via function) to assess the degree of sharedness between the resulting mental models. It was believed that structure sorts would produces greater levels of sharedness and that the semantic nature of the structured sort would yield the greatest levels of sharedness in the text only condition. Structured sorts did in fact produce better results than unstructured sorts as expected; however, in the structured sort, the picture only condition provided the best results. In addition, comparisons were made to a previous study suggesting that the proper instruction by modality combination should be evaluated based on domain and desired outcomes. The implications of these findings as well as the need for further research are discussed.
Using Cognitive Feedback to Detect Changes in a Task Environment BIBAFull-Text 640-643
  Gordon J. Gattie; Natalia Mazaeva; Ann M. Bisantz
The focus of decision making research has been shifting from static to dynamic environments during the last twenty years. Dynamic environments include not only changes in environmental cue values, but in relationships between cues and environmental states. Previous research has demonstrated decision makers are insensitive to statistical properties of the environment, and may encounter difficulty in determining changes in the underlying probabilistic structure of the environment. This research uses cognitive feedback based on the Lens Model to assist detection of environmental changes. Eighty participants attempted to predict the price of a single share of common stock for 150 fictitious companies using four financial indicators. Initial results suggest groups receiving some form of cognitive feedback adapted to changing environments better than groups not receiving cognitive feedback.
The Impact of Pilot Expertise and Action Planning on Future State Projection Ability BIBAFull-Text 644-648
  Mark T. Jodlowski; Stephanie M. Doane
The following research examined the impact of pilot expertise and action planning on the ability to project forward a future state of an aircraft. Seventy-seven novice and expert pilots were asked in multiple trials to choose control actions that would change a current flight state depicted by cockpit instruments into a goal flight state, and then to judge whether a subsequent display of cockpit instruments showed the future state of the aircraft relative to the stated goal. Control movement selection, a measure of action planning accuracy, and future state judgment accuracy were recorded. The results suggest that expert action planning is directly linked to an ability to project forward a future state. In contrast, novice ability to project forward is independent of action planning accuracy. The results are discussed in terms of the separability of Endsley's levels of situation awareness.
Modeling Automation within an Abstraction Hierarchy BIBAFull-Text 649-652
  Natalia Mazaeva; Ann M. Bisantz
Work Domain Analysis (WDA) has been used within cognitive engineering as an analytic framework for developing systems design recommendations. The current research examines different treatments of automation by developing and comparing illustrative abstraction hierarchy models of a relatively simple automated system, a camera. A multi-part AH model (system, environment, and automation) was constructed to represent the camera in order to examine the benefits and disadvantages of integrating automation in the system model as opposed to representing it separately, as applied to implications for automation design recommendations. Comparison of the two models revealed that integrating automation was more descriptive of the interaction between the automation and other functions of the camera, whereas using a separate model clarified important relationships between the three domains. Thus, the single model approach may prove more useful for the management of automation while the dual modeling approach provides more opportunity for new design solutions.
Evaluating Interface Usability Based on Eye Movement and Hand Movement Behavioral Parameters BIBAFull-Text 653-657
  Y. Lin; W. J. Zhang
Evaluation of interface usability in terms of functionality and ease of use remains a challenging task. This paper presents a study on evaluation techniques using two measures: the eye fixation and the hand action. The eye fixation reflects the operator's cognitive processes, while the hand action reflects the operator's physical action or doing. Combination of these two kinds of measures may provide an important measuring technique to give more detailed information about the uses of the information displayed. Two different interfaces for the same task are used to show the sensitivity of this combination.
The Influence of an Opponent and Time Pressure in Risky Naturalistic Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 658-662
  Kelly A. Burke; John D. Murray
This experiment assessed the extent to which the presence of an opponent and time pressure affected risk-taking behavior in a modified blackjack game developed by Dror et al. (1999). Eighty-two college students executed a series of blackjack hands that varied with respect to risk level (none, low, medium, high, very high, infinite), time pressure (yes/no), and presence of an opponent (no opponent, human opponent, computer opponent). Choice probability (participants' willingness to take an additional card) and choice response time were the dependent variables of interest. Consistent with previous research (Burke & Murray, 2001; Dror et al., 1999), participants were less likely to take an additional card as risk level increased. As predicted, response time data showed that participants took more time to make decisions at the low, medium, and high risk levels and that time pressure reduced response time across all risk levels. In general, the presence of an opponent led to an increase in the frequency of choosing to take an additional card across all risk levels, especially at the risk levels requiring more difficult decisions. Consistent with predictions, the findings suggest that the presence of an opponent and especially a human opponent, have an important role in the way that people make risky decisions.
Naturalistic Observation of Airport Incident Command BIBAFull-Text 663-667
  Janie A. DeJoode; Nancy J. Cooke; Steven M. Shope
In this paper we provide a set of observations, recorded in the context of incident command operations at an airport mass casualty exercise, that emphasize the need for cognitive engineering in the design of socio-technical systems such as this one. Observations of inadequate communication resources, insufficient leadership, and malfunctioning equipment were made. These shortcomings appeared to hinder team decision making and team communication capabilities. Our observations also revealed potential areas for improvements in the operation of airport incident command systems.

COMMUNICATIONS: Communications

Please Hold for the Next Available Agent: The Effect of Hold Queue Content on Apparent Hold Duration BIBAFull-Text 668-672
  Benjamin A. Knott; Theodore Pasquale; Jim Miller; Scott H. Mills; Kurt M. Joseph
This paper describes a study of the effects of four types of content presentation for consumers waiting on-hold to speak to a call center agent. Of particular interest was the interactive voice portal (IVP) condition in which callers used a voice portal to retrieve news and other information while they waited on hold in a queue. An experiment explored the effect of four content types (Silence, Music, Advertisements, and Interactive Voice Portal) on callers' estimates of on-hold duration across four hold intervals (60, 120, 240, and 480 seconds) and for three customer tasks. The dependent measures were hold-time estimation error and customer satisfaction ratings. Each participant placed four calls to a simulated call center in which they were presented with one of the four content types and hold durations. Both Content and Hold Time had a significant effect on estimation error and customer satisfaction. The interactive voice portal yielded the best results overall, suggesting an interesting new approach to call center hold queues.
Automated Speech Recognition for Modeling Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 673-677
  Peter W. Foltz; Darrell Laham; Marcia Derr
While team tasks provide a wealth of data on individual and team performance, techniques for modeling team communication can be quite effortful and time-consuming. Automated techniques of analyzing team discourse provide the promise of quickly judging team performance and permitting feedback to teams both in training and in operations. In previous research, techniques using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) have proven successful for analyzing team transcripts. However, converting the audio discourse into transcripts often requires hand transcription. In this work, we describe applying automated speech recognition (ASR) to team transcripts and using the output of the ASR to predict overall team performance. Results indicate that ASR can be used in conjunction with semantic methods of modeling team communication to provide accurate predictions of performance. The work has potential for assisting operators in the performance of their tasks because it can "listen" and in real-time evaluate free-form verbal communication from a variety of sources.
Distributed Teams and Revealed Trust BIBAFull-Text 678-682
  Shala Bloomberg; Serena Hawkins; Rachel Davidson; Benjamin Swan; Kip Smith
This paper discusses a laboratory study of the influence of proximity, communication mode, and performance on the formation of trust between team members. The study manipulated team proximity and communication mode and measured (1) the performance of two-person teams in a distributed command and control task and (2) their subsequent expressions of trust as revealed in an economic game. Measures of team performance included the number of errors made and time on task. Revealed trust was scored at three levels: trust, distrust, and betrayal. We treat performance in the command and control task as a subject variable to determine whether it has an impact on the subsequent expression of trust. We found a weak main effect for communication mode on performance and no effect of performance on revealed trust. However, there was a highly significant main effect for proximity on trust. Members of dispersed teams are less likely to trust each other than members of teams who work in the same location. This finding runs counter to the current trend toward distributed work groups.
Whose Turn is it: Designing for Overlapping Grammar between Applications and the Voice Browser BIBAFull-Text 683-685
  T. S. Balaji; Elizabeth Roche
Voice applications commonly share grammar elements with a supporting voice browser. This overlap creates the need for a rule set to determine whether a given instance should be handled by the browser or the application. Further, the browser grammar may interfere with the recognition of the application grammar and the application developer must be able to mitigate for this potential problem. This paper describes an approach which allows the browser administrator to specify instances which must be handled by the browser and also gives the application developer the ability to weight the application grammar relative to the Global Grammar. The solution described here is consistent with the theory that usability professionals should be involved not only in application user interface design, but also in platform design.
The Effects of Trust, Communication and Proximity on Team Problem Solving BIBAFull-Text 686-690
  Nicole pruitt; Jessica Bolton; Andy Kearney; Benjamin Swan; Kip Smith
This paper discusses an experiment on the interaction of trust, communication, and proximity on team problem solving. The research is motivated by the US Army's plan to change the organizational structure of the combat infantry from a close-knit brotherhood to an alliance of high-tech autonomous individuals. We are interested in ascertaining the possible consequences this transition may have on teamwork in a context that generalizes to the Army's mission. In our experiment, communication and proximity were fully crossed in a 2X2 design. Trust at three levels -- trust, distrust, and betrayal -- was a subject variable revealed by play of an economic game. We find a significant main effect for mode of communication: teams that communicate freely work more effectively. Further, we find a significant main effect for trust. When team members trust each other, they work more efficiently. The lack of a significant interaction between proximity and communication reveals that the quality of team problem solving is not sensitive to the mode of communication. Teams that coordinated their activity using a radio performed no worse than teams that worked face-to-face. This finding bodes well for organizations that rely on remote command and control.

COMMUNICATIONS: Methods & Measurement

Usability Magnitude Estimation BIBAFull-Text 691-695
  Mick McGee
Magnitude estimation is a measurement method that is very useful for measuring multi-faceted constructs that do not have a physical analog (e.g., usability) and are produced from multidimensional stimuli (e.g., user interfaces). Traditional usability metrics have shown limitations in usefulness and validity. Usability magnitude estimation is an assessment method whereby participants assign usability 'values' to tasks, conditions, or other user interface targets according to ratio-based number assignments. The resultant ratio-scale data is appropriate for parametric statistical analysis. This method has been used successfully in a variety of usability activities at Oracle. It has proven to be efficient, sensitive, and highly effective for comparisons using usability as a differentiator.
The Thin-Client Paradox: Using Simulations to Weigh Risk and Create Balance BIBAFull-Text 696-700
  Michael K. Cook; Merrill J. Zavod
The work presented here demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Simulation to explore the risks and benefits of transitioning a customer-service application from an older terminal-based architecture and character-based interface to a "thin-client" architecture and web-browser interface. Examples of both applications were modeled in order to examine the paradoxical relationship between human and computer resource efficiencies associated with the transition. Simulated trials of the web-based model predicted that the increase in page size (measured in bytes) associated with the newer model would have less of an effect on business productivity and customer experience than would a decrease in number of pages to be viewed or increased human information processing time due to increased data density per page. The collaboration between system and human factors engineers during the effort is discussed and recommendations are provided for design strategies focused on achieving balance between human and computer resource efficiencies.
A Componential Model for Assessing the Effects of Single and Composite User Interface Metaphors BIBAFull-Text 701-705
  Karel Hurts
A componential model is discussed for understanding the behavioral impact of user interface metaphors. The model expresses the effect of any metaphor in terms three generic components, each component corresponding to a way a metaphor can match or mismatch interface functionality. These component scores have to be estimated in some combination of task, user, and interface analysis. The main use of the model is for researchers who want to be better able to retrospectively explain or (generalizing past data into the future) predict the impact on human behavior of single and composite user interface metaphors. In order to validate the model, an experiment was conducted in which two interface metaphors were independently manipulated (present or absent) and their effect was studied on the performance of users performing several web navigation tasks using a simulated web site. The results showed that the predictions made by the model were generally confirmed by the data. These data also illustrate how the model may be used to describe unexpected negative effects of metaphors on user performance in terms of matches and mismatches. Finally, they suggest ways in which user interface metaphors can be redesigned in the future in order to better fit human cognition.
Couplings Among HCI Design Parameters Cause Poor Usability BIBAFull-Text 706-710
  Martin G. Helander
This paper presents a formal method for usability analysis. It can be used for design of products as well software. Functional requirements (FRs) and design parameters (DPs) are first stated. Then a conversion matrix from FRs to DPs is constructed. This matrix, referred to as "Design Matrix" is analyzed with respect to its properties. A diagonal matrix will have few usability problems, whereas a coupled design will have many usability problems. Usability may hence be improved by decoupling the matrix. This can be done by: 1. Selecting other design parameters. 2. "Reengineering" the problem by selecting other functional requirements and 3. Making sure that only one abstraction level at a time is addressed during the design of the interface.

COMMUNICATIONS: Applications

Facilitating Database Queries: Graphical versus Numeric Preview BIBAFull-Text 711-715
  Joseph H. Goldberg
Numeric query preview was compared to graphical preview for constructing ad-hoc database queries in a usability study. The overall objective was to provide evidence to make design recommendations for a future software prototype. Based upon an earlier filter/flow graphical prototype, a visual query builder was developed to enable end users with little pre-existing knowledge to graphically construct complex database queries containing multiple Boolean operators. Usability evaluation was conducted with 12 users each generating 12 queries. Overall query completion rates were 83%, affirming the usability of this prototype query builder. Numeric preview allowed faster query construction than visual preview for complex queries, but visual preview may have promoted increased verification of constructed queries. Participants were likely able to use and interpret numeric preview information more readily than graphical preview information. While further studies are needed, numeric query preview, possibly combined with visual preview, is recommended for future prototypes.
The Human Factors Issues in Data Mining BIBAFull-Text 716-720
  Jiao Ma; Colin G. Drury
In our information age, with wide use of computers and the Internet, data is not only more accessible than ever, but also accumulating rapidly every day. Rather than having difficulty in finding data, people now encounter more problems in understanding and digesting useful information from the plethora of data out there. Correspondingly, traditional manual methods of accessing and analyzing data have been losing their power to deal with such enormous amounts of data. Data mining (DM) has become part of the technological response to this data flood since early 1990s. The DM literature has shown little interest in the human role in the DM process, because of an over emphasis on its "automatic and semiautomatic" aspects. Based on a literature review, a detailed function/task analysis, and a preliminary cognitive task analysis, we agree with Romanowski (2002) that the amount of human involvement in DM tasks tends to be significant. This study is based on a combination of analyses of past DM cases, interviews, and field observations. The purpose is to investigate how people actually apply DM techniques in their work, and hence to discover any crucial roles played by humans in the data mining process from a function allocation viewpoint.
User Requirements for Information Technology to Support Alternative Transportation in the National Parks BIBAFull-Text 721-724
  Michael J. Kelly; Joann L. Moore
Because of crowding, overuse, and pollution, the National Park Service is conducting a major effort to develop alternative forms of transportation in the national parks. A new generation of busses and trams will provide features that motivate visitors to leave their private automobiles in favor of public transportation. One such feature might be an interactive computer-based information system that would provide riders with various kinds of interpretive and visit planning information. A series of surveys and focus groups explored visitors' motivations and expectations when visiting Yellowstone National Park. They also documented the features and the kinds of information visitors would like to have available during a trip through the park using an alternative vehicle system. These studies culminated in the functional design of a prototype visit enhancement system. This paper presents the results and implications of these user requirements studies.
An Objective Measure for Postural Comfort BIBAFull-Text 725-728
  Mathias Kolsch; Andrew C. Beall; Matthew Turk
Biomechanics determines the physical range in which humans can move their bodies. Human factors research delineates a subspace in which humans can operate without experiencing musculoskeletal strain, fatigue or discomfort. We claim that there is an even tighter space which we call the comfort zone. It is defined as the range of postures adopted voluntarily -- despite the availability of other postures. We introduce a measurable, objective foundation for comfort, which was previously assumed equivalent to the absence of discomfort, a subjective quantity. Interfaces designed outside a user's comfort zone can prompt the adoption of alternative use patterns, which are often less favorable because they trade off the unnoticeable potential of injury for comfort. Designing interfaces within the limits of comfort zones can avert these risks.
Middle School Students Who Use Computers BIBAFull-Text 729-733
  Karen Jacobs
In recent years, there has been an increasing concern over the association between interactive media, such as computers and video games and reports of aches and pains in users. It is suggested that the physical set-up and individual styles of using interactive media has an influence over this discomfort. As children grow up, they will interact and use interactive media throughout most of their life. Healthy interactive media techniques may be vital to preventing/reducing the incidence of discomfort/pain associated with interactive media. This research paper will describe a study, which has collected health and comfort data on the incidence and prevalence of computer-related musculoskeletal discomfort/pain among 6th and 7th grade students in three middle schools in New England.

COMMUNICATIONS: Input Issues

Optimization of Keyboard Design for Specialized Text Entry BIBAFull-Text 734-736
  Gregory Francis; Clarence E. Rash
As computers are introduced into ever more devices with new methods of inputting information, there has been interest in how to optimally design the information input system. We build on previous work along these lines to demonstrate a program that can quickly build the optimal keyboard layout that minimizes the time required to input a given set of data. This approach makes it possible to create different keyboard designs for different specialized uses of keyboards and/or for different individuals. In our report we outline the basic approach to the optimization process, identify situations where such optimization could be beneficial, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the optimization.
Gain and Target Size Effects on Cursor-Positioning Time with a Mouse BIBAFull-Text 737-740
  Michael Bohan; Shelby Thompson; Deborah Scarlett; Alex Chaparro
Movement time to align a cursor with targets on a computer screen a mouse was examined across settings of gain and target size. Empirical evidence was sought in light of previous suggestions that performance declines observed at higher gains can be explained by decreased effective cursor resolution, not gain per se. We tested this hypothesis by holding the effective cursor resolution constant while systematically varying gain and target size. Analysis of movement times showed a significant gain effect as a function of target size. Specifically, movement time increased with gain at the smallest target size (i.e. 1.5 mm) but decreased with gain at the largest target size (i.e. 12 mm). These results do not support the no-effect of gain hypothesis and suggest that target size is an important factor in determining the effects of gain on mouse movement performance.
A Comparison of Cursor-Control Performance of the Rollermouse Station and the Standard Mouse BIBAFull-Text 741-745
  Michael Bohan; Jeremy Slocum; Dawn Shaikh; Barbara Chaparro
This study compared first-time usage and performance of the RollerMouse Station to the standard mouse. Participants completed serial-clicking and serial-dragging tasks using a variety of angles, distances, and sizes on both input devices. Movement time, homing time, and error rate per condition were examined as dependent variables. Results revealed faster point-and-click and click-and-drag performance for the standard mouse but no difference in error rate across the two devices. In addition, the RollerMouse was significantly faster for homing time. Although the standard mouse was faster in target acquisition, the increase in performance from the homing time for the RollerMouse resulted in only a slight advantage for the mouse in total movement time. These results are promising for the RollerMouse as an alternative input device to the mouse. Further studies investigating the effects of practice and hand configuration are discussed.
Comparison of Mouse, Touchpad and Multitouch Input Technologies BIBAFull-Text 746-750
  Jenna M. Shanis; Alan Hedge
Twelve subjects used fixed-angle split keyboards with a conventional mouse, an integrated touchpad, or an integrated MultiTouch surface. Three tasks were tested in each condition: data entry, text editing and cursor positioning. Wrist posture, performance (speed, errors) and subjective ratings were recorded. Results showed that mouse use was fastest for data entry, text editing tasks, and cursor positioning. MultiTouch was faster than the touchpad for cursor positioning, but slower for data entry and text editing. The mouse was rated as easiest to use. MultiTouch and the mouse were rated as more comfortable than the touchpad. There was marginally less wrist extension with use of the MultiTouch or the mouse than with use of the touchpad. Familiarity with keyboard and mouse use may have played a substantial role in the findings.
Tactile Melodies in User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 751-754
  Hendrik A. H. C. van Veen; Jan B. F. van Erp
The application of dynamic vibrotactile displays in user interfaces is still a rare situation. There are, however, several important advantages of using the sense of touch as an information channel, especially in relation to overloaded or unavailable visual and auditory channels. We propose here to make good use of the qualities of the sense of touch in the temporal domain by suggesting the usage of tactile melodies in user interfaces. In an explorative study we investigated the perception of such tactile melodies and found that tactile melodies often lead to a rich perceptual experience, as testified by the ability of the subjects in our study to describe such signals in detail. We conclude that the application of tactile melodies in user interfaces seems feasible, provided careful consideration is given to the creation of an intuitive connection between tactile melodies and the messages they are meant to convey.

COMMUNICATIONS: User Interface in Theory and Practice

Static and Dynamic Representations of Motion BIBAFull-Text 755-758
  Jennifer L. Strickland; Douglas J. Gillan; Roger Chadwick
Can static cues provide information about motion? The present research compared three types of displays that showed the motion of a weather system -- two static displays (lines only and lines ending in arrows) and an animated display. In Experiment 1, participants received trials in which all three displays were presented and they selected the static display that best provided the motion information in the animated display. Participants selected the static arrow display on 67% of the trials. In Experiment 2, participants received trials with one display at a time, in which they used the display to answer questions concerning the motion of the weather system. Performance with the arrow (response time and accuracy) was better than with the static line and was comparable to the animated display. These results show that static cues can be interpreted in terms of motion.
Integrating Usability into Use Cases: An Empirical Study of User-Centered Object Orientation BIBAFull-Text 759-763
  Qian Li; Robert Henning
Usability concerns for a planned web-based decision-support application were gathered through a survey of potential end users and then integrated into two sets of object-oriented specifications: the function-oriented and the use-case specifications. Correspondingly, software developers (N=6) as paid subjects participated in a two-condition between-subjects experiment: the function-oriented condition (N=3) vs the use-case condition (N=3). Each developer was instructed to implement the web-based decision-support application that complies with the given specifications. Developers' performance and preferences for using the given specifications were examined. Analysis of the six developed web applications indicates that user interface architecture is markedly influenced by the "orientation" of the specifications. Given a list of system functionalities, the three developers constructed three web applications in a way of mainly presenting the relevant information; whereas the three developers in the use-case condition programmed advanced interactive and adaptive user interface features to visualize the given use cases. The present laboratory study together with a usability test (in process) provides empirical support for applying the proposed integrated interface design methodology as a value-added design approach to better programming performance and improved user interface usability.
The Effect of Affect: The Hedonomic Evaluation of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 764-768
  Lauren Murphy; Kay Stanney; Peter A. Hancock
We evaluated the use of color in a human-computer interface to investigate how affective cues influence usability judgments. Yellow and green, were found to enhance performance on a cognitive flexibility task as compared to white and gray. Such an outcome suggests that color promotes positive affect. The aesthetically designed interface that promoted positive affect was also found to enhance perceptions of interface usability. This relationship, however, was only found when underlying usability was effective. When usability was poor, aesthetics made users more cognizant of the usability weaknesses. The results suggest that designers consider incorporating color into designs to help elicit positive emotion in users but that they must be aware that incorporation of aesthetics comes with the potential cost of disposing users to be more discerning of usability.
What's in a Conversation Addressing the Impact of Web Applications on Associate-Customer Conversations BIBAFull-Text 769-773
  Jennifer A. Al-Safar; Merrill J. Zavod; Ann C. Fulop
The ability to deliver quality customer service should not be hindered by the use of software applications. However, the nature and quality of associate-customer interactions may be greatly impacted by the conversational flows mandated by specific applications due to interface variables (e.g., navigation) as well as underlying system infrastructures (i.e., mainframe vs. web-based). If the conversational flow required by an application does not synchronize with the conversational flow preferred by the associate (user) and customer, the result can be frustration on the part of the user, as well an inability to meet the needs of the customer. The present effort attempted to isolate and define the component parts and patterns of an associate-customer conversation associated with a current mainframe-based application, as well as to determine potential effects during a transition of the application to a web-based platform. Associate-customer interactions were analyzed while utilizing a current mainframe-based version of a customer-service application, as well as three prototype web-based versions of the same application, each employing a different navigational and download structure. From these evaluations was culled a set of distinct conversational types that may occur during an interaction. While the applications were onscreen, conversational patterns did not differ between the mainframe and web-based applications or among the three web-based applications. However, during periods of downtime while waiting for the application to load, it was found that a single-page scrolling web application with a single up-front download period yielded the highest percentage of rapport-building "niceties", business profitable "selling" comments, with the least amount of silence. In contrast, it was found that a web application divided into 27 navigable pages and download times resulted in the least percentage of nicety conversation and selling and the highest percentage of silent time.
Redesign of a Technical Support Interactive Voice Response System: Applying Heuristics to Business Problems BIBAFull-Text 774-777
  Paul Sherman
The interactive voice response system (IVR) for the technical support line of an accounting software application was subjected to a heuristic evaluation, which is a type of usability inspection. The evaluation was undertaken as part of an effort to discover why over 13% of callers were choosing the wrong path through the system and routing themselves to the incorrect technical support team. It was hypothesized that callers were routing incorrectly because the IVR's prompts and call flows were difficult to understand and navigate. The system's prompts and call flows were redesigned and deployed, resulting in a significant cost savings for the organization.

COMMUNICATIONS: Communication Posters

System Delay and Navigational Structure for Web Applications and the Importance of Measuring Workload BIBAFull-Text 778-781
  Jennifer A. Al-safar; Ann Fulop
Myriad research suggests that delays associated with downloading of pages from server to client can have serious and deleterious consequences for usability. This has understandably led to design guidance suggesting that page download times be kept to a minimum in order to assure an optimum user experience. We argue that there may be some caveats to this rule, particularly when designing long applications, such as those used for data collection by customer service representatives. A series of three studies was conducted to test this assumption. Within each study, download pattern, navigation pattern, and total download time were differentially manipulated. Overall, it was found that an application downloaded in its entirety, rendered as a single page and navigated by scrolling, was subjectively preferred and scored lower on certain subjective workload subscales than applications downloaded incrementally, rendered as multiple pages and navigated by clicking. These results call into question the validity of design guidance focused exclusively on system delay time.
A Human Factors Database for Matching Human Errors and Technological Interventions BIBAFull-Text 782-786
  Esa M. Rantanen; Douglas A. Wiegmann; Brent O. Palmer; Kevin M. Musiorski
One of the main factors in all aviation accidents is human error. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), therefore, has identified several human-factors safety technologies to address this issue. Some technologies directly address human error either by attempting to reduce the occurrence of errors or by mitigating the negative consequences of errors. However, new technologies and system changes may also introduce new error opportunities or even induce different types of errors. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the relationship between error classes and technology "fixes" is crucial for the evaluation of intervention strategies outlined in the AvSP, so that resources can be effectively directed to maximize the benefit to flight safety. The purpose of the present project, therefore, was to examine the repositories of human factors data to identify the possible relationship between different error class and technology intervention strategies. The present paper summarizes our efforts to create a database to help map intervention technologies onto error categories.
The Postural Comfort Zone for Reaching Gestures BIBAFull-Text 787-791
  Mathias Kolsch; Andrew C. Beall; Matthew Turk
We have proposed a method for objective assessment of postural comfort (Kölsch et al., 2003). We defined comfort as the range of postures that is voluntarily assumed despite the availability of other postures. Designing user interfaces within the limits of comfort zones can avert risks associated with unknown alternative use patters of the interface.
   Here we report on a user study that investigated the comfort zone for free-hand gestures in the horizontal plane at about stomach height. This space is of particular interest to novel technologies such as gesture recognition and virtual reality. The results are in line with previous studies on postural discomfort, but improve on resolution and are not based on subjective, questionnaire-based data acquisition. This study also serves as an example for how to design studies for comfort evaluation.

CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Products

Development of a Guidelines Tool for Mobile Phone Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 792-796
  Chang S. Nam; Hyung N. Kim; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Maury A. Nussbaum
The cellular phone market has advanced rapidly and consequently has produced a variety of functional capabilities and interface designs. However, this same rapid proliferation has led to problems with the diffusion and organization of design guidelines. Given the current market demands on usability that include addressing the needs of users with disabilities, cellular phone developers need easy-to-access and comprehensible design guidelines. This study was conducted to develop a guidelines tool to support the development of usable cellular phone interfaces. The tool was developed on the basis of knowledge elicitation techniques of experts, including card sorting and category evaluation. Cluster and content analyses were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data. Categories of guidelines and their meanings are provided.
Goal Setting and Feedback: The Programmable Thermostat as a Device to Support Conservation Behavior in the User BIBAFull-Text 797-800
  L. T. McCalley; C. J. H. Midden
Programming clock thermostat settings involves no financial cost to the consumer and requires little effort, making it a feasible target behavior for increasing energy efficiency through automatic control of temperature setbacks according to time of day and activities of the residents. Goal setting theory was used as a framework to experimentally test the energy saving effects of goal and information specificity on planning a programming strategy and the resulting consumer performance in terms of projected savings. Specific goals were found to significantly increase planning time when specific conservation information was given and significantly decrease planning time when only a vague, "do your best" goal was given. Increased planning time did not predict performance, however, users who had never owned a clock thermostat had significantly higher projected savings in comparison with subjects currently using such a thermostat. Results are discussed in terms of implications for energy conservation programs to change thermostat behavior.
Revealing mental models of a cooking process through use of a hidden moderator: a case study BIBAFull-Text 801-805
  Pete Wendel; Philip Hodgson
This case study applies a method historically used in social psychology, namely the use of a confederate (more precisely a "hidden moderator" in our case), to the process of user-centered product design. Whirlpool Corporation's User Experience Group desired to learn more about user processes and mental models associated with broiling food inside an oven. To this end we needed to elicit users' mental models, thoughts and descriptions as they carried out broiling tasks, but also needed to avoid influencing either the formation of, or the revealing of, mental models by overtly probing with scripted questions and prompts. We were able to accomplish this by planting a hidden moderator (whose role was to comoderate) within small groups of test participants. We found that the focus of the test participants shifted away from the primary moderator and towards the hidden moderator. By having the hidden moderator play the role of a novice that wished to learn from the expertise of the test participants, participants were more motivated to engage in detailed, natural dialogue, thus leveraging a familiar and valuable teacher-student social dynamic. Initial data suggest that the use of a hidden moderator in user testing can help reveal users' mental models of complex procedures, critical user needs, and usage context -- information that is difficult to access using traditional user research or usability methods.
A Preliminary Semantic Differential Study on Users' Product Form Perception BIBAFull-Text 806-810
  Shi-Jian Luo; Ming-Xi Tang; Shang-Shang Zhu; John Hamilton Frazer; Shou-Qian Sun; Yun-He Pan
This experimental study investigated how users perceived product form. The semantic differential (SD) method, cluster analysis and protocol analysis were employed to examine users' form perception of mobile phone samples with 20 subjects. The total number of samples was 75, and the image-word pairs were 20. Completed in computer by general statistics software, the cluster analysis results revealed that the samples can be described with official, active, emotional, male, delicate, and luxury. Level analysis was performed to analyze the sample features and obtained the weight factors of body, screen and screen frame, button shape and layout, and contour line, and then a computer-aided conceptual design system was built to test this experiment so as to improve the system for further intelligent conceptual design and cyber-design.
Usability of Configuration Systems in Design by Customer Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 811-815
  Halimahtun M. Khalid; Yin Bee Oon
This paper presents the usability findings of designing a cell phone online using a prototype configuration system to support mass customization. Two configuration systems were compared, one with 2-dimensional graphics, and the other with 3D virtual prototypes. Usability is measured on the effectiveness of the system in supporting Design by Customer activity and enhancing user satisfaction. About sixty subjects participated in the experiment. A matched between-subjects design was used with half of the subjects assigned randomly to the 2D configuration system and the remaining half to the 3D system. Their behavior was recorded on video, and they completed a usability questionnaire at the end of the session. The ANOVA results on web site features showed that designing a cell phone online induces the same pleasure to subjects irrespective of the system type. But the user satisfaction results indicated that the 3D system is more satisfying than the 2D system, suggesting that the use of 3D virtual prototypes increases satisfaction as it represents the real world environment that enables users to view and visualize the product directly. A flexible design procedure is also critical in increasing user satisfaction.
Development of Selection System of Comfort Pillow BIBAFull-Text 816-820
  Se Jin Park; Hyun Ja Lee
The purpose of this study was to develop the selection system of comfort pillow according to subject's head shape. 3-D scanner was used to measure the head shape of Korean. The head shapes were classified into 4 types. When a pillow was pressed by head, the height of pillow was estimated by the relationship of the pillow stiffness and pressure distribution of head and neck. The height, shape, and stiffness of pillow were investigated and their relations were found. The selection rule of comfort pillow was determined by the relationship among the head shape of subject, the height, shape, and stiffness of pillow. There was a significant correlation between the satisfaction and selected pillow. The developed final system consisted of a measurement stand, pressure sensor matrix, 3D scanner, analysis S/W and PC.
Development of Satisfaction Models for Passenger Car Interior Materials Considering Statistical and Engineering Aspects of Design Variables BIBAFull-Text 821-825
  Taebeum Ryu; Kyunghee Oh; Heecheon You; Myung Hwan Yun
As the functionality of a passenger car has reached at a satisfactory level, customer needs for aesthetic aspects of a design such as shape and material become increased. The present study developed satisfaction models for passenger car interior materials by applying methods of variable screening and recoding. Six interior parts of a passenger car were selected including crash pad, steering wheel, transmission gearshift knob, audio panel, and wooden/metal grain. Eight to fifteen material design variables were defined for the six interior parts. A satisfaction survey was conducted to 30 vehicles with 30 participants (mean (SD) of 28.7 (6.6) in age) by using a modified magnitude estimation scale. Methods of variable screening/recoding were proposed to develop models that are stable and of statistical/practical significance. By applying the variable screening/recoding methods to the surveyed satisfaction data, satisfaction models were developed for the six interior parts. Using the satisfaction models, material designs to improve customer satisfaction were prepared and their potential effects were estimated.
A Comparison of Older vs. Newer Over-the-Counter (OTC) Nonprescription Drug Labels on Search Time Accuracy BIBAFull-Text 826-830
  Eric F. Shaver; Michael S. Wogalter
The present study evaluated response time and accuracy to answer a series of questions of information in 16 (8 older and 8 newer 'Drug Facts') over-the-counter (OTC) drug labels. The newer labels include aspects, based on previous research, which should benefit performance. The results indicated that participant's response times were significantly faster with the newer labels compared to the older ones. However, this was not true of all OTC product samples. Accuracy was high (error rate low) for both label formats. Response times for females were significantly faster than males for both label types. The benefits of formatting text for facilitating information acquisition from drug labels and other kinds of printed information are discussed.
Influences of Information and Personal Concerns on Monetary Judgments BIBAFull-Text 831-834
  S. David Leonard
Previous studies have shown effects of various types of suggestions made by attorneys for developing a metric for damages to be awarded for pain and suffering. This study attempted to use rates set by respondents for their willingness to endure some of the problems of a wheelchair-bound individual as a means of getting the respondents to devise suitable awards for pain and suffering. Experimental subjects were asked how much would be necessary before they would spend a day living in a wheel chair, and control subjects were not. Variability of responses was high for both willingness to accept the wheelchair temporarily and for awards for pain and suffering. Although those who presumably thought about the problem more suggested higher awards, the difference was not statistically reliable. Within the Experimental Group there was a dependably greater amount awarded by those who said they would require larger sums to accept such a situation. Those respondents who were asked to specify total amounts suggested dependably lower awards than those who responded in terms of daily amounts. Possible reasons for some to these effects are discussed.
The Effects of Defendant Profit Information on Compensatory and Punitive Damage Awards in Civil Litigation BIBAFull-Text 835-838
  Danielle L. Paige; Kenneth R. Laughery; Richard N. Bean
Three experiments were conducted in order to examine the effects of defendant wealth on civil litigation damage award decisions. Wealth was manipulated in each experiment by presenting participants with either high or low company profit information for that year. All participants read three trial scenarios in which the defendant Manufacturer was found responsible for the plaintiffs injuries. Fifty-two participants awarded economic damages in the first experiment. Contrary to law, profit information influenced the economic awards, such that high profits resulted in significantly higher award amounts and award variances. In the second experiment, 50 participants awarded pain and suffering awards. These awards were not influenced by profit information. The final experiment (n=55) involved punitive damage awards. Higher profits increased both the magnitude and variability of punitive awards.

CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Posters

Beliefs about Bilingual Labels on Consumer Products BIBAFull-Text 839-843
  Raymond W. Lim; Michael S. Wogalter
There is increasing number of people living in the United States who do not speak or read English, and who understand exclusively Spanish. The present study sought to gain insight into people's beliefs on issues related to the use of bilingual labels (English and Spanish) on consumer products. The results of a questionnaire completed by 342 U.S. citizens showed strong agreement that people who intend to live in the U.S. should learn English, and that bilingual labels are important to people in the U.S. who do not read English. They also strongly disagree that bilingual labeled products should not be sold in the U.S. and that such labeling would indicate a lower quality product. Implications for the use of two or more languages on labels of U.S. consumer products are discussed.
The Usability of Iconic Designs a Case Study of Juicy Salif BIBAFull-Text 844-847
  B. Russo; A. De Moraes
This paper is the first part of a research project about the lack of usability in products with a strong aesthetic appeal. The hypothesis of this research is that products -- Icons, influenced by marketing and admired by consumers for aesthetic priority, have a disabled usability because of the absence of ergonomics approach during the design phase. Here, a short history about the arise of industrial aesthetic and the relationship between product and beauty is presented, together with a study about product's pleasurability. A case study about the lemon squeezer JUICY SALIF, a design icon considered product, is also presented, through usability tests, questionnaires and comments suggested by admirers through an internet forum.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Tools for Decision Support, Keyboard Input, and Multisensory Capacity

Demonstration of the Surface Management System: An Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tool BIBAFull-Text 848-851
  James M. Hitt; Christopher J. Brinton; Deborah H. Walton
The Surface Management System (SMS) is an information and decision support tool designed for use by air traffic (AT) controllers and traffic managers. Developed by NASA and the FAA, the goals of SMS are to: 1) provide information and decision support for tactical and strategic air traffic control tasks to increase situational awareness of surface operations through knowledge of current and future demand; 2) maximize airport throughput and minimize surface delays by increasing efficiency and coordinating arrival and departure management; and 3) assist FAA controllers and traffic managers in handling surface operations by predicting and displaying future demand. To reach these goals, SMS provides flight-specific and aggregate demand and delay information on display interfaces including map displays, timelines, load graphs, and flight and status tables. The information presented on these displays and the display format has evolved through human factors demonstrations and evaluations during the SMS human-centered development process.
Demonstrating a Methodology for Assessing Cognitive Capacities across Sensory Systems: M-SWAP BIBAFull-Text 852-854
  J. Christopher Brill; Mustapha Mouloua; Peter A. Hancock; Richard D. Gilson; Robert S. Kennedy
This demonstration highlights the development of and applications of a methodology for assessing cognitive workload across three sensory systems: vision, audition, and touch. The methodology, called Multi-Sensory Workload Assessment Protocol (M-SWAP), is typically administered simultaneously with the primary task of interest. Participants are presented with a random series of visual, auditory, or vibrotactile signals and are asked to respond via a response box after receiving a certain number of these signals. Counting errors are scored in terms of both classic and fuzzy signal detection metrics (hits, misses, false alarms, and correct rejections), and the number of errors is indicative of the operator's cognitive-perceptual workload. The demand level of M-SWAP is scalable, which avoids traditional ceiling effects.
Development of a QWERTY-Type Reduced Keyboard System for Mobile Computing: Tengo BIBAFull-Text 855-859
  Ken C. F. Tan; Edwin Ng; Julian J. S. Oh
As mobile devices get smaller and more text applications are migrated to the mobile platform, there is an increasing demand for a text-inputting solution that is not only fast, easy and intuitive but also suitable for sustained or intensive text-inputting. Because of the space constraint and ever-shrinking form factor of mobile devices, we approached the problem using a reduced keyboard system to minimize the number of keys required. We also wanted to capture the ubiquitous QWERTY design into the reduced keyboard design to minimize re-learning and tap on existing memory mapping of keyboard layouts. The third and last design consideration was to shrink the number of keys to a minimum of 10, thus allowing each key to ultimately be able to uniquely match to each individual finger. The end objective was thus the development of a 10 key ambiguous text-inputting keyboard system that is designed for double-thumbed or double-handed typing (QWERTY characteristic).

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Tools for Globalization and Virtual Environments

Interactive and Relational Database of International Gestures BIBAFull-Text 860
  Sherri A. Rehfeld; R. Matt Alderson; Florian G. Jentsch
The current project reviewed and synthesized relevant research in the area of non-verbal communication. This information was amalgamated with commercially-available information in order to create an extensive electronic library of gestures that incorporates previously established population norms by culture and region. Using 3-D animation software (Poser 4), representations of different gestures were created and incorporated into a computerized database. This database contains gestures, illustrations, meanings, as well as the country to which the gesture is relevant. The database is readily accessible and can be referenced by the name, description, and meaning of the gesture as well as the referenced source. Thus, this work lays the scientific foundation for a learning system that allows travelers and military personnel to look for and interpret non-verbal cues of individuals and groups. To this end, the database is currently used as a research tool to study the context and learning of gestures in cultural context. The demonstration presents the synthesized information as well as the animation software used to create this database.
An Affordable Medium-Fidelity Virtual Environment Soldier Simulator Designed for Infantry Combat Research BIBAFull-Text 861-864
  Adams Greenwood-Ericksen; Jeanne L. Weaver; Kelly Burke; Kristy A. Bradley; Peter A. Hancock
Due to the expense of obtaining access to purpose-built virtual environments, it has traditionally been difficult for some researchers to examine questions of interest involving infantry combat performance. As part of on going research into stress and human performance in infantry combat, a highly affordable soldier simulator was constructed using off-the-shelf parts and equipment. Simulators of this type are highly flexible and scalable in design, allowing researchers to fabricate them to the requirements of the study and/or in proportion to available resources. Our demonstration will allow participants to operate the simulator themselves, or observe the demonstrators operating it. Additionally, they will be able to design their own missions and execute them in the simulator, with the assistance of trained personnel. The purpose of the demonstration is to acquaint human factors researchers with a system that demonstrates that solder simulator systems can be developed affordably and easily.
An Immersive Workstation Design Tool Using Three-Dimensional Anthropometric Data BIBAFull-Text 865-869
  Melinda M. Cerney; Judy M. Vance; Jerry R. Duncan
With the recent completion of the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR), a comprehensive set of three-dimensional anthropometric data has been made available to the design community. This paper presents the development of a virtual reality tool which makes use of three-dimensional CAESAR data in a fully-immersive, virtual reality (VR) environment. This advanced operator workstation design tool enables design decisions to be made in a three-dimensional setting, allowing accurate visualization of relationships among human landmark data and workstation geometry. Methods for filtering and selecting data are presented. In addition, the utilization of landmark relationships specified by 3D data in an immersive, 3D design space are examined. The rationale, development, and implementation of this advanced operator workstation design tool are also presented.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Learning Styles, Web-Based Instruction, and Computer Grading

A Survey of Learning Styles of Engineering Students BIBAFull-Text 870-874
  Terresa S. Ashford; Randa L. Shehab; Teri Reed Rhoads; Mary C. Court
This study examined the learning styles of engineering students using the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) developed by Soloman and Felder (Soloman & Felder, 2002), the Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) developed by Riding (Riding, 1991), and the Learning Style Inventory (LSI) developed by Kolb (Kolb, 1993). Thirty-five graduate and thirty-six undergraduate engineering students took each of the assessments. There was a strong preference for the visual category on the ILS, but an even split for the imagery/verbal dimension on the CSA. Scores were also evenly split on the active/reflective and sequential/global dimensions on the ILS. Another strong preference was seen for the analytic category on the CSA. On the LSI, most students' scores indicated a preference for the convergent category and no student scores were in the divergent category. An overview of each of the instruments as well as a summary of student learning needs for each of the dimensions is presented.
Semantic Modality in Information Design: Improving Learning Efficiency in a Multimedia Environment BIBAFull-Text 875-879
  Jesse S. Zolna; Richard Catrambone
Instructional theories emphasize the structural modality of the information design, that is, whether the information is visual (e.g., text vs. graphics vs. animations) or auditory. However, we argue that semantic modality, the internal cognitive representation, must also be considered in order to reduce working memory load imposed by cognitive operations. A within-subjects design comparing performance on a dual mode task demonstrated the importance of considering semantic modality. The hypothesized factor resulting in the change in performance was the type of mental processing required while physical stimuli were held constant. Significant differences in performance between control and experimental trials were found for experimental conditions in which a visual task was manipulated to interfere with an auditory task during internal coding. No significant differences were found when the experimental condition was a visual task manipulated to allow separate internal coding. The results have implications for cognitive theories of multimedia learning with respect to issues of optimal methods of information design.
Relevance of the User Action Framework and Heuristics to E-Learning BIBAFull-Text 880-884
  Linda Guarascio-Howard; Robin D. Walton; Terence S. Andre
Electronic learning, or e-learning, uses the power and flexibility of the Internet and CD-ROM delivery systems to provide online instructional content. In this paper, we examine two usability inspection methods, the User Action Framework (UAF) developed by Andre, Hartson, Belz, & McCreary (2001) and heuristics developed by Jakob Nielsen (1994). Although not specifically designed for e-learning, both methods can be adapted to evaluate e-learning environments. The UAF provides a hierarchical structure and a framework for the systematic examination of usability issues. Heuristics provide guiding principles for evaluating user interfaces. While both inspection methods lend themselves to evaluating e-learning interfaces, we believe the UAF to be a more complete method for addressing e-learning usability issues.
Human and Computer-Generated Essay Grades BIBAFull-Text 885-889
  Ronald Laurids Boring
The advent of computerized essay grading brings with it significant questions about the interaction between the grader and the student. An experiment is presented that compares two forms of human essay grading with computerized essay grading. Twenty human graders using either holistic or analytic grading methods marked 15 student essays. These essays were subsequently marked by computer using a grading implementation of latent semantic analysis. There were significant correlations between both holistic and analytic graders and the computerized essay grader.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Teaching HF/E and Job Opportunities

How Well is Human Factors Recognized as a Household Name BIBAFull-Text 890-893
  Shawn M. Doherty; Christina Frederick-Recascino; Fran A. Greene
This paper outlines a survey provided to introductory psychology students at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University regarding their exposure to the concept of human factors. The purpose of this survey was to provide an assessment of a priori student knowledge of our discipline. The results suggest that students at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University have been exposed to the ideas of human factors, but may lack knowledge about specifics in the field. This may reflect a growing awareness of the discipline, in general, but also suggests that more detailed information and exposure is needed for students.
Why is (Teaching) Project Management Hard in Academia BIBAFull-Text 894-898
  Barrett S. Caldwell
This paper discusses issues resulting from the author's experience in teaching human factors and ergonomics design project courses, including a recent project examining features of project management software applied to academic environments. The experiences of the design project team, as well as other issues in managing the author's research lab, indicate significant issues associated with attempting to apply industry-based project management tools, processes, and expectations to a university-based teaching and learning environment. Rather than demonstrate an empirical solution to the title question, this paper presents a series of queries to examine in the context of limits and opportunities in higher education to enhance students' preparation for entering a information economy workforce.
Special Projects in Undergraduate Human Factors Courses: Evaluation of Power Plant Boiler Control Interface BIBAFull-Text 899-902
  Esa M. Rantanen; Jessica C. M. Gonzalez de Sather
A special project involving a campus utility plant HMI evaluation was offered to a group of undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory human factors class. Fifteen out of 55 students enrolled in the course volunteered for the special project. Specific subtasks were created in collaboration with the plant management and allocated to subgroups of students. These subtasks were scheduled to coincide with corresponding topics in the course. Evaluated by both the educational outcomes and the usefulness of the project deliverables to the power plant, the project clearly represents a beneficial situation to both students and instructors. The value of hands-on experience with task analysis, control room design, and HMI design to the students is undisputable. This case is also exemplary in terms of providing a service to the University community as a byproduct of the academic pursuits.
An Approach to Teaching Cognitive Systems Engineering: Making Abstraction Hierarchy Concrete BIBAFull-Text 903-907
  Celestine A. Ntuen
The extent to which RAH has impact on teaching cognitive systems engineering was explored. Data on graduate students' performance and feedback was used to study how people perceive and are cognizant of problem solving knowledge based on the five levels of RAH. We use abstraction congruency scores (ACS) to assess their correlation loading on perception and cognition factors. The result ACSs were loaded into both the cognitive and perceptual continua of RAH. The student percentage scores were used to obtain how people perceive knowledge relationships at the five levels of the abstraction hierarchy. The result showed that the system functional purpose was correlated with all other properties below the RAH echelon. General and abstraction functions were correlated (r = 0.69, p = 0.0003). These correlation values tell us how knowledge in the abstraction hierarchy is related and how the students perform in understanding these five components of abstraction hierarchy. These findings are important in teaching reasoning strategies during problem solving and representing prototypical concepts related to goal achievement in system design.
Placement Opportunities for Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Professionals in Industry and Government/Military Positions BIBAFull-Text 908-912
  Christopher M. Voorheis; Andrea E. Snead; William F. Moroney
During the period from January 2002 through December 2002, the Placement Service of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society distributed announcements describing 141 new positions available for human factors and ergonomics professionals. This paper describes placement opportunities for HF and ergonomics professionals in Industry and Government/Military (N=117). The attributes of the position descriptions examined include: employment sector, major field of study, degree requirements, required work experience, salary, geographic location, travel, and areas of expertise.
   The type of industry seeking most employees was Consulting at 32%. The most frequently specified major field of study was Human Factors (N=73). Forty-nine percent of positions describe the master's degree as the minimum requirement. The geographical areas with the most jobs were East Central (N=20) and the Mid Atlantic (N=17). Finally, the area of expertise most frequently requested by employers was Human Computer Interaction (N=23) and Human Factors/Ergonomics (N=32) was the most commonly specified job expertise/function.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Human Behavior and the Designed Environment

Designing Cues for Recreational Parks to Support Wayfinding Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 913-917
  Boon Kee Soh; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson
Environmental landmarks are required for effective wayfinding when using maps, but landmarks such as signs are not always designed on the basis of human factors principles. This study was designed to investigate map design guidelines, wayfinding behaviors, and environmental cues that affect wayfinding. Thirty-six participants hiked on a designated trail in an outdoor park using the think aloud method. Observational and interview data were collected to examine how the participants interacted with the environment when using maps. The results showed that man-made features such as signage were useful in aiding wayfinding, but other geographical features of the environment were also used to support wayfinding. Recommendations for sign design and placement are discussed.
Perceptions of Parking Facilities: Factors to Consider in Design and Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 918-921
  Christina C. Mendat; Michael S. Wogalter
There are a number of factors to consider when developing new parking lots and modifying existing structures. The present research reports the results of two studies designed to assess perceived problems of parking facilities. In the first study, 319 participants were asked to generate a set of parking facility-related problems from their life experience. These were categorized into different problem categories. The second had participants rate the 30 problem categories. Five main factors were identified: (a) Compliance and Visibility, (b) Layout and Design, (c) Safety and Crowding, (d) Difficulties at Access Points and Environment, and (e) Aesthetics. Aspects of each of these factors have implications for improving parking facilities.
Barra da Tijuca: The Car-Oriented Place An Ergonomic Approach to Pedestrians Difficulties BIBAFull-Text 922-926
  G. Amado; A. De Moraes
The rising of the automobile helped the development of the cities, bringing important changes for the behavior of its habitants. However, the urban designers sometimes underestimated people needs when walking in the streets. The objective of this paper is to provide an ergonomic approach about the difficulties of Americas Avenue faced by pedestrians. This avenue is an important highway of Barra da Tijuca borough, located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it is one of the most dangerous ways of the city, because of its high index of run over reports. This research is based on assistematics observations and questionnaire form application, that helps us to reflect about the behavior of people before the barriers imposed by built environment. The results showed that the pedestrians, even if aware of deadly risks, prefer to disrespect the safe rules of the transit in attempting to reach the destiny in less time. It is possible to verify how that area is oriented, almost exclusively, for cars and how the urban space can induce the actions of the user.
Human Factors Considerations in the Design of an Aircraft Maintenance Hangar BIBAFull-Text 927-931
  Esa M. Rantanen; Thomas A. Butts; David S. Wojtowicz; Michelle L. Webb; Ann K. Marin
Many human factors issues in aircraft maintenance are directly related to the technicians' working environment and can be addressed in the maintenance facility design. The goal of this project was to identify and catalog human factors issues that should be considered from the outset in the design of a new maintenance facility for the Institute of Aviation at the University of Illinois. Towards this end, the structure and functionality of the existing hangar was examined, the technicians were interviewed, and their tasks analyzed. Based on these data as well as results from link- and activity relationship analyses, human factors requirements were listed for each functional area of the proposed facility. A suggested layout for the new facility represents an optimum relative arrangement of the workspaces, positioning of the aircraft in the main hangar, and the flow of tools, materials, and documents within the facility from an explicitly human-centered perspective.
Effects of Chair Design on Toddler Behavior. BIBAFull-Text 932-936
  Alan Hedge; Ruchika Jaitli; Jason Jagdeo; Michelle Ruder; Mia Akaogi
Two experiments tested the effects of a test chair with a height adjustable seat and footrest on the functional abilities and mealtime behavior of toddlers. Experiment 1 showed that the provision of a footrest increased the reach distances of toddlers and decreased their fidgeting and body stabilization movements, but did not affect their task persistence. Experiment 2 was conducted in the homes of subjects, and it compared the mealtime behavior of toddlers when they were sitting in the test chair and in a booster seat. Although no significant effects of seating type on either the frequency or duration of patterns of mealtime behavior could be demonstrated, all families reported a preference for the test chair.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Dynamic Sitting -- How Much Do We Move When Working at a Computer?

Effect of Providing Foot Support on Lower Leg Temperature for Sedentary Workers BIBAFull-Text 937-941
  Alan Hedge; Meghna Bhambore
Fourteen subjects sat for 20 minutes either with their legs dangling and unsupported, or supported on a flat surface. Foot and calf skin surface temperature measures were taken using infrared thermography. Laboratory climate conditions were recorded. Results showed a significant decrease in both foot and calf skin surface temperatures (~0.7°C and 0.2°C respectively) when sitting with the feet supported compared to sitting with the legs dangling but stationary. Results suggest that although foot support may be important, if the supported legs are stationary this may increase venous stagnation. Strategies for periodically moving the supported feet should be considered.
Test of a Dynamic Footrest on Leg Swelling in Sedentary Computer Workers BIBAFull-Text 942-946
  Courtney Sherman; Alan Hedge
Sixteen college students (8 male, 8 female) sat with their lower legs exposed and typed text under two conditions: feet on a static footrest and feet on an identical dynamic footrest that passively moved the feet. Under both conditions, changes in calf volume, ankle circumference, calf skin temperature, postural adjustments of the lower limbs and typing performance were measured. Results suggest that the dynamic footrest improved lower leg circulation. Calf skin surface temperature was significantly higher with the dynamic footrest. There was an interaction of calf circumference change with condition, order and time-of-day. There was a marginally significant overall calf circumference change with the footrest. There was significantly less voluntary movement with the dynamic footrest. There was no significant effect of the dynamic footrest on ankle circumference or typing performance.
Dynamic Sitting How Much Do We Move When Working at a Computer BIBAFull-Text 947-951
  Alan Hedge; Michelle Ruder
This study investigated the effects of a dynamic chair backrest on body movements while typing on a computer. Eighteen subjects typed continuously with either the chair backrest locked (30 minutes) or unlocked (30 minutes). Treatment order was counterbalanced. Results showed no significant differences between chair back conditions in either the total number of movements or specific body movements over the duration of the test. Even though body movements occurred, typing is a task that inherently requires a relatively static posture, and sitting in a chair with a dynamic back may not necessarily encourage greater movement while typing. However, use of a free moving dynamic chair back did provide better back support for subjects when they changed from upright to reclined postures.
The Impact of a Highly Adjustable Chair and Office Ergonomics Training on Musculoskeletal Symptoms: Two-Month Post Intervention Findings BIBAFull-Text 952-954
  Benjamin C. Amick; Michelle Robertson; Kelly DeRango; Lianna Bazzani; Anne Moore; Ted Rooney
The office ergonomic intervention is a longitudinal pre-post quasi-experimental design, with three study groups: a control group, a group receiving an office ergonomic training program, and a group receiving both the ergonomic training and a highly-adjustable ergonomic chair. The chief health outcome measure for this study is an overall bodily pain score constructed from a self-administered "scorecard". The study population is from the claims processing and customer service departments of a large (5,000 employees) medical services company. 251 participants had enrolled in the study. Post-intervention, the chair-with-training group had a lower level of pain throughout the day compared to either the training-only or the control groups. This effect was calculated using a separate ANOVA model for each day of the week, and significance or borderline significance was obtained in each run (p = 0.001, 0.015, 0.04, 0.001, 0.05 on Monday-Friday). There was no significant effect for the training-only group.

FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensics

Issues for Human Factors Experts in Litigation BIBAFull-Text 955-957
  Richard J. Hornick; Arthur Dan Fisk; Kenneth Laughery; Hal W. Hendrick; Richard Olsen
This panel will address business, professional, and ethical issues pertinent to providing human factors services for forensics application in expert witness testimony. Questions will be posed in areas of basic business conduct, professional interactions with counsel on both sides of the matter, challenges to introduction of HF testimony, ethical concerns including situations with HF experts on the opposing side, concluding with "your most hysterical, bizarre, frustrating, etc" experiences.

GENERAL SESSION: The Etiquette Perspective for Human-Automation Relationships: Applications, Models, and Results

The Etiquette Perspective for Human-Automation Relationships: Applications, Models, and Results BIBAFull-Text 958-960
  Christopher A. Miller; Raja Parasuraman; Barrett Caldwell; Kevin Corker; John Lee; Lewis Johnson; Debra Schreckenghost
At last year's HFES Annual Meeting, we presented a panel on the topic of The Etiquette Perspective for Human-Automation Relationships asking what etiquette might mean when applied to human-machine interactions and whether a consideration of etiquette in those settings might be a useful addition to our set of design tools. As a result of that panel, a subsequent, multi-day symposium sponsored by the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (Miller, 2002), and additional research, some answers are beginning to emerge. This year's panel will work toward refining the definition of etiquette as it applies to human-automation interaction, illustrating and justifying its utility in design and evaluation (through concrete results whenever possible), and providing suggestions for future work in this area.

GENERAL SESSION: Taking It Outside: Human Performance in Field Settings

Human Performance in Extreme Environments: A Preliminary Taxonomy of Shared Factors BIBAFull-Text 961-964
  John S. Barnett; Jason P. Kring
Humans perform in a number of extreme environments (EEs) in which they are not naturally suited to endure. Although scientific and technological advances have allowed humans to exist in settings like space, at the earth's poles, and underwater, further progress is possible if researchers and practitioners recognize that many EEs, and occupations within these settings, share numerous features. Because a majority of human performance research is domain-specific, there is a need to facilitate communication between once solitary scientific fields and disciplines, to promote the sharing of ideas and information, and to bring together academicians with persons in applied settings. To this end, we developed a taxonomy of factors associated with specific EEs by surveying subject matter experts as to the degree and frequency of 28 factors in their respective domains. Results from four settings (space, aviation, polar, and surgery/emergency room operations) reveal major similarities between the EEs on multiple factors, as well as important differences between seemingly similar environments. By illustrating shared features and differences, the taxonomy can serve as a research tool to organize established findings, highlight areas for further study, and provide avenues for cross-domain collaboration.
Compensability of Workers' Compensation Claims for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMDs) Using Logistic Regression: An Empirical Study of an Appliance Manufacturer BIBAFull-Text 965-969
  Veronica Hinton-Hudson; Waldemar Karwowski
Over 6500 workers' compensation claims, initiated in 1993-1996 and closed by March 1997, in a population-based study of appliance manufacturing employees were evaluated. The result of statistical analysis (Chi-square test) disproves the hypothesis of no association between WRMDs and workers' compensation claim (compensability) outcome. In addition, a mathematical relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorders and workers' compensation claim outcomes was developed using the logistic regression modeling. The results revealed that individuals with a WRMD type injury are 2.55 times more likely than an individual without a WRMD to be compensated. Other variables proving to be significant were tool use, being on restricted duty, and straining. The results have important implications for areas to target for prevention and ergonomic intervention among workers, particularly for return-to-work programs and workers' compensation cost reduction.
Maintenance Work in Small Aircrafts: An Ergonomic Approach BIBAFull-Text 970-974
  R. R. Bishu; M. K. Munuswamy
Airline line safety depends on a number of people ranging from pilots to the aviation maintenance technicians. Nowadays there is a growing recognition that maintenance errors pose a serious threat to airline safety. So, the Federal Aviation Administration has launched an extensive research in the field of human factors related aircraft maintenance. Not much research has gone into maintenance of small jets used for business and chartering purposes. For this purpose, the study was made in a private organization specializing in the maintenance of small jet aircrafts. The overall productivity of the past years was studied for various models of aircrafts and it was observed that the airframe department had a high rate of maintenance related errors. It was also evident that Falcons had a reasonably high rate of maintenance errors associated with it. Moreover it was found out that Falcon 50's and Falcon 900's had a high number of incidents associated with them. A task analysis was also done for the maintenance activities performed on Falcon 50's to identify the factors responsible for the high rate of errors. To assess the problem of human errors in the airframe department data about the incidents was collected by direct observation, informal interviews and incident data analysis. To show more light into the incidents, the incident analysis was done by interviews with the 50 employees responsible for the incidents, and the 55 incident report forms on Falcons for the years 2000-2002 were further analyzed.
Effectiveness of 2-D Views for 6-D Robotics Simulation Maneuvers BIBAFull-Text 975-979
  Teryn M. Bray; Randa L. Shehab; Robert E. Schlegel; Aylin Civan; Daniel E. Walker
This study examined operator performance on 6-D robotics simulation maneuvers using a single 2-D view of the robot arm. The BORIS simulator, developed by NASA to support Generic Robotics Training, was used to present four "fly-to" tasks with views representing combinations of good and poor control-display movement compatibility and perceptual quality. Translational (x, y, z) and rotational (pitch, yaw, roll) accuracies were used to assess performance. A significant interaction between movement compatibility and perceptual quality was found for both the overall translational and y accuracy measures (p = 0.0289 and p = 0.0155, respectively). This interaction appeared to indicate that performance was hindered only if both factors were poor. Perceptual quality significantly affected the z accuracy and pitch accuracy measures (p = 0.0461 and p = 0.0429, respectively) with the views identified as poor perceptual quality actually yielding better performance. These results suggest that performance on a 6-D robotics maneuver is not necessarily hindered by using only a 2-D view. If a single view cannot simultaneously provide both good movement compatibility and good perceptual quality, the results suggest that either one is sufficient with respect to overall translational accuracy.
Task Challenges in the Performance of Amusement Ride Inspection BIBAFull-Text 980-984
  Kathryn Woodcock
Inspection is one of the principal strategies for prevention of amusement ride accidents. The task of amusement ride safety inspection was studied, focussing on regulatory inspectors responsible for permitting rides to operate. The task contains many cognitive and physical challenges to human performance. Although there is a common curriculum, rides are complex and take many different forms. Shared objective data on base rates of various failure modes is scant, therefore in practice inspectors' judgements are based predominantly on experience, which varies widely. The social environment also places weight on experience to justify delays to the show. The environment contains numerous distractions and obstructions, visual, auditory, and other and there are physical demands that can be distracting or impede assessment of the ride. If an inspection fails to detect deficiencies, the ride may later fail, therefore work will be continued to aid inspectors in the performance of their work.

GENERAL SESSION: To Be or Not To Be: Manager or Individual Contributor?

To Be or Not To Be: Manager or Individual Contributor BIBAFull-Text 985-989
  Melroy E. D'Souza; Arnie Lund; Sanjay Batra; Barry Beith; Mark Lee; Lisa Orr; Marilyn Salzman
Manager or individual contributor? That is the question faced by many human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) professionals after a few years of having embarked upon their careers in industry, or sometimes at the start of their careers. They are often ill equipped to understand the nuances of each role, the drivers for success, the challenges and frustrations, the opportunities, and most importantly, the people- and business aspects of each role. This panel consists of managers and individual contributors who will provide unique insights into the above areas and will appeal to many audiences. To the practitioner, it will provide real-world experiences that address the various business and professional skills needed for each role. To students and faculty, it highlights what needs to be learned, or be taught in our HF/E programs at school so that we may create well rounded, graduating HF/E professionals who are cognizant of the business demands of industry.

GENERAL SESSION: Taking It Inside: Issues in Information Processing

Mind-Based Technologies. A Framework for Producing Personalized Psychological Effects. BIBAFull-Text 990-994
  Timo Saari
Mind-Based Technologies are technologies that can facilitate immediate psychological effects, such as emotion, cognition, presence and flow in their users as they are consuming multimodal information. With personalization technologies one may vary the content and way of presenting information to enable targeted and personalized psychological effects. The key to producing such effects is to be able to model the users and predict how they may react to a particular content and way of presenting information (modalities, visual layouts, ways of interaction, user interface controls) within a certain context, task, communication device and user interface. Despite obvious complexities empirical evidence suggests that the way of presenting information to users with certain psychological profiles has predictable effects. Hence, one may propose new types of system designs that would tend to produce desired types of psychological effects for individual users by varying the way of presenting information. One possible application area of Mind-Based Technologies is decision-making systems for military use.
A Framework for Developing Evaluation Metrics of Information Complexity in Automation Displays BIBAFull-Text 995-999
  Jing Xing
This report addresses whether information displayed by an automation tool facilitates task performance. While the tools are intended to provide decision support and offload tasks from controllers, they also create new tasks associated with entering, retrieving and processing information. Dissonances between multiple tools further increase the system complexity. The question is how to evaluate the information complexity of an automation tool. Using the air traffic control system as a model of dynamic human-automation interaction, we proposed a framework for developing objective evaluation metrics of information complexity in automated display systems. The framework postulated that the information complexity should be evaluated at three levels of constraint: physical constraint, human constraint, and system constraint. Each constraint can have multiple factors that contribute to information complexity. The framework incorporated many human factors studies on interface evaluation. We expect this framework to serve as a guideline for future research in designing and evaluating the information display of automation tools.
Interruptions in the Tower of London Task: Can Preparation Minimise Disruption BIBAFull-Text 1000-1004
  Helen M. Hodgetts; Dylan M. Jones
Responding to computer-initiated notifications requires a shift in attention and therefore disrupts the flow of work. Two exploratory experiments investigate how this decrement can be minimised when a short preparatory time is available before switching to deal with the interrupting task. The execution phase of a computer-based Tower of London task was interrupted by the requirement to perform simple verbal reasoning problems, incurring a cost relative to continuous plan execution. The goal-activation model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002) proposes a critical time period before engaging in the interruption (the "interruption lag") during which cues pertaining to the primary task can be encoded to facilitate subsequent task resumption. Experiment 1 demonstrated that resumption times were significantly quicker when the interruption was preceded by a three second interruption lag, and that time to complete the interrupting task was also reduced. In Experiment 2, participants chose when to engage in the secondary task. Although this did not benefit task resumption times relative to unexpected interruptions, it significantly reduced completion times on the secondary task. The results are interpreted within the framework of the goal-activation model and suggest that the interruption lag is beneficial in terms of performance on both the primary and interrupting tasks.
Performance and Economic Benefits of Object Oriented Task Analysis with Cognitive Flow Diagrams BIBAFull-Text 1005-1008
  Richard K. Steinberg; Robert Riss
While there have been many advances in Human Computer Interaction design, modern user interface (UI) design often remains deficient in its ability to augment human performance. McInerney and Sobiesiak (1999) argue that many user interface deficiencies arise because the UI design process is "ad hoc" and is based on subjective design methods. To build a user interface for a Command and Control (C2) display, an Object Oriented Task Analysis (OOTA) process was used. This process was augmented by incorporating a Cognitive Task Analysis and generating a human Cognitive Flow Diagram (CFD). By applying this structured engineering process built a round an OOTA and CFD, C2 displays are being "recreated" in a manner that improves human performance and reduces cost offering a 6 to 1 ratio on return of investment for human factors effort in the program. The process resulted in display designs that outperformed baseline designs 25-70%.
The Ergonomics of Torture: The Moral Dimension of Evolving Human-Machine Technology BIBAFull-Text 1009-1011
  P. A. Hancock
No intelligent human activity is devoid of purpose. This is as true for science as for any other pursuit. The abdication of science from the realm of purpose -- the propositional divorce of 'what is' from 'what should be' is a widely-perpetuated but fatal fallacy. As much as purpose predicates process, process promotes purpose. Purpose and process are locked in a symbiotic circle in which their independent existence is essentially meaningless. Unlike those who simply study the world as it is, we in human factors, as agents of change, must contemplate the world as it can be, in both its proximate and more distal forms. In seeking to change the world, as opposed to merely studying it, we cannot avoid the moral dimension of action. Here I examine our nascent approach to such issues using a pointed exemplar to trigger both visceral and cerebral response. The work is part of a continuing effort to found a new philosophy based upon perception-action mediated through our technological extensions to all human capacities.

GENERAL SESSION: The Many Facets of Antiterrorism: A Discussion of Cooperation and Collaboration among various Areas of Expertise

The Many Facets of Antiterrorism: A Discussion of Cooperation and Collaboration among Various Areas of Expertise BIBAFull-Text 1012-1016
  Merrill J. Zavod; Jason P. Kring
Recent events have caused an understandably dramatic increase in the attention paid to the science of homeland security and anti-terrorism. Both as a country and as individuals, we find ourselves contemplating methods to prevent, thwart, or at least attenuate terrorist activities. The war on terror, however, is unlike any war our country has fought in that the enemy is distributed, secretive, and follows no traditional "rules of war". If we are to win this battle then, we must adapt our methods to face the challenge. Rather than military strategy, the war on terror will require a collaborative effort among individuals in a range of fields, including many areas of human factors. This panel session presents a small cross-section of topics related to antiterrorism which represent opportunities for human factors involvement. It is hoped that presentation and discussion of these topics with our colleagues will foster further thinking on and expansion of these as well as identification of other opportunities for human factors involvement in the war on terror.

GENERAL SESSION: Cognitive Factors in Homeland Defense: The Role of Human Factors in the Novel Intelligence from Massive Databases (NIMD) Project

Cognitive Factors in Homeland Defense: The Role of Human Factors in the Novel Intelligence from Massive Date (NIMD) Project BIBAFull-Text 1017-1018
  Wayne D. Gray
The Intelligence Community's Advanced Research and Development Activity (ARDA) recently issued 17 contracts for innovative, creative, and high-risk research to advance the state-of-the-art in technologies and methods for supporting the intelligence analyst in discovering "novel intelligence from massive data" (NIMD). An important feature of this initiative is the role it gave to cognitive factors. The Call-for-Participation said, "Thus, NIMD is about human interaction with information in a way that permits intelligence analysts to spot the telltale signs of strategic surprise in massive data sources -- building tools that capitalize on human strengths and compensate for human weaknesses to enhance and extend analytic capabilities." This symposium will provide a brief overview of NIMD as well as project reports from four of the teams that won NIMD contracts. While the approaches and projects are diverse, all attempt to bring an understanding of cognitive factors and quantitative approaches to bear on improving the intelligence analyst's success at extracting hidden patterns from massive databases.
Sage: Five Powerful Ideas for Studying and Transforming the Intelligence Analyst's Task Environment BIBAFull-Text 1019-1023
  Wayne D. Gray; Michael J. Schoelles; Selmer Bringsjord; Kirk Burrows; Brian Colder
Sage provides a scaled world in which real and simulated intelligence analysts work to solve realistic scenarios in innovative task environments. All aspects of Sage are instrumented for data collection and Sage itself is built to facilitate the swapping in and out of prototypes of innovative tools for information search, hypothesis generation, and hypothesis testing. Sage focuses not simply on the promised functionality of these tools, but the way in which the design of the interface supports or hinders the realization of this functionality. Beyond the individual tool and its interface, Sage supports the cognitive engineering of integrated task environments by the use of simulated cyborgs (simBorgs). SimBorgs combine high-fidelity computational cognitive models with low-fidelity artificial intelligence (AI) based reasoning components. This combination of cognitive modeling with AI enables the creation of intelligent agents, simBorgs, that will work tirelessly to perform usability testing on various combinations of tasks and interfaces.
Case-Based Reasoning for Knowledge Discovery BIBAFull-Text 1024-1028
  Elizabeth T. Whitaker; Robert L. Simpson
The Georgia Tech Research Institute's goal in the Novel Intelligence in Massive Data (NIMD) Program is to investigate certain aspects of an intelligence analyst's preferences and analytic strategies used in the process of discovering new knowledge. We are analyzing search strategies used by analysts in an attempt to understand their current task model. Based on this understanding, we will design and prototype a software tool that applies case-based reasoning in combination with other advanced reasoning techniques to help analysts perform knowledge discovery. The main objective of our work is the development, validation and incremental improvement of a set of knowledge discovery automation aids that significantly reduces the manual searches done by intelligence analysts and increases the quality and quantity of derived intelligence. We believe that these technical improvements will depend on our explicit understanding of the cognitive issues implied by the use of advanced reasoning techniques, integrated into a next generation NIMD prototype.
Human-Information Interaction with Knowledge Associates BIBAFull-Text 1029-1033
  David A. Thurmana; Andrew J. Cowell; Adrienne H. Andrewb; Alan R. Chappell
Under the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data program, Battelle is working in partnership with Stanford University's Knowledge Systems Laboratory and IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center to develop a suite of technologies for knowledge discovery, knowledge extraction, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, and human information interaction. We envision an integrated analytic environment composed of a collection of analyst associates called 'Knowledge Associates for Novel Intelligence (KANI).' One of Battelle's contributions to this environment is the design of an Information Interaction Associate, through which analysts will interact with other knowledge associates in KANI and actively construct and manipulate explicit models of the situations, events, actions, and scenarios that they analyze and hypothesize about during an analysis task. This paper reports on efforts to date towards the design of this component and efforts to develop and encode of a model of the intelligence analysis process.
User Modelling for Intent Prediction in Information Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1034-1038
  Eugene Santos; Hien Nguyen; Qunhua Zhao; Hua Wang
User modelling is a key element in successfully assisting intelligence analysts who must gather information and make decisions without being overloaded by the massive amounts of data available on a daily basis most of which are irrelevant. Furthermore, with user modelling, we can predict the goals and intentions of the analyst in order to better serve their information seeking tasks by providing better re-organization and presentation of data as well as pro-actively retrieve novel and relevant information as it arises. Our goal is to provide a dynamic user model of an analyst and work with him as he goes about his daily tasks.

GENERAL SESSION: General Sessions Posters

Driver Attitudes, Beliefs and Reported Behavior Associated with Sharing Public Roads with Farm Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1039-1043
  Theresa M. Costello; Michael S. Wogalter
In previous research, farmers identified farm-vehicle public-road crashes as their top safety concern. In addition, they indicated other drivers' lack of respect as a major safety problem. One purpose of this research was to identify non-farm vehicle driver attitudes, beliefs and self-reported driving behaviors that are associated with disrespectful public road behavior toward farm vehicles. A second purpose was to examine the relationship between non-farm vehicle driver attitudes, beliefs and behaviors and how they interpret farm vehicle driver hand signals. Pearson correlations (n = 267) assisted in categorizing non-farm vehicle drivers into low-, medium-, and high-risk driver profiles. Drivers growing up on or near a farm significantly more strongly interpreted a description of a farm vehicle driver's hand signal to indicate a left turn. Responses of drivers not growing up on or near a farm were more variable. Implications for preventing disrespectful driver behavior and avoiding incorrect interpretation of farm vehicle driver signals are discussed.
Effects of Radio Tuning on Driving Performance BIBAFull-Text 1044-1047
  Mustapha Mouloua; Peter A. Hancock; Edward Rinalducci; Christopher Brill
This paper introduces some of the research work on the effects of telematics, in this case a radio system, on driver's performance. Twenty-four undergraduate students participated in a series of simulated driving scenarios. In the pre- and post-allocation phases, all participants were required to drive two-four minute phases to establish their baseline scores. In the allocation phase, they were required to tune to a series of local radio stations while performing the same driving scenarios. The results indicated that participants committed more driving errors and violations during the radio-tuning phase than any of the other pre- and post-allocation phases. These errors were manifested in an increased number of crossing the median marking, leaving the roadway, and/or lane deviation. The implications of these results are also outlined in the present paper.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Cognition, Decision Making, and Intelligence

A Brain-Based Adaptive Automation System and Situation Awareness: The Role of Complacency Potential BIBAFull-Text 1048-1052
  Nathan R. Bailey; Mark W. Scerbo; Frederick G. Freeman; Peter J. Mikulka; Lorissa A. Scott
The present study assessed situation awareness with individuals who differed in automation complacency potential using a brain-based adaptive automation system. All participants were administered a measure of complacency potential and performed a suite of tasks while monitoring several displays. A biocybernetic system was used to switch tasks between automatic and manual modes. For half of the participants, a psychophysiological index of engagement derived from their own EEG signals was used to control the task mode switches. The remaining participants operated under a pattern of task mode switches that were not derived from their EEG signals, but instead from records created by the participants in the other group. The results indicated that those individuals predisposed toward automation complacency demonstrated lower levels of situation awareness. Further, the lowest levels of situation awareness were observed for those participants predisposed toward automation complacency operating under a pattern of task mode switches generated by the other group. These findings suggest that adaptive automation may have the potential to reduce the effects of complacency by increasing available attentional capacity and in turn, improving situation awareness.
Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 1053-1057
  Gerald Matthews; Amanda K. Emo; Gregory Funke; Moshe Zeidner; Richard D. Roberts
This paper reviews the relevance to the human factors practitioner of emotional intelligence (EI), the ability to understand and manage emotion. Assessment of El may be useful for predicting individual differences in performance in stressful operational environments. However, existing research demonstrates some difficulties in developing valid tests for EI. Self-report and objective tests for EI fail to converge well, and may be measuring different constructs. Objective tests are promising, but further research is needed to establish their predictive validity in human factors contexts. Three examples are given of applied contexts in which assessment of EI may be valuable: performance under stress, coping with anger and frustration and teamwork. Tests for El might be used either for operator selection, or as an adjunct to training, but further research is needed to validate their use. The paper concludes with some initial guidelines for deciding whether EI is potentially relevant to a particular operational setting.
Serial Presentation of Computer Graphics: Training Effects and Strategy Development for Analytic and Holistic Cognitive Styles BIBAFull-Text 1058-1062
  Elizabeth Kramer; R. James Holzworth; Young Woo Sohn; James H. Pratt; Carrie Nelson
Job tasks, such as quality control, require workers to perform visual discriminations, comparing a test stimulus to a standard. In some cases, both stimuli are present and can be compared in parallel. In most cases, however, the standard stimulus is absent and workers must rely on their memory of the standard stimulus in order to make an accurate discrimination. Pratt and Sohn (2001) found that when visual discriminations are made in parallel, training content and individual differences affect strategy development and transfer performance. The present research attempts to compliment and extend Pratt and Sohn's (2001) findings by examining the role of display design and its affects on training effectiveness and strategy development. Participants were given a visual discrimination task identical to Pratt and Sohn's methodology, except stimulus sets were presented serially rather than in parallel. After training with either highly similar or highly dissimilar stimuli, participants transferred to novel stimuli of medium similarity level. Preliminary findings indicate that manipulating display design does not impact training results. Just as Pratt and Sohn discovered, training content does not influence transfer performance for individuals with an analytic cognitive style, but hard training is necessary for individuals with a holistic cognitive style to perform as well as the analytic group. Graphical design and individual differences in cognitive style are discussed.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences Potpourri

Relating Ability and Personality to the Efficacy and Performance of Dyadic Teams BIBAFull-Text 1063-1067
  Eric Anthony Day; Bryan D. Edwards; Winfred Arthur; Suzanne T. Bell
We examined the extent to which member ability and personality relate to differences in team performance and team efficacy in a task setting that simulated the high degree of role interdependence and humantechnology interaction found in many military contexts. 168 male participants were assigned to dyadic teams and trained for two weeks to learn and perform a complex computer task that simulated the demands of a dynamic aviation environment. Participants also completed measures of general mental ability, psychomotor ability, and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability). Team performance and team efficacy were assessed multiple times throughout training. Results indicated that ability was a critical determinant of both performance and efficacy, and personality traits yielded an incremental contribution to both performance and efficacy. In particular, psychomotor ability and conscientiousness were the strongest and most consistent factors associated with team effectiveness.
Characteristics of Drivers Involved in Fifteen-Passenger Van Rollover Accidents BIBAFull-Text 1068-1072
  Margaret M. Sweeney; Deborah S. Bruce
Fifteen-passenger vans, which make up about 0.25 percent of the passenger vehicle fleet in the United States, are frequently used to transport school sports teams, van pools, church groups, and other groups. Although they are involved in a proportionate number of fatal accidents compared to their percentage in the fleet, they are involved in a higher number of single-vehicle accidents involving rollovers than are other passenger vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to identify the association of driver characteristics with van rollover. Results indicate that driver sex and driver-related factors (failure to keep in proper lane, driving too fast for conditions, and over correcting) are related to van rollover. Driver training and experience as well as technology have potential to prevent 15-passenger van rollover accidents.
Individual Differences in Dispositional Pessimism, Stress, and Coping as a Function of Task Type BIBAFull-Text 1073-1077
  Jennifer E. Thropp; James L. Szalma; Jennifer M. Ross; Peter A. Hancock
Individual differences in dispositional pessimism and choice of coping strategy on performance and stress, in target detection were investigated. The results were consistent with prior research indicating that higher levels of pessimism were associated with higher levels of stress and less effective coping strategies. Similarly, pessimism predicted emotion focused coping only in tasks with spatial uncertainty. There was evidence that the influence of personality on post-task stress may be mediated by pre-task state. Pessimism also predicted avoidant coping and task focused coping, although this prediction was only meaningful in the context of the combination of a temporal discrimination and spatial uncertainty. Hence, the degree to which pessimistic operators engage in the three coping strategies depends upon the characteristics of the task.
The Role of Choice and Individual Differences in the Mitigation of Noise and Task Stressors on Vigilance BIBAFull-Text 1078-1081
  H. C. Neil Ganey; James L. Szalma; Peter A. Hancock; Mustapha Mouloua; Anna Connelly; Joseph Dalton; Fleet Davis
The present study investigated the effects of perceived control over aspects of a task (difficulty) on stress and workload in a vigilance task. Additionally, individual differences in dispositional factors and coping strategy chosen by the operator were considered. Prior research has indicated that pessimism has an effect on the level of experienced stress. Additionally, coping strategies have been linked to stress and workload ratings in a variety of tasks (Matthews & Campbell, 1998). While these factors have been investigated independently, as is frequently the case, their complex interaction has remained unaddressed. In the study, we found that optimism was negatively related to task engagement, though it was positively related to distress. Additionally, it was found to be a predictor of task-focused coping behaviors. More conscientious people were less likely to engage in task-focused or emotion-focused coping. Those who were less pessimistic tended to have heightened worry over the task.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Considering the Importance of Individual Differences in Human Factors Research: No Longer Simply Confounding Noise

Considering the Importance of Individual Differences in Human Factors Research: No Longer Simply Confounding Noise BIBAFull-Text 1082-1086
  Waldemar Karwowski; Haydee M. Cuevas; Jeanne L. Weaver; Gerald Matthews; Krystyna Gielo-Perezak; Larry Hettinger; David A. Washburn; Peter A. Hancock
Too often, individual differences are treated as a nuisance variable, and are either controlled in the study or covaried out in the statistical analyses of the results. Yet, to truly generate sound and useful human factors guidelines to facilitate the interaction between humans and systems, we need to fully understand how individual differences in aptitudes interact with the varying circumstances found in today's complex technological environments.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Performance Posters

Cognitive Ability Correlates of Performance on a Team Task BIBAFull-Text 1087-1091
  Brian G. Bell; Nancy J. Cooke
This study examined the relationship between two cognitive ability measures, Grade Point Average (GPA) and verbal working memory capacity, and performance on a team task. Forty 3-person teams of students voluntarily participated in two experiments that required three team members to maneuver a simulated Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) to take reconnaissance photos. Each of the team members assumed a different role with unique responsibilities. Low workload missions required that participants take 9 photos of various targets, whereas high workload missions required 20 photos and involved additional route constraints. The high workload manipulation produced significant reductions in team performance and in the performance of each of the three roles. Working memory capacity was more highly correlated with role performance and GPA was more highly correlated with team performance. Although both cognitive ability measures were significantly correlated with performance on the task, a different pattern of correlations was obtained in each experiment.
The Pilot Personality and Individual Differences in the Stress Response BIBAFull-Text 1092-1096
  Haydee M. Cuevas
Everyday many pilots are able to successfully perform in stressful, high demand, high workload environments under conditions of time pressure and uncertainty. These capable pilots are attributed with having the personality characteristics, coping strategies, and skills necessary for dealing with such difficult situations. The present discussion will review current theorizing on the factors that may mitigate the stress response and identify the prevalence of these variables in pilots, as compared to the general population, in an attempt to gain a better understanding of pilot performance under stress. Implications for personnel selection and training will be discussed in the context of cognitive appraisal.
The Effects of Leadership Style and Workload on Team Alarm Reaction Performance and Team Satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 1097-1101
  Corey K. Fallon; James P. Bliss
Previous research has indicated that flight crew communication problems cause the majority of human errors in aircraft cockpits. Such problems may further degrade reaction decisions to unreliable alarm signals. In this research we examine how leadership style and workload affect collective reactions to unreliable alarms. Seventeen psychology student dyads from Old Dominion University were randomly assigned to act as pilots or copilots while performing complex psychomotor and alarm response tasks. Dyad leaders (pilots) were assigned to exhibit autocratic or participative leadership behaviors. Dyads reacted to ten alarms in each condition and were randomly assigned to a low or high psychomotor task workload group. Results indicated that dyads in the low workload group reacted to alarms significantly faster than dyads in the high workload group. Also, copilots indicated higher leadership satisfaction in the participative style. These findings suggest that alarm designers consider workload when implementing alarm systems, and that pilots should be trained to exhibit participative leadership qualities.
An Investigation of Individual Differences in Relation to Warning Compliance and User Affect: Preliminary Findings BIBAFull-Text 1102-1106
  Jeanne L. Weaver; Jessica A. Helmick; Kelly A. Burke
Consumers frequently encounter warning labels and safety precautions on the products they purchase, whether it is at home or in the workplace. Studies on the physical aspects of warning labels have been extensively considered, such as variability in font size, weight, size contrast, etc. Although it is important to consider the physical characteristics of the warning label, individual characteristics as they pertain to consumers are also important to consider. For example, Weaver, et al. found that health orientation and sensation seeking were significantly related to behavioral compliance to warnings. The current study investigated the extent to which participant characteristics would relate to warning compliance when exposed to a noise stressor.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper Extremity I

Analysis of Aiming with Tools: Proprioception BIBAFull-Text 1107-1111
  Nagasridhar Chintapalli; Xuedong Ding; Shinya Takahashi; M. Susan Hallbeck
One of the major areas of interest in the field of ergonomics is the design of hand tools. Though considerable research has produced more user-friendly tools, there has been some reluctance to use them for some tasks. It is hypothesized that this reluctance on the part of the user may be partly due to the reduction of accuracy while using those handles. A pilot study employing twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females) was undertaken to evaluate three different grip angles, between the tool and handle axis, combined with four visual availability of the target conditions. Each subject was asked to aim at the center of the target under all the twelve test scenarios, with each subject performing ten trials in each scenario. The target was a touch screen monitor. The interface was a black screen background with the center indicated by a red cross-hair. The results of this study showed that the dependent variable, accuracy, was primarily effected by the angle of the of the handle grip with respect to the tool axis and by the visual availability of the target in a manual-aiming task. The tool with the least ergonomically correct wrist position yielded the best accuracy. As expected, the blind condition was the worst, but seeing the points that had been previously hit as additional visual feedback did not improve performance. The overall implication being that the most ergonomically correct tool might not lead to the best performance unless proprioception or feedback is taken into consideration. This has direct implications for tasks such as laparoscopic surgery where a long shafted tool is used with little visual feedback.
Evaluation of an Electrogoniometer for Wrist Position Measurements BIBAFull-Text 1112-1116
  Laura E. Hughes; Kari Babski-Reeves
In evaluating work tasks, electrogoniometers provide a simple tool for assessing wrist postures and motions. However, crosstalk and zero drift erode the accuracy and reliability of these devices. As a result, a revised biaxial electrogoniometer has been developed specifically designed for measuring wrist posture. The manufacturer claims that it addresses the problem of increased error rates associated with forearm rotation and extreme wrist angles by incorporating a shorter length flexible wire between the two telescopic ends. This study evaluated the electrogoniometer to determine if accuracy and reliability are improved as compared to results of other studies using similar devices and methods. Overall, the revised device significantly reduces crosstalk and zero drift, but it is unclear to what extent the revised device contributed to the reduction in error versus procedural changes, which included recalibration of the device between different levels of pronation and supination of the forearm. Forearm rotation was significant in determining error and zero drift for both flexion/extension and radial/ulnar measurements, and the amount of error and zero drift significantly increased for more extreme wrist angles. Gender, hand length percentile grouping, and order of angle presentation did not significantly affect electrogoniometric readings.
Wrist and Forearm Movements while Homing In on Precision Targets BIBAFull-Text 1117-1121
  Kathleen Shyhalla
To determine whether people employed different movement strategies when they homed in on precision targets during repetitive tapping tasks, homing in movements were isolated for analysis. The time required to home in on the targets and the absolute magnitudes of peaks in joint velocities during homing in were calculated. In addition, the number of times that three types of corrective actions: changes in movement direction, inflections in velocity, and peaks in velocity, were made during pronation/supination and in radial/ulnar actions were counted.
   The number of times each type of corrective action was made was regressed against the time required for homing in. The relationships were highly linear, with correlation coefficients between 0.78 and 0.94. The implication was that corrective actions occurred at a similar mean frequency, regardless of the level of task precision and that homing in was a very active process at all levels of precision studied. The number of times any type of corrective action was taken increased significantly with increased precision (P < 0.001).
   The mean absolute magnitudes of pronation/supination and radial/ulnar velocities declined significantly with increased task precision (P < 0.001). However, the fact that the number of corrective actions increased with increased task precision showed that the movements toward the high precision targets were not just 'slowed down' versions of the movements to the low precision targets.
   Differences between the number of corrective actions, and the magnitudes of peak velocities for tasks of different levels of precision reflect different biomechanical stresses at the wrist and forearm for the different tasks. These differences are expected to result in different effects on shoulder muscles at different levels of precision.
How should trackball directional movement intuitively relate to an end effector BIBAFull-Text 1122-1125
  Kathryn Done; Shinya Takahashi; Andrew Nickel; Xuedong Ding; Susan Hallbeck
Three strategies for the trackball control of an end effector on a laparoscopic graspers tool were tested to see which strategy was most intuitive to the user. The three strategies (UURR, UDRL, UDRR) were tested on four different orientations of the hand: horizontal holding the tool as an extension of the arm while rolling the trackball with the thumb, horizontal holding the tool as an extension of the arm and forearm pronated 90 degrees while rolling with the thumb, horizontal with tool 90° to arm using the thumb, and horizontal with tool 90° to arm using the index finger to roll the ball. Twenty-four subjects, each randomly chosen to test one of the three movement strategies, performed two trials sets per hand orientation, the first to test for intuition and the second to test for the effect of training. The outcome of the trials was a number of correct and incorrect movements of the trackball to control the end effector which was simulated on a computer screen. The results were analyzed using a general linear model test on repeated measures to determine the effects of strategy and hand orientation. Analyses showed that intuitively, subjects were significantly better when the end effector moved as the trackball did (UURR). The analyses of the learned trials showed that subjects did equally well with all three strategies. From these results, it was determined that the trackball control of the forceps will be manipulated using the UURR strategy.
A New Method for Estimating Biomechanical Loading in Grip BIBAFull-Text 1126-1130
  C. B. Irwin; R. G. Radwin
The coupling between the hands and cylindrical handles was studied using simple gripping tasks and vector force measurements. Load transfer and twisting tasks were performed using bare aluminum handles and handles covered with a high friction material. Both tasks were performed using dry and oil saturated handles for three loads. Twelve subjects (6 males and 6 females) participated. Load and surface friction were changed to alter shearing and compression force requirements, which significantly affected grip force magnitude (p<.001). The transverse plane force vector angle did not change for the lifting task (p>.01), but significantly changed with torque and friction for the twisting task (p<.01). The total resolved force vector acting on the hand was measured and the associated biomechanical loading of finger flexor tendons was estimated. Estimates of tendon tension were also made for grip strength vector force data for 61 employees grasping five cylinder diameters. Estimated flexor tendon forces monotonically increased with increasing handle diameter while grip force magnitude declined for the largest handle diameters. Design of a new dynamometer is also described.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Stability and Gait

The Effects of Age on Stress and the Biomechanics of Slips and Falls BIBAFull-Text 1131-1135
  Thomas W. Davis; Thurman E. Lockhart
A study was conducted to investigate if stress associated with a fear of falling contributes to the increased incidents of falls among older adults. The investigation compared physiological stress, with biomechanical parameters of walking for twenty-eight participants in two age groups: (18-35) and (65 or older). Both age groups were evaluated while walking over dry and slippery floor surfaces. Biomechanical parameters included: step length, required coefficient of friction (RCOF), slip distance, and heel contact velocity. Overall, the results indicated that there were differences between older and younger adult's biomechanical parameters of walking, and their physiological stress associated with an inadvertent slip. Younger adult's normal RCOF was higher and their normal step length was longer compared to older adults. Older adult's stress level after a slip was significantly higher than younger adults. Furthermore, younger and older adults modified their step length differently to avoid slipping, when walking over the slippery floor surface. It was concluded that for the participants in this study some anxiety and stress might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of inadvertent slips and falls due to an increased awareness of their external environment.
The Effects of Age on Gait Parameters During Adjustment BIBAFull-Text 1136-1140
  Jeremy M. Spaulding; Thurman E. Lockhart
Further understanding causes and characteristics of slip and fall accidents may aid in prevention of severe injuries and fatalities that result from these accidents. Moreover, understanding mechanisms associated with gait adjustment across a known slippery surface may help in proactively avoiding slips and falls. This study involved examination gait parameter characteristics of the lower extremities during different walking conditions.
   This study consisted of exposing 14 younger and 14 older participants to controlled slippery conditions safely, while studying normal and adjusted gait characteristics (friction requirement, heel contact velocity, and step length). First, a baseline measure was done to study normal gait prior to any exposure to slipping. A second measure was done following a slip from a contaminated floor surface, but before the initiation of a second slip. The results indicate that there are significant gait parameter differences between younger and older individuals. Findings suggest that older individuals require an additional step to properly adjust gait for a contaminated walking surface.
Functional Stability Limits during Reaching Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1141-1144
  Mary Ann Holbein-Jenny; Amber T. Stinson Donaldson; Ryan W. Niederklein; Matthew E. Bechtel; John R. Elmer; Traci L. Richardson
There is a need for stability constraints to be incorporated into ergonomic job analyses. The purpose of this study was to define functional stability limits for persons performing various reaching tasks. Forty-seven volunteers stood on a force plate and leaned as far as possible anterior, posterior and right and left diagonally. Functional stability limits were defined as the percent of the entire base of support through which subjects voluntarily displaced their center of pressure. Results showed that participants displaced their center of pressure from a minimum of 59.7% posterior with feet in a comfortable stance to 85.5% when stepping diagonally right or left toward the lean direction. The height and weight of an external load, and whether it was held in one or both hands, did not significantly affect the stability limits. These results can be used to introduce stability constraints into ergonomic job analyses.
Effects of Mental Workload on Objective and Subjective Measures of Postural Stability BIBAFull-Text 1145-1149
  Angela DiDomenico; Maury A. Nussbaum
A substantial number of injuries and fatalities within occupational environments are due to falls, the majority of which are believed to be a result of loss of balance. This study investigated the effects of postural demands, visual cues, and mental activity on objective measures of postural sway and subjective assessment of postural stability. Measures of postural sway (mean distance, mean velocity, sway area) were obtained using a force plate, both during quiet standing and while performing mental arithmetic. In addition, a subjective postural stability scale was used to record perceptions of postural stability. Thirty participants completed all conditions with the effects of postural stance and visual cues being significant (ANOVA, α=0.05). Mental workload did not substantially alter postural sway or sensations of stability. High negative correlations between the objective and subjective measures were calculated (r =-0.81 - -0.95), with increases in subjective postural ratings corresponding to decreases in objective postural sway measures. Perceptions of postural stability seemed to accurately reflect actual postural sway.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: MSD Risk Assessment

A Task Analysis Approach to Assessing Exposure BIBAFull-Text 1150-1154
  Marissa L. Ebersole; Thomas J. Armstrong
Lean manufacturing has created an environment where industrial jobs are continually changing and becoming more complex in nature. In current practice, each of these job changes would require a new ergonomic analysis. This research proposes that the analysis of individual tasks within a job can be added to understand the overall exposure of the job. Using this relationship, one can obtain an understanding of job exposure without a complete reanalysis. In this study, nine jobs were analyzed using observational techniques in which generic ergonomic stresses were rated on a scale from 0 to 10 at both a task and job level. When the task observations were added together and compared to the entire job, the ratings of radial/ulnar deviation differed by an average of 1.4 points on a 10-point scale. Peak force differed by an average of 1.1 points. The other ratings were all within 1 point on a 10-point scale, which is considered within consensus as defined by the scales. These support the proposed method.
Gender Differences in Exposure to Physical Risk Factor's during Standardized Computer Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1155-1158
  Erik Won; Pete Johnson; Laura Punnett; Theodore Becker; Jack Dennerlein
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in exposure to physical risk factors between genders in a series of standardized laboratory-based tasks on computer workstations adjusted to subject anthropometry. METHODS: Thirty computer users (15 men and 15 women) completed five different tasks. Surface electromyography measured muscular activity in the shoulders (anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and trapezius) and wrists (extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris). Electrogoniometers and electromagnetic sensors measured posture of the wrists and shoulders, respectively. A force-sensing platform placed under the keyboard measured typing force. Whole body and upper extremity anthropometric measurements were recorded manually. RESULTS: Normalized muscle activity (EMG), the forces applied to the keyboard relative to the maximum force of the fingertip (%MVC), and range of motion were consistently higher for women. Shoulder posture was less neutral for women. Pearson correlations revealed strong associations between anthropometric variables (height, shoulder width, and arm length) and physical risk factors (EMG, range of motion, force) that are different between genders. CONCLUSIONS: Women have greater exposure to physical risk factors during identical tasks on a computer workstation. Exposure to these risk factors was strongly correlated to anthropometric differences between genders. This demonstrates how biomechanics plays a role and may contribute to the higher prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders found in females.
The Effects of Personality Type and Stress on Muscle Activity during Simulated Work Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1159-1163
  Naomi F. Glasscock; Gary A. Mirka; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Katherine W. Klein
The research presented here explores the relationships between individual (e.g., personality type) and environment (e.g., time stress) psychosocial factors and muscle activity. Twenty-five subjects participated in this laboratory study. Personality type was assessed using the Jenkins Activity Survey. Participants (12 Type A and 13 Type B) performed a pipetting task under verbally imposed "no time stress" and "time stress" conditions. Independent variables included personality type, gender, condition order, and stress condition. Dependent measures included normalized integrated electromyography (NIEMG) from ten muscles. The effect of personality type on muscle activity was completely moderated by gender. Type A female dominant flexor activity was 57% of the Type B activity. Type A male dominant flexor activity was 188% of the Type B activity. Time stress increased muscle activity by 9 to 23% in six of the muscles sampled. However, the dominant flexor and extensor activities only increased (by 25 to 29%) for females. This study demonstrates the feasibility and importance of including individual and environment psychosocial factors in biomechanical evaluations.
Developing an Instrument to Measure Keyboarding Style: Obtaining Content Validity BIBAFull-Text 1164-1168
  Nancy A. Baker; Mark S. Redfern
There is no observational instrument that can be used to document hand and finger use during computer keyboarding that may put a user at risk for musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity (MSD-UE). This paper describes a method used to obtain content validity for a new observational instrument, the PeCKS (Evaluation of Personal Computer Keyboarding Style), which can be used to document and assess these parameters of keyboarding style. Parameters of keyboarding style that might be risk factors for MSD-UE were developed through a review of the literature and interviews with MSD-UE experts. From these parameters a beta-1 version of the PeCKS was created and sent to seven experts to rate the content. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the agreement between raters concerning each parameter's importance as a risk factor for MSD-UE. There was good agreement among the raters about the importance of each parameter in the PeCKS (beta-1) and for the overall instrument. The instrument was subsequently modified and refined based on the experts' feedback.
A Comparison of the Roles of Univariate and Three-Dimensional Anthropometric Data in the Description of Form BIBAFull-Text 1169-1173
  Melinda M. Cerney
With the recent completion of the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR), a comprehensive set of univariate and three-dimensional anthropometric data has been made available to the design community. It is now the role of the designers to determine how best to utilize these data, whether to continue designing with distance measures or to break with the traditional methods and explore the descriptive possibilities of 3D data. This paper describes a statistical comparison of the characteristics of traditional, univariate anthropometric data to three-dimensional data in the design of a seated workstation through the exploration of (1) the ability of distance data extracted from 3D landmark data to represent traditional anthropometric dimensions and (2) the degree of similarity between the design information provided by extracted distance data and the original set of three-dimensional landmark coordinates. The results suggest that three-dimensional landmarks provide a more complete archival of form than do univariate descriptors.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Fatigue/Low Back

The Effects of a Manual Furniture Handling Device on Muscle Activity and Kinematics of the Lower Back BIBAFull-Text 1174-1178
  Jessica K. Paskiewicz; Fadi A. Fathallah
Low back disorders (LBDs) are prevalent in the manual furniture moving industry. However, few practical lifting aids are available, especially when handling objects requiring two movers. A belt system, the GRIPSystem, has been developed to assist movers who operate in pairs while lifting awkward furniture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this manual device in reducing key low back disorders risk factors. Twelve subjects (9 male and 3 female) were recruited to participate in this study. The subjects lifted three household furniture items, at three varied weights, with and without the lifting device, while trunk kinematics and 10 muscle EMG signals were recorded. The results showed that the device significantly lowered the kinematics and muscle activity of the lower back, as well as the risk of LBDs. Other potential benefits of the device are also discussed. However, further studies are needed to confirm the device's effectiveness in reducing LBDs in the moving industry.
Recovery and Repeatability of Emg Measures during Low-Intensity, Intermittent Isometric-Isotonic Shoulder Efforts BIBAFull-Text 1179-1183
  Hardianto Iridiastadi; Maury A. Nussbaum
A study was conducted to determine the adequacy of several recovery periods following a series of intermittent tasks, and to evaluate repeatability of changes in muscle fatigue measures during such efforts. Seven college-age students participated in this study that involved light intermittent abductions of the arm, performed in a supine posture. The exercise was maintained either until exhaustion or up to one hour, with contraction levels set at 20% of muscle strength. The same exercise was performed on five different days (Day 1, 2, 6, 8, and 11). Data collected included strength, perceived muscle discomfort, and amplitude and median power frequency of the myoelectrical signals obtained from the middle-deltoid muscle. Despite nonsignificant day effects, trends indicated that a minimum of two-day recovery period between sessions is needed. Additionally, poor intra-class correlations were found for changes in electromyography-based measures, indicating that care is needed when interpreting myoelectrical data as an indicator of fatigue during this type of exercise.
Logarithmic Power-Frequency: An Alternative Method for Emg-Based Fatigue Assessment BIBAFull-Text 1184-1188
  Y. Yassierli; Maury A. Nussbaum
The purpose of this study was to explore different methods of processing EMG signals with a goal of obtaining more sensitive measures of fatigue. Two groups of 28 and 16 participants performed isometric efforts in arm abduction and torso extension until exhaustion respectively at three exertion levels (30, 50 and 70% of maximum). Electromyographic signals were recorded from the middle deltoid muscle and the erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 level for the first and the second group, respectively. Three new parameters, peak amplitude frequency, slope of lower frequency, and slope of higher frequency, were derived from logarithmic power versus logarithmic frequency over a 20-200 Hz bandwidth. Changes of these parameters over time were found to be sensitive to fatigue and to different levels of exertion. The first two parameters were more sensitive than median power frequency during arm abductions, but less sensitive than mean power frequency. In torso extensions, the slope of higher frequency gave better performance than the slope of lower frequency. This alternative method appears to have promise for future EMG-based assessments of localized muscle fatigue.
Exposure Assessment Strategies to Evaluate Trunk Postures During Heavy Manufacturing Work BIBAFull-Text 1189-1192
  Hemant Prabhu; Victor Paquet
The objective of this study was to identify the sources of temporal variation in trunk postures for self-paced cyclic jobs in a forging plant in order to inform job analysis sampling strategies intended to reliably estimate average long-term exposures to these postures. Repeated video recordings were made on three different individuals in each of the three different jobs over a period of fourteen days. Multimedia Video Task Analysis was used to evaluate the percent of time individuals spent in mild trunk flexion (i.e., exceeding 20 degrees) for each of the observation periods. Analysis of variance was used to quantify the within and between worker sources of exposure variability within shifts and across days. The within and between worker components of variability in trunk flexion was very different across the occupations. While in one occupation, no exposure to mild trunk flexion was found, the within- and between-worker components of variance were quite different for the other two occupations. This suggests that different sampling strategies may be needed to reliably estimate the average percentage of time individuals spend working in flexed trunk postures even for cyclic production jobs.
Is Chaos Present in Static Postures Observed at Work: A Nonlinear Dynamics-Based Analysis of Surface Emg Signals BIBAFull-Text 1193-1197
  Waldemar Karwowski; David Rodrick
The primary objective of the study was to explore the nonlinear characteristics of surface electrical activity of the biceps muscle during two (job safety critical) static postures observed on the assembly line. The results showed that for each trial in both postures (posture 1: the MVC condition, and posture 2: the no-loading test posture) the positive Lyapunov exponents exist. However, the statistical test of significance showed that surface EMG of the biceps brachii was more chaotic under the maximum loading in simulated posture 1 than under the no-loading condition in simulated posture 2. At the same time it was observed that the recorded two types of time series (EMG data) were almost equally complex, indicating the same source of the data. The existence of chaos in the EMG measure of muscle activity may indicate that conventional analysis could bear little meaning in explaining muscular fatigue.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Low Back

Increasing the Distance Between Lift Origin and Destination to Influence Stepping Does Not Improve Torso Kinematics BIBAFull-Text 1198-1202
  Michael J. Jorgensen; Amit Handa; Prabahran Veluswamy; Manish Bhatt
Much of the intervention research for prevention of occupational low back injuries has focused on reduction of torso flexion and the external moment. Little is known about prevention strategies for torso twisting and lateral bending. It was hypothesized that increasing the distance between the lift origin and the pallet would require subjects to take an extra step, and reduce the torso kinematics and resulting LBD Risk. Fifteen males transferred 11.3 kg boxes from a constant origin to a destination pallet at two different distances. Analysis of Variance results indicated that increasing the pallet distance from the lift origin resulted in increases in velocities and accelerations, and the LBD risk at the lower regions of the pallet. These results suggest that increasing the pallet distance from the lifting origin does not appear to be an effective intervention strategy to reduce the risk of occupational LBD associated with torso kinematics.
Trunk Muscle Coactivation in Isometric Exertion Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1203-1207
  Young W. Song; Sukhee Na; Min K. Chung; In S. Lee
Antagonist coactivation levels of trunk muscles were determined quantitatively using three coactivation measures: the sum of antagonist NEMG, the sum of antagonist force, and the sum of antagonist moment. Twelve male subjects performed isometric voluntary exertions gradually increasing to maximum efforts in six directions: flexion/extension, left/right lateral bending, and clockwise/counter-clockwise twisting. Coactivation levels were assessed at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% MVE in six directions. Antagonist coactivation was dependent on the magnitude and direction of the exertion moment, while it showed different patterns according to the coactivation measures. Twisting moments induced highest coactivation in all three measures.
Estimation of Emg Activity of Trunk Muscles in Manual Lifting Tasks Based on Trunk Dynamics Using the Fuzzy Relational Rule Network BIBAFull-Text 1208-1212
  Waldemar Karwowski; Adam Gaweda; William S. Marras; Kermit Davis; Jacek Zurada
The main objective of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of predicting the electromyographic (EMG) activities of trunk muscles in manual lifting tasks. The applied data-driven fuzzy model with relational rule network utilized trunk dynamics as input variables, including sagittal and lateral trunk moments, pelvic tilt and rotation angles, and sagittal, lateral, and twist trunk angles. The data for model training and testing were randomly selected from a data set of EMG time domain values collected for 20 male college students. The utilized EMG data represented a total of 24 combinations of weight (15, 30, 50) lifted, asymmetry (0-60 degrees), and the origin and destination of lift (floor-waist, floor-102 cm, knee-waist, knee-102 cm), with two replications of each condition. The model was trained using the data for ten subjects and 18 randomly selected trials, and was then tested based on the EMG data for another ten subjects using randomly selected 6 trials. The model allowed for estimating EMG responses (in time domain) for the ten trunk muscles with the mean absolute error ranging from 0.91% to 11.8%. The study showed that it is feasible to estimate the time domain EMG responses of human trunk muscles due to manual lifting tasks with the acceptable level of accuracy.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Ergonomics and the Aging Worker

Importance of Ergonomics for the Aging Worker BIBAFull-Text 1213-1215
  Kermit G. Davis; Michael J. Jorgensen; James W. Grosch; William S. Marras; Don B. Chaffin; Sara Czaja; Mark S. Redfern
The purpose of the panel will be to discuss the ramifications of the numerous aging-related declines and how they impact the risk of injury in the workplace. Specific attention will be given to how the various components of the musculoskeletal system interact with each other. The discussion will provide potential intervention strategies that accommodate for the special needs of older workers. Through the diverse backgrounds of the panelists, a more comprehensive dialogue will provide better evidence of the strength and weaknesses of the literature regarding this rapidly growing at-risk population.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Comprehensive WRMD Evaluations and Programs

Effects of Regulations on the Choice of Ergonomic Methods: A Comparative Survey of California and New York Ergonomists BIBAFull-Text 1216-1220
  Jonathan Puleio; Alan Hedge
A survey of 57 ergonomists in California and 28 ergonomists in New York State compared which of 19 ergonomic methods were used to assess potential injury risks. Results showed great variability in methods chosen by practitioners both within and between States. The Cal/OSHA regulation apparently has not standardized method selection in California. Apart from use of the NIOSH lifting equation for assessments of lifting and the Borg RPE scale for assessing exertion, there was no evidence of any standardization among practitioners in either State. There was no consensus on methods for assessing posture, repetitiveness, or force. Significant confusion was found among California practitioners regarding the content of the current Cal/OSHA regulation.
Recurrent Hand/Wrist Problems and Organisation of Work Involving Keyboard Use, Physical Strain and Work-Related Mental Job Stress BIBAFull-Text 1221-1225
  Jason Devereux
Job design issues have been implicated in the development of work-related neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. This paper describes the results from about 2000 computer users involved in a base-line of a prospective study in the UK. The data support the ecological model of musculoskeletal disorders proposed in 1996 by Steve Sauter and Naomi Swanson. A sense of physical strain from performing 4+ hours of keyboard work per day and perceiving the job to be mentally stressful mediates the exposure-effect relationship between keyboard work and recurrent hand/wrist problems. This study has implications for job design. It supports the recommendations that jobs involving computer work should limit typing to less than 4 hours a day and organisational factors should be addressed to avoid mental stress. In addition, feedback regarding the physical aspects of the job design (organisation of work and physical workstation layout) may further reduce risks.
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Risk Factors and Shoulder Neck Symptoms in Academic Personnel BIBAFull-Text 1226-1230
  Valerie J. Berg Rice; Mary Z. Mays
The purpose of this report was to identify the level of risk for shoulder and neck, workrelated musculoskeletal injuries among faculty, administrators, and support staff at the Army Medical Department Center and School, Academy of Health Sciences. The Department of Defense (DoD) Job Requirements and Physical Demands (JRPD) survey was used to examine risk factors associated with work activities and organizational factors, as well as self-reported healthcare and symptoms of employees. Over half of the 414-person sample (54%) reported job-related symptoms in the shoulder and neck region. Those experiencing symptoms were more likely to be female, older, civilian (as opposed to active duty military), and have worked more than 5 years on their job (p < 0.01). Job characteristics associated with symptoms included postures associated with static loads, including holding arms in an outstretched position, working with the neck held in flexion or extension, and cradling a phone between the neck and shoulder. Organizational risk factors included high workload, conflicting demands, and inability to access pertinent information (p < 0.05).
Risk Assessment Model for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome BIBAFull-Text 1231-1235
  Dongjoon Kong; Andris Freivalds; Milind J. Kothari; Sanjiv H. Naidu; Robert E. Ford
Because of the high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the work place, there is a need for a risk assessment model for CTS that considers more than work-related risk factors. A total of 74 subjects (39 CTS patients and 35 healthy workers without any symptoms of CTS) participated in a cross-sectional study to develop a risk assessment model for CTS based on the hypothesis that a combination of personal and work-related factors contribute to the development of CTS. Personal, psychosocial and physical risk exposure information was collected and analyzed on two groups. A pseudo-univariate analysis was used to select the competitive factors from 84 candidate variables. The final multiple logistic regression model included seven factors: age, gender, right hand wrist ratio, body mass index, previous musculoskeletal disorders at hand/wrist, skill utilization, and unbalanced hand use (high repetitiveness). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test (Hc = 1.536, d.f. = 7, ρ = 0.981) indicated that the derived multiple logistic regression equation adequately fit the data. The correct classification performance of the model is 91%. The logistic regression model includes more personal factors than work-related factors due to two major reasons: (1) the heavier physical workload of the healthy workers than CTS patients, or (2) a higher survival rate among healthy workers.
Trackball Modification Based on Ergonomic Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1235-1239
  Ido Morag; David Shinar; Keren Saat; Anna Osbar
A workstation ergonomic study was conducted in Intel's manufacturing plant in Qiryat-Gat, Israel in response to an increasing trend of technicians' complaints regarding wrist discomfort and pain. The study was performed with a sample of 62 technicians, and a comparison was made of the use of the trackball at its current position of 15° (control group) vs. an improved position of 24° (test group). The hypothesis was that the trackball at its current position creates a physical load on the upper part of the body that may lead to wrist discomfort or pain. The study, which took place in a manufacturing area (clean room in the semi-conductor industry) characterized by heavy use of the upper body, showed that the average level of discomfort, as reported by the technicians, was lower in the test group than in the control group. Videotape analysis showed that minor wrist extension was also found in the test group. At the workstations with the improved trackball angle (24°) there was a dramatic decrease in the practice of technicians leaning against the workstation as a supporting device. These results led to an implementation of the new trackball angle in all 900 workstations on the plant-manufacturing floor and became part of the base line for future designs of all Intel's manufacturing plants worldwide.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomics (Practice Oriented Session)

Working Upstream: Successes in Reducing Injury Risks in Construction BIBAFull-Text 1240-1243
  Peregrin Spielholz; Ernesto Carcamo; Gary Davis
An engineering solution to remove an injury risk factor is the preferred route for preventing musculoskeletal injuries when feasible. Construction has presented a challenge that is only recently being aided by new tool designs and work in the area. However, many risks are introduced or exacerbated by factors "out of their control". Several projects in Washington State have investigated the benefits of working with manufacturers and architects to reduce the level of risk before the construction phase by repackaging materials or considering alternative designs with worker health and safety taken into account. To reduce lifting risks, composition shingles were successfully repackaged in lighter bundles weighing 48-50 lbs (previously 64 lbs) in cooperation with a large manufacturer. This intervention is presented as an example of working upstream to reduce injury risks.
Ergonomic Program Effectiveness: Ergonomic and Medical Intervention BIBAFull-Text 1244-1246
  Kevin P. McSweeney; Brian N. Craig; Jerome J. Congleton; David Miller
The implementation of a successful ergonomic and medical intervention program designed to reduce the number and severity of injuries and illnesses and the associated levels of discomfort in the workplace is presented. Because of the recent activity concerning the on-again-off-again OSHA Ergonomic Program Standard questions have been raised as to the value and effectiveness of an organization's ergonomics program. In light of these concerns, the immense cost associated with work related injury/illness, and the related pain and suffering associated with such injuries/illnesses, it is important to present a workable and effective ergonomic and medical intervention program. The results of this applied study demonstrate that through the application of an ergonomic and medical intervention program, workplace related injuries and illnesses can be reduced and/or eliminated.
Solutions for Reclined Seating in Office Workstation Design BIBAFull-Text 1247-1251
  Thomas C. Adams
A critical factor for comfortable and safe office work is trunk support from a slightly reclined posture. Frequently, however, workstation arrangements prevent workers from using this posture. Through the Ergonomics Program at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, a comprehensive approach for workstation design was developed that encourages innovative applications of basic ergonomic principles for maximizing worker comfort. Without the constraints of a preconceived arrangement, holistic solutions were developed that often looked far different from the classical computer workstation, but were better fits for the worker and work area.
Conducting a Systems Evaluation to Address Workplace Radiation Exposure Hazard BIBAFull-Text 1252-1255
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
Human factors consulting and practice in the area of safety management has been motivated by a variety of practical and theoretical interests, including injury reduction. When conducting a human factors analysis involving a hazard, the first course of action is to "design out" the hazard when possible. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a systems approach to design out an exposure hazard in an industrial setting. The benefits of a systems approach will be discussed. An example of a complex industrial system with a potential radiation hazard will be analyzed.
Ergonomic and Existing Seat Designs Compared on Underground Mine Haulage Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1256-1260
  Alan Mayton; Dean Ambrose; Chris Jobes; N. Kumar Kittusamy
NIOSH researchers conducted a study to compare seat designs on underground coal mine haulage vehicles. The objective of the study was to support prior findings that NIOSH-designed seats, which incorporated ergonomic design features (e.g., viscoelastic foam padding and low-back support), are improved designs. Based on measured levels of vehicle jarring/jolting and perceived discomfort, researchers evaluated four different designs -- two in-use and two NIOSH-developed, ergonomic designs. Researchers collected data using a short questionnaire, a linear, visual analog scale, and accelerometers with a data recorder. Results showed that vehicle operators favored the NIOSH seats with added adjustability, low-back support, and improved seat padding over the existing seats. In addition, the measurements indicated all NIOSH seats performed better than the existing seat, under the no-load (worse of two) conditions, in reducing peak acceleration, crest factor, and RMS acceleration. The authors summarize the data collected and operator preferences for seat designs and different foam padding arrangements.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper Extremity II

Short-term Changes in Upper Extremity Dynamic Mechanical Properties Associated with Power Hand Tool Use BIBAFull-Text 1261-1264
  R. G. Radwin; M. E. Sesto; T. G. Richard
This study investigated the relationship between repetitive eccentric exertions in power hand tool operation and upper limb mechanical properties including stiffness and inertial mass, and physiologic measures including localized pain, discomfort, and swelling. Tool parameters, including peak torque (3 Nm and 9 Nm) and torque build up time (50 ms and 250 ms), were controlled in a full-factorial design. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions and operated a pistol grip nutrunner four times per minute for one hour in the laboratory. An average decrease in stiffness (48%) and mass moment of inertia (60%) of the upper limb was observed immediately following pistol grip nutrunner operation. A previously developed dynamic tool operator model was used to predict resulting handle force and displacement, and the conditions associated with the greatest handle force and displacement demonstrated the greatest decrease in mechanical stiffness and inertial mass, and the greatest increase in localized discomfort.
Upper Limb Dynamic Mechanical and Anatomical Properties among Assembly Operators BIBAFull-Text 1265-1268
  M. E. Sesto; R. G. Radwin; W. F. Block; T. M. Best
This study investigated upper limb mechanical and anatomical properties in assembly workers. Fourteen male assembly workers were recruited from selected jobs including power hand tool users and non-power hand tool users. Active dynamic mechanical properties of the upper extremity were measured using a free vibration apparatus. All workers underwent a physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and completed a symptom survey. Employees were categorized as asymptomatic versus symptomatic based on reported forearm symptoms and physical exam findings. Symptomatic individuals had 46% less mechanical stiffness and a 59% less mass moment of inertia of the forearm than the asymptomatic group. Workers were stratified based on power tool use and two of the seven subjects who regularly used power nutrunners demonstrated MRI T2 enhancement, which is indicative of muscle edema. T2 MRI enhancement was not demonstrated in the seven subjects who did not regularly use power nutrunners.
Perspectives in Powered Nutrunner Torque Reaction: Handle Displacement and Grip Force BIBAFull-Text 1269-1273
  Jia-Hua Lin; Raymond W. McGorry; Chien-Chi Chang; Patrick G. Dempsey
Powered hand tools have the potential to produce reaction forces that may be associated with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs). This paper reports an ongoing study to quantify how operators respond to nutrunner reaction forces, with results from twelve male subjects. Three work configurations using pistol grip and angle tools were tested in the laboratory. Handle displacement due to torque reaction was recorded using a cable potentiometer. Grip force was measured on an instrumented handle attached to each tool. A full factorial experiment was designed considering working height, distance, tool, and fastener joint hardness. The results show that working height significantly affected grip force and handle displacement. The mean displacement was 22.75 mm when using pistol grip tools on a horizontal surface on a soft joint, and was 7.15 mm on the hard joint. This study provides information regarding the workstation design and tool selection that could minimize the torque reaction experienced by nutrunner operators.
Baseline Exposure Assessment Results from a Prospective Study of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders BIBAFull-Text 1274-1278
  Peregrin Spielholz; Stephen Bao; Ninica Howard; Barbara Silverstein
This prospective study is following a cohort of up to 1000 workers for three years to determine the relationship between risk factors and confounders and the development of clinically diagnosed upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs). Results from 535 workers at baseline in manufacturing and service industries showed that 28.8% of jobs had an average RULA grand score of 5-7 for the right side of the body, and 24.1% for the left. The average and median Strain Index scores for the right side were 19.8 (±42.5) and 5.1, and for the left side were 16.4 (±41.0) and 3.4. HAL TLV analysis showed that 65.7% of subjects were below the Action Limit for the right side and 71.6% for the left, while 18.7% were over the TLV for the right side and 15.2% for the left. These data in combination with more detailed measurements will be used in prospective analysis to quantify the relationship between risk factors and UEMSD outcomes.
Positions of the Computer Mouse within a Thousand Workstations BIBAFull-Text 1279-1282
  Jack Dennerlein; Peter Johnson
We completed an evaluation of a 1000 workstations at 37 companies across six states of the US determining the location of the computer mouse. A simple check list contained four categories for input device use (infrequent, primarily keyboard, primarily mouse, or mixed); six categories for pointing device location (18 horizontal areas relative to keyboard, five categories for vertical location relative to the keyboard), and three categories for the keyboard vertical position adjustability(fixed height, adjustable work-surface, keyboard tray). Over 92% of the workstations had the mouse on the right-hand side of the keyboard, and 54% were in the area immediately to the right of the keyboard. Of the workstations evaluated 79% had the mice at the same vertical level as the keyboard with 13% being placed above and 8% below the keyboard. Sixty-one percent of the workstations had the keyboard on a vertically adjustable surface whereas 38% were placed on a conventional non-adjustable desk. Only 32% have the keyboard on a vertically adjustable work-surface with the mouse directly to the right of the keyboard, the recommended setup configuration. Mouse locations varied between companies, but were fairly similar within facilities.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Industrial Ergonomics Posters

Use of Normalized Hand Size for Subjective Rating and Performance of Handle Diameter in a Maximum Horizontal Torque Task BIBAFull-Text 1283-1287
  Yong-Ku Kong; Brian D. Lowe
An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of handle diameter on handle comfort, finger force capability, and torque, and to predict the optimal handle diameter based on a 'Normalized Hand Size (NHS)' in a maximum horizontal torque task. Subjective ratings, a force glove and LIDO WorkSET were used to assess comfort, finger force capability, and torque output on six experimental handles (from 25 to 50 mm). Analysis of subjective ratings showed that the 45 mm handle diameter was the most comfortable followed by the 50 mm handle. These two handles (50 and 45 mm) showed significantly larger torque, and lower finger forces than the other handles. The ratio of handle circumference to hand length, the NHS, was applied and resulted in 86.3% and 90.7% as the ratios to obtain maximum comfort and torque, respectively. From these data the optimal handle diameters can be recommended according to users' hand sizes in horizontal torque tasks. More sophisticated methods are being used to represent mathematically the relationships between handle diameter, finger force capability, and maximum torque output.
Current and Future Ergonomic Office Trends BIBAFull-Text 1288-1289
  Jerome J. Congleton
This presentation will help you gain an understanding of current work trends and alternative furniture concepts and features to consider when setting up your workspace. Ergonomic guidelines and solutions for real office problem situations enable you to prevent common problems from developing. These guidelines can be applied in the traditional office and in today's alternative offices.
Kinematic Evaluation of Pulling Carry-on Luggage BIBAFull-Text 1290-1294
  Myung-Chul Jung; Joel M. Haight; Andris Freivalds
From a kinematic standpoint, the objective of this study was to investigate forward pulling tasks that were rare in ergonomic studies, so handling carry-on luggage was determined as an application. Single-pole and traditional double-pole luggage was selected for the comparison under different conditions of load weights and walking speeds. Single-pole luggage had one curved and longer pole in the handle whereas double-pole luggage had two poles that were straight and aligned in parallel. Five male students participated in the study. Subjects walked on the specially fabricated doublewide treadmill at either self-chosen normal speeds or 20% faster than normal speeds with luggage of 15 or 23 kg load weights. During one stride, the peak angles, peak velocities and peak accelerations of ten segments including luggage were obtained from three-dimensional planes as kinematic parameters. The result showed that all three independent variables of luggage types, walking speeds, and load weights affected the motions of most segments. Due to a curved and longer pole in the handle, single-pole luggage was tilted more forward and gave more clearance between luggage and the body. This allowed the right leg to move more freely. The load weight of 23 kg carried with luggage caused the trunk to be slightly more flexed than 15 kg and the walking speeds typically affected the motions of the upper and lower extremities. The handle of luggage could be a potential design factor to be considered by luggage designers and other ergonomic evaluation approaches may be necessary for better understanding of pulling carry-on luggage.
Effect on Flat Surface Postural Stability Following Extended Durations on a Pitched Roof Setting BIBAFull-Text 1295-1298
  Lloyd R. Wade; Wendi H. Weimar; Jerry Davis
A total of 8,786 fatal work injuries were reported in 2001, one half of these fatal fall incidents were a result of falls from a pitched roof setting, as indicated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated nearly 4,000 serious injuries were associated with industry related falls from roofs in 2001. Previous roofing construction related research has focused on the changes on postural sway velocity as a result of decrements in one or more of the three major systems associated with balance (somatosensory, vestibular, and visual). Purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a pitched roof setting on postural stability. All subjects who volunteered as participants (n=20; males), were tested under three conditions: ten, twenty and thirty minute duration on a 12 x 15' pitched roof segment to determine if there was a difference in sway velocity following various exposure durations. Data were collected over four, ten-second trials, under eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Performance was measured using the recordings made by the NeuroCom Balance Master System. Balance was recorded in sway velocity (degrees/second), where the value was representative of the change in center of gravity (COG) in the anterior, posterior, medial, or lateral directions. The angular change of the COG per unit time was summed and divided by ten-seconds to achieve an average sway velocity of the COG. The data were evaluated using 2 (eye) x 3 (duration) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The analysis concluded that the average sway velocity of the COG resulted in a significant main effect at each level of duration (10, 20, 30 minute): p10=.041, p20=.034, p30=.029. The findings have practical implications when dealing with the construction industry. On a daily basis, roofers ascend and conduct roofing related tasks for prolonged periods of time. Following exposure to the pitched roof setting, roofers must move from the roof to scaffolding or a ladder to descend. These findings suggest that there is a significant decrement in postural stability due to exposure to inclination. Postural stability is critical in ascending and descending ladders and scaffolding on flat surfaces. Possible areas of future research that might impact postural stability could potentially involve roof jacks, work boot design, and work rest cycles.
The Effects of Body Awareness, Movement Direction, Visual Condition, and Movement Speed on Trunk Proprioception BIBAFull-Text 1299-1302
  Dan Kelaher; Naomi Glasscock; Gary Mirka
Research on the proprioceptive mechanisms of the trunk typically involves trunk repositioning tasks. However, this body of research involves numerous differences in the test methods, results, and interpretations. This research tested the effects of two of the methodological differences, the visual condition and the speed of movement, along with the plane of motion, on the accuracy and precision of trunk repositioning ability in the three primary planes of trunk motion. The results showed significant main effects of plane of motion and visual condition on both repositioning accuracy and precision. Significant interactions between speed and plane of motion and between the visual condition and plane of motion were found for trunk repositioning accuracy. Finally, there was a strong correlation between the overall repositioning precision and the combined score of the Kinesthetic and Proprioceptive Assessment Questionnaire and the Body Awareness Questionnaire.
Compression and Shear Loads on Lumbar Spine Motion Segments in Neutral and Flexed Postures BIBAFull-Text 1303-1307
  Sean Gallagher; William S. Marras
An analysis was performed to estimate compression and shear loads on three motion segments of the lumbosacral spine in neutral and flexed torso postures. 87 lifting tasks were evaluated using a biodynamic lifting model for lifts starting at 0, 22.5 and 45 degrees torso flexion. Results indicated that the compressive loading on the L5-S1 disk in the 22.5 and 45 degree torso flexion conditions were approximately double and triple those observed in the 0 degree condition. Shear reaction forces acted anteriorly in neutral and moderate flexion, but acted posteriorly in full flexion. Load rates were also dramatically affected by posture, with the load rate in the fully flexed posture being seven times greater than in the neutral posture. Analysis of the upper lumbar levels (L1-L2 and L3-L4) suggested significant shear forces; however, shear forces at L5-S1 remained moderate in all conditions. Results of this analysis will be used in a study examining the fatigue failure of lumbar motion segments when subjected to loads experienced at different angles of torso flexion.
Effects of Vertical Land-Vehicle Ride Motion on Human Reach Performance and Perceived Task Difficulty BIBAFull-Text 1308-1311
  Kevin A. Rider; Woojin Park; Michael P. Prohaska
Vehicle motions can adversely affect the ability of an operator to quickly and accurately reach for targets located inside vehicles. Although previous ergonomic studies investigated human performance during reach tasks, few of them considered effects of non-stationary working environments. This lack of knowledge is a problem, as ergonomic guidelines are not currently available for the design of land-based vehicle interiors. The present study aims to assess the effects of vertical vehicle ride motion on accuracy, movement completion time, and perceived difficulty rating during target-directed reaching tasks. The Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) at the US Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) was used to simulate vertical vehicle motion with various discrete frequencies and kinematic reach movement data for two subjects were recorded using a VICON motion capture system. Movement completion time for reaches, accuracy in pointing tasks, and perceived difficulty ratings were found to be adversely affected by vertical vehicle motions.
Impact of physical stretching on technician alertness in semiconductor manufacturing BIBAFull-Text 1312-1316
  Shlomo Abas; Adar Kalir
It is known that fatigue is a key factor impacting workers' alertness (Freund et al., 1995). In a semiconductor manufacturing environment, fatigue effects are critical and should be assessed and addressed when planning the work environment.
   One way to cope with fatigue is via development and implementation of specific programs that support routine physical activity in the work environment. At the Qiryat-Gat Israeli production facility of Intel Corp., a unique program was developed and implemented that supports physical activity performed by hundreds of shift technicians regularly. This program was named 'IntelRapia' (a combination of the Hebrew pronunciation of the words Intel and Therapy).
   'IntelRapia', in brief, is a set of physical stretching exercises that was developed in cooperation with Dr. Oded Rosenfeld, head of public health department in the Wingate Institute at Israel, and implemented fully early 1999. And is performed within the Clean Room (i.e., the work environment of a semi-conductor Fab) for at least 15 minutes and at least once per shift. But does it really have a positive impact in reducing or eliminating mental and muscular fatigue and increasing technician alertness, at least for a few hours of operation, following the activity? This question was raised as manufacturing organizations at Intel and around the world try to improve labor productivity and reduce indirect activities performed by direct labor. This paper describes the work that was done in order to address this question. More specifically, an experiment was designed and performed to address the following:
  • 1) Is 'IntelRapia' an effective activity as far as increasing alertness and
        reducing fatigue, i.e. -- does it has a positive impact?
  • 2) What are the optimal frequency and time slots during day and night shifts
        for performing the 'IntelRapia' activity? In the sequel, we provide some background on the 'IntelRapia' program and the work environment. We then describe the experimental study that was performed to address the above questions, its results and conclusions.
  • Using Linear Programming to Optimize Control Panel Design from an Ergonomics Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1317-1321
      Grady T. Holman; Brian J. Carnahan; Robert L. Bulfin
    Linear programming (LP) for optimization of control panel layouts has been incorporating ergonomic constraints into models to reduce reaching distances required for control panel use since the 1960's. These algorithms have used a panel's frequency of use, distance from user, and transition distance as basic model variables. A new variation of the LP model for control panel design is proposed that modifies the layout from single point semidry to dual point semidry in terms of design using anthropometries. The proposed model was applied to the design of a twelve-panel board of six-inch square panels. The model was able to take into account design factors such as control sequence, alignment, and clustering, as well as direct hand access. The resulting control panel solution minimized the reach and movement distances required by an operator. Results suggest that LP optimization can be used to construct "ergonomically designed" control panels that limit MSDs incidence and severity.

    INTERNET: Internet

    A User-Centered Approach to Redesigning a Web-Based Utility: Tide.com's Stain Detective BIBAFull-Text 1322-1325
      W. Todd Nelson; Stephanie Hibner
    The purpose of this paper is to present a case study for the review and redesign of Tide.com's Stain Detective, a web-based utility for assisting users find recommended solutions to difficult laundry stains. The paper describes how user-based feedback and data from message boards was used to identify and validate specific interface challenges and information architecture problems. User-centered methodologies, such as card sorting, were used to identify a new information architecture and conceptual model for the Stain Detective utility. Finally, the approach used for developing an intuitive, user-centered "stain" taxonomy and glossary is described, which permitted the design and incorporation of a simple and effective search utility.
    The Privacy Attitudes Questionnaire (PAQ): Initial Development and Validation BIBAFull-Text 1326-1330
      Mark H. Chignell; Anabel Quan-Haase; Jacek Gwizdka
    Privacy has been identified as a key issue in a variety of domains, including electronic commerce and public policy. While there are many discussions of privacy issues from a legal and policy perspective, there is little information on the structure of privacy as a psychometric construct. Our goal is to develop a method for measuring attitudes towards privacy that can guide the design and personalization of services. This paper reports on the development of an initial version of the PAQ. Four privacy attitudes are identified based on the factor structure of the PAQ. Cluster analysis is used to identify potential stereotypes with respect to attitudes towards privacy amongst different groups of people. Version 1.0 of the PAQ is presented in an Appendix as a 36 item questionnaire that measures the four privacy attitudes of personal information, monitoring, exposure and protection.
    Imposing Password Restrictions for Multiple Accounts: Impact on Generation and Recall of Passwords BIBAFull-Text 1331-1335
      Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Abhilasha Bhargav; Robert W. Proctor
    The most commonly used method of identification and authentication for many Web sites is username-password combinations. However, this is a notoriously weak security method because users tend to generate passwords that are easy to remember but also easy to crack. The method of proactive password checking has been proposed to improve security at little cost to memorability, because it allows users to generate their passwords but imposes restrictions to make the passwords more resistant to cracking. The present study evaluated the time and accuracy needed to generate unique passwords that satisfy different restrictions for multiple accounts, as well as the time and accuracy at recalling these passwords. Results showed that password restrictions do not necessarily improve the security of the password generated by users by making them more resistant to cracking because cracking software have become increasingly sophisticated. Although users show good recall of unique passwords generated with restrictions for multiple accounts when the number of accounts is small, the memorability for the multiple passwords decreases as the number of possible accounts increases. One way to improve the memorability of passwords for multiple accounts is to have users generate them several times, at different points of time, prior to allowing them to exit the system.
    Online Chatting: User Evaluations of Current Instant Messenger Systems and Design Recommendations for Future Systems BIBAFull-Text 1336-1340
      Christopher B. Mayhorn; P. Andrew Leynes; Martin L. Bink; Jefferson B. Hardee; J. Adam Fuller
    A large sample of users (N = 211) from three geographically distinct locations within the United States completed a survey to reveal a number of practical as well as social benefits to using instant messenger (IM) systems. Paradoxically, a number of these benefits were also described as common sources of frustration in different contexts. For instance, the ability to conduct multiple conversations simultaneously was described as a benefit of using IM yet sources of frustration included an inability to type fast enough to respond to everyone and confusion of message content. To compensate for past usability issues associated with IM use, users suggested a number of design recommendations to facilitate the use of future systems. The implications of this work are discussed in terms of current theories regarding technology acceptance and use.
    Multitasking and Interruptions During Mobile Web Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1341-1345
      Stacey F. Nagata
    Common traits of mobile computing are time critical tasks and interruptions that require multitasking. Essential for success of a mobile web task is quick and accurate performance. To facilitate performance in response to interruptions, an understanding of factors that influence multitasking during mobile computing is required. This study examines the effect of anticipation and origin (i.e. instant messaging, or phone and intercom) of an interruption on user web performance on a mobile device (iPAQ h3800 pocket PC) or desktop computer. Results show that instant messages can significantly disrupt web task performance time, contrary to popular belief that phones are more disruptive. Anticipated interruptions produce better web task performance particularly on a mobile platform. As expected, web tasks take 1.5 times longer to complete during interruptions on an iPAQ compared to a desktop.
    On Trust in the Internet: Belief Cues from Domain Suffixes and Seals of Approval BIBAFull-Text 1346-1350
      Atticus Y. Evil; Eric F. Shaver; Michael S. Wogalter
    Beliefs about the validity and reliability of Internet web-site information is important to both the user and to the success of a site. The present study examined aspects of reported trust of the Internet. A total of 247 participants (171 undergraduate students & 76 non-students) were asked a series of questions. In general, participants reported trusting only 55% of the information they found on the Internet. Students and non-students differed in their trust of gov and edu domain suffixes as well as several seals of approval (e.g., Verisign, Trust-e). In addition, the ratings of several fictitious seals were judged as trustworthy at levels as high or higher than actual seals. Participants who use the Internet for more hours per week showed significantly more trust for some domain suffixes and seals of approval than those who use the Internet for fewer hours. A similar pattern was seen for both students and non-students. Implications for erroneous beliefs and use of information on the Internet are discussed.
    Comparing Three Types of Layouts for Multiple-Column Web Pages BIBAFull-Text 1351-1355
      Michael L. Bernard; Laurie L. Brady; Barbara S. Chaparro
    This study investigated the three major methods of content presentation by empirically examining users' objective and subjective performance for a typical multi-column website in both large and small window sizes. The three presentation methods were: fluid layout, fixed-centered layout, and a fixed, lift-justified layout. No significant differences between the layout conditions were detected in terms of search accuracy, time, or efficiency, but significant subjective differences were found that favored the fluid layout. Participants indicated they perceived the fluid layout as being the best suited for reading and finding information, as well as having a layout that is most appropriate for the screen size (for both small and large screens). They also indicated that the fluid layout looked the most professional, and consequently preferred it to the other layout conditions. Conversely, the left-justified layout was consistently the least preferred condition. Implications of these results are discussed.
    Examining User Expectations for the Location of Common E-Commerce Web Objects BIBAFull-Text 1356-1360
      Michael L. Bernard
    This study examined where individuals expect specific web-related objects to be located on a typical e-commerce web page. The objects examined were: 1) shopping cart button 2) login/register button, 3) help/service button, 4) account/order status button, 5) internal search engine, 6) "back to homepage" link and 7) grouping of links that go to individual merchandise items. The results provide evidence that users do have definable expectations concerning the location of these web objects on e-commerce web pages. Implications for theses findings are discussed.
    Building a Web-Features Taxonomy for Structuring Web Design Guidelines BIBAFull-Text 1361-1365
      Yuen-Keen Cheong; Randa L. Shehab
    This paper proposes a framework for structuring web design guidelines that incorporates the hierarchies of web features and their semantic relationships with HTML and CSS. It is argued that this approach will be synchronous with the mental model of web designers, thus making the guidelines more usable. In addition, this approach embraces both external and internal aspects of web design, so there is little compromise on the coverage of web design issues. An experiment was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of the proposed framework with other guideline structures (e.g., principle-oriented and a mixture of principle and feature-oriented). There was evidence that the principle-oriented guidelines performed worse than the other structures, but the analyses failed to establish that the proposed framework as the most effective. The experiment showed promising results but it suffered from small sample size. In spite of this, it is believed that the proposed taxonomy and framework has laid the groundwork for future research.

    INTERNET: Internet Posters

    Articulating Pattern Differences in WWW Navigation for Culturally-Diverse User Groups Through Descriptive Analysis and Data Visualization BIBAFull-Text 1366-1369
      Anna L. Langhorne; W. Todd Nelson
    As the proliferation of the WWW continues globally, the challenge of providing a usable navigation experience for culturally-diverse user groups becomes increasingly significant. One aspect of developing such an experience includes describing, categorizing, and visualizing the differences in Internet use for diverse audiences. Previously, semantic network analysis has been used to successfully identify and visualize clusters of employee Internet navigation in two U.S. companies (Langhorne, 2000). This method is further applied to analyzing the WWW behavioral patterns of a sample of ethnically-diverse students and faculty at the University of Dayton. This paper includes an account of the methods used to describe the Internet navigation of users and recommendations for future network analyses are discussed as options for articulating the characteristics of WWW navigation patterns across multicultural groups. The log files of Internet navigation histories for 66 users were analyzed using traditional descriptive statistical techniques. Implications for applying semantic analysis to the same data set are discussed.
    Comparing Cascading and Indexed Menu Designs for Differences in Performance and Preference BIBAFull-Text 1370-1374
      Michael L. Bernard; Christopher J. Hamblin; Barbara S. Chaparro
    Three menu layouts were compared for objective and subjective performance, as well as overall preference. The menus structures consisted of an index layout, a vertical cascading layout, and a horizontal cascading layout. Significant differences in search time were revealed between the three menu item layouts that favored the index menu layout. In addition, there was a non-reliable trend that favored the subjective opinion that the index layout was less disorientating than the other two layouts. Moreover, participants selected the index layout as their first preference choice more than the other two layouts. The poorest performer, both objectively and subjectively, was the horizontal layout. Possible reasons for these outcomes are discussed.
    The Effects of Line Length on Children and Adults' Perceived and Actual Online Reading Performance BIBAFull-Text 1375-1379
      Michael L. Bernard; Marissa Fernandez; Spring Hull; Barbara S. Chaparro
    This study examined reading time, reading efficiency, perceived reading efficiency, and preference for three online-text length conditions, narrow, medium, and full, for both adults and children. No differences were found for either reading time or efficiency for either adults or children. However, adults preferred shorter line lengths to full-screen line lengths. In examining perception of reading efficiency, the results were mixed. For adults, the full text lengths were perceived as providing the optimal amount of scrolling in comparison to the two other narrower line length conditions. The narrowest line length condition was perceived as promoting the highest amount of reader concentration, while the medium line-length condition was considered to be the most optimally presented length for reading. Examining children's perceptions of reading efficiency for each of the line lengths revealed no significant differences in perceived reading efficiency or preference.
    Selection of Web Browser Controls with and without Impenetrable Borders: Does Width Make a Difference BIBAFull-Text 1380-1384
      Brian R. Johnson; J. Shawn Farris; Keith S. Jones
    Graphical user interface elements can be selected faster if they are placed against the edge of the screen. Doing so creates an impenetrable border between the element and the edge of the screen that the mouse cursor cannot penetrate, which changes how users move the mouse resulting in quicker selection times. This study assessed the influence of visible width on selection time when targets did or did not have impenetrable borders. Ten participants selected targets that varied in Target Type (with or without impenetrable borders), Width (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 cm), and Distance (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 cm). For a given width, targets with impenetrable borders were always selected faster than targets without impenetrable borders. Also, increasing the width of targets with impenetrable borders had little effect on selection time, whereas doing so when targets did not have impenetrable borders resulted in a substantial effect on selection time. The results indicate that a 1 cm wide target is adequate to make use of the advantage of edge targets in GUI design.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomic Methods for Technology and Personnel Applications

    New Technology Implementation BIBAFull-Text 1385-1388
      Dennis R. Jones; Michael J. Smith
    New technology is significantly changing the industrial workplace. The implementation of new technology allows companies to improve productivity, quality, safety, working conditions, and profitability. Effective new technology implementation is necessary for companies to compete successfully in the highly competitive business world. Time and money wasted on unsuccessful new technology implementation is contrary to the goal of improving the competitiveness and profitability of the company. To effectively implement new technology it is necessary to consider all of the factors involved in the implementation process, such as: new technology characteristics, organization structure, task factors, environmental characteristics, and the human factors involved. It is also suggested to utilize a cooperative approach to new technology implementation, which relies on employee participation and teamwork throughout the implementation process. By taking a total systems view of the situation; and being aware to the interactions that exist; it is hoped that the new technology can be implemented in the most effective way possible. A case study is presented to illustrate this.
    A Human Factors Vulnerability Evaluation Method for Computer and Information Security BIBAFull-Text 1389-1393
      Sara Kraemer; Pascale Carayon
    There is a current lack of human factors identification and analysis methods in computer and information security. Previous research has focused on micro-level issues, such as task analyses and usability studies of security methods such as smart cards, passwords, and biometric devices. The purpose of this research is to develop a framework for identifying human factors and organizational issues contributing to computer and information security vulnerabilities and breaches. This framework is applied in conjunction with technical security audits. The purpose of this research is to test, develop, and refine the proposed methodology. This study examines the methodology with known computer and information technical vulnerabilities through semi-structured interviews with network administrators. These interviews yielded results in the form of methodology refinements and developments and two case studies of technical security vulnerabilities, using what is called the Human Factors Vulnerability Analysis, or HFVA.
    Personnel Assignment from a Human Factors Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1394-1398
      Karen S. Holness
    This paper presents a review of the personnel assignment problem, including summaries of its key factors and objectives. Previous military research in this field, such as the MANPRINT initiative and recent personnel assignment research in operations research are briefly reviewed. The relevance of personnel assignment research with a primarily human factors focus is discussed, with an emphasis on macroergonomics for achieving optimal personnel assignment solutions.
    A Macroergonomic Approach to the Evaluation of Turnover among IT Workers BIBAFull-Text 1399-1403
      Jen Schwarz; Pascale Carayon; Peter Hoonakker
    In this study, we examine turnover intention in Information Technology (IT) workers, in particular among women and minorities. An initial set of intention to turnover questions from the Michigan Organizational Assessment Scale (Seashore, Lawler, Mirvis, & Cammann, 1982) was used. Phone interviews were conducted with 13 people from three IT companies to refine these turnover intention questions. A new set of three questions was then developed to capture the causes and consequences of turnover intention. Data from 125 IT workers using this new set of questions is also reported.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomics in Health Care: Improving Work Design to Improve Employee and Patient Safety

    Macroergonomics in Health Care: Improving Work Design to Improve Employee and Patient Safety BIBAFull-Text 1404-1405
      Ben-Tzion Karsh
    Improving the safety and health of health care employees and their patients has become a high profile national priority. To address this priority, the Institute of Medicine, in their report "To Err is Human", called upon human factors engineering researchers and practitioners to contribute to the solutions. Macroergonomics is a specialty within human factors and ergonomics concerned with the design of work systems to meet the needs of the employees, business, and customers -- making macroergonomic methods and theories well suited for helping to improve the safety of heath care for employees and their patients. This symposium will showcase how macroergonomics can be used to improve work design within health care for the simultaneous benefit of the employees and patients.
    Process Improvement in an Outpatient Clinic: Application of Sociotechnical System Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1406-1410
      Melissa Hallock; Samuel Alper; Ben-Tzion Karsh
    We used a sociotechnical systems analysis to improve the diagnostic testing process in one Midwestern health care organization's outpatient clinics. Outpatient clinic personnel from the clinic were interviewed about their role in the diagnostic testing process. Information on process variances was also collected. A variance matrix and a key variance control chart were constructed for the variances reported by the clinics. Key variances found in the clinic included sample misplaced, sample mislabeled, sample not delivered, sample damaged, request form problems, result tracking breakdown, slow result delivery, result never seen, and patient notification. Based on the variances found in the clinic, recommendations for improvement are given.
    Human Factors in Healthcare: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1411-1414
      Laurie Wolf; Jessica Marshall; Jennifer A. Sledge; Pat Potter; Stuart Boxerman; Deborah Grayson; Brad Evanoff
    The increasing physical, emotional and cognitive demands placed on nurses and other health care workers, coupled with higher patient acuity levels in the healthcare settings, have increased the risks of employee work stress and potential errors. Large-scale re-engineering efforts to contain costs through staff reduction and streamlining of processes over the past two decades have contributed seemingly to increased job stress of healthcare workers. Traditional human factors engineering methods used to evaluate activities yield a linear listing of activities, time, and motions involved in the patient care process. However, this approach does not provide an understanding of the cognitive work of clinical decision-making. Without this understanding, it is impossible to make judgements on "value added" or wasted motions, and errors. Traditional Human Factors methodology can be enhanced by adding qualitative observation of the nursing care process. The combined methodology provides detailed documentation of environmental conditions, sources of interruptions, and cognitive demands which may contribute to medical errors and compromised quality of care.
    A Comparison of Manual and Electronic Status Boards in the Emergency Department: What's Gained and What's Lost BIBAFull-Text 1415-1419
      Robert L. Wears; Shawna J. Perry; Marc Shapiro; Christopher Beach; Pat Croskerry; Ravi Behara
    Emergency departments (EDs) are complex, high tempo, high risk work environments that require dynamic sharing of information across a group of caregivers. EDs commonly use status boards as tools to facilitate this sharing. Manual status boards have been replaced in some institutions by electronic ones, for a variety of reasons. We contrast the use of manual and electronic status boards in 4 different EDs to assess the gains and losses for workers.
    Shift Changes among Emergency Physicians: Best of Times, Worst of Times BIBAFull-Text 1420-1423
      Robert L. Wears; Shawna J. Perry; Marc Shapiro; Christopher Beach; Pat Croskerry; Ravi Behara
    The need for 24-hour emergency care requires emergency department (ED) staff to work in shifts. Shift changes have long been viewed as risky times, for failures in the transfer of information, authority, or responsibility care can result in adverse events.
       We observed shift transitions in the ED as part of a study on safety in emergency care. We found that, in addition to being an expected point of failure, transitions were also, unexpectedly, associated with recovery from failure. We report two illustrative case studies, and examine implications for strategies aimed at reducing the number of and volume of transitions.
    Collecting Workers' Perceptions of Performance Obstacles in Outpatient Surgery BIBAFull-Text 1424-1428
      Ann Schoofs Hundt; Pascale Carayon; Phillip J. Ayoub; Carla J. Alvarado
    The aim of this study was to gather information from staff of outpatient surgery centers concerning their perception of the patient safety/quality of care issues at their Center and the performance obstacles they face when doing their work. In addition we wished to determine whether performance obstacles research (Brown & Mitchell, 1988; Peters et al, 1985) can be applied to the conceptual framework that serves as the basis for all of our patient safety research (Smith & Carayon, 1989, 1995; Carayon & Smith, 2000).
       We distributed open-ended surveys to all health care providers in five local outpatient surgery centers. Based on previous work conducted in the area of performance obstacles (Brown & Mitchell, 1988; Peters, et al, 1985) we asked the caregivers to identify instances when they felt their performance was challenged or below par, as well as instances when they were able to perform their job very well. Because the population we surveyed is not familiar with the totality of the work system model as defined by Smith & Carayon (1989, 1995) and Carayon & Smith, (2000), we provided the elements of the work system as examples to the respondents. The resounding themes caregivers listed as significant performance obstacles included inter-provider coordination and communication of care, equipment, work space, scheduling, time pressure and staffing issues.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Error, Safety, and the Practice of Medicine

    Error as Drama BIBAFull-Text 1429-1432
      Marilyn Sue Bogner
    The commentary by Shakespeare that "All the world is a stage ..." as well as the drama related words in common usage suggest a method for addressing issues of human performance. Insights provided by the analogy of error as drama include: a script governs all aspect of the actors' performances in that they react and interact with factors in the setting, the context, determined by the script; the outcome of the performance of different actors in the same role is nearly the same; and performance involves the passage of time. Thus to alter performance to reduce error, it is the script, the context, that needs to be changed, and a snapshot of performance at one point in time as in many error-reporting activities, provides a paucity of information about performance. The value of the analogy in identifying error-inducing factors in the context of health care is illustrated by its application to an example of medication misadministration.
    Knowledge of Pharmacokinetics and the Anesthesia Control Loop. BIBAFull-Text 1433-1437
      Paul Picciano; Frank Drews; Noah Syroid; Dwayne Westenskow
    Pharmacokinetics plays an important role in the delivery of anesthesia. Their complex nature creates a challenging control task for anesthesiologists while delivering anesthesia. The anesthesia domain confronts many known control difficulties such as non-linearity, oscillations, and sub-optimal feedback. A clinician's understanding of pharmacokinetics plays an important role in tracking performance. Information about anesthesiologists' knowledge of pharmacokinetics was collected and analyzed. Effects of expertise and considerable variability, even within groups, were observed in the collected data. Reducing variability and supporting the tracking task in the administration of anesthesia could lead to improved patient outcomes.
    Increasing Intraoperative Patient Safety: Monitoring Drug Concentrations BIBAFull-Text 1438-1442
      Frank A. Drews; Noah D. Syroid; Jim Agutter; Rob Albert; Dwayne R. Westenskow; David L. Strayer
    Monitors that show intravenous drug and effect concentrations currently do not exist. However, using real-time displays of intravenous anesthetic concentrations and effects could significantly enhance intraoperative clinical decision-making and patient safety. Pharmacological models are available to estimate drug concentrations in the brain, and to predict the drug's associated physiological effects. An interdisciplinary research team developed a graphic display incorporating these models to show the predicted present and future concentrations and effects of anesthetic drugs in real-time. The results of this study show that anesthesiologists using the display controlled hemodynamic patient variables better than a control group. Additionally, when using the drug display the procedure was shorter than in the control group. Taken together, the availability of a drug display has the potential to increase patient safety significantly.
    Nursing Interruptions in a Post-Anesthetic Care Unit: A Field Study BIBAFull-Text 1443-1447
      Gillian Hillel; Kim J. Vicente
    The nursing workplace is a complex environment in which nurses are frequently interrupted and distracted while they care for patients. Interruptions in the nursing workplace could be a factor in medical errors, which can result in patient injury or death. When designing medical devices to be used in the nursing workplace, it is important to take into consideration the cognitive demands that the work environment places on nurses. Furthermore, it is important to conduct user testing of devices under realistic conditions. To this end, a field study was conducted in the Post-Anesthetic Care Unit at the Toronto General Hospital, whereby 10 nurses were observed as they cared for patients. The types and frequencies of interruptions that they encountered were recorded, along with any observed detrimental effects on performance. Results showed that the most frequently occurring interruptions involved "face-to-face" verbal conversation with another nurse or physician. These results are currently being used to simulate interruptions during experiments to evaluate two patient-controlled analgesia devices under more representative conditions.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Validation Engineering Approaches for Reducing Medical Errors

    Symposium Overview: Validation Engineering Approaches for Reducing Medical Errors BIBAFull-Text 1448-1449
      Richard L. Horst; Gerald P. Krueger
    Validation engineering (VE) is a structured, systematic approach to risk reduction and user hazard mitigation. This series of presentations will espouse the use of a VE framework in considering the ergonomics of medical systems. The first presentation will set the stage by arguing that medical errors should be viewed from a context-of-care perspective, in order to shift the focus from assigning blame to identifying and correcting the precipitating causes of adverse events. VE provides a means of being proactive in this regard, thereby avoiding the conditions that can lead to medical errors. The second presentation will describe the VE framework from a theoretical perspective, mapping out the typical VE lifecycle as a series of feedback and feed forward loops that ensure the systematic assessment of needs, the translation of needs to requirements, the derivation of quantifiable engineering specifications, the accurate translation of specifications to implementation, and then to deployment of the medical product or process. The third presentation will discuss issues that arise in applying this VE approach to ergonomic problems in the design of medical systems. We will emphasize the importance of observation-based measurement in dealing with VE processes and will show examples of metrics, methods, and software tools that can be used to manage a VE implementation.
    Validation Engineering Approaches for Reducing Medical Errors Viewing Medical Errors from a Context-of-Care Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1450-1452
      Marilyn Sue Bogner
    The study of adverse incidents typically focuses on the person associated with the activity that precipitates the incident. This is despite the research and theory that indicates behavior is the product of the person interacting with the environment. This is changing somewhat -- the term "systems" has become a buzzword for factors other than the person that contribute to error, particularly in addressing error in health care. This presentation describes the Artichoke Model, an evidence-based systems approach to understanding behavior. That model decomposes the context of an activity into 8 interacting hierarchal nested systems of factors. By analyzing an incident with respect to those systems, factors contributing to behavior that resulted in the incident can be identified and remedial activities instituted. Such activities can effectively reduce the likelihood of error because they are targeted to an identified rather than presumed contributor to error. Examples from the literature are discussed.
    Validation Engineering in Ergonomics: Theoretical Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 1453-1457
      G. M. Samaras
    A number of ergonomists have described or developed methodological models for the design, development, and evaluation of ergonomic products and processes. These models can be shown to be subsets of a classical methodological approach -- well known in the hardware and systems professions, recently "discovered" by the software profession, and now beginning to be applied to ergonomics. This classical method -- here called validation engineering (VE) -- is a structured, systematic approach to business and technical risk reduction and user hazard mitigation. The VE lifecycle consists of a series of feedback and feedforward loops. The feedback loops consist of validation testing (implementation vs. requirements), verification testing (of requirements, specifications, and implementation), incremental hazard analyses, and post-deployment corrective and preventative actions. The feedforward loop consists of needs assessment, translation of needs to quantifiable requirements, translation of requirements to quantifiable engineering specifications, translation of specifications to implementation, and deployment of the product/process. Ergonomists can benefit both from using the VE approach and participating in efforts that use this approach.
    Validation Engineering in the Ergonomics of Medical Systems: Application Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 1458-1462
      Richard L. Horst; G. M. Samaras
    As discussed in the foregoing companion presentation, Validation Engineering (VE) provides a structured, systematic approach to risk reduction that is more cost-effective than ad hoc methods and maximizes the likelihood that design efforts will yield safe and effective products or processes. Here we discuss issues that arise in applying this VE approach to ergonomic problems in the design of medical systems. To demonstrate its value, several well-known incidents of medical error will be interpreted in terms of how the application of a systematic VE approach might have mitigated or avoided the adverse outcomes. In so doing, the importance of measurement in dealing with such ergonomic problems is emphasized and examples will be shown of metrics that can help cast these problems, and possible interventions, in a VE framework. This will be followed by a discussion of a number of software tools that are available to help manage the practical implementation of a VE process.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Impacting Medical Safety through Human Factors Design

    Ergonomic Redesign of a Laparoscopic Grasper BIBAFull-Text 1463-1465
      Done Kathryn; Jonathan Morse; Lawton Verner; Susan Hallbeck; Dmitry Oleynikov
    Laparoscopic surgery requires surgeons to perform complex procedures using a standardized set of tools. Most tools, including the common laparoscopic grasper, do not currently provide surgeons with comfortable, intuitive control. A new laparoscopic grasper has been designed which follows ergonomic principles for the handle and actuation of an articulated tip. This tool has been prototyped and will be tested by surgeons. This tool will benefit both the surgeon with reduced discomfort and the patient with a safer procedure.
    Visually Perceived Force Feedback in Simulated Robotic Surgery BIBAFull-Text 1466-1470
      C. G. L. Cao; J. L. Webster; J. O. Perreault; S. Schwaitzberg; G. Rogers
    Current robotic systems for minimally invasive surgery do not have effective means of providing haptics to the surgeon. It was hypothesized that providing an analog for force feedback through the visual channel could benefit performance in the absence of actual force feedback. An experiment was conducted to examine performance in a simple line-drawing task in a simulator box using a conventional laparoscopic grasper with inherent force feedback and a robotic manipulator with no force feedback. The task was performed on a hard surface and a soft surface. Physical deformation on the soft surface provided additional visual cues regarding the forces applied during the task. Results showed better performance, in the absence of force feedback, when the visual analog of force was provided. Task completion time was best when physical force feedback was combined with augmented visual feedback. This research has implications for the implementation of haptics in robotic surgical systems.
    Differences in the Use of Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) in Acute Care and Long-Term Care Settings BIBAFull-Text 1471-1475
      Emily S. Patterson; Michelle L. Rogers; Roger J. Chapman; Marta L. Render
    In this paper, we explore how the use of a software package, Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA), differs in acute care and long-term care settings. Direct observation of BCMA use during medication administration was conducted on acute care (42 hours) and long-term care (37 hours) wards in a small, medium, and large hospital. The following differences were found for all three hospitals: 1) acute care ward nurses used more detailed printed reports to plan medication passes and detect errors in ordering and dispensing than on the long-term care wards, 2) barcoded wristbands were scanned more frequently to identify patients on acute care than long-term care wards (53% vs. 8%), and 3) nurses administered medications immediately after scanning and opening medication packets more frequently on acute care than long-term care wards (93% vs. 23%). The findings highlight the need to tailor the BCMA software for the long-term care setting in order to improve patient safety.
    Improving Acceptance and Adoption of Informatics Tools: Acute Cardiac Care BIBAFull-Text 1476-1480
      Fuji Lai; Jean MacMillan; Denise Daudelin; David Kent
    Medical decision-support tools such as those for acute cardiac ischemia (ACI) (the ACI-Time-Insensitive Predictive Instrument [ACI-TIPI]) have demonstrated statistical validity and clinical impact for patient safety but have seen limited adoption and use by clinicians. The goals of this study were (1) to understand the ACI diagnosis decision process and to identify "barriers" to the acceptance and use of the ACI-TIPI by clinicians; and (2) to develop and test the effectiveness of a brief web-based "demystifying" ACI-TIPI tutorial in removing these barriers. The tutorial had a significant effect on many of these barriers with the tutorial-educated physician group reporting greater awareness and understanding of the ACI-TIPI risk-assessment score; more confidence in the score; and greater perceived usefulness, and use, of the score. The ultimate product is not only strategies for promoting use of the ACI-TIPI, but also validated methods for designing such informatics tools for adoption in a multitude of medical domains.
    Designing an Information Display for Clinical Decision Making in the Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 1481-1485
      Anne Miller; Penelope Sanderson
    The Recursive-Diagnostic Framework (RDF) is presented as a way of modelling information in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The RDF motivated an exploratory field study of ICU information use, resulting in an ICU information inventory and the definition of 10 design goals. In conjunction with these outputs the RDF also informed the design of a paper prototype. The overall design structure was based on the physiological dimension of the RDF. From the information inventory, elements of situation (the decision dimension of the RDF) were added. Specific design elements were developed, evaluated, and refined iteratively using scenarios based in the data sets of six de-identified patient records. The RDF and the outputs of analysis were useful in determining the overall structure of the design and the grouping of complex decision and physiological data, while the design goals from the exploratory field study assisted in maintaining design priorities and focus.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Observational Measures of Team Process and Performance in Health Care

    Observation Measure of Team Process and Performance in Health Care BIBAFull-Text 1486-1487
      F. Jacob Seagull; Stephanie Guerlain
    This symposium presents four research approaches that demonstrate a set of diverse tools and techniques for the study of team process and performance. Observational analysis is a cornerstone of human factors research, and analysis at the team level requires approaches tailored to the special considerations of group processes. In exploring these issues, we first present the advantages of video data as a medium in an ergonomic and task analysis of brief, risky beneficial procedures, and comparisons to traditional observational methodologies are made. Next, both qualitative and quantitative methods are used for describing notable events and performing content analysis with a software tool ("RATE") that facilitates the coding and analysis of video records of surgical teams. Third, we explore a technique that uses the communication patterns of trauma teams as a measure of team processes, structure and function. Lastly, we present a validated behavioral marking system ("ANTS") for individual anesthetists within the context of a team that includes the dimensions of team work, task management, situation awareness and decision making. These four techniques examine a range of valuable analytic tools demonstrated through empirical research.
    Studying Communication Patterns During Surgery BIBAFull-Text 1488-1492
      Beth Turrentine; J. Forrest Calland; Reid Adams; Thomas Shin; Stephanie Guerlain
    This paper describes the communication analyses performed from both live and post-hoc review of 48 surgery cases at an academic medical center. Team performance in the operating room is relatively understudied and non-standardized compared to other high-risk industries. Our research group has worked to evaluate interventions for improving team performance. In this study, we compared the use of a checklist by the senior surgeon to current practices (where no checklist is used), and evaluated teams based on technical errors and communication skills. Communication was measured quantitatively by dividing the procedure into specific events and scoring individual team members using a grading scale from 1 to 5. Using this measure, the intervention group had significantly higher scores in several communication categories. Next, a subset of team member quotes were qualitatively analyzed and divided into four phases: setting the course, gathering data, exchanging information, and tribulations. This qualitative data was used to modify our analysis tools for later studies to take advantage of the patterns we were seeing.
    Observational Analysis of Video Records of Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 1493-1497
      Colin Mackenzie; Yan Xiao
    Observation is a traditional ethnographic approach for data collection in real dynamic workplaces. Video recording of brief, risky, but beneficial tasks was investigated for use as an enhancement of observation to assess team performance. Audio-video recording took place in a trauma center using cameras attached to the ceiling of resuscitation bays. Chest tube insertion, a task with an easily defined start and finish time, was video recorded at two levels of urgency. An expert defined task analysis was determined by interview and questionnaires and was used to identify performance problems and opportunities for task improvement. The findings were that video recording has important advantages over observation as a reusable record to extract qualitative and quantitative data. However, observation is easier, less time consuming and a less quantitable data collection tool. Particular benefits of video were the fine-grained analyses of second by second behavioral and verbal interactions and events or tasks not noted by the care providers at the time. A task analysis template was useful used to aggregate findings across multiple task accomplishments and identified task performance decrements with increased urgency. Video data contributed to identification of latent system failures and ergonomic issues that were often central to interpretation and causal hypothesis development surrounding performance problems. Video is a powerful feedback and training tool that can be used to obtain 'buy in' from care providers for change. Video-derived performance measures can define and be used to promote best practice performance in dynamic risky and complex medical workplaces.
    Rating Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills -- The Ants System BIBAFull-Text 1498-1501
      R. Flin; G. Fletcher; P. McGeorge; R. Glavin; N. Maran; R. Patey
    Non-technical skills are the cognitive and social skills required in any operational task involving decision making and team work, such as aviation or surgical medicine. This study identified the key non-technical skills required in anaesthesia, and developed a behavioural marker system (Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS)) for their assessment in theatre, in the simulator or from video recordings. It comprises four skill categories (task management, team working, situation awareness and decision making) divided into fifteen elements, each with example behaviours. A first stage evaluation was conducted by asking 50 consultant anaesthetists to rate the behaviour of a target anaesthetist using the prototype ANTS system in eight videos of simulated anaesthetic scenarios. The system appeared to be complete, and the skills were observable, and could be rated with acceptable levels of agreement and accuracy. The second stage evaluation is now testing the usability of the behavioural rating system in the operating theatre environment.
    Team Communication Patterns as Measures of Team Processes: Exploring the Effects of Task Urgency and Shared Team Experience BIBAFull-Text 1502-1506
      Yan Xiao; F. Jacob Seagull; Colin Mackenzie; Jonathan Ziegert; Katherine J. Klein
    Inter-member team communication is a rich yet challenging data source for understanding team processes. In this paper, we present a quantitative analysis of team communication based on videotaped real-life trauma patient resuscitation. Team communication patterns were compared under varying conditions: (a) when the team's task -- patient treatment -- was high versus low in urgency; and (b) when team members had more or less shared experience as a team. The results provide initial support for the utility of communication analysis for the study of team performance and team leadership. Tools for assessment of team processes are a key to effective research in team performance, especially in complex, time-pressured tasks. The team communication patterns depicted the adaptive nature of team structures, especially when the teams were confronted with potentially competing goals, such as on-the-job training and treatment of trauma patients.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Sociotechnical Issues in Medical Systems

    Development and Evaluation of Just-in-Time Training to Provide Cardio-Pulmonary Resusciation BIBAFull-Text 1507-1510
      Frank Drews; James Agutter; Noah Syroid; Dan Snell; Santosh Balikrishnan; Srinath Lingutla; Dwayne Westenskow; David Strayer
    More than 350,000 people die annually of cardiac arrest. In response to this epidemic, automated defibrillators are advocated, but they do not provide important respiratory support. However, adding respiratory support makes the system more complex and difficult to use. To solve this problem we developed a graphical computer based "just-in-time" training that instructs a responder to follow a standard treatment protocol. We simulated a medical emergency in a patient simulator and asked novice volunteers to care for the patient. When using a paper-based version of the treatment protocol (based on a NASA protocol), subjects took significant longer to remove an obstruction from the airway and stabilize the injured person than when using an animated graphic treatment protocol. These findings validate the potential of graphically based just-in-time training to instruct novices in tasks they have not performed before.
    Relationships Between Job Stressors, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intent in the Assisted Living Sector of Long Term Care BIBAFull-Text 1511-1515
      Jennifer Wagner; Ben-Tzion Karsh; Mark A. Sager; D. Paul Moberg
    Fundamental differences between assisted living facilities and nursing homes may prohibit the models of satisfaction and turnover developed in nursing home research from generalizing to assisted living facilities. The assisted living industry is growing rapidly, and many groups have voiced concerns about the staff turnover rate. As part of a training and education program, the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Institute collected data from the employees of assisted living facilities via self-administered questionnaires. Chi-square analyses were performed to determine if factors previously identified by nursing home literature had a significant relationship to job satisfaction. All of the factors examined showed a relationship to the job satisfaction item. In addition, employees who were not satisfied with their jobs were over 14 times more likely to report intentions to leave. These findings are used to suggest intervention strategies to reduce turnover.
    A Work Domain Analysis for Diabetes Management BIBAFull-Text 1516-1520
      Laura K. Thompson; Janna C. L. Hickson; Catherine M. Burns
    This paper discusses the results of a Work Domain Analysis (WDA) applied to the management of diabetes. The goal is to develop a conceptual framework to help dia betic patients understand and manage their disease. The results of the WDA will be used to design and implement mobile and desktop information displays that will be used by the patient and their health care team. This poses additional challenges in demonstrating if and how Ecological Interface Design can be used to design medical information displays on various mobile devices. When applied to this medical domain, the usefulness of the WDA to the design of medical information displays becomes restricted because of the complex, interconnected processes involved and the limited amount of sensor data available. Alternatively, the Work Domain representation can be used as a teaching resource or used to define requirements for future monitoring technologies.
    Collaborative Management of Complex Coordination Systems: Operating Room Schedule Coordination BIBAFull-Text 1521-1525
      F. Jacob Seagull; Plasters Cheryl; Yan Xiao; Colin F. Mackenzie
    The complexity of large-scale technical and collaborative work-systems requires significant effort for coordination, and balancing the differing individual actors' goals and information needs. The process of coordinating a suite of surgical operating rooms (ORs) is one example of such as complex system. Examining the information usage in this setting can provide functional requirements for technology to support these coordination activities. Data from observations and interviews in an OR suite were synthesized into five principal functional requirements for such a technology system. To provide necessary functionality, any new technology system must (a) serve as a common referent for communication, (b) provide a communal memory tool for planning (c) serve as catalyst for collaborative and distributed cognition (d) allow parallel manipulation for multiple user-groups, (e) allow flexible content-reconfiguration. Examples of each function are provided, and theoretical implications discussed.
    Scenario-Based Teamwork Skills Training for Geographically Distributed Teams BIBAFull-Text 1526-1530
      Eileen B. Entin; Fuji Lai; Colin Mackenzie; Yan Xiao; F. Jacob Seagull; Debra Malone; Lisa Neal
    In this presentation we describe the development of a distributed teamwork skills training program for co-located or distributed teams performing complex, highly interdependent tasks that require overlapping expertise and shared knowledge, flexibility, and the capability for rapid organization and deployment to respond quickly to a changing situation. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a training approach that uses advanced distance learning technology to provide portable training to small, flexible, quickly reconfigured, rapidly deployed military teams. The program is a web-enabled, scenario-based teamwork skills training program comprised of: information about and examples of teamwork skills; scenario-based training exercises that provide practice in teamwork skills; guidelines for team-conducted exercise debriefings that do not require the presence of a training instructor; and a leader's manual that helps team leaders to conduct web-based training sessions. The version we are currently developing is focused on physicians under training (fellows and residents) working in an academic trauma center.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Macroergonomics Posters

    Methodological Considerations in a Human Factors Assessment of a Teledermatology System BIBAFull-Text 1531-1535
      Timothy A. Nichols; Aideen J. Stronge; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk; Jeanette D. Rasche; G. Rufus Sessions
    The U.S. military has initiated several telemedicine programs ranging from teledermatology to telemental health. Several advantages of telemedicine programs have been documented including increased patient satisfaction and decreased healthcare costs. However, not all telemedicine programs in the military have been successful (i.e., widely used). This analysis used multiple methods to identify the human factors issues involved in using a teledermatology system. The methods included task analyses, decision-action diagrams, and a questionnaire distributed to subject matter experts (SMEs). In a progressive fashion, each method contributed to development of the next method. Task analyses guided the development of decision-action diagrams. Decision-action diagrams identified critical human factors issues within the system and led to the development of questionnaire items specifically targeting those areas (e.g., workload, errors). The results from this assessment demonstrate how multiple methods can be used to analyze a system, identify human factors issues, and suggest interventions.
    Preliminary Evaluation of Electric Scooter Related Problems in Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRC) BIBAFull-Text 1536-1539
      Traci A. Hart; Kathy J. Sifrit; Alex Chaparro; Laszlo Stumpfhauser
    Electric Scooters are assistive devices that have been well received by the older adult population (65 years and older). The increase in usage of these scooters is causing a number of problems for Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRC) that allow residents to operate them within their facilities. Due to a lack of literature addressing the use of electric scooters, interviews were conducted with three Kansas CCRC's and secondary data sources were analyzed to begin identifying the problems associated with the use of electric scooters. A number of important issues surrounding the use of scooters in CCRC facilities were identified including: 1) an apparent discrepancy between the problems identified in government databases and those reported by staff at CCRC facilities, 2) limited or non-existent driver training and education, 3) the misuse of scooters by drivers, and 4) an incompatibility between the scooters design and the target population.
    Comprehension of Over-the-Counter Drug Label Warnings Concerning Consumption of Acetaminophen and Alcohol BIBAFull-Text 1540-1544
      Deane B. Cheatham; Michael S. Wogalter
    This study compared several existing acetaminophen-containing product labels to a revised label with additional perceptual features and more explicit text regarding an alcohol-related hazard. The existing labels differed generally according to the amount and explicitness of alcohol-related warning information. Two-hundred sixty participants from a flea and farmer's markets in Raleigh, NC were shown one of the labels and a knowledge questionnaire was completed. Results indicated that responses regarding the combination of alcohol and acetaminophen were more accurate by participants having viewed the revised label compared to the existing labels. There are implications for the design of effective over-the-counter drug labels stemming from this study.
    Role of Landmark for Spatial Mapping in Non-Rigid Environments BIBAFull-Text 1545-1548
      C. G. L. cao; S. L. Waxberg; E. Smith
    Spatial orientation in colonoscopy is difficult. Previous studies have shown that knowledge of shape information is more useful than direction or location information. However, the mechanism of spatial mapping in a non-rigid environment is unknown. It was hypothesized that visual landmarks were used as the primary cue for spatial orientation, as in rigid environments, even when other conflicting cues were available. An experiment was conducted to examine the role of visual landmarks in spatial mapping in a non-rigid environment. Simulated colonoscopy procedures were performed in colon models representing a compressed colon and a colon with missing landmarks. Preliminary results indicated that time, and not visual landmarks, were used as the dominant cue for spatial mapping. This may explain the conflict experienced by endoscopists who are aware of the stretchable nature of the colon, combined with the unreliable landmarks. Therefore, a useful navigational aid might be developed to encourage the use of a different strategy for spatial mapping in situations where the spatial relationship between landmarks is not constant, as in the colon.
    Medical Error Reporting System Design: Multiple user Considerations and their Implications BIBAFull-Text 1549-1553
      Kamisha Hamilton; Ben-Tzion Karsh; John Beasley
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between the preferences of physicians and clinical assistants for the design of a statewide medical error reporting system. The study employed a series of separate focus groups composed of physicians and clinical assistants. The focus groups covered a wide range of relevant topics based on the previous literature on error reporting both in and outside of healthcare. Focus group transcripts were subject to a content analysis resulting in a total of 86 major and minor themes. While physicians and clinical assistants shared similar preferences and beliefs surrounding error reporting such as its educational potential and fear of punitive repercussions, they differed as well. Some of the differences uncovered included the rules and regulations governing the use of the system, the medium of reporting, and aspects of the organization that may affect reporting levels. The design implications for considering these issues are discussed.
    Medical Product Labeling: The Evaluation of Latex Glove Warnings in a Realistic Setting BIBAFull-Text 1554-1558
      Alison Vredenburgh; Shannon Longden; Kevin Williams; Michael Kalsher
    Healthcare workers sometimes develop a deadly allergic reaction through repeated exposure to proteins in latex gloves. Although the latex glove industry apparently developed warnings to alert healthcare workers to the hazards associated with exposure to latex, none of these warnings actually appeared on latex glove packaging. This field study evaluated three label configurations. The first configuration merely stated that the gloves contain natural rubber latex (content statement). A second configuration mirrored current labeling and contained both the content statement and the admonition that natural rubber latex can cause allergic reactions. A third label developed specifically for this study comported to existing warnings guidelines (ANSI Z-535). Participants examined one of the three boxes and were then asked to complete a questionnaire gauging their opinions and perceptions regarding the labeling. Results showed that the ANSI warning was rated as more noticeable and more effective than the other label configurations. Well-designed instructional warnings can be an effective method of informing workers of the significant risks associated with exposure to latex. The informational component of warnings labeling is particularly critical for apparently benign products that bear a hidden hazard.
    Divided Attention during Adaptation to Visual-Motor Roatation in an Endoscopic Surgery Simulator BIBAFull-Text 1559-1563
      Alison M. Tollner; Michael A. Riley; Gerald Matthews
    Endoscopic surgery has gained popularity due to its minimally invasive nature and reduced patient recovery times. Due to the use of video images and long, thin surgical tools a surgeon's perceptual motor skills can be inhibited. Surgeons need to adapt to these perceptual-motor disruptions before operating on patients. Besides having to adapt to altered perceptual-motor conditions surgeons also have to deal with many other simultaneous demands, such as monitoring vital signs. Having to perform other simultaneous tasks during endoscopic surgery may divert or drain attention necessary for the complex movements demanded by the surgery. We investigated whether adaptive performance in an endoscopic surgery simulator suffered under dual-task conditions. Performance was significantly disrupted under altered perceptual-motor conditions during early simulator performance and the addition of a concurrent short-term memory task caused additional initial performance decrements, but those decrements were quickly overcome.
    Use-Error Focused Risk Analysis for Medical Devices: A Case Study of the Therac-25 Radiation Therapy System BIBAFull-Text 1564-1568
      Edmond W. Israelski; William H. Muto
    Risk analysis or hazard analysis has been used as an engineering tool for many years to identify system risks and control system modes of failure. In alignment with the recent emphasis on patient safety, the tools of risk analysis have seen increased attention. These tools and related methods have been applied to understanding "use-errors" made with medical devices. Use-errors are defined as a pattern of predictable human errors that can be attributable to inadequate or improper design. Use-errors can be predicted through analytical task walkthrough techniques and via empirically based usability testing. This paper explores the methodology of use-error focused risk analysis and some of its history. An example is offered on how it can apply to a well-known but no longer marketed medical device, the Therac-25 computer controlled radiation therapy system, which was the inspiration for Steve Casey's highly regarded book Set Phasers on Stun.
    A Functional Model of the Operating Room BIBAFull-Text 1569-1573
      Kenneth H. Funk; Toni L. Doolen; Richard Botney; James D. Bauer
    The hospital operating room (OR) is a complex, human-machine system whose performance is vulnerable to the errors of fallible human beings. This paper describes the initial development of a functional model of the OR designed to help identify the interaction of those vulnerabilities and fallibilities so as to improve OR performance.
    Monitoring the Anesthetized Patient: An Analysis of Confusions in Vital Sign Reports BIBAFull-Text 1574-1578
      Jennifer Crawford; Annyck Savill; Penelope Sanderson
    In the domain of anesthesia, auditory displays for respiratory monitoring have been suggested that could accompany the long-standing pulse oximetry system. However, research results to date suggest that participants' ability to identify physiological changes with respiratory sonification is not as great as it is for pulse oximetry. The reasons for this have not been established. Some possibilities are that respiratory parameters may be inherently more dynamic and may have greater intercorrelations, leading to greater confusability. In addition, there may be biasing factors specific to the various studies conducted that have led to slightly worse performance with respiratory sonification. In this paper we work through these possibilities and conclude that some are attributable to experimental design while others may be inevitable. The most important area of investigation in the future is to see whether the results are relevant to monitoring a synthesis of patient state.
    Human-Centered Design of Image-Guided Interventions for Minimally-Invasive Surgeries: Toward a Methodology BIBAFull-Text 1579-1581
      Patricia R. DeLucia; Robert D. Mather; John A. Griswold; Sunanda Mitra
    Image-guided interventions are used increasingly in medical procedures, particularly in minimally-invasive surgery (MIS). Despite the benefits of such technologies for patients, there are drawbacks for surgeons. These include reduced field of view (FOV), aperture viewing, and passive viewing. We measured the impact of specific features of imaging devices on tasks relevant to MIS. Results suggest that (a) impairments in navigation due to reduced FOV can be moderated with methods that help users develop mental models of three-dimensional space; (b) illusions of motion due to aperture viewing can be moderated by manipulating properties of the aperture; (c) active control may result in better navigation than passive viewing. Our results suggest several avenues to pursue toward the aim of improving image-guided interventions.
    Instrument Ergonomics: Treatment Nd Prevention of Injury in the Musician BIBAFull-Text 1582-1585
      Jennifer Boyette
    Instrument ergonomics is the study of the interaction between a musician, body positioning, and the physical requirement of classic instrument design. The instrument tolerates minimal design changes because of an unyielding mechanical structure that has developed over centuries. Additionally, the musicians' performance technique allows few alterations to the delicate style of movement learned throughout a lifetime of study. The resultant challenge of instrument ergonomics is addressed by physicians and therapists who specialize in the physical problems of performing artists.
    Accessibility of Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems for Blind and Visually Impaired People BIBAFull-Text 1586-1589
      Mark Uslan; Darren Burton; Khosrow Eghtesadi
    In the U.S., there are about 17 million people with diabetes. Blindness and visual impairment is prevalent among people with diabetes. Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems (BGMS's) have revolutionized diabetes self care, but none of the 30 or so commercially available monitoring systems was designed to be fully accessible to blind and visually impaired persons.
       Seventeen (17) BGMS's were evaluated for accessible use by people who are blind or visually impaired. Features and functionalities -- e.g., operating procedures, user interface design, device specifications, and computer interface capabilities -- were examined and tabulated as was usability and accessibility. Additionally, twelve (12) people who are blind or visually impaired and who were issued BGMS's by their physician or diabetes educator were interviewed and videotaped using their meters.
       Of seventeen (17) BGMS's, only four (4) had voice output capability, an essential component of accessibility for blind and visually impaired persons. The six (6) BGMS's without voice output that had the largest display fonts were found to have few accessibility features for visually impaired persons. Users indicated that voice-output and portability were desired attributes of an accessible Blood Glucose Monitoring System. None of the BGMS's evaluated had all the required accessibility attributes, including the four systems that had voice output capability. The four systems with voice-output were much bulkier, heavier, and expensive than those that did not have this capability.
       Recommendations were made for development of BGMS's that would increase effective usage by blind and visually impaired persons, including integrating Text to Speech (TTS), streamlining the blood glucose monitoring process, and applying a "Universal Design" concept for future development so that BGMS's are usable by the widest possible array of users.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Search & Attention: Underlying Perceptual & Cognitive Processes

    Redundancy, Modality, and Priority in Dual Task Interference BIBAFull-Text 1590-1594
      Christopher D. Wickens; Jessica L. Gosney
    This study examined the effects of several properties of a simulated in-vehicle-task (IVT) on interference with a concurrent tracking task, which simulated vehicle control. We compared auditory, visual and redundant delivery of IVT information, under conditions when the visual display was close and separated from the tracking task. In the first experiment we varied whether the tracking or the IVT was emphasized, and in the second experiment we added instruction in the use of redundant displays. IVT messages varied in length. The results from 20 participants in each experiment revealed (a) an effect of priority on the tracking task only, suggesting that separate resources were used for each task, (b) an advantage for auditory over visual delivery only when the visual display was separated, suggesting that visual costs relate to peripheral, not central resources, (c) no benefit and sometimes noticeable costs for the redundant display, compared to the single modality displays in experiment 1, and (d) an improvement in performance with redundant displays when training was given in experiment 2. The results have a positive bearing on the use of head-up (adjacent) displays for complex information.
    Visual Search: The Effects of Display and Response Format BIBAFull-Text 1595-1599
      Janae N. Lockett-Reynolds; Stephen Christman; Paula Goolkasian
    The present experiment examined how spatial judgments influenced target detection in a visual search task. Digital and analogue display formats were studied together with odd/even vs. above/below judgments. The results indicated an overall advantage for digital display formats, however, the advantage was mediated by the type of judgments that were made. Format differences were minimal when individuals were required to make judgments that involved spatial encoding. Ergonomic implications are addressed.
    From Subitizing to Counting BIBAFull-Text 1600-1604
      Martha E. Crosby; Catherine Sophian
    The present research investigated how visual processing differs when individuals subitize versus count. We obtained the negligible slopes characteristic of subitizing only in the conditions in which viewers were expected to subitize (scenes presented either without distractors or with only simple distractors). We observed non-linear viewing times. Differences in fixation patterns across scene types became greater as the number of target items increased, rather than vanishing for large numerosities as would be expected from the traditional view of subitizing. Inspection of patterns of fixation supported the idea that pre-attentive processes play a substantial role in processing when targets are few in number, easy to locate, and easy to discriminate from each other.
    Effects of Experience and Task Relevance on the Ability to Detect Changes in a Real-World Task BIBAFull-Text 1605-1609
      Loren S. Groff; Alex Chaparro
    The effect of task experience on the allocation of visual attention in a real-world task was investigated by comparing three different experience groups (naive, typical, and expert) on a change detection task. The flicker paradigm, developed by Rensink and colleagues (Perception, 1995), was used to present changes in digital driving images. Change targets were balanced between the categories of vehicles, traffic signs, and objects in the environment. The types of change were balanced between object appearance or disappearance, changes of object position, and changes of object features like color or size. More experienced participants were faster at detecting changes to task relevant objects, and all viewers were faster at detecting changes to the most task relevant details of objects. Results are consistent with a search for task relevant change that is more efficient for experienced viewers due to the use of a schema guided allocation of attention, with the effect of experience being manifest in a more detailed schema.
    Detection of Changes in Tactical Displays: A Comparison of Two Symbol Sets BIBAFull-Text 1610-1614
      Jocelyn Keillor; Laura K. Thompson; Harvey S. Smallman; Michael B. Cowen
    A major design issue for military tactical displays concerns how to make as much information as possible available to the user "at a glance", without compromising the ability of the user to decompose the display into meaningful units or chunks. The choice of symbology may therefore be a critical factor in managing the complexity of tactical displays. A new method for evaluating symbol sets was developed, using a flicker paradigm to simulate an operator's shifts of attention during interaction with the display and environment. Two symbol sets were compared: MIL-STD-2525B, and Symbicons, a hybrid symbology recently developed by the U.S. Navy. Overall, Symbicons outperformed the traditional MIL-STD-2525B symbols when participants were required to detect heading changes. Furthermore, only the Symbicons allowed participants to take advantage of advance knowledge of the platform type (sea or air) in which they could expect a heading change.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: 3D Displays

    Measuring and Modeling the Misinterpretation Of 3-D Perspective Views BIBAFull-Text 1615-1619
      Harvey S. Smallman; Daniel I. Manes; Michael B. Cowen
    Last year, we showed that there are systematic distortions in the perceptual reconstruction of scenes shown in 3-D perspective views (Smallman, St. John, and Cowen, 2002). We posited a new Cross-Scaling model which states that the depth cue of linear perspective, which is only relevant to widths across the scene (X), is inappropriately used to scale depths into the scene (Y), resulting in systematic misperceptions. Here, we report three experiments that test and refine this Cross-Scaling model and we relate it to a broader array of tasks and phenomena. In Exp 1, participants reproduced a square grid as it would appear to them from an oblique perspective. In Exp 2, they picked a drawing, from 25 alternatives, that closest approximated the Exp 1 scene. In Exp 3, participants completed square grids on the ground of 3-D perspective views of scenes that contained only linear perspective or foreshortening depth cues. In Exps 1 & 3, in accordance with the model, participants consistently made grids in which X and Y tapered with distance (non-veridically) equally. In Exp 2, however, participants chose as most natural, an incorrect drawing, but one other than that predicted by the model. Overall, there is apparently a general misconception among viewers about the nature of perspective projection, similar to Naive Physics misconceptions, that accounts for a wide variety of previously unrelated perceptual phenomena; these have important human factors implications.
    Visual Momentum and Task Switching with 2D and 3D Displays of Geographic Terrain BIBAFull-Text 1620-1624
      J. G. Hollands; Nada Ivanovic; Yukari Enomoto
    We were interested in determining if the visual momentum provided by gradual transition between two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) views of geographic terrain aided task switching. Twenty-two participants made judgments about the properties of two points placed on 2D or 3D displays of terrain. Participants performed the tasks in pairs of trials, switching tasks and displays between trials. On half the trials (continuous transition), the display dynamically rotated in depth from one display format to the other. On the other half (discrete transition), participants were immediately shown the alternate display format. The results showed that response time after transition was less for the continuous condition, and that accuracy was greater for the continuous condition, especially for the 3D display. We argue that this was because the continuous transition provided improved visual momentum between consecutive displays, and recommend the use of dynamic transition when switching views on geographic terrain.
    Perceiving Object Rotations Effects of Egocentric Perspective and Observer Orientation BIBAFull-Text 1625-1629
      Andreas E. Finkelmeyer; Steffen Werner
    Indicating the orientation of the axis of rotation of a rotating object is a fundamental part of an operator's ability to understand the motion of the object. Prior research has shown that this ability depends heavily on the orientation of the rotational axis with respect to the observer, the environment and the object. The present study is the first to distinguish between the involvement of egocentric and environment-centered spatial reference systems in rotation perception. Observers indicated the orientation of the axis of rotation for visually displayed motion while sitting upright or being tilted sideways or backwards. Accuracy and response time were recorded. The results showed that egocentric and environment-centered reference systems appear to play differential roles in the ability to accurately indicate the axis of rotation depending on the orientation of the observer. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    A Sensitivity Study of Factors Influencing Real-Virtual Object Alignment Performance in Stereoscopic Augmented Reality Environments BIBAFull-Text 1630-1634
      Ming Hou; Paul Milgram
    A sensitivity study involving a real-virtual object alignment task was performed in a stereoscopic augmented reality environment, in which the known conflict between binocular fusion and object interposition cues was expected to play a major role. The object was to evaluate subjects' sensitivity to visual texture of a real hemisphere surface and to target position at designated probe points on that surface. Consistent with earlier experiments, the results indicate that: a) both surface texture and target position had significant effects both on real-virtual object alignment and on the estimate of surface normal direction; b) fusion breakdown caused by the conflict between occlusion and binocular disparity could have been used as an extra depth cue to detect virtual and real object interactions. In addition, a practical solution to improving remote 3D measurement accuracy is proposed.
    Perceptual Impact of an Animated Holographic Stereogram BIBAFull-Text 1635-1638
      William Kosnik; Garrett Polhamus; David Kee; James Thomas
    We reported earlier that holographic stereograms are approaching a level of realism typical of other, more mature, graphical media (Kosnik, Previc, Polhamus, 2001). As image quality and realism improve, holograms may offer certain advantages over more conventional communications media. This study is concerned with how a message delivered in a hologram compares to other graphical media. Do the unique visual qualities of a hologram influence how the message is perceived? To answer this question, viewers' attitudes toward the military were surveyed after they saw a message about the US Air Force delivered by either a hologram or a 2D video. Attitudes toward the USAF were more favorable after viewing the holographic display. These results indicated that holograms might have a greater impact on viewers' perceptions than conventional print or video media.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Interpretation of Graphs & Displays

    Building the Executive Dashboard BIBAFull-Text 1639-1643
      Marc L. Resnick
    Executive dashboards are systems that provide business intelligence to company executives and managers by presenting data from a wide variety of sources in ways that support effective monitoring and decision making. They are linked to a company's data warehouses or other sources of data from operations, finance, marketing, and other domains and thus must provide visualizations that allow users to comprehend what can be an enormous quantity of data. In order to do so, the designer must consider many of the formats that have been identified in human factors practice to support various kinds of data and tasks. Many executive dashboards include capabilities to aggregate data from multiple sources, drill down to examine specific data, analyze historical or conceptual trends, and other functionality. These added capabilities add a significant amount of complexity to the design that must be addressed carefully. Users are often experts in their domains (ie. marketing) but not necessarily proficient with information technology or data analysis. The design must satisfy the needs of the users while providing a simple and context-dependent interface in order to be effective. This paper describes many of the human factors issues involved in creating executive dashboard systems and suggests some areas for future research.
    The Effect of Reading Direction Habit on Numerical Processing BIBAFull-Text 1649-1653
      Norman D. Schwalm; Zohar Eviatar; Yifat Golan; Yonit Blumenfeld
    The Hebrew Academy of Language in Israel has ruled that numerical ranges shall be written from right-to-left (lower number on right, higher number on left), consistent with language direction. This pilot study investigated the effect of that rule on human performance in a simulated directional sign-reading task. Right-to-left text, followed by single digit number sets depicting a range of values were presented to sixteen native Hebrew speakers, who were asked to report whether an additional number presented separately appeared within that range. Number sets following the Hebrew text were presented from left-to-right and from right-to-left. No significant differences were found in response times between left-to-right and right-to-left conditions. However, a significant main effect of direction was found for percent errors, which were significantly higher for right-to-left than for left-to-right number sets. The rule requiring number sets to appear from right-to-left is called into question, and implications for numerical range information display in right-to-left languages are suggested. The authors are currently engaged in more extensive research aimed at expanding the findings of this pilot study.
    Effects of Response Method on Error and Cyclical Bias in Proportion Judgments BIBAFull-Text 1654-1658
      Andrew Mortan; J. G. Hollands
    The cyclical power model accounts for multi-cycle patterns of bias commonly observed in proportion judgments by proposing the use of intermediate reference points (Hollands & Dyre, 2000). We were interested in the effect of response method on the choice of reference points (fewer points lead to greater judgment error). Participants made estimates of proportions displayed in pie charts using one of three response methods: rotation of a dial, marker placement on a horizontal line, or a numerical estimate. Fitting the model indicated a two-cycle pattern for line and numeric conditions, but a four-cycle pattern for the dial, leading to reduced error. Response method did not affect the estimated value of the Stevens exponent (0.83 on average). Competing explanations of stimulus-response compatibility and response method are considered. Implications for the design of display and control systems are discussed.
    Judgments of Proportion with Graphs: Object-Based Advantages BIBAFull-Text 1659-1662
      Olivier St-Cyr
    This study investigated whether a stacked bar's vertical arrangement or single-object properties underlie its accuracy for proportion judgments. We hypothesized that observers would be less accurate when stacked bars were separated than when they formed a single object, according to the object-based theory of attention (Duncan, 1984). Thirty participants judged proportions with three different graph types: bars, stacked bars, and staggered stacked bars. Stacked bars produced smaller error than staggered stacked bars, while bars produced the greatest error. The results show an object-based advantage for stacked bars, but a vertical arrangement advantage for staggered stacked bars over bars was also evident.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Vigilance, Stress, & Warnings

    Cerebral Vascularity and Performance on an Abbreviated Vigilance Task BIBAFull-Text 1663-1667
      Todd D. Hollander; William S. Helton; Lloyd D. Tripp; Kelley Parsons; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; William N. Dember; Raja Parasuraman
    Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and transcranial cerebral oximetry (TCCO) measures of blood flow and oxygenization levels in the brain were collected while observers performed an abbreviated 12 min vigilance task designed by Temple et al. (2000) to serve as an analog to more traditional long-duration vigils. Both measures showed higher levels of cerebral vascular activity in the right as compared to the left cerebral hemisphere indicating that the overall level of performance in the abbreviated vigil is right-lateralized, a finding that coincides with the outcome of earlier blood flow studies featuring more traditional long-duration vigils. This parallel provides strong support for Temple et al's (2000) argument that the abbreviated vigil is a valid analog of more traditional long-duration vigilance tasks and implies that laterality in vigilance is a generalized effect in terms of cerebral vascular dynamics that appears in terms of both blood oxygenation and hemovelocity.
    Demonstrating Diurnal and Alcohol Effects Using the Stroud Cognitive Readiness Evaluation (SCORE) BIBAFull-Text 1668-1672
      Diana Echeverria; Nicholas J. Heyer; Alvah C. Bittner; Richard W. Clark; James S. Woods
    The Stroud Cognitive Readiness Evaluation (SCORE) measures the duration of a "psychological moment" (1/Hz) at which a flickering red light fuses. The shorter the moment the more alert one is. Stereo targets are mounted on a self-contained light-weight binocular using two light emitting diode panels for each eye. A forced-choice Best-PEST protocol controls the administration of 58 two-second trials at frequencies between 15 Hz-150 Hz. A 2.5 day study demonstrates expected variation in diurnal fluctuation (20%), with ethanol consumption, (60%), and exposure to mild fatigue (1%). High test-retest reliability (>0.95) obtained in <3 minutes, its portability and ease of administration, support its use as a "cognitive fitness-for-duty" surveillance measure. Daily monitoring of expected variation in cognitive attention in populations is now feasible by comparing one's level of attention at the time of testing against baseline measurements. The SCORE is particularly suitable for tasks that require sustained vigilance over time such as required by public safety employees including airport screeners, truck and bus drivers, pilots, nuclear power workers, police, firemen, and the military.
    Challenges to the Mendlessness Model of Vigilance through Signal Regularity BIBAFull-Text 1673-1677
      William S. Helton; Todd D. Hollander; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; William N. Dember; Matthew Wallaart; Gerald Beauchamp; Raja Parasuraman
    Robertson et al. (1997) have proposed that detection failures in vigilance tasks result from a "mindless" withdrawal of attentional effort from the monitoring assignment. To explore that view, they modified the traditional vigilance task in which observers make button-press responses to signify the detection of rarely occurring critical signals to one in which button-press responses acknowledge frequently occurring non-signal events and response-withholding signifies signal detection. This modification is designed to promote a mindless withdrawal of attentional effort from the task through routinization. The present study challenges the validity of the mindlessness model by showing that with both types of tasks observers can utilize subtle regularities in the temporal structure of critical signal appearances to develop expectations about the time course of those appearances that affect performance efficiency. Such expectations enhance performance with the traditional vigilance task but degrade performance with the modified task.
    Application of Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory to Vigilance: The Effect of Criterion Shifts BIBAFull-Text 1678-1682
      Shawn C. Stafford; James L. Szalma; Peter A. Hancock; Mustapha Mouloua
    A recent advance on Signal Detection Theory (SDT) promises to enhance measurement of performance in complex real world domains. This development, Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory (FSDT), combines traditional SDT with Fuzzy Set Theory to extend signal detection analysis beyond the traditional crisp, categorical model. FSDT permits events to simultaneously be in more than one state category (e.g. signal and non-signal), so that the stimulus and response dimensions can be continuous rather than categorical. Consequently, FSDT can be employed in settings where the degree to which an event is a signal for detection may vary. This study is an initial test of application of FSDT to vigilance, a domain in which SDT has been widely applied. Results indicate that manipulations of stimulus probability impacts response bias in a fuzzy vigilance task, but that these effects differ somewhat from tasks employing traditional signal detection.
    An Investigation of Extreme Alarm Response Patterns in Laboratory Experiments BIBAFull-Text 1683-1687
      James P. Bliss
    Response patterns to unreliable alarm systems often conform to probability matching theory. However, some participants have been observed to respond to all or no alarms in a given set. In this paper, we analyze extreme response patterns within seven alarm mistrust experiments. In half of those experiments, participants had no redundant cues regarding individual alarm validity, and relied only on an estimate of overall alarm system reliability. In the other half, participants knew overall system reliability and could check individual alarm validity. Results show that participants without alarm validity information were more likely to respond to all alarms. Those who could check individual alarm validity matched the true alarm rate with their responses. Our results confirm the importance of designing information redundancy within alarm systems. Practical implications include providing underlying system information to operators to ensure appropriate response patterns. Further research should be conducted to investigate lack of responding for low alarm system reliability rates.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception and Performance Posters

    Searching Visual Displays: The Role of Attention BIBAFull-Text 1688-1692
      Elizabeth T. Davis; Terry Shikano; Scott A. Peterson; Rachel K. Michel
    Previous research suggests that (a) target localization tasks, (b) apprehension of spatial relations among stimuli, (c) critical features shared between target and non-target stimuli, and (d) mirror-image symmetry between target and non-targets each place demands on attention, resulting in poor search performance caused by capacity limitations. But, are these performance deficits actually caused by capacity limitations? Perhaps they are caused by early, pre-attentive visual processing or by noisy decision making instead of capacity limitations. If so, this has implications for the design of "user-friendly" displays to facilitate search performance. To address these questions, we controlled sensory effects and systematically varied the complexity and number of stimuli as well as whether non-targets were mirror-images of the target. Comparisons of data to theoretical predictions showed that capacity limitations occurred only when the target shared critical features with complex non-target stimuli, so that one must apprehend spatial relations of each object's component parts. No other factors resulted in capacity limitations. Moreover, although mirror-image symmetry adversely affected early visual preattentive processing, it did not place additional demands on attention.
    Moderating Factors in Visual Search: The Role of Ecological-Validity BIBAFull-Text 1693-1697
      Derek D. Diaz; Valerie K. Sims; Peter A. Hancock; Hana S. Smith; Linda Upham Ellis; Bryan Clark; David Sushil
    Participants completed a visual search task that varied along three dimensions: 1) stimulus type: ecologically valid humans or ecologically neutral objects, 2) stimulus behavior: static, dynamic or random, and 3) number of targets: one or two. Search was faster when ecologically valid stimuli were used, and when these moved in a predictable fashion. Certain types of visual searches require search memory, or the ability to mentally tag previously examined objects. This search memory is optimized when ecologically valid stimuli are used. Design of visual search interfaces should take into account both the task and the stimuli.
    Using Motion to Visualize Flow Facilitates Monitoring in Process Control BIBAFull-Text 1698-1702
      Gavin R. Essenberg; Douglas A. Wiegmann; Thomas J. Overbye; Yan Sun
    In this experiment, we examined the use of motion in displays to illustrate power transactions in a large-scale electrical power network. Participants located and selected the selling and buying nodes for a single power transaction in each trial based on patterns in power flow between the nodes in the network, and they designated an arbitrary power flow path from the seller to the buyer in trials where they were not directly connected. Participants performed the tasks using interactive displays indicating power flow with stationary arrows, arrows moving at a uniform speed, and arrows moving at a speed proportional to power flow. The two motion displays supported faster selection times, fewer errors, and lower workload than the no-motion display. Selection times and error rates were slightly lower in the proportional-motion display than in the uniform-motion display, but the differences were not significant. These results indicate that motion used in displays to indicate flow among system components can significantly improve performance in tasks that require detection of specific flow patterns.
    The Effects of Perceptual Grouping on Text Entry Performance BIBAFull-Text 1703-1707
      Christopher J. Hamblin; Michael Bohan; Alex Chaparro
    One of the primary challenges confronting designers of mobile computing devices is the issue of efficient text entry. One potential solution is to group multiple letters onto single keys, similar to the T9 keyboard currently used on telephones. However, grouping multiple letters onto single keys may make the visual search for individual letters within the grouped-key more difficult analogous to Navon's (1977) "can't see the trees for the forest" effect. Two experiments examined the effects of perceptual grouping on soft keyboard transcription rates. Results from Experiment 1 showed significantly slower transcription rates for QWERTY keyboards with grouped keys (p = .001). Results from Experiment 2 showed various levels of perceptual interference due to the different Gestalt grouping effects (p = .003). These results indicate that perceptual grouping can negatively affect text entry performance, and placing multiple letters onto single keys reduces the speed at which users can transcribe words.
    Length Perception By Dynamic Touch Under Dual-Task Conditions BIBAFull-Text 1708-1711
      Marie-Vee Santana; Alison M. Tollner; Michael A. Riley; David P. Black
    We examined perceivers' ability to perceive the lengths of hand-held rods under dual-task conditions. Participants used magnitude estimation to report the whole (tip-to-tip) and partial (from the point of grasp to the forward tip) lengths of rods held in one hand. At the same time, participants had to perform with the other hand a rhythmic-aiming task of varying difficulty. The results indicated that haptically perceived length was relatively unaffected by dual-task conditions, although there were hints of a mild dual-task effect: Perceptual performance was slightly better when participants held the to-be-perceived rod still, as opposed to when they actively wielded it. The results of this research are important for understanding how people are able to divide attention in order to interact with hand-held tools while performing concurrent tasks.
    Performance, Workload, and Stress Correlates of Temporal and Spatial Task Demands BIBAFull-Text 1712-1716
      Jennifer M. Ross; James L. Szalma; Jennifer Thropp; Peter A. Hancock
    Increased understanding of the mechanisms by which stress impacts performance is essential to the design and operation of complex information systems. This study represents a test of the hypothesis of Hancock, Szalma, and Weaver (2002) that the attentional narrowing observed under stressful conditions results from spatial and temporal perception drawing on common resource capacities. Although the present results were unable to resolve the specific issue to a satisfactory degree, a novel finding was observed that noise increases leniency in responding. The impact of noise on performance thus depends on the characteristics of the task to be performed, with spatial uncertainty exerting a significant influence on perceived workload.
    Effects of Practice on Font Legibility BIBAFull-Text 1717-1720
      Abdulilah Z. Zineddin; Philip M. Garvey; Richard A. Carlson; Martin T. Pietrucha
    Highway sign font legibility has been studied extensively over the past 50 years; however only limited research has been conducted on the range of fonts used for commercial signage. While earlier research has demonstrated that some of these fonts are more legible than others, difficulties have arisen in ascribing these differences to visual factors alone. The objective of this experiment was to determine if some of the font superiority effect is due to the level of font familiarity. Visual acuity thresholds for letter and words displayed in three fonts were recorded for a group of 72 younger and older subjects. The subjects read aloud two pages of text displayed in those fonts. Acuity thresholds for the three fonts were then reevaluated. The results showed that familiarity with a specific font significantly influences that font's legibility and that this effect was greater for older than younger subjects.

    SAFETY: Warnings and Risk Communication

    Separating the Effects of Warning and Information Distribution Practices: A Case of Cascading Responsibility BIBAFull-Text 1721-1725
      Michael J. Kalsher; Alex J. Viale; Kevin J. Williams
    In this study we examine how participants allocate blame after reading one of several variants of a fictitious product-use scenario that describes a construction worker who is injured after falling through an acrylic panel used in the construction of greenhouses. The safety practices and policies exhibited by the manufacturer, distributor, construction company owner and worker were cast either in a positive or negative light. Among the variables studied was the quality of the product warning and the methods used to distribute safety materials (e.g., installation manual) to the end user (panel installers). The results showed that blame allocation fell "downstream", where most blame fell on the party that failed to distribute the safety information to the next step of the chain. The effects of distribution breakdown on blame was moderated by the type of warning provided by the manufacturer in that greater blame was placed on the negligent party when a good warning is used, and part of the blame for the accident was shifted to the manufacturer when it provided a poor warning, regardless of where the breakdown occurred. The implications of these results for consumers, legal professionals, and researchers are discussed.
    Testing the Effects of Label Deterioration on the Legibility and Comprehensibility of Warnings BIBAFull-Text 1726-1729
      Nathan T. Dorris; Jerry Davis
    On-product warning signs and labels face a variety of potential sources of deterioration (e.g., abrasion, ultraviolet light, and exposure to chemicals). Reviews of the available literature have produced few references regarding the effects of this deterioration on the ability of warnings to communicate. The objective of this study was to provide an initial investigation into this void in the literature. Actual warnings used on forest-harvesting equipment were photographed and rated with respect to the intensity of degradation. These real-world labels were then tested for legibility and comprehensibility using a sample of undergraduate students. The results indicate that at moderate levels of label deterioration persons can often correctly comprehend the intended safety messages. With respect to a degradation intensity rating of 3 (on a 5-point scale), the number of participants that correctly identified the conceptual meaning of the warnings (82) considerably exceeded the number that correctly identified the entire set of text messages (53).
    Development of a Warning for Truck Bedliners to Avoid Gas can Fueling Fires BIBAFull-Text 1730-1734
      Rudolf G. Mortimer
    The objective was to develop a warning label for the bedliners of pickup trucks as a means of countering the fires, damage, and injuries that have occurred when portable containers are filled with gasoline in the beds of pickups. Refueling incidents were reviewed to discern the elements that were present. Seven items of information or instruction were found to be needed by consumers. Prototype warning labels were developed and tested with a total of 178 drivers in four tests involving recall after 10 seconds exposure, subject determined time of exposure, and when looking at the warning label. Drivers took more time with labels having more content. Recall and recognition of safety items improved with additional review. A label having 6 safety items was selected and should provide relevant information about the hazard and how to avoid it to over 90% of those who see and read it.
    On the Prediction of Pictorial Comprehension BIBAFull-Text 1735-1739
      Kevin E. Hicks; Jennifer L. Bell; Michael S. Wogalter
    Pictorial development and testing can be a costly and inefficient process. The process of designing and testing pictorial symbols could benefit from a precursor test to determine the likelihood that a concept will permit the design of a successful symbol (according to subsequent comprehension testing). This study examines whether ratings of the concepts of to-be-designed symbols could be useful in the prediction of comprehension of the ensuing symbols for those concepts. Participants rated 50 text descriptions (referent plus further verbal context) on: (1) how concrete is this concept? (2) how easy is it to visualize this concept? and (3) how effective would a simple picture be in conveying this concept? These ratings served as predictors of the population estimates and openended comprehension scores obtained from previous research by Young and Wogalter (2001). Results showed that there was a high correlation between the measures used in this study with both population estimates and open-ended comprehension scores. Ease of visualization of a concept had the highest predictive value with concreteness, being the second highest predictor. Measures of the ease of visualization or imaging a concept may be useful preliminary tools for pictorial designers.
    The Effectiveness of Warning Information in Dietary Supplement Product Labels BIBAFull-Text 1740-1743
      Kenneth R. Laughery; Danielle L. Paige
    A study was carried out to assess the potential effectiveness of warnings on dietary supplement labels. The warnings are intended to convey contraindication and side effect information to potential users. Fifty-three participants completed a survey consisting of questions about the warnings. Two characteristics of potential users in a 25-40 age range were manipulated as variables; gender and amount overweight (25 lbs and 75 lbs). Participants judged women (M = 40%) as more likely than men (M = 26%) to read the entire label. A significant effect showed 33% of those 25 lbs overweight were expected to use a supplement, while 55% of those 75 lbs overweight would be users. Estimates of the number of users who would stop use if experiencing nausea (49%) or irregular heartbeat (44%) seems to reflect an underestimate of the risks associated with dietary supplements. Participants estimated that 31.4% of people who took the supplement and read the label would understand the information. Overall, warnings on the labels of the dietary supplement products may not be effective in addressing the contraindication and side effects issues.

    SAFETY: Safety Potpourri

    A Hidden Stepladder Hazard (Excessive Twist Flexibility) BIBAFull-Text 1744-1748
      R. M. Obert; K. J. Seluga; I. U. Ojalvo
    This paper presents research concerning a specific, but common, hazard associated with excessive stepladder twist flexibility. Serious injury can result when, unbeknownst to a climber, only three of the ladder's four legs are in contact with the ground and there is a weight shift that causes the raised leg to suddenly impact the ground and dislodge the user. Test and analysis results are presented which show subtle causes of this hazard, as well as design improvements to reduce the possibility of their occurrence. The adequacy of existing stepladder safety standards to protect users from this type of accident is also questioned.
    Fixed Site Amusement Park Injuries: An Examination of Two Sources of Data BIBAFull-Text 1749-1752
      S. R. Arndt; I. S. Al-Tarawneh
    The Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) provides the best available national estimates of injuries associated with more than 800 consumer products. The statistically based sample of hospital emergency rooms is very well designed to allow extrapolation of national estimates for products and activities that are distributed relatively evenly across the country. However, the system is not designed to generate accurate estimates of national injuries for "products" that are geographically fixed and not evenly distributed across the country. This paper discusses the problems associated with using NEISS data to extrapolate national estimates of injuries for amusement parks and rides. Data from first aide stations at a sample of Six Flags' largest theme parks are presented. These data describe the distribution and type of injuries treated at first aide stations within the parks.
    Failure Explanations in Amusement Ride Accident Reports BIBAFull-Text 1753-1757
      Kathryn Woodcock; Kelly Williams
    A failure framework was used to code a sample of 100 recent amusement rides reported in the media and public record. Conventional analysis captures little data about amusement ride accidents; media reports include more. The paper describes the coding of the media dataset on the failure framework, and summarizes the factors mentioned in the sample of accident reports. Accident reports were seen to concentrate on a small number of factors mainly focused on consequences and categories of event rather than on detailed consideration of precursors on the causal chain. Investigations do not explain how rider or operator error was produced or why it was not intercepted, nor do they consider human performance as a precursor of device failure. Future research will include interventions using the framework to increase awareness of human factors principles as accident precursors, and to aid investigators to capturing greater depth of information about the failure sequences.
    Hierarchical Task Analysis for Teams: Developing a Method to Characterize Railroad Yard Switching BIBAFull-Text 1758-1761
      Sarah A. Acton; Stephen J. Reinach
    The Federal Railroad Administration initiated research to collect data on remote control technology used in railroad yard-switching operations. This data will be used to conduct a risk assessment comparing conventional yard-switching operations with remote-control switching operations. A Hierarchical Task Analysis was chosen as the method to collect and organize the data for the risk assessment. Traditional task analyses are designed to record individual performance rather than teams working together to complete a task. The Hierarchical Task Analysis was modified to capture communication and coordination of team performance. The methods of developing the Hierarchical Task Analysis for Teams and data collection procedures are described, and an example of the results of the Hierarchical Task Analysis for Teams is presented and discussed.
    Cultural Differences in Risk Perception: Comparison of USA and Ghanaian Workers BIBAFull-Text 1762-1766
      LaTanya F. Martin; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Sharnnia Artis
    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in risk perception between two cultures -- USA and Ghanaian industry workers. A twenty question modified version of a risk perception questionnaire (Leonard, Hill, and Karnes, 1989) was administered to 73 participants from both the USA and the Republic of Ghana. Significant differences in ratings of hazard situations were identified. Implications for global workplace safety training are discussed.

    SAFETY: Safety Posters

    Severity Message from Hazard Alert Symbol on Caution Signs BIBAFull-Text 1767-1771
      Roger C. Jensen; AndrewM. McCammack
    Standards for the design of signal word panels specify different combinations of colors, signal words, and a hazard alert symbol. The warning sign standards of the American National Standards Institute specify a yellow signal word panel, with the word Caution and a hazard alert symbol, for signs marking people hazards. The same panel, without the symbol, is intended for property hazards. The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence or absence of the symbol effectively conveys the intended severity messages. A sample of 59 college students rated their impressions of a Caution sign with and without the symbol. Subjects rated the plain Caution sign as communicating significantly higher severity levels than property damage, indicating that a yellow Caution sign inaccurately communicates a hazard to property. Subjects rated the sign with the symbol as connoting significantly greater severity than the sign without the symbol.
    A Failure Framework to Enhance Learning from Amusement Ride Accidents BIBAFull-Text 1772-1776
      Kathryn Woodcock
    A research program addressing amusement ride safety required a means to study and compare investigations and inspections. A model was needed that could apply to both inspection and investigation, focusing on the failure made possible by the hazard(s) and explaining the actual or potential device failure or error. A "failure framework" was developed that incorporates elements of both deviation/aberration accident models and normal accident models. The framework has been used to study reports of amusement ride accidents, and will be used to develop interventions such as job aids and training to aid both inspection and investigations.
    Guidelines for Developing a Safety Culture to Support the Implementation and use of Technology BIBAFull-Text 1777-1781
      Katherine A. Wilson-Donnelly; Heather A. Priest; Eduardo Salas; C. Shawn Burke
    Research suggests that human error contributes to unsafe practices and accidents more than two-thirds of the time in technologically advanced industries, such as aviation. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors that contribute to unsafe practices in these industries by reviewing the available literature regarding safety and safety culture. We found an overwhelming number of studies that suggest that a poor organizational safety culture is a significant contributor to errors and accidents. We also found that there was a lack of consistency between what the literature prescribes in terms of promoting safety and what organizations actually practice. As organizations are using more complex technologies, the need to develop a safety culture that encourages the safe implementation and use of technologies is apparent. As such, we developed guidelines to assist in the development of a safety culture that encourages safe practices at all levels of the organizations. We hope that the information provided will help organizations to improve safety within their organization.

    STUDENT FORUM: Training Design Issues: From Research to Practice

    Human Factors Deficiencies in Handgun Safety Training BIBAFull-Text 1782-1786
      Paul Paradis; Hal W. Hendrick
    Deaths and serious injury from accidental handgun shootings are a major problem in the United States. Among children and adolescents, firearm injuries is the second leading cause of death in the United States, with over 25% being from accidental shootings. Yet, there is evidence that when sound, mandatory training is provided, accidental shooting deaths can be dramatically reduced. When a gun safety program is required or made available in a community, it usually is the standard NRA basic gun safety program. Unfortunately, from a human factors perspective, this training system has a number of deficiencies that limit its potential effectiveness. Some of these deficiencies are described along with suggestions for their elimination. Implementation of these suggestions would provide a training system and program that, if taken by all persons with guns, could dramatically reduce accidental shootings and related injuries or death.

    STUDENT FORUM: Student Career and Professional Development Day

    7 Habits of Highly Effective Hfes Students: Making your Hfes Membership Work for you BIBAFull-Text 1787-1790
      Haydee M. Cuevas
    Students join the organizations that represent their field of study for many reasons, but they may not be aware of how to fully maximize the potential of their student membership. Possibly the most important benefit that organizations, such as HFES, can offer students is to contribute to their professional development. In this paper, I present seven "habits" of highly effective HFES student members, with the goal of illustrating how students can effectively make their membership work for them. These strategies include ways to build one's curriculum vitae, refine one's communication skills, expand one's knowledge base, establish a professional network, identify potential mentors, and create both internship and career opportunities. And although the focus of this discussion is on students, in particular, these principles apply to all HFES members in general.

    STUDENT FORUM: Getting Started in the Right Direction: Expert Advice for Preparing for Your Professional Career

    Getting Started in the Right Direction: Expert Advice for Preparing for your Professional Career BIBAFull-Text 1791-1795
      Ronald G. Shapiro; Anthony D. Andre; Barry H. Beith; Eileen B. Entin; Brian M. Legan
    Welcome to the tenth annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Career Panel. The questions answered by this panel address many of the issues that graduate students and recent graduates have about entering the Human Factors field. The goal of this panel is to help individuals interested in becoming Human Factors professionals prepare for their career. This year the panel members each prepared a brief paper to help individuals plan for, prepare for, and commence their careers. During the HFES meeting panel session, the panel will focus on questions from the audience.

    STUDENT FORUM: Cutting-Edge Research by Students-Part I

    The Influence of Spatial Abilities and Age in using Telephone Menu Systems BIBAFull-Text 1796-1799
      Richard Pak; Joseph Sharit; Sara J. Czaja; Wendy A. Rogers
    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of spatial abilities in the performance of computer-based tasks, most of which involve menu navigation. This has been found among younger and older adults. Spatial abilities are usually thought to be composed of two distinct sub-factors: spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Various spatial abilities have been shown to exhibit normative declines with age suggesting that older adults may have trouble using computer-based technologies. The current research aims to examine the role of the different types of spatial abilities in the successful use of telephone menu systems.
    Older Adults' Opinions of a Technology-Rich Home Environment: Conditional and Unconditional Device Acceptance BIBAFull-Text 1800-1804
      Gregory P. Sarkisian; Anne-Sophie Melenhorst; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
    Functional independence remains a key component of the emotional and psychological well being of older adults. One method of aiding older adults in retaining their independence is through the use of technology. While researchers have addressed issues that relate the needs and characteristics of older adults to the design of such an environment, many issues remain unexamined. The matters of acceptance, comfort, and perceived usefulness are crucial to the implementation of the technology. A structured interview with 17 older adults aged 65 to 75 were conducted in a technology-rich home environment, with the aim of examining these concerns first-hand. Two devices are discussed using preliminary qualitative results to compare the conditions of their acceptance.
    Age-Related Effects of Training on Developing a System Representation BIBAFull-Text 1805-1809
      Jamye M. Hickman; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
    Technology varies in complexity and requires different types of training for proper use. The present study focuses on the design of training materials to facilitate the development of a system representation of a complex task which may improve product usage. Previous research suggests that understanding the structure, or representation, of a complex system may help in performing infrequent tasks and troubleshooting system failures. The type of training participants receive may facilitate the development of task components necessary to enhance the skills needed for navigation which includes understanding the system representation. The current study examines two questions 1) does the type of training received affect the development of a system representation? and 2) are there age-related differences in the training effects? The discussion of the results will focus on training and age differences on the assessment measures which assess different aspects of learning.
    Conceptual Versus Procedural Feedback in the Training of a Home Medical Device BIBAFull-Text 1810-1814
      Casey L. Fiesler; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
    With the aid of new technology, the use of home medical devices is becoming more prevalent among older adults. These devices are often not designed with consideration for the cognitive differences that come with aging, and older adults often require training to use the devices. This study considered a blood glucose monitor, and attempted to discern what type of feedback yielded better performance from older adults: conceptual or procedural feedback-training. Participants calibrated the monitor and were given feedback when they made mistakes. The prediction was that the procedurally trained group would require fewer trials to attain criterion (a trial without error), but that the conceptually trained group would have better performance after a retention interval, showing a greater understanding of the system. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in performance between experimental conditions, but that feedback itself had a positive effect on performance.
    Applying Human Factors to the Procurement of Electrosurgical Medical Devices: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 1815-1819
      Andrea L. Cassano
    Human factors evaluations are currently not conducted as part of the procurement process for medical devices in most hospitals. The complexity of medical devices and interactions between those devices, the working environment and the people who use them can create a high potential for errors. This study reports on the methods used to integrate human factors usability testing into the product evaluation of electrosurgical units (ESU's) prior to procurement. It also comments on the results of the various testing methods and the impact of the results on the final purchasing decision.
       The results of the human factors evaluations were used to make a purchasing decision for a major metropolitan hospital in Canada. A new purchase was necessary because the manufacturer was no longer supporting the product in use. Surprisingly, the product of choice was the oldest on the market with few new features. It was preferred and chosen based on usability and clinical acceptance by all users.
    Improving Human Scaling Reliability BIBAFull-Text 1820-1824
      Ronald Laurids Boring
    In order to measure the subjective experience of system users, the field of human factors makes extensive use of classical scaling methods. In this paper, the applicability of a new scaling method for human factors research is demonstrated. Constrained scaling, a technique for training individuals to translate mental magnitudes to numeric scales, is introduced. Constrained scaling has been found to reduce significantly the variability in scale use between individuals. Prior research has focused extensively on psychophysical constrained scaling. As an example of how constrained scaling can also improve the quality of psychometric measures available to human factors researchers, new research is presented that compares classical scaling with constrained scaling for rating the visual appeal of Web pages. Constrained scaling is found to increase scaling reliability in this subjective domain.
    Modeling and Simulation of Pregnant Workers BIBAFull-Text 1825-1829
      J. A. Kalish
    This Research proposes to answer the question: "Can a pregnancy simulator worn by non-pregnant females of childbearing years replicate the pregnant condition closely enough to yield comparable, correlating results to a preexisting study done using pregnant subjects"? To address the legitimacy of modeling pregnancy using a pregnancy simulator, a study of working surface heights by Paul, Frings-Dresen, Salle & Rozendal (1995) is being closely replicated. Non-pregnant women of child bearing years wearing "The Empathy Belly" pregnancy simulator (U.S. Patent 4,531,919) will be used as research subjects instead of pregnant women. In this study, each volunteer will select the preferred standing working surface height to perform manual work -- once while wearing the pregnancy simulator and once without it. These self selected comfortable working surface heights will be recorded along with anthropometric and demographic information from each volunteer. A comparison will be made between this new data with the current standard for working surface height by Grandjean (1988) and the outcomes of the study by Paul et al. (1995).
    The Presentation of Reference Information to Facilitate Search, Retrieval and Utilization BIBAFull-Text 1830-1834
      Sandra K. Garrett
    Reference knowledge is very important for both personal expertise development and the development and viability of an organization. For reference material to be utilized effectively however, it must be organized and displayed in a way that facilitates the task goals of the user. Due to the complex interactions of the human-task-context relationship, evaluation of reference knowledge displays must involve studying how its effectiveness changes as these parameters are varied. As the Internet becomes a more prevalent way of providing reference information to the general public, great care must be used to ensure that the website structure facilitates the different information retrieval goals of the various users. This paper discusses an ongoing study that investigates the efficiency of information retrieval for two different types of task goals in two different website structures.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Trains, Trucks, and Advanced Technologies

    The Train-Project: Effects of Organizational Factors, Automatic Train Control, Work Hours and Environment: Suggestions for Safety Enhancing Measures BIBAFull-Text 1835-1839
      Lena Kecklund; Eva Olsson; Anders Jansson; Goran Kecklund; Michael Ingre
    The purpose of the TRAIN project was to describe and analyse the train drivers' information environment, working hours, work situation and work environment and their effect on drivers' behaviour and the train driver system safety as well as to propose safety enhancing measures. The results indicate several problems of significance to the train driver system safety, which have been grouped into three main areas; organizational support functions, information environment including cognitive ergonomics and ATC and also working hours, work situation and work environment.
    Identification Of an Appropriate Drowsy Driver Detection Interface for Commercial Vehicle Operations BIBAFull-Text 1840-1844
      Ellen M. Ayoob; Aaron Steinfeld; Richard Grace
    Considerable progress has been made in measuring drowsiness and understanding its effects upon human performance in the laboratory and in simulated and operational driving conditions. This work builds upon previous research and identifies an appropriate design for a drowsy driver detection interface. A participatory design process was used that included both design experts and drivers in separate focus groups. One expert activity, evaluations of candidate interaction flow models, and two driver activities, critical incident interviews and a design exercise, are described here. The conflict that arose between the drivers' desires and the desires of the scientific community is that the drivers viewed the system as a loyal servant that would alert the driver when he became drowsy, while the scientific community viewed the system as a trusted advisor that would encourage the driver to stop and rest. The final design has many features to address both of these views.
    Lessons Learned during Two Naturalistic Truck-Driving Studies BIBAFull-Text 1845-1849
      Vicki L. Neale; Richard J. Hanowski; Sheila G. Klauer; Thomas A. Dingus
    The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) was contracted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to collect data from Commercial Vehicle Operators (CVO) under two contracts. The first study, Impact of Local/Short Haul Operations on Driver Fatigue (Hanowski, et al., 2000), focused on those drivers who drive an average of three hours a day while delivering goods but sleep at home each night. The second study, Impact of Sleeper Berth Usage on Driver Fatigue (Dingus, et al., 2002), studied fatigue in drivers who are on the road up to two weeks at a time and use the truck sleeper-berth unit for rest. Each study presented unique obstacles to overcome in order to make data collection possible. This paper will summarize the lessons learned during recruiting, truck licensing, and coordination and will provide insight into the rigors of collecting data in a truck-driving environment.
    Behavioral Adaptation to Adaptive Cruise Control BIBAFull-Text 1850-1854
      Christina M. Rudin-Brown; Heather A. Parker; Alice R. Malisia
    The ability of adaptive cruise control (ACC) to induce behavioral adaptation in drivers was assessed in a test-track environment. Eighteen experienced drivers performed a secondary, in-vehicle number search task while following a confederate lead vehicle. The three counterbalanced conditions were: No ACC (self-maintained average headway of 2 s), ACC-Short (headway of 1.4 s) and ACC-Long (headway of 2.4 s). Results indicate that ACC can induce behavioral adaptation in potentially safety-critical ways. Participants were able to correctly identify significantly more stock price quotes per minute when using ACC than when they drove unaided. At the same time, participants reacted more slowly to a safety-relevant brake light detection task when they used ACC, and responded within a safe time margin 33% less often. This effect was particularly pronounced in those scoring high on a sensation-seeking scale. ACC use was associated with impaired lane-keeping performance, an effect that was also more evident in high sensation-seekers. During a simulated failure of the ACC system, participants waited until the vehicle-to-vehicle headway was 0.6 s before they intervened; those with an external locus of control took longer to react than those with an internal locus of control. Finally, participants' trust in ACC increased following exposure, and was not affected by the failure of the ACC system. Results are consistent with similar research conducted on lane departure warning systems.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Communication while Driving, Measures and Strategies Relating to Distraction, and Modeling Driver Steering

    Differences in Remote Versus In-Person Communications while Performing a Driving Task BIBAFull-Text 1855-1859
      Leo Gugerty; Cynthia Rando; Michael Rakauskas; Johnell Brooks; Heather Olson
    In Experiment 1, 29 participants performed a simulated driving task both alone and while talking with another participant. Half of the non-driving participants could see the driving scene (in-person communication group) and half could not (remote communication group). When participants performed the driving task while talking with a partner, their situation awareness was significantly less than when they performed only the driving task. Thus, concurrent verbal interactions degraded situation awareness for the driving task. However, the amount of degradation in situation awareness during in-person and remote interactions did not differ significantly. The pace of the in-person and remote verbal interactions differed, suggesting that remote verbal interactions may be more difficult for drivers. Also, drivers talking with remote partners generated more long pauses than drivers talking with in-person partners, suggesting that drivers engaged in remote verbal interactions were modulating their verbalizations in order to maintain adequate driving performance. Experiment 2 replicated the finding that both in-person and remote verbal interactions degraded driving situation awareness, with no significant difference in the amount of degradation for the two types of verbal interaction.
    Effects of Cell Phone Conversations on Younger and Older Drivers BIBAFull-Text 1860-1864
      David L. Strayer; Frank A. Drews
    Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was impaired by cell phone conversations. Compared to single-task conditions, cell-phone drivers' reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was 12% greater, and they took 17% longer to recover the speed that was lost following braking. These cell-phone induced impairments were equivalent for younger and older adults, suggesting that older adults do not suffer a significantly greater penalty for talking on a cell phone while driving than their younger counterparts. Interestingly, the net effect of having younger drivers converse on a cell phone was to make their braking reactions equivalent to those of older drivers who were not using a cell phone.
    Taxonomy of Mitigation Strategies for Driver Distraction BIBAFull-Text 1865-1869
      Birsen Donmez; Linda Boyle; John D. Lee
    Driver distraction can be described as the diversion of driver's attention from the primary task of driving and is one of the most common causes of crashes. Complex technologies that have either been introduced to the driving domain or are planned to be, raise the concern of high levels of distraction, by placing additional demands on drivers. Different mitigation strategies (e.g., warning and vehicle control) have been implemented in the vehicle to reduce driver distraction. However there has not been a clear definition or categorization of these strategies. This paper, therefore, proposes a taxonomy of mitigation strategies for driver distraction and relates the strategies to accumulated research in the areas of automation and adaptive aiding to define important design tradeoffs with each strategy. This taxonomy provides a framework that can guide research and address the driver distraction problem systematically.
    Quantifying Car following Performance as a Metric for Primary and Secondary (Distraction) Task Load: Part a Modification of Task Parameters BIBAFull-Text 1870-1874
      Nicholas J. Ward; Michael P. Manser; Dick de Waard; Nobuyuki Kuge; Erwin Boer
    Driver impairment as a result of attention-related factors is a common concern to many areas of safety research in driving. Previously, the "coherence technique" was developed to provide several metrics of performance in relation to the continuous task of car following presumed to require vigilance and perceptual capacity (Brookhuis, De Waard, & Mulder, 1994). This study examines a modified version of this technique that is more natural. This modified technique was sensitive to both increased primary and secondary (distraction) task load.
    Modeling Steering using the Queueing Network Model Human Processor (Qn-Mhp) BIBAFull-Text 1875-1879
      Omer Tsimhoni; Yili Liu
    The Queueing Network -- Model Human Processor (QN-MHP) is a computational architecture that combines the mathematical theories and simulation methods of queueing networks (QN) with the symbolic and procedure methods of a GOMS-style task description and the Model Human Processor (MHP). Using QN-MHP, a steering model was created to represent the concurrent perceptual, cognitive, and motor activities involved in vehicle steering as truly concurrent processes. The model was compared with driving performance of human subjects and demonstrated realistic steering behavior. It steered a simulated vehicle at a fixed speed within the lane boundaries of straight sections and curves of different radii. In a quantitative validation of several basic measures of driving performance, the steering model yielded steering angle and lateral position similar to the human subject data. This work showed the strength of QN-MHP as a model of driving behavior. Ongoing work further develops the model by expanding the scope of the driving task and by adding a concurrent secondary in-vehicle task.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Surface Transportation Posters

    The Effects of Head-Up Display Clutter and In-Vehicle Display Separation on Concurrent Driving Performance BIBAFull-Text 1880-1884
      William J. Horrey; Christopher D. Wickens; Amy L. Alexander
    The introduction of new in-vehicle technologies (IVTs) in automobiles may have important implications for driver safety, especially to the extent that these devices interfere with the primary driving task. Two experiments explored the effects of IVTs on vehicle control and hazard awareness: specifically, we were interested in the impact of visual clutter from head-up display (HUD) overlay as well as the impact of display separation. In experiment 1, twenty-five drivers in a wrap-around simulator drove urban and rural routes while performing a phone number read-back task. Visual displays were located either in a HUD overlaid on the horizon, a HUD positioned 7° below the horizon, or on a head-down display (HDD) located near the mid-console. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate some of the key findings in Experiment 1 with more challenging driving conditions (i.e., curved roads, varying fog densities). In general, the results suggested that drivers protected the vehicle control task, however there were costs in hazard response time and side task performance with the HDD. We suggest that effective hazard detection requires more focal visual resources whereas vehicle control may utilize ambient resources. The practical and theoretical significance of these findings are discussed.
    Ocular Movement during Curbside Turns at Intersections BIBAFull-Text 1885-1889
      Muneo Kitajima; Motoyuki Akamatsu
    We conducted a driving experiment and measured and analyzed the data on eye movement in order to understand ocular movement during curbside turns at intersections. We used a driving simulator equipped with a system capable of measuring the direction of a subject's glances relative to the heading of their vehicle. By analyzing this data, measured at three intersections, we identified three tasks commonly observed in curbside turns: 1) object inspection; 2) turning; and 3) aligning. During the first task, the measurements showed variable swinging patterns. There was a consistent pattern of looking at targets along the curb in the second task, presumably for guidance while turning the vehicle. During the third task, measurements showed a coherent pattern of returning the glance from turning to the subsequent driving maneuvers.
    On-Road Measures of the Nighttime Conspicuity of Pedestrians BIBAFull-Text 1890-1894
      Richard A. Tyrrell; Joanne M. Wood; Trent P. Carberry
    Pedestrian fatalities, which in the U.S. account for 12% of all traffic fatalities, are more common at night. This experiment quantified drivers' ability to recognize the presence of pedestrians at night. Ten younger and ten older participants drove around a closed road circuit and indicated when they first recognized that a pedestrian was present. The percentage of pedestrians recognized was recorded and a parallax-based video system measured recognition distances. Results confirm that a severe pedestrian conspicuity problem exists and that driver age, clothing configuration, headlamp beam setting, and glare all significantly affect pedestrian recognition. In the most challenging condition (low beams, black clothing, glare) only 5% of pedestrians were recognized. At the other extreme, 100% of the pedestrians were recognized when they wore retro-reflective materials depicting biological motion (without glare present). Without glare, mean recognition distances varied from 0.0 meters (older drivers, low beam, black clothing) to 220 meters (younger drivers, high beam, biomotion).
    Modeling of Driving Behavior when Approaching an Intersection based on Measured Behavioral Data on an Actual Road BIBAFull-Text 1895-1899
      Motoyuki Akamatsu; Yasuo Sakaguchi; Masayuki Okuwa
    It is important to develop a driving assistance system that conforms to individual driving behavior. An individual's usual driving behavior is generally adapted to road and traffic situation; therefore, we propose that assistance be provided when that behavior deviates from normal. We developed specially equipped vehicles to collect natural behavioral data from repeated driving experiments on an actual road. We subsequently developed a Bayesian network model of occurrence of behavioral events from the data obtained when approaching a specific intersection with a stop sign. Any deviation from usual operation behavior can be estimated using this model. Unusual behavior can be regarded as inappropriate behavior and therefore its detection can be applied to driving assistance methods, such as warning presentation.
    The Effect of Secondary Tasks on Drivers' Scanning Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1900-1903
      Xianjun Sam Zheng; George W. McConkie; Yu-chi Tai
    A study was designed to investigate the effect of cognitive task on drivers' visual scanning and driving performance in a single monitor, PC-based driving simulator. Twelve college student drivers' eye movements and driving performance were recorded as they drove in three types of environments (i.e, highway, rural, and urban) under three secondary task condition (none, verbal task and spatial-imagery task). The eye movement results replicate those of Recarte and Nunes (2000), indicating that extra cognitive tasks reduce the time and frequency of such safety-related behavior as checking the speedometer and rear view mirrors. Pupil diameter increases significantly when performing secondary tasks, confirming the usefulness of that measure as an indicator of processing load. The cognitive task also has an effect on driver's performance, such as reducing lane-keeping accuracy, and increasing variation in speed.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Applying Human Factors to Systems

    Ias A Human Factors Methodology for Incorporating user Feedback into System Design BIBAFull-Text 1904-1908
      Melanie J. Turieo; Marlene A. Devine
    "The window is too big." "The window is too small." "It's too loud." "It's too quiet." How does system design and development proceed to address the needs of the user when there is a general sense that users -- and other stakeholder groups -- are dissatisfied with a product, but the feedback is vague, inconsistent, and often times, conflicting? This situation occurs quite often, when designers and developers have only sparse, anecdotal information available to them about user response to a system, and there is no systematic collection or interpretation of user feedback.
       This paper uses a case study format to present Investigation-Analysis-Solution (IAS), a methodology for systematically collecting, quantifying, evaluating, prioritizing, and incorporating human factors feedback into the system design -- or redesign -- process. While the example project was executed for a large-scale military system, the IAS method and tools presented are applicable and transferable to any system development, design, or redesign effort.
    Dual-Task Interference: Using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis to Identify Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms BIBAFull-Text 1909-1912
      Alastair P. Nicholls; Eric W. Farmer; Richard Peachey; Andrew J. Belyavin
    It is generally assumed that performance impairment in dual-task studies reflects the degree to which the two tasks draw upon common cognitive processes or mechanisms. The present paper reports an attempt to identify and categorise the cognitive functions that underlie interference effects in dual-task studies. The extant literature was reviewed, and a short-list of twelve tasks used commonly in dual-task studies was identified. A task similarity matrix was constructed that plotted the degree of interference between task pairs. Based on the similarity matrix a first estimate of the positions of the selected tasks in Euclidean (interference) space was made and clusters of tasks identified. Results suggest that the common modular dichotomy between verbal and spatial resources is necessary but not sufficient to explain the findings.
    Performance and Usability Evaluation of an Automated Task Management Concept Prototype Design BIBAFull-Text 1913-1917
      Gregory A. Hildebrand; James A. Pharmer; Melissa D. Weaver
    A performance and usability evaluation was conducted on an automated task management concept (ATMC) user interface prototype design developed for an Air Defense Warfare (ADW) environment. With the Navy's reduced manning objectives, available advanced technologies, and increasingly complex mission areas, research and development of advanced user interface concepts is becoming a high priority. Testing was conducted at the Integrated Command Environment (ICE) facility at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren VA Human Performance Laboratory. Team performance, situational awareness, and workload data were collected on six intact fleet ADW teams performing a realistic tactical scenario and supported by an ATMC prototype. These data were compared to data collected from six ADW teams performing the same scenario on advanced consoles without ATMC capability. Although it was expected that the teams with the ATMC interface would perform substantially better than the teams without it, the performance data did not completely support this hypothesis. Results indicated that ATMC may benefit the tasks of some operators and that some aspects of workload may be reduced using this concept. The results of a usability analysis and warfighter feedback also indicate that task management concepts may have some potential to reduce the need for verbal communication between team members.
    Finding Information needs in Military Command and Control Systems using Exploratory Tools for Communication Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1918-1922
      Par-Anders Albinsson; Magnus Morin; Johan Fransson
    Communication is a rich source for analysis of complex socio-technical systems such as command and control. Although observable, often accessible, and multidimensional, communication data give rise to demanding analyses. In addition, these analyses must support keeping the context available, considering the situated nature of command and control activities. This paper presents methods and tools for exploratory analysis of communication. We report communication analysis results from military exercises, where the tools were used to explore commanders' information needs as a step in an ongoing development of a command and control support system.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Explorations in Cognitive Work Analysis: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Future Systems

    Multifunction Displays for Optimum Manning: Towards Functional Integration and Cross-Functional Awareness BIBAFull-Text 1923-1927
      Michael P. Linegang;