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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting 2008-09-22

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting
Location:New York, New York
Dates:2008-Sep-22 to 2008-Sep-26
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-32-4, 978-0-945289-32-6; hcibib: HFES08; TA 166 H794
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2008-09-22 Volume 52
    1. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS2 - Awareness and Attention in Flight
    2. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS3 - The Role of Human Engineering in the Design of the Orion Spacecraft
    3. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS4 - NextGen Human Factors Research and Engineering Requirements
    4. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS5 - Air Traffic Control
    5. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS7 - Cockpit and Display Design
    6. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS8 - Human Error in Aviation
    7. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS9 - Space Human Factors
    8. AGING: A1 - Older Adults and Technology Use
    9. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC1 - New Kids on the Block: Multidimensional Perspectives on Augmented Cognition
    10. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC2 - Foundations of Augmented Cognition
    11. AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC3 - Applications of Augmented Cognition
    12. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE1 - Human Total Cost of Ownership: Measuring the Impact of Human Factors on System Engineering
    13. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE2 - Designing Robotic and Unmanned Vehicles
    14. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE3 - Cognitive Engineering Approaches to Safety in Health Care
    15. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE4 - Human-Robot Interaction II: The Impact of Human Factors on Unmanned Systems
    16. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE5 - Extensions and Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis I
    17. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE6 - Automation Design for Trust and Reliance
    18. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE7 - Adapting to Change and Uncertainty: CSE 20 Years After
    19. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE8 - Improving Visual Search and Identification in Complex Systems
    20. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE9 - Information Display and Cognitive Artifacts
    21. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE10 - Cognitive Aspects of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making
    22. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE11 - Supporting Complex Decision Making
    23. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE12 - Extensions and Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis II
    24. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE13 - Analysis and Design of Successful Teams
    25. COMMUNICATIONS: C1 - Beyond PowerPoint: Tools for Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
    26. COMMUNICATIONS: C2 - The Many Facets of Communications
    27. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS1 - Qualitative Evaluation
    28. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS2 - Controls and Displays
    29. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS3 - Accessibility
    30. DEMONSTRATIONS: DEM1 - Innovative Training Tools and Methods
    31. DEMONSTRATIONS: DEM2 - New Frontiers: Intelligence, Space, and Robots
    32. EDUCATION: E1 - Instructional Methods and Techniques in Education
    33. EDUCATION: E2 - The Need for International Human Factors Engineering Education Programs
    34. EDUCATION: E3 - Self-Globalization: Strategies in HFES Education, Research, and Practice
    35. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED1 - Seating, Seating Posture, and Backpack Usage
    36. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: FP1 - Challenges in Forensics Practice and Ethics for Expert Witnesses
    37. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS1 - National Ergonomics Month
    38. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS2 - The Real Deal: Lessons from Human Factors Leaders
    39. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS3 - Moving from Accommodation to Universal Design
    40. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS5 - Lectures Potpourri
    41. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS5 - Lectures Potpourri4
    42. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS5 - Lectures Potpourri
    43. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS6 - Ergonomics for the Child - Way Forward
    44. GENERAL SESSIONS: GS7 - Human Factors and the Nuclear Renaissance
    45. HEALTH CARE: HC1 - Health Information Technologies and Human Factors
    46. HEALTH CARE: HC2 - Simulation in Health Care
    47. HEALTH CARE: HC3 - Communication in Clinical Settings
    48. HEALTH CARE: HC4 - Patient Safety: Perspectives from a Broad Spectrum
    49. HEALTH CARE: HC5 - Improving Communication and Teamwork in Health Care Settings
    50. HEALTH CARE: HC6 - Rehabilitation Ergonomics: The Clinical Utility of Ergonomic Tools and Methodology
    51. HEALTH CARE: HC7 - Human Performance During Critical Health Care Procedures
    52. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP1 - Models of Motor Control and Performance
    53. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP2 - Modeling Human Performance in the Environmental Context
    54. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP3 - Issues and Challenges in Human Performance Modeling in Aviation: Goals, Advances, and Gaps
    55. HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP4 - Toward Integrated Models of Cognitive, Visual, and Motor Performance
    56. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID1 - Individual Differences in Performance Under Stress
    57. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID2 - Individual Differences Potpourri
    58. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE1 - Upper Extremity Ergonomics
    59. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE2 - Ergonomic Interventions
    60. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE3 - Low Back Pain and Lifting
    61. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE4 - Ergonomics in the Biosciences
    62. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE5 - Neuromuscular Responses
    63. INTERNET: I1 - The Mobile Web
    64. INTERNET: I2 - Quantitative Analytical Methods
    65. MACROERGONOMICS: ME1 - Macroergonomic Challenges in Implementation of Health Care Information Technology
    66. MACROERGONOMICS: ME2 - Macroergonomics in Practice
    67. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP1 - Perception and Displays: The Role of Aesthetic Preference, Spatial Display Characteristics, and Music
    68. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP2 - Perceptual Factors in the Design of Aviation Systems: Maximizing Pilot Performance and Safety
    69. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP3 - The Redline of Workload: Theory, Research, and Design
    70. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP4 - Measuring Attentional Resources for Perceptual Tasks: Is Automation the Answer?
    71. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP5 - Perceptual Task Characteristics and Driver Performance
    72. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP6 - From Icon Characteristics in Menu Design to Requirements for Laparoscopic Pointing Devices: Perception Plays a Key Role in the Design of Commercial Products
    73. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP7 - The Role of Perception in the Design of Military Systems
    74. POSTERS: Input Devices
    75. POSTERS: Automation
    76. POSTERS: Information Processing
    77. POSTERS: Potpourri
    78. POSTERS: Military Applications
    79. POSTERS: Teams
    80. POSTERS: Usability
    81. POSTERS: Health Care
    82. POSTERS: Tools and Methods
    83. POSTERS: Workload / Stressors
    84. POSTERS: Driving
    85. POSTERS: Training
    86. POSTERS: Eye Tracking
    87. POSTERS: Sensation and Perception
    88. POSTERS: Virtual Environments
    89. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD1 - Framework, Methods, and Design Implications
    90. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD3 - The Boeing 787 Dreamliner - A Case Study
    91. PRODUCT DESIGN: PD4 - Product Design Potpourri
    92. SAFETY: S1 - Warnings and Risk Perception
    93. SAFETY: S2 - Industry Safety
    94. SAFETY: S3 - Roadway Safety
    95. SAFETY: S4 - Safety Potpourri
    96. STUDENT FORUM: SF2 - A Compilation of Innovative Student Research
    97. STUDENT FORUM: SF3 - “The Real World” HF/E: Understanding the Realities of Your First Professional Job
    98. STUDENT FORUM: SF4 - Student Research in Cognitive Human Factors
    99. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST2 - Pedestrians and Transportation Infrastructure
    100. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST3 - Crashes: Warnings, Simulations, and Safety Enhancements
    101. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST4 - Global Perspectives on the Use of Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Highway Safety
    102. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST5 - Vision and In-Vehicle Controls
    103. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST6 - Ethical and Privacy Issues with On-Road Driving Data
    104. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST7 - Cell Phones, Intersections, Snowplows, and New Techniques
    105. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD1 - Future Trends in Design and Development of Control Rooms
    106. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD2 - Tools of the Trade: Systems Development Tool Trends
    107. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD4 - Human-Systems Integration - Human Factors and a Whole Lot More!
    108. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD5 - Systems Engineering - The Cutting Edge of Practical Human Factors
    109. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD6 - Applications of Human Factors to the Design of Systems
    110. TEST AND EVALUATION: TE2 - Human Factors and Ergonomics Issues in Test & Evaluation
    111. TEST AND EVALUATION: TE3 - Is There a Better Way to Do This? Works-in-Progress Forum for Human Factors/Ergonomics Test & Evaluation Initiatives
    112. TRAINING: T1 - Challenges in Team-of-Teams Training and Assessment
    113. TRAINING: T2 - Training Effectiveness: Modes and Feedback
    114. TRAINING: T3 - The Psychosocial Factor: A Neglected Aspect of Team Performance?
    115. TRAINING: T4 - Training and Assessment in Aviation Environments
    116. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: VE1 - Human Interfaces for Virtual Environments
    117. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: VE2 - Applications of Virtual Environments for Training and Human Performance Assessment

HFES 2008-09-22 Volume 52

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS2 - Awareness and Attention in Flight

Caffeine: Mitigating the Effects of Fatigue on the Flight Deck BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Brett R. C. Molesworth; Ricky Young
Fatigue relating from sleep loss or circadian disruptions continues to pose a significant threat within aviation. Caffeine is one method employed by pilots on the flight deck to alleviate some of the symptoms associated with fatigue. The present study sought to investigate the effects of caffeine on pilot performance during a demanding task. Employing a repeated measures design, forty-two pilots were randomly divided into three groups (0mg/kg, 3mg/kg and 5mg/kg of caffeine) and completed a base-line task followed by a test task, thirty minutes post caffeine consumption. Both experimental tasks involved pilots completing games on Space Fortress - a computer-based research tool developed at the University of Illinois - Cognitive Psychophysiology Laboratory for the study of complex skills. The results failed to reveal any difference in pilots' performance from the consumption of caffeine. The results are discussed from both an applied and experimental perspective.
Flying by Ear: Blind Flight with a Music-Based Artificial Horizon BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Brian D. Simpson; Douglas S. Brungart; Ronald C. Dallman; Richard J. Yasky; Griffin D. Romigh Yasky
Two experiments were conducted in actual flight operations to evaluate an audio artificial horizon display that imposed aircraft attitude information on pilot-selected music. The first experiment examined a pilot's ability to identify, with vision obscured, a change in aircraft roll or pitch, with and without the audio artificial horizon display. The results suggest that the audio horizon display improves the accuracy of attitude identification overall, but differentially affects response time across conditions. In the second experiment, subject pilots performed recoveries from displaced aircraft attitudes using either standard visual instruments, or, with vision obscured, the audio artificial horizon display. The results suggest that subjects were able to maneuver the aircraft to within its safety envelope. Overall, pilots were able to benefit from the display, suggesting that such a display could help to improve overall safety in general aviation.
Assessing the Situation Awareness of Pilots Engaged in Self Spacing BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Thomas Z. Strybel; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Jerome Kraft; Katsumi Minakata
We measured situation awareness (SA) of pilots in a simulation of an approach to a large metropolitan airport (DFW), using both SAGAT and SPAM probe techniques. Both methods of SA measurement significantly predicted pilot performance on a self-spacing task but in SPAM scenarios, probe latency predicted IAS variability, and in SAGAT scenarios, accuracy predicted IAS variability.
Dont Go There: Using Runway Intersection Lights to Prevent Runway Incursions BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Kathleen McGarry; Kevin Long
This paper describes the results of a Human-in-the-Loop simulation, conducted at MITRE/CAASD's Integrated Air Traffic Management Laboratory for the FAA, evaluating the effectiveness of integrated ground-based warning systems for improved runway safety. The evaluated warning systems contained technologies to enhance pilot awareness, as well as warn pilots about runway safety risks. Pilots experienced simulation scenarios with a warning system that provided visual warnings about surface traffic. In addition, pilots experienced simulation scenarios in a baseline condition, with no warnings. The groundbased warnings consisted of Runway Intersection Lights (RILs). Results indicate significant safety benefits of these direct pilot warnings by reducing the likelihood of runway safety incidents. The study did find shortcomings with some aspects of the warnings; mitigations are suggested.
Expertise Differences in Attentional Strategies Related to Pilot Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Angela T. Schriver; Daniel G. Morrow; Christopher D. Wickens; Donald A. Talleur
While much is known about differences in decision making outcomes related to pilot expertise, less is known about the processes that underlie these differences. We explored expertise differences in decision making processes by simultaneously measuring expert and novice pilots' attention, using eye-tracking, and their decision outcomes in a realistic context. We also investigated how expertise differences in pilots' attentional strategies were influenced by cue properties of diagnosticity and correlation. Fourteen expert and 14 novice pilots flew brief simulated flights. Half the flights contained failures that required diagnosis and an action (i.e., a decision). The environmental cues that signaled these failures varied in diagnosticity and/or correlation. We found that experts made better decisions than novices in terms of speed and accuracy. Both groups made faster correct decisions when cues were higher in diagnosticity. Only experts made faster correct decisions when cues were correlated. Experts attended more to cues relevant to the failure when a failure was present. Findings suggest that expertise differences in decision outcomes partly reflect attentional strategies relevant to problem diagnosis.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS3 - The Role of Human Engineering in the Design of the Orion Spacecraft

The Role of Human Engineering in the Design of the Orion Spacecraft BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  John Wise; Lee Morin; Mihriban Whitmore; Lila Laux; Chris Hamblin; John-Paul Stephens; Sudhakar Rajulu; Kritina Holden; Susan Baggerman; Lisa Fairey
The panel will discuss NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle, Orion, which is being designed to take four humans back to the moon, and lay the groundwork for future manned missions to Mars. Given that the last design work for such a vehicle was performed over 30 years ago, a lot has changed. Since the contract was only recently awarded (2007), there is much work to be done: finalize requirements, mature the technology, design the systems and modules, produce the hardware and software, test the systems, and prepare for first flight operations planned for 2014. The panel, consisting of customer and contractor human engineering professionals, as well as an astronaut who is actively participating in the design process, will discuss current design issues, human factors approaches that are being applied, and current technical and cultural challenges. Audience insights and recommendations for addressing these challenges will form the interactive portion of the panel session.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS4 - NextGen Human Factors Research and Engineering Requirements

NextGen Human Factors Research Engineering Requirements BIBAFull-Text 31-33
  Dino Piccione
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is an aviation community vision to transform civil aviation over the next 20 years to meet increasing demand from the flying public for more flight operations, reduced air traffic delays and increased safety. The NextGen challenge is being addressed with an aggressive research, engineering and development plan reflecting an industry / government partnership to build that future. This panel is a forum for two government agencies, the FAA and NASA, to articulate and discuss human factors research and engineering requirements that must be met to achieve this vision.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS5 - Air Traffic Control

The Relationship Between SPAM, Workload, and Task Performance on a Simulated ATC Task BIBAFull-Text 34-38
  Russell S. Pierce; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Jimmy Nguyen; Thomas Z. Strybel
This study examined the influence of workload and dual-task performance decrements associated with the SPAM technique. Participants performed the Air Traffic Scenarios Test (ATST), which is a low fidelity air traffic control simulator developed by the Federal Aviation Administration. Performance on the ATST was followed by post-run questionnaires (baseline conditions) or in conjunction with SPAM queries, word shadowing lists, or memory lists (secondary task conditions). SPAM was no different from our baseline conditions in terms of subjective workload. In comparison to other secondary tasks, SPAM tended to yield workload levels intermediate to List Memory (high cognitive load) and Word Shadowing (low cognitive load). SPAM was found to lower performance relative to baseline conditions in three of the seven observed performance measures. These findings suggest that the use of a "ready" prompt for probe question administration is not sufficient for reducing performance decrements associated with secondary tasks.
The Effect of Workload on Conflict Decision Making Strategies in Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 39-43
  S. Fothergill; A. Neal
The present research examined the impact of workload on the strategies that air traffic controllers use when resolving conflicts between aircraft. Sixteen experienced, en route, radar controllers managed traffic in scenarios of varying levels of workload. As predicted, the level of workload did influence conflict resolution decisions in situations where the optimal solution was more complex and imposed a greater monitoring load on the controller. Specifically, in low workload participants were more likely to adopt strategies that were efficient for the aircraft; whereas in high workload controllers were likely to select expedient, but less efficient, solutions. Additionally, three broader traffic management strategies were identified. The findings reveal how workload affects decision making in this environment and have wider implications for efficiency versus safety trade-offs in similar, dynamic domains.
The Relationship between Aircraft Count and Controller Workload in Different En Route Workstation Systems BIBAFull-Text 44-48
  Sehchang Hah; Ben Willems
Some air traffic control researchers have reported that the relationship between aircraft count in the sector and controller workload is nonlinear. Other researchers have reported it linear. However, they did not manipulate the number of aircraft separately in their experiments. In our experiment, we gradually increased traffic levels within each experimental run. Our controllers used three different workstation systems with and without data communication. The linear and power models described the relationship well. The proportion of workload variance explained by aircraft count was well above 50%. With these models, we predict controllers could handle about four (13%) more aircraft with data communication than without it with the Display System Replacement (DSR) system that is currently used at Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs).
  Paul U. Lee; Joey Mercer
Controller workload is a key factor in limiting en route capacity that has been modeled through fast-time modeling, real-time simulations, and operational data. In most of these efforts, the focus has been on correlating workload with other "objective" metrics, such as number of clearances, number of aircraft, etc. A missing component from such analyses is the controller's strategy for managing workload. Workload is not a passive factor that mirrors the controller actions (e.g. handoffs, clearances). Instead, controllers actively moderate and re-distribute the types and the frequency of actions based on their perceived workload. In this paper, we examine this strategy shift by associating bookkeeping tasks and route/altitude clearances with online workload ratings. Overall, the data suggest that only in high traffic scenarios in which the controller workload approached the maximum threshold,, the controllers shed peripheral tasks related to monitoring and bookkeeping as the traffic increases and their perceived workload transitions from low to high. Whenever workload reached a maximum, some bookkeeping tasks were delayed and performed in "groups" after the peak traffic subsided.
The Complexity of Signal Detection in Air Traffic Control Alert Situations BIBAFull-Text 54-58
  Kenneth R. Allendoerfer; Shantanu Pai; Ferne J. Friedman-Berg
Air traffic controllers continually monitor the traffic situation in their sectors and take action when they detect potentially hazardous situations. Automation systems simultaneously and independently monitor the situation and provide alerts when the situation meets defined criteria. The decisions made by the controllers and the automation systems may agree or disagree. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) provides a theoretical framework for understanding how controllers and automation systems make these decisions. However, traditional SDT provides an incomplete explanation of decision-making in the real-world ATC situations. In this paper, we examine instances where controllers take actions independently of the alert and where controllers take actions in response to an alert, but delay their actions until more information is available. Results from this study are applicable to other domains where operators are tasked to monitor situations while simultaneously monitoring the output of an alerting system.
Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Vehicles: International Perspectives on Methodologies and Enabling Interface Technologies BIBAFull-Text 59-63
  Mark H. Draper
Unmanned vehicles (UVs) have proven to be an extremely valuable military capability. Added system automation/autonomy will change the role of the UV operator from manual controller to supervisor of, and maybe even teammate to, these highly automated systems. Continuing this trend, there is a desire across several NATO countries to explore concepts in which multiple autonomous UVs are simultaneously controlled by a single supervisor. The obvious utility of UVs, the rapid advances in associated technology, and the desire to increase operator span of control has led to the formation of a NATO Research Task Group to address the human factors challenges, methodologies, and technologies associated with single operator control of multiple UVs. This panel, consisting of prominent members of the seven country NATO group, will describe the state-of-the art in human factors related developments of multi-UV control through examples of their respective nation's research and technical demonstrations in this area. Additionally, panelists will interact with the audience and address questions centering on the rationale, methodologies, and challenges associated with multi-UV control.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS7 - Cockpit and Display Design

An updating of data regarding the forces pilots can apply in the cockpit, Part II: Yoke, rudder, stick, and seatbelt-release forces BIBAFull-Text 64-68
  Dennis B. Beringer
Tabled force values in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) have been used to specify the maximum control forces that an aircraft can exhibit during certification testing, and consequently what forces pilots may be expected to exert on flight controls. The source of these values and the length of time since they were generated suggested an updating of these values to current populations. Data were collected for male and female pilots engaged in Part 121 operations and for nonpilots to supplement data previously collected for these populations and for female pilots engaged in Part 91 activities. Performance data are presented and compared with the tabled values. A strategy is suggested for the use of these data with other civilian-population data to provide a basis for determining what samples can be used to set acceptable force levels.
Input Application for Taxi Instructions: Design Strategy BIBAFull-Text 69-73
  Fenne Roefs; Joris Koeners; Erik Theunissen
In this paper the design approach is described for an input application, that allows pilots to enter taxi instructions into an Electronic Flight Bag within the currently available infrastructure and current procedures. The goal was to achieve this without adding to either pilot or controller workload, or increasing radio communication. To better understand the design options, and associated information requirements and constraints, the design space was mapped. The mapped space shows the relation between the total number of routes, the number of input options that are presented simultaneously, and the number of entries needed for route input. Using this map, possible route definition concepts were defined, ranging from a one-out-of-all selection, via a hybrid selection/specification, to a completely specification-based approach. The latter two have been implemented and evaluated. It was concluded that the hybrid approach is the most suitable for route input.
A Flight Test Evaluation of the Arc Segment Attitude Reference for Use as a Primary Flight Reference in Helmet-Mounted Displays BIBAFull-Text 74-78
  Joseph C. Jenkins; Jennie J. Gallimore
The objective of this evaluation was to determine if the use of the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) symbology in a head-up display (HUD) in place of the legacy climb-dive ladder attitude reference aids in unusual attitude recovery (UAR) piloting tasks as specified in AFM 11-217 for use as a primary flight reference (PFR). Flight tests were conducted at the US Air Force Test Pilot School (TPS), Edwards AFB, California on the NF-16D Variable-stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft (VISTA). Five VISTA flight UAR test sorties were flown. The time for the pilot to initiate a recovery was measured in addition to the correctness of the recovery. The flight tests were conducted with the use of the HUD combiner on VISTA to examine three symbology configurations. Each of the symbology configurations, the Mil-Std-1787C HUD, dual-articulated (DA) HUD, and ASAR HUD were evaluated by five pilots for the UAR task. The flight test results revealed the ASAR resulted in faster stick input for correction of UARs then the Mil-Std-1787C HUD. This study along with other supporting research indicates that the configural design properties of the ASAR support the ability of pilots to quickly ascertain aircraft attitude.
Testing a Nonveridical Aircraft Collision Avoidance System: Experiment 2 BIBAFull-Text 79-83
  William Knecht
Veridical displays represent realistic scenes. State spaces are nonveridical displays representing n-dimensional information based on arbitrary coordinate axes plus variables such as color and shading. Here, flight performance using only a veridical cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) was compared to performance augmented by a 4D state space-based collision avoidance system (CDTI+4CAS). Twelve general aviation pilots flew scenarios with the task of deviating as little as possible from course while still maintaining standard enroute separation from traffic. The CDTI+4CAS condition showed performance superiority over the CDTI-only condition for five of five dependent measures of maneuver efficiency, four of four measures of maneuver safety, and six of nine measures of workload.
An Integrated Air Traffic Control Display Concept for Conveying Temporal and Probabilistic Conflict Information BIBAFull-Text 84-88
  Hwasoo Lee; Paul Milgram
In this paper, we introduce an innovative conflict detection and resolution display for air traffic control. Our display explicitly incorporates uncertainties in velocity, heading, and position of each airplane in a given air space. Probabilistic, temporal, and spatial information of potential conflicts is provided through integrated graphical patterns.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS8 - Human Error in Aviation

Coordination and Safety Behaviors in Commercial Aircraft Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 89-93
  Takahiro Suzuki; Terry L. von Thaden; William D. Geibel
Commercial aviation maintenance related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Report System were investigated focusing on coordination problems. Among 1000 analyzed reports from a two-year period, 98 internal coordination issues within the maintenance team, and 24 external coordination issues between maintenance and other departments were discovered. Frequently established problematic included: not delivering information, sending wrong information and lack of responsibility. Most conflicts were solved by competing (or accommodating) behavior, such that one party prevailed over the other party's opinion. Coordination problems have the potential to render many necessary safety procedures ineffective. This study identifies coordination problems that are potential sources impairing safety procedures in aircraft maintenance such as misapplication of minimum equipment list items, missing inspections, logbook entry failures, and wrong parts installation.
Issues That Precipitate Errors in Airline Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 94-98
  William D. Geibel; Terry L. von Thaden; Takahiro Suzuki
Human factors in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121 aircraft maintenance operations as they relate to technician performance are important factors that play a significant role in the public safety of air transportation systems. This paper reports on the results of an analysis of one thousand National Aeronautical and Space Administration "Aviation Safety Reporting System" incident reports for aircraft maintenance related issues. This paper identifies aircraft types, including systems, and compares events that precipitate human errors. Five high profile performance based error categories were selected for this paper. They include: technician qualifications, inspections, parts installation, contract maintenance, and log book documentation issues.
The Central Role of Principal Issues in Aviation Accident Investigation BIBAFull-Text 99-103
  Bruce G. Coury; Joseph M. Kolly; Erin Gormley; Aaron Dietz
Major aviation accident investigations conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board involve uncertainties in cause, complexities in avenues of inquiry, multiple stakeholders, and no obvious solution path. As a result, investigations can be difficult, time consuming, and resource intensive. This paper will describe a project being conducted at NTSB to develop an approach to accident investigation that takes into consideration the complexities, uncertainties, and nonlinearities in accident investigation. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this approach for the typical linear, structured approaches to accident investigation.
Nuisance Alerts in Operational ATC Environments: Classification and Frequencies BIBAFull-Text 104-108
  Ferne Friedman-Berg; Kenneth Allendoerfer; Shantanu Pai
Nuisance alerts can cause many problems in operational settings. They are distracting and can lead to desensitization. In Air Traffic Control (ATC), there has been much anecdotal evidence regarding the high rate of nuisance alerts in facilities, but there have been few formal studies to evaluate this problem. In this study, we measured the rate of nuisance alerts in en route and terminal ATC facilities. After calculating the average duration of alerts, the percentage of alerts that receive a controller response, and the timing of responses to these alerts, we estimate that 62% of Conflict Alerts (CAs) and 91% of Minimum Safe Altitude Warnings (MSAWs) in en route, and 44% of CAs and 61% of MSAWs in terminal are unnecessary. Using human factors principles, we make recommendations for improving the accuracy and utility of ATC alerts.
Implicit Attitudes and Aeronautical Decision Making. BIBAFull-Text 109-113
  Keryn Pauley; David O'Hare
The aim of this study was to examine the role of implicit processes in aeronautical risk taking. Qualified pilots completed an implicit association test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) measuring implicit anxiety felt towards adverse weather, and a measure of involvement in hazardous aeronautical events (Hunter, 1995). There was a relationship between implicit anxiety and the pilots' involvement in hazardous events. The more weather-related hazardous events the pilot had been involved in, the less implicitly anxious towards adverse weather the pilots were. The same pattern of results was found when assessing the pilots' involvement in weather-related hazardous events. This suggests that one of the reasons why pilots may be involved in such events is because they are less implicitly afraid of flying in bad weather.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: AS9 - Space Human Factors

Human Factors Analysis of Crew Height and Weight Limitations in Space Vehicle Design BIBAFull-Text 114-118
  Sarah Margerum; Sudhakar Rajulu
A primary question for human factors practitioners is to determine if the user population can be accommodated within a design. Given the wide range of variables feeding into a design, just one of which is human factors, designers will often have restrictions that may potentially impact the level of accommodation. This paper focuses on two case studies in which human factors requirements had impacts at the design level that may be detrimental to the ability of the design to meet other design criteria. The implementation of a Monte Carlo analysis provided insight into the ability of the vehicle to accommodate the mass of different crewmember configurations. In a separate case study, a population analysis was used to determine the impact of clothing effects of a suited crewmember in various suit configurations along with the effects of spinal elongation due to microgravity. These studies use novel approaches to determine what, if any, changes in population accommodation levels have occurred and what factors are important when manipulating the design in the future. The results of these studies provide a backbone for future analyses when working with design considerations.
Population Analysis: Communicating About Anthropometry in Context BIBAFull-Text 119-123
  Sherry Thaxton; Sudhakar Rajulu
Providing accommodation to a widely varying user population presents a challenge to engineers and designers. It is often even difficult to quantify who is accommodated and who is not accommodated by designs, especially for equipment for which human-system integration is affected by multiple critical anthropometric dimensions. An approach to communicating levels of accommodation, hereby referred to as "population analysis," applies existing human factors techniques in novel manners. This paper defines population analysis and discusses its major applications and case studies. The major applications of population analysis consist of providing accommodation information for multivariate problems and enhancing the value of feedback from human-in-the-loop testing. The results of these analyses range from the provision of specific accommodation percentages of the user population to recommendations of design specifications based on quantitative data. Such feedback is invaluable to designers and results in the design of products that accommodate the intended user population.
A Systematic Tool for Deriving Crew Console Layouts BIBAFull-Text 124-128
  Olu Olofinboba; Robert DeMers; Michael C. Dorneich; Chris Hamblin; John Wise
This paper describes the use of the Function Allocation Matrix Tool (FAMT) for designing spacecraft cockpit layouts. NASA's Constellation Program intends to return humans to the moon by 2020, followed by exploration to Mars and beyond. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will serve as primary vehicle for transporting the crew. Orion will be equipped with a modern 'glass cockpit' that will allow the operators to command and control all of the vehicle's systems via graphics-based displays not unlike those now common in modern flight decks. The design of Orion's displays and controls places an increased emphasis on human-computer interaction and usability. In particular, the use of the FAMT drove the process of allocating displays and controls to reach and visual zones within the CEV 604 configuration cockpit. The result was the baseline display and control configuration for the Orion spacecraft.
Design of a Cursor Control Device for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 129-133
  Christopher J. Hamblin; Bob DeMers; Olu Olofinboba
NASA has embarked on a new program to develop vehicles for returning humans to the Moon by 2020. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the primary vehicle for transporting the crew. Orion will be equipped with a modern "glass cockpit" that will allow operators to command and control all of the vehicle's systems from one of two operator stations. The design of Orion's operator stations creates some unique human-machine interface issues due primarily to the vehicle design and the extreme conditions the crew must operate in. One of the unique challenges for Orion is the need for a novel cursor control device that allows the crew to interact with the vehicle while seated and restrained. This paper describes some of the human factors challenges of designing such a device as well as the process that was employed.
Cursor Control Device Test Battery: Development and Application BIBAFull-Text 134-138
  Aniko Sandor; Kritina L. Holden
A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation. Four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: a large trackball, a Hulapoint mouse, a small trackball, and an aircraft trackball. Conclusions include: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices; 2) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback; 3) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

AGING: A1 - Older Adults and Technology Use

  Sara J. Czaja; Chin Chin Lee; Sankaran N. Nair; Joseph Sharit
Access to computers and the Internet is a major public policy concern as technology has become a significant aspect of economic, social and health equity. Recent data suggest that although computer and Internet use is lower among older, as compared to younger adults access is increasing among older people. This paper examines changes in use of computers and the Internet over time (2000-2002 and 2006-2007) among two samples (N=424) of older adults ranging in age from 50-85 yrs. Data are also reported on changes in attitudes towards computers and how adoption is influenced by attitudes and demographic characteristics. Technology adoption and attitudes towards computers were assessed via questionnaire. Over time, although there was no difference in percentage of participants who had computer experience, both breadth of computer use and Internet use increased. Participants from the more recent time point also reported more comfort with computers. The data also indicated that age, education, and comfort with computers predicted breadth of computer and Internet use. Understanding factors that influence access is important to the development of strategies to close the gap between adopters and non-adopters.
Investigation of Input Devices for the Age-differentiated Design of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 144-148
  Nicole Schneider; Janet Wilkes; Morten Grandt; Christopher M. Schlick
Demographic change demands new concepts for the support of computer work by aging employees. In particular, computer interaction presents a barrier due to a lack of experience and age-specific changes in performance. This article presents a study in which different input devices (mouse, touch screen and eyegaze input) were analyzed regarding their usability and according to age diversity. Furthermore, different Hybrid Interfaces that combine eye-gaze input with additional input devices were investigated.
Analysis of Visual Demands of In-Vehicle Text Displays Reveals an Age-Related Increase in Time Needed to Reallocate Attention to the Road BIBAFull-Text 149-153
  Frank Schieber; Ann Holtz; Ben Schlorholtz; Robert McCall
The purpose of this study was to evaluate age differences in the visual demands imposed by reading in-vehicle text message displays during simulated driving. Visual demand was operationalized in terms of five eye gaze data parameters. Sixteen young (mean age=20) and 16 older (mean age=77) licensed drivers served as participants. They were required to read variable length text messages from a console mounted display while driving on straight segments on a simulated rural highway. Older drivers required much more time to complete the concurrent text reading task - especially for messages of longer lengths. As hypothesized, most of this age-difference resulted from an increase in the time spent reacquiring the road scene between successive glances to the text display. Lane keeping variability increased and driving speed decreased while reading text for older, but not younger, drivers. This pattern of findings is consistent with prior claims that driving performance in older adults is negatively influenced by problems with attention switching mechanisms.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC1 - New Kids on the Block: Multidimensional Perspectives on Augmented Cognition

New Kids on the Block: Multi-Dimensional Perspectives on Augmented Cognition BIBAFull-Text 154-156
  Julie Drexler; Leah Reeves; Dylan Schmorrow; Denise Nicholson; Dennis McBride; Kay Stanney; Chris Berka; Blair Dickson
This discussion panel was organized to offer HFES members an opportunity to learn more about the burgeoning field of Augmented Cognition and to discover the multi-dimensional aspects of the discipline. The session will feature six invited panelists who were selected to represent a cross-section of the Augmented Cognition International Society community of more than 900 members. Each panelist will present their unique perspective of the AugCog field, which will provide the audience with information on a variety of research, development, and application areas in the AugCog field within the U.S and abroad. The panel members and their associated AugCog perspectives include: CDR Dylan Schmorrow, government; Denise Nicholson, academia; Dennis McBride, non-profit; Kay Stanney and Chris Berka, industry; and Blair Dickson, industry/international.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC2 - Foundations of Augmented Cognition

A dynamic model of stress in the G-DEVS formalism BIBAFull-Text 157-161
  Mamadou Seck; Claudia Frydman; Norbert Giambiasi
This paper presents a model of stress based on theories and data originating from psychology, physiology and human factors literature. Our goal is to provide a formal framework for modeling and simulation of behavior moderators. G-DEVS offers a basis for specifying formal models and a clean simulation semantics. The presented model can be utilized in the context of cognitive simulation, jointly with a cognitive architecture to reflect the impact of stress on performance.
Advancing the Modeling of Student Performance through the Inclusion of Physiological Performance Measures BIBAFull-Text 162-166
  Elizabeth Biddle; Dennis K. McBride; Linda C. Malone
Sophisticated virtual environments and computer simulations provide realistic training environments and web-based delivery mechanisms enable students to train virtually anywhere, anytime. Consequently, the ability to automate instructional functions such as assessing and diagnosing student performance, providing instructional feedback, and appropriately advancing students through a given curriculum is vital to the effectiveness of these technologies. While simulations provide a rich environment for training complex tasks, they introduce a complex assessment environment, which creates challenges in the accurate and efficient diagnosis of trainee needs as a single behavior can be interpreted in several ways. Additionally, student state variables such as affect, personality, and motivation contribute to the numerous interpretations of a single student behavior. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of student learning needs is a daunting task; which has resulted in various investigations of simulation-based performance assessment techniques, but no single recommended best practice or guidelines. An adaptive learning research program (Perrin, Dargue, & Banks, 2003; Perrin et al., 2007) has developed a standards-based student modeling capability. This capability is based on root cause analysis of the underlying causes of student learning needs based on evaluation of fundamental knowledge mastery. As this approach is based on industry standards, this student modeling capability can be extended to include additional variables related to student performance such as student affect. In 2001, Sheldon demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of utilizing physiological measures to integrate student state variables into a student modeling capability. At the time of this research, physiological measurement devices used sensors that required the user to restrict his movements in order to ensure integrity of the data recorded and to not disturb the wiring that tethered him to a computerized recording device. Physiological measuring technologies have significantly advanced since this time, such that wireless, accurate measurement devices are available, thus allowing for integration with a training environment. The focus of this lecture is on bridging the student state and standards-based student modeling methodologies to provide an improved student modeling capability.
Assessing Students Mental Representations of Complex Problem Spaces with EEG Technologies BIBAFull-Text 167-171
  Ronald H. Stevens; Trysha L. Galloway; Chris Berka; Robin Johnson; Marcia Sprang
We have developed a neurophysiologic-based assessment of student's understanding of complex problem spaces that blends the population-based advantages of probabilistic performance modeling with the detection of neurophysiologic signals. It is designed to be rapid and effective in complex environments where assessment is often imprecise. Cohorts of novices, and experts encoded chemistry problem spaces by performing a series of online problem solving simulations. The stable memory encoding was verified by comparing their strategies with established probabilistic models of strategic performance. Then, we probed the neural correlates of the encoded problem space by measuring differential EEG signatures that were recorded in response to rapidly presented sequences of chemical reactions that represented different valid or invalid approaches for solving the chemistry problems. We found that experts completed performances in stacks more rapidly than did novices and they also correctly identified a higher percentage of reactions. Event related potentials revealed showed increased positivities in the 100-400 ms following presentation of the image preceding the decision when compared with the other stack images. This neural activity was used to explore reasons why students missed performances in the stack. One situation occurred when students appeared to have a lapse of attention. This was characterized by increased power in the 12-15 Hz range, a decrease in the ERP positivities at 100-400 ms after the final image presentation, and a slower reaction time. A second situation occurred when the students' decisions were almost entirely the reverse of what were expected. These responses were characterized by ERP morphologies similar to those of correct decisions suggesting the student had mistaken one set of chemical reactions for another.
Effects of Task Performance and Task Complexity on the Validity of Computational Models of Attention BIBAFull-Text 172-176
  Lisette de Koning; Peter-Paul van Maanen; Kees van Dongen
Computational models of attention can be used as a component of decision support systems. For accurate support, a computational model of attention has to be valid and robust. The effects of task performance and task complexity on the validity of three different computational models of attention were investigated in an experiment. The gaze-based model uses gaze behavior to determine where the subject's attention is, the task-based model uses information about the task and the combined model uses both gaze behavior and task information. While performing a tactical compilation task, participants had to indicate to what set of objects their attention was allocated. The indications of the participants were compared with the estimations of the three models. The results show that overall, the estimation of the combined model was better than that of the other two models. Contrary to what was expected, the performance of the models was not different for good and bad performers and was not different for a simple and complex scenario. The difference in complexity and performance might not have been strong enough. Further research is needed to determine if improvement of the combined model is possible with additional features and if computational models of attention can effectively be used in decision support systems. This can be done using a similar validation methodology as presented in this paper.
The Effects of Highlighting and Pop-up Interruptions on Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 177-181
  Pablo-Alejandro Quinones; Jigar Vora; Aaron Steinfeld; Asim Smailagic; Jeffery Hansen; Dan P. Siewiorek; Pete Phadhana-Anake; Abhishek Shah
Prior research suggests that interruptions by software components are undesirable and detrimental in many work scenarios. However, there are clear instances where interruptions can conceivably provide a net benefit. For example, interruption is appropriate when reminding a user to accomplish an important task instead of working on lower value activities. This paper examines the pros and cons of interruption and how interruption should occur in the context of an integrated intelligent assistant system. Results from a study and future directions are discussed.

AUGMENTED COGNITION: AC3 - Applications of Augmented Cognition

Using physiological measures to discriminate signal detection outcome during imagery analysis BIBAFull-Text 182-186
  Kelly S. Hale; Sven Fuchs; Par Axelsson; Chris Berka; Andrew J. Cowell
An experiment was conducted to explore the feasibility of using physiological indicators (i.e. eye-tracking and electroencephalography [EEG]) to drive identification of relevant areas of interest during imagery analysis. Results indicate that ocular fixations are longer when a target is believed to be present. Furthermore, the accuracy of correct identification of targets could be identified based on fixation duration, given that fixations were significantly longer when a target was actually present. In addition, by synching eye-tracking fixation points to EEG, fixation-locked event-related potentials (FLERPs) show potential for detecting distinctive patterns and scalp distributions for various types of fixations, which may be used to classify fixation points based on level of interest. This paper reports findings from a study and summarizes challenges and implications for constructing a system where eye tracking is used to drive EEG ERP evaluation of interest during a defined search task within complex static images.
Augmented cognition and training in the laboratory: DVTE system validation BIBAFull-Text 187-191
  Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Sae Schatz; Clint Bowers; Juliana Beatriz Gebrim; Lee W. Sciarini; Denise Nicholson
As the modern workplace becomes more complex, the training community needs to develop new strategies to continue to create a competent workforce. The emerging field of augmented cognition may be able to contribute greatly to increasing training capability through the use of neurophysiological measures that support real-time performance and can be used to satisfy some of the requirements of an automated intelligent tutoring system. The first step to building this system is to design and validate a testbed that can be used with future efforts to target effective mitigation strategies with learning efficiency. In this study, participants watched a computerized instructional presentation and then engaged in a practice CFF scenario in the simulator. When finished, each participant was assigned to either a low or high task load test scenario. In both, the goal was to destroy five enemy tanks. Some participants were also asked to simultaneously execute a secondary radar monitoring task. Both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and the MRQ were used to assess the validity of the testbed. Results from both measures indicate that a significant difference exists between the two levels of workload and further, we can distinguish between the subscales within each measurement tool. Thus, the overarching goal of this study was achieved. High and low workload scenarios were created and validated. Ultimatly, they will be used as a testbed of scenarios to address the questions surrounding the use of neurophysiological equipment to impact individual learning patterns.
Biomarkers for Effects of Fatigue and Stress on Performance: EEG, P300 and Heart Rate Variability BIBAFull-Text 192-196
  Chris Berka; Robin Johnson; Melissa Whitmoyer; Adrienne Behneman; Djordje Popovic; Gene Davis
The increasing demands of the global economy for 24-hour, 7-day operations is affecting the health and performance of workers worldwide. The deleterious effects of chronic sleep deprivation and associated stress have potentially dangerous and expensive consequences as a result of impaired alertness, attention, memory and decision-making for individuals at work, at home and on the roads. In addition, long-term health related concerns, including increased risk for sleep, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases as well as an overall decrease in immune function, are only beginning to be understood. Recent findings reveal individual differences in the level of vulnerability to the effects of sleep deprivation, suggesting that some people are genetically predisposed to better endure sleep loss than others. The ability to select individuals who are relatively resistant to performance decrements due to sleep loss and stress could have immense value to the military and industry in general. This report describes progress in developing non-invasive psychophysiological assessments that provide easy and inexpensive biomarkers for fatigue and stress that can be implemented in operational environments.
Considerations on analogue to digital converter architectures for EEG acquisition in Augmented Cognition applications BIBAFull-Text 197-201
  Alexander J. Casson; Esther Rodriguez-Villegas
Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC) forms an essential part of EEG systems allowing signals to be represented in the digital domain and processed by a computer. For wearable, battery powered applications, such as those envisioned in augmented cognition, power consumption is a key design parameter. This paper investigates the ADC specifications that are used for typical augmented cognition applications and links these to a review of ADC topologies and performance. It is found that the ADC power consumption is an exponential function of the resolution of the ADC, but that the resolution required is often over estimated. Also, care is required when considering oversampling converters to ensure that the power consumption of decimation is accounted for.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE1 - Human Total Cost of Ownership: Measuring the Impact of Human Factors on System Engineering

  Robert R. Hoffman; Wayne Zachary; John Burns; Michael Drillings; Christopher R. Hale; Michael Linegang
The procurement process often results in information systems that are of limited usefulness, usability and understandability. A focus on short-term cost of acquisition, as a main driving force in procurement, always comes with a hefty price that weighs most heavily on the shoulders of those who have to conduct cognitive work using the new technologies. Procurement that is driven primarily by Designer-Centered Design and the goal of reducing immediate cost fails because it does not recognize the value of the human component. Zachary et al. (2007) proposed a new family of measures for use in procurement, referred to collectively as Human Total Cost of Ownership (HTCO). HTCO might be defined in a number of ways, and from the conceptual definitions one might generate a number of operational definitions of how to actually calculate metrics. Panelists will address the overarching questions of HTCO measures and their integration into the acquisition and development process, current obstacles to Human-Centered Design, ways in which HTCO might gain entry into the procurement process, and alternative approaches to creating specific HTCO measurables.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE2 - Designing Robotic and Unmanned Vehicles

Improving Tele-robotic Landmine Detection through Augmented Reality Devices BIBAFull-Text 206-210
  Richard T. Stone; Ann Bisantz; James Llinas; Victor Paquet
Tele-robotic landmine/UXO (unexploded ordinance) detection and disposal is a real world example of a complex human robot interaction task. This study demonstrates that the use of augmented reality interfaces, designed based on a theoretically driven framework, can significantly improve performance, and that these same devices can be used as effective training technologies. Participants in this study were assigned to one of four experimental conditions (two uni-sensory and one multisensory augmented reality interface, and a control group). All participants were trained in tele-robotic landmine detection and the groups performed these tasks first with augmentation (session one) and then without (session two/transfer task). The results show that participants in the augmented groups significantly outperformed the control group in terms of the numbers of landmines correctly identified (in both sessions). The multisensory condition was found to result in both significantly increased landmine detection and significantly decreased task time (in both sessions).
Applying SA-Oriented Design to the Integrative Collaborative Control of Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Systems BIBAFull-Text 211-215
  Erik S. Connors; Laura D. Strater; Jennifer M. Riley; Mica R. Endsley
The cognitive processes underlying collaboration and knowledge interoperability are challenged in team-based multi-vehicle supervisory control beyond those typically found in solitary unmanned vehicle (UV) control. This paper addresses the application of SA-Oriented Design principles to the development of collaborative control interfaces that enable small co-located or distributed teams of operators to plan and manage multiple UVs while supporting high levels of situation awareness (SA) while improving knowledge construction and collaborative teamwork. Following this approach, Goal Directed Task Analyses for three separate unmanned systems were combined with a novel concept of operations for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) platform and the results of subject matter expert role-playing to rapidly prototype the collaborative control interface environment.
Frame Consistency in Multi-Attribute Risk Preference Decisions BIBAFull-Text 216-220
  Shaun Hutchins; Patricia L. McDermott; Michael Barnes
Resource allocation under risk and uncertainty is a complex problem, specifically when making course of action planning decisions on the battlefield. Previous research in this domain has demonstrated the performance impact of visualization aids, feedback, practice, information frame, and time pressure. However, the focus of prior research has been on how to help operators determine where to optimally place a single asset. The current research addressed the same domain, but with the multi-attribute decision of how to best allocate a suite of robotic assets across the battlefield. We explored the impact of information frame and time pressure on decision performance and situation awareness, but further manipulated whether the information frame of decision criteria were forced to a single consistent frame or allowed to vary according to which term was intuitive, regardless of frame. We found both faster response times and more accurate responses within consistently-framed displays over mixed-frame displays. In addition, response time varied less in the consistently-framed displays than the mixed-frame displays.
Designing an Adaptive Automation System for Human Supervision of Unmanned Vehicles: A Bridge from Theory to Practice BIBAFull-Text 221-225
  Ewart J. De Visser; Melanie LeGoullon; Amos Freedy; Elan Freedy; Gershon Weltman; Raja Parasuraman
Careful consideration must be given to the implementation of automation into complex systems. Much research in adaptive automation has identified challenges for system implementation. A key focus of this research has surrounded the methods of automation invocation including critical events, measurement, and modeling techniques. However, little consideration has been given to selecting and implementing appropriate techniques for a given system as a guide to designers of adaptive automation. This paper proposes such a methodology. We demonstrate the use of this methodology by describing a case study about a system designed to support effective communication and collaboration between the commander and vehicle operator in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system.
Motive and Affect Based Control for Uninhabited Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 226-230
  Aaron A. Pepe; Wayne Zachary; Stephen Read; Lynn Miller; Vassil Iordanov; Darius Miller; Gurveen Chopra
Two core challenges must be overcome to enable the wider use of robotic and uninhabited vehicles by personnel with limited training. These are robust and understandable autonomy and simplified, intuitive, and learnable human control mechanisms. Our research is based on the premise that investigation into computational models of human cognition, personality, communication, and emotion can be used to solve leading edge problems in robotic and uninhabited vehicle control. Specifically, it is hoped that Motive and Affect-based Robotic Control (MARC) can enhance collaboration between human controllers and robotic vehicles by enabling a motive and affect based control language and paradigm that more closely resembles that used by human dyads and teams in collaborative behavior. Results of our research indicate an improved ability of human controllers with minimal training to use a MARC prototype to control multiple UAV's in a simulated mission. Workload comparisons (Cooper-Harper and NASA-TLX) with a baseline control interface indicate a clear advantage to the MARC based system.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE3 - Cognitive Engineering Approaches to Safety in Health Care

Cognitive Engineering Approaches to Safety in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 231-235
  Robert L. Wears
Healthcare work is accomplished by complex, highly distributed, joint cognitive systems, but is often viewed from within (by its workers) and without (by society at large) as individually-based craft work. The choice of this viewpoint makes collaborations difficult, because the theories and tools of cognitive engineering then seem foreign to health professionals, and vice versa. In this panel, a group of leading cognitive engineers with extensive experience in healthcare environments will discuss their experience in this domain with emphasis on methods for improving the process and content of these collaborations.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE4 - Human-Robot Interaction II: The Impact of Human Factors on Unmanned Systems

Human-Robot Interaction II: The Impact of Human Factors on Unmanned Systems BIBAFull-Text 236
  Douglas J. Gillan
The sophistication of robotics systems has increased the utility of unmanned systems for complex military operations. The increasing capability and functionality of current and future robotics requires comparable enhancements to robotics interfaces and displays for tasking and controlling unmanned systems. The symposium participants identified key issues and challenges in human-robot interaction with respect to situation awareness (SA), perception and performance, and workload. The purpose of the symposium is to discuss current research findings and how these findings can be applied. The authors and audience will discuss the challenges of conducting human-robot interaction (HRI) research and the lessons learned for the design of human-robotic interactions and interfaces.
Effectiveness of Concurrent Performance of Military and Robotics Tasks and Effects of Cueing in a Simulated Multi-Tasking Environment BIBAFull-Text 237-241
  Jessie Y. C. Chen
We simulated a military mounted crewstation environment and conducted two experiments to examine the workload and performance of the combined position of gunner and robotics operator. The robotics tasks involved managing a semi-autonomous ground robot or teleoperating a ground robot to conduct reconnaissance tasks. We also evaluated whether aided target recognition (AiTR) capabilities (delivered either through tactile or tactile + visual cueing) for the gunnery task might benefit the concurrent robotics and communication tasks. Results showed that participants' gunnery task performance degraded significantly when s/he had to concurrently monitor, manage, or teleoperate a robot compared to the gunnery-single task condition. When there was AiTR to assist them with their gunnery task, operators' concurrent performance of robotics and communication tasks improved significantly. However, there was a tendency for participants to over-rely on automation when taskload was heavy, and performance degradations were observed in instances where automation failed to be entirely reliable. Participants' spatial ability was found to be a reliable predictor of robotics task performance. Participants' perceived workload increased consistently as the concurrent task conditions became more challenging and when their gunnery task was unassisted.
Performance and Situation Awareness Effects in Collaborative Robot Control with Automation BIBAFull-Text 242-246
  Jennifer M. Riley; Laura D. Strater; Arathi Sethumadhavan; Fleet Davis; Anand Tharanathan; Christina Kokini
Human operators of robotic systems need to be able to acquire and maintain situation awareness (SA) in many domains in order to effectively task and control unmanned systems. Overall task performance is impacted by the SA that individuals or teams develop on the robot, the remote environment, and the tasks to be completed. Situation awareness can be limited by attentional resource limits, particularly when operators must operate multiple systems, some of which may be under automated functioning. In this study we investigate the effects of robot control requirements, including robots under semi-autonomous control, in a task requiring coordination and shared control of a robotic system, on task performance and operator situation awareness.
The Effect of Task Based Automation for the Control of Unmanned Systems on Operator Performance BIBAFull-Text 247-251
  Keryl Cosenzo; Raja Parasuraman; Krishna Pillalamarri
Robotic technology will be a vital component of future combat. However, the combination of robotic operational tasks with other traditional military tasks will create high workload peaks during military operations. The objective of this research is to develop and evaluate flexible automation strategies to aid the operator in this complex military environment. In this experiment we evaluated the effect of an automation that was invoked based on task load. Participants conducted a military reconnaissance mission using a simulation that required them to: use an unmanned air vehicle sensor for target detection, monitor an unmanned ground vehicle, and respond to multi-level communications. Participants completed sixteen missions in the environment, during which task load and automation were manipulated. The results of this experiment showed that operator performance did improve when the automation, an aided target recognition for the unmanned air vehicle, was invoked relative to when it was not invoked. Further, when automation was appropriately applied (high task load conditions) workload decreased significantly. This data along with the results of other experiments discussed in this paper indicate that adaptive automation may be a useful mitigation strategy to help offset the potential deleterious effects of high cognitive load on Army robotic operators in a multitasking environment.
Considerations for Use of Aerial Views In Remote Unmanned Ground Vehicle Operations BIBAFull-Text 252-256
  Roger A. Chadwick
Remote unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations place the human operator at a perceptual disadvantage. Adding aerial views can benefit the operator's spatial cognition by supplying the missing contextual information regarding the vehicle's position and relation to other objects in the space surrounding the vehicle. In order to benefit from this additional information the operator must control and integrate multiple viewpoints. In a series of experiments the use of aerial views was examined including control mode options and altitude for the aerial scene imaging. Results indicate that aerial views are beneficial in UGV search tasks and that auto-tracking aerial imaging control modes should be considered.
The Transmission of Spatial Route Information in Distributed Unmanned Vehicle Teams BIBAFull-Text 257-261
  Patricia L. McDermott; Alia Fisher; Laurel Allender
The purpose was to understand the utility of different methods of communicating spatial information between distributed team members. An unmanned vehicle (UV) operator used a UV to scope out safe routes and enemy locations and used that information to help a Soldier conduct a rescue mission. There were four communication methods: visual, verbal, real-time verbal plus visual (VPV), and delayed VPV. We manipulated who was in command to see the impact on both pushed and pulled information. Results showed advantages of both visual and real-time VPV. We also found that with delayed VPV, the Soldier communicated infrequently which resulted in poorer performance, especially when the Soldier was in command. Results inform how beneficial UV information should be transmitted to Soldiers who need it in the field.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE5 - Extensions and Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis I

Demonstrating CWA Strategies Analysis: A Case Study of Municipal Winter Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 262-266
  Antony Hilliard; Laura Thompson; Cam Ngo
Widespread acceptance of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) as a framework for design of complex sociotechnical systems is dependent on how well the theoretical foundations can be applied to real-world systems. Although literature on CWA has many application examples, the first phase, Work Domain Analysis, is over-represented. Later phases such as Strategies Analysis, the third phase of CWA, can provide comparable insight to designers. Understanding how activities can be performed can be instrumental in designing work support tools that are robust to changing priorities and conditions. In this paper, a Strategies Analysis is applied to the City of Toronto Municipal Winter Maintenance Program to illustrate how an analysis can be conducted. Both a traditional Strategies Analysis in decision-making terms and a novel Strategies Analysis in work domain terms are presented.
A Direct Perception, Span-of-Control Overview Display to Support a Process Control Operators Situation Awareness: A Practice-oriented Design Process BIBAFull-Text 267-271
  Dal Vernon C. Reising; Peter T. Bullemer
This paper presents a practice-oriented design work process for designing effective, direct perception span-of-control overview displays for process control operator positions. Several industry-based failure modes of overview displays are discussed in the context of Endsley's model of situation awareness and the practice-oriented process. The three high-level steps of the design work process are: identify critical process variables, identify the critical interaction requirements, and identify the appropriate visualization requirements. This practice-oriented process draws from cognitive engineering techniques, namely cognitive work analysis and scenario-based design. A conceptual overview display for an actual process plant console operator position is presented and illustrative visualization requirements are discussed.
A Five-Phase CWA for Air Traffic Control: Example from a TRACON Microworld BIBAFull-Text 272-276
  Olivier St-Cyr; Ryan M. Kilgore
This paper presents an example of a full Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) on a TRACON Air Traffic Control Microworld (TRACON, 1991). TRACON for Windows is a microworld simulation of an air traffic control environment. The TRACON domain consists of an airspace surrounding a major airport and its regional satellite airports. Our purpose in applying all five phases of CWA to a single system was pedagogical in nature. The authors came together as an analytical team within the context of a CWA graduate course. All five phases of analysis are outlined in this paper, although each analysis represents only a subset of a complete CWA undertaking. Despite the limited breadth, we were able to generate a substantial amount of data and increase our appreciation of the relationships between the domain knowledge elucidated through each phase. This example illustrates the potential design value of performing a CWA for real-world domains across all CWA phases.
Work domain analysis for assessing simulated worlds for ATC studies BIBAFull-Text 277-281
  T. Xiao; P. M. Sanderson; M. Mooij; S. Fothergill
Work Domain Analysis (WDA) was used in a study of the workload of en route Air Traffic Controllers (ATCos) to help characterise the fit between different ATC simulated worlds and our research aims. A WDA captured the ATCo's reasoning space in a way that exposed potential sources of workload, and it was then applied to three cases. Case 1 was the use of a simple laboratory program originally developed to study basic cognitive processes relating to conflict detection and separation. The program captured simple work domain properties relating to safety only. Case 2 was the use of an interactive ATC microworld to study ATCos' separation strategies and workload. The microworld captured a broader range of work domain properties related to safety and expeditiousness. Case 3 involved the evaluation of a task load metric in a full-scale ATC simulator operated by our industry partner, Airservices Australia. The simulator captured the broadest range of work domain properties related to safety, expeditiousness, and orderliness. Overall, WDA can be a useful tool for (a) helping research teams determine the appropriate level of work domain fidelity to examine specific research questions and (b) communicating the strengths and weaknesses of different simulated worlds for the purpose of research.
Structured Information for Support of Knowledge-Based Reasoning BIBAFull-Text 282-286
  Gavan Lintern
The human process of knowledge-based reasoning is aided by ready access to information that is current, comprehensive and meaningful. Information archives are not, however, structured on a functional architecture that facilitates the natural information seeking and reasoning strategies used in human reasoning. In this paper I outline the fundamentals of a hierarchical structure that encourages a natural, opportunistic reasoning trajectory through a knowledge intensive domain and thereby enhances effectiveness of cognitive reasoning activities such as problem solving, analysis, planning, critical evaluation and understanding.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE6 - Automation Design for Trust and Reliance

Selecting Methods for the Analysis of Reliance on Automation BIBAFull-Text 287-291
  Lu Wang; Greg A. Jamieson; Justin G. Hollands
Human reliance on imperfect automation has been the subject of many laboratory experiments. Across these studies, a diverse set of indices of reliance have been used, even in studies with similar experiment settings. This inconsistency of reliance measures makes the meta-analysis of experimental findings difficult. Moreover, few researchers have rigorously defined the optimal level of automation reliance in their settings, making it difficult to judge the appropriateness of that reliance. This paper attempts to guide researchers in selecting and interpreting measures of automation reliance behavior. We review the reliance analysis methods in existing research and propose four criteria for selecting among them. It is recommended that, where possible, future studies define optimal reliance to make unequivocal judgment about the appropriateness of reliance. In addition, more reliable and insightful conclusions can be obtained through the use of multiple measures.
Improving Reliability Awareness to Support Appropriate Trust and Reliance on Individual Combat Identification Systems BIBAFull-Text 292-296
  Lu Wang; Greg A. Jamieson; Justin G. Hollands
Individual combat identification (CID) systems have been developed to help soldiers distinguish friends from foes in combat situations. However, these automated systems are not perfectly reliable. Previous studies have found that participants often do not rely properly on such systems and consequently their identification performance was not improved by them. We present an experiment that tested the effectiveness of providing aid reliability information to support participants' appropriate trust in and reliance on a CID aid. The results indicated that participants had difficulty in estimating the aid reliability. Participants who were not informed of the aid reliability trusted in and relied on the aid feedback less than those who were aware of the aid reliability. Providing the aid reliability information led to more appropriate reliance on the aid. This research has implications for the design of interfaces for individual CID systems and the training of infantry soldiers.
  Dietrich Manzey; Juliane Reichenbach; Linda Onnasch
The present study investigates effects of automated decision aids in terms of expected performance benefits of automation support and possible negative performance consequences. The negative consequences include the possible effects of automation bias and performance decrements when returning to manual performance in case of automation failure. Three automated aids that support fault identification and management are compared in a simulated supervisory control task. Results show that primary and secondary task performance improved with automated support compared to manual performance, with effects directly dependent on the level of automation (LOA). Effects of automation bias emerged independent of LOA. For return-to-manual performance, weak indications of an automation-induced skill loss were only found in the highest LOA. These arose in manual fault management, but not in fault identification performance.
The Effects of Automated Decision Algorithm Modality and Transparency on Reported Trust and Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 302-306
  Kenya Freeman Oduor; Eric N. Wiebe
Research has shown that trust and perceived reliability are key factors in whether a relationship will develop between humans and automation. Presenting automation reliability and automation algorithms are ways to potentially improve this relationship. To explore this question, an experiment was conducted in which an automated decision aid presented suggestions to participants while they managed a simulated city. Based on condition, the decision aid's algorithm was presented to participants in a textual or graphical (diagrammatic) format or not shown at all. Results showed that presenting the decision aid's algorithm, regardless of modality (i.e., textual or graphical) had a direct impact on reported trust and usage. Algorithm presentation also had an effect on both perception of the automation and on human performance. Additional results and implications are discussed.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE7 - Adapting to Change and Uncertainty: CSE 20 Years After

Adapting to Change and Uncertainty: CSE 25 Years After BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Christopher P. Nemeth
Design cycles for rapidly-evolving systems such as information and communication technology (ICT) are too short to allow for long-term deliberation. We need means to learn about how people adapt to change and uncertainty and how complex systems behave. We also need to learn how to elicit and understand true expertise in work settings and make it useable for others. The value of cognitive systems engineering (CSE) lies in the ability to understand domain semantics, reveal expertise, and derive essential features for adaptive systems. Insights from cognitive researchers who have substantial firsthand experience with the study of human performance in complex, uncertain work settings demonstrate the current state of CSE and the potential for CSE to reveal how people adapt to change and uncertainty and how complex systems behave. This has implications for the development of resilient systems.
Adaptation at the Edge: When the System is Complex, the Stakes High, and the Operator Novice BIBAFull-Text 309-313
  Helen Altman Klein
Cognitive systems engineering explores how experts adapt to dynamic systems in highly technical domains. In a series of interviews, we looked at how patients with type 2 diabetes attempt to manage their own dynamic blood glucose regulatory system. In this paper, we identify the limitations of explicit knowledge and of rules-based and procedures-based instruction for managing blood glucose levels. Next, we outline the roles of problem detection and identification, sensemaking, decision making, and planning/replanning in system control. Finally, we suggest the potential power of mental models as a foundation for self-regulation. This investigation of an uncommon domain supports the generality of the control challenges under presented by uncertainty, complexity, and high stakes. It also suggests instructional strategies that might better help people with type 2 diabetes with critical self-management.
  Brett Gerke; Emily S. Patterson
One of the primary rationales offered by practitioners for rejection or significant adaptation of systems after fielding is lack of "trust." As others have noted, the "trust" concept covers a vast territory and it is challenging to translate the literature into targeted design guidance for building and maintaining trust. In this paper, we specifically examine dynamic relationships of reciprocity and its effect on trust. This will be examined by considering five sensitive information repositories. We posit several concepts and relationships that may provide some traction in analyzing, measuring, and predicting effective and ineffective design of sensitive information repositories. Advances in our understanding of what variables foster desirable "reciprocal" interactions (increasing trust) might be particularly helpful for systems that do not have time for long deliberations or have serious consequences for leaking highly sensitive information.
Semper Gumby sub Rosa: Adaptability in a Healthcare Setting BIBAFull-Text 319-322
  Robert L. Wears; Shawna J. Perry
Clinical work is accomplished by complex, highly distributed, joint cognitive systems, and involves high levels of uncertain and ambiguity. Hospital emergency departments in particular must adapt to uncertainty, ambiguity, and change on a variety of different time scales. Many of these adaptations are unofficial, in part because they cannot be specified in advance, and in part because the official models of healthcare work do not include them. This paper presents two case studies of adaptation in the ED and uses them to explore implications for cognitive engineering and design.
Submarine Systems Development as a Lens for CSE Progress: Pushing the Envelope of CSE Methods BIBAFull-Text 323-327
  Cynthia O. Dominguez; Jennifer A. B. McKneely; Corey Fallon
Assessing what progress has been made in cognitive systems engineering since Woods & Roth's 1988 book chapter on the topic is a huge challenge. This paper uses ongoing submarine domain cognitive systems engineering (CSE) work to highlight critical issues raised by Woods & Roth in 1988, particularly with respect to contributions being made towards addressing these issues. Three areas where methods continue to evolve to push the state of the art in CSE are described here. The first area is integration of methods and results gained from cognitive work analysis and cognitive task analysis together to address mismatches in how systems support cognitive work. Assessing how well systems support cognitive work and methods for eliciting team sensemaking knowledge, are elaborated as well. Due to constraints on publication of data, we focus on methods and processes that stretch the current envelope of CSE, as opposed to outcome or results.
  Sam Mahoney; Jonathan Pfautz; Ted Fichtl; Sean Guarino; Eric Carlson; Gerald Powell; Emilie Roth
Data fusion systems are increasingly being used to support military planning and decision making. Typically these systems are designed around the current capabilities of particular data collectors (e.g., sensors) and processing algorithms. They incorporate an 'ontology' that reflects the designer's perception of the key features of the world (e.g., types of threats, classes of vehicles to be tracked) and how these can be parsed by the data fusion systems. As a consequence they are limited in their ability to adapt to the dynamic changes that inevitably arise in the operational environment (e.g., new sensors, weapons, tactics). This is representative of a more generic problem with current approaches to system design that result in rigid systems that are unable to evolve to keep pace with changing operational conditions. In this paper we present the results of an analysis, design, and development effort intended to move away from traditional data fusion systems towards evolvable human-in-the-loop data fusion systems. We discuss the analysis we conducted in support of an evolvable system design and provide an overview of the prototype evolvable data fusion system architecture we are developing.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE8 - Improving Visual Search and Identification in Complex Systems

  Jeremy R. Brown; Poornima Madhavan
Research has documented that high levels of signal probability (or base rates) during training positively impact transfer of learning when transfer stimuli differ from training stimuli. Whether this transfer performance varies significantly from situations where transfer stimuli are identical to training stimuli is unknown. To examine this, participants (scenario 1: n = 36, scenario 2: n = 33) performed a visual search task wherein they were trained on one of three base rates: 100%, 50%, 20%; at transfer, participants detected the same targets used during training (scenario 1) or novel targets (scenario 2), at a base rate of 20%. Higher base rates improved transfer (higher hit rates) only when transfer stimuli differed from training stimuli. When transfer stimuli were identical to training stimuli, differential base rate training did not have significant effects on transfer performance. These results have implications for improving training modules for operators in vigilance tasks.
An Evaluation of Perceptual Depth to Enhance Change Detection BIBAFull-Text 338-342
  Gabriela Mancero; William Wong
Two experiments investigated the effect of perceptual depth as a cue to highlight unexpected or changing stimuli. We used a new display technology known as a Multi-Layered Display (MLD). The results of the first experiment showed a significant effect of depth on the detection of an unexpected event when it is located in the front layer regardless of the depth plane in which the distracters were located. Detection was three times higher when the unexpected event was located less than 20 degrees of visual angle from the focus of attention. The second experiment indicated that the depth cue, although slower than the colour transient, presented the highest accuracy. The results suggested that depth may not always be the best transient to highlight changes, however, in cases where colour and flashing are no longer appropriate, the use of depth is a viable alternative.
Using Expert Knowledge to Identify Visual Cues for Landmine Detection BIBAFull-Text 343-347
  James J. Staszewski; Alan D. Davison; David J. Dippel; Julia A. Tischuk
Previous research on training and work analysis shows that expert knowledge represents a valuable resource for addressing use-inspired research questions and solving practical problems in these areas. Here, the body of principles, theory, and methods expertise research has accumulated were used to guide exploration of a new approach to a significant practical problem: Can human vision supplement the information that handheld landmine detection equipment provides its operators to increase detection rates and reduce the hazard of the task? The goal was to acquire objective, foundational knowledge on which visual detection training could be based. A representative set of defused landmines were buried at a field site with bare soil and vegetated surfaces using doctrinal procedures. High-resolution photographs of the ground surface were taken for approximately one month starting in April 2006. An analysis exploiting the perceptual sensitivity of expert observers showed signature photos to experts from related domains with instructions to identify the cues and patterns that defined the signatures. Analysis of experts' verbal descriptions identified a small set of easily communicable cues that characterize signatures and their changes over the duration of observation. Findings illustrate the value of exploiting the knowledge based perceptual selectivity of experts to identify critical features in perceptually complex domains and tasks.
Framing and Context Effects in Visual Search Training BIBAFull-Text 348-352
  Frank C. Lacson; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Poornima Madhavan
Framed incentive structures and context effects may have training implications for applied visual search tasks such as airline luggage screening. Participants were trained with various incentive structures that focused, or were sensitive to, various signal detection outcomes. Also, participants were trained with different context representations (weapons or produce search). Twenty-four hours later, participants performed a transfer session in which the incentive structure and target set was unknown. Incentive structures that focused on negative outcomes (misses) led to a response bias that was closer to optimal compared to structures that focused on positive outcomes (hits). Task context affected response bias but had mixed effects on sensitivity. Results of this study may better inform the design of training and automated support for airline luggage screening and similar applied visual search tasks.
Screening Enhancements: Why dont they enhance performance BIBAFull-Text 353-357
  K. M. Ghylin; A. Schwaninger; C. G. Drury; J. Redford; L. Lin; R. Batta
Data obtained utilizing image enhancements in a carry-on bag x-ray screening task were analyzed to determine whether and how image enhancements affect performance. To complement earlier studies of experienced screeners, sixty-six novices to the screening task used six different overall enhancements. Results indicated a significant worsening of performance, A', between Original images and Negative images, but no performance differences for the other enhancements, similar to effects found for experienced screeners. There was little overall performance learning taking place on the task. More detailed analysis by splitting response times into search and non-search components revealed little more enhancement effect, but a reduction in False Alarm response time as the task progressed. It appears that the locus of lack of positive effects of enhancements is not just a function of familiarity with the current screen view.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE9 - Information Display and Cognitive Artifacts

Less is more Navigating with different types of information on a small-screen device BIBAFull-Text 358-362
  Jim Nixon; Sarah Sharples; Mike Jackson
An experiment was conducted to study differences in workload and performance of participants when navigating a route inside a building. Participants used a personal digital assistant (PDA) which presented three different types of spatial information. The spatial information varied in complexity. Spatial information was presented as a sequence of maps which were advanced by the user according to location. This method of presentation captures the essence of a location-based service; the spatial information presented is only relevant at that location. Results show significantly shorter route completion times and lower mental workload for participants using the simplified information when compared to the more complex information. Implications for the design of location-based navigation support on small-screen devices are discussed.
Cognitive artifacts in transition: An analysis of information content changes between manual and electronic patient tracking systems. BIBAFull-Text 363-367
  Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Theresa K. Guarrera; Ann M. Bisantz; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Shawna J. Perry; Robert L. Wears
Today's emergency departments (ED) could not function without a patient tracking system of some kind, manual or electronic. Manual patient tracking systems such as "whiteboards" are large, dry erase, manually updated status boards used as information tracking devices in most EDs. Although it is expected that manual whiteboard systems will completely transition to electronic patient tracking systems with increasing availability of technological solutions, it is not clear if these technological solutions will sufficiently address the information tracking needs of providers. This study documents the changes in the use of a manual whiteboard versus an electronic patient tracking system in an ED to compare types of information and meanings of the represented information. Results show that both systems were used to represent information serving a variety of functional roles. In addition, an analysis of patient chief complaint entries indicates that manual whiteboards are used more dynamically than electronic systems. Differences in functional uses of the systems and the consequences of these changes are discussed.
  Mark St. John
Interruptions and situation awareness recovery are important issues for distributed team collaboration tasks such as civil emergency operations. Shared whiteboards effectively convey spatial information, but fail to support interruption recovery because they do not mark or log new annotations and they can become cluttered and difficult to search and parse. Can we develop better support tools, and are there general principles of good design for these tools? St. John, Smallman, and Manes (2007) identified four design principles and applied them to develop a shared whiteboard tool called team-CHEX. The tool logged new messages to a strip below the situation display where they could be noticed without distracting from ongoing tasks and where they could be prioritized for review. Clutter was controlled by only displaying message content when selected by the user. Participants answered situation awareness questions about an on-going team task. Team-CHEX outperformed a chat tool, but performed no better than a typical shared whiteboard design that offered no log or clutter control. The hypothesis tested here was that increasing the clutter on the situation display would interfere with using the whiteboard but not team-CHEX. Accordingly, the "messiness" of the annotations was manipulated without changing the information they contained. The results supported the hypothesis: the messy whiteboard was rated as more difficult to use than team-CHEX, and it was frequently abandoned in favor of reviewing text messages to answer the questions. The implication is that there is a trade-off between the benefits of immediate access to information displayed directly on the situation display and the display clutter that results. Once clutter becomes too great, decluttering becomes an effective support feature.
Evaluation of an Adaptive Interface for Fault Management BIBAFull-Text 373-377
  Emmanuel Letsu-Dake; Celestine A. Ntuen; Younho Seong; Xiaochun (Steve) Jiang
Adaptive interfaces support the performance of human operators by providing the appropriate aid, information or functionality at any point in operation. This study presents an experimental evaluation of an adaptive interface. Comparing an adaptive interface to a non-adaptive one for the same process through experimentation can reveal its relative weaknesses and strengths. A sample simulation environment that controls a thermal-hydraulic process is used for this study. Using four performance criteria, the adaptive interface performed significantly better than the non-adaptive one.
Effects of Presentation Modality on Team Awareness and Choice Accuracy in a Simulated Police Team Task BIBAFull-Text 378-382
  Jan Willem Streefkerk; Caro Wiering; Myra van Esch-Bussemakers; Mark Neerincx
Team awareness is important when asking team members for assistance, for example in the police domain. This paper investigates how presentation modality (visual or auditory) of relevant team information and communication influences team awareness and choice accuracy in a collaborative team task. An experimental prototype was created and implemented, which provided a visual overview of location, availability, means of transportation and expertise of team members as well as ongoing team communication. In a simulated police task in a virtual environment, this prototype was compared to current auditory support, common in police practice. Results show that a visual overview of team information improves choice accuracy, while auditory information presentation improves team awareness. In designing support systems for the professional domain, this trade-off should be carefully considered.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE10 - Cognitive Aspects of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making

  Laura G. Militello; Robert R. Hoffman
Many reports of recent research on topics in cognitive systems engineering describe their methods by distinguishing cognitive task analysis from "traditional" or "behavioral" task analysis. A hallmark of modern cognitive task analysis (CTA) methods is that they place primary focus on understanding the cognitive demands of a task and the knowledge and strategies that underlie performance. While cognitive task analysis may have seemed to be a revolutionary approach introduced in recent years, a review of the history of task analysis reveals many things that have been lost in modern treatments of the history of human factors. This presentation will review some highlights of this forgotten history, including the ideas and methods of the Psychotechnicians, the earliest industrial psychologists, the Taylorists, and others who contributed to modern CTA. Task analysis never lacked cognitive categories. Even microscale "time and motion" studies involved the analysis of the work of domain experts. Basic ideas of human-machine systems and of complexity also appear in some of the earliest literatures -- industrial psychology of the first decades of the 20th century.
Characterization of Mental Models in a Virtual Reality-Based Multitasking Scenario BIBAFull-Text 388-392
  Tao Zhang; David B. Kaber; Simon M. Hsiang
This research developed an empirical approach for characterizing user mental models in multitasking scenarios in virtual reality (VR). Participants were required to attend to and detect different types of perceptual events occurring randomly in time in a virtual locomotion environment (VLE) simulation while carrying on physical activity (walking on a treadmill). Three different forms of mental models for performing the perceptual task were hypothesized and expected response patterns for situation awareness (SA), task performance measures and mental workload ratings were compared with observed data. Results demonstrated the SA and task measures to be useful for identifying the occurrence of different mental models and to reveal response patterns in-line with hypotheses. However, in the multitasking scenario, the process of developing SA appeared to be substantially influenced by the physical and cognitive task demands; thus, the progressive development of highly accurate mental models of event distributions appeared to be restricted. Possible applications of the results of this study include development of training programs for mobile, visual inspection tasks, such as airport roving security patrols, for accurate mental model development and promoting detection of critical events.
The Effect of Interruption Modality on Primary Task Resumption BIBAFull-Text 393-397
  Raj M. Ratwani; Alyssa E. Andrews; Jenny D. Sousk; J. Gregory Trafton
The majority of empirical papers investigating the effect of interruption modality on primary task resumption have been grounded in Multiple Resource theory; this theory stresses the benefits of crossmodal information presentation. Alternatively, Altmann and Trafton's (2002) Memory for Goals theory suggests that maintaining an association between the suspended primary task goal and relevant environmental cues is critical to the task resumption process. Using reaction time and eye movement measures, the theoretical predictions of these two frameworks were empirically examined to determine whether interruption modality influences primary task resumption.
Dealing with Interruptions can be Complex, but does Interruption Complexity Matter: A Mental Resources Approach to Quantifying Disruptions BIBAFull-Text 398-402
  David M. Cades; Nicole Werner; J. Gregory Trafton; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Christopher A. Monk
Past work examining the effects of interruption complexity on primary task performance has yielded quite mixed results. Some research suggests that more complex interruptions lead to greater disruption of the primary task, while other studies have shown that interruption complexity does not directly influence the amount of primary task disruption. It is our hypothesis that interruption complexity, defined by the number of mental operators required to complete a task as opposed to an intuitive sense of difficulty, does affect primary task performance, such that interruptions requiring more mental operators (more complex) lead to greater disruption than do less complex interruptions. Participants performed a single primary task in conjunction with either a simple or complex interruption. The complex interruption required more mental operators to complete than the simple interruption. Our results showed that it took longer to resume the primary task following a complex interruption than it did following a simple interruption. These results suggest that more complex interruptions, as quantified by the number of mental operations required, do indeed lead to greater primary task disruption.
The Effects of Brief Interruptions on Task Resumption BIBAFull-Text 403-407
  Christopher A. Monk; David G. Kidd
Research has suggested that the duration of an interruption can affect the time it takes to resume an interrupted task. According to the memory for goals model, goal activation gradually decays over time. Therefore goals that have been suspended for longer will require a greater amount of strengthening and time to retrieve. Whereas most interruptions research has examined interruptions ranging from 5 seconds to several minutes, there are both theoretical reasons and empirical evidence to suggest that interruptions as short as 250 ms can lead to delays in task resumption. The effects of brief interruptions were investigated across two studies. In the first study, participants were interrupted for 250 ms and 5000 ms. In the second study, participants were interrupted for 500 ms, 1000 ms, and 2000 ms. Findings indicated that interruptions as brief as 500 ms can delay resumption. Additionally, resumption delays tended to increase as a function of interruption duration.


Supporting Joint Human-Computer Judgment Under Uncertainty BIBAFull-Text 408-412
  Sarah Miller; Alex Kirlik; Alex Kosorukoff; Jennifer Tsai
In this paper we present a concept and interface design aimed at combining expert human judgment with computational support. The goal of this design is to leverage the strengths and simultaneously compensate for the weaknesses of both the expert and a computational model. In order to test the design, we created a task modeled after fantasy baseball, which requires competitors to predict the performance of actual Major League Baseball (MLB) players over the course of the season. The most substantial and challenging aspects of the design involved how to both welcome expert input on a case-by-case basis, yet also provide visual guidance for how these inputs should reflect an appropriate degree of regression to the mean, or reliance on base-rate information. Results showed that the joint human-model system resulted in better performance than a model, which was based, in part, on past performance. The joint system also outperformed unaided or partially-aided experts in some cases but only equally as well in other cases. Design implications and future directions are discussed.
Rule and Instance Based Strategies in Expert Judgment BIBAFull-Text 413-417
  Jennifer Tsai; Alex Kirlik; Alex Kosorukoff; Sarah Miller
Expert judgment has been conceived in contrasting ways. The naturalistic decision making (NDM) paradigm has put forth a largely instance-based account, viewing experts as relying on a storehouse of cases, such as in the recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. Cognitive psychology has instead advanced largely heuristic- or rule-based accounts, such as in the lens model and fast-and-frugal heuristics. To clarify the relationship between these accounts, we performed two experiments in which novices and experts performed a task explicitly designed to reveal signatures in the data of the use of both rule- and instance-based strategies. Modeling revealed that expert judgment benefited from both the use of linear cue-weighting rules and instance memory. Instance memory use was reflected in experts' (but not novices') ability to handle task nonlinearity, and the finding that expert accuracy across instances was positively correlated with the number of times each instance was historically seen in past experiences.
Cue Generation amongst Firefighters: Competent vs. Expert Differences BIBAFull-Text 418-422
  Nathan C. Perry; Mark W. Wiggins
Empirical investigations of cognitive skill acquisition have generally focused on differences between novice and expert operators. The result is a neglect of the intermediate stage of skill acquisition in which operators progress through competence towards expert performance. This study investigated the qualitative and quantitative differences in the cognitive cues generated by competent and expert firefighters. Participants first read a written, firefighting-related decision scenario before listing the cues that they considered relevant in formulating a decision. The results revealed that experts generated significantly more cues than competent operators. Further, the types of cues generated by competent and expert operators differed, with experts reporting significantly more safety-related cues than competent operators. These outcomes suggest that differences exist between the cues that are employed by expert and competent operators during decision-making, and that these differences reflect a qualitative change in information processing that occurs during the transition from competence to expertise.
Cultivating Resilience in Urban Firefighting: supporting skill acquisition through scenario design BIBAFull-Text 423-427
  Martin Voshell; Stoney Trent; Brian Prue; Lisa C. Fern
Whether studying human cognition, designing new technologies, or exploring concepts such as safety and resilience, understanding decision making in natural settings is fundamental to Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). Across all of these, it is crucial for human factors engineers to be able to create realistic scenarios of interest that hit upon "cognitive pressure points" (Woods and Dekker, 2000) to elicit challenges and observe patterns in cognitive work. Although many converging methodologies have provided a rich ecological body of practice-based research and application, there is a shortage of research demonstrating the efficacy of scenario-based design in support of skill acquisition. Based on continuing research with a major metropolitan fire department, the current paper reports initial findings from ongoing work analysis. From a series of scenarios, patterns of coordination challenges are discussed with implications for future emergency response operations and training.
Design Decision Making: Adapting Mathematical Paradigms to fit Designers Actual Needs BIBAFull-Text 428-432
  Caroline C. Hayes; Farnaz Akhavi
When designing products, designers follow a process in which they compare complex alternatives and select one for further development. Because of the complexity and uncertainty involved in comparing and ranking design alternatives, and the high cost of making bad decisions, mathematical decision methods have long held much theoretical appeal for use in design decision making. However, designers do not use them in most practical design work.. Why does this discrepancy between theory and practice exist? This paper is a follow-on to a study presented by the authors last year assessing the costs and benefits of various mathematically-based decision support tools. This work aims to provide insights into the results of that study by presenting ethnographic observations of designer's decision making processes, a description of how the assumptions of mathematical decision methods are not well matched to designer's needs. However, by understanding these needs better we are several steps closer to being able to create decision support tools that product designers will want to adopt.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE12 - Extensions and Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis II

A Model of Expert Decision Making in Post-Flop Betting in Poker BIBAFull-Text 433-437
  Bardia Bina; Huei-Yen Winnie Chen; Paul Milgram
Most past research in modelling poker arises from the field of artificial intelligence, based on the many rules and probabilities involved in the game. The present study examines poker from a new perspective: applying knowledge elicitation techniques to model some of the decision making processes of expert poker players in post-flop betting. Based on data obtained through observations and interviews, using expert players as study participants, a decision making model is proposed, together with an abstraction hierarchy model. It was found that poker players create a set of mental models of their opponents, the active game situation, and of themselves as perceived by their opponents, in order to achieve the purposes of always making better than their opponent and, whenever possible, maximizing the consequences of the opponent's mistakes. A set of strategies that are independent of specific situations and individual players were also discovered in this study.
Using Work Domain Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of Digitization on Command and Control BIBAFull-Text 438-442
  Daniel P. Jenkins; Neville A. Stanton; Paul M. Salmon; Guy H. Walker
This paper introduces a new approach for evaluating the impact of technological change on complex sociotechnical systems. The approach uses Work Domain Analysis as a theoretical base for extracting the key factors that influence system performance. The process has been designed to be expeditious, both in terms of construction and data collection. The approach uses the opinion of subject matter experts to evaluate the impact of each of the abstraction hierarchy nodes on system performance. This approach was used to evaluate the effects of digitization within land based military headquarters, at brigade and battlegroup levels. The proposed approach proved sensitive enough to reveal clear differences between the old analogue and new digital system. The description of the same system at a number of levels of abstraction allows the analyst to develop a high level rating of the system as well as understanding of the key factors that have influenced this opinion.
Understanding Social and Organizational Aspects of the Work Domain Using Techniques and Technologies from Intelligence Analysis BIBAFull-Text 443-447
  Stacy Lovell Pfautz; Jonathan Pfautz
Methods for the analysis of social and organizational aspects of the work domain are increasingly relevant as new technologies enable users to collect, process, and study entities and their relationships to design support systems. Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) practitioners can leverage analytic methods and tools from military intelligence analysis to address the need to understand complex organizations and interactions. These communities are increasingly integrating Social Science methods with computational tools to navigate and understand the network of human related data. This paper provides a brief overview of how CWA tools could be used in conjunction with intelligence analysis techniques and technologies for the analysis of social and organizational aspects of the work domain.
Enhancing Operator Task Performance during Monitoring for Unanticipated Events through Ecological Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 448-452
  Nathan Lau; Gyrd Skraaning; Greg A. Jamieson; Catherine M. Burns
A full scope simulator study with licensed Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ecological displays in supporting operators with different types of tasks. The results suggest that ecological displays have a advantage in supporting operator performance during monitoring for unanticipated events as compared to mimic-based displays. Furthermore, ecological displays seem to achieve this performance advantage without imposing workload increases. This study provides supporting evidence that EID is effective at a scale and level of complexity representative of NPP operations.
Analysing Care Home Medication Errors: A Comparison of The London Protocol and Work Domain Analysis. BIBAFull-Text 453-457
  Rosemary Lim; Janet Anderson; Peter Buckle
Although methods for investigating safety in complex systems have been widely applied, few studies have made explicit comparisons of two or more methods used to study one system problem. This paper presents a comparison of two methods that were used to analyse medication errors identified in UK care homes namely, The London Protocol and Work Domain Analysis (WDA). The London Protocol is based on an organisational accident causation model and WDA is the first phase of analysis in Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) that models work domain constraints. Nine medication administration errors identified in seven care homes involving thirty-one residents were analysed. The analyses resulted in the identification of contributory factors to medication errors and changes that would improve system safety. The London Protocol was comparatively easier to use and required less time than the WDA. In The London Protocol, contributory factors were identified from a context-free list of error contributory conditions. From the identified error contributory factors, recommendations to improve system safety were made. However, it was difficult to relate these recommendations to the wider context of the system being studied. The WDA used a contextual model of the care home medication system in the form of an abstraction hierarchy (AH) to analyse errors. Factors contributing to medication errors were specific to the work domain and the resultant recommendations had broad applications, extending beyond the context of the specific errors analysed and were relevant to the whole system. The London Protocol would be a suitable analysis tool if the aim of the analysis was to generate short-term solutions in a short time and with limited financial resources. To make a long-term impact on system safety, the WDA is a useful tool. The AH can be used to analyse the current system, evaluate recommendations for system improvement, design interventions, implement strategies and used throughout the system's life cycle.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: CE13 - Analysis and Design of Successful Teams

An Empirical Evaluation of Network Centric Team Organisation versus Hierarchical Team Organisation BIBAFull-Text 458-462
  Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Paul Salmon; Daniel Jenkins; Shaj Monnan; Simone Handy
Traditional hierarchical command and control was pitted against a network centric alternative on a common task played thirty times by two teams. Multiple regression was used to undertake a simple form of time series analysis. Whilst the network centric condition ended up being slightly slower than its hierarchical counterpart, it was able to balance and optimise three other factors: team cohesion, enemies neutralized and attrition.
Multi-method Approach to Team Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 463-467
  Ketut Sulistyawati; Yoon Ping Chui; Christopher D. Wickens
In this paper, we present our definition and multi-method approach to assess team SA, followed by an application of the measurement approach in a simulated air combat environment. In the simulation, team SA is measured using Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) on the elements related to own and teammate's responsibilities, confidence level on the accuracy of SAGAT responses, and awareness of teammate's workload and SA levels. The interrelationships between various measures of team SA, and between each measure of team SA and teamwork behavior and performance outcome are analyzed. The result suggests that team SA is a multi-dimensional construct, and that each aspect can be developed from different information sources. The correlation analyses with teamwork behavior measures reveal the strong associations between team SA and information sharing and backup behavior. Finally, SAGAT scores, confidence bias, and backup behavior are found to have strong associations with team performance outcome.
Situation Awareness and Collaborative Tool Usage in Ad Hoc Command and Control Teams BIBAFull-Text 468-472
  Laura D. Strater; Haydee M. Cuevas; Erik S. Connors; Diane M. Ungvarsky; Mica R. Endsley
This research details findings from Urban Resolve, a large-scale Joint Forces research effort to investigate the impacts of technological solutions on situation awareness (SA) and decision making in ad hoc teams in a military command and control environment. The investigation was conducted using personnel acting as the Joint Force Land Component Command (JFLCC) and supporting Brigade-level staff stationed at Ft. Leavenworth in support of the higher headquarters at the Joint Task Force (JTF) in an urban combat and stability scenario. In the study, participants rated face-to-face communication highest for both routine and critical communications. The tool rated most effective for the development of situation awareness changed across study sessions, with chat in chatroom rated highest in the first and last session, and shared map/shared products folder rated highest in the second session. Results are discussed in the context of developing tools to support shared SA and temporal team performance in ad hoc teams.
Self-synchronization in networked teams: initializing and monitoring interteam collaborations. BIBAFull-Text 473-477
  B. J. A. van Bezooijen; P. J. M. D. Essens
Networked teams do not only have to make decisions that are in line with the overall goal, but face additional problems because teams have to synchronize decisions and actions with other teams in the network. Experiments have demonstrated that training teams for collaborating with other teams improves team performance. This study aims to explore how existing teams synchronize decisions and actions in networks. Four air defence teams with different levels of experience to work in a networked environment completed two scenarios, in which teams had the authority to engage in collaborations with another team in the network. Results indicate that experience is an important factor for initialising and monitoring interteam collaborations. The naturalistic character of the study prevents direct generalization, but the detailed and systematic data collection provides more insight in the critical elements of networked collaboration in complex operations.
Patterns of Team Collaboration Employed To Solve Unique Problems BIBAFull-Text 478-482
  Susan G. Hutchins; Tony Kendall
"Macrocognition" is an emerging area of knowledge engineering that focuses on understanding how cognition emerges in natural environments. One goal for studying macrocognition is to understand the complexity entailed in inter- and intra-individual cognition. In this paper we describe our analysis of several complex team collaboration tasks: firefighters from the Fire Department of New York on Sept. 11, 2001, air warfare teams on an Aegis ship, and the team collaboration entailed in conducting Maritime Interdiction Operations. Team communications that transpired during three complex problem solving situations were analyzed to understand how teams collaborate to create new knowledge and decide on a course of action during complex, one-of-a-kind problems. These processes include (1) individual knowledge building, (2) developing knowledge interoperability, (3) team shared understanding, and (4) team consensus. The way the team's cognitive behavior maps to the model is discussed along with differences in patterns of collaboration for different decision-making domains.

COMMUNICATIONS: C1 - Beyond PowerPoint: Tools for Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer

  Christopher A. Miller; Tammy Ott; Alexander Feinman; Douglas Frosst; Terrance Goan; J. Christopher Ramming; Dan Thomsen
Microsoft's PowerPoint presentation software turned 30 years old last year and is, arguably, the dominant mechanism for idea transfer in the world of work today -- a position that it has held for, perhaps, the last 20 years. PowerPoint presentations are used for everything from grade school project reports to sermons to Space Shuttle launch decisions to military mission briefings. Built on the even older technology of overhead view foils and slide shows, PowerPoint clearly provides benefits over that technology in the ease with which it enables the creation of presentations -- and it would be hard to argue that the results are less colorful and entertaining thanks to the tool. But is this the best we can do? Tufte (2007) has recently provided an extensive indictment of the failings of PowerPoint, and of the presentations that it encourages us to create. And while many of us would dispute elements of Tufte's crtiques, we all see ways to improve on PowerPoint or its usage. Most members of this panel have all recently been awarded small research grants by DARPA to propose alternate approaches to enabling "rapid and accurate idea transfer" in at least some of the domains in which PowerPoint is currently dominant. In this panel, they will discuss their approaches and illustrate them -- traditional PowerPoint presentations will not be permitted. A secondary theme will be evaluation methods and metrics for idea transfer.

COMMUNICATIONS: C2 - The Many Facets of Communications

  Joshua D. Hoffman; John D. Lee; Bobbie D. Seppelt
Fleets of unmanned vehicles promise to extend human capabilities in many domains, ranging from search and rescue to intelligence gathering. Achieving the promise of unmanned vehicles places a particular demand on coordination, in which operators must allocate and reallocate tasks and resources to meet the needs of the evolving mission. An obvious solution to supporting coordination is to enhance communication. However, traditional verbal and text-based communication could exacerbate the problem by imposing greater load on operators during periods of high workload and by introducing ambiguity that is inherent in natural language. We propose an alternative in which coordination is supported through a shared representation of the work domain constraints and the activity of others. Such an alternative supports implicit communication that often effectively coordinates face-to-face coordination, but is often neglected in computer-mediated coordination. This approach enables stimergy -- communication through action on the environment -- that makes it possible for coordinated activity to emerge without central control or complex communication. The paper shows how cognitive work analysis leads to display concepts that can support stimergy and reduce the need for explicit communication.
Individual and Group Electronic Brainstorming In an Industrial Setting BIBAFull-Text 493-497
  Susan M. Stevens; Courtney C. Dornburg; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; George S. Davidson
An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in addressing real-world "wickedly difficult" challenges. Previous laboratory research has engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The current experiment extended this research to larger, real-world employee groups engaged in addressing organization-relevant challenges. Within the present experiment, the data demonstrated that individuals performed at least as well as groups in terms of number of ideas produced and significantly (p<.02) outperformed groups in terms of the quality of those ideas (as measured along the dimensions of originality, feasibility, and effectiveness).
Communication and Coordination Failures in the Process Industries BIBAFull-Text 498-502
  Jason C. Laberge; Peter Bullemer; Stephen D. Whitlow
Previous research shows that effective team communication and coordination is required for managing normal and abnormal situations (Laberge & Goknur, 2006). The purpose of this project is to quantify common communication and coordination failures and root causes of abnormal situations in the process industries. Fourteen incident reports were analyzed using the TapRoot root cause analysis methodology. The top five communication and coordination failures were failures of: planning or preparatory activities (31%), individual and team execution (14%), work direction and supervision (13%), communication between functional groups (12%), and activity assessment (10%). The study of root causes showed that ineffective standards, policies, and administrative controls (SPAC); poor crew teamwork; a lack of communication; and no supervision were common reasons for failures.
Head Mapping: Search for an Optimum Bone Microphone Placement BIBAFull-Text 503-507
  Maranda McBride; Phuong Tran; Tomasz Letowski
Bone microphones have been reported to be effective mechanisms for converting head vibrations into audio signals during speech production in high noise environments. This paper presents results of a study conducted to evaluate recordings of speech signals received by a bone microphone at various locations on the human head. Twelve different locations, four voices, and three words were used during the recording sessions. Twenty-two students evaluated 144 randomly presented recordings in a single group setting. Each recording was evaluated regarding its intelligibility (rating scale from 0 to 100%) and speech quality (rating scale 1 to 5) using a paper survey instrument. Results of the evaluation indicated significant differences in both intelligibility and quality between many of the locations and the results for intelligibility and quality were highly correlated. The two locations that resulted in the highest intelligibility and quality ratings were the forehead and temple.
An In-Depth Look into the Text Entry User Experience on the iPhone BIBAFull-Text 508-512
  Jennifer M. Allen; Leslie A. McFarlin; Thomas Green
Sixty volunteers participated in a within-groups study aimed at evaluating the text entry system on the iPhone. Participants completed multiple structured text entry tasks on the iPhone's soft keyboard and two hard-key mobile phone keypads - QWERTY and numeric. The message completion time and number of errors per message were collected to identify potential differences in performance between the devices. Participants made significantly more total errors on the iPhone than on the hard-key numeric and QWERTY phones. When using the iPhone, iPhone owners left more errors in the completed messages than hard-key QWERTY device owners. Furthermore, novice and expert iPhone users did not differ in terms of the number of errors they made on the iPhone. A detailed analysis of the iPhone keyboard was also conducted. iPhone key hit rates were all above 90%, while hit rates for a hard-key QWERTY keypad were above 96%. Keys on the iPhone also had higher false alarm rates.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS1 - Qualitative Evaluation

Developing a Decision Support Tool for Design BIBAFull-Text 513-517
  Brent-Kaan White; Jonathan I. Helfman
A decision support tool has been created to help developers of enterprise business applications choose appropriate user interface design patterns. The tool implements a dynamic visualization of design choices structured as a faceted classification of user tasks and user types. Terminology used for the facet and choice labels was informed by interviews with developers about their design strategies. The main finding from testing 17 developers was that when the wrong patterns were selected, it was usually due to misinterpretation of the facet choice labels. As a result, certain facet choices were removed or consolidated and new ones were identified.
An Hedonomic Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated System-Exposure on Pleasurable Human-System Experience BIBAFull-Text 518-522
  Lauren L. Murphy; Kip Smith; Peter A. Hancock
We report on two studies of the mere exposure effect on the occurrence of flow. Findings reveal that: (a) pleasurable human-system experience increased linearly with repeated exposure to the technology of interest; (b) an habituation effect of flow was mediated by day; (c) performance was positively correlated to flow. Suggestions for future research directions for Hedonomics include mitigating the habituation of flow effect by incorporating an adaptive hedonomic design to reduce the effect of boredom that comes with familiar stimuli an approach that enables the user to create a balance between typicality and novelty in order to allow for changing cultural norms and personal change over time.
Playback Technique using a Temporally Sequenced Cognitive Artifact for Knowledge Elicitation BIBAFull-Text 523-527
  Janet E. Miller; Emily S. Patterson
Developing effective computer support for work done in complex socio-technical environments requires understanding the necessary expertise for the work. Preserving and examining cognitive artifacts, such as notes, made by the practitioner while working is valuable in ensuring an accurate understanding of the required expertise. However, how the notes are analyzed for discovery needs to include the fact that a note artifact has a temporal dimension. Exploiting the temporal dimension of note-making reveals the sequence of the practitioner's thought process and relays what was considered important at points in time. This paper focuses on the development of a methodology to unfold a novice practitioner's task performance in order to reveal the novice's process to an expert so that future computer system requirements can be identified. An important key to the unfolding was the notes pages. Several methods of using the note sheet artifacts were explored and the resulting methodology is described.
  Anshu Agarwal; Alan Hedge
This study examined the impact of front-end, web page usability guideline implementation on aesthetic evaluations of e-commerce web pages and perceptions of the e-retailer. Four design factors (background color, white space, thumbnail image location, and thumbnail image size) were selected and varied based upon an in-depth review of the usability, human factors, and human-computer interaction literature. As a secondary focus, this study also explored the impact of these design factors on consumer trust, product preference, and purchase intention. Conjoint analysis and optimal design methodologies were used to develop sixteen web page prototypes, which were assessed through an online survey. Results indicated that subtle design manipulations had significant effects on consumer evaluations of web page aesthetics and perceptions of the e-retailer.
Conformance in Software Ergonomic Standards BIBAFull-Text 533-536
  James R. Williams; Thomas Geis
This paper describes the evolution of the conformance approach used in the currently published software ergonomic standards. Essentially, the conformance approach is based on a "pragmatic" two-step process. First determining the applicability of a requirement/recommendation and then determining whether the requirement/recommendation has been met. This paper also describes experience with the approach in different contexts, discussion of the use of the approach, problems encountered and suggestions for improvements.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS2 - Controls and Displays

A Usability Evaluation of a Laser Projection Virtual Keyboard BIBAFull-Text 537-541
  Xin Wang; Alan Hedge
This study compared typing performance using a laser projection virtual keyboard (VKB), and an electromechanical folding keyboard (FKB). Twenty undergraduate students (10 male, 10 female) participated as subjects in the study. Typing performance was measured for twelve 7.5-minute typing trials for each of the two keyboards. The results showed that typing was significantly slower with the VKB: by the twelfth typing trial the text entry performance with the VKB was 17.3 wpm compared to 40.4 wpm for the FKB, and the typing error rate was 8.6% for the VKB compared to 5.3% for the FKB. Text entry performance was 57.1% slower with the VKB than the FKB, but it was comparable to the speeds reported for other handheld device text entry methods (Multitap, T9, and handwriting recognition). A learning curve model showed that theoretically the typing speed for the VKB could reach 20 wpm after 20 hours of training.
Graphical User Authentication: A Comparative Evaluation of Composite Scene Authentication vs. Three Competing Graphical Passcode Systems BIBAFull-Text 542-546
  Korey Johnson; Steffen Werner
Previous studies (Johnson & Werner, 2006; 2007) have shown that Composite Scene Authentication (CSA) passcodes are more memorable than alphanumeric passwords over extended retention intervals. This study evaluated the memorability of six types of graphical passcodes of varying complexity (including three variants of CSA passcodes) over thirty-minute and one-week retention intervals. The graphical passcodes were compared to one another, as well as to an alphanumeric password of equivalent bit length. A strong overall advantage in information retained was found for graphical passcodes (M = 92.83%) compared to alphanumeric passwords (M = 75.47%). In addition, CSA passcodes were remembered better (M = 97.1%) than other graphical passcodes (M = 88.56%). An even larger difference was observed for percent successful logins for CSA passcodes (M = 84.23%) compared to other graphical passcodes (M= 56.39%) after the one-week retention interval. The variable bit lengths of the passcodes did not affect percent information retained.
Examining the Onscreen Legibility of the Number 0 and Number 1 BIBAFull-Text 547-551
  Doug Fox; Barbara S. Chaparro; Ed Merkle
This article reports on the features that influence the legibility of the numbers '0' and '1' using classification tree analysis. These numbers were reported to be two of the most confused characters in a larger study examining the legibility of lowercase letters, digits, and symbols across 20 different typefaces. Classification tree results suggested that the most influential feature for the '0' was height, and the most influential feature for '1' was perimeter. These results can be used to help typographers design characters that optimize legibility. Optimal legibility for onscreen numbers is important in situations that include reading online identifiers, such as user names and passwords, or deciphering alphanumeric codes onscreen, such as air traffic control.
Constraining Presentation Pace and Using Multimodal Materials: Intertwined Design Considerations BIBAFull-Text 552-556
  Jesse S. Zolna; Richard Catrambone
Presentations using a mixture of media can keep observers interest and increase the likelihood that people will retain information. When verbal and visual media are used together, offloading text for narration in the presence of visual materials often improves learning. However, recent research has pointed to the fact that this effect might be dependent on constraining the pace of presentation and that the effect is reduced when time to study static visual materials is increased. The present experiment extends this research to animated visual materials, by manipulating the verbal presentation modality and pace of presentation. There was a main effect of presentation pace and no main effect of verbal presentation modality. This lack of a modality effect was unexpected and possibly came about due to interactions with presentation pace. This suggests that designers need to consider the effects of verbal presentation modality and study time in tandem rather than as discrete design elements. This also points to the need to test other design combinations to guard against other unexpected or surprising relationships between design elements.
Failure to Recognize Fake Internet Popup Warning Messages BIBAFull-Text 557-560
  David Sharek; Cameron Swofford; Michael Wogalter
"Warning, your computer is infected with spyware. Windows needs to download and install the anti-spyware updates to remedy this issue. Click OK to begin." This is just one example of many popup warnings that spyware and malware creators use to try to mislead unsuspecting Internet users into downloading potentially harmful software. Falling prey to an illegitimate message could produce negative consequences that vary from bothersome computer performance to complete system failure. The purpose of this study was to determine which visual design cues, if any, would alert people to the illegitimacy of fake popup warning windows while browsing the Internet. Results indicated that most people did not behave in a cautious manner upon presentation of three different fake popup warning windows. Implications of the research are discussed.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: CS3 - Accessibility

Secondary Encoding BIBAFull-Text 561-565
  Lisa Tang; David Fourney; Fei Huang; Jim Carter
Translation between media is often used to make information encoded in one modality available to users who are unable to make use of that modality. Translation acts on the primary means of encoding the information (e.g., text, sound). Secondary encoding (e.g., color, intonations) is often added to primarily encoded information to help the user correctly interpret its intended meaning. During translation between media, secondary encodings are often removed and their information remains inaccessible. When this happens, miscommunications may occur. Although secondary encoding is a multi-discipline problem, different types of secondary encoding are usually analyzed as separate problems. In reality, they are aspects of a single problem. This paper presents a taxonomy of secondary encodings and guidance for improving the accessibility of secondary encoded information.
The Ongoing Evolution of Standards to Meet the Needs of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing BIBAFull-Text 566-570
  David Fourney; Jim Carter
The recent publication of three documents by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) evolves the previous understanding of the needs of deaf and hard of hearing computer users. This paper explores these new documents and their recommendations for this group of users. The implications of these new guidelines and their relation to other standards are also discussed.
Thanks for pointing that out. Making Sarcasm Accessible For All BIBAFull-Text 571-575
  David Fourney; Deborah Fels
Television programs and films include emotional content which is intended to be captured and interpreted by the viewer. Auditory content such as sound effects, mood music, and vocal intonation cannot be perceived by those in the audience who cannot hear. The tone of voice used to communicate sarcasm is one such type of content. While captioning is designed to assist the deaf and hard of hearing in understanding this information, it has many weaknesses. This paper presents the results of a pilot study which applied user interface design principles to develop prototypes of enhanced captioning technology that can support the translation of sarcastic auditory emotional content into a visual modality.
Accessible Web Browser Interface Design for Users with Low Vision BIBAFull-Text 576-580
  Aries Arditi; Jianwei Lu
We are studying user interface (UI) features that would be helpful to users with moderate to severe low vision and have developed a novel web browser front end that we believe will enhance efficiency and accessibility of the web to this large and growing population. The UI incorporates well-accepted principles and empirical knowledge from vision and rehabilitation sciences that go far beyond simple screen magnification. With an emphasis on simplicity and ease of use, the UI is designed so that once configured, no adjustments will be needed, regardless of what document the user is viewing. The UI will allow users simultaneous access to both the global features of web documents as the author intended, along with enlarged text tailored to the user's needs; this will allow access to all web pages without requiring that sites have special markup or authoring.
Design and Usability Evaluation of Foot Interfaces for Dynamic Text Editing BIBAFull-Text 581-585
  Sang-Hwan Kim; David B. Kaber
The objective of this study was to design and evaluate the use of foot pedal controls for dynamic text editing. An experiment was conducted to assess whether the new foot control method would improve editing performance, compared to conventional mouse use, and to identify specific types of foot control most convenient for users. Four prototype methods involving use of two foot pedals vs. one pedal with zero-order or first order control were developed and tested against mousing in an editing task with dynamic changes in text size (e.g., instant messaging). Prototype methods involving first order control were found to be comparable to the mouse method in task completion time, accuracy and subjective workload. Among the four prototypes, foot control using two pedals with first order control was superior to the other methods, in performance. Consequently, foot pedals may be effectively utilized in computing operations, particularly dynamic text editing tasks, as an alternative or additional input device. Furthermore, such methods may be particularly suited for special populations.

DEMONSTRATIONS: DEM1 - Innovative Training Tools and Methods

Demonstration of a Teamwork Skills Training Program for the Dynamic Targeting Cell BIBAFull-Text 586-590
  Amy L. Alexander; Jeff Beaubien; Yale Marc; Sharnnia Artis
The Dynamic Targeting Cell (DTC) is responsible for prosecuting time-sensitive, dynamic, and emerging targets in the global war on terror. Many DTC tasks impose complex information and resource interdependencies that must be resolved under conditions of high workload. Therefore, DTC operators need effective teamwork skills such as communication, coordination, shared situational awareness, and decision making. The Intervention Methods and Performance Assessment for Crew Training (IMPACT) program is a low physical fidelity, but high psychological fidelity, "training accelerator" that is designed to improve both intra- and inter-team coordination skills. IMPACT training fuses multimedia instruction, practical exercises, instructor feedback, and guided self-reflection using the deliberate practice approach to complex skill acquisition. After completing IMPACT, DTC trainees will be able to "hit the ground running" immediately upon entering a high physical fidelity training simulation or combat exercise.
Engaging, Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for Improving Training Effectiveness Enabling Creative Expression BIBAFull-Text 591-594
  Evan D. Rapoport; Erin M. Nishimura; Jonathan R. Zadra; Peter M. Wubbels; Dennis R. Proffitt; Traci H. Downs; J. Hunter Downs
Controlling computers and other electronic devices using only one's thoughts is an exciting yet unlikely and distant reality for most people. However, for people with locked-in syndrome, their disabilities are so severe that they have no other alternatives. Applications that are consciously controlled using signals from the brain (called brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs) have been shown to restore some communication and environmental control for these individuals. Unfortunately, BCIs can be slow and tedious to learn or operate, reducing their effectiveness. This demonstration presents engaging BCI applications, including a video game and a digital painting program, that enable users to have fun while they improve their control over the brain signals required to use BCIs.
Automatic Collection of Process Data to Support Air Force Dynamic Targeting Instructors BIBAFull-Text 595-599
  J. J. Ockerman; F. T. Case; N. T. Koterba; B. A. Huguenin; O. A. Garcia
The Air and space Operations Center (AOC), also deployed as Joint (JAOC) or Combined (CAOC), is the United States Air Force's (USAF's) weapon system for planning and executing theater-wide air and space forces. Like any USAF weapon system, trainers and warfighters need to assess AOC performance on a continual basis. Currently, no automated methods or tools exist to assess this performance. To address this need, a prototype assessment capability, the CAOC Performance Assessment System (CPAS) was developed. Working with and observing subject matter experts allowed engineers to identify the information required to support dynamic targeting training and assessment. Using rapid-prototyping spiral development, a "non-intrusive" data capture (collection and archiving) capability and an informative user display were developed and demonstrated. Specifically, CPAS collects AOC process data, correlates AOC data sources, and displays events and decisions that occur within the dynamic targeting cell of the AOC to support post-mission assessment of AOC process performance. It has been in use by the Air Force for over two years.

DEMONSTRATIONS: DEM2 - New Frontiers: Intelligence, Space, and Robots

Synthetic Vision Displays for Planetary and Lunar Lander Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 600-604
  Jarvis (Trey) J. Arthur; Lawrence J. Prinzel; Steven P. Williams; Kevin J. Shelton; Lynda J. Kramer; Randall E. Bailey; Robert M. Norman
Aviation research has demonstrated that Synthetic Vision (SV) technology can substantially enhance situation awareness, reduce pilot workload, improve aviation safety, and promote flight path control precision. SV, and related flight deck technologies are currently being extended for application in planetary exploration vehicles. SV, in particular, holds significant potential for many planetary missions since the SV presentation provides a computer-generated view for the flight crew of the terrain and other significant environmental characteristics independent of the outside visibility conditions, window locations, or vehicle attributes. SV allows unconstrained control of the computer-generated scene lighting, terrain coloring, and virtual camera angles which may provide invaluable visual cues to pilots/astronauts, not available from other vision technologies. In addition, important vehicle state information may be conformally displayed on the view such as forward and down velocities, altitude, and fuel remaining to enhance trajectory control and vehicle system status. The paper accompanies a conference demonstration that introduced a prototype NASA Synthetic Vision system for lunar lander spacecraft. The paper will describe technical challenges and potential solutions to SV applications for the lunar landing mission, including the requirements for high-resolution lunar terrain maps, accurate positioning and orientation, and lunar cockpit display concepts to support projected mission challenges.
Human Factors in Space Exploration: Fitts Law Activity for Middle School Girls BIBAFull-Text 605-609
  R. Darin Ellis; Thomas G. Edwards; Lavie Golenberg; Abhilash Pandya
Space exploration is a demanding endeavor, filled with extremely demanding tasks for both astronauts and ground personnel, making it a natural application area for Human Factors Engineering (HFE). This paper describes on ongoing project to develop and deliver hands-on HFE activities that expose middle-school age students to concepts in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas, while leveraging the backdrop of space exploration to make the activities fun and exciting. This pilot activity focused on a well-known HFE result known as "Fitts' Law", a function describing aimed movement time as a function of task variables. The activity included introduction to HFE, description of Fitts' Law, experimental data collection and graphing, and a design component relevant to Fitts' Law (i.e., emergency button placement on a control panel). Initial offerings of this activity indicate high potential for success and broad impact.
An Intelligence Application Providing Multiple Coordinated Data Views BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Caroline Clarke Hayes
This paper summarizes CoRaven, a suite of integrated tools that provide multiple, coordinated views of intelligence data. CoRaven is designed to assist military intelligence personnel in developing intelligence collection plans, interpreting intelligence data, and assessing possible enemy plans. It provides several coordinated ways to view intelligence data terrain, temporal and logical views. These views are coordinated by a cross-linking function that allows users to highlight data concepts in one view and see the corresponding concepts in the other views. The terrain view provides a simple and easy to understand presentation that graphically displays the likelihood of several enemy position hypotheses. This display is driven by a Bayesian belief network. Lastly, the paper will provide observations and assessments as to which aspects were most successful, for which type of users (analysts vs. commanders), and why.
A First Step towards a Generalized Physiological Measurement Framework BIBAFull-Text 615-618
  Don Kemper; Larry Davis; Cali Fidopiastis; Denise Nicholson
Physiological measures are often used to infer the cognitive state of a user in a training or experimental environment. The use of multiple devices can provide increased insight to the user's state. Two key issues when using multiple sensing devices are the need for low-level knowledge of the sensors for interfacing and software design for reuse. In this paper, an integration of real-time eye tracking and arousal measurement within a simulated environment is presented. The system is a preliminary realization of a general framework for integrating physiological measurement devices with live, virtual, and constructive environments and extends previous work integrating arousal and eye tracking. The data are time-stamped in the context of the simulation and can be "replayed" in the simulation for post-hoc analysis.

EDUCATION: E1 - Instructional Methods and Techniques in Education

The Effect of Supplementing Textual Materials with Virtual World Experiences on Learning and Engagement BIBAFull-Text 619-623
  Joel S. Greenstein; Harskin Hayes; Benjamin R. Stephens; Chris L. Peters
This study investigated whether participating in an educational experience in the virtual world called Second Life enhances college student learning of introductory topics in the physical and behavioral sciences. Our research hypotheses were that students who complete a learning module which includes a virtual world experience and a text-based presentation will learn more than students who complete the text-based presentation alone and that they will also find this learning experience more engaging. Ten undergraduate students participated in the study. Five learned about tsunamis, first through a Second Life experience and then through a handout. They learned about schizophrenia through a handout alone. The other five learned about schizophrenia, first through a Second-Life experience and then through the handout. These students learned about tsunamis through the handout alone. Upon completion of each tutorial, participants completed an exam and two surveys. When students completed both a Second Life experience and a handout on a topic, they achieved higher exam scores (p<0.005) and rated the learning experience more engaging (p<0.005) than when they completed the handout alone. Participant ratings of the ease-of-use of the learning modules that included a Second Life experience were slightly lower than those for the modules that involved only a handout, but this difference was not significant. These results suggest that experiences in virtual worlds are a useful instructional supplement to academic readings.
Making Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwiches: Do Students From Different Disciplines Approach This Exercise Differently BIBAFull-Text 624-628
  Cheryl L. Coyle; Heather Vaughn
In this practice-oriented paper for human factors education, we describe our experiences piloting a variation of a classroom activity reported elsewhere. We conducted the activity with two different groups of students: psychology majors and software engineering majors. Focusing students on the simplest of algorithms is a fruitful activity to introduce them to biases and variations that occur in practical field studies. Students enjoyed the activity, and we took away learning for our industrial research context.
Teaching Human Factors through Popular Music: A Series of Human Information Processing Demonstrations BIBAFull-Text 629-633
  Marc L. Resnick
Human Information Processing (HIP) is an important component of human factors training and education because challenges of HIP are often the limiting factor in human performance. Demonstrations in which students personally experience the strengths and weaknesses of HIP are an effective pedagogical technique because of the salience of personal experience and the possibility of metacognitive insight. Using popular music as a content source adds an additional benefit because students and trainees of all ages and experience will be familiar with it and it is intrinsically motivating. These demonstrations are also easy and inexpensive to create and deliver. This paper presents a series of demonstrations using popular music that can be used to demonstrate each of the stages of HIP. The paper also describes possible methods and discussion points that can be used during and after the demonstration.
  Carolyn M. Sommerich; Sahika Vatan Korkmaz
Questionnaire responses were compared between high school students and teachers, all of whom participate in their school's 24/7 access tablet PC (TPC) program. Primary areas of interest were students'and teachers' experiences with and attitudes about the TPCs, physical discomfort associated with TPC use, and patterns of TPC use. Results showed students' and teachers' attitudes were generally quite positive towards the TPCs, including both groups appreciating the TPC as an organizational aid. However, neither group tended to think TPCs had improved student grades. It is important to explore the similarities and differences between people who share a classroom and much more as they proceed through a school year together. This type of assessment provides a useful complement to more common assessments of impact of digital technology on academic performance.
Haptic Feedback in the Instructional Environment and its Relationship to Visual Attention and Learning BIBAFull-Text 638-642
  Jennifer Cowley; Eric N. Wiebe; James Minogue; M. Gail Jones; Denise Krebs
This study, involving a computer-based training application coupled with a haptic input device, offered insight into how haptic feedback influences visual attention in learning applications. Data was collected from 33 students (ages 11-14) who completed a learning module on lever principles. This data consists of paper-based pre- and post-test scores, embedded module test scores and eye movement data. Embedded test scores were significantly higher in the non-haptic condition. Eye movement data revealed differential influences of haptic feedback. A path analysis of gaze movements indicated that haptic feedback was associated with increased frequencies of movements between zones of interest surrounding lever components but there were no significant increases in the frequencies of eye movements between the levers and the numeric force readout. Implications of these findings are discussed.

EDUCATION: E2 - The Need for International Human Factors Engineering Education Programs

The Need for International Human Factors Engineering Education Programs: Symposium Overview BIBAFull-Text 643
  Stephanie Guerlain
Globalization has created a need for all countries to educate globally competent engineers. However, few engineering education institutions have addressed this need in general and certainly not for human factors specifically. This symposium discusses the benefits and barriers to offering human factors engineering students the opportunity to participate in international exchange programs thus enabling students a chance to develop global competency. The presenters will describe the structure of two existing and one proposed program, propose criteria for evaluating programs, and discuss the challenges and solutions to running such programs based on their combined experiences. A common theme to these programs is that there is a direct and established relationship at the department level between specific institutions in each country where credit transfer has been pre-approved, support mechanisms are in place to assist students, specific faculty are engaged in the program, outside government and industry funding has been used to build and sustain the program, and follow-on research components are promoted as part of the program. Differences include whether the programs target undergraduate or graduate students (or both), funding mechanisms, time spent abroad, and how degrees are granted. It is hoped that these exemplars will assist in developing further programs that provide international human factors education opportunities.
The Need for International Human Factors Engineering Education Programs: Barriers, Benefits and an Evaluation Methodology BIBAFull-Text 644-648
  Stephanie Guerlain; Amy Peckinpaugh
As an introduction to the panel, "The Need for International Human Factors Engineering Education Programs", this paper introduces the reasons why we should consider offering human factors engineering students international education experience and the barriers to doing so. The paper proposes common criteria and a scoring methodology for evaluating programs since they usually have quite varied components. The methodology is introduced to help the audience evaluate the three international human factors engineering education programs that will be described in the panel as compared to each other and to other existing international engineering education opportunities.
US-Brazil Cognitive Systems Engineering Exchange Program BIBAFull-Text 649-653
  Stephanie Guerlain; David Woods; Jose Orlando Gomes
We describe the design of a US-Brazil cognitive systems engineering exchange program. Rather than students "swapping" places from one institution to another, the student teams (made up of senior level undergraduate students from both countries) spend the first six months in Brazil defining their projects and collecting data and the last six months in the United States analyzing the data and proposing solutions. Together, the students take courses, conduct weekly site visits to their industrial partner and help each other to socialize and learn the language and culture of the respective country while helping to recruit and prepare the following year's group of students.
US-France Exchange Programs for Undergraduate and Graduate Engineers: 10 Years of Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 654-656
  Brian M. Kleiner
In the context of a capstone engineering design experience, American and French students collaborate on ergonomics and multidisciplinary design projects for industrial sponsors. Grown out of this U.S.-French relationship, a dual-degree graduate program was developed and was the first of its kind at Virginia Tech. Discussion focuses on the methods employed in both programs, results achieved and lessons learned during this 10 year international experiment.
US-Mexico Industrial Engineering Education Partnership: Clemson University and University of Sonora BIBAFull-Text 657-661
  William G. Ferrell; Anand K. Gramopadhye
This paper outlines an international engineering program between the Industrial Engineering Departments of Clemson University and University of Sonora focused on integrating education and research with industrial collaboration. The paper provides a brief rationale for the need to develop such a program, overall partnership model, potential impact, and assessment to support the successful evaluation of the program.

EDUCATION: E3 - Self-Globalization: Strategies in HFES Education, Research, and Practice

Self-Globalization: Strategies in HFE education, research, and practice BIBAFull-Text 662-666
  Tonya Smith-Jackson; Sharnnia Artis; Maria Brunette; Kayenda Johnson; Graciela Perez; Marc Resnick
This panel will focus on successful methods and strategies used to globalize Human Factors and Ergonomic (HF/E) research, education, and practice. An introduction will be provided that focuses on the increasing demands for professionals with a globalized mindset and cultural competence. Panelists will highlight successful projects or approaches that have helped to ensure the relevance of HF/E in an increasingly globalized society. Each panelist will share recommendations and lessons learned on how to globalize our discipline from their own perspectives in industry, government, and academia.
  Sahika Vatan Korkmaz; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Steven A. Lavender
The promise and potential of Information Technology (IT) to improve education in educational environments is offset by potential for problems that can stem from an unhealthy information ecology. The long-term goal of this line of research was to improve teachers' effectiveness with IT and incorporating IT into their curriculum. This goal was addressed in this research through a participatory approach that employed an action research model. The specific aim was establishing small groups of teachers to meet weekly to engage in collaborative exploration of the use of IT in their classrooms and assessing progress of their learning. Teachers' team evaluation surveys indicated that a majority of Participatory Ergonomics and Technology Team members were satisfied with their participation and the quality of the teams. Team member teachers' perception about their own computer proficiency and their belief about the usefulness of IT statistically increased from pre- to post-intervention. It is possible to conclude that this approach is a viable method that may have positive effects on supporting teacher collegiality and improving teachers' use of IT.
Replications in Human Factors Research: Implications for Education BIBAFull-Text 672
  Paul L. Derby; Keith S. Jones; Elizabeth A. Schmidlin
Replication research benefits the scientific community for two primary reasons. First, it demonstrates that a given finding can or cannot be repeated. This allows researchers to adjust their confidence in that finding accordingly (Hendrick, 1990). By doing so, replications allow scientific knowledge to be cumulative (Fisher, 1974; Kelly, 2006; Nickerson, 2000; Rosenthal, 1993). Second, replications sometimes demonstrate that a given finding does or does not generalize. Specifically, replications that employ different manipulations and procedures can demonstrate whether a given finding generalizes to different situations (Lindsay & Ehrenberg, 1993). This allows researchers to understand where a given finding might or might not be applicable.
How do people use instructions in procedural tasks BIBAFull-Text 673-677
  Elsa Eiriksdottir; Richard Catrambone
Instructions for procedural tasks are often designed to be read before starting the task, but evidence suggests that people often do not use instructions that way. Participants (N = 20) completed knot and assembly tasks using stepwise instructions and the time viewing the instructions in the course of completing the tasks was measured. Half the participants reported that they read the instructions first and half say they usually attempt the task first, but no difference was found between those groups in how they used the instructions. Rather, it was found to depend on the type of task; instructions were used more in the course of completing the knot tasks than the assembly tasks. This indicates that the nature of the task determines how instructions are used and that people might not consistently adhere to a preferred strategy for using instructions.
Criterion Shift and Anchoring in a Discrimination Training Paradigm: the Importance of Pre-Training BIBAFull-Text 678-681
  Sandro Scielzo; Stephen M. Fiore; Florian Jentsch; Sherri A. Rehfeld
We report an empirical investigation on pre-training and its effects on overall training accuracy. This study was developed to explore a potential new venue aiming at improving overall training effectiveness for airport X-Ray screeners by means of pretraining. Specifically, we looked at presence or absence of pre-training and how it affected training performance. Pre-training was theoretically framed around the concept of criterion shift and anchoring in a signal detection paradigm. Results showed that pretraining successfully mitigated participants' initial biases brought to the training environment by shifting participant's criterion to a more neutral position in terms of discrimination training rules and heuristics.
Speed and Accuracy: A Complex Interplay in Skill Development BIBAFull-Text 682-686
  Helena Hong; Ann M. Williamson
Theories and models of skill development often assume that speed and accuracy are interchangeable performance indices that improve in a straightforward relationship with extended practice. This ignores the fact that practice may alter the compromises between speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) which is known to set limits to performance. Thirty participants were trained on a simple psychomotor task. Practice significantly improved all speed measures but did not significantly reduce error rate. Specifically, the majority of errors occurred on trials with low target probability and did not decrease with increased practice. Moreover, the study found no relationship between speed and accuracy for trials with high target probability, but a clear tradeoff was found for trials with low target probability. The results highlight the complexity of the skill development process and demonstrate a situation where practice did not result in error reduction due to the complex interplay between SAT and target probability.

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: ED1 - Seating, Seating Posture, and Backpack Usage

Task-Specific Speed Preferences When Sitting on a Rotary Dynamic Seat BIBAFull-Text 687-691
  E. Lawler; A. Hedge
Eleven subjects, 5 male and 6 female, all with back pain, performed 3 x 10-minute tasks separated by 2 x 10-minute relaxation tasks, while sitting for one 1-hour session on a rotary dynamic seat (DS). Ss preferred different speed settings depending on task. Ss chose to have no motion (speed setting 0) for "active tasks" (writing, typing, and using the mouse) and moderate speed (speed setting 3 or 4) for passive (relaxation) tasks. Subjective responses showed that Ss needed to concentrate and felt the movement was interfering with performance and attention during active tasks. Ss found the DS relaxing and soothing during passive tasks, which required less concentration and performance.
Comparisons of Seated Postures between Office Tasks BIBAFull-Text 692-696
  Dan Nathan-Roberts; BingYune Chen; Gretchen Gscheidle; David Rempel
Seating is an active area of ergonomics research; however, little research has been performed that evaluates seated body postures for a variety of tasks and chairs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of common office tasks on head, upper extremity, torso, hip, and leg postures. Prolonged awkward postures may contribute to musculoskeletal pain and disorders. Twenty-five participants performed four office tasks using four office chairs while postures were recorded using a 3D optical marker system. The tasks were typing on a desk fixed at 73.7cm (29"), typing with the desk adjusted to be slightly above elbow height, reclined movie watching, and a forward leaning writing task. Head angle, pelvis-to-head angle, thoracic cage angle, and pelvis angle were all significantly different between tasks (p=<0.0001). This method for full body posture measurement will allow further research into the effects of tasks and chairs on seated posture.
  Scott Haynes
Many computer operators, such as those with chronic low back pain (LBP), may benefit from alternative working postures. Advances in computer technology are making changes to traditional computer workstations more feasible. However, many computer workstations do not appear to provide adequate postural support for people who might benefit from alternative working postures. This paper describes the results of a study investigating the impact that position optimization has on user comfort and working posture preference. The results of two tests are compared. In the first test, computer peripherals and postural supports were positioned for each participant, while in an upright seated posture, then maintained in those relative positions for each of five different working postures. In the second test the postural supports and computer peripheral positions were adjusted to maximize user comfort in each posture. The results indicate improved user comfort with the optimized positioning, and a change in the preferred working postures for people with and without chronic LBP.
Backpack usage and self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort in university students BIBAFull-Text 702-705
  June Mung Yuing Hu; Karen Jacobs
This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort and pain in university students and examined its association with the type of backpack, backpack load, time spent carrying loads and the student's body mass index (BMI). A high prevalence (85%) of the university students self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort and pain; and 84% of the participants reported knowledge of the potential consequences of incorrect backpack usage. An emerging trend between musculoskeletal symptoms and time spent carrying backpacks (mean = 2.3 hr for subjects with pain, 3.4 hr for subjects with discomfort, and 4.8 hr for subjects with no symptoms) was also found. Future research should focus on educating university students on proper backpack selection and usage to prevent self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort.

FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: FP1 - Challenges in Forensics Practice and Ethics for Expert Witnesses

Challenges in Forensics Practice and Ethics for Expert Witnesses BIBAFull-Text 706-707
  Richard J. Hornick; Hal W. Hendrick; Robert Kennedy; Kenneth Laughery; David Thompson
This is another in a series in which experienced practitioners consulting in the forensics arena address practical as well as related ethical considerations in the area of human factors. The panelists address issues regarding working with plaintiff versus defense attorneys, dealing with demands for records and support materials including computer files, fees and contracts, interacting with attorneys who try to direct or control testimony, and what differences might exist for presentations to juries versus those for scientific meetings. The participants also comment on their most satisfying as well as their most uncomfortable or frustrating experiences.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS1 - National Ergonomics Month

  Ronald G. Shapiro; Haydee M. Cuevas
A review of the early history of National Ergonomics Month (NEM) is presented in this brief paper. This paper also provides a link to the Games to Explain Human Factors: Come, Participate, Learn, and Have Fun!!! PowerPoint presentation with a built in instructor/facilitator guide. Conference attendees are encouraged to utilize Games or another presentation to explain the Human Factors/Ergonomics profession to students in middle school and high school as well as to college and university faculty and students during NEM or at another convenient time.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS2 - The Real Deal: Lessons from Human Factors Leaders

The Real Deal: Essential Lessons from Human Factors Leaders BIBAFull-Text 710-711
  Christopher Nemeth
Each professional discipline has a set of essential concepts that form the core of its intellectual capital. This is also true for human factors and ergonomics (HF/E), but what is that set? HFES national meeting sessions address particular research interests. However, no session embraces essential aspects that affect the entire HF/E community. Four senior professionals offered their insights on the essential HF/E issues during this session. Some are serious, such as most important classic concept, and recent developments. Others are irreverent, thought-provoking, and fun, such as: the bad idea that won't go away and the idea that's most overused but least understood. The comments, and recommended readings list, provide thoughtful insights for the professional growth of each human factors professional.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS3 - Moving from Accommodation to Universal Design

Moving from Accommodation to Universal Design BIBAFull-Text 712-713
  Victor L. Paquet
While a fundamental goal of the human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) profession is to consider the abilities and limitations of people to ensure that environments and products can be used easily without error, conventional HF/E practice often ignores the abilities of those with disabilities in the design of the environment or products. This is due to such things as cost, physical design constraints and, perhaps most importantly, a lack of adequate information regarding how to consider those with disabilities in design.
Controllability of Manual and Powered Wheelchairs for Spinal Cord Injury Users BIBAFull-Text 714-718
  Colin Drury; Alicia Koontz; David Feathers; Padmaja Kankipati; Victor Paquet; Jui-Feng Lin
This study investigates wheelchair maneuvering control for persons with a spinal cord injury across two protocols, path control and terminal aiming. Thirty-one participants using either a manual or powered wheelchair, performed self-paced longitudinal movements (path control) as well as self-paced stopping actions (terminal aiming) across multiple trials. Results show performance differences across both protocols for manual and power wheelchair user groups. This study exemplifies the use of model-based data for clinical applications. Further research using this approach may help to identify individual control settings for optimal maneuvering performance.
Usability Study of a Powered Lift for Wheelchair Users BIBAFull-Text 719-722
  Mahiyar F. Nasarwanji; Victor L. Paquet; David J. Feathers; James A. Lenker
Stairways into building or public vehicles are important environmental barriers that limit accessibility to users of wheeled mobility devices. Powered van lifts can serve as an alternative to stairs, ramps or porch lifts, but they have not yet been carefully evaluated for this purpose. The objectives of this study were to characterize the usability of a powered van lift device for wheelchair users and demonstrate the utility of using a multi-method evaluation approach to identify opportunities for design improvements. Twenty experienced wheeled mobility device users either alone (n=11) or with the assistance of a caregiver (n=9) completed tasks using a powered van lift. Measurements were made on the unrestricted space required to enter and exit the lift, time required to enter and exit the lift, errors made during the operation of the lift's control, and self-reports of device usability obtained with a questionnaire. Results indicated that the clear space required for the lift was less than what would be expected for a ramp and that the self-reported usability of the device was reasonably good. However, the time required to use the lift was high and participants had difficulty operating the lift's safety-belt. Improvements should be made to the design of the safety-belt to increase usability. Additional studies that include other user populations are recommended to investigate the efficacy of the device as an alternative to stairs, ramps and "porch" lifts.
Subjective Ratings of Accessibility Using Full-Scale Bathroom Environments BIBAFull-Text 723-727
  David Feathers; Edward Steinfeld
Full-scale modeling was used to assess subjective ratings of difficulty for the bathroom environment across four different configurations. Two configurations complied with nationally accepted accessibility standards. One exceeded the standards, representing a "universal design"; the other was representative of a common yet unsupportive design. Participants simulated activities of daily living and offered subjective ratings of each design in general, and for each sub-area (e.g. toilet, shower, lavatory) for each design. Results demonstrate subjective differences between bathroom configurations. The interaction between humans and the built environment should include a host of diagnostic tools complete with subjective assessments.
Evidence Based Practice in Universal Design BIBAFull-Text 728-732
  Edward Steinfeld
The ergonomics profession can benefit from adoption of the universal design paradigm. Rather than treat people with differences in abilities and characteristics as special populations, this paradigm views such differences as a universal aspect of human experience. Ergonomics professionals and researchers can play an important role in advancing universal design through development of evidence-based practice. Critical needs are identified and discussed.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS5 - Lectures Potpourri

  Ronald Laurids; Andreas Bye
Boring Human factors (HF) and human reliability analysis (HRA) are often treated as two distinct disciplines. The former is seen under the purview of experimental psychology, while the latter is linked to an engineering approach for risk assessment. Despite this seeming separation, there exists significant overlap between these approaches, and it may be argued that the two disciplines are, in fact, more integrated than dissimilar. This paper explores the historical origins of the perceived differences between HF and HRA, discusses the seemingly disparate data end products of HF and HRA, and proposes a research framework in which the complementary nature of HF and HRA is fully realized.
The Cognitive and Physiological Effects of Heating the Torso of a Submerged Diver BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Paul O'Connor; Dale Hyde; John Clarke
Seven U.S. Navy divers were submerged in 7.2 °C water for a maximum of two hours wearing a semi-dry suit. In one of the conditions they were provided with external heating, and in the other they were unheated. In the heated condition, a total of 35 W was delivered to each of four heating pad (total area 2,477 cm2 placed on the torso of the divers. Statistical analysis demonstrated that providing heating to the divers afforded no benefits in reducing the effects of cold water exposure on the skin temperature of the body extremities (fingers and toes) or in enhancing manual dexterity, grip strength, or cognitive performance when the effects of such heating were compared to those of the unheated condition. However, the participants reported that they would rather dive with the heating system than without it.
Shared Interests in Solving Common Problems: How Sport Psychology Might Inform Human Factors and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 743-747
  David W. Eccles; Paul Ward; Christopher M. Janelle; Tim Woodman; Christine Le Scanff
In line with the proposed themes of this conference and cognizant that gains in understanding are often enhanced notably by a consideration of findings from outside of a particular field (Dunbar, 1995), we demonstrate here how the burgeoning field of sport psychology might inform views of the future of the human factors and ergonomics profession. Four areas of sport psychology are discussed is this regard. The first concerns research on the self-regulatory strategies of athletes operating in stressful competitive environments; the second recent developments in risk taking research; the third research on perceptual-cognitive skills training for performance in dynamic, open sports; and the final area the link between emotion and motor behavior. We appeal to human factors and ergonomics professionals to consider how the two fields could be mutually informative in solving problems common to both fields.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS5 - Lectures Potpourri4

The Need for Human Factors in the Sustainability Domain BIBAFull-Text 748-752
  Scott A. C. Flemming; Antony Hilliard; Greg A. Jamieson
Curbing the over-harvesting of the earth's resources by the developed and developing world cannot be achieved solely by technological solutions. This paper reviews the literature on how reductions in energy consumption can be achieved through behavioral interventions. The literature shows that feedback, a consequence intervention, has been shown to be more effective than antecedent interventions in correcting erroneous heuristics and biases as well as encouraging both efficiency and curtailment behaviors. However, few feedback studies approach the feedback design problem systematically. Human Factors specialists have an opportunity to contribute their expertise in human-machine systems to help address these deficiencies and aid in shifting our societies toward sustainable resource consumption.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS5 - Lectures Potpourri

Diagnosing Friction Points in Multicultural Team Performance: A Rationale and Measurement Approach BIBAFull-Text 753-757
  Michael A. Rosen; Jessica L. Wildman; Wendy L. Bedwell; Barbara Fritzsche; Eduardo Salas; C. Shawn Burke
In modern military and civilian organizations, teams are increasingly composed of members from very different cultural backgrounds. This heterogeneity in cultural composition poses a unique set of challenges on the process of building and maintaining effective teams. This paper describes the concept of friction points in multicultural team performance, establishes their importance, and outlines an approach to measurement. Information from the proposed measurement process can be used to identify friction points in multicultural teams for the purposes of research as well as for developing various interventions in the field such as job aides (e.g., team metacognitive checklists), and generating feedback and remediation during training.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS6 - Ergonomics for the Child - Way Forward

Ergonomics for Children: Forward Directions BIBAFull-Text 758-762
  Valerie Rice; Hal Hendrick; Karen Jacobs; Rani Lueder; Jake Pauls; Michael Wogalter; ConneMara Bazley
A relatively new area of human factors/ergonomics practice focuses on designing for children. The objective of this panel is to discuss 'forward directions' for human factors professionals currently designing for children or desiring to begin working with design of environments, goods, and procedures for children. Each panelist is an expert in an aspect of design that applies to children. Each will give a brief example of their practice or experience. They will offer their opinion on the greatest issues facing human factors engineers as they investigate design for children and the challenges facing the world's children of today.

GENERAL SESSIONS: GS7 - Human Factors and the Nuclear Renaissance

  Ronald L. Boring; John M. O'Hara; Jacques Hugo; Greg A. Jamieson; Johanna Oxstrand; Ruiqi Ma; Michael Hildebrandt
Following the Three Mile Island incident and the Chernobyl accident, there was a general decline in public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Consequently, there was a heavy push to ensure the safety of existing plants coupled with a large-scale decline in the development of new plants. This situation has posed unique challenges to human factors within the nuclear industry. The emphasis of research came in the form of ensuring the safety of as-built systems. This approach clashed with broader human factors work, which used a variety of innovative approaches to design novel or incrementally improved interfaces. The situation is changing now. As current plants near the end of their operational life, there is an urgent need to develop new plants and modernize aging plants to sustain current energy production levels and, in many countries, to meet growing power demands. The resurgence of interest in nuclear energy has been called the "nuclear renaissance." The challenge for human factors is now to go beyond as-built safety requirements and provide innovative interface concepts that maximize human performance in new plants. The purpose of this panel is to bring together established and new human factors professionals in nuclear energy to discuss the opportunities and challenges for research, practice, and regulation of this nuclear renaissance.

HEALTH CARE: HC1 - Health Information Technologies and Human Factors

What is IT New Conceptualizations and Measures of Pediatric Nurses Acceptance of Bar-Coded Medication Administration Information Technology BIBAFull-Text 768-772
  Richard J. Holden; Matthew C. Scanlon; Roger L. Brown; Ben-Tzion Karsh
New healthcare technologies, such as bar-coded medication administration (BCMA), are implemented into rich, multiple-level work system, and jointly shape work processes. We provide theoretical and methodological rationale for studying these processes as a way to understand the impact of technologies in healthcare. Results are reported from a study conducted before and after implementation of BCMA in a pediatric hospital, in which the outcome of interest was satisfaction with the medication administration process. As predicted, two beliefs about the medication process, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, predicted satisfaction with the process before and after BCMA.
Paper Use with the Electronic Medical Record: An Important Supplement or Negative Circumvention BIBAFull-Text 773-777
  Jason J. Saleem; Alissa L. Russ; Connie F. Justice; Heather Hagg; Peter A. Woodbridge; Bradley N. Doebbeling
Healthcare organizations are increasingly implementing electronic medical records (EMRs) and other related health information technology (IT). Even in institutions which have long adopted these computerized systems, there are still instances where employees rely on paper to complete their work. The use of paper suggests that parts of the EMR may not be sufficiently designed to support clinicians and their work processes. To understand the use of paper-based alternatives, we conducted 14 key-informant interviews in a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), with a fully implemented EMR. We found nine distinct categories of paper-based workarounds to the use of the EMR. In several cases, paper served as an important tool and assisted healthcare employees in their work. In other cases, paper use circumvented the intended EMR design, introduced potential gaps in documentation, and generated possible paths to medical error. We discuss implications of these findings for EMR design and implementation.
Interface design characteristics of a popular emergency department information system BIBAFull-Text 778-782
  Rollin J. Fairbanks; Theresa K. Guarrera; Keith S. Karn; Stanley H. Caplan; Manish N. Shah; Robert L. Wears
Integration of information technology (IT) in the medical field has increased with the patient safety movement of the past decade, but without an optimization of user interface (UI) design. In particular, health IT such as an emergency department information system (EDIS) is becoming a common tool in EDs across the US. While there are published standards for the design of medical devices requiring usability testing, health IT systems do not have the same requirements. Although the EDIS was created to support work previously accomplished through a dry erase board, its impact on patient safety has yet to be studied. This study explores usability issues in an existing EDIS application and their potential impact on patient safety.
Development of a Patient Monitor for Critical Care BIBAFull-Text 783-787
  Frank A. Drews; Patrick D. Lorimer
Unexpected incidents are common in intensive care medicine. One of the means to detect, diagnose and treat these events is physiological displays, which show the vital signs of a patient. Current monitors in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) provide numerical and waveform data. The present project focused on determining the problems and needs of ICU nurses for patient monitoring and on developing a display that addresses some of the problems. Semistructured interviews with 26 ICU nurses identified usability problems of current patient monitors. Most nurses mentioned that current monitors make it difficult to access trends of vital signs and do not allow marking of events or interventions on the trend display. The results of the interviews resulted in a redesign of the patient display that is currently being evaluated. The results of the evaluation study will also be presented.
Automatic classification of medical images for Content Based Image Retrieval Systems (CBIR) BIBAFull-Text 788-792
  Epaphrodite Uwimana; Miguel E. Ruiz
This paper describes the results after using an automatic classification method to help improve the retrieval of medical images. Using a large dataset of medical images, we established links between low-level features from medical images and high-level features from textual codes of Image Retrieval for Medical Application (IRMA). This paper also explains the process and methods used to automatically classify these medical images, and the results from the classification process. Our best classification results were on image modality with an error-rate of 1%.

HEALTH CARE: HC2 - Simulation in Health Care

SMARTER-Team: Adapting Event-based Tools for Simulation-based Training in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 793-797
  Michael A. Rosen; Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Rebecca Lyons; Sallie J. Weaver; Eduardo Salas; Teresa Wu; Salvatore Silvestri; Heidi B. King
Teamwork training has been targeted as a primary method for addressing safety and effectiveness issues in healthcare. This paper presents a systematic and event-based method for developing scenarios and accompanying performance measurement tools for simulation-based team training in healthcare. The approach described here, SMARTER-Team, is adapted from a recently advanced methodology for using SBT to train and assess the ACGME core competencies in Emergency Medicine residency programs. SMARTER-Team focuses on the development of teamwork competencies and can be used to develop SBT for teams across specialty areas.
Identification of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) System Integration Conflicts: Evaluation of Two Mock-up Rooms Using Patient Simulation BIBAFull-Text 798-802
  Susan Chisholm; Jonas Shultz; Jeff Caird; Jason Lord; Paul Boiteau; Jan Davies
To address increasing patient demands and acuity, the Calgary Health Region is renovating the intensive care units (ICU) at three of their adult acute care sites. Before finalizing the design plans, mock-up rooms were created at two of the sites according to several proposed room designs in order to identify potential issues during the design phase of the project. All necessary equipment was included within each of the two mock-up rooms so as to nearly replicate a functioning ICU. Evaluations of equipment, room layout and conflicts were accomplished using patient simulation of a cardiac arrest, an acutely ill patient, a palliative care patient and the admission of a new patient. Digital videos, think aloud audio tracks and extensive debriefing sessions were combined and analyzed. Specific category issues were identified including the articulating arms, visibility of the patient monitors, equipment usability, collisions with equipment, and communication issues. Elaboration of each issue and presentation of design recommendations is given.
Environmental Noise and P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) BIBAFull-Text 803-807
  Chang S. Nam; Steve Johnson; Yueqing Li
The primary purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the overall effect of simulated environmental noise on the P300 Speller in order to obtain usability and performance data. P300 Speller is a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that allows people with motor disabilities to type characters just by thinking. Two environmental noise simulations (quiet [20-40 dB], and noisy [70-120 dB]) were examined to simulate the effects of real-world noise. Results of the study indicated that although there were differences in accuracy rate and information transfer rate (ITR) between the noise and quiet conditions, the environmental noise factor was not statistically significant. On the other hand, the P300 amplitude was significantly higher in the noisy condition than in the quiet condition. Unlike the common knowledge that BCI applications are generally preferred to be performed in quiet conditions, higher noise levels seem to increase user concentration. The outcomes of this research should have a broad impact on future user interface design of BCI applications.
Effects of interruptions on prospective memory performance in anesthesiology BIBAFull-Text 808-812
  T. Grundgeiger; D. Liu; P. M. Sanderson; S. Jenkins; T. Leane
Interruptions have been associated with adverse events in healthcare. However, supporting studies are descriptive and atheoretical rather than explanatory, and they seldom show that interruptions compromise patient safety. Prospective memory may provide useful theoretical background. We analyzed video from a full-scale patient simulator for factors enhancing or inhibiting anesthesiologists' prospective memory performance. The critical task was to remember to cross check a unit of blood against the patient before administering the blood. All 12 participants were interrupted by the surgeon when the blood arrived. Only participants who self-initiated the retrieval (n = 3), or returned their full attention to the transfusion task and saw the blood bag label (n = 7), remembered the check. The result can be explained with findings from prospective memory literature.
Characterizing Finger Palpation in the Detection of Prostate Cancers and Abnormalities BIBAFull-Text 813-817
  Ninghuan Wang; Gregory J. Gerling; Reba Moyer Childress; Marcus L. Martin
Prostate cancer is detected in part via the digital rectal examination. Training for this hands-on exam is limited, in particular, by feedback given trainees with respect to finger palpation. This work characterizes finger palpation technique exerted by participants, using a simulator that can electronically record finger pressure on the prostate gland and abnormalities. In principal, we analyze 1) global finger movement, 2) local finger movement and 3) average finger pressure. The analysis determined that participants utilize four patterns of global finger movement (U, V, L and line), three patterns of local finger movement (tapping, vibration, smooth movement), and distinct finger pressures (in Newtons). This analysis also determined that participants who utilized certain techniques were better able to detect presented abnormalities.

HEALTH CARE: HC3 - Communication in Clinical Settings

Overview - Communication in clinical settings BIBAFull-Text 818-819
  Anne Miller
In 2006, JCAHO directed healthcare organizations to"Improve the effectiveness of communication among caregivers". This direction has been taken up internationally and has served to renew interest in clinical communication. Anaesthesia Crew Resource Management has for many years had a strong focus on interpersonal and team communication, but is most applicable in highly proceduralised clinical settings such as the operating room or emergency department. Similarly, SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation) and other protocols aimed at improving person-to-person communication events such as phone calls to raise concerns, are gaining in clinical application and research interest. However, while improvements to interpersonal communication are welcome, the contributors to this symposium note that JCAHO did not limit its direction to well defined procedural or person-to-person communication contexts. Rather we believe that as clinical settings are diverse, so too are the communication contexts that are needed to maintain organizational integrity and continuity of care. The purpose of this symposium is to broaden the scope of our conceptualization of clinical communication, to suggest a range of methods that may be used to better understand clinical communication and to consider what clinicians are already doing in order to improve the effectiveness of clinical communication.
  S Yule; R Flin; J. M. Davies; L McKee
Concern about patient safety in healthcare has generally concentrated on the clinical actions and behaviors of the front line staff, those at the so-called 'sharp end' or operational level of the institution who provide direct patient care. Workers and their supervisors receive the most scrutiny due to their proximity to adverse events and many interventions, for example training and error / incident reporting systems are targeted at this level of staff. Cultural assessment tools also often focus exclusively on direct care providers. What is frequently overlooked is the role of senior leaders (e.g. Chief Executive Officer (CEO)) and the influence their style and priorities can have on patient safety. This study presents some of the first data on healthcare CEOs' leadership style with respect to patient safety in the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. We found that transformational leadership and contingent reward were significantly correlated with perceptions of safety climate at executive director level. Furthermore, healthcare CEOs who routinely prioritized patient safety were rated significantly higher on safety climate by the executive directors who report to them.
Three Perspectives of Rounds: Choreographing Information Flow in an Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 825-829
  Yan Xiao; Danny Ho; Vinay Vaidya; Ayan Sen; Paul Gorman; Brian Hazlehurst; Peter Hu; Kendall Hall
Communication in acute hospital care occurs frequently in group settings, with "rounds" as the prototypical forum for care providers to review and plan for patient care. Many care providers spend hours each day in rounds. While studies have demonstrated the importance of rounds as a mechanism to improve care coordination, care providers frequently express frustration about rounds. Previous observational studies of rounds have identified factors influencing information transfer: physical, social, cognitive, and supporting artifacts. In this paper, we adopt three perspectives in advancing our understanding of communication during rounds and in devising interventions: distributed cognition, computer-supported cooperative work, and common ground. We use video recordings of rounds discussion of one patient in a pediatric intensive care unit to illustrate the choreography of information flow aided by artifacts, the use of visual "text" in discourse, and the scaffolding process of incrementally building a shared understanding about the care and the status of the patient. We highlight the importance of detailed studies of communication in embedded work practices and the need for a multi-theoretical approach for future studies of communication.
Communication and the perceived involvement of team members during the ICU morning round BIBAFull-Text 830-834
  Tom Reader; Rhona Flin; Kathryn Mearns; Brian Cuthbertson
This descriptive study investigated team communication behaviours and perceptions of involvement in decision-making during the ICU round. A combination of self-report and observational measures were made during the review of patients. Observations focused (during each patient review) on i) the frequency of verbal communication behaviours made by junior team members (trainee doctors and nursing staff), ii) the frequency of information requests made by senior doctors, and iii) the frequency of explicit goal setting made by senior doctors. Furthermore, team members also recorded their perceived levels of involvement in the patient decision-making process. Data was collected on a sample of 37 ICU teams (44 participants), who assessed 105 ICU patients. The data indicated team member roles to influence observed behaviours and self-assessed perceptions of involvement during the patient decision-making process. Specifically, junior team members felt less involved in the patient decision-making process and were observed to contribute information to the patient discussion infrequently. The implications of the study are discussed.
Clinical communication in a Trauma Intensive Care Unit (ICU): a case study BIBAFull-Text 835-839
  Anne Miller; Richard Miller; Sarah Hutchison; Matt Weinger; Peter Buerhaus
In 2006, JCAHO defined the second of its National Patient Safety goals as to "Improve the effectiveness of communication among caregivers". The SBAR protocol gives practical guidelines for person-toperson communication but may not be appropriate in its current form for more complex contexts. This paper presents a case study showing communication processes in one ICU and illustrates important principles of complex clinical communication. The case study is based on observational and interview data from a bedside nurse, a charge nurse, a resident and a fellow over 12 hours each in a major trauma ICU. Artefacts were also collected and annotated. Five types of interconnected communication events are described in the sequence in which they occur. Each communication event is described in terms of its purpose, participants, process, and support tools. Four principles are defined.

HEALTH CARE: HC4 - Patient Safety: Perspectives from a Broad Spectrum

Symposium on Patient Safety BIBAFull-Text 840-841
  M. Susan Hallbeck; Sonja Koneczny
The German physician, journalist and comedian Eckart von Hirschhausen (2007) came up with the conclusion: There are no healthy humans - only patients who have not been examined thoroughly enough [1]. Keeping this in mind, the need for an increase in patient safety seems to be even more urgent than it already is.
Drug Labeling and its Impact on Patient Safety BIBAFull-Text 842-844
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
Adverse drug events (ADE) are defined as any medication errors with significant potential to harm a patient. ADE frequently occur due to inadequate or ineffective systems of medication labeling. These ADE often result from mistakes in adherence (compliance) with the prescription instructions. Potential problems with drug labeling can occur in both in-patient and out-patient environments. This paper discusses some of the key issues to consider in drug labeling and its impact on patient safety.
Transport to Hospital: Design for Patient and Staff Safety BIBAFull-Text 845-849
  Sue Hignett; Roger Coleman; Emma Crumpton
In 2005 the UK Department of Health set out a vision for the provision of future ambulance services with an increasing range of quality mobile healthcare services for patients with urgent and emergency care needs. This paper describes a scoping study funded by the National Patient Safety Agency and Ambulance Service Association to investigate the short and longer term requirements of future emergency ambulances. Four stakeholder workshops were held to explore the wishes, concerns and preferences of the clinicians, operational staff and manufacturers about the future provision of ambulance services, and problems and possible solutions relating to ambulance design and use. Incident reports relating to ambulance design and use were reviewed from two national and international databases. Nine design codes were identified: access/egress; space and layout; securing people and equipment in transit; communication; security, violence and aggression; hygiene; equipment; vehicle engineering; patient experience. These topics are being used by the National Fleet Strategy Group to develop a specification for future emergency ambulances.
Human Factors and Ergonomic Concerns and Future Considerations for Consumer Health Information Technology in Home Nursing Care BIBAFull-Text 850-854
  Calvin K. L. Or; Rupa S. Valdez; Gail R. Casper; Pascale Carayon; Laura J. Burke; Patricia Flatley Brennan; Ben-Tzion Karsh
Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home care patient, which can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-management. Currently, a variety of consumer health information technologies (CHITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This article reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patient self-management, discusses how CHIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of CHIT itself requires careful HFE attention.
Potential Hazards in the Operating Room BIBAFull-Text 855-859
  Sonja Koneczny
The operating room (OR) unit is one of the most sensitive units of a hospital. Unfortunately, only limited efforts have been made so far to optimize the OR towards being an ergonomic work place. Due to a lack of ergonomics, awkward postures and adaptation to sub-optimal conditions, potential hazards for the OR staff as well as for the patients are a normal course of life within operating rooms and OR units.

HEALTH CARE: HC5 - Improving Communication and Teamwork in Health Care Settings

The Evaluation of Structured Communication Tools in Healthcare BIBAFull-Text 860-864
  Stuart Marshall; Julia Harrison; Brendan Flanagan
Suboptimal communication between health professionals has been identified as a significant causative factor in incidents compromising patient safety. The use of a structured method of communication has been suggested to improve the quality of information exchange, particularly with inexperienced practitioners. One structure that has been suggested to improve communication is the situational briefing tool SBAR. This tool was developed by the US Navy for standardizing important and urgent communication in nuclear submarines. Despite its widespread uptake in some areas of healthcare, its effectiveness has until recently been unproven. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of methods we have used to prove the effectiveness of these communication tools.
Processes and support tools for interhospital neonatal patient transfer: A preliminary study BIBAFull-Text 865-869
  Anne Miller; Laurie Novak; Matt Weinger; Peter Buerhaus
There has been a growing interest in interhospital patient transfers. However, much of this research has focussed on the criteria for transferring patients; very little research is available about the transfer process itself. The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the process and support technology used to transfer neonatal intensive care patients from metropolitan and rural hospitals to Vanderbilt Children's Hospital (VCH). Three patient transfer events were observed using ethnographic observational methods. One researcher observed processes at VCH while a second researcher accompanied the transport team. Data from both perspectives were collated and integrated. The resulting process model shows that patient transfers are complex, highly choreographed processes involving three leaders. Multiple modes of technology are used for very different purposes. Areas of potential vulnerability include leader inexperience, the use of paper forms by multiple leaders and complexities associated with the convergence of parallel processes. Directions for future research are suggested.
Shifts in Functions of a New Technology over Time: An Analysis of Logged Electronic Intensive Care Unit Interventions BIBAFull-Text 870-874
  Shilo Anders; Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods; Sharon Schweikhart
A study of logged interventions at an electronic intensive care unit (e-ICU) was conducted to examine how functions changed over a two-year period. In total, 2301 log entries of e-ICU interventions from 2005 and 2007 were uniquely coded as to function. A Chi square goodness of fit analysis revealed that 7 out of 11 functions (64%) significantly changed over the two years that were measured. There were increases seen by the log data in the e-ICU nurses calling ICU nurses to supply missing information, recommend the use of best practices, and providing education to ICU nurses. Additionally, increases were seen for e-ICU physicians receiving requests for ordering actions to be taken on patients. Decreases were seen in e-ICU nurses communicating critical lab results and vital sign changes to ICU nurses. We discuss how these shifts relate to several of our predicted archetypical patterns for how new technologies change over time, both in terms of their primary functions as well as changes to positive and negative "unintended" consequences on secondary functions.

HEALTH CARE: HC6 - Rehabilitation Ergonomics: The Clinical Utility of Ergonomic Tools and Methodology

Rehabilitation Ergonomics: The Clinical Utility of Ergonomic Tools and Methodology BIBAFull-Text 875-879
  Marco Campello
The process of rehabilitation, accommodation and return-to-work entails an assessment of a patient's ability to engage in work activities, an analysis of job demands and the matching of these elements to determine whether the individual and the job are compatible. The process involves numerous stakeholders, whereby ergonomists may analyze the demands of the job, clinicians may assess the individual's abilities and the matching is conducted as a joint effort. The success of the joint effort depends on the communication between several professional disciplines. To improve the communication we need tools that advance the decision making. The process of 'ergonomics for one' requires tools and methodologies of sufficient resolution to address the individual's needs. From the ergonomist's perspective, do we have tools that support clinical decision making regarding the ability of an individual patient to return to work? Similarly, does the ergonomist have tools to assist in adapting the job to the individual's abilities? The session is aimed for practitioners involved in industrial ergonomics as well as rehabilitation. The panel will examine several attempts to address these questions conceptually or practically, limiting the scope of the discussion to rehabilitation and accommodations of physical impairments. The goal of the session is to identify areas and directions that need further research and development.

HEALTH CARE: HC7 - Human Performance During Critical Health Care Procedures

The Effect of Haptic Feedback on Laparoscopic Suturing and Knot-tying: A Learning Curve Study BIBAFull-Text 880-884
  Zhou M; S. Tse; A. Derevianko; D. B. Jones; S. D. Schwaitzberg; C. G. L. Cao
Haptic feedback has been shown to benefit performance in various laparoscopic surgery tasks. However, providing haptic feedback to novice trainees in the early stages of training may be distracting. A controlled experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of haptic feedback on the learning curve of a complex laparoscopic suturing and knot-tying task. It was hypothesized that subjects would perform better and reach the first plateau in the learning curve earlier with haptics than without. Twenty novices participated in eighteen one-hour training sessions. Results indicated that training with haptics was not significantly different from training without haptics after five hours of practice. However, those who learned with haptic feedback were more consistent in their task performance and had a shorter learning curve. Therefore, haptic feedback may be omitted in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in early training provided that extensive training is possible.
Performance, Stress, Workload, and Coping Profiles in 1st Year Medical Students Interaction with the EndoscopicLaparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgical Techniques BIBAFull-Text 885-889
  Martina I. Klein; Joel S. Warm; Michael A. Riley; Gerald Matthews; Krishnanath Gaitonde; James F. Donovan; Charles R. Doarn
First-year medical students performed a simulated surgical task involving item transfers using a laparoscopic trainer box and the Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci Surgical System. Performance efficiency in terms of the ratio of successfully transferred items to the sum of transferred items plus drops was greater when using the da Vinci than the laparoscopic system and task-induced stress measured by the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire was greater when working with the laparoscopic than with the da Vinci system. Perceived mental workload indexed by the Multiple Resources Questionnaire was high with both systems. With both systems, profiles of the information-processing resources involved in task performance emphasized manual, short-term memory, spatial, and visual/temporal processing dimensions. As measured by the Coping Inventory of Task Stress, task-focused coping was the dominant coping style used by the students with both surgical systems. The results have potential implications for selection and training with minimally invasive surgery procedures.
Ergonomic and Biomechanical Evaluation of Work-Related Risk Factors in Sonography BIBAFull-Text 890-893
  David R. Burnett; Naira H. Campbell-Kyureghyan
Previous studies have shown that medical sonographers are at an increased risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) which may be attributed to occupational risks including repetitive motion, extreme joint positions, and periods of applied static muscle force. The specific aim of this study was to identify and quantify possible risk factors for the development of WRMSDs in medical sonographers and determine possible pathways to injury. Seven full time sonographers participated in the study which included the use of customized questionnaires to determine the prevalence of WRMSDs and the existence of perceived work-related risk factors, ergonomic job evaluation using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and biomechanical evaluations with electrogoniometers to assess upper extremity posture during typical scanning procedures. 86% of sonographers reported musculoskeletal pain in at least one upper extremity joint. Shoulder abduction, wrist deviation, sustained transducer usage, bending or twisting of the neck, and the number of scanning procedures performed per day were all identified as possible risk factors for injury.
Separated Versus Integrated Displays in Minimally-Invasive Surgery BIBAFull-Text 894-897
  Patricia R. DeLucia; Eston T. Betts
In minimally-invasive surgery (MIS), surgeons operate through small incisions while visualizing internal tissues with a camera or fiber optic scope. Compared with open surgery, MIS causes surgeons to engage in more frequent visual scanning to view multiple displays and other locations within the operating room. Visual scanning hastens fatigue, delays response time, and increases cognitive workload. We hypothesized that integrated displays-which present multiple images on a single monitor, would result in less fatigue, lower workload and better perceptual-motor performance than separated displays-which present images on physically separate monitors. Observers performed a pick-and-place task while monitoring "vital signs." We compared performance between integrated and separated display conditions. Unexpectedly, results indicated that task completion time, fatigue and workload did not differ between display conditions. However, integrated displays did not degrade performance compared with separated displays. The implication is that integrated displays (i.e., fewer monitors) can be used in operating rooms. This is important because MIS requires more equipment than open surgery and operating rooms are typically cluttered with equipment.
The Use of Low-Pass Image Filtering to Facilitate Detection of Peripheral Nerves for Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block Procedures BIBAFull-Text 898-902
  Felix Portnoy; Paul Milgram; Colin J. McCartney
Ultrasound-guided nerve block (UGNB) allows anesthesiologists to perform regional anesthesia around peripheral nerves using ultrasound images for visual guidance. Compared to conventional peripheral nerve stimulation techniques, UGNB provides a safer and more effective method to perform regional anesthesia. However, identification of peripheral nerves with ultrasound can often be problematic, especially for inexperienced users. This paper provides an in depth analysis of the difficulties associated with targeting and locating peripheral nerves during UGNB and proposes a real-time image processing solution, in the form of a low-pass persistence filter, which should increase target saliency in ultrasound images.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP1 - Models of Motor Control and Performance

Models of Motor Control and Performance BIBAFull-Text 903-906
  Wayne D. Gray; David A. Rosenbaum; Bernard J. Martin; Michael D. Byrne; Bonnie E. John; Ulrich Raschke
Modern models of motor control and performance provide significant advances over the tried and true Fitts' Law on which Human Factors professionals still depend. However, the topic of motor control and performance is complex and the issues surrounding almost every aspect of the topic at times seem confusing or confused. To cut through this confusion, this symposium has assembled five researchers who represent different constituencies in the development and use of motor models. An overview will be provided of cognitive models of motor control as well as biomechanical and neural models. Unfortunately, the most modern models of motor movement have not been integrated into cognitive architectures such as ACT-R and EPIC. The Symposium will include a discussion of the obstacles to and advantages of such integration. Complex models may thrill the heart of the specialist with the subtleties that they embody, but may be difficult for the practitioner to use. An important question that will be posed and discussed is how simple can motor modeling be and still be useful?

HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP2 - Modeling Human Performance in the Environmental Context

Human Judgments of Stress State in Performance Settings BIBAFull-Text 907-911
  William S. Helton; Katrina Ellis
Many computational models of human performance are currently being developed. These models may be used to give machines a theory of human performance useful for human-machine teaming. The majority of these computational models are, however, insensitive to the human's stress-state. The present study explored whether humans have an intuitive theory of human stress that they use to predict other people's stress-states in performance contexts. Development of this model may enable machines to more effectively team with humans.
Flight Management System (FMS) Execution Task Time Modeling for Loading Terminal Area Navigation (RNAV) Procedure Changes BIBAFull-Text 912-916
  Elida C. Smith
Flexibility needs for managing terminal operations are proposed to be accomplished in the future by issuing Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedure changes. The aircraft response latency and variability introduced by choosing to issue RNAV and/or RNP procedure changes in lieu of radar vectoring must be considered due to the time-critical nature of Air Traffic Control (ATC). Among the causes for latency and latency variability in aircraft response is flight deck procedure loading requirements. A Keystroke Level Model was used to estimate task execution times for loading three types of RNAV procedure changes in two simulated Flight Management Systems (FMS), the Honeywell Pegasus model and a Smiths U10.6 model, using Aerosim Technologies Inc. desktop simulator software. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for each procedure change type to evaluate differences in task execution times across FMS types. Significant differences were shown for runway transition procedure change execution times, F (1, 12) = 11.55, p < 0.01. A second comparison of task execution times for achieving similar operational outcomes by issuing either a RNAV Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) procedure change or a RNAV runway transition change was made. A one-way ANOVA, conducted for each FMS type, showed significant differences between the RNAV STAR and runway transition procedure change execution times, F (1, 4) = 69.58, p < 0.01 for the Honeywell Pegasus and F (1, 4) = 13.81, p = 0.02 for the Smiths U10.6 FMS models. Results provide an initial understanding of aircraft response latency associated with loading RNAV procedure changes in the FMS and latency variance across FMS types.
Predicting the Impact of Heterogeneity on Unmanned-Vehicle Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 917-921
  Carl E. Nehme; Ryan M. Kilgore; M. L. Cummings
Several recent studies have addressed the possible impact of using highly autonomous platforms to invert today's multiple-operators-per-single-unmanned-vehicle control paradigm. These studies, however, have generally focused on homogeneous vehicle teams and have not addressed the potential effects of vehicle, capability, or mission type heterogeneity on operator control capacity. Important implications of heterogeneous unmanned teams include increases in the diversity of potential team configurations, as well as the diversity of possible attention allocation strategies that may be utilized by operators in managing a given vehicle team. This paper presents preliminary findings from a modeling and simulation effort exploring the impact of heterogeneity on the supervisory control of unmanned vehicle teams. Results from a discrete event simulation study suggest that performance costs of team heterogeneity are highly dependent on resultant changes in operator utilization. Heterogeneous teams that result in lower overall operator utilization may lead to improved performance under certain operator control strategies.
Rating Severity of Aircraft Separation Violations from Logic of Collision Probability BIBAFull-Text 922-925
  Thomas B. Sheridan
Rating the severity of losses of standard separation between aircraft in controlled airspace is a critical component in the measurement of aviation safety performance. The proposed model provides such a severity rating based on a collision probability estimate for an event that is replayed with limited position variability. The model incorporates: (1) normalized slant separation derived from percentage of required horizontal and vertical separation, (2) size of each aircraft involved, and (3) a probability density function fitted to the slant range to account for human controller and radar surveillance variability error and pilot-aircraft controllability. The form of such a model may be used to evaluate anticipated future changes in separation standards, aircraft equipage, flight procedures, etc.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP3 - Issues and Challenges in Human Performance Modeling in Aviation: Goals, Advances, and Gaps

Issues and Challenges in Human Performance Modeling in Aviation: Goals, Advances, and Gaps BIBAFull-Text 926-929
  Michael D. Byrne; Alex Kirlik; Terry Allard; David C. Foyle; Becky L. Hooey; Kevin A. Gluck; Christopher D. Wickens; Amy R. Pritchett
As in many areas in Human Factors, human performance modeling has a long history in the aviation community. The real-time dynamism and safety criticality of the domain calls for the most advanced tools possible, and also provides a strong testbed for any modeling formalism Recent work has demonstrated significant advances in this field in the last decade, both in terms of applications to aviation and in terms of the domain pushing back and advancing the state of the art in modeling. Despite these advances, however, there is still a gap between even the most advanced models and engineering practice. In this panel, we intend to discuss all of these aspects of human performance modeling in aviation.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE: HP4 - Toward Integrated Models of Cognitive, Visual, and Motor Performance

  Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Tuan Q. Tran; Brian F. Gore
This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.
A Situated Cognitive Model of the Routine Evolution of Skills BIBAFull-Text 935-939
  J. Michelle Moon; Wai-Tat Fu
This paper presents a cognitive model for the routine evolution of skills in a photocopying task. In the classic study by Agre and Shrager (1990), it was found that although speedup in performance conformed to the power law of practice, microgenetic activities of the subject showed multiple stages of qualitative changes as the subject repeated the same task. The evolution of skills was shown to be more appropriately characterized by a "situated", dialectic relationship between the subject and the environment than by a set of general mental mechanisms as in traditional theories of skill acquisition. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between these two perspectives of skill acquisition by showing how the dialectic relationship can be characterized by a traditional information processing model by making a few additional assumptions of the relationship between the human and the environment. A model based on the ACT-R architecture was constructed, which provided good fits, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to the data collected by Agre and Shrager. The model demonstrated how multiple mechanisms could be implemented in a cognitive architecture to explain both qualitative and quantitative changes at both the macro and micro levels of analysis. Implications to human factors research are discussed.
Object and Target Size Interactions in Placement Tasks BIBAFull-Text 940-944
  Divya Srinivasan; Bernard Martin
Hand movement trajectories and coordination are influenced by task characteristics. This study investigated hand kinematics in the performance of placement tasks using cylindrical objects. Performance was evaluated both in terms of movement time and the composition of multiple phases that make up the movement. Object size, target size, and movement distance were varied. For a given movement distance, movement time was the same for all objects when the difference between the target and object diameter was constant. Thus total movement time depended neither on the object size nor on the target width, but on the relationship between object and target width. However, for a constant object-target size relationship, closed-loop feedback corrections began earlier for smaller objects than for larger objects. Peak velocities of movements decreased with increase in object size.
Effects of Frequency Sorting Towards Finding Optimal Organizations of Hierarchal File Structures BIBAFull-Text 945-949
  Clayton T. Stanley; Michael D. Byrne; Katherine R. Ramos
Browsing through a hierarchy of information is a common task, but the relationship between human performance and parameters of the hierarchy are still incompletely understood. Based on Cockburn, Gutwin, & Greenberg (2007), we developed a model of this task involving two components at each level of the hierarchy: visual search time and motor movement time. A Monte Carlo simulation of the model shows how the optimal breadth of a hierarchal structure depends on both the size of the structure and how efficiently users perform the visual search. We fit a function to the Monte Carlo data which produced an optimum breadth consistent with the literature, and also shows analytically how properties like sorting can affect performance. The model indicates that the optimal hierarchy breadth depends heavily on the efficiency of the users' visual search; if the search can be sub-linear, then very broad hierarchies can be highly efficient.
Towards a Tool for Predicting Goal-directed Exploratory Behavior BIBAFull-Text 950-954
  Leonghwee Teo; Bonnie E. John
In recent years, research predicting search through webpages has begun to be successful. However, existing tools ignore the order in which on-screen options are evaluated and therefore might make inaccurate predictions. We developed CogTool-Explorer and used it to model a previously published webbased experiment. Its predictions were better than those of a previously published tool, and included the order of evaluation effect not accounted for by previous tools. These more accurate predictions can be attributed to CogTool-Explorer's approach of using a satisficing process model, with a visual search strategy and an accurate description of the visual interface in concert.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID1 - Individual Differences in Performance Under Stress

Relationships between Caffeine Consumption, Cognitive Slips-Failures, Daily Stress, and Sleep BIBAFull-Text 955-959
  William S. Helton; Richard Holmstrom; Michigan Houghton
This article presents a study investigating the relationships between caffeine consumption, cognitive slips-failures, sleep and a short multidimensional self-report measure of daily stress state, the Short Stress State Questionnaire - Daily (SSSQ-D; Helton, Fields, & Thoreson, 2005). Thirteen participants filled out the SSSQ-D twice daily for approximately 14 days, once in the morning and once at night. They also reported daily cognitive slips-failures, caffeine consumption, and their sleep was recorded using actigraphs. Daily Distress and Worry correlated significantly with cognitive slips and sleep duration between-subjects. Until more is known, human operators should get the recommended 7-8hrs of sleep.
The Effect of Stereotype Threat on Math Performance of Students with Different Majors BIBAFull-Text 960-964
  Kahyun Kim; Kyunghui Oh; Dongsik Lee; Changgeun C. Oh
Stereotype threat is the sub-conscious level of psychological activity due to emotional distress, which results in a decrement in performance. We tested the effect of stereotype threat on math performance in students with different majors. The difference between Korean students and Caucasian students was also examined. As a result, we found a tendency that students underperformed when they were threatened by the stereotype with respect to their majors and ethnicity. The implication of stereotype threat in academic environment is discussed.
Individual differences in performance under acute stress BIBAFull-Text 965-969
  Roos Delahaij; Anthony W. K. Gaillard
To be able to predict which persons are capable to perform under acute stress is important for the selection and training of professionals in the military, police, and firefighting domain. The present study examines how individual differences in coping (style, efficacy, and behavior) explain differences in performance and anxiety under acute stress. Cadets (n = 124) of the Netherlands Defence Academy were examined during a realistic stressful exercise. Person characteristics obtained from questionnaires well before the exercise were related to performance and behavior indices obtained during the exercise. Coping style predicted anxiety and performance, which was mediated by behavior during the exercise.
Predicting Cognitive Readiness of Deploying Military Medical Teams BIBAFull-Text 970-974
  Cheryl A. Bolstad; Haydee M. Cuevas; Anthony M. Costello; Bettina Babbitt
Cognitive readiness can be defined as "possessing the psychological (mental) and sociological (social) knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) that individuals and team members need to sustain competent professional performance and mental wellbeing in the dynamic, complex, and unpredictable environments of military operations." Determining if medical personnel are cognitively ready to perform their job poses a considerable challenge to the research community both in terms of understanding what is meant by being cognitively ready and in terms of developing methods to actually assess it. Accordingly, as part of a government-sponsored research program, we set out to gain a better understanding of what is meant by being "cognitively ready" for military medical teams as well as develop a tool for predicting cognitive readiness. In this paper, we describe the design, development, and initial user testing of our Medical Cognitive REadiness Survey Tool (M-CREST).

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: ID2 - Individual Differences Potpourri

How Do Military Teams From Different Nations Perform in a Game-Based Simulated Environment BIBAFull-Text 975-979
  Jenny Lindoff; Jan Andersson; Carin Rencrantz
An experiment was completed in a game-based environment in five countries to study differences on team performance. Military teams of four were asked to look for hidden weapons in a small town without angering the local citizens (thus gaining goodwill and/or badwill). The results showed differences in performance between the different nations. However, other factors such as English ability, computer experience and age also affected performance. Three related, but somewhat different performance measures were used: Performance score, Goodwill points and Badwill points. Further analyses revealed a pattern indicating that different nations may have used different strategies solving their task. The team characteristics were related to Performance and Goodwill, but not related to Badwill. Speculatively, English proficiency could be one important criterion for success in multinational coalitions, but it does not fully explain the obtained differences on team performance from the experiment.
Assessment of the Users Dependability-Relevant Abilities for Enhanced Human-Technology Interaction BIBAFull-Text 980-984
  Achim Wagner; Christian Bartolein; Meike Jipp; Essameddin Badreddin
The dependability of human-technology interaction can significantly be enhanced if the operators' errors occurring due to a mismatch of the system's demands and the actually present (cognitive) abilities of the operator are reduced. This is why, an approach is introduced on which basis a technical system can automatically assess its user's ability level and reconfigure itself or its interface accordingly. The proposed automated assessment is based on the task's difficulty, the user's reaction towards the task he/she is executing with the system at hand, and a logarithmic sigmoid function. Simulation experiments are presented and first results discussed, demonstrating that the proposed realization of the automated assessment allows reliably estimating the individual levels of the dependability-relevant user abilities.
  Rachel R. Phillips; Poornima Madhavan
Computer self-efficacy (CSE) has been identified as a major determinant of computer-related ability and usage in organizational contexts. However, there has been little research on the impact of CSE on the use of high level automation. In order to examine this relationship, participants completed a visual search task with the assistance of an automated diagnostic aid which varied in reliability from moderately reliable (70%) to highly reliable (90%). After completion of the task, a median split was performed on participants' CSE scores to divide participants into high-CSE and low-CSE groups. We examined the relationship between CSE and trust and utilization of the aid. High-CSE participants trusted the system more and generated significantly more hits than low-CSE participants, particularly on trials in which the aid was highly reliable. This study provides insight into the potential significance of personality factors in shaping human-automation interaction and has implications for designers of automated aids.
Concurrent Validity of Individual Differences in Intelligence in Activity Differences of Handicapped Wheelchair Users BIBAFull-Text 990-994
  Meike Jipp; Werner W. Wittmann; Essameddin Badreddin
The following paper investigates the concurrent validity of individual differences at the lower end of the continuum of intelligence and especially with regard to the cognitive processes determining situation adaptation. These cognitive processes can be used for intention estimation behaviors for intuitive wheelchair control. After a theoretical overview discussing the potential relationship between situation adaptation and intelligence, a study was conducted with 16 wheelchair users whose intelligence scores deviated from the mean with about two standard deviations. Still, the individual differences at hand were highly predictive especially with regard to the durations of their operations and with regard to shifts of the order of operations. Implications of these results especially with regard to intention estimation behaviors and adaptive automation are discussed.
Interactive Effects of Backup Behavior and Spatial Abilities in the Prediction of Teammate Workload Using Multiple Unmanned Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 995-999
  Thomas D. Fincannon; A William Evans; Florian Jentsch; Joseph Keebler
This study examined the interactive effects of spatial ability and team process on operator workload, while using multiple unmanned vehicles. The hypotheses also focused on how these effects might change when using different measures of spatial ability. In order to examine this, the Guilford-Zimmerman Spatial Visualization and Spatial Orientation scores of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator and navigation support provided by this UAV operator to an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operator were used as variables predicting UGV operator workload while performing a reconnaissance task. Results indicated that the interaction of the "guider's" spatial visualization and navigation support and the interaction between spatial orientation and navigation support not only accounted for unique variances in the prediction of his/her teammate's workload, but they also produced qualitatively different patterns of results. In identifying these unique contributions, the importance of using multiple spatial ability measures in (unmanned vehicle) research is highlighted.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE1 - Upper Extremity Ergonomics

Three-Dimensional Joint Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in Reach Movements under Whole-Body Vibration Exposure BIBAFull-Text 1000-1004
  Heon-Jeong Kim; Bernard J. Martin
Simulation of human reach movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis and computer-aided engineering of biomechanical models. Most studies on reach kinematics described human movements in a static environment, however the models derived from these studies cannot be applied to the analysis of human reach movements in vibratory environments such as in-vehicle operations. Earlier studies on reach performance under vibration exposure focused mainly on fingertip end-point accuracy. This study analyzes three dimensional joint kinematics of the upper extremity in reach movements performed in static and vibratory conditions. The ultimate goal is to develop an active biodynamic model capable of simulating reach movements in vibratory environments. Thirteen seated subjects performed reach movements to four target directions distributed in the right hemisphere. The results show differences and similarities in the characteristics of movement patterns of upper body segments for static and dynamic environments. Identification of movement patterns in terms of joint kinematics can be used to determine some biodynamic principles of upper body segments coordination in reach motion.
Effect of a Manual Screwdriver with a Pistol-Grip Handle on Maximum Torque and Muscle Activity BIBAFull-Text 1005-1009
  Hector J. Sanchez; Richard W. Marklin
Electric utility power plant electricians use a conventional manual screwdriver to loosen and tighten small fasteners on a day-to-day basis, which may expose them to risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affecting the wrist and upper extremity. Using a screwdriver handle that requires less muscle activity to exert the same level of torque can reduce the risk of MSDs. Maximal forearm torque in both supinating and pronating directions and at 3 forearm positions (supinated, neutral and pronated) were tested with 2 screwdrivers, a conventional straight-handled tool and pistol-grip screwdriver. Electromyography (EMG) of the finger flexor and extensor muscles and the biceps were monitored while performing maximal forearm torque exertions in the pronating and supinating directions at 3 forearm positions. The torque exerted while using the pistol-grip screwdriver was twice as great as with the straight handle (8.47 and 4.24 Nm, respectively). The turning direction affected maximal torque and interacted with position of the forearm. Normalizing maximal torque data to the muscle activity (Nm/%MVC EMG) revealed that the pistol-grip tool was much more efficient than the straight handle tool.
Where and How College Students Use Their Laptop Computers BIBAFull-Text 1010-1014
  Che-hsu (Joe) Chang; Benjamin C. Amick; Cammie Chaumont Menendez; Michelle Robertson; Rosa J. del Pino; Jack Tigh Dennerlein
A pilot study classified the locations, furniture, input devices and postures associated with using laptop computers in a small cohort of college students. Data were collected from digital photographs of the students posing as using laptop computers in their usual workstation configurations. The observed configurations were assigned to descriptive categories and the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) assessed the postural risk factors observed on the participants. We observed that 75% of the participants used the laptop computer in the traditional table and chair configuration; 25% of the participants used the laptop computer in untraditional configurations where they placed the computer on their laps while sitting on a lounge type couch or in their bed. Excessive shoulder flexion (61% of all configurations) and neck flexion (35%) were the postural risk factors observed commonly. RULA scores suggested the need for further postural investigation.
  M. R. Johnson; K. A. Vandlen; E. E. Hutter; R. Gahlot; W.-T. Yen; S. Kommini; C. M. Sommerich
Prior studies of effects of DC torque tool use on human operators have not studied the effect of different controller algorithms. This paper describes results of an experimental laboratory-based study that investigated the effects of DC torque tool controller algorithm on operator and tool kinematics. The effects of joint hardness and tool orientation were also examined. Dependent measures included posture and velocity of the operator's arm and displacement and velocity of the torque tool handle. Significant differences were found in several measures as a function of one or more of the independent variables. Of particular note, the Automatic Tightening Control (ATC) algorithm showed some positive effects (less movement and lower velocities) in comparison to the Downshift algorithm in certain conditions. These results provide some support for a potential biomechanical benefit from ATC.
Industrial Hand Wheel Valves: Effects of Height and Torque Direction on Maximum Torque and Muscle Activity BIBAFull-Text 1020-1024
  Stacie M. Wieszczyk; Richard W. Marklin; Hector J. Sanchez
Maximum torque and electromyography (EMG) of muscle activity when turning an 18 inch dia. hand wheel valve was measured at 3 different heights to determine the biomechanical loading on a worker's body. Twenty-four electric utility plant mechanics and operators participated in this study. The major independent variables were valve height (overhead, chest, and knee level) and torque direction (right and left). The major dependent variables were maximum torque (ft-lbs) and maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) of EMG. Subject's exerted an average of 111 ft-lbs counterclockwise torque, which was greater that the mean 104 ftlbs generated in the clockwise direction. Furthermore, participants exerted 13 to 16% greater torque at the overhead level than at chest level. When turning the valve counterclockwise (left), the %MVC of the left side muscles was greater than the right side muscles and vice versa for turning the valve clockwise (right).

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE2 - Ergonomic Interventions

Development of an Ergonomic Waste Container for Hospitals BIBAFull-Text 1025-1029
  Rosa Padilla; Jennifer Baltich; Fadi Fathallah
The current waste container design at most hospitals, including the UC Davis Medical Center, requires an individual to raise the garbage bag up and out of the container, which involves shoulder flexion above the head and flexion at the waist for most individuals. Overuse injuries due to lifting are very common to the muscles of the shoulder and result in high costs for treating injured workers. The aim of this study was to design a new waste container that will limit the amount of shoulder and trunk flexion required to remove the garbage bags from the container. A waste container was developed, which rotates about two pins on each side to 30 and 45 degree angles from the upright position so that the bags can be removed without lifting them over your head. The degree of shoulder and trunk flexion for the new and old waste container was measured using electrogoniometers. The most important result was that the average degree of shoulder abduction decreased by about 9 degrees from the new bin at 30 degrees and 10 degrees to the new bin at 45 degrees. There also was a significant reduction in sagittal flexion between the old bin and the new bin. The reduction in the level of shoulder abduction and sagittal flexion with this new design may reduce the incidence of injury and improve working conditions for custodial staff in hospital environments.
Evaluation of the Logitech Wave Keyboard BIBAFull-Text 1030-1034
  Peter W. Johnson; Han Chen; Sylvain Sauvage
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any postural, performance and perceived comfort differences between a conventional, straight keyboard and a new ergonomic keyboard design developed by Logitech called the Wave. Twenty experienced touch typists from various occupations randomly used each keyboard for a period of 30 minutes. Wrist and forearm postures; typing speed and accuracy; comfort and keyboard preferences were evaluated before and after using each keyboard. Compared to the conventional, straight keyboard, the Wave Keyboard reduced wrist extension by 4.6 ± 1.5° (p < 0.01), ulnar deviation by 1.8 ± 0.7° (p = 0.02) and forearm pronation by 1.3 ± 0.7° (p = 0.08). There were small differences in typing speed (47.2 vs 45.6 WPM; p = 0.02) and no differences in accuracy (94.1% vs. 94.0%, p = 0.78) between the Wave and conventional, straight keyboard, respectively. Subjective comfort ratings were higher in the hand (p = 0. 02) and forearm (p = 0.03), and 85% of the subjects preferred the Wave Keyboard after 30 minutes of use. The results indicate that the Wave Keyboard achieved its design goal of reducing wrist extension, ulnar deviation and forearm pronation while improving comfort and not compromising typing speed and accuracy.
Interventions for Overhead Drilling in Construction BIBAFull-Text 1035-1039
  David Rempel; Demetra Star; Alan Barr; Billy Gibbons
Ergonomics Program, University of California, Berkeley, California Drilling into concrete or metal ceilings is a strenuous task that construction workers perform to hang ductwork, piping, and electrical equipment. The task can be associated with pain and disorders at the wrist, forearm, shoulder, neck and back due to the high forces and awkward postures applied during drilling. Both interventions were rated as inferior to the usual method on setup time and mobility. For this study we used the inverted drill press design but tested 3 different wheeled bases. Construction workers (N=16) evaluated usability and upper body fatigue after using the 3 devices and the usual method in commercial construction settings. Across almost all usability measures the usual method received the poorest ratings and was associated with the greatest level of regional upper body fatigue. Overall, the wheeled 'Collar Base' intervention received the best usability ratings. The study demonstrates that several rounds of field testing may be necessary to identify health and safety interventions that both reduce musculoskeletal risk and are acceptable to workers.
Ergonomic Design in Hospital Beds: Comparison of Brake Pedal Design and Steering-assistance Features BIBAFull-Text 1040-1044
  Bochen Jia; Linsey M. Barker; Sunwook Kim; Michael J. Agnew; Maury A. Nussbaum
Transporting patients using a hospital bed is a common and often difficult task in a healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to compare the usability and physical demands of alternative bed design features associated with brake engagement and bed maneuvering tasks. Specifically, the brake system and steering-assistance features of two hospital beds were evaluated within a simulated healthcare work environment. Two sets of participants were recruited from the local student population and community. Task completion time, perceived usability of brake and steering-assistance features, hand forces, and trunk kinematics were measured during the braking and maneuvering tasks to assess the usability of the bed features and the physical demands likely placed on healthcare workers. With respect to brake design, a frontal brake (when bed side rails were down) was found to be significantly less efficient than a brake located at the side or at the foot-end of the bed. During in-room maneuvering tasks, the steering-assistance feature significantly reduced hand forces and increased perceived usability. Furthermore, patient mass significantly affected required hand forces. Regardless of the use of steering-assistance features, the physical demands observed in the present study might exceed recommended ergonomic guidelines. Therefore, to improve the ergonomic design of hospital beds in terms of healthcare workers' physical effort and work efficiency, it is recommended that further ergonomic assessments should be made regarding the usability of bed design features and future improvements.
Use of Tungsten to Reduce Hand-Arm Vibration Exposure in Aircraft Manufacturing BIBAFull-Text 1045-1048
  Michael J. Jorgensen; Khurram S. Khan
Rivet guns and bucking bars, which are used to set rivets during assembly of aircraft, results in high magnitudes of hand-arm vibration exposure, increasing the risk of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to identify rivet gun and bucking bar combinations that reduced vibration exposure and reduced muscle activity. A standard rivet gun and four vibration dampened rivet guns were assessed along with a traditional steel and vibration dampening tungsten bucking bar. Vibration dampened rivet guns resulted in lower vibration to "riveters", however, use of these guns tended to result in higher vibration levels on the bucking bar. Tungsten bucking bars resulted in 34% less vibration on the bucking bar compared to the steel bar, as well as significantly less hand/wrist flexor muscle group activity. These findings indicate that to reduce overall vibration exposure, both the rivet gun vibration characteristics and the appropriate bucking bar material must be considered during a typical riveting operation.
Force-Exertion Postures with External Bracing in Industrial Tasks: Data from an Automotive Assembly Plant BIBAFull-Text 1049-1053
  Monica L. H. Jones; Rebecca L. Kirshweng; Thomas J. Armstrong; Matthew P. Reed
During one-handed tasks, individuals will often support their body mass using the contralateral hand or other body region. It is hypothesized that bracing postures are adopted to reduce and/or change the tasks demands, allowing the individual to assume a more optimal posture or reduce spinal loading. Accurate representation of such task postures is essential for accurate assessment of worker capability (Chaffin & Erig, 1991). It is especially critical given that the risk of injury is greatly increased when job strength requirements exceed worker capabilities (Chaffin, et al., 1978). Biomechanical analyses of supported or externally braced tasks are difficult to analyze because the upper body support is statically indeterminate. As an initial step to understanding bracing behaviors, a plant survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of such bracing postures adopted during automotive assembly tasks. Video data from 436 occurrences of externally braced task postures from 20 automotive assembly operations were analyzed. Categorical analysis identified postural strategies associated with externally supported exertion tasks.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE3 - Low Back Pain and Lifting

Box Weight or Lift Rate: Which Factor Matters More During Lifting BIBAFull-Text 1054-1058
  Susan E. Kotowski; Kermit G. Davis; William S. Marras
Previous research has shown that lift rate and box weight are known to influence the risk of developing a low back disorder. However, when a given amount of material must be transferred there is little guidance as to the best combination of weight and lift rate in order to have the lowest risk of developing a back injury. The current study investigated combinations of lift rate and box weight when moving a given amount of material with respect to the impact on spinal loading, perceived exertion, and perceived risk of injury. The results show that there is an interaction between lift rate and box weight. There was a trade-off in loading cumulative and peak loading for both compression and shear loads which was dependent upon the weight and lift rate. Perceived exertion was influenced more by box weight than lift rate. Based on all the loading results, it is recommended that workers should under one of the following conditions: 4 or 8 lpm for 9.1 kg weight boxes and 12 lpm for the 4.5 kg weight boxes.
Effects of the Seat Armrest and Assistive Devices on Trunk Kinematics during Dependent Transfers on an Aircraft BIBAFull-Text 1059-1063
  Kristof Kipp; Michael J. Pavol
A concern related to air travel by people with disabilities is the risk of low-back injuries to persons transferring the traveler to or from the aircraft seat. Two possible approaches to lessening this risk of injury is the removal of spatial obstructions or the use of assistive devices. This study investigated the effects of a fixed seat armrest and of using a transfer board and slide or a transfer sling on the trunk kinematics of the rear transferor as 25 pairs of participants transferred a dummy between a wheelchair and an aircraft seat. The armrest, board-and-slide, and sling conditions each influenced multiple trunk kinematic variables relative to the control condition. For the armrest and board-and-slide conditions, some effects were consistent with increased low-back injury risk and others with decreased risk. All effects of the transfer sling were consistent with a decreased risk of low-back injury, supporting its use during dependent transfers on board an aircraft.
Utilization of a Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Engine to Predict Trunk Muscle Activity for Sagittal Lifting BIBAFull-Text 1064-1067
  Kermit G. Davis; Yanfeng Hou; William S. Marras; Waldemar Karwowski; Jacek M. Zurada; Susan E. Kotowski
The ability to assess the loads on the spine in industry using biologically-assisted models has been limited by the current capability to obtain accurate muscle activities that could be entered into an EMG-assisted model. One crucial aspect of EMG-assisted models is the capability to capture the antagonistic coactivity in dynamic lifting conditions. However, limitations of electromyography equipment make it difficult to assess the muscle activity in industry. The overall project developed a complex engine using fuzzy average with fuzzy cluster distribution techniques in combination with neural network structure. The objective of the current study was compare the predicted spine loads for the actual and predicted muscle activities during sagittal lifting conditions. The model fidelity of the EMG-assisted spine load model was actually improved with the predicted EMG as compared to the actual EMG with improved r-square and average absolute error values. Furthermore, the three-dimensional spine loads were almost identical for the predicted EMG as compared to the actual EMG (within 35 N in each plane). The compression forces predicted within 1% while shear forces were within 11%. Overall, the new neuro-fuzzy engine provides an accurate estimation of the coactivity pattern during lifting that can now be applied in industrial settings where traditional muscle activity assessment methods are subjected to noise or are difficult to administer.
Prevalence of Low Back Disorders in Furniture Distribution Centers BIBAFull-Text 1068-1072
  Sue A. Ferguson; Deborah L. Burr; W. Gary Allread; Sato Ashida; Kaori Fujishiro; Catherine Heaney; William S. Marras
The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence of low back disorders in furniture distribution centers. This was a cross-sectional study with 454 workers in 9 furniture distribution centers. There were five definitions of low back disorders including 1) pain symptoms, 2) Oswestry questionnaire 3) LMM functional performance, 4) medical visits, and 5) lost time. The pain symptoms and Oswestry questionnaire had a one-week prevalence of 56.6% and 54.6%, respectively. The LMM functional performance had a point prevalence of 37.2%. Medical visits and lost time had a one-year prevalence of 11.9% and 7.5%, respectively. The pain symptom prevalence of low back disorder in furniture distribution was similar to that of construction workers and nurses placing this industry among other more well known high risk industries.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE4 - Ergonomics in the Biosciences

Ergonomics in the Biosciences BIBAFull-Text 1073-1077
  David Rempel; Cindy Burt; Ira Janowitz; Maria Junge; Martin Pollard
The process of ergonomics analysis and the development and deployment of interventions in the biosciences will be illustrated and discussed. Case studies in laboratory design, equipment, and procedures will be presented by panelists who have been closely involved in participatory ergonomics projects with the involvement of labor, management, engineering, procurement, and health and safety staff.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: IE5 - Neuromuscular Responses

Knee joint kinetics during reactive recovery: effects of localized muscle fatigue BIBAFull-Text 1078-1082
  Prakriti Parijat; Thurmon E. Lockhart; Jian Liu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of localized muscle fatigue on the knee joint kinetics during reactive recovery efforts from a slip perturbation. Sixteen healthy young participants were recruited to walk across an unexpected slippery vinyl floor surface in two different sessions (Fatigue and No fatigue). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a three-dimensional video analysis system and force plates during both sessions. An inverse dynamic model was developed to assess joint moment and joint power of the knees during reactive recovery period of slip-induced falls. The results demonstrated an increase in the peak knee joint moment and peak knee joint power generation in the fatigue slip trials. There were four reported falls in the fatigue session. The study concluded that localized muscle fatigue adversely affects the knee joint kinetics and can be considered a risk factor for slip induced falls. These findings provide new insights to the biomechanical relationship between knee kinetics and localized muscle fatigue.
The relationship between mechanical stiffness, dynamic strength and static strength following eccentric or concentric activity BIBAFull-Text 1083-1087
  Amrish O. Chourasia; Mary E. Sesto
Workplace exertions can involve static, muscle lengthening (eccentric), or muscle shortening (concentric) exertions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mechanical stiffness, dynamic strength and static (isometric) strength following sub maximal eccentric or concentric exercise. Participants were randomly assigned to perform eccentric or concentric forearm supinations at 50% of isometric supination strength for 30 minutes. Mechanical stiffness, isometric and dynamic strength were measured prior, one hour after and 24 hours after exercise. Average mechanical stiffness decreased 31% (p < 0.05) after 24 hours for the eccentric group and decreased 16% (p > 0.05) for the concentric group. Average static strength in both groups recovered to within 2% of pre exercise levels for both groups after 24 hours. Average dynamic strength decreased 18% (p < 0.05) 24 hours after exercise for the eccentric group and increased 7% (p > 0.05) for the concentric group. Significant correlation (r = 0.664 to 0.832, p < 0.05) was observed between changes in mechanical stiffness and dynamic strength. Reductions in dynamic strength and mechanical stiffness persisted 24 hours after unaccustomed eccentric exertions but similar changes were not observed for static strength.
Frequencies in Center of Pressure Time Series above 1Hz during Quiet Upright Stance Reflect the Use of a Hip Strategy BIBAFull-Text 1088-1092
  Hongbo Zhang; Maury A. Nussbaum
Upright stance is primarily maintained through the use of ankle and hip strategies, involving respective rotations about the two joints. Choice of and coordination between these two strategies is regulated by the central nervous systems (CNS). Postural control mechanisms used to maintain upright stance are often assessed (or inferred) using a spectral decomposition of center of pressure (COP) time series. Existing evidence, however, is contradictory in some respects. Specifically, there is conflicting evidence whether COP frequencies above 1.0 Hz reflect CNS function or use of a hip strategy. In this study, fatigue was induced to the lumbar extensors and shoulder flexors through intermittent sub-maximal (60% MVC) isotonic exercises, and used to 'perturb' postural control. Use of hip strategies was assessed by entropy methods, which indicates the level of 'complexity'. Coordination between ankle and hip strategies was analyzed using a coherence method. Both power spectrum and Tsallis and entropies showed that the mediolateral (ML) hip strategy was impaired by lumbar extensor fatigue. Coherence (i.e. coordination) between ankle and hip motions was reduced following fatigue in both muscles groups. Integrated with earlier evidence, these results indicate that, during quiet upright stance, COP frequencies above 1.0 Hz correspond to the hip strategy rather than reflecting CNS function in postural control.
Changes in the EMG of low back muscles during static lumbar flexion BIBAFull-Text 1093-1097
  Gwanseob Shin; Clive R. D'Souza; Yu-Hsun Liu
Prolonged and/or frequent lumbar flexion posture in industry has been known to contribute to the development of work-related low back pain or disorders but the specific biomechanics of this link has not been fully developed. In this study the effects of static lumbar flexion on back extensor muscles were evaluated by quantifying the changes in the flexion-relaxation onset angle, muscle activity level and the development of muscle fatigue associated with static lumbar flexion. Twenty healthy subjects performed submaximal isometric trunk extension exertions and isokinetic trunk flexion before and immediately after a 5 min continuous lumbar flexion posture while the trunk sagittal flexion angle and the myoelectric activities (EMG) of erector spinae muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles were recorded simultaneously. Results show an increase in the flexion-relaxation onset angle, normalized EMG of isometric extension, and decrease in the median power frequency of EMG as a consequence of the static lumbar flexion. It is suggested that back extensor muscles produce sustained low level contraction during static lumbar flexion, leading to muscular fatigue development. Together with creep deformed passive tissues of the low back and resultant spinal instability, the muscle fatigue of back extensors in static lumbar flexion may play a role in the development of low back pain or disorders.
Spatial Consumption and Kinematics for an Assisted Transfer in an Aircraft Lavatory BIBAFull-Text 1098-1102
  Kenneth A. Philbrick; Michael J. Pavol
Air travelers with mobility disabilities need greater access to onboard lavatories. To facilitate the design of compact, accessible aircraft lavatories, motion capture and spatial mapping techniques were used to investigate the effect of the wheelchair-to-toilet angle on spatial consumption and transferor kinematics during an assisted toilet transfer. Twenty-nine participants transferred a dummy within a simulated aircraft lavatory for wheelchair-to-toilet angles of 0° and 90°. The dimensions and shape of the spatial volume used, and the trunk kinematics of the transferor, differed between the 0° and 90° transfers. The smaller peak load moment arm for the 90° transfer was consistent with a lesser risk of low back injury to the transferor, suggesting that this transfer angle should be preferentially employed. The results also suggest that, by tailoring the design to a specific wheelchair-to-toilet angle, it may be possible to develop accessible lavatories that are more compact than those currently available.

INTERNET: I1 - The Mobile Web

Information Everywhere: Exploring the Potential of the Mobile Web BIBAFull-Text 1103-1106
  Katherine Del Giudice
The World Wide Web has become a cornerstone of modern information retrieval. Easy and timely access to information is becoming crucial to many tasks we perform each day. The Web is also being increasingly used as a tool for communication and social network strengthening. The desire to be constantly connected to information and people is driving user adoption of the mobile Web, or the World Wide Web as accessed through mobile devices such as cell phones or PDAs. This panel will explore the potential of the mobile Web, examine the challenges present in designing information displays for mobile contexts, and consider future applications for this form of information retrieval.

INTERNET: I2 - Quantitative Analytical Methods

Quantitative Evaluation of Personas as Information BIBAFull-Text 1107-1111
  Christopher N. Chapman; Edwin Love; Russell P. Milham; Paul ElRif; James L. Alford
The personas method is said to present information about people of interest for product design. We propose a formal model to understand persona information in terms of factual attributes. Using an analytic model, we show that the expected prevalence rate of persona descriptions decreases rapidly as attributes are added. We then evaluate this expectation empirically. Using six survey datasets ranging from N=268 to N=10307 respondents and two simulated datasets, we determine the prevalence rates of 10000 randomly generated persona-like descriptions per dataset. Consistent with prediction, we observe decreasing prevalence rates as attributes are added. Pearson's r for observed vs. predicted prevalence, transformed to multinormality, ranges r(9998)=0.394 to r(9998)=0.869 in the sampled datasets (all p < 0.001). Because descriptions with many attributes are likely to represent few people, we suggest that personas should be assessed empirically before they are assumed to describe real groups of people.
Improving Link Analysis Method in User Interface Design Using A New Computational Optimization Algorithm BIBAFull-Text 1112-1116
  Cheng-Jhe Lin; Wanyan Yu; Changxu Wu
Link analysis (LA) method is one of major user interface analysis methods in HCI. However, it seemed that it has several limitations, including negligence of high-frequency, low-link elements in a control interface and underestimation of the total moving distance in real task settings. To improve LA in these limitations, this study developed an algorithm based on the concept of optimizing the total moving distance and the outcome of the algorithm can be quantitatively validated. The findings along with the difficulties faced in this study might provide beneficial reference as well as challenges worth for future studying.
Evaluating Website Quality Using E-Service Quality Dimensions BIBAFull-Text 1117-1121
  V. Gnaneswaran; P. S. Pujari; R. R. Bishu
The objectives of this study are to determine the key dimensions that affect user experience on the website and evaluate a tool for measuring website quality. Two e-commerce websites, both from same business domain, were tested across the service quality dimensions identified in this study using a questionnaire. 15 subjects from a company group and 10 subjects from a student group participated the user testing. The results of user testing were then compared with website heuristic evaluation and indicated that the e-service quality dimensions could be used to capture user experience and evaluate quality of a website from a user satisfaction point of view. The results also have ramifications for designers of business websites.
Using the Analytic Hierarchical Process to Create a Single Usability Score for Website Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1122-1126
  Sav Shrestha; Sue Abdinnour-Helm; Barbara S. Chaparro
We propose a new approach to create a single score metric to compare and rank the usability of website interfaces. The approach is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We built the model and validated it using four usability studies, two of which are on a manufacturing firm website and the other two are on a service firm website. The results revealed a difference in domain between manufacturing and service. Still, this approach to creating a single score for usability is new in the literature for website evaluation and can help explain the ranking of website interfaces to non-experts. This is especially true for clients with the need to repeat website evaluations yearly or with clients who need a comparative analysis for their website against others in the same business. Future research is necessary to develop this approach further and validate it using a more comprehensive data set from an identical domain.
Assessing Interactive System Effectiveness with Usability Heuristics and Markov Models of User Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1127-1131
  Lashanda Lee; David B. Kaber
The purpose of this research was to create a new measure of usability to aid in determining whether the intent of system designers is realized and to objectively assess user behavior as a basis for interface design recommendations. There are currently few quantitative, objective measures of usability among many subjective measures. A measure combining both objective and subjective data may be valuable in determining user perceptions of system designs and whether performance goals are achieved. The present research used a human computer interaction framework, representing the user, input, the system and output, as a basis for designer and user interface evaluation forms. These forms were used in combination with a Markov model of average number of user actions in task performance in order to determine an overall system usability effectiveness score. The methodology was applied to the evaluation of the design of a web-based ordering interface. The new measurement technique appeared to be sensitive to interface design changes and may be more effective than subjective methods (alone) for determining if interfaces meet design and performance objectives.

MACROERGONOMICS: ME1 - Macroergonomic Challenges in Implementation of Health Care Information Technology

Macroergonomic Challenges in Implementation of Healthcare Information Technology BIBAFull-Text 1132-1134
  Carla J. Alvaradon; Pascale Carayon; Ben-Tzion Karsh; Rainu Kaushal; Shawna J. Perry; James M. Walker
The proposed Macroergonomics and Patient Safety panel will address the particular challenges of healthcare information technology (HIT) and Patient Safety. The development of information technology in health care remains a driving force in American health care facilities, yet little human factors and systems engineering information is available to improve the implementation of HIT. Given the complexity of clinical informatics technology and the intricacy of modern medical care, human factors (HF) and macroergonomic analysis (MA) are especially important in the design, implementation, and use of various HIT. HF and MA should be used to better understand the challenge of developing multi-perspective evaluations for this technology. The panel of experts'presentations and the discussion to follow will address current research on patient safety and integration of HIT.

MACROERGONOMICS: ME2 - Macroergonomics in Practice

Macroergonomics of Education Reform: A Framework for Transforming Merit-Based Educator Compensation Systems BIBAFull-Text 1135-1139
  Sara Kraemer; Chris Thorn; Jeffery Watson
This paper presents a macroergonomic approach to education reform with a specific focus on programs and policies around merit-based educator compensation. There has been some research on specific human factors issues in education learning environments, but there has not been a focus on the programmatic and system-wide issues related to education systems at various levels (i.e., district-, school-, grade-, and classroom-levels). We present a Macroergonomic Framework for Education Reform whose intent is to identify and describe the various characteristics of an education sociotechnical system: the social, organizational, technical, and external environment subsystems. Specific examples are provided from work conducted with the Center for Education Compensation Reform and grantees implementing differentiated merit-based educator compensation systems.
Collaborative Environments for Distributed Teams: Comparing Effects of Different Concepts BIBAFull-Text 1140-1144
  Petra Saskia Bayerl; Kristina Lauche; Petra Badke-Schaub
Collaborative Environments involve the use of real-time data sharing and visualization technology to enhance collaboration across distances. This paper investigates three different designs of Collaborative Environments and their differential impact on work processes and integration between subparts of distributed teams in the offshore oil and gas industry. Using semi-structured interviews and observations, influences of technology, physical environment, and team composition were studied both on the individual and team level. The most positive effects were found where an environment with high media richness was combined with organizational measures to enhance collaboration between subgroups.
Assessment of the effect of a pivoting backrest and activity level on spinal shrinkage BIBAFull-Text 1145-1149
  Scott Openshaw; Tom Albin
Spinal shrinkage is commonly used as a measure of spinal loading. Spinal shrinkage has been shown to be affected by design features of chair backrests. A freely reclining (dynamic) backrest, passive movement of the lumbar spine via means of a cyclically inflated bladder and passive side-to-side rotation of the spine through a very small angle about its vertical axis at a low frequency via motion of the seat pan have all been shown to produce decreased spinal shrinkage. In the current study we investigated the effect of two independent variables (pivoting backrest and activity level) on spinal shrinkage.
   The first variable was a pivoting backrest design with two use conditions, locked vs. unlocked. A locked backrest could recline but not pivot while an unlocked backrest could do both. Activity level consisted of an active condition during which the participant typed for 25 minutes and then moused for 25 minutes, which was interspersed every five minutes with a maximum forward reach to touch targets located at about 30, 60, 120, 150 180 degrees relative to the participant's centerline. During the passive activity condition, the participant only sat and typed.
   It was hypothesized that the pivoting backrest would flex and extend the lumbar spine and/or stabilize the pelvis during the subjects'normal movement patterns and that it would have an effect similar to the previous spinal motion studies, which had found decreased spinal shrinkage as an effect of passive spinal motion.
   It was further hypothesized that the more active conditions would work synergistically with the pivoting backrest to retard spinal shrinkage.
   Five individuals participated in the study, three males and two females. Spinal shrinkage was statistically significantly less when the backrest pivot action was unlocked (t = 0.044) and nearly so during the active condition (t = 0.059).
   The pivoting backrest condition was also significantly preferred to the locked condition.
  Dana Black Harris; S. Camille Peres; Franklin P. Tamborello
A good training program can increase productivity within an organization. This paper explores characteristics associated with a training program that leverages specific learning paradigms that have been shown to increase retention and transfer of information and increase worker efficiency. One of the most widely reported, although rarely measured, method of learning software is through peers. However, little research has been done on this method and most training programs do not incorporate this element into their training. We propose a training program that will incorporate and facilitate learning from peers in the work setting. This will extend the training program beyond the initial training period or session and could lead to better retention and transfer of the material learned. Further, this may lead to the trainees learning about more advanced features of the software subsequent to the training session itself.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP1 - Perception and Displays: The Role of Aesthetic Preference, Spatial Display Characteristics, and Music

Visual Aesthetic Appeal Speeds Processing of Complex but not Simple Icons BIBAFull-Text 1155-1159
  Irene Reppa; David Playfoot; Sine J. P. McDougall
Over the last decade there has been a shift in emphasis from interface usability to interface appeal. Very few studies, however, have examined the link between the two. The current study examined the possibility that aesthetic appeal may affect user performance. In a visual search task designed to mimic user searches of interface displays, participants were asked to search for a target icon in an array of distractors. Target icons were varied orthogonally along two dimensions, complexity (which is known to affect visual search for icons in displays) and aesthetic appeal. The results showed that visually simple icons were found faster than visually complex icons, replicating previous findings. More importantly, aesthetic appeal interacted with icon complexity, significantly reducing search times for complex but not simple icons. These findings provide empirical evidence to support the idea that aesthetic appeal can influence performance.
  Harvey S. Smallman; Maia B. Cook; Daniel I. Manes; Michael B. Cowen
Terrain appreciation must often be obtained from visual displays. However, users appear unaware that different terrain tasks are best supported by different terrain views. They express a blanket preference for high-fidelity realistic 3-D perspective views - a so-called Naïve Realism (Smallman & St. John, 2005). In last year's study, users preferred higher spatial fidelity than necessary for route-laying, when it was lower fidelity that unmasked avenues through terrain needed to lay well-concealed routes (Smallman, Cook, Manes & Cowen, 2007). Intriguingly, those of lower spatial ability persisted in a preference for high fidelity even after experience with the task. Here, we extend and refine last year's paradigm to test whether spatial ability makes one differentially sensitive to explicit task feedback by adding a display aid feedback manipulation between-participant. Feedback was available from an ondemand route "exposure envelope" visualization and a continuously-available overall route exposure score. Results revealed naïvely realistic intuitions - preferring high fidelity shaded perspective views when they never supported the best performance - on all tasks, unmitigated by spatial ability. However, after experience with the task, spatial ability contributed to savvier intuitions about the relative utility of the feedback aids, and better performance with the novel aids. Overall, feedback dramatically improved routing and made topo maps almost as good as low-fidelity shaded perspective views for routing, compensating for topo's usually observed inferiority for such shape understanding tasks. The study both refines the Naïve Realism theory and has applied implications for the design of terrain displays.
  Karel Hurtsi
Each of 34 subjects answered two spatial questions about each of 32 schematic maps from memory. The maps had been used before for performing two navigation tasks, resembling driving a car or flying a plane. The two questions were about the distance between and spatial orientation of two map cities. These cities either were on the same navigation path or belonged to different paths (defining action-similarity), and were either connected by lines or not (defining perceptual similarity). Results showed an expected effect of action-similarity on distance estimation (action-sharing made the cities seem closer to each other), but only when cities were not connected by lines. Cities that were connected by lines were judged to be closer to each other than non-connected cities (expected effect of perceptual similarity). No similarity effects were observed on the speed of verifying orientation statements. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are indicated.
Transforming Object Locations on a 2D Visual Display Into Cued Locations in 3D Auditory Space BIBAFull-Text 1170-1174
  Anthony Hornof; Tim Halverson; Andy Isaacson; Erik Brown
An empirical study explored the extent to which people can map locations in auditory space to locations on a visual display for four different transformations (or mappings) between auditory and visual surfaces. Participants were trained in each of four transformations: horizontal square, horizontal arc, vertical square, and vertical spherical surface. On each experimental trial, a sound was played through headphones connected to a spatialized sound system that uses a non-individualized head-related transfer function. The participant's task was to determine, using one transformation at a time, which of two objects on a visual display corresponded to the location of the sound. Though the two vertical transformations provided a more direct stimulus-response compatibility with the visual display, the two horizontal transformations made better use of the human auditory system's ability to localize sound, and resulted in better performance. Eye movements were analyzed, and it was found that the horizontal arc transformation provided the best auditory cue for moving the eyes to the correct visual target location with a single saccade.
Using Music in Spatial Audio Displays: Localization Ability with Complex Sounds BIBAFull-Text 1175-1179
  Matthew C. Crisler; Richard A. Tyrrell
Spatial audio displays represent a promising method of conveying directional information, but have generally been implemented using tones and other stimuli that may limit user acceptance. As a first step toward evaluating the utility of spatializing complex auditory stimuli, we asked participants in three experiments to localize the source of sounds varying in content (musical, vocal, or noise), speaker location (±45°, ±90°, or headphones), and volume level. The sounds were processed using two methods to simulate nine source locations from 40° left to 40° right. Participants' responses generally followed the virtual location of the source; participants made correct left vs. right judgments and significant differences were seen between most adjacent locations. Importantly, localization abilities were unaffected by the content of the auditory stimuli. These results support the continued examination of spatializing musical stimuli to convey directional information while minimizing boredom and fatigue.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP2 - Perceptual Factors in the Design of Aviation Systems: Maximizing Pilot Performance and Safety

Bottom-up and Top-down Contributors to Pilot Perceptions of Display Clutter in Advanced Flight Deck Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1180-1184
  Amy L. Alexander; Emily M. Stelzer; Sang-Hwan Kim; David B. Kaber
Future concepts for the National Airspace System rely on technologies, such as synthetic and enhanced vision systems, to support flight efficiency associated with improved terrain and traffic awareness. While these technologies provide the pilot access to information not available with traditional flight instrumentation, the presentation of this additional information may serve to produce display clutter, thus inhibiting the processes and tasks they are designed to support. An experiment was conducted to assess pilot perceptions and identification of both bottom-up (data-driven) and top-down (knowledge-driven) contributing factors to display clutter. Results revealed the importance of both visual and information density (bottom-up and top-down factors, respectively) to the perception of clutter. Although added display elements provided pilots with critical flight information, pilots considered displays to be cluttered when the imposed visual density exceeded the information density required for specific flight tasks. These findings suggest that moderate levels of display clutter may be tolerable, to the extent that the information is relevant to the tasks at hand.
Effect of Contrast Polarity between Background and Foreground in Air Traffic Control Displays for Time-To-Contact (TTC) Judgments BIBAFull-Text 1185-1189
  Marshall Dion; Thomas Z. Strybel
The effect of contrast polarity on arrival-time judgment tasks was investigated in a simulated air traffic controller task. Each participant predicted which of two symbols moving to a contact point symbol would arrive when the display was terminated once the winning symbol was two-thirds of the distance to the given contact point. Accuracy was calculated as percentage correct and was submitted to a 5-way and a 6-way mixed-design ANOVA in order to examine the effects of contrast polarity. The results are discussed in conjunction with possible effects of contrast polarity on arrival-time judgments and the predominance of either distance or velocity information on these judgments.
Helicopter Pilot Performance: Inadvertent Flight into Instrument Meteorological Conditions BIBAFull-Text 1190-1193
  Michael A. Crognale; William H. Krebs
The problem of inadvertent VFR flight into IMC has been well documented as a major cause of general aviation accidents. The performance limits of fixed wing pilots under these circumstances have also been investigated with alarming results. However this problem has not yet been studied sufficiently in civilian helicopter pilots. In general helicopter operations are more complex than those of fixed wing aircraft for several reasons including increased control difficulty and the ability to operate in a variety of flight regimes such as slow flight, hover, low level, and high speeds. Each of the different helicopter flight regimes has different operational and control demands. The present study is aimed at quantifying helicopter pilot performance after inadvertent VFR into IMC at different speeds and altitudes of operation. We report here on data collected from instrument rated commercial helicopter pilots in simulated flight from VFR conditions to IMC. Data were collected on the aircraft attitude and performance as well as pilot control inputs. In addition an objective analysis was performed on the pilot input data that provided information regarding the amount of corrections that the pilots were using during flight. This analysis treated pilot inputs as a time series and quantified variability in the control inputs by calculating power in the Fourier spectrum of the digitized control position data stream. This analysis is valuable in that it provides an objective measure of pilot effort. The analysis was also applied to aircraft performance metrics. An "error" analysis was also conducted on the aircraft attitude data which enumerated the rate at which the aircraft was judged to be in a attitude that would reduce safety as predetermined by helicopter pilot experts. Both analyses revealed important information regarding the relationships between visibility, altitude, airspeed, aircraft performance, and pilot effort. In particular, while pilots quickly improved performance such that safe attitudes were maintained, the amount of effort required to maintain proper attitude remained high for longer periods of time. Pilot effort eventually decreases with repeated practice.
Cross-Talk Between Altitude Changes and Speed Control During Simulated Low-Altitude Flight BIBAFull-Text 1194-1198
  Brian Wotring; Brian P. Dyre; Joseph Behr
Simulations of flight over a planar environment create an ambiguous optical stimulus in which changes in altitude can potentially induce inappropriate control of speed. Previous research has shown that changes in altitude produce changes in global optical flow rate that lead to erroneous judgments of speed and increased RMS error in speed control. However, from these studies it is unclear whether erroneous speed control was directly due to misperceiving changes in altitude as changes in speed or simply a response to more complex optical flow masking the optical effects of speed changes. Our experiment used a speed maintenance task during simulated flight over a planar surface to examine the effect of changes in altitude on control of speed. We found that power in participants' speed control input increased at the specific frequencies of the simulated altitude changes relative to power at those same frequencies when no altitude disturbance was present. These results clearly show that controllers respond to altitude changes as if they are changes in speed during simulated flight over a planar environment. Hence, the optical effects of altitude changes appear to be perceived as changes in speed and induce systematic errors in speed control.
Negative Acceleration and Adaptive Automation Approaches to Counter the Effect of Acceleration Induced Loss of Consciousness BIBAFull-Text 1199-1203
  Lloyd D. Tripp
Gravity-induced loss of consciousness (GLOC) is a major human factors problem facing fighter pilots today. A recent study by Tripp et al. (2006) reported that the GLOC episode consists of 24 sec of unconsciousness and confusion/disorientation followed by 55 sec in which performance efficiency is compromised. Hence, fighter pilots in the throes of GLOC can travel 12 miles while not in control of their aircraft. Using a centrifuge to simulate gravitational forces together with tracking and math tasks to simulate flight control and navigation, this study attacked the GLOC problem in two ways: (1) by employing negative acceleration following GLOC onset to decrease GLOC recovery time and (2) by assessing the utility of a of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) measure as a possible triggering mechanism for an adaptive automation recovery system. Negative acceleration had no significant effect on the duration of the GLOC episode. Declines in rSO2 from baseline pinpointed when pilots would cease active flight control and when GLOC would set in. Thus, the rSO2 measure may be of effective value as an adaptive automation GLOC recovery system trigger. The rSO2 measure also showed that loss of blood oxygen is not the sole factor underlying performance deficits in GLOC. Tissue oxygen saturation retuned to baseline levels shortly after the centrifuge came to a complete stop following GLOC onset but the performance deficits continued for 55 sec after rSO2 returned to baseline.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP3 - The Redline of Workload: Theory, Research, and Design

The Red-Line of Workload: Theory, Research, and Design BIBAFull-Text 1204-1208
  Rebecca Grier; Christopher Wickens; David Kaber; David Strayer; Deborah Boehm-Davis; J. Gregory Trafton; Mark St. John
Multi-tasking is now ubiquitous component of our lives; despite the fact that we all can cite an incident where multi-tasking put us in a difficult situation. The reason so many of us do multi-task is that most of the time we are capable of effective dual task performance. Hart and Wickens (2008) have defined the point where one traverses safe and effective multi-tasking to dangerous and ineffective multi-tasking as the "red-line" of workload. In this panel, we will discuss this "red-line" of workload from the theoretical, empirical, and practical viewpoints. To that end, we first examine what theories of attention can help guide empiric search for this red line and where these theories must be expanded with further research. The greatest need is research that will allow human factors practitioners to identify the red line of workload before a system has been developed. One approach to achieving this research is to leverage the approach of industrial ergonomics, which has successfully defined physical workload limits by using data from safety incidents. Another avenue of research to be discussed is that which will lead to refinement of our theories and understanding of cognitive function to improve our ability to predict the red line. Next we move to the problem of evaluating systems to ensure that the red line of workload is not crossed. In particular, we will discuss the possibility of using task analysis, specifically, CPM-GOMS to predict if a system design will lead to excessive workload. Finally, we present two system design strategies for maintaining a cognitive workload that is below the red-line. The first of these is an adaptive automation using eye-tracking to reduce screen clutter when it appears workload has become so high an error may occur. The second design strategy presents four research based design principles for reducing workload to acceptable levels.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP4 - Measuring Attentional Resources for Perceptual Tasks: Is Automation the Answer?

  Victor S. Finomore; Tyler H. Shaw; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; Michael A. Riley; David B. Boles; Dave Weldon
This study confirms and extends a recent finding by Finomore et al. (2006) that the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ; Boles & Adair, 2001) can be of effective value in assessing perceived mental workload in vigilance tasks. As in the earlier study, the MRQ was evaluated by comparing it against a standard measure of workload in vigilance research, the NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX; Hart & Staveland, 1988), in its sensitivity to experimental factors known to influence task demand. The factors in this case were the sensory modality of signals and event rate. Both workload scales showed that the level of workload was substantial, and that workload was greater for the fast than slow event rate. The NASA-TLX indicated that workload was greater when monitoring visual than auditory stimuli. With the MRQ, the sensory modality of signals emerged as a moderator variable for event rate; the effects of event rate were restricted to visual signals. The MRQ also identified resource dimensions that were utilized in the vigilance tasks that are not included in the NASA-TLX. Thus, the MRQ exhibited the properties of sensitivity and diagnosticity characteristic of a valid workload scale (O'Donnell & Eggemeier, 1986).
Performance on a Sustained Attention to Response Task BIBAFull-Text 1214-1218
  William S. Helton; Nicole Lopez; Sarah Tamminga
Robertson et al. (1997) modified the standard sustained attention target detection task, in which overt responses signal the detection of rare targets, into the sustained attention to response task (SART), in which withholding responses signals the detection of rare targets. We compared the SART format with the standard detection task format using local-global letter tasks. The SART response format is much more challenging than the standard format and demonstrates different performance changes over time than the standard format. These findings may further our understanding of human behavior in high target probability, low neutral signal probability environments, such as modern combat.
Effects of Secondary Loading Task Modality on Attentional Reserve Capacity BIBAFull-Text 1219-1223
  J. Christopher Brill; Mustapha Mouloua; Richard D. Gilson; Edward J. Rinalducci; Robert S. Kennedy
The purpose of the present study was to use a newly-developed measure of reserve attentional capacity to evaluate unitary versus multiple resource theories of attention. Participants performed a primary visual monitoring task and were presented with visual, auditory, and tactile secondary loading tasks. The data indicate that participants maintained performance on the primary task, as instructed, and performed the secondary task with any remaining attentional reserve capacity. A significant difference was found on the basis of secondary task modality, wherein performance on the visual secondary task was significantly worse than that of secondary auditory and tactile tasks. This result was additionally supported by scores on a subjective workload questionnaire. Although the data do not preclude interpretation in terms of a unitary resource model, data trends offer potential support for a multiple resource model.
  Jocelyn Keillor; Fatin Haque; Matthew Lamb; Nada Pavlovic
Traditionally, search and rescue (SAR) technicians have conducted search by directly viewing the terrain below the aircraft. Defence R&D Canada is developing a multi-sensor imaging system for SAR that would replace this direct "out-the-window" inspection under low visibility conditions. The system could be designed to automate the sweep of the sensor across the terrain in order to minimize operator workload and to ensure that the sensor covers all of the area to be searched. In a previous prototype, the operator controlled the sweep of the sensor through the use of a joystick, adjusting the speed and direction of the sensor in real time. That interface permitted the operator to both cover the terrain and maximize the detection potential targets by moving the sensor more slowly over portions of the display that was more complex or contained cues to the potential presence of a target. The present study was designed to determine whether automation of the sweep function would compromise detection performance by preventing the operator from adjusting the motion of the sensor to make use of the visual information contained in the scene. The results demonstrate that detection is indeed superior when the sensor sweep is controlled by the operator, and that this effect is modulated by the detectability (contrast) of the target. Additionally, it was observed that the terrain could be more effectively covered under operator control, such that the operator was able to adjust the motion of the sensor to match changes in the visibility of the terrain.
A Test of Intra- versus Inter-Modality Interference as a Function of Time Pressure in a Warfighting Simulation BIBAFull-Text 1229-1232
  Rebecca A. Grier; Raja Parasuraman; Elliot E. Entin; Nathan Bailey; Emily Stelzer
Useful task managers that can effectively monitor, prioritize, and distribute tasks to our warfighters are being sought. A critical need for the creation of task managers is an understanding of the conditions that lead to successful multi-tasking. The present study is an initial empirical step at increasing this understanding within the environment of a Command and Control (C2) Dynamic Targeting Cell (DTC). We examined operator performance and workload for participants deploying assets to attack enemy targets and their ability to concurrently monitor auditory or visual communications in three conditions of time pressure (low, medium, and high). Results showed a significant impact in high time-pressure conditions, especially when operators had to process multiple sources of information from the same modality. These findings are a critical step as to understanding multi-tasking performance in C2 environments in general and with regard to communication and spatial monitoring tasks in particular.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP5 - Perceptual Task Characteristics and Driver Performance

Head-Up-Displays Support Response Preparation in a Lane Change Task BIBAFull-Text 1233-1237
  Peter Hofmann; Gerhard Rinkenauer; Dietmar Gude
In addition to visual design characteristics of head-up-displays (HUDs) in vehicles, the impact of HUDs on response preparation in driving has to be investigated. The current pilot study examined the effects of both temporal response preparation and movement planning on driving performance in a lane change task. Participants received a temporal warning stimulus within a HUD conveying full or no information about the direction of an upcoming lane change maneuver. After a variable foreperiod, they had to react as quickly as possible to the subsequent imperative stimulus, which was also shown in the HUD. The results indicated that temporal preparation was supported best at foreperiods of 600 ms and 1200 ms. Full advance information led to a reaction time advantage of approximately 70 ms. As temporal preparation and movement planning interacted, too, both mechanisms of response preparation potentially affect the same stage of the human information processing chain. Possible applications of the results are discussed.
  J. L. Szalma; J. E. Thropp; P. A. Hancock
An experiment is described examining the effect of combining spatial and temporal task demands on performance, workload, and stress associated with perceptual discriminations at two levels of difficulty. The effect of intermittent bursts of white noise was also examined. According to the maximal adaptability model, the joint effects of task type, noise exposure, and discrimination difficulty should produce a performance decrement as well as increased perceived workload and stress. Although results conformed to expectation for task manipulation, intermittent white noise and discrimination difficulty did not have the interactive effect predicted according to the-maximal adaptability model. Implications for future research are discussed.
The Effect of Driving Experience on Change Blindness at Intersections: Decision Accuracy and Eye Movement Results BIBAFull-Text 1243-1247
  Christopher J. Edwards; Jeff K. Caird; Susan L. Chisholm
To understand the differences between inexperienced and experienced driver visual behavior for hazard detection at intersections, twelve less experienced drivers aged 18 to 19 and twelve experienced drivers aged 35 to 48 were shown 36 complex intersection images using a modified flicker method. Twenty-four of these intersections contained a changing object that was a pedestrian, vehicle or a traffic control device. The remaining 12 intersections did not contain a changing object. Visual search was measured using a head mounted eye movement system and areas of interest were specified for each image to determine the foci of visual search. The time to view the flickering images affected turn decision accuracy. The pattern of results showed that less experienced drivers tended to fixate on other vehicles within the intersections, whereas experienced drivers fixated on lights and signs. The implications of the results on hazard perception are discussed.
Effects of Temporal and Spatial Demands on the Distribution of Eye Fixations BIBAFull-Text 1248-1251
  Marco Camilli; Michela Terenzi; Francesco Di Nocera
Recent studies have shown that statistical indices of spatial dispersion computed over the distribution of fixations could be effectively used to derive a stable measure of the cognitive resources allocated to a task. This approach is particularly appealing, given that it allows computing a workload value with a 1-minute resolution, thus making it possible to use it as a trigger for some adaptive systems. The present study reports two experiments aimed at separating the contribution of two types of demands (temporal and visuo-spatial). Results showed that temporal demand led to dispersed pattern, whereas visuo-spatial demand led to grouped pattern of fixations.
Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity and Subjective State as Indices of Resource Utilization During Sustained Driving BIBAFull-Text 1252-1256
  Lauren E. Reinerman; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; Lisa K. Langheim
Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the vigilance decrement, the decline in signal detection over time that typifies vigilance performance, is accompanied by a decline in Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity (CBFV) measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and by an increase in stress measured by the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (DSSQ). These studies were restricted to single vigilance tasks. In operational settings, such as driving, vigilance is often combined with other task components. Therefore, the aim for the present study was to generalize the findings from the earlier studies to a simulated driving task. As in the earlier studies, temporal declines in performance efficiency, indexed in this case by variability in lateral position, were accompanied by declines in CBFV and increased feelings of distress and task disengagment on the DSSQ. The results suggest that resource utilization patterns found with single vigilance tasks may extend to dynamic performance situations in which vigilance is one of several task elements.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP6 - From Icon Characteristics in Menu Design to Requirements for Laparoscopic Pointing Devices: Perception Plays a Key Role in the Design of Commercial Products

Why do I like it The relationships between icon characteristics, user performance and aesthetic appeal BIBAFull-Text 1257-1261
  Sine J. P. McDougall; Irene Reppa
Until recently the guiding tenet in human-computer interaction was that any interface must be easy to learn and use. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the appeal of the interface to the user and their enjoyment of it is also important. The aim of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationships between icon characteristics, user performance, and aesthetic appeal. When participants were asked to rate the appeal of a corpus of icons, it was found that the same icon characteristics predicted appeal as those predicting user performance. The theoretical and practical implications of the remarkable similarity in the factors determining appeal and usability are discussed.
Navigation Efficiency of Two Dimensional Auditory Menus Using Spearcon Enhancements BIBAFull-Text 1262-1266
  Dianne K. Palladino; Bruce N. Walker
A total of 28 undergraduates navigated to specific items in a two dimensional menu that was displayed using only sound. The auditory menu consisted of either text-to-speech (TTS) only, or TTS enhanced with spearcons. Spearcons are brief sound cues created by compressing the original TTS sound file. Speed of navigation to target items in the auditory menu was found to be significantly faster in the spearcon condition than in the condition using only TTS. There was also a smaller per-item cost in terms of speed for the spearcon-enhanced menu, leading to increasingly better performance as menu length increased. These results provide further evidence that spearcon enhancements can lead to faster navigational performance in auditory menus, when compared to text-to-speech alone.
The perception of multiple affordances: A multidimensional scaling approach BIBAFull-Text 1267-1271
  Lin Ye; Robin D. Thomas; Douglas L. Gardner
The previous study showed that if a person identifies an object as having one function, or affordance, they will tend not to later classify it as having a different affordance. The present study shows that this decreased likelihood of identifying a second function of a multi-affordance object also appears in the perception of the affordance, as assessed by a scaling analysis of similarity judgments. The MDS analysis of similarity judgments showed objects with both affordances became worse examples of one of the affordances if their similarity, in terms of the other affordance, to other objects had been previously evaluated. It appears that the inhibition of a second action property is perceptual in nature and the degree of inhibition is sensitive to the initial similarity relations.
The Effect of Low-Pass Filtering on Target Detection in Simulated Ultrasound Images BIBAFull-Text 1272-1276
  Felix Portnoy; Paul Milgram
This study investigates the potential benefits of a novel image processing filter, based on introducing persistence to an image to increase visual sensitivity for ultrasound-guided nerve block procedures. The effectiveness of the filter was examined for multiple levels of target velocity and filter persistence, using simulated ultrasound-like images. Subjects were asked to detect a covert target in twelve experimental conditions. The experimental results show that the persistence filter augments the target's saliency and consequently contributes to an effective increase in visual sensitivity. In addition, the results show that the filter is most effective for mid-range target velocities combined with high levels of visual persistence. The study concludes that the filter has the potential to improve present ultrasound-guided nerve block procedures and provides recommendations for implementing the filter in real-world settings.
A multivariate method for analysing time and space components of highly disparate movement trajectories BIBAFull-Text 1277-1281
  Anthony Soung Yee; Paul Milgram
The difficulties in performing manual control tasks under visual-motor mismatch are well documented. For example, laparoscopic surgeons must operate in an environment where a motor movement and the visual feedback of that same movement are ordinarily misaligned with respect to each other, increasing the risk of control errors. To complement conventional global measures of motor performance, which provide insight into spatial and/or temporal performance averaged over several trials, a bivariate dynamic measure encompassing joint time and space components is proposed. These two components are the instantaneous velocity and movement efficiency, derived from recorded movement trajectories. The dynamic measure consists of a graphical representation of the bivariate data, in conjunction with a non-parametric statistical analysis. An example is given of the dynamic measure applied to movement trajectories from an investigation involving simulated laparoscopic pointing under visual-motor mismatch. Results from both global and dynamic measures are discussed, along with limitations of the multivariate dynamic measure.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: PP7 - The Role of Perception in the Design of Military Systems

On Visual, Vibrotactile, and 3D Audio Directional Cues for Dismounted Soldier Waypoint Navigation BIBAFull-Text 1282-1286
  Lars Eriksson; Aseel Berglund; Bengt Willen; Jonathan Svensson; Michael Petterstedt; Otto Carlander; Bjorn Lindahl; Goran Allerbo
We compared a visual GPS, a tactile torso belt, and a 3D audio display in a waypoint navigation task for dismounted soldiers. Using these displays one at a time, the soldier's main tasks were to walk as fast and straight as possible towards the waypoints while visually scanning the terrain for detection of target flags. The results showed that all three types of displays gave similar navigation precision and target detection performance. The visual display entailed a somewhat higher navigation speed than the tactile and 3D audio displays. Both the visual and 3D audio displays, however, were rated as directing attention away from the terrain more than the tactile display. Compared to the tactile display, a higher mental workload was reported for the 3D audio, which was also rated least suitable for operational use in navigation tasks. Yet, the soldiers' ability to localize directions to waypoints with the 3D audio display may point to its potential use for radio communication and cueing of directions to threats. In an overall evaluation, eight soldiers preferred the tactile display and four the visual, while none preferred the 3D audio. We discuss the results mainly regarding shortcomings of the study and the possibility of developing and combining the three display types for the dismounted soldier.
Multimodal Threat Cueing in Simulated Combat Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 1287-1291
  Per-Anders Oskarsson; Lars Eriksson; Patrik Lif; Bjorn Lindahl; Johan Hedstrom
We investigated three types of display combinations for threat cueing in a simulated combat vehicle. The display combinations consisted of two bimodal combinations, a visual head-up display (HUD) combined with 3D audio; a tactile torso belt combined with 3D audio; and a multimodal combination, the HUD, tactile belt, and 3D audio combined. The participant's main task was to as fast as possible align the heading of the combat vehicle with the displayed direction to a threat. To increase general task difficulty and provide a secondary measure of mental workload, the participant also was required to identify radio calls. Threat localization accuracy was highest and reaction time shortest with the use of both the HUD combined with 3D audio and with the multimodal display. Subjective ratings of perception of initial threat direction were most positive for both the tactile belt combined with 3D audio and for the multimodal display. The ratings of perceived threat direction at the final phase of threat alignment, however, were most positive for the HUD combined with 3D audio and for the multimodal display. Thus, the multimodal display with HUD, tactile belt, and 3D audio combined proved to be beneficial for all measures.
Multisensory integration with a head-mounted display and auditory display BIBAFull-Text 1292-1296
  Matthew B. Thompson; Penelope M. Sanderson
Human operators who use head-mounted displays (HMDs) in their work may benefit from auditory support. It is unclear whether auditory support is better delivered in free-field or via earpiece, and what the effect of walking is. To examine this problem, a novel multisensory integration task was created in which participants identified mismatches between sounds and visual information on an HMD. Participants listened to the sounds either via earpiece or free-field while they either sat or walked about the test room.
  James L. Merlo; Richard Gilson; P. A. Hancock Gilson
An experiment is reported in which tactile messages were created based on five common military arm and hand signals. We compared response times and accuracy rates of novice individuals responding to visual and tactile representations of these messages. Such messages were displayed either alone or in congruent or incongruent combinations. Analyses were conducted on trials where tactile and visual signals messages were presented either individually or concurrently. Results indicated a beneficial effect for congruent message presentations with both modalities showing a superior, combined response time and improved accuracy when compared to individual presentations in either modality alone. These results confirm the promise for tactile messages to augment visual displays in challenging and stressful environments where visual messaging may not always be clear or even possible.
Results from Pilot Testing a System for Tactile Reception of Advanced Patterns (STRAP) BIBAFull-Text 1302-1306
  Sven Fuchs; Matthew Johnston; Kelly S. Hale; Par Axelsson
This paper presents pilot study results on the learnability and effectiveness of the System for Tactile Reception of Advanced Patterns (STRAP) that is capable of displaying complex information through tactile actuators on the user's torso. Information requirements from dismounted soldier communications and tactile design guidelines resulted in 56 distinct tactile symbols. To facilitate cognitive demands for decoding, information presentation was formalized by developing construction rules for tactile symbols and a context-free grammar for compilation of tactile sentences. The pilot study outlined trained two participants on the tactile language. Results showed they were able to reach 90% criterion in less than 3.5 hours. Furthermore, once learned, participants were able to receive and comprehend complex commands comprised of multiple tactile symbols under varying levels of workload with some success.

POSTERS: Input Devices

Effect of the Number Pad on Mousing Location BIBAFull-Text 1307-1311
  Thomas Levine
Previous research has suggested that the mousing location that encourages the best posture cannot be used when the keyboard has a number pad, so researchers have suggested using keyboards without number pads. No previous researcher has tested whether users actually use the extra space available when they use keyboards without number pads. Participants were videotaped working at a computer workstation using a keyboard with a number pad in one round and using a keyboard without a number pad in the other round. The initial mouse placement locations were compared between the two rounds. The mouse was placed closer to the center of the workstation when the keyboard without a number pad was used (p < 0.001). These results suggest that a change in keyboard without any instruction or training is enough to encourage computer users to use the mouse closer to the sagittal plane, which in turn should encourage better posture. Keyboards without number pads should be used instead of standard, full-size keyboards.
  Robert Pastel
Centering, positioning an object within specified bounds, is a common computer task, for example making selections using a touch screen or positioning icons relative to each other. The experiments measured times for participants (n = 155) to position a circular cursor with diameter, p = 40 pixel or approximately 10 mm, completely within circular targets with a variety of diameters, w. The analysis divides the total movement time into two parts, the time for the cursor to touch the target and the centering time, the remaining time for participants to indicate that the cursor is completely within the target by clicking on the mouse button. The time to touch the target is modeled well by the initial cursor-target separation, and the centering time is modeled well by the index of difficulty, ID2 = p/(w-p). Both models have high correlation, r2 = 0.99.
Force and Impulse Production During the Use of a Touch Screen by Individuals with Motor Control Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1317-1320
  Curt B. Irwin; Robert H. Meyer; Thomas Y. Yen; David P. Kelso; Mary E. Sesto
People are increasingly required to interact with touch screens at places ranging from grocery stores to airport kiosks. To date, most of the usability research related to touch screens has included young, healthy subjects. Using novel instrumentation consisting of a force plate and a touch screen, a number entry study examined finger-touch screen interaction by participants with Cerebral Palsy, Multiple Sclerosis, and non-disabled controls. Timing data as well as peak forces and impulses in three dimensions were collected for each touch. The results indicate that, although average peak force vector magnitudes, impulses, and dwell times are similar between the groups, there are significant differences within the same three variables by button size. Average peak force vector magnitude increased by 11 percent while the average vector impulse decreased by 29 percent from the smallest to the largest button size. The average dwell time also decreased 23 percent from the smallest to the largest button size.
Fitts Law Predictions with an Alternative Pointing Device (Wiimote) BIBAFull-Text 1321-1325
  Bryan A. Campbell; Katharine R. O'Brien; Michael D. Byrne; Benjamin J. Bachman
A Nintendo Wiimote enabled testing of both zero- and first-order of control for a Fitts' Lawstyle pointing task using the same device. The Wiimote differs from standard computer input devices in that the user has available a full range of three-dimensional motions. Participants were assigned to one of the two orders of control and completed a pointing task that included 50 trials on three sets of boxes, each a different size and distance from each other. Results indicated that participants using the Wiimote as a zero-order input device (i.e., directly controlling cursor position) were roughly 2.5 times faster at completing the task than those using the Willmote as a first-order device, (i.e., controlling cursor velocity). As expected, participants using the firstorder controller had smaller effective distances than those using the zero-order control scheme. Surprisingly, no meaningful differences were found between the two groups for overall error rate. This raises interesting questions for the future of three-dimensional control devices.

POSTERS: Automation

Automation Dependency and Performance Gains Under Time Pressure BIBAFull-Text 1326-1329
  Stephen Rice; Jamie Hughes; Jason S. McCarley; David Keller
An experiment tested a technique for encouraging appropriate human-automation interaction.
   Background: Operators often fail to make optimal use of automated aids, particularly when the aids are highly reliable. One way to discourage automation disuse might be to encourage automation dependence through time pressure.
   Methods: Fifty-two participants performed a simulated security screening task, searching for knives hidden in cluttered baggage x-rays. Participants were assisted by a diagnostic aid that was either 95%, 80% or 65% reliable, and were given instructions that asked them to make speeded or unspeeded decisions.
   Results: Participants showed higher levels of automation dependence under time pressure. This benefited overall performance in the 95% reliable condition.
   Conclusion: Time pressure encouraged heuristic dependence on automation aids, and benefited overall human-automation performance when the automation was highly reliable.
   Application: Data suggest a method for mitigating automation disuse.
Misuse of Diagnostic Aids in Process Control: The Effects of Automation Misses on Complacency and Automation Bias BIBAFull-Text 1330-1334
  J. Elin Bahner; Monika F. Elepfandt; Dietrich Manzey
The effects of misses of an automated alarm and fault diagnosis system on different manifestations of automation misuse were examined. 24 participants operated a complex multi-task process control simulation. During training, they either experienced automation misses or were only informed that failures might occur. The experience of misses reduced complacency towards the alarm function of the decision aid as well as omission errors but did neither affect complacency towards the aid's diagnostic function nor commission errors. Implications of this specific effect of automation misses for the design of training measures as well as the theoretical understanding of automation misuse are discussed.
  Randall D. Spain; Ernesto A. Bustamante; James P. Bliss
Research on human trust in automated systems has been frequently limited by the use of inappropriate and inaccurate scales of human-machine trust. An attempt is made here to validate a scale proposed by Jian, Bisantz, and Drury (2000) that measures trust and distrust in automated systems. Sixty participants completed a patient monitoring task with the aid of an imperfect signaling system. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using LISREL 8.0 to determine the best fitting measurement model. Chi-square difference tests indicated that the best fitting model was the 2-factor oblique model. These results suggest that when using the System Trust Scale, researchers should treat trust as a multi-dimensional construct comprising of two distinct, yet related, factors. Implications for future research and measurement development are discussed.
The Effect of Automation Reliability on User Automation Trust and Reliance in a Search-and-Rescue Scenario BIBAFull-Text 1340-1344
  Jennifer M. Ross; James L. Szalma; Peter A. Hancock; John S. Barnett; Grant Taylor
Advances in modern day technology are rapidly increasing the ability of engineers to automate ever more complicated tasks. Often these automated aids are paired with human operators who can supervise their work to ensure that it is free of errors and to even take control of the system if it malfunctions (e.g., pilots supervising an autopilot feature). The goal of this collaboration, between humans and machines, is that it can enhance performance beyond what would be possible by either alone. Arguably the success of this partnership depends in part upon attributions an operator develops that help guide their interaction with the automation. One particular factor that has been shown to guide operator reliance on an automated 'teammate' is trust. The following study examined 140 participants performing a simulated search-and-rescue task. The goal of this experiment was to examine the relationship between automated agent's reliability, operator trust, operator reliance, and performance scores. Results indicated that greater automation reliability is positively correlated with greater user reliance (r=.66), perceived trust (r=.21), and performance scores (r=.34). These results indicate that more reliable aids are rated as significantly higher in terms of perceived trust and relied upon more than less reliable aids. Additionally, the size of the effect is much larger for operator behaviors (i.e., reliance) compared to more subjective measures (i.e., self-reported trust).

POSTERS: Information Processing

When do People Generate their Best Ideas BIBAFull-Text 1345-1349
  Brian R. Johnson; Keith S. Jones
Using the electronic brainstorming technique, participants brainstormed ideas in three-person groups. After brainstorming for 15 minutes, participants received a paper transcript that contained all of their generated ideas and then they were asked to individually select the five best ideas. When selecting ideas, participants had an affinity for ideas that were generated early. For instance, 23% of participants selected the very first idea that was generated as their very best idea. Furthermore, over half of the participants (51%) selected one of the first five ideas that were generated as their very best idea. This was notable considering the average group generated 55 ideas. This finding may be beneficial in that it could shorten the brainstorming process.
Feedback, Subjective Time Estimates, and User Satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 1350-1353
  Russell J. Branaghan; Christopher A. Sanchez
This experiment investigates the effects of three types of feedback, static, dynamic and cumulative progress, designed to keep the user apprised while a computer completes a transaction. Using a simulated online movie store, participants chose movies for various audiences and then were required to wait 15 or 30 seconds for the computer to process their order. Participants perceived the transactions using the dynamic feedback indicators and cumulative progress bars to be more reasonable than transactions using the static feedback display, even though the transaction times were identical. However, there was no difference in the perception of processing time reasonableness between the dynamic display and the cumulative progress indicator. Despite this, cumulative progress bars were preferred to both dynamic and static feedback indicators.
Discount Ratio Effect and Mental Accounting in Money Saving Decisions BIBAFull-Text 1354-1358
  Alison K. Klein; X. T. Wang
The discount ratio effect, a systematic devaluation of savings as the ratio of the present to discounted values decreases, was demonstrated in the classic "Jacket and Calculator" problem by Kahneman and Tversky (1984). The effect is a clear violation of economics principle of fungibility for money. A specific type of mental accounting is considered to be responsible for this effect (Kahneman & Tversky, 1984). Our recent study suggested that the discount ratio effect diminishes when savings are in the context of intertemporal choices (Wang, 2004). The present research further explored some antecedent conditions of the discount ratio effect, and examined reasons for participants' purchasing decisions. Results showed that interactions between ratio of savings and delay were not consistent but dependent on the content of the purchase (books vs. cell phones). Participants were more likely to spend effort on savings for hedonic purposes in high discount ratio conditions and for utilitarian purposes in low discount ratio conditions. Agreement ratings to mental accounting arguments revealed different patterns in delay and travel conditions.
Improving Perceptual Judgments Under Emotional States BIBAFull-Text 1359-1363
  Tuan Q. Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Abigail Werth
System operators in complex environments (e.g., nuclear power control rooms) often make decisions while under periods of high emotional arousal. Emotional state has been shown to affect the time and quality of decision-making, but more examination is needed. Raddatz et al. (2007) found that participants under positive emotion made less accurate perceptual judgments in perspective displays than participants under negative and neutral emotion (all used "first-look" instructions). Results were consistent with Tiedens & Linton (2001) framework suggesting that positive emotion induces overconfidence and less motivation to question initial judgment. The current study investigated whether instructional set could attenuate the detrimental effect of positive emotion. Using "objective" instructions (implying a "right" answer), positive participants made more accurate perceptual judgments than negative or neutral participants. Further, positive participants were significantly more accurate under objective instructions than phenomenal instructions, whereas neutral and negative participants were relatively unaffected by instructional set. Implications for human system interaction are discussed.

POSTERS: Potpourri

Obesity adds constraint on balance control and movement performance BIBAFull-Text 1364-1368
  F. Berrigan; O. Hue; N. Teasdale; M. Simoneau
We examined if a weight loss program improves the speed-accuracy tradeoff of goal-directed aiming movements of obese individuals. Ten obese subjects aimed at targets of different sizes from a seated and a standing posture. The kinematics of the aiming was recorded. All participants were evaluated before and after a weight loss program when weight reduction had stabilized. Before weight loss, movement times and duration of deceleration phases were longer when subjects were standing than when they were seated. These effects vanished after weight loss. Weight loss yielded an increased aiming speed when subjects aimed at targets from an upright posture and this effect was greater for the smaller target. This difference was not observed when seated. The results suggest that a more stable postural platform resulting from weight loss allows a better control of the upper-limb movement.
Formats for Section Safety Messages in Printed Manuals BIBAFull-Text 1369-1373
  Roger C. Jensen; Erin Jenrich
This study compared four formats for safety messages in printed manuals based on layouts found in a new standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z535.6, 2006). These four designs are specifically for use as section safety messages. Two used a signal word panel, and two used a safety alert symbol (exclamation in a triangle). The four formats were rated by 55 college students from three different classes using a five-point scale for hazardousness. All four messages were presented on the same page of a test booklet, with order balanced using a Latin Square. Results of a Friedman test indicated significant differences in ratings. The ranked order of the formats based on estimated median was yellow safety alert symbol left of the text (3.37), signal word in black panel above text (3.13), signal word in black panel imbedded in first line of text (2.87), and black hazard alert symbol left of the text (2.13). Post-hoc analyses of ratings using a Bonferroni test indicated the signs fit into three groups: the two highest rated signs, the second and third rated signs, and the lowest rated sign.
Hatch Size Evaluation for the Altair Lunar Sortie Habitat BIBAFull-Text 1374-1378
  Shelby Thompson; Harry Litaker; Ronald Archer; Robert Howard
Issues of moving through hatchways and related design problems of hatch size and shape were investigated for the Altair lunar habitat. To insure proper usability and safety, the goal of the current study was to understand the critical dimensions necessary for proper translation through the hatch by manipulating size (height, width, step over height, and overall height) and shape (rectangular and circular). A single participant donning a pressurized rear-entry integrated (REI) ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) suit was timed and video recorded as participant accomplished various translations through a mockup hatch. Objective performance measures consisted of time and contact data with the hatch, while subjective data was obtained using the Cooper-Harper Qualities Ratings, Corlett and Bishop Discomfort Scale, a Physical Effort scale, and a functionality questionnaire. Correlation analysis discovered a significant relationship between the hatch dimension of height and all of the performance measures, as well as, step over and overall height with some of the dependent scores.
Student Conference for Human Factors: Recommendations for Success BIBAFull-Text 1379-1383
  Elizabeth L. Blickensderfer; Tiffany Nickens
Giving effective oral presentations is an important skill for human factors specialists. Student research conferences can give human factors specialists-in-training the opportunity to practice presenting their human factors projects and research. These conferences maintain the professional qualities of larger, national conferences for professionals, while offering a less expensive and supportive atmosphere for students still developing their skills. Holding a student conference requires some careful planning and effort. Potential stumbling blocks include a lack of resources and a lack of student participation. Fortunately, a variety of strategies to overcoming these barriers exist. These range from reducing the conference costs by using existing resources, to enlisting student help in planning, and to accepting a variety of genres of presentation material. This paper discusses the notion of student research conferences, barriers to holding a student conference, and recommendations for those interested in holding a meeting of this nature.
Robot Features are Examined as Artifacts, not as Faces BIBAFull-Text 1384-1388
  Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Linda U. Ellis; Aaron A. Pepe; Anne M. Sinatra; Neal Finkelstein
This study examines how individuals look at robot "faces," and whether the same methods are used when examining the human face. Participants' eyes were tracked as they viewed faces of both popular media and research robots. Results show that participants use different look patterns, in terms of fixation times, when looking at robot faces as compared to human faces. Additionally, participants focused on particular parts of the face differently depending on their view of the robot's attributes like aggressiveness, familiarity. Implications for human robot collaborations are discussed.
Communications-based Performance Assessment for Air and Space Operations Centers: Preliminary Research BIBAFull-Text 1389-1393
  Shawn A. Weil; Andrew Duchon; Jasmine Ledell Duran; Nancy J. Cooke; Jamie C. Gorman; Jennifer L. Winner
The use of electronic chat has become widespread for both social and work applications. Increasingly, individuals using text chat applications engage in multiple simultaneous conversations with co-workers to accomplish complex tasks. This is especially true in the military, where it is used extensively in Navy, Army, and Air Force command and control environments. The current effort seeks to leverage stored communications from electronic chat to examine the relationship between communication flow and team performance. ChainMaster, a tool that looks at process elements of communication, was used to investigate the relationship between communication patterns and other performance measures in the context of an emulated Air and Space Operations Center (AOC). Results indicated a modest relationship between communications patterns and measures of performance. Applicability of these results in other domains is discussed.
University Students Notebook Computer Use BIBAFull-Text 1394-1396
  Karen Jacobs
University students are self-reporting musculoskeletal discomfort with computer use similar to levels reported by adult workers. The objective of this research study was to determine how university students use notebook computers and to determine what ergonomic strategies might be effective in reducing their self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort. Two hundred and eighty-nine university students, who were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, participated in this study. Participants who received notebook computer accessories and those who received these accessories and participatory ergonomics training reported a significant reduction in self-reported notebook computer-related discomfort. A significant increase in rest breaks occurred with a significant correlation between self-reported computer usage and the amount measured using WorkPace, a computer usage software.

POSTERS: Military Applications

A brief examination of how situation awareness and confidence are affected in a simulated multinational coalition C2 headquarters BIBAFull-Text 1397-1401
  Frederick M. J. Lichacz
An often-cited impediment to the development of good situation awareness (SA) in multinational coalition operations is linguistic differences. However, in addition to linguistic differences, groups can differ in terms of cognitive biases and national cultures. This paper presents some preliminary findings about the impact that language, cognitive biases, and national cultures have on SA and confidence within a multinational coalition headquarters.
Applying the Contextual Control Model (COCOM) to the Identification of Situation Awareness Requirements for Tactical Army Commanders BIBAFull-Text 1402-1406
  Simon Banbury; Sebastien Tremblay; Robert Rousseau; Kelly Forbes; Richard Breton
Tactical command and control (C2) operations under conditions of complexity, uncertainty, stress, and time pressure impose significant cognitive demands on the Tactical Army Commanders'(TAC) ability to successfully prosecute their missions. The objective of the present study was to apply Hollnagel's (1998) Contextual Control Model (COCOM) to the identification of time-critical Situation Awareness (SA) requirements for TACs engaged in time-critical tactical C2 operations. SA requirements relevant to the successful completion of a broad range of tactical C2 missions - convoy escort, checkpoint security, combat, and cordon and search - were identified. These SA requirements were then prioritized into a subset of 'critical' SA requirements and then further analyzed in terms of classifying them into one of four COCOM control modes (i.e., strategic, tactical, opportunistic and scrambled). Through this analysis, areas that impact the development of decision aids, and other forms of decision support techniques, for TACs were identified.
Individual Differences in Concurrent Performance of Military and Robotics Tasks with Tactile Cueing BIBAFull-Text 1407-1411
  Jessie Y. C. Chen; Peter I. Terrence
We simulated a military tank environment and examined the performance of the combined position of gunner and robotics operator and how aided target recognition (AiTR) capabilities (delivered either through tactile or tactile + visual cueing) for the gunnery task might benefit the concurrent robotics and communication tasks. Specifically, we investigated whether performance was affected by individual differences factors such as spatial ability and perceived attentional control. Results showed that participants' robotics and communication tasks both improved significantly when the AiTR was available to assist them with their gunnery task. The participants' spatial ability was found to be a good indicator of their gunnery and robotics task performance. However, when AiTR was available to assist their gunnery task, those participants of lower spatial ability were able to perform their robotics tasks as well as those of higher spatial ability. There was also evidence that operators' preference of cueing modality was related to their spatial ability and attentional control.
UAV-Guided Navigation for Ground Robot Operations BIBAFull-Text 1412-1416
  Jessie Y. C. Chen; Bryan R. Clark
We simulated a military reconnaissance environment and examined the performance of ground robotics operators who needed to utilize sensor images from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. We also evaluated participants' spatial ability and examined if it affected their performance or perceived workload. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when s/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared to other UAV conditions (baseline-no UAV, micro air vehicle, and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting.
Applying the Interaction Design Process to Mission Planning: Using TeamMATE Platform BIBAFull-Text 1417-1420
  Kimberly DeFiori; David Feldpausch; LaToya Hall; Dr. Erika Rovira
The Army is in need of a system that affords leaders flexible mission planning. Currently, the Army uses a sandtable to plan and brief missions to unit subordinates. A sandtable is a representation of the mission area using the earth, sticks, rocks and anything else available. Team Mission Assistant-Tactical/Exercise (TeamMATE) was created to allow leaders to plan, rehearse, execute, and have an after action review on an electronic platform. This in turn would support efficient planning and review of a mission on all levels of the leader and subordinate chain-of-command. Through the design process of conceptualizing the design space, prototyping, and empirical data gathering we were able to provide design solutions to better support the end users of TeamMATE. Design approaches and limitations will be discussed throughout the paper.


  Su Wong Chang; Kyung Soo Lee; Seong Soo Ham; Sun Ah Lee; Tae Kyung Hahn; Young Woo Sohn
This research aims at determining psychological elements that influence team coordination between a captain and a first officer in a commercial airline cockpit. It also examines how these elements interact between one another in different cultural settings. We propose that mutual inclusiveness of differential status enhances psychological safety and engagement in safety improvement efforts. Survey results based on 254 airline pilots suggest that status (captain, first officer) and mutual inclusiveness (openness between team members) influence psychological safety and mutual inclusiveness moderates the relationship between status and psychological safety. The results also suggest that psychological safety is positively associated with engagement in safety improvement efforts and also mediates the relationship between mutual inclusiveness and improvement efforts. This research provides insights into antecedents of fostering safety improvement efforts in airline crew teams in which cultural differences and professional hierarchy exist.
Complexity in Collaboration: Developing an Understanding of Macrocognition in Teams through Examination of Task Complexity BIBAFull-Text 1425-1429
  Heather C. Lum; Stephen M. Fiore; Michael A. Rosen; Eduardo Salas
How individuals and teams work together to plan, think, decide, and solve problems has been of increasing interest to researchers within the past decade. Specifically, collaborative aspects of macrocognition such as knowledge construction, collaborative team problem solving, team consensus, and outcome evaluation and revision are moving to the forefront of team research. Critical to our overall goal of improving collaboration, is an understanding of how the nature of the task interacts with team problem solving. Therefore, in this paper we focus on task complexity and discuss how it can potentially be operationalized and examined to better understand how it can impact collaboration.
Improving Shared Cognition in Forward Surgical Teams: From Theory to Learning Strategies BIBAFull-Text 1430-1434
  Katherine A. Wilson; Michael A. Rosen; Eduardo Salas; Donald W. Robinson; Jeffrey S. Augenstein
Forward surgical teams must perform an extremely complex task (i.e., manage critically injured soldiers) under extreme time pressure, noise, and other stressors while managing some of the most high stakes for decision and action outcomes imaginable -- human life. This paper explores the role of shared cognition in the performance of forward surgical teams and draws connections to specific learning strategies that can be used to foster shared cognition and ultimately safety and effectiveness. Additionally, principles for each of the learning strategies are provided.
  Nathaniel J. McNeese; Mark S. Pfaff; Gerald M. Santoro; Michael D. McNeese
Various studies in the team cognition literature suggest the primacy of face-to-face interaction over various forms of electronically-mediated communication. Theories supporting distributed cognition and anchored perception indicate that select forms of communication media may create impoverished shared mental models that fail to transfer understanding across team members. Of particular interest in this study is the perceived value of a new virtual communication medium, Second Life, as compared to face-to-face or auditory teleconferencing in a team task. Team members perceived the face-to-face modality to better aid the team than Second Life or the auditory teleconferencing mode, yet the results show an experience-based bias toward face-to-face interaction. Team success was rated worst for the auditory condition. Discussion of these results are developed in terms of their impact on theory, practice, and applications. Additional data analyses are suggested that will yield in-depth understanding of Jasper team performance.
A Tool to Evaluate Information Exchange in a Joint, Interagency, Multinational, and Public (JIMP) Environment BIBAFull-Text 1440-1444
  Tamsen Taylor; Lora Bruyn Martin; Renee Chow; David Smith; Philip Farrell; Dave Allen
The intent of this project was to develop and test a database of questions that could be used to assess information exchange within a team-of-teams operating in a Joint, Interagency, Multinational, and Public (JIMP) environment. This work involved an initial identification of question categories (performance, effectiveness, efficiency, conditions, processes, and products) based on a review of the literature relevant to information exchange and performance in teams-of-teams. Question categories and sample questions were reviewed by scientific Subject-Matter Experts (SMEs) and modifications were made in accordance with the feedback received. A complete inventory of questions for each question category was developed and an online version of the questionnaire was pilot tested. Recommendations for future work include refinement and subsequent validation of the questionnaire and the use of supplementary measures of information exchange performance, in combination with the questionnaire, to get a more complete picture of information exchange.
Managing a supply chain: What communication patterns might divulge about information availability and team performance BIBAFull-Text 1445-1449
  April M. Bennett; Scott M. Galster; Allen W. Dukes; W. Todd Nelson; Rebecca D. Brown
Teamwork is continually becoming more diverse and complex, with teams facing distributed and asynchronous collaborative situations. The crux of making these complex situations work successfully is the ability to convey useful information to those who need it when they need it. A fundamental question remains: how much information is enough? Decision makers need a certain level of information to make effective decisions; however, too much information can be overwhelming or even detrimental. The present study uses a modified supply chain simulation to examine the impact of information availability on overall team performance and communication. Information view and communication were manipulated to constrain information availability. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of information availability on overall performance, communication patterns, information entropy, and situation awareness of distributed teams.

POSTERS: Usability

A Usability Comparison of Computerized Card Sorting Applications from the Researchers Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1450-1454
  Veronica Hinkle; Shannon Riley; Barbara S. Chaparro
Existing reviews of card sorting applications usually focus on the end user's perspective of the sorting experience. In this paper, we describe objective (task success and time on task) and subjective (task difficulty, ease of interpretation of results output, satisfaction scores, and preference rankings) results from a usability evaluation of three card sorting applications from a researcher's perspective. Results from this analysis show that the ease of setting up a card sort exercise and the ability to quickly generate meaningful results are of vital importance to researchers. Design recommendations for computerized card sort applications are discussed.
Lessons Learned While Considering Usability In a Developing World Classroom BIBAFull-Text 1455-1457
  Edward Trautman; Benjamin Trautman; Judy Kirchner; Mary Ann Trautman
This effort involves the redevelopment of the hectograph duplicating method. The overall product is directed toward application in impoverished schools, which currently possess little or no capability to reproduce classroom materials. This initial report considers the opportunity for redeveloping and applying this antique technology, specifically describing lessons learned from interactions in a field test in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The importance of this paper also involves the possibility that the profession of Human Factors Engineering, with its unique component of attention to social limitations and human capabilities, is well prepared for such retrospective development efforts. This poster session is intended to provide lessons learned from our initial attempt to optimize and evaluate usability in this unusual interface environment.
Perceived Usability of Ergonomic Interventions for Steel Bucking Bars BIBAFull-Text 1458-1462
  Spring S. Hull; Barbara S. Chaparro; Michael J. Jorgensen
Steel bucking bars used in sheet metal assembly tasks lack application of ergonomic principles. Four bucking bar interventions were evaluated for perceived usability and compared to a steel bucking bar. The interventions included a tungsten bucking bar, Viscolas rubber wrap adhered to a steel bucking bar, a steel bar paired with an anti-vibration glove, and a steel bar with a detachable handle. Usability measures included rank order of interventions, Borg Perceived Exertion Scale results, rivet quality, and participant willingness to recommend each intervention to others. Participants perceived less exertion using the tungsten bucking bar and were more likely to recommend the tungsten bucking bars to others. Half of the participants ranked the tungsten bucking bar as their first choice of all the interventions tested. The handle and the wrap were also considered usable by most participants. Participants perceived the most exertion using the steel bucking bar and were less likely to recommend the steel bar to others.
Accessibility and Usability of Health Care Equipment for Obese Patients: a Case Study in a Brazilian Public Hospital BIBAFull-Text 1463-1467
  Cristina do Carmo Lucio; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; Bruno Montanari Razza
Obesity is a chronic illness that has been considerably discussed because of its alarming increase. Obese individuals, besides the risk of developing several health and psychosocial problems, have restricted access many products, especially due to problems of size and resistance to weight. Medical and hospital equipment deserves special attention because it demands greater efficiency in promoting patient rehabilitation. This study aimed to analyze if the equipment available in a Brazilian public hospital was satisfactory for obese patients. The research procedure consisted of interviews with professionals and patients, systematic observation of the environment of the study, and metric and descriptive analysis of the equipment. The results indicated that most of the equipment served the majority of the obese patients, even though the equipment was in a bad state of repair. Other products, however, would require immediate intervention to help obese patients.

POSTERS: Health Care

Safety of the Antibiotic Medication Use Process in the Intensive Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 1468-1472
  Bonnie Paris; Pascale Carayon; Tosha Wetterneck; Mary Ann Blosky; Jim Walker
Understanding the antibiotic medication use process in the intensive care unit (ICU) is important for patient care outcomes. A system view of the medication use process facilitates understanding the role of communication between various disciplines in ensuring the timely administration of antibiotics. Antibioticrelated medication safety events (N=312) were collected in two adult ICUs. We describe the information and communication flow in the medication use process and show the complexity of the process. An in-depth analysis of 101 (32%) events for late first-dose antibiotic identifies multiple factors contributing to the events.
A call to classify and quantify hospital medication errors: Results from a metaanalysis BIBAFull-Text 1473-1477
  Kristin S. Moore; Stacy A. Balk
In 2000, the Institute of Medicine published To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System which stated that between 44,000 to 98,000 patient deaths occur annually due to largely preventable medical errors. While this number is staggering, the number of errors adversely affecting patients in ways other than death must be much greater. The goal of the current study was to determine the types of inhospital drugrelated medical errors that occur, as well as to quantify the proportion and severity of those errors. A lack of consistency across studies in hospital error reporting prevented an accurate analysis of drugrelated errors and their severity. The authors recommend future studies (and hospitals alike) adhere to, at minimum, five guidelines in error reporting. It is hoped that with standardized reporting methods a better understanding of medication-related errors can be gained, thus resulting in the design and implementation of error reducing measures.
Detecting Critical Patterns in Maternal-Fetal Heart Rate Signals BIBAFull-Text 1478-1482
  Brittany L. Anderson; Mark W. Scerbo; Lee A. Belfore; Alfred Z. Abuhamad
The present study examined how individuals detect critical patterns in maternal-fetal heart rate (MFHR) signals. Twenty-eight undergraduate students monitored simulated maternal-fetal heart rate signals for decelerations lasting either 30 or 44 seconds. They completed four 10-min sessions representing four different signal-to-noise S/N ratios (10, 4, 2, and 1), in which the S/N ratio represented the magnitude of the deceleration to background heart rate variability. The results showed that the introduction of any variability reduced the ability to detect signals and increased false alarms. Further, with S/N ratios of 2 and 1 participants made equivalent numbers of hits and false alarms. These results show that as the S/N ratio decreases, observers struggle to distinguish critical patterns from the background fetal heart activity. These findings highlight the source of one problem often observed when interpreting MFHR signals in clinical settings and underscore the need for auxiliary aids.

POSTERS: Tools and Methods

  Ronald R. Mourant; Namrata Gundewadi; Zhishuai Yin; Beverly K. Jaeger
Reliable measures of driving skill are important for driving simulators to play a larger role in driver education and training. In this study we measured the adequacy of left turns of 12 novice and 12 experienced drivers using a new performance measure. We called this Entry Lane Position Error (ELPE) and defined it as the perpendicular distance from the center of the lane being entered to the center of the vehicle's width at the point of new lane entrance. The different between average scores of ELPE for the novice and experienced groups was highly significant. In a driving simulator the participant's position and the road database are always available. Participants should be able to receive near real-time feedback as to the goodness of their lane turns. Visual playback of left turns is also easily implemented on most driving simulators We hope to investigate and analyze other simple performance measures that can reflect the skill level of novice drivers.
The development of the Driving Skill Assessment Tool (DSAT) BIBAFull-Text 1488-1492
  Liat Lampel; Adi Ronen; Tal Oron-Gilad
The primary objective of the current work was to develop an extensive driving skill assessment questionnaire for identifying drivers' level of skill, the Driving Skill Assessment Tool (DSAT). To generate the DSAT, a scientific and medical literature review was conducted along with experts' interviews. DSAT items were either self-developed or adopted from other questionnaires. The items list has the following characteristics: (1) a five scale Lickert in the format given in the DSI was adopted; (2) DSAT items were written in the first-person singular and were worded in the form of statement to which subjects could express their level of agreement; (3) redundancy policy was used; (4) Items were not organized in any particular order and were added in several instances. The comprehensive DSAT items list included 483 items. Factor analysis was performed twice, after which, we matched each statement with loading above 0.5 to its factor. The second analysis found 20 factors which explained 72.31% of the total variance. Finally, we identified four relevant factors for skill assessment; dealing with traffic situations and controlling the vehicle; driving in difficult conditions; merging in traffic; and adapting to road conditions and one factor related to safety motive. This DSAT's version includes 92 items.
Using Visual Attention Video Games and Traditional Interventions to Improve Baggage Screening BIBAFull-Text 1493-1497
  Davin Pavlas; Michael A. Rosen; Stephen M. Fiore; Eduardo Salas
Vigilance tasks represent an increasingly critical performance segment for civilians and military personnel alike. In order to combat the vigilance decrement and aid in making personnel more effective, it is necessary to find innovative ways to mitigate the vigilance decrement and aid the human visual system. One such technique lies in an interesting field; recent findings suggest that action video games modify the visual attention system in a way that is particularly useful to performance in a sustained attention task. This article discusses the nature of these findings in the context of improving performance in a common vigilance task: baggage screening.
Development of a computerized model for evaluation of manual insertion of flexible hoses in automobile assembly BIBAFull-Text 1498-1502
  Brad R. Gusich; Thomas J. Armstrong; Na Jin Seo; D. Christian Grieshaber
The purpose of this work was to develop a protocol and a related computer application, herein called the Hose Insertion Program, which predicts human insertion capability for flexible hoses as a function of worker, hose, and task factors. The protocol is based on previous studies of hand strength, posture, friction, and hand clearance, and provides the logic for the program's algorithms. To demonstrate and evaluate the program, seven different hose insertions were selected from an automobile assembly plant. After modeling the whole body forces capable using human modeling software, raw data from these insertions and the output from the human modeling software were entered into the Hose Insertion Program. Because assembly operators were observed performing these insertions, it was hypothesized that the program output would indicate that the "insertion force capable" would be greater than "insertion force required" for both whole body and coupling force for the gender and approximated size/strength percentiles observed at the plant. Such an output would mean that the program accurately predicted that these operators were able to perform the hose insertion. For whole body push forces modeled in human modeling software and then entered into the Hose Insertion Program, all 7 outputs were accurate in stating that the operators were capable of performing the task. Of the 7 "insertion force capable" output opportunities for coupling forces related to the observed insertion operations, all 7 outputs were accurate in stating that the operators were capable of performing the task.
Control and Display Evaluation using the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT) BIBAFull-Text 1503-1507
  Beth Plott
In the DoD as well as in many industries increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems.

POSTERS: Workload / Stressors

Workload Transitions in Driving BIBAFull-Text 1508-1512
  Justin F. Morgan; Timothy J. Smoker; Andre J. Garcia; Peter A. Hancock
Driver mental workload is an often studied concept, however less attention is given to the question of transitions in driver workload. Fourteen adult drivers completed a simulated driving task following a navigation system which would fail at certain intervals. Subjective measures of driver workload were taken and demonstrate that the recovery from a driving stressor is asymmetrical and time-delayed. Drivers' subjective ratings of workload remained high after the stressors were removed. Findings and implications are discussed.
  J. A. Szalma; P. A. Hancock; S. Quinn
A quantitative review of time pressure effects on human performance was conducted. One-hundred-twenty-five references were identified that met selection criteria. These studies provided 827 effect sizes. Analyses revealed an overall small but detrimental effect of time pressure on performance. However, moderator analyses indicated that the effect of time pressure varied as a function of task type and the measure of performance (accuracy vs. speed). As expected, time pressure facilitated speed but impaired accuracy for both perceptual and cognitive tasks. Although there were few studies available for motor tasks, evidence from the available studies indicated that time pressure reduced speed. Accuracy data were inconclusive. Across all analyses there was evidence of substantial variability across studies, indicating that other moderating variables may influence the performance effects of time pressure.
  Philip Kortum; Alicia Ling; Andy Su; S. Camille Peres; Kurt Stallman
The goal of this study was to begin to understand the subjective workload reported by users who are placed on telephone hold while listening to a number of different stimuli. Two separate studies were conducted. In the first study, participants were placed on hold while listening to a series of on hold stimuli. On-hold stimuli comprised of silence, natural voices and tones were used. While on hold, they performed a secondary task. In the second study, participants were not placed on hold, but simply performed each of the tasks. The NASA-TLX was used to measure workload in each of the conditions. Results show that there is a significant difference between subjective workload for the different on-hold stimuli, but that the contributions of the secondary tasks were not clear.
  Ernesto A. Bustamante; Randall D. Spain
Mental workload is one of the most important constructs of interests for Human Factors researchers. Adequately assessing the amount of mental workload that people experience while performing tasks under specific conditions is essential for the design of safe and efficient systems. Due to its ease of use, the NASA TLX has become the most widely used method of measuring mental workload. However, its psychometric properties are still questionable. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of measurement invariance of the TLX and raise awareness in the Human Factors community. Two hundred participants reported the amount of mental workload they typically experience while driving in urban and rural areas and across the country. Results indicated that the TLX lacked scalar invariance, thereby biasing the estimation of mean scores and making the examination of mean differences misleading. These findings suggest that researchers should first examine the extent of measurement invariance of the TLX before they proceed to make inferences about mean differences in the amount of mental workload reported by participants under different conditions.
Detecting mental workload fluctuation during learning of a novel task using thermography BIBAFull-Text 1527-1531
  Jihun Kang; Kari Babski-Reeves
Training has been identified as a means to reduce mental workload. However, there are limitations associated with many current mental workload measurement techniques. Thermography of the face has been identified as a potential workload measurement tool that may be more closely related to performance and subjective ratings of performance than many other physiological measures. The objective of this study was to validate the efficacy of thermography for assessing mental workload. Twenty participants, 10 males and 10 females, completed seven blocks of an alpha-numeric task. Changes in nose temperature (ΔNT), task accuracy, reaction time, and two subjective mental workload ratings were collected. Performance improved over time, while ΔNT and subjective mental workload ratings decreased. Nose temperature was found to be strongly correlated with both performance measures and subjective perceptions of mental workload.
Equivalent-Forms Reliability of Printed and Spoken Versions of the NASA-TLX BIBAFull-Text 1532-1535
  R. Grant; C. M. Carswell; C. Lio; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke
Sixty-four participants provided subjective workload assessments after each of 15 trials of selected laparoscopic training tasks, including cannulation, ring transfer, and rope inspection. Half of the participants responded to the NASA-TLX using the traditional printed format with manual (written) responses. The remainder listened to auditory scale cues and made vocal responses. A comparison of the two formats revealed strong (r > .80) correlations and equivalent sensitivity to task and training effects, indicating that the vocal format may be a suitable substitute for traditional administration methods in the evaluation of surgical technology.
  Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran
The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

POSTERS: Driving

Steering and gaze control modifications from directed or spontaneous use of a visual augmentation cue BIBAFull-Text 1541-1545
  Franck Mars
In the perspective of full-windshield HUD in cars, this study investigated whether adding a guidance cue in the visual scene influences drivers' gaze strategies and steering behavior. Participants negotiated a series of bends with or without a visual beacon positioned on the tangent point or close to it. Results revealed that the stability of steering was improved when tracking of the beacon was enforced. The visual cue was not spontaneously used by the drivers and gaze strategy only showed minor changes in that case.
  William J. Horrey; Mary F. Lesch
Studies of driver distraction are prevalent and the findings show that, in general, driving performance is degraded when drivers perform concurrent activities. In the real world, drivers often control how invehicle tasks are initiated and performed. That is, drivers themselves elect whether or not to engage in these activities. The current study reports on some of the factors that are related to drivers'self-reported willingness to perform distracting activities while driving. Forty participants observed a series of short driving videos and subsequently reported how willing they would be in performing these activities in the given context. We also gathered demographic and driving history information, along with different personality scales and attitudes and opinions regarding various invehicle distractions. In general, the willingness to engage in distracting activities was strongly associated with past behavior with respect to distractions (r = .78), confidence in their ability to deal with distractions (r = .52), lower estimates of the impact of invehicle tasks on performance (r = -.42 to -.35), and tendencies towards sensation seeking (r = .28), among others. A step-wise regression analysis indicated that a subset of these factors accounted for 76% of the variance in will-ingness ratings. Implications for driver safety and potential interventions are discussed.
Recovering from Unexpected Lane Drifts BIBAFull-Text 1551-1555
  Christopher A. Monk; David G. Kidd
A desktop driving simulator was used to investigate how drivers react to an unexpected lane drift. Participants drove scenarios in which vision was occluded for three to seven 1-second intervals, in which a wind gust pushed them laterally during the final occlusion in a series. No-task and an odd/even digit task condition were used to vary the cognitive load during the occlusions. Steering angle and lateral lane position profiles were used to identify steering reaction times and time to regain lateral lane stability after a lane drift. Results showed that drivers were quicker to countersteer and regain lateral lane position stability in the digit task occlusion condition.
Sources of Secondary Task Interference with Driving: Executive Processes or Verbal and Visuo-spatial Rehearsal Processes BIBAFull-Text 1556-1559
  Nichole Morris; Cooper Phillips; Kathleen Thibault; Alex Chaparro
We investigated the effects of secondary working memory tasks that loaded either visuospatial working memory or verbal working memory (phonological loop) and which required either rehearsal or executive processes involving stimulus manipulation. The effects of the secondary tasks on driver look-out behavior and driving performance were assessed. Preliminary studies were conducted to select tasks that resulted in similar levels of accuracy and perceived difficulty across modalities (visuo-spatial, verbal, rehearse, and manipulate). Piloting and the preliminary studies were also used to evaluate different visual tasks and to select a visual task that could not be encoded verbally. Results of the study reveal that driving performance is significantly impaired while performing a secondary manipulation task than performing a rehearsal task of equivalent difficulty. The study finds that visuo-spatial and verbal secondary tasks produce the same level of interference with overall driving performance.

POSTERS: Training

  Marc Winterbottom; Robert Patterson; Jim Gaska; Ryan Amann; Justin Prost
Maintaining training proficiency during long combat deployments has become an important issue in recent years, and therefore the requirement for deployable training devices has also increased in importance. These training systems must not only deliver high fidelity, but must meet stringent requirements for reduced size for transportability and ease of set-up and operation. We describe an experiment examining the effect of reduced field of view on the control of a roll disturbance. Results indicated that, for control of roll angle, there was little change in performance for fields of view greater than 40 degrees. This finding provides evidence that field of view may be reduced in deployable systems without adversely affecting training effectiveness, at least for some essential capabilities.
The Effect of Input Device on First-Person Shooter Target Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 1565-1569
  Kelsi M. Lenz; Alex Chaparro; Barbara S. Chaparro
Gaming has become a billion dollar industry over the past several years. First-person shooter (FPS) games have become increasingly popular, and the player's ability to accurately control their weapon and acquire targets quickly is very important. This was a two part study that assessed the effect of input device on FPS target acquisition. Study 1 assessed players'accuracy on eliminating targets in the FPS game Star Wars Battlefront II using three different input devices (mouse, Playstation 2 (PS2) controller, and joystick) with two different weapon types (sniper rifle and blaster rifle). No significant differences in performance were found between input devices. However, participants did take fewer shots in the sniper rifle condition when using the joystick. There was a significant difference found between the rifle types, with participants taking fewer shots and less time to eliminate targets when using the sniper rifle. Trends observed in the results suggest different input devices are more effective for eliminating static versus moving targets. Study 2 assessed players' who were experts with one of the input devices performance at the same task using only the blaster rifle. Joystick users were trained on the device before completing the tasks to assure they were at the same level of performance as the mouse and PS2 participants. No significant differences were found between devices for time to kill targets. However, participants using the mouse took significantly fewer shots than those using either the joystick or the PS2 controller. This suggests that after training the mouse is the most efficient input device for first-person shooter target acquisition.
GamePAB: A Game-Based Performance Assessment Battery Application BIBAFull-Text 1570-1573
  Dustin B. Chertoff; Christian Jerome; Glenn A. Martin; Bruce W. Knerr
As research into the use of games as a substitute for more expensive virtual reality trainers increases, the need for trainers to identify deficiencies in a user's basic ability with game operations becomes apparent. This work details the implementation of a toolkit that can be used to determine deficiencies a player might have during the operation of a first-person shooter style game. It achieves this by looking at a player's efficiency at performing tasks fundamental to a game-based trainer: maneuvering around an environment using a keyboard and their use of the mouse to look at and interact with a moving object. Based on the generated results, it can then be determined by a trainer what, if any, further work will be needed to address user deficiencies in order to make an actual training exercise more valuable.

POSTERS: Eye Tracking

  Eliana Medina; Elisabeth Cuddihy; Eli Goldberg; Judith A. Ramey
Eye tracking technology has caught the attention of designers who wish to better understand how users visually interact with products and technologies. Given the availability of eye tracking technologies, which are able to measure users' eye gaze on computer screens, designers and researchers can employ eye tracking to answer a very wide variety of questions about users' visual behavior, cognition, and visual attention strategies. Yet, commercial eye tracking software typically provides a limited number of out-of the-box analysis tools for understanding the massive amount of data generated during eye tracking sessions. This poster (1) surveys the range of questions that people have successfully asked using eye tracking technology and (2) summarizes how raw eye tracking data is transformed into higher-level constructs that are more appropriate for analysis and the kinds of analysis that can be performed. The goal of this poster is to help designers make more informed decisions when considering the use of eye tracking to aid them in design.
Do you see what I see Eye tracking and Shared Mental Models BIBAFull-Text 1579-1583
  Moshe Feldman; Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Kimberly Smith-Jentsch; Nicholas Lagattuta
Shared mental models of the team and task have been shown to facilitate better team processes (e.g. coordination) and performance. To this extent, more dynamic measures of mental model measures are needed to better understand how sharedness is through various team macrocognitive stages. This study investigated the relationship between eye patterns and mental model sharedness. Results indicate a positive relationship between mental model sharedness and eye fixation similarity. Implications for future research are discussed.
Integrating Head Pose Tracking with Eye Tracking for Wider FOV Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 1584-1588
  H. Cai; Y. Lin
In virtual environment based driving experiments, eyetracking is very helpful for quantitatively investigating driver visual behavior. However, commercial eye trackers usually have a limited maximum tracking range, e.g. ±35degrees in horizontal direction for Tobii x50. In high fidelity applications with 135 degrees view, or even 360 degrees curved screen, there is a need to extend the range of eye tracking. This paper proposed a method to combine head pose tracking and eye tracking to achieve a large range of sightline tracking in wide field of view applications. Head poses (yaw and pitch) were estimated from head images with Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP). Head images were represented with a combination of coefficients obtained from Principal Component Analysis (PCA). With a 7x6 calibration grid, head pose estimation achieved the mean errors of yaw angle at -2.1° and pitch angle at -6.5°. The standard deviation was about 10°. The estimation process is feasible for real-time wide field of view virtual environment applications.
  Joshua Gomer; Alex Walker; Florian Gilles; Andrew Duchowski
Currently there are conflicting opinions regarding dual-task performance. Research by Svensson, Angelborg-Thanderz, Sjoberg, and Olsson (1997) demonstrated that adding a moderately complex secondary task decreased performance on a primary task. Contradictory to this, Kathmann, Hochrein, and Uwer (1999) demonstrated primary task performance benefits with the addition of a secondary task. The study reported here further examined the effect of a secondary task on primary task performance. In this design a baseline primary task only condition was compared to primary task performance in low, medium, and high demand dual-task scenarios. The primary task in this experiment was a paddle-ball game and the secondary task consisted of horizontal addition. This study investigated performance, subjective mental workload, the number and duration of fixations, and transitions in an effort to better understand changes in eye movements as they relate to changes in demand. Results of this study showed significant decreases in performance as well as significant increases in mental workload and transitions across conditions of increasing demand. Discussion of these results illustrates the need for further investigation and considerations for the intelligent design of user interfaces.
Eye-Tracking Patterns of Web Portal Browsing BIBAFull-Text 1594-1598
  Justin W. Owens; Saurav Shrestha; Barbara S. Chaparro
This paper reports on the scan patterns of users browsing a 2-column and 3-column web portal page. Consistent scanning patterns for each of the 2-column and 3-column web portal pages were found. Users typically fixated the portal channel in the upper left of the 2-column layout and in the top, center channel of the 3-column page. Implications including the likelihood and efficiency of portal users finding information on portal pages are discussed.
Eye Movements on a Single-Column and Double-Column Text Web Page BIBAFull-Text 1599-1603
  Sav Shrestha; Justin Owens; Barbara S. Chaparro
This study examines user eye movement patterns of a single-column and double-column text web page. The results show a higher number of fixations for information in a second column of an article than for the same information in the lower portion of a single column. In addition, the typical "F" pattern appeared in the left column of the double-column layout, but not in the right column. Users also had more fixations on page elements outside of the textual content, such as ads, when they were browsing than when they were searching.

POSTERS: Sensation and Perception

Testing the Efficacy of Synthetic Vision during Non-Normal Operations as an Enabling Technology for Equivalent Visual Operations BIBAFull-Text 1604-1608
  Lynda J. Kramer; Steven P. Williams
Synthetic Vision (SV) may serve as a revolutionary crew/vehicle interface enabling technology to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve or even improve on the safety of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations, maintain the operational tempos of VFR, and potentially retain VFR procedures independent of actual weather and visibility conditions. One significant challenge lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence of SV, the location (head-up or head-down) of this information during an instrument approach, and the type of airport lighting information on landing minima. Another key element of the testing entailed investigating the pilot's awareness and reaction to non-normal events (i.e., failure conditions) that were unexpectedly introduced into the experiment. These non-normals are critical determinants in the underlying safety of all-weather operations. This paper presents the experimental results specific to pilot response to non-normal events using head-up and head-down synthetic vision displays.
Visual Representation of Arithmetic Properties BIBAFull-Text 1609-1613
  Sensation and Perception; Douglas J. Gillan
Quantitative graphs use a spatial metaphor in which spatial features represent numerical amounts. Tally number systems (used in ancient civilizations) also made use of the spatial feature of length. Arithmetic properties, such as the commutative property of addition, can also be represented spatially. An experiment trained college students about 11 basic arithmetic properties either using numerical examples or spatial/graphical examples. Both groups were tested using arithmetic problems based on the arithmetic properties both prior to and following the training. The Spatial Training Group improved response time more from the pre- to the post-test than did the Numerical Training Group. The discussion focuses on the cognitive representation of numbers and arithmetic operations by means of spatial representation, evidence from neurophysiology, and the historical development of number systems.
Monitor Viewing Distance for Younger and Older Workers BIBAFull-Text 1614-1617
  Neil Charness; Katinka Dijkstra; Tiffany Jastrzembski; Sallie Weaver; Michael Champion
Rempel, Willms, Anshel, Jaschinski & Sheedy (2007) recommend 52-73 cm for eye distance to a computer monitor based on an experiment that manipulated viewing distance. Jaschinski (2002) found a preferred viewing distance of 63 cm. However, these and other studies of viewing distance used relatively small samples of young adults below age 40. In this study a representative sample of 206 university employees in two age ranges, <= 40 years and => 50 years, were observed in their offices at their computer workstations. Mean distance to the center of the screen was 68 cm (95% confidence interval: 66 to 71 cm). Regressions showed that factors such as gender, whether a lens was worn, type of monitor, monitor resolution, and monitor contrast ratio did not predict distance to screen. However, there was an age by job class interaction for viewing distances with younger faculty at 64 cm, older faculty at 71 cm, young staff at 73 cm and older staff at 67 cm. Reported eye strain was related solely to glare rating. Results indicate that monitor positioning guidelines are reasonable for older workers and that glare sources could be reduced in typical office environments.
Perception and Displays for Teleoperated Robots BIBAFull-Text 1618-1621
  Linda U. Ellis; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Jeremy D. Ellis; Lisa J. Upham; Sheana R. Jannone
In remote or teleoperational tasks involving humans and robots, various aspects of the remote display system may greatly influence the individual's interactions with the teleoperated entity. We look at the effects of display size, display orientation, and display viewpoint on several measures of operator performance, physiological state, and perceptions of the task. Overall performance is measured in terms of accuracy and completion times. Physiological state is assessed through physiological markers of arousal, specifically heart rate, pulse, and skin conductance. Operator perception of the task is measured with a collection of self reported perceptions of workload, frustration, and sense of control. Results indicate that there are significant performance-related and physiological changes in the operator due to conditions of screen size, angle, and viewpoint. Small screen size was most associated with increased workload. Results have important implications for teleoperated robot display design.
You Cannot Ignore It: Attention to Irrelevant Sound During a Preexposure Period Does Not Reduce its Disruption of Serial Recall BIBAFull-Text 1622-1626
  Nick Perham; Simon Banbury
The deleterious effects of background sound on performance are documented in both the applied and auditory distraction literature (e.g., Perham, Banbury & Jones, 2007a, 2007b). However, debate surrounds whether background sound can be habituated to through pre-exposure. Potential support comes from the attentional capture account where irrelevant sound captures attention through an orienting response (OR) and habituation of this reduces auditory distraction (Cowan, 1995). However, there is a difference between the original conception of the OR and that proposed by Cowan: the former required attention to stimuli whereas the latter required inattention (Jones, Macken, & Mosdell, 1997). This conceptual difference was tested using pre- and post-exposure serial recall performance under quiet, matched (attention to same sound during exposure and serial recall) and mismatched (attention to alternative sound during exposure and serial recall) conditions. The lack of difference between conditions suggests that attending to irrelevant sound does not reduce auditory distraction.

POSTERS: Virtual Environments

Attentional asymmetries in virtual space BIBAFull-Text 1627-1630
  Ines Ann Heber; Sarah Siebertz; Marc Wolter; Torsten Kuhlen; Bruno Fimm
The present study investigated the influence of virtual depth on attentional asymmetries in healthy young participants (n= 20), by administering a variation of a luminance judgment task as well as a line bisection task in different depth locations (peripersonal, extrapersonal) within three-dimensional virtual space. Pseudoneglect was present in both tasks and depth locations with clear emphasis on peripersonal space. The results show highly significant attentional asymmetries in virtual space that are comparable to real space and suggest that Virtual Reality (VR) is an appropriate tool for assessing visuo-spatial attention in virtual space.
Simulator Sickness During Head Mounted Display (HMD) of Real World Video Captured Scenes BIBAFull-Text 1631-1634
  Jason Moss; Jenna Scisco; Eric Muth
The effect of viewing a display of the "real-world" via an HMD on simulator sickness was investigated. We hypothesized that simulator sickness would increase as time performing a task wearing an HMD increased. Also, we predicted that viewing a "real-world" display via an HMD compared to a control of not using an HMD would result in greater sickness. Participants made 200 head movements to look at eight different objects during two within-subjects conditions: (1) wearing an HMD and viewing a video display of the room; and (2) not wearing an HMD. Sickness scores were greater when viewing the room through the HMD and increased as time on task increased in both conditions. These findings suggested that characteristics of the HMD as well as task performance may have contributed to simulator sickness.
Bridging cognitive modeling and model-based evaluation: extending GOMS to model virtual sociotechnical systems and strategic activities BIBAFull-Text 1635-1639
  Sylvain Pronovost; Robert L. West
Cognitive modeling and human factors models claim to represent critical features of human behavior and cognition, but for very different purposes. While cognitive modeling is concerned with the description and explanation of fundamental cognitive processes, human factors modeling is interested in performance and workload measures derived from simple formalisms of behavior and cognition in order to test design hypotheses. The present paper extends the use of GOMS models from models of the knowledge necessary for an agent to perform a task, to complex sociotechnical processes involving multiple agents in strategic activities situated in a virtual environment. The authors believe that extending GOMS may help to bridge the knowledge representation-driven cognitive models of complex human behaviors with the task networks-driven models of the human factors tradition.
An Evaluation of the Long Duration use of an Head Mounted Display BIBAFull-Text 1640-1644
  Harry Litaker; Shelby Thompson; Ronald Archer
The goal of the current study was to fill a gap in the literature concerning the long duration use of a near-eye head/helmet mounted display (HMD). This research has been an ongoing endeavor to create a Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) that could aid in Intravehicular (IVA) and Extravehicular (EVA) activities with astronauts. There have been numerous publications discussing the use of near-eye HMDs, or immersive environments, and physiological side effects, but relatively none examining long duration effects. Two participants wore the MIST, including a near-eye HMD, for approximately four hours to examine the long duration effects. Using a Cooper Harper, Corlett and Bishop Discomfort Scale, and NASA TLX, we found little to no significant differences between participants over time, and in most cases, scores improved with time. These results suggest that persons can don and use an HMD for long periods of time with no physical side effects.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD1 - Framework, Methods, and Design Implications

Developing a Framework for Intuitive Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1645-1649
  Marita A. O'Brien; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Many technology marketing materials tout the intuitive nature of products, but current human-computer interaction (HCI) guidelines provide limited methods to help designers create this experience beyond making them easy to use. This paper proposes a definition for intuitive interaction with specific attributes to allow designers to create products that elicit the target experience. Review of relevant literatures provides empirical evidence for the suggested working definition of intuitive HCI: interactions between humans and high technology in lenient learning environments that allow the human to use a combination of prior experience and feedforward methods to achieve an individual's functional and abstract goals. Core concepts supporting this definition were compiled into an organizational framework that includes: seeking user goals, performing well-learned behavior, determining what to do next, metacognition, knowledge in the head, and knowledge in the world. This paper describes these concepts and proposes design approaches that could facilitate intuitive behavior and suggests areas for further research.
Perception of Information Security and Its Implications for Mobile Phone BIBAFull-Text 1650-1654
  Ding-Long Huang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy; Xiao-li Shang; Ying Liu; Xia Wang
Information security is of great concern to IT users, who may hesitate or refuse to adopt IT appliances because of worries about security problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the antecedences and consequences of people's perception of information security. This study included three phases. In phase 1, a six-factor structure modeling people's perception of information security was developed through a survey study and exploratory factor analysis. In phase 2, the relations between people's perception of information security and their intention to adopt IT appliances were tested through a laboratory experiment and path analysis. Significant effects were found and a path model was developed. In phase 3, the implications of people's perception of information security for mobile phone were discussed through focus group. Mobile users' perception of mobile security in seven scenarios was summarized. Three personas of mobile security were developed.
Ecological Aesthetics Design: Presenting a Framework for Product Aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 1655-1659
  Moin Rahman; Ira Jhangiani
We have utilized the principles of ecological psychology in general, and its concept of "direct perception" (Gibson, 1966) in particular, to develop the Ecological Aesthetics Design (EAD) framework to explain how the ecology of a consumer influences his aesthetic judgment of a product. In the EAD framework, we have identified three ecologies (physical, socio-cultural and experience), which together, inform and influence a consumer's aesthetic judgment. Furthermore, based on findings from affective sciences, we show that aesthetic judgment itself is a form of direct perception, which actually is a nonconscious mode of gleaning a product's attributes (quality, function, etc.) through its appearance. The EAD approach provides a much needed framework for product designers to systematically determine the aesthetic requirements of a product for a specific group of consumers whose tastes, dispositions and attitudes are shaped by their ecology.
Analysis of Human Information Acquisition Behavior for Natural Gaze-Based Wheelchair Control BIBAFull-Text 1660-1664
  Meike Jipp; Christian Bartolein; Essameddin Badreddin
Especially for severely disabled people, a powered wheelchair is an important means to participate in societal life and live as far as possible independently. To achieve this goal for users, who cannot operate their wheelchair with the traditional joystick or specialty controls, methods have been developed to enable steering the wheelchair on the basis of the user's gaze behavior. While existing approaches require the user to adapt his/her gaze behavior to match the characteristics of the human-technology interaction and/or only provide reasoning about the desired motion direction of the user, the conducted study gives crucial input about the relationship between the gaze behavior of wheelchair users and the - from the user - desired goal position as well as his/her anticipated mission. Implications for a natural gaze-based assistance system for electrically powered wheelchairs are drawn, which allows reasoning on the user's behavioral goal position and his/her current mission.
  Kihyo Jung; Heecheon You; Ochae Kwon
A small number of representative human models (RHMs) are used for efficient product design and evaluation in digital environments; however, the multivariate performance evaluation on existing RHM generation methods has not been made. The present study developed a multivariate accommodation evaluation method, and then applied the proposed method to evaluation of the grid method which generates RHMs at scattered grids over the population distribution. The measure multivariate accommodation performance quantifies the proportion of the population within representative grids formed to accommodate a designated percentage of the target population. Twelve RHMs were generated by the grid method to accommodate 95% of the 1988 US Army anthropometric database and it was found that the accommodation performance of the RHMs decreased dramatically as the number of anthropometric dimensions increased (accommodation percentage = 99% for a one dimension and 10% for 10 dimensions). Multiple regression analysis identified that three factors (overlap area of representative grids, adjusted R2 between key dimensions and other body dimensions, and sum of body size ranges) significantly affect the accommodation percentage of the grid method. The proposed evaluation method is applicable for evaluation of other RHM generation methods.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD3 - The Boeing 787 Dreamliner - A Case Study

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner a Case Study in Large-scale Design Integration BIBAFull-Text 1670-1671
  D. L. McMullin; A. R. Jacobsen McMullin; D. C. Carvan; R. J. Gardner; J. A. Goegan; M. S. Koehn
The development of an all-new commercial transport airplane presents a unique opportunity for the practical application of human factors and ergonomics skills and methods in a large-scale engineering program. From satisfying the needs and desires of a widely diverse global user population that includes passengers, pilots, flight attendants, maintenance workers, ground service personnel, and factory workers; to ensuring that the human interface is appropriately addressed across the whole airplane, including a vast array of systems; the integration of human factors into the overall design process represents a significant challenge to the human factors' community. Successfully balancing key human interface parameters such as safety, usability, producibility, maintainability, and training along with other design parameters such as economic viability, airplane mission requirements, and physical design constraints like weight, drag, and volume is the goal of human system integration.

PRODUCT DESIGN: PD4 - Product Design Potpourri

Evaluation of input control type and screen view orientation for a hand-held radiation detector BIBAFull-Text 1672-1676
  James Crowe; Pamela Castillejos; Scarlett Herring; M. Susan Hallbeck
Current radiation detectors are unwieldy, heavy, difficult to use and thus are not ergonomically designed. Easily usable control mechanisms are imperative for comfort, usability and accuracy for hand-held tools such as radiation detectors. A study, employing participants, examined the usability, design, and comfort of different handle designs and control mechanisms The purpose was to evaluate the prototypes for the main effects of control mechanism type, control orientation and word orientation on performance time. According to research findings for control type, the fastest performance time was found with vertically oriented push buttons and a vertical word orientation. The subjective results also showed a user preference for the vertical push button control. The results from this study can be used to drive future research and help develop a working prototype for a hand-held neutron detector.
Improving Neutron Detection: Usability Analysis of Control Mechanisms and Control Orientations for use in Hand-Held Devices BIBAFull-Text 1677-1681
  Scarlett Herring; Pamela Castillejos; M. Susan Hallbeck
This study was conducted to determine the best control mechanism for a hand-held neutron detector testing three control mechanisms (blister buttons, push-buttons and a single-axis rocker) and two control mechanism orientations (vertical and horizontal). A simple menu-selection task, based on the current neutron detector, was conducted to evaluate the prototypes and determine the most efficient combination of control mechanisms and handle shapes. The most efficient combination was based on the lowest error rate and movement time. The results of this investigation found support for the horizontally oriented controls. In addition, blister buttons were found to be the best control mechanism (lowest error) out of the three control mechanisms tested. Blister buttons should have a diameter of at least 1.3 cm and provide tactile feedback to the first responder in order to enhance user performance.
  Lisa Devlin
This study evaluates a current range of mode indicators (also called "safety mechanisms" or "selector switches") on various firearms. The purpose is to fill a gap in the current knowledge base. There are currently no studies of location or label design for the firearm mode indicator. This study evaluates experienced and novice users. With location, the more the mode indicator is in the user's line of sight, the more quickly it is found. The experienced group located the mode indicators in all locations more quickly than the novice group. In labeling, when the labels are less ambiguous, they are interpreted more correctly and with more confidence. Color needs to be studied further in order to determine which, if any, colors should be used to compliment other labels. Low participant numbers and high variances in the findings dictate that this must be treated as a pilot study; however, there is a trend in the data that indicates further study is warranted.
Sensory Quality Evaluation of Clothes Washing Machine Selector Knobs BIBAFull-Text 1687-1691
  James A. Kleiss
The present study sought to expand upon the traditional role of human factors in assessing the efficiency with which users interact with controls to include the sensory quality of controls, in this case, clothes washing machine rotary selector knobs. Thirty seven participants operated and compared the selector knobs on nine clothes washing machines, providing similarity judgments, pleasantness ratings, and verbal comments regarding most liked and least liked features. A multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that participants perceived differences among knobs along two sensory dimensions: tactile feel (smooth versus distinct detents) and the loudness of the detent. Pleasantness was optimized at a medium value of detent loudness, but was constant across levels of tactile feel. Tactile feel, therefore, defines an ideal dimension along which to perceptually differentiate knobs for branding purposes without negatively impacting perceived pleasantness.
Characterizing and Differentiating the Semantic Qualities of Auditory Tones for Products BIBAFull-Text 1692-1696
  James A. Kleiss
Traditionally, sounds in user interfaces have served the practical purpose of providing feedback for control operations and informing users of various system states. The purpose of the present study was to explore properties of sounds that are not primarily functional in nature, but might be useful for characterizing and differentiating products based upon semantic qualities. Twenty nine short tonal sequences were created exhibiting a variety of musical properties. Each tonal sequence was evaluated by thirty five participants using a set of twenty three bipolar attribute rating scales intended to capture a range of semantic qualities. Results of a principal components factor analysis revealed four factors: elegance, sturdiness, complexity and activity. These results provide a conceptual framework for describing and differentiating among audio tones based upon their semantic qualities. Physical properties of sounds associated with each factor were also identified providing a design tool for creating new tones to fit a desired semantic profile.

SAFETY: S1 - Warnings and Risk Perception

Highlighting Validity and Placement of Risk Information in Drug Manufacturers Direct-to-Consumer Web Pages BIBAFull-Text 1697
  Kevin E. Hicks; Michael S. Wogalter
Since the mid-1980s, direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising has changed the way pharmaceutical companies market prescription medications. The Internet is a growing source of drug information and drug manufacturer's websites are, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a form DTC advertising. The current study examined the effects of colored highlighting validity (Valid, Invalid and No highlighting) and placement (Top, Middle and Bottom) of target risk keywords in manufacturers' DTC web pages affects response time and accuracy using two kinds of visual search tasks. The two tasks were the same except that in one a target was always present and in the other the target was either present or absent. The results indicate that valid highlighting significantly reduced response time and increased accuracy in both tasks. Overall, invalid highlighting was not significantly different compared to no highlighting for response time or accuracy in both tasks. Also, placement had a significant effect in both tasks. Top and middle placements showed significantly lower response time compared to placement at the bottom. Accuracy was less clear-cut, particularly in the target present/absent task where placement at the top yielded significantly less accurate responses compared to the middle and bottom. In general, the results showed that highlighting has benefits when the sought information is validly highlighted, but there is virtually no cost when non-target information is highlighted instead, excepting the one instance noted above. Implications for potential application of highlighting and placement of risk information and for future research are discussed.
Analysis of Terms Comprising Potential Names for a Recall Notification Campaign BIBAFull-Text 1698-1702
  Jennifer A. Cowley; Michael S. Wogalter
Recall notices are vital in promulgating warnings about defective products to consumers. The present study examined potential names/titles of recall notifications that might be used in campaigns requesting the return of defective items such as foods, drugs, medical devices, etc. Sixty-one potential names were evaluated showing that some combinations of particular words forming potential names produced higher ratings, such as the terms Recall and Urgent. The term Recall is viewed as appropriate for campaigns involving many kinds of products, however, participants indicated that a different term should be used when the defective product is a surgically implanted medical device. Further analyses indicated that inclusion of FDA in the name produces higher ratings of appropriateness than a generic company name. Also, evaluations of individual words comprising the names showed similar patterns when combined with other words. Implications of these results are discussed.
Parents Expectations and Beliefs toward the Relative Safety of their Children Riding Bicycles at Night BIBAFull-Text 1703-1707
  Raymond W. Lim; Polin Keshishian; Jaime Hernandez; William J. Vigilante
The expectations, attitudes, and perceptions of parents toward the relative safety of their children riding bicycles at night with and without lights and reflectors were examined. One hundred and ninety-four parents were surveyed in the Los Angeles, CA area. About 36% of the parents reported that their children ride bicycles at night at least once in a while. However, 67% reported that their children's bicycles do not have a headlight. About 28% believed that it was not dangerous to ride a bicycle at night with only reflectors and no lights. Similarly, about 28% believed that it was not difficult to see a bicycle at night with only reflectors and no lights. The results offer mixed encouragement. On the one hand the majority of participants reported believing it was not safe for children to ride at night without lights because it is not easy for vehicle operators to see them. On the other hand, the majority of participants reported allowing their children to ride their bicycles without lights. Continuing education along with adequate warning and instruction is necessary to ensure parents understand the limitations of bicycle reflectors and the need to provide bicycles with lights anytime a child rides at night.
Using Hand Drawn Images to Determine Warning Symbol Design Parameters within Interactive Evolutionary Computation Software BIBAFull-Text 1708-1712
  Adam K. Piper; Eric J. Boelhouwer; Jerry Davis; Grady T. Holman; Lacey S. Montgomery
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility of using hand drawn images to identify symbol components for incorporation into warning symbol design software. This software will use an interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) algorithm to generate and evolve symbols mathematically described by a set of numerical parameters. Therefore, participants (N = 100) ages 19 - 43 (<mml:math><mml:mover><mml:mi>x</mml:mi><mml:mo>¯</mml:mo></mml:mover></mml:math> = 23.2) were recruited to determine these symbol design parameters. Participants were invited to hand draw warning symbols for three referents: fall from elevation, hearing protection, and hazardous atmosphere. A panel of design engineers determined 27 attributes were present in the fall from elevation, 19 in the hearing protection, and 25 in the hazardous atmosphere images. A direct clustering algorithm was used to determine which attributes, or symbol parameters, were most commonly present or conspicuously absent among the clustered image families. For the fall from elevation, hearing protection and hazardous atmosphere referents, the clustering algorithm identified six, four and four symbol parameters, respectively, primarily responsible for distinguishing one drawn symbol from another. Thus, these parameters will be included as evolvable genes in the IEC software.
The Utility of Brief, On-Product Instructional Labels For a Fall Arrest Restraint Device BIBAFull-Text 1713-1717
  C. Pollack-Nelson; M. Sutherland; J. Lemonds
Fall arrest restraint devices for hunters are sometimes confusing to assemble due to the similarity of components; yet erroneous application can prove fatal. While assembly instructions are typically provided, they may not be available at the time of use. This study investigated the utility of adding brief, on-product instructional labels to a fall arrest restraint device. It was hypothesized that the addition of such labels would increase the rate of correct assembly over unlabeled restraints, and be about as effective as restraints provided with full instructions. Fifty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) Restraint Only; (2) Restraint + Labels; (3) Restraint + Instructions. Labeled restraints produced more correct assemblies than unlabeled restraints; however, this finding was non-significant. While labels facilitated one aspect of assembly, they did not lead to improved overall assembly relative to restraints provided with instructions. Those receiving instructions performed significantly better than the other two groups. Many subjects receiving instructions were observed to rely largely on illustrations, rather than text. Results suggest that for products where assembly is non-intuitive, brief on-product identification labels may not be sufficient to guide proper assembly. Further, given that some consumers will not consult instructions or instructions may become separated from the product, manufacturers should strive toward intuitive designs.

SAFETY: S2 - Industry Safety

Using Contextual Design Techniques to Identify Work Task Problems in Dynamic Work Environments A Field Study of Isolating Safety Challenges for Small Builders BIBAFull-Text 1718-1722
  Yu-Hsiu Hung; Woodrow W. Winchester
Contextual Design (CD) is a structured method for collecting, interpreting and aggregating qualitative data about work processes and is typically used for creating software that addresses user's needs of a particular task in static indoor environments. In this paper, we discuss the use of CD techniques - Contextual Inquiry and Work Modeling, to identify work task problems commonly existing across tasks in dynamic work environments. We also describe a field study that makes use of the CD techniques to isolate safety challenges - the most cited universal problem in the construction industry - for small builders. Six contractors participated in the study. Critical safety incidents of the observed construction tasks were utilized to identify safety challenges. The contextual interview data were integrated to form consolidated work models, each of which captured, from differing perspectives, the safety challenges of small builders. The insights could not only help construction stakeholders identify possible safety interventions in preventing accidents and/or injuries, but also aid in guiding the selection of appropriate interventions for implementation. The results of the field study provide evidence of CD as a descriptive research technique to identify engineering or administrative solutions to work task problems not only in static but also in dynamic work environments.
  Travis N. Terry; Pablo S. Burneo; Claudia M. Martinez; Juan Riofrio; Tonya Smith-Jackson
Informal training consistently occurs on construction work-sites without planned or organized instruction or supervision. This study analyzes the benefits, circumstances, and means by which informal training occurs and construction workers'perceptions of job safety and potential hazards. Results indicated that construction owners had an overall positive view of informal training, with a few minor issues. The study also revealed that, although aware of dangers on the job, workers still often neglect safety measures and can benefit from informal training in day-to-day activities. The results should warrant more research on the topic of informal training in relation to construction safety and health and provides a context-based description of informal training.
A Simulator Experiment Investigating the Effects of Masked Indicators in a NPP Emergency Control Task: Scenario and Design BIBAFull-Text 1728-1732
  Helena Broberg; Michael Hildebrandt; Salvatore Massaiu; Per Oivind Braarud
This paper describes the scenario and participants of a simulator experiment investigating the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) control room crews in a realistic accident scenario where multiple failures lead to masking of relevant diagnostic information. These conditions challenge emergency operating procedures and require crews to engage in knowledge-based problem solving. The study placed particular emphasis on generating rich operational descriptions of crew behavior and performance-shaping factors.
  Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring
This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPARH) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.
Methodological Considerations for Using the English XL Tribometer for Post Hoc Slip-and-Fall Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 1738-1742
  Tate Kubose; David Krauss
We examined several variables that can affect slip-resistance measurements obtained using the English XL tribometer to illustrate the importance of implementing the proper controls when using the device to evaluate a slip-and-fall incident. We measured slip resistance at two different locations on the same surface, under wet and dry conditions, with the tribometer oriented in eight different directions per location. Our results showed that location, direction, and surface wetness can affect slip resistance measurements, but the effects interact with each other in unpredictable ways. Discussion focuses on the importance of considering direction as well as location of a particular slip-and-fall, rather than strict adherence to ASTM F1679-04: Standard Test Method for Using a Variable Incidence Tribometer (VIT). We conclude that it is important to consider both location and direction when using the tribometer in analysis of any specific incident occurring on non-uniform surfaces.

SAFETY: S3 - Roadway Safety

Two New Tires Should be Mounted on the Rear BIBAFull-Text 1743-1746
  Jeffrey J. Smith; Jennifer A. Cowley; Michael S. Wogalter
When the rear wheels of a vehicle lose grip on the road, a driver's ability to control the vehicle is dramatically reduced, a phenomenon called oversteer. Oversteer is an event that occurs in many rollovers and single vehicle loss-of-control accidents. Therefore, when replacing two tires, the two new tires (the tires with better tread) should always be mounted on the rear wheels. There are virtually no exceptions to this rule and it is clearly demonstrated in tests conducted by one major tire manufacturer (Michelin, 2008). The present studies examined whether people are aware of this rule by asking them where two new replacement tires should be installed on a vehicle. Results showed that approximately 75% of consumers did not know to install two new replacement tires in the two rear wheel positions. Warning systems are discussed with focus on making recommendations for improving safety communications to tire installer and consumers.
On Adding Sound to Quiet Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1747-1750
  Patrick Nyeste; Michael S. Wogalter
Alternative energy vehicles such as hybrids and electric tend to run quieter than many hydrocarbon fueled vehicles. Their relative quietness could negatively affect pedestrian and driver safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder vehicles. The present study examined preferences for sounds that might provide an acceptable auditory cue to quiet vehicles. Participants heard and then rated 18 sounds (3 variations in six categories). Each sound was displayed in conjunction with a video of a moving hybrid vehicle. The sounds of an engine, white noise, and hum sound in that order were most preferred as added sound to a quiet vehicle. Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed.
  Dyani J. Saxby; Gerald Matthews; Edward M. Hitchcock; Joel S. Warm; Gregory J. Funke; Thomas Gantzer
The present study investigated the effects of active fatigue (e.g., elevated distress) and passive fatigue (e.g., decreased task engagement) on driving performance. The study used similar manipulations developed by Saxby et al. (2007), which were shown to induce active and passive fatigue states. 168 undergraduates participated. There were 3 conditions (active, passive, control) and 2 durations (10, 30 minutes). The active condition used simulated wind gusts to increase the required number of steering and acceleration changes, while the passive condition was fully automated. In the control condition, drivers were in full control of steering and acceleration. Data confirmed that, over time, passive fatigue is expressed as decreasing task engagement. Furthermore, drivers in the passive condition had slower response times to an unexpected event and were more likely to crash than those in the active and control conditions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Evaluation of a Conceptual Warning System for Mobile Phone Use While Driving to Increase Public Awareness BIBAFull-Text 1756-1760
  Shaheen Ahmed; Lesley Strawderman; Kari Babski-Reeves
Mobile phone use during driving continues to remain a cause in vehicular accidents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a conceptual, in-vehicle warning design to increase public awareness of the consequences of mobile phone use while driving. Warning messages were designed for both the driver and incoming callers, and were presented to 24 potential users to assess their effectiveness. Survey responses provide preliminary support for the use of the in-vehicle phone warning system. Many of the respondents underestimated statistics relating to vehicular deaths and mobile phone use. Additionally, 54% of the respondents indicated that they would not call someone who is driving, 42% believed that these messages will increase public awareness of the risks of phone use during driving, and 28% indicated they would stop phone use while driving based on the suggested design.
Analysis of Australian and UK rail incidents and accidents using Retrospective TRACEr Lite for train drivers BIBAFull-Text 1761-1765
  Melissa T. Baysari; Andrew S. McIntosh; John R. Wilson
Nineteen Australian safety investigation reports and 13 UK safety reports were reviewed and a human error identification technique (the Technique for the Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors: TRACEr-rail version) adopted as a means of identifying and classifying errors associated with rail incidents and accidents. In the Australian sample, it was revealed that most driver errors occurred when drivers were driving or stopping their train and that these errors consistently resulted in two consequences: speeding and signals passed at danger (SPADs). In the UK, errors occurred while drivers were performing a whole range of tasks, including driving, stopping, train assembly, and failed train operations. In Australia, most 'train driving errors' were 'violations' while most 'train stopping errors' were errors of 'perception'. In the UK, a more varied range of errors was observed. Overall, the TRACEr-rail framework proved useful in categorizing driver errors from existing investigation reports and in highlighting recurring errors associated with incidents and accidents. However, the tool appeared to neglect some organizational factors contributing to driver error, and, preliminary inter-rater reliability testing revealed that some category descriptions may require further refinement. Future work will aim to develop a more Australian-friendly and reliable version of TRACEr for use in Australian rail.

SAFETY: S4 - Safety Potpourri

Insights from Applying Rigor Metric to Healthcare Incident Investigations BIBAFull-Text 1766-1770
  Emily S. Patterson; Daniel Zelik; Stephanie McNee; David D. Woods
Eight attributes of a rigorous intelligence analysis process were identified in prior research: hypothesis exploration, information search, information validation, stance analysis, sensitivity analysis, specialist collaboration, information synthesis, and explanation critiquing. Prior findings about new insights generated by augmenting traditional healthcare investigations with human factors expertise were categorized with respect to these attributes. This exploratory work shed light on how well the attributes generalize to a different domain and inspired suggestions for increasing the process rigor of healthcare investigations.
Evaluation of the Hazards due to the Misunderstanding of Patient Medication Information Sheets BIBAFull-Text 1771-1774
  Michael J. Kalsher; Charlotte Kaplan; James Fisher
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that all pharmacies provide customers with patient medication instruction (PMI) when distributing new prescription drugs. The information sheets describe instructions on proper usage and possible hazardous effects of the drug. The PMI is recommended to be written at a 6th grade reading level. Previous research has shown that the material found on patient medication instructions is written above the 6th grade reading level and that comprehension is directly correlated with reading and education levels. This study builds on previous work by showing that error rates, even among participants with college level reading skills, remains unacceptably high and that error rates are highest when the misunderstanding of an instruction is likely to cause greater harm.
A comparison of two middle school backpacks with varying comfort features under an increasing load BIBAFull-Text 1775-1779
  Denise H. Bauer; Andris Freivalds
With an increase in schoolchildren reporting back pain, health officials are concerned over the long-term effects of carrying backpacks. One possible concern could be the type of backpack children are wearing. Two backpacks with varying comfort features were compared through a series of physiological and psychophysical measurements. It was found that there were no differences between the two backpacks and that choosing a backpack should possibly be a personal choice.
Published Covers: A Snapshot of the Visibility of Women in Safety and Engineering BIBAFull-Text 1780-1784
  Tracey B. Wortham
Much effort has gone into recruiting women into nontraditional fields such as engineering. It has been assumed that providing role models in the form of women faculty members would increase the number of female students entering the field; i.e., seeing the success of women similar to themselves would increase young women's confidence in themselves. More recent efforts are looking into what happens after these women graduate, e.g., the problem of women leaving the field soon after they begin working. Visual images can have a powerful impact on perceptions, thus this project was conducted to address the questions of whether and how often women see themselves as practicing members of their profession on the covers of field-relevant (safety and engineering) journals and magazines. Women were found to have a visible presence on the covers and their presence is approximately proportional to their membership in the professions.

STUDENT FORUM: SF2 - A Compilation of Innovative Student Research

Privacy Concerns and Disclosure Behavior in a Health Setting BIBAFull-Text 1785-1789
  Kelly E. Caine; Kaylee E. Burnham; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
Health care practitioners need complete and accurate information to provide quality care to their patients. However, health information is considered to be highly private. Patients may have concerns about disclosing such information, especially if asked to provide this information using technology. The goal of this study was to investigate how participants' experience with a technology affect their level of disclosure in a health setting. Specifically, we were interested in understanding how the use of a health database system influences the disclosure of private health information. We asked 12 younger and 12 older adults to interact with a computerized health data entry system and then to rate the completeness and accuracy of their intended disclosures. Results indicate that, for the most part, participants would provide complete and accurate information using such a system. Younger adults were less likely than older adults to intend to disclose sensitive information, suggesting that additional information gathering may be appropriate for younger adults. The importance of providing a reason for the request of each piece of health information is discussed in relation to the setting where information is gathered.
  Michael T. Curtis; David Schuster; Florian Jentsch; Michelle Harper-Sciarini; Ron Swanson
Dangers during the approach and landing phases of flight are still leading safety issues in aviation. In particular, inconsistent visual scenes have been associated with variations in pilot performance during visual approaches. While several factors have been identified as causes of such performance variation, such as impoverished visual cues and the geometrical ratio of the runway image, many other perceptual cues remain largely unexplored. This study examines how pilot performance in a visual approach task is affected by changes in the angle from centerline of the runway. Findings from this study will help determine the degree to which previously unexplored variables affect performance and help guide the development of future training for visual approach.
An investigation of the impact of fatigue and aging on the performance of spatially constrained assembly tasks commonly found in the construction industry BIBAFull-Text 1795-1799
  Ranjana Mehta; Michael J. Agnew
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue and aging on the performance of spatially constrained drilling tasks that are observed within the construction industry. Eight younger (18-35 years) and eight older (45-60 years) participants were selected from the local community. Participants were presented with two conditions of localized muscle fatigue in the anterior musculature of the shoulder (No Fatigue and a Fatigue condition). During each condition, participants completed a series of drilling tasks at three levels of task difficulty; as defined by the spatial arrangement of the fasteners. The dependent variables; task completion time, error rate and muscle activation patterns (shoulder APDF and coactivity indices of the upper and lower arm), were measured using observations and electromyography of the muscles of the upper extremity. The presence of localized shoulder fatigue significantly reduced task completion times for both age groups at all levels of task difficulty. Further, error rate was higher for the younger age group in the fatigue condition compared to the no fatigue condition; no such differences were seen for the older subjects. Muscle activity decreased for the anterior deltoid in the fatigue condition, and concurrent increases were observed in the coactivity indices of the upper and the lower arm musculature.
Differences in Gait Parameters Between Non-Disabled and Intellectually Disabled Adults BIBAFull-Text 1800-1804
  Courtney A. Haynes; Thurmon E. Lockhart
There is little research available in the literature regarding the gait characteristics of adults with mental retardation (MR), despite this population's high propensity for falling. This study intends to provide a quantitative analysis of their gait patterns during normal walking in an effort to describe differences existing between this population and their non-disabled peers. Walking speed (SP), step length (SL), heel contact velocity (HCV), and required coefficient of friction (RCOFKE), are used to characterize unobstructed walking patterns. Knee and ankle joint angles are also used to compare postural differences between groups. ANOVA analysis revealed a significantly slower walking speed and significantly shorter step length for the MR group as compared with a group of healthy, age- and gender-matched peers. The MR group was also shown to have a lower RCOFKE than their healthy peers. By contrast, however, the MR group was found to have a significantly higher heel contact velocity. There were no significant differences between groups for neither the knee or ankle angle at heel contact nor for the maximum knee flexion angle during single stance. The ultimate goal of this study was to identify differences in gait pattern caused by MR that may be lending to an increased fall rate among the mentally retarded.

STUDENT FORUM: SF3 - “The Real World” HF/E: Understanding the Realities of Your First Professional Job

The Real World HFE: Understanding the Realities of Your First Professional Job BIBAFull-Text 1805-1809
  Ronald G. Shapiro; Anthony D. Andre; Anshu Agarwal; Sharnnia Artis; Raegan M. Hoeft
Welcome to the Fifteenth Annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Student Career Panel. While our typical career panel emphasizes what one should do before graduation to prepare for a career, it is equally important to know what to do once one starts to work on the job. Thus, this year's paper will begin with a section by Anthony Andre, emphasizing the final preparations for a new professional career as well as the job search itself. The remaining papers will discuss what to do after beginning one's career. Anshu Agarwal will discuss the first 90 days on the job, Sharnnia Artis will discuss the remainder of the first year, and Raegan Hoeft will discuss the second year. Ron Shapiro will close by focusing on the subsequent term of a given job. This paper will present tried and tested techniques as well as new ideas towards preparing for, finding, and experiencing the ideal career path and position. At the annual meeting panel discussion, panelists will provide a brief introduction and then entertain questions from the audience regarding career preparation while still in school as well as success factors on the job.

STUDENT FORUM: SF4 - Student Research in Cognitive Human Factors

Aurally Aided Visual Search with Musical Stimuli An Eye Tracking Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1810-1814
  Matthew C. Crisler; Berry Davenport; Andrew T. Duchowski
Visual search is a complex visual task used in many industrial applications. It is also well studied experimentally, and represents an opportunity to test methods to present location information to people and compare to existing research. In this experiment, participants were asked to complete a challenging visual search task of finding the character "Y" within a background of two different densities of the character "X" (25% and 45%). Participants were cued as to the location of the target using 2 spatial audio methods and two types of stimuli (music and a harmonic tone). A Tobii eye tracker was used to present the visual search screens and track eye movements throughout the experiment in order to identify differences in search method between conditions.
Crossmodal Links in Attention in the Driving Environment: The Roles of Cueing Modality, Signal Timing, and Workload BIBAFull-Text 1815-1819
  Rohan Tilak; Ilir Xholi; Diane Schowalter; Thomas Ferris; Shameem Hameed; Nadine Sarter
Multimodal information presentation has been proposed as a means to support timesharing in complex data-rich environments. To ensure the effectiveness of this approach, it is necessary to consider performance effects of recently discovered crossmodal spatial and temporal links in attention, as well as their interaction with other performance-shaping factors. The main goals of this research were to confirm that performance effects of crossmodal links in spatial attention scale to complex environments and to examine how these effects vary as a function of cue modality, signal timing, and workload. In the present study, set in a driving simulation, spatially valid and invalid auditory and tactile cues preceded the presentation of visual targets at various stimulus-onset asynchronies and under different levels of workload induced by simulated wind gusts of varied intensity. The findings from this experiment confirm that visual target identification accuracies and response times are, overall, more accurate and faster when validly cued. Significant interactions were found between cue validity, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and cue modality, such that valid tactile cueing is most beneficial at shorter (100 - 200 ms) SOAs, while valid auditory cueing resulted in faster responses than invalid cueing at 500 ms SOAs, but slower responses at 1000 ms SOAs. Tactile error rates were significantly higher than auditory error rates at various interactions of modality and SOA. These findings were robust across all workload conditions. They highlight the need for context-sensitive information presentation and can inform the design of multimodal interfaces for a wide range of application domains.
Encoding of Information in Auditory Displays: Initial Research on Flexibility and Processing Codes in Dual-task Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1820-1824
  Michael A. Nees; Bruce N. Walker
Interest in the use of sound as a means of information display in human-machine systems has surged in recent years. While researchers have begun to address issues surrounding good auditory display design as well as potential domains of application, little is known about the cognitive processes involved in interpreting auditory displays. In multi-tasking scenarios, dividing concurrent information display across modalities (e.g., vision and audition) may allow the human operator to receive (i.e., to sense and perceive) more information, yet higher-level conflicts in the encoding and representation of information may persist. Surprisingly few studies to date have examined auditory information display in dual-task scenarios. This study examined the flexibility of encoding of information and processing code conflicts in a dual-task paradigm with auditory graphs -- a specific class of auditory displays that represent quantitative information with sound. Results showed that 1) patterns of dual-task interference were task dependent, and 2) a verbal interference task was relatively more disruptive to auditory graph performance than a visuospatial interference task, particularly for point estimation.
How Individual Differences and Task Load May Affect Feedback Use When Learning a New Task BIBAFull-Text 1825-1829
  Christopher M. Kelley; Anne Collins McLaughlin
The literature shows mixed findings regarding how much feedback is best for learning a task (cf. van Merriënboer & Sweller, 2005; Schmidt & Bjork, 1992). One model describes feedback specificity as resource dependent (McLaughlin, 2006). The current study provided a test of that model by including learners with high and low working memory on a managerial decision making task. The full study is ongoing, but pilot data indicate those with lower working memory capacity may not be able to fully utilize feedback they are given. Results are discussed and implications for future research provided.
Understanding the Required Resources in Line Graph Comprehension BIBAFull-Text 1830-1834
  Cara Bailey Fausset; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Visual line graphs are a prevalent form of communication as they provide a pictorial means to display relationships between entities. As such, understanding the cognitive resources required in processing line graphs would inform designers how to optimize the use of graphical displays. This study systematically investigated how graph task performance changes as a function of attention allocation (full or divided) and concurrent memory task (spatial or verbal). Twenty-four younger adults (mean age 19.2 years) completed either a trend comparison task or a point estimation task and a concurrent spatial or verbal task. Trend comparison performance did not significantly differ between the full and divided attention conditions; mean performance for all conditions was over 90% accurate. Interestingly, participants' point estimation performance was significantly better for the two divided attention conditions compared to the full attention condition which may be attributed to a motivational or stimulus effect. This study provides a base from which more research can be conducted to understand the verbal and spatial resources required in graph comprehension.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST2 - Pedestrians and Transportation Infrastructure

Drivers Performance in Response to Sight-Limited Crash Scenarios at Midblock Crosswalks: Evaluation of Advance Yield Markings and Symbolic Signage BIBAFull-Text 1835-1839
  Lisandra Garay-Vega; Donald L. Fisher; Michael A. Knodler
The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) to determine whether changes in drivers' yielding behavior are observed in sight-limited scenarios at marked mid-block crosswalks when advance yield markings and symbolic signage are installed and (2) to develop a mathematical model of drivers' performance in these scenarios that can be used to predict what improvements might be made in future pedestrian crosswalk signing. The methodology employed included standard videotaped observations of staged pedestrianvehicle interactions as well as novel in-vehicle evaluations of eye movement data as a surrogate measure for hazard anticipation. Advance yield markings increase the likelihood that a driver will yield for a pedestrian when there is an adequate sight distance, confirming previous results. However, when the sight distance is not adequate, there is no change in the likelihood that a driver will yield. Interestingly, among those who do yield, the advance yield markings and symbolic signage lead to increases in both the distance between the stopped vehicle and the crossing pedestrian and the number of glances to the right for a potential pedestrian. The results indicate that adding advance yield markings without improving sight distance does not result in significant improvements in yielding behavior. The mathematical model suggests that it is the failure to see the pedestrian, not the failure to see the advance yield markings and symbolic sign, that explains why there is no improvement. The data suggest that parking must be prohibited in the area between the yield line and the crosswalk.
Seeing Pedestrians at Night: Visual Clutter Does Not Mask Biological Motion BIBAFull-Text 1840-1844
  Richard A. Tyrrell; Joanne M. Wood; Alex Chaparro; Trent P. Carberry; Byoung-Sun Chu; Ralph P. Marsz
The phenomenon of biological motion - placing reflective markers on a pedestrians' major joints - has been shown to make pedestrians more conspicuous to drivers at night. However most relevant studies have been conducted in scenarios relatively free of visual clutter. Because clutter could mask the perception of biological motion, we tested whether extraneous points of light degrade drivers' ability to detect pedestrians. Twelve younger and 12 older volunteers drove along a closed road at night and indicated whenever they saw a pedestrian. A pedestrian walked in place wearing all black clothing alone or with retroreflective markings in one of four configurations. On half of the trials the pedestrian was surrounded by reflective cones and posts (clutter). Clothing configuration dramatically influenced conspicuity. The pedestrian was usually not seen when he wore no reflective markings or when he wore a reflective vest. But when he wore reflectors on his ankles and wrists the younger and older drivers responded at mean distances of 285 m and 141 m, respectively. Importantly, the presence of visual clutter did not significantly influence performance. These results confirm that biological motion can enhance the conspicuity of pedestrians; this effect is robust to the presence of visual clutter.
Evaluating and Validating a New Pedestrian Exposure to Risk Metric BIBAFull-Text 1845-1849
  Amanda K. Emo; Ann H. Do
The ultimate goal of the Pedestrian Exposure to Risk project is to more effectively allocate resources to improve pedestrian safety, based on crash statistics, as well as to more effectively evaluate trends and impacts of safety improvements. In order to accomplish this goal, it is essential to have information not only on the number of pedestrian fatalities but also on the relative exposure of the pedestrians at risk. In the case of calculating meaningful pedestrian crash rates, the numerator (number of pedestrian fatalities) is easy to determine. However, a generally useful denominator has not been as easy to ascertain. Several metrics to evaluate pedestrian exposure to risk have been proposed. Although these previously proposed metrics all have advantages and disadvantages, none has the relevance and generalizability of the denominator used for motor vehicle crashes (million vehicle miles traveled). The purpose of this study was to identify, test, and validate the use of million pedestrian feet traveled as the denominator for pedestrian exposure based on the analogous motor vehicle denominator.
Determining Effective Orientation and Location of Decision Support Signs at Rural Intersections BIBAFull-Text 1850-1854
  Michael E. Rakauskas; Michael P. Manser; Janet I. Creaser; Daniel A. Drew
Drivers face an increased crash risk when making gap acceptance decisions at high speed, unsignalized, rural intersections. The use of Stop-Sign Assist (SSA) intersection decision-support systems aims to assist drivers with these difficult decisions. This effort to identify effective placement of SSA systems will play a critical role in how the information is interpreted and utilized to successfully navigate an intersection. A driving simulator was used to present virtual representations of an intersection in Minnesota where SSA signs are planned for deployment. This study suggested which angles and locations would result in faster and more accurate comprehension of the signs. These results provide guidance for more effective comprehension, viewing, and acceptance of IDS signs at similar rural, trunk highway intersections.
Traffic Sign Legibility for Different Sign Background Colors: Results of an Open Road Study at Freeway Speeds BIBAFull-Text 1855-1859
  Dillon Funkhouser; Susan Chrysler; Alicia Nelson; Eun Sug Park
Transportation agencies have been considering the use of a purple sign background color to denote that the roadway is tolled. Prior studies have shown a driver preference for a unique color for the toll road category. Concerns about the legibility of purple signs have been raised due to their brightness and contrast ratio with a white legend. The current study performed an evaluation of the legibility and recognition of purple and green freeway guide signs during daytime and nighttime driving in the Houston, TX area. Forty-eight participants drove an instrumented vehicle in open traffic and read traffic signs along a toll road with purple signs on one segment and green signs on another. Results showed no significant difference in legibility distance between signs with purple and green backgrounds. An analysis of recognition distances for advance guide signs marking ramps to the toll road also showed no difference between purple and green signs. These results support the implementation of this new color without any loss in legibility.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST3 - Crashes: Warnings, Simulations, and Safety Enhancements

A Procedure for Developing Warning Message Prioritization Rules in Integrated Collision Warning Systems for Heavy Trucks BIBAFull-Text 1860-1864
  Christian M. Richard; John L. Campbell; James L. Brown
This paper presents the results of an effort to create a comprehensive and systematic procedure for developing warning message prioritization rules in integrated Collision Warning Systems (CWS) for heavy trucks. Although there are existing guidelines and even ISO standards for accomplishing this, in practice these sources are inadequate because they are not designed to handle the high degree of complexity and large number of warning conflict permutations that occur in integrated systems that have multiple subsystems, each with multiple warning levels. This paper presents a procedure that expands on existing sources, but has the level of detail and structured tools necessary to represent the variety of information that requires consideration when making decisions about the prioritization of warning messages.
Developing Complex Crash Warning Simulations for Human Factors Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 1865-1869
  Paul Green
In traditional vehicle warning experiments, each subject sees each warning once, and warning comparisons are between subjects, a very inefficient approach. Driving simulator experiments for the recent RDCW and IVBSS projects used within-subjects designs, with each subject responding to a warning about once per minute. That presentation rate and the scenarios developed seemed reasonable to independent human factors experts who experienced them and the simulations were often able to distinguish differences of interest.
   What made the simulations reasonable was (1) the use of real world crash data as a starting point for scenarios, (2) the large number of scenarios employed, each of which had both normal and crash-related outcomes, (3) the presence of three to five vehicles in the scene, each requiring the driver's attention, (4) the use of real on-road data to select gaps, closing rates, etc., and (5) work-arounds when scenarios did not go according to plan. For developing and communicating the plan, option tables and storyboards were particularly useful.
Non-conscious Activation of an Elderly Stereotype Leads to Safer Driving Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1870-1874
  Russell J. Branaghan; Rob Gray
Under the guise of evaluating a head-up display in a driving simulator, participants completed scrambled sentence tasks (while waiting at stop signs) designed to prime an elderly stereotype. Driving speed and driving time between stop signs in this Elderly Stereotype condition were compared to a Control condition in which age non-specific words were substituted for elderly stereotyped words. Participants had a lower maximum speed and longer driving time in the Elderly Stereotype condition than in the Control condition. This effect was obtained even though the participants were completely unaware of the theme in the experimental condition. Theoretical, as well as applied implications are discussed.
Drivers and Passengers: Are the perceptions of braking time the same BIBAFull-Text 1875-1879
  Nicholas J. Kelling; Christopher D. Ryan; Jeffery T. Halter; Gregory M. Corso
Two experiments were performed to investigate how the driving situation is perceived differently as a driver versus a passenger. The first experiment utilized an "ideal" brake onset time identified by previous research and investigated differences in the perception of "safe" and "comfort" between drivers and passengers. Both drivers and passengers were presented with animations of a driving situation. The animations involved different rates of closure between the vehicle being driven and a lead vehicle, stopping distances (based on time and rate of closure), and whether or not the lead vehicle was moving or stopped. Results show that participants preferred the proposed "ideal" brake onset time more than other times for all rates of closure. Also noted were significant differences between the perceptions of drivers and passengers. The second experiment explored the same questions of comfort and safety when in a simulated driving situation. Unlike the first experiment, in this experiment the driver stopped the animation. The results from the second experiment confirm those found in the first experiment.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST4 - Global Perspectives on the Use of Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Highway Safety

Global Perspectives on the Use of Naturalistic Driving Data to Improve Highway Safety BIBAFull-Text 1880-1882
  Gregory M. Fitch; Jonathan M. Hankey
Naturalistic driving studies provide a relatively new, powerful tool for understanding driver behavior. This collection of vehicle and driver data provides an opportunity to garner a greater understanding of driver behavior and safety issues than ever before possible. The purpose of this panel is to discuss how various car manufactures around the world are using or plan to use naturalistic driving data to improve transportation safety. Top researchers in the area of safety and human factors form this panel. The panelists in alphabetical order are: Joerg Breuer, Head of Active Safety (Mercedes-Benz-Germany); John-Fredrik Grönvall, Manager, Traffic Accident Research-Volvo Safety Centre (Volvo Car Corporation-Sweden); Raymond Kiefer, Structure and Safety Integration Center (General Motors-USA); and Tomohiro Yamamura, Manager, Advanced Engineering Group (Nissan-Japan).

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST5 - Vision and In-Vehicle Controls

Visual Entropy Metric Reveals Differences in Drivers Eye Gaze Complexity across Variations in Age and Subsidiary Task Load BIBAFull-Text 1883-1887
  Frank Schieber; Jess Gilland
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the global complexity of drivers' eye movement behavior as a function of advanced adult age and variations in information processing resource demands. Global complexity was operationalized using an information theory metric commonly known as entropy. Fourteen young (mean age=27) and 14 older (mean age=75) participants drove on a 2-lane rural highway while simultaneously performing a subsidiary loading task designed to increase cognitive demands drawing upon either verbal-memory resources or visual-spatial resources (within the context of Wickens'(1980) multiple resource model of attention). Compared to traditional distributional measures of eye movement behavior such as mean saccade amplitude and fixation dwell time, the entropy measure of global complexity was better able to distinguish between young and old drivers as well as between baseline driving and conditions of high visual spatial task load. These results strongly suggest that global measures of eye movement behavior hold significant potential for increasing our understanding of the interacting effects of normal adult aging and task-induced cognitive demands within the context of real-world driving.
Towards Developing an Indirect Video Visibility System for Large Trucks BIBAFull-Text 1888-1892
  Gregory M. Fitch; Walter W. Wierwille; William A. Schaudt; Richard J. Hanowski
Large trucks were involved in approximately 14,800 crashes between April 2001 and December 2003 as a result of making lane changes and merges (Starnes, 2006). The elimination of blind spots may help drivers avoid such conflicts by improving their spatial awareness of surrounding vehicles. This study investigated the ability of two candidate Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) to provide information on longitudinal clearance to an adjacent vehicle. Sixteen commercial vehicle drivers performed merge maneuvers in front of an adjacent confederate vehicle while driving a tractor-trailer on the Virginia Smart Road. Both C/VIS enhancements were found to significantly improve gap judgment and merge performance. Performance differences between the two C/VIS concepts are examined.
Effect of In-Vehicle Touch Screen Position on Driver Performance BIBAFull-Text 1893-1897
  Helen Fuller; Omer Tsimhoni; Matthew P. Reed
The effect of touch-screen monitor placement on in-vehicle task performance and driving performance was examined in a driving simulator. Sixteen subjects drove behind a lead vehicle while interacting with a menu-based interface that required looking, planning, reaching, and touching. The vehicle dynamics of the simulator were adjusted to simulate two vehicles: a normal-weight car and a heavy-weight truck. The monitor was placed in one of four different positions that had varying levels of visual and physical difficulty. Two positions had a short reach distance and two had a long reach distance. For each monitor pair, one position had a shorter visual distance from the road ahead and one had a longer visual distance. Monitor positions that were at greater visual distances from the road ahead or that were farther physically from the subject resulted in longer in-vehicle task completion times. The average task time increased from 17.8 seconds for the closest monitor position to 35.1 seconds for the farthest. Although driving performance, as measured by the RMS error between the subject vehicle and the lead vehicle and delay in speed change, was adversely affected by performance of an in-vehicle task, it was relatively unaffected by monitor position.
Driver Gear-Shifting Behaviors and Errors BIBAFull-Text 1898-1902
  Erin M. Harley; Doris Trachtman; Genevieve M. Heckman; Douglas E. Young
Survey data have revealed that forgetting the current gear is a frequent driver error (Reason et al., 1990), yet very little research has been done on how drivers move gearshift levers and what causes them to make gearshift errors. In two experiments, 65 adults of all ages drove two vehicles on a closed course. Participants each performed multiple trials in which they drove or reversed to a location, shifted to Park, and exited and re-entered the vehicle. For approximately 1000 shifts into Park, the movements and forces that drivers applied to the gearshift lever were measured. Data revealed that drivers shifted to Park in a ballistic manner, and continued to apply force to the gearshift lever after reaching the Park detent. This force far exceeded that which was required to move the lever into Park. On select trials, participants were induced to hurry, and distractions such as cell phones, radio, and conversation, were introduced during the driving task. A total of 35 gearshift errors (e.g., failure to shift, or mis-shift) were observed in both experiments, all but one of which occurred on either a hurried or a hurried-plus-distraction trial. On no trial did any participant leave the gearshift lever between Reverse and Park. Data suggest that participants rely on the kinesthetic feedback from the lever hitting the mechanical stop at the end of the Park gate to determine when they have reached the Park position, and that drivers are more likely to make gearshift errors when they are hurried or distracted.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST6 - Ethical and Privacy Issues with On-Road Driving Data

Ethical and Privacy Issues with On-Road Driving Data BIBAFull-Text 1903-1904
  Susan Chrysler; John D. Lee; Suzanne Lee; James Sayer
As increased availability of low-cost video and vehicle instrumentation enables researchers to gather enormous sums of detailed information about driver behavior, researchers are forced to address a complex array of associated ethical and privacy issues. At the same time, new vehicle technologies include features which track location and store vehicle data. This panel discussion will concentrate on the identification of ethical and privacy problems, ideas, and solutions with the goal of working toward a set of definitions and guidelines that could be considered best practices in the conduct of onroad driving research and in the handling of personal travel data.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: ST7 - Cell Phones, Intersections, Snowplows, and New Techniques

Is There a Bilingual Advantage When Driving and Speaking Over a Cellular Telephone BIBAFull-Text 1905-1909
  Jason A. Telner; David L. Wiesenthal; Ellen Bialystok; Martin York
One of the most common dual task challenges involves driving while speaking on a cellular telephone. Bilingualism provides performance advantages in dual task paradigms involving divided attention, compared to monolinguals. It was hypothesized that bilinguals should demonstrate performance advantages when driving and performing a variety of verbal tasks into a simulated hands-free cellular telephone compared to monolinguals. 82 university students participated in the study following assessment of their linguistic fluency. The driving task was performed on the driving simulation program Drivesim 4.00 and the experiment consisted of both single driving and speaking conditions, as well as dual conditions with both driving and speaking tasks. Bilinguals demonstrated significantly fewer decrements to their driving performance when speaking on a cellular telephone compared to monolinguals, providing a practical demonstration of the cognitive advantages of bilinguals in dual task paradigms.
The Effects of Cellular Phone Use on Novice and Experienced Driver Performance: An On-Road Study BIBAFull-Text 1910-1914
  Thomas Smahel; Alison Smiley; Don Donderi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cell phone use on novice as compared to experienced drivers to determine if a cell phone prohibition might be an appropriate graduated licensing restriction. Nineteen novices and twenty experienced drivers participated. The test route consisted of two laps around a 20-minute circuit and included a mixture of residential and urban roadways with speeds of 50 km/h or less. Participants drove an instrumented vehicle, made two outgoing calls, and received two calls during the course of the trip. For reasons of safety, participants were accompanied both by a researcher, and by a driving instructor with access to a second brake. With respect to the effects of experience on driving, no measures produced significant results. With respect to the effects of cell phone use on driving performance, two of six measures showed a trend, and one a significant difference between the call and no call condition; participants reduced their speed by a small, but significant amount, (1.27 km/h) during calls. The act of talking on the phone increases mental workload and information processing demands. The finding of effects on driver performance related to being on a call, and the lack of effects relating to experience differences, suggests that cell phone prohibition is appropriate for all drivers, not only novice drivers.
  Ben Dow; Tim Brown; Dawn Marshall
Automobile crashes are a leading cause of death for teens, and intersections are common sites for crashes. Understanding how novice teen drivers respond differently than experienced adult drivers in common potential crash situations may further efforts to reduce the risk associated with teen drivers. A study involving novice teen drivers duplicated a portion of the protocol from a study involving adult drivers in order to compare novice teen performance to that of older and more experienced age groups. Two intersection events are examined: oncoming left turn and unexpected cross traffic from the right. Four categories of variables are used: anticipation of the event, response to the event, reaction time, and safety implications. Anticipation: novice drivers are the least likely to anticipate potential threats, whereas older drivers are the most likely anticipate such dangers. Response: overall, older participants were much more likely to steer to avoid and middle-aged drivers were the least likely to only apply the brakes. Reaction time: novice drivers had the fastest transition time to braking, and, interestingly, their reactions differed significantly from those of young drivers. Safety implications: novice drivers had the shortest values for minimum TTC, and older drivers had the largest values. Conclusions: older drivers had the largest safety margins, and despite novice teen drivers'faster reaction times, their safety margins are quite similar to middle-aged adult drivers.
New Insights into Driving Using Recurrence Quantification Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1920-1924
  Joel Cooper; David Strayer
Traditional measures of central tendency and dispersion, such as the mean and standard deviation, ignore ordering effects in time-series data. Hidden within the ordered regularity of time series' may lie unique human performance characteristics. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), a contemporary tool designed for the investigation of nonlinear-time-series data, is used to explore lateral driving movement in a simulated car-following task. This investigation assesses a previously published data set that contrasts baseline driving performance, with performance while legally intoxicated, and hands-free/hand-held cell phone conversation. A number of distinguishing lateral movement characteristics were found using RQA. Free from the constraints imposed by discrete driving measures, RQA has the potential to provide real-time measures of driver workload under a variety of conditions.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SD1 - Future Trends in Design and Development of Control Rooms

Future Trends in Design and Development of Control Rooms BIBAFull-Text 1925-1928
  Bettina Babbitt; Arthur Lamont Borst; Najmedin Meshkati; Steven Siegel; Sophie Thacher; Barbara H. Sorensen