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Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting 2001-10-08

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting
Note:Human Factors/Ergonomics: It Works!
Location:Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota
Dates:2001-Oct-08 to 2001-Oct-12
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-19-7; hcibib: HFES01; TA 166 H794
Links:Online Proceedings | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2001-10-08 Volume 45
    1. OPEN PLENARY SESSION: Presidential Address
    2. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Planning, Decision Making, and Performance in Aviation Systems [Lecture]
    3. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Communication, Situation Awareness, and Automation in Aerospace Systems [Lecture]
    4. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Current Perspectives on Cognition and Decision Making in Aviation [Symposium]
    5. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aviation Safety and Training [Lecture]
    6. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Human Factors Challenges in Future Air Traffic Management [Panel]
    7. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: From Perception to Knowledge Management: Next-Generation Human Factors for Aerospace Systems [Panel]
    8. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Information Access and Display in Aviation Systems [Lecture]
    9. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Human Factors and the International Space Station [Panel]
    10. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aerospace Systems Posters
    11. AGING: Driving Research and the Older Adult: A Debate among Researchers and Practitioners [Debate] Cosponsoring TG: Surface Transportation
    12. AGING: Aging and Usability Issues in Computer Technology [Lecture]
    13. AGING: Automation as Caregiver: The Role of Advanced Technologies in Elder Care [Panel]
    14. AGING: Development of Accessible Kiosk User Interface Solutions for the Public Sector: A Panel Summary [Panel]
    15. AGING: Aging, Sensorimotor Abilities, and Everyday Function [Lecture]
    16. AGING: Aging Posters
    17. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Situation Awareness, Aging, and Expertise [Lecture]
    18. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Adaptive Automation: From Theory to Practice [Panel]
    20. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: The Many Faces of Risk in Aviation Decision Making [Panel]
    21. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Decision Support Systems, Situation Awareness, and Human Performance [Lecture]
    22. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Advanced Display Concerns [Lecture]
    23. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Situation Awareness for Military Ground Forces: Current Issues and Perspectives [Panel]
    25. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Distributed Team Performance Research Using the Internet [Symposium]
    26. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering Medical Systems [Lecture] Cosponsoring TG: Medical Systems and Rehabilitation
    27. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Task Analysis and Cognitive Modeling [Lecture]
    28. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering Methods for Linking Cognitive Task Analyses to Innovative Design Concepts [Symposium]
    29. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Exercises/Techniques for Teaching Cognitive Systems Engineering [Panel]
    30. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Automation and Adaptation [Lecture]
    31. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Processes [Lecture]
    32. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making Posters
    33. COMMUNICATIONS: Voice as an Interface [Lecture]
    34. COMMUNICATIONS: Understanding Web Technologies [Panel] Cosponsoring TGs: Computer Systems, Internet
    35. COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Communication: Application UI Design to Social Networks [Lecture]
    36. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Lessons from Real-World Problems [Lecture]
    37. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Information Architecture [Panel]
    38. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Cognitive Engineering and Computer-Based Assistive Technologies: An Approach to the Design of Web-Based Tables for Persons with Visual Impairments [Panel]
    39. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Ideas and Applications [Lecture]
    40. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Input, Output, and Both Together [Lecture]
    41. COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Computer Systems Posters
    42. CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Computer Usability [Lecture]
    43. CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Usability [Lecture]
    44. CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Evaluation [Lecture]
    45. CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Posters
    46. DEMONSTRATIONS: Voting, Office Ergonomics, and Army Tactical Operations [Demonstrations]
    47. DEMONSTRATIONS: Flying Proficiency, Weather Forecasting, Wearable Computers, and Tactical SA Tested [Demonstrations]
    48. EDUCATION: Educational Design and Learning: The Next Frontier for Human Factors/Ergonomics [Panel]
    49. EDUCATION: Human Factors: Teaching and Learning [Lecture]
    50. EDUCATION: Why Does Dilbert, the Far Side, and Other Cartoons Convey Essential Truths about Human Factors and Ergonomics? [Panel]
    51. EDUCATION: Education Poster
    52. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Environmental Design Issues [Lecture]
    53. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Advanced Workstation Concepts [Panel]
    54. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Suitable Environments [Panel]
    55. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Environmental Design Poster
    56. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Murder or Accidental Shooting: Human Factors Considerations [Alternative Format]
    57. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensic Human Factors Issues [Lecture]
    58. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensics Professional Posters
    59. GENERAL SESSION: Designing Human Interactions [Lecture]
    60. GENERAL SESSION: The Human Factors of Child Safety [Symposium]
    61. GENERAL SESSION: General Session Posters
    62. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Stress and Individual Differences in Human Performance [Lecture]
    63. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: The Role of Individual Differences in Training and Expertise [Lecture]
    64. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Performance Posters
    65. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Materials Handling Research [Lecture]
    66. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Intervention Ergonomics [Lecture]
    67. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Trunk/Torso Modeling [Lecture]
    68. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper-Extremity/Potpourri Research [Lecture]
    69. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Instrumentation/Anthropometry Research [Lecture]
    70. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Lifting Research [Lecture]
    71. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Implementing the National Occupational Research Agenda for Musculoskeletal Disorders [Symposium]
    72. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper-Extremity/VDT Research [Lecture]
    73. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomics Issues [Lecture]
    74. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Industrial Ergonomics Posters
    75. INTERNET: User's Conceptual Models of the Internet and Information-Seeking Strategies [Lecture]
    76. INTERNET: Applying Human Factors Methodologies to Web Design [Lecture]
    77. INTERNET: Display Issues Impacting Web Usability [Lecture]
    78. INTERNET: Internet Posters
    79. MACROERGONOMICS: Stress, Work Effectiveness, and Quality of Work Life [Lecture]
    80. MACROERGONOMICS: Technology, Business Process, and Those Who Apply Macroergonomics [Lecture]
    81. MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors Design for Unique Environments in Health Care I [Lecture]
    82. MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors Design for Unique Environments in Health Care II [Lecture]
    83. MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors Issues in the Modern Surgical Operating Room [Symposium]
    84. MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: The Role of Usability Testing in Healthcare Organizations [Panel]
    85. MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Medical Systems and Rehabilitation Posters
    86. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Visibility [Lecture]
    87. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Displays [Lecture]
    88. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Search and Visual Guidance [Lecture]
    89. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Vigilance and Stress [Lecture]
    90. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Cognition and 3D [Lecture]
    91. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception & Performance (VPTG) Posters
    92. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Small Business Research and Development: Oxymoron or Golden Opportunity? [Panel]
    93. SAFETY: Safety Research 1 [Lecture]
    94. SAFETY: Warnings and Aging: What Warning Designers Do Not Know May Hurt Older Adults [Symposium]
    95. SAFETY: Safety Research 2 [Lecture]
    96. SAFETY: The Warning Development Process: A Case Study [Panel]
    97. SAFETY: Safety Posters
    98. SPECIAL SESSION: Ergonomics and Prevention of Disability due to Musculoskeletal Disorders: A State-of-the-Science Symposium [Symposium]
    99. SPECIAL SESSION: Human Factors Career Issues and Answers: Choosing and Preparing for a Career that Works for You [Panel]
    100. SPECIAL SESSION: Capturing Fuzzy Judgments of Usability for Advanced Distance Learning Applications: An On-Site Experiment [Alternative Format]
    101. SPECIAL SESSION: HFES 2001 Member Survey: Presentation of Results [Alternative Format]
    102. STUDENT FORUM: Computer and System Design: Considerations for More Efficient Usage [Lecture]
    103. STUDENT FORUM: Warning Labels, Simulations, and Driving: A Potpourri of Student Work [Lecture]
    104. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Attentional Factors in Telematics Voice and Nonvoice Interfaces [Panel]
    105. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Driver Performance: Fatigue, Stress, Workload, and Visual Demands [Lecture]
    106. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: The History and Future of a Human Factors Research Laboratory [Symposium]
    107. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: On-Road Vision and Perception Issues [Lecture]
    108. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: In-Vehicle Warnings [Lecture]
    109. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Information Displays and Operator Behavior [Lecture]
    110. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Surface Transportation Posters
    111. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Auditory and Visual Cues in Information Presentation [Lecture]
    112. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Complementary Methods of Modeling Team Performance [Panel] Cosponsoring TGs: Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, System Development
    113. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Cognition and Human Performance [Lecture]
    114. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Systems Design Potpourri [Lecture]
    115. TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation: Practitioner Perspectives [Lecture]
    116. TEST AND EVALUATION: New Test and Evaluation Metrics [Lecture]
    117. TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation Posters
    118. TRAINING: Skill Acquisition [Lecture]
    119. TRAINING: Training System Technology and Development [Lecture]
    120. TRAINING: Training Posters
    121. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Usability of Virtual Environment Systems [Lecture]
    122. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Visual Display Issues of Virtual Environments [Lecture]
    123. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments as a Multi-Modal 'Real World' Laboratory for Training [Lecture] Cosponsoring TG: Training
    124. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Adaptation and Presence Effects of Virtual Environments [Lecture]
    125. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Virtual Environments Posters

HFES 2001-10-08 Volume 45

OPEN PLENARY SESSION: Presidential Address

The HFE Parade: A Tale of Two Models BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  William C. Howell
Chronic problems that plague the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) "parade" are examined in an attempt to identify causal factors, trends, and strategic options. Primary responsibility is attributed to our failure to resolve the fundamental question of what HF/E should be: a unique discipline or a philosophy shared by many established disciplines and emerging specialties. The implications of these two, largely incompatible models are explored retrospectively and prospectively. It is argued that our drift toward the unique discipline model has stunted our growth, limited our effectiveness, and clouded our prospects for the future; hence the shared discipline model should be given serious consideration in the current strategic planning review.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Planning, Decision Making, and Performance in Aviation Systems [Lecture]

Empirical Evaluations of Pilot Planning Behavior in Emergency Situations BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Amy R. Pritchett; Damon C. Nix; Jennifer J. Ockerman
Faced with an emergency aboard an aircraft, pilots must generate a flight-plan to effectively and safely guide the plane to touchdown. However, forming a safe flight-plan is a complex and difficult task. An initial experiment hypothesized that an in-flight planning tool would aid the pilot in forming and verifying flight-plans. Results identified problems with the planner's interface, highlighted the myriad concerns that pilots must address in creating an emergency flight plan, and identified potential benefits with having the system provide a safe plan. Two further studies are discussed in this paper. The first examined whether the pilots' difficulties came from specific features in the interface or from the inherent difficulty of the task. The second study evaluated pilots' ability to quickly judge the accuracy of an automatically-generated plan.
Aircrew Performance During Emergency Conditions: A Comparison between an Electronic and Traditional Paper Natops BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  John E. Deaton; Floyd Glenn; C. Shawn Burke; Michael Good; Michael Dorneich; Joshua Downs
Prior research addressing the integration and interpretation of information presented either on paper or in electronic form has found significant preferences favoring paper-based presentation of text in terms of search times and comprehension (Rice, 1994; Askwall, 1985). When an electronic checklist was used as the source of information in flight training simulations with aviators, fewer subsystem failures were detected by the aviators than when a paper checklist was used (Palmer and Degani, 1991). More recent research, however, has pointed out the advantages of electronic checklists (Boorman, 2000). At this time, no research known to the authors has addressed the performance of pilots using paper vs. electronic forms of the NATOPS (Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standards) manual and Pocket Checklist (PCL). The purpose of this evaluation was to compare aircrew performance when using the traditional paper copy of NATOPS and the PCL with that of the prototype Interactive Electronic NATOPS (IE-NATOPS) developed by CHI Systems. This evaluation effort attempted to establish whether or not there are notable differences in resolving problem situations dependent upon the format of the NATOPS and PCL used. Data were gathered at the Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, using pilots with recent experience in the H-60F rotorcraft. Results are presented in terms of both information access speed as well as time required to solve numerous problem scenarios requiring access to NATOPS information.
A comparison of pilot navigation performance using conventional instrumentation, head-down, and head-up highway-in-the-sky primary flight displays BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Dennis B. Beringer; Jerry D. Ball
A study was conducted to compare pilot eye movements and flight performance attainable using highway-in-the-sky (HITS) format displays in both head-up display (HUD) and head-down display (HDD) configurations and conformal (with outside world) and compressed forms within the HUD, with a baseline conventional-instruments condition. Results were mixed, and the HUD was not clearly superior to the equivalent HDD when comparing flight technical error. Workload appeared to be comparable for the HITS formats but slightly elevated for specific tasks in a baseline condition using conventional instrumentation. The need for a conformal HUD for general aviation operations was not supported for most flight operations, and pilots preferred the HUD over the HDD and the compressed HITS format over the conformal HITS or conventional instruments.
When gauges fail and clouds are tall, we miss the horizon most of all: General Aviation pilot responses to the loss of attitude information in IMC BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Dennis B. Beringer; Jerry D. Ball
Sixty pilots were exposed to a vacuum-system failure during a flight simulation, 48 in a Piper Malibu simulator and 12 in a simulated Cessna 172. Instrumentation failure was varied for the five display configurations such that 12 pilots (1) lost head-down heading and attitude indicator (AI), (2) lost only the primary AI (horizontal situation indicator, HSI, was electric), (3) lost the primary AI but had the HSI plus a back-up electric AI, (4) lost the AI and directional gyro (DG), or (5) lost the AI but had an HSI (only in the Cessna 172 simulator). Primary panel (loss of AI and DG) showed the highest loss rate (83%). The proposed back-up AI in place of turn coordinator produced a 33% loss rate. Standard Malibu instrumentation (HSI) produced a 25% loss rate. Having all options (HSI, TC, back-up AI) reduced loss rate to just 8%. Data suggest that the presence of a back-up attitude indicator can ameliorate the rate of loss of control, but that the presence of the HSI had a similar effect. Combining the two produced the best outcomes. Results are discussed in relation to potential interventions, including attitude and heading indicators and annunciators for system failure.
An Investigation of the Factors that Contribute to Pilots Decisions to Continue Visual Flight Rules Flight into Adverse Weather BIBAFull-Text 26-29
  Juliana Goh; Douglas Wiegmann
Pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a visual flight rules flight (VFR) into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) were investigated using a dynamic simulation of a hypothetical cross-country flight. Issues related to decision-making were investigated. Specifically, differences in situation assessment, risk perception and motivation, between pilots who chose to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC situation were examined. Results indicate that the simulation was successful in identifying pilots who would choose to either continue or divert and that differences existed between these two groups of pilots. Accuracy of visibility estimates, appraisal of one's own skill and judgment and frequency of risk-taking behavior were most important in predicting whether a pilot would continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC situation. Findings suggest that overconfidence in personal ability and inaccurate diagnoses of visibility conditions precipitate VFR flight into IMC.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Communication, Situation Awareness, and Automation in Aerospace Systems [Lecture]

The Development of an Implicit Situation Awareness Toolkit BIBAFull-Text 30-34
  Darryl Croft; Simon Banbury; David Thompson
Much of the knowledge that an experienced system operator uses is procedural, rather than declarative, and as a result this knowledge may not be available to conscious inspection. It is proposed that to access this tacit or 'implicit' knowledge, Human Factors practitioners need to employ implicit knowledge probes. This paper provides a rationale for testing Situation Awareness (SA) implicitly and an overview of the Implicit SA Toolkit being developed at QinetiQ Farnborough, UK. This CD ROM-based toolkit provides Human Factors practitioners with step-by-step guidance on how to measure Implicit SA -- the aim being to supplement and enhance (rather than replace) existing explicit SA measurement techniques. The toolkit permits a user to design a bespoke test for measuring implicit SA from scratch. It guides the user through the design and construction stages of an implicit test in a self-explanatory manner and provides details on methodologies, number of participants required, experimental design, and so on. It also provides examples of previous applications for each test and imparts substantial background information pertaining to implicit knowledge, memory, and learning.
Auditory vs. Visual Data Link: Relative Effectiveness BIBAFull-Text 35-39
  John Helleberg; Christopher D. Wickens
Pilots flew a GA simulator based on ATC-instructed maneuvers, while scanning outside for traffic. Various length ATC instructions were delivered through a textual, voice, or redundant data link format. Pilots read back the instructions, then complied with the maneuver. Visual scanning was measured. Results indicated the visual display provided greatest accuracy of communications read back and least disruption of traffic monitoring and flight-path tracking. The voice-only condition was most disruptive, partially because the pilot's eyes were drawn into the cockpit longer while note taking, compared to the two visual text displays. The redundant display never supported better performance than the visual display. This cost resulted, partially because arrival of the discrete auditory communications disrupted flight-path performance. Pilots allocated 60% of visual attention to the instrument panel, and communications accuracy was degraded by longer ATC instructions. Results are interpreted referencing mechanisms of attention, working memory, and the pilot's task priority hierarchy.
A Preliminary Examination of Situation Awareness and Pilot Performance in a Synthetic Vision Environment BIBAFull-Text 40-43
  Julie M. Stark; J. Raymond Comstock; Lance J. Prinzel; Daniel W. Burdette; Mark W. Scerbo
Synthetic vision displays utilize computer generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information to provide pilots with an unobstructed view of the world ahead. A major goal of these displays is to reduce low visibility related aviation accidents such as CFIT. In addition to improving pilot performance, synthetic vision displays may also affect pilot situation awareness. Prototype synthetic vision displays were examined in a high-resolution graphics simulation facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Two display sizes, two fields of view, and the presence of a tunnel guidance system were manipulated to investigate the effects on pilot performance and situation awareness. Use of a tunnel guidance system improved pilot performance and lowered reported mental workload. Participants reported lower workload and increased situation awareness with the smaller display size. There were no profound performance differences as a function of display size. Implications of retrofitting synthetic vision displays into existing aircrafts is discussed.
The Effects of Level of Automation on the Out-Of-The-Loop Unfamiliarity in a Complex Dynamic Fault-Management Task During Simulated Spaceflight Operations BIBAFull-Text 44-48
  Bernd Lorenz; Francesco Di Nocera; Stefan Rottger; Raja Parasuraman
Out-of-the-loop unfamiliarity (OOTLUF) and information sampling strategies were examined after operator use of intelligent fault management (FM) support in interaction with a generic, autonomous, atmospheric control system. A simulated model-based reasoning agent provided fault diagnosis and recovery at three different levels of automation (LOA). In about 10% of the experimental trials FM support was withdrawn simulating a catastrophic failure. This allowed investigating OOTLUF potentially developed during reliable FM automation and its variation as a function of LOA. Dependent measures were the percentage of time the system was out-of-target, time elapsed until a repair was initiated, alarm reaction time, accuracy of manual tank level recordings, information sampling behavior, and subjective ratings of workload, tension, fatigue, self-confidence and trust in automation. It was found that automated FM support improved overall system performance and reduced subjective operator workload. OOTLUF occurred in terms of longer times until repair initiation only at medium LOA and not as expected at high LOA. A differential effect of LOA on information sampling strategies was observed suggesting that offloading operators from recovery implementation at high LOA during reliable automation enabled engagement in fault assessment activities, thereby maintaining situation awareness. It is concluded that for avoiding OOTLUF in complex, dynamic tasks, involving intelligent FM support, the important factor is not simply the LOA, but the ability of a particular LOA to support the human operator's information sampling and higher-level reasoning activities.
Knowledge of and Attitudes towards Automation among Pilots from one Major Carriers Fleet BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  James M., II Hitt; Florian Jentsch; Clint Bowers
The flight management system (FMS) has been one component of a suite of advanced automated systems which are now standard on most commercial aircraft. While the potential benefit of these systems has been cited from both users and designers, many users have recognized the difficulties of the FMS. Comments related to the difficulty of the interface, lack of or misunderstanding of system use, and increased workload are not uncommon. The current paper focuses on pilot knowledge and attitudes towards FMS use for an entire fleet of a major airline. Knowledge and attitudinal measures were obtained through pilot completion of vignette-based questionnaires. The questionnaires examined knowledge through investigating various knowledge types, difficulty of questions, and trained vs. untrained FMS-related topics. FMS knowledge scores were significantly related to flight hours in type and years with the current fleet. In addition, there was an interaction between time with current fleet and crew position in that the best knowledge scores were demonstrated by Captains and First Officers at different experience levels.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Current Perspectives on Cognition and Decision Making in Aviation [Symposium]

Current Perspectives on Cognition and Decision Making in Aviation BIBAFull-Text 53
  Kathleen Mosier; Beth Lyall; Phil Smith; Roger Beatty; Charles Billings; Roger J. Chapman; Jodi Heintz Obradovich; C. Elaine McCoy; Judith Orasanu; Jeannie Davison; San Jose; Mica Endsley; Debra Jones
The intent of this symposium is to discuss the most recent research trends with respect to cognition and decision-making in aviation. Participants in the symposium will present several different perspectives on current issues being investigated. Phil Smith will discuss issues involving information management to support collaborative decision making in the national airspace system. Judith Orasanu will present ongoing NASA work looking at pilot risk assessment. Mica Endsley will discuss a recent model developed to examine the effect of disruptions on Situation Awareness and decision making in Air Traffic Control as well as in the cockpit. Kathleen Mosier will present Coherence/Correspondence, Intuition → Analysis as theoretical frameworks within which to discuss cognition in the automated cockpit. Together, these presentations will provide an overview of the most current developments and perspectives on cognitive processes and decision making in the aviation domain.
Information Management to Support Distributed Decision-Making in the National Airspace System BIBAFull-Text 54-57
  Philip J. Smith; Charles Billings; Roger J. Chapman; Jodi Heintz Obradovich; C. Elaine McCoy
For Summer 2000, the Federal Aviation Administration introduced a new collaborative procedure for reducing departure delays during weather events. This initiative involved the used of predefined Coded Departure Routes (CDRs). Goals of this procedure included:
   *Providing airline operations centers and FAA air traffic facilities with a process for working collaboratively to develop earlier plans for dealing with predicted constraints.
   *Giving airport control towers greater flexibility to respond to the often rapidly changing picture regarding available airspace during weather events.
   *Keeping airline dispatchers in the loop through the early identification of alternative departure routes to expedite departures from an airport.
   An analysis of the use of CDRs was completed, based on interviews with staff at six airlines and four enroute air traffic control Centers, on analyses of System Command Center advisories and on analyses comparing filed with flown routes. Based on this analysis, recommendations are made for the design of improved tools for information dissemination and decision support.
The Role of Risk in Aviation Decision Making: How Pilots Perceive and Manage Flight Risks BIBAFull-Text 58-62
  Judith Orasanu; Jeannie Davison
The current direction in CRM training is threat and error management. In order to manage threats and to prevent them from leading to unsafe situations, pilots must first assess the risks associated with them. Risk assessment feeds into decision making in two ways: during assessment of the precipitating event (or threat) that requires a decision to be made, and in evaluating potential courses of action. Survey data were collected from over 100 airline pilots concerning their everyday experience with five types of risk: economic, physical, productivity, professional, and social. These risks may be pitted against each other, creating goal conflicts and decision dilemmas. Data from this study are helping us to understand what risks are salient to pilots in everyday flight and how pilots manage those risks when making decisions.
Disruptions, Interruptions and Information Attack: Impact on Situation Awareness and Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 63-67
  Mica R. Endsley; Debra G. Jones
This paper presents a model of depicting the ways in which disruptions, interruptions and information attack can effect situation awareness and decision making in a variety of contexts. Those effected in military aviation include not just those in the cockpit, but also forward air controllers, ground based air traffic controllers and those in intelligence and support functions. The model incorporates the ways in which information attacks can effectively disrupt human decision making at various points in information processing. By carefully examining not just what cues might depict an attack to information systems, but also how human observers will be effected by such cues, more robust systems for protecting against disruptions and information attack can be developed.
Cognition in the Automated Cockpit: A Coherence Perspective BIBAFull-Text 68-72
  Kathleen L. Mosier
Much of the focus of papers in this symposium has been on using cues in the decision-making environment, input from relevant sources, and knowledge from past experience to assess current situations and make decisions. The cognitive processes inherent in these tasks are critical to success in the aviation environment; however, attention must also be paid to the cognitive requirements for effective diagnosis and decision making within the automated cockpit. Most importantly, in terms of theoretical and practical implications, the sophistication of automated systems in the cockpit means that pilots have access to highly reliable and accurate information (rather than probabilistic cues). This change demands that we examine cognitive processing within the automated cockpit in terms of the match or mismatch between the cognitive behavior elicited by the electronic environment, the cognitive response required by the task, and the cognitive strategy adopted by the pilot. The premise of this paper is that a framework that accomplishes this can be found in correspondence and coherence, complementary metatheories of judgment and decision making, and in the Cognitive Continuum Theory of judgment (CCT; e.g., Hammond 1996, 2000; Hammond, Hamm, Grassia, & Pearson, 1997), and that the nature of the pilot's cognitive task in the automated cockpit has been altered from a largely intuitive, correspondence-based task to a primarily analytical, coherence-based task. The purpose of this paper will be to briefly describe these theories and their relevance to diagnosis and decision making in the automated cockpit, and to explore whether the design of automated systems supports or hinders requisite cognitive strategies.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aviation Safety and Training [Lecture]

A Simulator Study of Pilots' Monitoring Strategies and Performance on Modern Glass Cockpit Aircraft BIBAFull-Text 73-77
  Randall J. Mumaw; Mark I. Nikolic; Nadine B. Sarter; Christopher D. Wickens
Monitoring failures are widely assumed to be responsible for breakdowns in pilot-automation coordination; however, only limited subjective and anecdotal data are available on the monitoring behavior of flight crews on glass cockpit aircraft. This study is the first to collect and relate both performance and eye-tracking data from pilots who flew a challenging scenario in a high-fidelity modern aircraft simulator. Twenty B-747-400 line pilots were recruited from two major U.S. airlines and were given a one-hour scenario that was designed specifically to assess pilots' use and monitoring of the automation. The findings from this study confirm that pilots experience considerable difficulties with tracking the status and behavior of the automation on modern glass cockpit aircraft. They appear to monitor flight mode annunciations to a much lesser extent and at a more superficial level than intended and expected by designers and training departments. Possible ways of supporting pilots more effectively through improved automation feedback and training are discussed.
The Where and the Why of Cross-Country VFR Crashes: Database and Simulation Analyses BIBAFull-Text 78-81
  David O' Hare; Douglas Owen; Douglas Wiegmann
General Aviation (GA) accidents involving [VFR into IMC] continue to be a major source of fatalities with a fatality rate more than four times greater than for GA accidents in general. We report two studies into the causes of cross-country weather-related accidents. In the first study we analyse the records of 77 New Zealand crashes where it could be determined that the aircraft was on a cross-country flight. We compared the characteristics of crashes that occurred after externally-driven events such as engine-failures with crashes where the pilot maintained on-going control over the aircraft. Significant differences were found for distance into the flight, visibility, altitude, crash severity and for the pilots' age and recent flight time. In the second study, 18 qualified GA pilots completed two simulated cross-country flights involving several commonly encountered weather conditions with or without the use of GPS. Detailed measures of decision making, risk assessment and situational awareness were collected during the flights. We discuss the implications of the findings for training and flight safety in general aviation.
Improving Incident Reports Using a Schematic Recall Aid: The Critical Event Reporting Tool (CERT) BIBAFull-Text 82-86
  Terry L. von Thaden; Douglas A. Wiegmann
Incident reports are intended to help identify problems in safety critical systems and aid in preventing subsequent accidents, thus improving safety. Unfortunately, incident-reporting forms are generally unstructured, providing little guidance to the reporter on how to describe the critical events of an incident. As a result, most reports contain information on what happened, as opposed to why an incident happened, and hence make the identification of intervention and prevention strategies onerous. The purpose of the present study was to help remedy this situation by developing and testing a tool, coined the Critical Event Recall Tool (CERT) for improving the quality of information contained in narrative reports of incidents. Results of this study indicate that CERT improved the analytical content of general aviation pilots' reports of a critical incident that occurred during a simulated cross-country flight and that pilots who used CERT generally felt that the tool was easy to use and understand.
Modeling the Big Sky Theory BIBAFull-Text 87-91
  William R. Knecht
This work examines the mathematical assumptions underlying the so-called "Big Sky Theory" (BST). Given stated assumptions about airspace geometry, the number of aircraft, and the flight parameters of each, Monte Carlo simulations are used to parameterize closed-solution probability estimates for both operational errors and metal-on-metal collisions. This methodology either confirms or disconfirms the BST as a functional separation maintenance "safety net" for air traffic control (ATC), depending on one's assumptions about the airspace and standards for separation.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Human Factors Challenges in Future Air Traffic Management [Panel]

Human Factors Challenges in Future Air Traffic Management BIBFull-Text 92-95
  Raja Parasuraman; Pamela S. Della Rocco; Kevin M. Corker; Richard Mogford; Paul Krois; Jacqueline Duley

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: From Perception to Knowledge Management: Next-Generation Human Factors for Aerospace Systems [Panel]

From Perception to Knowledge Management: Next-Generation Human Factors for Aerospace Systems BIBAFull-Text 96-99
  Patricia M. Jones; John Caldwell; Barbara Kanki; Jeffrey McCandless; Judith Orasanu; John Rehling
This panel includes participants from a variety of backgrounds who have each made aerospace human factors contributions ranging from fundamental research on perceptual or physiological factors to cognitive modeling, display design, automation and decision support tools, training, and knowledge management. The goal of this panel is to explore "gaps" between some of these areas and discuss how the field of human factors should progress to fill them.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Information Access and Display in Aviation Systems [Lecture]

Alternatives for Air Traffic Control Displays BIBAFull-Text 100-104
  Tanya Yuditsky; Randy L. Sollenberger
The United States air traffic control (ATC) system is designed to provide for the safe and efficient flow of air traffic from origin to destination. Traffic levels are projected to continue increasing over the foreseeable future. Because of the potential consequences of errors, it is important to identify and reduce the factors that increase ATC complexity. This research examined the application of color and text enhancements to ATC displays as methods of reducing complexity in the en route environment. The enhancements tested in this study were color coding of (a) aircraft destination airport, (b) overflights, and (c) special use airspace. Eight Certified Professional Controllers participated in the high fidelity, human-in-the-loop simulation. The results suggest that the enhancements were effective in helping controllers maintain safety, efficiency, attention, and situational awareness. The controllers issued fewer altitude changes overall when the overflight enhancement was used. Similarly, they issued fewer altitude changes for arrival aircraft when the destination airport enhancement was used. Over-the-shoulder observers rated the controllers as more effective in maintaining safe and efficient traffic flow, tailoring control actions to the situation, and prioritizing, with the use of the SUA enhancement. The controllers also reported that the enhancements helped in prioritizing control actions and planning ahead.
Cockpit Display of Traffic Information: The Effects of Traffic Load, Dimensionality, and Vertical Profile Orientation BIBAFull-Text 105-109
  Amy L. Alexander; Christopher D. Wickens
Eighteen certified flight instructors from the University of Illinois Institute of Aviation participated in an experiment exploring the design of the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) for free flight. Pilots flew a sequence of flight scenarios to compare the effects of traffic load, dimensionality, and a vertical profile orientation on maneuver frequency, safety, and maneuver efficiency. Climbs and descents were found to be more frequent than other maneuvers. Both the rear-view and 3D displays were safer in terms of predicted conflict avoidance than the side-view display. Climbing maneuvers were more safely implemented with the rear-view and 3D displays than with the side-view display. The lateral efficiency of climbing maneuvers was highest with the rear-view display. Altitude maintenance of lateral/vertical maneuvers was highest with the side-view, then the rear-view, and then lowest with the 3D display. Airspeed efficiency of airspeed maneuvers was highest with the rear-view display. These findings suggest that a rear-view coplanar CDTI may be preferable to either a side-view coplanar or 3D display.
Symbicons: A Hybrid Symbology that Combines the Best Elements of Symbols and Icons BIBAFull-Text 110-114
  Harvey S. Smallman; Mark St. John; Heather M. Oonk; Michael B. Cowen
New tactical displays are being developed that depict military assets as realistic icons, whereas conventional displays show them as non-realistic symbols. Our previous research has revealed a mixed pattern of performance benefits for symbols and icons across different attributes of the represented assets. For both naming and visual search, we found that symbols were faster for platform and affiliation while icons were faster for heading. Platform category was not different between the two. This mix inspired us to create a hybrid -- 'Symbicon' -- symbology that combined the best aspects of symbols and icons. Symbicons possess the platform-identifying interior of standard military symbols and the cartoon outline of a ship or aircraft, adapted from icons, to conspicuously code for platform category (air, sea) and heading. Here, we compare visual search performance for icons, symbols and Symbicons for the four attributes mentioned. We document that Symbicons do, indeed, support the fastest search.
The Okcr and Pilot Performance during Transitions between Meteorological Conditions Using HMD Attitude Symbology BIBAFull-Text 115-119
  Kristen K. Liggett; Jennie J. Gallimore
Research has shown that spatial disorientation often occurs when pilots transition between real-world visual cues and head-down attitude instruments. Recent studies investigating the opto-kinetic cervical reflex (OKCR) indicate that when pilots transition between these two types of visual cues, they are also transitioning between frames of reference. Limited research has been conducted investigating pilots' response during transitions between real-world visual cues and helmet-mounted display (HMD) attitude symbology. Eleven pilots performed vertical "S" maneuvers in and out of clouds to simulate frequent transitions between visual meteorological conditions and instrument meteorological conditions using both primary flight symbology on an HMD and traditional head-down primary flight instruments. Because pilots focused primarily on the symbology during the task, the OKCR was not found. Results also revealed that pilots were better able to maintain commanded vertical velocity when using the HMD compared to the head-down instruments, which is attributed to the head-up location of the symbology. Having the HMD symbology superimposed on the real-world visual scene can provide additional visual cues that pilots can use to perform their task more efficiently.
Localization of Aircraft on an Electronic Navigation Display Using Verbal Communication BIBAFull-Text 120-124
  Douglas A. Peterson; Pamela J. Maas
The present study examined the use of a track-up aircraft navigation display in localizing the position of a second aircraft given only verbal communication information of its position. Two experiments examined the role of map rotation, number of available fixed reference points, and the relative position between two aircraft on the ability to localize the position of the target aircraft. Both experiments confirmed that performance declined with map rotations other than north-up, with the poorest performance at 90° of rotation. The number of reference points available increased the response time for localization but did not improve accuracy. The relative position of the two aircraft also affected performance, finding that aircraft located on opposite sides of a reference point or aligned with one of the 4 cardinal compass directions resulting in the fastest and most accurate localization.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Human Factors and the International Space Station [Panel]

Human Factors and the International Space Station BIBAFull-Text 125-129
  Brian Peacock; Sudhakar Rajulu; Jennifer Novak; Thomas Rathjen; Mihriban Whitmore; James Maida; Barbara Woolford
The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS: Aerospace Systems Posters

When and Why do Controllers Mark Flight Progress Strips A Look at Live Traffic BIBAFull-Text 130-134
  Francis T. Durso; Peter J. Batsakes; Jerry M. Crutchfield; Justin Braden; Carol A. Mnning
Subject matter experts were employed to record observations of flight progress strip marking across 5 en route ATC facilities. Approximately 220 hours of ATC observations were recorded establishing a group of high frequency/high importance markings. These markings were perceived by controllers to provide performance benefits through externalizing memory and communication. The results are discussed in relation to possible electronic alternatives to flight progress strips.
Achieving Panacea: A Usability Evaluation of a System for Pilot Alerting and Notification of Adverse Conditions -- Escape and Avoidance BIBAFull-Text 135-139
  Patricia May Ververs; Michael C. Dorneich; Michael D. Good
This paper acknowledges the recent thrust to integrate systems on the flight deck and details a usability evaluation of a prototype concept that provides integrated alerting functionality. The ANCOA (Alerting and Notification of Conditions Outside the Aircraft) concept was conceived as means for reducing error conflicts and establishing a clear prioritization among currently independent and disparate alerting systems for hazards external to the aircraft (e.g., TCAS, EGPWS). ANCOA reduces alert proliferation by creating a standardization by which all incoming information is categorized and prioritized under a common framework. By creating a consistent alerting and display philosophy to present information to the crew, we can reduce the demands on pilot attention and information processing. In this paper we discuss a couple of recent integrated hazard awareness systems developed by Honeywell International that make the innovative initial step to incorporate previously separate systems into a single system. We present ANCOA as a concept that can enhance systems of their type and advance their utility. We evaluated the concept's efficacy and present the results of a usability study involving nine commercial pilots that reviewed the concept.
The Role of Gravity in Human Spatial Memory BIBAFull-Text 140-143
  Andreas Finkelmeyer; Steffen Werner
Research in humans and other animals has shown that different spatial reference systems are used in different spatial tasks and provide the basis for organizing spatial memories. Two groups of 16 subjects each learned the spatial locations of eight different objects surrounding them in the vertical plane while either lying on their sides or their front/back. Their ability to remember the locations was measured in a subsequent test phase. The results showed that subjects were faster and more accurate when they imagined themselves aligned with the vertical axis. Imagined orientations in the horizontal plane led to slower reaction times and less accurate responses, but were markedly better than imagined diagonal orientations. This indicates that humans use the reference direction specified by gravity to structure their spatial memory. Possible implications for the design of spatial displays are discussed.
Ergonomics of UAVUCAV Mission Success: Considerations for Data Link, Control, and Display Issues BIBAFull-Text 144-148
  Mustapha Mouloua; Richard Gilson; Eleni Daskarolis Kring; Jason Kring; Peter Hancock
The United States Armed Forces are turning to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and their combat-modified counterparts (UCAVs), to support human pilots and improve electronic surveillance and weapons deployment capabilities, particularly for risky suppression of enemy air-defense (SEAD) operations. Successful implementation and integration of UAVs/UCAVs into today's military requires focused attention toward human factors issues to ensure mission success and efficiency. In addition to considerations for satellite links, positive target verification, and assurance of collateral safety prior to weapon(s) launch, a primary concern is how operators interact with the UAV/UCAV system. This paper describes a portion of these concerns by presenting human factors considerations for UAV/UCAV-operator data links, vehicle control, and operator display issues. Relevant empirical findings are reviewed and implications for training and systems design are outlined.
A Comparison between a 2-D and a 3-D Simulation of Airport Tower Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 149-152
  Clemens Weikert; Mai Pham; Helene Montan; Curt R. Johansson
The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a difference in performance and experienced mental workload between 2-D and 3-D simulations of airport tower air traffic control. The air traffic control task was to give aircraft take-off and landing clearances. A total of ten subjects, all university students, participated in the study. All subjects were exposed to both 2-D and 3-D simulations. The order between 2-D and 3-D was rotated to exclude order effects. Performance was judged using a rating form used by the Swedish Air Traffic Services Academy. After each simulation the subjects were required to rate their mental workload on NASA-TLX. The results show no statistically significant differences between 2-D and 3-D with respect to performance or experienced workload. When looking at the raw data tendencies can be found for the 3-D to yield better performance and less mental load. This merits further study with a larger number of subjects and scenarios.
Analysis of Mid-Air Collisions in Civil Aviation BIBAFull-Text 153-156
  Narinder Taneja; Douglas A. Wiegmann
Mid Air Collisions (MAC) are tragic events, with the potential of multiple fatalities. Despite the improving trends in aviation safety, the rate of MAC has remained stable for the past few years. There is an absence of published literature on MAC and related human performance issues. Consequently, this study analyzed 79 mid air collisions in civil aviation in the United States from 1994 to 1999 in an attempt to further understand the causes of these accidents. Contextual data was analyzed in terms of accident location, phase of flight, type of aircraft operation, visibility conditions, and direction of aircraft trajectories (same vs. opposite direction). Pilot factors were also examined, including recent flying experience and medical certification. An attempt is made to interpret the results in terms of recent models of pilot vigilance and scan patterns. Recommendations are made for possible future research in the area.
The Arc-Size Illusion as Applied to Planar Displays of Aircraft Traffic Information BIBAFull-Text 157-161
  Doreen Comerford; John Uhlarik
Shorter arcs are perceived as having less curvature (i.e., they are "perceptually flattened"), and this phenomenon has been labeled the Arc-size Illusion. This illusion was explored as it relates to planar displays of traffic information. Such displays often represent intent and/or history information with lines. Participants were presented with aircraft traveling on curvilinear paths, and their estimations of future aircraft location were examined. There were three major findings from the study. First, the data suggest that "perceptual flattening" and the Arc-size Illusion do indeed affect predictive judgments about aircraft on curvilinear paths. Second, and most surprising, the data suggest that increasing the size of the arc with a history line does NOT lessen "perceptual flattening." Third, the data suggest that "perceptual flattening" is especially pronounced when predictor length is relatively short and the judgment location is relatively far. However, the effect of the predictor length essentially disappears when the judgment location is at a distance that is proportional to the predictor length.
Workload, Situation Awareness, and Teaming Issues for UAVUCAV Operations BIBAFull-Text 162-165
  Mustapha Mouloua; Richard Gilson; Jason Kring; Peter Hancock
A new partnership is forming between humans and uninhabited aircraft. To augment the abilities of military forces on the ground and in the air, the US Armed Forces have developed several Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to work in conjunction with human pilots and enhance surveillance and combat capabilities. Even with no onboard pilot, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and combat-tailored versions (UCAVs) rely on proficient human operators on the ground for proper guidance and munitions deployment. For this reason, system designers must consider several key human factors issues in the development of functional UAV/UCAV systems. This work addresses three of these issues: workload, situation awareness, and teaming concerns. Recommendations to maximize operator efficacy, based on findings from human factors and ergonomics research, are presented as well as implications for training.
Qualitative Evaluation of Aircrew Helmet Passive Noise Reduction and the Communications Earplug for Tactical Aviation BIBAFull-Text 166-170
  P. Scot Best
The U.S. Navy's F/A-18E/F Super Hornet operational evaluation reported excessive cockpit noise while receiving fuel from an F/A-18E/F tanker. In response, a plan was developed by Navy Aircrew Systems (AIR-4.6) and the F/A-18E/F Integrated Test Team to perform a qualitative assessment of available aircrew helmet passive noise reduction (PNR) systems. The noise levels when behind an E/F have been described to be loud enough to allow aircrew to miss aural tones and/or radio/intercommunications system transmissions during in-flight refueling and close-in formations. This effort gathered fixed-wing tactical aviation aircrew qualitative flight test data on two PNR systems (Oregon Aero SoftSeals and the Communications Earplug [CEP]), using the current, unmodified, helmet configuration as a baseline of comparison. All data collected was in the form of aircrew comments, solicited via questionnaires, on each system. Comments from the flight tests were very favorable for the CEP system. Aircrew reported increased noise attenuation, enhanced communications, and improved situational awareness with the CEP configuration over the unmodified and SoftSeals-modified helmet configurations.
Evaluation of CDTI Dynamic Predictor Display Technology BIBAFull-Text 171-175
  Lisa C. Thomas; Walter W. Johnson
This study examines the value of two proposed aids for a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI): Dynamic Conflict Alerting and Dynamic Trajectory Pulse Prediction. We studied the effectiveness of these two aids in combination and individually against a control condition with neither aid to evaluate the following performance criteria: 1) whether the resolution resulted in a conflict, 2) distance at closest approach, and 3) how much the resolution cost in terms of added distance to flight plan. Results indicated that pilots have difficulty in designing successful resolutions without the Dynamic Conflict Alert aid, which tells them if the proposed resolution is clear of conflicts. The Dynamic Trajectory Pulse Predictors are helpful, but do not sufficiently raise conflict avoidance performance by themselves. When combined with Dynamic Alerting, Dynamic Trajectory Pulse Predictors enable pilots to create resolutions with an extra safety "margin" as compared to their resolutions using Dynamic Alerting alone, which are successful by a narrower margin.
Night Vision Goggles Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 176-180
  Valerie J. Gawron; James E. Priest
This paper describes lessons learned over a 12-year period of evaluating the adequacy of standalone and integrated night vision goggles (NVGs). The term integrated means NVGs that are combined with other sensors or displays to present an overall picture to the crewmember. Lessons learned cover the effects of the basic human visual system, limitations of types of NVG equipment, problems that have occurred during implementation and identifying operational utility. The lessons are limited to the devices (either projected view or direct view) that amplify the existing visible or near infrared energy and present it to the crewmember. Issues relevant to true Infra-Red (IR) detector sets (wavelengths between than 1 and 20 microns) are not discussed.
An Automated Conflict Alert System and its Impact on the Air Traffic Controller -- an Explorative Field Study BIBAFull-Text 181-184
  Clemens Weikert; Henrik Holck Clausen; Curt R. Johansson
This study aims at investigating the impact of a recently implemented short term conflict alert system in Swedish air traffic control. The main issue is whether controllers have changed their way of working after the introduction of the new system and to look for potential risk factors. Observations, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from working controllers. Results show no change in work procedures except for the fact that controllers have increased the amount of information given to pilots. A tendency was found for experienced controllers to look more often at alerts in other sectors than less experienced controllers did, which might be a potential risk factor.
The Relationship between Working Conditions and Commercial Pilot Fatigue Development BIBAFull-Text 185-189
  Wayne C. Harris; Daniel Sachau; Scot C. Harris; Robert Allen
Fatigue is an important factor in aviation accidents, and effective fatigue management requires understanding the relationship between working conditions and fatigue. Two studies were conducted to clarify the relationship between working conditions and fatigue. In the first study, 59 airline pilots completed a workload questionnaire and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the morning and at the completion of their final flight of the day. In the second study, 133 pilots completed a revised questionnaire and the POMS. In both samples, fatigue increased and vigor levels decreased. Regression of fatigue increase upon working conditions indicated that the number of takeoffs and landings during the day were related to fatigue development. Correlation of incident level with both weather and airport difficulty suggest that incident level is a function of weather conditions and airport difficulty. These results argue that fatigue management should be founded upon the demands of working conditions, not merely the simplistic assessment of hours of work.
The Role of Weather in General Aviation Accidents: An Analysis of Causes, Contributing Factors and Issues BIBAFull-Text 190-194
  Gary Capobianco; Mark D. Lee
This paper discusses an analysis that was undertaken to identify the causes, contributing factors and associated issues of weather-related general aviation (GA) accidents to aid in the development of cockpit-based, aviation weather information (AWIN) systems. A total of 1520 GA accidents from 1995 to 1998 that reported at least one weather condition as a cause or contributing factor were selected from the NTSB Aviation Accident/Incident Database. The accident variables examined were accident year, injury severity, phase of operation, probable causes, contributing factors, meteorological and light conditions, pilot ratings and pilot experience. Results suggest the most prevalent factors in fatal weather accidents are low ceiling (20%), fog (14%), wind (10%), and night (9%). VFR to IMC flight and flight into adverse weather during the cruise phase are the most common probable causes of fatal weather accidents. Several scenarios primarily responsible for fatal weather accidents are identified and recommendations for AWIN system design are also presented.
Further Lessons Learned in the Design of Computer-Human Interfaces for Terminal Air Traffic Control Systems BIBAFull-Text 195-199
  Kenneth R. Allendoerfer; Tanya Yuditsky; William J. Hughes
The Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS) will replace aging radar data processors and controller workstations at Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) terminal air traffic control facilities. In the late 1990s, computer-human interface (CHI) issues were identified with the major STARS components. Since then, many CHI modifications that make STARS easier to use, easier to maintain, and more acceptable to the controllers and airway facilities technicians have been prototyped, implemented, and tested. We are currently designing CHIs for upcoming enhancements in which decision-support tools, satellite-based surveillance, and advanced weather information will be integrated into STARS. This paper will discuss lessons learned during the STARS CHI development that may interest acquisition programs dealing with similar issues. Specific examples include the development of monitoring systems, the design of target symbols, and the depiction of weather information.
Intelligent Tutors for Aviation Automation Mitigating the Problem1 BIBAFull-Text 200-204
  Christine M. Mitchell; Alan R. Chappell; W. Michael Gray; David A. Thurman; Alexander B. Quinn
This paper describes a research program that addresses a variety of issues and problems in training pilots to fly modern, highly sophisticated aircraft First, the paper describes two intelligent tutors developed to teach two important aspects of aviation: a tutor that teaches management of the vertical dimension of the flight management system for pilots in transition training; and a tutor that teaches expert novices, that is, certified pilots, procedures not included in their transition training. Second, both tutors extend GT-ITACS (Georgia Tech-Intelligent Tutoring Architecture for Complex Systems), a computational development environment for intelligent tutors. In general, implementing instructional material in computational form is the most difficult step in developing effective computer-based instruction; this is particularly true for intelligent tutors Computational implementation is so difficult that implementing computer-based training is often cost and time prohibitive -- explaining in part the small number of tutors and the abundance of computer-based training that is little more than Power Point presentations GT-ITACS is an computational architecture that is completely file driven That is, configuring a GT-ITACS tutor for a new application requires only reformatting input files. A tutor based on GT-ITACS does not require any additional software development or 'hard-coding.' Both tutors described in this paper instantiate GT-ITACS, demonstrating the versatility and power of the development environment. Finally, the paper concludes by describing a method to implement distributed, computer-based training, that is, training any time, any where A description of an easily implemented method, evaluated with both tutors described in this paper, provides users access to training at the place and time of their choice.

AGING: Driving Research and the Older Adult: A Debate among Researchers and Practitioners [Debate] Cosponsoring TG: Surface Transportation

Driving Research and the Older Adult: A Debate Among Researchers and Practitioners BIBAFull-Text 205
  Florian Jentsch
As we have begun to live longer, the proportion of older drivers involved in vehicle operation is on the rise. This group relies on private automobiles as a main means of independent transportation. At the same time, there is concern that age-related deteriorations of human functions may make older drivers less safe than their younger counterparts.
   Despite the advances in driver research, especially as it relates to the older driver, there have been complaints about the value of this research for practice. We will debate this issue. Specifically, the focus will be on an exchange between researchers and practitioners in the following areas:
  • - What are the current issues in practice regarding older drivers?
  • - What are the current issues in research regarding older drivers?
  • - What can practitioners do better so that researchers study operationally
       relevant topics?
  • - What can researchers do better to facilitate transition of their results to
  • - What are good mechanisms for continued dialogue between research and
  • AGING: Aging and Usability Issues in Computer Technology [Lecture]

    Usability and Accessibility Comparison of Governmental, Organizational, Educational and Commercial AgingHealth-Related Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 206-210
      Sri H. Kurniawan; Panayiotis Zaphiris
    This study is aimed at answering whether aging/health-related web sites of different domain extensions (i.e. .com, .edu, .gov and .org) differ in their accessibility and usability, and whether these two measures are correlated. The usability and accessibility of governmental, organizational, educational and commercial aging/health-related web sites were compared using two automatic evaluation tools: Bobby and LIFT. The governmental web site group has the highest compliance with Web site Content Accessibility Guide although only 52% got an approved status. The accessibility approval was found to correlate significantly with overall usability ratings for all groups, except the commercial web site group.
    Age Differences in the Performance of Hypertext Perusal BIBAFull-Text 211-215
      Dyi-Yih Michael Lin
    The present study examined the extent to which age had impacts on the performance of hypertext perusal as a function of text topologies. Ten subjects, five young (mean = 27.4) and five seniors (mean = 61.6), participated in an experiment where three levels of text linearity were manipulated. The data showed that both age and text topologies were significant sources of variability in hypertext browsing and navigation. On each text topology, older subjects browsed less text with a larger number of nodes repeatedly visited, which suggested more severe disorientation. With respect to navigation, a significant age x topology interaction indicated that the effect of age differences was mainly derived from the network topology, evidenced by the more extra links searched by the senior subject. Implications for the design of hypertext systems that accommodate the age effects are discussed.
    Age Group Differences in Subjective Perceptions of Telephone Voice Menu Systems BIBAFull-Text 216-220
      Joseph Sharit; Sara J. Czaja; Sankaran Nair; Chin Chin Lee
    Interactive voice response (IVR) systems are increasingly being used for a variety of tasks. Unfortunately many users experience difficulty and frustration when interacting with these systems. IVR systems may be particularly problematic for older people given the cognitive demands associated with their use. This paper reports results from a study examining the usability of IVR systems for two applications: banking and an electric utility company. The sample included 195 males and females ranging in age from 18-82 years. The participants used the system to respond to a set of 24 problems/questions. They performed these tasks at one of three speech rates: 0% compression, 10% compression, and 20% compression. Prior to performing the task, the participants completed a prior experience questionnaire; following task performance they completed a questionnaire assessing system usability. Findings from these subjective measures will be presented in this paper. Overall, the data indicate age differences in perceptions of usability. These data will be discussed with respect to implications for system design.
    The Use of Communication Technologies by Older Adults: Exploring the Benefits from the User's Perspective BIBAFull-Text 221-225
      Anne-Sophie Melenhorst; Wendy A. Rogers; Evan C. Caylor
    The use of advanced communication media may enhance the social networks of older adults. Although many older adults are open to new technology, there are still barriers that keep them from learning and using media such as e-mail and the Internet. Besides lacking skills, the lack of perceived advantages, or benefits, may also explain their reluctance. The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived context-related benefits of communication methods by older adults. Forty-eight independently living older adults in the age range of 65-80 years, 24 e-mail users and 24 non-users, participated in a focus group discussion of different communication scenarios. A systematic analysis of their comments and statements showed the relevance of perceived context-related benefit as a motivational factor for using or not using a medium. An implication of these results may be that training the skills to handle a new technology should also involve providing information about its specific benefits, from the user's perspective.

    AGING: Automation as Caregiver: The Role of Advanced Technologies in Elder Care [Panel]

    Automation as Caregiver; The Role of Advanced Technologies in Elder Care BIBAFull-Text 226-229
      Christopher A. Miller
       Wende Dewing, Kathleen Krichbaum, Stacy Kuiack, Wendy Rogers, Steven Shafer
       An unprecedented boom in the elderly population will hit all industrialized and most other countries over the next 30 years. In many cases, governments, social service organizations and even individuals and families are turning to technological solutions to aid in care giving for this elderly population. While much of this technology continues to occupy traditional assistive roles such as aiding in walking, door opening, and communication, increasingly advanced technological solutions are being proposed to aid in monitoring, diagnosis, situation awareness, decision aiding and the direct automation of tasks for either the elderly themselves or for their caregivers. That is, technology is increasingly either occupying or sharing the role traditionally occupied by human caregivers. This role is understudied from a Human Factors perspective and, as with all human interactions with novel technology, failure to consider the humans' needs, desires, capabilities and limitations will lead to unsatisfactory technological solutions at best, and disasters at worst. This panel will explore the role of automation as caregiver for the elderly. The central question will be how automation can be most appropriately integrated into a caregiving infrastructure so that it provides the best, most acceptable and most effective care from both the elders' and the human caregivers' (both professional and informal) perspectives.

    AGING: Development of Accessible Kiosk User Interface Solutions for the Public Sector: A Panel Summary [Panel]

    Development of Accessible Kiosk User Interface Solutions for the Public Sector: A Panel Summary BIBAFull-Text 230-234
      Mark Hoffman
    This panel discussed the challenges of developing an accessible kiosk through a multi-disciplinary and organization team. Speakers from each organization presented the challenges and solutions achieved from their viewpoints, industry, academic researchers, and the museum. During the development of the kiosk content and navigation design, the collaborative efforts of the kiosk development team resulted in adopting a new User Centered Design (UCD) process that is somewhat unique to the museum industry. Findings from the usability study conducted on the kiosks and applications for the EZ Access navigation technique were also presented. A demonstration of the prototype Smithsonian kiosk and other kiosks with accessible interfaces was included during this session.

    AGING: Aging, Sensorimotor Abilities, and Everyday Function [Lecture]

    Biomechanical Analysis of Postural Sway in Elderly Adults on Ramps BIBAFull-Text 235-239
      John J. Eichman; Randa L. Shehab
    This study investigated the effects of ramp angles on postural deviation as a function of age. Five ramp inclinations (1:8, 1:10, 1:12, 1:16, and 1:20) were examined in both ascent and descent directions. Five younger (22 to 28 years) and five older (78 to 88 years) adults participated in the study. Video-based motion analysis was used to measure torso and hip angles while participants walked on an adjustable inclined ramp. Both young and older participants had a significant increase in torso angle across ramp slopes from ascent to descent. In addition, the data indicated that older participants tended to lean to the right while walking while the young participants leaned to the left. Measurements of hip angle revealed that young participants had significantly greater hip movement than older participants and that hip angle decreased significantly as participants transitioned from descent to ascent trials. Based on the data observed, it is possible that ramp descent is more problematic for elderly adults. However, within the ramp conditions evaluated, the data were unable to clearly discriminate between ramp slopes beyond identifying differences between slopes of ascent and descent.
    Looming Detection among Drivers of Different Ages BIBAFull-Text 240-244
      Robert S. Kennedy
    Rear-end collisions make up about 25 percent of all automobile crashes, 27 percent of crashes resulting in injuries, and 5 percent of all fatal car crashes in the U.S. We believe that one factor in these crashes is that some people are less able to detect when they are closing in on another car, and that this ability can be measured. Thirty participants in three age groups participated in this study. Testing included the detection of size change (looming), estimation of change in looming, manual lateral tracking, synthetic tail-following, and low-fidelity driving. Participants' visual and cognitive abilities were also tested. Results indicated that the looming detection task possessed a respectable amount of retest reliability and yielded a measure that provided stable data after one session. The results further indicated that the loom tests showed minimal relationships with other temporal visual functions, indicating that looming detection is a separate function. Finally, a clear relationship between age and looming detection was shown, but neither gender nor handedness appeared to have an effect.
    Impact of Age-related Hearing Impairment on Cognitive Task Performance: Evidence for Improving Existing Methodologies BIBAFull-Text 245-249
      Carryl L. Baldwin
    Recent empirical evidence underscoring the necessity of considering the role hearing abilities when using auditory tasks to assess age-related changes in cognitive abilities is presented. Young participants, screened for hearing impairment, were required to perform a simulated driving task concurrently with an auditory task in which stimuli were presented at intensity levels simulating age-related hearing impairment. Young participants demonstrated performance decrements mirroring those of older participants in a separate but similar dual task investigation. In conjunction with evidence found by previous researchers, the results presented here provide clear evidence for the need to utilize methodologies that account for age-related hearing deficit when using auditory tasks as indices of cognitive abilities with older adults.
    The Effect of Some Worker-Related Variables on Work Ability, Work Technique, and Number of Errors in a Packing Job BIBAFull-Text 250-254
      Diana J. Schwerha
    A study was conducted to determine the effect of some worker-related variables on work ability, work technique, and number of errors for a group of nine female employees aged 25 to 55 working as packers at a global distribution center located in the U.S.A. Work ability questionnaires (from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health) were given, quality ratings (as indicated by the number of errors) from the previous month were obtained, and employees were videotaped. Correlation analysis indicated that tenure was inversely related to work ability. Analysis of variance indicated that age and height were significantly related to the number of errors. Post-hoc tests indicated that older employees and taller employees had fewer errors. This finding was especially interesting considering that the workstations were designed for men or very tall women. This research serves as a pilot for a study aimed at discerning different working techniques through the development of a model that uses frequency and types of movements.

    AGING: Aging Posters

    Smart: A Medications Screening Tool for Cognitive Aging Researchers BIBAFull-Text 255
      Holly E. Hancock; Olivier Gerouville; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
    SMART (Screening Medications: Aging Research Taxonomy) is a web-based tool designed to help human factors researchers and usability engineers identify medications that could adversely affect performance in the laboratory. SMART (intended for research purposes only) provides users with side effect information pertaining to medications commonly used by both younger and older adults. Side effect information is categorized according to the dimensions of performance that may be particularly affected (e.g., cognitive, sensory functioning), and also by specific aspects of these general dimensions (e.g., memory, tactile changes). SMART can be used to 1) obtain general information about the cognitive, sensory, and motor side effects associated with specific medications, 2) obtain information about specific side effects (e.g., changes in vision, attention) that could influence performance, and 3) screen medications for side effect severity. SMART is accessible through the Internet and is adaptable to the needs of individual users.
    Young and Old Subject Distance between Vehicles Estimation Using Linear Distance and Car Lengths BIBAFull-Text 256-259
      William E. Lee
    Drivers perform distance estimations regarding their vehicle and objects around them (including other vehicles) continuously. Such estimates may employ linear distance or "car lengths". The reliability of such assessments is often uncertain. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a subject's ability to judge distances between stationary vehicles, ranging from very close (15 ft) to 250 ft, using linear length (ft) and "car lengths" and to compare the relative accuracy of these two methods. Age influences were also investigated, grouping subjects into "young" (19-28 yrs) and "old" (64-76 yrs). This study found that the ability to estimate distance between two vehicles in the range 15 to 250 ft is limited, with subjects routinely underestimating the distance. The age influence became statistically significant at distances over 100 ft, with older subjects underestimating the distance even more than younger subjects. Finally, it was found that the length unit "car length" was even more likely to provide inaccurate distance estimations relative to linear length.
    How Old are Your Participants An Investigation of Age Classifications as Reported in Human Factors BIBFull-Text 260-261
      Timothy A. Nichols; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk; Lacey D. West
    Aging, Visual Performance and Eyestrain in Different Screen Technologies BIBAFull-Text 262-266
      Martina Ziefle
    The focus of the study was the analysis of visual performance of elder workers with different screen technologies. Independent variables were display type (high quality CRT vs. TFT) and age of participants (20-30, 40-50, 51-65 years of age). A continuous visual search task was used in the experiment. 24 participants (eight per group) performed in a 30-minute search task under both conditions. Search time and accuracy were also measured as dependent variables. Eye movements (fixation time and fixation frequency) were analysed and visual acuity as well as the critical flicker frequency (CFF) were determined. Moreover, participants rated their visual discomfort and gave a rating for display type preference and reading comfort. The results draw a clear picture: Visual performance was best with TFT displays and the oculomotor effort (eye strain) was less (shorter fixation times with less fixations) than with CRT displays. The visual discomfort rating supported the findings and 18 out of 24 participants preferred the TFT screen over the CRT. However, the superiority of TFT screens in visual performance was most distinct in elder users (40-65 years) with a benefit in visual performance of up to 37% compared to CRTs. Thus, TFT displays can be highly recommended.
    Improving Life Quality of the Elderly Development of Functional Clothing, Anthropometric Investigation BIBAFull-Text 267-271
      Nowak E; Kalka E
    The aim of this paper is to provide anthropometric characteristics of elderly women and to prepare data which will be used to develop tables of clothing dimensions for this group of women, with regard to the specific features of their body shape and body proportions.
       Measurements of elderly women were taken at Social Welfare Centres, Society for Geriatric Assistance and University of Third Age. Up to the present they have embraced 142 women aged 60 to 81.
       It has been proved that elderly women are characterized by a specific body construction. In comparison with younger women they are shorter, heavier and have significantly bigger trunk circumferences (circumferences of chest, waist and hips). For this reason majority of elderly women would not find for themselves appropriate clothes from among those made according to standard dimensions.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Situation Awareness, Aging, and Expertise [Lecture]

    Situation Awareness: Does it Change with Age BIBAFull-Text 272-276
      Cheryl Actor Bolstad
    The aim of this research project was to study age-related differences in our ability to perceive and abstract important information from the environment and to determine what physical and cognitive components are related to this ability. Young, middle and older adults completed several questionnaires, a battery of psychological tests, a standardized vision measure as well as several trials using a realistic driving simulator. A concurrent memory probe technique was used to measure participant's ability to attend to important information while driving. Their probe answers were checked against the actual simulator data and a composite situation awareness (SA) score was created. Results confirm the hypotheses that older adults have lower situation awareness when compared to younger and middle-aged adults. Factors that are related to this ability include useful field of view (UFOV), perceptual speed, driving experience and self-reported vision.
    Older and Younger Drivers' Reliance on Collision Warning Systems BIBAFull-Text 277-280
      Nathalie Cotte; Joachim Meyer; Joseph F. Coughlin
    Older and younger drivers' responses to different forward-collision warning systems and their subjective evaluations were studied in a simulated driving task. The systems differed in the settings of the warning threshold and the visibility of possible causes for false alarms. The analysis of mean driving speeds allowed us to assess participants' reliance on and compliance with the systems. Older drivers drove consistently slower, but the patterns of results for both age groups were similar: Reliance (i.e. speed when no warning was given) was greater with systems featuring more false alarms and fewer omissions. Compliance (i.e. the deceleration after a warning) was greater with systems featuring fewer false alarms and more omissions. The ability to see the causes of false alarms led older drivers to express greater subjective tolerance for false alarms. Implications of these results for the understanding of responses to warning systems in general and in-vehicle collision warnings in particular are discussed.
    Expertise Effects in Situation Memory and Awareness BIBAFull-Text 281-285
      Young Woo Sohn; Andrew R. Dattel
    This research focused on novice-expert differences in memory components of flight situation awareness. In Experiment 1, pilot memory for different forms (spatial or verbal) of cockpit situational information was tested immediately after presentation of the information (immediate recall) or after 30-s delay filled with an intervening task (delayed recall). In Experiment 2, pilot performance on a situation awareness (SA) task was examined and correlated with memory measures obtained in Experiment 1. Results suggest that an expertise effect occurs in delayed recall but not in immediate recall and representation of situational information in memory required to perform a SA task varies as a function of expertise. Theoretical accounts of results are discussed in the context of psychological theories of expertise.
    Measuring the Performance of Experts: An Application to Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 286-290
      Rickey P. Thomas; Ben Willems; James Shanteau; John Raacke; Brian Friel; William J. Hughes
    The study applied the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index, a behavioral-based measure of expertise that integrates discrimination and consistency. Larger CWS scores are indicative of better evaluation, i.e., greater discrimination and consistency. CWS was used to assess the performance of controllers operating in high-fidelity simulations of air traffic control (ATC). Large CWS scores were associated with superior performance, e.g., fewer separation errors. The CWS indices were also sensitive to changes in task complexity and controller efficiency, further validating the index. This research extended CWS to real controllers operating in high-fidelity simulations of ATC.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Adaptive Automation: From Theory to Practice [Panel]

    Adaptive Automation: From Theory to Practice BIBAFull-Text 291-292
      Raja Parasuraman
    Adaptive automation (AA) refers to human-computer systems in which the 'division of labor' and/or the interface between human and machine agents is not fixed but dynamic. Flexible computer aiding of the human operator, dynamic task allocation between the operator and computer systems, or context-dependent information management systems constitute variants of AA. Despite several successful simulations of AA, there are concerns regarding the efficacy of adaptive systems. Most work to date, with a few exceptions, has been conducted on relatively low-fidelity simulations of real-world systems. There is also a need for translating the theoretical promise of AA into practical reality. This panel examined these issues and discussed whether AA systems can be fielded effectively. In particular, the panelists considered how theory-based research on AA can be translated into effective design recommendations for the development of AA systems in the real world.


    Mental Model Assessments: Is There Convergence Among Different Methods BIBAFull-Text 293-296
      A. William Evans; Florian Jentsch; James M. Hitt; Clint Bowers
    Knowledge elicitation and mental model assessment methods are becoming increasingly popular in applied psychology. However, there continue to be questions about the psychometrics of knowledge elicitation methods. Specifically, more needs to be known regarding the stability and consistency of the results over time (i.e., whether the methods are reliable) and regarding the degree to which the results correctly represent the underlying knowledge structures (i.e., whether the methods are valid).
       This paper focuses on the convergence among three different assessment methods: (a) pairwise relatedness ratings using Pathfinder, (b) concept mapping, and (c) card sorting. Thirty-six participants completed all three assessments using the same set of twenty driving-related terms. Assessment sequences were counterbalanced, and participants were randomly assigned to one of the six assessment sequences. It was found that the three assessment methods showed very low convergence as measured by the average correlation across the three methods within the same person. Indeed, convergence was lower than the sharedness across participants (as measured by the average correlation across participants within the same assessment method). Additionally, there were order effects among the different assessment sequences. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
    Mental Models and the Abstraction Hierarchy: Assessing Ecological Compatibility BIBAFull-Text 297-301
      Olivier St-Cyr; Catherine M. Burns
    This paper presents a new approach to understanding mental models for complex industrial systems. Using the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) framework as a way to describe mental models, we propose an approach to assess ecological compatibility between an operator's internal mental model and a model of the environment. In order to do so, we have combined and built upon the previous work of Rasmussen (1979) and Moray (1996). We believe that this new approach can assess ecological compatibility and ultimately provide the operator with a more accurate and complete internal mental model that reflects the reality of the environment. We argue that Ecological Interface Design (EID) is a way to link mental models and the environment. Future work will be needed in order to assess ecological compatibility. This includes capturing and examining operators' internal mental models, and comparing them with models of the environment.
    Experience and Grouping Effects When Handling Non-Normal Situations BIBAFull-Text 302-306
      Anna C. Trujillo
    Currently, most of the displays in control rooms can be categorized as status, alerts/procedures, or control screens. With the advent and use of CRTs and the associated computing power available to compute and display information, it is now possible to combine these different elements of information and control onto a single display. An experiment was conducted to determine which, if any, of these functions should be collocated in order to better handle simple anticipated non-normal system events. The results indicated that there are performance benefits and subject preferences to combining all the information onto one screen or combining the status and alert/procedure information onto one screen and placing the controls in another area. The results indicated that operators quickly modify their display preferences to the display configuration most recently used.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: The Many Faces of Risk in Aviation Decision Making [Panel]

    The Many Faces of Risk in Aviation Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 307-310
      Judith Orasanu; Jeannie Davison; Anthony Ciavarelli; Marvin Cohen; Ute Fischer; Paul Slovic
    Perception of risk is a critical component of pilot decision making in dynamic flight situations. While we tend to think of risk as pertaining only to physical threat, multiple types of risk exist and may be pitted against each other, creating goal conflicts. Sometimes pilots make risky decisions that place them in unsafe situations, occasionally leading to accidents. Our panel will discuss various perspectives on risk that may influence flight crew decision-making. These include organizational factors, pilots' experience levels, specific job responsibilities, framing of decision problems, social/professional pressures, and affect. How these factors may influence decision making and implications for improving the quality of pilot decisions will be discussed.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Decision Support Systems, Situation Awareness, and Human Performance [Lecture]

    Designing Situation Displays to Promote Conformance to Automatic Alerts BIBAFull-Text 311-315
      Amy R. Pritchett; Balazs Vandor
    Alerting systems monitor potentially hazardous situations. If a hazard is projected to occur, the system alerts the operator and/or commands the operator to execute specific actions. However, operators have been observed not to conform to alerting system commands. This study hypothesized that the interaction between information presented on situation displays and automatic alerts can encourage or discourage conformance to alerts. As a test case, a flight simulator evaluation was conducted examining collision detection during closely spaced parallel approaches in conditions specifically manipulated to create consonance (where the display provided a clear explanation of the rationale behind automatic alerts) and dissonance (where the display inherently promoted a different basis for an alerting judgment). Results indicate that conditions with consonance and dissonance can have significant impact on participants' collision detection performance and on their agreement with automatic alerts.
    Supporting Situation Assessment Through Attention Guidance: A Cost-Benefit and Depth of Processing Analysis BIBAFull-Text 316-320
      William J. Horrey; Christopher D. Wickens
    Automated support systems may be useful tools for aiding situation assessment in complex environments such as the military battlefield. These environments are marked by large amounts of information which often must be weighted and integrated into a meaningful judgment or assessment. The present research examines the effects of attention cueing on information integration tasks in static battlefield situations. Sixteen participants completed a resource allocation task for 56 battlefield scenarios (based on perceived threats). For half the trials, an automated system guided their attention to high-threat units. On 2 trials a memory probe was administered to assess the depth of processing of information, and on the final trial an automation failure was presented. Results demonstrated an overall allocation performance advantage for automation but poorer recall for automation-enhanced units. Half of the participants failed to attend to the system failure. Those participants who detected the failure were inferred to have processed the cues more deeply on the memory trials. The costs and benefits of automated cueing are discussed.
    Effects of Automated Cueing on Decision Implementation in a Visual Search Task BIBAFull-Text 321-325
      Scott M. Galster; Robert S. Bolia; Merry M. Roe; Raja Parasuraman
    A visual search paradigm was used to examine the effects of status information automation cueing in a target detection task. Manual and information automation conditions were manipulated with the size of the distractor set. Participants were required to respond to the presence or absence of a target in a time-limited trial. In the information automation condition, status information regarding target presence was presented to the participant. The participants were informed that the information automation was not perfectly reliable. A significant detection performance improvement was observed with the addition of the information automation. This improvement was more marked in the condition with the higher number of distractors. Additionally, detection performance declined when the information automation was invalid, without a corresponding increase in subjective measures of workload or confidence. Implications of the results and future studies are discussed.
    Policy as an Interaction Method for Decision Support Systems BIBAFull-Text 326-330
      Michael C. Dorneich; Stephen D. Whitlow; Christopher A. Miller; John A. Allen
    This paper introduces the notion of policy as a basis for interaction for decision-support systems, and describes how policy was applied as the foundation of a decision-support tool to aid in diversion management in airline operations. A policy is an abstract, general, a priori statement of expressing a goal and an associated priority. Diversion management is the process of deciding which incoming flights to divert and to which airport they will be diverted. The consequences of diversions can be complex due to the interdependent nature of resources and schedules, and the multiple stakeholders that are impacted by the decision. In current practice there is little consideration of how diversion decision will impact airline operations due to the difficulty of acquiring and analyzing the relevant data. Policy is used to capture the goals and priorities of all stakeholders and when used as the basis of a critiquing decision-support system, thereby ensures inclusion of their interests into the decision making process.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Advanced Display Concerns [Lecture]

    The Role of 2-D and 3-D Task Performance in the Design and Use of Visual Displays BIBAFull-Text 331-335
      James S. Tittle; David D. Woods; Axel Roesler; Martin Howard; Flip Phillips
    Recent advances in computerized graphics capabilities have led to increased development and use of 3-D displays. In this paper we will discuss a survey of results from the visual perception literature that compares 3-D and 2-D task performance. The basic trend of this research suggests that designers of visual displays must recognize that the internal representations observers extract from 3-D displays will be distinctly different, and perhaps more qualitative, than the computer representations or models used to generate these displays. Finally, the surveyed literature indicates that crucial information in 3-D displays should not be encoded as differences in magnitudes of depth, orientation, or curvature. Instead designers should try to encode important task dimensions within more qualitative 3-D distinctions such as ordinal depth, deviations from co-planarity, and the presence of flat versus curved surfaces.
    Visual Displays and Cognitive Tunneling: Frames of Reference Effects on Spatial Judgments and Change Detection BIBAFull-Text 336-340
      Lisa C. Thomas; Christopher D. Wickens
    This proposal describes a two-part study which illustrate 'cognitive tunneling' as it affects information gathering and change detection in computer-generated terrain displays. We define cognitive tunneling as the effect where observers tend to focus attention on information from specific areas of a display to the exclusion of information presented outside of these highly attended areas. Previous research suggests that cognitive tunneling is induced by more immersive or egocentric visual displays and results in poorer information extraction and situation awareness as compared to an exocentric display of the same information. The experiment discussed here determined that failure of the observers to integrate information across the two views of the immersed display was the primary cause of the cognitive tunneling effect. In addition, participants' abilities to detect changes to objects in the environment were affected by the type of change as well as the salience of its presentation within the view.
    Supporting Timesharing and Interruption Management Through Multimodal Information Presentation BIBAFull-Text 341-345
      Chih-Yuan Ho; Mark I. Nikolic; Nadine B. Sarter
    Operators in complex event-driven domains often need to perform multiple concurrent tasks and handle competing attentional demands, such as interruptions by other human or machine agents. This study examined the effectiveness of distributing tasks across various sensory channels and presenting information on the nature of an interruption task to support timesharing and attention management. Participants performed a visually demanding simulated Air Traffic Control (ATC) task involving Data Link communication. At times, an interruption task was introduced, which consisted of counting subsets of signals that were presented in visual, auditory, or tactile form. Half of the subjects automatically received information on the modality and urgency of these pending interruption tasks whereas the other participants had the option to request this information. Within-subject variables in this study included ATC-related workload and the frequency and priority of interruption tasks. High-priority tasks had to be performed immediately whereas low-priority tasks could be delayed for up to two minutes. The results show that information about the nature of pending tasks supported participants in scheduling and timesharing more effectively. They were able to avoid intramodal interference and scanning costs associated with performing the ATC task concurrently with a visual interruption task. Crossmodal interference was lowest for auditory interruption tasks. Overall, these findings illustrate the benefits of multimodal information presentation and more informative interruption signals.
    Effect of Display Design and Situation Complexity on Operator Performance BIBAFull-Text 346-350
      Robert A. Willis
    The U.S. Navy is currently developing its next-generation cruise missile, the Tactical Tomahawk, which improves upon current versions by its ability to be retargeted in flight against emergent time-critical targets. In this study, we developed an advanced operator interface prototype for monitoring, controlling and retargeting the Tactical Tomahawk missile and empirically tested the effect of mission complexity on the ability of shipboard operators to maintain situational awareness in various operational scenarios. The first phase of research involved a domain analysis of three primary domains: the weapon system; time-critical decisionmaking; and principles of interface design. The second phase was a concurrent Cognitive Work/Task Analysis (CW/TA) and scenario development effort. The third phase was interface component design followed by complete prototype implementation. In the final phase, we trained and tested twenty graduate students on the dynamic and interactive prototype, based on hypotheses pertaining to both monitoring and retargeting tasks. Statistical results support two primary conclusions. First, operators can maintain adequate situational awareness when monitoring eight missiles and twelve targets simultaneously. Second, results support the use of the missile timebar feature in the interface to compare events. Subjective results indicate the requirement for a robust decision support tool to facilitate rapid retargeting decisions. These and other results form the basis for recommendations to the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) about how to most effectively allocate personnel resources in the design of a command and control watchstation for the Tactical Tomahawk cruise missile system.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Situation Awareness for Military Ground Forces: Current Issues and Perspectives [Panel]

    Situation Awareness For Military Ground Forces: Current Issues And Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 351-355
      Michael D. Matthews; Lawrence G. Shattuck; Scott E. Graham; Mica R. Endsley; Joseph L. Weeks; Laura D. Strater
    The military is rapidly importing digital technology into its ground forces. The U.S. Army, for example, is developing the Land Warrior system that will link infantry soldiers and units together via digital communications and imaging. These changes have profound implications concerning how soldiers will move, shoot, and communicate as a team. One result of this new technology is that information available to individual soldiers and small units will increase exponentially. This will require soldiers and their leaders to accurately and quickly process large amounts of information, to make sense of it, and to effectively utilize that information to predict what is about to occur in the uncertain and volatile conditions of ground operations. Establishing and maintaining situation awareness (SA), therefore, is a growing challenge for ground forces. The purpose of the current panel is to bring together military and industry experts who are actively involved in SA research among ground forces. Mica Endsley offers perspectives on SA measurement and training challenges unique to ground forces. Laura Strater reviews recent validation efforts of SA measures designed specifically for application to ground forces. Joseph Weeks describes Air Force efforts to develop distributed training procedures for SA and decision-making for airbase ground defense forces. Lawrence Shattuck discusses research into the cognitive processes by which battalion commanders integrate information into meaningful conclusions. Scott Graham describes ongoing and future research on SA with infantry forces.


    A Field Study of Collaborative Work in Network Management: Implications for Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 356-360
      Rene Chow; Kim J. Vicente
    To inform the design of interfaces in real-time network management, a field study of telecommunication engineers was conducted at a corporate network operating centre. Eighty hours of direct observations, spanning ten different shifts, were carried out. This study focused on the nature of collaboration between network managers and stakeholders who were internal and external to their organization, how they communicated with one another, and how network managers distributed responsibilities and information. The characteristics of network management, and thus the collaboration, differ substantially in some ways from other complex work domains. This work helped to identify novel opportunities for enhancing and redesigning current interfaces to provide better support for communication and coordination in network operating environments.
    Comparing and Validating Measures of Team Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 361-365
      Nancy J. Cooke; Preston A. Kiekel; Erin E. Helm
    Current measures of team knowledge are overly simplistic and fail to address some of the more interesting aspects of the construct. We present new methods and measures that address some of these shortcomings and apply them to eleven three-person teams who participated in ten missions of a synthetic team task involving uninhabited air vehicle operations. In addition to team knowledge, team performance and team process behaviors are also measured. Knowledge measures are compared and evaluated in terms of their ability to predict team performance and reflect skill acquisition. Measures of teamwork knowledge and the team situation model succeeded in reflecting knowledge changes with task acquisition. A taskwork relatedness ratings measure, taken at both the individual and team levels, along with the team situation model measure, were predictive of team performance. Specifically, high performing teams had more accurate situation models and more knowledge of the task from the perspective of other team members, as opposed to lower performing teams. Measures of knowledge at the team level provide information on the team cognition underlying team behavior and performance and have implications for the design of training programs and sociotechnical systems.
    Evaluating a Decision Skills Training Approach for the U.S. Army BIBAFull-Text 366-370
      Rebecca M. Pliske; Jennifer Phillips; Deborah A. Battaglia
    This research effort explored methodological issues associated with evaluation studies that assess the effectiveness of training programs to improve decision-making skills. We conducted a pilot study to assess the usability of IMPACT (IMproving Performance through Applied Cognitive Training), a multimedia CD-ROM based training program that teaches Army leaders how to develop their subordinates' decision-making skills. Twelve captains at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point were randomly assigned to use IMPACT to learn new debriefing techniques or to use the Army's standard After Action Review techniques to facilitate decision-training sessions with 65 cadets. Although we found few statistically significant differences between trainees in the different conditions, the trainers reported that IMPACT is a valuable and highly usable training tool. Furthermore, we were able to develop an objective (multiple choice) test to measure decision quality, as well as a process that resulted in reliable ratings of decision quality from subject-matter experts.
    New Arctic Air Crash Aftermath Role-Play Simulation: Orchestrating a Fundamental Surprise BIBAFull-Text 371-375
      Emily S. Patterson; Richard I. Cook; David D. Woods; Marta L. Render
    We describe an aviation scenario-based role-play simulation used to teach healthcare practitioners about barriers to learning from accidents. Participants searched for the causes of the crash in a scenario that encouraged a "garden path" explanation that the root cause was a risky decision to take off despite visible ice on the wings. During a debriefing session, the actual structure of how the system failed is revealed, including over 100 active and latent contributors to the failure with a multitude of potential lessons to improve safety. The dissonance between lessons learned during the role-play and the potential lessons creates a "fundamental surprise" situation that allows oversimplified assumptions of how complex systems fail to be challenged.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Distributed Team Performance Research Using the Internet [Symposium]

    Distributed Team Performance Research Using the Internet BIBFull-Text 376
      Daniel Serfaty; Eileen B. Entin
    Scaling Scenarios for Synthetic Task Environments: Issues Related to Fidelity and Validity BIBAFull-Text 377-381
      Linda R. Elliott; J. Wesley Regian; Samuel G. Schiflett
    In this paper we describe how synthetic task environments (STE) were scaled for multi-operator training and performance research goals using distributed PC-based systems. As analogues of operational performance domains, STE systems offer the opportunity to model, assess, and train underlying cognitive aspects of expert decision making and operational performance. They also offer advantages that complement the highly realistic battle simulation systems used in military distributed mission training (DMT). STE platforms are not as realistic as DMT systems; instead, they focus on a predetermined subset of functional and cognitive aspects of performance. The effectiveness of these STE systems depends on the degree to which scenarios are appropriately scaled along multiple dimensions of psychological fidelity and the degree to which scenarios elicit and measure performance constructs of interest. In this paper we describe issues considered in our effort to scale a complex multi-team mission scenario to meet research and training goals.
    Attitudes, Behaviors, and Cognition in Distributed Teams: The Effect of Team Opacity on Process and Performance BIBAFull-Text 382-386
      Stephen M. Fiore; Eduardo Salas; Clint A. Bowers
    In this paper we discuss the small, but growing, area of distributed teams and emphasize how work characteristics associated with such teams may alter both the processes and the products emerging from distributed interaction. We discuss these factors within the context of a construct we label team opacity and describe how the attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions of team members may be affected by a lack of co-location. We suggest that distributed team performance can best be understood through conceptualization of a coordination space within which distributed interaction occurs over time and space.
    Measurement and Feedback Strategies for Distributed Team Training Using the Internet BIBAFull-Text 387-389
      Donald E. Miles; Thomas R. Gordon; Michael D. Coovert; Dawn Riddle; Priscilla Ho
    This paper describes a methodology related to measurement and feedback for distributed team training. Levels of analysis, levels of measurement, specific measures, and feedback strategies are addressed. A Web-based system was developed which permitted gathering and manipulating performance data and providing rapid feedback to participants. Pending modifications and improvements, the system is expected to permit generating and identifying important boundary conditions, especially those that mediate learning and performance.
    Does Planning Using Groupware Foster Coordinated Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 390-394
      Diane Miller; Jana M. Price; Elliot Entin; Brian Rubineau; Linda Elliott
    There is considerable evidence from Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) research that groupware applications can change the process of cooperative planning and can help teams plan more effectively. This research seeks to improve our understanding of the relationship between pre-mission planning and the subsequent performance of command and control (C2) teams. This may foster the development of theory-motivated interventions to support improved planning and validation of human-performance measurement methods in team settings. We studied the effects of planning medium (i.e., paper map versus shared electronic whiteboard) and team organizational structure (i.e., functional versus divisional) on the ability of C2 teams to develop effective pre-mission plans and on their resulting performance using a team-in-the-loop simulation. Findings suggested that the groupware condition fostered collaborative planning behaviors. The results also indicated that teams who used the electronic whiteboard for planning enjoyed a performance advantage over those teams who planned using a paper map and markers.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering Medical Systems [Lecture] Cosponsoring TG: Medical Systems and Rehabilitation

    Practices of High Reliability Teams: Observations in Trauma Resuscitation BIBAFull-Text 395-399
      Yan Xiao; Jacqueline Moss
    This paper reports findings on some of the practices adopted by teams based on interviews and observations of teams working in trauma resuscitation. This study was conducted at a level I trauma center over a period of six months. Although analysis of interview transcripts is on-going, these practices can be tentatively organized into several general themes: learning and trusting other roles, sharing responsibilities, ensuring team awareness, and being adaptive. In particular, even though membership of teams in trauma resuscitation is fluid and dynamic, by sharing the overall responsibilities for the well-being of the patient, the teams are able to resist many failure factors.
    Using Eye-Tracking Video Data to Augment Knowledge Elicitation in Cognitive Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 400-403
      F. Jacob Seagull; Yan Xiao
    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a process to determine cognitive activities required to accomplish a given task. Different methods have been proposed and advocated in performing CTA. In this paper, we report a pilot trial using eye-tracking data to facilitate CTA. A mobile eye-tracking device was used in surgical operating rooms to acquire eye-tracking data from an operator during a highly complex, taxing procedure: tracheal intubation. A desktop task analysis was performed to establish visual cues and their associated goals during tracheal intubation. Eye tracking data were reviewed by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) as memory recall cues. The advantage of such use of eye tracking data was that the SMEs did not have to provide frame-by-frame analysis of the fixations, since they provided speculation on fixations and mental processes, cued by the eye tracking data. Pilot trials showed the value of eye tracking data in CTA in terms of knowledge elicitation. Future exploration of such methodology is highly suggested given the increasing feasibility of deploying eye-tracking devices.
    A Task Analysis of the First Weeks of Training of Novice Anesthesiologists BIBAFull-Text 404-408
      Matthew B. Weinger; Jason M. Slagle; Robin S. Kim; David C. Gonzales
    The training of novice anesthesiologists by more experienced clinicians occurs via an apprenticeship model taking place during actual patient care in a hands-on, one-on-one method that has not been well studied. Two skilled observers recorded the activities of the trainee and the instructor independently during thirty-one surgical cases conducted during the first three weeks of anesthesia training. The results indicate that the training of novice anesthesiologists initially emphasizes manual task performance during which time the more experienced clinicians perform many critical cognitive tasks (i.e., partial task training). Trainees' workload was high, particularly in the initial portion of the case ('putting the patient to sleep'). Teaching consumed most of the middle of the case when the clinical workload was lower. Behavioral and cognitive task analysis may be used to evaluate the efficiency and safety of current or proposed training strategies.
    Extracting Event Patterns from Telemetry Data BIBAFull-Text 409-413
      Klaus Christoffersen; David D. Woods; George T. Blike
    Typical low-level telemetry displays provide little support for understanding how a monitored system is changing over time. Similarly, advanced display techniques have not explicitly addressed the representation of change and events. This paper describes a study which seeks to work towards a foundation for displays which highlight coherent units of behavior in system properties ('events'). In the study, 17 medical professionals viewed simulated telemetry from a surgical procedure. A technique adapted from social perception research was used to trace participants' flow of attention to new information as they viewed the case. The results demonstrate that observers dynamically construct higher-level descriptions of system behavior from instantaneous data values, and that these descriptions implicate various types of contextual information.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Task Analysis and Cognitive Modeling [Lecture]

    Modeling Fault Diagnosis in a Dynamic Process Control Task Using a Multivariate Lens Model BIBAFull-Text 414-418
      Pratik Jha; Ann M. Bisantz
    In this research, we modeled fault identification performance in a dynamic process control task using a multivariate Lens Model. This research demonstrates how multivariate Lens Model can be applied to capture dynamic aspects and policies of individuals when they are making judgments over multiple criteria -- in this case, multiple categories of faults. Results and modeling analysis to date indicate that such a model may be applicable to such decisions, and sensitive to differences in performance under certain conditions.
    Impacts of Technology and Situation Awareness on Decision Making: Operational Observations from National Weather Service Warning Forecasters During the Historic May 3 1999 Tornado Outbreak BIBAFull-Text 419-423
      Elizabeth M. Quoetone; David L. Andra; William F. Bunting; Debra G. Jones
    The primary mission of the National Weather Service (NWS) is the protection of life and property through the issuances of timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. This mission was never so tested for the NWS Forecast Office in Norman, Oklahoma as it was on May 3, 1999 when 58 tornadoes taking 42 lives and injuring hundreds more occurred in the Norman area of warning responsibility. Despite these tragic results, the casualties could have been much higher had warnings been less timely or the public non-responsive. This paper will illuminate impacts of the recent infusion of technology into the forecast environment which produced significant benefits, yet important challenges for decision makers to overcome. In addition, how the concept of situation awareness (SA), while fairly new to the NWS warning environment, played a key role with regards to managing the massive amounts of data available to decision makers prior to and during the outbreak will be discussed.
    Scenario Mapping with Work Domain Analysis BIBAFull-Text 424-428
      Catherine M. Burns; David J. Bryant; Bruce A. Chalmers
    Work domain analysis is an approach that is moving from research to practical usage. Being highly analytical and time-intensive in its early stages, clients will search for early indications that the analysis is on track and relevant. This paper presents one approach for validating a work domain analysis by mapping the action patterns of operators against the work domain space developed by the analysis. This approach provides some validation the analysis, shows the use of the work domain over time in three dimensions, and provides a substantial link between the work analysis approach and traditional task-based approaches.
    Putting Cognitive Work Analysis to Work in Industry Practice: Integration With Iso13407 on Human-Centered Design BIBAFull-Text 429-433
      Shinichiro Hori; Kim J. Vicente; Yujiro Shimizu; Isao Takami
    This paper investigated how to conduct concrete design for industrial systems to conform to the recently-established Human-Centered Design standard ISO13407 (ISO). Referring to Sanderson et al.'s (1999) System Life Cycle (SLC) research, we adopted the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework as one useful and concrete designing method for industrial systems design to conform to ISO. Based on this idea, we compared three approaches ISO, SLC, and CWA and surveyed the match between ISO and CWA. From this study, we learned that integrating this research would provide great benefits to expand and improve the ISO concept for industrial systems, to give SLC a concrete methodological perspective, and to facilitate CWA technology transfer to practical design. As a result of these benefits, designers for industrial systems can get more structured ways of conducting adequate designs to help workers adapt to any demands and also to conform to ISO. An industry case study with a design example of a pump plant system supported our ideas. Also, we could confirm that much of the required information for ISO could be extracted by CWA. Therefore, the CWA models would not only be useful tools for industrial system designers in all of the SLC stages, but they also would be helpful to make our designs conform with the ISO standard.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering Methods for Linking Cognitive Task Analyses to Innovative Design Concepts [Symposium]

    Integrating Cognitive Analyses into a Large Scale System Design Process BIBAFull-Text 434-438
      Ann M. Bisantz; Emilie Roth; Bart Brickman; Laura Lin Gosbee; Larry Hettinger; James McKinney
    This paper describes an approach for integrating cognitive analysis in the early stages of design of a new, large scale system -- a next generation US Navy Surface combatant. Influencing complex system designs in ways cognizant of human-system integration principles requires work products that are timely and tightly coupled to other elements of the system design process. Analyses were conducted, and recommendations made in parallel with, and as inputs to design decisions regarding system purposes, functionality, automation capabilities and staffing levels. We could not wait for design decisions to be made before proceeding or require other design groups to wait for our outputs. Thus, it was necessary to select and adapt cognitive work analysis methods to fit the demands of a time pressured design situation. A functional abstraction hierarchy model, and a series of cross-linked matrices were developed to provide a principled mapping between system function decompositions produced by system engineering teams, cognitive tasks, information needs, automation requirements, and concepts for displays. Cross-referencing the matrices supported design traceability standpoint and the integration of cognitive analyses with functional analyses being performed by other design teams. Results fed into design decisions with respect to level of automation, manning requirements and initial display prototypes. Providing an illustration of the processes and methods we applied is valuable because it describes and formalizes the relationship between concepts used in cognitive analyses and those used in systems engineering; it demonstrates the generalizability of cognitive engineering methods in a set of circumstances where few well documented examples exist; and it provides guidance for other human factors practitioners who may find themselves in similar circumstances.
    Using Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) to Seed Design Concepts for Intelligence Analysts Under Data Overload BIBAFull-Text 439-443
      Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods; David Tinapple; Emilie M. Roth
    This paper describes how a Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) was used to jumpstart the exploration of useful design aids to combat data overload in intelligence analysis. During a simulated analysis task, we observed how professional intelligence analysts were vulnerable to making inaccurate statements when they were under time pressure and working in a topic area outside their area of expertise. From these observations, we generated design recommendations and criteria for evaluating the usefulness of any effort aimed at reducing data overload. Then, we used CTA insights to trigger the development of modular design concepts, or "design seeds," that leverage advances in machine processing to address vulnerabilities. Nine design seeds were integrated into a "Visual Narratives" workspace visualization concept. Feedback about the usefulness of the design seeds was obtained during an elicitation session following an animated fly-through, or "Ani-mock," demonstration.
    Analysis with a Purpose: Narrowing the Gap with a Pragmatic Approach BIBAFull-Text 444-448
      James W. Gualtieri; William C. Elm; Scott S. Potter; Emilie Roth
    There has been a growing interest in using Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) techniques to understand work domains and the cognitive demands they imposes on practitioners in order to provide a foundation for the design of decision-aids. While CSE techniques, like Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA), have been proven successful in illuminating the sources of cognitive complexity and explicating the basis of expertise, there is often still a gap between the results of the CWA and the resulting design and development of the decision support system. One way to narrow the gap is to develop an integrated set of artifacts that provide explicit links between (1) the functional goals the domain, to (2) the cognitive demands that require support, through (3) the mapping of decisions to the display space. In this paper a brief discussion of a recent example where this approach was taken is presented.
    A Systematic Approach to Developing System Design Recommendations BIBAFull-Text 449-452
      Jared T. Freeman; Michael J. Paley
    A systematic approach to developing design recommendations is described. It begins with the imposition of constraints on the solution space. Empirical results from domain research are then used as catalysts for conceptualizing new functions and designs. Where empirical data are not available, interviews are used to elicit issues of importance. This approach was used to develop design guidance for a prototype Navy command and control system.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Exercises/Techniques for Teaching Cognitive Systems Engineering [Panel]

    ExercisesTechniques for Teaching Cognitive Systems Engineering BIBAFull-Text 453-457
      Stephanie Guerlain; Caroline Hayes; Amy Pritchett; Philip Smith
    There has been rapid growth in the field of Cognitive Systems Engineering in the past 8 years, as evidenced by the HFES formation of a technical group devoted to Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making in 1994, and the proliferation of papers that have been submitted to this technical group since that time. At least 7 universities have hired new faculty in the past 4 years specifically to teach Cognitive Engineering. Due to the complex, interdisciplinary nature of the field, and the broad background of students that enter this field, it is necessary to define a common core set of concepts and means for teaching those concepts in an effective way. For this panel, faculty from four universities share several exercises and demonstrations that they have found to actively and effectively involve students in learning key cognitive engineering concepts and techniques.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Automation and Adaptation [Lecture]

    Conflict Warnings and the Search and Detection of Collisions in a Simulated Atc-Like Task BIBAFull-Text 458-462
      Thomas Jurgensohn; Ilyong Park; Thomas B. Sheridan; Joachim Meyer
    An experiment assessed the effects of properties of a warning system on visual search patterns and collision detection efficiency in a simulated air traffic control-like task. Participants had to detect collisions between pairs of objects before they occurred. They were assisted by warning systems that had different levels of reliability and gave a warning either 5 or 15 seconds prior to a collision. The participants' eye-movements were recorded. The detection of the collisions was not affected by the timing of the warning, but only by the reliability of the warning system. However, visual search patterns differed markedly between early and late warnings. A metric was developed to calculate an "attention value" out of the eye-movement data. The metric corresponds well to the behavior of the participants in the different experimental conditions. This may be particularly important for the analysis of real air traffic control tasks.
    Automation-Related Complacency: Theory, Empirical Data, and Design Implications BIBAFull-Text 463-467
      Ulla Metzger; Raja Parasuraman
    With the introduction of advanced automation into many human-machine systems, the human is often left to monitor the automation. However, human monitoring of automated systems can be poor, especially when the operator has to accomplish other tasks (Parasuraman, Molloy & Singh, 1993). Several explanations for these automation-related monitoring inefficiencies ("complacency") have been put forward. One view (Parasuraman et al., 1993) suggests that complacency reflects an attention allocation strategy away from the automated system due to high trust in the automation. Empirical data from two studies using eye movement recording are presented to test this theory. In the first study, students were tested on a PC-based simulation of flight-related tasks. In the second study, professional air traffic controllers performed on a medium-fidelity ATC simulator. The results supported an attentional interpretation of automation-related complacency. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.
    Designing an Optimal Team for a Novel Semi-Automated System BIBAFull-Text 468-472
      Sarah Miescher; Gabriel Spitz; Donna Anastasi; Ann-Marie T. Lind
    The introduction of automation to support a multi-person team impacts the nature of the tasks performed by each operator in the team. The Team Integrated Design Environment (TIDE) methodology is a systematic and formal process that uses algorithms and models of human-system operations to determine the optimal team size, role composition, and task allocation for a specified kind of mission. This paper describes how the TIDE methodology was applied to derive concepts of team structure for the new Semi-Automated Target IDentification System (ATIDS) that is being developed at the Kwajalein Missile Range. Application of the TIDE methodology enabled systematic evaluation of a set of potential team structures and their associated performance. Based on the performance characteristics and the face validity of each proposed team concept, a team structure was selected. This team structure is currently used as a basis for developing the user-interface to the ATIDS application and will be used for manning and operating the ATIDS-enabled target tracking and identification system.
    The Use of Ubiquitous Computing Computational Neuroscience for Distributed Battlefield Management BIBAFull-Text 473-477
      Michael D. McNeese
    Military missions are increasingly contingent upon the 'emergent qualities' of distributed cognition. Cognition is situated and shared across multiple agents, objects, and environments. The total information surround is evolutionary, chaotic, and presents workers with ill-defined dilemmas that proliferate across geopolitical boundaries under stressed conditions. Crew members are bombarded with multiple constraints as they encounter automation, situational awareness, and information warfare. To address these concerns the use of computational neuroscience / ubiquitous computing technologies are described. Ubiquitous computing means that computing elements are not integrated in a single workstation but are ubiquitous; they are distributed as everyday objects in an operative work environment. When complemented with evolutionary computing technology, computer structures (cellular thoughtonoma) are designed to 'genetically evolve' through natural selection to be 'fit' with environmental, technological, and worker demands. This paper discusses the symbiosis underlying thoughtonomous technologies and describes possibilities to radically redefine intelligent interaction and collaboration.


    Cognitive Integration: Exploring Performance Differences Across Varying Contexts BIBAFull-Text 478-482
      Lawrence G. Shattuck; James L. Merlo
    Understanding the evolving, complex events on a battlefield requires a decision maker to integrate data from disparate sources. The study described herein extends previous work on cognitive integration. Twenty-one former Army battalion commanders participated in a simulation of an offensive military operation. In addition, twelve Army officers who serve as observers/controllers of units training for stability and support operations (SASO) were interviewed. The results of these studies, when compared to earlier studies strongly suggest that military decision makers seek out and integrate data based on context. Implications for design of decision support systems are also discussed.
    Convergent or Divergent Problem Space Search: The Effect of Problem Structure on Group Versus Individual Problem Solving BIBAFull-Text 483-487
      Stephen M. Fiore; Jonathan W. Schooler
    Two laboratory experiments investigated whether group interaction hinders searching a problem space. The results from both studies show that individuals engage in a broader search of a problem space when it is either unconstrained or constrained but ill-structured. Conversely, when the problem is well-structured and has a constrained solution state, individuals and groups search that space equally well.
    Recognition Primed Decision Making in E-Commerce BIBAFull-Text 488-492
      Marc Resnick
    Recognition-primed decision making has been used to describe the behavior of experts in naturalistic environments. A significant body of research has led to the conclusion that RPD models describe decision making in environments characterized by time pressure, competing and/or changing goals and uncertainty. This paper compares the results of several new studies that investigated decision making in the e-commerce environment to what would have been predicted by the RPD model. These environments share some of the characteristics with traditional RPD application areas, but have more variability in terms of the expertise of the decision maker. Results show that RPD models can be used to explain e-commerce behavior, but further research is necessary to draw confident conclusions.

    COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making Posters

    Information Displays for Medical Diagnosis BIBAFull-Text 493-497
      Eric S. Haarbauer; Robert P. Mahan; C. L. Crooks
    The Proximity Compatibility Principle (PCP) states that a display format is well-suited to a given task if the information sources in the display are related to the same degree as information sources in the task. While experiments have shown that PCP can provide useful display design guidelines for many types of tasks, diagnosis tasks have not seemed to conform to PCP's predictions. The current experiment compared performance with integral, configural, and separable displays in three diagnosis tasks based on a medical diagnosis technique. As predicted, the integral display allowed the best performance. The results indicate that PCP is a useful theory for diagnosis tasks, but different diagnosis tasks can differ widely in their task demands.
    The Effects of Task Structure on Cognitive Organizing Principles: Implications for Complex Display Design Practices BIBAFull-Text 498-502
      Robert P. Mahan; Eric Haarbauer; Tim Tang; C. L. Crooks; Cristina C. Williams
    Cognitive engineering practices provide display design solutions that enhance the operator's ability to manage and control complex systems. However, they often do so without adequate modeling of the cognitive system requirements for this process. This research report is a first in a series of reports illustrating, in part, that the depth and surface distinctions of a task influence the correspondence between cognitive information organizing principles and properties of the task. The congruence principle is offered as a potential explanatory mechanism for the findings that different task representations induce different cognitive organizing principles, and that performance is dependent, in part, upon the mapping between the task, display, and cognitive organizing principle of the operator. Using different display types as means of comparison, results of both Experiment 1 and 2 supported the hypothesized congruence principle.
    A Comparison of Performance Criteria for Initiating Adaptive Task Reallocation BIBAFull-Text 503-507
      DeMaris A. Montgomery; Shannon M. Harney; Julia K. Besterfeldt
    This study examined performance assessment methods used to initiate mode transfers between manual control and automation for adaptive task reallocation. Participants monitored two secondary displays for critical events while actively controlling a process in a fictional system. One of the secondary tasks could be automated whenever participant performance surpassed absolute threshold values or after evidence of a continued change in performance beyond the threshold criteria. Transfers were either machine-initiated or human-initiated after the computer signaled the participant to change modes. First, the results support previous findings (Montgomery, 2001). In addition, it appears that by including the human operator in machine-initiated transfers the proportion of mode errors (i.e., accidental responses while a task is automated) may be reduced relative to transfers that are completely machine-initiated with the operator being simply informed of the current mode. Secondly, the results indicated that the assessment method that required a change in performance produced performance advantages, including evidence of a decrease in the proportion of mode errors, relative to the absolute threshold criteria without a heavy reliance on automation.
    Emergency Vehicles that Become Accident Statistics: Understanding and Limiting Accidents Involving Emergency Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 508-512
      C. Shawn Burke; J. Peter Kincaid
    Emergency vehicle accidents represent a nationwide problem for those involved in emergency services. These accidents result in tremendous monetary damage to vehicle equipment, as well as being costly in terms of personal injury, morale, and the public image of associated fire departments. As a preliminary investigation, researchers at a medium-sized southeastern university worked in conjunction with a local fire rescue department to explore the factors related to emergency vehicle accidents. The reported effort represents a field study where data were gathered through literature reviews, source documents, interviews, and naturalistic observation. Findings indicate a lack of mandated, standardized training and evaluation procedures, multiple stress factors within the operating environment, and little on-the-job driving experience as possible reasons for this high accident rate. This paper concludes with several recommendations in three major areas: policy changes, training, and public awareness.
    The Chameleon Project for Adaptable Commanders and Teams BIBAFull-Text 513-517
      Linda Pierce; Regina Pomranky
    How do military commanders and teams trained and equipped to fight and destroy the enemy, adapt their warfighting skills to perform peacekeeping missions? To understand current practices in commander and team deployment preparation, a research team supported by the Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate (ARL, HRED) interviewed training developers and observed unit preparation for operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina (B-H). Thirty days after deployment, we observed and interviewed unit personnel to assess their perceptions of mission preparation and determined the knowledge, skills and abilities, and information technology required for commanders and teams to operate and make decisions as part of a multi-national peacekeeping force. Training was influenced by a warfighting mindset that did not provide an adequate opportunity for the unit to practice fundamental peacekeeping tasks, build multi-functional teams, or adapt their information technology. Researchers are using cognitive models in learning, decision-making, and teamwork to develop methods and tools for training, assessment, and collaboration.
    Critiquing as a Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) Methodology BIBAFull-Text 518-522
      Janet E. Miller; Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods
    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) methodologies are used to discover expertise that domain practitioners utilize in order to perform tasks, but are unable to reliably articulate when asked directly. We describe a methodology that walks through a novice's process on a task in order to serve as a probe for elicitation of expert commentary. Six experienced intelligence analysts with three levels of prior knowledge critiqued the process a junior analyst employed to determine the causes and consequences of the Ariane 501 rocket launch failure. Preliminary data analyses reveal interesting insights about the nature of expertise in intelligence analysis. This appears to be a promising alternative methodology for CTA when there are access restrictions, low frequency or unpredictability of target observation events, or difficulty in recruiting experts who wish to be evaluated on their task performance.
    Cognitive Systems Engineering Analyses for Army Tactical Operations BIBAFull-Text 523-526
      Silas G. Martinez; Christopher Talcott; Kevin B. Bennett; Craig Stansifer; Lawrence Shattuck
    The Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been applied successfully for domains in which the interaction is primarily driven by either the laws of nature or by user intentions. We have initiated a research program to apply the CSE approach to a domain that is driven by both. We describe the preliminary results of our initial efforts, primarily a work domain analysis using the abstraction hierarchy analytical tool. Overall, the CSE approach has proven to be very useful for analysis and design. The adversarial nature of the domain poses certain challenges. For example, information regarding both friendly and enemy forces is critical to decision making. However, the representations that have been developed for friendly forces cannot be used to represent enemy forces, due to a lack of critical information. We view these as inherent challenges associated with this type of domain, rather than as a shortcoming of the CSE approach.
    Human Performance in Timing of Discrete Actions BIBAFull-Text 527-531
      Esa M. Rantanen; Xidong Xu
    An experiment on human timing performance is described. A scenario of street crossing without the aid of traffic lights was presented on a computer screen. The subjects' task was to let a pedestrian to cross the street between successive vehicles by pressing a key. Independent variables were the size of the gap between vehicles and the speed of the traffic stream. The subjects' performance was evaluated by the distributions of the crossing initiation times and the proportions of two types of timing errors in the experimental conditions: Too early and too late releases of the pedestrian. Increasing the accuracy requirement by reducing the duration of the window of opportunity resulted in a shift to earlier release times, smaller standard deviations of the release time distributions, and increased proportions of the "too early" errors. Our results show a way to include also the tails of the response distributions in the analyses.
    Automation Reliance on a Combat Identification System BIBAFull-Text 532-536
      Mary T. Dzindolet; Linda Pierce; Regina Pomranky; Scott Peterson; Hall Beck
    Several combat identification systems have been designed to reduce fratricide by providing soldiers the ability to "interrogate" a potential target by sending a signal that, if returned, identifies the target as a "friend." Ideally soldiers will appropriately rely on these automated decision aids. However, research has found human operators often under-utilize (disuse) or overly rely on (misuse) automated systems (cf. Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which experience and training would lead participants to appropriately rely on an automated decision aid. Participants provided with the automated aid were unable to adjust their reliance strategy to the reliability of the automated aid; results indicated aided participants made more errors than unaided participants did. Future studies should examine the processes underlying the automation reliance decision.
    Toward a Human Emulator: A Framework for the Comprehensive Computational Representation of Human Cognition BIBAFull-Text 537-541
      Chris Forsythe; Elaine Raybourn
    In recent years, Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken a program of research and development with the goal to attain a realistic computational representation of human cognition, a "human emulator." Realism requires that the representation address cognitive, and organic factors (e.g., stress, arousal, fatigue). Near-term application is envisioned in training and evaluation with long-term potential for broad application across a specturm of technologies. This paper describes the conceptual framework that has been developed and implemented in an initial prototype. Specifically, this framework emphasizes a computational instantiation of Naturalistic Decision Making with an underlying foundation based on human neurophysiology.
    Digitally Enhanced Situation Awareness: An Aid to Military Decision-Making BIBAFull-Text 542-546
      John Holmquist; John Barnett
    In combat and tactical situations, situation awareness is a key factor in the quality of decision-making. Currently, the US Army is investigating using digital systems, such as computer networks, digital imagery, and GPS, to enhance situation awareness at all levels of command. This article illustrates how digital technology is currently being used to enhance decision-making at the unit level and provides suggestions for how further advancements can be made.

    COMMUNICATIONS: Voice as an Interface [Lecture]

    Using the Customer-Centric Approach to Design Interactive Voice Response Systems BIBAFull-Text 547-551
      Robert R. Bushey; John M. Martin; Kurt M. Joseph
    This paper introduces and illustrates the practical application of the Customer-Centric approach to designing Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems, illustrated here as an auto-attendant function. This five-step approach to IVR menu design produces menu options that match the tasks customers are trying to accomplish. In addition, the options are grouped and ordered by the frequency of customers' tasks, and they are worded in the language of the customer. Consequently, customers make the correct selection and reach the correct service entity without additional assistance. Results indicate that the Customer-Centric approach, relative to more traditional IVR design approaches, is associated with measurable improvements in call-routing accuracy and customer satisfaction. Such improvements significantly reduce the volume of misdirected calls and enhance a company's relationship with its customers.
    Intelligibility of Vocoded and Waveform Speech for Native and Non-Native Speakers of English BIBAFull-Text 552-556
      Akiko Nakata; Ron W. Noel
    This study applied Signal Detection Theory investigating the inconsistent findings from previous studies of intelligibility of vocoded speech for native and non-native speakers of English. Also examined was the intelligibility of waveform speech (uncompressed, wave-formatted speech) in several recording levels. The intelligibility of vocoded speech was significantly worse than waveform speech, with intelligibilities significantly greater for native than non-native speakers. Mean difference of vocoded speech intelligibility between native and non-native speakers was not statistically greater than that of waveform speech, but there was a strong trend toward interaction. Under the limitation of a fixed transmission bandwidth, a doubled level of resolution (sound amplitude) produced a higher intelligibility than a doubled level of sampling rate (frequency range). The characteristics of waveform speech significantly affected intelligibility for non-native speakers, but not native speakers. Vocoders with a higher bit rate may be required for safety and reliability reasons if the end users include non-native speakers.
    Some Appealing Applications of Interactive Voice Response BIBAFull-Text 557-561
      Rebecca W. Boren; William C. Moor
    Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology has come a long way since it was first used for voice mail and automatic call directing. The most common input method is still a key press on a telephone keypad. Auditory interfaces are being used in a variety of applications many people might not have considered, including psychological screening and assessment, access to information about government services and matters, self-management of employee investments, and providing access to graphical user interfaces and scientific instruments to the visually impaired. With such widespread use of IVR technology, it makes sense to promote research into the development of better interfaces for auditory environments. Interactive Voice Response systems will continue to be used since not all applications of computer technology can support visual or graphical user interfaces, nor would visual interfaces be appropriate for all applications. The future will bring new applications of IVR incorporating speech input and the use of the Internet in interactive applications as an adjunct to phone-based interfaces. This paper concludes with a discussion of what makes a good IVR interface.
    In-Vehicle Cell Phones: Fatal DistractionYes or No BIBAFull-Text 562-566
      David G. Curry
    Debate in the popular press regarding the issue of cell phone use on American roadways is extremely prevalent, highly vituperative, and almost completely devoid of actual hard data on the problem itself. Editorials are rife with emotionally-charged personal accounts of tragedies or near-tragedies, but suspiciously empty of any facts regarding the issues involved or experimental evidence supporting the positions they adopt. The resulting general consensus in the public mind is that these products are a dangerous national problem and that something must be done about them. The rash of legislation proposing various types of quick fix is proof that lawmakers are being crowded into a position that something must be done about this "problem", though the real data surrounding this issue is mixed at best.
       This paper attempts to place the problem in its proper perspective using publicly available facts and figures in an attempt to support an alternative solution.

    COMMUNICATIONS: Understanding Web Technologies [Panel] Cosponsoring TGs: Computer Systems, Internet

    Understanding Web Technologies BIBAFull-Text 567-569
      Hongzheng Cindy Lu
    The Internet and web technologies continually evolve and advance. The web based technologies, systems and products have created tremendous challenges and opportunities for human factors professionals. We need to keep up with the technology trend in order to participate in the system and product design and development processes and advocate for the users. This panel session invites four human factors professionals who will review the current Internet and web technology trends and their impact on our professional work. The panel chair will start the session with a short overview and introduction. Each panelist will then give a short presentation. The discussion session will then follow. It is hoped that presentation will invoke questions from audiences, which in turn generates lively discussions.

    COMMUNICATIONS: Issues in Communication: Application UI Design to Social Networks [Lecture]

    Developing a One-Quarter VGA Operating System UI for Communicator Products BIBAFull-Text 570-574
      Michael E. Maddox; Norm Cox
    The number of wireless phone products continues to grow at a very rapid pace. Likewise, competition among small-format operating systems and among hardware vendors has produced a variety of hand-held, business-information-oriented devices known generically as personal digital assistants, or PDA's. In the last several years, there has been a movement toward the convergence of wireless phone and PDA technologies. Such combined products have the advantages of the cell phone's wireless communication capabilities and the PDA's larger display and integrated address/e-mail/internet functions. This manuscript describes the authors' work in developing a new operating system user interface framework for the next generation of one-quarter VGA (QVGA) integrated phone/PDA (communicator) products, as well as the functional UI for the telephone portion of the UI for a new QVGA device.
    A Social Network Study of Online Communication among Elementary Students and Teachers with Home Internet Access BIBAFull-Text 575-579
      Faith McCreary; Roger Ehrich; Melissa Lisanti
    This paper presents preliminary results from a social network study of an after-school, online community among 24 fifth grade students and two teachers from the PCs for Families Project. The project provided students and teachers with free home network technology and Internet access. A proxy server recorded home Internet usage so that student communication patterns could be determined. All recorded instances of after-school communication took place via email or project chat rooms. Teachers and students made greater use of email than chat to communicate outside the classroom. Students were more likely to communicate with students of the same gender using the Internet, with female students more likely than male students to email the female teaching staff. Further, once the physical classroom community ceased to exist, the Internet-enabled community virtually disappeared. Study results have implications for both research (e.g., how student characteristics relate to a student's role in Internet communication networks) and design (e.g., what means of Internet communication are must successful at promoting after-school interaction).

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Lessons from Real-World Problems [Lecture]

    From User-Centered Design to Senior-Centered Design: Designing Internet Health Information Portals BIBAFull-Text 580-584
      Jiyoung Kwahk; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Robert C. Williges
    Seniors are increasingly using websites to access health-related information. We developed a portal website that provides health information for seniors based on a user-centered, participatory design approach to ensure that the resulting website meets the special needs and requirements of senior users, a group traditionally neglected in the development process. Our approach included five major steps in the development process: needs analysis, requirements specification, content design, iterative prototype design, and usability evaluation. Seniors were actively involved as part of the design team by participating in a variety of focus groups and online surveys throughout this development process. They were particularly helpful in providing design requirements and in identifying usability problems related to both web page content, web design features, and website navigation. This paper is a case study that explains our development process and summarizes lessons learned from our efforts to extend user-centered design to this special population of users. We concluded that user-centered design could be extended to senior-centered design quite successfully.
    Techniques for Interacting with Large Information Spaces on Small-Screen Displays BIBAFull-Text 585-589
      Michael D. Good; Michael C. Dorneich; John E. Deaton; Floyd Glenn; C. Shawn Burke; Joshua Downs
    The dramatic growth in recent years of computing devices with small display surfaces (e.g., PDAs, WAP phones, handheld computers) has spawned the need to consider new interaction methodologies that will allow users to interact with information spaces that might require more space than the display can provide. This paper describes potential solutions to allow users to interact easily and intuitively with large information spaces when presented on a small screen. We used a human-centered iterative design approach consisting of knowledge elicitation tasks, user feedback sessions, and concept development to identify two primary interaction methodologies: Dynamic Information Magnification (DIM) and Dynamic Information Labeling (DIL). DIM is a way for the user to enhance relevant portions of an information space through magnification functions while DIL is a way to enhance information through smart highlighting and labeling. These two techniques were applied to complex flight performance charts as part of an ONR-funded program that is focusing on the development of an electronic checklist and procedure manual. Early findings suggest that the Dynamic Information Labeling concept shows the most promise for the particular domain to which this technique was applied. Concept descriptions, informal user feedback, and implications of interaction methodologies for use with large information spaces on small-screen displays are described.
    Communication Visualization An Aid to Military Command and Control Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 590-594
      Par-Anders Albinsson; Johan Fransson
    Communication in military command and control, C2, is essential to propagate information among military units. Evaluations of C2 can focus on different parts, e.g. computer support systems or tactical methods. Independent of focus, information of communication must be considered, thus design of visualization methods for handling communication data is necessary. Our approach is based on link analysis and considers general aspects of communication, specific aspects of military communication and visualization techniques. The report extends previous designs of communication timelines and communication graphs, which make it possible to analyze communication both in detail, and over large periods of time. Implemented visualization modules add aspects of link analysis to an existing framework and are tested with data from field exercises.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Information Architecture [Panel]

    Information Architecture BIBAFull-Text 595-598
      Georgia K. Green
    Information architecture is a newly (re-)discovered and quickly developing field that is much discussed within a wide variety of disciplines, but with little truly common in-depth understanding of its agreed scope and purpose. This panel provides multiple perspectives and levels of expertise on the topic and seeks to expose a wider human factors and ergonomics audience to this emergent and significant area of practice and research.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Cognitive Engineering and Computer-Based Assistive Technologies: An Approach to the Design of Web-Based Tables for Persons with Visual Impairments [Panel]

    Cognitive Engineering and Computer-Based Assistive Technologies: BIBAFull-Text 599-602
      Douglas J. Gillan; Randolph Bias; Art Karshmer; Skye Pazuchanics; Erik Pennington; Douglas Gillan
    Assistive technology for persons with visual impairments is important now and will be increasingly important as the U.S. population ages. Screen readers, technology for translating optical characters into phonemes, Aid computer users with visual impairments. However, as more computer interfaces make use of graphical stimuli and spatial cues to represent and organize information, current screen readers may not accurately represent information from Web sites and other computer-based displays. The present panel discusses multidisciplinary research being done on a National Science Foundation grant concerned with representing tables, frames, and forms on computers so that they will be usable by persons with visual disabilities.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Ideas and Applications [Lecture]

    Shortening the Human Computer Interface Design Cycle: A Parallel Design Process Based on the Genetic Algorithm BIBAFull-Text 603-606
      John F. McGrew
    The software design community considers human factors engineering to be a source of bottlenecks in the computer interface design cycle. This paper suggests a way to shorten and improve the typically linear design process, without skimping on human factors engineering. It proposes a parallel design process based on the genetic algorithm of natural biological evolution. Although the genetic algorithm design process can take place within a facilitated group, it differs significantly from facilitation techniques in several ways: It is a parallel process, each design generation is evaluated against a usability fitness function, successive generations must include components from the previous generation, and evolution continues until convergence (consensus regarding the best design) is reached. The process is demonstrated here by a case study of the interface design for a corporate software program. Participants considered 40 designs and reached consensus on a final design in eight hours, thereby shortening the design cycle from two weeks to one day.
    Designing a Pen-Based Data Collection Application for the Consumer Price Index: Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 607-611
      Jean E. Fox
    The ever-increasing number and variety of mobile devices allow users to access information and online applications from remote locations. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is taking advantage of these technologies to build a Computer-Assisted Data Collection (CADC) instrument for the Consumer Price Index (CPI). For the survey, BLS employees visit a total of 25,000 businesses each month to collect price information on approximately 85,000 items. Currently, they collect all the data on paper. In developing the instrument, we are following a user-centered design approach, which has enabled us to find and fix many usability problems early in development. We faced a variety of usability challenges, especially in designing the instrument to fit on the pen computer display. This paper describes some of the lessons we learned in converting our paper survey to CADC.
    Metaphors as Tools for Restructuring Knowledge: Metaphor-Based Learning about Computer Systems BIBAFull-Text 612-616
      Elaine M. Gilman; Douglas J. Gillan
    We hypothesize that metaphor-based training provides a mechanism for creating knowledge structures (schemas) in declarative memory which permit learners to acquire information rapidly. An experiment to test this hypothesis involved: (1) pre-training, in which subjects' schematic knowledge structures were assessed using the Pathfinder algorithm; (2) metaphor-based training, in which one of five common domains served as the vehicle and the user interface for a computer served as the tenor; and (3) post-training that reassessed the schematic structures and tested user knowledge. The similarity of Pathfinder networks for the vehicle and tenor predicted performance during training, (2) performance during training predicted post-training similarity of the vehicle and tenor networks, and (3) post-training similarity of vehicle and tenor networks predicted aspects of post-training metaphor knowledge. The results support metaphor-based restructuring as a mechanism for rapid learning about computer systems.
    The Effects of Search Environment and Task Realism on Search Behavior BIBAFull-Text 617-621
      Xioyan Niu; Ann M. Bisantz
    This paper presents a study which compared user search behavior across an open search environment (the World Wide Web) and a closed search environment (an on-line library card catalog). Users performed a structured search task, where they were given topics to search for, and a self-directed search task, where they could choose their own topics. Search tasks were defined based on a qualitative, three-stage model of search behavior. Results showed that overall, search behavior tended to be very similar across search environments, indicating that empirical results and models of search behavior could generalize across these two environments.. Differences were due primarily to characteristics of the particular search environments chosen (e.g., the Internet vs. a library catalog) and the searching mechanisms and interfaces available for searching these environments. Additionally, behavior was also similar across the structured vs. self defined search tasks, suggesting that aspects of search engines and user search behavior can be tested in a controlled setting and that the results can be applied to less controlled, more natural search tasks.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Input, Output, and Both Together [Lecture]

    Computer Text Shading Algorithm Based on Perception of Luminance BIBAFull-Text 622-626
      Sehchang Hah; Thomas Hickey
    With raster display systems, images on a monitor show jaggedness, because they are defined by integer coordinates of the monitor. This jaggedness is called an aliasing effect. To reduce this, engineers developed algorithms. One well-known algorithm is supersampling. This is accomplished by sampling at a higher resolution and reducing the sampled data to a lower resolution. We overlaid arrays of a 3x3 matrix on a text (supersampling) and reduced each array to a pixel on a monitor. In this process, engineers determined the level of the pixel luminance-intensity linearly to the number of elements painted in each array. Instead of using such direct, linear transformation, we determined the level of brightness, not the level of the pixel intensity, to produce better shading. Brightness, not luminance, is subjective. We created nine sets of gray levels based on this algorithm. We ran two experiments to choose the optimal gray-level set. In Experiment 1, participants chose the more legible of two letters shaded with different gray-level sets. In Experiment 2, participants counted target-letters in a string of letters as fast as they could. The experimental results did not favor gray-level sets that were close to the traditional linear transformation from the number of painted elements in arrays to pixel luminance-intensity. The best set was actually the third brightest as identified with this procedure using human participants. This perceptual algorithm can be used for any monitor to reduce aliasing effect.
    EMG Study on the Effect of a New Armrest on Neck, Shoulders and Arms BIBAFull-Text 627-631
      Hiroshi Udo; Akihiro Udo; Akiko Udo
    We have developed a new armrest (NA) with adequate width supporting forearms, inclining upper surface, an area for mouse, and fixers at the edge of a shallow desk. We compared the cervicobrachial load among NA, NA with a mouse-pad (NAM) and a conventional palmrest with a mouse-pad (PRM) during word processing work. Seventeen healthy subjects operated a word processor for 1-h, alternately using 3 devices. EMG and subjective pain scores (PS) were recorded mainly from the right-side upper limb. EMG of the trapezius in PRM was significantly lower than in NAM; EMG of the anterior deltoideus (DELTa) in NA lower than in NAM; EMG of the medial deltoideus (DELTm) in NA lower than in PRM. The shoulder PS in NA/NAM was significantly lower than in PRM; the upper arm PS in NAM lower than in PRM; the forearm PS in NA/NAM lower than in PRM. These results suggest that NA reduces the cervicobrachial load than PRM.
    Multi-Touch: A New Tactile 2-D Gesture Interface for Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 632-636
      Wayne Westerman; John G. Elias; Alan Hedge
    The naturalness and variety of a touch-based hand gesture interface offers new opportunities for human-computer interaction. Using a new type of capacitive sensor array, a Multi-Touch Surface (MTS) can be created that is not limited in size, that can be presented in many configurations, that is robust under a variety of environmental operating conditions, and that is very thin. Typing and gesture recognition built into the Multi-Touch Surface allow users to type and perform bilateral gestures on the same surface area and in a smaller footprint than is required by current keyboard and mouse technologies. The present approach interprets asynchronous touches on the surface as conventional single-finger typing, while motions initiated by chords are interpreted as pointing, clicking, gesture commands, or hand resting. This approach requires learning only a few new chords for graphical manipulation, rather than a vocabulary of new chords for typing the whole alphabet. Graphical manipulation seems a better use of chords in today's computing environment.

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Computer Systems Posters

    Examining Automatic Text Presentation for Small Screens BIBAFull-Text 637-639
      Michael L. Bernard; Barbara S. Chaparro; Mark Russell
    This exploratory study compared three types of automatic text presentation for small screen interfaces -- rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), three lines, and ten-lines of text -- at fast, medium and slow speeds for differences in reading comprehension, satisfaction, and preference. The results revealed a significant main effect of presentation speed, favoring the slowest speed. A marginal main effect of presentation method was also found, favoring RSVP and the ten-lines of text presentation. The readers were equally satisfied with all three methods of presentation.
    Exploring Effects of Speed and Font Size with RSVP BIBAFull-Text 640-644
      Mark C. Russell; Barbara S. Chaparro
    As electronic devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), cellular phones and pagers become daily tools for viewing e-mail, news, and websites, the need for new methods of reading text on small screen interfaces increases. Recent studies have demonstrated Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to be a viable method of presenting text on small screens. This study examined the effects of three font sizes (12, 20, & 28-point) and two presentation rates on reading comprehension of text presented in RSVP. Results showed significantly higher reading comprehension for text presented at 250 wpm compared to 650 wpm. No effect of font size was found for reading comprehension, but participants preferred the 20-point font size compared to the 12-point font size.
    Practicing What We Preach A Usability Evaluation of Two Electronic Conference Proceedings BIBAFull-Text 645-648
      Barbara S. Chaparro; J. Ryan Baker
    This study reports on the usability of two electronic hypertext conference proceedings from the 2000 Human Factors and Ergonomic Society and Usability Professionals' Association conferences. Eight participants, who were moderately familiar with the conference content, completed five search tasks with the conference proceedings that were distributed on CD-ROM. Assessment of both objective (time, success) and subjective (satisfaction) measures indicate several usability problems with the search and navigational structure for both Proceedings. Developers are reminded that the benefits of electronic informational systems only hold true when usability practices are incorporated into their development process.
    If the User Can't Find the Function, It Isn't There: Usability of Digital Cameras for Novice Use BIBAFull-Text 649-653
      Shatha N. Samman; Kelly S. Kingdon; Krissy Norman; Jessica Mock
    A prototype digital camera was designed to make setting menu preferences easier for novice users. Twenty-eight individuals (14M/14F) who had no prior experience using digital cameras participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions (current camera or prototype camera). Three measures of usability (performance time on task, number of errors committed, and ease of use) were recorded. Each participant completed four tasks to assess the usability of common digital camera tasks (change picture quality, change date/time setting, 'zoom in' on an object, and delete a photo). Performance time and the number of errors committed improved significantly for one task (date/time setting), while the other three tasks assessed showed a similar trend, although not significant. Ease of use was significantly improved for two tasks, while overall ease of use for the prototype camera showed an increase in subjective usability over the current camera. Thus, the design changes implemented in the prototype camera significantly improved some aspects of usability, and showed a positive trend across all measures of usability.
    Measuring Pointing Times of a Non-visual Haptic Interface BIBAFull-Text 654-656
      Gary W. Hrezo
    An experiment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of using haptics (force feedback of a manual joystick) in a non-visual computing environment. Sight impaired people could use haptic interfaces to facilitate the navigation of human computer interfaces which are, by their nature, graphically intensive. Subjects manipulated a force feedback joystick a random distance until over a vibrating target of random width. An inwards/outwards and right/left directional test was administrated. Movement times were found to be a linear function of the level of task difficulty as defined by Shannon's formation of Fitts law, log2 (D/W + 1). Two linear relationships were found. The first when the joystick traveled the smallest distance and the other with all other distances. Results indicate that haptics could be used to navigate graphical interfaces.
    Effects of Face-Threatening Acts in Human-Computer Dialogues BIBAFull-Text 657-661
      Jaime X. Elias Colon; Manuel A. Perez-Quindeones; Raquel Ferreira
    This work explores the relationship between Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) commonly performed by the computer (in the form of interruptions) while interacting with users. It investigates the effects that these acts have upon the user's satisfaction. An experiment proved a hypothesis: FTAs performed by a computer interface have a detrimental effect upon the user perception of the interaction with the computer. This effect is observed on the user perception of the interaction as being less friendly, less motivating and less cooperative. It was also found that politeness strategies had no effect on minimizing the perception of a FTA.
    Effects of Scroll Bar Orientation and Item Justification when using List Boxes BIBAFull-Text 662-666
      Erik Kellener; G. Michael Barnes; Robert Lingard
    List boxes are a common user interface component in graphical user interfaces. In practice, most list boxes use right-oriented scroll bars to control left-justified text items. A two-way interaction hypothesis favoring the use of a scroll bar orientation consistent with list box item justification was examined for speed of use and user preference in two experiments. A two-way interaction was obtained in both experiments. Item selection was faster with a scroll bar orientation consistent with list item justification. Subjects preferred right-oriented scroll bars with right-oriented text items. There was no difference in preference between right and left-oriented scroll bars for left-justified text items. These results support a design principle of locality for user interface controls and controlled objects.
    Choosing Input Field Formats for Use by Sales Personnel BIBAFull-Text 667-671
      Merrill J. Zavod; Ann C. Fulop
    Two input fields for customer information, date of birth and state of residence, used by sales personnel (i.e., customer representatives) were examined. For date of birth, a single text box, a set of three separated text boxes, and a set of three dropdown lists were compared. For the state field, a text box for state abbreviations, a dropdown list containing state abbreviations, and a dropdown list containing full names of the states were compared. For date of birth, no differences in error rates were found, but both text box formats resulted in faster completion times than the dropdown format. For state, the abbreviation text box resulted in shorter completion times than either dropdown format. While no difference in error rates was found when the actual state to be input was "easy" or familiar to the participant, the full name dropdown list did result in lower error rates than the two text box formats when the state was "difficult" or unfamiliar.
    A Method for Developing a Tool Predictive of End-User Performance on the PC BIBAFull-Text 672-676
      Elise M. Lind; Susan Michalak
    The desire to improve usability in an ever-tightening market inspired several PC manufacturing companies to form a consortium, called the Ease of Use Roundtable, to pool resources and ideas. An initial problem addressed by the group was the lack of a conventional benchmark for ease of use, and therefore no accepted way to show improvement. The Ease of Use Roundtable members wanted a quick way to evaluate the usability of new PC designs, or to evaluate a number of similar systems, without recreating a huge usability testing effort each time. The group's objective was to create a checklist that an evaluator could use to measure PC usability, with some assurance that the outcome would be predictive of how end users would perform on that system in usability testing. This paper will describe the method we used to develop such a checklist and to show that it gave a reasonable prediction of usability test results. The paper will also discuss the limitations of the checklist, the problems we encountered in its development, and the opportunities for future work to expand on the method and the checklist itself.

    CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Computer Usability [Lecture]

    An Ergonomic Evaluation of a Hybrid Keyboard and Game Controller BIBAFull-Text 677-681
      Albert Ting; Alan Hedge
    A laboratory experiment with 20 Ss compared performance, posture, and discomfort ratings for typing and video-gaming tasks performed using either a prototype hybrid game controller and keyboard (AG), or a conventional keyboard and a conventional game controller. Posture was measured using wrist monitoring apparatus and video-motion analysis. Performance was measured by typing speed, accuracy, game scores and a dexterity task. Comfort was measured by questionnaire. Results showed that after an initial 15-minutes of use, Ss were able to type on the AG at 9.35 wpm with 92% accuracy of use, and performance on a video game and on a dexterity task were comparable. Subjects reported significantly greater right thumb and right and left pinky finger discomfort after the typing task using the AG, when compared to the other 4 tasks. For the gaming there was no significant difference between devices.
    Human Modeling and Simulation: Establishing Parameters for an Adjustable Notebook Computer Display BIBAFull-Text 682-686
      Aaron M. Stewart; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Gary A. Mirka; Glenn E. Lewis
    A human simulation model was created that estimates potential locations of a notebook computer display and keyboard. The simulation model effectively addresses human anthropometric, postural, and visual preference variability. Simulation output yielded ranges of movement for a display adjustment mechanism that accommodates a potential user population while allowing for acceptable working postures. Human-subject work established postural regressions for the simulation model, validated methodology used to create the model, and determined the simulation accuracy. Simulation output of display adjustment ranges was compared against real adjustability distributions established during the human subject work. A notebook display design mechanism that implements such horizontal, vertical, and tilt adjustments should help to reduce ergonomic stressors associated with notebook computing. The research promotes the effectiveness of utilizing human simulation modeling during product development.
    Development of Diagrammatic Procedural Instructions for Performing Complex One-Time Tasks BIBAFull-Text 687-691
      Michael A. Rodriguez
    This study provides evidence that pictures and diagrams can help as well as hinder performance depending on the nature of the task and the skill level of the user. Results suggest that diagrammatic instructions for performing one-time mechanical manipulation tasks are superior to equivalent instructions presented as a combination of text and diagrams. Tasks were completed quicker with fewer errors. One major factor is that these types of tasks do not require learning or memorization. The goal for the instruction designer is to create diagrammatic instructions in accordance with Carroll's minimalist principles (1990) as well as verifying that each step occurs in either an internal or external representation (Zhang, 1997). Contrary to what is presented in the literature, this series of experiments provides evidence that if the diagrams are well designed they can be perceived, understood, and performed quicker than the same information in a text and diagram format.
    Measuring Engagement in Video Games: A Questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 692-696
      Daniel K. Mayes; James E. Cotton
    Video games continue to grown in popularity and presently account for annual revenues in the billions of dollars. Although the technologies underlying a modern video game are well understood, the characteristics of a game that make it a success are not. The Engagement Questionnaire (EQ) is introduced in an attempt to capture those dimensions that are thought to influence the degree to which a user becomes engaged while playing a video game. Our goal was to develop a metric that could be applied to a broad range of video game genres (e.g., action, adventure, strategy, sports) and video game users (e.g., expert/novice, male/female, young/old). Factor analyses of data representing 243 participants suggested the existence of five stable factors among 46 questionnaire items. These dimensions were labeled Interest, Authenticity, Curiosity, Involvement and Fidelity. Though further empirical testing is necessary, we expect that the questionnaire will prove to be a useful tool for the appraisal of video games, as well as for the identification of critical differences between those who play them.

    CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Usability [Lecture]

    A Usability Test for the Operating Manual of Braidmagic BIBAFull-Text 697-701
      Heecheon You; Ronda Young; David Zimmerman; Carrie Ekrut; Anil Kumar; Myun Woo Lee
    A usability test was conducted for an operating manual developed for the BraidMagic braiding machine. The manual consisted of five sections including (1) Safeguards, (2) Parts and Specifications, (3) Operating Instructions, (4) Maintenance, (5) Warranty and Service. For each section of the manual, various performance and preference measures were applied and opinions regarding likes, dislikes, and suggestions were surveyed. Five cosmetology students participated in this usability study, consisting of seven test modules. The manual received a high evaluation for satisfaction (overall mean = 4.6; range = 4.3 to 4.9) as measured on a 5-point Likert scale throughout the seven modules. Based on the usability test, recommendations were made for better usability of the manual. This study indicated that usability testing is an effective tool to identify potential usability problems in a systematic manner.
    Enhancing the Accuracy of Customers' Product Usability Judgments: Lessons from Blind Evaluators BIBAFull-Text 702-706
      Lois Gregory; Melody Carswell; Eric Stephens; Susan Waters; Carl Stevens
    Are the naive usability judgments of blind consumers more accurate than those of consumers without such impairments? Forty-one legally blind participants evaluated three user-product interfaces for three different products. The interface designs varied in terms of stimulus-response (s-r) compatibility and were associated with empirically-determined differences in accuracy, learnability, or response speed. Compared to the naive judgments collected by Payne (1995) from sighted participants, blind judges were reliably more accurate in their predictions of the relative performance efficiency of the various designs. We speculate that the superior judgments of blind participants may be due to their use of haptic and auditory evaluation strategies. In a follow-up study, normally-sighted participants were asked to evaluate the same products using either visual or nonvisual strategies. Judgments were most accurate, and similar to that of blind judges, when sighted judges performed the task nonvisually.
    The Effects of Active and Passive CD Retention Features on CD-ROM Drive Usability BIBAFull-Text 707-711
      Dan Kelaher
    Servers that can be mounted either vertically or horizontally should optimally allow the CD-ROM drive to be oriented horizontally in both scenarios. However, some systems do not allow this flexibility due to the constraints of the mechanical package. A usability test was performed to compare 5 different CD-ROM drive designs placed in servers that can be either mounted horizontally in a rack or vertically as a tower. This work was performed to determine the drive(s), which would minimize the risk of dropped CDs while in a vertical orientation while still being easy to use in both orientations. Twelve subjects participated in the study, 6 human factors engineers and 6 engineers of various disciplines, all working at IBM. The tasks tested were simple CD insertion and removal tasks with the drives mounted in tower and rack configurations. Subjects gave preference rankings and ratings on various usability aspects such as ease of insertion, ease of removal, and the perceived risk of dropping CDs. The results showed that, within the given constraints of these systems and IBM manufacturing processes, the drives which require the user to activate the CD retention feature exhibited significantly lower usability ratings than the drives which required no extra steps. Also, these drives yielded more jammed and dropped CDs than the drives with active retention features due to the users' lack of activating the active retention features correctly. Lastly, the findings showed that human factors engineers tended to be more conservative on these ratings than the non-HF engineers, though these differences were not statistically significant.
    Determination of Critical Design Variables Based on the Characteristics of Product Image/Impression: Case Study of Office Chair Design BIBAFull-Text 712-716
      Myung H. Yun; Sung H. Han; Taebeum Ryu; Keumsun Yoo
    Based on the assumption that the characteristics of product image/impression can be estimated by consumer preference rating, this study performed an image/impression evaluation of various office chair designs. The purpose of this study was to specify the design variables significantly affecting customer preference of the product. Sixty subjects evaluated fifty different office chair designs on thirteen aspects of product image/impression categories using the modified magnitude estimation method. At the same time, forty-eight design variables were selected and analyzed from the same set of office chairs. Multiple linear regression modeling technique was used to model the relationship between the image/impression scores and the design variables. The range of customer response on image/impression categories, the sensitivity of the customer response, and the degree of customer satisfaction on the products were further analyzed using a 3-dimensional portfolio plotting. The result showed that the product image/impression were closely related to the degree of customer satisfaction on the product. The result also showed that the design of office chairs can be improved by focusing on the design variables specified from the 3-D portfolio plot.

    CONSUMER PRODUCTS: Consumer Product Evaluation [Lecture]

    An Ergonomic Evaluation of Conventional Roll and Pre-Cut Commercial Tapes BIBAFull-Text 717-721
      I. S. Tarawneh; Dahai Liu; Wai-Cheong Liew; R. R. Bishu
    The purpose of this study was to ergonomically evaluate the pre-cut tape as compared to the conventional roll tape. In order to achieve that purpose, a full-scale ergonomic evaluation was performed. A factorial experiment was performed with two tape types (pre-cut and conventional), two types of dispensers (portable and table dispensers), two dispenser positions (horizontal and vertical), and two types of taping orientation directions (horizontal and vertical). Thirty subjects representing three age groups (young, middle, and old) were chosen to participate in the study. Continuous recording of the hand deviation (ulnar and radial) and hand flexion extension angles using a Thought Technology goniometer and the Flex-comp software was performed during the course of the study. Also the time to finish the task of taping was recorded using the Flex-comp software. The study results showed that the mean deviation angle associated with the pre-cut tape is less than that of conventional roll tape. Also, it was found that the pre-cut tape appears to cause more wrist extension than the roll tape. Further, the pre-cut tape appears to have less variability in wrist motions indicated by lower standard deviation of both the flexion-extension, and radial-ulnar deviation. The pre-cut tape also involved lower magnitude of peak deviation and flexion angles. Finally, the time needed to complete the task of taping with the pre-cut tape was found to be shorter than that with the roll tape. Design implications of the findings are discussed.
    Evaluation of a New Scraper BIBAFull-Text 722-726
      Sandra M. Eikhout; Robin E. Bronkhorst; Maarten P. van der Grinten
    Paint scraping with the traditional triangular scraper is a tiring job causing hazardous forces and high wrist moments (Van Rhijn & Eikhout, 1998). As an answer to those problems the recently developed scraper has been designed with the end user in mind. This paper reviews a field study testing the new product with 20 professional painters. The results show that the new scraper, in comparison with the traditional one, has strong positive effects on physical load: wrist moments and forces are reduced. Furthermore, the new paint scraper was considered very user-friendly by professionals and ergonomic experts.
    Evaulation of Mattress for the Koreans BIBAKFull-Text 727-730
      Se Jin Park; Hyun-Ja Lee; Kyung Hi Hong; Jin Tae Kim
    The purpose of this study is to find out the relations between the characteristic of mattress, anthropometric features, body pressure distribution, and spinal curvature and to examine the overall relations between the comfort and the features of mattress. In order to evaluate mattress comfort, subjective ratings were performed. For an objective evaluation, anthropometric features, plaster cast, spinal curvature and body contact pressure distribution were used. The spinal curvatures were compared using the plaster cast and 3D measurement. The individually favored mattresses were found by figuring out the spinal curvature most similar to the spinal curvature when standing by comparing with the spinal curvature on bed with the difference of firmness. Also, by the analysis of body contact pressure, there were significant differences between body pressure and comfort ratings. As the result of this research, we could found out the comfort mattress by spinal curvature and body pressure.
    Keywords: Mattress, spinal curvature, body pressure distribution, firmness
    Do Handle Design and Hand Posture Affect Pointing Accuracy BIBAFull-Text 731-735
      Goran M. Hagg; M. Susan Hallbeck
    The design of ergonomic tools has focused on reducing the awkward wrist angles during tasks. However, anecdotal evidence shows that the adoption of ergonomic tools has been slow. This may be due, in part, to the ergonomic handles reducing accuracy of the task performed. A pilot study employing 20 subjects (9 men, 11 women) was undertaken to evaluate 4 handles, with two handles being used both in a pistol-grip and an inline-grip. All handles were evaluated while either seeing the target or blindfolded and either using the index finger extended as a guide or not. Each subject performed 24 total trials, which consisted of aiming at a sheet of vertically mounted A3 paper. The center point was marked and positioned such that the subject, when holding a pistol grip tool, had an adducted shoulder, a right angle at the elbow and a neutral wrist position. Each subject was asked to aim and puncture 10 holes in each target paper at a fixed pace. The results of the pilot study show that the dependent variables of the vector distance from the origin and the vector distance from the centroid of the points is affected primarily by the sight condition, but that the handle orientation with the inline condition was significantly better than the pistol grip for accuracy. In addition, the main effects of gender and tool type were significant for the dependent variable of the vector distance from the centroid. The overall implication is that the most 'ergonomic' handle may not yield the most accurate cluster or grouping when pointing and that handles held in an ergonomically awkward wrist posture (average 23° ulnar deviation).


    Designing and Implementing an Effective Setup Poster BIBAFull-Text 736-740
      James F. Knutson; Scott D. Leapman; Emily J. Wells
    Despite simplified setup procedures, shape and color coded ports and connectors, setup wizards, and preloaded software, users still need a frame of reference for setting up electronic products. That frame of reference is usually the setup poster. Having designed, redesigned, evaluated and usability tested many setup posters over the past years, the Gateway Human Factors Engineering group has developed guidelines for creating setup posters that lead to task success. These guidelines have been validated in many usability tests, tech support call data and two field studies.
    Using Sequential Data Analyses to Determine the Optimum Layout for an Alternative Keyboard BIBAFull-Text 741-745
      Florian Jentsch; Peter McAlindon
    The standard QWERTY keyboard was developed over a hundred years ago. It is suspected to be involved in repetitive strain injuries, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). To reduce and eliminate many of the movements that are suspected to contribute to CTS, a new type of alphanumeric input based on the chording concept was designed. This AID-CTS keyboard is an alphanumeric input system that uses a pair of devices each comprised of an inverted dome upon which the hands rest. As a chordal device, the AID-CTS keyboard typing methodology entails creating a keystroke via a combination of positions of the two domes. The purpose of the current study was to determine a new character layout that would reduce the ergonomic impact of typing further. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, we analyzed two-letter sequences using sequential, multi-way frequency analyses and established a listing of the most important two-letter transitions. In Study 2, we created a number of competing character layouts and analyzed them regarding their ergonomic impact. The studies resulted in an optimum layout that minimizes arm and wrist movements.

    DEMONSTRATIONS: Voting, Office Ergonomics, and Army Tactical Operations [Demonstrations]

    Computerized Electoral Ballot Design Using a Touch Screen BIBAFull-Text 746
      Abigail A. Ebbing; Esa M. Rantanen
    All citizens of the United States over the age of 18 have the right to vote. Those who so choose should be able to exercise this right effectively and without confusion. The year 2000 presidential election indicated that many voters were flustered by the ballot, however, leading to the widely debated controversies about the results. Particularly in Palm Beach County, Florida, several display design principles were violated on the ballot, leading to problems for the diverse population using it. This demonstration presents a new system designed to decrease the number of voting errors and facilitate an efficient tallying system, further reducing errors in the counting process. The redesigned ballot also proposes a nationwide standard to alleviate many of the problems exposed by the November 2000 election.
    Voting Reform Can Include Everyone: Average Citizens, the Aging Population, and People with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 747
      Chris M. Law; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
    "If people with disabilities voted at the same rate as the non-disabled, 7 million more votes would have been cast in the last presidential election" (National Organization on Disability, October 1999). When interface technologies and/or the voting process as a whole are not flexible enough to meet the needs of those with temporary or permanent disabilities, obtained through aging or otherwise, citizens may experience various problems which may affect or prevent their vote. The authors will be demonstrating a proposed cross-disability accessible interface approach for electronic voting machines. The approach uses private speech output and a simple 3-button interface to supplement a touchscreen or selection wheel.
    Digital Interfaces for Army Tactical Operations BIBAFull-Text 748
      Craig Stansifer; Kevin B. Bennett; Christopher Talcott; Silas Martinez; Lawrence Shattuck
    Timely and accurate decisions in the Army domain are directly linked to the commander's ability to assess the battlefield. The Army has developed the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) interface to be used in mobile platforms to provide commanders with immediate access to critical information. Fig. 1 shows a version of this interface. The demonstration will illustrate a portion of the interface that was simulated for presentation of friendly forces information.

    DEMONSTRATIONS: Flying Proficiency, Weather Forecasting, Wearable Computers, and Tactical SA Tested [Demonstrations]

    Generating Line-Oriented Flight Simulation Scenarios with the RRLOE Computerized Tool Set BIBAFull-Text 749
      Florian Jentsch; Clint Bowers; Devon Berry; William Dougherty; James M. Hitt
    Line-Oriented Simulation (LOS) is a scenario-based training and evaluation methodology used at airlines to provide trainees with practice, to evaluate their performance, and to validate their proficiency. LOSs consist of realistic flight simulation scenarios from preflight check to after-landing shutdown that are highly scripted.
       From 1997 on, the Federal Aviation Administration has supported the development of software for "Rapidly Reconfigurable Event Set-Based LOEs (RRLOE)." In this method, LOSs are created by combining phase-based event sets into a coherent and logical flight. The method is computerized, supports LOS development, and reduces the predictability of scenarios for the trainees. In 2000, the RRLOE software was distributed to airlines participating in the Advanced Qualification Program.
       In this demonstration, we describe the challenge of automated scenario design further, and show how the RRLOE tool can assist those that develop scenario-based training.
    Integrated, Hands-Free Control Suite for Wearable Computers BIBAFull-Text 750
      Gloria Calhoun; Scott Grigsby; Nick LaDue
    This demonstration features a novel control suite that enables hands-free command, click, text and spatial entries for computer control. The Voice/Head Input Controller is particularly suited for wearable computer operation while operator's hands are simultaneously performing field operations.
    Testbed for Evaluating Tactical Situation Awareness and Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 751
      Stephanie Guerlain; Rob Willis; Julie Besselman; Meredith Logsden; Brian Whisnant; Timothy Yewcic
    The next generation cruise missile, the Tactical Tomahawk, improves upon current versions by its ability to be retargeted in flight against targets of opportunity. We have developed a testbed for evaluating alternative display concepts and decision support features on the effect of an operator's ability to maintain situation awareness and make appropriate time-critical decisions. This user interface design was based on an analysis of critical operator tasks, and the concepts of representation aiding and limited workspace management. The testbed was developed with Macromedia Director, allowing it to be run cross-platform (Windows, Macintosh, and the Internet). One set of studies has been conducted so far with this system, to compare alternative display features on the effect of subject situation awareness and decision making.
    STORM-LK: A Human-Centered Knowledge Model for Weather Forecasting BIBAFull-Text 752
      Robert R. Hoffman; John W. Coffey; Kenneth M. Ford; Mary Jo Carnot
    STORM-LK (System To Organize Representations in Meteorology-Local Knowledge) is a Human-Centered system that used the CMap Tools software to represent the knowledge and reasoning of expert forecasters. It demonstrates the feasibility of using Concept-Mapping to generate large-scale multi-media knowledge models. STORM-LK can support knowledge preservation, distance learning and collaboration, and navigation through the data that are used in weather forecasting.

    EDUCATION: Educational Design and Learning: The Next Frontier for Human Factors/Ergonomics [Panel]

    Educational Design and Learning The Next Frontier for Human Factors/Ergonomics Panel Summary BIBAFull-Text 753-757
      Thomas J. Smith
    The purpose of this panel is to: (1) introduce the field of educational ergonomics as that branch of human factors/ergonomic (HF/E) science concerned with the interaction of educational performance -- learning and teaching -- and educational design; (2) address the role that HF/E can play in improving the design of educational technology, interfaces, materials, task requirements, and environments to benefit the performance of students, teachers, and educational systems; and (3) offer differing perspectives on strategic options for broadening the participation of HF/E in the science and practice of education and educational design. The premise of educational ergonomics is that learning and teaching performance to a substantial degree is context specific/specialized in relation to specific educational system design factors/and that ergonomic interventions directed at design improvements therefore can benefit the educational process.

    EDUCATION: Human Factors: Teaching and Learning [Lecture]

    A Mentoring Program: What Do Students Want and What Can Working Professionals Provide BIBAFull-Text 758-762
      Tracey M. Bernard
    Mentoring programs have been experiencing a rebirth in attempts to achieve a variety of goals, one of which is career preparation. Traditional course work and laboratory training offered by universities ensure that students obtain the technical skills necessary to practice in their profession. To better assist students with career preparation, a mentoring program that matches students with practicing professionals is under consideration at one university. Students and working professionals were surveyed via questionnaires to determine their interest in and willingness to commit to participating in a mentoring program, and their ability and willingness to serve as mentors, respectively. Overall, 95% of the students surveyed indicated that they would like to participate in a mentoring program, while nearly 82% of the working professionals who returned questionnaires indicated their willingness to serve as mentors. Parameters of the proposed program, desired mentor characteristics, and expected benefits will be discussed.
    Collaboration Effects on Distributed Student Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 763-767
      Megan E. Reichert; Andrea L. Williams; Craig M. Harvey
    Face-to-face communication has long been considered the richest medium of communication and research has found that different mediums affect engineering design team interaction. However, the question left unanswered is how the reduction or elimination of face-to-face interaction impacts team performance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate distance collaboration elements that impact student project team performance. Using students in a distance learning engineering course (E*Course) at Wright State University, traditional face-to-face teams and distributed teams were formed. Teams were required to complete a project with three main deliverables. Team management metrics were evaluated along with team performance. The coordination of work was found to be highly correlated with team performance for distributed teams. High performing distributed teams also had to work harder at organizing their work and adapting to their team members. None of the team management measures correlated with performance for traditional teams. These results have implications for the organization of work and team member agility as well as collaborative learning environments where distance students are integrated into the traditional classroom.
    Placement Opportunities for Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Professionals In Industry and Government/Military Positions BIBAFull-Text 768-772
      Scott E. Schoeling; Michael J. Goliber; William F. Moroney
    During the period from October 1999 through December 2000, the Placement Service of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society distributed announcements describing 233 new positions available for human factors engineers and ergonomics professionals. This paper describes placement opportunities for HF and ergonomics professionals in industry and government/military (N=220). The attributes of the position descriptions examined include: employment sector, major field of study, degree requirements, required work experience, salary, geographic location, travel, and areas of expertise.
       The type of industry seeking most employees was Internet based at 33=. The most frequently specified major field of study was human factors (N=124). Fifty-three percent of the positions describe the master's degree as the minimum requirement. The geographical areas with the most jobs were California (N=48) and the Northwest (N=23). Finally, the area of expertise most frequently requested by employers was usability testing and design (N=99) and Human Computer Interaction (N=42) was the most commonly specified job expertise/function.
    Validating Undergraduate Human Factors Education Using Interdisciplinary Design Projects BIBAFull-Text 773-777
      Lawrence G. Shattuck
    Traditional under graduate and graduate human factors programs provide students with an excellent education in the theories, tools, and methods used by professional practitioners. However, most programs confine students to projects that can be completed in a 'pure' human factors environment. Human factors professionals rarely work in a 'pure' environment; in most cases they are part of interdisciplinary design teams. Faculty in the Engineering Psychology program at the United States Military Academy worked with other academic departments to develop four interdisciplinary design projects. Seven students in the Engineering Psychology program served as the human factors 'experts' on four different semester design projects, which were completed in May 2001. They used their knowledge of human factors methods and practices to enrich the process and products of the design team. Concurrently, they experienced the challenges of working with student-practitioners from other disciplines. Data were collected through interviews and assessment of written products to determine the degree to which participation in the design teams validated the human factors education received by the Engineering Psychology students.
    Using a Website in a Human Factors Course: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 778-782
      Rebecca W. Boren
    Using a website with a college course can be beneficial both to the students and to the instructor. The purpose of a class website is not to replace the instructor, but to supplement, enhance, and provide educational experiences that are not easily obtained in other ways. This paper discusses the benefits of having a class website and how an instructor can set up and maintain a site with a minimum of experience and effort. The elements of a good class website are described. This paper discusses the method of determining the quality of information found on the Internet.

    EDUCATION: Why Does Dilbert, the Far Side, and Other Cartoons Convey Essential Truths about Human Factors and Ergonomics? [Panel]

    Why Does Dilbert, the Far Side, and Other Cartoons Convey Essential Truths about Human Factors and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 783
      Jeff Caird; Nic Ward; Steve Scallen; Jan Davies; Peter Hancock; David Woods
    The purpose of this panel session is to explore how cartoons have been used to teach and discuss essential truths about human factors and ergonomics. Naturally, we hope to have fun too. Human factors and ergonomics is often much too serious. Educators and non-educators alike should enjoy the material. Numerous philosophical and practical issues are likely to emerge as the session evolves. The audience, we hope, will be an active participant in the laughter and discussion.
       Each panelist has been invited to open their lecture files and share their favorite cartoons about a variety of topics such as office ergonomics (see, e.g., Dilbert), aviation displays and controls (see, e.g., the Far Side), industrial ergonomics, human-computer interaction, information design, human error, transportation human factors, medical systems, and so forth. Each panelist brings a unique research and experiential perspective to the panel. For example, a variety of nationalities including the U.K., Canada, Australia, and the U.S. are represented.
       In addition, panelists will be invited to discuss a number of deeper issues. Are cartoons a useful teaching tool? Can a quiet class be roused from their slumber by the use of visual humor? Is there a best way to introduce or use a cartoon in a lecture? What copyright issues surround the use of cartoons for educational use? Why do we laugh (or cry) at cartoons that succinctly capture poor design in human factors and ergonomics? Can the sting of a poor design evaluation be moderated by the use of humor?

    EDUCATION: Education Poster

    Quick Tips for Finding a Human Factors/Ergonomics Job in Industry: Interact with the Authors and Lead Consultant BIBAFull-Text 784-785
      Karen R. Young; Ronald G. Shapiro; Arnold M. Lund
    The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) recently published a new brochure entitled "QUICK TIPS FOR FINDING A HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS JOB IN INDUSTRY." The following paper describes the who, what, when, where, why, and how for using this brochure. After having read it, students may have questions about the tips provided, or they may want more in-depth advice. The first half of this poster session will allow students to obtain and read through a copy if they have not already done so. The second half of the poster session provides the opportunity to talk with the authors and lead consultant who produced the booklet. You may view a copy of the booklet in advance at the placement service or on line under the "brochures" section at http://hfes.org/publications/Menu.html.
       Please read through it, and bring your questions to this poster session.

    ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Environmental Design Issues [Lecture]

    Do Anti-Glare Filters Help Computer Users in Offices BIBAFull-Text 786-790
      Thomas P. Lorusso; Alan Hedge; Sharon Middendorf
    Computer screen glare is associated with worker complaints of eyestrain and other visual problems, and it impairs the visual performance of workers. Previous research suggests that the use of an optical glass anti-glare filter that fits over the computer screen can be an effective solution to many kinds of glare problem. The present study tests the effects of four types of ant-glare filter design on self reported comfort, health and performance. Results from a field experimental study show that the use of anti-glare filters reduces the frequency of visual health symptoms. Ratings of productivity were highest for circular polarizing and high transmission filters.
    Effects of an Ergonomic Intervention on Musculoskeletal Discomfort among Office Workers BIBAFull-Text 791-795
      Mary Rudakewych; Lisa Valent Weitz; Alan Hedge
    This study reports the effects of an ergonomic intervention in an office environment. Three hundred and fifty-six office workers received a negative-slope keyboard with upper mouse tray, an ergonomic chair, and ergonomics training. Before-and-after surveys were conducted to test the effectiveness of this ergonomic intervention. Results show that the ergonomic intervention reduced the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms by an average of 40%.
    A Case Study in the Participatory Evaluation of an Elementary Classroom Workstation BIBAFull-Text 796-800
      Faith McCreary; Roger Ehrich; Maury Nussbaum; Melissa Lisanti
    Using the PCs for Families project as a case study, this paper discusses design issues for shared computer workstations in the classroom. Information was elicited from students, parents, and teachers using participatory methods, with participants developing low-tech prototypes and usage scenarios for shared student workstations. The participatory sessions identified important differences between students, parents, and teachers, both with respect to their concerns and their designs. Children were interested in gaining greater control over the workstation, both in terms of individual technology and adjustability of furniture. Parents, however, focused on improving the richness of an individual student's workspace and de-emphasized collaborative work. Teacher opinions diverged more than other groups and reflected their underlying pedagogic differences.
    Bridging the Gap Between Human Factors and Environmental Design: A Universal Bathroom Case Study BIBAFull-Text 801-805
      Abir Mullick
    This user-centered design project highlights the importance of human factors in product development. It introduces two adjustable bathrooms, Movable Fixtures Bathroom and Movable Panels Bathroom, which resulted from this research and design project. Unlike existing bathrooms, which are designed primarily for independent users, these bathrooms consider the needs of the human life cycle and address dependent use and care-providing alongside independent use in the bathroom. These bathrooms reflect the social and inclusive philosophy of universal design and they have the potential to unify diverse population groups so no one user is excluded by their design.

    ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Advanced Workstation Concepts [Panel]

    Advanced Workstation Concepts BIBAFull-Text 806-807
      R. Lueder
    This panel will explore advanced furniture workstation concepts The panelist will include prominent workstation design researchers as well as ergonomists with experience in this topic. The panel will include discuss issues such as the conceptual basis for the Mind'Space design and the development of new technologies that integrate information input devices into malleable surfaces. Issues such as information walls and wearable computers will be discussed. The panel will also discuss information on the development of advanced workstations that may be better tailored to the changing work patterns of the US office workforce.

    ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Suitable Environments [Panel]

    Human Factors the Sustainable Design of Built Environments BIBAFull-Text 808-812
      James A. Wise
    This Panel examines the emerging relations between practice and principles of Human Factors and the popular worldwide movement towards sustainable building design. Our panelists assess the recent history of Sustainability and its impacts on Human Factors Engineering, and provide an exemplar of how Human Factors has already been included in the Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide. They will examine 'ergo vs. eco' design to show that human and environmental design goals are more compatible than competitive. And they will show how human factors and sustainability may finally be the 'magic' combination of design philosophies needed to create buildings worthy of a 21st century high technology civilization.

    ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Environmental Design Poster

    Foliage Plants at the Workplace Its Images and Effects BIBAFull-Text 813-817
      Shinji Miyake
    A questionnaire survey was conducted in a middle-sized electric manufacturing company to determine workers negative feelings against foliage plants at the workplace. Around 20% of the workers out of 102 respondents (response rate: 92.7%) thought that foliage plants disrupted their work. On the other hand, 60% of the workers felt refreshed from foliage plants. A 30-item semantic scale was used to evaluate images of foliage plants arranged in a simulated office. Nine kinds of foliage plants (height 150-200 cm) were evaluated by 36 students. The results suggest that the most relaxing plant was a weeping fig with a round-shaped topiary silhouette. On the contrary, Dragon tree and Spanish dagger plants gave feelings of tenseness because their leaves are very sharp and narrow. The result in paired comparisons of five small potted plants showed that weeping fig was the most disliked plant because it looked very weak.

    FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Murder or Accidental Shooting: Human Factors Considerations [Alternative Format]

    Human Factors Issues in Fatal Shootings: An Analysis of Four Cases BIBAFull-Text 818-822
      Hal W. Hendrick; Paul Paradis
    Four cases are summarized in which the defendant was charged with first-degree murder, but where the evidence supports a high likelihood of an accidental shooting when analyzed from a human factors perspective. Empirically based knowledge of human behavior in high stress situations is used to understand what likely happened in terms of the defendant's behavior. The handgun involved in one case is evaluated in terms of its ergonomic design deficiencies, and how those deficiencies contributed to a probable accidental shooting is explained. The need for human factors professionals to become involved in serving as expert witnesses in these types of cases is emphasized.
    Accidental Shootings: Gun Design and Training Issues BIBAFull-Text 823-827
      Paul Paradis; Hal W. Hendrick
    Ergonomic issues related to gun design are described, with particular attention to trigger design and forces, safeties, and grip size. Problems with the current design of courses and instruction in handgun use are reviewed. Gun design and training issues are illustrated using three actual cases of accidental shootings. The need for human factors professionals to become involved in improving handgun design, handgun training, and in forensic activities related to shooting accidents, is emphasized.

    FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensic Human Factors Issues [Lecture]

    A Preliminary Usability Analysis of the CPSC Website BIBAFull-Text 828-832
      J. P. Purswell; Apipat Vithakamontri
    The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) communicates safety information to the public through a variety of means, including the Commission's website (www.cpsc.gov). There are a wide variety of resources available to website visitors including Commission press releases, child-related safety information and access to a library of CPSC related documents. In order to assess the ease of accessing information on the CPSC website, three tasks which required study participants to locate certain information on the website were defined. Five subjects were then recruited to perform the searching tasks. Narrative comments by the study participants as they performed the searches and the time taken to find the required information. The results indicate that technologically adept users can successfully locate specific information on the website with the search engine available at the time of the study, but the search engine protocol could be improved.
    The Nighttime Pedestrian Collision: Human Factors Issues and a Case Study BIBAFull-Text 833-837
      Rudolf G. Mortimer
    Injuries to pedestrians in collisions with motor vehicles are a significant problem in traffic safety, accounting for about 13% of fatalities, with more than half occurring at night. There are many variables that affect the visibility of pedestrians in darkness such as: the reflectance of their clothing, their position on the roadway, atmospheric conditions, road characteristics, street lighting, motor vehicle headlamps and their aim and alignment; other ambient lighting and background conditions, glare of headlamps of oncoming traffic and from street lamps, the driving environment and activities and performance of the driver. These issues are discussed, the techniques used to make a human factors analysis are described and some are illustrated by a case study of a night, pedestrian collision on a rural road.
    Trends in Federally Mandated Warning Labels for Consumer Products BIBAFull-Text 838-842
      Frederick J. Diedrich; Christine T. Wood; Thomas J. Ayres
    Consumer products currently sold in the United States often come with extensive safety information, but the presentation of large amounts of such material was not always the case. We reviewed federally mandated hazard labeling as it evolved during the 20th century by documenting changes in labeling requirements for home-use products prescribed by federal statutes. Our review indicated that during the course of the 20th century, there was a dramatic change in the presence, prevalence and specificity of hazard warning requirements. In the early years, Congress concentrated on truth in labeling of contents and quality. This labeling identified hazardous agents in some products. However, as the century progressed, Congress gradually added requirements that could include descriptions of the mechanisms, consequences, and means for avoidance of such hazards. Moreover, the 1960's and especially the 1970's brought a dramatic expansion in the number and types of products required to bear hazard labels.
    Pain and Suffering Awards for Consumer Product Accidents: Effects of Suggesting Day-Rate Information BIBAFull-Text 843-847
      Kenneth R. Laughery; Danielle Paige; Richard N. Bean; Michael S. Wogalter
    Studies of juror decisions regarding pain and suffering awards in product liability litigation tend to show substantial variability across participants. A possible explanation is that jurors do not have a useful metric for assessing pain and suffering. A study was conducted to explore effects of providing day-rate suggestions on such decisions. Day rate refers to giving information about remaining life expectancy in days and suggesting a value to assign per day. Four scenarios describing product-related accidents were presented to 134 participants. Seven day-rate conditions were employed for each scenario: a no day-rate control; five day rates consisting of 1, 50, 100, 200 and 1000; and a multiple day rate condition that described four alternative rates. Results showed a significant day-rate effect, with higher rates resulting in higher awards. Variability of awards was greater in the no day-rate condition than in day-rate conditions with similar award levels. This finding is consistent with the notion that jurors are susceptible to monetary award suggestions. Implications for "biases" in pain and suffering award decisions are discussed.

    FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL: Forensics Professional Posters

    Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Pictorial-Only Warning on a Trolley Coupler BIBAFull-Text 848-851
      Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
    Warnings with pictorial symbols are often used because symbols tend to be attention getting. If a text message included in a warning detains readers in a hazardous location, this text message may keep readers in harm's way. Therefore, warnings comprised only of pictorials may be the best solution in some situations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pictorial as the sole source of warning information. Eighty-five participants were asked about their comprehension of a warning symbol, both without and with contextual information. Results indicated that 96% of participants over 16 years old were able to comprehend the warning, which exceeds the ANSI standard of an 85% symbol comprehension rate.
    The Ergonomics of Operator-Votomatic Interfaces: Dimples and Dangles Are Equiivalent Errors BIBAFull-Text 852-854
      Mark Koch; Wayne Gregory; Jan Berkhout
    A commercial Votomatic machine was fitted on an instrumented platform and the forces associated with 277 stylus punches by 11 different subjects were tabulated. Subjects were instructed to use minimal force on some punches, so that the force needed to create partial outcomes (dimples, dangling and hanging chad configurations) could be documented. At low levels of stylus force, any of the intermediate outcomes were equally likely. Precise scoring of intermediate outcomes can give little indication of voter intent.
    Assessing Traction Demand During Ramp Descent BIBAFull-Text 855-859
      Robert H. Smith
    An attempt is made to further the development of a basis for prescribing traction demand safety factors in ramp descent. The anthropometric and kinesiological approaches are compared. Kinesiological ramp descent data from a young adult population are utilized to extrapolate traction demand requirements to a middle age population. A safety factor of 2 appears adequate for these populations. Further research is needed to develop safety factor data for healthy individuals in older populations. A traction demand variation with age is suggested. A possible explanation is suggested for the rearward direction of applied heel shear forces which occurs during the landing phase of the gait cycle.

    GENERAL SESSION: Designing Human Interactions [Lecture]

    Redesigning Prescription Medication Labeling for an Anglo-Hispanic Elderly Population Using Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 860-864
      Luis Rene Contreras; Arunkumar Pennathur; Mercedes Ortega; Teresa Salcido; Nowshaba Ahmed
    The objective of this project was to redesign prescription medication labeling in order to reduce drug-related misuse and non-compliance of an elderly Anglo-Hispanic population. A study on the arrangement of variables and text changes that integrate a label has conducted. Two labels were developed to test and compare against two commonly found labels used by local pharmacies. Testing consisted of surveys conducted at local senior citizen centers questioning several aspects of the labels such as letter size and spacing, line medication name, etc. A total of 95 elderly subjects participated in the study. The results of the survey suggest that the ergonomically designed labels were preferred to the current pharmacy labels. The survey participants preferred the larger font type and the layouts of the prototype labels.
    Supporting the Warning Designer: An Automotive Case Study BIBAFull-Text 865-869
      Alan L. Dorris; Nathan T. Dorris
    Over the past quarter century, the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) literature on the design of warning labels and systems has proliferated to hundreds of articles. Some of these purport to provide guidance to designers of warnings. The list of variables investigated is long, however, the list of unqualified conclusions reached is brief. Over the same time span, the number of warnings issued by various sources has increased dramatically. One class of warning developers is governmental regulatory agencies who require those they regulate to issue precautionary information. The extent to which HFE input is reflected in these regulations is a function of the agency's receptiveness to such findings and the extent to which the available literature addresses real-world design problems. This paper examines warning system development by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in light of the available literature. Focusing upon the airbag and rollover warning requirements and utilizing the voluminous public record, the study concludes that the HFE literature inadequately addresses the actual needs of warning designers and that NHTSA has promulgated reasonable warning standards in spite of these deficiencies.
    Validation of Recruiter Personality Traits for Stress Resiliency BIBAFull-Text 870-874
      Linda L. Mullins; Linda T. Fatkin
    Recent research conducted with Army recruiters has classified recruiting as a high-risk occupation that includes consistently high levels of stress (Mullins & Fatkin, 2000). Research found that recruiters with high neuroticism scores perceived higher levels of job-related stress. The objective of the present study was to validate these previous findings and identify recruiter characteristics that contribute to recruiter stress and performance.
       Participants for the study included 55 recruiters. The Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire III-Revised (ZKPQ) was used to measure personality. The Multiple Affect Adjective CheckList -- Revised (MAACL-R), Subjective Stress Scale, and Specific Rating of Events Scale were used to measure state levels of stress.
       A cluster analysis was performed with the five subscale measures of the ZKPQ resulting in a four-cluster solution: High Impulsivity-High Neuroticism, Low Impulsivity-High Neuroticism, Low Impulsivity-Low Neuroticism, and High Impulsivity-Low Neuroticism. Separate ANOVAs were computed between personality clusters and recruiter performance and stress measures. Research findings partially supported previous results. Consistent with previous findings (Mullins & Fatkin, 2000), differences in personality did not result in mission performance differences. MAACL-R results indicate that individuals in the high Neuroticism groups perceive higher levels of stress. However, findings for the Subjective Stress Scale and Specific Rating of Events Scale were not significantly related to trait personality clusters.
    Digital Human Models: What is Available and Which One to Choose BIBAFull-Text 875-879
      Peter A. van der Meulen; Casey J. Pruett
    In many of today's companies, most of the design process is conducted in a digital Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) environment. Thus, the obvious and most efficient way to incorporate ergonomics into the design process is using digital anthropometry data and analysis tools. Digital human models are software programs that allow designers to visualize, simulate and evaluate interactions between users and products using digital data. With computer technology rapidly advancing and computer prices dropping, digital human modeling technology will soon be available to a large part of the design and engineering community. This paper intends to provide decision makers with information and guidelines to help decide if a digital human modeling program is a useful asset to their suite of design tools. Additionally, this paper will help guide the decision maker through the process of selecting the most appropriate digital human modeling program, by providing important selection criteria of technical, procedural and strategic nature.

    GENERAL SESSION: The Human Factors of Child Safety [Symposium]

    Effects of Information on Risk Perception Regarding the Use of Booster Seats BIBAFull-Text 880-884
      Suzanne L. Stevens; Thomas A. Dingus
    Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of death and injury for children of all ages in the U.S., despite improved crashworthiness of vehicles and more effective restraint systems. Children who are too large for child safety seats (a child restraint system for children birth to 4 years old) are often restrained improperly or not at all. For effective protection, these children should be restrained in a booster seat (child safety seat for children 4-8 years of age) used with vehicle lap/shoulder belts. For this reason, the use and correct use of occupant protection for 4-8 year old children needs attention.
       A field study with 64 participants was conducted using pre- and post-intervention questionnaires to test the hypotheses that informational pamphlets will induce an increase in risk perception regarding the use of booster seats. Analyses indicated that an informational pamphlet intervention increased risk perception.
    Identifying What Drivers Know about the Hazards of Air Bags to Children BIBAFull-Text 885-888
      Eric F. Shaver; Michael S. Wogalter
    The purpose of air bags is to prevent serious injury of occupants involved in vehicular accidents. Although lives have been saved by air bags, certain subpopulations have a greater risk for personal injury or death; namely, children and small-stature adults. The present research had two parts. The first was a survey in which participants were asked the minimum recommended age limit for children in the front seat according to the visor warning in vehicles with passenger-side air bags. The results indicated that on average minimum age reported by participants (M = 8.8 yrs, SD = 3.4) is significantly lower than the recommended age of 13, t(244) = -23.94, p < .0001. The second part was a field study that evaluated whether young children were (a) located in the front seat of vehicles equipped with passenger-sideair bags, and (b) if the occupants of the vehicle wore their seat belts. The results indicate that 16% (n = 24) of the children being dropped off or picked up at an elementary school rode in the front seat of vehicles equipped with passenger-side air bags. Also, 11% (n = 16) of the drivers and 27% (n = 56) of the children were not wearing seat belts. Implications of the study with respect to warnings are discussed.
    The Effect of Misuse of Child Restraint Systems in Accidents BIBAFull-Text 889-892
      Margaret M. Sweeney; Elaine B. Weinstein; Vernon Roberts
    Although child restraint systems (CRS) have improved the transportation of young children, approximately 85 percent of CRS are improperly used (National Safe Kids, 1999). This accident-based study was conducted to examine how CRS and seat belts are misused, what is the effect of that misuse, and how caregivers learn about proper usage of CRS. Data from 194 children involved in accidents showed that more than two-thirds were not in the appropriate restraint for their age, height, and weight; over half were improperly restrained in a CRS; and about one-quarter used seatbelts improperly. Over half of the caregivers who read the CRS manual used the CRS improperly. The data also show that regardless of whether the restraint was used properly or improperly, most of the children sustained no or minor injuries. Measures to improve child restraint and seatbelt use include educational outreach, improvements in CRS and automobile design and State legislative initiatives.
    Lack of Knowledge about Safety Procedures for Children in Autos BIBAFull-Text 893-896
      S. David Leonard
    Abstract. There is cause for concern for the safety of children in automobiles because many have been killed or seriously injured in automobile accidents. Had appropriate safety measures been taken in many of these cases, the injuries might not have occurred or might have been less serious. Presumably most caregivers desire to incorporate good safety procedures in their efforts. Failure to do so may indicate lack of understanding by caregivers. The present studies were designed to examine the extent to which people in general are aware of some of the safety measures to be used with children. Two similar questionnaires were used in examining this awareness. Both studies supported the notion that knowledge about safe location for children in the automobiles and about use of safety devices is limited and could be the cause of many unnecessary injuries to children.

    GENERAL SESSION: General Session Posters

    Extremely Long Flights: An In-Flight Survey of Passenger and Flight Attendant Comfort, Activities and Non-Stop Preferences BIBAFull-Text 897-900
      K. Michael Dresel; Ramzy Boutros
    Existing commercial airplanes are capable of 16 hour non-stop flights, and the duration of near-term airplanes will be 20+ hours. The capability to conduct extremely long flights can be very advantageous for the airlines and the passengers. However, it is also important to include the user requirements in the design. This study represents the early steps in assessing novel requirements for extremely long flights. In-flight surveys were distributed on long flights (minimum 9 hours), to all passengers and flight attendants willing to participate. Surveys were distributed after takeoff, at mid-flight and before landing, to allow analysis of changes in comfort and preferences as the flight progressed. Surprisingly, neither passengers nor flight attendants reported much discomfort, and the change during the flight, while statistically significant, was slight. Analysis of the passengers' non-stop preferences, and task analysis and reported health symptom results for both the passengers and flight attendants are also presented.

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Stress and Individual Differences in Human Performance [Lecture]

    Information Processing Changes Following Extended Stress BIBAFull-Text 901-905
      Peter A. Hancock; Wayne C. Harris; Scot C. Harris
    Extended periods of stress are associated with subjective fatigue and performance deterioration. Psychological state and cognitive performance were assessed before and after one week of field training at a Navy Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape School. Subjective discomfort increased, but average cognitive performance deterioration was limited to increased Simple Reaction Time. Considering that decrements in complex performance are commonly associated with fatigue, the stability or improvement of the more complex cognitive tasks was unexpected. Given that increasing effort is required to maintain performance as time-on-task increases, performance changes within pre and post-training trials were compared. While performance was stable or improved in the pre-training session, complex task performance deteriorated during post-training trials. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that fatigued individuals maintain complex cognitive task performance by exerting increased effort, but that increasing effort becomes increasingly difficult even during brief assessments.
    Assessment of Motivational States in Performance Environments BIBAFull-Text 906-910
      Gerald Matthews; Sian E. Campbell; Shona Falconer
    The development of a new measure of operator motivational state is described, within the framework of a model of subjective stress that distinguishes Task Engagement, Distress and Worry as fundamental aspects of state (Matthews et al., 1999). Previous work on task motivation suggests that strivings for success should be distinguished from interest in the task. Factor analysis of items representing these constructs in a sample of 880 supported the development of reliable, psychometrically distinct scales for Success and Interest Motivation. Both dimensions relate to Task Engagement, but Success Motivation, perhaps surprisingly, is also associated with negative emotions and self-beliefs. The two scales showed different patterns of dependence on task factors. They were also distinguished by differing associations with workload and coping measures, although both related to higher effort and use of task-focused coping. It is concluded that the scales are promising for use in human factors research that addresses the need to structure tasks for greater operator interest and engagement.
    Responding to Uncertainty: Individual Differences and Training Effects BIBAFull-Text 911-915
      David A. Washburn; J. David Smith; Lauren A. Baker; Pamela R. Raby
    Studies of decision making reveal individual differences, not just in perception, memory, categorization, and other cognitive skills that support judgment, but also in the metacognitive processes that monitor confidence and uncertainty. Two experiments are described in the present report in which a psychophysical uncertainty task was used to assess these individual differences, their relation to personality and temperament differences, and the possibility of improving how optimally people respond to their own uncertainty.
    Controlling for Individual Differences in a Dual-Task Setting: Equating the Baselines of Single Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 916-920
      Bradley Chase; Holly M. Irwin-Chase; Jaclyn T. Sonico
    Individual differences in human performance is an issue that confounds many studies and has not been properly controlled in the ergonomics/human factors literature. This paper examines the concept of individual differences in performance primarily from the perspective of cognitive performance. A study was designed to test the effect of a secondary visual task on a primary visual task. In one condition, participants performed the dual task, while assigning no weight to the secondary task. In the second condition, the primary task was performed simultaneously with the secondary task. The effect of the added workload was measured via the effect on primary task performance. In the baseline portion of the task participants had their baseline (80-90% accuracy) of performance collected by adjusting the stimulus duration. The individual participant stimulus duration was then used as the experimental stimulus duration and the effect of secondary task performance on primary task performance was measured.

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: The Role of Individual Differences in Training and Expertise [Lecture]

    The Implications of Goals and Experience for Driving Expertise BIBAFull-Text 921-925
      Jeffrey T. Hansberger; Robert W. Holt
    Many questions remain unanswered concerning how individuals obtain and acquire expertise in dynamic task domains. This study investigates how the type of goals used in driving situations affect driving experience and expertise. Past research suggests that the quantity of experience alone is not sufficient to accurately predict driving expertise. It is hypothesized that the type of goals utilized during this experience influences driving expertise. The measures used to assess driving expertise uncovered four distinct facets of expertise, self-reported vehicle control and visual scan patterns, driving knowledge, and decision-making. Each of the driving expertise facets was found to possess a different relationship with experience and goal type. Most notable was the relationship of experience with driving knowledge, moderated by learning goal orientation. Further research could have implications for training in the driving domain as well as other dynamic task domains.
    Individual Difference Effects on Training and Transfer of Visual Processing Strategy BIBAFull-Text 926-930
      James H. Pratt; Young Woo Sohn
    The present study examined how training difficulty interacts with individual differences in visual processing strategy. Participants discriminated between random polygon stimuli that varied both in both complexity and similarity. Individual processing strategies were categorized into either "holistic" or "analytic" strategy types based on the discrimination latency as a function of polygon complexity. Training difficulty was defined by the similarity of the stimuli being discriminated. Both strategy groups discriminated between similar ("hard" training) or dissimilar stimuli ("easy" training) and then between novel polygons in a transfer stage. Results showed that individual differences in processing strategy interact with training difficulty to influence performance on transfer to novel stimuli. The effect of training on transfer performance was greater for the participants with a holistic strategy than for those with an analytic strategy. The implications for training and display design are discussed.
    Is Spatial-Visualization Ability a Stronger Predictor of Performance for Males than for Females on Computer-Based tasks BIBAFull-Text 931-935
      Elizabeth D. Murphy; Bernd Lorenz
    In research on cognitive issues in automation, spatial visualization ability (SVA) was investigated as a mediator of performance. Prior to performing the experimental task in a simulation environment, 83 undergraduate psychology students completed an on-line version of a test of SVA. The two basic experimental conditions were "monitoring" and "on-call." In the monitoring condition, participants monitored status messages and responded to system alerts. In the on-call condition, participants performed an unrelated task in between responding to alerts. Dependent measures included decision accuracy. A correlational analysis of SVA scores with decision accuracy found a higher correlation for men than for women. Further analysis indicated that SVA was not a significantly stronger predictor of performance for men than it was for women in the simulated environment. With a larger sample size, however, differential prediction is likely. If confirmed, this finding has implications for the use of SVA in personnel selection. Textual and tabular alternatives to graphical displays may be helpful to low-SVA users.
    The Facilitative Effects of Diagrams on Scaffolding Knowledge Acquisition and Metacognition in Low Verbal Ability Learners BIBAFull-Text 936-940
      Haydee M. Cuevas; Stephen M. Fiore; Randall L. Oser
    This study investigated the differential benefit of diagrams as a learning aid for participants of differing ability levels. Diagrams facilitated the acquisition of conceptual knowledge but had no effect on declarative knowledge acquisition. Additionally, diagrams increased metacognitive accuracy. More importantly, the effect on knowledge acquisition and metacognitive accuracy was found to be strongest for participants with low verbal ability. Finally, incorporating diagrams into the training resulted in improved instructional efficiency (i.e., higher level of performance was achieved with less mental effort). Implications for incorporating findings on individual differences into training system design are discussed.

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE: Individual Differences in Performance Posters

    Force and Displacement Preferences for an Alternative Keyboard BIBAFull-Text 941-944
      Florian Jentsch; James M. Hitt; Peter McAlindon
    Over the past several years, much attention has been given to repetitive strain injuries (RSI's) in the office environment. Perhaps the most common and widely publicized of these RSI's is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). CTS is an insidious, progressive RSI that affects millions of typists every year. The effects of CTS are far reaching. In the office, CTS reduces worker job satisfaction and productivity which may ultimately affect the company's bottom line. U.S. businesses spend in excess of 10 billion each year to combat the CTS problem. The AID-CTS keyboard (commercially referred to as the OrbiTouch by Keybowl, Inc.) is an alphanumeric input system that is developed to combat CTS and numerous other upper extremity disabilities. It is designed to offer all typists a more comfortable means of typing and navigation. The purpose of the current study was to determine what combination of dome force and dome displacement were most acceptable to the user. A study was conducted to evaluate different dome forces and different dome displacements using a variable force joystick to establish the most appropriate range of acceptable force and displacement characteristics. The study resulted in an optimum force and displacement that minimizes arm and wrist movements while maximizing user comfort.
    The Relationship between Video Game Characteristics and Player Ability BIBAFull-Text 945-947
      James Cotton; Daniel Mayes; Florian Jentsch; Valerie Sims
    Video game production has grown into a multi-billion dollar industry. While consumer demand for video games remains strong, an explanation for the demand is not so clear. It is likely, however, that a user's degree of "engagement" with the game is relevant. An Engagement Questionnaire (EQ) was recently introduced to capture those dimensions that determine a user's engagement while playing a video game. The goal was to develop a metric that could be applied to a broad range of games and players. The focus of the present study was to determine to what extent there were systematic differences between garners of high-and low-ability with respect to the way they rated their most and least favorite video games. Specifically, we were interested in identifying whether ratings along the five factors of the EQ were related to self-reported video-game ability. The results of the analyses indicated that difference scores between favorite and least favorite games on four of the five factors predicted self-reported ability. The findings allow us to define more clearly what high- and low-ability gamers think is important in video games.
    A Descriptive Framework for the Evaluation of Stress Effects on Operator Performance BIBAFull-Text 948-951
      P. A. Hancock; H. C. N. Ganey; M. Mouloua; E. Salas; R. Gilson; A. Greenwood-Ericksen; R. Parasuraman; W. Harris; A. Leon; K. Smith
    In this paper we provide a general descriptive framework that relates the action of stress on operator performance capacity. The key advantage of our approach is that it allows us to capture simultaneously the influences of both physical and cognitive forms of stress and their singular and interactive effects on response efficiency. This is accomplished within the model since we propose that response processes to physiological challenge and psychological challenge are fundamentally identical in their mode of operation. By considering the commonalities of brain function with the response processes of other organs of the body, we can now use the extensive existing body of physiological insight to provide us with guiding principles to explore undoubtedly more complex cognitive responses to stress. This descriptive framework represents the foundation upon which a fully articulated theory of stress and performance is being erected.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Materials Handling Research [Lecture]

    Kinematic Evaluation of Snow Shoveling BIBAFull-Text 957-961
      Chia-te Huang; Victor Paquet
    The objective of this study was to determine how different shovel designs affect trunk motion during snow shoveling. A shovel having a straight shaft and a shovel having a bent shaft were evaluated across three levels of task asymmetry. The primary dependent variables were measures of lumbar position and kinematics in three directions with respect to the spine recorded with a lumbar motion monitor. Ratings of perceived discomfort were also collected. Twelve participants simulated snow shoveling in three different directions with each shovel in a laboratory experiment. Results showed that the bent shovel significantly reduced the lumbar velocity and acceleration in the sagittal plane without affecting motion in the rotational or frontal planes. Most sagittal and rotational motion parameters increased with increasing task asymmetry. The discomfort ratings indicated that the low back, arms and wrist were the body regions most severely affected by the task.
    Load Carrying and Corrective Responses to Slip Events BIBAFull-Text 962-966
      Rakie Cham; Mark S. Redfern
    Slips/falls are the cause of numerous injuries in the workplace. Successful recovery from a slip requires biomechanical responses. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of load carrying on corrective responses to slipping perturbations. Ten healthy young adults walked self-paced while body motion and ground reaction forces were collected at 350 Hz. The two conditions were no external load and carrying a 6.8 kg crate. Oil was applied to the floor at some point during multiple trials without the subject's knowledge. During slip events, load carrying affected corrective moments generated at the knee and hip of the leading lower extremity. More specifically, reductions in the flexion moment at the knee and extension moment at the hip were found for loaded conditions. Furthermore, joint kinematics showed that carrying a load reduced knee flexion reactions generated in response to a slipping perturbation under unloaded conditions. Thus, this study suggests that the biomechanical responses were different for load carrying compared to unloaded conditions.
    An Ergonomic Evaluation of Instrument Panel Install Using Both a Standard Mechanical Lift Assist and an Intelligent Assist Device (IAD) BIBAFull-Text 967-971
      Derek I. Dawson; Charles LeBrell; James Foulke; Thomas E. Pearson
    An ergonomic evaluation of the Instrument Panel (IP) installation station at the Michigan Truck Plant of the Ford Motor Company provided justification for the design, build and installation of a novel ergonomic tool called, the Intelligent Assist Device (IAD). The evaluation involved the collection of pertinent historical injury data, videotaping tasks for analysis, performing a risk factor checklist review, examination of the existing and next generation IP, and collecting subjective assessments from operators. The information received from the risk factor checklist and subjective assessments were then compiled and correlated against previous injury location and prevalence. This comprehensive examination indicated both the desire and ergonomic evidence to initiate change at the IP install operation. The application of the Intelligent Assist Device at this location is an example of a technology-based solution which has effectively addressed and eliminated many inherent ergonomic issues associated with the original design. This project is part of the continuing effort to improve occupational conditions within Michigan Truck Plant.
    Field Investigation of the Usability of the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation BIBAFull-Text 972-976
      Patrick G. Dempsey
    Following the revision of the 1981 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, research needs related to the revised equation were outlined. The need to obtain information on the usability of the revised NIOSH equation in actual work environments was expressed. This paper reports on extensive experiences with training users, and application of the equation in varied work settings. Qualitative results from training sessions indicated that frequency, asymmetry, and duration are the parameters that should be given relatively longer instruction periods and resulted in the most questions. Field applications indicated that the variable nature of lifting/lowering demands found in many jobs resulted in difficulty applying the equation. Approximately 35% of 1103 lifting and lowering tasks had at least one parameter outside of acceptable ranges, while a majority of workers (62.8%) reported other manual handling tasks that are counter to assumptions made in the development of the equation. The practical implications of the findings are discussed.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Intervention Ergonomics [Lecture]

    Developing Ergonomic Controls in the Construction Industry for Regulatory Compliance BIBAFull-Text 977-981
      Peregrin Spielholz; Gary Davis
    Washington State Department of Labor and Industries enacted an Ergonomics Rule in May, 2000. The rule requires that companies evaluate "caution zone" jobs and reduce specific risk factor levels found to be above a "hazard" level. At least half of the highest risk industries for musculoskeletal injuries are in construction. This has led to the development of cooperative ergonomics projects with roofing, drywalling, mason, mechanical and general contractors. The results of these projects provide a foundation describing what compliance with the Washington rule will look like in these industries. Construction environments present many challenges but this work has demonstrated that feasible and low-cost solutions are available to reduce risk factors below the regulatory level requiring intervention. Examples of "hazard-level tasks" and risk factor reduction in roofing, mechanical contracting and drywalling are presented.
    A Sawmill Industry-Wide Musculoskeletal Ergonomics Intervention Program in Washington State BIBAFull-Text 982-986
      Stephen Bao; Dana Wilcox; Alex Wright; Kenneth Mettler
    The Hazard Impact Project (HIP-sawmill) of the Washington State sawmills was presented in this paper. This project involved multiple parties to tackle work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the sawmill industry. Five sawmills voluntarily participated in this project. Based on injury statistics, the project team decided to select lumber handler jobs to be studied. Site visits were conducted and jobs were analyzed using a number of different evaluation tools including the newly published Washington State's Ergonomics Regulation. Evaluations were done between comparable production processes in the five sawmills in order to determine variations of physical exposure and identify solutions. It was found that often solutions to problems at one sawmill could be found at another sawmill. Sometimes solutions to reduce or eliminate certain risk factors at one job might be located at the up-stream of the production line, rather than at the workstation where the risk factors were identified. Simple solutions could reduce physical exposure and improve productivity. Automation in many cases could reduce or eliminate some high risks, but may incur high cost to the companies. However, many automations may be primarily introduced to solve production problems.
    Proof that Ergonomics Works: Combined Results of Over 100 Independent Ergonomic Intervention Studies BIBAFull-Text 987-991
      Christopher A. Hamrick
    In an innovative effort to reduce the incidence and severity of cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) claims in Ohio, the BWC has established the CTD Safety Grants program. Employers can receive funds to incorporate ergonomic principles into their workplace. In return, the employers receiving grants provide data to BWC regarding the effectiveness of their interventions. A risk factor checklist was used to rate 306 tasks before and after ergonomic interventions. Also, CTD incidence rates, lost days rates, and turnover rates were measured before and after ergonomic interventions at 126 companies. The data indicate a reduction in risk factor scores of 41.7% (p<0.0001) and a reduction in lost day rates of 42.3% (p<0.005) after implementing ergonomic interventions. These data suggest that engineering controls designed to reduce or eliminate worker exposure to CTD risk factors will reduce the number and severity of CTDs.
    Do Workplace Ergonomic Interventions to Control Musculoskeletal Disorders Really Work BIBAFull-Text 992-996
      Ben-Tzion Karsh; Francisco B. P. Moro; Michael J. Smith
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of ergonomic field interventions to control work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This paper is an extension of the one written for the 1998 National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council steering committee to examine the scientific literature relevant to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Over 600 papers were read, and 98 were found that met the selection criteria. Eighty-four percent of all of the studies found some positive results, although the majority had mixed results. The most effective interventions were those that utilized multiple components. Only 31% of the studies used experimental or quasi-experimental designs. The implications for the conduct of ergonomic interventions and federal regulations are discussed.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Trunk/Torso Modeling [Lecture]

    Fatigue Induced Risk of Spinal Instability during Manual Materials Handling BIBAFull-Text 997-1001
      Kevin P. Granata; Greg Slota; Sara E. Wilson; Amy Massimini
    Risk of occupational low-back disorders may be related to spinal stability achieved during manual materials handling. Stability is controlled and influenced by trunk muscle stiffness, antagonistic co-contraction and reflex response. Fatigue influences each of these factors, suggesting that fatigue may compromise spinal stability. A biomechanical model of spinal stability and experimental data were implemented to evaluate the effects of fatigue. EMG and trunk kinematics from 21 healthy subjects were recorded during static trunk extension exertions and sudden-load trials in fatigued and unfatigued states. The model predicted dramatic reduction in spinal stability associated with fatigue related decrement in paraspinal muscle stiffness and force generating capacity. Empirical data supported the model predictions, demonstrating increased antagonistic co-contraction during fatigued exertions. Results suggest risk of low-back injury from loss of spinal stability is increased during fatigue from manual materials handling.
    Reposition Sense of Lumbar Posture as a Function of Torso Angle and Target Lordosis BIBAFull-Text 1002-1006
      Sara E. Wilson; Kevin P. Granata
    Risk of low back disorders (LBD) is related to spinal posture with greater risk reported in flexed and asymmetric trunk positions. Spinal posture, including trunk position and lumbar lordosis, influences spinal load and stability. Hence, the ability to accurately sense and control spinal curvature may be an important factor in the control LBD risk. Current measurement demonstrated error in spinal reposition sense was increased in flexed trunk positions but was not found to change significantly with trunk asymmetry. Reposition sense error was also found to be reduced in more kyphotic flexed postures (relative to more lordotic flexed postures) possibly due to position sense feedback from ligamentous strain. This research suggests that it may be difficult to control spinal curvature in flexed positions, leading to an increased risk of injury. Fully flexed, kyphotic postures ("stooped postures") have an improved reposition sensitivity, making this posture easier to control. However these postures may be more susceptible to viscoelastic strain and injury of the ligamentous tissue.
    Simulation of Simultaneous Muscle Strength and Balance Constraints during One and Two Handed Lifting BIBAFull-Text 1007-1010
      Don B. Chaffin; Charles B. Woolley
    This paper addresses the complex issues affecting the postures people choose to use when attempting moderate load lifting exertions. In essence, lifting exertions are known to require a person to utilize muscle strength capabilities at each joint while also maintaining balance. As loads in the hand are located further away from the person both muscle and balance requirements increase. By setting population limits to accommodate both a 90%tile muscle strength capability and a functional balance capability within the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program, it was possible to run a set of trials which demonstrate the importance of both constraints when lifting loads in one and both hands placed at different horizontal distances away from the body. A small study showing the effects of one handed bracing was also performed. Results indicate that subtle changes in body postures and or hand bracing can affect the maximum distance a moderate load can be lifted. This demonstrates the general nature of the biomechanical strength and balance problems associated with the horizontal location of a moderate load, even when one handed bracing is possible.
    Performance of an Artificial Neural Network Model in the Prediction of Lower Torso Muscle Recruitment Patterns BIBAFull-Text 1011-1015
      Miguel A. Perez; Maury Nussbaum
    The prediction of muscle forces around the low back is a key aspect in the calculation of spinal loads. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are suited to handle this prediction problem, and have been employed in the past in similar efforts. This paper evaluates the performance of an ANN in predicting trunk muscle forces, whose values were estimated from measurements of myoelectric activity during various high-magnitude static trunk exertions. Sensitivity of the ANN to its two user-adjustable parameters, Muscle Self-Inhibition and Muscle Inhibition, is also evaluated. Results indicate moderate agreement between predicted forces and forces estimated from measured myoelectric activity (average R2s in the 0.50s), although some muscles were well predicted (R2s in the 0.80s). The model iterations resulting from variations in the ANN Inhibition parameters varied only slightly in terms of prediction performance levels, suggesting that this particular ANN model may be limited by other factors, including inter-individual differences in motor control strategies.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper-Extremity/Potpourri Research [Lecture]

    The Effect of Mild Trunk Flexion on Musculoskeletal Stress during Light Assembly Work BIBAFull-Text 1016-1020
      Ranjit Nirmale; Victor Paquet
    The major objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mild trunk flexion on localized muscle discomfort in a realistic light assembly task. Secondary objectives included evaluating two instruments commonly used to measure muscular discomfort, determining the level of erector spinae muscle activity during mild trunk flexion, and determining how well low back discomfort predicted loss of torso extension muscle strength. Participants performed a light assembly tasks for 20 minutes while in mild trunk flexion for periods of either 30 or 60 seconds, followed by recovery periods, in which participants stood erect, for periods of either 15, 30, 60 or 120 seconds. Duration of recovery period had a statistically significant effect on localized muscle discomfort of the lower back, upper back and shoulders. Duration of trunk flexion and recovery time had an interactive effect on loss of torso extension strength. Differences in performance between the two discomfort ratings scales were found.
    The Contribution of Hand Loads to Cervical Disc Compression BIBAFull-Text 1021-1025
      Jeffrey C. Woldstad; Javier Nicolalde
    Twenty male and female subjects participated in an experiment to measure the activity in neck muscles above C6/C7 resulting from loads held in the hands. Integrated electromyographs (EMGs) were measured for the spenius, levator scapula, and trapezius (two locations) muscles using surface electrodes. Subjects held no load, five pounds, and ten pounds in each hand with the arms hanging at rest, extended in front of the body, or extended to the sides. The results showed that integrated EMG levels increased as the loads in the hands increased. In addition, signals were larger for loads held to the side of the body as compared to the front of the body, and both of these conditions were much larger than for loads held with the arms hanging. The results demonstrate that loads held in the hands add to the compressive force acting on cervical intervertebral discs and contribute to musculoskeletal injury.
    Verbal Estimation of Peak Force BIBAFull-Text 1026-1030
      Matthew M. Marshall; Thomas J. Armstrong; Marissa L. Ebersole
    This study investigated the precision and accuracy with which individuals could estimate the magnitude of submaximal, upper extremity forceful exertions over a range of tasks typical of occupational/industrial settings. Without training, the average estimation errors were 15.3, 23.2, and 11.8%Max for low, medium, and high levels of force, respectively. When subjects were first exposed to a single, maximum exertion, these error levels improved to 9.8, 14.3, and 10.6%Max. When exposed to two additional benchmarks of 25% and 75%Max, error improved further to 6.8, 11.8, and 9.4%Max.
    Analysis of a Self-Regulating Method for Determining Acceptable Finger Force Limits BIBAFull-Text 1031-1035
      Hope E. Johnson; Maury A. Nussbaum
    In contrast to previous work using the psychophysical methodology, participants in the present work were instead asked to self-adjust and self-regulate their exertion level during simple finger exertions aimed at deriving maximum acceptable limits (MALs). Three methods to determine MALs from a sequence of exertions are described and compared. The effects of trial durations and intersession repeatability were also investigated. All analysis methods produced comparable MAL estimates, within 0.5 N. MALs obtained from the first 5 minutes of data were 2.2% higher than those from the entire 25-minute session, but this difference was not significant. Differences between sessions averaged 4%, which was not significant. The results suggest the self-regulating method can produce repeatable estimates of subjective finger force limits, that these limits are insensitive to the analysis method used for determination, and that it may be possible to obtain repeatable values with relatively brief experimental sessions.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Instrumentation/Anthropometry Research [Lecture]

    Comparison of Traditional and Electromechanical Approaches for Structural Anthropometric Data Collection BIBAFull-Text 1036-1039
      David Feathers; Jana Polzin; Victor Paquet; James Lenker; Edward Steinfeld
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a new structural anthropometric measurement approach designed for those who may not have the capability to hold standardized postures. Forty-eight men and women participated in the study. Two trained researchers collected the anthropometric measurements. Twenty anthropometric dimensions were made while participants remained in a preferred or relaxed posture while seated in a wheelchair. In addition, measurements for six (6) anthropometric dimensions were repeated while participants assumed a standard seated anthropometric reference posture. Each researcher made two measurements with an electromechanical device and with an anthropometer or spreading caliper. Mean absolute differences and statistics of agreement between methods, researchers and trials were calculated for each of the anthropometric dimensions. The results of the study indicate that use of an electromechanical device may be a promising alternative to traditional methods of assessment.
    Creating Human Figure Models for Ergonomic Analysis from Whole-Body Scan Data BIBAFull-Text 1040-1043
      Matthew P. Reed; William R. Dowell
    Advances in surface scanning technology have made possible the large-scale collection of body shape data. This paper describes methods for creating whole-body human figure models from the 3D scan data using a semi-automated process. Body surface landmark data are used to calculate joint locations and to segment the point cloud. A surface polygon mesh is fit to the point-cloud data for each segment. The model accuracy with respect to the original scan data can be made arbitrarily high by increasing the polygon model resolution. NURBS surfaces are then fit to the polygon mesh for rendering in CAD systems. The result of this process, which typically requires about five minutes, is a whole-body, articulated model that represents the body shape captured in a whole-body scan. The model posture can be adjusted dynamically in a CAD environment for application to a wide variety of ergonomic analyses.
    Measurement System for Evaluating Dynamic Wrist Workloads And CTS Risk BIBAFull-Text 1044-1048
      Hyunkook Jang; Andris Freivalds
    This study presents an evaluation of measurement system investigating the relationship between dynamic wrist workloads including posture, force and repetition, and median nerve function, hence, CTS risk. The performance of a biaxial electrogoniometer and force sensor for generating dynamic wrist workloads were evaluated with custom made calibration fixtures. The results for electrogoniometer measurement showed that non-repeatability and non-linearity were 4.0% and 1.6%, respectively, in the flexion/extension plane, and 3.3% and 0.9%, respectively, in the radial/ulnar plane. The non-repeatability and non-linearity for the force sensors were 14.3% and 1.6%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the electrogoniometer and force sensors are useful for future study. The performance of EMG machine for measuring nerve conduction was also examined and the results was consistent across day and trial. Further research is quantifying the relationship between dynamic wrist workloads with resultant changes in motor and sensory conduction function in the median nerve.
    Accuracy of a Portable Inclinometer for Recording Frequency of Trunk Sagittal Flexion BIBAFull-Text 1049-1053
      Fadi A. Fathallah; Andrew E. Kato
    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of a newly developed portable inclinometer (BackTalk) to capture extreme trunk postural data in occupational settings. The device provides information about preselected flexion angles and their frequency. Four devices were simultaneously compared with an electrogoniometer at various combinations of speed and symmetric/asymmetric postures. The results showed that, overall, the BackTalk devices were very successful in detecting sagittal postures at flexion angles of 30° and 45° for all three speeds. However, the average success rate for identifying postures at 15° was only 54.3%. Therefore, if the device is to be used in situations that are highly dynamic and involve small sagittal angles, it may have a high rate of missed recordings. Nervertheless, the BackTalk could be a useful research tool for quantifying the frequency and level of postural load experienced by industrial workers.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Lifting Research [Lecture]

    Gender Differences in the Risk of Occupational Low Back Disorders BIBAFull-Text 1054-1058
      Fadi A. Fathallah; William S. Marras
    The purpose of this study was to examine an existing database of a large group of industrial workers in order to ascertain any gender differences in workplace and trunk kinematics factors, as well as in the risk of low back disorders (LBDs). We found that there is somewhat of a trade-off between the moment created by the object (and its weight) and the lift rate. Females tended to carry lighter-weight objects than their male counterparts; however, in general, they handled more objects per hour. Females also tended to have more maximum sagittal flexion, which also offset the effect of lower moment. However, the overall LBD risk was not significantly different between males and females. This gender-based interactive relationship among risk factors may have important implications on intervention strategies and exposure assessment methods in future epidemiological studies.
    Does Training on Lifting Techniques Adversely Affect Case Handling Times BIBAFull-Text 1059
      Steven A. Lavender; Eric Lorenz; Gunnar B. J. Andersson
    Research has shown that the loads on the spine are affected by the lifting techniques used. The popular notion among those working in material handling jobs is that use of good lifting techniques adversely affects productivity. In grocery distribution centers where productivity is continuously monitored, and often used as the basis for incentive systems, workers are reluctant to modify their lifting behaviors due to perceived time pressures. The current study tested the following hypotheses: (1) Overall, training employees in lifting techniques does not result in significantly longer lift durations. (2) The change in lift duration following training is dependent upon the lifting style adopted. (3) The change in spine moments achieved through training is related to the lift duration. Two hundred sixty five grocery distribution workers under went a one-on-one training session using The Lifttrainer biofeedback system. The LiftTrainer hardware uses a magnetic motion measurement system to track movements as lifts were performed. The LiftTrainer software uses the movement and box weight data in a dynamic 3-D linked segment model to instantaneously calculate the 3 dimensional moment vector acting on the spine. Productivity was assessed in this study by measuring the duration of each lift. Overall, the data show there was not a significant increase in case handling times following the training. However, the changes in case handling times were dependent upon the lifting style adopted by the trainees. Those adopting a 2-step technique averaged 0.3 seconds longer per lift while those who adopted a "pivot" or "swing" technique end up lifting equal to or faster than they did in the lifts demonstrated prior to training. All three of the identified techniques led to significant reductions in the spine moments. The magnitudes of the reductions were only weakly correlated with changes in lift duration. In summary, our findings show that workers do not have to sacrifice job performance when reducing their spine loads through improved lifting techniques.
    Interaction of Physical and Mental Workplace Stressors: Their Impact on Spinal Loads BIBAFull-Text 1060-1063
      K. G. Davis
    For the first time, this study investigated how individuals react to both physical and mental workplace factors and how these reactions impact the loads on the spine. Thirty males and thirty females performed asymmetric lifting tasks at two different lift rates (2 and 8 lifts/min) and accompanied by two levels of mental concentration demands (none and keyboard entry task). Three-dimensional spinal loads were found to be greater for the faster lift rate and highest when mental concentration accompanied the fastest lift rate. Individuals responded to increases in lifting rates and mental demands by altering their trunk and hip motions as well as produced greater muscle coactivity. Thus, how an individual performs a particular lifting tasks is dependent upon both the physical requirements of the job but also the mental aspects. Workplace stressors that have the ability to influence the time pressures on the individuals have the potential to significantly influence the biomechanical responses and ultimately the loads on the spine.
    The Effects of Load and Speed on Lumbar Vertebral Kinematics during Lifting Motions: A More Detailed Look BIBAFull-Text 1064-1068
      Xudong Zhang; Jinjun Xiong; Angela M. Bishop
    In this work, we investigated the effects of load weight and movement speed on lumbar vertebral kinematics during lifting task performance, while exploring the feasibility of non-invasive in vivo measurement of vertebral movements. An experiment was conducted in which subjects performed two-handed sagittally-symmetric lifting tasks with the load weight and movement speed systematically varied. Spherical skin-surface markers were strategically placed over subjects' spinous processes and other landmarks representing major body joints. An opto-electronic motion capture system was employed to measure the lifting motions, and a novel method was developed to derive, from the acquired data, the centers of rotation (COR) and angle profiles for individual vertebrae. The angle profiles, quantifying vertebral movement patterns, were characterized by a mathematical function with kinematically meaningful parameters. Statistical analyses were then conducted to examine whether the load and speed exerted significant effects on the COR locations and movement patterns of individual lumbar vertebrae. The results suggested: (1) the COR locations were not significantly affected by the speed or load variation; (2) the movement patterns of L2-L4 vertebrae were significantly affected by the speed but not the load variation, whereas that of L5 vertebra was significantly affected by both. Findings have implications on the relation between lifting dynamics and spinal motion control, as well as on the development of more detailed and accurate biomechanical models for depicting spinal motions and quantifying low-back stress.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Implementing the National Occupational Research Agenda for Musculoskeletal Disorders [Symposium]

    Implementing the National Occupational Research Agenda for Musculoskeletal Disorders BIBAFull-Text 1069
    The purpose of this symposium is to provide an opportunity for members of a National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) working group to present findings from a recent report that outlines areas of new research that will have the greatest impact for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the next decade. In addition to providing an overview of the most important research gaps highlighted in the report, the symposium speakers will present an industry perspective of the importance of research, a discussion of the costs and benefits of implementing interventions, how research can improve the effectiveness of interventions, and an overview of a project directed at developing and implementing a national occupational exposure survey, which was identified as a high priority research gap in the report. A major goal of the working group is to foster partnerships between funding agencies and foundations and researchers for the purpose of developing better methods and practices for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
    The National Occupational Research Agenda for Musculoskeletal Disorders: An Overview BIBAFull-Text 1070-1073
      Thomas R. Waters
    A report by a working group under the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) outlines areas of new research that will have the greatest impact for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the next decade. The report is based on input by more than 200 representatives from industry, labor, and other sectors. According to the report, surveillance research is needed to identify trends, develop strategies for preventing injuries, and evaluate the effectiveness of those strategies. Etiologic and medical research is needed to identify risk factors for job-related musculoskeletal disorders, including biomechanical factors such as intensity and frequency of exposure, work-organization factors, and personal variables such as an individual's size, strength, and history of injury. Intervention research is needed to evaluate new and existing strategies for preventing or reducing the incidence, severity, and disability associated with job-related musculoskeletal disorders. The report also provides information about how to improve the research process. The report, titled "Research Topics for the Next Decade: A Report by the NORA Musculoskeletal Disorders Team," [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-117] is available from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
    Reducing Back and Shoulder Injuries in the Nursing Home Industry BIBAFull-Text 1074-1078
      Barbara Silverstein; Kathleen Rockefeller; Ninica Howard; John Kalat
    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) such as low back pain, tendinitis, hand arm vibration syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome, account for a major component of the cost of work-related illness and injury in the United States. The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) musculoskeletal team identified intervention studies of engineering and work organizational improvements as a high priority in reducing the burden of WMSDs. In Washington State, direct workers compensation costs are more than 410 million per year. Nursing homes have high claims incidence of back and shoulder WMSDs, related primarily to resident handling activities. A cooperative industrywide "zerolift" initiative has resulted in significant reductions in back and shoulder WMSD claims and costs in the Washington State nursing home industry. Rates have decreased 19% in those nursing homes receiving workers compensation premium discounts for purchasing equipment compared to 3% reduction for those nursing homes without premium discounts. Payback on investment in "zerolift" programs appears to take 6-12 months.
    NIOSH, the Proposed National Exposure at Work Survey (NEWS), Work Factors, and Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 1079-1081
      James Boiano; Greg Piaciatelli; Bruce Bernard
    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is currently planning an ongoing, systematic effort to collect, analyze, interpret, and disseminate data on potential exposures faced by workers in the United States, including physical workplace risk factors. This effort will provide estimates of the number of workers potentially exposed to workplace physical hazards by occupation, process, and industry. It will also describe the nature and distribution of exposure controls, as well as the extent of specific safety and health or specific ergonomic program components. The survey will include approximately 8,000 establishments, representing facilities in all major industry sectors having five or more employees. The Health Services sector (SIC 80) will be surveyed in the first year. Stakeholder meetings will be held in early 2002 to assist NIOSH in identifying health and safety issues, topics of concern, and occupational groups for inclusion in the national survey of Health Services.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Upper-Extremity/VDT Research [Lecture]

    The Influence of Head, Forearm and Back Support on Myoelectric Activity, Performance and Subjective Comfort during a VDT Task BIBAFull-Text 1082-1086
      Michael J. Monroe; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Gary A. Mirka
    VDT work consists of static muscle activity in the arms, neck, shoulders and back to keep the head and hands in a mostly fixed working position. The aim of this study was to investigate alternative VDT workstation configurations that may reduce the muscle force of these static contractions by providing support to the head/neck, arm and back regions of the body. Effects of an inclined chair back with headrest and a chair mounted split keyboard (CMSK) were investigated. For a typing task, combining a CMSK with the headrest and inclined chair back resulted in significantly lower muscle activity in the neck (>35% reduction) and shoulders (>64% reduction), compared to utilizing a straight keyboard in a more upright posture without a headrest. No significant difference in typing accuracy existed between the configurations; however, productivity was reduced with the CMSK. Potential applications for alternative VDT work postures are discussed.
    Relationships between Upper Limb Loading, Physical Findings, and Discomfort Associated with Keyboard Use BIBAFull-Text 1087-1091
      Brian D. Lowe; J. Steven Moore; Naomi Swanson; Lisa Perez; Margit Alderson
    This paper presents findings of a preliminary investigation of the relationship between upper limb muscle loading, reported discomfort, and clinical findings associated with keyboard use. Surface electromyography (SEMG) was recorded bilaterally from the digit flexors (FDS), digit extensors (EDC), and m. trapezius of 52 employees of a large insurance company during their normal work activities involving keyboarding. Normalized SEMG amplitude served as a measure of loading on the relevant muscle groups. Physical examinations were conducted on these employees within 14 days of the EMG recording session, as was the administration of a discomfort questionnaire. The EMG measures of upper limb muscle loading did not predict MSD cases as well as the presence of current symptoms for forearm extensor cases (OR = 9.66), the duration of symptoms for neck/shoulder cases (OR = 2.5), or the intensity of symptoms for forearm flexor cases (OR = 3.72). However, the prediction of forearm extensor case status was improved by including the median EDC normalized EMG (OR = 1.39). The prediction of forearm flexor and neck/shoulder cases was not appreciably improved by including the FDS and trapezius EMG loading variables.
    Assessing the Relationship between Cognitive load and Cervicobrachial Muscle Response during a Typing Task BIBAFull-Text 1092-1096
      Elke L. C. Leyman; Gary A. Mirka; David B. Kaber; Carolyn M. Sommerich
    Workers in office environments often have to deal with high cognitive workload due to the coordination of multiple work tasks. The objective of this research was to use a dual-task paradigm to examine the impact of cognitive load in office-type tasks on the cervicobrachial muscle activity response and performance. Cognitive load was manipulated by presenting subjects with examples of the three different types of cognitive tasks described in Rasmussen's (1983) taxonomy, including skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based tasks while they performed a secondary typing task. Performance in the secondary task, cervicobrachial muscle activity, and subjective measures of perceived stress and mental workload were the dependent measures. Results showed a significant effect of the different cognitive tasks. The cognitive task causing the highest level of subjective workload also produced 66.67% higher muscle activity in the right trapezius, and 8.33% and 10.53% higher activity in the left and right cervical erector spinae, respectively, in comparison to muscle activity associated with the cognitive task causing the lowest perceived workload. With respect to performance, a 29.8% decrease was observed in typing productivity when the rule-based task was completed as compared to typing with no additional cognitive load.
    Functional Tests for Quantifying Recovery Following Carpal Tunnel Surgery BIBAFull-Text 1097-1100
      M. E. Sesto; R. G. Radwin; S. V. Zachary; B. J. Rockhill; C. J. Harm
    This study considered two computer-controlled tests for quantifying functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), known as the Wisconsin Test battery. The gap detection sensory test quantifies dynamic tactile inspection thresholds for areas of the hand innervated by the median nerve. The rapid pinch and release psychomotor test measures the initiation and control of specific muscles innervated by the median nerve motor branch. Subjects were all patients who had undergone carpal tunnel surgical procedures. To date, a total of 30 subjects have been tested pre and post surgery. All subjects underwent a physical examination and nerve conduction studies, completed a symptom survey, and were administered the Wisconsin Test battery prior to surgery. Subjects were tested immediately prior to surgery and again six weeks following surgery. The data indicated that both psychomotor and sensory function for the surgical hands markedly improved postoperatively, whereas the non-surgical hands did not show similar improvements. These tests may be useful to quantify recovery and function following CTS treatments.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Applied Ergonomics Issues [Lecture]

    Ergonomics Process Consulting-Lessons Learned at a Large Midwest Manufacturer BIBAFull-Text 1101-1105
      William L. Mergen
    An ergonomics process was created at a large Midwest manufacturing plant that included a unique combination of known best practices for ergonomics programs, behavior-based safety principles, and post-injury management principles. A four-phase consulting process (Discovery, Design, System Up, and System Check) was used to assist the client in tailoring a process to its culture. The process resulted in the formation of six teams, the creation of a steering committee, and the development of a document that describes all aspects of the process. The client's loss frequency rate was reduced by 16% and loss cost rate was reduced by 43% during the first year. Several "lessons learned" were noted during this project. These include: job evaluation tools for supervisors need to be very simple and brief, ergonomics processes may reduce losses sooner than expected, all Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) injuries should be investigated using the referral process created, common tracking forms should have been developed during Design, and job improvement follow-up needed better tracking.
    Ergonomic Uses of a Web-Based Job Information System BIBAFull-Text 1106-1109
      Kristin Streilein; Thomas Armstrong; Sheryl Ulin
    Designing and evaluating jobs and workers is easier when there is accurate and precise job documentation available. A web-based job information system has been developed to provide job documentation (including detailed task analyses), quantitative ergonomic ratings, and job videos. This web-based job information system can be used in many different ways such as facilitating tool design, work method analysis, job accommodation, return-to-work decisions, and justification of ergonomic evaluations. Details on how the data are being collected and the database is designed are discussed as well as numerous examples of how jobs in the database can be used by ergonomists and human factors professionals.
    OSHA's Citation Practices of Ergonomic Hazards under the General Duty Clause BIBAFull-Text 1110-1114
      J. P. Purswell; Jerry L. Purswell
    The "General Duty" clause of the OSHAct requires that an employer "shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees." Prior to the issuance and subsequent rescission of the Ergonomics Program Standard, OSHA had an established policy of citing employers for unambiguous ergonomic hazards in their workplace under the "General Duty" clause. This policy will likely continue even with the rescission of the Ergonomics Program Rule. Two key decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission are discussed which outline the extent to which OSHA may cite employers for ergonomics hazards under the "General Duty" clause.
    The Use of Ergonomic Concerns Data as a Proactive Input to the Design of Workplace Tools BIBAFull-Text 1115-1118
      Tom F. Mayfield; Susan M. Evans; Bradley S. Joseph; Helen R. Kilduff-Rich
    The Ford Motor Company has recorded over 5606 ergonomic concerns relating to job hazards through their automated evidence book ErgoRx. As part of a review of the ergonomics process in Ford, a study was carried out to look at the transfer of ergonomic information between division process engineers and plant ergonomics personnel. The study focused on ergonomics training and background knowledge, and Ford tools used to provide ergonomics information and the feedback processes. Issues on the effective feedback of ergonomics data early on in the design process are of particular interest in the light of the recent repeal of the OSHA Ergonomics regulation. Instead of using reportable ergonomics concerns to trigger remedial actions, concerns can be reduced by designing-out the features that cause the problems. Used in this way concerns data, as well as existing ergonomics tools, can be used as a cost effective, proactive input in new and redesign activities. This approach, used more widely, could be an effective way of removing objections to the imposition of a difficult to apply, and largely reactive ergonomics regulation.

    INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS: Industrial Ergonomics Posters

    A Study on Approach Speeds of the Hands under Metal Press Machine Operation BIBAFull-Text 1119-1122
      Zojiro Katoh; Yasuaki Fukuta; Yoshio Nakashima; Yoshinori Takeuchi; Mamoru Takamatsu; Shin Yoshihara
    The study described herein entailed measuring approach speed of the hands under simulated press machining conditions using two types of safety devices. A total of eight subjects were used in the experiment: four males in their twenties and four males in their fifties. Hand speed was faster for the photoelectric safety device (PSDI) than for safety devices activated using both hands (TWO) for both subject groups, in excess of 1.6 m/sec. The study showed that safety devices capable of automatic detection such as PSDI safety device more effectively ensure safety and work efficiency than the TWO type.
    Electromyographic Analysis of Cashiers in Seated and Standing Postures in a Store Environment BIBAFull-Text 1123-1127
      Jennie P. Psihogios; Mary R. Jones
    A field study was conducted at a European retailer in order to investigate the effects of sitting and standing on muscle activity of cashiers throughout the workday. Electromyography (EMG) data were collected from the neck/shoulders, lower back, and lower leg muscles as cashiers worked at either a standing or seated checkstand for a 4 hour work shift. A trend towards higher muscle activity was observed in the neck/shoulders in the seated checkout compared to the standing checkout, while muscle activity was mixed in the low back. Lower leg activity was higher when standing compared to sitting, however the percent maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for the leg muscles was very low (less than 2% of MVC). These field results showed similar trends to previously reported laboratory results (Lehman et al., 2001). Cashiers preferred to alternate working posture between sitting and standing.
    Forearm Torque Strength and Endurance for Elbow and Forearm Angles BIBAFull-Text 1128-1132
      Leonard W. O. Sullivan; Timothy J. Gallwey
    This study investigated the effect of elbow and forearm rotation angle on forearm torque strength and endurance. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the study. The results revealed that supination torques were stronger overall with a mean maximum value of 16.2 Nm recorded for the forearm 75% prone. Maximum pronation torque was recorded as 13.5 Nm for a neutral forearm with the elbow flexed 45°. Endurance times were longer for supination torques with the elbow flexed 135° and 90° but reduced below the times of pronation for the elbow fully extended. Supination torque endurance times were affected more by elbow and forearm angles than were pronation torque endurance times.
    Can a Back Belt Effect Working Posture: Laboratory Evaluation of a New Design BIBAFull-Text 1133-1137
      Marvin Dainoff; Leonard Mark; Shawn Oates; Dean Smith
    This study investigated the impact of a new back belt design on postural transitions during reaching. That is, an object close to the operator can be reached by just extending the arm; however, at some point, the operator must change postures by flexing the trunk. Previous work in our laboratory has determined that these transition points occur closer than the maximum distance set by the subject's anthropometry. Such transition points may reflect a user-generated margin of safety; protecting against extremes of ranges of motion. The current study compared back belt with no back belt reaching in a simulated pick and place task at various distances. Results indicate that when subjects wore the belt while reaching, they tended to have transition points closer to their bodies, than while not reaching. Hence, the belt seems to act to preserve a greater margin of safety-keeping the user from extreme ranges of motion.
    New Tools for Vehicle Interior Design BIBAFull-Text 1138-1140
      Matthew P. Reed; Miriam A. Manary; Carol A. C. Flannagan; Lawrence W. Schneider
    Research over the past decade has led to the development of a new, integrated suite of tools for vehicle interior design. These tools are based on posture and position data collected from hundreds of drivers and passengers in dozens of vehicles driven on-road, as well as data from laboratory studies with reconfigurable vehicle mockups. The tools include (1) a new H-point machine and associated CAD tool for use in seat design and vehicle package layout; (2) a model of driver-selected seat position; (3) a new eyellipse describing the distribution of driver and passenger eye locations; (4) three-dimensional contours describing occupant head locations; and (5) whole-body posture-prediction methods for use with human figure models. This paper describes these new tools in the context of the design and development of a passenger car interior.
    Analysis of Driver-Vehicle Interface Using Three-Dimensional Coordinates BIBAFull-Text 1141-1145
      Sung-Jae Chung; Min-Yong Park
    This research suggested a method of analyzing how the driver's anthropometric data would best be accommodated by a specific driver-vehicle interface. Three-dimensional manikins with 18 links were developed using US 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female's anthropometric data. In addition, an adjustable seating buck was constructed to control seven package variables. The levels of each package variables were determined according to the interior dimensions of mid-size passenger vehicles. After the manikins were situated on each derivable driving environment of the seating buck's package variable levels, 3-D cartesian coordinate values were collected from the manikin's articular points by using a coordinate measuring machine. The data were then converted into joint angles of manikins for suggesting suitable driving environments by considering appropriate driving postures.
    Evaluation of the Finger and Phalange Froce Distributions in Pulling Task BIBAFull-Text 1146-1150
      Yong-Ku Kong; Andris Freivalds
    The pulling finger/phalange force distributions were investigated with various handles. Generally, oval handles required higher forces than double frustum handles in pulling task. The finger force distributions of the pulling task were similar to those of the gripping task. Middle (28%) and index (27.2%) were the strongest and little (20.8%) showed the lowest, followed by ring (23.9%). However, the phalange force distributions of the pulling task were different from the gripping task. Proximal (37.6%) produced the largest and middle (33.6%) also exerted more forces than distal (28.8%) phalanges. As the handle size increased, the forces of index and middle fingers showed increasing trends while ring and little fingers had decreasing trends. The phalange force was being moved more on distal phalanges than on proximal and middle phalanges. The understanding of force distributions may help to develop biomechanical finger models and to design hand tools for reducing related hand injuries.
    Comparison of Perceived Discomfort for Static Joint Motions between Male and Female Subjects BIBAFull-Text 1151-1155
      Dohyung Kee; Waldemar Karwowski
    The purpose of this study was to compare perceived discomfort for joint motions between male and female subjects. Nineteen male and ten female subjects with no history of musculoskeletal disorders participated in the laboratory experiments, where the free modulus method of magnitude estimation was employed for measuring discomfort ratings for static joint motions. The results showed that the joint, joint motions, levels of joint motions and gender significantly affected perceived discomfort for varying joint motions. Based on the relative discomfort index (RDI) defined in this study, two ranking systems, classified by the joints and joint motions, and the joints, were proposed. The rankings were dependant upon the subjects' gender. The rankings for all joint motions except shoulder lateral rotation and for all joints were significantly higher in females than in males. In both male and female, the hip had the largest discomfort values of all joint motions, while the elbow showed lower discomfort than any other joint. The discomfort levels of female subjects for joint motions investigated were, on the whole, larger by about 35% than those of males.

    INTERNET: User's Conceptual Models of the Internet and Information-Seeking Strategies [Lecture]

    Mental Representations of Hypermedia: An Evaluation of the Spatial Assumption BIBAFull-Text 1156-1160
      J. Shawn Farris; Keith S. Jones; Peter D. Elgin
    This study attempts to clarify some ambiguities in the literature that deal with users' mental representations of hypermedia. It is frequently assumed that users form a spatial representation (cognitive map) of the website while navigating hypermedia. However, it is not clear how cognitive maps can be acquired from hypermedia, which is inherently non-spatial. Unfortunately, there has been little research addressing this assumption. Toward that end, the current study examined the cognitive maps acquired while using hypermedia by systematically varying the depth of a website and holding the information constant. Analyses of 40 participants' drawings of the hypermedia's structure indicate that drawings largely reflected a conceptual (i.e., semantic) structure, and not a connection-structure. In light of the current research, it is suggested that we 1) reevaluate the conjecture that hypermedia is mentally represented in ways similar to the physical world and 2) place more emphasis on other aspects of hypermedia from which users form mental representations.
    Developing Schemas for the Location of Common Web Objects BIBAFull-Text 1161-1165
      Michael L. Bernard
    This study examined where individuals expect specific web-related objects to be located on a typical web page, as well as compared any schematic differences between novice (less than one year of web experience) and experienced (more than three years of web experience) users for the location of these objects. The web objects examined were: grouping of links that internally connect web pages within the same website, grouping of links that lead to web pages that are external to a website, link to the homepage, internal search engine, and advertisement banner(s). The results suggest that users do have definable expectations concerning the location of these web objects, and these expectations are generally created early (less than one year) in the users' experience with the Web.
    Modeling On-Line Search Behavior Using Alternative Output Structures BIBAFull-Text 1166-1170
      Marc L. Resnick; Carlos Maldonado; Juan Martin Santos; Rebeca Lergier
    The Internet provides a fantastic opportunity for users to obtain information for which they would otherwise have no access. However the existence of billions of web pages presents as much of a challenge as it does an opportunity. Surveys of search engine use have determined that they generally do not support efficient and effective searching. Part of this problem is that little consideration has been given to the nature of the search task in designing the output of most search interfaces. This study investigated alternate output structures for presenting the results of on-line search. Forty participants completed two search tasks using both the standard list output structure and an alternate tabular structure. The results showed that the tabular structure supported a wider variety of search strategies, including some that were not feasible with the standard list. The tabular structure also supported faster parsing and was preferred by users. The study provides evidence that consideration of multiple search strategies would enhance the design of search output structures.
    Information Seeking on the WWW: Task Interest and Search Strategies BIBAFull-Text 1171-1175
      Andrew Thatcher
    Observational, log-file and retrospective verbal protocol data were collected from eighty subjects while they were engaged in two directed search tasks and two general-purpose browsing tasks. In each of these two task types, directed task and general-purpose task, one task was chosen by the subject (subject interest) and one task was chosen by the researcher (subject non-interest). This data was used to determine whether search strategies differed according to the interests of the subject and whether any differences in search strategies were consistent across task types. Results indicate that there are consistent differences on task performance and search strategies between subject interest and non-interest tasks and between general-purpose browsing and directed search tasks. These results are discussed in terms of currently evolving Web information seeking models.

    INTERNET: Applying Human Factors Methodologies to Web Design [Lecture]

    Differences between User-Centered and Company-Centered Perspectives in the Design of Ecommerce Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 1176-1180
      Julian Sanchez; Marc L. Resnick
    Usability professionals have espoused the use of user-centered design since the field's inception. In the area of web site design, user-centered methods have been used to develop a site's information architecture, screen design, and other factors. However, there is a lack of quantitative data that specifies the expected benefits of using user-centered design methods. This study contrasts two site development processes, one which uses basic user-centered methods to develop the organization and labeling system of an ecommerce web site, and one which uses company-centered methods. The user-centered method used card sorts to organize the site's products and user-defined labels for each product category. The company-centered method used vendor and product categories to organize the contents and benchmarking for the labels. There are significant differences between the sites, with almost nothing in common. This paper will provide an analysis of these differences and present implications for site design.
    Design Improvements through User Testing BIBAFull-Text 1181-1185
      Tan Wei-Siong; Liu Dahai; R. R. Bishu; A. Muralidhar; J. Meyer
    Designing interaction interfaces for web sites is very much like designing any other user interface (UI), with the same principles and processes being applied. Well-designed sites are easy to use, and provide a rewarding experience for the user, and a profitable interaction for the organization that owns the site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility of usability evaluation as a important part of the design process, with redesign being based not just on changing business requirements, but also on the findings of a structured user experience evaluation carried out prior to the redesign. This study evaluated a preliminary version of a commercial website that provided information, reviews and rating to its members on various consumer products. The evaluators recommended design changes, and helped implement the revised version of the site, and re-evaluated the new site using a consistent evaluation methodology. The evaluation procedure consisted of representative subjects performing a usability evaluation on the existing version of the site, using typical use scenarios developed in collaboration with the design team and client team. After the redesign, these test scenarios were tested in a follow-up study on the new site. The results showed a significant reduction in the problems, both in the severity level and in number of occurrences between initial version and final version. There was a significant reduction in performance time as well. This study conclusively demonstrates that the use of usability evaluation as a design improvement tool, results in significantly improved design.
    People's Beliefs about the Internet: Surveying the Positive and Negative Aspects BIBAFull-Text 1186-1190
      Eric N. Wiebe; Eric F. Shaver; Michael S. Wogalter
    The explosion of the Internet -- and the World Wide Web (WWW) in particular -- has led to the distribution of information to a much more diverse and unspecified audience. Human factors professionals have a stake in the design of these Internet-based tools and the delivery of information over them. An initial survey distributed to a large diverse population asked respondents to provide positive and negative aspects about the WWW and related Internet communication technologies. The responses (n = 380) were grouped according to general positive and negative categories. Most of the categories paralleled each other on the negative and positive side. Access to information and security dominated both the positive and negative. A second survey had respondents rate 26 positive and negative items based on aspects identified in the first survey. The responses (n = 219) supported the larger categories identified in the first survey and revealed differences in attitude towards the Internet based on age, gender, and student status. These issues, plus others mentioned in the responses, are ones that human factors professionals are in a position to address.
    Design Considerations for Web-Based Applications BIBAFull-Text 1191-1195
      Luke Wroblewski; Esa M. Rantanen
    The rapid growth of weblications -- application-oriented software delivered as a service over the Web -- has revealed a lack of effective guidelines for their design and implementation. Existing Web usability guidelines hinder weblication usability since they are primarily based on interactions within a browsing metaphor. Interface design guidelines for client applications, on the other hand, do not address the conventions of Web users, limitations of the Web environment, nor the new possibilities inherent in the Web. This paper outlines a set of guidelines for weblication interfaces, which fuse translated client-application guidelines and re-purposed Web usability guidelines together to form a solid foundation for weblication interface design. The goal of these recommendations is to address the issues associated with weblication interface design and to present an overall method for thinking about them, emphasizing an understanding of how and why this approach should be adopted.

    INTERNET: Display Issues Impacting Web Usability [Lecture]

    Relative Placement of Benefit and Risk Information in Direct-to-Consumer Advertisements of Prescription Drugs on the World Wide Web BIBAFull-Text 1196-1200
      Kevin E. Hicks; William J. Vigilante; Michael S. Wogalter
    This research was conducted to determine how risk information is presented within direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertisements on the World Wide Web (WWW). Twenty prescription drug manufacturers' web sites were examined with respect to risk and benefit information placement. Measured were (a) the number of clicks required to view the benefit and risk information from the home page, (b) the number of clicks to the risk information from the benefit information, (c) the number of clicks to the benefit information from the risk information, (d) and whether scrolling was required to view both benefit and risk information. Also measured were whether the benefit and risk information was on the same page and whether a separate file reader was needed to view the risk information. Results indicated that the risk information is more difficult to find on DTC prescription medication web site advertisements compared to benefits. More clicks from the home page were required to find the risk information than the benefits. Also, scrolling was required more often to find the risk information compared to the benefits. Implications of these results are discussed with respect to the equal balance of risk and benefit information that is required by U.S. Federal Regulations.
    Recall and Recognition of Static vs. Animated Banner Advertisements BIBAFull-Text 1201-1204
      Michelle E. Bayles; Barbara Chaparro
    The most common medium for advertising on the World Wide Web (WWW) is through the use of banners. This study investigated recall and recognition of animated and static online banner advertisements. It was found that regardless of a banner's animation state, fewer than half the participants were able to recall the presence of an ad. Overall recall was lower than recognition, however, participants unable to successfully recall the ads were still able to effectively recognize them. Results also suggest that the use of animation may enhance user memory of banner advertisements.
    Acquisition Speed with Targets on the Edge of the Screen: An Application of Fitts' Law to Commonly Used Web Browser Controls BIBAFull-Text 1205-1209
      J. Shawn Farris; Keith S. Jones; Brent A. Anders
    According to Fitts' law, the time to acquire a target can be reduced by either reducing the target's distance or increasing its size. Tognazzini (1999) proposed that the time to acquire a target on graphical user interfaces could be reduced further by moving targets to the edge of the screen (i.e., edge targets). Two studies tested these predictions with a web browser interface's back-button (Experiment 1) and scroll bar (Experiment 2). Results support the aforementioned hypotheses. Edge targets were always faster to acquire than targets placed one pixel from the edge of the screen. However, within the constraints of the current studies, this speed advantage is maximal at approximately 393 ms for target heights ≤ 2.00 cm and target distances ≤ 11.75 cm. Design recommendations and a cost/benefit analysis are given.
    Effects of Information Layout on Reading Speed: Differences between Paper and Monitor Presentation BIBAFull-Text 1210-1214
      Panayiotis Zaphiris; H. Kurniawan
    This paper presents the results of an experiment measuring the difference of reading speed and preference when reading on paper or screen. Extending previous experiments on the topic of reading speed measurements, which usually concentrate in specific age groups, in this experiment, forty two participants from across the adult life span took part in reading on computer screen or on paper. Results are in agreement with previous studies, which showed that reading from paper is significantly faster (around 10-30%) than reading from screen. No significant differences in terms of reading speed and preference among the three information layouts (one-column, two-column and three-column formats) used in this experiment were found.

    INTERNET: Internet Posters

    An Investigation of Web Writing Styles and Distance Education BIBAFull-Text 1215-1219
      Peter D. Elgin; Keith S. Jones; Brent A. Anders; J. Shawn Farris
    Increasingly, the Internet is being seen as a vehicle for distance education. However, this medium presents new challenges for developers of distance education content. For example, do we read material on the Web the same way that we read from paper? Is there a different writing style for web-based information that facilitates on-line reading? This study explored four different writing styles in either a printed or on-line format. Examination of free recall from 80 undergraduates indicated that fewer idea units were correctly recalled for the concise writing style than the scannable, objective, and combined writing styles within the Web medium. In addition, in the paper format, more idea units were correctly recalled with the combined writing style than the scannable and objective writing styles. These results may be driven by the reading behavior associated with a distance education task. Possible limitations and suggestions for future research are provided.
    Situational Awareness Measure for Internet Environments (SAMIE) BIBAFull-Text 1220-1224
      Christina S. Morris; Edwin C. Shirkey; Ronald W. Tarr; Cheryl J. Hamel
    Recent trends in designing self-report measures of Internet usability are emphasizing more diagnostic capabilities. Diagnostic usability evaluations are, in a sense, hierarchical in that they have the ability to determine lower level sources that contribute to traditional (higher-level) usability concepts/scales (i.e. ease of use, adaptability, control). Based on hundreds of empirically developed usability guidelines, we demonstrate one of the higher-level components of Internet usability, "situational awareness (SA)", and its conceptual diagnostic sources via a prototypical model. It is of interest to note that research has shown that users of Internet environments lack a major component of SA, "site orientation" (knowledge of where they are in the site structure) and generally disregard it while exploring a site or performing a task. It is suggested that determining the sources of SA will lead to enhanced usability, task performance, and user satisfaction. A prototype self-report measure of SA in Internet environments (SAMIE) was developed.
    Measurement of Task Performance Times and Ease of Use: Comparison of Various Menu Structures and Depth on the Web BIBAFull-Text 1225-1229
      Tomoyuki Tsunoda; Toshiki Yamaoka; Kiyomi Yamashita; Takuo Matsunobe; Yuji Hashiya; Yasufumi Nishiyama; Kyoko Takahasi
    Five kinds of product search HTML pages -- a four-level hierarchy (3 x 3 x 3 x 3), a three-level hierarchy (9 x 3 x 3), a two-level hierarchy (27 x 3), a one-level hierarchy (81 x 1), and a frame structure (9 x 3 x 3) -- were prepared. Two kinds of task, a simple task and a complex task, were prepared. For the most complex task, a total of 22 clicks were required to complete the task. Then the subjects were asked to search for products over the Internet. They were also asked to evaluate ease of use of the web pages. A total of 89 subjects accessed the experimental pages. The access log was later statistically analyzed. The results were very productive. In most advanced research up to now it has been shown that reducing the number of hierarchies and increasing the amount of information in one screen can reduce the task performance time. Our test results have also shown that this is what happens when a complex task is performed. However, a different conclusion is drawn when a simple task is performed. When a simple task is performed, there were no significant differences in the search time required, whether there were 81 products included in one screen (81 x 1), or in a four-level hierarchy (3 x 3 x 3 x 3). In this case, more people evaluated the four-level hierarchy as being easier to use than a one-level hierarchy. In this study it was found that task performance times and ease of use depend on task complexity and they were not always directly related.
    How to construct Web contents systematically BIBAFull-Text 1230-1234
      Toshiki Yamaoka; Tomoyuki Tsunoda; Kiyomi Yamashita; Takuo Matsunobe; Yuji Hashiya; Yasufumi Nishiyama; Kyoko Takahashi
    The method for constructing web contents was considered. The construction procedure is as follows.
       Elicit "user requirement" to find out the user demands and the web management side needs to clarify the "purpose" of what they want to solicit. Mark a check where each line and row corresponds to clarify the relation between both in the matrix by which user requirements and the purposes are arranged in lines and rows. To understand the systematic feature of the website itself, "grasping information" and "structuring information" are necessary. Finally, the structured web concept is created from the acquired information mentioned earlier, and this method of designing each page on the website based on the concept can be applied not only to the web contents but also to product planning as well. Finally, the website of a theatrical company was actually constructed using this method.
    Impact on Learning and Satisfaction of Web-Based Learning Systems: A Comparison of Linear vs. Hypermedia Presentations BIBAFull-Text 1235-1239
      Pedro Z. Caldeira
    The main goal of this study is to compare the impact of different information presentation systems on deep and surface learning and on satisfaction. Three computer information systems were developed: one linear only containing text (the less dynamic and less interactive of the three); a second one similar to the first one but containing both text and images (more dynamic than the first one); and a third one non-linear -- hypermedia with a web-like interface -- containing text and images (the more dynamic and interactive). Three university students groups learned the same information displayed by these three systems and the results show, first, that the less dynamic and interactive information presentation system provided higher results on surface learning; second, none of the systems provided good results on deep learning (because of the information fragmentation or lack of global coherence) and; third, the more dynamic and interactive system provided higher levels of satisfaction.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Stress, Work Effectiveness, and Quality of Work Life [Lecture]

    Using Graphs to Evaluate the Impact of Work Shifts: An Experimental Investigation BIBAFull-Text 1240-1244
      Heidi D. Howarth; Donald I. Tepas
    When scheduling work times, detailed information is often not considered regarding the shiftwork history of a worker. Instead, available workers may be chosen according to factors such as seniority and/or work hours over the previous day or two. This can be a dangerous practice, as it may result in irregular, erratic, and unpredictable shift schedules that can lead to serious health and safety consequences for the worker and the public. The current research addressed these concerns by asking judges to consider both the acute and chronic impact of work schedules. Individuals evaluated graphical representations of 30 days of freight train engineer schedules for their impact on worker well-being. While judges' evaluations were in agreement with each other, their judgments were not related to engineer mood estimates of their own well-being. It is, of course, possible that predictions of well-being would be more accurate if the judges were provided with additional specific information about each worker.
    Office Seating Behaviors An Investigation of Posture, Task, and Job Type BIBAFull-Text 1245-1248
      William R. Dowell; Fei Yuan; Brian H. Green
    A field study was conducted of 40 office workers to determine if seating posture and task differ between job type. Participants were observed through videotape within their own workstations. Torso posture, upper extremity posture and task were coded using event-recording software. Each job type was observed for approximately 31 hours. The job types were categorized as administrative, customer service, executive and technical/professional. Behaviors were examined as frequency of occurrence, duration of occurrence, and percentage of the working hour that the behavior was held. Technical/professional workers spent a significantly greater (p<.05) percentage of the working hour with the mouse in their hand than the other job types. Customer service workers spent a greater (p<.01) percentage of the working hour reading the VDT and typing on their keyboard than the other job types. They also read the VDT more frequently (p<.01) than the other job types. In terms of postures, customer service workers sit with their arms in a neutral posture for a greater (p<.01) percentage of the working hour than the other job types.

    MACROERGONOMICS: Technology, Business Process, and Those Who Apply Macroergonomics [Lecture]

    Measuring Improvements due to Business Process Redesign and Technology Integration: A Macroergonomic Approach BIBAFull-Text 1249-1253
      Michael J. O'Neill; Yvonne Hart; Matthew Wieringa
    This paper describes a Case Study in which a "macroergonomic" approach (Hendrick and Kleiner, 2001) was used to redesign the process and implement technology in support of the process of implementing office space. A project involving a 25,000-square-foot renovation of existing space, with 120 workstations and 100 employees was used as the basis to test the redesigned process and technology implementation. We concurrently redesigned the personnel and technology subsystems (see DeGreene, 1973), as opposed to having a pre-defined technology application drive the solution (Hendrick, 1995). Using a participatory ergonomics approach, we involved the employees who would be affected by changes to their work process to understand and contribute to the re-design.
       Through structured interviews, interactive discussions and observations, we redesigned the process from; design and layout of workstations through installation of furniture. Using business process modeling and simulation software, we modeled the "before" and "after" processes, and collected detailed measures of time and cost improvements. We found significant process performance improvements in Wait Time, Re-Work of Errors, and Cost reductions.
    Implementation of New Technology BIBAFull-Text 1254-1258
      Dennis R. Jones; Michael J. Smith
    New technology is dramatically changing the workplace in order to allow companies to increase efficiency, productivity, quality, safety, and overall profitability. An effective new technology implementation is necessary in order for companies to compete successfully in the global marketplace. Time and money wasted on unsuccessful and improper new technology implementation is counterproductive to the overall goal of improving the competitiveness and profitability of the company. Therefore this new technology challenges the current state of traditional implementation methods and techniques. To effectively utilize these new technologies it is best to consider all of the factors involved in the implementation process, such as: new technology characteristics, organization structure, task factors, and environmental characteristics, and most importantly the human elements involved. It is also recommended to utilize a cooperative approach to new technology implementation, which relies heavily on soliciting employee input and participation throughout the entire process. By taking a holistic "big picture" planned view of the situation; and being sensitive to the interactions that exist; it is hoped that the new technology can be implemented in the most effective way possible.

    MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors Design for Unique Environments in Health Care I [Lecture]

    Designing for Spatial Orientation in Endoscopic Environments BIBAFull-Text 1259-1263
      Caroline G. L. Cao
    Disorientation or "getting lost" in colonoscopy is common experience even for expert endoscopists. This paper describes a new navigational aid display concept for colonoscopy and presents results of an experiment conducted to evaluate the usefulness of various types of spatial information for supporting navigation and spatial orientation in colonoscopy. Six combinations of 1) direction, 2) location, and 3) shape information were tested. Results show that even though the new navigational aid display concept did not improve navigation performance, spatial orientation error and workload were reduced significantly. This new navigational aid display which provides shape combined with location and direction information in a perspective view and in real time is a useful tool for colonoscopy.
    Facilitation of Anesthetic Administration during Simulated Surgeries with a Drug Display BIBAFull-Text 1264-1268
      Robert W. Albert; Frank A. Drews; Noah D. Syroid; David L. Strayer; James Agutter; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Robert G. Loeb; Matthew B. Weinger
    Monitors that show intravenous (IV) drug concentrations currently do not exist. However, using real-time displays of intravenous anesthetic concentrations and effects could significantly enhance intraoperative clinical decision-making. Pharmacokinetic models are available to estimate past, present and future drug concentrations in the brain, and pharmacodynamic models are available to predict the drug's associated physiological effects. An interdisciplinary research team developed a new graphic display incorporating these models to show the predicted concentrations and effects of anesthetic drugs in real-time. To evaluate the effectiveness of the display on the management of anesthesia, 15 anesthesiologists participated in a computer-based simulation study. Anesthesiologists maintained drug concentrations closer to an optimal target level when they used the prototype anesthesia drug display. Participants also reported lower levels of workload with the display and rated the display as a useful addition to anesthesia monitoring.
    Ergonomic Aspects of Different Handles for Minimally Invasive Surgery An EMG Based Study BIBAFull-Text 1269-1273
      U. Matern; C. Giebmeyer; R. Bergmann; P. Waller; M. Faist
    Various studies have been performed to test different instrument handles in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Although criteria for ergonomic handles have been suggested, to date it remains unresolved which handle design is best suited to various needs. The comparison of electromyogram (EMG) activities in different muscles provides information about the force developed by each muscle and allows to assess its contribution to a functional movement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different types of handles for a simple grasping maneuver with respect to the force required in the main forearm muscles. Four different types of handles (axial handle, ring handle, shank handle, Hirsch-berg handle) were tested by 12 volunteers while manipulating a 0.1 N micro switch in a standard arm position. To test the handle with forces used during surgical procedures measurements were repeated with a 2.5 N micro switch. During the test the EMG activity of five forearm muscles was recorded and normalized with respect to the maximum voluntary activity of the respective muscle. The axial handle required significantly more EMG activity than the remaining handles in four of the five muscles tested. Similar results were obtained for both micro switches used but EMG activity increased with the switch force applied. The surgeon requires significantly more EMG activity and thus muscle strength when using the axial handle compared to the remaining handles. With the functional model of the Hirschberg and the ring handle the task can be performed with lower activity.
    Where Does It Hurt Lifting-Related Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Air Ambulance Crews BIBAFull-Text 1274-1278
      Suzan D. Olson; Angela Krawczyk; Daryle Gardner-Bonneau; Jonathan Hopkins; Paul Blostein; Daniel P. Stewart; Kathy Nichols; John Austin; Bobby J. Hopewell
    Evidence from past studies supports the proposition that air ambulance crews are at risk for musculoskeletal injury. We evaluated the association between musculoskeletal discomfort and lifting tasks in air ambulance crews, through the use of a body map discomfort survey and a 25-question demographic/lifting activities questionnaire. Male and female full-time employees of two hundred seventy-one air ambulance services throughout the continental United States were surveyed. Participants self-reported discomfort levels for twenty-five body locations. Data for seven of these locations indicated pain with an average value greater than three on a 10-point scale, and 39 (19.6%) of the two hundred participants had been diagnosed with discogenic back pain. Eighty-seven (44.3%) stated they had lifted over 50 pounds of distributed weight more than six times in the last thirty days. Sixty-two (31.2%) reported that their air ambulance service used no mechanical lifting aids. Furthermore, 28 (45.2%) of those with no lifting aids observed a particularly challenging lifting task within the past 30 days. There is considerable evidence that air ambulance crews experience body discomfort related to their lifting tasks. Potential ergonomic improvements are discussed.

    MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors Design for Unique Environments in Health Care II [Lecture]

    Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Advertising of Prescription Medications on the World Wide Web: Assessing the Communication of Risks BIBAFull-Text 1279-1283
      William J. Vigilante; Michael S. Wogalter
    Recently, drug manufacturers have been increasingly marketing their prescription medications using Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) advertisements. The current study examines the effects of integrating and separating the risks and benefits within a prescription medication DTC web site advertisement. The study also examined the effects of presenting the risk and benefits at different levels of a web site. Two different drug web sites and two different task types (general browsing and item search) were used. Risk recall, recognition, time-on-task, click rate, and task success were measured. Results from the current study indicated that risk information was found faster, with less clicks, and remembered more often when placed on a second level page linked from the home page. However, the risk information was more difficult to find when it was placed on a fourth level page without a link on the home page. The pattern of effects with the two tasks was similar. No significant differences were found between the two drugs. A set of guidelines is provided for the development of DTC prescription drug web sites based on the results. It is beneficial (a) to present separate risk and benefit information sections and (b) to place risk and benefit information in the top section of the home page or to prominently place a link to the risk information on the home page.
    The Effect of a Standardized Data Collection Form on the Examination and Diagnosis of Patients with Abdominal Pain BIBAFull-Text 1284-1288
      Stephanie Guerlain; Kelsey LeBeau; Matthew Thompson; Craig Donnelly; Hannah McClelland; Scott Syverud; J. Forrest Calland
    Abdominal pain (AP) is one of the most common complaints of patients, accounting for about 5% of all cases seen in the Emergency Department. Yet, abdominal pain is frequently evaluated in an irregular and non-standard manner, even within individual institutions. Thus, we developed a form that prompted for AP-specific information and hypothesized that use of such a form would increase the quantity and quality of data collected. All 11 emergency medicine residents at our institution were enrolled as subjects during a single calendar month (January, 2001) and were asked to use the new AP form during the weeks 2 and 3 (weeks 1 and 4 were the control period). Results showed that the use of the AP form significantly increased the recording of information related to: history of present illness, past medical and social history, review of systems, and physical exam. Such a complete data set is useful for follow-on consultations with different physicians, and also allows for long-term retrospective analyses of the data. However, difficulties with the form included the recording of multiple chief complaints and difficulty of having physicians remember to use the new form.
    Home Health Care: A Needs Assessment with Design Implications BIBAFull-Text 1289-1292
      Kristine Turville Delano; Mary Hartman
    A combination of survey and focus group activities was performed to investigate the functions, capabilities, and interface designs necessary to support home-based care providers. This study strongly verified that the most important factor in the design of a home health care interface was a clear understanding of the user population and their needs, capabilities, and limitations. Patients seen in home care situations are often unfamiliar with technology and have a number of disabilities that would need to be taken into account in the design. Many positive responses were received from home health care professionals on the idea of providing this service for relatively healthy families or for families with members in need of more long-term care.
    Intelligibility of Sonifications for Respiratory Monitoring in Anesthesia BIBAFull-Text 1293-1297
      Marcus Watson; Penelope M. Sanderson
    Three experiments explored the effectiveness of continuous auditory displays, or "sonifications", for conveying information about an anesthetized patient's respiratory state. Experiment 1 established an-effective respiratory sonification. Experiment 2 showed an effect of expertise in using respiratory sonfication and revealed that some apparent differences in sonification effectiveness could be accounted for by response bias. Experiment 3 showed that sonification helps anesthetists maintain high levels of awareness of patient state and at the same time perform other tasks more effectively than when relying upon visual monitoring of patient state. In summary, sonification of patient physiology beyond traditional pulse oximetry appears a viable and useful adjunct when monitoring patient state.

    MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Human Factors Issues in the Modern Surgical Operating Room [Symposium]

    Expertise and Metacognition in Laparoscopic Surgery: A Field Study BIBAFull-Text 1298-1302
      Cynthia O. Dominguez
    In challenging cases, surgeons continually assess whether the patient's best interests might be served by converting a laparoscopic case to an open-incision one. Converting in many ways widens the scope and quality of perceptual information available to the surgeon. This research focused on surgical decision making in the context of the decision to convert. A cognitive task analysis effort, involving field observations and a research study, was undertaken to elicit information about decisions made during surgery. Ten experienced (staff) and ten senior resident surgeons were shown videotape from a difficult laparoscopic surgery case. The surgeons responded to structured questions at critical points in the procedure and also provided running commentary as the operation unfolded. Approximately half of the surgeons decided that the case should be converted to an open procedure at some point during the operation. The verbal protocols were analyzed to identify differences as a function of expertise (staff vs. resident) and of the conversion decision (opener vs. nonopener). Staff surgeons expressed awareness of boundary conditions to safe operation more frequently. Further, there was evidence of inappropriately high levels of confidence, yet little evidence of self-criticism (metacognition), among residents who chose not to open.
    Evaluating a Graphical Cardiovascular Display for Anesthesia BIBAFull-Text 1303-1307
      Frank A. Drews; Jim Agutter; Noah D. Syroid; Robert W. Albert; Dwayne R. Westenskow; David L. Strayer
    A multi-disciplinary team developed a graphical/object-based cardiovascular display to support anesthesiologist's decision-making in the operating room. The process of designing the display incorporated central findings from the areas of naturalistic decision-making and medical cognition and used rapid iterative prototyping. To evaluate their performance when using the cardiovascular display, 20 anesthesiologists participated in a study in a high fidelity simulator (METI). Half the subjects used the cardiovascular display, the other half received the same information presented in a numeric format. The anesthesiologists treated two critical events in two simulated patients. In one case the patient suffered from anaphylactic shock, in the other case, severe blood loss and myocardial infarction occurred. Measurements were taken for detection, diagnosis, and treatment time. The cardiovascular display improved performance across these different indicators when anesthesiologists were dealing with a cardiovascular event.

    MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: The Role of Usability Testing in Healthcare Organizations [Panel]

    The Role of Usability Testing in Healthcare Organizations BIBAFull-Text 1308-1311
      John Gosbee; Joe Klancher; Bernadette Arnecke; Heather Wurster; Matthew Scanlon
    This panel will include practical examples of how physicians, nurses, and quality managers have utilized usability testing activities to help their healthcare organization. Some used it to provide crucial information to support procurement decisions. Others used data from usability testing to understand where to focus training and other implementation efforts. Usability testing helped some create teachable moments while imparting the concepts and framework of human factors engineering. Some panelists will talk about the aspects of healthcare organizational culture that stand in the way of implementing usability testing. All panelists will discuss the key decision makers in their health care organization who should be part of this important effort.

    MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION: Medical Systems and Rehabilitation Posters

    Iterative Design and Evaluation of New Rigid Folding Commode-Shower Wheelchairs, A Case Study in Design Research BIBAFull-Text 1312-1316
      Pascal Malassigne; Audrey L. Nelson; James A. Haley; Robert P. Jensen; Cors Mark; Thomas L. Amerson; Leah P. Rathvon
    The purpose of these projects was to design new and safe commode-shower wheelchairs for use by individuals with spinal cord injuries and caregivers. The need for new chairs resulted from the many safety problems associated with existing models such as inability to fold, patient falls while transferring, development of pressure sores. An iterative process of design, prototype fabrication and clinical evaluation was used to develop both a rigid and a folding shower-commode wheelchair. During this process, new wheelchair features were invented and patented. The shower-commode wheelchairs were successfully evaluated with patients having spinal cord injuries and their caregivers at VA Medical Centers. Questionnaires were developed to assess the chair's features and function. The evaluation results led to the conclusion that the new Shower-Commode Wheelchairs solved all the safety and usability problems found in existing models.
    Postural Responses of Blind Adults to a Moving Room BIBAFull-Text 1317-1319
      Kiyohide Ito; Jennifer Schmit; Thomas A. Stoffregen
    We evaluated the possibility that there may be functional relations between body sway and audition, as predicted by Stoffregen & Pittenger (1995). The experiments were conducted using blind participants, who could be expected to have an increased sensitivity to any functional relation between postural control and audition. Participants stood in a moving room. Ambient acoustic fields were generated in the room from the font wall and participants postural responses to four conditions (room movement 14 cm, room stationary, stand on floor, stand on low balance beam) were recorded. Results show that the standard deviation of body position in the movement condition was different than the stationary condition (t(2) = 5.12, p < .05). Cross-correlation coefficients calculated to assess the coupling of body sway to room movement did not differ in the balance beam (.984) and floor (.957) conditions. In blind adults, body sway was influenced by motion of the room. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ambient sound fields can provide information that can be used for the perception and control of bodily orientation (Stoffregen & Pittenger, 1995).

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Visibility [Lecture]

    Tarvip, A Pc-Based Visibility Model for Normal and Ultra-Violet Activated Pavement Markings BIBAFull-Text 1320-1323
      Fuat Aktan; Thomas Schnell
    Development of TarVIP 1.0, a computer model for predicting the detection distances of normal and UV activated pavement markings was recently completed at the Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL). Two Sherwin-Williams UV activated pavement marking samples, four UV headlamp units (Ultralux, Visteon, Cibio and Labino brands), and the UV filter covering the Labino UV headlamp unit were characterized in terms of their fluorescence coefficients, spectral emissions, and spectral transmissivity, respectively. The TarVIP model properly accounts for a complete three-dimensional representation of the roadway-headlamp-driver geometry. Veiling luminance due to fog is modeled using the Mie Scattering theory. The model consists of physical and human performance subsystems. Besides the aforementioned physical subsystem items, the human performance subsystem uses an extensive human visibility contrast threshold database to represent the human capabilities and limitations of pavement marking detection. The model was used to obtain the visibility distances under various levels of fog density, UV activated pavement marking and UV headlamp efficiencies. The resulting visibility distances show some potential benefits and some inadequacies of the UV headlamps and UV activated pavement markings.
    Modeling the Appearance of Fluorescent Colors BIBAFull-Text 1324-1327
      Frank Schieber
    The advent of improved durability pigments has resulted in the increased use of fluorescent colored materials in safety and warning applications (e.g., high-priority traffic signs; safety vests). Yet, little is known about the relationship between the visual effectiveness of fluorescent colored materials and their photometric properties. Archival data sets were reanalyzed to assess the appropriateness of an elegant psychophysical model of the appearance of fluorescent colors first introduced by Schultze (1953). The results indicated that the expression Y/MacAdam Limit (x, y) provided an excellent prediction of the suprathreshold appearance of fluorescent color (x, y); where (x, y) represented the color of the test stimulus in 1931 CIE chromaticity coordinates. These findings have important implications for design using fluorescent colors and may also contribute significantly to our understanding of related color phenomena.
    Air Traffic Control Weather Radar Displays: Validation of a Masking Metric for Prediction of Text Block Identification BIBAFull-Text 1328-1332
      William K. Krebs; Albert J. Ahumada
    Background:The Federal Aviation Administration is evaluating the potential benefits of weather information overlaid on the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) radar display. The study's objective was to validate a background masking metric to assist display designers to identify good color combinations for an air traffic control weather radar display. Methods: A uniform gray pattern and two weather radar displays were used as the background for randomly selected aircraft data text blocks (varying luminance levels) positioned in eight fixed locations around a central location. Observers' task was to search for the data text block that matched the text block presented in the central location. Three text contrast levels were used for the uniform background and two levels were used for each of the weather radar backgrounds. Results: For each of the four weather radar conditions, we estimated the uniform background contrast that would give the same performance for percent correct and latency. Conclusions: A simple luminance contrast masking metric is a fairly good predictor of the masking of the text blocks by the colored weather map backgrounds.
    Evaluation of Protective Eyewear Coverage BIBAFull-Text 1333-1337
      Carita A. DeVilbiss; Leon N. McLin
    In the development of protective eyewear for military operations, conflicting constraints impact design considerations. Since protection is a key parameter, it is important to be able to quantify the impact of different levels of coverage of the visual field. The objective of this project was to merge two different techniques -- (a) methodology to verify visual field coverage and (b) ray trace model for pupil accessibility -- to produce a coverage metric to represent retinal accessibility to damage from lasers. Data were collected from nine subjects and a computer model was used to determine the proportion of incident rays that could access the pupil. Overall, the combined result provides an efficient methodology to assist when design trade-offs are required in the evaluation of protective spectacles. This technique can be used to quantify the amount of coverage and assign a conservative level of risk to the areas of the visual field that remain uncovered.


    Evaluation of the Time Tunnel Display Design Technique BIBAFull-Text 1338-1342
      Kevin B. Bennett; Michael Payne; Brett Walters; Jeff Zimmerman
    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the time tunnel display design concept. This technique is similar to traditional "strip chart" or "trend" displays in that temporal information (i.e., the value of system variables over time) is provided. It is different in that perspective geometry and the "depth plane" are used to present this information. In Exp. 1 a time tunnel display and a "quickened" display were evaluated using a dynamic simulation. The results indicate that display quickening improved performance significantly, but that the time tunnel display did not. In Exp. 2 a redesigned version of the time tunnel display was evaluated; the overall pattern of results did not change substantially. In Exp. 3 an alternative methodology was used. Participants were shown "snapshots" of system states (states generated in Exp. 2) and completed three tasks: 1) fault detection (confidence rating), 2) fault identification (categorical assessment), and 3) estimation (estimate of quickened variable). Three displays were evaluated: a baseline display, the redesigned version of the time tunnel display and a traditional "trend" display. The results indicate that both displays with temporal information (time tunnel and trend displays) produced better performance than no temporal information (the baseline display). The results also indicate that the time tunnel display produced significantly better performance than the trend display.
    An Empirical Evaluation of Interfaces for Army Tactical Operations BIBAFull-Text 1343-1347
      Christopher Talcott; Silas Martinez; Kevin B. Bennett; Craig Stansifer; Lawrence Shattuck
    Timely and accurate decisions in the Army domain are directly linked to the commander's ability to assess the battlefield. We reviewed both existing and proposed Army interfaces and applied a Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) approach to the development of an alternative interface: the RAPTOR interface (Representation Aiding Portrayal of Tactical Operations Resources). This interface and a version of the Army's recently-implemented digital interface (the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below -- FBCB2) were evaluated using a simulated offensive scenario and domain experts from an active Army unit. The results indicate that the RAPTOR interface produced significantly better performance for quantitative, categorical and needs assessments. It is concluded that the RAPTOR interface summarizes critical information for Army units at all levels and makes this information easily accessible through effective graphical formats and interaction style.
    Emergent Features and Perceptual Glue in Static Bar Graphs: Moderating Effects of Salience BIBAFull-Text 1348-1352
      Karel Hurts
    Many studies to date have supported empirically the reality of the so-called proximity compatibility principle. This principle states that emergent features tend to have beneficial effects on integrated and detrimental effects on focused task performance. In order to clarify the role of salience of various graphical features in relationship to this principle, an experiment was conducted in which the effect of emergent features and the salience of both graphical indicators and emergent features (if present) was studied on integrated and focused task performance using a graph reading task. It was found that, though the principle was confirmed in this study if its relationship with salience is ignored, taking salience of both lower-order and higher-order graphical features into consideration can significantly complicate the basic form of the principle. Illustrations are provided of how two types of salience can interact both with each other and with the type of task in rather unexpected ways. In the discussion the focus is on exploring the significance of these findings for furthering our theoretical understanding of these and similar phenomena from the field of graphical perception and for the practice of graph design.
    Lcd Versus Crt Displays: Visual Search for Colored Symbols BIBAFull-Text 1353-1357
      J. G. Hollands; H. A. Cassidy; S. McFadden; R. Boothby
    We examined visual search performance using 52-cm liquid-crystal (LCD) and cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. Twenty-four participants searched for color-coded navy tactical display symbols using LCD and CRT displays viewed on and off-axis (60 degrees of azimuth). Observers' sensitivity was lower when searching for red and blue symbols (vs. white) viewed off-axis on the LCD, with no comparable problem for off-axis CRT. Colored symbols viewed off-axis on the LCD also produced longer response times in feature search and lower search efficiency in conjunction search. Color coding improved search efficiency overall, relative to an earlier experiment with monochrome (white) symbols (20-80 vs. 200 ms per item). The results argue against the use of current LCD technology for off-axis viewing when color coding is used, but also suggest that LCD and CRT displays are equally effective for on-axis viewing.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Search and Visual Guidance [Lecture]

    The Effects of Speaker Gender, Frequency, and Distinctiveness on Auditory Search Performance BIBAFull-Text 1358-1361
      Joseph T. Coyne; Mark D. Lee; Amy N. Cunningham
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of speaker gender, frequency content and distinctiveness on performance in an auditory search task. Male and female voices were manipulated and combined to create several conditions that examined distinctiveness, distracter heterogeneity, and artificially altered sound frequency. Participants were required to monitor four simultaneous streams of auditory data consisting of digits and letters. Participants listened for a target and then indicated which speaker presented the target. No significant differences were found between male and female targets. Participant's ability to localize targets was greatest when targets were distinct from their distracters. This distinctiveness occurred when either gender or frequency differences between the target and distracters were present.
    Looking for Moving or Stationary Targets in Dynamic Displays BIBAFull-Text 1362-1366
      Nathan R. Bailey; Mark W. Scerbo
    Research has shown that searching for the presence of a feature among featureless distractors is easier than searching for the absence of a feature among distractor objects containing the feature. The present study examined motion perception within this context while manipulating motion type and target density. Further, the element of angular expansion was also included as part of the moving stimuli. Using a standard computer interface, participants were asked to respond as quickly as they could to a variety of moving stimuli. Results showed that it takes more time to detect stationary targets among moving distractors than to find moving targets among stationary distractors. Further, adding targets or using coherent motion, facilitated detection times primarily within the absence of motion condition. These findings could have important design implications when constructing dynamic displays that require immediate attention to critical information.
    Effects of Transformed Visual-Motor Spatial Mappings and Droplines on 3-D Target Acquisition Strategy and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1367-1371
      Min-Ju Liao; Walter W. Johnson
    This study investigated effects of transformed visual-motor mappings and a depth cue dropline on a 3-D target acquisition task. A cursor and target were displayed within a 3-D reference framework "Box" and participants were instructed to move the cursor into the target as quickly and accurately as possible by manipulating a 3-D input device called a "Spaceball." The Box was presented with several lateral orientations. By tying the Spaceball movements to the frame of reference defined by the Box, the visual-motor mapping was transformed. Additionally, a depth cue dropline was manipulated. With the transformed mappings, movement times and path lengths to acquire the targets increased as the Box rotation angle increased. Droplines reduced movement times and path lengths. Participants' general acquisition strategy was to sequentially acquire the azimuth, elevation, and then range dimensions of the target, i.e., first visually overlapping the target with the cursor, and then acquiring the target along the line of the sight.
    Driving with a Head-Slaved Camera System BIBAFull-Text 1372-1376
      Arjen B. Oving; Jan B. F. Van Erp
    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in rough terrain, in four conditions: direct view, periscope view, the head-slaved system with normal camera lenses, and with wide-angle lenses. The results showed that performance with direct view was always best, while no benefits of the wide-angle system were revealed.. Driving on paved terrain with the HMD system resulted in better longitudinal and lateral vehicle control than with the periscopes for some tasks, although some negative aspects were also observed. This latter finding can be attributed largely to inexperience with the HMD system. Faster track completion times with the HMD system (normal lenses) than with periscope view were observed for driving off the road. These results show that a head-slaved camera system can be an alternative for the periscope system. However, during the first part of the experiment (paved terrain), three of the seven drivers reported symptoms of motion sickness and subsequently stopped with the experiment.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Vigilance and Stress [Lecture]

    The Common Cold Impairs Visual Attention, Psychomotor Performance and Task Engagement BIBAFull-Text 1377-1381
      Gerald Matthews; Joel S. Warm; William N. Dember; Haruko Mizoguchi; Andrew P. Smith
    A study was conducted to test the effects of naturally-occurring colds on visual attention, psychomotor performance and subjective indices of stress. 204 participants performed a battery of tasks assessing simple reaction time, focused attention, categoric search and vigilance, on two separate occasions. Affective, motivational and cognitive stress state dimensions were measured using a validated questionnaire. On the first occasion, all participants were healthy. On the second occasion, approximately half the sample suffered from a cold. Comparison of cold sufferers with healthy controls showed significant cold effects. In the cold group, response was slower on simple reaction time and focused attention tasks, and detection rate on the vigilance task was lower. Colds reduced subjective task engagement (e.g., lower energy and motivation) and increased distress (e.g., more negative mood). Regression analysis indicated a direct effect of colds on simple reaction time, whereas the cold effect on vigilance appeared to be statistically mediated by reduced task engagement. It is concluded that colds can produce operationally-significant performance deficits on a variety of attentional tasks.
    Marksmanship During Simulated Sustained Operations BIBAFull-Text 1382-1385
      Richard F. Johnson; Donna J. Merullo; Scott J. Montain; John W. castellani
    The individual warfighter is often required to work for long periods of time with little or no rest until the objective is reached. This study evaluated M16 rifle marksmanship performance during a simulated 3-day (72 hours) sustained operations scenario. Soldiers were kept busy with military tasks for 21-22 hours per day, and were administered standardized tests of M16 rifle marksmanship performance before, during, and at the end of the sustained operation. Results indicated that as sustained operations proceed from 0 to 3 days (0 to 72 hours), the task of firing an M16 rifle becomes more physically demanding and the shooter has to exert more effort in order to perform the task proficiently. Accompanying this increase in subjective workload is the finding that participants are able to maintain rifle marksmanship for rapidly appearing pop-up targets (some of which are moving) but that rifle marksmanship is impaired for stationary targets.
    Sustained Visual Attention During Simultaneous and Successive Vigilance Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1386-1389
      P. A. Desmond; G. Matthews; J. Bush
    A study of sustained visual attention during simultaneous and successive vigilance task paradigms is reported. 50 participants completed a simultaneous sensory vigilance task with a low event rate, and 50 different participants completed a successive sensory vigilance task with a low event rate. In the simultaneous task participants were presented with pairs of digit-like stimuli on a PC monitor display, and were asked to detect when one of the stimuli was slightly smaller than the other stimulus. In the successive task version participants were required to compare the size of the currently viewed digit pair with the previously presented stimuli, requiring use of memory to detect the target. All participants completed a variety of subjective measures of stress states before and after the vigilance task. The results indicated that the vigilance decrement was greater for sensory simultaneous than for sensory successive tasks. Practical implications of the study are discussed.
    Obtaining Objective Measurements of Operator Performance With Auditory Alarms BIBAFull-Text 1390-1394
      Andrew G. Neubauer; Richard Lanier
    Several acoustic pulse parameters expected to affect the perceived urgency in auditory signals were investigated in a factorial experiment for objective measures of operator performance in a complex occupational environment. 18 experienced subjects, system console operators at Kennedy Space Center, participated in the experiment where the effects of manipulation of inter-pulse interval and pulse format were evaluated for self-reported workload ratings and objective effects in complex, multi-task performance. The results confirmed the prediction of inter-pulse interval effecting reaction times. Subjective workload ratings were equal for all format and interval combinations. Accuracy of primary task measures, in terms of erroneous operator actions, was also equal for all signal combinations. A secondary tracking task was imbedded in the evaluation for workload adjustment and resource allocation measurement. The performance on the secondary task was significantly influenced by signal design, and the objective performance measures countermand the predictions of perceived urgency effects based on previous studies. The study results are interpreted for development and design of a system of auditory alarms for the Checkout and Launch Control Systems at Kennedy Space Center.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Cognition and 3D [Lecture]

    When is Less More Attention and Workload in Auditory, Visual, and Redundant Patient-Monitoring Conditions BIBAFull-Text 1395-1399
      F. Jacob Seagull; Christopher D. Wickens; Robert G. Loeb
    Auditory signals can take the form of "auditory displays" that communicate information redundant to visual displays. These redundant displays may allow offloading some visual workload to the auditory channel. The current study examines the effect of visual, auditory and redundant displays on the performance of a dual-task simulation of patient monitoring. Subjects performed manual compensatory tracking task while monitoring six vital signs of a simulated patient, detecting deviations from normal levels. Monitoring was presented in three display conditions: auditory only, visual only, and redundant. Results indicate that the detection of deviations in visual and redundant conditions were not significantly different, but faster than the auditory display. However, performance in the tracking task was degraded least in the auditory condition, and the redundant display resulted in poorest performance -- an example of a negative redundancy-gain. Reasons for this finding are examined through data from eye-movement recordings. This negative redundancy gain is also discussed.
    Maintaining Kinematic Constraints When Performing Mental Rotations About a Fixed Axis: Implications for Instruction and Displays BIBAFull-Text 1400-1403
      Matthew R. E. Romoser; Donald L. Fisher
    Visually imagining the rotation of a solid object around an axis is central to problem solving in science, mathematics and engineering. Surprisingly, participants can find even very simple rotations quite difficult. There have been a number of different explanations for why participants have the difficulties they do. They include the role of experience and the effect of perceptual organization on the participant's choice of responses. We hypothesize that difficult rotations are made easier when individuals are provided better information about kinematic constraints inherent in the object that is being mentally transformed. In an experiment reported here, we test the above hypothesis. Our results showed that when we changed the stimulus used in a classic rotation task to one which more clearly resembled a rigid, solid object in the real world, the overall error rate was decreased. We discuss the implications for the representation on displays of three dimensional objects which must be rotated.
    Perceived Size in Virtual Environments: The Role of Pictorial Depth Cues BIBAFull-Text 1404-1408
      Kimberly Raddatz; John Uhlarik; Kevin Jordan
    Virtual two-dimensional environments attempt to represent accurate spatial information by employing redundant sources of information (e.g., linear perspective, foreshortening, aspect ratio, texture gradient, interposition, and height relative to the horizon). Under certain conditions, size constancy maintains in these displays. However, more understanding is needed about the differential effects of these cues and how they combine to support size constancy. Experiment I explored the role of linear perspective and foreshortening on size constancy by having observers make height and width judgments of objects on a receding flat "perspective" surface in which one, both, or neither cue was present. Experiment II explored the role of several different combinations of pictorial depth cues on size constancy. Overall, height judgments were more accurate than width judgments. Foreshortening was identified as an especially important cue for maintaining size constancy. However, increasing the number of pictorial depth cues present did not necessarily correspond with more veridical size perception.
    Tactical Routing Using Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Views of Terrain BIBAFull-Text 1409-1413
      Mark St. John; Harvey S. Smallman; Timothy E. Bank; Michael B. Cowen
    When and how should 3-D views be used? We report the results of two experiments in which participants had to plan a route across terrain shown in a 3-D perspective view or in a 2-D (top-down) plan view. We used a non-stereoscopic 3-D perspective view that displayed terrain from 45 degrees above the ground plane onto a flat screen, and a 2-D plan view that displayed the same terrain as a topographic map. The task was to create a chain of antennas across the map so that consecutive antennas could "see" each other. We found that antenna placement was performed better with the 2-D plan view, but that initial planning of the antenna route was performed better with the 3-D perspective view. We introduce the concept of "orient and operate" to explain the findings.

    PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE: Perception & Performance (VPTG) Posters

    Age Differences in Perceptual Judgments About Potential Collision and Implications for Driving BIBAFull-Text 1414
      Patricia R. DeLucia
    To travel safely, drivers must detect and identify conditions that precipitate collisions. Previous results suggest that judgments about collision are influenced by scene parameters, task constraints, and age. Such studies typically focussed on judgments about when a collision would occur (time to contact). Results indicated that older observers underestimated time to contact more than younger observers; they thought that collisions would occur relatively sooner (Hancock & Manser, 1997; Schiff et al., 1992). However, biases toward underestimation would decrease the risk for accidents (Scialfa et al., 1987). Therefore, the age difference in judgments about time to contact does not seem to be a good candidate to account for the higher accident rate in older drivers. Alternatively, age differences in judgments about whether a collision would occur (potential collision; DeLucia, 1995) may contribute to differential accident rates. Therefore, age differences in such judgments were measured with computer simulations of three-dimensional scenes. When participants reported whether two moving objects would collide with each other, older adults (51-76 years) responded less accurately and more quickly than younger adults (18-23 years). When participants reported whether an approaching object would hit them, mean thresholds were greater for older females compared with younger females. The results indicate that the ability to detect collisions is an important factor to consider in an account of age differences in accident rates. Further research is warranted to determine whether less effective judgments about whether a collision would occur contribute more to the higher rate of traffic accidents and convictions in older drivers than to (mis)estimates of when a collision would occur.
    Effect of Color Coding on Misperception of Heading From Superimposed Optic Flow BIBAFull-Text 1415-1419
      Kelli T. Kludt; Brian P. Dyre
    If dynamic sensor imagery is overlaid on the view seen through the windscreen using a HUD, and if the sensor is misaligned with the pilot's eye, the resulting motion transparency can lead to systematic errors in perceiving the direction of heading. We examined whether coding misaligned, dynamic imagery in distinct colors aids pre-attentive segregation of transparent optical flow, thus eliminating errors in heading perception. Observers were shown displays overlaying radially expanding optic flow patterns with foci of expansion (FOEs) separated along the horizontal meridian and indicated the perceived direction of the FOE of one flow pattern by moving an on-screen cross-hair. We found significant repulsion errors when the angular separation between the FOEs exceeded four degrees. Further, coding the flow patterns in distinct colors did not eliminate the repulsion errors. Distinctive color coding alone appears to be insufficient for overcoming errors in heading perception induced by motion transparency.
    Postural Control Supports Visual Perceptual but not Cognitive Performance BIBAFull-Text 1420-1423
      Philip Hove; Melissa Watson; Thomas A. Stoffregen
    The perception and control of body sway may be regarded as a task that utilizes central cognitive resources. For example, the integration of multisensory perceptual stimulation, which is required for postural control, may draw on central processing capacity (e.g., Lajoie, Teasdale, Bard, & Fleury, 1996). Our research originates from a different hypothesis. We have argued that there may be functional relations between body motion and visual performance, such that controlled changes in body sway could be used to facilitate performance of visual tasks (Stoffregen, Smart, Bardy, & Pagulayan, 1999). This study looks at postural sway during performance of visual and cognitive tasks. The visual task was a signal detection task where critical signals were identified and the cognitive task was mental arithmetic. The two tasks were equated in terms of difficulty using the NASA task load index, a measure of mental workload. Postural sway was reduced in the visual, but not the arithmetic conditions, suggesting that sway was influenced by the perceptual demands of the signal detection task, rather than by overall processing load, per se.
    Low-Altitude Flight Performance as a Measure of Flight Simulator Fidelity BIBAFull-Text 1424-1427
      Marc D. Winterbottom; George A. Geri; Byron J. Pierce; Nichole M. Harris
    Low-altitude flight performance was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the texture density cues used in high fidelity flight simulators. Observers were asked to maintain a constant above ground level (AGL) altitude over textured terrain whose elevation was varied. All combinations of two texture densities (0.13 and 0.43 elements/meter) and three airspeeds (50, 150, and 300 m/sec) were tested. Observers maintained a higher AGL altitude as speed increased, suggesting that higher optical flow rates interfered with the ability to maintain the target AGL altitude. However, when a single airspeed was used in a given block of trials, the effect of airspeed was eliminated, indicating that the original airspeed effect was due to perceptual averaging of the optical flow rate at each airspeed tested. Texture density was a significant factor only in the blocked-airspeed condition, suggesting that the blocking procedure eliminated measurement error that initially obscured the effect of this factor on altitude maintenance.
    A New Test for Measuring Dynamic Contrast Sensitivity (Dcs) BIBAFull-Text 1428-1432
      Merrill J. Zavod; Gerald M. Long
    Two experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of a newly developed vision test for measuring human contrast sensitivity under dynamic conditions. In Experiment 1, measurements of dynamic contrast sensitivity were determined for 24 male and 24 female observers as a function of target velocity (0-120 deg/s) for letter stimuli of two sizes and two durations. Significant main effects were found for target velocity, target size, and target duration, while significant interactions among the variables indicated especially pronounced adverse effects of increasing target velocity for small targets and brief durations. In Experiment 2, the effects of simulated cataracts on dynamic contrast sensitivity were determined for 10 male and 10 female observers using the new test. Although the simulated impairment had no effect on traditional acuity scores, dynamic contrast sensitivity was markedly reduced under all conditions and this effect was particularly apparent with smaller targets and at higher velocities. Results are discussed in terms of dynamic contrast sensitivity as a useful composite measure of visual functioning that may provide a better overall picture of an individual's visual functioning than do traditional tests of static visual acuity, dynamic visual acuity, or contrast sensitivity alone.
    Evaluation of Eye-Dominance Effects on Target-Acquisition Tasks Using a Head-Coupled Monocular Hmd BIBAFull-Text 1433-1437
      Tobias LaFleur; Mark H. Draper; Heath A. Ruff
    Monocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) require operators to place an eyepiece over only one of their eyes, raising the potential for eye-dominance performance differences. This issue is likely to be magnified when the task at hand requires frequent shifts of visual attention from head-coupled imagery to a fixed-CRT display. A study was conducted to determine the effects of eye dominance on a dual-display target-search task. Eight participants determined the presence/absence of a target amongst several decoys while using a head-coupled, see-through, monocular HMD in combination with a fixed-CRT display. Performance data did not reveal any significant eye-dominance effects. Additionally, there were no significant effects on participants' subjective preference between dominant and non-dominant eye for this task. Finally, it took significantly more time to determine that a target was not present than to identify a target that was present. However, there was a trend for female subjects to search longer before concluding that a target was absent.
    The Limits of Transparent Depth Perception with Restricted Field of View: Application in an Augmented Reality Surgical Microscope BIBAFull-Text 1438-1442
      Laura Johnson; Leila Eadie; Darryl de Cunha; Philip Edwards; David Hawkes
    This paper describes an investigation into the effect of reduced field of view and target size in transparent stereo augmented reality systems. Six subjects were asked to identify the maximum disparity limit of correct 3D perception for a random dot target of different sizes, viewed through a transparent scene with a varying field of view (FOV). The results showed that the maximum disparity limit increased linearly up to 25 degrees FOV after which it showed no significant increase for increasing FOV. There was no significant difference in the maximum disparity values obtained using a 4,8, or 10 degree target. The maximum disparity limit of 5.9 ±1 (mean ± SD) degrees visual angle was used in an equation to predict the range in which correct depth perception occurs for transparent AR in a binocular surgical microscope. We suggest that the optimum image position to give the greatest range for correct 3D depth perception is 25cm when viewing transparent targets behind a transparent real scene.
    Letter Legibility for Signs and Other Large Format Applications BIBAFull-Text 1443-1447
      Philip M. Garvey; Abdulilah Z. Zineddin; Martin T. Pietrucha
    Numerous studies have evaluated the legibility of various fonts displayed in small print. There has also been a great deal of research into the legibility and recognition of standard highway sign alphabets. There has, however been no attempt to empirically determine large format distance legibility for the growing number of fonts currently available to non-transportation sign manufacturers. The present study systematically evaluated the letter legibility of a set of fonts that are consistent with commercial (e.g., storefront), industrial, transit, and highway signage. The fonts were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Individual test charts were designed for each of the fonts based on the standard Snellen distance visual acuity chart. Recognition acuity thresholds for each of the fonts yielded the minimum visual angle of letter height necessary for their resolution. The relative legibility of each font is discussed, as is the effect of font choice on sign size, and theoretical issues related to critical detail for letter recognition acuity.

    PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Small Business Research and Development: Oxymoron or Golden Opportunity? [Panel]

    Small Business Research Development: Oxymoron or Golden Opportunity BIBAFull-Text 1448-1452
      Christopher A. Miller; Daniel Serfaty; Floyd Glenn; Mica Endsley; Ron Laughery
    The chief question of this Professional Development panel will be whether or not the small business environment provides a good venue for pursuing a career in Human Factors research and development -- or, perhaps more accurately, how it can be made to do so. The panelists will be recognized successes within the Human Factors community in terms of both their professional careers as small business owners or workers and in terms of their sustained ability to contribute valuable research to the more academic pursuit of Human Factors as a science. Panelists will be asked to tell their 'story' -- why and how they chose to go the small business route -- and then will be asked to provide answers to a specific set of questions about the ability to do research in a small business venue. Audience participation will round out the session and should uncover additional insights on the ability to mix income with research in this setting.

    SAFETY: Safety Research 1 [Lecture]

    The Effects of an Arm-Fire Mechanism on Operator Performance in a Simulated Crane Control Task BIBAFull-Text 1453-1457
      Dayne R. Fentress; Richard C. Lanier; Craig M. Arndt
    Incidents involving overhead crane operations at Kennedy Space Center have resulted in a desire to investigate alternative crane control interfaces for potential improvements. This study examines one such interface, which integrates an arm-fire mechanism into an existing crane control console. Two mock crane console configurations were used in a counterbalanced, repeated-measure design to determine effects of the arm-fire on performance and workload ratings of experienced and inexperienced subjects. Addition of the arm-fire produced both positive and negative operational results. Use of the arm-fire mechanism increased operator reaction times, subjective workload ratings, and mean RMS error scores on a secondary tracking task. The arm-fire mechanism effectively mitigated incorrect inputs that could result in injuries or damaged hardware. The only reaction time increase deemed operationally significant was in emergency direction reversal situations. Study funded by NASA grant #NGT10-52621.
    Allocating Blame for Airbag Deployment Injuries: Separating Manufacturers' Blame From Personal Responsibility BIBAFull-Text 1458-1462
      Michael J. Kalsher; Kevin J. Williams; Sarah M. Denio
    This study examined how people allocate blame for injuries sustained from the deployment of a driver-side airbag. Participants read one of several versions of a fictitious scenario in which the driver of an automobile is injured by a deploying airbag after a driver swerves into oncoming traffic to avoid striking a child who has run into the road. The scenarios depicted a driver sitting within the airbag's deployment zone and varied in the following ways: the stature of the injured driver (small or large); severity of the injury resulting from the deployment of the airbag (permanent blindness in one eye versus quadriplegia); vehicle speed at impact (15 m.p.h. above versus driving at the posted speed limit); and the safety-worthiness of the vehicle (an elaborate system of safety features versus the absence of these features). When assigning blame for the injuries sustained in the crash, participants appeared sensitive to both the quality of the vehicle's safety system and the driving behavior of the injured party. The manufacturer of the "safe" vehicle was held significantly less responsible than the manufacturer of the vehicle lacking these safety features. However, driver behavior also exerted a significant effect on allocation of blame. Injured drivers depicted as traveling significantly above the speed limit were assigned significantly more blame than their counterparts depicted as driving at the speed limit. This finding suggests that people take other factors into account, including personal responsibility, when assigning blame. Perhaps the most important finding of this research, and one that supports previous research on this topic, is that safety pays. When companies are perceived as making a good faith attempt to look out for the safety of their customers, their customers, in return, may be less likely to hold them responsible when injuries do occur.
    Responsibility Allocation for Workplace Accidents BIBAFull-Text 1463-1467
      Ilene B. Zackowitz
    The purpose of this study was to investigate responsibility allocation for workplace accidents. Both situational factors (safety climate, task familiarity, presence of warnings and perceived risk) and individual difference variables (locus of control and participant supervisor status) were studied because both characteristics of the observer and the situation moderate individual interpretations regarding the cause of accidents. Work scenarios were developed to manipulate two levels of the situational factors. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Scale was used to assess participant locus of control orientation. Participants (n=320) were employed individuals from San Diego County. Significantly more responsibility was allocated to the employer when safety climate was perceived to be weak. There were significant interactions of locus of control with both perceived risk and task familiarity. Results indicate that employees in organizations with strong safety climates are more likely to take personal ownership of their tasks and feel personally responsible for outcomes.
    Evaluation of Pictorial Symbols to Warn Computer Keyboard Users about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) BIBAFull-Text 1468-1472
      Kenya Freeman; Michael S. Wogalter
    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an upper-extremity disorder that can cause chronic pain and disability. Although CTS can arise from a wide variety of repetitive tasks with awkward hand/arm positioning, a large percentage of cases are attributed to, or exacerbated by, computer input devices such as keyboards. One potential way to reduce the development of CTS in keyboard users is to warn them about the disease's early symptoms so that corrective actions might be taken before the disease becomes more severe. The present research systematically examines one of the components of a potential CTS warning, pictorial symbols. Participants examined a set of 12 ANSI Z535 style warnings with one, two or four pictorials. They then evaluated them on their perceived effectiveness, specifically on their ability to inform and motivate users to use correct arm and hand posture to avoid further CTS development. The evaluations involved estimating the percentage of people that would comply with the pictorial message if it were located on or near a keyboard. Individual pictorial symbols in a top or a side view of the hands, arms, and wrists, depicted the incorrect posture overlaid with either an "X" (cross-out) or "prohibition symbol" (circle-slash) or the correct posture with no overlay. Warnings with four pictorials (with both postures and views) were given significantly higher evaluations than warnings with one or two symbols. In the one and two pictorial conditions, the top view was preferred over the side view. The two prohibition symbols, shown together with views of the incorrect postures, were perceived to be better than the views of correct postures (with no prohibition symbol). The two prohibition symbol conditions did not differ. The results could serve as a partial basis for the development of a complete CTS warning that also includes textual information. Implications for the benefits of multi-symbol warning messages are offered.

    SAFETY: Warnings and Aging: What Warning Designers Do Not Know May Hurt Older Adults [Symposium]

    Symposium Summary Warnings and Aging: What Warnings Designers Do not Know May Hurt Older Adults BIBFull-Text 1473
      Christopher B. Mayhorn
    Comprehension of Explicit and Implicit Warning Information in Younger and Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1474-1478
      Holly E. Hancock; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
    Successful comprehension of warning text necessitates an ability to understand both explicitly stated safety information, as well as information about hazards and safe product usage that may be implied. Comprehension level for this type of text may vary across age groups as a function of normal age-related changes that may be experienced in memory and text comprehension in general. To date, there has been no comprehensive investigation of how well younger and older adults understand explicit and implicit information associated with actual product warnings. In the current study, 43 older and 42 younger adults read text from consumer product warnings and then rated the truth/falsity of statements containing information that was either explicitly stated or implied by the warnings. The results suggest both older and younger adults are able to recognize information that is explicitly associated with an actual product warning. However, they are less able to recognize information that can be inferred from warnings. These data also suggest that older adults perceive themselves to understand consumer warnings fairly well.
    Phrase Generation and Symbol Comprehension for 40 Safety Symbols BIBFull-Text 1479-1480
      Derek G. Schroeder; Holly E. Hancock; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
    Formatting Print on OTC Drug Labels to Benefit Seniors' Knowledge Acquisition Performance BIBAFull-Text 1481
      Michael S. Wogalter; William J. Vigilante
    This research examines consumers' ability to acquire information from a simulated OTC medication bottle. Twelve otherwise identical OTC drug bottles were compared that had back labels which varied in (a) print size, (b) amount of white space between text, and (c) label design (standard vs. extended/pull-out). A no back label condition served as a control. Seniors (mean age = 78 years, SD = 7.4) and undergraduate students were given one of the 12 bottles and asked to perform one of two information acquisition tasks: (a) they examined the bottle for 3 minutes and then completed a questionnaire with the bottle was absent or (b) they answered the same questionnaire while the bottle was present. The undergraduates' performance in both information acquisition tasks was significantly better than the seniors for all label conditions except the control condition where both groups' low performance did not differ. Seniors' performance was significantly better in the medium and large print conditions than in the small print. Seniors' performance in the small print conditions did not differ from the control condition. Undergraduates showed no performance differences among the different small print conditions. No substantial effects of white space were found. For both participant groups, performance was better when the questionnaire was present compared to absent (i.e., recall from memory). While undergraduates' knowledge acquisition was unaffected by print size, the seniors performance was aided by the extended/pull-out label which allowed the use of medium and large print. Given that seniors comprise a large and increasing proportion of the population and they use more OTC medications compared to other age groups, extended label designs allowing larger print should be used.
    Increasing Attention and Retention of Warnings: Effects of Container Hazardousness, Warning Quality, and Severity of Injury BIBAFull-Text 1482-1486
      Melissa Meingast
    The influence of warning quality, container hazardousness, and severity of the potential injury on attention to and retention of warning information were examined. Warning quality and container hazardousness were manipulated as within subjects variables, severity of injury as a between subjects variable. Two levels of each variable were used, high and low. Participants viewed the 4 possible combinations of warning quality and container hazardousness and then responded to various questions concerning their perceptions and retention of warning information. The results demonstrated the importance of warning quality. Enhanced features such as pictorials, signal words, safety icons, and color increase warning salience and recollection of warning information. The results also indicate that the hazardousness of containers influences whether people read warning labels and subsequent reports of cautious intent. However, its influence is modified by both severity of injury and warning quality.

    SAFETY: Safety Research 2 [Lecture]

    Understanding of Prescription Medical Labels as a Function of Age, Culture, and Language BIBAFull-Text 1487-1491
      M. Navai; X. Guo; J. K. Caird; R. E. Dewar
    Symbols are used to convey how and when to take medication and a number of dangers with use that should be avoided. Symbols also have the potential to convey important information to people despite differences in culture and language. This study evaluated 10 prescription medication labels under consideration for use in the Canadian medical system. The sample of 238 participants was composed of a number of subgroups; namely, from a university, a Chinese student association, English as a second language (ESL) courses, low literacy classes, and a senior citizens centre. Symbols that conveyed time or multiple concepts, such as how often to take a drug each day or over the course of a week, were poorly understood. Elderly, ESL, and Chinese groups had the lowest levels of comprehension. Other pictorials such as "do not take with alcohol" and "shake well before using" achieved ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) recommended comprehension levels (i.e., 67%). Discussion centers on comprehension difficulties with certain labels, group differences, and the importance of heterogenous sampling.
    Task Based Evaluation in Error Analysis and Accident Prevention BIBAFull-Text 1492-1496
      Marc L. Resnick
    After a system failure that is attributed to human error, an accurate accounting of the factors that led to the error is critical for redesign efforts and any resulting litigation. Without data on the design components or environmental factors that contributed to the error, the human is indicted, either legally or in the press, no system redesign is conducted and the failure will be repeated at the cost of additional damage and/or lives. However, rarely is the human at fault because of intentional negligence. There are always design or environmental factors that interacted with the person's training, knowledge, motivation and other factors that can be affected by the system. Accident investigations must be conducted to identify these factors and guide redesign efforts. An even better situation would be if this same testing occurred before the system was released to the market. This requires prediction and simulation of the people who will use the system, the tasks that will be attempted, the motivations of system users, and the environmental factors that will interact with the system. Testing systems under controlled laboratory conditions is generally insufficient to identify potential sources of human error. This paper describes the critical components of task-based evaluation and presents a case study to illustrate the consequences of failure to use TBE.
    Safety Practices with Children in Autos: Observations of Inadequate Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 1497-1501
      S. David Leonard
    The safety of children in automobile accidents is a national concern. The number of injuries and deaths occurring to young children in automobile accidents is considered to be excessive. Previous surveys have indicated that many individuals are not familiar with some of the procedures and devices associated with safety for young children in that they cannot describe the appropriate locations for children of various ages and sizes. The present study involved observations of children in vehicles as they approached elementary schools. The results of the observations indicate that the surveys are likely correct in showing poor understanding of the necessity for locating children safely and using safety devices appropriately. Further, the data indicate that some of the unsafe practices used with children are associated with parents or caregivers unsafe practices.
    Hold on An Observational Study of Staircase Handrail Use BIBAFull-Text 1502-1506
      Joseph Cohen; H. Harvey Cohen
    Handrails are the primary safety devices installed on staircases, yet it has not been empirically determined to what extent they are actually used. This study selected two staircases, one long and wide and another short and narrow, serving a newly remodeled shopping mall. Variables observed were: handrail use, ascent/descent, number of hands free, within arm's reach, gait, gender, and age. Less than a third of all staircase users utilized a handrail, with the likelihood of use increasing with age. Overall, 59% were observed to place themselves within arm's reach of a handrail. Staircase users were more likely to be within arm's reach during descent. Women were more likely to have just one hand free, while men more frequently had both hands free. Handrail use was observed to be 10% greater during descent than ascent. The study shows that even with handrails having high usability characteristics, actual handrail use is minimal. This finding has implications for behavioral compliance in situations where a safety device is provided, but its need is not perceived to be immediate.

    SAFETY: The Warning Development Process: A Case Study [Panel]

    The Warning-Development ProcessA Case Study BIBFull-Text 1507-1510
      J. Paul Frantz

    SAFETY: Safety Posters

    Scaling the Severity of Potential Injuries and Illnesses BIBAFull-Text 1511-1514
      Curt C. Braun; Raymond E. C. Pickett; Dylan D. Whitney
    Warning researchers have established a relationship between the explicitness of warnings and perceptions of product hazardousness and precautionary behavior. Earlier work demonstrated that two warning qualities, injury severity and length of injury, contributed to hazard perceptions. To understand further the hazard conveying qualities of warnings, it is necessary to scale potential injuries and illnesses that might result from product use. Fifty-eight different injuries and illnesses were paired with three different modifiers, mild, moderate, and severe. Severity ratings were obtained from 25 participants using a free-modulus magnitude estimation technique. The resulting ratings were then scaled to produce a continuum of illnesses and injury conditions.
    Comparing Traditional and Computerized Data Collection Methods: Applications for Warning Research BIBAFull-Text 1515-1518
      Dylan D. Whitney; Curt C. Braun
    Despite the benefits of the technology, adoption of computerized data collection has been slow. Application development costs and a potential loss of experimental control have both worked to inhibit the advancement of this technology. This study compared a low-cost, Web-based, survey development tool with the traditional paper and pencil method. 91 undergraduates completed a simple warnings experiment using either a paper survey or a Web-based computer survey. Results from these studies were compared to evaluate possible differences associated with delivery method. Analysis of the data found no significant main effect for delivery method and no significant interactions involving method. The lack of differences and similarities in the collected data are encouraging. Web-based data collection methods can enhance existing warnings research methods and participant populations.
    Designing a Human Factors Investigation Tool to Improve the Quality of Safety Reporting BIBAFull-Text 1519-1523
      Rachael Gordan; Rhona Flin; kathryn Mearns
    Engineers in the UK offshore oil industry endeavour to analyse the causes of accidents with regard to the human and organisational factors. However, their expertise tends to lie in the analysis of the technical failures. In an attempt to improve the investigation of the human factors causes of accidents, a human factors investigation system was developed for the UK Health and Safety Executive and five oil companies. The development and evaluation of two previous reporting systems provides the background to this current study, where both systems were found to increase the quantity of human factors information collected. The Human Factors Investigation Tool (HFIT) improves on these two systems, where it collects four types of human factors information including (i) the observable errors occurring immediately prior to the incident, (ii) the error recovery process, (iii) the information processing stage at which the error occurred and (iv) the underlying causes.
    Behavioral Safety Programs in the Department of Energy BIBAFull-Text 1524-1527
      Robert M. Waters; Michael Duncan
    Behavioral safety is the application of reinforcement theory to foster an increase in "safe behavior." The process starts with a behavioral hazard analysis to identify unsafe workplace behaviors. A checklist is then developed to assist in the observation of work behavior. Safe and unsafe behaviors are recorded and provided as feedback (reinforcement) to the worker, which increases safe behavior leading to continuous improvement and worker involvement. Developed in the late 1970s, behavioral safety has an impressive track record. Research has shown that as safe behaviors increase, safety incidents decrease. Within the Department of Energy, behavioral safety has been instituted at industrial sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPRO), and at national laboratories such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). In all cases, implementing the behavioral safety process has led to an increase in safe behavior and a decrease in overall safety incidents.

    SPECIAL SESSION: Ergonomics and Prevention of Disability due to Musculoskeletal Disorders: A State-of-the-Science Symposium [Symposium]

    Ergonomics and Prevention of Disability Due to Musculoskeletal Disorders: A State-of-The-Science Symposium BIBAFull-Text 1528-1532
      Thomas J. Armstrong
    This symposium is concerned with rehabilitation, ergonomics and preventing work disability. Specifically it is concerned with determining the state of the science and identifying research opportunities that could result in major reductions in work disability. Disability has be defined as (Brandt and Pope 1997):
       Disability is defined as a limitation in performing certain roles and tasks that society expects of an individual. It is the expression of the gap between a person's capabilities and the demands of the environment -- the interaction of person's limitations with social and physical environmental factors.
       Available data show that there are many persons in our society who are disabled in that they are unable to achieve expectations established by employers, e.g., production rates, quantities and quality, without endangering themselves or others in the workplace or community. This expectation typically extends to forty hours per week, but could be more or less hours.
       Limitations in performance may result from conditions of birth, illness or injury. They also may be a primary or secondary effect of work. This is the case with Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders; WMSDs. WMSDs are a leading cause of work disability and compensation in many contemporary work settings.
       Although this program focuses on prevention of disability due to WMSDs, it is broadly concerned with the prevention of all disability. The models and methods discussed have common elements that are applicable to many if not all persons and situations. For example, the above definition defines disability as a "gap" between job demands and worker capacities. This definition applies to a person with paraplegia as well as a person with carpal tunnel syndrome. In both instances, methods are needed for assessing and comparing worker capacities and job demands. The program includes presentations by leading investigators who will draw on their own work and work of others to describe the state of the art and develop recommendations for future research.

    SPECIAL SESSION: Human Factors Career Issues and Answers: Choosing and Preparing for a Career that Works for You [Panel]

    Human Factors Career Issues and Answers: Choosing and Preparing for A Career that Works for You BIBAFull-Text 1533-1537
      Ronald G. Shapiro; Anthony D. Andre; Arnold M. Lund; Jean E. Fox; Steve P. Fadden; Jennifer D. Kremer
    Welcome to the eighth annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Career Panel. The questions answered by this panel address many of the issues that graduate students and recent graduates have about entering the Human Factors field. The goal of this panel is to help individuals interested in becoming Human Factors professionals prepare for their career. This year, the panel answered eight questions addressing issues in four different areas: (1) the academic experience, (2) skills/knowledge, (3) demonstrating competency, and (4) job matching. During the HFES meeting panel session, the panel will focus on questions from the audience.

    SPECIAL SESSION: Capturing Fuzzy Judgments of Usability for Advanced Distance Learning Applications: An On-Site Experiment [Alternative Format]

    Capturing Fuzzy Judgments of Usability for Advanced Distance Learning Applications: An On-Site Experiment BIBAFull-Text 1538
      Wendi Buff; James Pharmer; Amy Bolton; David Holness; Randy Astwood; Tyson Griffin; Gwendolyn Campbell
    Our objective is to introduce a new approach to extracting and representing decision-making policies, and apply this technique to usability judgments collected on-site for Advanced Distance Learning (ADL) applications. First, we will provide an overview of traditional policy capturing techniques and introduce fuzzy logic as a potentially powerful alternative. Next, we will ask attendees to judge the extent to which specific usability violations within a series of ADL interfaces will interfere with learning. We will end this session by presenting models of expert performance on this task (previously collected and analyzed). Judgment data collected on-site will later be modeled and the validity of two modeling approaches will be assessed via follow-up data collection. Finally, overall results will be sent to all participants. By using examples from ADL applications, we hope to also gain insight into the nature of the usability challenges facing practitioners within this emerging domain.

    SPECIAL SESSION: HFES 2001 Member Survey: Presentation of Results [Alternative Format]

    The 2001 HFES Membership Survey: Development and Demographics BIBAFull-Text 1539-1543
      Michael P. Linegang; Heather L. Williams; William F. Moroney
    The 2001 HFES Membership Survey was designed to provide data for the executive council in several key areas. This case study examines the survey development processes used in creating the questionnaire and collecting the data. An examination of the demographic characteristics of survey respondents and the existing membership revealed reasonable similarity between the groups. Interestingly, the response rate for the pilot study was surprisingly greater than the response rate for the actual survey. The authors examine some of the issues that may have contributed to the discrepancy.

    STUDENT FORUM: Computer and System Design: Considerations for More Efficient Usage [Lecture]

    Designing Dynamic Strategies for the Efficient Usage of Systems and Tools BIBAFull-Text 1544-1547
      Raju Basumatary
    Increasing innovation in technology has led to the rapid development of systems and tools, and evolution of working environment and style. Strategies were developed to improve the efficiency of systems and tools. The objective is to formulate a framework for strategy building. The phases are: (1) identifying system characteristics, (2) identifying user characteristics, (3) expert analyses, (4) extracting expert analyses, and (5) building strategy set.
    User Interface Design for the Small Screen Display BIBAFull-Text 1548-1550
      Chen Zhao; Tao Zhang; Kan Zhang
    This research investigates how the type of information display (black and white, color) and the amount of information display affect the users' performance on a memory task. The results suggest type of information display significantly affect user performance. When the display was in color, participants performed better. The amount of information displayed did not affect performance, however post-test ratings showed participants preferred less information and they rated displays with intermediate amounts of information most comfortable. These results may be used to guide more effective design of small screen displays.
    A Further Examination of the Influence of Spatial Abilities on Computer Task Performance in Younger and Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1551-1555
      Richard Pak
    An important finding in the field human-computer interaction and psychology is that differences in spatial ability may be responsible for individual differences in performance on computer-based tasks. However, methodological issues plague many studies examining spatial abilities and computer-based task performance. This presentation reports two studies that are being conducted. The first study was designed to resolve two main issues important for understanding spatial abilities and computer-based task performance. In this study, spatial ability and spatial demand of the task are manipulated. The study was designed to examine the relationship between spatial ability and computer-based task performance in older adults. The second study explicitly examines older adults' performance in a computer task and how it is related to spatial ability.
    Multiple Notifications in Desktop Computing BIBAFull-Text 1556-1558
      Ronald Laurids Boring
    This paper describes current research on the attentional effects and usability of multiple notifications. An experiment is described in which 25 participants encountered one, two, or four simultaneous on-screen notifications during cognitively effortful or simple computer tasks. The time participants attended to the notifications vs. the primary computer task served as a measure of the distraction caused by the notifications. Multiple notifications were found to be significantly more distracting than single notifications. While there was a large difference in distraction time between one and two notifications, there was minimal difference in the distraction caused by two vs. four notifications. There was also a significant difference in distraction time for cognitively effortful vs. cognitively simple tasks, but there were no significant interactions. It is concluded that in order to mitigate user disruption, software designers should restrict the number of notifications that are presented on a computer display simultaneously.

    STUDENT FORUM: Warning Labels, Simulations, and Driving: A Potpourri of Student Work [Lecture]

    Using the Cocktail Party Effect as Driver Attention Control BIBAFull-Text 1559-1562
      Lisbeth Almen
    In the current driving simulator experiment, two different alerting devices, presented to the audio and tactile sense modality respectively, were used to study the effects on driver attention control. The experiment was carried out at VTI, (Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute). While driving, the participants were distracted by a secondary task. An alerting device was then used to make the driver aware of the fact that he was distracted and to make his focus of attention switch back to the main task of driving. The hypothesis was that the audio device, in form of a voice calling out the driver's own name, would produce a more rapid switch of attention than the tactile device, in form of vibrations in the car cockpit. The study can be of use when designing a potential device for controlling driver's attention while driving to reduce car accidents.
    Cue Utilization and Situation Awareness During a Simulated Experience BIBAFull-Text 1563-1567
      C. L. Crooks; Chang-ya Hu; Robert P. Mahan
    The purpose of this study is to collect data on decision makers' use of environmental cues and situation awareness levels in a decision-making scenario. In a given situation, information cues are typically associated with implicit weight values that allow the decision maker to make sense of the current environment, as well as make judgments about a future event. There is some evidence that during situations in which cues may actually fluctuate in importance, decision makers may not assign cue weights accurately. It would follow that situation awareness may also be lower than when weights accurately reflect cue values present in the environment. The goal of this study was to explore whether there was a relationship between the patterns of cue utilization and levels of situation awareness in a dynamic computerized flight simulation, TIDE2. In addition, correlational analyses were conducted between measurements of cognitive style, situation awareness level measurements, and judgment accuracy. Evidence for these relationships was found.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Attentional Factors in Telematics Voice and Nonvoice Interfaces [Panel]

    Panel Discussion Attentional Factors in Telematics Voice and Non-Voice Interfaces BIBFull-Text 1568-1570
      Daniel V. McGehee; Thomas A. Dingus; Paul A. Green; John D. Lee; Louis Tijerina

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Driver Performance: Fatigue, Stress, Workload, and Visual Demands [Lecture]

    Individual Differences in Fatigue and Stress States in Two Field Studies of Driving BIBAFull-Text 1571-1575
      P. A. Desmond; G. Matthews; J. Bush
    Two studies of real-life driving are reported in which individual differences in fatigue and stress were explored in Australian professional and non-professional drivers. In Study 1 58 truck drivers completed subjective measures of mood and stress states before and after a prolonged driving trip. The Task-Induced Fatigue Scale (TIFS) was also used to assess fatigue before and after driving. The Driver Stress Inventory Fatigue Proneness Scale was completed before the driving trip to assess individual differences in fatigue. In Study 2 104 non-professional drivers completed the same subjective state measures before and after a short-duration drive, as drivers in Study 1. Drivers also completed the Fatigue Proneness Scale. Fatigue-prone drivers in both studies showed elevated levels of state fatigue, tension, unpleasant mood and task-related cognitive interference. The results suggest that high Fatigue Proneness drivers may be at risk from fatigue during both prolonged and relatively short driving trips.
    An On-Road Investigation of Commercial Motor Vehicle Operator Self Assessment of Fatigue as an Indicator of Driver Fatigue BIBAFull-Text 1576-1580
      Steven M. Belz; Gary S. Robinson; John G. casali
    This on-road field investigation employed, for the first time, a completely automated, trigger-based data collection system capable of evaluating driver performance in an extended duration real-world motor vehicle environment. The portion of the study reported herein examined the use of self-assessment of fatigue (Karolinska Sleep Scale) as an indicator of driver fatigue. Without exception, the regression analyses for the self-assessment of fatigue yielded models low in predictive ability and were not found to be a suitable indicator of driver fatigue in a real-world commercial driving environment. Various reasons for the failure of self-rating of fatigue as a valid measure are discussed.
    Development of a Test Protocol to Demonstrate the Effects of Secondary Tasks on Closed-Course Driving Performance BIBAFull-Text 1581-1585
      Thomas A. Ranney; Elizabeth N. Mazzae; W. Riley Garrott; Frank S. Barickman
    To assess the relative distraction potential associated with a variety of in-vehicle tasks, we developed a test protocol that provides an objective basis for demonstrating the tradeoffs between primary and secondary task performance in driving. The protocol includes two summary scores, one representing driving performance and one representing secondary-task performance. Driving performance was evaluated on a 1.3-mile test course, which included straight and curved road segments, a signalized intersection, a simulated work zone, two changeable-message signs, and six unexpected events. Secondary tasks included mental arithmetic, reading, writing, phone dialing, CD changing, route-guidance destination entry, eating, drinking and grooming. Twelve subjects drove an instrumented vehicle for 9 or 10 timed laps of the test course, each while performing a different secondary task or none (baseline). On average, we found a 15% decrement in driving performance scores on laps in which subjects engaged in a secondary task. Driving performance decrements were observed on 88% of these trials. Differences were observed between different secondary tasks. The pilot test results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the test protocol for assessing tradeoffs between primary and secondary tasks in driving.
    Visual Demand of Driving and the Execution of Display-Intensive In-Vehicle Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1586-1590
      Omer Tsimhoni; Paul Green
    To gain insight as to when telematics can be distracting, 16 participants drove a simulator on roads with long curves of several different radii. Participants read electronic maps displayed in the center console while both parked and driving. In separate trials, the visual demand/workload of the same straight and curved sections was measured using the visual occlusion technique. Visual demand was correlated with inverse curve radius.
       As visual demand increased, driving performance declined. Participants made shorter glances at the display, made more of them, but waited longer between glances. Overall, task completion time increased when the task was performed while driving (versus while parked), except for short duration tasks (a single glance or under 3 seconds timed while parked), where task time decreased. While driving, task completion times were relatively unaffected by the driving workload.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: The History and Future of a Human Factors Research Laboratory [Symposium]

    History and Future of a Human Factors Laboratory (Summary) BIBAFull-Text 1591
      N. Ward
    This paper provides a summary for a symposium comprised of a variety of presentation to illustrate the historical factors that may influence the f development of a Human Factors laboratory and a Human Factors research agenda in surface transportation. This symposium will not only present research that is specifically relevant to surface transportation safety, but also highlights some general principles of Human Factors research methodology.
    From Origin to Aspiration: Development of the University of Minnesota's Human Factors Research Laboratory BIBAFull-Text 1592-1596
      P. A. Hancock
    This paper details the development of the Human Factors Research Laboratory at the University of Minnesota from its conception to the present time. The account features the intellectual structure and thematic progress through illustrative examples of individual research projects. These examples are given not simply for historical purposes but as specific cases of how Human Factors research can feature in an ever more pragmatic societal environment and therefore come to the fore of the modern University agenda in both education and research.
    Improving Street Name Sign Legibility for Older Drivers BIBAFull-Text 1597-1601
      Susan Chrysler; Stirling Stackhouse; Donna Tranchida; Erik Arthur
    Reading street name signs is an important part of the navigation task of driving a vehicle. Older drivers, in particular, often have trouble reading street name signs because of poor sign design and because of vision problems associated with aging. Past research has shown that older drivers can benefit in sign detection by either increasing the size of the sign or by increasing the retroreflectivity of the material used to make the sign. The present study examined the effects of reflective material on the legibility distance for a standard size shoulder mounted street name sign. ASTM Types I, III, VII, and IX were used for the white on green signs with legend consisting of a 6" initial upper case letter and 4.5" lower case Highway Series C. The effects of intersection complexity were examined by conducting the study at three different intersections in an urban area that varied in traffic volumes, commercial lighting and geometric design. An additional variable was which side of the street the signs appeared. Older drivers, with a mean age of 71, drove an instrumented vehicle in real traffic at night and were asked to read traffic signs temporarily erected for purposes of the study. The results showed an interaction between sign reflectivity and intersection complexity, suggesting that brighter signs aid legibility more in complex traffic situations. The differences between the reflective material types at low-complexity intersection were small compared to the differences observed at the high-complexity intersection where ASTM Types VII and IX showed greater legibility distances than Types I and III. Likewise, when signs were mounted on the left side of the street, the reflectivity of the material showed more of an effect than when they were mounted on the right side of the street. Overall, sign legibility distances were improved 21-30% by changing from ASTM Types I and III to the higher reflectivity materials, Types VII and IX.
    Investigating Huds in Specialty Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1602-1606
      Kathleen A. Harder; John R. Bloomfield; Benjamin J. Chihak
    Currently, several technologies are being integrated into a single system that provides the driver of a specialty vehicle with a virtual representation of the view out the windshield via a Head Up Display. As part of the development of this system, we are exploring human factors issues in a series of alternating simulation experiments and field studies. Here, we discuss a simulation experiment and a field study. In the simulation experiment, we compared the effectiveness of lane departure warnings given in three modalities -- visual, auditory, and tactile (via the driver's seat). In the field study, we used a snowplow equipped with a Head Up Display, a Differential Global Positioning System, and digital geo-spatial databases. The participants were snowplow operators. The sessions that they participated were treated as a knowledge acquisition sessions. The information obtained during in this field study feed back into the next simulation stage of the program.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: On-Road Vision and Perception Issues [Lecture]

    Detection of Cars and Pedestrians While Making Left Turn Decisions BIBAFull-Text 1607-1611
      J. I. Creaser; C. J. Edwards; K. L. Uggerslev; J. K. Caird
    In intersection accidents, the majority of drivers report that they either did not see a pedestrian or vehicle, or saw it too late to avoid a collision (Cairney & Catchpole, 1996). This research investigated left turn decision-making using a change blindness paradigm. We explored whether or not drivers were able to see and respond quickly and accurately to changes occurring in intersections. Results showed that drivers took longer to assess whether or not it was safe to turn when a change occurred than when no change occurred. There was a main effect of object type, where drivers responded faster to pedestrians than cars. As well, drivers responded faster to relevant versus irrelevant changes. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of change blindness for investigating intersection decisions.
    Evaluating New Technologies to Enhance Night Vision by Looking at Detection and Recognition Distances of Non-Motorists and Objects BIBAFull-Text 1612-1616
      Myra Blanco; Jonathan M. Hankey; Thomas A. Dingus
    This empirical research aims to identify how new technologies are able to enhance night vision. This research provides empirical data on 12 vision enhancement systems taking into consideration factors such as driver age and type of objects on the roadway (i.e., static and dynamic objects). The results of this study are presented in terms of detection and recognition distances. When the detection distance of different objects were analyzed, the Infrared Thermal Imaging System resulted in the longest detection and recognition distance followed by the halogen low beam headlamps combined with high-output, medium-output, and hybrid ultraviolet headlamps. There was no significant difference, in terms of detection and recognition distances, among the halogen low beam (baseline) and when the ultraviolet headlamps are used. However, there was a significant difference among halogen low beam and high intensity discharge (HID), where halogen allowed drivers to detect and recognize objects at farther distance.
    Is Wider Better: Enhancing Pavement Marking Visibility for Older Drivers BIBAFull-Text 1617-1621
      Phillip J. Ohme; Thomas Schnell
    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pavement marking edge line width (100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm) and pavement marking material type (normal paint+beads, wet-weather tape, ceramic element) on forward detection distance when driving on a two-lane rural road under automobile low-beam illumination at night. The aim of the study was to generate a set of recommendations to improve nighttime driving conditions for old motorists, especially under wet weather conditions. Prior to the experiment, the markings were purposely worn in situ by traffic for one year to obtain realistic in-service retroreflectances. Fourteen participants, including 7 young drivers (range 19-26 years) and 7 old drivers (range 65-81 years), detected a 60 m gap in each pavement marking treatment under both dry and wet roadway conditions. The width of the edge lines showed no significant effect on detection distance, however, the material type significantly increased detection distance, especially under wet roadway conditions. These results suggest that enhanced pavement marking materials could be useful to improve pavement marking visibility and thus safety of the nighttime motorist, especially in high-risk areas such as extremely sharp curves or other situations where increased forward preview is needed to allow adequate driver reaction.
    Fluorescent Colored Highway Signs Don't Grab Attention; They Guide It BIBAFull-Text 1622-1626
      Frank Schieber; Jessica Larsen; Joey Jurgensen; Korin Werner; Gina Eich
    A novel inattention search paradigm (Mack & Rock, 1998) was used to assess the visual efficiency of fluorescent colored relative to nonfluorescent colored highway signs. Unexpected presentation of a fluorescent colored search target was not accompanied by an improvement in visual search time. However, visual search times improved dramatically once the participants developed the expectancy that the target feature would be presented on a fluorescent colored singleton. This pattern of results suggests that many of the visibility advantages attributed to the use of fluorescent colors in safety applications may be mediated by top-down attentional mechanisms rather than bottom-up (preattentive) mechanisms as previously assumed.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: In-Vehicle Warnings [Lecture]

    Annoyance and Urgency of Auditory Alerts for In-Vehicle Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 1627-1631
      Dawn Marshall; John D. Lee; P. Albert Austria
    The proliferation of in-vehicle information systems and the need for drivers to keep their eyes on the road suggest that auditory alerts will become increasingly common. This study examined how sound parameters affected perceived urgency and annoyance. The sound parameters investigated were overall density of a warning tone, pulse speed and type of burst used to create a warning tone. The context in which the auditory alert is presented was an additional factor. Significant effects were found for all factors. Annoyance and urgency of an alert depend on the context in which it is presented and sound parameters interact with context to affect the perceived urgency of alerts. Like urgency, annoyance displayed systematic variation as a function of warning signal parameters. These results suggest that auditory alert design should go beyond mapping perceived urgency of the alert to the urgency of messages, but should also consider a tradeoff analysis that addresses the costs of increasing annoyance.
    Effects of Multiple Auditory Alerts for In-Vehicle Information Systems on Driver Attitudes and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1632-1636
      Emily Wiese; John D. Lee
    In-vehicle information systems might introduce a variety of sounds to alert drivers to situations ranging from imminent collisions to the arrival of email. This study examined the effects of auditory alerts on driver performance and attitudes. Sixteen participants drove eight driving scenarios over a period of two days in which they were exposed to email alerts and collision avoidance warnings. In each scenario, four email alert tones sounded, one occurring 300 ms before a collision avoidance tone. Two collision avoidance tones sounded in each scenario, one associated with a braking lead vehicle and the other a false alarm. The results show that annoyance is an important sound characteristic that can affect workload. The results also indicate that urgency is a sound characteristic that affects driving performance. In addition, the strong effect of sound parameters on annoyance suggest that Edworthy's urgency mapping principle should be complemented by an annoyance tradeoff principle.
    Driver Choice of Headway with Auditory Warnings BIBAFull-Text 1637-1640
      Joshua B. Hurwitz; David J. Wheatley
    Two major causes of rear-end collisions are driver distraction and the tendency for some drivers to maintain insufficient headways with other vehicles. Previous research into in-vehicle collision avoidance systems has focused on warning drivers in near-collision situations with short headways (e.g., less than 1 second). The current study focused on mid-range headways and on warning distracted drivers to maintain safe following distances. Subjects performed a simulated car-following task in which the lead vehicle periodically decelerated. The lead vehicle was otherwise programmed to maintain a minimum following distance of 2 seconds -- although the subjects could drive more slowly to leave a longer headway. On trips with an auditory headway warning, the subjects tended to leave larger headways, particularly on trips in which they performed a secondary task as well.
    Development of an Automotive Icon for Indication of Significant Tire Underinflation BIBAFull-Text 1641-1645
      Elizabeth N. Mazzae; Thomas A. Ranney
    In the TREAD Act of November 1, 2000, Congress required the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to develop a rule requiring all new light vehicles to be equipped with a warning system to indicate to the driver when a tire is significantly underinflated. Research was conducted to assess the ability of two existing ISO symbols and 13 proposed alternative symbols to communicate the message of tire underinflation. An existing dashboard icon representing an engine was included as a baseline. A comprehension test was conducted in which each of 120 subjects was asked to report the meaning of one tire pressure icon and the engine icon. Results showed 25 and 37.5% comprehension for the ISO tire icons. All of the 13 alternative icons had better comprehension: 6 of 13 had 100%; 2 of 13 had 87.5% comprehension. The type of wheel pictured in tire image based icons was found to affect comprehension. Results suggest that alternatives to the ISO icons should be considered for use in alerting drivers to tire inflation problems.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Information Displays and Operator Behavior [Lecture]

    The Effect of Rear-End Collision Warnings on On-Going Response BIBAFull-Text 1646-1650
      Timothy L. Brown; John D. Lee; Joshua Hoffman
    Rear-end collisions are a major concern for highway safety, and considerable effort is being expended to address the frequency of these types on collisions. One possible solution is to warn drivers just before a collision is to occur, so that they can attempt to avoid it. One concern is that warnings may interfere with an avoidance response the driver may have already initiated. This simulator study examined how drivers respond to a rear-end collision when they receive a warning as they begin to release the accelerator. Contrary to expectations, the warning enhanced rather than undermined collision avoidance performance. Receiving a warning as the accelerator was released reduced the accelerator-brake reaction time by 50%. These data suggest that RECAS warnings are unlikely to interfere with a driver's ongoing response.
    Naturalistic Findings for Assisted Snowplow Operation BIBAFull-Text 1651-1655
      Aaron Steinfeld; Han-Shue Tan; Benedicte Bougler
    Performance data on the benefit of a driver assistance system for snowplows was collected during normal snow removal operations. Collection occurred during a series of ride-alongs by research staff over two winters. The test area was a major interstate freeway over a western mountain pass that historically has had numerous low visibility conditions and heavy snowfall. Variables examined were lateral displacement from the lane center, speed, steering wheel angle standard deviation, and nearest forward target when following. The driver assistance system appeared to be quantifiably similar to unaided driving in good weather conditions. The findings suggest that the system was particularly beneficial during low visibility and obscured road marking conditions -- the scenarios for which the system was designed.
    Risk and Driver Behavior with Adjustable Pedals BIBAFull-Text 1656-1660
      Douglas E. Young; Richard A. Schmidt; Thomas J. Ayres; Doris Trachtman
    Recently, various automotive manufacturers have developed and installed adjustable pedal systems that allow the pedal package (accelerator, brake, and clutch) to be moved in unison toward or away from a driver's standard (and historically fixed) position. To determine if there was a possible danger associated with adjusting or manipulating the pedals while operating the vehicle, we engaged in two separate investigations. First, we evaluated the potential risk associated with adjusting or manipulating in-vehicle controls, such as tuning the radio or moving the seat position, for an estimate of how the operation of similar devices influences vehicle safety. Our analysis of accident data from North Carolina shows that about 60 accidents per year occur while drivers are adjusting a radio, with only a few annual accidents tied to other in-vehicle controls such as wipers, mirrors, and heaters. Based on these findings, accidents associated with pedal location adjustment are likely to be extremely rare. Second, we completed a fixed-base simulator study to evaluate how the manipulation of the adjustable pedal system influenced driver behavior and vehicle control. Changes in pedal position had no detectable influence on brake reaction times. Adjusting pedal position (on demand from the experimenter) had only a very small effect on measures of speed, lane position, and brake reaction time, in all cases within the range of effects found with operation of radios, cell phones, and seat controls. Findings from this aspect of our work add further confidence to the prediction of low accident risk for pedal location adjustment. Implications for driver behavior and vehicle safety are discussed.
    Graphical Presentation of Ais Information on Ships BIBAFull-Text 1661-1665
      Florian Motz; Heino Widdel
    This paper describes a research project carried out for the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building, and Housing to evaluate the graphical presentation of AIS information. The implementation of AIS on ship bridges requires a suitable presentation and integration of its information in the bridge information systems. To support the decision which symbols should be used for the presentation of AIS information two experiments were conducted with simulated traffic scenarios on ECDIS and on Radar with mariners as subjects. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered and analyzed.
       Results show higher detection performance for the orientated triangle symbol as ship symbol, which also was rated higher in the subjective preference analysis than the diamond shaped symbol. The results for symbols for the display of course and speed and the heading information led to the conclusion to display the vector as plain line and the heading as dashed line with a flag indicating the rate of turn. A draft for AIS symbols was recommended.

    SURFACE TRANSPORTATION: Surface Transportation Posters

    Performance Differences in a Navigation Task among Users Presented with a North-Up versus Track-Up Orientation Map Display BIBAFull-Text 1666-1670
      Haydee M. Cuevas; Andre Huthmann; Atle Knudsen; Chien Wei
    The principal objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the orientation of the presented map on a navigation display (i.e., north-up vs. track-up) would influence performance in a computer-based navigation task. In addition, it was believed that the user's level of spatial ability would interact with the nature of the display. Results indicated that neither display led to more accurate or faster performance. However, the track-up group reported finding the task more difficult (higher workload) and rated the map display less helpful. The north-up group also reported such a display as potentially being more helpful in real world driving. Results indicated a significant correlation between spatial ability and performance accuracy, with high spatial ability scores associated with better performance on the navigation task. Implications for the design of navigation devices, such as those currently marketed for automobiles, will be discussed as well as areas warranting further research.
    Shared Control between Human and Machine: Using a Haptic Steering Wheel to Aid in Land Vehicle Guidance BIBAFull-Text 1671-1675
      Micah Steele; R. Brent Gillespie
    When humans interface with machines, the control interface is usually passive and its response contains little information pertinent to the state of the environment. Usually, information flows through the interface from human to machine but not so often in the reverse direction. This work proposes a control architecture in which bi-directional information transfer occurs across the control interface, allowing the human to use the interface to simultaneously exert control and extract information. In this alternative control architecture, which we call shared control, the human utilizes the haptic sensory modality to share control of the machine interface with an automatic controller. We present a fixed-base driving simulator experiment in which subjects take advantage of a haptic steering wheel, which aids them in a path following task. Results indicate that the haptic steering wheel allows a significant reduction in visual demand while improving path following performance.
    Alternative Terminal Sign Format Evaluation: Generating Efficient Information Dense Displays BIBAFull-Text 1676-1679
      Hasmik Mehranian; Donald L. Fisher; Susan A. Duffy; Elizabeth Niswander
    It is hard to overestimate the importance of highway signage that can convey large amounts of information in a very short period of time, especially when the traffic is heavy and moving quickly. Drivers who are slow to read a sign or drivers who make a decision at the last moment can be the cause of minor incidents, which slow traffic to a crawl for hours or, worse yet, be the cause of major crashes. Airports are one example of an environment where it is necessary to convey large amounts of information in a very short period of time. Arriving passengers must find their terminal. Typically, the names of the airlines departing or arriving at a given terminal are all listed together on a sign. Lists of up to 20 names are not uncommon. We tested alternative ways of formatting the airline terminal signs designed to reduce the scanning time. The results apply generally to the design of any signs intended to convey large amounts of information in a very short period of time.
    Effects of Advanced Warning Flashers on Driver Interaction with Signalized Intersections BIBAFull-Text 1680-1684
      Thomas J. Smith; Randy Harney
    This study carried out a human factors analysis of the effects of advanced warning flashers (AWFs) on simulated driving performance, during interaction by drivers with simulated signalized intersections, as they traversed one of four different simulated driving task environments (SDTEs) that featured: (1) a total distance of 11.3 mi; (2) AWFs present (test) or not present (control) at every intersection; (3) low (50 mph -- LSL) or high (65 mph -- HSL) speed limit; (4) 10 intersections per SDTE; (5) 2 intersections per SDTE assigned to one of 5 vehicle-proximity-to-yellow (VPTY) levels: all green, and 0, 2, 3.5, and 5 sec. Results indicate that AWFs tend to slow vehicle speeds and acceleration, and increase braking, for test compared with control trials, effects more pronounced for LSL compared with HSL trials. Results also point to two groups of Ss with distinctly different driving behaviors during test trials, with Ss in one group showing more cautious, and those in the other more risk-taking, behavior during interaction with AWF intersections. This finding suggests that it may be unrealistic to expect AWFs to influence the behavior of all drivers in a consistently beneficial way during driver-signal interactions.
    On the Risk of Quiet Vehicles to Pedestrians and Drivers BIBAFull-Text 1685-1688
      Michael S. Wogalter; Rachelle N. Oman; Raymond W. Lim; M. Ryan Chipley
    Technology has enabled the mass production of hybrid and electric vehicles. Interest in these alternative-energy vehicles has been heightened due to air quality concerns in urban areas. However, these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation, which could have negative side effects on pedestrian and driver safety because of the lack of sound cues. A survey of 380 people was conducted to explore interest and concerns about electrically powered vehicles. The data show that there is substantial positive interest in driving quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, in the role of pedestrian, participants expressed concern over the reduced auditory cues to the presence of a moving vehicle. Implications of quiet vehicles are discussed including the additional consideration of reduced driver awareness of their speed. Precautionary measures and suggestions for effective engine noise substitutes are presented.
    An Evaluation of the Safety, Utility, and Reliability of Three-Dimensional Alarm Systems for Automotive Use BIBAFull-Text 1689-1693
      James P. Bliss; Sarah A. Acton
    As roadways become more congested, automobile manufacturers are designing collision avoidance warning systems to increase safety; yet, there has been little investigation of alarm reliability and spatial signal location. This study focused on measuring driving and alarm reaction performances to spatial and console emitted alarms of various reliability levels. Seventy participants operated a driving simulator while being presented with alarms. From previous research (Breznitz 1983; Bliss 1993), it was expected that drivers would perform better following reliable alarms than unreliable alarms. It was also expected that drivers would perform better following spatial alarms than central alarms. Results indicated that drivers avoided collisions better following spatial alarms, but made more appropriate driving reactions following console-generated alarms. Alarm response frequency and driving reaction appropriateness was higher for reliable alarms. These results suggest that alarm designers should strive to maximize alarm reliability, and that spatial alarms may potentially reduce collision rates.
    Modeling Mental Workload and Task Performance for Indirect Vision Driving BIBAFull-Text 1694-1698
      Christopher C. Smyth
    Cognitive workload and task performance are modeled for indirect vision driving with fixed flat panel displays. The model is derived from the results of a field study in which eight participants negotiated a driving course in a military vehicle with natural and indirect vision. For the latter, the vehicle was driven with fixed flat panel, liquid crystal displays in the cab and a forward viewing monocular camera array mounted on the front roof of the vehicle and tilted slightly downward. In addition to recording driving performance, the study collected test battery ratings of the mental workload measures of attention allocation, perceived workload, situational awareness, motion sickness, perceived stress, and cognitive performance. As a result of the study, a mathematical model of road speed was derived for indirect vision driving as a function of the camera's field of view. The model considers the effects of scene compression on the informational needs of the driver in a self-paced task. Concurrently, a task analysis mental workload model was derived for indirect vision driving by mapping the cognitive and mental workload measures to a "skills-rules-knowledge" model of information processing. The model successfully explains apparently conflicting results for indirect vision driving from different experiments that examined on-board and teleoperations from the different camera lens used in the studies.
    Investigation of Factors Affecting Driver Performance Using Adverse Condition Warning Systems BIBAFull-Text 1699-1703
      Nitin Gupta; Ann M. Bisantz; Tarunraj Singh
    This study addresses issues concerning the design of adverse condition warning systems (ACWS). An ACWS was designed to sense when a car was likely to skid. Through the use of a virtual-driving environment, two important design considerations, alerting system sensitivity (low and high) and type of auditory alarm signal (Binary ON/OFF and Graded) were analyzed and compared with a no-alarm control group. Dependent measures reflecting driver performance and response to the alarm signal were analyzed to understand the effect of different system configurations. Additionally, participants' trust in the alerting system under different configurations was measured to reveal user acceptance in these systems.
       Participants had fewest skids in the low sensitivity and graded alarm signal condition compared to other alerting system configurations and the no-alarm condition. Participants in the graded signal condition also had a greater degree of lateral control over the vehicle. Additionally, trust was found to be the lower for the high vs. low sensitivity alarm condition, indicating a reduction in trust when the alerting system activated more often (at a lower threshold) perhaps because participants' did not feel the system was accurately reflecting a dangerous condition. Over sessions, positive feelings of trust tended to increase, while negative feelings decreased, as expected given increased experience with the system. This research emphasizes the fact that while ACWS can provide an advantage in terms of vehicle control, characteristics of both the alerting signal, and system configuration must be considered to insure successful outcomes.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Auditory and Visual Cues in Information Presentation [Lecture]

    Determining Voice Strategies for Hands-Free Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1704-1708
      Allen R. Revels; David E. Kancler; Laurie L. Quill; Carlton D. Donahoo
    This Practitioner Paper examines a cost effective and efficient method to determine voice command strategies for hands-free controls when interacting with computer systems. Specifically, this method is applied to determining the combined use of voice commands and a head-tracking device as an alternative user interface for accessing digitized aircraft technical manuals. Aircraft maintainers from the Springfield, OH Air National Guard F-16 facility and the 445th C-141 Air Force Reserve Unit served as subjects. User strategies appeared to follow on-screen interface characteristics and the user's experience level with computers. Generally, unlabeled icons and buttons elicited a point-and-click strategy, while labeled links elicited voice-only commands. Users with increased familiarity with Windows-based interfaces were prone to a point-and-click strategy, while novices were likely to attempt various function oriented voice commands. Due to the observed user strategies, several issues were identified and a series of recommendations are presented which address the strategic application of a voice command vocabulary to a hands-free user interface.
    Cueing in Procedures: The Use of Auditory or Visual Cues to Assist in Object Location BIBAFull-Text 1709-1712
      S. G. Hill; J. C. Byers; H. D. Medema; J. L. Nadeau
    This report presents research examining human-computer interaction in a procedural-type task. The research was done to gain further insight into developing interfaces for computer-based procedures that support and enhance human performance. Specifically, this research examined how to minimize location errors, by proper design of computer-based procedures. Thirty-nine subjects participated in a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design experiment. The experiment involved locating objects via computerized procedures, and tested video and audio location cueing. Results showed that the cued condition was faster than the non-cued condition. Results also indicated that the visual mode was faster than the auditory mode, although the auditory mode was preferred. These results are significant for the design of computer-based procedures that involve location information.
    Application of Information Visualization Principles at Various Stages of System Development BIBAFull-Text 1713-1717
      Laurie L. Quill; Cheryl Batchelor; David E. Kancler; Allen R. Revels
    Designing and developing effective information visualizations requires a systematic approach. This Practitioner Paper identifies how innovative information visualizations can be integrated into standard systems development processes. While information visualizations already exist for the design of user interfaces, new methods frequently offer further improvement in information displays. Designers should consider incorporating these advancements wherever possible. The Systems Development Process provides the structure necessary to integrate new information visualizations throughout the design process. This paper describes specific examples whereby innovative information visualization methods were integrated into a USAF R&D design effort during several phases of its development. Information visualization methods include use of micro/macro salience displays, visual language, and axiomatic designs. This approach not only improved the quality of the user displays through advancing information visualization techniques, it also minimized design modifications through use of the system development processes.
    Your Design Probably Needs More VDU's BIBAFull-Text 1718-1722
      John O'Hara; William Brown; Paul Lewis; J. Persensky
    The most frequent complaint of operators in modern computer-based controlrooms is that there just are not enough video display units (VDUs). In this paper we examine the basis for this concern and try to understand the technical and historical reasons for this complaint, and its implications for the design of complex human-machine systems, including the number of VDUs in the control room. The overall aim of our work is to develop human factors guidance for the review of computer-based and modernized control rooms in nuclear power plants. As part of these efforts we have conducted literature reviews and studies using both simulators and actual systems in a broad range of industries, including process control, aerospace, medical, and others. Our findings reflect the general complaint of operators across all these industries: there just are not enough VDUs in the control room. We conclude that there are three primary reasons for this complaint. First, as part of a workload management strategy, operators frequently avoid interface management tasks and do not access all the information available, preferring instead to use a fixed set of familiar displays that provide much (but not all) of the information needed. Performance thereby becomes data limited and operators complain that they do not have a sufficient number of VDUs to set up in the early phases of a high-workload period so they can get all the information they need. Second, display designs are typically not designed with operator tasks in mind. The most common method of representing information is by functions and systems. Since tasks typically cut across many systems, operators need many displays. Thus, to make task performance easier operators need additional VDUs. Finally, there is a differing "concept of operations" between designers and operators. Modern computer-based control rooms are designed with vast amounts of data, available through hundreds of displays, viewed by the operator through a limited number of display devices. Designers expect that operators will use the flexibility of the computer-based interfaces to configure them in such a way that they are ideally tailored to the unique demands of the current situation. However, operators usually do not do that and instead configure the interfaces in a spatially dedicated way. Thus, while the number of VDUs may seem reasonable to the designer, it is not to the operator who is attempting to minimize the interface management aspects of workload. The implications of these findings for design are discussed in terms of the need for a method for determining the number of displays, task-relevant displays, data-dense displays, and enhanced interface management design and training.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Complementary Methods of Modeling Team Performance [Panel] Cosponsoring TGs: Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, System Development

    Panel on Complementary Methods of Modeling Team Performance BIBAFull-Text 1723-1727
      James A. Pharmer; Jared T. Freeman; Shelly Scott-Nash; Thomas P. Santoro; David Kieras
    While computational team modeling techniques and tools have advanced significantly, relatively few efforts have incorporated several distinct approaches toward a common goal. The Office of Naval Research sponsored Manning Affordability Initiative has applied 3 modeling technologies to a single domain (air defense warfare), a common scenario, and watchstation technologies (current AEGIS technology and human-centered design prototypes). This has provided an unusual opportunity to investigate these tools, and ways in which they can be used together. Team Optimal Design (TOD) focuses on team modeling. Integrated Performance Modelling Environment (IPME) uses a general task modeling technique that applies well to individuals or teams. The GOMS Language Evaluation and Analysis Tool (GLEAN) combines individual models of users interacting as a team. This panel discussion focuses on these 3 methods and their combined uses. Further, a human-in-the-loop experiment conducted to provide data against which to validate the computational models will be summarized.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Cognition and Human Performance [Lecture]

    Alternative Methods of Mitigating Automation Distrust Impacts BIBAFull-Text 1728-1732
      Christopher B. Grounds; Danny Wiley
    Previous research into the incorporation of configural justification displays in an unreliable automated command and control environment has shown that they significantly improve operator decision time based upon system recommendations for courses of action. The objective of this research was to determine if different styles of configural displays would affect this decision time. Results from experimentation with Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) soldiers shows that the type of justification aid does not affect decision time or accuracy of decisions. Rather, soldiers monitoring these displays may have relied on color rather than spatial plots when periodically asked by the computer to authorize recommendations for courses of action.
    The Queuing Network Model Human Processor (QNMHP): An Engineering Approach for Modeling Cognitive Performance BIBAFull-Text 1733-1737
      Robert G. Feyen; Yili Liu
    Human performance modeling approaches (HPMAs) that are comprehensive and computational are particularly useful for system development. Current comprehensive approaches have strengths in modeling a person's actions, but lack mathematical foundations that inherently yield information about the time and capacity related performance of the human in the system. This paper proposes a complementary approach called the Queuing Network Model Human Processor (QNMHP) that combines elements of the GOMS/Model Human Processor approach with the mathematical concept of queuing networks. A general queuing network representing the human and methodology for using this network are discussed in light of current efforts to model a steering task.
    The Cognimeter: Focusing Cognitive Task Analysis in the Cognitive Function Model BIBAFull-Text 1738-1742
      Jason Chrenka; Robert J. B. Hutton; David W. Klinger; Donna Anastasi
    The overall intent behind the Cognitive Function Model (CFM) application is to guide the human factors analyst towards identifying highly challenging cognitive tasks or functions, and to provide indicators that guide the analyst in choosing which tasks or functions to pursue using Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA), in order to make the best use of available time and resources. We developed a computer-based application using a CFM approach. CFM links the Operator Function Model (OFM) and the Cognimeter Screening Tool. The Cognimeter is intended to bridge the gap between OFM (traditional task decomposition) and Cognitive Task Analysis. In addition, the Cognimeter provides the human factors analyst with the means to identify the high pay-off cognitive challenges from a functional decomposition or systems engineering representation of a system (in this case, OFM representations).
    Including the Soldier in Military Simulations: Modeling the Psychological Effects of Anti-Personnel Landmines BIBAFull-Text 1743-1747
      Eugenia M. Kolasinski Morgan
    Computer modeling and simulation is a valuable tool for warfare simulation and weapons analysis/evaluation. Although it is agreed that anti-personnel landmines (APLs) are very powerful psychological weapons, their psychological effects are not incorporated into current mine warfare simulations. This paper focuses on issues involved in the incorporation of APL psychological effects into computer models. Three basic approaches for incorporating fear into mine warfare models are presented. Within these approaches, issues about the experimental study, quantification, and use in the model of the effect of interest are discussed. Issues of the necessary level of fidelity for mine warfare simulation are also approached. Although the simulation of mine warfare presents unique challenges, a discussion of these issues may be relevant to developers of other types of simulations incorporating human representation.

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: Systems Design Potpourri [Lecture]

    Introducing Usability Engineering into the Cmm Model: An Empirical Approach BIBAFull-Text 1748-1752
      Ioannis Vasmatzidis; Arvind Ramakrishnan; Christopher Hanson
    Usability practitioners advocate implementation of user-centered design methodologies in order to achieve highly usable software products. However, such an approach can not be independent of the organization's established software development process. This paper describes how usability engineering is currently being incorporated into the iNautix's software development process. The iNautix process is based on the Capability Maturity Model developed by the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. The model defines 5 levels of software development process maturity: the higher the maturity level, the higher the process capability of the organization. A 7-phase iNautix Life Cycle was developed based on the CMM framework. Recently, iNautix was assessed as a CMM level 2 organization. Currently, usability engineering processes have been included in 3 of the 7 phases: Requirements Management; Project Planning, Tracking and Oversight; and Product Development. New usability processes that the authors are defining as the organization matures toward CMM level 3 are also presented in the paper.
    Analysis of Human Factors Case Studies of Complex Military Systems: Here'S How We Can Do Better BIBAFull-Text 1753-1757
      Susan G. Hutchins
    People in nearly every occupational setting can provide examples of poor system design. The focus for this paper is on an analysis of design problems found in complex military command and control systems and the ways in which these types of problems can be avoided in future system design. The source of data for this analysis was a group of case studies of sixteen U.S. military systems written by officer-students at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Systems analyzed include aircraft systems, communications systems, the M-16 rifle, a missile defense system, a message processing system, weapon systems, and decision support systems. Documented problems with system use were categorized according to the following measures of effectiveness: Performance, Safety, Usability, Reliability, Maintainability, Time and Cost to Train, and Workload. The number of problems encountered per system ranged from one to nine; the mean number of reported problems per system was 4.9. IEEE 1220-1998 includes a revised systems engineering approach with an increased emphasis on engineering the system for the human. Adhering to a user-centered design approach would have a positive impact on system design by significantly reducing the types of system problems described in this paper.
    Reducing Medical Error and Improving Patient Safety: A Methodology for Studying Pharmaceutical Error in Teams BIBAFull-Text 1758-1761
      Jeanne L. Weaver; Kraig Schell; Anthony Grasha
    It has been noted that as many as 98,000 Americans die in hospitals each year as a consequence of medical error. In comparison to even the lowest estimated figures of medical error occurrence, it is believed that the number of deaths due to preventable events is still greater than deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS. Of those errors committed, one type that occurs all too frequently, are those related to the dispensation of medications. Consequently, efforts are currently underway to develop methods for the study of this class of medical error. The current paper describes one such methodology and its use thus far for the study of individual performance, as well as recommending a research agenda that would be useful for investigating pharmaceutical error in the context of a team task performance situation.

    TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation: Practitioner Perspectives [Lecture]

    A Consumer's Guide to Internet Questionnaire Development Tools BIBAFull-Text 1762-1766
      Michael P. Linegang; Jessica L. Rivard; Scott E. Schoeling; Heather L. Williams
    Internet-based questionnaires are emerging as a source of information for human factors and ergonomics researchers. There are a variety of commercially available tools that can assist researchers in the production of the questionnaire and collection of data. Four commercially available tools for the construction of Internet-based questionnaires were selected and evaluated for their use in human factors research. This product review provides a comparison of relevant features and recommendations on the value and usefulness of these tools. The authors recommend 2 of the tools, Zoomerang.com and WebSurveyor.com, which offer a broad array of features for questionnaire creation, data collection, and analysis.
    A Web-Based Common Framework to Support the Test and Evaluation Process Anytime, Anywhere, and Anyhow BIBAFull-Text 1767-1771
      Anne Schur; Jim Brown; Sharon Eaton; Alex Gibson; Ryan Scott; Ted Tanasse
    Test and evaluation (T&E) is an enterprise. For any product, large or small, performance data are desired to evaluate product effectiveness for the intended users. Representing the many T&E facets without bewildering the user is challenging when a range of people, from system developers to managers, want specific feedback. We created a web-based One-Stop Evaluation Center (1Stop) to meet these needs. The center streamlines the T&E enterprise because it is usable at any time in the system's development lifecycle and is easily modified to meet new needs. This paper discusses a common framework that unifies the T&E process, meeting the needs of many stakeholders. 1 Stop's flexible architecture is designed to accommodate stakeholders' specific evaluation processes and content. Its use results in significant cost savings by enabling quick responses and better lines of communication among users, developers, and managers.
    Handling Awkward Usability Testing Situations BIBAFull-Text 1772-1776
      Mona Patel; Beth Loring
    You are half way through a usability test session, and the participant s cell phone rings. She answers it and says it s her child calling and she has to leave immediately, but she II be back in 45 minutes to finish the test. What should you do? In the course of running hundreds of product evaluations, we have encountered some awkward and unusual situations. These situations involve issues with participants, with the software or product being tested, and with the test protocol. Among the factors that we consider when resolving these issues include the participant s rights and psychological well-being, the cost to replace the participant s test session, the importance of adhering strictly to the recruiting criteria, and how eliminating the test session might affect the integrity of the protocol or data. In this paper, we describe some real-life sticky testing situations and discuss the factors we considered in resolving each issue.
    Definition-Based Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 1777-1779
      Bruce P. Hunn
    Situation Awareness (SA) assessment is a developing process that uses a variety of assessment techniques. Beginning with assessment methods developed for aircraft flight simulation, the study of SA has progressed to other areas, and this has broadened the domain into areas where faster response times and greater diagnosticity are desired. As a consequence of this maturation process, numerous SA rating scale methods have been proposed. It is posited that situation awareness is too complex a subject to rely exclusively on any type of numeric rating system, and it is argued that a return to a definitional approach to measuring SA is indicated. A method is proposed that emphasizes the three primary elements of SA (Perception, Comprehension and Projection) and this method should also increase diagnostic capability.

    TEST AND EVALUATION: New Test and Evaluation Metrics [Lecture]

    Predicting Workload During Physically Demanding Work Using Oxygen Uptake Data BIBAFull-Text 1780-1784
      Tariq S. Abdelhamid; John G. Everett
    Oxygen uptake measurements during the performance of actual work activities are considered a good measure of the absolute physiologic workload experienced by a worker. Many work physiologists recommend expressing absolute workload as a percentage of maximum oxygen uptake, commonly known as relative workload, since it provides a subject-specific workload. Determining relative workload is arithmetically simple but requires an additional and separate step to determine maximum oxygen uptake through exact or prediction techniques. This paper presents a method for predicating relative workload from in-situ collected sub-maximal oxygen uptake data without the need to determine maximum oxygen uptake. The methodology, developed using twenty subjects and verified on five, was based on modeling the human cellular utilization system as a stochastic system. The standard error in predicting relative workload for the validation subjects was ±3.2%. These initial results are quite promising and establish a starting point for further investigations.
    A Preliminary Study of the Measurement of Trust in a Hybrid Inspection System BIBAFull-Text 1785-1789
      Reena Master; Xiaochun Jiang; Anand Gramopadhye; Brian Melloy; Larry Grimes
    Since human trust in automation can directly impact inspection quality and overall inspection performance, it is critical to study the issue of trust in hybrid inspection systems. After developing a trust questionnaire for hybrid inspection systems, we conducted a preliminary study to measure human's trust in the hybrid inspection systems using the questionnaire developed. Two hybrid inspection systems were used in the study. Results showed that the trust questionnaire was sensitive to different systems. A stepwise regression procedure selected competency and reliability as the better predictors.
    The Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) BIBAFull-Text 1790-1794
      David B. Boles; Lindsey P. Adair
    The Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) is an easily-administered 17-item measure for subjective workload assessment. It is based on an expansion of Multiple Resource Theory as guided by factor analytic studies of lateralized processes, and aims to provide high diagnosticity by identifying the load on specific resources. Here the full questionnaire is reproduced and reliability data from two studies are reported. Across a number of computer-based games and laboratory tasks, interrater reliabilities (r) are found to range from +.57 to +.83, with reliabilities expected to approximate 0.9 when data are aggregated over 8 or more raters. Validity data are reported in a companion article.
    Validity of the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) BIBAFull-Text 1795-1799
      David B. Boles; Lindsey P. Adair
    The Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) is an easily administered 17-item measure for subjective workload assessment that aims to provide high diagnosticity by identifying the load on specific resources. Here validity data from two experiments are reported. Experiment 1 employs two computer-based games and finds that workload as assessed by the MRQ correlates significantly with ratings of overall workload, and with a composite of time demand, mental demand, and stress demand ratings. Because these are important dimensions of other well-accepted workload instruments (i.e., OW, NASA-TLX, and SWAT), the results support the construct validity of the MRQ. Experiment 2 assesses interference between pairings of four laboratory-based tasks, and finds that MRQ-based similarity indices significantly predict the degree of interference between tasks. This outcome supports the criterion validity of the MRQ.

    TEST AND EVALUATION: Test and Evaluation Posters

    Selecting Cities for Usability Research BIBAFull-Text 1800-1804
      Beth A. Loring
    Human factors practitioners are often asked to conduct usability research in multiple cities to obtain a larger, geographically dispersed sample. Instead of selecting cities first and participants second (as is often done in market research), we suggest an approach whereby usability professionals can select cities based on the type of research and attributes that influence product usage. Starting with these factors, we can develop a table of users and subgroups and then identify the regions in which these groups are prominent. The number of users in each subgroup and the final city selection involves other factors such as time constraints, budget limitations, and organizational credibility. By following this approach, we can make user-centered recommendations to the product team when planning usability research.

    TRAINING: Skill Acquisition [Lecture]

    Comparing Learning Curves of Experts and Novices: A Novel Approach to the Study of Simulator Effectiveness and Fidelity BIBAFull-Text 1805-1809
      Daniel Gopher; Roi Sivan; Cristina Iani
    We describe a new approach to the study of simulator fidelity and training efficiency. It is based on comparing learning curves of novice trainees and domain experts in a simulator. The major claim is that if a simulator represents a relevant environment for the training of the operational task, domain experts performance should show a major advantage over novice trainees. Two measures of domain expert performance are important in the evaluation of the simulator. One is the distance (in training hours or sessions) between performance levels of novices and domain experts. It reflects the difficulty of the measured ability and the predicted amount of training required by novices to reach expert levels. A second measure, which represents simulator fidelity, is the distance between expert performance and performance asymptote in the simulator. The approach has been successfully applied in the study of a desktop, partial task flight simulator.
    Utilizing Cws to Track the Longitudinal Development of Expertise BIBAFull-Text 1810-1814
      Brian M. Friel; Rickey P. Thomas; John Raacke; James Shanteau
    The CWS expert performance index was applied to participants' skill development in CTEAM (Controller Teamwork Evaluation and Assessment Methodology), an air traffic control microworld environment. CWS integrates discrimination and consistency such that larger CWS scores indicate better performance. Over eight weeks, participants gained mastery over the task, which involved routing aircraft to assigned destinations. Aircraft Density and Restricted Airspace affected performance such that more complex scenarios led to lower CWS scores. Furthermore, CWS scores increased with practice. Moderate correlations between CWS scores and objective measures of performance were obtained, validating the index. Potential applications to training are discussed.
    Learner Support to Foster Self-Explanation in the Context of Advanced Distributed Learning BIBAFull-Text 1815-1819
      Alma M. Schaafstal; Gwendolyn E. Campbell
    Several studies suggest that group-oriented, collaborative activities can have a positive impact on individual learning. The effect of collaborative activities on learning appears to be the result of several underlying mechanisms. In this research we focus on a mechanism that has shown to be a powerful cognitive mechanism for learning, and which occurs quite naturally in peer learning situations: self-explanation. The question is whether we can design learner support tools that help learners to self-explain. If this kind of learner support helps to improve training and performance, it can be implemented in an ADL-environment, e.g. through the implementation of a 'Learning Companion'. The results show that this is indeed possible: students who have been trained with a learner support tool designed to elicit self-explanations do better and are more efficient than students who were not trained with such a tool, even after the support has been taken away.
    Training Digital System Skills: Increasing Transfer and Reducing Workload BIBFull-Text 1820-1822
      Brooke B. Schaab; J. Douglas Dressel

    TRAINING: Training System Technology and Development [Lecture]

    TENOR Architecture and Software for Advanced Distributed Learning BIBAFull-Text 1823-1827
      Cheryl Tibaudo; John Schroeder; Joseph Kristl; H. Barbara Sorensen; Donald MacCuish
    Rapid deployment of competent military teams worldwide requires operationally trained personnel to be prepared to manage all threats and employ all contingencies. Currently, these force protector teams are comprised of individuals differing in competency skill levels in fields of medicine, intelligence, communication, and security. Additionally, these force protectors assigned to a team originate from different geographical locations with varied operational backgrounds. Further hindering the force protector team mission, individual team members likely are unfamiliar with each other, have no detailed knowledge of the deployment location, and are not trained in the specifics of the tasks to be performed. It is essential that training begin at the initiation of the assignment through arrival at the theater of operation. However, traditional training methodologies and strategies deter the force protectors' development of mission capabilities. The paper describes the design and development of an ADL training system utilizing Web technology and hand-held deployable computers and cell phones.
    Application of Conceptual Graph Structures in the Design of an Adaptive System: An Initial Concept and Exploration BIBAFull-Text 1828-1832
      Debra C. Evans; Harry Delugach; David Skipper
    This paper presents initial work on an adaptive trainer for basic helicopter flight skills. The work was performed by Bevilacqua Research Corporation, Inc., the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and Cognitive and Behavioral Systems. The project was performed for the U. S. Army Research Institute of the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Ft. Rucker Field Unit. In this initial phase of the project, the project team: 1) created initial student conceptual models, 2) created initial instructor conceptual models, 3) identified methods to dynamically update and evaluate student models, 4) identified methods to modify instructional models in response to student behavior, and 5) developed a top-level adaptive trainer design. The conceptual models were designed using conceptual graph structures as described by Sowa (1984) and were applied as an adaptive trainer would to an example instructional sequence to prove the utility of the employed methodology.
    Computational Model of Recognition-Primed Decisions (RPD): Improving Realism in Computer-Generated Forces (CGF) BIBAFull-Text 1833-1837
      Robert J. B. Hutton; Walter Warwick; Terry Stanard; Patricia L. McDermott; Stacey McIlwaine
    Modeling an intelligent adversary has provided great challenges to simulated training realism. Traditional approaches to modeling have relied on rule-based and analytical decision-making models in an attempt to optimize the decision making of an intelligent computer-generated adversary. In order to promote realistic transfer of training in the realm of command and control, the trainee must experience realistic decision-making behavior in the enemy. This means that the enemy must make realistic decisions based on environmental constraints, goals, and intent. The enemy's decisions must then be reflected by the simulated agents. The Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model is a descriptive model of expert decision making in real-world settings. We have several related projects where the goal is to translate the conceptual RPD Model into a computer model that can simulate realistic expert decision making. In attempting this feat, we have discovered many valuable lessons about modeling cognition and decision making, and about the assumptions and mechanisms underlying the RPD Model. The purpose of this paper is to report those findings.
    Cognitive Feedback Training Using 3D Binocular Eye Tracker BIBAFull-Text 1838-1842
      Santosh N. Nair; Anand K. Gramopadhye; Jeenal Vora; Brian J. Melloy; Eric Medlin; Andrew T. Duchowski; Barbara Kanki
    Studies in visual search have shown that feedback training can improve visual inspection performance (speed and accuracy), provided it is given in a timely and appropriate manner. Traditionally, performance feedback, i.e. information about the outcome, serves as the basis of most feedback training schemes. Other forms of feedback, which provide search strategy information, may have a role to play in improving inspection performance. This form of feedback is referred to as 'cognitive feedback'. This paper describes the setup for collecting and analyzing eye movements using a 3D binocular eye tracker, which serves as a tool for providing cognitive feedback training. It also emphasizes the various technical issues related with eye tracker integration and further discusses the use of a new 3D-fixation recognition algorithm.

    TRAINING: Training Posters

    Comparing the Utility and Sequencing of Different Types of Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1843-1847
      Lori Rhodenizer Van Duyne; Kim Jentsch; C. A. Bowers; W. Burroughs; Jan Cannon-Bowers; Eduardo Salas
    Despite the existence of an overabundance of research articles, reviews, and meta-analyses, there still appears to be disagreement regarding the feedback techniques that produce the most optimal learning conditions. The purpose of this research was to investigate two specific types of feedback, process and outcome, as well as the sequence in which these types of feedback should be presented as trainees learn to perform a simulated radar task. It was hypothesized that individuals receiving process feedback followed by outcome feedback would perform better on the simulated radar task than those receiving feedback in any other sequence. The results of this study indicate that individuals receiving feedback, regardless of the type and sequence, performed better at the end of training than those who did not receive feedback. No support was found for recommending a process-outcome feedback sequence.
    Validation of Training Efficacy Through Analogical Transfer between Expert Knowledge Representations and Training Environment Representations BIBAFull-Text 1848-1852
      Alan Ashworth; Michael Anthony; Barry Goettl
    Thirty-four Air Force aircrew personnel were tested at Air Force Special Operations Command on their identification of surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). Several types of SAMs were simulated and presented to participants using a state-of-the-art training system incorporating high-fidelity terrain and voice recognition. The SAM simulations were driven by perceptual visual models and flight behavioral models. Participants identified the model of SAM, and the accuracy of trajectory (whether or not the SAM would hit their simulated aircraft). Participants were assigned to either a novice group (no combat experience) or expert group (combat experience in either the Kosovo or Iraqi air campaigns). The experts outperformed the novices, demonstrating the importance of developing simulation trainers based on perceptual and cognitive principles, and the importance of empirical validation of those principles by experts.
    Exploring the Characteristics of Effective Teams Using a Cots Team Task BIBAFull-Text 1853-1856
      Daniel O. de Boom; Sarah E. Howell; Alan R. S. Ashworth; Barry P. Goettl
    In this study we examined the relationship between individual and group factors in the development of team performance in a distributed synthetic task. Individual characteristics included interaction anxiety, learning style, age, and video game experience. Group factors included cohesion, communication, and cooperation. We matched participants on video game experience and divided them into two teams. Teams ranged in size from 5-9 teammates. Over the course of four days of experimentation, participants in both groups learned a complex distributed team task called Microsoft Allegiance. First, participants trained as individuals, then as teams in noncompetitive tasks, and finally as teams in head-to-head competition. Results indicated that teams winning the head-to-head competitions showed no difference on the individual factors. However, winning teams showed higher group cohesion and communication. These results are discussed in terms of learning and performance support for military application of command and control.

    VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Usability of Virtual Environment Systems [Lecture]

    The Use of a Route and Survey Composite Display for Navigational Training in Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 1857-1861
      Derek D. Diaz; Valerie Sims
    The present study examined if spatial knowledge gained from a virtual environment (VE) is affected by the spatial ability of the participant and whether information can be more efficiently acquired and applied to a physical space when participants are given a display featuring both an overhead map and first-person visual cues. Seventy-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three VE conditions: first-person view, overhead map, or first-person view with an integrated map. Participants learned the locations of 7 targets in a desktop-based computer simulation of a building. Spatial knowledge for these targets was assessed in the physical building. Results indicated that spatial orientation ability facilitated performance by the group with only the map view. Spatial orientation ability did not affect the other two groups.
    Dynamic Viewpoint Tethering for Navigation in Large-Scale Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 1862-1866
      Wenbi Wang; Paul Milgram
    Dynamic viewpoint tethering is an innovative display technique which has been proposed to support effective navigation in large-scale virtual environments, by integrating information from different frames of reference. The present study examines the effect of dynamic viewpoint tethering on performance, with respect to both local guidance and global awareness measures, in comparison with three conventional display formats: egocentric, exocentric and rigidly tethered displays. Participants were instructed to control an aircraft-shaped cursor navigating in a virtual tunnel and to answer questions about the environment. The results confirmed that global awareness performance decreased with increased egocentricity in the display frame of reference. The two tethered displays (dynamic and rigid) supported the best local guidance performance. No significant performance differences were found between the two tethered displays.
    Keywords: Dynamically tethered displays, virtual environments, local guidance, global awareness, navigation, virtual cameras
    Using Virtual Reality Technology to Improve Aircraft Inspection Performance: Presence and Performance Measurement Studies BIBAFull-Text 1867-1871
      Jeenal Vora; Santosh Nair; Anand K. Gramopadhye; Brian J. Melloy; Eric Medlin; Andrew T. Duchowski; Barbara G. Kanki
    Research in aircraft inspection and maintenance has revealed the criticality of human inspection performance in improving aviation safety. If we are to provide the general public with a safe and reliable air transportation system, inspection must be performed effectively, efficiently and consistently. Even though it is difficult to eliminate errors completely, continuing emphasis must be placed on identifying interventions to reduce errors and improve consistency in performance. Training has been identified as the primary intervention strategy in improving the quality and reliability of aircraft inspection performance. If training is to be successful, it is clear that we need to provide aircraft inspectors with tools to help enhance their inspection skills and improve performance. In response to this need a Virtual Reality (VR) based simulator was developed for visual inspection task of an aft cargo bay. Presence and performance validation studies were conducted to evaluate the simulator and are described as part of this paper.

    VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: Visual Display Issues of Virtual Environments [Lecture]

    The Effects of Camera Control and Display Configuration on Teleoperated Target Search Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1872-1876
      Mark H. Draper; Heath A. Ruff; Tobias LaFleur
    Proprioceptive cues afforded by head-coupled head-mounted displays (HMDs) may enable certain search-task performance advantages over a manual joystick input with a stationary display monitor. However, targets located behind the user often involve excessive neck strain and fatigue. A study was conducted to determine the effects of various head-coupled and hand-controlled remote camera control/display configurations on teleoperation search tasks. Eight participants served as unmanned air vehicle teleoperators, acquiring targets in two separate search-task segments, 1) a forward-field area search followed by target discrimination, and 2) a rear-field area search. Four camera control/display configurations were studied: manual joystick with stationary CRT display, 1.0 gain head-coupled HMD, 1.5 gain head-coupled HMD, and combined 1.0 gain head-coupled HMD with simultaneous manual joystick input. All head-coupled control configurations were zero-order controllers involving a color, see-through monocular HMD. Performance data revealed significantly faster search times for the rate-controlled joystick with stationary display for the forward-field search task and no significant difference between control configurations for the rear-field area search. Head movement analyses revealed differences in rotational head motion between HMD conditions.
    Investigation of Surface Characteristic Effects on Real-Virtual Object Alignment in Stereoscopic Augmented Reality Images BIBAFull-Text 1877-1881
      Ming Hou; Paul Milgram
    This paper reports a virtual pointer alignment experiment carried out in a stereoscopic augmented reality environment, in which the known conflict between binocular fusion and object interposition cues is expected to play a major role. The object was to evaluate subjects' perceptual sensitivity to target position at designated probe points on a cylindrical real object surface, visual texture of that surface, virtual pointer geometrical properties, and degree of binocular disparity. The results confirmed the primary findings from previous experiments: that both surface texture and target position have significant influences. Subjective evaluation of form of the virtual pointer revealed that the three dimensional pointer was preferred over the one and two-dimensional pointers.
    Effects on Balance Disturbance of Manipulating Depth of an Independent Visual Background in a Stereographic Display BIBAFull-Text 1882-1885
      Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Habib Abi-Rached; Donald E. Parker; Thomas A. Furness
    Simulator sickness (SS) is a major impediment to use of virtual environments (VEs). Procedures to alleviate SS have been of limited value. The 'independent visual background' (IVB) may reduce SS when people use a VE. Optimum characteristics of IVBs remain to be determined. In this study, balance was disturbed by roll oscillation of a black and white radial pattern. Disturbance was reduced by simultaneous presentation of an IVB. Effects of locating the IVB in the foreground or background relative to the moving radial pattern using a stereographic display were determined. Nine subjects were tested at two IVB luminance levels and three different IVB conditions using a within-subjects design. An expected statistically significant difference between the IVB and no-IVB conditions was observed. No effect of IVB location was obtained. Effects of foreground / background manipulations on spatial orientation are addressed.
    Head-Up vs. Head-Down: Effects of Precision on Cue Effectiveness and Display Signaling BIBAFull-Text 1886-1890
      Michelle Yeh; James L. Merlo; Christopher D. Wickens; David L. Brandenburg
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the attentional effects in the presentation of cueing symbology with the use of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) relative to a hand-held display, and how reduced cue precision (experiment 1) and increased clutter (experiment 2) might modulate these effects. Participants were asked to detect, identify, and give azimuth information for targets hidden in terrain presented in the far domain (i.e., the world) while performing a monitoring task in the near domain (i.e., the display) using either a HMD or hand-held display. The results revealed overall cueing benefits in target detection performance, with slight decrements when cue imprecision was greater than 7.5°. More importantly, undertrust of the cueing data, induced by decreased precision, widened attentional breadth on trials after the automation unexpectedly failed.<