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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009-10-19

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting
Location:San Antonio, Texas
Dates:2009-Oct-19 to 2009-Oct-23
Publisher:HFES
Standard No:ISBN: 0-945289-36-7, 978-0-945289-36-4; hcibib: HFES09; TA 166 H794
Papers:425
Pages:2030
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | Online Order Form
  1. HFES 2009-10-19 Volume 53
    1. AEROSPACE SYSTEMS
    2. AGING
    3. AUGMENTED COGNITION
    4. COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING
    5. COMMUNICATIONS
    6. COMPUTER SYSTEMS
    7. EDUCATION
    8. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
    9. FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL
    10. GENERAL SESSION
    11. HEALTH CARE
    12. HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING
    13. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    14. INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS
    15. INTERNET
    16. MACROERGONOMICS
    17. PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE
    18. POSTERS
    19. PRODUCT DESIGN
    20. SAFETY
    21. SPECIAL SESSION
    22. STUDENT FORUM
    23. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION
    24. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
    25. TEST AND EVALUATION
    26. TRAINING
    27. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

HFES 2009-10-19 Volume 53

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS

Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Arathi Sethumadhavan
The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.
Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Esa M. Rantanen
Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers' awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.
Visual Controller Aids to Support Late Merging Operations for Fuel Efficient and Noise Reduced Approach Procedures BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Hendrik Oberheid; Bernhard Weber; Michael Rudolph
Objective: The paper studies aircraft ghosting on a radar display as a potential means to support air traffic controllers with late merging operations in approach control. Background: A formerly presented late merging concept has pointed out operational benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and noise reduction. A first exploratory study has shown that the concept puts high task demands on the air traffic controller to achieve necessary precision. The provision of a ghosting system is considered as a potential automation tool which supports the controller in merging traffic. Methods: A microworld simulation of approach control was used to study the effect of two potential ghosting solutions (time-based vs. distance based ghosting) on control performance while executing late merging operations. Objective performance, situation awareness (SAGAT), and subjective ratings on the ghosting system were the main evaluation criteria. Results: The results confirm the hypothesized positive effects of both ghosting solutions on objective merging performance. Under certain conditions, ghosting had a negative effect on situation awareness as regards the position of real aircraft. Finally, the majority of participants reported that time-based ghosting support is less strenuous and more helpful for merging operation than distance-based ghosting. Conclusions: Ghosting brings about performance benefits. Yet, SA of real aircraft has to be ensured. Application: Results will inform the system design and experimental design for follow-up studies in the full mission simulator.
Do Velocity Vectors Support Multiple Object Tracking? BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Krista Oinonen; Lauri Oksama; Esa Rantanen; Jukka Hyona
We examined the effect of velocity vectors on human ability to extrapolate movement of multiple moving objects. This was achieved using an identity tracking task, in which objects (line-drawings of familiar objects) first move for 5 s, after which they temporarily disappear from view. In order to examine different aspects of vector information, we compared 4 velocity vector conditions: (1) no vectors were displayed; (2) only a history trail was displayed; (3) a condition where the end of the velocity vector pointed to exactly where the objects would reappear after the masking; (4) a constant heading length was displayed. Based on recent studies on Keane and Pylyshyn (2006) and Oinonen et al. (2009), we hypothesized that the condition, where exact location information is presented, would improve performance compared to baseline. The results supported this hypothesis by indicating that history trail or directional vector do not improve performance but only complete visual information about the future location will help to anticipate movement in multiple object tracking.
Data and Knowledge as Predictors of Perceptions of Display Clutter, Subjective Workload and Pilot Performance BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Amy L. Alexander; Emily M. Stelzer; Sang-Hwan Kim; David B. Kaber; Lawrence J., III Prinzel
Display clutter is defined as an unintended effect of displaying visual imagery that may obscure or confuse other information, or that may be redundant or not relevant to the task at hand. There exists a limited amount of research that has explored both data-driven and knowledge-driven parameters as dual contributors to perceptions of clutter. In the present study, six pilots flew simulated approaches under varied workload conditions with synthetic and enhanced vision display configurations that represented "low," "medium," and "high" clutter. Results evinced that high clutter displays produced elevated reports of perceived clutter and workload due to density or redundant presentation of information, while low clutter displays were perceived as less cluttered but challenging to use because of a lack of information typically required for flight. Pilots identified both data-driven (bottom-up) and knowledge-driven (top-down) as contributors to clutter, and these challenges were mirrored in flight technical performance. Conclusions support the notion that design of advanced technologies must consider not only the physical appearance of data within the display, but also the utility of that information to tasks the displays are designed to support.
Helicopter Pilot Use of a See-Through, Head-Mounted Display With Pathway Guidance for Visually Guided Flight: Observations of Navigation Behavior and Obstacle Avoidance BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  Dennis B. Beringer; Terri Luke; Allison Quate; Elizabeth Walters
An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate synthetic imagery, presented in a binocular, stereoptic, head-mounted see-through display (HMD) for providing destination guidance and navigation data to helicopter pilots. The intended application was to Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS). Participants flew a simulator from an airfield to a remote, unimproved site to pick up an accident victim. Synthetic cues included approach and landing-zone signposts, highway-in-the-sky guidance for a 6-degree approach, approach direction lights, landing direction lights, and a synthetic helipad. Performance measures included destination visual acquisition time, transit time, obstacle avoidance, landing accuracy, and workload. Signposts allowed significantly shorter destination visual acquisition times. There were no significant differences in perceived workload. The baseline flights using the Global Positioning System (GPS) terminated further from the desired landing zone than flights using the HMD imagery. Successful visual avoidance of obstacles in the out-the-window view varied for different types of obstacles.
A Peripherally-Located Virtual Instrument Landing Display Affords More Precise Control of Approach Path During Simulated Landings than Traditional Instrument Landing Displays BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Nathan K. Bulkley; Brian P. Dyre; Roger Lew; Kristin Caufield
We compared the precision of simulated fixed-wing aircraft landing approaches with three different head-up display (HUD) formats: a) MIL-STD-1787B Cruise Mode, b) MIL-STD-1787B Instrument Landing System (ILS) Mode, and c) a virtual ILS HUD presented to the visual periphery. Non-pilot participants used simplified controls to guide a landing simulation under both day and night visual meteorological conditions. Experiment 1 confirmed that testing non-pilots with our experimental setting could induce the black-hole illusion, in which the approach is lower than appropriate at night. Experiment 2 compared landing performance aided by the three HUD formats under the same visual conditions. We found that both ILS displays improved approach path precision as compared to the MIL-STD Cruise Mode, and that the peripherally-located virtual ILS HUD reliably afforded the greatest precision. These results suggest that ILS approaches may be better supported by presenting a virtual ILS display to the visual periphery.
Assessing the Effects of Conformal Terrain Features in Advanced Head-Up Displays on Pilot Performance BIBAFull-Text 36-40
  Sang-Hwan Kim; David B. Kaber
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) and/or Enhanced Vision System (EVS) rendering of terrain features on pilot performance, including path control and situation awareness (SA), when presented in an advanced head-up display (HUD) during various phases of a landing approach under instrument meteorological conditions (IMCs). Results indicated that SVS imagery increase overall SA but degraded flight path control performance due to visual confusion with other display features. EVS increased flight path control accuracy but decreased system awareness by creating visual distractions for pilots (moisture returns), while they were focused on path control. The combination of SVS and EVS generated offsetting effects but there were still decrements in performance in the final landing phase due to overall HUD clutter. In general, display configurations in this study did not affect pilot spatial awareness but there was an influence on awareness of (iconic) system information. An IMC-day condition produced worse pilot performance than night flight because of reduced visual saliency of HUD information features. Flight performance was not different between phases of approach but levels and types of pilot SA did vary from leg to leg.
Modeling Operator Responses to Alerts BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Steven J. Landry; Hyo-sang Yoo
Two models were evaluated with respect to Aviation Safety Reporting System incident reports related to the Ground Proximity Warning System. These reports were examined for consistency with the first model, which was found to be invalid. A second model was developed to better explain the data, and was found to be consistent with the data and with previous results related to responses to alerting systems.
Eye Tracking Analysis of the Effects of Experience and Training on Pilots' Ability to Identify Adverse Weather Conditions BIBAFull-Text 46-50
  Michael W. Sawyer; Scott A. Shappell
Adverse weather remains one of the leading causes of fatal accidents in general aviation. A large portion of fatal weather accidents involve visual flight rules (VFR) pilots' continued flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). This study aims to analyze the way experience and training affect pilots weather identification accuracy, response bias, and visual scanpaths. The study involved 60 participants divided into three experience groups: non-pilots, low-time pilots, and high-time pilots. Participants viewed a series of weather scenes and were asked to determine if the conditions allowed for VFR flight. Participants then completed WeatherWise, a cue-based training program, before viewing another group of weather images. While training failed to improve decision accuracy for any group, all groups showed a significant shift in bias towards not continuing flight after training. The eye tracking data showed many differences in visual scan behavior between experience groups and training conditions.
The Effects of Geographic Familiarity and Map Complexity on Mental Rotation BIBAFull-Text 51-55
  Kelene Fercho; Doug Peterson
The present study examined the effects of stimulus complexity and geographic familiarity upon mental rotation while simultaneously engaging participants in a simulated flight task. Nineteen licensed pilots (16 men and 3 women) participated in a mental rotation task. Results indicated a piecemeal strategy was used with maps representing an unfamiliar geographic area. Further, an exploratory analysis indicated that unfamiliar condition participants may have used a strategy described by Loftus (1978), in which two rotations are performed -- the first from the cue orientation to the nearest cardinal direction, and the second from the cardinal direction to the target orientation. Those in the familiar condition used a nonrotational strategy (i.e., a piecemeal comparison between the presented map and their cognitive map) to perform the rotation task. Unfamiliar condition flight performance was more affected by the experimental manipulations. This suggests that cognitive transformations performed on unfamiliar geographic images are cognitively more demanding than those using familiar geographic images.
Designing Memory Aids to Facilitate Intentions to Deviate from Routine in an Air Traffic Control Simulation BIBAFull-Text 56-60
  Shayne Loft; Rebekah E. Smith; Adella Bhaskara
In many occupations individuals need to remember to deviate from routine in order to perform intended actions, and a failure to do so can be catastrophic. The effectiveness of two memory aids was examined in an air traffic control simulation. After training on the air traffic control simulation, participants were instructed to press an alternative response key instead of a routine response key when accepting target aircraft into their sector. One type of memory aid presented this instruction constantly on the display screen. Despite this, individuals failed to deviate from routine just as often as when no such memory aid were available. A second memory aid was designed to pulsate (flash) at the time deviation from routine was required. This memory aid improved prospective memory performance. Implications for the design of memory aids for occupations where individuals monitor dynamic multi-item display screens are discussed.
Why are those Lights Flashing? Direct-to-Pilot Warnings for Preventing Runway Incursions BIBAFull-Text 61-65
  Kevin M. Long; Kathleen A. McGarry
This paper describes the results of a Human-in-the-Loop simulation that took place in the Air Traffic Management Lab at MITRE/CAASD. The study explored the effectiveness of three different lighting configurations for the Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal at preventing runway incursions. Pilots were presented with scenarios containing surface conflicts in which one of the three lighting configurations were used to alert air crews, in addition to scenarios that contained no conflicts. The results of the study suggest that all of the configurations were effective at preventing runway incursions, but that none of the configurations were significantly better than another.
Adaptive Boundary Aids in Complex Air Combat Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 66-70
  Sean L. Guarino; Karen Harper; Emilie Roth; Dahai Liu; Dennis Vincenzi
Advances in aircraft operational capabilities have led to a dramatic increase in the operational tempo facing air combat aviators, which has in turn led to SA failures, particularly with respect to secondary information. For example, when engaging an air threat, aviators will often overlook key information such as geopolitical boundaries, resulting in potential infractions of rules of engagement. In a previous study, we investigated an Adaptive Border Display designed to maintain awareness of these boundaries, and found that it was not helpful. However, in that study, our scenarios did not create the high workload situations in which pilots lose track of these boundaries. In this study, we used significantly more complex scenarios to investigate this display, creating high workload situations for the aviators. Results showed that in these situations, the Adaptive Border display had a significant effect on improving aviator performance.
Display type effects in military operational tasks using UAV video images BIBAFull-Text 71-75
  Yaniv Minkov; Tal Oron-Gilad
Employing advanced technology in combat can be helpful, but should be done with caution. Specifically, the use of video images retrieved from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by dismounted soldiers can be beneficial for presenting tactical and geographic information, when properly displayed. This work follows our previous studies on the type (e.g. size) of displays required by dismounted soldiers to process video feed from UAVs. Sixteen former infantry soldiers with no experience using UAV video feed participated. Four displays were examined in two scenarios (urban and rural) and in three different task domains (interpretation, orientation and response). Performance and subjective data were collected. Results show trends for differences between displays, scenarios, and task domain dependency. The most consistent trend marks the smallest display (personal digital assistant -- PDA) to be unsuitable for this type of tasks.
Proposed Techniques for Extending Ecological Interface Design to Tactile Displays: Using Tactile Cues to Enhance UAV Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 76-80
  G. Robert Arrabito; Geoffrey Ho; Heidi Au; Jocelyn M. Keillor; Mark Rutley; Annie Lambert; Ming Hou
There is little guidance for designers on how to map information requirements to tactile displays. In this paper, we propose new directions for carrying out the mapping of tactile displays based on semantic mapping techniques used in auditory and visual displays. We discuss these techniques in relation to the design of a multimodal ground control station (GCS) for unmanned aerial vehicles to improve the visually-dominated GCS interface. We hope that this approach will encourage the design of better, safer, and more intuitive UAV GCS interfaces to reduce the frequency of mishaps related to human error.
Systematic Tele-operation with Augmented Reality Path Planned Navigation Cues in Cluttered Environments BIBAFull-Text 81-85
  Keshav Chintamani; Alex Cao; R. Darin Ellis; Chin-An Tan; Abhilash K. Pandya
A novel method of providing human operators with Augmented Reality (AR) cues for collision-free navigation of robot arms in cluttered environments is described. The cues are graphic objects that aid the operator to rotate and translate the end-effector of the robot along AR collision-free paths pre-computed by a probabilistic path planner. Manual control of robot arms is a common mode of tele-manipulation on the International Space Station (ISS). Limited depth perception of the remote robot's 3D worksite can result in collisions with severe consequences. This paper combines the qualities of a planning algorithm to search for ideal paths, and the benefits of augmented reality for enhanced visualization. Presenting spatial path information to the user in an intuitive manner results in collision-free robot navigation along with performance repeatability. We present findings from the implementation of such a system with human operators and show that the system is beneficial.
Predicting Pilot Performance in Off-Nominal Conditions: a Meta-Analysis and Model Validation BIBAFull-Text 86-90
  Christopher D. Wickens; Becky L. Hooey; Brian F. Gore; Angelia Sebok; Corey Koenecke; Ellen Salud
Pilot response to off-nominal (very rare) events represents a critical component to understanding the safety of next generation airspace technology and procedures. We describe a meta-analysis designed to integrate the existing data regarding pilot accuracy of detecting rare, unexpected events such as runway incursions in realistic flight simulations. Thirty-five studies were identified and pilot responses were categorized by expectancy, event location, and whether the pilot was flying with a highway-in-the-sky display. All three dichotomies produced large, significant effects on event miss rate. A model of human attention and noticing, N-SEEV, was then used to predict event noticing performance as a function of event salience and expectancy, and retinal eccentricity. Eccentricity is predicted from steady state scanning by the SEEV model of attention allocation. The model was used to predict miss rates for the expectancy, location and highway-in-the-sky (HITS) effects identified in the meta-analysis. The correlation between model-predicted results and data from the meta-analysis was 0.72.
False alerts in the ATC conflict alert system: is there a cry wolf effect? BIBAFull-Text 91-95
  Christopher D. Wickens; Shaun Hutchins; Stephen Rice; David Keller; Jamie Hughes
We analyzed the extent to which a high false alert rate of the conflict alerting (CA) system in five ATC facilities was the cause of a "cry-wolf" effect, whereby true alerts of a pending loss of separation were associated with either controller failure to respond, or a delayed response. Radar track data surrounding 497 CA's were examined and from these we extracted information as to whether the alert was true or false, whether a trajectory change was (response) or was not (non-response) evident, whether a loss of separation occurred, and the controller response time to the CA. Results revealed an overall 47% false alert rate, but that increases in this rate across facilities was not associated with more non-responses or delayed responses to true alerts, or loss-of-separation. Cry-wolf appeared to be absent. Instead, desirable anticipatory behavior indicated that controllers often responded prior to the conflict alerts.
Human Factors Issues in the Design of Super-Dense Operations Airspace BIBAFull-Text 96-100
  Philip J. Smith; Amy L. Spencer; Mark Evans; Anthony D. Andre; Jimmy Krozel
A knowledge acquisition study was completed focusing on two questions: 1. What is a concept of operation for the design and use of Super-Dense Operations (SDO) airspace within the next 10 years? 2. What are the human factors issues that need to be addressed in order to enable this concept of operation? To address these questions, a series of structured interviews were conducted with four FAA specialists with significant experience as controllers, traffic managers and airspace designers and with one experienced commercial pilot. The operational concept developed based on the expertise of these individuals has similarities to proposals under the FAA's "Big Airspace" project, making heavy use of advanced Area navigation (RNAV) routes, but goes beyond the current state of that concept by making explicit a number of foundational assumptions, and by proposing a system design to deal with convective weather.
Towards Information Coordination and Reduced Team Size in Space Flight Mission Operations BIBAFull-Text 101-105
  Jeffrey D. Onken; Barrett S. Caldwell
Teamwork and task coordination is essential in spaceflight mission operations for organizations such as NASA. However, future operational requirements in the Constellation Program suggest a need to reduce full-time mission operations staffing. Technology to achieve these goals must focus on supporting operator teamwork and team coordination, helping increase knowledge sharing between flight controllers. Several problems will be faced in the transition to a smaller flight controller team size. Many of these problems can be mitigated by augmenting flight data and controller training by adding context, integration, aggregation, and projection of vehicle state and trend data. Increased sharing of context and operational horizons of flight data can more effectively support flight controllers during sensemaking, decision making, and coordination and handoff tasks.
The Use of Concept Maps to Support Human-System Integration Requirements: Highlighting the Human Touch Points BIBAFull-Text 106-110
  Ronald Small; Christopher Plott; Patricia L. McDermott
Concept maps are graphical representations of a body of knowledge and the relationships between parts of that knowledge. Concept maps help people see relationships among ideas and the range of topics to be considered in a concise form. The project discussed in this paper uses concept maps to support the design and development of a human-system integration (HSI) assessment tool to help system acquisition staff develop HSI requirements, to review deliverables for completeness, and to conduct or review HSI evaluations during the system acquisition process. Concept maps, used in this novel way, can help ensure that the essential aspects of a system or a problem are captured. Exemplar systems to be mapped are the F-15E, Stratcom's Global Operations Center (GOC), and the Predator unmanned aerial system.

AGING

The Role of Human Factors in Older Worker Retention: What do we know and what will we need to know? BIBAFull-Text 111-115
  Carrie Bruce; Sheree Gibson; Jon Sanford; Diana Schwerha; Diane Spokus; Harry S. Whiting; Anne McLaughlin; Randa L. Shehab
In less than two years the oldest of the baby boom cohort will begin to turn 65 and the projected mass exodus of the older workforce will begin -- or will it? With the recent change in the economy and loss of trillions of dollars in retirement savings, many older workers will most likely need to work slightly longer than expected. Additionally, companies will be in need of retaining their most experienced employees or they will need to recruit experienced workers from other places. The goal of this discussion panel is to provide the latest data on ways we can utilize human factors and ergonomics interventions to retain older workers. Panel discussants are divided between industry and academia, and they will address: 1) issues related to common injuries of the older worker and ways to reduce them, 2) work factors significant to the retention of older workers, and 3) retaining older workers who have disabilities.
Cognition and Illness Experience are Associated with Illness Knowledge Among Older Adults with Hypertension BIBAFull-Text 116-120
  Jessie Chin; Laura D'Andrea; Dan Morrow; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow; Thembi Conner-Garcia; James Graumlich; Michael Murray
We investigated how cognitive abilities and illness experience relate to illness knowledge. One hundred and forty-eight community-dwelling older adults including hypertensive patients and healthy adults completed a battery that measured illness knowledge, fluid cognitive abilities, crystallized abilities, and health history. Results suggested that hypertension knowledge was primarily associated with illness duration (despite a negative relationship between illness duration and fluid ability) and crystallized ability. Also, greater illness knowledge was associated with an illness perception that may be more consistent with self-care (e.g., greater sense of control). Implications for patient education and training are discussed.
Hearing Levels Affect Higher Order Cognitive Performance BIBAFull-Text 121-125
  Carryl L. Baldwin
Twenty-one young (M=21.3) and 19 older (M=73.1) adults completed an aurally administered test of working memory capacity presented at 5 above threshold levels (65, 60, 55, 50, and 45 dB). The test required verification of sentences and recall of sentence final words at the end of each set. Audiometric assessment as well as sentence verification ensured that all auditory stimuli were above hearing levels in both age groups. Both young and older listeners demonstrated reduced working memory capacity scores as stimuli were presented at lower dB levels. The impact of decreases in dB level was greater for older relative to younger adults. But since older adults have elevated hearing thresholds within the range investigated here, the capacity differences observed between the two groups may be negligible. Implications of the results for theories of cognitive aging and for cognitive testing among older adults with subclinical hearing loss are discussed.
Older Adults and Internet Health Information Seeking BIBAFull-Text 126-130
  Sara J. Czaja; Joseph Sharit; Sankaran N. Nair; Chin Chin Lee
The Internet is increasingly being used by consumers as a source of health information. This study examined factors that influence trust of Internet health information and how trust varies as a function of demographic characteristics, Internet experience, and computer attitudes. Data is also reported on the perceptions of the value and use of Internet-based health information. One hundred and twelve adults (50-85 years) were asked to perform Internet-based health information-seeking tasks and rate factors that influence their trust in Internet health information, the value of this information, and general trust of Internet information vs. trust of information from a doctor. The results indicated that trust is influenced by website identifiers (e.g., government agencies) and design features (e.g., ease of use). Most participants indicated that they would use the Internet health information and that access to this information would have some influence on their health behaviors. These findings underscore the importance of considering design and content issues when designing health websites.
Emotion Recognition of Virtual Agents Facial Expressions: The Effects of Age and Emotion Intensity BIBAFull-Text 131-135
  Jenay M. Beer; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
People make determinations about the social characteristics of an agent (e.g., robot or virtual agent) by interpreting social cues displayed by the agent, such as facial expressions. Although a considerable amount of research has been conducted investigating age-related differences in emotion recognition of human faces (e.g., Sullivan, & Ruffman, 2004), the effect of age on emotion identification of virtual agent facial expressions has been largely unexplored. Age-related differences in emotion recognition of facial expressions are an important factor to consider in the design of agents that may assist older adults in a recreational or healthcare setting. The purpose of the current research was to investigate whether age-related differences in facial emotion recognition can extend to emotion-expressive virtual agents. Younger and older adults performed a recognition task with a virtual agent expressing six basic emotions. Larger age-related differences were expected for virtual agents displaying negative emotions, such as anger, sadness, and fear. In fact, the results indicated that older adults showed a decrease in emotion recognition accuracy for a virtual agent's emotions of anger, fear, and happiness.
More than a Servant: Self-Reported Willingness of Younger and Older Adults to having a Robot perform Interactive and Critical Tasks in the Home BIBAFull-Text 136-140
  Neta Ezer; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
Many companies are developing robots for the home, including robots specifically for older adults. There is little understanding, however, about the types and characteristics of tasks that younger and older individuals would be willing to let a robot perform. In a mailed questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate their willingness to have a robot perform each of 15 robot tasks that required different levels of interaction with the human owner and different levels of task criticality. The responses of 117 older adults (aged 65-86) and 60 younger adults (aged 18-25) were analyzed. The results indicated that respondents of both groups were more willing to have robots perform infrequent, albeit important, tasks that required little interaction with the human compared to service-type tasks with more required interaction; they were least willing to have a robot perform non-critical tasks requiring extensive interaction between robot and human. Older adults reported more willingness than younger adults in having a robot perform critical tasks in their home. The results suggest that both younger and older individuals are more interested in the benefits that a robot can provide than in their interactive abilities.

AUGMENTED COGNITION

A Comparison of Performance and Psychophysiological Classification of Complex Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 141-145
  Glenn F. Wilson; Justin Estepp; Iris Davis
Psychophysiologically guided classifiers have been used to distinguish between low and high mental workload conditions. Prior studies used cognitive tasks that were quite different in terms of the cognitive demands placed on the operator. It is not clear if these classifiers can discriminate between tasks that are more similar in cognitive demand. A complex uninhabited aerial vehicle simulator provided conditions that were similar but placed emphasis on different aspects of the task. Performance and subjective workload data could only discriminate between the baseline task and the three more difficult tasks. Artificial neural networks (ANN) that used psychophysiological data were able to discriminate among the four tasks with a mean accuracy of 83.4%. ANNs that used a larger number of features and saliency analysis produced higher classification accuracies than ANNs using fewer features. It appears that when comparing cognitively similar complex tasks, given sufficient information, ANNs are capable of finer discrimination than performance and subjective workload measures.
Towards a Modular Cognitive State Gauge: Assessing Spatial Ability Utilization with Multiple Physiological Measures BIBAFull-Text 146-150
  Lee W. Sciarini; Cali Fidopiastis; Denise Nicholson
Many current and emerging systems for Cognitive State Assessment have yet to achieve the goals required for application for Augmented Cognition. Numerous efforts are working towards this goal but may lack the ability to be unified into a reliable and generalizable Cognitive State Gauge. The overall purpose of this effort is to determine under what conditions multiple minimally intrusive physiological sensors can be used together and validly applied to areas within a modular cognitive state assessment framework. This study investigated the utility of various measures in detecting changes in cognitive state. We examined the differences within the output from multiple physiological sensing devices under varying levels of task difficulty during a task that was highly dependent on spatial ability (SPA). Supportive evidence for a modular cognitive state gauge (MCSG) was revealed with the finding of significant results for several physiological measures on a novel spatial task.
Use of Functional Near Infrared Imaging to Investigate Neural Correlates of Expertise in Military Target Identification BIBAFull-Text 151-154
  Joseph R. Keebler; Lee W. Sciarini; Cali Fidopiastis; Florian Jentsch; Denise Nicholson
This paper explores the use of functional near infrared imaging in the investigation of expertise in an applied setting, specifically that of military vehicle recognition and identification. Although brain research has shown strong support for the localization of function for identifying objects, specifically in areas such as the face fuseiform gyrus, the authors believe there may be potential in measuring the upper regions of the parietal cortex to find differences between novices and experts. Four participants, two novices and two experts, were used in a military vehicle identification task while being measured with a Functional Near Infrared (fNIR) imager. Results show promise for further use of this technology in training, evaluation and augmented cognition.
Sustaining Vigilance by Activating a Secondary Task When Inattention is Detected BIBAFull-Text 155-159
  Mark St John; Matthew R. Risser
Vigilance tasks, from driving a vehicle to surveillance to security monitoring, are both commonplace and high-stakes. Yet users have well known difficulties sustaining vigilance. We evaluate the ability of an augmented cognition closed-loop attention management (CLAM) system to sustain vigilance and task performance by monitoring operator's psychophysiology, detecting inattention, and activating a countermeasure when inattention crosses a threshold. Eighteen participants performed a vigilance task and were monitored for inattention via a combination of eye, head, and electroecephalographic (EEG) measures. A cognitively demanding secondary task was activated either when inattention was detected or randomly throughout a 40 minute session. While participants in both conditions demonstrated a vigilance decrement, as measured by an increase in misses over the course of the session, the CLAM condition produced 17% fewer misses overall than the random condition. This improvement was not due to the countermeasure, per se, but to the timing of the countermeasure to participant's detected inattention. The advantage for a tailored presentation of the secondary task is noteworthy because prior evaluations of continuous secondary tasks demonstrated degraded vigilance performance. The results inform our understanding of how human vigilance operates and the technology for its detection and manipulation.
The Effects of the Adaptability and Reliability of Automation on Performance, Stress and Workload BIBAFull-Text 160-164
  Grant S. Taylor; James L. Szalma
One way in which non-human agents manifest in complex systems is through the use of adaptive automation. In this case, the degree of involvement of a computer-based agent can be controlled dynamically as a function of environmental conditions and operator state. The current study examined the effects of specific aspects of adaptive automation, reliability and adaptability (the ability of the system to adapt appropriately to changes in task demand), on human performance, stress, and workload.

COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING

Human-Robot Interaction: Issues in the Design of Interfaces for Work in Distant Environments BIBAFull-Text 165-166
  Douglas J. Gillan
The goal of technology tends to be to enhance and extend human capabilities. One purpose of robotics is to be able to work in a task environment that is distant from you, often because that distant environment is less safe and/or less accessible than your current environment. HRI must address a number of critical issues in order for human-robot system interfaces to be effective and efficient. The goal of this symposium is to identify selected critical interface issues and to provide conceptual/theoretical, empirical, and applied discussions of the interface-related issues in HRI.
Map and Ground View Integration in UGV Systems: A Structured Observational Analysis BIBAFull-Text 167-171
  Roger A. Chadwick; Joseph C. Vargas
Compared to natural perception, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations place the human operator at a perceptual disadvantage, especially with regard to spatial comprehension and navigation. Map views using dynamic informative vehicle icons are seen as key to the efficiency of UGV mission scenarios. The recently completed ARL ADA Navigation Aides Experiment, a collaborative venture of New Mexico State University, North Carolina State University, Alion Science, and SA Technologies, provided an opportunity for observing participant behavior in UGV scenarios using various map options. Observations, anecdotal evidence, and conjectures regarding the human factors of map use in UGV interface systems are discussed.
Situation Awareness and Team Communication in Robot Control BIBAFull-Text 172-176
  Jennifer M. Riley; Laura D. Strater; Fleet Davis; Sean Strater; Laurie Faulkner
Operator performance in robotics tasks is impacted by the situation awareness (SA) that individuals or teams are able to acquire and maintain on the robot, the associated environments, and the tasks to be completed. SA can be influenced by team processes when multiple humans must work together for coordinating control of multiple robotic systems. In this study, we investigated the relationship between SA and team verbal communications in a collaborative robotics tasks involving robots under semi-autonomous control. Results indicate that the content, format, and amount of communication can significantly impact operator SA and task performance.
The Tradeoff of Frame Rate and Resolution in a Route Clearing Task: Implications for Human-Robot Interaction BIBAFull-Text 177-181
  Patricia L. McDermott; Alia Fisher
The implications of bandwidth allocation are described for teleoperation in a military task that involved navigation, target detection, and target identification. Color versus grayscale imagery was manipulated. Participants themselves traded off resolution and frame rate settings. Participants minimized switching between resolution/frame rate settings and tended to use settings with high resolution/low frame rate. Courses completed with the highest resolution (and lowest frame rate) had the fastest target identification times, but no other differences were observed between settings. Color imagery offered advantages for overall course time and the time to identify a tank as friendly or enemy.
An Investigation of the Tactile Communications Channel for Robotic Control BIBAFull-Text 182-186
  Shaun Hutchins; Keryl Ann Cosenzo; Patricia L. McDermott; Theo-dric Feng; Michael Barnes; Marc Gacy
The impacts on performance of three different forms of communication (radio, chat, and tactile belt) were explored in the context of a small unmanned ground vehicle (SUGV) target identification task. The target identification task required a Commander with knowledge of target locations and access to a digital map displaying the current SUGV position and orientation to direct a Soldier remotely operating the SUGV to the targets using a finite set of eleven commands. The study revealed no evidence for a loss of soldier performance with the tactile belt communications channel. The finding suggests that the tactile use of haptic signals may be feasible, a potentially important finding for situations requiring covert communications.
Comparing, Merging, and Adapting Methods of Cognitive Task Analysis BIBAFull-Text 187-191
  Robert R. Hoffman; Julie A. Adams; Ann Bisantz; Birsen Donmez; David B. Kaber; Emilie Roth
Cognitive systems engineering projects have found a need for and a value in combining particular methods of cognitive task analysis (CTA). A principle reason that is given is that different CTA methods have different strengths in terms of how they inform the study, analysis or design of cognitive work systems. Focus questions include: What specific CTA methods have been combined or merged for some particular research project? What was the rationale for the selection of methods? How did researchers do the combining? Were methods actually merged into a single procedure, or were multiple methods conducted separately, what the resulting analyses or representations merged subsequently?
Design and Validation of a Synthetic Task Environment to Study Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Re-Planning BIBAFull-Text 192-196
  Maia B. Cook; Harvey S. Smallman; Frank C. Lacson; Daniel I. Manes
A key challenge facing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operators is the need to re-plan routes on-the-fly when situations change. Operators must comprehend three-dimensional (3D) scenes and a multitude of potentially competing 3D mission and routing constraints in order to successfully re-plan, often under time pressure. Currently, there is significant research interest in supporting UAV operators through automation and improved visualizations. However, development and integration of these methods requires a careful understanding of the 3D spatial awareness challenges and requirements facing operators. To facilitate this understanding, here we report the design and validation of a synthetic task environment (STE) and testbed to study UAV re-planning. The STE is derived from a recent task analysis conducted with Navy UAV operators that focused on the key 3D spatial challenges entailed in re-planning. In an initial validation of the STE implemented in a re-planning testbed, several measures of re-planning performance were assessed for 36 participants working through controlled re-planning scenarios. The presence of mountainous terrain and the spatial overlap of mission constraints were parametrically varied. Performance was consistently worse in mountainous terrain, and in more highly-constrained conditions in mountainous terrain. In flat terrain, however, less constrained conditions resulted in paradoxically worse performance. Results have both basic and applied implications. Theoretically, the study provides a bridge between applied re-planning research and classic human problem solving work by allowing apparently simpler, unconstrained re-planning to be conceived of as less bounded search through re-planning problem space. For application, the results help constrain and define the requirements for future 3D visualization and automation support for UAV re-planning displays.
Effect of Level of Automation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing Task BIBAFull-Text 197-201
  Gloria L. Calhoun; Mark H. Draper; Heath A. Ruff
Supervisory control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) raises many issues concerning the balance of system autonomy with human interaction for optimal operator situation awareness and system performance. A UAV simulation environment designed to manipulate the application of automation was used to evaluate participants' performance on routing tasks under three levels of automation. Trials also involved completion of several mission-related secondary tasks as participants supervised either one or three UAVs. Both objective and subjective data were collected. The results showed that participants took longer to complete the routing task when automation was high due to the time they spent verifying the accuracy of the imperfect decision aid. These results show the importance of designing an interface that provides an efficient means of interacting with the automation and communicates the automation's rationale, especially under high automation levels.
Techniques for Effective Collaborative Automation For Air Mission Replanning BIBAFull-Text 202-206
  Ronald Scott; Emilie Roth; Robert Truxler; John Ostwald; Jeffrey Wampler
We describe the most recent work-centered design for a military airlift organization. Earlier design cycles produced a set of coordinated visualizations to support synchronized air mission replanning. In this phase of the program automated planning support was incorporated to help C2 staff solve complex constraint problems across multiple missions and airfields. We describe our efforts at designing a replanning tool to work in collaboration with the human operator on complex replanning problems. A prototype was developed and used in an empirical evaluation comparing target user performance on complex constraint problems using either the visualizations alone or the visualizations with embedded automated support (collaborative planner). The collaborative planner significantly improved the speed and quality of dynamic replanning solutions. Post-test questionnaire ratings indicated users trusted the support provided by the automated aid. Design principles for effective collaborative automation are discussed.
Evaluating Emergency Department Information Technology Using a Simulation-based Approach BIBAFull-Text 207-211
  Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Dapeng Cao; Zheng Sui; Ann M. Bisantz; Li Lin; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Theresa K. Guarrera; Jennifer L. Brown; Shawna J. Perry; Robert L. Wears
Manual status boards, which are used in many emergency departments to track patient and ED status information, are being replaced with electronic patient tracking systems. Such technology transitions can be challenging for the users and can produce undesirable consequences if the new technologies are not properly designed and tested. Understanding the impact of technologies such as electronic patient tracking systems before implementation in a real ED can help avert adverse safety consequences and promote user adoption. However, it is challenging to test technologies in real-world domains such as an ED, due to time pressures and safety critical tasks. A more feasible alternative is to employ simulation in a lab-based environment. This paper describes research measuring situation awareness and workload during user interaction with a simulated electronic patient tracking system. The impact of technology design on situation awareness and workload, and insights on design improvement are discussed.
Human Reliance on an Automated Combat ID System: Effects of Display Format BIBAFull-Text 212-216
  Heather F. Neyedli; Justin G. Hollands; Greg A. Jamieson
Informing users of reliability levels can engender more appropriate reliance on automated systems. In an experiment, reliability information was presented on a rifle-mounted interface for an automated combat identification (CID) system to participants in a first-person shooter simulation of a combat environment. Results showed two effects: First, a mesh display supported better discrimination of hostile and friendly targets than did a pie chart. Second, participants shown an integrated display were better able to adjust their reliance to the changing reliability level than participants shown separated displays. Providing reliability information changed participants' reliance strategies; however, display integration appears to play a role in how system reliability information is used.
Rasmussen's S-R-K 30 Years Later: Is Human Factors Best in 3's? BIBAFull-Text 217-221
  David Woods
2009 is the 30th anniversary of the original publication of Jens Rasmussen's Skill-Rule-Knowledge (S-R-K) framework in a technical report from Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark (Rasmussen, 1979a). Given the influence of this work, it is timely to have a panel discussion that examines the impact of this paper and its current status. Since S-R-K is a three level heuristic, the panelists were also asked to address the questions: Can Human Factors be boiled down to just 3 levels? What are the 3 levels that capture the essentials of people at work?
Evaluating the Creation and Interpretation of Causal Influence Models BIBAFull-Text 222-226
  Dapeng Cao; Theresa K. Guarrera; Michael Jenkins; Priyadarshini R. Pennathur; Ann M. Bisantz; Richard Stone; Michael Farry; Jonathan Pfautz; Emilie Roth
Bayesian networks (BNs) are probabilistic models frequently used to capture domain knowledge for use in computational systems that can reason about states, causes, and effects. While BNs have many advantages, their complexity can hamper the process of knowledge elicitation and encoding. First, domain experts may not have expertise in artificial reasoning or probabilistic models, and that lack of understanding may complicate the elicitation of probabilities relevant to BN model structure. In addition, BNs require the definition of a priori, conditional probabilities: for complex models, this requires eliciting large numbers of complex probabilities. Multiple "canonical modeling" approaches, such as Causal Influence Models (CIMs), have been developed to address these complexities. However, little progress has been made towards human-in-the-loop evaluation of such approaches -- specifically, their accessibility and usability, their related user interfaces, and how they enable a user to correctly create and interpret variables and probabilistic relationships. In this study, we evaluated the CIM approach (implemented in a software application) to determine the effect on user task performance. Results indicate that the model complexity has an adverse effect on performance when users are interpreting an existing model; that semantics of a model may impact performance; and that users were generally successful in creating new models of different situations.
Conscious versus Unconscious Processing in Dynamic Decision Making Tasks BIBAFull-Text 227-231
  C. Dominik Guss; Jarrett Evans; Devon Murray; Harald Schaub
Recent research suggests that unconscious processing is superior to conscious processing in tasks involving many decision alternatives (Dijksterhuis et al., 2006). One explanation for these findings is the limited information processing capacity of the human working memory and the almost unlimited resources of unconscious processing. The current study further investigates this topic by using more complex tasks than previously used, i.e., two complex, dynamic, and transparent tasks. Contrary to previous findings, instructions for conscious processing led to better performance in the more complex task. Results are explained referring to methodological reasons and to literature on metacognition. Besides the theoretical relevance, findings could be relevant for training programs on dynamic decision making.
Expert Judgment in a Heterogeneous Task Environment BIBAFull-Text 232-236
  Jennifer Tsai; Alex Kirlik
Recent times have seen an explosion of research on the intersection between rules, models, heuristics, and ecological task structure. Many groups have worked to connect loose strategies and findings into a more cohesive theory of judgment, specifying the particular ecologies under which various strategies work well or not. However, the majority of this research has been conducted under the assumption that judgment environments are homogeneous in composition. This paper reports an experiment in which the judgment task of interest possesses a heterogeneous structure, with different subsets of the task environment governed by different rules or weighting functions. Results reveal that experts were able to perform the task well by taking advantage of the heterogeneous nature of the task ecology, selectively choosing and adapting their use of strategies according to how well each operates in the different sub-ecologies of the task environment. Implications for understanding and supporting expert judgment in operational contexts are discussed.
Complexities and Challenges in the Use of Bayesian Belief Networks: Informing the Design of Causal Influence Models BIBAFull-Text 237-241
  Jonathan Pfautz; David Koelle; Eric Carlson; Emilie Roth
Bayesian belief networks (BNs) are well-suited to capturing vague and uncertain knowledge. However, the capture of this knowledge and associated reasoning from human domain experts often requires specialized knowledge engineers responsible for translating the expert's communications into BN-based models. Across application domains, we have analyzed how these models are constructed, refined, and validated with domain experts. From this analysis, we have identified key user-centered complexities and challenges that we have used to drive the selection of simplifying assumptions. This led us to develop computational techniques and user interface methods that leverage these same assumptions with the goal of improving the efficiency and ease with which expert knowledge can be expressed, verified, validated, and encoded. In this paper, we present the results of our analysis of BN construction, validation, and use. We discuss how these results motivated the design of a simplified version of BNs called Causal Influence Models (CIMs). In addition, we detail how CIMs enable the design and construction of user interface mechanisms that address complexities identified in our analysis.
Tactical Decision Making Under Conditions of Uncertainty: An Empirical Study BIBAFull-Text 242-246
  Lawrence G. Shattuck; Nita Lewis Miller; Kacey E. Kemmerer
Uncertainty is a fundamental characteristic of warfare. Military decision makers confront uncertainty when the data they encounter are incomplete (missing), ambiguous, or conflicting. This study examined how different categories of uncertainty (ambiguous/missing, conflicting, baseline) affect response time and type of decisions made in a low-fidelity tactical decision making task. Prior to the study, researchers elicited real-world tactical scenarios from veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom in which uncertainty was present. Nine scenarios were developed from the interviews and were given to 28 participants at the Command and General Staff College, FT Leavenworth, KS. Participants were asked to make a decision; their responses were recorded and analyzed. The results indicate that the category of uncertainty and scenario difficulty were significant factors in response time and type of decision made. These findings have the potential to improve human behavior modeling, tactical simulations, and representations of complex task environments.
Interacting with Single and Multiple Automated Aids BIBAFull-Text 247-248
  Poornima Madhavan
The purpose of this symposium is to provide an in-depth discussion of some of the key constructs that influence interaction with automation, particularly alarming systems. Emphasis is placed on the issue of trust, and the determinants of compliance and reliance on single versus 'teams' of multiple automated systems. The symposium is comprised of five papers presented by well-known scientists in the field. The range of topics discussed in this symposium include: temporal precedence in trust formation, a system-wide theory of trust in multiple automated aids, design of multimodal systems, and new alarm standards. The symposium concludes with a theoretical discussion of the concepts of 'trust' versus 'faith' in automation.
A Reexamination of the Mediating Effect of Trust among Alarm Systems' Characteristics and Human Compliance and Reliance BIBAFull-Text 249-253
  Ernesto A. Bustamante
The most widely accepted view regarding the relationship among the characteristics of alarm systems and human compliance with and reliance on such systems is that trust plays a critical mediating effect. Researchers have promoted this contention based on theoretical and empirical evidence. However, there are some limitations associated with the prior empirical work that researchers have used to support this contention. The purpose of this research was to present an approach that more adequately assesses the potential mediating effect of trust among systems' characteristics and human compliance and reliance by establishing temporal precedence in the measurement of trust, compliance, and reliance. Contrary to previous theory and empirical findings, the preliminary results from this approach suggest that trust does not serve as a mediating factor. These findings seem to suggest that although trust is related to human compliance and reliance, it is simply a result of systems' characteristics that may or may not have differential effects on human-automation interaction.
How is the Reliability of Automated Aids Determined Using System-Wide Trust? BIBAFull-Text 254-258
  David Keller; Stephen Rice
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine how operators, if using a system-wide trust strategy, combine their experience with the multiple aids in order to determine the single reliability value for the entire system. This study tests two different hypotheses: additive vs. averaging. Background: Keller and Rice (accepted) showed that operators tend to use a system-wide trust strategy when using multiple automation aids instead of evaluating the reliability of each aid separately. Operators using system-wide trust may combine their experience with the aids using either an additive or an averaging method. Method: 48 participants monitored one or two gauges, each with an automated aid at different reliability levels, while engaged in a pursuit tracking task that simulated an unmanned aerial vehicle mission flight. Results: After accounting for increased difficulty of using two gauges vs. one gauge, the results showed that participants still performed worse when using two gauges vs. one gauge even though all the aids were the same reliability. Conclusion: The results revealed that the additive hypothesis best predicted the data. Application: This study points to a topic that designers and users of systems with multiple aids should carefully consider.
Designing and Evaluating a Multimodal Interface for Soldier-Swarm Interaction BIBAFull-Text 259-263
  Ellen Haas; Susan Hill; Christopher Stachowiak; MaryAnne Fields
Traditional unmanned vehicle and robotic displays often use the visual modality alone to provide information and warnings. In previous studies we found that multimodal (auditory and/or tactile) cues that supplement visual displays, can increase user performance and decrease workload in a variety of settings. In this latest study, we examined the use of visual, spatial auditory, and tactile presentation of geospatial and warning information in a Soldier-robotic swarm interface. Sixteen male Marines with a mean age of 19 years from a Marine Detachment at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, acted as volunteer participants. Results showed that workload decreased and performance, as measured by reduced response time, increased with multimodal displays. These results are consistent with previous studies. The findings from this study have implications for the design of multimodal interfaces in complex, data-rich domains such as the human-swarm interface.
Auditory alarms for medical equipment: How do we ensure they convey their meanings? BIBAFull-Text 264-268
  Penelope M. Sanderson
For systems to be effective and to earn their users' trust, their signals must be readily interpreted. An international standard IEC 60601-1-8 was released in 2005 that provides guidelines on how to make auditory alarms on medical electrical equipment more recognisable and discriminable. Since the release of the standard, there have been concerns about the adequacy of its recommendations and, in particular, its proposal that manufacturers should use melodies to distinguish alarms from different sources. The melodies presented in the standard are just suggestions, but the standard does not indicate how an acceptable set of melodies can be established. Moreover, the standard does not require that developers perform thorough testing with representative users before implementing any melodies. The paper reviews studies performed over the last few years that demonstrate that the melodies suggested in IEC 60601-1-8 are ineffective. The paper also critiques suggestions that have been put forward for alternative alarm sounds, using speech synthesis techniques, better urgency mapping, and so on. Finally, criteria for future design and evaluation efforts are indicated.
Faith versus Trust: The Influence of Situational Experience on Perceived Signal Credibility, and a Distinction Between Constructs BIBAFull-Text 269-273
  James P. Bliss
In this paper, operators' cognitive appraisal of sensor-based alarm systems is examined. To date, researchers have followed an inductive approach to alarm reactions, proposing trust-based theories to account for variability in alarm reactions. Deductive reasoning has likewise led researchers to collect data in support of various theories. Existing theoretical frameworks assume a common precursor to operator belief systems: firsthand experience with alarm systems. However, humans are frequently exposed to signals with which they have limited knowledge. The construct of alarm "faith" is proposed to account for initial differences in alarm responding prior to experience. Implications of the constructual distinction between faith and trust are discussed with consideration given to task training applications.
Eye Movements and Reliance on External Memory Aids Predict Team Success in a Military Planning Task BIBAFull-Text 274-278
  Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Nicholas C. Lagattuta; Michael A. Rosen; Eduardo Salas
Participants completed a complex team exercise designed to mimic military planning operations. Each member of the three-person team was eye-tracked as they completed the group task. Members of successful teams had more fixations, were less reliant on external memory aids (push-pins), and created plans that were longer. Additionally, team members in key roles were more likely to experience decisional conflict and to have less confidence in their performance. Further examination of this finding showed that those who experienced greater decisional conflict also had fewer fixations. Low level eye movements may indicate high level team cognition.
Finding experts in networked teams using the Team Map tool BIBAFull-Text 279-283
  R. Dirk Beer; Harvey S. Smallman; Frank C. Lacson
Team members in rapidly assembled and often spatially distributed command and control teams have little time to get to know each other. Yet they need access to each other's expertise to work effectively. Current tools such as organizational charts are inadequate because they do not provide sufficient cues to indicate who has what expertise. The Team Map tool is a "souped-up" organizational chart in the form of a table that can reveal information such as previous jobs, training or other attributes in an easy-to-use way. As the first step in its design, we investigate how much information can usefully be shown in the Team Map user interface, given several possible team organization types. Using a theoretical framework of cues and cue foraging strategies, we find that a Team Map with just one additional "summary" cue leads to robust expert-finding performance across organization types, regardless of validity of already available cues. Computer simulations of the foraging task showed participants used less of the information available in the user interface the more cues are provided, and that participants had relatively simple cue-use strategies.
Understanding Coordination Challenges in Urban Firefighting: A Study of Critical Incident Reports BIBAFull-Text 284-288
  Matthieu Branlat; Lisa Fern; Martin Voshell; Stoney Trent
This paper explores the central role played by coordination during fire incident response. Following preliminary investigations based on other methods, the authors analyzed a corpus of 29 critical incident reports produced by one fire department's safety services. Urban firefighting is a complex domain in which members' activities need to be highly synchronized in order to reach common operational and safety goals. As the work environment challenges the capacity of firefighters to coordinate efficiently, coordination breakdowns might occur, creating safety threats as role interdependencies become difficult to manage.
Developing a Subjective Shared Situation Awareness Inventory for Teams BIBAFull-Text 289-293
  Sandro Scielzo; Laura D. Strater; Michelle L. Tinsley; Diane M. Ungvarsky; Mica R. Endsley
This paper presents the development of a subjective shared situation awareness (SA) inventory for distributed teams. Items populating the inventory were developed to incorporate participants' perceptions on key elements of SA, including the sufficiency of shared SA requirements, mechanisms, processes and devices. This inventory was administered during a large-scale distributed, computer-based, military simulation exercise. A reliability analysis showed that, overall, the inventory was highly consistent, and that, over time, instrument reliability increased. Median-split analyses on related constructs of mindfulness, implicit coordination, transactive memory, and motivation also revealed that the gap between high and low scorers increased over time in relation to ratings on the four components of shared SA. These findings indicate that participants better calibrated their perceptions of the quality of shared SA over time and that the relationship between these perceptions and these related constructs strengthened over time with experience in the exercise.
NeoCITIES Geo-tools: Assessing Impact of Perceptual Anchoring and Spatially Annotated Chat on Geo collaboration BIBAFull-Text 294-298
  Bimal Balakrishnan; Mark Pfaff; Michael D. McNeese; Varun Adibhatla
This paper describes the development and assessment of a scaled world simulation -- NeoCITIES Geo-tools. The simulation and interface components were developed with the aim of improving team cognition, collaboration and performance by drawing on theoretical perspectives of visual analytics, perceptual anchoring and knowledge management. Qualitative evaluations of the simulation as well as quantitative evaluations of two key features -- layer management tool and spatially annotated chat -- are also discussed.
Current Concepts and Trends in Human-Automation Interaction BIBAFull-Text 299-303
  Ernesto A. Bustamante; Poornima Madhavan; Christopher D. Wickens; Raja Parasuraman; Dietrich Manzey; Elin J. Bahner-Heyne; Joachim Meyer; James P. Bliss; John D. Lee; Stephen Rice
The purpose of this panel was to provide a general overview and discussion of some of the most current and controversial concepts and trends in human-automation interaction. The panel was composed of eight researchers and practitioners. The panelists are well-known experts in the area and offered differing views on a variety of different human-automation topics. The range of concepts and trends discussed in this panel include: general taxonomies regarding stages and levels of automation and function allocation, individualized adaptive automation, automation-induced complacency, economic rationality and the use of automation, the potential utility of false alarms, the influence of different types of false alarms on trust and reliance, and a system-wide theory of trust in multiple automated aids.
Cognitive task analysis of power grid monitors BIBAFull-Text 304-308
  David Close; Kari Babski-Reeves; Nick Younan; Noel Schulz
Power system monitors (or operators) are responsible for viewing and synthesizing data collected from all aspects of the power grids infrastructure. Operators take appropriate action based on incoming data, ensuring that power is available to all entities within their region. Given the volume of information available to operators, it is no surprise that information overload and filtering are common practices. Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a technique used to identify system aspects that impose large cognitive (mental) demands on the operator. The objective of this effort was to conduct a CTA for three desks within power utility companies in the southeast. Results illustrated that while there were similarities in the tasks and there is a strong interdependency between the desks, operator performance is variable with operators placing emphasis on different informational sources.
Using a Knowledge Elicitation Method to Specify the Business Model of a Human Factors Organization BIBAFull-Text 309-313
  Jan Maarten Schraagen; Josine van de Ven; Robert R. Hoffman; Brian M. Moon
Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a number of Concept Maps on topics such as Department strengths and weaknesses, strategic plans and partnerships, and ambitions and goals. This work might be seen as a prototype for how other human factors organizations might brainstorm their activities, progress, and goals.
Work Domain Analysis for Establishing Collaborative Work Requirements BIBAFull-Text 314-318
  Catherine Burns; Gerard Torenvliet; Bruce Chalmers; Stacey Scott
We explored the use of Work Domain Analysis (WDA) in the context of maritime tactical picture compilation. In particular, we were interested in extracting requirements for collaboration within a naval task group. This work presents a novel use of WDA, as this analysis method has not previously been used specifically to examine collaborative work processes. The WDA identified unique domain views for various team positions and collaborative boundary objects shared within the team. This use of WDA in a group context provides new requirements for the design of collaboration tools.
Cognitive Task Analysis of Low and High Literacy Users: Experiences in Using Grounded Theory and Emergent Themes Analysis BIBAFull-Text 319-323
  Neesha Kodagoda; B. L. William Wong; Nawaz Khan
The purpose of this paper is to describe the advantages, experiences, observations and the findings made during the use of two different qualitative data analysis approaches: Grounded Theory and Emergent Themes Analysis. The study carried out evaluated low and high literacy user information seeking behaviour characteristics of UKs "Adviceguide" website. We discuss the use of more than one Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) method, such as process tracing, observation and interviews, can overcame limitations of each method and optimise the outcomes.
The Metrics Problem in the Study of Cognitive Work and a Proposal for a Family of Solutions BIBAFull-Text 324-328
  Robert R. Hoffman; Morris Marx; Patricia L. McDermott; Raid Amin
We present a measure called i-bar, which is the inverse of the mid-range derived from data on trials-to-criterion. We interpret this measure as a conjoint measurement scale, permitting evaluation of: (1) the sensitivity of the principal performance measure (which is used to set the metric for trials to criterion), (2) the learnability of the work method (i.e., the goodness of the software tool), and (3) the resilience of the work method. It is possible to mathematically model such order statistics, and derive methods for estimating likelihoods. This proposal involves novel ways of thinking about statistical analysis for discrete non-Gaussian distributions. The method we present should be applicable to the study of the effects of any form of training, and any form of intervention, whether to improve legacy work methods or create new cognitive work systems.
Human Performance Consequences of Automated Decision Aids in States of Fatigue BIBAFull-Text 329-333
  Dietrich Manzey; Juliane Reichenbach; Linda Onnasch
The present study investigates how human performance consequences of automated decision aids are moderated by the operator's performance state and the aid's level of automation. Participants performed a simulated supervisory control task with one of two decision aids which provided different degrees of support for fault identification and management. One session took place during the day, another one during the night, after a prolonged waking phase of more than 20 hours. Results show that both, primary and secondary task performance benefit from automated support compared to manual performance. During the night, participants supported by the higher automated aid were better able to maintain a high level of performance. Clear evidence for automation bias was found, but only during the day session. Automation verification was performed more carefully during the night, indicating a less complacent behavior when operators used the decision aids in a state of sleepiness and fatigue.
Effects of Secondary Task Processing Code on Human-Automation Interaction in a Cross-Modal Experimental Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 334-338
  Rachel R. Phillips; Poornima Madhavan
We studied the effects of different processing codes of an auditory secondary task on aided and unaided visual search performance using a 2 (aid: aided vs. unaided) x 2 (secondary task: present vs. absent) x 2 (processing code: verbal vs. spatial) mixed design. Participants were measured for workload, system trust, criterion settings, and sensitivity. Overall, the introduction of a secondary task (music, in this case) increased arousal and helped performance. Results also revealed higher levels of system trust when secondary task processing code was verbal. Furthermore, when comparing the effect of processing codes, the spatial secondary task led to higher levels of sensitivity than the verbal secondary task. The similarity of spatial processing codes between primary and secondary task evidently did not lead to interference in this context; on the contrary, the verbal secondary task processing code resulted in greater interference due to the inclusion of a text-based automated aid.
The Role of Automation Etiquette and Pedigree in Trust and Dependence BIBAFull-Text 339-343
  Randall D. Spain; Poornima Madhavan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of automation etiquette and pedigree on trust and dependence. Participants (N = 60) performed a simulated luggage-screening task while interacting with an imperfect automated aid that varied in pedigree (expert vs. novice) and etiquette (polite feedback vs. neutral feedback vs. rude feedback). Trust, perceived reliability, and dependence on the automated aid were measured. Results indicated that participants perceived the polite system as being more reliable and trustworthy than the rude system. Moreover, compliance varied as a function of etiquette and pedigree. Participants complied less often with the rude expert system than the rude novice system. These findings support theoretical work that suggests surface level features of automation can influence trust and trust related behaviors. Further research is warranted to determine how mimicking human communication styles can further influence human interaction with automation.
The Effects of Automation Expertise and System Confidence on Trust Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 344-348
  Randall D. Spain; James P. Bliss
Trust in automation is more likely to be appropriate when information about the automation's capability is available. The goal of this study was to determine how automation expertise and system confidence affected automation trust behaviors. Forty-one participants completed a target detection task while receiving advice from an imperfect diagnostic aid that varied in expertise (expert vs. novice) and confidence (75% vs. 50% vs. 25%, no aid). Results showed that participants were more willing to comply with the highly confident expert aid than the highly confident novice aid. Furthermore, participants were more apt to generate false alarms as system confidence increased. These results suggest that, similar to interpersonal relationships, humans appraise automation features such as confidence and expertise when deciding to comply with automation. Implications and direction for future research are discussed.
Differential Effects of Likelihood Alarm Technology and False-Alarm vs. Miss Prone Automation on Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 349-353
  Rylan M. Clark; Gordon G. Peyton; Ernesto A. Bustamante
Past research concerning decision support tools has primarily focused on either false-alarm prone (FP) or miss-prone (MP) automation. Some studies have explored performance disparities of binary versus likelihood alarm technology (BAT vs. LAT) but only in FP automation. The goal of this study was to explore differential effects of alarm technology and FP vs. MP automation on human decision-making accuracy. One-hundred university students performed a low-fidelity uninhabited aerial vehicle flight simulation, composed of two primary flight tasks and an automation-aided secondary weapon-deployment task. As expected, participants' decision-making accuracy was highest when using LAT, specifically with FP prone automation. These findings provide support for incorporating LAT into FP prone automation to enhance human decision-making accuracy.
Using Persistence Display to Increase Change Detection in Process Control Graphical Gauges BIBAFull-Text 354-358
  Felix Portnoy; Poornima Madhavan
This study investigates the effect of a novel display mechanism, named "persistence display", on visual sensitivity to changes in graphical gauges. The effectiveness of the persistence display was evaluated under different magnitudes of level changes and was compared to traditional displays that are prevalent in the process control industry. The results of this study show that persistence display increased the users' visual sensitivity such that their ability to detect changes in graphical gauges was greater compared to traditional forms of display across all level of change magnitude. Further recommendations are made to continue evaluating the effect that persistence display may have on operators training.
The Effects of Communication Style on Robot Navigation Performance BIBAFull-Text 359-363
  Daniel N. Cassenti; Troy D. Kelley; Jennifer C. Swoboda; Debra J. Patton
With the advance of computer speech recognition programs, robotic operators have a new method of robot-operator communication. An experiment was conducted using a "Wizard of Oz" paradigm to investigate how different styles of communication affect robot navigation performance. Using manual inputs, verbal commands (restricted to directions only), and verbal commands with object referent labels, participants navigated a simulated robot through various simulated indoor environments. Results indicated that manual control was faster than free form verbal commands but not faster than simple directional commands. When provided the opportunity, participants did use object labels particularly objects related to the structure of the building (doors, rooms, and halls). Discussion focuses on improving robotic communication and object recognition in a robotic control system.
Scaling Effects for Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Video in Multi-robot Search BIBAFull-Text 364-368
  Huadong Wang; Michael Lewis; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Prasanna Velagapudi
Camera guided teleoperation has long been the preferred mode for controlling remote robots with other modes such as asynchronous control only used when unavoidable. Because controlling multiple robots places additional demands on the operator we hypothesized that removing the forced pace for reviewing camera video might reduce workload and improve performance. In an earlier experiment participants operated four teams performing a simulated urban search and rescue (USAR) task using a conventional streaming video plus map interface or an experimental interface without streaming video but with the ability to store panoramic images on the map to be viewed at leisure. Search performance was somewhat better using the conventional interface; however, ancillary measures suggested that the asynchronous interface succeeded in reducing temporal demands for switching between robots. This raised the possibility that the asynchronous interface might perform better if teams were larger. In this experiment we evaluate the usefulness of asynchronous video for teams of 4, 8, or 12 robots. As in our earlier study we found a slight advantage in accuracy in marking victim locations for streaming video but overall performance was very similar.
The effects of electronic map displays and spatial ability on performance of navigational tasks BIBAFull-Text 369-373
  Will Rodes; Leo Gugerty; Johnell Brooks; Claudio Cantalupo
One aspect of electronic map displays that has been under examination since their invention is the effect of map configuration, i.e., rotating, track-up vs. fixed, north-up maps, on different navigational tasks. Research has shown that people perform some navigation tasks better with track-up maps, and other navigation tasks better with north-up maps. In the current experiment (N = 16), we investigated how the performance of three common navigation tasks performed as part of an aerial reconnaissance simulation (i.e., cardinal direction judgments, route following and map memory) were affected by an interface factor, map configuration (track-up vs. north-up), and by an individual differences factor, differences in spatial ability. The cardinal direction judgment and route following tasks showed improved accuracy with the track-up map configuration; whereas the map reconstruction task was better facilitated by the north-up map configuration. Spatial abilities were also associated with differences in performance on the three navigation tasks. Spatial abilities and the map-configuration manipulation showed similar strength of association with navigation performance (similar effect size).
Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Emergency Response Organizations BIBAFull-Text 374-378
  Yao Hu; David Mendonca
This laboratory experiment shows how time constraint and event severity affect convergent and divergent thinking processes among professional emergency response personnel addressing a simulated emergency situation. Increasing time constraint resulted in fewer options considered, fewer recommendations made, fewer decisions taken, and less favorable decision outcomes. Increasing event severity had a more ambiguous effect, suggesting the need for further study on the effect of this factor alone and in conjunction with time constraint.
Reduced Processing Decision Support for Competent Firefighters BIBAFull-Text 379-383
  Nathan Perry; Mark Wiggins; Merilyn Childs; Gerard Fogarty
Decision support systems have been proposed as a means of extending the information processing capabilities of less experienced operators by reducing the amount of information to be processed at a given point in time. Conducted in a firefighting context, the current study examined whether the decision-making performance of inexperienced Incident Commanders could be improved with the use of three decision support systems that differed in their demands for information processing. Although the results revealed that the implementation of a reduced processing strategy was associated with a reduction in decision time, the decision accuracy of the inexperienced Incident Commanders did not approach the decision accuracy of the experienced Incident Commanders. The evidence suggests that experienced Incident Commanders were acquiring features that were more relevant to the decision-task. These results highlight some of the limitations to the implementation of decision support systems. Mechanisms may be needed to ensure that less experienced operators are processing relevant information when using reduced processing interfaces.
Human "Mis"- perceptions of Climate Change BIBAFull-Text 384-388
  Varun Dutt; Cleotilde Gonzalez
This research improves our understanding of the Stock-Flow (SF) Failure, found to be a robust problem in the perception of accumulation (Cronin, Gonzalez, & Sterman, 2009). We demonstrate the SF Failure with an interactive simulation in a relevant climate change context (Dynamic Climate Change Simulator (DCCS). In DCCS the climate change problem was simplified to an accumulation (stock), CO2 concentration; inflows, anthropogenic CO2 emissions; and outflows, CO2 absorptions from the atmosphere; using realistic climate models and their predictions. DCCS was used in a laboratory experiment to test participants' ability to control the CO2 concentration to a goal over 100 to 200 simulated years. Participants confronted one of four scenarios differing in emission decision frequency (every 2 years or 4 years) and rate of CO2 transfer from the atmosphere (1.2% or 1.6%, of CO2 concentration). Results show that performance in controlling CO2 concentration remained poor in all conditions of the task. An investigation of participant control strategies revealed misperceptions of feedback: participants brought CO2 concentration to the goal fastest for the condition where dynamics were slow and emission decisions were made less frequently, yet their stabilization after reaching the goal remained worst under the same conditions.
Design and development of a Transactive memory system prototype for geocollaborative crisis management BIBAFull-Text 389-393
  Varun Adibhatla; Alice Shapiro; Michael D. McNeese; Bimal Balakrishnan
This paper describes the design and prototypical development of a Transactive memory system to assist crisis management agencies and personnel who participate in effective geocollaborative crisis management. The design process is iterative in nature and begins with Daniel Wegner's Transactive memory theory, then extends it to better explain interoperability between multiple agencies. These theoretical extensions are directly applied to the design process which results in the development of a Transactive Memory System prototype. Qualitative evaluations of the prototype are discussed that inform specific design recommendations for the re-design of the prototype.
In Support of a Comprehension Based Model of Dynamic Environments BIBAFull-Text 394-398
  Mark T. Jodlowski; Gary L. Bradshaw
To examine the validity of a comprehension-based model of dynamic environments, we conducted an experiment that measured pilot encoding of flight information during video simulations of flight procedures and pilot situation awareness. Ten instrument-rated pilots provided verbal protocols while viewing various flight simulations. In addition, while the simulations were in progress, pilots answered questions about the current flight situation either immediately after a pause in the simulation or after a filled delay. A protocol analysis revealed that pilots utilize conversions of instrument values, schemas, and strategies to build and maintain situation awareness. Response accuracies in the delay vs. no delay condition did not differ significantly, however response latency was greater in the delay condition. Collectively these results support a comprehension-based model of dynamic environments. In addition, our findings suggest that pilot training can be improved by having pilots interpret instrument values to achieve a specific goal.
Resuming after Interruption: Exploring the roles of spatial and goal memory BIBAFull-Text 399-403
  Nicole E. Werner; David M. Cades; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Matthew S. Peterson
Interruptions research has generally focused on the factors that make interruptions more or less disruptive to primary task performance, the ways in which people engage the interruption as they disengage from a primary task, and the role of environmental context/cues in primary task resumption. However, little research has focused on investigating the processes by which a person reorients to and resumes the primary task following an interruption. This research explores the potential roles of spatial location and goal memory in the process of resumption. The experiment reported uses a new paradigm in which, following an interruption, a person can be returned to a different task and/or a different location. We found that both goal memory and spatial memory play a role in resuming the primary task following an interruption. However, there is still not a clear picture of how the two interact, and it may be that individual differences play an important role in how people deal with interruptions.
The Functional Resource Hypothesis as a Basis for Understanding Cognitive Workload in Immediate Interactive Behavior BIBAFull-Text 404-408
  Jason Ralph; Wayne D. Gray; Michael J. Schoelles
Understanding workload requires understanding the control of cognition at the 1/3 to 3s time span during which cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations become bound together into interactive routines. Interactive routines constitute unit tasks (3 to 30 s), and unit tasks constitute subtasks (30s to 3min). To reduce cognitive workload and overload, the Functional Resource Hypothesis maintains that an optimal allocation of interactive routines to task performance would be based on the functional resource of time not modality. Some of the implications of this hypothesis are investigated in an empirical study that varied memory load as well as the demands on the eyes, visual attention, auditory cognition, and motor operations. A microanalysis of the data revealed tradeoffs between groups in their pattern of resource allocation that were compatible with the Functional Resource Hypothesis.
Recovering From Interruptions: Does Alert Type Matter? BIBAFull-Text 409-413
  Alyssa Andrews; Raj Ratwani; Greg Trafton
One method for reducing the disruptiveness of interruptions is to present an alert prior to an interruption. Based on the Memory for Goals theory (Altmann and Trafton, 2002), this alert period provides an opportunity to maintain an associative link between the suspended primary task goal and relevant environmental cues which facilitates resumption. This theory does not, however, describe what types of alerts are most effective. Using reaction time and eye movement measures, three different types of alerts were examined to determine which alerts were the most effective and to determine which afforded the greatest opportunity to form an associative link between the suspended primary task goal and relevant environmental cues. Alert conditions resulted in faster resumption times than a no alert condition. There were no differences between the alert conditions themselves, despite eye movement differences reflecting cue association processes. The eye movement data suggest that one fixation is enough to form an associative link which reduces the disruptiveness of interruptions.

COMMUNICATIONS

Emotional Conversations in Command and Control: The Impact of Mood and Stress on Computer-Mediated Team Communication Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 414-418
  Mark S. Pfaff
Communication plays a critical role in team cognition along with other limited cognitive resources, such as attention, memory, and decision-making speed. Both mood and stress are known to have many interrelated effects upon cognition at the individual level, but there has been relatively little exploration of these two highly-related factors in the domain of team cognition in critical command and control environments. This paper presents research on the effects of mood and stress states on within-team communication behaviors in a simulated crisis management environment. Results show that the effects of mood and stress associated with individual cognitive functions also demonstrate analogous impacts upon team perspective and information sharing.
The Influence of Team Size and Communication Modality on Team Effectiveness with Unmanned Systems BIBAFull-Text 419-423
  Thomas D. Fincannon; A. William Evans; Elizabeth Phillips; Florian Jentsch; Joseph Keebler
This study examines the effects of team size (2 versus 3 operators) and communication modality (audio versus text) on team performance. Performance and workload measures from 112 undergraduate students from the University of Central Florida were used in this analysis. Results indicated that performance was optimal for teams of three operators using audio systems for distributed communication. Results with the NASA TLX showed patterns where workload was lower in the audio condition. Results with the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) showed a reversed trend with a higher score in the audio condition, which was attributed to increases in items associated with audio processing.
Effects of Telepresence Light Height and Ambient Light on Glare and Appearance BIBAFull-Text 424-428
  James P. Beno
This research investigated whether the amount of telepresence fill light required for a well-lit appearance was enough to cause discomfort glare. Thirty participants adjusted the output of two fill lights, one in front of them (focusing on discomfort), and one in front of the remote telepresence user (focusing on appearance). Ambient light levels (48-71 lux, 118-130 lux, 269-281 lux) and fill-light positions (top of display, 30.5 cm higher) were varied. For all conditions, the amount of light required to produce a pleasing portrayal was greater than the point of discomfort. The mean discomfort threshold was the same for all ambient light conditions (663.46 cd/m2, 8.44 lux at 2.44 m). The amount of light that produced a well-lit appearance was about the same for dim and moderate ambient light (3,348.65 cd/m2, 51.61 lux at 2.44 m), but lower for bright (1,204.47 cd/m2, 17.81 lux at 2.44 m). Raising the light did not affect discomfort, but did require more light for a well-lit portrayal. Technology providers should consider collocating the fill light with the display, limiting its luminance to 663.46 cd/m2 for low-light environments similar to this research, and raising or lowering that limit as the background luminance changes.
The Effect of Mobile Advertising Presentation Parameters on Brand Memory BIBAFull-Text 429-433
  Joshua B. Hurwitz
One problem in mobile advertising is how to design ads that are impactful but not intrusive. One way to lower intrusiveness would be to present smaller ads, which is particularly relevant given the smaller screens on mobile devices. However, one consequence of smaller ads could be reduced ad effectiveness. The current study investigated the effects of ad size and positioning on recognition memory for brands that were advertised in a simulated mobile news service. The results showed that recognition memory was significantly greater for brands advertised in full-screen ads than for those advertised in part-screen ads, but only when the part-screen ads were embedded in the text of a news article. This result occurred even though the average exposure times were longer for the embedded part-screen ads. This suggests that there was reduced encoding of ad attributes due to competition from the text of the news articles.
Communicative NGOMSL: An Extension of NGOMSL to Analyze a Text-based Communication System BIBAFull-Text 434-438
  Sangwon Lee; Richard J. Koubek
This study proposes Communicative NGOMSL, which is an extension of NGOMSL intended to accommodate modeling of text-based communication among two or more individuals. Besides the properties of GOMS techniques in evaluation, Communicative NGOMSL additionally considers two key concepts: common ground and communication time. Common ground means the mutual knowledge, belief and assumptions of participants in a conversation, and communication time refers to one individual's waiting time for the other's response. As a case example, Communicative NGOMSL is applied to a virtual text-based communication system for exchanging addresses between two individuals. The Communicative NGOMSL analysis makes some suggestions to better design a communication system: (1) focusing on the interface design that is directly related to grounding process in a conversation; (2) considering the relationship of communication time and execution time for each individual; and (3) balancing between participants for learning time and mental workload.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Collaborative Sensemaking Tools for Task Forces BIBAFull-Text 439-443
  Eric A. Bier; Dorrit Billman; Kyle Dent; Stuart K. Card
Our work addresses the needs of multiple information workers collaborating on joint projects, which typically require finding, analyzing, and synthesizing information from heterogeneous sources. We report on iterative design, implementation, and assessment of collaborative tools for sensemaking tasks. Our goal is flexible, lightweight tools that both facilitate the activities done individually and lower the costs of effective collaboration. We suggest several approaches to enhance such collaborative sensemaking tools. These approaches include explicit representation of multiple team activities, integrated support for synchronous communication, and views of collected information that are tuned to both the reading and organizing phases of sensemaking. We present an integrated pair of tools, ContextBar and ContextBook, which illustrate these approaches, and describe the results from a formative evaluation of these tools.
Overcoming Bias in the Deliberations of Distributed Teams BIBAFull-Text 444-448
  Marc L. Resnick
Human decision making is subject to a variety of cognitive and affective processes that can significantly impact the nature and quality of the resulting decisions. While commonly referred to as decision making 'biases', these processes evolved to satisfy important needs of our genetic ancestors. For example, heuristics that reduce the time and effort required to make decisions may be beneficial in a naturalistic environment that rewards speed and efficiency over precision or perfection. Unfortunately, the modern world has different performance criteria and our cognitive processes have not evolved fast enough to adapt. One example is the geographically distributed team, composed of individuals who communicate using technologies such as email, telephone, and videoconferencing to accomplish business-related objectives. While speed remains important in this environment, precision and accuracy are often the most relevant performance metrics. This paper presents a detailed description of several cognitive and affective processes that are particularly troublesome for geographically distributed teams when deliberating to reach a team consensus and outlines some technological and procedural interventions that can improve the quality of their decision making.
Pre-Conscious Assessment of Trust: A Case Study of Financial and Health Care Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 449-453
  William Albert; William Gribbons; Jindrich Almadas
The goal of this study was to determine the reliability of pre-conscious trust assessments of web sites. Participants in Experiment 1 (n=72) viewed 50 screenshots of popular financial and health care home pages in a random order in two separate trials. Each screenshot was presented for 50ms, followed by a mask for 150ms, followed by an assessment of trust on 9-point semantic differential scale from distrust to trust. Results from a series of Pearson Product Moment Correlations showed that approximately one-half of the participants were consistent in their trust assessments for the same web sites across trials. The correlation between trust assessments on the first and second trials, averaged across all participants was statistically significant (p<.001). Results from Experiment 2 (n=11), utilizing a different method for participant participation, showed a similar pattern of results. These findings suggest that pre-conscious mind plays a more significant role in assessing trust than previously believed.
Use of Image-based Mnemonic Techniques to Enhance the Memorability of User-generated Passwords BIBAFull-Text 454-458
  Deborah L. Nelson; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Participants in this study were assigned to one of three different password generation groups: image-based mnemonic, text-based mnemonic, or proactive password checking restrictions alone; and asked to generate and later recall passwords for five separate fictitious online accounts. Password accuracy and recall time were measured following both a short-term (10-minute) and long-term (1-week) delay. Results indicated that passwords were more quickly generated and accurately recalled when they were generated using the image-based mnemonic technique or proactive password restrictions alone, as opposed to the text-based mnemonic technique. Furthermore, use of the image-based mnemonic technique resulted in the generation of passwords that were more resistant to forgetting. Implications and future research considerations are discussed.
Password Authentication from a Human Factors Perspective: Results of a Survey among End-Users BIBAFull-Text 459-463
  Peter Hoonakker; Nis Bornoe; Pascale Carayon
Considering that many organizations today are extremely dependent on information technology, computer and information security (CIS) has become a critical concern from a business viewpoint. CIS is concerned with protecting the confidentiality, integrity, accessible information, when using computer systems. Much research has been conducted on CIS in the past years. However, the attention has been primarily focused on technical problems and solutions. Only recently, the role of human factors in CIS has been recognized. End-user behavior can increase the vulnerability of computer and information systems. In this study, using a large questionnaire survey among end-users, we examine password behavior of end-users.

EDUCATION

Incorporating Human Factors into a Capstone Senior Design Program to Benefit Individuals with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 464-468
  Matthew Marshall; Elizabeth DeBartolo; Daniel Phillips
The purpose of this paper is to describe how a multidisciplinary senior design sequence incorporates human factors and ergonomics to address projects that benefit individuals with disabilities. The approach exposes students to the problems that surface when using human factors and ergonomics tools and data to solve engineering and design problems that contain a human component. While some engineering students receive exposure to human factors and ergonomics in classroom settings, the senior design sequence is the first time that many students on the multidisciplinary design teams face the challenge of designing for humans, particularly for the unique demands that may be associated with individuals who have a disability. The paper provides an overview of the process and presents several case studies to demonstrate some of the challenges that have been met by the student teams and the approaches that have been taken.
Undergraduate Human Factors Curriculum at the United States Air Force Academy BIBAFull-Text 469-473
  Brian E. Tidball; Randall W. Gibb; Terence S. Andre; Chad C. Tossell
This paper shares one organization's journey to assess its human factors curriculum, develop improved course content to address current topics and accommodate the growing number of systems engineers in the human factors classroom.
Expert Panels as a Means of Engaging Students in the Applications of Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 474-478
  Jonathan M. Histon; Stacey D. Scott
Large class sizes make it difficult to provide meaningful and engaging opportunities to connect students to real world applications of human factors research. In an effort to address this, students in a senior year human factors class participated in a weekly expert panel, either as a panelist or as an audience member. The expert panel exercise mimics news conferences, panels and other media settings in a way that engages students and provides time-efficient opportunities to demonstrate how human factors principles are reflected in real world incidents and accidents. Initial experience with the expert panel has been promising and appears to be a valuable means of promoting a deeper understanding of applications of human factors knowledge.
Managing Ergonomics Course Projects in Operational Facilities So That Everyone Benefits BIBAFull-Text 479-482
  Steven L. Johnson
This paper presents methods of managing ergonomics course projects at operational facilities at the senior-level of an industrial engineering curriculum. Incorporating external projects into the course provides the students with an opportunity to apply the material that they have learned in class, as well as experience the issues related to applying the concepts in the "real world." This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of conducting external projects. In particular, the methods of selecting projects, assigning groups, documenting progress, presenting results and assigning grades are discussed. Effectively managed projects can be a very beneficial learning experience for the student, as well as provide visibility for the university, department and discipline. In addition, experience has shown that the implementation of the recommendations made by the students can provide significant improvements for the participating companies.
Usability Analysis of Learning Environments Needs and Realities BIBAFull-Text 483-487
  Thomas J. Smith
This paper addresses the question of whether the application of principles and methods of usability analysis can benefit the design of learning environments, and can thereby benefit student learning. The application of principles and practices of usability and ergonomic analysis have achieved proven success in improving performance of many sociotechnical systems areas. However, the benefits that the application of HF/E science might bring to promoting educational system and student learning performance have yet to be widely recognized. On the assumption that such recognition may someday be realized, an analysis is offered of the comparative advantages and disadvantages of ergonomic program intervention, versus usability analysis, for purposes of improving the design quality of K-12 learning environments. Usability analysis may provide benefits in terms of flexibility of application, ease of implementation, and student learning gains. The true test of applying HF/E science as a meaningful strategy to benefit education and learning rests upon: (1) establishing that the role of task and environmental design in learning has relevance to educational psychology; and (2) promoting recognition and acceptance of HF/E, in a systematic and comprehensive manner, by the educational community.

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN

Office Environmental Conditions and Computer Work Performance BIBAFull-Text 488-492
  Alan Hedge; Daniel E. Gaygen
A field study of 16 people in a law office was conducted. Environmental conditions, air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), respirable particulates at 10 microns (PM10) and total volatile organics (TVOC), at each person's workstation were recorded at one-minute intervals for 4 weeks. Synchronous measures of computer work performance data at minute intervals were logged with a web-based software system. Results showed a contemporaneous effect of temperature on correct keystrokes, CO2 on mouse clicks and of, and one-hour lagged effects of CO2 and PM10 on correction keystrokes. Findings confirm that the quantity and quality of computer work is affected by environmental conditions.
Computer Display Placement for Progressive Addition Lens Wearers: A Field Observation of Multiple Display Conditions BIBAFull-Text 493-497
  Paul Allie; Douglas Kokot; Cynthia Purvis; Michael C. Bartha
A growing segment of the workforce wears Progressive Addition Lenses (PAL) to correct for age related loss of eye function. Many of these aging adults work with computer displays in their daily job tasks. There has been little research to determine display placement that best serves this group of workers. A field study was conducted to examine display placement for PAL wearers. Five conditions were examined; 1) using a notebook computer placed on the worksurface, 2) using a notebook computer positioned on a riser stand, with separate keyboard and mouse, and 3-5) using a separate 19 inch LCD display attached to 3 different adjustable mounts, each with separate keyboard and mouse. When PAL wearers could control display distance and height they selected an average distance of 26.8 inches from the eyes, and a height that created an average eye-to-screen angle of 19.6° below eye level. Based upon perceived eye and body comfort and user satisfaction data, external display conditions with adjustable mounts were shown to be the favored solutions and were associated with the least amount of perceived eye and body discomfort. This type of display support design should to be considered when offering PAL wearers' adjustment solutions.
The notebook computing experience among university students BIBAFull-Text 498-501
  Karen Jacobs; Victoria Hall; Erin Brownson; Elizabeth Ansong; Jackie Markowitz; Matt McKinnon; Sofia Steinberg; Alexander Ing; Ellen Wuest; Peter Johnson; Jack Dennerlein
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that university students are self-reporting experiencing musculoskeletal discomfort with computer use similar to levels reported by adult workers. This study investigated how university students use notebook computers. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Each condition included participants completing baseline and post-study a health and comfort survey and ergonomics quiz. Computer usage software was installed on participants' notebook computer and all received participatory ergonomics training and external notebook accessories, e.g. keyboard and mouse. Participants in experimental conditions received an external notebook riser, an ergonomic computer workstation chair or an external desktop display. Each participant was loaned a personal digital assistant (PDA), which contained a 45-question survey. The PDA randomly "beeped" 7 times in a 24-hour day for the participants to complete a survey. The use of the repeated measure survey was part of the Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) method. Over the duration of the study (3 months) participants met with researchers and completed a weekly visual analog comfort scale where they rated their workstation comfort. Notebook accessories, e.g., external mouse, external keyboard, notebook riser; an ergonomic chair; and participatory ergonomics training appear to contribute to a trend of decreased self-reported notebook computer-related musculoskeletal discomfort in specific areas of the body of participants. Based on the study's results, a university-wide notebook computing education plan was initiated.
Colored lighting in offices the new caffeine? Looking into performance effects of colored lighting BIBAFull-Text 502-506
  H. C. M. (Jettie) Hoonhout; M. Knoop; Ruben Vanpol
Innovations in lighting technology have made it simple to realize a wide range of lighting colors, and effortlessly change settings when desired. According to popular belief, color and lighting influence mood, well-being and performance. However, research is inconclusive regarding such claims; often variables such as brightness are not well controlled, or only subjective and no performance measures are reported. This study aims to address some of these issues. In an office setting, one wall was illuminated with blue or red light with comparable saturation and brightness. These colors were chosen because of inconclusive views on their effect, and their potential relevance for office-tasks. White light was offered in the immediate task-area, to meet illuminance and color rendering requirements. 76 participants were randomly assigned to one condition, and asked to perform several tasks. Mixed effects were found of condition on task performance.
A Case Study on the Backpack Weight of School Students BIBAFull-Text 507-511
  Ruth A. K. Loewenhardt
This case study looks at the perceptions and measurements of backpack weight with regards to elementary, middle and high school students as studied during the American Occupational Therapy Association's National Backpack Awareness Day in Pleasanton, California. School students participated in the weigh-in with high school volunteers assisting an ergonomics consultant with measurements. Two consecutive years were compared and results suggest that the middle school students carry the greatest backpack weight as compared to their percentage of body weight. Perceptions of the students regarding the backpack weight indicated a self-reported discomfort with the amount to be carried each day specifically due to the requirements of their teachers. It is through education of backpack awareness that educators and students should work together to reduce the load that each student needs to transport on a regular basis.
A Conceptual Framework for Guiding Data Collection in Facilities Programming BIBAFull-Text 512-516
  Lubomir Popov
Facilities programming involves data collection about users, their activities and behavior patterns, needs, values, and preferences. This part of programming has a social science nature and requires a well thought out research design. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework that can guide the research design, data collection, and data analysis in the programming process. The paper proposes a general and inclusive conceptual structure that will be further developed and operationalized when applied to a particular building type and a specific programming situation. The framework represents only the most fundamental dimensions of the social organization and its constituent elements. The framework will structure the cognitive domain so that the information can be handled more easily and will provide assurance that basic aspects of the social organism will not be overlooked. The process and method for project-specific adaptation and elaboration will be discussed in a subsequent paper.
Designing Inclusive Educational Spaces with Reference to Autism BIBAFull-Text 517-520
  Rachna Khare; Abir Mullick
Autism is a lifelong neurological disorder that affects communication, imagination and social abilities of an individual. There is no such highly prevalent condition that is so inadequately represented in the environmental research and design standards. This paper attempts to address and validate the environmental factors affecting the performance of children with autism in educational spaces. The paper is derived from a larger study that aims to assist in the development of design guidelines for educational facilities for children with autism, which are universal in nature and of benefit to all children. The study builds a framework that will work as a tool for architects, designers and facility managers to design high performance educational spaces for all. Although the overall study considers many design aspects such as observation, discussion and survey, the purpose of this paper is to identify the enabling aspects of educational environment for children with autism and measure their effects on educational performance.
Understanding Aging in Place for Older Adults: A Needs Analysis BIBAFull-Text 521-525
  Cara Bailey Fausset; Andrew K. Mayer; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
A goal of many older adults is to remain in their own homes as they age (Beyond 50.05 Survey, 2005). However, a detailed assessment is lacking of the needs of older adults as they age in place. Using focus groups, twenty-six independently living older adults (mean age 78.8 years) from the Atlanta metropolitan area were asked to describe the tasks they perform to maintain their homes, as well as any difficulties they have performing these tasks. Participants described performing a wide range of tasks and focused primarily on physical difficulties. However, participants also reported solutions to manage these difficulties that fell into three broad categories: "Cessation," "Perseverance," and "Compensation." These categories represent classes of opportunities for interventions that may help older adults remain independent in their homes longer. By understanding the nature of home maintenance problems older adults encounter while aging in place, interventions and redesign efforts can be more effective. These data suggest that interventions should start with answering physical issues.
Model Integrating Assistive Technology Use and Human Performance for People with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 526-530
  Scott Haynes; Carrie Bruce; Jon Sanford
The ageing workforce and returning veterans have generated a heightened awareness of the need to accommodate people with disabilities in the workplace. A critical factor in developing useful accommodations is being able to accurately quantify the abilities of the person and the demands of the environment. Human factors specialists are often involved with measuring human capabilities and environmental factors with the aim of improving human performance. However, the use of assistive technology (AT) is typically not considered in the development of such assessment models. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the integration of AT into a process model for assessing human performance.
Simulating Visual Impairment to Detect Hospital Wayfinding Difficulties BIBAFull-Text 531-535
  Justin B. Rousek; Sonja Koneczny; M. Susan Hallbeck
Many public facility layouts have been developed with little consideration for the visually impaired, producing difficult and unpleasant wayfinding experiences. This study analyzed the current issues in a wayfinding task for the visually impaired and makes recommendations towards wayfinding improvements within a healthcare setting. Normally-sighted participants (m=25, f=25) wore one of five different vision simulator goggles to replicate a specific vision condition (diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, cataracts, macular degeneration, and hemianopsia) and were then given directions how to get to specific series of departments within a hospital campus. Participants then navigated a second time without the simulated vision condition, with normal vision, so comparisons could be made. The results of this study show that for visually impaired people, decorative elements often create major disturbances in wayfinding. Combined with other age related conditions, this may put patients and visitors at high risk of accidental injuries. In addition, changes in lighting often are misleading and may cause doorways and hallways to appear larger/smaller than they are. The size, illumination and placement of signage also appear to be unsatisfactory. Most of these problems can easily be detected, categorized and eliminated by hospitals using these data.
On the Control of Environmental Conditions Using Personal Ventilation Systems BIBAFull-Text 536-540
  Alan Hedge; H. Ezzat Khalifa; J. Zhang
The concept of personal control is examined as this relates to the conceptual design of personal ventilation systems based upon the body's physiological and psychological homeostatic requirements. Literature on the effects of personal control of environmental conditions is reviewed. The concept of a "just noticeable difference in discomfort" that underpins the desire to initiate some personal control action is discussed. The concept of personal control is symmetrical for thermal conditions (hot or cold) but, apart from some pleasant fragrances, is asymmetric for indoor air quality (where less pollution is better). Factors that may influence the exercise of personal control will be summarized. Finally, important information for the design of PVS systems that are both energy efficient and effective in optimizing the micro-environmental conditions for workplace employees will be presented.
A Survey of Smart Home Interface Preferences for U.S. and Korean Users BIBAFull-Text 541-545
  Kyeong-Ah Jeong; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
A survey was conducted to determine Americans' and Koreans' preferences in both general and specific aspects of smart home interface design. 210 Americans and 282 Koreans participated. The respondents preferred to interact with a smart home using a physical device (a computer, cell phone, or remote control) rather than through communication modalities such as speech or gesture. Though different, the layout organization preferences of the American and Korean respondents conflicted with those expected on the basis of an often cited distinction between Americans' and Koreans' preferences for functional vs. thematic structures, respectively. Based on the survey, the conclusion was reached that smart home interfaces should be adapted to the particular culture. General and culture-specific guidelines for smart home interface design are proposed.

FORENSICS PROFESSIONAL

Forensic Human Factors/Ergonomics Practice from the Perspective of the Forensic Consulting Firms BIBAFull-Text 546-548
  H. Harvey Cohen; William Vigilante
This discussion panel will present a view of certain critical practice issues from the perspective of key expert practitioners from the very few consulting firms specializing in forensic human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). Accordingly, attendees of this panel session will hear from principals within these firms for both their unique perspectives on practice issues not addressable by our sole-practitioner colleagues, as well as ways in which the employment of such forensic HF/E practitioners may be enhanced in the very near future. Four sub-topics will each be separately addressed by one of the panelists followed by interactive discussion: (1) Inter/multi disciplinary team approach to cases; (2) Internal peer review/involvement; (3) Opportunities for funded research; and (4) Mentoring students and young professionals. It is believed that exploring such practice issues in such a panel discussion will begin a process by which more HF/E professionals can enter the field of forensic practice growing the field through the development of more firms with added capabilities and multiple forensic experts on staff.
Avoiding Misrepresentation in Forensic Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 549-553
  Kenneth Nemire
Every aspect of human factors consulting in litigation presents opportunities and challenges for acting in an ethical manner. This article discusses three types of misrepresentation that pose ethical problems: (1) disregarding information, (2) misrepresenting existing research, and (3) misrepresenting facts in a case. These examples are demonstrated in the context of three different lawsuits involving forensic human factors experts. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of the forensic expert to help reveal the truth, and a suggestion to revise the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Code of Ethics.
Forensic Human Factors Results in Increased Pedestrian Safety BIBAFull-Text 554-557
  Daniel A. Johnson
Falls, a major cause of serious injuries, often result from uneven sidewalks caused by tree roots. The jurisdiction (city or county) may say the fall was the outcome of the victim's "inattention" and do nothing to eliminate the hazard. But accurate measurements of an irregular rise of sidewalk demonstrated to the city that a recognized hazard did exist and its defective maintenance contributed to the fall. The outcome was a financial award to the victim. Remedial actions were taken to reduce the chance of future falls on this and other city sidewalks.
When Performance Management Fails Forensic Case Studies from the Front Lines BIBAFull-Text 558-562
  Marc L. Resnick
What gets measured gets managed and becomes the driver for employee performance. Performance Management Systems are a systematic approach to managing employees that links their efforts with the strategy of the organization by creating performance metrics that are salient, measurable, and aligned with the organization's goals and objectives. These metrics then serve as the focus for management processes such as hiring, training, supervision, and evaluation. However, metrics can lead to failures when they are ineffectively managed, such as when employees take safety shortcuts in order to meet more salient productivity expectations. This paper presents an overview of Performance Management Systems, situations where they can fail if not implemented systematically, and two forensic case studies that illustrate these failures.
The Role and Limitations of Voluntary Standards in Consumer Product Safety BIBAFull-Text 563-567
  Carol Pollack-Nelson; Shelley Waters Deppa
Voluntary standards have been written for hundreds of consumer products ranging from go-karts to cribs. Industry relies on these standards when designing their products and in litigation, often pointing to their compliance in defending product designs. While standards have the potential to mitigate product hazards, they are minimum requirements. As such, certain product hazards may not be addressed. This paper examines three standards and serious injuries and fatalities associated with their related products. A discussion of these standards, as well as voluntary standards in general, underscores their value and limitations.
Slip Sliding Away -- Slip Resistance of Athletic Socks on Indoor Flooring BIBAFull-Text 568-571
  David G. Curry; Anne Mathias
A laboratory study was conducted to assess the slip resistance of athletic socks on various household flooring materials under both wet and dry conditions. While prior studies regarding slip resistance have focused on shod walkers, there is a lack of published data on the coefficient of friction between stocking-clad feet and indoor flooring. To investigate this, four types of athletic socks were tested on samples of eight flooring materials for both wet and dry conditions. These results were compared to tests of a Neolite slider pad on these floors.
    The results indicated that for socks on textured vinyl flooring, there was no significant difference in slip resistance between the wet and dry conditions, though there was a trend towards greater slip resistance under wet conditions. Generally, it appears that the likelihood of slipping on other types of wet indoor walking surfaces is lower when walking in socks rather than shoes.
Visibility of Tractor Trailer Reflective Strips at Small Viewing Angles in Collision Reconstruction BIBAFull-Text 572-575
  Jason Young; Gabriel Reina
In collision reconstruction of nighttime accidents, the conspicuity of hazards from a driver's perspective is a critical factor. When the collision involves large commercial vehicles, the visibility of the reflective strips is essential in assessing avoidance. Reflective strips on commercial vehicles are generally consistent from vehicle to vehicle and are highly reflective between perpendicular and 45° viewing angles. However, at shallower viewing angles (closer to parallel viewing), which occurs when trailers begin turns, the reflective strips may not be effective. In this initial study, the effectiveness of reflective strips at shallow viewing angles ('entrance angles' of 45° to 90°) was examined under a variety of test conditions including high beams and viewing distances of up to 150 m. The results indicated that at entrance angles of less than 70°, reflective strips are highly effective warnings from a human factors perspective. At entrance angles of more than 75°, reflective strips are ineffective. From 70° to 75°, the results were sensitive to the test parameters. This study does not address the visibility of the tractor or other aspects of nighttime visibility. Further research is recommended to extend this study to greater viewing distances, xenon headlights, 'dirty' vs. 'cleaned' reflective strips, and wet roads, with particular attention to entrance angles of 70° to 75°.
Improper construction results in dangerous stairs: Large top runs produce fall hazard BIBAFull-Text 576-580
  Daniel Johnson
A tread (run) at the top of a stairway that is larger than the remaining treads produces a significant fall hazard. The user stepping down onto the first tread may expect subsequent treads to have the same dimension, and thus overstep the nosing on the next tread. This has led to serious falls. This condition, which may be due to inadequate planning when a stairway is attached to an upper landing, has been noted in both newer and older constructions.
Spontaneous Combustion of Oil-Based Wood Finishing Products: Hidden or Obvious Hazard? BIBAFull-Text 581-584
  Joseph Cohen; H. Harvey Cohen
Materials such as rags soaked in oil-based wood finishing products may ignite without an ignition source if not discarded properly. Despite the problem of smoldering, it would appear that users may not understand the danger, associated risk, and means for prevention. In addition, an analysis of labels on existing products in the marketplace revealed that warning messages are often written in small text, without clear pictographs, and embedded amongst instructions with little, if any, consideration of the capabilities and limitations of users. To address this apparent lack of knowledge and address many unanswered questions about the human factors/ergonomics usability issues, the authors initiated a warning label analysis and development process. Preliminary results of a survey undertaken as the first step suggest that people do not view smoldering as a hazard. In addition, absent instructions, people generally do not know the proper way of disposing of materials soaked in oil-based wood finishing products.

GENERAL SESSION

Canines as Perceptual Workers BIBAFull-Text 585-589
  William S. Helton
Helton (2005) proposed that ergonomics professionals share an interest in the study of working dogs. In this paper, this proposal is further explored in regards to dogs as perceptual workers analogous to human perceptual workers. First, current performance estimates of expert dogs (signal detection A') are examined for wide variety of occupational domains from cancer to explosives detection. When tested in controlled conditions, dogs are competent workers, with A's ranging from .89 to 1.0. Second, models of human performance (perceptual work) may apply with some modification to working dogs. A case in point is Wickens' (2003) Attention-Situational Awareness (A-SA) model, which is examined in the context of canine work. The A-SA model appears to be equally applicable to canine perceptual workers and human workers.
Prospective Memory in Everyday Tasks BIBAFull-Text 590-594
  Jon Holbrook; Key Dismukes
Everyday situational factors may substantially affect individuals' success or failure in remembering to perform deferred tasks (i.e., prospective memory). We designed a diary study to explore the types and dimensions of prospective memory situations in everyday life that have not been well examined in laboratory investigations. Eight participants recorded intentions for a week. Results suggest that differences between how study participants framed their real-world intentions and how intentions are framed in typical experimental paradigms have significant implications for prospective memory performance, including the role of the natural environment. Our results further suggest ways individuals can improve performance in everyday prospective memory tasks.
Detecting Typing Errors in a Numerical Typing Task with Linear Discriminant Analysis of Single Trial EEG BIBAFull-Text 595-599
  Cheng-Jhe Lin; Changxu Wu
Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was utilized to detect numerical typing errors in the context of daily data input. Single EEG trial data from 6 subjects were analyzed and a 67% detection rate was demonstrated by Fisher LDA classifier with an optimal Mahalanobis distance ratio setting. Sensitivity analysis showed that Fisher LDA classifier detected the errors in terms of 9-digit numbers by 62.19% on average, in comparison with 3.33% and 47.22% using the prior model and the chance model. This is one step towards predicting human errors in perceptual-motor tasks before their occurrence; future work would focus on benchmarking to improve current method toward an online and robust classifier.
Analyzing Pedestrian Traffic Behavior Using Video Footage, Zone of Comfort and Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 600-604
  Hohyun Lee; Lesley Strawderman; John M. Usher
This paper presents methods to quantify pedestrian traffic behavior. Video footage from a university building corridor was used to quantify pedestrian behavior. A coordinate conversion technique that maps images in the footage onto a real floor plan coordinate system was applied for image processing and data collection. This study has empirically examined pedestrians' preferred minimum distance to obstructions with respect to their changes in speed and trajectory. Subjective-observer rating of situation awareness (SA) was utilized to explain SA and related factors (speed and zone of comfort). Five elements of pedestrian SA are also discussed since they appear to be related to pedestrian navigation to achieve one's goal. The result of this study shows that speed of the pedestrian, zone of comfort, and SA score are closely related.
Creativity and Design: Creativity's New Definition and its Relationship to Design BIBAFull-Text 605-609
  Samuel J. Brougher; Esa M. Rantanen
Creativity is often defined in ways that are neither useful nor operationalizable. We proposed a new definition for creativity that incorporates the Skills-Rules-Knowledge model of Rasmussen (1983). We then examine the tests of creativity and real world design problems alongside each other with this new definition in mind. Participants completed six different creativity tests, including the design problems. The tests were scored on the basis of five domains of creativity. Answers to questions an individual had seen previously were not included in data analysis. We expect to find that all measures of creativity correlate weakly with each other, and spatial, nonentrenchment, and original types of creativity correlate more highly with design than other types, providing further evidence for the importance of creativity for designers and engineers.
Is Human Reliability Relevant to Human Factors? BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Ronald L. Boring; Emilie Roth; Oliver Straeter; Karin Laumann; Harold S. Blackman; Johanna Oxstrand; Julius J. Persensky
This paper presents a number of views from a panel discussion on the relationship between human reliability analysis (HRA) and human factors. HRA emerged concurrently with the field of human factors and now features a nearly fifty-year shared history. While built on human factors, HRA distinguished itself early on from human factors due to its emphasis on predicting human performance. While one of the major focus areas of human factors has been improving the design of novel systems to optimize human performance, HRA has largely focused on predicting human performance for as-built systems. Over time, as HRA became closely tied particularly to the nuclear energy industry, it increasingly became a field associated more with reliability engineering than human factors. Yet, the similarity to human factors has not abated, nor has the opportunity for the two fields to cooperate. Human factors research provides the empirical basis to support predicting human performance in HRA. Importantly, HRA continues to benefit human factors by providing: (1) a framework for modeling human performance, (2) an example of how a human factors discipline can be seamlessly integrated with an engineering field, and (3) insights on how predictive modeling may be used as a system design tool.
Comparative Study of Computer Usage Patterns and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among College Students BIBAFull-Text 615-619
  Karen N. Cooper; Naira H. Campbell-Kyureghyan; Carolyn M. Sommerich
Recent studies have shown that computer-use-related musculoskeletal discomfort is prevalent in college students. In this paper two studies of college student computer usage, conducted five years apart (2003 and 2008), are compared. The participants in both studies completed online computer usage surveys. Questions included the duration of computer use, at what times they would most likely be using a computer, and at what locations. Some questions were focused on what safe computing practices the student had possibly adopted, such as taking breaks. Both studies indicated that students often assume awkward postures when computing. Students also reported continuously computing, with no breaks, though breaks are recommended by computer ergonomics programs in other sectors. Reported discomfort associated with computer use indicates that students are already experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms. This study can guide in the development, implementation, and evaluation of changes in the equipment and/or training that will reduce the ergonomic risks to students.
Trends in Anthropometric Measures in U.S. Air Force Aircrew Survey Data BIBAFull-Text 620-624
  Hyeg Joo Choi; Gregory F. Zehner; Jeffrey A. Hudson; Scott M. Fleming
In 2008 a USAF Aircrew Sizing Survey project was launched. This survey is the first 3D whole body anthropometric survey of USAF aircrew. The primary purpose of this survey is to collect traditional anthropometric measurements, demographic information, and 3D data for body shape information on current aircrew personnel for use in crew station and protective equipment design. The specific aim for this paper is to compare the data collected to date with other available USAF aircrew anthropometric data as well as two extracted data sets, called JPATS (Joint Primary Air Training System) and JSF (Joint Strike Fighter) CAESAR (Civilian American European Surface Anthropometry Resource) which are currently being used as USAF design guidelines. The results from the comparisons between these survey data and available Air Force Survey data represent chronological trends in body dimensions for male and female aircrew. In addition, the noted anthropometric differences between the 2008-2009 survey data and the two extracted data subsamples (JPATS and JSF CAESAR) will help to determine the appropriateness of these subsets as substitute aircrew databases.
Quantitative Comparison of a Joystick and a Two-Switch Control Mode When Steering a Wheelchair Through a Realistic Environment BIBAFull-Text 625-629
  Meike Jipp; Christian Bartolein; Essameddin Badreddin
The following paper investigates the efficiency and the usability of two ways of steering a powered wheelchair, i.e., the joystick and a two-switch control mode. To yield a high internal validity of the results and receive data, which can be used for benchmarking, a repeated measurement design has been chosen and 23 participants steered the wheelchair in both control modes through a predetermined course. The resulting data shows impressively the superiority of the joystick mode and demonstrates that research on assistive technologies should focus on reducing the space required for rotating, the time required to reach a certain goal position, the number of input commands required to execute a behavior and also the usability especially of the two-switch control. Herewith, the current paper complements the existing case study reports and questionnaire data as the applied experimental set-up allows for tracing back the revealed effects on the manipulation of the control mode.
Mattress Development through a Participatory Ergonomics Approach BIBAFull-Text 630-634
  Kageyu Noro; Takayuki Sasaki; Daisuke Kaku
The research literature provides little guidance for incorporating consumer input into the evaluation of mattress comfort. This paper describes the use of participatory ergonomics (PE) approaches to promote the comfort of flexible polyurethane foams mattresses. The following research and development effort was performed by an ergonomics research firm, retained by a Japanese-based materials manufacturer. The associated approaches were subsequently applied to a series of studies that aimed to evaluate the impact of urethane on mattress comfort. This paper describes the roles of each project partner, research and development stages and physical properties of trial products that are relevant to ergonomics.

HEALTH CARE

Healthcare Workers' Perceptions of Information in the Electronic Health Record BIBAFull-Text 635-639
  Alissa L. Russ; Jason J. Saleem; Connie F. Justice; Heather Hagg; Peter A. Woodbridge; Bradley N. Doebbeling
Electronic health record (EHR) systems and health information technology (IT) hold unrealized potential for improving the quality, continuity, and safety of medical care; they can also introduce new gaps in care and present unique challenges for healthcare workers. We conducted 14 key informant, semi-structured interviews at a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center and asked healthcare employees why paper use persists despite a fully implemented EHR. In this investigation, we performed a secondary analysis on interview data to identify characteristics of information technology (IT) that are important to support healthcare workflow. As a result of this study, 17 distinct information characteristics emerged; in this document, we provide detail on five characteristics that were often cited as desirable for workflow but insufficiently supported by health IT: 1) customizable, 2) prioritized, 3) trendable, 4) locatable, and 5) accessible. Results from this study reveal key electronic information characteristics for healthcare workflow and have implications for patient safety and future health IT designs.
Physicians Bypass Enrollment Suggestions into a Clinical Reminders Intervention BIBAFull-Text 640-644
  Geva Vashitz; Harel Gilutz; Joachim Meyer
While clinical reminders can promote adherence with evidence-based clinical guidelines, they may have unintended consequences such as alert fatigue, false alarms and increased workload, which cause clinicians to ignore them. We evaluated clinicians' response rates to suggestions to enroll patients in a nationwide clinical reminders intervention, aiming to promote prevention of clinical arthrosclerosis. Analysis of 203,164 suggestions for 108,636 patients showed that the clinicians mostly ignored suggestions from the system and followed only 21.4% of the inclusion suggestions. The data show that when physicians could choose for which patients the reminders will be generated, they mostly chose not to include patients in the clinical reminders intervention. It seems that they tried to abort the process as soon as possible, rather than complete the workflow orderly. Insights regarding the usability of clinical reminders are discussed.
Documentation in a Medical Setting: Effects of Technology on Perceived Quality of Care BIBAFull-Text 645-649
  Julia DeBlasio; Bruce N. Walker
The authors examine the social impact of introducing advanced exam-room technologies to the doctor-patient interaction. A total 342 participants viewed one of several video conditions portraying a physician conducting a medical interview in which he used one of 5 documenting methods/devices (nothing, pen and paper, PDA, desktop computer, wearable computer). After viewing the interaction, participants completed a series of questionnaires evaluating their general satisfaction with the quality of care (QoC) delivered during the medical interview. Results reveal that the type of technology used has a significant effect on QoC ratings. Though advanced technology offers the opportunity of better healthcare delivery, there may be a trade-off with lower ratings of interpersonal interactions.
Lessons for Electronic Medical Records from Family Medical Practices BIBAFull-Text 650-654
  Timothy R. McEwen; Nancy Elder; John M. Flach
Motivated by the push towards the adoption of electronic medical record (EMR) systems, we conducted a series of observations, interviews, and patient record audits at four family medical practices to investigate the nature of record keeping in diagnostic testing processes. One lauded benefit of EMR is to reduce the number of steps required to process test results and reduce the number of errors. We found this to be the case. However, in offices with paper records, we found many instances where people helped create safety by correcting errors made at previous stages due to naturally occurring feedback loops that allowed for compensation. The EMR office faced unique challenges in this regard because of impoverished communication and feedback loops, both from the EMR system and support staff. It is important to appreciate the safety dynamics of paper based systems in the design of EMR systems and consider incorporating dynamics such as checks and redundancies into them.
Computerized Medication Alerts and Prescriber Mental Models: Observing Routine Patient Care BIBAFull-Text 655-659
  Alissa L. Russ; Jason J. Saleem; M. Sue McManus; Alan J. Zillich; Bradley N. Doebbeling
Computerized medication alerts (e.g., drug-drug interactions, drug-allergy interactions), which are intended to protect patient safety, need to match the mental models of medication prescribers in order to aid medication ordering. To maximally protect patient safety, the programmer mental model, system image, and prescriber mental model should work seamlessly together to fully support prescriber decision-making. In this study, we examined prescribing processes in the context of routine patient care to understand how the design of medication alerts can be enhanced for prescribers. We shadowed prescribers, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurse practitioners, across five outpatient primary care clinics at a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC). In addition, prescribers were opportunistically interviewed as they ordered mediations via a computerized order entry system and resolved any subsequent medication alerts. This investigation is one of the few to examine medication alerts by directly observing prescribers during patient care. Altogether, 191 medication alerts occurred across 63.5 total hrs of observation, 19 prescribers, and 86 patients during routine patient care tasks. Results reveal problematic system images and mismatches between programmer and prescriber mental models. Findings can help inform medication alert redesigns, which may promote safer, more effective prescribing practices.
Medical Informatics: What contributions can human factors make? BIBAFull-Text 660-663
  Michael W. Smith; Alissa L. Russ
Healthcare is arguably the most complex of the complex, sociotechnical systems studied by the human factors community. This complexity only looks to increase over the next five years as massive changes in how care is delivered and reimbursed are already underway. Not the least of these changes is the not-so-subtle introduction of medical informatics and their corresponding ripple effects on how roles are designed, how work is coordinated, how primary and more distant personnel are impacted, and how power is allocated among groups. Much of the activity in medical informatics is conducted without representation by the human factors community, or even knowledge of what the human factors community can contribute other than usability testing methods. In this panel, a group of leading human factors researchers will provide a range of perspectives to the question: What contributions can human factors make to medical informatics based upon recent cutting-edge research and reflection on past experiences.
Developing a Tool for Reliably Identifying Distractions and Interruptions during Surgery BIBAFull-Text 664-668
  S. Henrickson Parker; A. Laviana; T. M. Sundt; D. A. Wiegmann
Background: Many researchers have previously explored the correlation between surgical flow disruptions (distractions and interruptions) and error in cardiac surgery, however there is no reliable tool to prospectively categorize surgical flow disruptions and the conditions that predispose a surgical team to error. Methods and Results: Two independent raters of different medical and human factors expertise observed 12 cardiovascular operations and iteratively designed a tool to characterize surgical flow disruptions and the latent factors that contribute to error. Categories to characterize surgical flow disruptions were based on human factors models of human error. Following the design period, both raters observed 10 surgical cases using the tool, to assess validity and inter-rater reliability. Rating agreement (weighted kappa) for each category across the 10 surgeries was moderate to very high, resulting in strong inter-rater reliability for each category on the surgical flow disruption tool (SFDT). Conclusions: This research depicts the development and utility of a tool to analyze surgical flow disruptions in the cardiovascular operating room with satisfactory inter-rater reliability. This tool is an important first step in systematically categorizing and measuring surgical flow disruptions and their impact on patient safety in the operating room.
Measuring Attention Patterns and Expertise of Scrub Nurses in the Operating Theatre in Relation to Reducing Errors in Surgical Counts BIBAFull-Text 669-673
  Ranieri Yung Ing Koh; Xi Yang; Shanqing Yin; Lay Teng Ong; Yoel Donchin; Taezoon Park
Cases of retained foreign objects after surgery have been a problem since the beginning of modern surgery. However, the preventive measure to this problem has remained rather primitive -- through manual surgical count by scrub nurses. The process of counting is subject to errors under stressful environment, such as time pressure, distractions, and high cognitive workload. The objective of this study is to measure the differences in the performance and attention patterns according to the expertise of the scrub nurses within an operating theatre, finally drawing a conclusion on the means through which the performance of scrub nurses can be optimized to reduce chances of errors. Qualitative observations on three different types of surgery and two eye movement data collected in the operation theatre have shown both qualitative and quantitative differences in performance and behavioral patterns between expert and novice scrub nurses, suggesting that task switching, task prioritization and situation awareness are latent factors affecting their task performances.
Significant Physiological Disturbances in Cases With and Without Non-Routine Events: An Analysis of Videotaped Anesthetics BIBAFull-Text 674-678
  Jason M. Slagle; Shilo Anders; Charles Calderwood; Matthew B. Weinger
It is important to understand the interactions among multiple factors affecting patient safety in the operating room. This paper describes data obtained using videotaped surgical cases that contained Non-Routine Events (NREs) versus Routine cases, as reported by anesthesia professionals. Random samples of videotapes were further analyzed for deviations of physiological parameters (vital signs) outside the accepted safe clinical range. The NRE cases contained significantly more vital sign deviations than routine cases. Additionally, vital signs were outside the standard clinical range a greater proportion of case time in NRE cases than in Routine cases. Nevertheless, there was a surprisingly high incidence of vital sign deviations during both types of cases. Such "routine" cases would otherwise not be reviewed or come under scrutiny in typical quality improvement efforts, even though they may contain valuable data about safety critical events.
Automation in Surgery: The Surgeons' Perspective on Human Factors Issues of Image-Guided Navigation BIBAFull-Text 679-683
  J. E. Bahner-Heyne; S. Roettger; D. Schulze-Kissing; D. Manzey
Image-guided navigation (IGN) systems support the surgeon in navigating through the patients' anatomy. Previous research on IGN has focused on technical feasibility and clinical applications. Yet, as the introduction of IGN corresponds to a partial automation of the surgeon's task, well known issues of human-automation interaction might play a crucial role for the success of IGN as well. The present study represents a first attempt to assess the impact of IGN on four key issues of human automation-interaction, i.e., workload, situation awareness, trust, and skill degradation, from the surgeons' perspective. A nation-wide survey among 213 German surgeons from 94 different hospitals was conducted. Results revealed (1) a workload-shift due to IGN rather than a reduction of workload, (2) benefits of IGN with respect to situation awareness, (3) comparatively high levels of perceived reliability, trust and reliance, and (4) skill degradation as a possible risk, albeit only for inexperienced surgeons.
The impact of protocolized communication during cardiac surgery BIBAFull-Text 684-688
  S. Henrickson Parker; R. Wadhera; D. Wiegmann; T. M. Sundt
Background: Communication breakdowns are a common cause of adverse events in high consequence industries. It has become increasingly evident that within healthcare systems that poor communication is the causal factor of a large percentage of sentinel events. Methods: All communication exchanges between surgeon and perfusionist were monitored via observation for 18 cardiovascular surgery cases. Breakdowns were analyzed by stage and type of breakdown and a communication protocol designed based on the breakdowns. The protocol was then implemented, and use of the protocol was then monitored for 16 cardiovascular surgery cases. Results: Breakdowns decreased at each stage of cardiovascular surgery. Specific types of breakdowns decreased dramatically, most by more than half. Conclusions: This study shows that protocolizing communication can have a profound impact on communication breakdowns in the cardiovascular surgery operating theatre.
Beyond the Hospital: Human Factors and Ergonomics Issues in the Ambulatory/Outpatient Care Setting BIBAFull-Text 689-693
  Carla Alvarado
While much is known about human factors and ergonomic (HFE) issues relevant to inpatient safety, less is known about the HFE issues relevant to ambulatory care safety. Panelists will present data from ambulatory patient safety studies of primary care, care transitions, ambulatory procedural units, and emergency departments and will then discuss the human factors and ergonomic concerns that uniquely or differently present in ambulatory settings.
User Created Cognitive Artifacts: What Can They Teach Us About Design of Information Technology? BIBAFull-Text 694-698
  Yan Xiao; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Ayse P. Gurses; Christopher Nemeth; Emilie Roth; Robert L. Wears; Paul Gorman
Cognitive artifacts are created and used to support task performance in many domains. These artifacts may be essential components designed into a process, they may have been created by users as work-arounds to system shortcomings, or they may be extensions to systems that add functionalities to meet evolving needs. Examination of cognitive artifacts may provide insights that complement other cognitive engineering methods such as task analysis. This panel will present findings from study of cognitive artifacts used in high risk domains such as healthcare. Panelists will address questions relating to research methodologies, theoretical frameworks, and design implications, such as: What are the roles of user-designed artifacts for care coordination and patient safety? What can designers learn from artifacts? How can we use artifact analysis to design better health information technologies? Can vendor-designed information tools and user-designed artifacts work in harmony to provide safe care? Panel members will address these questions based on their research studies and experiences within as well as outside the health care area.
Accessibility and Usability of Diabetes Management Devices for Users with Vision Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 699-703
  Molly Follette Story; Adam C. Luce; David M. Rempel
The purpose of this study was to evaluate accessibility and usability of three blood glucose meters with voice output and three syringe loaders for individuals with diabetes and vision impairments. Twenty participants simulated a typical use scenario on each device. For meters, the Prodigy AutoCode scored better than ACCU-CHEK Advantage (with Voicemate), which scored better than OneTouch Basic (with Digi-Voice). Among syringe loaders, Count-a-dose scored better than Syringe Support, which scored better than Loadmatic. Recommendations are made for design modifications to both types of devices.
Improving the User Interface and Adoption of Online Personal Health Records BIBAFull-Text 704-708
  Kirsten A. Peters; Thomas F. Green; Robert M. Schumacher
In winter 2008/2009, we conducted an independent comparative research study of two existing online Personal Health Record (PHR) applications: Google Health and Microsoft HealthVault. The goals of the study were to identify areas associated with the most errors or missteps and to determine which functions and features were most preferred by potential users. Thirty participants completed a set of tasks using each PHR application and provided qualitative feedback and preference data on five dimensions: usability, utility, security, privacy, and trust. Overall, participants navigated more efficiently and entered data more quickly using Google Health. Consequently, they indicated that they found Google Health more usable than Microsoft HealthVault. Participants also appreciated the fact that Google Health utilized more familiar medical terminology and provided a persistent health information profile summary. Although both PHR systems contain useful features, including the ability to share medical information with a physician, we found that Google Health had a slight edge in perceived overall utility because of important drug interaction information. Finally, in terms of security, privacy and trust, there was a slight preference for Microsoft HealthVault because of its strong brand presence, professional look-and-feel, and more friendly privacy and security language.
Improving Communication of Health Status Information BIBAFull-Text 709-713
  Stephen E. Douglas; Barrett S. Caldwell
This research focused on developing a general health report that conveys an individual's health readings in a clear, concise and explanatory manner and demonstrating the report's usefulness. The research examined the need for such a report and focused the design on the determined need and communication through visual display. The designed "Individual Health Report (IHR)" was evaluated using data obtained from an online survey developed for this research. The analysis involved t-tests, McNemar's tests, linear regression and ANOVA. Results included the finding that the IHR significantly improved respondent's ability to correctly answer questions about their health status and preventive health in general (p < .0001, n = 61). The study also showed that introduction of the IHR by healthcare providers would significantly improve the respondents' view that they get the preventive healthcare information they need to make appropriate decisions (p = 0.0007, n = 61).
Establishing User Requirements for a Patient Held Electronic Record System in the United Kingdom BIBAFull-Text 714-717
  Jackie Binnersley; Andree Woodcock; Louise M. Wallace; Panayiotis Kyriacou
In the UK, in emergency situations, health professionals rely on patients to provide information about their medical history. However, in some cases patients may not remember their medication, long term illnesses or allergies, or be able to communicate this information. As a national on-line integrated patient record system has not yet been established, a patient held electronic health record has been proposed. This paper summarizes the results of a survey to establish the public's and health care professionals requirements for such a system.
Older Adults' Needs for Home Health Care and the Potential for Human Factors Interventions BIBAFull-Text 718-722
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Jenay M. Beer; Sara E. McBride; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Demand for home health care is expected to increase as more people are living longer and because older adults rely on home health services to a greater extent than any other population (CDC, 2000). This paper needs as well as guidance for potential human factors interventions to reduce medical errors and improve quality of care and independence for older patients. Factors discussed include reducing transition and handoff errors, ensuring proper use of medical devices, managing medication, and optimizing home health settings. The importance of considering the role of normal age analysis is to provide guidance for human factors interventions in home health care.
Ergonomic Safety of Surgical Techniques and Standing Positions Associated with Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy BIBAFull-Text 723-727
  Gyusung Lee; Yassar Youssef; Melody Carswell; Cindy Hui-Lio; Ivan George; Adrian Park
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), a procedure in which, using either a one-handed or two-handed technique, a surgeon removes a symptomatic gallbladder in a minimally invasive manner, is commonly -- due to its relatively high safety level -- the initial procedure that a resident will perform. Investigation of the ergonomics associated with LC one-handed and two-handed techniques is one goal of this study. Identification of which of two standing positions (between legs or at side) used during LC is the more ergonomically favorable is the other. Knowledge gained from our research in these issues is intended to be applicable both to surgical training and the operating room environment. Eight right-handed laparoscopic surgeons with varying levels of surgical skills were recruited for this study. Each performed LC a total of four times on a virtual reality (VR) simulator with each performance incorporating one of the following conditions: either the one-handed or two-handed surgical technique or the position of standing between the patient's legs or at the patient's side. Each trial was also divided into two phases: 1) dissection and clipping and 2) gall bladder removal. During the performance of LC, physical ergonomic data were collected though surface electrode electromyography (EMG) and two force plates. Additionally NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) and secondary time estimation were used for cognitive ergonomic assessment. Standing at the side produced a significantly higher weight-loading ratio (WLR) than standing between the legs. Comparison between techniques indicated that the two-handed technique caused higher WLR. Significant phase effect equated increased WLR with phase 2 gall bladder removal. No statistical interactions among technique, standing position, and phase were significant. Analysis of NASA-TLX showed that global workload, influenced mainly by significant physical workload and effort scales, was higher with the side-standing position and the two-handed technique. The results from time estimation analysis, although statistically marginal, demonstrated that the one-handed technique is more mentally demanding. Our study demonstrated that due to lower physical as well as mental workload, the two-handed technique performed with the surgeon positioned between the patient's legs is the most ergonomically favorable combination. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pedal for cautery operation requires ergonomic improvement. These specific findings encourage us to continue research into what proof ergonomics can provide regarding what constitutes the most efficacious approaches to surgical procedures and to optimizing patient safety and the surgical environment.
A Communication Analysis Methodology for Developing A Cardiac Operating Room TeamOriented Display BIBAFull-Text 728-732
  Avi Parush; Kathryn Momtahan; Tara Foster-Hunt; Chelsea Kramer; Aren Hunter; Howard Nathan
This paper outlines an empirical method to analyze human communication in the context of a cardiac Operating Room (OR) and derive design requirements for a team-oriented information display. Its first phase was to identify and categorize shared information within teamwork. The subsequent analysis of the shared information included aggregating shared information instances into unique items, and then scoping and generating the display requirements. The analysis resulted in 52 unique shared information items out of 845 information sharing instances. These unique information items were considered as the requirements for a cardiac OR team-oriented display. While the method was implemented on operating room teamwork, it can be generalized to a variety of domains with a need for a team-oriented display.
Patient monitoring in anesthesia with a head-mounted display: Simulator studies and a clinical trial BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  D. Liu; P. M. Sanderson; S. A. Jenkins; M. O. Watson; W. J. Russell
Anesthesiologists in the operating room vigilantly monitor their patient's vital signs during surgical procedures. The vital signs are displayed on a monitor that may be located in an awkward position and out of view of the anesthesiologist (who may be busy performing procedures on the patient). A head-mounted display (HMD) can help anesthesiologists monitor the patient's vital signs no matter where they are, or where they are looking, in the operating room. HMDs have been tested in simulated and real operating rooms, but no study has investigated whether the worsened inattentional blindness phenomenon found with head-up displays in aviation would also affect HMDs in anesthesia. Experiment 1 shows that the HMD did not worsen participants' ability to report unexpected events, but it did let them look towards the simulated patient for longer. Experiment 2 shows that participants using the HMD are slower to detect a change in a waveform and quicker to detect a change in numbers when working with a simulated patient. Experiment 3, a clinical trial, replicated the finding that the HMD lets participants look towards the patient for more time. We assess the prospects for HMDs in clinical contexts.
Vibrotactile Feedback Improves Laparoscopic Palpation Skills BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Mi Zhou; Caroline G. L. Cao
Sensory augmentation using vibrotactile stimulation has been shown to compensate for distorted haptic feedback in tissue compliance differentiation tasks in laparoscopic surgery. This study investigated its usefulness for tumor palpation. A controlled experiment was conducted using a wearable vibrotactile device that responded with various levels of vibration signal parameters (i.e., amplitude, frequency and duty-cycle) as a function of applied force during a palpation task. Results showed that subjects were able to perform more accurately and more confidently, applying lower peak forces and smaller force ranges to make a judgment regarding the presence of an embedded structure, with vibrotactile augmentation than without. In addition, as more parameters of the vibration signal were modulated (up to three), the vibrotactile augmentation tended to be more effective, possibly due to the greater information content in the multi-parameter signal. This suggests that palpation can be improved by implementing a vibration device that is capable of multi-dimensional modulation. However, the design of the vibration device should balance the advantage of providing additional information for effective information transmission with that of signal redundancy and complexity.
Interruptions and Cognitive Processes in Nursing: Review, Analysis, Recommendations BIBAFull-Text 743
  Patricia R. DeLucia; Tammy E. Ott; Patrick A. Palmieri
Nurses spend more time with patients than other health care providers, and patient outcomes are impacted by nursing care quality. Thus, enhancements in nursing performance can lead to improvements in patient safety. Results of our comprehensive literature review (DeLucia, Ott, & Palmieri, in press) indicated that numerous factors affect the performance of nurses. These include cognitive factors (interruptions, cognitive processes), physical factors (musculoskeletal disorders, environment), and organizational factors (work hours, staffing). Here, we focus on cognitive factors. Nurses' work is cognitively demanding. Nursing involves multi-tasking, relies on procedural and prospective memory, and occurs under frequent interruptions. We discuss interruptions and cognitive processes in nursing and provide a conceptual analysis and recommendations. We conclude that the nurses' work system does not accommodate limitations and capabilities of the nurse, particularly limits in cognitive processes. The field of human factors and ergonomics is uniquely suited to redesign the nurses' work system to enhance nursing performance and improve patient safety. Of particular importance for future research is the study of interruptions and cognitive processes in nursing.
Public Health: An Epidemiological Study to Explore the Relationship Between Literacy, Language, Aging, and Familiarity on Comprehension of Health Information BIBAFull-Text 744-748
  Michael J. Vredenburgh
Studies concerning health literacy indicate that health-related materials cannot be understood by most of the people for whom they are intended. A primary aim of the current study was to evaluate the extent to which medication information sheets effectively convey instructions and health information to populations who may be at risk of making errors: seniors (65+), new and inexperienced medication users (ages 16-21), and English learners. An "experimental" information sheet was created for this study by reformatting existing sheets to comport with results of my prior science fair research. A comprehension test was also created for this study. Two existing information sheets (one commonly used by pharmacy chains and one by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]) were compared to the experimental sheet using a mixed-model ANOVA. Results indicate that the young, inexperienced users and seniors performed significantly better when tested using the reformatted, experimental sheet. Since seniors use significantly more drugs, and the more drugs taken the greater risk of misunderstanding instructions, it is critical that these sheets are redesigned to be usable by this population group.
Development of an Integrated Model for Predicting Patient Compliance BIBAFull-Text 749-753
  Monifa Vaughn-Cooke
Patient non-compliance with treatment goals and medical guidance poses significant health risks for the patient and a financial burden on the health care system. The proposed compliance prediction process provides health care professionals with a patient-centric methodology to improve patient self-management. The Social Personal Organizational Technological (SPOT) Patient Compliance Model was developed to integrate the success-critical Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) of the patient compliance system. The SPOT Model will be built and validated in an empirical study to iteratively evaluate the dynamic relationship between compliance prognostics and treatment adherence. PSF risk severity states, determined from compliance stakeholder questionnaires, are input to an algorithm which predicts patient non-compliance probability. SPOT Model predictions can be utilized by providers to develop strategies to mitigate identified compliance risks. Potential benefits of utilizing SPOT Model predictions in treatment decisions include: 1) a reduction in chronic and acute conditions due to effective patient self-management and disease prevention and 2) a significant decrease in patient and health care system resources.
Structuring the Puzzle: Protocol Use in Disease Outbreak Investigations BIBAFull-Text 754-758
  Heidi S. Kramer; Laverne A. Snow; Frank Drews; Matthew Samore
Disease outbreaks affect millions of Americans every year and have potentially large health and financial costs. State and local health departments in conjunction with the CDC have the responsibility for investigating and managing disease outbreaks. Individual states define dozens of diseases as reportable. To manage the scope and diversity of these diseases public health agencies rely on the use of protocols. Protocols can be effective tools for improving performance and reducing errors. However, there are limitations with the use of protocols in natural systems such as disease investigations. Our study included 41 semi-structured interviews with public health disease outbreak investigators. This paper discusses some of the benefits and limitations related to the use of protocols in disease outbreak investigations. We also suggest areas where Human Factors Engineering can support public health disease investigations.
Distributed Prospective Memory: An approach to understanding how nurses remember tasks BIBAFull-Text 759-763
  T. Grundgeiger; P. M. Sanderson; H. G. MacDougall; B. Venkatesh
People's ability to execute future intentions, or their prospective memory (PM), is a critical aspect of cognitive work because failures can have adverse outcomes. Most research to date deals with unaided prospective memory performance outside a healthcare context. We report results from a field study investigating PM performance of intensive care nurses. Concepts from distributed cognition help to identify how nurses use physical properties of their working environment to manage PM demands. Results show that (1) PM demands can be classified using a taxonomy from aviation and (2) nurses are supported by and use properties of the environment to manage PM demands. Focusing on distributed support for prospective memory lets us study prospective memory in rich work contexts. The results inform health information system and device design and professional education.

HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODELING

A Method for the Formal Verification of Human-interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 764-768
  Matthew L. Bolton; Ellen J. Bass
Predicting failures in complex, human-interactive systems is difficult as they may occur under rare operational conditions and may be influenced by many factors including the system mission, the human operator's behavior, device automation, human-device interfaces, and the operational environment. This paper presents a method that integrates task analytic models of human behavior with formal models and model checking in order to formally verify properties of human-interactive systems. This method is illustrated with a case study: the programming of a patient controlled analgesia pump. Two specifications, one of which produces a counterexample, illustrate the analysis and visualization capabilities of the method.
NT-SEEV: A model of attention capture and noticing on the Flight Deck BIBAFull-Text 769-773
  Christopher Wickens; Jason McCarley; Kelly Steelman-Allen
N-SEEV is a model that predicts the noticeability of events that occur in the context of routine task-driven scanning across large scale visual environments. The model is an extension of the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model, incorporating the influence of attentional set and allowing the possibility of a dynamic environment. The model was validated against two empirical data sets. In a study of pilot scanning across a high fidelity automated 747 cockpit, the SEEV component of the model predicted the distribution of attention with correlations of 0.85 and 0.88. In a lower fidelity study of pilot noticing of the onset of critical cockpit events (flight mode annunciators) the model predicted differences in noticing time and accuracy with correlations (across conditions) above 0.95. Other properties of the model are described.
N-SEEV: A Computational Model of Attention and Noticing BIBAFull-Text 774-778
  Kelly S. Steelman-Allen; Jason S. McCarley; Christopher Wickens; Angelia Sebok; Julie Bzostek
The N-SEEV is a stochastic model of overt attention within a visual display or workspace. The model integrates elements from several existing models of attention (Bundesen, 1987, 1990; Itti & Koch, 2000; Wolfe, 1994; Wickens, et al., 2003) to provide (1) predictions of the allocation of visual attention among discrete display channels; (2) the likelihood of a scanning transition between any pair of channels; and (3) the number of eye movements needed to fixate the onset of a visual signal or event. Preliminary tests of the model show a close fit between model predictions and actual pilot scanning and noticing times.
Measuring Coordination Demand in Multirobot Teams BIBAFull-Text 779-783
  Michael Lewis; Jijun Wang
Conventional models of multirobot control assume independent robots and tasks. This allows an additive model in which the operator controls robots sequentially neglecting each until its performance deteriorates sufficiently to require new operator input. This paper presents a measure of coordination demand, CD, and experiments intended to extend the neglect tolerance model to situations in which robots must cooperate to perform dependent tasks. In the first experiment operators controlled 2 robot teams to perform a box pushing task under high coordination demand, teleoperation, moderate demand (waypoint control/heterogeneous robots), and low demand (waypoint control/homogeneous robots) conditions. In the second experiment participants performed a search and rescue task requiring cooperation between robots creating maps and others carrying cameras. Measured demand and performance were largely consistent with the CD model's predictions.
A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance BIBAFull-Text 784-788
  Steven J. Landry
A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model's performance.
Synthetic Agents as Full-fledged Teammates BIBAFull-Text 789-793
  Christopher W. Myers
An important goal of training systems research is the ability to train teams to criterion while simultaneously minimizing training resources. One promising approach is to develop synthetic agents that act as full-fledged members of a team. Five experts will highlight successes, failures, and continuing challenges associated with the development, validation, and deployment of synthetic agents as full-fledged teammates. The panel will provide an intimate look "under the hood" of synthetic agents, describe what each has found useful for developing a synthetic teammate that "plays well with others," and discuss the key roadblocks that must be overcome for the further inclusion of synthetic teammates within human training systems. The lessons learned from these panelists will be of value to those interested in cognitive engineering and human performance modeling.
Rapid Theory Prototyping: An Example of an Aviation Task BIBAFull-Text 794-798
  Bonnie E. John; Marilyn Hughes Blackmon; Peter G. Polson; Karl Fennell; Leonghwee Teo
We present our experience using CogTool, a tool originally designed for ease of use and learning by non-psychologist design practitioners, as a means for rapid theory exploration. We created seven iterations of a "model prototype" of an aviation task where each iteration produced errors that pointed to additional theory or device knowledge that should be incorporated to prevent those errors. This theory and knowledge was put into the next iteration by modifying the mock-up of the device, not by changing the implementation of the underlying cognitive model. This trick allowed us to rapidly change theory and knowledge and understand what must eventually migrate to the underlying cognitive model to provide general support for predictions of novice behavior in multi-step procedures with complex devices.
A Process-Model Account of Task Interruption and Resumption: When Does Encoding of the Problem State Occur? BIBAFull-Text 799-803
  Dario D. Salvucci; Christopher A. Monk; J. Gregory Trafton
Memory for goals theory (Altmann & Trafton, 2002) describes how people suspend and resume an interrupted task by encoding, or rehearsing, the current problem state at the point of interruption and recalling this state after the interruption. In this work we investigated the timing of the encoding process, attempting to determine the most likely strategies for when to perform encoding of interrupted problem state. We examined several candidate encoding strategies and developed computational cognitive models to represent each strategy, embedding the models into a larger model of behavior in a interruption-tracking task. Comparison of the model simulations with recent empirical data suggests that encoding of problem state occurs for a short time at the start of the interruption period and is performed concurrently with the interrupting task.
Neurophysiologic Collaboration Patterns During Team Problem Solving BIBAFull-Text 804-808
  Ron Stevens; Trysha Galloway; Chris Berka; Marcia Sprang
We have explored using neurophysiologic collaboration patterns as an approach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving time-critical, complex real-world problems. Teams of three students solved substance abuse management simulations using IMMEX software while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) were generated by electroencephalography (EEG). Levels of high and low workload and engagement were identified for each member at each epoch statistically and the vectors consisting of these measures were clustered by self organizing artificial neural networks. The resulting cognitive teamwork patterns, termed neural synchronies, were different across six different teams. When the neural synchronies were compared across the team members of individual teams segments were identified where different synchronies were preferentially expressed. Some were expressed early in the collaboration when the team members were forming mental models of the problem, others were expressed later in the collaboration when the team members were sharing their mental models and converging on a solution. These studies indicate that non-random patterns of neurophysiologic synchronies can be observed across teams and members of a team when they are engaged in problem solving. This approach may provide an approach for monitoring the quality of team work during complex, real-world and possible one of a kind problem solving.
Using Saccadic Intrusions To Quantify Mental Workload BIBAFull-Text 809-813
  Satoru Tokuda; Evan Palmer; Edgar Merkle; Alex Chaparro
This study proposes a new method to quantify mental workload (MWL) automatically, without interfering with the operator's primary task performance. An unobtrusive Tobii eye tracker recorded eye movements while participants were engaged in a cognitively demanding N-back task. Original algorithms automatically analyzed the eye data, detected specific eye deviation movements called saccadic intrusions (SIs), and automatically quantified the eye deviation accounted for SIs. This SI measure was strongly correlated with the task difficulty levels in the N-back tasks and with pupil diameter. This indicates that the SI measure appeared to reflect MWL and may be used as a measure of MWL.
An Analysis Capability for System of Systems Research BIBAFull-Text 814-818
  Elizabeth K. Bowman; Jeffrey A. Smith
This paper proposes an analysis capability for systems of systems research in military settings. A new approach is needed due to the increasingly complex socio-technical nature of Command and Control (C2). This research seeks to advance the Army analysis process by developing a capability to examine cognitive, social and technical aspects of information sharing and consequential decision making requirement for C2. We first review the definition of system of systems. Next, we establish the agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) paradigm as a useful method for analysis because of its facility for exploring large and complex problem spaces. This is followed by some structural issues addressed by ABMS with an emphasis on the challenge of representing human behavior in psychologically plausible ways. We then present one instantiation of ABMS that incorporates a representation of human decision making and the utility of information in a small vignette. We consider the suitability of this ABMS for system of system analyses with respect to how the decision making processes represent human decision making behavior. Finally, we discuss an ongoing approach to improve human behavior representations in the agents of this ABMS.
Workload Warriors: Lessons Learned from a Decade of Mental Workload Prediction Using Human Performance Modeling BIBAFull-Text 819-823
  Diane Kuhl Mitchell; Charneta Samms
For at least a decade, researchers at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have predicted mental workload using human performance modeling (HPM) tools, primarily IMPRINT. During this timeframe their projects have matured from simple models of human behavior to complex analyses of the interactions of system design and human behavior. As part of this maturation process, the researchers learned: 1) to develop a modeling question that incorporates all aspects of workload, 2) to determine when workload is most likely to affect performance, 3) to build multiple models to represent experimental conditions, 4) to connect performance predictions to an overall mission or system capability, and 5) to format results in a clear, concise format. By implementing the techniques they developed from these lessons learned, the researchers have had an impact on major Army programs with their workload predictions. Specifically, they have successfully changed design requirements for future concept Army vehicles, substantiated manpower requirements for fielded Army vehicles, and made Soldier workload the number one item during preliminary design review for a major Army future concept vehicle program. The effective techniques the ARL researchers developed for their IMPRINT projects are applicable to other HPM tools. In addition, they can be used by students and researchers who are doing human performance modeling projects and are confronted with similar problems to help them achieve project success.
Effects of Cognitive Distraction on Checking Traffic Conditions for Changing Lanes BIBAFull-Text 824-828
  Huiping Zhou; Makoto Itoh; Toshiyuki Inagaki
This paper aimed to reveal effects of cognitively distracting activity on checking traffic condition before changing lanes. We conducted an experiment to investigate driver behavior to change lanes under two conditions: only a driving task and an additional cognitive task. It was revealed that the decrease and delay on checking traffic occurred continually during a long time period before executing lane changes, not just temporarily. The result showed that distraction might contribute to the effects. It was also suggested that cognitive distraction may degrade the perceptual capability in situation awareness. A necessary was demonstrated to give support functions, which aid a driver enhancing situation awareness and attract driver's attention from distractions, in order to prevent accidents in lane changes.
A Componential Model of Human Interaction with Graphs: VII. A Review of the Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual Model BIBAFull-Text 829-833
  Douglas J. Gillan
This paper provides a summary of the development and evaluation of a componential model of graph reading called the Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual (MA-P) model. A review of the history underlying the development of the model begins the paper. The second section describes the research used to test the predictions from the model and to further develop it. The third section integrates the research to produce a single omnibus version of the MA-P model. Finally, the fourth section projects the future of the MA-P modeling approach, for specific versions of the model, additional research, as well as applications.
Movement Control Phases of Upper Body Coordination in Visually Guided Reach Movements BIBAFull-Text 834-838
  Shin-Yuan Yu; Bernard J. Martin
Coordination of human movement includes temporal and spatial aspects. Under the assumption that the implicit movement sequence of body segments may be associated with visual feedback information, the activation timing, time to peak velocity of the hand and sequencing of joint movements were investigated in this study. The results show that variations in movement time with target azimuth and distance fit a quadratic regression model. In addition, the time to peak velocity reveals a movement scaling property in the context of self-imposed movement speed. Finally, the sequencing of joint movement also varies with target azimuth and distance. These motor behavior properties and movement characteristics can be used to model human reach movement in a dynamic manner and to estimate task durations.
Evaluation of Mouse and Touch Input for a Tabletop Display Using Fitts' Reciprocal Tapping Task BIBAFull-Text 839-843
  Farzan Sasangohar; I. Scott MacKenzie; Stacey D. Scott
User performance with a tabletop display was tested using touch-based and mouse-based interaction in a traditional pointing task. Dependent variables were throughput, error rate, and movement time. In a study with 12 participants, touch had a higher throughput with average of 5.53 bps compared to 3.83 bps for the mouse. Touch also had a lower movement time on average, with block means ranging from 403 ms to 1051 ms vs. 607 ms to 1323 ms with the mouse. Error rates were lower for the mouse at 2.1%, compared to 9.8% for touch. The high error rates using touch were attributed to problems in selecting small targets with the finger. It is argued that, overall, touch input is a preferred and efficient input technique for tabletop displays, but that more research is needed to improve touch selection of small targets.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

Predicting Vigilance Performance and Stress with Individual Difference Measures BIBAFull-Text 844-848
  Tyler H. Shaw; Gerald Matthews; Victor Finomore; Joel S. Warm
In this study, personality and intelligence measures were used to predict vigilance performance and the stress associated with the performance of an abbreviated vigilance task adapted from Temple et al. (2000). Personality was measured using broad personality traits (NEO-FFI), as well as factor-analytically derived personality dimensions that yielded the four factor solution of Cognitive Disorganization, Heightened Experience, Sleep Quality, and Impulsivity. Intelligence was measured by two tests extracted from the ETS Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests (Ekstrom et al., 1976). Stress was measured using the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (DSSQ). Fluid intelligence and extraversion emerged as predictors for vigilance performance. With regard to stress, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness emerged as predictors for both pre- and post-task distress and worry. While the derived personality battery did not directly predict performance, the Cognitive Disorganization and Impulsivity factors predicted the stress associated with vigilance tasks.
Trait Anxiety and Affective Bias in Tactical Decision-Making BIBAFull-Text 849-853
  April Rose Panganiban; Gerald Matthews; Eva Hudlicka
Affective states may influence decision-making at different stages of information processing, including selective attention, situation assessment and choice of action. Studies of state anxiety, a negative emotional state, reveal multiple biases including an attentional bias to threat-related stimuli and biases at later stages. The present study examined the effects of threat and both trait and state anxiety on decision-making in a simulated rescue task. Participants were induced into a mood (neutral or anxious) and asked to choose the fastest route leading to a lost party by evaluating uncertain benefits and costs for several routes. The results confirm that mood induction methods can be used for decision-making tasks. Additionally, these findings suggest that different forms of 'affect' may relate to different biases. Task-related threat and induced mood influenced route choice, but trait and state anxiety influenced selective attention to benefits and costs.
P300 Amplitude and Latency Reflect Individual Difference of Navigation Performance in a Driving Task BIBAFull-Text 854-858
  Bo Ou; Changxu Wu; Guozhen Zhao
Even though individual difference of navigation performance was found in driving studies at behavioral level, few studies explored the cognitive mechanism of this individual difference at neurological level with ERP (Event-related Potential) technique. To address this important question in research, this study recruited two groups of navigators with good and poor navigation performance in a driving task and measured their P300 amplitude when two types of triggers were presented to subjects (intersection and street sign). It was found that poor navigators showed larger amplitude than good navigators on the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere, the temporal and the parietal and the occipital sites when intersections triggers were presented, and on the occipital site when street sign triggers were presented, reflecting different levels of mental resource needed to process in the spatial information between these two groups. Future research and application of the current finding in intelligent transportation system was also discussed.
A Comparison of the Relevance of Between-Subject and Within-Subject Variance for an Intention Estimation Behavior for Wheelchair Users BIBAFull-Text 859-863
  Meike Jipp
In the field of assistance systems for powered wheelchair control, existing research considers individual differences in intelligence and psychomotor abilities only with regard to their impact on situation adaptation, which has been proven as a significant predictor of the cognitive processes going on when the actor decides on his/her future behavior. This paper investigates the direct effects of these individual differences on the variables used for intention estimation and compares their effects with the ones found for situation adaptation and for the interactions between the situation adaptation and the individual differences. The results demonstrate quite impressively that, for some variables, these direct effects play an even more important role than do the situation adaptation effects and the interaction effects. Hence, the direct effects should be considered as well. Implications about how these results can be integrated in existing intention estimation behaviors for powered wheelchair control are provided.
Perceptions of Humans Wearing Technology BIBAFull-Text 864-868
  Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Nicholas C. Lagattuta
The current study is an examination of how using "wearable technology" may impact the impressions formed by others about the technology user. Previous research has examined how technological devices that are made to be more humanlike may be perceived, yet little research has investigated the perceptions of humans who are made more like technological devices through the augmentation of their senses or abilities. Participants viewed faces of male and female models either wearing no external devices, wearing non-technological articles, wearing consumer electronic devices, or scientific/military devices (eye trackers). Overall, models were viewed less favorably when wearing technology, but the attributions were a complex interaction of the rater's comfort with technology, the sex of the model, and the particular attribute being examined. Wearable technology may augment cognitive abilities, but interfere with interpersonal relations.

INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS

An Objective Measure of the Subjective Pain Response Resulting From Lumbar Muscle Fatigue Due To Lifting BIBAFull-Text 869-873
  Susan Kotowski; Kermit Davis; Lisa Lemen
Pain is one of the body's least understood biological responses. Pain measurement often relies on the perception of the individual without any link to known objective responses within the body. The objective of the study was to relate a quantitative measurement of pain obtained by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), which analyzes chemical shifts in the brain, to perceived pain responses, as measured by ratings of pain. A lifting task was performed to achieve lumbar musculature fatigue, and induce muscle pain. Prior to, immediately following, and 24-hours post, MRS scans were recorded to document chemicals in the brain. All of the participants elicited significant fatigue during the lifting task that resulted in significant pain immediately following and 24-hrs after fatiguing exertions. However, for the majority of brain chemical responses, there was not a significant pattern. The exception was the significant difference in brain response between males and females. Although the results were not completely conclusive in establishing a pain pathway, several key conclusions can be drawn: 1) pain processing appears to be different between males and females, 2) pain pathway to the brain is complex and maybe the underlying reason why low back pain is so elusive, and 3) chemical response may be different, depending upon the location in the brain. Future work will need to better delineate the latency period for muscle pain and changes in the neurosensory system in the brain.
Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Associated with Auto Rotation Angle during an Assembly Task BIBAFull-Text 874-878
  Sue A. Ferguson; William S. Marras; W. Gary Allread; Gregory G. Knapik; Kimberly A. Vandlen; Riley Splittstoesser; Gang Yang
The purpose of this study was to quantify how musculoskeletal disorder exposure risk changes in an auto assembly task as a function of car body rotation. Twelve subjects participated in the study. There were three car body angles including 1) zero or standard, 2) forty-five degrees and 3) ninety degrees from horizontal. Musculoskeletal exposure included spine loads, spine posture, shoulder posture, neck posture and wrist posture, as well as normalized electromyography of the shoulder and neck. The results showed that musculoskeletal disorder exposure risk decreased as the car was rotated to forty-five degrees and further decreased as the car was rotated to ninety degrees. Thus, rotating the car body reduces musculoskeletal exposure which in turn may reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. It should be noted that the results may vary with other assembly tasks.
Dynamic Load Moment Exposure and Spine Function Impairment BIBAFull-Text 879-881
  William S. Marras; Steven A. Lavender; Sue A. Ferguson; Riley E. Splittstoesser; Gang Yang
A prospective study was performed in distribution center environments in order to determine which physical exposure measures related to a reduction in low back function. Workers in 50 distribution jobs employed in 21 distribution centers were monitored over at least a 6 month period for changes in spine function. Job exposures were monitored with a sonic-based exposure tracking system (laboratory in a backpack) that captured 197 physical exposure metrics per lift. Based upon the database containing over 60,000 lifts, a multivariate model was developed capable of predicting jobs characteristics associated with a decrement in spine function over time. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 85% and 87.5%, respectively. These results provide valuable information for the control of risk in these environments and offer valuable insight regarding the biomechanical functioning of the spine.
Is there a lateral transfer distance that minimizes twisting and lateral bending motions of the spine? BIBAFull-Text 882
  Steven A. Lavender; Monica Johnson
Studies have shown that twisting and lateral bending postures and motions increase the risk of low back disorders in manual handling tasks (Marras et al., 1993; Punnet et al., 1991). These motions are often associated with asymmetric lifting. Thus, it has been hypothesized that one means for controlling these motions is through carefully designing the layout of the workplace. We hypothesized that spatially separating a lift's origin and destination to encourage stepping/turning of the body during a manual transfer task would reduce these motions. At the same time, however, the added distance may increase the tendency to reach, therein increasing the amount of forward bending, increases handling time, and may increase the physiologic cost. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine if there is a separation distance between a lift's origin and destination during the lateral transfer of boxes that minimizes the lateral bending and twisting motions on the spine while not increasing the amount of forward bending due to reaching. The study was performed by having 29 male volunteers transfer boxes between two conveyors spaced .50, .75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 meters apart. Transfers were performed using loads of 9.5 and 16.5 kg. Spine kinematic data were collected with a magnetic motion capture system. The data from the box pick up and the box placement were analyzed separately. The twisting motions associated with the box placement were significantly affected by the transport distance (p=.007). However, the twisting motion when pick up the box, while showing a trend toward less motion with a 1 meter transport distance was not significantly different across the transport distances (p=.15). The lateral bending motions, both during the box pick up and the box placement were significantly affected by the transfer distance (p<.05). Overall our findings suggest twisting and lateral motions would both be minimized when the transfer distances were between 1 and 1.25 meters.
Identifying Safe Load Moment Exposures for the Back BIBAFull-Text 883
  Steven A. Lavender; William S. Marras; Sue A. Ferguson; Riley E. Splittstoesser; Gang Yang; Pete Schabo
Low back disorders continue to be the most common and significant work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the US. Identifying what constitutes a "safe" physical workload has been the biggest challenge facing injury prevention efforts. Prior low back injury risk models have focused on manufacturing activities where there is limited variability in the parameters used to describe the exposures to low back disorder risk factors. Lifting tasks in distribution centers can have considerably more variability in load and physical layout. The goal of this project was to identify and quantify measures that characterize the biomechanical risk factors, including measures of the load moment exposure, and measures that characterize the duty cycle that are predictive of low back disorders in distribution centers. Thus, our hypothesis was that we could define a relationship between moment exposure parameters and the low back disorder incidence rates. A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the mechanical risk factors responsible for reported low back injury in distributions centers. The physical exposure was measured on 195 workers on 50 jobs in 21 distribution centers using a sonic-based Moment Exposure Tracking System (METS). The METS measures load, force, load moment, torso kinematics, and temporal parameters of the job simultaneously. For each job, low back injury rates were collected retrospectively from the company's records over the prior 3-year period. The data were used to develop a risk model designed to predict back injury risk based upon direct measures of load and load moment exposure. The model incorporates biomechanical variables which include the load moment and horizontal sliding forces, as well as a temporal variable indicating the opportunity for micro-breaks during the work process. Overall, the presented model has very good sensitivity (87%) and specificity (73%).
Combating the Effects of Sedentary Work: Postural Variability Reduces Musculoskeletal Discomfort BIBAFull-Text 884-886
  Kermit G. Davis; Susan E. Kotowski; Balaji Sharma; Donald Herrmann; Anita P. Krishnan
Long periods of intense data entry office work have been linked to increased pain and musculoskeletal disorders. The current study investigated how postural changes mediated by workstation intervention influences the discomfort, postures, and productivity of call center professionals. Thirty-five call center employees were evaluated over two-weeks while performing their job in four different workstation conditions: 1) conventional, 2) sit-stand, 3) conventional with reminder software, and 4) sit-stand with reminder software. The reminder software resulted in reductions in discomfort in the shoulder, hand/wrist, upper back, and lower back. Small increase in the productivity of the workers was also seen for the software reminders. The sit-stand workstation was also effective in reducing discomfort with out decreasing productivity. Periodic breaks that encourage postural changes may be effective in reducing the adverse effects of prolonged static postures commonly found in office work without adversely impact productivity.
The Need for a Lower Extremity Risk Assessment Model BIBAFull-Text 887-891
  Christopher R. Reid; Pamela McCauley-Bush; Waldemar Karwowski; Dianne L. McMullin
Current ergonomic risk assessment tools do not assess possible occupational (extrinsic) and personal (intrinsic) risk factors for the lower extremity regions of employees. This document proposes that it is possible to develop a lower extremity risk assessment (LERA) model for quantifying such risks. A literature review was conducted for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremity that affect the nervous, muscular, vascular, and skeletal systems. This initial model of LERA was developed using epidemiological literature and subject matter expert opinion specifically for the knee joint and is considered a preliminary step towards quantifying the etiology of cumulative occupational knee disorders.
Trunk Angular Kinematics during Slip-Induced Falls and Activities of Daily Living Towards Developing a Fall Detector BIBAFull-Text 892-896
  Jian Liu; Thurmon E. Lockhart
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the trunk angular kinematics (i.e., angle and angular velocity) during slip-induced falls and activities of daily living (ADLs), with the aim to facilitate the development of a new fall detector. Ten elderly participated in a laboratory experiment, composed of normal walking, slip-induced falls, and 5 types of ADLs. Sagittal trunk kinematics was measured from optical motion analysis system. Angular phase plots were utilized to characterize falls from ADLs. Results indicated that backward falls were characterized by a simultaneous occurrence of a slight increase in trunk extension angle (average peak = 11°) and a dramatic increase in extension angular velocity (average peak = 139.7°/s). It was concluded that trunk angular kinematics could be used to design an effective fall detector.
Cart pushing capabilities for males and females: an update BIBAFull-Text 897-901
  Vincent M. Ciriello; Rammohan V. Maikala; Patrick G. Dempsey; Niall V. O'Brien
The purpose of this experiment was to compare the differences in maximum acceptable forces of a 7.6 m pushing task at a frequency of 1 min-1 between a high-inertia pushcart and our criterion magnetic particle brake treadmill push task (Snook and Ciriello, 1991). Thirty female and 22 male industrial workers performed both a pushcart and a treadmil pushing task in the context of four larger experiments. The results revealed that maximum acceptable sustained forces of pushing on the pushcart were essentially identical to our magnetic particle brake treadmill data whereas the maximal acceptable initial forces were 7% to 15% higher than the criterion for males and females respectively. These findings may indicate that adjustments to our maximum acceptable sustained force data may not be necessary, however, maximum acceptable initial forces may present conservative estimates.
Dynamic Modeling of Hand Push Force to Close a Disconnect Switch at Switching Stations and Substations BIBAFull-Text 902-906
  Kyle A. Saginus; Richard W. Marklin; Phillip A. Voglewede
Electric utility switching stations and substations in the U.S. typically have hundreds of disconnect switches in outdoor yards that are manually closed and opened. For safety reasons, these switches are usually located at least 10 ft above the ground and require specialized methods to open and close the switch. The most common manual method to open or close a disconnect switch is through the use of an insulated pole that ranges from 6 to 20 ft long. Due to the shear number of required independent tasks (workers may have to open or close 100 disconnect within 30 min), the manual opening and closing of disconnect switches is physically demanding and presents risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), particularly to the upper extremities. The purpose of this study was to model the hand push force exerted by the worker on the insulated pole to close a disconnect switch. A force gauge was attached to the end of the insulated stick while a worker closed a switch. An average of 510 lbs of peak reaction force was measured when the switch was closed. Digital video revealed the average time interval for the worker to push the stick was 210 ms, from the time the motion was started to the time the switch was completely closed. Modeling in Siemens NX6.0 with ADAMS showed that a constant input force of 24 lbs on the stick was required by the worker to generate a peak reaction force of 510 lbs. Because most of the peak reaction force is transmitted to the upper extremities of the worker, these tasks expose the workers to MSDs. This type of dynamic analysis can be applied to many tasks that require a worker to use motion to exert a high peak reaction force. Furthermore, this method can enable researchers to assess the forces applied by a worker throughout the duration of a task, rather than just at the endpoint, which may provide more insight into which part(s) of a task present the greater risk of MSDs.
Effects of Body Armor Design on Upper Body Range of Motion BIBAFull-Text 907-911
  Christopher Blackledge; Daniel Carruth; Kari Babski-Reeves; David Close; Marianne Wilhelm
Body armor for law enforcement personnel is critical in ensuring the safety and protection of these individuals, though literature on the impact of body armor design on task performance is not readily available in the public domain. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of body armor design on range of motion for the shoulder, neck, and back. Three armor configurations (no armor (Baseline), concealable body armor (CBA), and external body armor (EBA)) were studied. Results indicated that for most measurements, the EBA condition resulted in significantly lower ranges of motion that the other configurations and most measurements were similar between the baseline and CBA condition. Specific differences in the body armor designs (e.g., the presence of shoulder protectors) may be responsible for many of these findings. Therefore, changes to current armor designs should carefully consider the impacts of additional coverage elements on human movement.
Assessment of body armor design impacts on user perceptions BIBAFull-Text 912-916
  David Close; Kari Babski-Reeves; Daniel Carruth; Christopher Blackledge; Marianne Wilhelm
Body armor is a critical part of the law enforcement uniform. It provides protection from ballistic impacts during critical events. Despite many agencies providing armor to its employees, compliance with use standards within agencies has been reported to be low due to discomfort. Few studies exist in the public domain that have documented specific design features that contribute to the non-compliance issues. This study investigated body armor configurations (3 levels) on usability perceptions following simulated tasks. Results indicated that differences in design ratings, overall ratings, and rating of interference differed for each configuration studied. Specifically arm, shoulder, and neck movement was identified as being restrictive. Further, it impacted the ability of the officers to gain control of reach essential equipment (e.g., handcuffs) and in the completion of essential tasks (e.g., suspect restraint). Therefore, design considerations affect user perceptions of the armor and may be responsible for non-compliance issues.
Inter-Rater Reliability of the Mouse-Personal Computer Style Instrument (M-PeCS) BIBAFull-Text 917-921
  David L. Lee; Jack T. Dennerlein; Nancy A. Baker
The purpose of this study was to test the inter-rater reliability of an observational instrument, the Mouse-Personal Computer Style instrument (M-PeCS), which assesses the stereotypical postures and movements of the upper body and upper extremity associated with computer mouse use. Two trained raters independently rated the video clips of 10 computer users completing three mouse tasks (pointing, steering, and dragging) for a total of 30 video clips to determine the inter-rater reliability. All but two items on the M-PeCS had good to excellent reliability (ICC=0.75 to 1.00). These results suggest that most items on the M-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer mouse use style between trained raters. Potential applications of this study include identifying and quantifying the exposure to postural risk factors that may contribute to hand and forearm musculoskeletal pain associated with intensive computer mouse use.
Impact of Externally and Internally Driven Modifications to a Workstation: A Case Study in the Fish Processing Industry BIBAFull-Text 922-924
  Caroline Joseph; Daniel Imbeau; Iuliana Nastasia
Different sources can lead to modifications at a workstation such as external (out of control of the company) and internal (intended by the company) sources. Modifications from both source types could potentially influence the level of exposure of employees to different risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The use of different ergonomic evaluation methods can help understand the influence of modifications at a workstation and whether they have a positive or negative impact. This is shown through an example from the fish processing industry.
Application of a Participatory Methodology for Investigating Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) Usage in the Construction Industry BIBAFull-Text 925-929
  Di Liu; Carolyn M. Sommerich; Elizabeth B-N. Sanders; Steven A. Lavender
The participatory workshop is a new concept of design in which developers, end users, and researchers work together to design a product or service. This approach is still in its experimental stage as applied to studying jobs in the construction industry. In the current study, a participatory workshop was conducted to generate ideas for an improved Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) design and another workshop was held to generate ideas on fall protection training. In addition to generating ideas about PFAS design and fall protection training, the data collected through the workshop process was used to create three personas that served, at the end of the project, as vehicles for summarizing the research results. The workshop method is more commonly used by designers, but can provide useful information that can complement data from surveys or laboratory investigations conducted by human factors professionals and others interested in user-centered design.
Do Stabilizing Forearm Braces Affect Elbow and Spine Posture During Wheelbarrow Pushing Tasks? BIBAFull-Text 930-934
  David R. Burnett; Sai V. Yalla; Naira H. Campbell-Kyureghyan
The majority of the current research associated with pushing and pulling has involved evaluation of manual carts and multi-wheeled containers, but one manual material handling technique that has received limited attention is wheelbarrows. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of stabilizer braces on the quantifiable measures of postures of the spine and elbow during wheelbarrow pushing tasks, and to assess users' perceptions regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of the braces. Nine male subjects participated in the study. Subjects pushed the wheelbarrow on a concrete sidewalk of varying inclination (level, uphill, downhill). Trials were performed with and without the use of a customized set of stabilizing forearm braces. The use of stabilizing forearm braces had significant effects on average elbow flexion during uphill pushing trials and average sagittal trunk flexion during downhill pushing trials. The findings indicate that the braces improve the ergonomics of wheelbarrow pushing in some situations and further research is indicated to investigate other biomechanical measures.
Biomechanical Aspects of Fixed Ladder Climbing: Style, Ladder Tilt and Carrying BIBAFull-Text 935-939
  T. J. Armstrong; J. Young; C. Woolley; J. Ashton-Miller; H. Kim
This study aims to understand the effects of climbing style (hands on rungs vs. hands on rails), ladder pitch and bank, and carrying objects on hand and foot forces. An instrumented ladder was constructed to OSHA 1910.27 Fixed Ladder Standards. Hand and foot forces were recorded for six male and six female subjects as they ascended and descended the ladder. Although significant inter and intra subject climbing styles were observed for rung and rail climbing, it is still possible to draw important conclusions about the effects of climbing style, ladder pitch and bank, and carrying objects up and down ladders. Most of the work to ascend and descend the ladder is performed with the lower limbs. The hands must constantly exert force to prevent falling from a vertical ladder. Less hand force was exerted on the rails than on the rungs. Hand placement during rung climbing is constrained by rung spacing, while hand placement during rail climbing is determined by climber preference. It can be shown that required hand force is related to vertical hand placement and body center of mass position. Even though less resultant hand force was exerted during rail climb, the lateral component of hand force was greater for rail climbing than for rung climbing. Lateral hand forces may tend to destabilize the climber from the center of the ladder. Tilting the ladder forward reduces hand forces, which is consistent with the biomechanics of climbing and with previous studies. Tilting the ladder laterally did not significantly affect peak hand and foot forces, but it did affect the observed load/unload cycle time for hand and foot climbing movements.

INTERNET

The Effect of Scent on User Recall and Navigation BIBAFull-Text 940-944
  Marc L. Resnick; Amir Baker
When designing navigation menus, there are some key tradeoffs that usability professionals struggle with to ensure an easy to use navigation system. In the short term, the menu should support effective user wayfinding and confidence to accomplish the current task. Menus can also achieve longer term benefits by demonstrating the information architecture of the site, providing support for future tasks. For example, users would be more likely to return to the site if they believe a product they need in the future is available there. The effectiveness of menu design hinges on whether these objectives are achieved. The focus of this study was the impact of menu label scent on user performance in navigation tasks. Labels of high and low scent were placed at two menu positions to measure the impact on the short term goal of finding a known item and the long term goal of developing an awareness of the information architecture. The results provide insights that can be used in the design of navigation menus.
The Hyperbolic Brower as a Tool for Information Visualization, Discovery, and Retrieval on the Web and Enterprise Intranets BIBAFull-Text 945-949
  John W. Ruffner; Nina P. Deibler; Christine L. Holiday; Timothy H. Isenberg; Angela J. Hutten
Knowledge workers frequently need to locate task-relevant information quickly and efficiently through the Internet or their enterprise intranets. The ability to visualize how information is structured and organized is often a key to timely and efficient information discovery and retrieval. The traditional interface used for browsing Web sites has been a hierarchical, tree-like presentation, such as the Windows Explorer file/folder browser. From a user interface design standpoint, an attractive alternative to this type of browser is the hyperbolic browser, which is a focus + context technique for visualizing and browsing large amounts of hierarchical inter-related information. A hyperbolic view display efficiently represents hierarchical and associative information in a static or dynamic visual format using a relatively small display space. This paper discusses the characteristics of the hyperbolic browser, provides a real-life use case scenario to illustrate its application, and suggests avenues for future research and development.
Menu Design for Touchscreen Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 950-954
  Byung Don Kong; Jung Sang Min; Rohae Myung
Touchscreens utilize a menu-based interface. Menu-based interfaces are an easy and efficient practice that considers the users' physical and cognitive characteristics. However, the users' behavioral characteristics using touchscreens is quite different from that required in a typical desktop environment. Hence, in this study, an efficient menu-based interface for touchscreens was investigated. It considered different users' physical and cognitive characteristics in a touchscreen environment. A dynamic menu layout was found to be more efficient in both physical and cognitive aspects compared to static menu layouts. Additionally, the columnar structure in menus did not influence users' task-performance in touchscreen interfaces.
The Persistence of Content Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 955-959
  Ralph H. Cullen; Marita A. O'Brien; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Research has shown that changes in the way a website works or how it is laid out affects how well people are able to use that website. This study examined how changes in the content and procedures of a website-like system affect the way people recover from not being able to find information in that system. Participants were placed in one of four learning conditions, differing by the content and procedures taught for a simple website-like system. They were then tasked with finding certain pages in that system or systems with different procedures, content, or both. The first test (System B Online Test) showed that participants who had to learn new content were less efficient at finding that content, while participants who had to learn new content and procedures were the only ones slowed down. The second test (System C Online Test) showed that participants who had experienced a previous change in content responded to the new change faster, whereas people who started with inconsistent procedures (as compared to consistent) made fewer errors towards the end.
From UMPCs to Cell Phones: How Does Diminishing Screen Real Estate Affect Screen Access and Working Memory? BIBAFull-Text 960-964
  Keena S. Byrd; Barrett S. Caldwell
The goal of this study was to conduct preliminary research to inform system design for an advanced NASA assembly task. The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance with three common mobile screen sizes: Ultra Mobile Personal Computer (7in/17.8cm), Personal Data Assistant (3.5in/8.9cm), and SmartPhone (2.8in/7.1cm). Study participants used these three screen sizes to view and complete a computer maintenance procedure. Results from 65 student participants indicated a significant difference in completion times between the three screen sizes (F(2,120) = 690, p < 0.050), but no differences in subjectively-assessed cognitive workload, errors, or performance time. Competing task completion strategies were revealed through video analysis of access frequency and amount of time subjects spent reading the procedure before starting the experiment (F(2, 105) = 25.17, p<0.001). The 3.5 inch screen appeared to appropriately balance time spent reading the procedure before task start, and referring to the procedure during task execution.
Investigating the Difficulty of One Degree of Freedom Positioning: Associating Movement Phases with Regions BIBAFull-Text 965-969
  Robert Pastel
Positioning an object within specified bounds is a common daily computer task, for example making selections using a touch screen or positioning icons relative to each other. This experiment measured times for participants (n = 145) to position rectangular cursors with various widths, p, within rectangular targets with various tolerances, t, in one dimension. The analysis divides the total movement time into three parts, the time for the cursor to touch the target, the time to enter the target after touching, and the centering time, the remaining time for participants to indicate that the cursor is completely within the target by clicking on the mouse button. The time to touch the target was modeled well by the initial cursor-target separation, r2 = 0.95. The entering time was modeled well by log2(p/t + 1), r2 = 0.99, and the centering time was modeled well by 1/t, r2 = 0.94.
General Visualization Abstraction Algorithm for Geographic Map-based Directable Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 970-974
  Curtis M. Humphrey; Julie A. Adams
Emergency incident response, including Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) a.k.a. weapons of mass destruction incidents, is evolving from a response involving humans with equipment to a response system combining humans and thinking machines (e.g. robots). The robots, along with possibly other deployed sensors, will generate and capture volumes of information that will be presented in directable visualizations. This paper presents a novel approach to performing information abstraction (i.e., selection and grouping) and determining how each information item should be presented (i.e., its shape) in directable visualizations. This new approach employs the General Visualization Abstraction (GVA) algorithm to make salient and direct attention to the most relevant information items by determining an importance value for each information item based on the item's relationship with two classes of information: historically relevant and currently relevant information, and novel and emerging information.
Keyboard Shortcut Users: They Are Faster at More than Just Typing BIBAFull-Text 975-979
  Jo Rain Jardina; S. Camille Peres; Vickie Nguyen; Ashitra Megasari; Katherine R. Griggs; Rosalinda Pinales; April N. Amos
Software efficiency may be important for employees who want to be viewed as valuable assets in a company. One efficient method people can employ is the use of the keyboard to issue commands (KICs) because KICs are faster than other methods, e.g. menus or icons. Furthermore, using KICs may reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries (RSIs). This paper examines the question of whether KIC users utilize different types of interaction techniques more quickly than non-KIC users. Participants were exposed to five conditions, each consisting of different computer tasks. One condition was used to determine KIC usage, the independent variable. The other four conditions were used to objectively measure performance in time (i.e., efficiency), one of the dependent variables. After each condition, participants completed the NASA-TLX survey, which was used as a subjective measure of workload, the second dependent variable. Task performance correlated strongly or moderately with KIC usage for all conditions, which indicates that KIC users finished all tasks more quickly than other users -- even when they used other techniques than KICs to accomplish those tasks. There was no relationship between KIC usage and subjective workload.
To Touch or Not to Touch: A Brief Guide for Designing or Selecting Touch Screen Computers and Touch Software for Consumer Use BIBAFull-Text 980-984
  Deborah C. Russell; Rex Bryan
This paper describes a summary of consumer research and insights conducted regarding PC + touch screen user interaction. More specifically, this paper discusses some insights and lessons learned to help designers and developers or buyers interested in using touch screen technology for consumer computers with screens 12" or greater. Ultimately, hardware and software are equally important for delivering a compelling touch screen experience, and this paper briefly addresses both aspects.
University Students using a Screen Reader for Education Tasks BIBAFull-Text 985-989
  Wayne Shebilske; Ganesh Alakke; Shruti Narakesari
As a step toward distinguishing problems with a screen reader (JAWS), web pages, and users, we tested two blind university students with our Usability Proficiency Assessment Tool (UPAT). We then tested their understanding of web-based software that they often used with JAWS in their education. One student had advanced skills and the other had intermediate skills in using tables, headings, forms, images, links, and combinations of these web features. Despite their more than adequate skills they had many problems using software that was in high compliance with World Wide Web consortium (W3C) standards (Ryan, 2008). The problems stemmed from gaps between JAWS and web pages. We review these gaps and make recommendations for closing them. Implementing our recommendations will require a dialogue among developers of screen readers and applications as well as users and trainers.

MACROERGONOMICS

Critical Care Technology Can't Live With ItCan't Live Without It BIBAFull-Text 990-993
  Carla J. Alvarado; Pascale Carayon; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Shawna J. Perry; Dean F. Sittig; Ben-Tzion Karsh
The proposed Macroergonomics and Patient Safety panel will address the particular challenges of technology in critical care and emergency medicine and patient safety. Critical care technology remains a driving force in American health care facilities, yet little human factors and systems engineering information is available to improve the design and implementation of these technologies. Given the complexity of the clinical technology and the intricacy of modern critical and emergent medical care, human factors (HF) and macroergonomic analysis (MA) are especially important in the design, implementation, and use of the various technologies. HF and MA should be used to better understand the challenge of developing multi-perspective evaluations for this technology. The panel of experts' presentations and the discussion to follow will address current problems and patient safety and integration of critical technologies.
Advancing Safety in Construction: An Organizational, Systemic, and Cultural Approach BIBAFull-Text 994-997
 
This panel will focus on addressing the current challenges of the construction industry within the context of Macroergonomics field research. Organizational, systemic and cultural strategies to overcome these challenges will be described. A brief introduction focusing on the unique characteristics of the construction industry and how they relate to the macroergonomics approach will be provided followed by a comprehensive overview of the breadth of the problem. Panelists will highlight successful projects or approaches related to cultural issues, immigrant and aging workforce, training effectiveness and safety culture that have a great potential to enhance safety and health in the construction industry.
Implicit Biases in Blame Allocation of Accidents Across Organizational Components (Worker, Supervisor and Organization) BIBAFull-Text 998-1002
  Elizabet Haro; Yu-Hsiu Hung; Hyun Seung Yoo; Robin Littlejohn
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between implicit biases and blame allocation of accidents across organizational components (workers, supervisors, and organization). The 'European American-African American' and created 'Latino-African American' Implicit Association Tests (IAT) were used to measure the participants' implicit biases. The Accident Blame Allocation instrument was used to measure the participants' blame allocations, which included accident scenarios with pictures of male and female faces of European Americans, African Americans and Latinos. A total of 102 students, aged from 18 to 23, participated in the study. Results of the two IATs showed that the participants did not have obvious preference tendencies toward any ethnicity, and the 'European American-African American' and 'Latino-African American' IATs have a positive correlation with score of 0.48 (p < 0.0001). Results of this study showed that implicit bias did not significantly correlate with accident blame allocation but that the participants' attitudes toward different ethnic groups affected their accident blame allocation patterns.
A Holistic Human Factors Evaluation Framework for the Design of Consumer Health Informatics Interventions BIBAFull-Text 1003-1007
  Teresa Zayas-Caban; Jenna L. Marquard
Health-related activities frequently occur outside of formal healthcare institutions, often in consumers' -- "laypeople's" -- homes. Within and near their homes, laypeople may use devices to self-monitor and self-manage wellness activities and chronic illnesses. They may keep health-related information records, using information technology applications to locate and retrieve information and communicate with formal and informal caregivers. Laypeople's engagement with the healthcare system and care outcomes rest on the quality of their interactions with, and use of, these devices and applications -- jointly named consumer health informatics (CHI) interventions. Yet, engineering design and human factors evaluation methods are often omitted from the CHI intervention development process. This article presents a holistic human factors evaluation framework, and demonstrates how physical, cognitive and macroergonomic human factors perspectives can each improve the design and use of CHI interventions.
Supporting Expertise Coordination in Multidisciplinary Project Teams BIBAFull-Text 1008-1012
  Sandra K. Garrett; Barrett S. Caldwell; Shawn T. Collins
Distributed product development teams require integration of expertise from multiple technical disciplines and, in some companies, geographical and organizational diversity as well. Systems engineering methodologies can be applied to measure and support the effectiveness of knowledge sharing in complex, time sensitive development environments. In addition, effective knowledge sharing can reduce the incidence of failed coordination and adverse events. In this paper, three conceptual frameworks are proposed to help address these issues. Concepts of knowledge clusters, multiple dimensions of expertise, and information foraging are shown to affect structure, process and timing of team behaviors and project outcomes. These frameworks provide systematic analysis and usable knowledge sharing tools to coordinate knowledge transfer across expertise boundaries within a product development team. Specific methods can be used to move information across these boundaries to improve information alignment and organizational efficiency.
21st Century Ergonomics: A Lean Approach to Ergonomics Process Design and Management BIBAFull-Text 1013-1016
  Alison Heller-Ono
Ergonomics strategies are becoming more common in the workplace for a variety of different reasons. These include productivity and efficiency gains, reducing the risk of work injuries, improving workstation design and layout, enhancing tool design or all of the above. One such strategy that generates significant results by addressing multiple reasons is the development and integration of an Ergonomics Process (EP) into the organization. The EP is a lean, pro-active and participative approach that is designed to prevent and manage work injuries quickly and effectively. The EP is based on the theory of Macro ergonomics, continuous improvement, participatory ergonomics and modern day lean system thinking. The EP described in this paper demonstrates a practical and efficient approach to the design of work systems that engages employees, management and administrators to impact the organization at the macro and micro ergonomics level, resulting in a powerful return on investment through increased productivity, employee work health satisfaction, and significant cost savings.
Evaluating and Designing Education: A Collaborative Effort Between Educators and Ergonomists BIBAFull-Text 1017-1021
  Valerie J. Berg Rice
Ergonomics involves evaluating a product or process (what exists), comparing it with related scientific literature (what works), and using the information to re-design the product or process. The new design seeks to match known information about human capabilities and limitations with the product or process requirements in order to improve the ease-of-use, efficiency, productivity, or safety. Ergonomics is applied in a variety of settings including aeronautics, health care, training, construction and other industries. Within education settings, ergonomics is typically applied on a micro level, such as the design of chairs, workstations, or classrooms. This paper describes the application of macroergonomics to the evaluation and design of educational programs, with the goal of improving student performance and reducing attrition due to academic failure. Examples focus on medical technician programs.
Human Factors Applications in Academic Settings BIBAFull-Text 1022-1025
  Petra Alfred; Carita DeVilbiss; Donald Headley; Valerie Rice; Conne Bazley; Karen Jacobs; Nancy Vause
Members of this panel will discuss their work in applying Human Factors/Ergonomics in a unique field of application: Academia. Each panel member will give a short presentation describing how they have applied Human Factors/Ergonomics within academia to include: ensuring an adequate auditory environment, safety and injury prevention, office ergonomics, reducing attrition, examining backpack weight and laptop computer use of students, and "brain training" to reduce the effects of stress and improve academic performance. Each panelist will also talk about the role they envision for Human Factors/Ergonomics professionals within academic settings, from kindergarten through university level programs.
Human Factors in Organizational Complexity BIBAFull-Text 1026-1027
  Hal W. Hendrick
Competitive demand for more rapidly responsive and flexible organizational designs has created new demands for human factors application -- particularly at the macroergonomic level. This invited symposium presents four papers that provide different perspectives and understandings of the human factors aspects of organizational complexity. These include a sociotechnical systems model of organizational complexity and its relation to employee complexity, organizational complexity and communications, lessons learned from complex systems' successes and failures, and a case study of the expansion of a company's national program to the international level.
A Sociotechnical Systems Model of Organizational Complexity and Design and its Relation to Employee Cognitive Complexity BIBAFull-Text 1028-1032
  Hal W. Hendrick
The Sociotechnical model of organizational complexity is described, including its implications for organizational design, based on the Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure method. The nature of cognitive complexity and the relationship of employee complexity to organizational complexity are summarized, including stratified systems theory and empirical examples from the author's consulting and research.
Complexity, Communication and Design BIBAFull-Text 1033-1037
  Larry Browning; G. H. Morris
This paper draws on complexity theory, especially the communication and social psychological version of it, to offer eight principles of how complexity theory can influence organizational design.
Ergonomics Programs: A Case Study in Complexity BIBAFull-Text 1038-1041
  Hal Hendrick; Nancy Larson
Global companies are more complex and variable than any combination of complexity models can describe or explain. The reality is that today's global companies must operate utilizing multiple business strategies at the same time, adjusting in response to increasing external and internal variables. According to Websters' World Dictionary, "complexity is that which is made up of many elaboratively interrelated or interconnected parts, so that much study or knowledge is needed to understand or operate it." This case study describes how one health and safety ergonomics program operates within global business complexity.
Macroergonomics in Education: On Your Mark, Set, GO! BIBAFull-Text 1042-1046
  Jeffery Watson; Thomas J. Smith; Sara Kraemer; Richard Halverson; Andree Woodcock
Macroergonomics (ME) theory and methods have not been systematically applied to the field of education despite the fact that as a complex work system, education would almost assuredly benefit from ME applications. This discussion panel proposal briefly describes the complexity of the US education system and some of the areas where resources are currently being directed by federal and state funding agencies. In addition, a brief overview of technical subsystems is provided to demonstrate where mismatches between work and technology might be found. The panel members' expertise and current work will focus an discussion on three questions: 1) what are the expected benefits of applying ME theory to educational settings, 2) where and how should ME practitioners target efforts to do more work in education, and 3) what strategies should one consider to ensure successful application and outcomes.

PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE

Maintaining Vigilance with Auditory and Visual Cues in Command and Control Environments BIBAFull-Text 1047-1051
  Brian Taylor; Nicole Arbuckle; David Kancler; Paul Havig
The current study evaluates the use of auditory and visual stimuli as cues to prompt the shift of attention between small screen and large screen displays in a Command and Control (C2) environment. The use of spatial audio displays has been shown to reduce workload and improve target detection times. This design employed a two-screen model with multiple targets as well as a multimodal cuing strategy. Ten participants completed eight monitoring task sessions consisting of four different cuing conditions: no cuing, auditory cuing, visual cuing, and combined auditory and visual cuing. Reaction times and accuracy rates, in addition to perceived workload and preference, were compared across all four conditions. It was found that visual cues, auditory cues, and the combined presentation of visual and auditory cues, resulted in faster response times when compared to no cuing. No differences were found between prompting types. The findings of this study apply to the C2 environment, as well as other multi-task environments that may require time-sensitive responses to events and information represented on multiple visual displays.
Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs and the Role of Emotional Stimuli on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) BIBAFull-Text 1052-1056
  William S. Helton; Rosalie P. Kern; Donieka R. Walker
In this study we investigated the properties of the sustained attention to response task (SART). In the SART, participants respond to frequent (high probability of occurrence) neutral signals and are required to withhold response to rare (low probability of occurrence) critical signals. We examined whether SART performance shows characteristics of speed-accuracy tradeoffs and in addition, we examined whether SART performance is influenced by prior exposure to emotional picture stimuli. Thirty-three participants in this study performed SARTs after being exposed to neutral and negative picture stimuli. Performance in the SART changed rapidly over time and there was a high correlation between participants errors of commission rate and their reaction time to the neutral targets (r = -.72). SART performance was not significantly affected by emotional stimuli, but subjective reports of arousal were significantly affected by emotional stimuli.
On the Workload of Vigilance: Comparison of the NASA-TLX and the MRQ BIBAFull-Text 1057-1061
  Victor S. Finomore; Tyler H. Shaw; Joel S. Warm; Gerald Matthews; Dave Weldon; David B. Boles
The utility of the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) as a workload index in vigilance was assessed by comparing the sensitivity of the scale to that of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) in response to challenges provided by variations in task-type and operating environment. Both instruments showed that global workload was high and that it was greater in the context of Successive (absolute judgment) as compared to Simultaneous (comparative judgment) type tasks. In addition, the MRQ indicated that workload was greater when observers operated in a multi-task as compared to a single-task environment, a dimension to which the NASA-TLX was not sensitive. The MRQ added to diagnosticity in the workload picture by identifying information-processing resources utilized across experimental conditions and sets of resources that were condition specific, resources not encompassed by the NASA-TLX. The results of this study indicate that the MRQ can be of effective value in measuring the workload imposed by vigilance tasks.
Knowledge of Results and Signal Salience Modify Vigilance Performance and Cerebral Hemovelocity BIBAFull-Text 1062-1065
  Tyler H. Shaw; Raja Parasuraman; Siddhartha Sikdar; Joel Warm
Transcranial Doppler sonography was used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity (hemovelocity, CBFV) from the left and right middle cerebral arteries during the performance of a 30-min simulated air-traffic control task in which knowledge of results (KR) and signal salience were manipulated. Critical signals were situations in which the simulated aircraft were on a potential collision course. Findings show that overall signal detection and CBFV both declined over time. While performance was more stable over time in the KR condition, performance declined in the no-KR condition. In addition, the initial level and temporal decline in CBFV were both greater for the KR condition than the no-KR condition. Results are interpreted in terms of the motivational effects induced by feedback and a resource model of vigilance.
Effects of Training with Knowledge of Results on Diagnosticity in Vigilance Performance BIBAFull-Text 1066-1070
  Joel S. Warm; Victor Finomore; Tyler H. Shaw; Matthew E. Funke; Michelle J. Hausen; Gerald Matthews; Purcell Taylor; Michael A. Vidulich; Daniel W. Repperger; James L. Szalma; Peter A. Hancock
Making accurate diagnostic decisions about signal presence/absence is critical for success in many failure intolerant monitoring technologies requiring sustained attention or vigilance. This study examined the effects of training with knowledge of results (KR) on observer diagnosticity in a vigilance task. Diagnosticty was measured in terms of decision theory measures of positive predictive power (PPP) -- precision in indicating when signals were actually present and negative predictive power (NPP) -- precision when indicating signal absence. Initial training with KR enhanced observers' diagnosticity on a subsequent test task in terms of PPP but not NPP. The picture of performance efficiency reflected by both diagnostic measures differed from results indexed by signal detection theory (SDT) measures of perceptual sensitivity (d') and response bias (c). However as predicted from the computational mechanics of the decision theory and SDT measures, both diagnostic measures correlated positively with d' while NPP correlated negatively with c. These findings indicate that combinations of perceptual ability and level of responding can influence the behavioral metrics signifying diagnosticity in vigilance performance.
Semantic Versus Spatial Audio Cues: Is There a Downside to Semantic Cueing? BIBAFull-Text 1071-1075
  Jane H. Barrow; Carryl L. Baldwin
An auditory spatial Stroop paradigm was used to examine the effects of semantic and spatial audio cue conflict on accuracy and response time. Participants responded to either the semantic meaning or the spatial location of a directional word, which was either congruent (i.e. the word "right" being presented from the right) or incongruent (i.e. the word "right" being presented from the left). Contrary to our predictions, people responded more accurately to the semantic meaning of the directional words relative to spatial audio cues. An interaction between task type and congruency indicated people found it more difficult to ignore the semantic content of the word when performing the location version of this task relative to ignoring the location in the semantic task. Implications of these results for use in driver collision-avoidance warning systems are discussed. The current results indicate that performance benefits gained by the use of directional words in combination with spatial audio may be offset by greater detriment to performance when the warning system presents unreliable or incongruent semantic information.
An evaluation of icon, tone and speech cues for detecting anomalies and auditory communications for onboard military vehicle displays BIBAFull-Text 1076-1080
  Cheng Li Wei; Chua Wei Liang Kenny
Mission demands and environments have forced soldiers to operate within the safety of their own vehicles. Technological inserts would have to be incorporated so that situation awareness of solders is not compromised. As a result, soldiers have to process large amount of information displayed on multiple screens and operate hardware devices simultaneously. Since visual displays will be the main source of information, there might be information overload due to this large onslaught of visual information. It is postulated that auditory displays can supplement the visual displays by providing information or for alert cueing. Audio cues can take the form of speech and non-speech (tones, icons). Hence, an experiment was designed to determine which type of auditory cues will help in the detection of anomalies and attention to auditory communications for users operating in a visually and aurally flooded environment. From the experiments, auditory icons were found to be superior.
"Spindex": Accelerated Initial Speech Sounds Improve Navigation Performance in Auditory Menus BIBAFull-Text 1081-1085
  Myounghoon Jeon; Bruce N. Walker
Users interact with mobile devices through menus, which can include many items. Auditory menus can supplement or even replace visual menus. Unfortunately, little research has been devoted to enhancing the usability of large auditory menus. We evaluated a novel auditory menu enhancement called a "spindex" (i.e., speech index), in which brief audio cues inform the user where she is in a long menu. In the current implementation, each item in a menu is preceded by a sound based on the item's initial letter. 25 undergraduates navigated through an alphabetized contact list of 50 or 150 names. The menu was presented with text-to-speech (TTS) alone, or TTS plus spindex, and with the visual menu displayed or not. Search time was faster with the spindex-enhanced menu, especially for long lists. Subjective ratings also favored the spindex. Results are discussed in terms of theory and practical applications.
Intelligibility of bone-conducted speech at different locations compared to air-conducted speech BIBAFull-Text 1086-1090
  Raymond M. Stanley; Bruce N. Walker
Bone-conduction transducers offer a unique advantage for radio communication systems, allowing sound transmission while the ear canals remain open for access to environmental sounds, or plugged for blocking of environmental sounds. This study compared the intelligibility of noise-degraded speech presented through bone-conduction hearing administered at different locations, and through air-conduction. Speech intelligibility was assessed using the Diagnostic Rhyme Test. Speech intelligibility was reduced for all of the bone-conduction hearing locations, relative to air-conduction hearing. There were also differences in performance for the various bone conduction locations. These results suggest that given noise-degraded speech, the performance decrement from using bone conduction will have to be weighed against the benefits of being able to dynamically block the ear canal, or leave it open, as situations require. Further, the choice of bone conduction transducer location would need to weigh possible performance differences against the various practical advantages of each location.
How far is that wall? Judging distance with audification BIBAFull-Text 1091-1095
  T. Claire Davies; Shane D. Pinder; Catherine M. Burns
This research identified differences in the ability to determine distance using audible echolocation relative to audified ultrasound echoes with receivers mounted laterally and forward. In an anechoic environment, participants walked toward a stationary "wall" and provided an indication of perceived distance from the wall. Once the judgement was made, the participant walked to the location of the wall to provide an opportunity to recalibrate for future trials. At closer distances, no differences were observed among conditions, but at farther distances the results from the audified ultrasound were more accurate. The orientation of the receivers in the outward direction provided for better results overall in the judgement of distance to environmental obstacles.
Minimalism and the Syntax of Graphs: II. Effects of Graph Backgrounds on Visual Search BIBAFull-Text 1096-1100
  Douglas J. Gillan; Douglas Sorensen
Tufte (1983) proposed a measure, the data-ink ratio, and a rule that the data-ink ratio be maximized. The present research tested this rule by examining the effect of the relation between the physical features in the graph indicators and those in the background on graph reading performance. Eighteen participants performed comparison and difference tasks with bar graphs (rectangular indicators) or line graphs (circular indicators). Graphs had no background, a pictorial background containing circles, or a pictorial background containing rectangles. Accuracy was highest for the difference task when the features in the indicators and background of a graph differed. The role of preattentive processing during visual search in graph reading and the pop-out effect that occurs when background and search target features differ are discussed.
Subset Search for Icons of Different Spatial Frequencies BIBAFull-Text 1101-1105
  Robert Rauschenberger; James Jeng-Weei Lin; Xianjun Sam Zheng; Chris Lafleur
In the present paper, we report two experiments out of series of studies designed to examine various aspects of visual search for icons of differing spatial frequencies. Specifically, the present experiments explore whether there exists a search asymmetry between high and low spatial frequency icons (A amongst B > B amongst A), and whether observers can limit their search to the relevant set of items in a display containing both types of icons. Our results show that a classic search asymmetry does not exist for spatial frequency; that, rather, both types of targets 'pop out'; that search for a high spatial frequency target amongst high spatial frequency distractors is less efficient than search for a low spatial frequency target amongst low spatial frequency distractors; and that observers are partially able to limit their search to the relevant subset in mixed displays. Implications for the design of touch screen user interfaces are discussed.
Response Criterion Placement Modulates the Benefits of Graded Alerting Systems in a Simulated Baggage Screening Task BIBAFull-Text 1106-1110
  Jason S. McCarley
An experiment compared the benefits of two-level and graded alerting systems as human performance aids in a simulated baggage x-ray screening task. Decision boundaries for the graded systems were varied to produce an unhesitant aid, one which rendered a diagnostic judgment on a majority of trials, and a hesitant aid, one which rendered a judgment on only a minority of all trials. Judgments from the aid were rendered as text messages preceding each trial. The participants' task was to search for threat objects in simulated baggage x-rays; true target presence rate was 50%. The unhesitant three-level aid significantly improved human performance relative to an unaided control condition, and produced better human performance than either the hesitant three-level aid or the two-level aid. The benefits of the unhesitant three-level system arose from the human operators' increased willingness to act on the aid's diagnoses. Results carry implications for the design of automated diagnostic decision aids for security screening and similar signal detection tasks.
Perceptual Cues and Imagined Viewpoints Modulate Visual Search in Air Traffic Control Displays BIBAFull-Text 1111-1115
  Evan M. Palmer; Christopher M. Brown; Carolina F. Bates; Philip J. Kellman; Timothy C. Clausner
Planview air traffic displays depict latitude and longitude of aircraft graphically via display position but depict altitude alphanumerically via data tags. Operators must integrate both graphical and alphanumeric information to generate mental models of air traffic, perhaps limiting performance. Palmer, Clausner & Kellman (2008) showed that aircraft icons with altitude-correlated size and contrast improved detection of potential collisions. These cues may have been effective because they corresponded to the depth cues of relative size and aerial perspective, thus providing naturalistic visual metaphors for interpreting the displays. Here, we varied whether icons were correlated with depth or not and also whether observers assumed a from-above or from-below viewing perspective. In Experiment 1, the from-above perspective with depth-consistent icons yielded better performance than the from-below perspective with depth-inconsistent icons, despite these displays being physically identical. Experiment 2 replicated the finding and showed that contrast/grayscale variations evoke the perspective effect but color variations do not.
Evaluating Visual and Haptic Feedback on a Virtual Reality Simulator for Orthopedic Bone Pinning BIBAFull-Text 1116-1120
  T. Robert Turner; Mark W. Scerbo; Dwight Meglan; Robert Waddington
The Simulation Based Open Surgery Training System (SOSTS) is a virtual reality simulator designed to provide training on a simulated orthopedic bone pinning procedure. The present version of SOSTS offers five distinct combinations of multi sensory feedback during training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of visual and haptic feedback on participants' ability to place a pin through a fractured tibia on the simulator. Enhanced visual feedback resulted in a significant reduction of pin alignment error, although participants in these conditions took five times longer to achieve proficiency than those in the moderate visual feedback conditions. Any form of haptic feedback resulted in significantly greater pin placement error than no haptic feedback. The results provide partial support for the proximity compatibility principle for display design.
Detecting Critical Patterns in Maternal-Fetal Heart Rate Tracings Over Time BIBAFull-Text 1121-1125
  Brittany L. Anderson; Mark W. Scerbo; Lee A. Belfore; Alfred Z. Abuhamad
The present study examined how individuals detect critical patterns in MFHR tracings in single and multiple monitor displays. Two studies were performed, varying the number of critical signals presented within displays. In the first study, the number of critical signals increased with increases in the number of displays. In the second study, the number of signals remained constant across display conditions. The results from Study 1 showed no decrement for either display condition; however, fewer critical signals were detected in the multiple display condition. In Study 2, there was no vigilance decrement nor was there a difference in number of signals detected for display condition. However, significantly more false alarms were committed for the multiple display condition. Although no definitive conclusion can be reached regarding vigilance performance and multiple displays, there is cause for concern from a clinical perspective about the degraded ability to detect signals from multiple displays. These findings highlight the need for additional research on factors that affect the ability to monitor MFHR tracings, particularly in clinical settings.
Judging the Lengths of Curved Lines BIBAFull-Text 1126-1130
  Douglas J. Gillan
Studying the psychophysical functions that physical length of lines to the perceived length is critical for the understanding of the perception of displays like maps and graphs. Previous research has examined straight lines and the circumference of a circle. The present research investigated the judgment of the length of both straight and curved lines, varying from slight to moderately high degrees of curvature and varying in length. In two experiments, the psychophysical functions relating perceived length to the physical length of a line was found to be similar for straight and curved lines. The Stevens' Law exponent for the straight and curved lines tended to be close to 1.0 for all lines, independent of curvature. The paper discusses spatial judgments, with a focus on the differences in the psychophysical functions or the various types of lines.
Head-mounted displays and multisensory integration: Replications and challenges BIBAFull-Text 1131-1135
  Morgan J. Tear; William J. Harrison; Matthew B. Thompson; Penelope M. Sanderson
Multisensory integration is the perceptual process by which the user of a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) combines, into a single object, vision from the HMD with concurrent auditory signals. Because HMD users are usually mobile, visual and auditory information may not always be spatially congruent, yet congruence is a requirement for multisensory integration to occur. Previous research has shown that multisensory integration was less effective when the user was walking and sound was delivered via a speaker in a fixed location. In Experiment 1, we showed that people integrate information less effectively when they hear sound from a speaker while they walk rather than sit, because they experience a combination of sound motion and background motion, not because of any workload associated with walking. In Experiment 2, in which participants' multisensory integration performance did not rely on working memory, their performance is worse when they walk rather than sit when hearing sound with the earpiece, rather than in free-field. These mixed results highlight the difficulty in replicating multisensory integration research in applied contexts.
How panoramic visualization can support human supervision of intelligent surveillance BIBAFull-Text 1136-1140
  Alexander M. Morison; David D. Woods; James W. Davis
In video-based surveillance people monitor a wide spatial area through video sensors for anomalous events related to safety and security. The size of the area, the number of video sensors, and the camera's narrow field-of-view make this a challenging cognitive task. Computer vision researchers have developed a wide range of algorithms to recognize patterns in the video stream (intelligent cameras). These advances create a challenge for human supervision of these intelligent surveillance camera networks. This paper presents a new visualization that has been developed and implemented to integrate video-based computer vision algorithms with control of pan-tilt-zoom cameras in a manner that supports the human supervisory role.
Undershoot Bias in Lead-Vehicle Motion Extrapolation BIBAFull-Text 1141-1145
  Christopher A. Monk; Erik T. Nelson
Studies in motion extrapolation have shown both undershoot and overshoot distortions. Recent evidence using a car-following context revealed an undershoot bias for younger participants. These studies have focused on the distortions themselves while neglecting to account for memory encodings of images in the extrapolation tasks and how they might be the basis of such distortions. This study was designed to test whether Pylyshyn's index theory could account for distortions in a lead-vehicle pull-away context. Participants viewed slide shows depicting a lead-vehicle pulling ahead along one of five trajectories before being interrupted with a spatial or non-spatial task. After the interruption, participants were required to determine if the vehicle location in the probe slide was expected given the motion trajectory prior to the interruption. The results showed a clear undershoot bias, therefore supporting the theory that the last encoded image before the interruption was most salient in memory.
Identifying Mind-wandering Behind the Wheel BIBAFull-Text 1146-1150
  Jibo He; Ensar Becic; Yi-Ching Lee; Jason S. McCarley
Driver distraction is a significant source of traffic-related crashes. External distraction has been the basis of much research and legislation. However, the influence of internal distraction, or mind-wandering (Smallwood, Fishman, & Schooler, 2007), on driver performance has not been as closely studied. The current study used self-report method of mental states in a simulated driving task to investigate the influence of mind-wandering on driving behavior and performance. Participants performed a car-following task in a low-traffic simulated driving environment, and were asked to press a button mounted on the steering wheel any time they found themselves "zoning out". For analysis, driving performance data and oculomotor scanning data were binned into one-second intervals and submitted to cluster analysis. Results indicated a cluster mapping onto a time window from roughly 16 seconds prior to a button-press report of mind-wandering until roughly 3 seconds after the report, implying that mind-wandering episodes were detected about 16 seconds after they began. Comparison of performance within and without the mind-wandering intervals indicated that mind-wandering caused horizontal narrowing of drivers' visual scanning, consistent with the influence of other forms of internal distraction e.g., (Recarte & Nunes, 2000).
Compensatory Strategies for Managing the Workload Demands of a Multimodal Reserve Capacity Task BIBAFull-Text 1151-1155
  J. Christopher Brill; Mustapha Mouloua; Samantha D
The purpose of the present study was to use a newly-developed measure of reserve attentional capacity to evaluate unitary versus multiple resource theories of attention. Participants performed a primary visual monitoring task and were presented with visual, auditory, and tactile secondary loading tasks. The data indicate that participants failed to maintain performance on the primary task, as instructed, in order to maximize overall performance. A significant difference was found on the basis of primary task condition, wherein performance on the visual monitoring task was significantly worse when paired with a visual task versus auditory or tactile tasks. Although the data do not preclude interpretation in terms of a unitary resource model, data trends offer potential support for multiple resource models.
A Comparison of Human Performance in Grasping Virtual Objects by Hand and with Tools of Different Length Ratios BIBAFull-Text 1156-1160
  Bin Zheng; Christine L. MacKenzie
Tool use brings challenges to human movement control. Mental calibrations are constantly needed to incorporate tool properties into the movement system. This project examines the accuracy of mental calibrations and studies the impact of tool use on the movement control. Eight university students were instructed to perform a matching task using a hand-held grasper. The grasper had a changeable hinge that alters the length ratios of the tool for different trials. Throughout the matching, visual feedback regarding the hand position and tool was not available. The matching accuracy was significantly reduced when using the grasper compared to using the hand directly. This indicates that the mental calibration is not as accurate as visual or proprioception for guiding movement. No significant matching difference was observed as a function of length ratios of the grasper, suggesting similar steps were involved in the mental calibration process for one kind of tool property.
Analysis of Subjective Body Discomfort Ratings during Simulated Prolonged Driving Tasks: What Measures are most Effective? BIBAFull-Text 1161-1165
  Shaheen Ahmed; Kari Babski-Reeves
Subjective discomfort ratings are a common assessment technique in human factors and ergonomics, and there exist a number of different methods for analyzing ratings (e.g., mean, median, maximum rating, etc.). The objective of this research was to evaluate multiple methods for analyzing body discomfort ratings. Perceived discomfort of eight participants was measured across ten body parts (buttock, left buttock, right buttock, lower back, upper back, neck, shoulder, eye, thigh and whole body) during 2-hour simulated driving tasks at 3 backrest angles (105°, 120°, 135°). Discomfort ratings were collected every 15 minutes using a modified Borg CR-scale. The time weighted discomfort (TWD) average of was found to be more sensitive to backrest angle changes than other measures considered. In addition, factor analysis revealed different methods provided different groupings of body parts, and the method selected for analyzing subjective discomfort ratings should be selected based on the objective of the study.

POSTERS

Human Factors Research Plan For Designing Automated Testing Equipment for Blood Collection Centers BIBAFull-Text 1166-1170
  Ila J. Elson
Over nine million volunteers donated about sixteen million units of whole blood in the United States in 2006 either at blood collection centers or hospitals with blood banks. Each donated unit of blood was tested for infectious diseases including hepatitis, HIV and other retroviruses using manual methods or automated testing equipment. This article shares the Human Factors research plan for designing the second generation of the automated testing equipment. Objectives, activities and deliverables are suggested for each phase of the product development life cycle. Human Factors practitioners and consultants in the healthcare industry will find this generic plan useful in designing medical devices.
Validation of a Dry Electrode System for EEG BIBAFull-Text 1171-1175
  Justin R. Estepp; James C. Christensen; Jason W. Monnin; Iris M. Davis; Glenn F. Wilson
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for over 80 years to monitor brain activity. The basic technology of using electrodes placed on the scalp with conductive gel or paste ("wet electrodes") has not fundamentally changed in that time. An electrode system that does not require conductive gel and skin preparation represents a major advancement in this technology and could significantly increase the utility of such a system for many human factors applications. QUASAR, Inc. (San Diego, CA) has developed a prototype dry electrode system for EEG that may well deliver on the promises of dry electrode technology; before any such system could gain widespread acceptance, it is essential to directly compare their system with conventional wet electrodes. An independent validation of dry vs. wet electrodes was conducted; in general, the results confirm that the data collected by the new system is comparable to conventional wet technology.
Study of rule related behavioural migrations in an anesthesiology department BIBAFull-Text 1176-1180
  Anthony Vacher; Marie-Pierre Fornette; Guillaume de Saint Maurice; Rene Amalberti; Emanuelle Stainmesse; Nassera Amamou; Yves Auroy
In anesthesiology, rules, recommendations and protocols are used to coordinate behaviour in order to improve patient safety. In systems which have reached a high level of safety, migration is defined as a daily deviation of practices leading to a space of action which is different from the one defined by the rule. Our study assesses variation of behaviour before and after the introduction of a new safety rule in an anesthesiologist's team. The rule introduced by the chief of department makes it compulsory to plan and write the procedure during the pre-anaesthetic visit (day before surgery). Assessments of state before the rule, and of its implementation (immediately after introduction, 6 months later, 12 months later) were made from the anaesthetic files (n=907). Anaesthetists were blind to the study. Items linked to the rule are the inscription of the type of anaesthesia, hypnotic, opioid, muscle relaxant, hypnotic for maintenance, ways of controlling the upper airway and tube size, in the case of general anaesthesia. This study showed an erosion of the implementation six months later, with statistical significance at 12 months (p<.05). In a multivariate analysis, the factors related to a bad implementation of the rule are linked to circumstances (emergency, first anaesthesia of the day) and with the participants themselves (rule related behaviour, workload).
Using Formal Qualitative Methods to Guide Early Development of an Augmented Reality Display System for Surgery BIBAFull-Text 1181-1185
  C. H. Lio; C. M. Carswell; Q. Han; A. Park; S. Strup; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke; G. Lee; J. Hoskins
Nine laparoscopic surgical experts (2 residents, 4 fellows, and 3 surgeons) underwent semi-structured interview questions to evaluate the concept of a "dual-view" display for laparoscopic surgery. The 30-40 minute audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, submitted to an open source qualitative program for classification and categorizing, and were condensed for the iterative processes of analysis and interpretation. Findings revealed that despite the relatively brief interview sessions and limited number of surgical experts available, the experts provided sufficient insights and suggestions to guide further development of prototypes. This means that the use of semi-structured interviews as an expert knowledge elicitation technique may be suitable for assessing the development of augmented reality display systems for surgical and training applications, and it may have promise for the development of augmented and virtual environments more genially.
A Mental Workload Study on the 2d and 3d Viewing Conditions of the da Vinci Surgical Robot BIBAFull-Text 1186-1190
  Martina I. Klein; Cindy H. Lio; Russel Grant; C. Meldoy Carswell; Stephen Strup
Fifteen medical students performed a standard training task using the da Vinci Surgical robot's 2d and 3d viewing conditions. Measures of mental workload associated with both viewing conditions were assessed using a secondary interval production task as well as the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ). The Results of the NASA-TLX indicated that the 3d viewing condition results in lower scores of mental workload when compared to the 2d condition. The MRQ data provided diagnostic information regarding which information processing pools were stressed in both the 2d and 3d viewing conditions.
Verbal Time Production as a Secondary Task: Which Metrics and Target Intervals are Most Sensitive to Workload for Fine Motor Laparoscopic Training Tasks? BIBAFull-Text 1191-1195
  Russell C. Grant; C. Melody Carswell; Cindy H. Lio; Brent Seales; Duncan Clarke
Although time production is frequently used as a secondary task, research has not thoroughly investigated whether the length of the to-be-produced interval or the metric used to summarize productions affects sensitivity to mental workload. Fourteen participants produced four target intervals (6, 11, 16, or 21 s) while performing a surgical training task that required putting small beads into a cup (easy) or onto a peg (difficult). Intervals were summarized into two metrics of central tendency and four metrics of dispersion previously used in the literature. Results indicate that metrics of central tendency and shorter target intervals are more sensitive to mental workload.
Investigating the Effects of Desktop Computer Simulation Training on Situation Awareness (SA) and Adaptive Decision-Making Skills BIBAFull-Text 1196-1200
  Vanessa Johnson; Robert J. Pleban; Jennifer S. Tucker
The present study investigated the effects of desktop computer simulation training, called Simulation Field Exercise (SimFX), on situation awareness (SA) and adaptive decision making of small unit leaders. The effectiveness of a training protocol consisting of advance organizers (information to familiarize individuals in the areas of SA and key leader processes to facilitate decision making) and process-oriented feedback was assessed. Thirty-five Infantry Soldiers conducted three simulated mission scenarios as dismounted Infantry Platoon Leaders. Adaptive decision making and SA were measured for each scenario. The experimental group obtained significantly higher adaptive decision-making scores than the control group. SA and adaptive decision-making scores were significantly correlated for Scenarios 1 and 2, such that more adaptive responding was associated with higher SA ratings. The experimental group used significantly more assets (a measure of SA) than did the control group. Strategies for enhancing training effectiveness of computer simulations such as SimFX are described, as are potential SimFX refinements.
Research Issues for Collaborative versus Individual Training in the X-ray Security Screening Task BIBAFull-Text 1201-1205
  Brittany Sellers; Stephen M. Fiore; Javier Rivera; Florian Jentsch
We discuss recent research in the X-ray security screening task and identify some of the learning and performance issues arising from this complex visual search process. We emphasize research exploring the effects of collaboration and focused search and discuss some of the issues that come out of this research. We examine the effects of collaboration and its interaction with the search process and, from this, provide a number of research questions to help the field better understand how to utilize individual and collaborative training as a means of improving target detection. Our goal is to provide training researchers with the information needed to compare and contrast these potentially beneficial training approaches for baggage screening.
The evaluation of virtual environment training for a building clearing task BIBAFull-Text 1206-1209
  Alexander D. Walker; Thomas L. Carpenter; Jason D. Moss; Fred S. Switzer; Adam W. Hoover; Eric R. Muth
This paper combines data from two experiments that evaluated the effectiveness of different virtual environments (VEs) for training the task of building clearing. 112 subjects were divided into 28 teams across two experiments. Each study consisted of 3 phases: lecture, team training, and testing in a real-world shoothouse. There were 6 training conditions: pc-based VE, helmet mounted display-based VE, real-world shoothouse, game console, single room real-world, and game console + single room real-world. The real-world shoothouse condition was the "gold-standard" against which test performances in other conditions were compared. An ANOVA was performed to compare test performance. There was a marginally significant main effect of performance across conditions, F(5,22)=2.26, p<.07, ηp2=0.34. The game console/single room real-world condition performed similarly to the "gold standard" and better than the next highest performing condition. These data provide some evidence that VE training could be utilized to augment real-world training rather than supplant it.
Emotion Regulation Training and Scene Understanding are Related to Eye Movements during a Computer Based Interactive Simulation BIBAFull-Text 1210-1214
  Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Moshe Feldman; Ari Afek; Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch; Nicholas C. Lagattuta
Forty-two undergraduates completed a computer based interactive training simulation that required them to understand a potential hostage situation that arises during a customer service position in an Emergency Room. Each participant was given either deep or surface emotion regulation training prior to participation. Eye movements during the simulation were examined as a function of training type and understanding of the scenes in the simulation. Those given deep training had more fixations, whereas those with greater scene knowledge had longer fixations. Eye movements are predictive of understanding training during a simulation, and could be used as a trigger for adaptive training systems.
Simulation of Pregnant Workers Performing a Standing Assembly Task BIBAFull-Text 1215-1219
  Julia A. Kalish
This paper attempts to answer the question: "In what ways can a pregnancy simulator accurately replicate the pregnant condition during a standing light assembly task?" Thirty non-pregnant women performed a standing assembly task, once while wearing a Pregnancy Simulator and once without it. Additionally, four pregnant women participated without wearing the simulator. Data concerning perception of discomfort and the simulator's ability to mimic the pregnant condition were collected. The key areas of inquiry on the questionnaire were, discomfort during trials, the extent to which various body parts were uncomfortable, and the perceived accuracy of the simulator's ability to model the pregnant condition. Subjects reported four pregnancy symptoms as being accurately modeled by the simulator; breathing difficulties, obstructed movement, general fatigue, and body image. However, the results also indicated that the simulator did not adequately replicate the pregnant condition as it related to overall discomfort.
Decision Analysis Using Policy Capturing and Process Tracing Techniques in a Simulated Naval Air-Defense Task BIBAFull-Text 1220-1224
  Daniel Lafond; Julie Champagne; Guillaume Hervet; Jean-Francois Gagnon; Sebastien Tremblay; Robert Rousseau
Research in cognitive systems engineering (CSE) and decision support requires an understanding of the psychological processes involved in a given task. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how policy capturing and process tracing may help understand the decision mechanisms involved in a naval air-defense task and characterize how human decision making effectiveness can be improved. We report results from a study in which participants performed a threat evaluation and weapons assignment task within a naval air-defense microworld. Policy capturing and process tracing techniques provide both converging perspectives and complementary insights into complex decision making processes.
Skin and Bone Surfaces for a Three-Dimensional Kinematic Hand Model BIBAFull-Text 1225-1229
  Daewoo Park; Thomas J. Armstrong; Charles B. Woolley; Christopher J. Best
We have previously described the development of a 20 link, 25 degrees-of-freedom three-dimensional kinematic model of the hand (Buchholz and Armstrong 1992, Choi and Armstrong 2006). Each link corresponds to a segment of the hand. We also showed how this model can be used to predict 1) hand posture and finger placement using contact algorithms and 2) the space required for the hand to reach for and grasp work objects. The present model uses an array of points based on truncated cones to describe the skin surface. This study aims to develop models for describing the surface of the hand that are congruent with the anatomic structure of the hand. These models will improve the model predictions of finger placement and posture, of the space required by the hand, and the hand image. In addition, we also aim to develop models that describe the bones in the hand that will make it possible to study tendon excursions, loads and injuries. Graphic files that describe the surfaces of the hand and the bones were generated from multiple computed tomography images of adult human hands. The centers of flexor and extensor tendons were also identified in the images and located with respect to the above surfaces. These anatomical features were then scaled and added to the link structure of the biomechanical hand model.
The Aging Farmer: Human Factors Research Needs in Agricultural Work BIBAFull-Text 1230-1234
  Anne Collins McLaughlin; Laura M. Fletcher; John F. Sprufera
Farming is one of the most dangerous occupations in America (Crandall, Fullerton, Olson, Sklar, & Zumwalt, 1997; Simpson 1984). Despite years of experience, older farmers are more likely to be injured while working and, when injured, more likely to die from their injuries (Bernhardt & Langley, 1999). We conducted an analysis of farming accidents in multiple states to discover what human factors interventions could most improve the safety and livelihood of aging farmers. A cluster analysis revealed two main accident profiles: those involving containers, such as auger wagons and grain bins, and those involving tractors. In general, we found a number of areas that would benefit from dedicated human factors research and application.
Functional Anthropometry and Ranges of Motion of Older Mexican American Adults BIBAFull-Text 1235-1238
  Arunkumar Pennathur; Luis Rene Contreras; Odi Ikpe; Julia Bader
Among all older adult groups in the US, older Mexican American adults report the most functional limitation in activities of daily living. Upper extremity functional reaches and range of motion measures in older Mexican American adults may help explain their functional limitations and task performance in activities of daily living. However, there is little information on functional reaches and ranges of motion of older Mexican American adults, and how age and gender may influence their reach capability. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to determine the effects of age and gender of older Mexican American adults on functional reaches and range of motion measures. Stature and 20 functional reaches and ranges of motion were measured in 250 (125 females and 125 males) older Mexican American adults recruited randomly from 3500 older Mexican American adults in a retired senior volunteers program. Regression analyses indicate that age and gender have significant cross-sectional effects on several important functional reaches and ranges of motion in older Mexican American adults. Insights on product design and living space considerations for older adults based on age-related functional performance changes are discussed.
Is Visuospatial Attention Controlled By A Unitary Process Or Separate Processes? BIBAFull-Text 1239-1243
  Peter Squire; Pamela Greenwood; Raja Parasuraman
Visuospatial attention facilitates search. Search facilitation is not instantaneous, but develops over time. Furthermore, the time necessary for the first occurrence of search facilitation varies with different processes. One line of research concerned with the orienting of visuospatial attention indicates that an involuntary process facilitates search faster when compared to a voluntary process. Another line of research concerned with the distribution of visuospatial attention has shown that a constricted focus facilitates search faster than an enlarged focus. The differences in search facilitation between these processes, however, have not been directly compared in the same study. Thus, it is unclear whether visuospatial attention is governed by a unitary process or separate processes. The results of this experiment support the separate process view, specifically an involuntary and voluntary process that is independent of the component process of the distribution of visuospatial attention.
How Subtle Changes in Navigation Links Affect Users' Search Strategies BIBAFull-Text 1244-1248
  Philip Kortum; Lauren V. F. Scharff
While large scale changes to web pages have been shown to cause initial difficulties for users when they revisit sites, little work has been done to understand how small changes in web pages may affect user performance. Using eye movement data, this study investigated the impact of adding or removing a single shortcut link on the performance of users who visited a site twice. Participants visited a site and performed a search task, and then revisited the site either immediately or three weeks later and performed the same task. The short cut link was either consistently present, consistently absent, or was inconsistently present across the two sessions. Results indicate that in the consistent conditions, users exhibit roughly the same behaviors (page counts and eye scan patterns) in the second task as they did in the first, although they spent less time reading the body text. In the link-present-then-absent (YN) condition, users searching for the missing link looked at the navigation link area significantly more on their second visit than they did on their first visit and clicked to more pages. But they did not spend more time reading the content on the pages, indicating that they were expecting to recognize the target page when they found it. In the link-absent-then-present (NY) condition, almost half of the participants found the new link; there was an overall significant decrease in search times and a nonsignificant decrease in pages counts (due to those who didn't find the shortcut). Eye-tracking data showed a significant decrease in fixation counts in the content area but not the left navigation. As with the YN condition, this decrease in body text fixations suggests that participants spend less time reading the body text on a second visit due to memory of the target page. Overall these results suggest that users maintain a strong memory of link location and page structure, even after delays of up to three weeks after a single use.
The Influence of Spatial Ability on Multimedia Learning BIBAFull-Text 1249-1253
  Keith A. Kline; Richard Catrambone
Multimedia instructions, in which information is presented in multiple formats, afford better learning than instructions presented in a single format. Multimedia formatting is either multimodal, using audition (e.g., spoken words) and vision (e.g., pictures), or unimodal, using text and pictures. Spatial ability has been found to moderate the multimodal multimedia effect, but not the unimodal effect with visual materials. In the current study, participants received unimodal lessons about three physical systems in textual or pictorial-and-textual format. The multimedia effect was greater for participants who performed well on a cube rotation task. A second measure of spatial ability, the surface development task, did not interact significantly with instructional format. We discuss the factors that might lead to a discrepancy between the two measures of spatial ability in predicting the effects of instructional format. Results suggest that high spatial ability learners, in particular, benefit from the addition of pictures to textual instructions (the unimodal multimedia effect).
Exploring potential gender differences when scanning maps and providing directions BIBAFull-Text 1254-1256
  Jeffrey Andre; Michael Hicks; Caroline Chevalier
It has been previously reported that males and females view/use maps in a similar manner, but differ on how they give directions: males tend to use cardinal directions (north, south, etc.), while women use left and right directional terms. Our experiment tested participants using both maps designed to emulate previous studies' stimuli along with maps downloaded from a map/direction website. Orientations of the downloaded map's road-grid and/or map compass were either north at top of screen (normal) or northeast at top of screen (orthogonal). Unlike previous research there were no gender differences in the use of cardinal or left-right directional terms. Longer compass fixation times were found with orthogonal compass maps, and males tended to view the distance markers for longer periods. Implications for map design and use are discussed.
Effects of Text Saliency on Eye Movements while Browsing a Web Portal BIBAFull-Text 1257-1261
  Justin W. Owens; Saurav Shrestha; Barbara S. Chaparro
This study investigates the eye movement patterns of users viewing a portal web page. Previous research has shown that users scan a portal page in a top-to-bottom manner by row. In this study, the saliency of one of the portal channel titles was manipulated to see what impact this would have on the users' scan pattern. The saliency of the channel title was manipulated in two different page locations by modifying the color the text. Results indicate that channel location was found to be a stronger determinant of where users fixate and that the saliency of the channel title is a secondary determinant. Overall, users first fixated the portal page in the top, center channel regardless of the channel title color. Subsequent eye movements appear to be impacted by the salient title, but only when it was located on the left side of the page. Implications of these results to portal webpage design are discussed.
The Effect of Location and Congruency of Text Ads on Information Search BIBAFull-Text 1262-1266
  Sav Shrestha; Justin Owens; Barbara Chaparro
Almost half of all advertising revenues are attributed to the sponsored links on pages generated by search engines (IAB, 2008). This drives the need to better understand how users view and search the contents of a search engine results page that includes sponsored links. In the current study, we manipulated whether target information was located in sponsored links at the top or on the right side of a search result page. We also manipulated the congruency of the sponsored ad content. Results indicate that the target location influenced search performance but not recall. Congruency, on the other hand, did not influence search performance or recall. Also, task success did not influence recall. This might indicate that location is a stronger determinant for search task success than the semantic relevance of the sponsored links with the search query. Target location influenced fixations on the main results, top and side sponsored links.
Optimizing Presentation of AdSense Ads within Blogs BIBAFull-Text 1267-1271
  Doug Fox; Amanda Smith; Barbara S. Chaparro; A. Dawn Shaikh
AdSense text ads have become a popular method of advertising on the web, specifically within blogs when using Blogger. With increasing popularity of blogs, AdSense ads are enticing to bloggers because they offer financial rewards with relatively little effort. The biggest challenge with AdSense is generating revenue through clicks or impressions. Google offers tips on optimal presentation for ads to generate higher revenue, but empirical evidence is lacking in this area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine two important presentation elements of AdSense ads, location and color scheme. Results suggested more information is remembered about an AdSense ad when it has a high contrast color. Increased awareness can lead to higher recall of the ad, thereby, helping build the brand of advertiser which can increase clicks.
Cultural differences in Visual Attention: An eye-tracking comparison of US and Indian individuals BIBAFull-Text 1272-1276
  Jeremy Mendel; Denzil Jeykumar; Sundararajan Parthasarathy; Andrew Duchowski
Globalization of product design has become increasingly important as markets in Asia continue to grow. Past research in the variations in visual attention between individuals in Asia and the United States have primarily focused on East Asians, specifically, Japanese and Chinese participants. India, the second most populated country in the world, has been largely ignored in this literature. The current study examined the differences between US participants and South Asians, specifically Indian, participants in a visual scene exploration task. Results from the present study suggest that the current explanation from past research may not be the most parsimonious method for determining how groups will view images.
Posture, Activities, Tools, and Handling Analysis for Floor Coverers Focusing on the Knee BIBAFull-Text 1277-1281
  Xiaolu Jing; Scott Fulmer; Bryan Buchholz
Floor Coverers suffer high rates of knee-related musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine which tasks have high priority for intervention. A total of 5126 discrete data observations were collected using the PATH method on 24 professional Floor Coverers. With respect to leg posture for each task and the combination of leg posture and MMH, fitting and installing vinyl composite tile (VCT) and fitting and installing baseboard had the highest exposures. Fitting and installing wood floor and fitting and installing carpet had medium exposures.
Participatory ergonomics generates new product to assist rural workers in greenhouses BIBAFull-Text 1282-1285
  Symone A. Miguez; Peter Vink; M. Susan Hallbeck
The purpose of this paper is to show that the conjunction of participatory ergonomics and outside consulting can be the link among professionals from different areas. This association can result in improvements in the workplace as well as in the production process. Employing participatory ergonomics, an intervention described in the present study reduced the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and increased productivity while also allowing great rest time through the development and deployment of auxiliary devices and job redesign for the gathering of begonia seedlings.
Effect of Electric Utility Lineman Gloves on Strength and Efficiency BIBAFull-Text 1286-1289
  Aishwarya Yalamarty; Varun V. Jampana; Naira H. Campbell-Kyureghyan; Karen Cooper
Electric utility linemen work on high voltage wires under varying weather conditions and with severe time constraints. Standard safety procedure requires linemen to wear up to three layers of gloves; an insulating rubber glove, a protective leather glove, and an optional outer glove. The inherit design of gloves, as shown in literature, restricts the range of motion and reduces the grip strength of the user. This study examines the effect of glove usage on grip and pinch strength and the ability of the user to perform simple functional tasks. The results show a significant decrease in grip strength and the time required to complete tasks due to glove usage. The gloves, although providing protection from high voltage, may result in increased duration of exposure to higher exerted forces to complete the same tasks as without gloves.
Evaluating Suitability of a Military Duty Glove for Use in a Multi-Layered Chemical-Biological Protective Glove System BIBAFull-Text 1290-1294
  Karla Eve Allan
The Max Grip NT glove (Test Glove) has been approved for use as a duty glove for U.S. Army Combat Vehicle Crew and Aviation communities and is intended to either supplement or replace the current issue duty glove (Baseline) worn by these communities. The Baseline duty glove serves, however, as both a duty glove and as the outer glove component of a layered protective chemical biological (CB) glove system. In considering whether the Test Glove can fully replace the Baseline, it was necessary for the U.S. Army Program Manager Clothing and Individual Equipment (PM CIE) to determine whether the Test Glove could serve effectively in this second function as the outer layer of the CB glove system. The Ergonomics Team at U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center was asked to conduct an evaluation to determine, from a human factors perspective, the suitability of the Test Glove to be worn in conjunction with the currently fielded CB protective inner glove layers, known as 7 mil and 14 mil butyls. The evaluation addressed, among other issues, these three questions: (1) Does the Test Glove duty size (i.e., worn over bare hands) fit effectively over the 7 mil and 14 mil butyl glove layers without upsizing? (2) If it is necessary to upsize, can the upsized Test Glove be effectively worn as a duty glove (i.e., over bare hands) to serve dual purpose? and, (3) When wearing the Test Glove as part of the CB protective glove system can the wearer perform manual dexterity tasks at least as well as in the Baseline CB protective glove system? Results showed that it was often necessary to upsize the Test Glove by one size to accommodate the CB inner layer but wearing this larger glove over the bare hands, as a duty glove, did not adversely impact manual dexterity, suggesting potential for a single-size dual purpose glove. In a comparison of manual dexterity performance between the Test Glove and Baseline CB glove configurations, minor differences, only, were observed. Practical implications including path forward for the Test Glove are discussed.
Team Cognition and External Representations: A Framework and Propositions for Supporting Collaborative Problem Solving BIBAFull-Text 1295-1299
  Michael A. Rosen; Eduardo Salas; Stephen M. Fiore; Davin Pavlas; Heather C. Lum
Teams are increasingly asked to solve complex and novel problems. From a broad range of domains such as the military, healthcare, and industry, difficult problems requiring the adaptation of a diverse set of expertise to one-of-a-kind situations are becoming more commonplace. These types of performance contexts require collaborative problem solving; however, the bulk of research on teamwork has dealt with behavioral coordination in routine tasks. This leaves a gap in the theory available for guiding design and training interventions to support collaborative problem solving, or knowledge-work, in teams. This paper addresses this gap by 1) providing a review of relevant theoretical issues, specifically the team cognition and externalized cognition literature, 2) advancing a theoretical framework and propositions rooted in this literature that relate the role of group process and external representations of problem spaces on problem solving outcomes, and 3) discussing future directions for testing, applying, and refining this model.
Effects of Sharing Control of Unmanned Vehicles on Backup Behavior and Workload in Distributed Operator Teams BIBAFull-Text 1300-1303
  Thomas D. Fincannon; A. William Evans; Florian Jentsch; Elizabeth Phillips; Joseph Keebler
This study examined the effects of sharing vehicle control on workload and support behaviors with teams using multiple unmanned systems. The design of systems control was manipulated such that teammates could only control their own vehicle or share control of their vehicle with a teammate. Process variables focused on requests for navigational support from an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operator and the support that was provided by the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator. The primary outcome of interest was workload, as measured by the NASA TLX. Results indicated that there was an interaction between the design manipulation and UGV requests for support in the prediction of support that was provided by an UAV operator, where support was only provided when teams did not share control of their teammate's vehicle. The sharing of control and provision of navigation support both increased workload for the UAV operator.
Auditory Visualization of Landmine Detector Sensor Data BIBAFull-Text 1304-1308
  Bradley M. Davis; Woodrow W. Winchester; Jason D. Zedlitz
A desktop computer based simulation of landmine detection was constructed to evaluate a series of visualizations that graphically display landmine detector auditory output. Data were collected from eighteen student participants regarding the perceptual matching of the visualizations to the pitch and volume of the auditory output, as well as the ability to recall the visualizations after one week. Results indicated a high level of mental recall of the visualizations, but did not reveal a distinct perceptual matching. Recommendations are made for visualization refinement and reevaluation.
Association Testing-A Methodology for Selecting and Evaluating Audio Alerts BIBAFull-Text 1309-1313
  Chua Wei Liang Kenny; Cheng Li Wei
The Map Display (MD) system functions as a shared map which allows different parties at different location to communicate critical signals warning and advisory functions to users in aircraft, tanks, and other ground vehicle. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the audio alerts designed by the DSO Human Factors Team provided better user association than the audio alerts that existed in the MD system. The sounds in the MD system consisted of pure tones, while the new audio alerts were auditory icons designed to provide a higher level of user association. The work focuses on an initial effort to develop a methodology to select and improve the design of audio alerts (1. Ranking 2. Free Response Testing 3. Urgency Testing and 4. Conceptual Mapping Testing.) Further, the need to consider how experts and novices would perceive these audio alerts was experimentally demonstrated. Subjects were 30 males out of which 9 were army infantryman. Data were analyzed using a mixed design experiment. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between tones and icons when perceived urgency and matching was taken into consideration. In addition, this methodology was successful in identifying the poorly designed audio alerts and valuable feedback was gathered to improve the audio alert design.
Effect of Overheard Conversations on Bystander Productivity BIBAFull-Text 1314-1318
  Jaimie L. Gilbert; Kelly S. Steelman-Allen; Charissa R. Lansing; Jason S. McCarley; Arthur F. Kramer
Overheard cell phone conversations are often perceived as particularly annoying or disruptive. The effect on bystander productivity from overheard cell phone conversations for younger and older adults was investigated for two cognitive tasks, mental arithmetic and proofreading. Performance (accuracy and speeded response) was compared in the presence of overheard cell phone conversations, overheard face-to-face conversation, and in quiet. Subjective ratings of mental workload were also obtained in each condition. In general, overheard cell phone and face-to-face conversations had very similar detrimental effects on performance and were associated with greater ratings of frustration in the arithmetic task. When balanced for number of conversational turns and overall number of words, overheard cell phone conversations do not have a greater effect on bystander productivity than overheard face-to-face conversations.
Runway Incursion Monitoring, Detection and Alerting System (RIMDAS): A Proposed System Design for Reducing Runway Incursions BIBAFull-Text 1319-1323
  Peter Squire; Jane Barrow; Kevin T. Durkee; Mac Smith; Jennifer Moore; Raja Parasuraman
Runway incursions are a persistent problem that has resulted in some of the most catastrophic aviation accidents in history. Several systems have been proposed previously, but many of these systems are expensive and can only be justified for the busiest airports. Recent advances in wireless sensors provide a method for deploying an inexpensive detection network that can directly warn pilots of potential runway incursions. This system could prove to be an effective low-cost alternative for small to medium-sized airports who can not justify the cost of more expensive detection systems.
Representing Workflow within the Air Operations Center: The Lifecycle of a Dynamic Target BIBAFull-Text 1324-1328
  Jamie C. Gorman; Nancy J. Cooke; Jasmine L. Duran; Kimberly McGrane; Noel Rima
The Dynamic Targeting Cell (DTC) of the Air Operations Center (AOC) prosecutes critical targets by processing them through a "kill chain." We describe the development of a workflow representation that follows target processing through the kill chain in terms of eight elements of DTC interaction. The workflow representation is developed from analysis of the doctrinal AOC literature. The workflow representation was iterated based on interviews with subject matter experts. The workflow representation is a normative model of doctrinal DTC workflow. We describe how the workflow representation is used to generate hypothesized sequences of events within and across elements of DTC interaction. The hypothesized sequences represent normative target prosecution against which observed target prosecution are compared. The ultimate goal is to pinpoint deviations from the doctrinal kill chain process in need of further attention or intervention in real time or just-in-time.
Visual Alerting in Complex Command and Control Environments BIBAFull-Text 1329-1333
  Jacquelyn M. Crebolder; Jeffrey Beardsall
A study was conducted to investigate automated visual alerting in complex environments where operators rely on multiple display workstations to perform high-intensity tasks. Two forms of alerts -- a short red sidebar and a red border around the perimeter of the workstation display -- were examined, as well as two forms of alert state - static and flashing. Results showed that the sidebar alert was detected faster than the border alert regardless of whether it was flashing or static, and in general, sidebar alerts were detected faster when they appeared on all three displays as compared to one display. Future work will focus on examining the association between the display an alert appears on and the spatial location of operator attention.
Predictive Validity of the Aggressive Driver Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ) in a Simulated Environment BIBAFull-Text 1334-1337
  J. Christopher Brill; Mustapha Mouloua; Edwin Shirkey; Pascal Alberti
Aggressive driving behavior or "road rage" is often viewed as a dysfunctional pattern of social behavior that poses a serious risk to public safety. In a previous study, we conducted a factor analytic study of 79 items derived from five different driving behavior scales to produce a new scale, which can be correlated to driver anger. The goal of the present research was to empirically test this scale in a controlled laboratory environment. It was hypothesized that the newly developed Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ) would predict driving performance of aggressive drivers. The results showed a significant effect of traffic condition on lane deviations and that the composite scores co-varied significantly with lane deviations and collisions. In addition, several dependent measures were significantly correlated with the composite scores. These variables included lane deviations and collisions. This suggests that the ADBQ is a valid predictor of aggressive driving behavior in a simulated environment.
The Impact of Load on Dynamic Versus Static Situational Knowledge While Driving BIBAFull-Text 1338-1342
  Lisa Durrance Blalock; Benjamin D. Sawyer; Ariana Kiken; Benjamin A. Clegg
Situation awareness (SA) was examined while driving in a driving simulator under load or no load conditions. Participants drove through two simulated maps and were periodically interrupted, the driving paused, and were asked questions regarding dynamic (i.e., moving) and static (i.e., non-moving) aspects of the environment. Participants in the load condition also had to count backwards by sevens during the drive. Results indicate that driving under load conditions leads to an overall drop in performance in processing of the dynamic elements of the scene, but no such decrement was observed for the static elements. Implications for current theories of SA and applied attention, as well as the potential relevance to understanding impaired driving performance from cell phone use, are discussed.
Impact of Feedback on Drivers' Attitudes towards Driving while Distracted: A Study in China BIBAFull-Text 1343-1347
  Mary F. Lesch; William J. Horrey; Ying Wang; Wei Zhang; Chang-rong Chen
The distracting effects of concurrent cell-phone use on driving performance are well-documented. However, as the effects of distraction are not always easily observed (e.g., as in the instance of a "missed" event), many drivers may not believe that the issue is relevant to them. In the current study, 30 participants in China completed driving tasks in a driving simulator with/without a concurrent cell phone task. Following the trial, fifteen of them were shown video-based feedback of their performance (the feedback group). The other 15 participants (the control group) received no feedback. Attitudes towards cell phone use while driving were assessed prior to participation in the simulator study, immediately after receiving feedback, and one-month later. Following feedback, participants provided lower ratings of safety associated with cell-phone use while driving, lower ratings of ease of using a cell phone while driving, higher ratings of their own distractibility, and a decreased intention to use a cell phone while driving in the future relative to the control group. Effects of feedback continued to be observed one month later. Future research should examine whether the effects of feedback observed here are predictive of actual driving behavior.
Effectiveness of a Multistage Driver Education Program for Novice Drivers BIBAFull-Text 1348-1352
  Laura Stanley; Jessica Mueller
This research evaluated the potential effectiveness of a multistage driver education program for novice drivers. This was done by comparing the safety experience of two groups of teenage drivers, one of which received additional instruction in a defensive driving workshop and another that did not. The statistical finding that the trained group recorded fewer citations does suggest some potential safety benefits for the supplemental driver-training course evaluated in this study. However, it remains unclear as to whether the training resulted in an immediate safety benefit.
Text Messaging versus Talking on a Cell Phone: A Comparison of their Effects on Driving Performance BIBAFull-Text 1353-1357
  David Libby; Alex Chaparro
This study compared the effects of texting to other modes of responding on driving performance. While driving a simulator participants were instructed to categorize words appearing on billboards as a state (e.g., Maine), fruit (e.g., kiwi) or drink (e.g., Pepsi). The word categories were reported by texting, phoning in or identifying them aloud. There was significant effect of response mode on measures of driving performance. Drivers in the texting condition had significantly slower reaction times to peripheral letter targets, drove more slowly, exhibited greater variance in their lane position and took their eyes off of the road more often than in either the cell phone condition or the verbal condition. Drivers in the cell phone condition often performed more poorly than in the verbal response condition.
Current Trends in Human Factors and Ergonomics Employment BIBAFull-Text 1358-1362
  Felix Portnoy; Poornima Madhavan
This study summarizes the results of a survey that was geared to assess the current factors that are associated with various careers paths in the field of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). The study is also aimed to provide useful information to established HFE educators, practitioners and policy makers. To address these goals, an online survey was distributed among the major HFE online listservs in the world. Data from 357 participants, representing 19 countries, was used for the analysis. This report presents categorical information about the distribution of income, work domains, demographic and geographic factors, educational qualifications, work motivation, and benefits of participants involved with HFE related careers. In addition, this study examined the relationship between those factors in order to present an updated image of the professional HFE community.
The Role of Emotion Recognition from Non-Verbal Behaviour in Detection of Concealed Firearm Carrying BIBAFull-Text 1363-1367
  A. Blechko; I. T. Darker; A. G. Gale
Individuals can detect the mood of people shown in image sequences on the basis of non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions and body movements. Carrying firearms is known to elicit certain emotional states in their carrier. In relation to the CCTV surveillance task the present study investigated whether observers are able to perceive differences in the emotional states and non-verbal behaviour of people who are, and who are not, carrying concealed firearms, as judged through monitoring video footage. The results showed that the observers were able to differentiate between the two video clip types by attributing different moods to the surveillance targets who were correctly judged to have higher levels of dysphoria whilst concealing a firearm than whilst concealing an innocuous object. Furthermore, certain visual cues were found to be related to the performance of the observers. These results are discussed with regard to future research on this issue.
The Effects of System Technology and Probability Type on Trust, Compliance, and Reliance BIBAFull-Text 1368-1372
  Nash S. Stanton; Stuart A. Ragsdale; Ernesto A. Bustamante
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of system technology (binary vs. likelihood) and probability type (false-alarm prone vs. miss-prone) on trust, compliance and reliance using a false alarm forgiving task. One-hundred university students participated in this study. Participants completed three simulated flight missions composed of two primary flight tasks and a secondary engine-monitoring task. During the first mission, participants performed the engine-monitoring task without the aid of an automated alarm system. During the second and third sessions, participants had the opportunity to perform the engine-monitoring task with the aid of an alarm system. Results partially supported our hypotheses. Consistent with prior research, system probability type had a statistically main effect on trust. As expected, system technology and probability type had a statistically significant interaction effect on compliance. However, contrary to our prediction, results showed an unexpected interaction effect between system technology and probability type on reliance. The results of this study assist in defining the association among these three constructs and will aid in the future development of application principles for human-automation interaction.
Beyond the First User: Human Factors and Risk Communication for Reuse, Recycling, Disassembly, and Product End-of-Life BIBAFull-Text 1373-1377
  Jeffrey J. Smith; Edward J. Grenchus
Most human factors research associated with products is related to the relationship between the product and its first users. However, contemporary media focus on environmental-consciousness has revealed a new area for human factors expertise: reuse, recycling, disassembly, and product end-of-life. This case study presents an overview of typical end-of-life tasks related to harvesting components and commodities from system boards. Recommendations for adding consistency, saliency, and convention to battery design to simplify end-of-life processes are provided.
Identifying the Best Practices for Critical Social Thinking and Metacognitive Thinking Training BIBAFull-Text 1378-1382
  Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Marissa Shuffler; Michael Rosen; Luiz Xavier; Samuel Wooten; Eduardo Salas; Steve Zaccaro; Rita Hilton
Critical thinking and social reasoning are fundamental skills in complex, social situations, and several domains (e.g., healthcare and military) have realized that personnel are lacking the cognitive skills necessary to optimally perform within their complicated, dynamic environment. Thus, there is a need to train critical social thinking skills in order to improve cognitive and social reasoning, enhance performance, and ultimately result in better outcomes. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to provide researchers and practitioners with a review of the literature pertinent to developing critical social thinking skills. This review is presented in the form of best practices for designing and implementing critical thinking training interventions.
Anticipated vs. Experienced Workload: How Accurately Can People Predict Task Demand? BIBAFull-Text 1383-1387
  M. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; R. Grant; M. Klein; W. B. Seales; D. Clarke
The NASA-TLX subjective workload assessment is typically used immediately following a participant's performance in an experimental task to assess the workload experienced. However, it is sometimes necessary to assess the anticipated workload of a task before the task is actually performed. This study compares the workload assessments of participants who performed two minimally invasive surgical training tasks to participants who only saw descriptions of the two tasks. Results showed that participants who were asked to rate the anticipated workload underestimated the overall workload required for the "cannulation" task, while overestimating the overall workload required for the rope task. Interactions between task type and condition also were found in three of the NASA-TLX subscales (mental demand, effort, and frustration). Overall, the reliability of participants' prediction of the difficulty depended on the task being evaluated and the particular measure of difficulty that was being assessed. In general, physical facets of workload appeared to be more accurately assessed than cognitive facets.
Embedded Collaboration Metrics in the MacroCog Synthetic Task Environment BIBAFull-Text 1388-1392
  Jasmine L. Duran; Zach Goolsbee; Nancy J. Cooke; Jamie C. Gorman
A synthetic task environment, MacroCog, was created to study cognitive and collaborative processes that take place during planning tasks. MacroCog was designed in a flexible way, allowing various types of teams and tasks to be observed. In addition, valuable metrics have been developed to study team member collaboration. The test-bed and the metrics created have the potential to capture aspects of team interactions in an unobtrusive and experimenter-friendly manner.
Workload in Human-Robot Interaction: A Review of Manipulations and Outcomes BIBAFull-Text 1393-1397
  Matthew S. Prewett; Kristin N. Saboe; Ryan C. Johnson; Michael D. Coovert; Linda R. Elliott
The current study reviews the relationship between manipulations of teleoperator workload and task outcomes, using multiple resource theory as the underlying framework. Results indicated that controlling more than two platforms is detrimental to many performance indices (reaction time, error rate), but overall productivity improves. For studies that manipulated workload for a single robot task, visual demands were a limiting factor, and interventions which reduced visual demands improved performance. The review concludes with guiding principles for managing workload and improving teleoperator performance.
Autonomy and Automation Reliability in Human-Robot Interaction: A Qualitative Review BIBAFull-Text 1398-1402
  Ryan C. Johnson; Kristin N. Saboe; Matthew S. Prewett; Michael D. Coovert; Linda R. Elliott
The effectiveness and reliability of automation aids are critical topics in the area of human-robot interaction (HRI). As more tasks are subsumed by robots and autonomous systems, it is important to examine the relationships between these entities and their human operators. Research to date has covered various manipulations of autonomy, but this broad body of research is in need of focus and consistency. The current study presents a qualitative overview of research regarding levels and reliability of autonomy/control and the effects they have on important HRI-relevant outcome variables. Results indicate that autonomy and automation aids operate uniquely for different tasks, and that there are many complex factors that can affect not only performance but also usability, confidence, and safety. Unresolved issues in the field and challenges and opportunities for future research are also presented.
Conceptual Model of Human-Automation Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1403-1407
  Julian Sanchez
Why is it important to understand human behavior in automated environments? The performance of a human-automation system is a product of the quality of the support provided by the automation and the manner in which that support is used by the human. Therefore, the solution to reaching an optimal level of system performance does not lie exclusively within possible improvements to technological components, but also by understanding the interaction of humans with automated agents. A conceptual model of human-automation interaction is presented in this paper. The model includes most of the well-established variable relationships to date, as well as a brief description of the literature that supports each relationship.
Mission Completion Time is Sensitive to Teleoperation Performance During Simulated Reconnaissance Missions with a Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 1408-1412
  Deborah R. Billings; Paula J. Durlach
In prior research, we found that temporal measures were affected by input device (game controller vs. mouse); however, other measures were not (e.g., number of targets detected, or number of collisions). The main purpose of the present research was to investigate the sensitivity of a temporal performance measure for simulated reconnaissance missions. Instead of measuring number of targets photographed in a fixed amount of time, this study measured time to photograph a set number of targets. Twenty participants went through simulation-based micro-unmanned aerial vehicle operator training, including three skill courses and two reconnaissance missions. Half the participants used a mouse as their input device, whereas the rest used a game controller. Mission completion time was found to be faster when participants used the game controller than when they used the mouse, for both skill missions and reconnaissance missions. Effective simulation-based training for micro-unmanned vehicles operators requires both relevant simulated missions and objective performance feedback and mastery criteria. These results suggest that mission completion time could provide a good performance measure for this purpose.
Modeling Human-Robot Interaction with Petri-Nets BIBAFull-Text 1413-1417
  Rosemarie Yagoda; Michael D. Coovert
Robots are an ever present part of the workplace. Effective interaction strategies and interfaces are needed to ensure optimal human-robot interaction. Building upon job and cognitive work analysis as traditional methodologies, Petri nets are introduced as a modeling tool for human-robot interaction. Basic components of the nets are described and utilizing data from search-and-rescue UAV operations, operator nets are constructed. Analysis of the networks yielded several significant findings. Petri nets provide several advantages beyond traditional methodologies and are seen as a useful tool for modeling human-robot interactions.
Robots' Auditory Cues are Subject to Anthropomorphism BIBAFull-Text 1418-1421
  Valerie K. Sims; Matthew G. Chin; Heather C. Lum; Linda Upham-Ellis; Tatiana Ballion; Nicholas C. Lagattuta
Research shows that human responses to robots are largely dependent on the robot's physical attributes. The present study investigates whether robots' auditory cues are interpreted differently depending on the degree to which they are anthropomorphic in nature. Participants viewed a robot that responded with human speech, synthesized "robotic speech," or sounds only. The most commands were given to the robot when its "voice" was synthetic. Humans are sensitive to auditory cues given by robots.
Free Form Verbal Communication Toward Robotic Entities vs. Live Entities BIBAFull-Text 1422-1426
  Anne M. Sinatra; Matthew G. Chin; Valerie K. Sims; Heather C. Lum; Nicholas Lagattuta; Mark Spitzer; Catherine Mobley; Matthew Marraffino
This study was designed to examine natural free form communication that exists when a person interacts with robots versus live entities. Participants interacted with one of four entities: an AIBO robotic dog, Legobot, dog or cat. The amount of words spoken by the participant while interacting with the entity was recorded and coded for word count, average word length, number of questions and number of commands. It was found that participants spoke to the AIBO similarly to how they spoke to the cat and they did not speak to the AIBO as they spoke to the dog. This suggests that when speaking to an entity people are not distinguishing between organic and inorganic, and that when a robotic entity resembles a dog, it does not mean that people will behave toward it as they would toward a real dog.
From the Lab to the Field: Observations from Unmanned System Field Research and Comparisons to Laboratory Counterparts BIBAFull-Text 1427-1431
  Scott Ososky; A. William Evans; Florian Jentsch
This paper examines the intricacies of applied robotics research, both in the laboratory and in the field. Described within will be some of the differences between lab and field studies that researchers must diligently work to reduce. Areas discussed include differences in technological capabilities, team composition, and system reliability. Rather than report the results of a single study, the purpose of this paper is to bring the Human Robot Interaction (HRI) research community closer as a whole. It also serves to emphasize the real-life implications of applied laboratory efforts, as opposed to fixating on the statistics alone. Specific 'lessons learned' with respect to successful, and not-so successful, strategies for conducting lab-based HRI research are also included. Finally, a testing facility for the continued congruence between lab and field HRI research is proposed.
Improving Tele-robotic Navigation through Augmented Reality Devices BIBAFull-Text 1432-1436
  Richard T. Stone; Ann Bisantz; James Llinas; Victor Paquet
Navigation is an essential element in many telerobotic operations especially those that involve time pressure and complex terrains. This study demonstrates that properly designed augmented reality interfaces can significantly aid human operators in the task of land based tele-robotic navigation. Participants in this study were assigned to one of three experimental conditions (control, sonification interface, visual interface). All participants were trained in tele-robotic landmine detection and navigation, the groups performed these tasks first with augmentation (session one) and then without (session two/transfer task). The results show that participants in the sonification interface group outperformed the visual interface and control group in terms of primary task sensitivity, the number of sectors cover and the number of sectors repeated. The results further indicated that a well designed AR navigation interface could serve as an effective training tool.
Investigating the Relationship between Visual Spatial Abilities and Robot Operation during Direct Line of Sight and Teleoperation BIBAFull-Text 1437-1441
  Lindsay O. Long; Joshua A. Gomer; Kristin S. Moore; Christopher C. Pagano
Objective: To determine how scores on standard spatial measures correlate with the ability to operate a robot under different teleoperation conditions. Background: Past work has demonstrated that there is a relationship between visual spatial ability and teleoperation performance. Method: In this experiment participants completed a spatial visualization (VZ-2) and spatial relation (S-2) measure, and teleoperated a robot through both low and high difficulty courses under direct line of sight (DLS) and teleoperation (TO) conditions. Performance was determined by course completion time and the total number of collisions made during navigation. Results and Conclusion: Aggregate visual spatial ability was inversely correlated with operator performance under each of the experimental conditions. Analyzed independently, only spatial relations ability correlated with TO performance, while both measures correlated with DLS operation. Application: Better understanding of the relationship between spatial abilities and teleoperation performance can assist in the selection and training of future operators, as well as the design of superior interfaces.
A Comparison of the Unpressurized Rover and Small Pressurized Rover During a Desert Field Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1442-1446
  Harry Litaker; Shelby Thompson; Robert Howard
To effectively explore the lunar surface, astronauts will need a transportation vehicle which can traverse all types of terrain. Currently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) is investigating two lunar rover configurations to meet such a requirement. Under the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) project, a comparison study between the unpressurized rover (UPR) and the small pressurized rover (SPR) was conducted at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. The objective of the study was to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data on the vehicles with respect to human-machine interfaces, vehicle impacts on crew productivity, and scientific observations. Four male participants took part in four, one-day field tests using the exact same terrain and scientific sites for an accurate comparison between vehicle configurations. Subjective data was collected using several human factors performance measures. Results indicate either vehicle configuration was generally acceptable for a lunar mission; however, the SPR configuration was preferred over the UPR configuration priminarly for the SPR's ability to cause less fatigue and enabling greater crew productivity.
Effect of Computer Monitor Distance on Visual Symptoms and Changes in Accommodation and Binocular Vision BIBAFull-Text 1447-1451
  Peiyi Ko; David Li; Pia Hoenig; Ian Bailey; David Rempel
Visual symptoms are the most common complaints associated with prolonged computer use. We investigated effects of accommodation and vergence demands specified by the computer monitor viewing distance on the development of visual symptoms and visual function changes. Ten 18-35 year-old subjects performed a two-hour, visually demanding, text-viewing task at three viewing distances over three days. The visual angle of the character size was held constant. We measured changes in several static and dynamic properties of accommodation and binocular vision before and for 90 minutes after the viewing task. The 100 cm viewing distance induced less lead effect for accommodation to a distant target and less lag retention for accommodation to a near target. On the other hand, the viewing distance of 33 cm introduced less eye irritation or tearing symptoms and a higher overall dynamic convergence response compared to longer viewing distances. There were weak associations between changes in binocular functions and visual symptoms. While the symptoms were influenced by the viewing distance, they cannot be fully explained by the changes in the visual functions measured here.
Using the Keyboard to Issue Commands: The Relation of Observing Others Using Efficient Techniques on the Weightings of Costs and Benefits BIBAFull-Text 1452-1455
  Chris Powell; S. Camille Peres; Vickie Nguyen; Kate E. Bruton; Lindsey Muse
Previous research by Peres et al. (2004) and Peres et al. (2005) have suggested people's analysis of the costs and benefits of using efficient techniques may influence whether or not they use those techniques. These studies also suggested that social factors (e.g., observing others) play an additional role in the usage of these techniques. The present study examined the impact of observing efficient techniques on users' weighing of the costs and benefits of using the Keyboard to Issue Commands (KIC) as an efficient technique. The results suggest that people more heavily weigh the benefits of using KIC than the costs, but that there appears to be no relation between people's weightings of the costs and benefits of using KIC and whether they had observed someone using KIC.
Voice Personalities Inducing Trust and Satisfaction in a Medical Interactive Voice Response System BIBAFull-Text 1456-1460
  Rochelle E. Evans; Philip Kortum
Verbal and non-verbal behaviors that contribute to trust and satisfaction in the patient-physician relationship have typically been investigated in face-to-face interactions between patient and physician. However, it is becoming more common for physicians to administer surveys over interactive voice response systems (IVRs). In this context, patient trust and satisfaction must still be maintained in order to insure accurate disclosure on the surveys. This paper describes the results of research in which we investigated if individuals' perceptions of trust and satisfaction are affected through voice, alone. When considering voice in the absence of non-verbal cues, a sympathetic voice was more liked and trusted than a professional voice, which was more liked and trusted than an upbeat voice. It was also found that trust can be moderated by the gender of the voice presented in an IVR, with females reporting higher trust for professional voices than do males.
Ethnographic Study of On-Hold Caller Multitasking Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1461-1465
  Andy Su; Phil Kortum
Telephone users frequently engage in multitasking while on hold. While these multitasking behaviors are significant for the research and application of effective on-hold stimuli, they have not been thoroughly studied. The current study examines on-hold multitasking behavior with a naturalistic ethnographic method, and describes these behaviors for callers in their home environment. The data show that callers do indeed engage in a variety of multitasking behaviors, including web browsing, e-mail, and item manipulation. However, callers are not necessarily aware of these behaviors and self-reported data may not be completely accurate. Furthermore, the diverse nature of these secondary tasks presents unique challenges for system engineers seeking to implement effective telephone interactions.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Mass Emergency Notification System BIBAFull-Text 1466-1470
  Muhammet S. Gulum; Susan L. Murray
Several events on university campuses in recent years have raised awareness about the importance of effective mass emergencies notification systems (MNS). These systems are developed to deliver critical information during life threatening events. Congress created a grant program specific for purchasing mass notification technology. When a mass notification system is in place an individual or group of individuals can send out prerecorded messages or customized messages to any or all of the system's various group lists. Message delivery can be sent using text messaging, e-mail, PDAs, sirens, flashing strobes, intercoms, outdoor emergency phones, computer screen displays, cell and landline phones, and live or recorded voice announcements. Schools, universities, medical buildings, cities, law enforcement, and military have embraced such systems. Any organization can use mass notification to better their emergency management. These systems can also be used to distribute non-emergency messages such as breaking news that is of interest to students or employees.
   Legislation has been introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives to require colleges to immediately notify their students and employees when an emergency happens on campus. As recent incidents have demonstrated, minutes can mean the difference between life and death. Mass notification technology helps ensure that information is communicated, empowering students and employees so that they can take steps to protect themselves during a crisis. Students, parents, teachers, and college instructors have already embraced these systems.
   Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) installed an MNS to notify the campus community of emergency information via phone, email, SMS Text, and instant messaging. The Missouri S&T expanded its emergency notification system in September 2007 through a partnership between the University of Missouri and 3n (National Notification Network), the leading mass notification system provider after the incident in February 2007 at Missouri S&T. The university has since tested the system twice. This paper presents the results of the tests, issues that have been identified that affect the system's effectiveness, and recommendations for other organizations wishing to implement such systems.
   This paper also reviews these notification systems including a discussion and analysis of many features common in emergency notification systems. To address the issues that affect the system's effectiveness the results of two system tests conducted by Missouri S&T are analyzed. Both system test results indicate low confirmation rates although there is a slight improvement in the second test. The reasons behind this ineffectiveness are examined with an on campus survey. The survey results illustrated that even though the mass emergency notification system features are mostly recognized by students, the lack of awareness and belief in the mass emergency notification systems may be the reasons behind the low confirmation rates. Therefore, organizations should pay significant attention to both implementing the right mass emergency notification system and creating the awareness and emphasizing the importance for it.

PRODUCT DESIGN

Sparking Innovation: How User-Centered Professionals Can Get a Seat at the Business Strategy Table BIBAFull-Text 1471
  Nelson Soken
Dr. Soken was invited by the Product Design Technical Group to give a keynote address at the first of the Group's meeting sessions. His presentation explores and explains with examples how usability professionals can provide significant value to the business strategy dialog while at the same time raising the visibility and influence of our unique set of skills. Dr. Soken's extensive background includes Human Factors practice and management, innovation initiatives, and leadership development.
Development of the Boundary Zone Method for Generation of Representative Human Models BIBAFull-Text 1472-1476
  Kihyo Jung; Ochae Kwon; Heecheon You
The present study developed a generation method of representative human models (RHMs) at a boundary zone which statistically accommodates a designated percentage of the target population. The boundary zone method proposed in the study consists of (1) identification of a boundary zone and (2) cluster analysis on cases within the identified boundary zone. The boundary zone of a designated accommodation percentage was formed by the normalized squared distance of each anthropometric case from the centroid of the target population. Cluster analysis was used to group homogenous cases within the boundary zone to reduce the number of the cases. A comprehensive evaluation under various combinations of anthropometric dimensions revealed that the average of multivariate accommodation percentages of the boundary zone method (91%) closer to the designated percentage (90%) than those of the existing generation methods (square method = 49%, circular method = 76%, and rectangular method = 96%).
Human Factors Considerations in Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Technology: Contrasting Military Technical Requirements with User Expectations BIBAFull-Text 1477-1481
  Barbara Jex Courter; Ellen M. Ellis
The need for human factors considerations in the development of handheld GPS receiver technology becomes increasingly apparent as society becomes increasingly dependant on precision navigation and timing information. GPS receivers provide ubiquitous situational awareness, during the daily mundane commute or in theater amidst the fog of war. Both military and commercial receivers are only as useful as their ability to convey navigation information to the user in a timely and reliable manner. Warfighters have become familiar with the ease and convenience of commercial receivers, mapping functionality, and integrated technology. However, there is great variance between the requirement set for military operations and civilian applications. The US Army and Air Force GPS Wing face future expectation management issues with military GPS user equipment. Potential areas for risk mitigation include careful human factors considerations early in the requirements development process, platform and application tailoring, incorporating "best practices" from industry and commercial end-user experience, and education and training.
Iterative qualitative research used to inform and validate the design of a commercial floor finish applicator BIBAFull-Text 1482-1486
  Craig P. Conner
An iterative, user-centered product development process was employed in the design of a floor finish applicator specifically intended for the cramped spaces of healthcare, educational, and retail environments. The inclusion of representative users in the process reduced the risk that the emergent design would not adequately address their needs. Prior to creating a fully-functional prototype, individuals with commercial floor care experience were asked to simulate use during a series of qualitative research studies conducted using mockups and form study models. The fidelity of the models was selected on the basis of what design questions needed to be answered at various points in the development process. By tailoring these physical artifacts so that they addressed only certain features at a time, it was possible to more quickly converge to an appropriate design solution. The emergent design dispenses finish from a 2.5 liter replaceable reservoir, purposefully positioned on its contoured shaft to afford balance and control. Unlike the traditional mop and bucket, which requires training and experience to produce a durable and uniform coat of finish, this applicator naturally promotes the proper body movements without any prior training.
EMG and heart rate used to validate ergonomic benefits of a bent-handled floor finish applicator BIBAFull-Text 1487-1491
  Craig P. Conner; Curt B. Irwin
Prior to releasing the design of a new bent-handled floor finish applicator for full-scale production, its manufacturer commissioned a quantitative research study to validate its intended ergonomic benefits. Unlike the traditional braided mop and bucket, this new design dispensed finish from a 2.5 liter replaceable reservoir purposefully positioned on a bent handle to afford balance and control. Electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), timed activity analysis, and subjective self-report measures were used to quantify the design's physiological impact, both actual and perceived, on 6 representative users. The new bent-handled design was compared to three other commercially available applicator systems: a traditional mop and bucket commonly used in the United States, a flat mop preferred in Europe and Asia, and a commercially available backpack system. Compared to the traditional mop and bucket, the average combined set-up, finish application, and clean-up of the bent-handled applicator cumulatively required 36% less forearm flexor effort, 35% less deltoid effort, 23% less trapezius effort, and 36% less erector spinae effort. The bent-handled applicator required 18% less forearm flexor effort, 54% less deltoid effort, 40% less trapezius effort, and 49% less erector spinae effort when compared to the European flat mop. Compared to a backpack system, the bent-handled applicator required 10% more forearm flexor effort, 2% less deltoid effort, 8% less trapezius effort, and 8% more erector spinae effort. Taking into account both heart rate (beats per minute) and duration (min) over the set-up, finish application, and clean-up, the bent-handled applicator required 23% fewer average heart beats than the mop and bucket, 32% fewer than a flat mop, and 0.5% more than a backpack system. These statistically significant findings validated the subjective measures, indicating that this new bent-handled design decreases effort and increases comfort.
Useful Field of View of Aging Drivers as a Product Design Tool for In-Vehicle Visual Aids BIBAFull-Text 1492-1496
  Manuel Meza; Patrick Patterson; Hidetoshi Nakayasu
Technology has provided drivers with in-vehicle information systems (INVIS) that can make driving more pleasurable but at the same time more complex in sharing visual attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the useful field of view (UFOV) as a tool for developing driver visual attention and visual processing aids by automobile and INVIS designers. We expressed UFOV as a function of saccadic amplitude between fixation points and durations and evaluated it across different driving scenarios and age groups. Our results suggest that UFOV radius depends on driving scenario, time of event, and age, with two-factor and three-factor interactions among these variables. Based on these results suggestions are made that will aid designers in developing better in-vehicle information systems -- scenario information that may otherwise be missed by older drivers.
A Multi-model Aid for Interface Design (MAID): Helping Designers Reason about Information Match BIBAFull-Text 1497-1501
  Christopher A. Miller; Peggy Wu; Eric Engstrom; Jeff Rye; Kimberly Ferguson-Walter; Debra Schreckenghost
We previously developed a core representation for describing the information a human needs to perform a task and the information provided by a user interface. This representation is highly abstract and is based on information theoretic properties, thus it can be applied to a wide variety of work domains and information and display types. Since information need and information conveyed are described in the same numerical scales, it is straightforward to compute a degree of match between them. In prior work, we used this capability to dynamically and automatically reconfigure cockpit displays for military cockpits. In recent work, however, we adapted this approach to the task of evaluating and critiquing display format designs to support procedure execution in the context of NASA's space operations. The representation and reasoning approach generalizes well to describing information types in procedural domains. The resulting tool can be used to (a) analyze a proposed display format for a given task, (b) propose a format for a given task, (c) project how changes to a procedure will affect the suitability of a previous format, and (d) project how changes to a format will improve or reduce its suitability for a given procedure.
User-Centered Generation of New Product Concepts: A Case Study Of Human Factors and Industrial Design Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1502-1506
  Stanley Caplan
This paper describes a non-traditional user-centered approach for developing the first concepts for a consumer product having a new technology not yet seen in the marketplace at the time of the study. The method facilitates significant user contributions to the generation of compelling concepts by engaging them in both graphically and physically visualizing and communicating their perceptions. A Human Factors Engineer and an Industrial Designer collaborated to apply the method for the purpose of ultimately developing usability and appearance models for the new product. Interviewing and real-time sketching were used to translate users' ideas to graphical form. In addition, the children's game, Mr. Potato Head, was adapted to allow users to physically build concepts. Twelve participants were engaged in the study and the result was a diverse set of candidate concepts for the product. Although the study met our objectives, learnings are discussed that could enhance future deployment of the method.
Integrating Creativity in IT Product and Service Development Into Ergonomic Design Practices BIBAFull-Text 1507-1511
  Liang Zeng; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
It is creativity that ultimately triggers innovations and their commercial success in information technology products and services. Previous research in ergonomic design considers only issues regarding functionality, safety, usability, and affectivity. We first propose a conceptual framework for ergonomic design that highlights the central role of creativity in achieving synergy of the four preceding design dimensions. Then, a conceptual model of the creative design process for IT products and services is proposed based on the literature in creative cognition and engineering design. The discussion provides insights into how to increase creativity and profitability of IT products and services.
Development of a Quantitative and Comprehensive Usability Evaluation System Based on User Needs BIBAFull-Text 1512-1516
  Wonsup Lee; Kihyo Jung; Jangwoon Park; Sujin Kim; Sunghye Yoon; Moonsung Kim; Heecheon You
The development of a user-centered product design is important to satisfy customers who want to use a product with ease of use and to keep the manufacturer competitive in the market. The present study developed a system to analyze and evaluate the usability of a product in a systematic and comprehensive manner based on user needs. The usability system was developed through five phases (product-user interface analysis, user needs collection, user-needs hierarchy development, user-needs importance survey, and usability evaluation system development) including various analysis topics in each phase. The system developed through the five-phase process was effectively applied to usability evaluation on refrigerator. The developed usability evaluation system would contribute to developing user-centered designs by providing comprehensive information on the usability of a product.
Practical Tips for Designing a Usability Evaluation Environment: What Equipment and Software Do You Really Need? BIBAFull-Text 1517-1521
  Miranda Capra; Terence Andre; Jeff Brandt; Ian Collingwood; Joy Kempic
Usability evaluation environments are used for many purposes from testing products or software, to education and training sessions, to holding interviews or focus groups. "Labs" vary from sophisticated setups with ceiling-mounted cameras, one-way mirrors, and observation rooms, to lightweight cameras connected to a notebook computer. Our panelists come from many different backgrounds, both corporate and consulting. We will discuss hot topics in the creation of both standing labs (permanent installations) and portable setups, such as: what is the minimum needed to get started? Do you really need a standing lab? A one-way mirror? Is video necessary or is screen capture enough? Is audio enough? Do you need data logging software? Please join us if you are about to create your first usability setup, if you are considering building a standing lab, or if you have a usability setup and are choosing upgrades or renovations. Panelists will take 30 minutes to introduce themselves, and for the next 45 minutes we will take both questions and advice from the audience.
Gathering User Feedback from Internal Sources to Supplement Formal Usability Studies BIBAFull-Text 1522-1526
  Jeffrey J. Smith; Daniel P. Kelaher; David T. Windell
Formal usability testing is an established method for capturing critical information about how users interact with products. However, summative and aggregate user and client feedback can be gathered from other internal sources to supplement formal user observations. By acquiring perceptions from other teams within an organization, a human factors professional can not only economically capitalize on existing knowledge related to user and client pain points, but also create advocates for high-quality user experiences. Mutual benefits for interacting with various teams and methods for initiating usability-related dialogues are introduced.
Inclusive Indoor Play: Children at Play BIBAFull-Text 1527-1531
  Sarah Endicott; Gourab Kar; Abir Mullick
The purpose of this study was to learn from children about important aspects of play. Researchers observed how children with and without disabilities interacted with a variety of playthings in a full-scale play environment. Five play aspects were identified and analyzed. Results suggest there is a correlation between independence in play, level of assistance needed, and effort required to play. Children's observations regarding the level of difficulty and fun playing with different playthings were used to determine plaything components that contribute to inclusive indoor play.
Inclusive Indoor Play Using Children's Drawings and Narratives to Gain an Understanding of Children's Indoor Play Preferences BIBAFull-Text 1532-1536
  Marisa Topping; Wooyoung Sung; Abir Mullick
This study intended to learn from children their preferences for indoor play activities. Children with and without disabilities drew pictures of play and verbally narrated them. Analysis revealed variations in play preferences by children with and without disabilities, male and female children, as well as younger (4-6 year old) and older (7-8 year old) children. These differences point to the play needs that must be met in an inclusive indoor play environment.
Inclusive Indoor Play: Play and Playthings BIBAFull-Text 1537-1540
  Abir Mullick; R. L. Grubbs
Unlike outdoor playgrounds, indoor play environments are made up of playthings that are larger than toys and smaller than playground equipment. These playthings, due to their focus on able-bodied children, are vastly underutilized as tools for social education. In the absence of inclusive playthings, children with disabilities are unable to fully participate in play which can lead to developmental delays. Known as Inclusive Indoor Play, the study intended to learn about the needs of indoor play for children with and without disabilities in order to design universal playthings that can benefit all children. This research study is divided into four different phases: Play typology; Focus group interviews; Children's drawings; and Play study. This paper summarizes the results from the focus groups interviews and offers information about play, indoor play, and inclusive indoor play and a comprehensive list of design criteria for inclusive playthings.
Emotrace: Tracing Emotions through Human-System Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1541-1545
  Danielle Lottridge; Mark Chignell
Emotional reactions are a key part of user experience. This research examines capture of continuous, quantitative, affective self-reports as a complement to existing methods of evaluating human-system or product interaction. Emotrace is a novel method of measuring emotional responses on the two dimensions of valence and arousal. A pilot study was conducted to inform the design of three emotrace prototypes. This was followed by an experiment where 12 participants watched short videos to elicit emotions, with four self-report conditions (one-slider, two-slider, a touchscreen and no reporting) and physiological capture (heart rate variability and skin conductance). The tools were found to be valid, as ratings reflected the emotion content of the videos. The sliders were found to be more reliable when compared to the touchscreen. We conclude with preliminary recommendations concerning the use of emotrace measurement of emotional user experience to complement current methods of user-interaction evaluation.

SAFETY

Panel: Human Factors in Weapons Safety BIBAFull-Text 1546-1548
  Valerie Rice; Don Headley
This panel will address the concept of Human Factors practice within the field of weapons safety and firearm use. Panelists will present some of their experiences in applying human factors information during expert witnessing, examining training, and discovering the facts during difficult cases. Panel members will discuss some of the problems, as well as solutions, for safe firearm use including training, labeling, weapon design, and storage from the prospective of the recreational shooter and the military. In addition, research data on weapon use and categorization of shootings will be presented and described.
One-handed pull strength capacity for the male population BIBAFull-Text 1549-1553
  Jia-Hua Lin; Raymond W. McGorry; Wayne Maynard
Bilateral manual materials handling tasks, such as lifting, pushing, and pulling, have been well studied in their physiological, biomechanical, psychophysical, and epidemiological aspects. Although this form of exertion is common in many industries and tasks, the basic capacity of one-handed pulling tasks is not well known. A strength test protocol was administered to collect isometric one-handed pulling strength at four handle heights and three pulling directions. Twenty-six male participants in five age groups showed that pulling from the side of the body resulted in the greatest strength. As the handle height increased from 61 cm above the floor to above the shoulder, the pulling strength decreased. This dataset lends occupational safety and ergonomics professionals the knowledge of the strength capacity of a population similar to our study sample.
How Much Can a Person Really Lift? Tailoring Lifting Guidelines for Specific Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1554-1558
  Michael A. Rodriguez
How much can a person lift? Human factors/ergonomics experts get this question all the time and we all know there is no easy answer. Unfortunately, many companies are forced to use an all-encompassing lifting limit that is safe for all people in all situations. Since a general lifting limit does not take into account any of the relative specific variables it will almost certainly be overly restrictive for any specific application. At InfoPrint the corporate lifting limits were unnecessarily restrictive for the specific task of lifting network printers which created inefficiencies in the development process. Therefore, a set of more specific corporate lifting guidelines for printers were developed for workgroup laser printers which streamlined the printer development and approval process.
Usage Factors Affecting Backpack Use and Pain Reports in Adolescent Students BIBAFull-Text 1559-1563
  Kenneth Nemire
Most children and teens carry backpacks that weigh more than 10% or 15% of their body weight, putting their safety and health at risk. The present study was conducted to examine backpack usage factors that may influence the risk of carrying a heavy backpack: effects of carrying school bags on one shoulder or two, and relationship between body-mass index (BMI) and reports of pain resulting from carrying heavy school bags. In addition, usage of shoulder bags was examined. 223 male and female students, aged 12-17, from a combined junior high and high school participated. Results showed that carrying a backpack on both shoulders resulted in fewer reports of pain and discomfort only when the backpack exceeded 15% body weight; younger students carried proportionately heavier backpacks than older students and reported more pain as a result of carrying a heavy backpack; and carrying shoulder bags resulted in more reports of pain, even though they did not exceed 15% of body weight. While students with low BMI reported less pain from carrying a backpack than students with high BMI, the difference was not statistically different. Results are discussed in terms of potential interventions and future research directions.
Moderate Intermittent Hypoxia: Effect on Two-Choice Reaction Time Followed by a Significant Delay in Recovery BIBAFull-Text 1564-1568
  Jeffrey B. Phillips; Rita G. Simmons; John P. Florian; Dain S. Horning; Renee A. Lojewski; Joseph Chandler
Hypoxia continues to be a significant source of peril in military aviation. Over three dozen hypoxia-related incidents were reported in the past decade with three resulting in fatalities (Clark & Megown, 2005; Ostrander, 2008). Previous work has addressed loss of consciousness resulting from extreme levels of hypoxia (Carlyle, 1963); however, most mishaps are related to moderate hypoxia exposure. More work is required to establish the cognitive effects of moderate hypoxia and the time required, post-exposure, to fully recover. The present study examined the effect of a ten minute exposure to an air mixture equivalent to 20,000 fton two-choice reaction time. Carry-over effects were assessed over a ten minute recovery period. Hypoxia exposure resulted in significant delays in two-choice reaction time. Significant carry-over effects continued to be detected throughout the recovery period. This information is essential to military aviation, where high levels of cognitive performance are required after moderate hypoxia exposure.
e-CRM: The Advantages and Challenges of Computer-Based Pilot Safety Training BIBAFull-Text 1569-1573
  Suzanne K. Kearns
Crew Resource Management (CRM) training is widely accepted as important pilot safety training throughout the aviation industry. However, the delivery of annual CRM training represents a significant expense to aviation companies. Although computer-based delivery of CRM is rare, this approach is associated with several advantages over traditional classroom instruction. These advantages include cost-efficiency, geographic and temporal flexibility, content standardization, interactivity, feedback and adaptive instruction and testing. There are also challenges that must be overcome before e-CRM can be adopted, including how to incorporate effective team training and practice within an online environment. The integration of low-fidelity flight simulator scenarios may ameliorate these issues. Overall, e-CRM has the potential to allow organizations to revamp the traditional delivery, exercises and content of CRM training to reflect modern instructional design practices that maximize learning potential and may improve the safety of aviation.
Considering Trends among Industrial Accidents: A Preliminary Meta Analysis of HFACS Causal Factors across Industries BIBAFull-Text 1574-1578
  Katherine A. Berry; Paris F. Stringfellow; Scott A. Shappell
This study investigated human error across a variety of industry types utilizing the Human Factors Classification and Analysis System (HFACS). One of the goals of the present study was to determine any similarities or disparities across industry type in regards to HFACS causal categories. Seven data sources represented five different industry types were collected and analyzed for percentage of cases associated with a causal factor at each HFACS causal category. Skill-based errors were found to dominate the unsafe acts tier regardless of industry type. Different statistical methods for determining population differences yielded conflicting results. Significant differences were found among certain data source pairings when the traditional two-proportion z-test was applied; however, the differences were found to be non-significant when the false discovery rate method was applied.
Living HRA: Building New Communities of Practice for Proactive Safety Management BIBAFull-Text 1579-1583
  Michael Hildebrandt; Johanna Oxstrand; Ronald L. Boring
In order to improve human reliability assessment (HRA) methods, we need to understand the role of HRA in a safety assessment process as applied in the industry today. The traditional focus on HRA as provider of human error probability numbers for probabilistic risk assessment obscures the diversity of HRA users and uses that can be identified when HRA is analyzed in its organizational context. Once such an organizational perspective is adopted, opportunities for new communities of practice emerge, linking HRA with other human factors and safety-related activities (event review, training, design etc) into a continuous safety management / safety monitoring process. This paper presents results from an interview study at a nuclear power plant in Europe. It documents current practices, constraints and problems in the application of HRA. It also identifies opportunities for improved use of plant-specific operational information and makes suggestions on how other practitioners at the plant can capitalize on the results, knowledge and experience of HRA analysts. Implications for the development of second-generation HRA methods are discussed.
Human Reliability Analysis for Control Room Upgrades BIBAFull-Text 1584-1588
  Ronald Laurids Boring; Johanna Oxstrand; Michael Hildebrandt
This paper presents work in progress on a project to develop a process for integrating human reliability analysis (HRA) into the control room design process used in nuclear power plant modernization and upgrade projects. Human factors, human reliability analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and design experts at a Swedish nuclear power plant were interviewed, resulting in six principles for the use of HRA in design. These principles are: (i) early implementation, (ii) tailored methods, (iii) scalable methods, (iv) better use of qualitative information, (v) HRA design criteria, and (vi) better HRA sensitivity to human-machine interface issues. Future efforts will center on adapting HRA techniques to meet these principles and implementing HRA as part of a plant upgrade process.
Reconciling Resilience with Reliability: The Complementary Nature of Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1589-1593
  Ronald Laurids Boring
Resilience engineering has introduced a number of new ideas into safety science, capitalizing on similarities to some safety fields within human factors yet distancing itself from other fields like human reliability analysis (HRA). Resilience engineering highlights important new aspects of safety that should be further considered in HRA and other areas of safety. However, resilience engineering does not represent a paradigm shift away from HRA. As this paper will demonstrate, to a great extent, concepts explored by resilience engineering are already covered by HRA. This paper reviews core assumptions of HRA and resilience engineering and then presents a discussion of: (i) three ways in which HRA can fortify the emerging field of resilience engineering and (ii) two ways in which resilience engineering can infuse important new concepts into HRA. This paper argues that in order to achieve this mutual benefit, it is important to reconcile the two fields.
The Use of Hazard and Precautionary Symbols on GHS Safety Data Sheets BIBAFull-Text 1594-1597
  Eric J. Boelhouwer; Adam K. Piper; Jerry Davis
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has not been adopted by OSHA, but it has the potential to impact the format of every safety data sheet (SDS) used in commerce today. This preliminary investigation attempts to investigate the impact of the use of hazard and precautionary symbols on SDS. Participants were able to refer to a SDS, either with or without hazard and precautionary symbols depending on the trial, to assist them in completing an on-line questionnaire. The presence of the precautionary symbols was significant for one pair of SDS, but there were no significant differences found between questionnaire scores for SDS with hazard symbols and SDS with no symbols or the other pair of SDS with precautionary symbols. The participants correctly responded to an average of 72% of the material on the survey. Participants self-reported they referred to the SDS 66% of the time to respond to seven yes/no questions.
Comprehension of Warning Symbols by Younger and Older Adults: Effects of Visual Degradation BIBAFull-Text 1598-1602
  Daniel J. Shorr; Neta Ezer; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of visual degradation on warning symbol comprehension across warning symbol types and age groups. Twenty-seven black and white ANSI symbols of four different types (prohibition, course of action, information, and hazard symbols) were presented to older (N = 21, M = 73.1) and younger adults (N = 20, M = 21.4) via computer at three degradation levels (0%, 30%, 40% of pixels inverted); accuracy and response time in answering yes-no questions about the symbols were recorded. Younger adults were more accurate and faster overall than older adults (p < .01). Regarding degradation, 0% and 30% inverted symbols did not significantly differ in comprehension (p ≥ .25), but both were comprehended better than 40% inverted symbols (p < .01); no interactions were observed. For degraded warning symbols, results suggest symbols must be substantially degraded to affect base comprehensibility, and age differences exist. These data have practical implications for warnings in environments susceptible to degradation.
On warning symbols, text, and 'getting it right': The iterative refinement of a teratogenic pharmaceutical label BIBAFull-Text 1603-1607
  Richard C. Goldsworthy; Christopher B. Mayhorn
Several birth defects warning symbols identified as most successful in an earlier study (Mayhorn & Goldsworthy, 2007) were further modified and then evaluated within a nationally distributed field trial (n = 2773). A total of 11 warning labels were examined: 4 new symbols plus the existing baseline symbol, each in versions with and without text, plus a text-only condition. Participant interpretation accuracy and preferences were assessed. For symbol-only conditions, several candidate symbols outperformed the existing symbol, one substantially so. The effect of adding text to symbols varied significantly by symbol. Symbol+text and text-only conditions performed equivalently, generally exceeded symbol-only conditions, and often surpassed the ANSI benchmark of 85% accurate interpretation. Implications are drawn from the process and outcomes in relation to warning design, warning evaluation, and future research.
Borrowing prescription medication: Implications for healthcare warnings and communications BIBAFull-Text 1608-1611
  Christopher B. Mayhorn; Richard C. Goldsworthy
Objective. To determine whether prescription medication sharing, a common healthcare consumer behavior, leads to adverse outcomes, including inappropriate usage, delayed care, suboptimal patient-provider relationships, and exposure to side effects. Methods. Prevalence of medication loaning and borrowing and associated behaviors and consequences were assessed through one-on-one public approach surveys among 2773 individuals. Results. Borrowers are frequently bypassing instructions and warnings, are avoiding or delaying seeking care from health professionals, are not communicating their borrowing to their healthcare provider, and are experiencing allergic reactions or side effects when they borrow prescription medications. Conclusion. These results represent the first extensive assessment of prevalence of risk and risky behaviors associated with prescription medication borrowing and demonstrate that such borrowing affects patients' health and their healthcare experience. Efforts to increase awareness and mitigate risk appear merited.
Habituation, Dishabituation, and Recovery Effects in Visual Warnings BIBAFull-Text 1612-1616
  Soyun Kim; Michael S. Wogalter
Decrement of visual attention to repeatedly exposed warning labels and signs has been discussed in the warning literature without much empirical research support. The present research examined whether habituation, dishabituation, and recovery of habituation occur to visually presented warnings. Participants (N=72) were presented to a long sequence of repeated visual warnings (40 warnings presented 8 times = 320 initial trials) in a particular format (ANSI or OSHA type formats), followed by 5 warnings manipulated either in the same or different format. Five more warnings in same format as in the initial trials were presented to end the sequence. Measured were participants' ratings of perceived alertness to each warning. Findings showed a decrease in ratings from beginning to end of the initial 320 trials, indicative of habituation. Dishabituation was observed with higher ratings when the warning format changed. Evidence of habituation recovery of lowered ratings was observed upon return to the previously habituated (initial trials) format after a set of different formatted warnings. Implications for formalized standards and guidelines, which recommend an unchanging, relatively constant format, are discussed.
Vehicle Backup Alarm Localization (or Not): Effects of Passive and Electronic Hearing Protectors, Ambient Noise Level, and Backup Alarm Spectral Content BIBAFull-Text 1617-1621
  John G. Casali; Khaled Alali
A parametric human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal in 360-degrees azimuth. Measures of localization performance included: 1) percentage correct localization, 2) percentage left/right localization errors, 3) percentage front/rear localization errors, and 4) the absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm's location. In summary, the data demonstrated that normal hearing listeners did not improve in their ability to localize the backup alarm warning signal in 360-degrees azimuth when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs), as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Furthermore, a diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization. Localization was also degraded in 90 dBA pink noise, as compared to the relatively quiet condition of 60 dBA pink noise. An augmented backup alarm which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components to exploit the benefits of interaural phase and intensity cues slightly improved localization compared to the standard, more narrow-bandwidth backup alarm, and these results have implications for the updating of backup alarm standards.
Evaluation of Work Positions used by Continuous Miner Operators in Underground Coal Mines BIBAFull-Text 1622-1626
  J. R. Bartels; C. C. Jobes; J. P. DuCarme; T. J. Lutz
Operation of underground coal mine mobile equipment is usually done in a restricted workspace with reduced visibility. This work environment puts machine operators in awkward postures for tasks that require awareness of their surroundings and fast reactions to avoid hazardous situations. Using experienced equipment operators as a source, researchers conducted an investigation that developed a method to gather data on the needs and practices of machine operators while controlling the machine and the reasons for needing particular operational cues. The method used was an interview technique including a survey questionnaire and visual aids. The data gathered defined operator cues and work positions for the cutting and tramming phases of remote controlled continuous mining machines used in underground coal mines. Analysis techniques to determine which cues an operator sees from a variety of positions utilizing a computer simulation is shown to be potentially useful to the mining industry for design of work practices and workplace layout and could impact equipment design and selection for improved worker safety. Conclusions indicate that the survey was a good research tool to collect data and helped investigators understand important visual cues. Using this information, researchers were able to analyze the visual cues an operator can see from a given work position and posture.
Perceptions of Stability Upon Standing from Working Postures Used in the Construction Industry BIBAFull-Text 1627-1631
  Angela DiDomenico; Raymond W. McGorry
Falls on the same level or from heights are a significant cause of injuries and fatalities among the American workforce, particularly within the construction industry. Instability upon standing may be a contributing factor for many fall-related injuries and fatalities. This study explored self-reports of postural stability upon standing after maintaining static postures for varying durations. Thirty-three male participants completed three replications of the conditions created by four postures and three durations within posture for a total of 36 conditions. The results indicated that the working posture used to complete a task significantly affected postural stability upon standing (ANOVA, α=0.05), although individuals were not able to distinguish these changes. Postural stability ratings were affected more by the duration within posture (p=0.001). Small correlation values between the subjective ratings and the objective COP-based measures substantiated the finding that individuals were not sensitive to the changes in postural sway measures caused by the differing postures and may not be fully aware of the risk to balance encountered during transitions. Findings may lead to recommendations for redesign of tasks or tools to reduce the use of certain working postures (e.g. kneeling), particularly in high-risk environments such as construction.
Fall Protection Training: Needs Analysis for Small Residential Roofing Subcontractors BIBAFull-Text 1632-1636
  Yu-Hsiu Hung; Woodrow Winchester; Tonya Smith-Jackson; Thomas Mills; Brian Kleiner; Kari Babski-Reeves
Falls remain the leading cause of injuries and fatalities in residential construction. Because of job-specific work conditions and environmental constraints, the various construction trades (e.g., roofing, siding, or framing) employ different safety standards and fall-protection training practices. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore the specific training needs and training preferences of small roofing subcontractors. A total of 20 roofing subcontractors participated in this study. A mixed methods approach, incorporating a survey and semi-structured interviews, was utilized. Results from this study revealed that his or her role on the jobsite) and the existing training methods were accurate predictors of preferred training methods. This study also suggests the need for improved fall hazard awareness among roofing workers via training. Context-relevant methods and workers' preferred physical forms in receiving training were identified and found to be most effective for safety training and learning in the workplace.

SPECIAL SESSION

Bi-modal Aircraft Cockpit User Interface of the TABI/A BIBAFull-Text 1637-1641
  Shane D. Pinder; T. Claire Davies
Transport regulators are examining the feasibility of requiring the adoption of takeoff performance monitoring systems in certain circumstances. Recent advances in the development of aircraft landing and takeoff performance monitoring systems have shown the feasibility of a cockpit instrument that could aid significantly in the decision making process during the most critical phases of flight, provided that the information can be effectively visualized. The design and construction of a cockpit interface to communicate the information in a timely and efficient manner has now been completed. The resulting Thrust and Braking Indicator/Advisor (TABI/A) integrates a visual display with audible advice.
The Predictive Performance Optimizer: An Adaptive Analysis Cognitive Tool for Performance Prediction BIBAFull-Text 1642-1646
  Tiffany S. Jastrzembski; Kevin A. Gluck; Stuart Rodgers
The overarching goal of our research is to translate basic cognitive science into an applied, state-of-the-art cognitive tool. We have developed the Predictive Performance Optimizer (PPO) to provide teachers, trainers, and learners of all types with a new generation of adaptive training assistance, which seeks to capture and dynamically assess performance effectiveness, accurately predict future performance, and prescribe the scheduling of training events to enhance learning stability and maximize retention. This software tool functions according to an underlying mathematical model we have proposed (Jastrzembski, Gluck, & Gunzelmann, 2006), matured, and made more robust through careful validation across a variety of domains and contexts -- scaling from laboratory experimental data available from the psychological literature to increasingly complex and militarily relevant team and pilot data measured from the F-16 simulator research in Mesa's Distributed Missions Operations testbed (Schreiber & Bennett, 2006). The predictive model captures learning signatures and mathematical regularities from the human memory system through calibration of learning and decay parameters using historical performance data, and then extrapolates those unique learning signatures to make predictions of performance at later dates in time, and across future potential regimen pathways. Of critical importance, the model explicitly accounts for the effects of temporal distribution of training on learning -- a well-documented phenomenon known as the spacing effect -- which reveals that given two training regimens of equal length and equal amounts of training opportunities, learning is more stable when practice events are spaced further apart in time. Incorporation of this effect allows PPO to generate precise, quantitative measures of retention stability as a function of how training events are spaced. Additional PPO capabilities allow users to immediately and dynamically assess how well projected regimens will meet performance effectiveness goals, stay within projected training budgets, and allow for maximum learning stability at distant points in time.
AUDEO: Audification of Ultrasound for the Detection of Environmental Obstacles BIBAFull-Text 1647-1651
  Shane D. Pinder; T. Claire Davies
Individuals with functional blindness must often use assistive aids to enable effective locomotion. To date, such devices do not provide effective information about obstacles above waist height, or are too cumbersome to have gained widespread adoption. This paper presents the development of a device that provides a user with pronounced Doppler echoes obtained by direct down-conversion of ultrasound. This system provides acoustic flow that is evident upon initiation of travel and can be used to visualise the environment and detect environmental obstacles. The prototype version was human-tested for localisation, distance estimation, and aperture passage. From this initial study, a refined, compact system has been developed that is currently undergoing testing.
A Demonstration of a Dry/No Preparation Electrode System for EEG BIBAFull-Text 1652-1653
  James C. Christensen; Justin R. Estepp; Glenn F. Wilson; Iris M. Davis
Psychophysiological assessment using electroencephalography (EEG) has previously been demonstrated to be an effective method for objectively assessing a variety of human factors-relevant states, such as mental workload and fatigue, as well as providing a mechanism for brain-computer interfaces. Wider adoption of EEG methods has been hampered by the extensive preparation and care that must be taken in order to ensure good signal quality. This demonstration will exhibit a new EEG system that is capable of recording data with no preparation, can be worn for long periods of time, and is reasonably robust in mobile environments. While still in development, this system has the potential to enable objective assessment of cognitive state in a wide variety of human factors applications.
SANLab-CM The Stochastic Activity Network Laboratory for Cognitive Modeling BIBAFull-Text 1654-1658
  Evan W. Patton; Wayne D. Gray; Michael J. Schoelles
SANLab-CM is an activity network tool for the stochastic modeling of routine interactive behavior. Within the cognitive engineering community the best-known examples of activity networking modeling are the CPM-GOMS models of Project Ernestine (Gray, John, & Atwood, 1993). Project Ernestine showed that modeling the parallel use of cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources within an activity network formalism produces reliable and accurate predictions of expert performance times across alternative designs for the same task. SANLab-CM provides time predictions, but its essence is the prediction of procedural variability amidst strategic constancy: when expert human performers follow the same task strategy from trial to trial variability in the processing time of cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources is such as to produce different critical paths of performance and significantly different execution times. The stochastic component of SANLab-CM goes beyond current techniques to create a new means of assessing alternative designs based on the procedural variability expected in expert performance.

STUDENT FORUM

Toward a Stable Career in an Unstable Job Market BIBAFull-Text 1659-1663
  Ronald G. Shapiro; Anthony D. Andre; Robert M. Schumacher; David T. Windell; Courtney I. Schur
Welcome to the Sixteenth Annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Student Career Panel. While our typical career panel emphasizes what one should do to prepare for a career in a "typical" year, 2009 is anything but typical. The economy is changing every day and so too is the job market for Human Factors (HF)/Ergonomics (E) graduates. About the only certainty is that the economy and associated job market will likely change from month to month over the course of the year. Thus, our panelists have chosen the theme "Toward a Stable Career in an Unstable Job Market" for our 2009 panel. We solicited questions for this paper from the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) student members. The California State University Northridge Student Chapter members then selected the best six questions for the panel to address in this paper. Many of the recommendations in this paper are tried and tested techniques, which should apply well even in this unstable environment. Some are new ideas, which the professionals on our panel deem especially appropriate today. At the annual meeting panel discussion, panelists will provide a brief introduction and then entertain questions from the audience regarding career preparation in today's environment. A subsequent paper will be published on the HFES website summarizing the panel discussion.
Supporting Anesthetic Monitoring through Tactile Display of Physiological Parameters BIBAFull-Text 1664-1668
  Thomas Ferris; Nadine Sarter
Breakdowns in anesthetic monitoring are a frequent contributor to critical incidents in the Operating Room (OR). They can be attributed to a lack of effective attention guidance when traditional visual and auditory display methods are used to present patient physiological data. The current experiment therefore examines the effectiveness of tactile displays to better support anesthetic monitoring. Participants played the role of anesthesiologist in a desktop simulation of an OR environment. They were responsible for completing a visually-demanding intubation task while concurrently monitoring and managing a set of physiological parameters which were displayed using traditional methods. Three tactile display designs redundantly communicated the state and dynamics of one critical physiological parameter, blood pressure. Initial results show improved performance on the intubation and monitoring tasks for all tactile display conditions when compared to conditions with visual and auditory displays only. The most effective tactile patterns communicated both current state and trend information for blood pressure. The findings from this study can be applied to the design of tactile displays for monitoring tasks not only in the OR but in other complex, data-rich environments, such as aviation or process control.
Prospective Memory in the Nursing Environment: Effects of Type of Prospective Task and Prospective Load BIBAFull-Text 1669-1673
  Nicole Fink; Richard Pak; Dina Battisto
A nurse's working environment may place high demands on both event-based and time-based prospective memory (PM), leading to forgetting. In the field of nursing, forgetting can have serious consequences and put a patient's life in danger. To better understand the role of prospective load (quantity of PM tasks in memory) in nursing, the current study will examine the effects of type of PM task being performed (event-based or time-based) and quantity of PM tasks (n = 1 or 4) on performance of an ongoing task and PM task(s). A novel paradigm will be used to capture naturalistic elements of the nursing environment. Forty registered nurses will complete a representative documentation task in a full-scale mock-up patient room, while also remembering to perform 1 or 4, event-based or time-based PM task(s). Results from this study can be used to further the literature on prospective load, explain possible causes of nursing error, and inform the design of memory technology aides.
Examining Non-Critical Health Information Seeking: A Needs Analysis for Personal Health Records BIBAFull-Text 1674-1678
  Margaux M. Price; Richard Pak; Hendrik Muller; Aideen Stronge; Jesse Breedlove
Keeping track of health information may be burdensome for older adults who may be more likely to have health concerns and questions than other age groups. The management of their health information may be aided by web-based health information management tools (e.g., personal health records). However, it is currently not known what kinds of health information potential users seek and need or want to manage. The current study examined the health information needs of both older and younger adults, to better understand how e-health technology can aid health information management. Seventeen younger and twenty-four older adults kept a health diary for a two-week period, making one entry for each health concern or question they had and how they solved it.
The Influence of Strong Recommendations, Good Incident Reports and a Monitoring System over an Incident Investigation System for Healthcare Facilities BIBAFull-Text 1679-1683
  P. P. Morita; C. M. Burns; S. J. Calil
Different industry sectors have developed numerous tools for risk management, from simple risk assessments to more complex tools like Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and incident investigation methodologies. Although the healthcare sector deals with a highly risky environment, little has been done in the risk management area if compared to other Industries and service providers with the same level of inherent risk. To overcome these deficiencies, some methodologies have been created to fill the existing gaps in healthcare facilities. One of these tools is the incident investigation and as with any risk management tool, it is highly dependent on the way its results are communicated to the institution's administration and employees. Another shaping factor of the success of the recommendations from an incident investigation process is the follow-up applied after the recommendations are put in place. Even strong systems can fail by not giving appropriate attention for human factors on the design and implementation of recommendations, reports and follow-up procedures. This paper will discuss the importance of the development of strong recommendations after an incident investigation; a specifically designed incident investigation report, appropriate to the characteristics and mission of the institution; as well as the necessary follow-up system for the verification and control of the presented recommendations. Factors like the institution support, employee involvement, strong recommendations and adequate follow-up on the recommendations must be taken into consideration in order to obtain good safety results after an incident investigation.
The effect of Interface Consistency and Cognitive Load on user performance in an information search task BIBAFull-Text 1684-1688
  Jeremy Mendel; Richard Pak
Although interface consistency is theorized to increase performance and user satisfaction, previous research has found mixed and often non-significant results. By controlling for the level of task difficulty, specifically the cognitive load, it is hoped that the study will explain the contradictory findings of past research. Eighty participants will be used in a 2x2x2 between-subjects factorial design. The study will manipulate the level of interface consistency, along with intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load imposed by the task. Objective performance measures of task completion time and error-rate along with the subjective measure of user satisfaction will be analyzed. It is expected that the high interface consistency condition will perform better than low interface consistency; in contrast, it is predicted that the low cognitive load condition will outperform the high cognitive load condition. Furthermore, it is predicted that the effect of consistency and cognitive load will interact causing the lack of interface consistency to be significantly more detrimental when paired with a high level of either form of cognitive load.
Bar Graphs and Small Screens: Mitigating Cognitive Load in Mobile Visualizations BIBAFull-Text 1689-1693
  Mary G. Luong; Anne Collins McLaughlin
The literature separately addresses issues related to mobile visualization techniques (Chae & Kim, 2004; Chittaro, 2006; Chittaro & Camaggio, 2002; Gutwin & Fedak, 2004) and visuospatial working memory demand (Baddeley & Hitch, 1994; Huang et al., 2006; Plumlee & Ware, 2006; Lecerf & de Ribaupierre, 2005). The current study investigated the effect of zooming on graph-reading performance under lower and higher cognitive loads, finding that a visualization that reduced working memory demands both stabilized performance under different task load conditions and reduced error. We propose a theory of mobile visualization that capitalizes on a reduction in working memory demand to reduce errors in performance.
Context-Sensitive Information Presentation: Integrating Adaptive and Adaptable Approaches to Display Design BIBAFull-Text 1694-1698
  Shameem Hameed; Nadine Sarter
Operators in many complex event-driven domains face the challenge of data overload. Two major contributors to this problem are over-reliance in display design on one sensory channel (vision in most domains) and the fact that the presentation of data and information does not vary to account for changing task contexts and operator states. These problems call for the introduction of context-sensitive multimodal displays. There is a substantial and growing body of research on multisensory information processing and presentation. However, little guidance is available for the design of flexible displays that take context into consideration. Two important research questions are: 1) who should be in control of the adaptation of information presentation -- the user or the system, or perhaps both? -- and b) what factors should drive display adaptation? This article will review two approaches to context-sensitive display design: adaptive and adaptable. The benefits and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed, and a recently developed hybrid adaptive-adaptable multimodal interface will be described. To our knowledge, this is the first display design that combines both approaches to context-sensitivity and employs a wide range of drivers, ranging from environmental conditions to operator states and performance.
Feedback Specificity Requirements for Learning in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Resources and Task Demand BIBAFull-Text 1699-1703
  Christopher M. Kelley; Anne Collins McLaughlin
The amount of feedback needed to learn a new task has long been debated (cf. Schmidt & Bjork, 1992; Van Merrienboer & Sweller, 2005). One potential answer to the amount of feedback required is that feedback should be contingent upon the learner's cognitive resources and demands imposed by the task (McLaughlin, Rogers, & Fisk, 2006). To test this model, a study is proposed that accounts for the learner's cognitive resources by comparing samples of populations with known differences, older and younger adults (Horn & Cattell, 1967; Salthouse & Babcock, 1991). To account for task demands, a simple rule-based cue learning task has been created. Participants will be provided with varying levels of feedback specificty while learning the task. We predict younger adults will benefit from less feedback support while older adults benefit from more feedback support. Theoretical and applied contributions are also discussed.
Collaborative Automated Systems: Older Adults' Mental Model Acquisition and Trust in Automation BIBAFull-Text 1704-1708
  Katherine E. Olson; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
Older adults may encounter automated systems in a variety of context such as health care and transportation. Consequently it is important to understand the interactions between system knowledge and reliance. In this ongoing study, we tested 19 older adults on their ability to form an accurate mental model and how they responded to an automated navigation aid that was 70% and 100% reliable. Some older adults were able to form highly accurate mental models and were able to detect when the collaborative automated system was faulty. However, most of the older adults did not form accurate mental models and were likely to inappropriately trust the automation. Training to augment cognition may be helpful for older adults who use collaborative automated systems and have difficulty developing a highly accurate mental model.
Effects of Physical and Mental Demands on Muscle Activity of the Upper Extremity BIBAFull-Text 1709-1713
  Ranjana Mehta; Sarrah Harrop; Michael J. Agnew
Workplace tasks that involve multidimensional demands, such as physical and cognitive workloads, may increase the injury risks posed on workers. To aid in designing ergonomic guidelines for workplace safety, it is thus important to understand the interactive nature of these combined demands. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of said multidimensional demands on the muscles of the upper extremity. Seventeen healthy participants performed isometric upper extremity exertions at five levels of physical intensities (5%, 25%, 45%, 65%, and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) in the presence and absence of a mental task. Mean shoulder muscle activity and co-contraction indices (CCI) of the upper extremity were measured using electromyographic signals. Force fluctuations were measured using a force transducer to evaluate joint steadiness. In general, shoulder muscle activity (mean activity and CCIs) increased with increasing levels of physical exertions. A decrease in mean anterior and posterior deltoid muscle activity and CCI of the shoulder was observed in the presence of the mental task. However, these changes were more prominent at higher levels of physical workload compared to the lower levels. Force fluctuations were lowest at 25% MVC, and highest at 85% MVC. Mental workload significantly increased force fluctuations at 85% MVC, which may have been a result of decreased muscle output to maintain the loads in a steady posture. Overall, results from this study suggest that certain task demands are more susceptible to interference by mental workload than others. It will provide a better understanding of combined exposure levels in occupational settings and serve as a guideline to determine task demands for different occupational settings.
Effects of Posture and Movement on Vibration Transmissibility Affecting Human Reach Performance under Vehicle Vibration BIBAFull-Text 1714-1718
  Heon-Jeong Kim; Bernard J. Martin
Vibration transmissibility to the human body is a function of both vehicle vibration characteristics and postures associated with the performance of movements. The majority of earlier studies investigating upper body vibration transmissibility considered only a static posture excluding dynamic limb movements (Amirouche, 1987; Wei and Griffin, 1998; Rosen and Arcan, 2003; Yoshimura et al, 2005; Liang and Chiang, 2006). A few recent studies reported the effect of vehicle vibration on arm reaching movements through the description of fingertip deviation from a desired trajectory (Rider and Chaffin, 2003, 2004). The present work investigates the variation of vibration transmissibility to upper extremities as a function of dynamic posture changes along the intended reach trajectory. Dynamic reach movements in the direction of targets distributed in the right hemisphere of a vehicle operator are analyzed as a function of vibration characteristics and movement directions. Thirteen subject performed right hand reach movements in various directions to final/end target location as well as intermediate target locations selected along the trajectory of movement performed to the end target. The established database of upper body segments transmissibility is used to develop an active biodynamic human model.
A Reliability Study of Three Functional Mobility Assessment Tools in Fall Risk Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1719-1723
  Xiaoyue Zhang; Thurmon E. Lockhart
Falls accidents are one of the leading causes of older adults' injury death and nonfatal injuries. Numerous functional mobility assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the risk of fall since 1980s but none of them is fully satisfactory or generally accepted. The current study compared a promising method, the Postural-Locomotor-Manual test (PLM), with two commonly used tools, the Berg's balance test (BBT) and the timed Get-up & Go test (GU&G) in terms of their differences between healthy and fall prone groups. The PLM method measures both inherited and required motor skills as well as their coordination, by using a set of inertial measurement units (IMUs) instead of the traditional optoelectronic instruments. Results have shown that PLM parameters assessed by IMUs agreed well with those assessed by the optoelectronic instruments, and more importantly, had significant difference between groups with different fall risk.
Investigation of biomechanical characteristics of older adults: Effects of gender and driving status BIBAFull-Text 1724-1728
  Prakriti Parijat; Courtney Haynes; Thurmon E. Lockhart; Jon Antin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical differences in the ability to generate force between older drivers and non-drivers. The study examined differences in ankle, hip and upper body torque generation between gender and driving groups with respect to driving posture. Twenty-four older adults aged 65 years and older were recruited for participation in this study. Strength and reaction time data were collected using a Biodex Dynamometer. The data was analyzed to report peak torque generation at the ankle, hip, and steering wheel along with peak reaction times and head-neck flexibility. The results indicated a significant decrease in peak torque measurements, and increase in the reaction time in non-drivers as compared to drivers. Gender differences were found in the hip and upper body torque, with females at a lower strength level than males. No significant differences were found between gender and driving status for the head neck flexibility.
Using Eye Movements to Uncover Conflict Detection Strategies BIBAFull-Text 1729-1733
  Aren C. Hunter; Avi Parush
The aim of the current study was to uncover conflict detection strategies in a simplified air traffic control simulation. The primary task in this study was to predict if two aircraft at the same altitude but different speeds on a converging trajectory would collide in the future. While participants made this judgment their eye-movements were recorded. Dwell time indicated that participants fixated longer on the aircraft than they did on the projected collision site. The results of the scanpath analysis indicated that participants were more likely to scan between the two aircraft than any other two interest areas. Results also indicated that the second most prevalent scanpath was between the collision site and the faster aircraft (SWA23). The least likely scanpath was between the collision site and the slower (and closer) aircraft (UAL74). The results suggest that the assimilation of speed and distance information demand more attention than is required for the projection of the collision site.
The Role of Effortful Attention in Effective Spatial Training BIBAFull-Text 1734-1738
  Laura A. Whitlock; Anne Collins McLaughlin
The objective of this study will be to identify the components of a 3-D puzzle game (BlockOut) that influence gain in spatial ability. Training with video games has been shown to improve spatial ability in ways that are both transferable (Terlecki, Newcombe & Little, 2008) and long-lasting (Feng, Spence & Pratt, 2007), but results for different games are mixed. It is hypothesized that one component of games, the need for maximal attention, will influence spatial ability improvement. To test this hypothesis, 24 participants will play BlockOut for 10 hours under either a rotation-only or a maximal attention condition. It is predicted that participants in the attentional-limit condition will show more improvement on a battery of tests than participants in the rotation-only condition. Potential applications include targeted training approaches to improving spatial ability.
Effect of perceptual and cognitive loads on drivers' attention and resistance to distractors BIBAFull-Text 1739-1743
  Pei-Hsiu Tan; Yi-Ching Lee
The negative consequences of performing multiple concurrent tasks while driving were well documented; however, it was unclear how drivers processed pieces of information that were delivered closely in time and their distractibility due to the types of information received. The objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms that mediated drivers' ability to process relevant and ignore irrelevant signals that could be delivered simultaneously. An experiment, using modified Lavie's response-competition paradigm, was to compare drivers' processing of distractors under perceptually-loaded and cognitively-loaded situations. Specifically, higher perceptual load would lead to decreased distractor processing and higher cognitive load would lead to increased distractor processing. The results didn't show the same direction as Lavie's load theory.
Comparing Memory for Handwriting versus Typing BIBAFull-Text 1744-1747
  Timothy J. Smoker; Carrie E. Murphy; Alison K. Rockwell
This is an investigation into the possible links between psychomotor action, in the activities of handwriting, and memory. A comparison of recall and recognition for common words demonstrates that memory is better for words when they have been written down rather than when they are typed. This provides additional support for the hypothesis that the additional context provided by the complex task of writing results in better memory. With the recent trend towards electronic note taking, the educational and practical implications of these findings would suggest that performance may be improved by using traditional paper-and-pen notes.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Video Gamer Advantages in a Cellular Telephone and Driving Task BIBAFull-Text 1748-1752
  Jason A. Telner; David L. Wiesenthal; Ellen Bialystok
Driving while speaking on a cellular telephone is one of today's most controversial and risky dual task situations. Proficient video game players possess superior divided attention ability and were hypothesized to display superior driving performance compared to non-gamers when engaged in these dual tasks. 115 university students were tested following characterization of their video game proficiency. The driving task, was performed using Drivesim 4.00 software, and was presented by itself as well as in combination with a series of verbal tasks simulating a telephone conversation (the dual task situation). The verbal tasks were also tested apart from the simulated driving. Each participant was thus his/her own control so that the effect of driving or performing verbal tasks could be examined separately and in combination with each other. Compared to non-gamers, proficient video game players had fewer crashes and drove more safely in the dual task conditions.
Shifting Eyes and Thinking Hard Keep us in our Lanes BIBAFull-Text 1753-1756
  Joel M. Cooper; Nate Medeiros-Ward; Janelle Seegmiller; David L. Strayer
Previous research suggests that performing a secondary, non-visual task while driving (such as conversing on a hands-free cell phone) may lead to a reduction in lateral vehicle movement. A plausible explanation for this counterintuitive finding involves scanning differences under differing cognitive load. The goal of this study was to dissociate the effects of visual scanning and workload on lateral vehicle control. Eighteen participants drove nine, five minute scenarios in a fixed based driving simulator under varying workload and guided fixation conditions. Consistent with previous finding, increased secondary task load decreased lateral vehicle movement. The active movement of eyes also led to reductions in lateral vehicle movement but only when drivers were concurrently performing one of the secondary tasks. These results suggest that scanning differences under cognitive load cannot fully account for observed reductions in lateral vehicle movement and that multiple interrelated factors likely contribute to lateral vehicle movement.
A comparison of three manual destination entry methods on their impact on visual attention and driving performance: an on-road evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1757-1761
  Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Vincent Lammers; Ying Wang; Joseph F. Coughlin
A comparison under actual driving conditions of 3 manual destination entry techniques (keypad, touch screen, and rotational controller) indicates that visual behavior measures are sensitive for detecting differences that are not apparent in standard driving performance measures when drivers are under low to moderate levels of load.
Effects of Constant and Non-Constant Velocity Motion on Judgments of Collision-Avoidance Action Gap BIBAFull-Text 1762-1765
  Anand Tharanathan
Twenty-five percent of traffic accidents are rear-end collisions. An important factor that may contribute toward such collisions is the collision-avoidance action gap. Prior studies have failed to investigate the factors that affect judgments of collision-avoidance action gap. However, findings from prior research indicate that observers are typically poor in making time-to-contact judgments when a scene depicts non-constant velocity motion compared with constant velocity motion. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate differences in judgments of collision-avoidance action gap during constant and non-constant velocity motion. In addition, the effects of starting headway, viewing condition and gap closure rate on such judgments were studied. Results indicated that judgments of collision-avoidance action gap were relatively poor during non-constant velocity motion compared with constant velocity motion. Also, the pattern of results for viewing condition and gap closure rate were consistent with prior studies on time-to-contact judgments. Implications of the findings for the design of intelligent collision-avoidance warning systems have been discussed.
The Effects of Heavy Drinking and Socio-Economic Status on Driving Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1766-1770
  Guozhen Zhao; Changxu Wu; Rebecca J. Houston; Whitney Creager
Drinking and driving is a primary cause of traffic fatalities and it has been suggested that heavy drinkers comprise a major portion of those drivers involved in drinking and driving accidents. Although several experimental studies have investigated the driving behavior of social drinkers or the general population under the influence of alcohol, few studies have focused on a comparison of driving behavior between heavy and social drinkers. In addition, these studies have not taken other potentially influential factors into account such as socio-economic status. To address this important question in research and practice, a driving simulator study was conducted with a 2x2 factorial design (heavy vs. social drinker; lower vs. higher income). Sixty-four participants were asked to operate a driving simulator following traffic rules. Analyses indicated that within the higher income group, heavy drinkers were likely to have more frequent speeding exceedances and speed for longer time periods than social drinkers. The implications of the current findings in transportation safety and drinking and driving prevention are also discussed.
A Speed Production Methodology for the Assessment of Perceived Egospeed BIBAFull-Text 1771-1775
  Michael E. Rakauskas
Speeding, which is related to both the probability and severity of crashes, often results from drivers underestimating their actual speed. One way to reduce crash risk is to increase the salience of edge rate cues, leading to more accurate perceptions of egospeed which typically result in reduced speeds. The objective of this study was to outline a methodology for assessing perceived egospeed using a speed production task in a driving simulator. Three environmental edge rate conditions were compared while having participants drive at a non-referenced speed, at half of that speed, and then at their original speed once more. The methodology was shown to be an effective way to elicit differences in perceived egospeed and resulting speed performance under different edge rate conditions. Results from this research are expected to assist drivers in making safe speed choices.
An Application of Signal Detection Theory for Understanding Driver Behavior at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings BIBAFull-Text 1776-1780
  Michelle Yeh; Jordan Multer; Thomas Raslear
We used signal detection theory to examine if grade crossing warning devices were effective because they increased drivers' sensitivity to a train's approach or because they encouraged drivers to stop. We estimated d' and β for eight warning devices using 2006 data from the Federal Railroad Administration's Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Accident/Incident database and Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory. We also calculated a measure of warning device effectiveness by comparing the maximum likelihood of an accident at a grade crossing with its observed probability. The 2006 results were compared to an earlier analysis of 1986 data. The collective findings indicate that grade crossing warning devices are effective because they encourage drivers to stop. Warning device effectiveness improved over the years, as drivers behaved more conservatively. Sensitivity also increased. The current model is descriptive, but it provides a framework for understanding driver decision-making at grade crossings and for examining the impact of proposed countermeasures.
Are unskilled drivers aware of their deficiencies? How driving skills influence the accuracy of driving performance estimates BIBAFull-Text 1781-1785
  David G. Kidd; Christopher A. Monk
Numerous studies have shown that drivers are overconfident and have inaccurate perceptions of their driving ability. There is evidence to suggest the skills needed to accurately assess performance are the same as those required to perform a task well. Thus, drivers that perform poorly may also be unable to accurately evaluate their performance (i.e., they suffer a "double curse"). In this study, drivers responded to yellow-light changes while performing a distracting task. Drivers were grouped into quartiles based upon driving performance and drivers' estimated braking performance and intersection safety were compared between quartiles. Evidence of a "double curse" was found for both braking performance and intersection safety. The poorest performing drivers thought they performed as well as the best drivers despite performing significantly worse. Additionally, drivers did not perceive distraction effects in braking performance.
Determining Window Placement and Configuration for the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) BIBAFull-Text 1786-1790
  Shelby Thompson; Harry Litaker; Robert Howard
A natural component to driving any type of vehicle, whether Earth-based or space-based, is visibility. In its simplest form, visibility is a measure of the distance at which an object can be seen. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have human factors guidelines for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) windows, in terms of ergonomics and safety. However, there is little research with respect to lunar vehicles. The goal of the current study was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop data on window placement and configuration for the small pressurized rover (SPR). Nine participants evaluated multiple areas along the vehicle's front "nose", while actively maneuvering through several lunar driving simulations. Subjective data was collected on areas of necessity, frequency of views, and placement/configuration of windows. Results indicated a desire for large field-of-view windows spanning the front of the vehicle with slightly reduced window areas for the lower front, lower corners, and side views.
Effects of a Motion-Coupled Visual Display on Motion Sickness and Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 1791-1795
  David R. Hunter; Christopher A. Monk; Elisa Hurwitz
This study tested the effects of a motion-coupled display on task performance and self-reports of motion sickness for subjects experiencing motion at a frequency and intensity previously found to be nauseogenic. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control condition or a treatment condition. Both groups performed a simple computer game (Tetris) for a 30-minute period while moving forward and backward at 0.2 Hz in an enclosed chamber. In the treatment condition, a visual flow field whose movement was coupled to the motion of the enclosed test chamber was displayed behind and around a window in which subjects performed the computer game. For the control condition, the visual flow field elements were kept stationary. Contrary to expectations, no differences were found between the two groups on self-reported motion sickness symptoms; however, the treatment group performed significantly better than the control group on the computer game.
The Distribution of Visibility Levels at Target Detection in a Modified Adrian/CIE Visibility Model BIBAFull-Text 1796-1800
  Kurt W. Ising; Marc Green
Adrian's Visibility Model is a useful tool for assessing the visibility of an object at night and has been accepted as the Small Target Visibility (STV) design criteria in the Illuminating Engineering Society's American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting. In this study, a modified model has been used which incorporates more recent findings involving glare sources. Previous work has shown that the average visibility level (VL) at target detection will vary depending upon the observer's age, headlight beam pattern, and target reflectivity. However, the population distribution of VL at detection was still uncertain making it difficult to assess confidence in detection calculations. This study has mined available data to determine the distribution of VLs at target detection for a driving subject group. A log-normal fit has been generated for alerted and unalerted subjects which demonstrates the wide range of values that must be considered for confidence in accident avoidance analyses.
Information for Helping Drivers Achieve Safe and Enjoyable Driving: An On-Road Observational Study BIBAFull-Text 1801-1805
  Muneo Kitajima; Motoyuki Akamatsu
In this study, a series of on-road observations were conducted to derive information necessary for safe and enjoyable driving. Four pairs of participants were chosen from among those responding to a Web survey and attending a follow-up interview. Each pair was asked to drive six routes. Three of the routes were familiar to one of the pair and new to the other, with the former serving as navigator and the latter serving as driver. For the other three routes, the roles were reversed. Three interviews were conducted, one coming after two drives in which the pair played both roles, in order to derive information considered necessary for safe and enjoyable driving by the participants who served as driver on routes unknown to them. Three kinds of information for safe and enjoyable driving were identified: 1) guidance for routing, 2) support for safe driving, and 3) provision of miscellaneous information, such as information about daily topics of interest to the driver and information about interesting things to see along the route.
Drivers' Understanding of Adaptive Cruise Control Limitations BIBAFull-Text 1806-1810
  David Alexander Dickie; Linda Ng Boyle
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is one system that is changing the driver-vehicle relationship. However, not all drivers are aware of the systems' capabilities or limitations. In this study, a cluster analysis was used to classify drivers based on how aware they were of the limitations associated with ACC. Three cluster groups emerged: those who are aware, unaware, and unsure of ACC limitations. Further examination revealed that drivers who were unaware or unsure exhibited potentially hazardous behavior when compared to the aware group. These two groups were more willing to use ACC when tired or on curvy roads. The unaware and unsure groups were also more likely to use conventional cruise control (CCC) in the absence of ACC. All three cluster groups reported high levels of trust in ACC. This may be problematic for the unaware and unsure groups since they may trust the system based on inappropriate expectations which can impact driver safety. Lower levels of awareness coupled with high levels of trust in ACC may correspond to potential misuse of the system. However, the findings suggest that this could be potentially mitigated through extended use of ACC.
Capturing Attention to Brake Lamps in a Single Fixation BIBAFull-Text 1811-1814
 
Rear-end collisions and distraction are major concerns in automotive transportation. This study investigated the conspicuity of current rear automobile lighting (red brake and red tail lamps) compared to a proposed arrangement (red brake lamps with yellow tail lamps) in a task where participants only had time to perform one saccade and fixation (200ms) to identify the presence or absence of brake lamps across 60 static traffic scenes projected on a screen. The hypothesis that separating brake and tail lamps by color alone would result in greater conspicuity as evidenced by fewer errors and faster RT was supported. Conspicuity of vehicle brake lamps will be improved in the situations tested by implementing the proposed yellow tail-lamp coloring on vehicles.
Complementary audio-visual collision warnings BIBAFull-Text 1815-1819
  Nicola Fricke; Manfred Thuring
The growing number of driver assistance systems increases the demand for warnings that are intuitively comprehensible. Particularly in hazardous situations, such as a threatening collision, a driver must understand the warning immediately. For this reason, collision warnings should convey as much information as needed to interpret the situation properly and to prepare preventive actions. The present study investigated whether informing about the object and the location of an imminent crash by a multimodal warning (visual and auditory) leads to shorter reaction times and fewer collisions compared to warning signals which only inform about the object of the crash (auditory icons) or give no additional information (simple tone). Results reveal that multimodal warnings have the potential to produce a significant advantage over unimodal signals as long as their components complement each other in a way that realistically fits the situation at hand.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

Assessing the Human Factors of a Human Engineering Standard BIBAFull-Text 1820-1824
  Hope E. J. Nesteruk
For many years, the Department of Defense (DOD) Design Criteria Standard: Human Engineering (MIL-STD-1472F) was the premier standard in the field of Human Factors; however, over the past 20 years Human Factors knowledge has advanced more rapidly than the standard. Not only is the standard technologically out of date, but it lacks basic usability features. This paper describes the survey undertaken to kick-off the first major update to this standard in many years. 58 typical users of the standard were surveyed on a variety of topics including format, data, technology, and user needs. Results indicate several areas for improvement such as including more references and adding recent technological innovations. Additionally, while a majority of the participants expressed a preference for an electronic version of the standard, many users still wished to maintain a hard-copy version. The results of this survey will be used to drive a major revision to MIL-STD-1472.
Incorporating Social and Organisational Factors into Defence Human Factors Integration BIBAFull-Text 1825-1829
  G. Fletcher; E. Forrest
To support consideration of social and organisational issues within the UK defence acquisition Human Factors Integration (HFI) process, definitions and associated guidance have been created. The social and organisational domain in HFI is a relatively recent addition to the existing core domains of manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, health hazards and system safety. The methodology used to identify relevant factors included a scoping study, involving stakeholder consultations and a targeted literature review. The factors identified were formed into a framework comprising three high level subdomains (Organisational Configuration, Social Environment and Ways of Working) and a suite of guidance materials appropriate for a range of stakeholders. Following identification of the factors and development of guidance a pilot workshop was conducted to assess the suitability of the information and the generic process within the acquisition process. The incorporation of social and organisational factors into the wider HFI process will ensure more effective and efficient equipment and service procurement by government acquisition organisations and more competitive equipment and services created by industry suppliers.
Concept of Operations Storyboard Tool BIBAFull-Text 1830-1834
  Carroll Thronesbery; Debra Schreckenghost; Arthur Molin
A concept of operations Storyboard Tool was developed to assist authors in building a concept of operations for a new system, refining it with stakeholders, and using it to support subsequent development activities. It was developed iteratively, testing iterations by using the tool to support ongoing research and development projects at NASA Johnson Space Center. In this paper, we present lessons learned about integrating sketches and descriptions for clearer communication, the benefits of organizing descriptive information as structured data, and assisting the process of concept development. We also discuss the value of supporting workflow process and the role of human factors in systems engineering.
A Task Analysis of the Task Analysis Process BIBAFull-Text 1835-1838
  Les Ainsworth
Task analysis is one of the most useful tools for investigating human tasks and together with associated analysis techniques it provides considerable versatility, that enables analysts to investigate a wide range of issues on both new and existing systems. However, software tools for task analysis generally do not currently provide the flexibility or range of applications, to fully utilize this versatility.
   Therefore, in order to define the user requirements for an analyst using a task analysis package, a task analysis was undertaken of the task analysis process. This produced an extensive set of different user requirements, both at a generic level and at the level of specific analysis techniques. Some of the more significant of these findings are summarized. It was also noted that there is room for some standardization in the way that some features of task analysis data are presented, in order to assist the readers of a task analysis to understand the data presentation of task analysis data.
A Vision for Human Systems Integration in the U. S. Department of Homeland Security BIBAFull-Text 1839-1843
  Darren P. Wilson; Thomas B. Malone; Janae Lockett-Reynolds; Elizabeth L. Wilson
In the complex, technology-based, manpower-limited homeland security systems of the 21st century, a critical element of mission success is human performance, or the ability of the human operator, maintainer, manager, or public users to perform well under all operating conditions. The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was formed just more than five years ago. The Human Factors / Behavior Sciences Division (HFD) was created 2 years ago within the DHS Science and Technology (S&T) directorate. HFD has since established the Human Systems Research and Engineering (HSRE) program and has given that program the responsibility for developing an approach for incorporating Human Systems Integration (HSI) into DHS research, development, and acquisitions. The 22 organizations that make up DHS were joined together under a headquarters organization that is still working on the logistics of operating as a unified agency (General Accountability Office, 2007). The integration of the various research, development, systems engineering, and acquisition processes of those legacy component organizations is ongoing and provides an opportunity to lay a foundation for successful HSI. Fundamental to the system life cycle of a given DHS program is the incorporation of user requirements and public perception input (Department of Homeland Security, 2008).
   Although similar to the Department of Defense (DoD) in the research and development of technology to enhance the safety and security of the nation (Department of Defense, 2008), the mission space of the DHS differs greatly in that the technologies developed and deployed by DHS are used within the United States and affect all citizens. The users of DHS technology represent a far more diverse population in terms of skills, anthropometry, age, training quantity and quality, intelligence, and readiness, than those in the military user community. Not only are the users and affected communities as diverse as the nation, but programs throughout the federal government have been phased out due to negative public outcry and media attention. Therefore, it is imperative for DHS to not only produce usable technologies, but also to comprehend the barriers and obstacles associated with technology acceptability, usability, supportability, reliability, affordability, safety, and survivability as these factors relate to the development of technology and systems. The HSRE program implements HSI in the DHS technology development process, and the integrated HSI analysis, design and test activities serve as the mechanism for addressing user requirements, and ensuring the design of the technology meets user needs. This paper describes a vision for the implementation of HSI in the Department of Homeland Security, focusing on both engineering and research efforts and strategies to accomplish goals in those areas.
Beyond User-Centered Design: Applicable Concepts from Complementary Approaches BIBAFull-Text 1844-1848
  Raegan M. Hoeft; Helena M. Mentis
In human factors, and especially in the area of computer system design, practitioners often employ a design approach or design philosophy called user-centered design (UCD). This paper provides an introduction to three complementary approaches (Quality Function Deployment, Front End Loading, and Service-Oriented Project Management) that originated in different domains and are primarily used by business development and project management. These approaches are then compared to UCD to determine whether UCD practitioners may be able to complement these approaches as well as incorporate new perspectives, strategies, or principles to enhance their application of UCD in system design. The principles from these other approaches may provide UCD practitioners with guidance to create a more robust approach to incorporating the human element into system design, and the tools and methodologies that accompany each approach could enhance UCD practices in the future.
Human Systems Integration Modeling Using Systems Modeling Language BIBAFull-Text 1849-1853
  Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski
The total systems approach focuses on human performance and ensures capabilities, limitations and risks are identified and managed throughout the system development lifecycle. HSI is the process to ensure that systems are designed and maintained such that they enhance human performance and capabilities while considering humans limitations to avoid high risk designs. The HSI process utilizes and integrates the interdependent multi-disciplinary aspects of various domains together within the systems engineering perspective. Since HSI processes have a top priority in systems design; this paper will introduce a new approach for modeling human capabilities and limitations in systems design. Human considerations in systems development will be modeled using Systems Modeling Language (SysML), a general-purpose visual modeling language for designing, specifying, analyzing, and verifying complex systems (Friedenthal et al., 2008).
Human Factors across Business Sectors: Similarities and Differences BIBAFull-Text 1854-1856
  Rebecca A. Grier; Gretchen Lizza; Aaron Bangor; Michael J. Patterson
Flipping through the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Directory and Yearbook, it quickly becomes apparent that Human Factors professionals work in a many different business sectors. These business sectors include military, commercial product development, and consulting services. Human factors experts are quite cognizant of the business sector in which they work, but they may have little to no knowledge or understanding of the work in other business sectors. In this discussion panel, experts from the business sectors of military, commercial product development, and consulting will discuss the similarities and differences of human factors in their business sectors. They will speak to the organizational factors, the time and cost factors, as well as end user population factors and how these factors impact how they work to develop systems. This discussion panel will foster greater insight and cooperation across business sectors through an understanding of similarities and differences.
Human Factors Requirements: Being Involved in the First Stage of System Development BIBAFull-Text 1857-1859
  Rebecca A. Grier; Gretchen Lizza; Michael Linegang; Philip Kortum
One of the common refrains among human factors professionals is "We need to be involved earlier in the process." One of the earliest stages of any project is requirements definition. However, developing requirements is not a skill many of us learned in school. Requirements definition is not easy even for other engineering domains. At a minimum, a well written requirement expresses a necessary and verifiable characteristic of the end system in simple, clear, and concise language. Necessary characteristics are those aspects of a system that can be traced to technological or user need. Requirements that are verifiable are those that can be proven not necessarily only by testing, but could be confirmed through inspection or demonstration as well. Finally requirements must be written in simple, clear and concise language in order to ensure that there is no ambiguity in its interpretation. There are many who think it is a quixotic task to write clear, verifiable and effective requirements that involve humans. Some of the arguments are that humans are too unreliable for testing or that there are few known thresholds in human related factors as such human factors requirements are not verifiable. The result is human factors professionals have not been brought in to the requirements definition process. Even when human factors professionals are included, they may be challenged by the complexity of the job. In this panel, highly experienced human factors professionals who have worked in a variety of domains (e.g., military, government, commercial, and academia) will discuss identifying and writing good human factors requirements, lessons learned on becoming a part of the requirements definition process, how to teach requirements writing to new human factors professionals, and a framework for capturing the nuances of human factors requirements.

TEST AND EVALUATION

How Would You Test This? Works-in-Progress Forum for Human Factors/Ergonomics Test and Evaluation Initiatives BIBAFull-Text 1860-1862
  Rebecca A. Grier; Karla Eve Allan
Test and Evaluation (T & E) professionals share one thing in common: a keen interest in continually improving the methodology they apply to human factors/ergonomics testing and evaluation of products and processes. Due to practical constraints of the HFES annual meeting submission process, presenters of traditional format papers and posters receive retrospective feedback on their work -- work that was completed at least one year ago! Meeting face-to-face at the annual HFES meeting would seem the perfect opportunity for T & E professionals to provide advanced input to one another regarding works in progress. The purpose of this alternate format session is to promote a lively exchange of ideas that may result in enhancements to Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) T & E works in progress. Three contributors will each present an overview of a planned but unfinished project that can still be modified prior to execution. Following each presentation, audience members can propose modifications to enhance the work. The technical input received by contributors should prove highly beneficial as they go on to complete their work after the HFES annual meeting and the feedback shared may be of value to all attendees. The session was first offered at HFES 2008 and was a success.
"Right-Sizing" Research Studies: Assuring Adequate, Not Grossly-Overlarge Sample-Sizes BIBAFull-Text 1863-1867
  Alvah C. Bittner; Rachel C. L. Bittner
A "right-sizing" system is demonstrated that provides for: robust estimations of minimum study sample-size requirements, and efficient evaluations of alternate parameter assumptions. Importantly, 'assumption evaluations' often result in the avoidance of grossly-oversized studies [e.g., added $10K-$1000K costs]. "Right-sizing" calculations may be quickly conducted using simple-computational tools (eg, hand calculator) during a meeting as questions arise. Built upon an understanding of the robust mechanisms underlying the Dunlap "2-2" heuristic (re: α=0.05 2-tailed, and 1-β ≥ 0.80), it is applicable to the same range of dichotomous-to-interval data, but is also generalized to broadly accommodate correlated means and a full-spectrum of alternative α,1-β combinations. We recommend our right-sizing system to HF/E and other practitioners interested in (1) Assuring adequate study sample-sizes, and (2) Avoiding grossly oversized studies that drain critical resources.
Usability Testing: Making it Work for the Army BIBAFull-Text 1868-1872
  Pamela A. Savage-Knepshield
During an early formative usability test, representative end-users perform a set of tasks using a prototype or simulation of a system. While performing tasks and thinking aloud, a skilled specialist observes and takes notes recording how easily a participant performs the tasks and logging issues encountered. Sessions are conducted in a usability test lab, while interested parties watch from a separate observation room through a one-way mirror. Due to cost, schedule, and resource constraints many elements of conventional usability testing are not viable for use when testing equipment with Warfighters. To overcome these challenges and meet the needs of system developers, usability test procedures were modified and hybrid solutions developed. Descriptions and examples of these modifications are provided as are lessons learned and insights gained through their use during the course of seven usability tests.
Validity Evidence for a Model of Rifle Marksmanship Skill Performance Using Sensor-Based Measures BIBAFull-Text 1873-1877
  Sam O. Nagashima; Gregory K. W. K. Chung; Paul D. Espinosa; Chris Berka
This paper reports validity evidence for the use of sensor-based skill measures in evaluating performance differences in rifle marksmanship. Nagashima, Chung, Espinosa, Berka, and Baker (2009) describe four measures used to predict skill classification of expert and novice shooters for known distance rifle marksmanship, three related to breath control and one for trigger control. In this study, skill measures from seven experts and nine novices were collected and classifications were generated resulting in an overall percent correct of 75.6%, with a sensitivity of 54.3%, and 92.0% specificity.
Multidimensional Training System Evaluation using the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy BIBAFull-Text 1878-1882
  Yoon Suk Lee; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Maury A. Nussbaum
Many organizations employ training systems to reduce work-related low back disorders. However, the evaluation of training programs is often not satisfactory, mainly due to the complexity of training systems, the high costs involved, heavy reliance on trainee reactions, and little integration of outcomes-based validation. In this work, we used the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy to classify the learning objectives of a training program. These classified objectives were then examined to predict training performance, and were further compared with trainee reactions using multiple regression and correlation analyses accordingly. Results indicated that the classified learning objectives were better predictors of training performance than trainee reactions. Practical implications of the results are discussed.
Subjective Response Differences between Visual Analogue, Ordinal and Hybrid Response Scales BIBAFull-Text 1883-1887
  Jennifer A. Cowley; Heather Youngblood
The Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) discipline employs different subjective response scale formats to measure subjective phenomena (e.g., hazard perception). Per the psychometrics literature, different scale formats can yield different participant responses, which is a potential threat to validity in replication studies if response scales are not consistent across study iterations. If ordinal response scales (e.g., Likert scales) yield ordinal data and continuous response scales (e.g., Visual Analogue Scales) yield continuous data then it is inappropriate to substitute one response scale for the other if they potentially yield different responses for the same question. The current research compared mean participant ratings for the same question on VAS, Likert and Hybrid response scales and found that VAS scales had significantly lower mean ratings than Likert and Hybrid response scales. Two scale features, the number of anchors (5 or 9) and the scale length (10.0cm and 19.2cm), were varied and no significant main effects or interactions resulted. In conclusion, scale types, not scale features, produced significant mean participant rating differences. To support the validity of replication research, this paper also provided a response scale taxonomy based on the scale features studied herein, that can be used to classify and report different response scales. Implications for these results and future research directions are discussed.

TRAINING

Interference between Visuospatial Dual Tasks and the Effects of Training BIBAFull-Text 1888-1892
  Michael B. Dillard; David B. Boles
The mechanisms involved in reducing interference in visuospatial dual tasks were investigated. Three computerized visuospatial tasks, bargraphs, dot clusters, and occlusions (Boles, 1991, 1992, 1996) comprised the dual tasks. To compare the roles of automaticity and encapsulation, one group practiced dual tasks drawing upon separate processes while another practiced dual tasks drawing upon the same process. The results suggest automaticity plays a larger role in reducing interference than encapsulation. They also support the existence of resource training, in which practicing a mental resource in one task shows transfer to another task using the same resource.
The Influence of Rating Method on Knowledge Structures BIBAFull-Text 1893-1897
  Chad C. Tossell; Brent A. Smith; Roger W. Schvaneveldt
Pathfinder network scaling has been used widely to assess knowledge acquisition and inform interface design. While a large body of research agrees on the validity of this technique to develop knowledge structures, the rating task becomes cumbersome when users are faced with a large number of concepts to relate. Thus, a new rating method was created to help users determine the relationships between concepts. This new interface allows subjects to judge proximity by arranging concepts in visual space on a target. Traditionally, subjects were presented the concepts in pairs and made ratings on Likert Scales. Students (N = 88) at the Air Force Academy used both methods to rate the similarity of basic flying concepts. Results showed that the new method was more sensitive to differences in knowledge structures between experienced and inexperienced pilots (p < .01). Experienced subjects also preferred the new target method compared to the traditional rating method. The relative efficiency of the two methods is discussed.
An Evolution of Tutoring and Training from Humans to Intelligent Systems: Human Factors Considerations BIBAFull-Text 1898-1902
  Jessica M. Ray; John S. Barnett
As training researchers and developers, we strive to understand and produce effective and efficient training. Research suggests the most effective form of instruction is individualized human tutoring. Yet this is rarely the most efficient form of instruction monetarily or in instructor time. Technological advances and a vision of effective, yet more efficient, computer based tutors has led to the development of sophisticated new training technologies such as Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). These systems have yet to reach their full forecast potential. In this paper we theorize that issues key to successful advancement of ITSs are human factors issues. Primary of these issues is determining how technology mediation impacts not only cognition, but also other key learning issues such as affect, emotions, motivation, and trust.
Enhancing Unmanned Aerial System Training: A Taxonomy of Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes, and Methods BIBAFull-Text 1903-1907
  Davin Pavlas; C. Shawn Burke; Stephen M. Fiore; Eduardo Salas; Randy Jensen; Dan Fu
The burgeoning use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) has, regrettably, not been met with an appropriate integration of training science into UAS training efforts. At best, current UAS training efforts are fragmented; at worst, they are ineffective (Stulberg, 2007). However, this need not be the case. Though nascent, the UAS literature has identified many necessary knowledge, skill, and attitude (KSA) components of UAS operation. This article works to aid the UAS training community in combining practice with science. In order to accomplish this goal, the emerging UAS knowledge base is collected herein as a taxonomy of KSAs. These KSAs are joined by a listing of training methodologies that can be used to impart them to UAS operator teams. Finally, these KSAs and methods are used to resolve example training deficiencies drawn from the literature.
The Relationship Between Conceptual Understanding and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1908-1912
  David Schuster; Michelle Harper-Sciarini; Michael Curtis; Florian Jentsch; Ron Swanson
An operator's understanding of a threatening event within a system was investigated to determine if understanding was predictive of successful operation. Using the domain of driving, we hypothesized that participants who performed higher on a written measure of situational judgment would also attend to and categorize threats better in a card-sort activity. Results indicated that participants who were able to classify threats in a guided card sort performed better on the situational judgment test than those who classified threats poorly. The results suggest that a relationship exists between conceptual understanding of threats in a system and safer operation.
Adopting the Training Cycle for Trust Training in Swift Starting Action Teams BIBAFull-Text 1913-1917
  Jessica L. Wildman; Marissa L. Shuffler; Stephen M. Fiore; Elizabeth H. Lazzara; Michael A. Rosen; Luiz F. Xavier; Samuel R. Wooten; Eduardo Salas
This paper presents a new framework for understanding the development of trust in swift starting action teams and how metacognitive training could be used to manage this process. First, we provide underlying assumptions supporting our theoretical framework. Second, we provide a description of the training cycle approach that guides our framework. Third, we describe our proposed framework of trust development. Finally, we discuss potential training interventions for the management of trust in swift starting action teams, and conclude with some final remarks.
Trust on the Battlefield BIBAFull-Text 1918-1920
  Nate Self
This presentation will be a discussion of trust from a "boots on the ground" point of view. Former combat soldiers, who are now conducting research on leadership and teams will discuss how trust and, possibly more importantly, lack of trust impact unit cohesion, capabilities, and ultimately performance. Furthermore, types of trust explored include trust in leadership, trust within a team, leader trust in team members, trust in equipment/technology, and trust in processes/system.
Managing Trust in Swiftly Starting Action Teams BIBAFull-Text 1922-1923
  Elizabeth Hunter Lazzara; Stephen Fiore; Jessica Wildman; Marissa Shuffler; Eduardo Salas
Often in both industry and government, collaborative efforts come together and disband quickly, or occur in response to a very short-term problem. Sometimes in these situations, the interacting parties have no prior history with each other or any knowledge of each other, and very little time for building trust before the task is concluded; however, trust usually plays a most critical role. Therefore, it is important to examine the development of trust in quickly formed collaborations. The proposed symposium will discuss the current state of the trust literature and propose a theoretical framework of trust in Swiftly sTarting Action Teams (STAT) to guide potential training manipulations implemented within a training cycle designed to improve team performance. In addition, the symposium will entail a first hand account of how trust applied in the field and describe some of the empirical evidence regarding the impact of trust on team performance in complex, high stake environments.
Trust as Defined by U.S. Army Soldiers BIBAFull-Text 1924-1928
  Gregory A. Ruark; Kara L. Orvis; Zachary Horn; Krista L. Langkamer
U.S. Army teams operate under high stakes conditions where the potential for error and disaster is a possibility. For these teams, trust becomes an important factor in team processes. However, it is unknown whether current definitions of trust generalize to the U.S. Army. Therefore, the current research seeks to explore the dynamics of trust as defined by the U.S. Army. Sixty Soldiers from a Military Intelligence program across TRADOC installations rated various definitions of trust and ranked ordered three definitions. Results indicated that Soldiers reported integrity and dependability of another person as key requirements in a trusting relationship, and identified the expected cooperation of another person as the definition that least fit their own beliefs about trust. Integrity and dependability were most commonly ranked components of trust. Implications for trust development and training for the U.S. Army are explored.
Trusting the Trust Literature: What Applied and Theoretical Literatures Have in Common BIBAFull-Text 1929-1931
  Sena Garvin
This presentation is a comparison of business, academic, and military literature on trust. What are the relationships among the academic, more theoretical literature and the more applied realm of business and military literature when trust in teams is explored? This presentation will explore the constructs involved when each literature discusses the overlaps and gaps within trust. In addition, this presentation will discuss how each literature looks at team trust in leadership, leader trust in team members, and trust among team members. References to trust in teams will be coded and analyzed.
Advancing the Science of Training in Simulation-Based Training BIBFull-Text 1932-1934
  Denise Nicholson; Stephen Fiore; Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Sae Schatz
Contrasting Cases: A Strategy for Advanced Learning using Simulation-based Training BIBAFull-Text 1935-1938
  Jennifer Fowlkes; Joseph W. Norman; Sae Schatz; Kevin C. Stagl
Scenario-based training (SBT) as a medium for facilitating higher order or advanced learning has not been exploited fully. This paper argues for the use of contrasting cases to facilitate advanced learning within practice environments, where advanced learning is characterized by well differentiated and organized knowledge that can be generalized and abstracted. The rationale and guidance for incorporating contrasting cases into SBT is provided. A learning framework is leveraged to further describe how the method of contrasting cases can be adapted to address the challenges of learners at different stages of skill acquisition.
Embedding Metacognitive Prompts During SBT to Improve Knowledge Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 1939-1943
  Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Stephen Fiore; Clint Bowers; Denise Nicholson
Changes in battlefield dynamics increasingly require trainees to acquire the rich and deep knowledge necessary to make decisions in complex, novel situations. We investigate how metacognitive prompts during training may support this need by enhancing the acquisition and application of knowledge within a scenario-based training context. The data suggest differential outcomes are dependent upon the type of assessment, with metacognitive supported training producing benefits to measures of knowledge acquisition but hindering performance in a transfer task. These results are discussed in the context of variations in metacognition training and how differing forms of knowledge acquisition are required to better understand the impact of training.
Advanced Situated Tutors: Design, Philosophy, and a Review of Existing Systems BIBAFull-Text 1944-1948
  Sae Schatz; Clint Bowers; Denise Nicholson
"Situated tutors" combine intelligent, adaptive instructional technology with a simulated environment that allows trainees to explore the context, knowledge, applications, and social interactions inherent in the real-world equivalent. However, the situated tutor construct is, as yet, only superficially described. Thus, this paper seeks to add to the academic conceptualization of situated tutors by clearly defining these systems and their features. We go on to define "advanced situated tutors" as the most robust class of situated tutors, and then give examples of such systems.
Automatic Scenario Generation through Procedural Modeling for Scenario-Based Training BIBAFull-Text 1949-1953
  Glenn Martin; Sae Schatz; Clint Bowers; Charles E. Hughes; Jennifer Fowlkes; Denise Nicholson
We discuss our current efforts at developing automatic scenario generation software. We begin by explaining the rationale, and then review successful previous efforts. We discuss the lessons-learned from the past work, and the conceptual pieces that are required to generate operationally-valid scenarios that support effective training. We then present the conceptual design of our scenario generation approach, which uses novel procedural modeling approaches to ensure operational and training requirements are adequately met.
Developing Impact Assessment for Training Systems Research Development: A Case Study of the Strategic Approach for the NEWIT System BIBAFull-Text 1954-1958
  Tim Kotnour; Rafael Landaeta; Julie Drexler
Impact assessment seeks to evaluate the effects of a new system realized on target beneficiaries and is an essential process via which to tangibly demonstrate the operational and economic benefits of a research and development (R&D) program. This paper contributes a framework -- Program-management Understanding, Measurement, and Assessment (PUMA) -- for developing an impact assessment approach for planning and evaluating R&D programs. The intent of the framework is to help an R&D organization provide traceability from the identification of program needs to selecting and conducting R&D to implementation to defining and measuring results. The framework is demonstrated using an Office of Naval Research project.
Effectiveness of Three Training Delivery Methods in a Voluntary Program BIBAFull-Text 1959-1963
  Arash Salehi; Lesley Strawderman; Yunchen Huang; Shaheen Ahmed; Kari Babski-Reeves
Different training delivery methods each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Method effectiveness is based on the characteristics of the trainees and the program itself. Voluntary programs require extra consideration as there is no direct obligation for volunteers to participate and interact with the system. This paper studies and compares three methods (online, video, and face-to-face) for delivering training in a voluntary program. Demographic characteristics affected trainees' preference for training delivery method. Also, the training delivery method significantly impacts trainees' performance, participation in the program, and trainees' perceptions regarding re-training. These issues should be considered when a volunteer training program is designed.
Procedural or Conceptual Training: Which is Better for Teaching Novice Pilots Landings and Traffic Patterns? BIBAFull-Text 1964-1968
  Andrew R. Dattel; Francis T. Durso; Raynald Bedard
Forty-eight student pilots and recently licensed private pilots were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: procedural, conceptual, and control. Participants in the procedural group spent approximately two hours reading text and watching videos specific to the step-by-step procedures of how to fly traffic patterns and land an airplane. Participants in the conceptual group spent approximately two hours reading reasoning explanations, everyday metaphors to aviation, and viewing diagrams of traffic patterns and landings. Participants in the control group spent approximately two hours watching aviation-themed videos and reading aviation-themed text, but unrelated to traffic patterns, landings, or any other flight task. During training, participants answered questions specific to the material they were reading or watching. At the conclusion of the training participants were tested on typical and atypical traffic pattern performance, typical and atypical landing performance, and routine and non routine situations for 20 minutes in a medium fidelity flight simulator. Conceptual training was best for traffic pattern performance and atypical landings. Additionally, the conceptual group had better situation awareness than the procedural and control groups for landing situations and non routine traffic pattern situations. Finally, the procedural group did not show better performance than the control group on any test.
Waste Water Treatment Simulation (WaTr Sim): Validation of a new process control simulation tool for experimental training research BIBAFull-Text 1969-1973
  Dina Burkolter; Annette Kluge; Sinan German; Britta Grauel
We introduce a new simulation tool designed for experimental training research and present results from an experimental study conducted to validate it. The Waste Water Treatment Simulation (WaTr Sim) is a computer-based simulation of a complex process control task characterized by high dynamics, interrelatedness, feedback delays, and opaqueness. It includes start-up and shut-down procedures, monitoring, and control. In a training experiment (N = 48) WaTr Sim was evaluated and compared to a well-studied process control simulation called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS). Diagnostic performance on CAMS was especially related to those performance elements in WaTr Sim that required consideration of and adherence to fixed and contingent sequences. WaTr Sim has unique features, such as the possibility of creating scenarios to study instance-based learning or transfer tasks. Findings indicate that the simulation can be employed in training experiments to analyze various demands of process control tasks.
The Crew Resource Management Attitudes of U.S. Naval Aviators BIBAFull-Text 1974-1978
  Paul O'Connor; Doug Jones
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of, and findings from, a survey designed to measure the Crew Resource Management (CRM) attitudes of U.S. Naval aviators. An attitude questionnaire based upon the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire (FMAQ) was used. A total of 364 responses were received from U.S. Naval aviators. To obtain acceptable Cronbach's Alpha levels it was necessary to drop nine items from the questionnaire. A comparison of the responses to the questionnaire suggested that tactical jet squadrons may benefit from training on recognizing, and addressing, the effects of stress in other aviators. A more important finding, and counter to expectations, was that senior aviators were significantly more supportive of an open cockpit climate than junior aviators.
The Impact of Performance Incentives during Training on Transfer of Learning BIBAFull-Text 1979-1983
  Patricia C. Brennan; Poornima Madhavan; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Frank C. Lacson
We examined the effect of incentives on transfer of training in a visual search task. The incentives were designed to influence participants' detection of dangerous targets across two phases of airline luggage screening -- training (familiar targets) and transfer (novel targets). Participants were assigned to one of five groups -- hit-sensitive (points awarded for hits), miss-sensitive (points deducted for misses), equal-costs (equal points awarded and deducted for hits and misses), no-incentives (no points) and control (self-training). The goal was to examine which incentive structure was most effective in transfer of training. Results revealed that rewarding points for hits and deducting points for misses led to best transfer performance, although punishment had a stronger impact on performance than rewards. Rewarding hits implicitly primed participants to say 'yes' more often inflating their false alarm rate. Allowing participants to self-train also significantly benefited performance by minimizing the constraints imposed by fixed incentives-based training.

VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

Leveraging Virtual Reality and Computer-based Games for Training BIBAFull-Text 1984-1985
  Laura Strater
This symposium presents papers and panel discussions describing research approaches for leveraging the capabilities of virtual reality and advanced computer-based games for military training. A military SME will serve as a panel discussant to provide insight and concerns from the perspective of end users, both trainees and instructors. Cases and demonstrations will be included.
What can VR do for U? Virtual Reality for Training Uninhabited Aircraft Systems BIBAFull-Text 1986-1988
  Stephanie Lackey; Denise Nicholson; William Becker
The proliferation of Uninhabited Aircraft Systems (UAS) during forward deployed military operations presents compelling challenges to the training community. This presentation will examine how Virtual Reality (VR) technologies may be employed to instantiate novel training approaches targeted at UAS team coordination and tactics. The RQ-11 Raven-B, and its associated training issues will be used to illustrate challenges facing the U.S. Marine Corps. VR solutions currently applied to this domain and emerging research efforts will also be discussed.
A Distributed Game-Based Simulation Training Research Testbed BIBAFull-Text 1989-1993
  Donald Lampton; James Bliss; Karin Orvis; Jason Kring; Glenn A. Martin
[This paper is a companion piece for a presentation to be given as par