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HFES Tables of Contents: 000102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2013 Annual Meeting 2013-09-30

Fullname:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 57th Annual Meeting
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2013-Sep-30 to 2013-Oct-04
Standard No:hcibib: HFES13; TA 166 H794
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. Aerospace Systems: AS1 -- Aviation Fatigue: Issues in Developing Fatigue Risk Management Systems
  2. Aerospace Systems: AS2 -- Performance in Simulators and Cockpits
  3. Aerospace Systems: AS3 -- Human Factors in Commercial Human Space Operations
  4. Aerospace Systems: AS4 -- Automation and Unmanned Systems
  5. Aerospace Systems: AS5 -- Ground Crew and General Performance Issues
  6. Aerospace Systems: AS6 -- Human Factors in General Aviation and Air Traffic Applications
  7. Aerospace Systems: AS7 -- NextGen Human Factors
  8. Aging: A1- Aging Potpourri
  9. Augmented Cognition: AC1 -- Adaptive Systems and Applied Psychophysiology
  10. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE1 -- Cognitive Engineering Across Domains: What the Wide-Angle View Can Provide
  11. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE2 -- Interruptions
  12. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE3 -- Trends in Decision Making Research: How Can They Change Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making in Human Factors?
  13. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE4 -- Situation Awareness
  14. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE5 -- The System Usability Scale
  15. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE6 -- Knowledge Elicitation
  16. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE7 -- Modeling
  17. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE8 -- Algorithm Development and System Design
  18. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE10 -- Signal Detection Theory and Applications
  19. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE11 -- Expertise and Judgement
  20. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE12 -- Exploring Communication in Remote Teams: Issues and Methods
  21. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE13 -- Teams
  22. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE14 -- Bridging the Gap Between Cognitive Systems Engineering Analysis, Design, and Practice
  23. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE15 -- Trust
  24. Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE16 -- Function Allocation
  25. Communication: C1 -- Cyber Warfare, ASL, and Text-Speak Communication
  26. Computer Systems: CS2/I -- User Experience Day: Design Charrette
  27. Computer Systems: CS3/I -- User Experience Day: Best Paper Competition
  28. Education: E1 -- Human Factors in Everyday Life
  29. Education: E2 -- Life, the Universe, and Academia: Success in Early Career Academia
  30. Education: E3 -- Practicing Relevant Skills in the Classroom: Advice From Experts in the Industry to Professors
  31. Education: E4 -- Invisible Factors: Strategies for Raising Awareness of Human Factors Among Undergraduate Students
  32. Education: E5 -- HF/E Education in the 21st Century
  33. Education: E6 -- Teaching and Learning Human Factors
  34. Environmental Design: ED1 -- Environmental Design With Special Populations
  35. Environmental Design: ED2 -- Environmental Design: Person-Environment Interactions
  36. Environmental Design: ED3 -- Environmental Design Potpourri
  37. Forensics Professional: FP1 -- Theoretical Issues in Forensic Human Factors
  38. Forensics Professional: FP2 -- Forensic Human Factors Applications and Practice
  39. Forensics Professional: FP3 -- Working With Visual Media Professionals to Create Compelling Presentations
  40. Forensics Professional: FP4 -- Current Issues in Warnings: Selected Case Studies and Applications
  41. General Sessions: GS3 -- Globalization of Ergonomics
  42. General Sessions: GS4 -- General Methods for Communicating the Structure and Content of a Cognitive Model
  43. General Sessions: GS5 -- A Tribute to Bentzi Karsh: His Contributions to Macroergonomics in Health Care Research and Education
  44. General Sessions: GS10 -- Situation Awareness, Automation, and Memory Mix
  45. Health Care: HC1 -- Human Factors in the Wild: Insight Teaching HF to Frontline Professionals in Health Care
  46. Health Care: HC2 -- Surgery
  47. Health Care: HC4 -- Technology, Design, & Safety
  48. Health Care: HC5 -- Patient Care
  49. Health Care: HC6 -- Health Care Systems Design at a Crossroads: Challenges, Opportunities, and Strategies
  50. Health Care: HC7 -- Giving Human Factors/Ergonomics Away: How Can We Bring the Benefits of HF/E to Nursing?
  51. Health Care: HC8 -- Workload
  52. Health Care: HC9 -- Patient-Centered Issues
  53. Human Performance Modeling: HP2 -- Human Performance and Workload
  54. Human Performance Modeling: HP3 -- Task Performance
  55. Individual Differences: ID1 -- ID Models & Methods for Prediction
  56. Individual Differences: ID2 -- ID in Emotional & Multi-tasking Performance
  57. Individual Differences: ID3 -- ID in Performance & Stress
  58. Industrial Ergonomics: IE1 -- Mechanistic Research on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders
  59. Industrial Ergonomics: IE2 -- Ergonomic Principles Applied to the Design and Evaluation of Tablets, Touchscreens, and Laptops
  60. Industrial Ergonomics: IE3 -- Findings from the NIOSH Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium
  61. Industrial Ergonomics: IE4 -- The Impact of Biomechanical and Physiological Effects on Balance and Posture
  62. Industrial Ergonomics: IE5 -- Anthropometric and Biomechanical-Based Methods
  63. Industrial Ergonomics: IE7 -- Applying Ergonomic Principles to Task and Product Design
  64. Industrial Ergonomics: IE8 -- Methodological Improvements Using Ergonomic and Human Factors-Based Methods
  65. Internet: I1/CS -- Agile and User Experience: The Road to Integration-The Challenges of User Research in an Agile Environment
  66. Internet: I2/CS -- Advances in Design
  67. Internet: I3/CS -- Methods and Interaction Techniques
  68. Macroergonomics: ME1 -- Human Factors in the Wild: Insight From Developing Solutions in Health Care
  69. Macroergonomics: ME2 -- Human Factors and Sustainable Development
  70. Macroergonomics: ME3 -- Future Directions for Sociotechnical Systems and Safety: Outcomes From the 2012 Liberty Mutual Hopkinton Conference
  71. Macroergonomics: ME4 -- Considering Culture in the Design and Evaluation of Health IT for Patients
  72. Macroergonomics: ME5 -- Macroegronomic Applications
  73. Macroergonomics: ME6 -- Multilevel Ergonomics: Determining How to Bound Your System
  74. Perception & Performance: PP1 -- Vigilance & Attention Research
  75. Perception & Performance: PP2 -- Display Research
  76. Perception & Performance: PP3 -- Human-Robot Interaction
  77. Perception & Performance: PP4 -- Warnings, Cues, & Detection Aids
  78. Perception & Performance: PP5 -- Research on Speech & Driving: Together & Separate
  79. Perception & Performance: PP6 -- Neural, Perceptual, & Psychomotor Processes
  80. Posters: POS1 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 1
  81. Posters: POS2 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 2
  82. Demonstrations: POS1 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 1
  83. Demonstrations: POS2 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 2
  84. Product Design: PD1 -- Touch Screen
  85. Product Design: PD3 -- User Testing and Study Practices
  86. Product Design: PD4 -- Wearables
  87. Safety: S1 -- Accident Prevention
  88. Safety: S2 -- Warnings
  89. Safety: S3 -- Design for Safety
  90. Student Forum: SF2 -- A Student Perspective of Career Options in Human Factors
  91. Student Forum: SF3 -- Cognition
  92. Student Forum: SF4 -- Student Forum Potpourri I
  93. Student Forum: SF5 -- Attention, Workload, and Fatigue
  94. Student Forum: SF6 -- Driving Behavior
  95. Student Forum: SF7 -- Student Forum Potpourri II
  96. Surface Transportation: ST1 -- Health, Behavior, and Emotion
  97. Surface Transportation: ST2 -- Driver Distraction: Visual-Manual to Auditory-Vocal
  98. Surface Transportation: ST3 -- Driver Distraction: Mental Workload and Arousal
  99. Surface Transportation: ST5 -- On-the-Road Driver Behavior Experimentation: Issues and Approaches
  100. Surface Transportation: ST6 -- In-Vehicle Driver Support Systems
  101. Surface Transportation: ST7 -- Technology and Infrastructure for Safety and Mobility
  102. Surface Transportation: ST8 -- Metrics, Measures, and Models
  103. System Development: SD1 -- System Development Potpourri
  104. System Development: SD2 -- The Art of Developing a Human Factors Standard: The Authors' Perspective
  105. System Development: SD3 -- System Development Student Papers
  106. System Development: SD5 -- Verification and Validation: Human Factors Requirements and Performance Evaluation
  107. Test & Evaluation: TE1 -- Evaluation Tools, Techniques, & Methods
  108. Test & Evaluation: TE2 -- Evaluating System Characteristics & Their Impact on Performance
  109. Training: T1 -- Adaptive Training
  110. Training: T2 -- Effective Training for Error Reduction and Performance Enhancement
  111. Virtual Environments: VE1 -- Me & My VE, Part 2
  112. Virtual Environments: VE2 -- Serious Games and Simulations: Factors and Behaviors Impacting Performance

Aerospace Systems: AS1 -- Aviation Fatigue: Issues in Developing Fatigue Risk Management Systems

Aviation Fatigue: Issues in Developing Fatigue Risk Management Systems BIBAFull-Text 1-5
  Monica Weiland; Thomas Nesthus; Carlos Compatore; Stephen Popkin; Jim Mangie; Lisa C. Thomas; Erin Flynn-Evans
Researchers and operations professionals convened on November 9, 2012, to discuss an agenda for research in aviation fatigue. While the working groups had different specific issues related to fatigue, there was common ground in the work surrounding fatigue and the technologies that are being developed. The discussion highlighted the following issues, which are recommended for further research: Strategies for changing the culture for fatigue self-report and self-monitoring. Policy shifts to account for consecutive nights worked and the effects of circadian rhythms. Tools for self-fatigue assessment, particularly based on objective measures. Tools for minimizing fatigue in scheduled operations and on-demand operations planning. Fatigue models that account for individual differences and account for the dynamic nature of fatigue in different operational contexts. Benchmarking and validation of proposed fatigue risk management systems in operational settings. This panel is intended to expand this discussion of the human factors-related issues in fatigue of specific concern to the aviation community, in particular recommendations 3, 4, 5, and 6, to a wider Human Factors and Ergonomics Society audience.

Aerospace Systems: AS2 -- Performance in Simulators and Cockpits

Head-mounted displays for civil helicopter navigation and obstacle avoidance: Is what you see what you don't get, or is seeing not believing? BIBAFull-Text 6-10
  Dennis B. Beringer; Gena Drechsler
Civilian helicopter pilots flew simulated Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) scenarios using a head-mounted display (HMD) with guidance and/or obstruction imagery. Obstructions were detected and avoided earlier when shown in the HMD than those shown only out the window, and highway-in-the-sky (HITS) guidance reduced subsequent maneuvering in the terminal phase of arrival. The HMD depictions of power lines (passive representation) reduced wire strikes but did not eliminate them. An active warning presentation (red warning fence) overlaid on the power-line graphic at the point it transected the flight path completely eliminated flights in-to that obstruction. Pilots preferred the active warning representation, indicating that the passive one was ambiguous. Pilots' preference tended towards the simplified representations of power lines but towards the complex 'realistic' representations of broadcast towers. A strong preference was also expressed for integrated cockpit systems (HMD, MFD, PFD) that depicted the same obstruction information and warnings on each display.
Effects of Modern Primary Flight Display Clutter: Evidence from Performance and Eye Tracking Data BIBAFull-Text 11-15
  Nadine M. Moacdieh; Julie C. Prinet; Nadine B. Sarter
Many complex domains, including aviation, experience a continued increase in the amount of information that is needed and available to operators. One example of this trend is modern primary flight displays (PFD), some of which now include weather, terrain, and navigation data. The addition of information to already busy displays has raised concerns about clutter. In this experiment, our goal was to investigate the performance and attentional costs associated with PFD clutter during a simulated flight and to determine to what extent pilots are aware of clutter and its effects. Low-, medium-, and high-clutter PFDs were created, and pilots flew a simulated flight scenario containing periods of high and low workload using one of the three PFDs. Pilots were asked to detect various visual alerts and notifications that appeared on the PFD throughout the flight. Performance, eye tracking, and subjective measures were recorded. Clutter significantly increased the response time to alerts, and high workload resulted in more alerts being missed. The eye tracking data provided insight into pilots' monitoring strategies and efficiency in the different clutter conditions. Spatial density and the number of transitions were found to be larger in the case of higher clutter, whereas the number of fixations on flight mode annunciators was higher in the low-clutter condition. Importantly, pilots rated clutter as being relatively low even in the high-clutter condition. In combination, these results suggest that pilots may benefit from real-time clutter detection and reduction techniques that are based on eye tracking metrics.

Aerospace Systems: AS3 -- Human Factors in Commercial Human Space Operations

Human Factors in Commercial Human Space Operations BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Haydee M. Cuevas; Rebecca A. Zgorski; Jason P. Kring; Barrett S. Caldwell; Cynthia H. Null; Brienna L. Henwood; Stephen M. Fiore
What was unthinkable as little as five years ago now seems to be on the brink of becoming a reality in the foreseeable future -- a world in which commercial space travel is as commonplace as commercial aviation travel is today. The scientific research community will play a vital role in achieving this reality while supporting the safety of both passengers and crews. This will require the application of sound human factors theories, principles, and practices to develop effective training programs and countermeasures as well as to design viable habitats on board commercial space vehicles for these new space travelers. Accordingly, the objective of this multidisciplinary discussion panel will be to identify and discuss the human factors issues that warrant investigation to support the safe and efficient advance of commercial human space operations.

Aerospace Systems: AS4 -- Automation and Unmanned Systems

The Effects of Predictive Displays on Performance in Driving Tasks with Multi-Second Latency: Aiding Tele-Operation of Lunar Rovers BIBAFull-Text 21-25
  Adrian Matheson; Birsen Donmez; Faizan Rehmatullah; Piotr Jasiobedzki; Ho-Kong Ng; Vivek Panwar; Mufan Li
Tele-operation of a Lunar rover from a control station on Earth involves a latency of several seconds due primarily to the finite speed (light-speed) of command and sensor signals, and this latency creates a difficult control task for the human operator. Two predictive displays, which seek to aid viewer perception of present events, were designed and evaluated for the specific task of driving a rover with multi-second latency. These displays provided visual information to the human operator on the rover's real-time locomotion, as predicted from control inputs executed by the operator. A human-subject experiment with 12 participants was conducted in which the participants navigated an actual rover through obstacle courses. There were four experimental conditions repeated by each participant: (1) delayed video feed only, (2, 3) two predictive displays based on delayed video feed, and (4) a reference condition of video feed with no delay. Inferential statistics show that both predictive displays significantly improved performance in terms of time taken to complete the courses, and one of the displays facilitated performance approaching that with no delay. No trends were observed in terms of collisions with or encroachments near obstacles.
Adaptable Automation Interface for Multi-Unmanned Aerial Systems Control: Preliminary Usability Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 26-30
  Gloria Calhoun; Mark Draper; Christopher Miller; Heath Ruff; Chad Breeden; Joshua Hamell
With advances in automation technologies, systems are now being considered wherein a single operator supervises multiple unmanned aerial vehicles. Supervisory control of highly autonomous systems will require a new interface design. The present effort extends a delegation control concept to enable a pilot to flexibly change the role of automation during the course of a mission, seamlessly transitioning between four different control modes ranging from manual (pilot controls the vehicle's flight with stick and throttle control) to high level 'plays' (pilot's command initiates a series of automated tasks). This novel concept was instantiated into a dynamic laptop simulation to support a usability evaluation in which participants employed the multi-level control architecture during ninety minute sessions. Data include comments recorded with a think-aloud paradigm and questionnaire responses. Results indicated that this adaptable pilot-automation interface for multi-unmanned systems control is promising. The findings include perspectives from both pilot and gamer participants that will help advance design of multi-level control for future aviation systems.
Unmanned Aircraft System Response to Air Traffic Control Clearances: Measured Response BIBAFull-Text 31-35
  Robert J. Shively; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Timothy J. Buker
In the National Airspace System (NAS), Air Traffic Control (ATC) expects aircraft to complete ATC clearances in a timely manner in order to maintain minimum separation between aircraft. The end-to-end response time for an aircraft to complete a clearance, as measured from the end of ATC instructing the pilot of the clearance to the just noticeable difference (JND) on the ATC display of the aircraft satisfying the clearance (i.e., initiation/completion of an altitude climb), can be referred to as measured response (MR). This MR is not quantified in Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards, regulations, or policy; however, as manned aircraft have developed along with the Air Traffic Management System, a shared understanding of reasonable and timely response has evolved. By contrast, the introduction of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the NAS has highlighted this issue. This paper seeks to define MR and its components, and describe a methodology, with an example, that can be used to investigate it.

Aerospace Systems: AS5 -- Ground Crew and General Performance Issues

Effects of Type and Strength of Force Feedback on Movement Time in a Target Selection Task BIBAFull-Text 36-40
  R. Conrad Rorie; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Panadda Marayong; Jose Robles; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste
Future cockpits will likely include new onboard technologies, such as cockpit displays of traffic information, to help support future flight deck roles and responsibilities. These new technologies may benefit from multimodal feedback to aid pilot information processing. The current study investigated the effects of multiple levels of force feedback on operator performance in an aviation task. Participants were presented with two different types of force feedback (gravitational and spring force feedback) for a discrete targeting task, with multiple levels of gain examined for each force feedback type. Approach time and time in target were recorded. Results suggested that the two highest levels of gravitational force significantly reduced approach times relative to the lowest level of gravitational force. Spring force level only affected time in target.
Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Factors Requirements BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Damon Stambolian; Gena Henderson; Mariea Dunn Jackson; Charles Dischinger
Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a primitive motion capture library. The library will be used by human factors engineering analysts to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the primitive models are being developed for the library, the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the motion capture of unique ground systems activities is being used to verify the human factors engineering requirements for ground systems used to process the SLS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.
Shift Turnover Strategy and Time in Aviation Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 46-50
  William R. Warren; Beth Blickensderfer; Jessica Cruit; Albert Boquet
Ineffective shift turnover strategies are a contributing factor in aviation accidents and incidents that involve shared maintenance tasks between shifts. Furthermore, a constant demand for available aircraft places time pressure on technicians to complete these tasks. This study examined the effect of shift turnover strategy and time pressure on error capture, accuracy, and completion time of a shared maintenance task between two maintenance shift technicians. Forty aviation maintenance students completed a maintenance task while subjected to conditions of shift turnover strategy and time pressure. The researchers measured three levels of performance; i.e., skill-based errors, trigger event errors, and task completion time. Results indicate that the face-to-face shift turnover strategy was significantly more effective in preventing trigger event errors than the written strategy. Additionally, technicians under time pressure completed the task significantly faster than technicians without time pressure. Results support the need of face-to-face shift turnovers within aviation maintenance procedures.
Controller Use of a Block Occupancy-Based Surface Surveillance Display for Surface Management BIBAFull-Text 51-55
  Emily K. M. Stelzer; Ronald S. Chong; Ronald K. Stevens; Vilas D. Nene
Advanced surface surveillance capabilities cannot be economically justified at small and medium airports, though these airports continue to suffer from runway incursions. A block occupancy-based surface surveillance approach, in which runways and taxiways are divided into blocks and the occupancy of a block is displayed to the controller, may provide a low cost solution to these airports. A medium fidelity simulation was conducted to examine controller situation awareness, workload, and aircraft identification performance with the use of the block occupancy display. Results indicate that the presence of the display improves controller detection of safety critical runway events. However, controllers indicate that associating occupied blocks with aircraft identification is burdensome.

Aerospace Systems: AS6 -- Human Factors in General Aviation and Air Traffic Applications

Human Factors Hazards of IPADS In General Aviation Cockpits BIBAFull-Text 56-60
  Robert E. Joslin
The rapid proliferation and application of portable iPads in General Aviation (GA) aircraft has outpaced the human factors hazard analyses that is normally associated with the introduction of new cockpit technology. Insights into human factors hazards associated with iPad cockpit technology were derived from an information synthesis of archival publically available narratives of anomalous events that were voluntarily and anonymously self-reported by pilots through the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The most prevalent type of anomalous event category in which pilots reported iPad use as the primary problem were airspace/procedural violations with situational awareness and human-machine-interface as the most common human factors causal categories. A narrative analysis revealed issues with improper use of zooming/panning, data selection/reading/entry errors, database currency, and workload due to unfamiliarity with the iPad. These specific themes that informed the human factors causal categories should be considered in hazard mitigation strategies for iPad use in GA cockpits.
Air and Ground-Based Methods for Absorbing Delay in Four-Dimensional Trajectory-Based Operations BIBAFull-Text 61-65
  Amy L. Alexander; Thomas L. Teller
This paper focuses on pilot and controller issues linked to alternatives for absorbing delay in metering conditions under four-dimensional trajectory-based operations (4D TBO). We specifically explored combining two robust and complex tools, Required Time of Arrival (RTA) and three-dimensional Path Arrival Management (3D PAM) Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA) to yield more accurate and reliable delivery to the meter fix while maintaining operational efficiency. This represents the first time that these two robust and complex tools, one airborne (RTA) and one ground-based (EDA) have been used together. The data demonstrated that the combination of RTA (for speed) and EDA (for path) offered significant capacity for absorbing delay, and these two tools seemed to work well together. Specifically, the speed management of RTA was sufficiently stable and accurate to preserve 3D PAM conflict detection and avoidance and active conflict probe functionality. Potential safety and operational impacts/mitigations and human factors issues requiring further exploration are presented.
Accuracy Assessment of Air Traffic Conflict Probe Prototype for Operational Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 66-70
  Anthony J. Masalonis; Jonathan R. Rein; Jay Messina; Ben Willems
This study is part of the Separation Management research program, whose goals include improving the FAA's operational Conflict Probe function. Conflict Probe alerts air traffic controllers to conflicts, or situations where aircraft will be too close to each other. The present study is one link in a chain of research efforts. We used the results of a meta-analysis of Human Factors literature on automation accuracy (Rein, Masalonis, Messina, & Willems, in press) in conjunction with FAA mathematical studies on the accuracy of the current Conflict Probe prototype (Crowell, Fabian, Young, Musialek, & Paglione, 2011; Crowell & Young, 2012) and determined the acceptability of the prototype's conflict detection performance. The present results will feed upcoming operational research including a human-in-the loop (HITL) simulation in which the prototype will be used, by helping establish whether the prototype was 'good enough' to improve joint human-automation system performance. In addition, the present analysis enhances the methodology for determining the accuracy of the operational Conflict Probe, although for this paper we did not evaluate or report on operational data. We obtained data from the aforementioned FAA mathematical analysis, which reported the prototype's performance on some of the standard SDT metrics. We further analyzed their data to generate values on a wider set of accuracy metrics, and compared the results to the findings of Rein et al. regarding how accurate automation 'should' be, as well as considering the results from an operational/face validity perspective. We focused on reliability, a measure of overall percent correct by the automation, which has been used in past multi-experiment analyses of automation accuracy (Wickens & Dixon, 2007), and which Rein et al. found to have a relationship to system performance. With a 'best case' estimate of Conflict Probe reliability, its performance far exceeds that needed to improve system performance. However, the estimate may have been too liberal from an operational perspective, because the input data included many correct rejections where the proximity of the aircraft was well beyond the distances defining a conflict. In such cases, the automation's failure to alert would have been technically correct, but not useful to the controller, who would know without any automated assistance that no conflict was present. We conclude that the current Conflict Probe prototype is suitable for conducting the HITL research, but that additional scenario evaluation research should be run to determine for what kinds of conflicts and near-conflicts the automation can complement rather than duplicate controller skill. This scenario evaluation research, and related follow-up mathematical analysis, will answer the question 'how accurate is Conflict Probe?' The HITL will answer 'how accurate does Conflict Probe need to be?' These answers will be evaluated in conjunction with each other to improve the operational Conflict Probe.
Conflict-Resolution Heuristics for En Route Air Traffic Management BIBAFull-Text 71-75
  Selina Fothergill; Andrew Neal
This paper describes the first study in a PhD program examining the effect of mental workload on conflict resolution decisions in Air Traffic Control. This study focussed on the heuristics controllers use when resolving potential conflicts between aircraft and highlighted contextual factors that affect perceived workload. Using static maps of novel scenarios, controllers were interviewed about how they would resolve potential conflicts and what factors contributed to their workload. Controllers reported that they scanned in a clockwise and top-bottom pattern; grouped aircraft with similar characteristics and used a range of different lateral and vertical conflict resolution heuristics. This research expands on previous conflict resolution heuristics and identifies the sources of complexity, which influence decision choices.

Aerospace Systems: AS7 -- NextGen Human Factors

Understanding the Human Component of Area Navigation Procedures Across the National Airspace System BIBAFull-Text 76-80
  Katherine A. Berry; Michael W. Sawyer
The FAA intends to considerably increase the usage of area navigation (RNAV) approach and departure procedures in order to achieve the proposed NextGen goals for improved efficiency and capacity. RNAV procedures enable aircraft to have better access and flexibility for point-to-point operations. In an effort to better understand the potential impact of increased RNAV usage, a human factors safety assessment was conducted to identify the key human factors issues present in current RNAV operations. An analysis of 100 RNAV narrative-based safety reports from the Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP) and 68 narrative-based safety reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was conducted to identify key causal factors. The analysis found several key causal factors related to RNAV procedure design, controller-pilot communication, automation systems, and track deviations. Specific human performance concerns and mitigation strategies for each causal factor were developed. These results should drive future requirements associated with the implementation of future RNAV procedures.
In-Cockpit NEXRAD Products: Training General Aviation Pilots BIBAFull-Text 81-85
  Michael Vincent; Elizabeth Blickensderfer; Robert Thomas; MaryJo Smith; John Lanicci
Recent developments in avionics have allowed pilots of General Aviation (GA) aircraft to access more in-flight information than ever before, among them being data link weather services. However data link resources, namely next generation radar (NEXRAD), possess discrete limitations which can lead pilots into dangerous situations if they do not interpret the information correctly. The present study evaluated a training module designed to help pilots interpret and use data link NEXRAD weather information. GA pilots in the Midwest and Northeastern U.S. completed a face-to-face lecture course which covered the capabilities and limitations of NEXRAD based weather products and included paper based scenarios to give course participants practice using NEXRAD as a tool for decision making. A comparison of Pre- vs. post-test performance indicated that pilots had significant increases in radar knowledge, performance on application scenarios, and self-efficacy after completing the training.
Evaluation of a Technique to Simplify Depictions of Visually Complex Aeronautical Procedures for NextGen BIBAFull-Text 86-90
  Divya C. Chandra; Rebecca Grayhem
Performance based navigation supports the design of more precise flight procedures. However, these new procedures can be visually complex, which may impact the usability of charts that depict the procedures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there are performance benefits from simplifying aeronautical charts that depict visually complex flight procedures by separating the procedures onto different chart images. Forty-seven professional pilots participated. They used high-fidelity current and modified charts to find specific information from approach and Standard Instrument Departure (SID) chart images that were shown one at a time on a computer monitor. Response time and accuracy were recorded. Results show a consistent and significant reduction in the time to find information from the simplified chart images. Response time varied linearly with a simple clutter metric, the sum of visual elements in the depiction, indicating serial visual search. Most questions were answered with high accuracy, but some questions about altitude constraints yielded low accuracies.
The Insertion of Human Factors Concerns into Nextgen Programmatic Decisions BIBAFull-Text 91-95
  Bettina L. Beard; Rachel Seely; Jon Holbrook; Margaret Galeon
Since the costs of proposed improvements in air traffic management exceed available funding, FAA decision makers must select and prioritize what actually gets implemented. We discuss a set of methods to support cost-benefit assessments of operational and human performance before new automation is introduced. This strategy should assist decision makers in selecting and prioritizing potential improvements, make the process more transparent, and strengthen the link between the engineering and human factors domains.

Aging: A1- Aging Potpourri

Product Physical Interface Design Characteristics for Older Adults with Hand Use Limitations: Laboratory Study BIBAFull-Text 96-100
  Wei-Ting Yen; Carolyn Sommerich; Steven Lavender; Sharon Flinn; Elizabeth Sanders
This study is part of a larger research project addressing the problem of physical interface design for older populations with hand use limitations. Taking jar lids as the example of a product interface design problem provided a focus for the study; the research goal is to systematically evaluate jar lid design ideas that were collected from the prior phase of the study, by means of controlled laboratory testing. Eighteen older females with hand problems participated in the study. A subjective evaluation process was applied to quantitatively examine how different lid design characteristics affected each user's perception of effort and discomfort. The main effect of each lid design characteristic and the interactions between them were explored. The result showed that the medium lid designs (42 mm in diameter) that were perceived as the best were the ones with a tall height, a hexagonal top shape, and a convex side shape; the best small lids (28 mm in diameter) were the designs with a tall height and a hexagonal top shape. There was no significant difference in perceived ratings between the texture conditions.
Aging effect on risk of slipping after walkway perturbation training BIBAFull-Text 101-103
  Jian Liu
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the interaction effect between aging and a new walkway perturbation training on risk of slip initiation. A new walkway perturbation training program was developed using an instrumented, split-belt treadmill. Five healthy older adults and five younger adults were involved in a laboratory study. An inertial measurement unit was attached to the subject's low back region to record 3D acceleration. Transitional acceleration of whole body center of mass (TACOM) was computed to quantify the risk of slip initiation. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between aging and training on TACOM. In conclusion, the walkway perturbation training program successfully reduced the risk of slip initiation for the older adults. Furthermore, the implementation of a fall prevention program should consider the possible interaction effect between aging and training.
Age-Related Differences in Positional Dispersion of Fixations in a Multitask Environment BIBAFull-Text 104-108
  William D. Miller; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
The present study focused on identifying eye-tracking measures that can provide insight into the nature of age-related differences in multitasking abilities. While participating in a multitask paradigm, participants' eye-movements, performance data, and subjective information were collected. An investigation of the nature of eye movements between younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50-65 years of age) adults revealed that while no differences between fixation counts or fixation durations were observed, the dispersion of fixations was significantly different. Specifically, the fixations of younger adults were more diffuse than those of older adults, whose fixations were significantly more concentrated on the screen. In addition, performance differences between the two age groups were observed, with younger adults performing significantly better than older adults. These results demonstrate that unobtrusive psychophysiological measures can be observed in conjunction with the age-related performance differences observed in multitask environments, which may provide insight as to the exact nature of these performance differences.
Fall Risks Assessment and Fall Prediction among Community Dwelling Elderly Using Wearable Wireless Sensors BIBAFull-Text 109-113
  Xuefang Wu; Han Teik Yeoh; Thurmon Lockhart
This study examines the predictive ability of fall risks among community dwelling elderly using wearable wireless sensors. Forty-eight community-dwelling elderly (17 non-fallers and 31 fallers) participated in the study. Timed up and go test, sit-to-stand test and ten-meter walking test were carried out. Activitiesspecific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale was also obtained. The results showed fairly good predictive ability of fall risks among older adults, with stance time, walking velocity and timed up and go time being promising of indicating fall risks. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the signals from the wearable sensors and justify the model. Larger sample size is also warranted to validate the model.
Younger and Older Adults' Attitudes Toward Robot Faces: Effects of Task and Humanoid Appearance BIBAFull-Text 114-118
  Akanksha Prakash; Wendy A. Rogers
Although humanoid robots are being designed to assist people in various tasks, there remain gaps in our understanding of the perceptions that humanoid faces evoke in the user. Understanding user perceptions will enable design of robots suited for the target user group. We assessed younger and older adults' preferences for robot appearance out of three levels of human-likeness. Preferences for robot appearance differed between younger and older age groups. A majority of older adults preferred a human appearance for their robot whereas the intermediate level of appearance (mixed human-robot) was least popular among them. Younger adults' preferences were more distributed across the three levels of human-like appearances. Moreover, preferences for appearance depended on the robot task. The underlying reasons for task-specific preferences toward highly human-looking versus less human-looking robots are also discussed.

Augmented Cognition: AC1 -- Adaptive Systems and Applied Psychophysiology

The Impact of Adaptive Automation Invoking Thresholds on Cognitive Workload and Situational Awareness BIBAFull-Text 119-123
  Christina F. Rusnock; Christopher D. Geiger
Adaptive automation is expected to reduce workload and increase situational awareness; however, these measures can either converge or diverge. Thus, whether the adaptive system improves both, or just one of these, depends on the relationship between these measures for a particular system. By varying the invoking threshold, system designers impact the levels of these measures. This study uses discrete event simulation to characterize the relationship between workload and situational awareness in an adaptive system and finds that the relationship between workload and situational awareness is dependent on the invoking threshold and the level of task load.
Designing an Adaptive Approach for the Real-Time Assessment and Augmentation of Performance of Cyber Analyst Teams BIBAFull-Text 124-128
  Bethany Bracken; Victoria Romero; Sean Guarino; Jonathan Pfautz
Full-spectrum cyber operations, including both Cyber Network Attack and Cyber Network Defense, place enormous cognitive demands on operators and teams. When demands are too high or tasks are not properly allocated, performance degrades, and missions may fail. A thorough, real-time evaluation of the state of the individual and the team would be an effective approach to avoiding operator overload. We describe an approach that supports the real-time assessment and augmentation of team performance. First, the physiological and affective state and the behavioral performance of individual operators is measured by fusing data from individual sensors. Signals from individual operators are then fused to enable a comprehensive and holistic characterization of team performance. Advanced modeling techniques are then implemented to compare current team performance with optimal levels of performance. Finally, augmentation strategies are recommended to optimize performance of cyber teams.
A Shocking lack of Difference: Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Verbal and Spatial Working Memory BIBAFull-Text 129-133
  Brian Falcone; Ryan McKendrick; Raja Parasuraman
Enhancing working memory through brain stimulation can contribute to the neuroergonomic goal of improving cognitive functioning at work and in everyday life. Imaging and lesion studies suggest that verbal and spatial working memory processing may be controlled in separate brain regions. Specifically, verbal working memory has been associated with the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and spatial working memory with the right DLPFC. The current study used noninvasive brain stimulation to further examine this cortical dissociation between verbal and spatial working memory. We administered 2mA or 0.1mA of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left and right DLPFC while participants performed verbal and spatial working memory tasks. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, stimulation of the left DLPFC improved spatial working memory but not verbal working memory. Furthermore, stimulation of right DLPFC did not affect verbal or spatial working memory.
Towards the Development of Quantitative Descriptions of the Neurodynamic Rhythms and Organizations of Teams BIBAFull-Text 134-138
  Ronald Stevens; Trysha Galloway
The goal was to begin developing quantitative approaches for modeling the neurodynamic rhythms and organizations of teams. Raw EEG signals from team members were first transformed into estimates of cognitive workload and transformed again into neurodynamics symbols showing the second-by-second workload of each individual as well as the team. Periods of increased or decreased symbol organization in the data streams were hypothesized to reflect periods of increased or decreased organization around the cognitive construct of workload. These segments were identified by a moving average smoothing of the Shannon entropy over the length of the performance and then related to team speech, actions and team responses to endogeneous and exogeneous task changes. Two-person teams in an unscripted map navigation task developed a common, dominant coordination dynamic for workload whose rhythm was disrupted by exogeneous changes to the task. The entropy fluctuations during these disruptions differed in magnitude and duration within and across performances and were associated with qualitative and quantitative changes in team organization. Similar results were obtained with three and six person teams on other complex tasks. These results indicate that neurodynamic measures may be reliable, sensitive and valid indicators of the changing neurodynamics of teams around which standardized quantitative models can be developed.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE1 -- Cognitive Engineering Across Domains: What the Wide-Angle View Can Provide

Cognitive Engineering Across Domains: What the Wide-angle View can Provide BIBAFull-Text 139-143
  Emilie Roth; Ryan Kilgore; Catherine Burns; Robert Wears; John D. Lee; Greg Jamieson; Ann Bisantz
A strength of the field of cognitive engineering and decision-making lies in its wide applicability across the complex socio-technical systems, which are ubiquitous in modern society. Methods and theoretical advances in CEDM have been both developed through, and adapted across, domains as diverse as nuclear power, health systems, and aviation. While all of these domains clearly differ in terms of their surface characteristics, cognitive engineers are able to make fundamental connections across domains. These connections are supported by the types of methodological tools deployed within CEDM and allow problem solutions to be extended and adapted across domains. This panel brings together researchers and practitioners who have worked in a wide variety of domains to discuss a variety of design and methodological challenges they have and are facing. The panel will focus on synthesizing these challenges across domains -- both across the panellists, and members of the audience, with the goal of providing both guidance and direction for future research.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE2 -- Interruptions

Responses to Alerts and Subjective Reports: Evidence for Partial Dissociation between Processes BIBAFull-Text 144-148
  Gil Kedar; Joachim Meyer; Yoella Bereby-Meyer
We conducted an experiment to obtain objective measures of responses to binary alerts and subjective reports of the effects of alerts. We focused on the effects of the diagnostic value of the alert. Alerts helped improve performance, and participants responded more strongly and faster to alerts with higher diagnostic value. However, they did not report a greater reduction in workload with these alerts. Results show partial dissociation between objective and subjective measures of responses to alerts; while compliance and reliance measures were consistent with reports of system reliance and rating, effects of mean screen time were inconsistent with reports of temporal demand, effort invested and task difficulty, and participants' performance using the alert systems did not correspond with their satisfaction with their own performance. This dissociation should be considered when evaluating the effects of automation.
What does it mean for an interruption to be relevant? An investigation of relevance as a memory effect BIBAFull-Text 149-153
  Sandy J. J. Gould; Duncan P. Brumby; Anna L. Cox
Interruptions cause slower, more error prone performance. Research suggests these disruptive effects are mitigated when interruptions are relevant to the task at hand. However, previous work has usually defined relevance as the degree of similarity between the content of interruptions and tasks. Using a lab-based experiment, we investigated the extent to which memory effects should be considered when assessing the relevance of an interruption. Participants performed a routine data-entry task during which they were interrupted. We found that when participants were interrupted between subtasks, reinforcement and interference effects meant that relevance had a significant effect on interruption disruptiveness. However, this effect was not observed when participants were interrupted within subtasks. These results suggest that interruption relevance is contingent on the contents of working memory during an interruption and that interruption management systems could be improved by modelling potential interfering and reinforcing effects of incoming interruptions.
Do Interruptions Affect the Quality of Work? BIBAFull-Text 154-157
  Cyrus K. Foroughi; Nicole E. Werner; Erik T. Nelson; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
In today's modern-day world where people are constantly being interrupted by cell phone calls, emails, instant messages, and co-workers, it is apparent that interruptions have become a common occurrence. Further, given the growth of technology in the workplace, that is unlikely to dissipate. Although much research has been conducted on interruptions and their impact on performance, little of that work has focuses on the overall quality of performance on the primary task. The current study investigates the role interruptions have on overall quality of work in a creative, complex task. Interruptions were found to reliably reduce quality of work when introduced at different phases of the task.
The Effects of Affect and Inspection Duration on Decision Time and Confidence BIBAFull-Text 158-162
  Kimberly E. Culley; Molly M. Liechty; Poornima Madhavan
A variety of factors modify decision making behavior. The current study examines how affective state and inspection duration impact decision time and decision confidence in a simulated luggage screening paradigm. Participants (N=200), from each of three 'affect' groups -- primed for anger, fear, or sadness -- and a control group were tasked with detecting weapon targets with inspection durations of either two seconds (high time pressured inspection) or six seconds (low time pressured inspection). Results revealed a main effect for inspection duration on decision time, such that participants with more highly time-pressured inspections had longer decision latencies after the luggage image timed out. There were also main effects for inspection duration and affective condition on decision confidence, such that participants in the low time pressure group had greater decision confidence and participants in the fear group had lower decision confidence than those in the control group.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE3 -- Trends in Decision Making Research: How Can They Change Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making in Human Factors?

Trends in Decision Making Research: How Can they Change Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making in Human Factors? BIBAFull-Text 163-166
  Cleotilde Gonzalez; Joachim Meyer; Gary Klein; J. Frank Yates; Alvin E. Roth
Cognitive engineering and decision making has become central to current human factors and ergonomics research and practice. This trend parallels exciting developments in decision making research in general. Experimental economics and judgment and decision making research boom academically and gain much public attention, while theories and economic models of individual choice are expanding and gaining recognition in applications and practical solutions to real-world problems. This symposium brings together three leading figures in different traditions of research in decision making: Gary Klein represents the naturalistic decision making approach. Frank Yates represents research on behavioral decision making and heuristics and biases. Alvin E. Roth, the 2012 Noble laureate for economics, represents game theory and market design applications in economics. The invited speakers will present their views of the different research traditions in decision making and they will provide some thoughts on the trends and possible future developments of research, which we hope will provoke new ideas and discussions in Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making in HFES.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE4 -- Situation Awareness

Methodologies for Assessing Situation Awareness of Unmanned System Operators BIBAFull-Text 167-171
  Patricia L. McDermott; Alia Fisher
Situation awareness (SA) in human robot interaction is an important issue -- because it is so essential to reconnaissance tasks and because remote viewing of the environment makes it so difficult. Two query-based techniques for assessing SA are presented and contrasted. Participants provided information regarding detection and identification of potential threats during a scenario. After the scenario, operators reconstructed where they navigated, the targets they encountered, and the identification of target type (e.g., friendly, neutral, or enemy). The first SA coding method (perception-based) compared post-experiment recollections of targets (location and type) to information the subject provided during the scenario, using the operator's perceptions during the scenario as a baseline. The second SA coding method (reality-based) compared the same postexperiment recollections to actual target locations and type, using objective reality as a baseline. The SA reality metric was significantly correlated with task performance, but the SA perception metric was not correlated with objective performance. The SA reality errors were consistently greater than the SA perception errors, possibly because the SA reality measure includes both recall and task accuracy errors. The discussion explores why and when it would be beneficial to employ each method.
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Alerts BIBAFull-Text 172-176
  Nicklaus A. Giacobe
Situation awareness (SA) in cyber-security is difficult to measure, yet new tools from research and industry promise improved cyber SA. This paper describes a human-subjects experiment using a high task fidelity cyber-security simulator. Participants from two groups (novice and experienced) were recruited and assigned to one of two interfaces (text and visual analytic), in a 2x2 between-subjects experimental design. The underlying cyber-security data presented to participants was the same for each interface, and included intrusion detection, firewall and vulnerability scan reports spanning the same time period. The participant's situation awareness was measured using different techniques including a freeze-probe, post-trial assessments of perceived workload and perceived SA as well as a measure of task effectiveness. Comparison of the results indicate that this multi-method approach of cognitive assessment may be useful in understanding a phenomenon like SA, especially where tasks are complex and virtual such as is common in cyber-security.
Measuring Group Situation Awareness in a Multiactor Gaming Simulation: A Pilot Study of Railway and Passenger Traffic Operators BIBAFull-Text 177-181
  Julia C. Lo; Sebastiaan A. Meijer
This paper provides initial results for the gaming simulation design and measurement of group situation awareness (SA) through a low-tech multi-actor board gaming simulation for the Dutch railway operation. Group situation awareness is measured in this study, as railway operations consist of many dyadic teams and predominantly unique roles. Gaming simulations are herein defined as a simulation of a system using gaming methods, in which humans take part. This particular type of gaming simulation provides a relative fast and low-cost alternative to measure situation awareness in a multi-actor environment compared to the traditional human-in-the-loop-like simulator environment for SA measurements. However, due to variations in their abstraction level, exploration is needed on the validity for measurements of situation awareness in these environments. Thus, the main aim in this study is to determine whether, and if so, how, group SA can be measured in gaming simulations up to a quality that provides significant data for research. The results show potential for SA measurements in low-tech board gaming simulations, although improvement is needed with regards to the different validity types for gaming simulation. This may be achieved through the explicit use of gaming simulation design principles for SA. Future work should focus on further validation and research on the theoretical implications of group situation awareness.
Blue Force Tracking: Effects of Spatial Error on Soldier Performance BIBAFull-Text 182-186
  Geoffrey Ho; Justin G. Hollands; Michael Tombu; Ken Ueno; Matt Lamb
Blue force tracking (BFT) is a military technology that provides positional awareness of friendly forces on a digital map through global positioning system (GPS) technology. For dismounted soldiers, having readily available information on the location of friendly forces can be critical for mission success. However, GPS can report positions that are spatially inaccurate. The present study required 36 military participants to lead a team through a simulated mission in a virtual environment. The mission required the participant to find and support friendly forces engaged in a firefight with enemy forces. Participants had a digital map, an unreliable BFT device, or a perfectly reliable BFT device. The results indicated that participants using BFT engaged enemy forces more quickly, used their BFT to gain a wider scope of their environment, and had lower workload. For most measures, there were no significant differences between reliable and unreliable BFT, suggesting that even an unreliable BFT can provide benefits to soldier performance.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE5 -- The System Usability Scale

The System Usability Scale: Beyond Standard Usability Testing BIBAFull-Text 187-191
  Rebecca A. Grier; Aaron Bangor; Philip Kortum; S. Camille Peres
The system usability scale (SUS; Brooke, 1996) is an instrument commonly utilized in usability testing of commercial products. The goal of this symposium is to discuss the validity of the SUS in usability tests and beyond. This article serves as an introduction to the symposium. Specifically, it provides an overview of the SUS and discusses research questions currently being pursued by the panelists. This current research includes: defining usability norms, assessing usability without performing tasks, and the use of SUS for ergonomics. In addition to this paper, there are four other papers in the symposium, which discuss the impact of experience on SUS data, the relationship between SUS and performance scores, the linkage between SUS and business metrics, as well as the potential for using SUS in test and evaluation for military systems.
Validation of the System Usability Scale (SUS): SUS in the Wild BIBAFull-Text 192-196
  S. Camille Peres; Tri Pham; Ronald Phillips
For almost 20 years, practitioners and researchers have been using the System Usability Scale (SUS) as a 'quick and dirty' method of evaluating the usability of different websites, software, and other human-machine systems. The characteristics of the SUS (e.g., reliability, number of scales, etc.) have been widely discussed in the literature but there have been little written about how the results of the SUS relate to traditional usability results (likely due primarily to these results being proprietary). In this study, eight different usability studies were used to make a direct comparison between the SUS and usability results. A significant but small relation was found between these two scores suggesting that the SUS may be a valid measure to ordinally compare two or more systems.
The Relationship Between Levels of User Experience with a Product and Perceived System Usability BIBAFull-Text 197-201
  Philip Kortum; Megan Johnson
The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a ten-point assessment tool developed as a reliable low-cost subjective usability scale that can be applied to systems in any number of contexts. Research has demonstrated higher usability ratings from users who claim greater experience with an interface than from those who rate themselves as having less experience. This paper describes research to extend this work by experimentally controlling the experience levels of the users over the course of the study, rather than relying on users' self-report. Two studies were conducted. In the first, Microsoft Publisher was used over three one hour sessions, with usability being measured with the SUS at the completion of each session. In the second study, MathWorks MATLAB was used over the course of 14 weeks, and SUS usability was measured near the beginning, the middle and end of this time frame. Results from the MS publisher study showed an increase in reported usability with increased experience consistent with the literature, but the data from the MATLAB study did not show this trend. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, as are future research directions that could shed further light on these unexpected findings.
Using the SUS to Help Demonstrate Usability's Value to Business Goals BIBAFull-Text 202-205
  Aaron Bangor; Kurt Joseph; Marian Sweeney-Dillon; Garrett Stettler; James Pratt
As part of an effort to connect results of human factors testing with the needs of internal business clients, a usability testing program was created for smartphones to establish a link between usability metrics and business indicators of success in the marketplace. In addition to standard usability metrics of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction (ISO, 1998), a measure of hedonics (Hassenzahl, Beu, and Burmester, 2001) was used. Of particular note was the use of the System Usability Scale (SUS) (Brooke, 1996) to provide a single measure of user satisfaction for all smartphones tested. Data from 54 studies involving 872 participants were analyzed to determine if usability metrics predicted marketplace outcomes. Results show that usability metrics are significantly correlated with indicators of business success and that the SUS accounted for most of usability's contribution. Discussion of these results, the value of SUS, and implications for usability professionals are discussed.
The Potential Utility of the System Usability Scale in U.S. Military Acquisition BIBAFull-Text 206-209
  Rebecca A. Grier
There are statutory requirements for human systems integration (HSI) in military acquisition. Despite these requirements, usability is often neglected in the test and evaluation of military systems. The System Usability Scale (SUS) has been proven to be a reliable and valid, yet pragmatic measure of usability for commercial systems. However, there are certain differences between military systems and commercial systems. These differences include users, system complexity, and testing environments. This paper describes the impact of these differences on the use of the SUS in military test and evaluation. Research suggestions and guidance for integrating the SUS into the military acquisition process are also discussed.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE6 -- Knowledge Elicitation

A Cognitive Task Analysis to Elicit Preliminary Requirements for an Automated UAV Verification & Planning System BIBAFull-Text 210-214
  Terry Stanard; George Bearden; Clayton Rothwell
A future vision for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) includes single operators managing multiple UAVs. Enabling operator management of multiple UAVs may be aided by automated planning systems that incorporate the strategies and constraints preferred by operators. To derive an understanding of these constraints, a table-top exercise was developed and a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was conducted with subject matter experts (SMEs) operating four UAVs in a dynamic mission scenario. Results indicated general consensus among SMEs on high level goals, prioritization of tasks, allocation of UAVs to tasks, and UAV flight paths and sensor parameters for fulfilling each task. These results will be directly incorporated into an automated verification and planning system. Participants also indicated preferred ways the automation would be most helpful, such as tracking and displaying mission details, and generating multiple, feasible plans that can be reviewed and modified before executing, echoing previous studies.
Trialling the SMART Approach: Identifying and Assessing Sense-making BIBAFull-Text 215-219
  B. L. William Wong; Neesha Kodagoda; Chris Rooney; Simon Attfield; Tinni Choudhury
It is important to develop tools that support sense-making by providing representations that help to capture the externalisation of the thinking process. The paper proposes SMART, a new method for identifying the sense-making processes of experts by combing probes with cognitive task analysis methods. The Data-Frame sense-making model is used as a theoretical frame, and the probes have been developed around the model to elicit experts' sense-making strategies. However, we found that the SMART probes presently lacked the resolution to capture the experts sense-making and a stronger emphasis of cognitive task analysis methods and observations were required to interpret the findings.
Distinguishing Three Accounts of Situation Awareness based on their Domains of Origin BIBAFull-Text 220-224
  Nathan Lau; Greg A. Jamieson; Jr Gyrd Skraaning
Review of the literature reveals that different treatments and applications of situation awareness (SA) theories and measures often include reference to, or verification from, specific domains. This leads to the postulate that the application domain from which a conceptualization of SA arises plays a fundamental role in that conceptualization. To test this postulate, we compare SA accounts originating from three different domains -- aviation, military command and control, and process control. The comparison of the three SA accounts illustrates that the domain of origin can have significant influence on the fundamental characterization of SA. In particular, the choices for the research paradigm in psychology, cognitive components (e.g., metacognition), orientation of time, and scaling of time can be partly traced back to properties or operator challenges specific to the domains of origin. Our comparison demonstrates that domain properties must be carefully examined for conceptualization and application of the SA notion.
Safety related rule violations investigated experimentally: One can only comply with rules one remembers and the higher the fine, the more likely the "soft violations" BIBAFull-Text 225-229
  Ananda von der Heyde; Sebastian Brandhorst; Annette Kluge
Previous research in Human Factors has shown that improving safety in organizations requires the investigation of the interplay between organizational and person-related factors affecting rule violations. Two prestudies were conducted to test the validity of a newly designed experimental setting for investigating the influence of safety audits (organizational factors) on operators' rule compliance behaviour in a simulated process control environment. The simulation environment simulates a production year of a waste water purification plant (WaTrSim-Annual). The process requires the operator to decide in every simulated week (48 in total) whether to start-up the plant using the mandatory safe start-up procedure or to use an illegitimate start-up procedure, which leads to a higher individual income. Two notable observations were made. Astonishingly, in the first prestudy (N = 5), participants used the illegitimate start-up procedure i.e. 76% of all cases (27 of 36 possible violations), despite the fact there was a fine if participants' violations were uncovered by the safety audit. To reduce the use of the illegitimate procedure, in the second prestudy (N=10), the training of the procedures was revised and the fine was raised. These modifications led to a less frequent use of the illegitimate procedure, but simultaneously led to more "soft violations" in terms of "fine-tuning" the mandatory procedure to scrape the safety limits. As a preliminary conclusion, the prevention of violations should include a just in time on the job training for refreshing the skills required to follow the rules.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE7 -- Modeling

Incrementally Formalizing Graphical Models for Collaborative Operations Research BIBAFull-Text 230-234
  Robert F. Stark; Emilie M. Roth; Michael P. Farry
To address issues in enterprise systems, operations research (OR) analysts need to be able to understand, codify, and communicate various aspects of the issues, such as the environment's conditions and their relationships. Models are a natural way to capture that information, but they must be understandable to a variety of stakeholders involved in improving the enterprise. At the same time, the large amount of available information, such as event history and weather data, can easily overload analysts. To help analysts cope with data overload, it is useful for models to be accessible to computational tools that can provide data processing and visualization capabilities. To support both of those goals simultaneously, we describe an approach that supports the elicitation of qualitative insight from operations researchers and other relevant stakeholders and also provides avenues for computer software to perform semantic labeling and quantitative data processing. This approach directly supports an iterative OR process that satisfies the needs of multiple stakeholder communities, enabling initial qualitative relationships and hypotheses to be further investigated and justified with data-driven conclusions. Building on our previous experiences in knowledge acquisition and quantitative analysis, this paper outlines a new integrated workflow and a collection of graphical representation concepts for operations research and similar domains.
Investigating and Improving Network Visualizations' Effectiveness at Supporting Human Sensemaking Tasks BIBAFull-Text 235-239
  Michael P. Jenkins; Ann Bisantz; James Llinas; Rakesh Nagi
Network visualizations are being used to display relationships in a variety of domains. This is due to their almost universally applicable intended purpose of helping viewers to understand components, attributes, and interconnections of virtually any type of system or environment. Despite their growing use however, there is little empirical research on what types of tasks these visualizations can support and how to design them to support most effectively these tasks. This paper presents findings from an empirical study focused on determining if and how network visualizations can be designed to support information foraging tasks. Results showed foraging performance increased when supported by a network visualization integrating visual cues representing attributes of represented entities and relationships. The largest improvements were in situations where searches involved multiple relevant information categories. There was almost no improvement in performance and in some cases a decrease, compared to a text-only condition, when a basic network display without attribute specific information was used.
Understanding healthcare processes: An evaluation of two process model notations BIBAFull-Text 240-244
  Cara Stitzlein; Penelope Sanderson; Marta Indulska
Process models are powerful tools that facilitate workflow assessment. Stakeholders in healthcare technology projects use process models, but little is known about how current modeling notations support domain-specific challenges of understanding healthcare workflow. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well members of two healthcare stakeholder groups understand clinical processes modeled with Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) vs. a novel Health Process Notation (HPN). Engineers and healthcare-trained professionals were presented with process models and were tested for comprehension of processes and their perception of both notations. Participants showed a better understanding of relationships within the process and performed more efficiently with HPN. Nonetheless, BPMN was effective for representing sequences and task allocations. Professional background influenced certain aspects of stakeholders' performance. The usefulness and ease of use of both notations were rated highly, suggesting that workflow models might help stakeholders assess the impact of technological change.
The Macrocognitive Decision Ladder BIBAFull-Text 245-249
  Robert R. Hoffman; Michael J. McCloskey
Though the seminal Rasmussen Decision Ladder (DL) (Rasmussen, 1981) was expressed in information processing framework and terminology, variations of the DL have been created, such as those by Lintern (2011) and Cummings (2003). This paper reports a further extension of the method of the DL to decompose macrocognitive work. In particular, the upward leg of the classic DL is reinterpreted as a sensemaking activity and the downward leg as a flexcution activity. This scheme for story telling was applied satisfactorily in a project that modeled workflows in intelligence analysis. This paper highlights the degrees of freedom available to cognitive systems engineers in the analysis of workflows for activities that are heavily cognitive and team-based.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE8 -- Algorithm Development and System Design

The Artificial Attention Model and Algorithm: Baseline Testing over the Parameter Space BIBAFull-Text 250-254
  Daniel Roberts; Alexander Morison
Computational models of attention can be used to mitigate data overload especially when multiple sensors provide feeds to a human observer who is not present in the same environment as the network of sensors. Computational models of attention use a variety of functional components to find a balance between reorienting to new events and stimuli and focusing on currently active and relevant events by guiding one or more sampling processes. This research reports the results from tests of the performance of several functional components of one computational attention model that has been designed to address overload from multiple sensor feeds. The functional components tested include parallel center and surround sampling processes, exploratory drive, and temporal dependencies. The tests map algorithm sampling behavior over its parameter space independent of environmental input -- establishing baseline performance prior to testing performance when multiple objects move and new events occur.
Best of Both Worlds: Design and Evaluation of an Adaptive Delegation Interface BIBAFull-Text 255-259
  Ewart de Visser; Brian Kidwell; John Payne; Li Lu; James Parker; Nathan Brooks; Timur Chabuk; Sarah Spriggs; Amos Freedy; Paul Scerri; Raja Parasuraman
The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in civil and military domains has spurred increasingly complex automation design for augmenting operator abilities, reducing workload, and increasing mission effectiveness. We describe the Adaptive Interface Management System (AIMS), an intelligent adaptive delegation interface for controlling and monitoring multiple unmanned vehicles, with a mixed-initiative team model language. A study was conducted to assess understanding of this model language and whether participants exhibited calibrated trust in the intelligent automation. Results showed that operators had accurate memory for role responsibility and were well calibrated to the automation. Adaptive automation design approaches like the one described in this paper can be useful to create mixed-initiative human-robot teams.
An Investigation of the Relation between the Complexity of Problem Structure and Mental Effort BIBAFull-Text 260-264
  Ganyun Sun; Shengji Yao; Juan A. Carretero
The structure of problem space determines possible strategies that can be used for problem solving and determines the effort of solving a problem. How problem solvers generate problem space when solving illstructured design problems has not been well studied. This paper proposes a method to measure the complexity of problem structuring based on the concept of function decomposition. Data collected from 22 participants, including sketches and verbal protocol reports, were analyzed to investigate the relation between the complexity of problem structuring and mental effort experienced in solving an open-ended design task. The results show that mental effort increases with the complexity of problem structuring.
A Visual Warning System for the Identification of Proximity Detection Events around a Continuous Mining Machine BIBAFull-Text 265-269
  Christopher C. Jobes; Jacob L. Carr; Miguel A. Reyes
Underground mobile mining machines pose a difficult safety challenge since their operators generally work in close proximity to these machines in very restricted spaces. Intelligent software for use with electromagnetic proximity detection systems has been developed that can accurately locate workers around mining machinery in real time. If a worker is located too close to the machine, the machine's operation can be partially or completely disabled to protect the workers from striking, pinning, and entanglement hazards. Researchers have developed a visual method of relaying to the operators the interdiction of their machine operations by this intelligent proximity detection system. Several lighting sequence scenarios were human subject tested for effectiveness using a computer-based multimedia platform. Analysis of the test results indicates that a 'fast flash' lighting arrangement is the most effective scenario based upon subject preference, rating, and accuracy of proximity intrusion location identification. This arrangement improves reaction time by 35%.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE10 -- Signal Detection Theory and Applications

Influence of Resource Allocation on Teamwork and Team Performance Within Self-Organizing Teams BIBAFull-Text 270-274
  James C. Won; Daniel J. Hannon
A critical challenge to our nation's Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) community is the complex task of identifying clandestine networks in cultural 'clutter' for counter-terror / counter-insurgency operations. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed an ISR 'Red/Blue' exercise in which teams work to uncover a complex 'Red' network within a simulated urban environment. Teams use wide-area persistent surveillance data and decision support tools to trace relationships between individuals, events, and sites. This exercise was used to investigate the influence of resources on teamwork and performance, modeling the activity as a two-stage decision process, and using Signal Detection Theory (SDT) as a framework to describe performance at each stage and derive metrics to describe teamwork. Team performance and teamwork were investigated within the naturalistic behavior of self-organizing teams, comprising of different organization structures, teamwork behaviors, and communication interactions that were promoted by resource allocation. The affordances provided by available resources drove the mechanisms for communication and collaboration that distinguished the different team types. The research was executed in two phases. Phase 1 involved 46 teams, of varying team size (1, 3, 4, 6, 8) and number of computers per team (1, 2, 3, 4, 6). Results from Phase 1 showed that increasing resources (people and computers) had the potential to improve performance, but once team size grew beyond an optimal size, it caused degradation in performance. Phase 1 also showed that balanced communication interactions amongst team members were indicative of better teamwork. This phase also demonstrated that the exercise, as a two-stage process, could be decomposed into taskwork and teamwork components. Phase 2 extended the study by focusing on the teamwork component of the process within 3-person teams. By holding the team size variable constant, the investigation specifically studied the effect of resource allocation (1, 2, or 3 computers) on teamwork, organization, and performance. Phase 2 results showed that providing each team member his/her own information source (computer), which provided each person the direct ability to produce and process information, resulted in improved teamwork and performance. The indication, then, in designing high performing teams, would be to facilitate each person's ability to acquire, generate, process, and share their own information as active contributors to the team process and performance.
Comparing Traditional and Fuzzy Signal Detection Analysis for Classification Data BIBAFull-Text 275-279
  Corey J. Bohil
This paper provides a comparative analysis of the results of applying traditional signal detection theory (tSDT) and fuzzy signal detection theory (fSDT) methods to classification data. Fuzzy signal detection theory generalizes tSDT by allowing for non-binary assignment of events and responses in order to capture the uncertainty inherent in detection judgments. Because traditional signal detection has been used extensively in classification research, the use of fSDT may ultimately provide new insights in this domain. Results were analyzed from a classification learning experiment in which category discriminability, base-rates and payoffs varied across conditions. Several quantitative and qualitative differences were observed across theoretical perspectives. The difference between derived hit and false alarm rates was smaller in the fSDT analysis, even though the data were the same. Differences between accounts of the base-rate and payoff conditions, as well as between category discriminability levels, were actually reversed in some cases, depending on whether tSDT or fSDT were used. The implications of these differences for interpreting classification data are considered.
Meta-analysis of the Effect of Imperfect Alert Automation on System Performance BIBAFull-Text 280-284
  Jonathan R. Rein; Anthony J. Masalonis; Jay Messina; Ben Willems
What performance level must automation reach to be a net benefit to the user? This paper presents a meta-analysis of 34 data points taken from 12 studies in the human factors literature, each representing the effect of an imperfect automation aid on system performance, relative to baseline. Bayesian regression analysis indicated a consistent relationship between automation reliability (i.e., overall percent correct) and performance, with values greater than 67% associated with performance gains. The credible interval for this crossover point ranged from 55 to 75%. There was also a consistent effect of d', with a crossover point of 1.47 and a credible interval from -0.04 to 2.22. However, we urge caution in using these values as a benchmark criterion, due to the sizeable uncertainty in the crossover estimates and the variability in how researchers compute false alarm and reliability rates. The question 'How good is good enough?' likely does not have a single domain-general answer, with the automation performance threshold varying across task domains and other variables.
The Role of Trust as a Mediator between Signaling System Reliability and Response Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 285-289
  Eric T. Chancey; Alexandra Proaps; James P. Bliss
Alarm researchers have frequently operationally defined operator trust as response rate and reaction time to agree with the signaling system. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of subjective estimates of trust in the relationship between signaling system reliability and response behaviors. Method: Using a sample of 56 college students, we tested the effects of reliability (20% and 40%) on response frequency, alarm reaction time, and subjective trust, using an alarm-based task. Results: Supporting expectations, we found that the more reliable system led to higher response frequency and higher ratings of trust. We did not find, however, that trust mediated the relationship between reliability and response rate. Considering these findings, the minimally trained participants we tested may not have relied on trust. Alternatively, our trust assessments may have lacked specificity for the experimental task. Replication efforts should focus on task experts and refined trust assessment techniques.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE11 -- Expertise and Judgement

Testing the Conditions for Acquiring Intuitive Expertise in Judgment: Evidence from a Study of NCAA Basketball Tournament Predictions BIBAFull-Text 290-294
  Robert Deloatch; Amir Marmarchi; Alex Kirlik
Evidence from psychological studies of both novice and expert forecasters often show that people are overconfident in their ability to make accurate judgmental predictions about future events. In contrast, evidence from much cognitive engineering research appears to show that experienced performers are reasonably well adapted to their task environments and do not display many of the cognitive biases, such as overconfidence, evident in the psychological literature. We present the results of a study providing evidence for both views, and more importantly, for the conditions under which experienced forecasters will exhibit high levels of calibration (little overconfidence) versus poorer calibration and thus overconfidence. In short, good calibration resulted when forecasters were required to draw solely upon high validity base-rate information gained through many years of repetitive exposures to a prediction task, yet displayed overconfidence when they were also provided case-specific information with high salience and interest but little or no predictive validity.
Differences in Monitoring between Experts and Novices BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Carmen Bruder; Hinnerk Eißfeldt; Peter Maschke; Catrin Hasse
In the future of aviation, operators will have to work with highly automated systems. This necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA). A theoretical model for adequate monitoring behavior was developed and eye movement parameters were defined to identify OMA. The present eye-tracking study focused on differences in monitoring behavior between experts (experienced pilots and air traffic controllers) and job applicants. Results from 21 experts and 33 applicants are reported.
Examining the effect of level of stress on firefighters' time-to-decision in virtual reality BIBAFull-Text 299-303
  Nir Keren; Shawn T. Bayouth; Warren D. Franke; Kevin M. Godby
Highly immersive virtual reality environments were used to examine firefighters' decision making process and choice. We report here the effects of acute occupationally-relevant stress level on time-to-decision. When comparing low to high-stress situations, time spent on enhancing situational awareness and overall time-to-decision were significantly longer in the low stress setting. However, time spent on reviewing information that was not embedded in the environment was not statically different. Analysis indicated that stress level did not significantly affect the distribution of final choice. We propose that when stress increases, firefighters sacrifice time available to them to enhance their situational awareness rather than sacrifice information review time; however, stress per se, did not affect their decision choice.
Investigating Perceptual Anticipation in a Naturalistic Task using a Temporal Occlusion Paradigm: A Method for Determining Optimal Occlusion Points BIBAFull-Text 304-308
  Joel Suss; Paul Ward
Perceptual anticipation has often been investigated using a video-based, temporal occlusion paradigm, especially in sport. In this paradigm, the participants' task is to predict the outcome of the situation based only on the information prior to the occlusion. The occlusion point(s) has typically been based on objective, physically-deterministic events (e.g., the point of foot-ball contact in a soccer penalty kick). However, in other dynamic domains (e.g., law enforcement), such events are often less informative with regards to the ultimate outcome of any given action. In this paper, we describe a series of studies that employed a temporal occlusion paradigm in law enforcement. Using a series of converging methods of analysis, the purpose was to identify scenarios that discriminated between experienced and less-experienced law enforcement officers' ability to accurately anticipate the immediate future state of the situation, and then identify the occlusion point in each discriminating scenario that maximized the experience-based difference. This method can be applied to investigations of perceptual anticipation in other dynamic and complex domains.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE12 -- Exploring Communication in Remote Teams: Issues and Methods

Exploring Communication in Remote Teams: Issues and Methods BIBAFull-Text 309-313
  Ute Fischer; Kathleen Mosier; Judith Orasanu; Daniel Morrow; Chris Miller; Beth Veinott
Teamwork in many operational settings, such as air traffic control or telemedicine, involves members who are at different locations and, as in space exploration missions, may communicate under time-delayed conditions. Collaboration and coordination in distributed teams differ from face-to-face interactions in a number of important respects (Brennan & Lockridge, 2006). Remote communication eliminates visual cues and thus requires more effort to establish common ground. Unlike co-present partners, distributed team members cannot rely on gestures and facial expressions to direct the other's attention and provide feedback on their understanding. Voice communication between remote partners maintains the meaning nuances of face-to-face interactions that is lacking in text-based conversations. On the other hand, writing enables partners to re-read and thus to remember past communications, and to review and revise their messages prior to sharing them with others. These resources are not available in spoken discourse where participants have to rely on their memory or external aids (e.g., note pads) to keep track of the flow of the conversation and to compose their contributions. Transmission delays between partners' contributions further complicate grounding (Olson, G., & Olson, J., 2000). The timing of turns is challenging, and individual contributions may be out of sequence, making it difficult for team members to follow the thread of a conversation and thus to develop shared situation models. Moreover, distributed teams frequently consist of individuals with different expertise and different goals, differences that may hamper mutual understanding and collaboration (Bearman, Paletz, Orasanu, & Thomas, 2010). This panel brings together researchers who have examined team communication in a variety of domains: healthcare (Morrow), aviation (Mosier), Navy (Miller), disaster response (Veinott), and space missions (Fischer, Miller). Panelists will be asked to characterize the constraints faced by conversational partners in these domains, to present analytic tools for studying remote communication and to discuss procedural or technological solutions to facilitate collaboration and coordination in distributed teams.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE13 -- Teams

Agent-Based Model of a Cyber Security Defense Analyst Team BIBAFull-Text 314-318
  Prashanth Rajivan; Marco A. Janssen; Nancy J. Cooke
Cyber security defense is often performed by a group of people called cyber defense analysts and yet team work and collaboration in cyber defense is almost non-existent. This study, using an agent-based model of the cyber defense analyst's task and interactions, explored the effects of different collaboration strategies and team sizes on performance measures such as number of intrusion alerts accurately processed by the analysts and rewards they accrue from accurately processing the alerts. This study also explored the feasibility of using agent-based modeling methodologies for studying team processes in the cyber defense context. The model revealed that specific collaboration strategies lead to better performance and that large teams are detrimental to performance.
Phenotypes of Teamwork -- an Exploratory Study of Tower Controller Teams BIBAFull-Text 319-323
  Anne Papenfuss
Background: In complex human-machine-systems often teams of operators perform the tasks. Therefore, the quality of their teamwork processes is a factor that influences the performance of the overall system. There are theoretical models that predict teamwork processes which are critical for good team performance. The work presented in this paper researches how these generic processes become apparent in the domain of air traffic tower control. A scenario was used where operators control two airports simultaneously, i.e. they have to guarantee a safe flow of traffic. Method: An exploratory study was conducted to identify teamwork processes within a team of two tower controllers. Video data from a high fidelity simulation were analyzed and combined with radio communication data. Cognitive demanding situations were analyzed and compared to identical situations worked by a single operator. Results: Teamwork processes within the tower controller teams did not become apparent in explicit verbal communication but rather within the timing of activities. All teams showed a distinct pattern of activity defined as 'flexible task assignment' within this paper. This behavior allowed the teams to respond to new aircraft with less delay, compared to the single controller working the same situation. Outlook: Further examples of 'real-world' teamwork behaviors should be collected to understand the influence of the specific domain on the phenotype of teamwork processes. These behaviors should be mapped to underlying cognitive processes, like team situation awareness. This knowledge might not only be of academic interest but also a helpful basis for other research field of human factors, like enabling automation to serve as a team partner.
Collaboration in Forecasting: How much and what type of information should we share? BIBAFull-Text 324-328
  Sarah M. Miller; Clifton Forlines; John Irvine
Collaboration and information sharing is becoming an increasingly important tool in improving forecasting socio-political events. How can we harness the power of crowds for forecasting without its associated limitations? In this paper, we explore how different types and amounts of information sharing affect forecast quality. The results of the experiment show that, overall, different types of information sharing improve performance over no sharing. In addition, information sharing does not appear to harm aggregation weighting methods that depend on meta-predictions about group performance. We discuss implications for these results for use in improving forecasting.
Resilience in the Face of a Superstorm: A Transportation Firm Confronts Hurricane Sandy BIBAFull-Text 329-333
  David S. Deary; Katherine E. Walker; David D. Woods
A resilient system is able to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can continue to perform as required after a disruption or a major mishap, and in the presence of continuous stresses. This paper examines decision making in a large transportation firm as it anticipated and dealt with major disruptions resulting from hurricane Sandy in the fall of 2012. Results offer lessons of interest to researchers as well as organizations seeking to bolster their own resilience.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE14 -- Bridging the Gap Between Cognitive Systems Engineering Analysis, Design, and Practice

Bridging the Gap between Cognitive Systems Engineering Analysis, Design and Practice BIBAFull-Text 334-338
  Ann M. Bisantz; John D. Lee; Jonathan Pfautz; Catherine Burns; William C. Elm; Priyadarshini R. Pennathur
Cognitive Systems Engineering principles and methods guide analysis and understanding of complex work domains. Taking the CSE analytic findings to the next step, design, is often not clearly specified in process form. Some reasons for a weakly specified and documented CSE analysis-to-design translation process are: (1) variations in work domain, making generalizations difficult; (2) the value of the analyses in relation to the scope of the study -- analyses from better funded studies create more value propositions for a client; and (3) practical resource considerations. The panelists share their insights on tackling challenges in translating results from CSE analysis into impactful and practicable designs, and offer solutions and strategies for making effective CSE recommendations for practice.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE15 -- Trust

Designing for Interpersonal Trust -- The Power of Trust Tokens BIBAFull-Text 339-343
  Plinio P. Morita; Catherine M. Burns
Computer mediated communication systems (CMCSs) are increasingly being used to support activities of virtual teams, improving information exchange and capacity of these teams. However, the technology that enables these teams to benefit from effective and timely information exchange suffers from constraints of media richness, limiting the amount of social information that can be transmitted. This missing information can affect the formation of trust between members of these teams. In this paper, we conducted an ethnographic study to identify behaviors that facilitate the development of trust within face-to-face teams as an opportunity to design interface design objects with similar effects. A key observation was trust tokening, where trust is conveyed through social referents. Trust tokening has the potential to be adapted for use in computer support systems where establishing interpersonal trust is just as important as face-to-face collaborations.
Group Polarization of Trust in Technology BIBAFull-Text 344-348
  Jie Xu; Enid Montague
The aim of the current study was to investigate if the phenomenon of group polarization could be observed in trust in technology. In this study, 24 participants worked as two-person teams and multi-tasked in a computerized environment under varied difficulty and technology reliability levels. The participants provided trust in technology ratings individually before discussion and ratings on the team level after discussion. The results indicated that group discussion made team trust in technology more extreme than the average individual trust in technology before the discussion. Teams working with reliable technology showed a higher trust in technology rating after discussion, indicating a 'risk shift' effect of group polarization. These results show that group polarization should be considered in trust calibration.
Human-Machine Trust, Bias and Automated Decision Aid Acceptance BIBAFull-Text 349-353
  Maranda McBride; Lemuria Carter; Celestine Ntuen
Technological advancements have had a monumental impact on business processes in diverse environments. This study investigates the role of trust and bias on technology acceptance in the medical environment via a two-phase study. In phase one, we assess the impact of user experience on levels of human-machine trust and bias towards automated decision aids (ADAs). In phase two, we explore the impact of human-machine trust and bias towards automation on actual ADA usage. The results indicate that experienced nurses have higher levels of trust and positive bias towards automation; yet, novice nurses are more likely to accept information from an ADA.
The Role of Affective Valence and Task Uncertainty in Human-Automation Interaction BIBAFull-Text 354-358
  Rachel Phillips; Poornima Madhavan
Mood can greatly influence how humans experience and react to the world around them. Therefore, it seems likely that mood can also influence interaction with automated decision systems and that this influence could be exacerbated by characteristics of a given task. To test these ideas, participants completed a series of complex visual search tasks with different levels of uncertainty. Half of the participants received negative mood manipulations and half received positive mood manipulations. Also, half of the participants received the assistance of an automated decision aid and half did not. Participants were assessed for system trust, confidence, sensitivity, and criterion setting. Results revealed that participants in a positive mood were more susceptible to the recommendations of the decision aid and were more confident than those in a negative mood. Automation presence tended to reduce the impact of task uncertainty on the dependent variables. These findings have implications for system design and implementation decisions.

Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making: CE16 -- Function Allocation

Supporting Human-Automation Collaboration Through Dynamic Function Allocation: The Case of Space Teleoperation BIBAFull-Text 359-363
  Huiyang Li; Nadine Sarter; Christopher Wickens; Angelia Sebok
Context-sensitive function allocation can take two forms: (a) 'adaptable automation', where changes in the allocation of functions are initiated by the user, or (b) 'adaptive automation', where the automation triggers changes. However, operational experience suggests that neither approach by itself is sufficient and appropriate. This paper describes a hybrid dynamic function allocation scheme, in which the system and the operator collaborate on selecting and activating appropriate automation levels. The default mode of the system is adaptive automation, but operators can override system selections when they feel the need and have the time to do so. The effectiveness of the hybrid system was compared to fixed function allocations, to an adaptive scheme and to adaptable function allocation in the context of simulated robotic arm control tasks. The hybrid system improved performance and reduced workload in routine scenarios. The system was also preferred over the fixed and adaptive approach by the operators. However, these benefits can be explained mainly by the excessive use of high levels of automation in this condition. The findings have implications on future designs of dynamic function allocation schemes in complex systems.
Predicted Failure Alerting in a Supervisory Control Task Does Not Always Enhance Performance BIBAFull-Text 364-368
  Robert S. Gutzwiller; Benjamin A. Clegg; C. A. P. Smith; Joanna E. Lewis; John D. Patterson
Many emerging technologies mandate supervisory control of automation, with operators monitoring and intervening within systems that change dynamically over time. Providing decision aiding to these operators at critical moments has the potential to improve performance. The current study employed a supervisory control task to examine the effects of supplying a secondary aid (an alert to a predicted automation failure) to task performance. The aid signified potential anomalies in automated planning, and was either present throughout training, or only after some task experience was obtained. The aid occasionally changed operator decision-making, but did not consistently improve task performance. Crucially, the presence of the aid did not improve operators' abilities to reject bad automated plans. Overall these results highlight a critical issue for the development of detection systems to effectively support future supervisory control activities, and the implications are discussed.
Human Redundancy as Safety Measure in Automation Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 369-373
  Dietrich Manzey; Karl Boehme; Markus Schoebel
The present study addresses effects of human redundancy on automation monitoring performance. Forty-six participants performed a multi-task, consisting of three sub-tasks which simulate basic demands of operators in a chemical plant. One of the tasks involved the monitoring of an automated process. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) 'Non-Redundant': participants worked on all tasks alone. (2) 'Redundant': participants were informed that a second crewmate would work in parallel on the monitoring task. (3) 'Redundant-Feedback': like the 'redundant' condition with the additional information that crewmembers' individual monitoring performance would be tracked and fed back. Results provide evidence of social loafing effects in monitoring performance. Participants in the 'redundant' condition cross-checked the automation significantly less than participants in the other groups. Moreover they were more prone to miss automation failures which occurred surprisingly. The anticipation that individual performance will be tracked and fed back after the task in the 'redundant-feedback' group reduced this effect. The results suggest that human redundancy does not necessarily constitute an effective measure for enhancing reliability of automation monitoring and that expected positive effects can at least partially be off-set by a sort of social-loafing effect.
Reducing False Alarms in Automated Target Recognition by Lowering the Level of Automation BIBAFull-Text 374-378
  Geoffrey Ho; Nada Pavlovic; Vincent Myers; Robert Arrabito
Automated target recognition (ATR) technologies are designed to help operators detect and identify potential threats. However, ATRs can generate a high number of false alarms (FA), resulting in low operator trust and potential automation disuse. In this study, we examined whether lowering the level of automation (LOA) of ATR could reduce FAs and support automation compliance and reliance. Participants performed a visual search for a target with or without the help of ATR. The ATR operated at three LOAs and two levels of reliability. The results suggested that the lowest LOA resulted in greater automation compliance and reliance. Operators also performed better in one measure of diagnostic accuracy under the low automation condition. The findings suggest that operating ATR at lower LOAs provide an effective method for improving ATR use and for detecting potential threats.

Communication: C1 -- Cyber Warfare, ASL, and Text-Speak Communication

Right Hemisphere Prefrontal Cortical Involvement in Text-Speak Processing BIBAFull-Text 379-383
  James Head; Kyle M. Wilson; William S. Helton; Ewald Neumann; Paul N. Russell; Connie Shears
As text-based communication increases in the civilian and military workplace (Finomore, Popik, Castle, & Dallman, 2010), so does the potential to encounter text-speak. It has been proposed that processing text-speak (I wll tlk 2 u l8tr, I will talk to you later) comes at a cognitive cost (Head, Helton, Russell, & Neumann, 2012). To the authors' knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the potential physiological cost of processing text-speak. In the current study we investigate the cognitive cost of processing text-speak by measuring performance on a dual-task while also measuring cerebral oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex. Sixty-four university students completed a dual-task which included a conscious priming task and a vigilance task. They also completed a text-speak questionnaire (Head, Helton, Russell, Neumann, & Shears, 2011). The behavioral results failed to show any significant difference in performance between text-speak and correctly spelled text. However, the physiological measurements revealed that the right prefrontal cortex has significantly greater activation when text-speak is shown, thus suggesting a RH compensatory effect. A significant correlation between the text-speak questionnaire and right-hemisphere activation suggests that the right-hemisphere contains the cognitive tools for overriding potential difficulties in processing textspeak.
Biomechanical Comparison of American Sign Language Interpretation and Conversation BIBAFull-Text 384-388
  Abigail Donner; Matthew Marshall; Jacqueline Mozrall
Sign language interpreting is an occupation that requires a combination of high physical and cognitive demands. Professional sign language interpreters frequently suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders, but the problem does not seem to be as widespread for Deaf people who, similar to interpreters, frequently use a signed language. This study compares the biomechanics of American Sign Language (ASL) interpreting with the biomechanics of ASL used in casual conversation between professional interpreters and Deaf students. Results indicate that interpreters use, on average, 22% larger wrist deviations and 7% higher levels of wrist velocity when they interpret, compared to when they use ASL in conversation. During conversation, no significant differences in wrist kinematics were observed between the Deaf students and interpreters who participated in the conversation. However, the Deaf students tended to sign with larger wrist deviation than the interpreters.
Exploring the Effects of "Low and Slow" Cyber Attacks on Team Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 389-393
  Vincent Mancuso; Gregory J. Funke; Victor Finomore; Benjamin A. Knott
This paper describes an experiment on the effects of low and slow cyber attacks on team decision making. Specifically, the study focuses on how targeted communications, disguised as originating from reliable sources, can be used to disseminate false information and instantiate biases in a team to disrupt normal decision-making processes. Using a team consensus task (the Life Event Stress Test), we manipulated the presence of a shared anchor (the disguised communication), and the presence of individual anchors. Our results indicated that, while teams were able to utilize their collaborative processes to reject the shared anchors, they were still susceptible to individual anchors. While only an introductory study with a limited sample size, the results contribute to both the cyber security and team decision-making literature. Implications for future research are also discussed.
Effects of Cyber Disruption in a Distributed Team Decision Making Task BIBAFull-Text 394-398
  Victor Finomore; Adam Sitz; Elizabeth Blair; Katherine Rahill; Michael Champion; Gregory Funke; Vincent Mancuso; Benjamin Knott
Stories of cyber-attacks have been prevalent in the public media and the cyber security market has grown greatly to help meet this demand. However, much of the effort has been focused on development of better hardware and software solutions with little thought to the human factors of cyber security. This investigation sought to gain a better understanding of the influence cyber-attacks have on the decision-making and collaboration of distributed team members working together to solve a complex logic problem. Eight three-person teams worked together to piece together bits of information to solve a potential terrorist attack. The time and outcome scores were evaluated for the three experimental conditions, which varied the levels of information injected. The goal of the injected statements was to disrupt the decision-making and collaborative process. Injects that were explicitly negating true facts had the more detrimental effect on team performance while performance in the condition with injects that were more suggestive in nature were no different from the no inject condition. These results shed light into the breakdown in team decision-making when confronted with a contradictory fact thus aiding in our knowledge to build robust collaborative tools.
Human Factors in Cyber Warfare: Alternative Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 399-403
  Benjamin A. Knott; Vincent F. Mancuso; Kevin Bennett; Victor Finomore; Michael McNeese; Jennifer A. McKneely; Maria Beecher
There has been a dramatic increase in the total number of reported cyber security breaches and attacks in recent years. In response, government, and corporate entities have invested billions of dollars in funding research and development efforts for cyber operations, including computer network defense (CND) and computer network attack (CNA). While cyber operations have become an important national priority over the last decade, the Human Factors community has yet to approach it with critical mass. In its purest form, cyber operations are a complex sociotechnical system that can have effects across all levels of an organization. Due to a consistent interplay between human cognition, technology, and organizational constraints within the environment, the Human Factors community is particularly well-suited to address the problem space. We have assembled a panel of six scientists, technologists, and subject matter experts across multiple specializations in the Human Factors community to help begin this increasingly important discussion. The goal of this panel is to have an open discussion on how we can leverage our specializations and expertise to address the cyber operations landscape as a community.

Computer Systems: CS2/I -- User Experience Day: Design Charrette

Triangulation of Multiple Human Factors Methods in User Experience Design and Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 404-408
  Marc Resnick; Jay Elkerton; Pete Maher; Robert Pastel; Ania Rodriguez; Jeff Kelley
There are many design and evaluation methods that have been developed to assess and improve the user experience. Each of them has a unique set of advantages and disadvantages and using them in the appropriate combination is an essential part of human factors practice. Methods vary along several dimensions, including the stage of the design process where they are most effective, the resources needed to apply them, and the types of results that they provide. Triangulation is an approach to maximize the effectiveness of the aggregate user experience design and evaluation by creating a strategic combination of methods that considers each dimension and how they interact. This session demonstrated four user experience methods applied to a single software application and followed with a panel discussion comparing and contrasting the results of each method and how they fit together.

Computer Systems: CS3/I -- User Experience Day: Best Paper Competition

Applying a Macroergonomic Approach to The Design and Analysis of Business Software BIBAFull-Text 409-413
  Raegan M. Hoeft; Shannon L. Fitzhugh
Business software is often seen as more of a nuisance to employees than an aid to more efficient work practices. Many companies are working toward improving this unfortunate phenomenon by attempting to improve the user experience (UX) of business software. This paper proposes that expanding beyond the UX perspective with a macroergonomic approach can improve both the research and design phases of business software development, ultimately providing a more complete picture of the UX by placing more emphasis on the context of use. Toward that end, we present here a preliminary application of macroergonomics to one business software project. First, we present an overview of business software. Then, a macroergonomics approach is defined and the potential value for business software is discussed. Next, we present an example of using macroergonomic principles on a project and the lessons learned during this exercise. Finally, we discuss what we're doing to further expand upon this concept of applying macroergonomic principles to the design and analysis of business software.
Is User-Validation Necessary for a Spanish Translation of the Microsoft Product Reaction Cards Tool? BIBAFull-Text 414-418
  Veronica Hinkle; Barbara Chaparro
Current research on Hispanic consumers focuses on Hispanics as a market segment, not their user experience, usability preferences, or cultural differences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three versions of the Microsoft Product Reaction Cards (MPRC) tool in Spanish when capturing user experience feedback from Hispanic consumers. Since the MPRC tool has never been used in Spanish there was a need to determine whether a user-validated translation can enhance user feedback from Hispanic Consumers better than a direct translation or a translator-validated translation of the same tool. The goal was to determine whether there were any differences in the feedback elicited from Hispanic participants based on the type of Spanish translation of the MPRC tool they were provided (direct translation, translator-validated, and user-validated). The direct translation of the MPRC was done by using the first choice provided in Spanish to the English word in Google Translate. The exact wording provided in Spanish was used as the direct translation for the English word. The translator-validated translation was created by one translator after revising the results from the direct translation. The user-validated translation was created based on an online study with 52 bilingual participants in English and Spanish. Results indicate that the participants in the direct-translation list and translator-validated list were not significantly more satisfied than the participants using the user-validated list. Furthermore, translation quality ratings were not significantly higher for the translator and user-validated translation conditions. Participants seemed resilient to translation quality perhaps due to their bilingualism. Future research should address the effects of bilingualism on reading comprehension of material with poor translation quality.
Employing User-Created Pictures to Enhance the Recall of System-Generated Mnemonic Phrases and the Security of Passwords BIBAFull-Text 419-423
  Marlena R. Fraune; Kevin A. Juang; Joel S. Greenstein; Kapil Chalil Madathil; Reshmi Koikkara
User-created passwords are typically higher in usability but lower in security than computer-generated passwords. This study evaluates the usability and security of a password scheme in which users are assigned computer-generated random passwords and corresponding computer-generated mnemonic phrases. Users created images that matched the phrases to cue password recall at the time of login. Different picture creation methods (drawing, online images, and a combination of both) and a control condition (no picture) were used to examine the effects of picture creation method on password memorability. Login success was measured the day of account creation and after approximately one week. To measure security during the second session, participants were also asked to simulate attackers by attempting to derive others' passwords from viewing their images. Analysis revealed that pictures enhanced password memorability but picture creation method had no effect on password memorability. There were no significant differences in security across the four conditions.
Gestural Workspaces for Computer Interaction: Configuration and Performance BIBAFull-Text 424-428
  Justin Young; Michael Lin; Alexander Bick; Ammar Sarwar; Jack Dennerlein
While the hardware challenges facing integration of hand-gestural controls into mainstream computer interfaces appear to be shrinking, design challenges related to the physical and mental burden required of gesture interfaces remain. This study aims to determine the effect of the gestural workspace configuration (vertical, horizontal, and jointspace) and affordance of arm support on speed, accuracy, and performance when performing pointing tasks on a computer. Seventeen participants played a computer card game (Solitaire) and then completed Fitts' serial clicking tasks to evaluate performance in five gestural workspace configurations implemented using a Microsoft Kinect®. Gestural input configurations were also compared to a traditional mouse input. A traditional mouse performed better than gestural controls in all aspects of performance. Among gestural workspaces, the vertical configuration performed significantly better in throughput and accuracy outcomes. Limitations of the gestural tracking system and large variation in individual performance may hinder establishment of generalized design recommendations at this point; however, gestural workspace configurations with direct mapping to onscreen movements and the presence of supporting surfaces appear to increase user performance and reduce perceived difficulty.
Levels of Automation for Human Influence of Robot Swarms BIBAFull-Text 429-433
  Phillip Walker; Steven Nunnally; Michael Lewis; Nilanjan Chakraborty; Katia Sycara
Autonomous swarm algorithms and human-robot interaction (HRI) have both attracted increasing attention from researchers in recent years. However, HRI has rarely extended beyond single robots or small multi-robot teams. While one of the benefits of robot swarms is their robust capabilities and the ability of their distributed algorithms to deal autonomously with the complex interactions amongst swarm members, there is undoubtedly a need for humans to influence such swarms in some circumstances -- especially when these swarms are operating in unknown or hostile environments. In this paper, we approach the problem of human-swarm interaction (HSI) using previous research in levels of automation (LOAs) in HRI. We create a target searching task whereby the swarm can operate at two different levels of autonomy: an autonomous dispersion algorithm, or user-defined goto points. We investigate what environmental conditions are conducive to different amounts of human influence, and at what point further human intervention has a detrimental effect on the swarm's performance. The results show that for complex environments containing numerous obstacles and small passageways, there is indeed a need for some human influence; however, after a certain point, further influence causes performance degradation.

Education: E1 -- Human Factors in Everyday Life

Discussion Panel Human Factors in Everyday Life BIBAFull-Text 434-437
  Arathi Sethumadhavan; Anne McLaughlin; Tim Nichols; Richard Pak; Mac Smith
Majority of the sessions at the human factors and ergonomics society conferences in the recent years have focused on the applications of human factors and ergonomics in safety-critical domains, be it studying handoffs in health care, next gen and air traffic control or supervisory control of unmanned aerial vehicles. While this work is certainly important, there appears to be fewer sessions focused on how human factors can be integrated into everyday living. On any given day, users interact with a myriad of technology, tools, and equipment: smartphone alarm systems, microwaves, washing machines, navigation systems, sports gears, and video games. Unfortunately, a lot of these systems may not be designed with the same amount of attention to the cognitive, perceptual, and physical limitations and capabilities of humans as with safety-critical systems. While the main premise behind the use of technology is to lower human errors and improve efficiency, technology can contribute to inefficiencies and dissatisfaction if not designed well. The goal of this panel is to discuss how human factors and ergonomics can be applied to design technology and systems that are used in everyday activities, including sports, video gaming, and personal computing. The panelists will share their experiences with the audience, focusing on challenges and successes involved in designing such products. The panel will invite the audience to discuss ways to address the challenges and increase the successes.

Education: E2 -- Life, the Universe, and Academia: Success in Early Career Academia

Life, the Universe, and Academia: An Interactive Discussion on Balance and Early Success for Potential Academics BIBAFull-Text 438-442
  Nicholas Kelling; Wendy Bedwell; Gregory M. Corso; Haydee M. Cuevas; Joseph R. Keebler; S. Camille Peres; Bruce N. Walker
The human factors discipline has always benefited from a strong connection between industry and academia. However, the increasing need of an educated industry workforce has created a potential concern of maintaining a viable academic workforce. Students, in particular, have previously voiced apprehensions regarding academic careers when compared to industry options. The balance between industry and academia should be preserved. Therefore, to aid in this equilibrium, an open discussion centered on student inquiries about early academia is needed to maintain an understanding of the current academic environment. Specifically, the most beneficial interaction may be through discussions between those interested in academia and those currently entrenched in multiple facets of success in early academic careers.

Education: E3 -- Practicing Relevant Skills in the Classroom: Advice From Experts in the Industry to Professors

Practicing Relevant Skills in the Classroom: Advice From Experts in the Industry to Professors BIBAFull-Text 443-446
  Esa M. Rantanen; Daniel J. Colombo; Sarah M. Miller; Amy L. Alexander; Frank C. Lacson; Anthony D. Andre
A particular challenge to professors of human factors/ergonomics courses in academia is to make their syllabi and course contents relevant to the demands placed on graduates from human factors programs as they enter the labor market. Recent surveys suggest that academic curricula indeed fall short of expectations in several critical areas. To respond to these challenges and the demonstrated deficiencies, a panel of human factors professionals from various areas in the industry suggested ways to incorporate relevant skills exercises in academic curricula. This panel is part of an ongoing dialog between employers of human factors/ergonomics professionals in the industry and the professors of human factors students in academia.

Education: E4 -- Invisible Factors: Strategies for Raising Awareness of Human Factors Among Undergraduate Students

Invisible Factors: Strategies for Raising Awareness of Human Factors Among Undergraduate Students BIBAFull-Text 447-451
  J. Christopher Brill; Patricia R. DeLucia; John M. Flach; David B. Kaber; Robert J. Youmans
The objective of this Education Technical Group (ETG) panel is to discuss the problem of recruiting students into the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) discipline and to offer strategies and solutions for effectively increasing awareness of HF/E among undergraduate students in psychology and engineering. Each panelist was selected because of his or her experience with and commitment to HF/E education. Drs. J. Christopher Brill, Patricia DeLucia, John Flach, David Kaber, and Robert Youmans will participate in the discussion. Dr. Brill will provide an introduction to frame the discussion and will present effective strategies for increasing undergraduate enrollment in HF/E courses. Dr. DeLucia will provide her perspective on integrating human factors into an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Dr. Flach will discuss how exposing undergraduates to the tangible, design-related aspects of HF/E may increase student interest. Dr. Kaber will discuss the need for increased emphasis on graduate education in Industrial Systems Engineering. Dr. Youmans will present perspectives on how the realities of academia disincentivize faculty members from focusing upon undergraduate student development.

Education: E5 -- HF/E Education in the 21st Century

Curriculum Development for HF/E Graduate Students: Lessons Learned in an Ongoing Effort to Educate and Meet Industry Demands BIBAFull-Text 452-456
  Adam W. Pickens; Mark E. Benden
As a department, we were tasked with completely revising a HF/E and safety curriculum that had not been thoroughly revised or updated for years. We were producing students that could recite the same information all HF/E professionals know by heart and is the basis for our profession, but were having trouble finding gainful employment upon graduation. Our task was to update the curriculum in such a way as to still impart the knowledge and skills needed by HF/E professionals, but in a way that tailors that skill set and knowledge to something they can apply in an industry setting based on first-hand experience. Results three years post review shows students graduating with multiple job offers and advancing in their career paths at rates faster than their peers.
Archival Human Factors Jobs Database as a Tool for Tracking Trends in Skills and Knowledge Expectations in the Labor Market BIBAFull-Text 457-461
  Esa Rantanen; Christopher Claeys; Daniel Roder; William Moroney
To educate the future human factors/ergonomics workforce and meet the demand for new professionals in the field, academic institutions must pay close attention to the ever-changing skills and knowledge expectations in the labor market. These trends are not easy to track, however. Surveys of new professionals about their experiences in their first jobs or surveys of employers about their experiences with new hires suffer from low response rates, nonresponse bias, and the one-time nature of survey research. A better way to track labor market trends is to continually analyze human factors job postings for education and experience requirements specified in them. This paper describes development of a database for that purpose. We also discuss ways of analyzing unstructured text data in the database. The results of analyses of these data include summary statistics of frequencies and their correlations, clusters of similar jobs, and a continually updated mathematical model to classify jobs in the database. These results will be subjected to longitudinal analyses when the database contains sufficient data.
What can Training Researchers Gain from Examination of Methods for Active-Learning (PBL, TBL, and SBL) BIBAFull-Text 462-466
  Catherine Gabelica; Stephen M. Fiore
In this paper we examine three 'active-learning' methods that have evolved out of learning research in a variety of disciplines -- problem-based learning, team-based learning, and studio-based learning. Our goal is to review and contrast these methods to identify their unique and similar features. We additionally outline which of their features holds potential for improving learning in collaborative contexts. We consider their common instructional features and learning principles, to determine which are potentially indicative of effective active learning.
Eleven Tips to Find Course Materials When Time is Limited BIBAFull-Text 467-471
  Paul Green
New faculty and others have limited time to develop new courses and course lectures. Using a short course on human factors and nuclear power as a case study, the author identified tips for finding course-related online resources, which can accelerate the development of course materials. The 11 resources include (1 and 2) course syllabi in the education resources sections of society web sites or otherwise posted on the web, (3) lecture material linked to those syllabi, (4) lectures on the web found using the topic name and '.ppt' extension, (5) graphics found using the Google image tool, (6) books on Amazon.com sorted by relevance, (7) key articles found using Google Scholar, (8) key articles found using databases such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, (9) reports on industry specific web sites (e.g., Electric Power Research Institute), (10) standards on the International Standards Organization web site listed under technical committee work programs, and (11) videos on YouTube.
Focused Learning: Control of Cognitive Load in Instructional Material for a Computer Algebra System BIBAFull-Text 472-476
  Tom Robinson; Catherine Burns
Increasingly, students learn to use computer-based tools to support their coursework in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics (STEM) courses. A common educational strategy is to introduce the new tool along with new course material, having students learn the tool and the course material simultaneously. We looked at how two simultaneous learning goals affect students' learning of a computer algebra system (CAS), a tool increasingly used in STEM education. The study described involved teaching a group of students some basic CAS commands through one of two sets of instructional materials that used different contextual examples, based on either familiar or unfamiliar mathematics, which theoretically, based on predictions of cognitive load theory, imposed different levels of cognitive load. The students' learning of the CAS concepts was tested and their workload during learning and testing was measured. We showed that the students in the familiar math case performed better on a test of CAS concepts and that they reported a lower workload when completing the test. This result was consistent with the predictions of cognitive load theory. The results of this study point to the potential importance of managing the cognitive load of instructional material when training students in the use of advanced educational software systems.

Education: E6 -- Teaching and Learning Human Factors

Engaging Engineering Students With Transportation Safety BIBAFull-Text 477-481
  Lesley Strawderman; Catherine Lewie; Katherine King; Yunchen Huang
In this paper, we will introduce a newly created education module in transportation safety. The module is aimed at undergraduate engineering students, whose exposure to this topic is extremely limited, if they are exposed at all. Topics in the module include driver speed compliance, distracted driving, pedestrian safety, and vulnerable road users (VRUs) with an emphasis on young drivers. The module incorporates a number of items, including lecture material (both instructor and student versions), in-class activity, and laboratory exercises. The learning module is intended to supplement existing courses in engineering curricula. The goal of this learning module is to provide industrial engineering students with current research and knowledge in transportation safety. The module was recently piloted in an undergraduate Industrial Ergonomics courses. Results regarding the effectiveness of the module, as well as results on the student attainment of educational objectives, will be discussed.
Usability, Engagement, and Satisfaction of Two e-Textbook Applications BIBAFull-Text 482-486
  Jo R. Jardina; Barbara S. Chaparro
Many schools and universities are starting to offer e-Textbooks in place of traditional paper textbooks. While this option is typically more cost-effective, limited research has been done to demonstrate whether e-Textbooks are a viable alternative in the classroom. This study investigated the satisfaction, perceived workload, engagement, and comprehension of two separate e-Textbook applications, Kindle and Inkling, for tasks involved in studying for a college-level quiz. The ability to use the e-Textbook for studying, to make notes and bookmarks, and to navigate throughout a chapter was examined. Participants using each application demonstrated an improvement in their comprehension scores. Despite this, participants discovered several issues which impacted overall ease of use on both applications. For instance, the table of contents was problematic on the Kindle and locating a specific page was problematic on Inkling. Details on these findings and design implications are discussed.
Teaching Undergraduates about Human Factors through Research in Usability BIBAFull-Text 487-490
  Lisa Jo Elliott
Educators in Human Factors face an important question: how to attract, educate and prepare undergraduate students for a future in Human Factors. Previous work in Experimental Psychology suggests that students learn more from participating in laboratory studies than they do from lectures in a classroom setting (Elliott, Rice, Trafimow, Madson, and Hipshur, 2010). Information exists on how to configure a usability lab for a commercial practice, but little information exists on how to organize an academic usability lab for undergraduates. This study describes the organization of one such academic lab which focuses on in vivo development projects. The report describes the configuration, practical advice, and lessons learned to date.
Using On-line Learning Tools to Support Increased Engagement in Human Factors Courses: The Researcher Profile Assignment BIBAFull-Text 491-495
  Jonathan Histon
The breadth of potential topics in a Human Factors course can make it difficult to tailor course material to student interests, a key factor in engaging students in the class. The wide-spread adoption of on-line learning tools is creating new opportunities for instructors to develop assignments that use collaboration and peer review to engage students in human factors classes. This paper describes the Human Factors Researcher Profile assignment, an online, collaborative assignment for a senior undergraduate human factors class. Initial experience with the profile assignment has been promising; brief results of a survey probing students' experience with the assignment are presented, and lessons learned and opportunities for improvement are described.

Environmental Design: ED1 -- Environmental Design With Special Populations

Classroom Design and Student Engagement BIBAFull-Text 496-500
  Martha J. Sanders
Student engagement is fundamental to a learner-centered curriculum across the United States. This study examined behavioral, cognitive, and emotional aspects of student engagement as related to classroom design in 189 health science students in four different courses. Measures of student engagement in two sections of the same class were compared according to classroom space design: grouped tables or traditional rows. Results indicated that students in lecture-based classes showed higher cognitive engagement in classrooms organized in traditional rows, whereas students in group-focused classes showed higher cognitive engagement in classroom space organized around grouped tables. Results did not support the current belief that innovative seating improves student engagement across all contexts. The relationship between student engagement and classroom design must be considered along with class format and learning objectives.
Characterization of Pulling Forces Exerted by Primary School Children While Carrying Trolley Bags BIBAFull-Text 501-505
  Massimiliano Pau; Bruno Leban; Maurizio Paderi; Maury A. Nussbaum
Carriage of school items by children remains an issue of concern, mainly due to the large loads they have to bear, starting from early age when the musculoskeletal structure is still under development. As such, children are potentially exposed to important risks of acute or chronic injuries due to such carriage. While backpack remains the most common modality, in recent years trolley bags are increasingly considered and used. Trolleys may be of benefit, as much of the load can supported by the ground, and the muscular effort is limited to a pulling force. Nevertheless, there are situations (like stair ascent and descent, steps, and ramps) where the pulling force increases or, in some cases, has to be fully supported by a single arm. Under such conditions, the use of trolley bag might be disadvantageous versus a backpack, in that the latter allows a symmetrical distribution of the load on the body in a range of conditions. To provide more empirical evidence, which at present is very limited, this study aimed to characterize the pulling forces needed when using a school trolley bag, on a route that includes level and inclined ground surface, steps, and stairs. A sample of 195 students of primary school (age 8-11) participated, and they were asked to pull an instrumented trolley loaded with school items (total load = 62 N) from the school entrance to a classroom located one floor up in the school building. The results, expressed in terms of 'pulling force vs. time' curves, show that particularly during stairs ascent and descent, one arm may exert quite large dynamic forces, and that these forces can be up to twice the mass of the carried load. Although exposure to such loads is quite limited, the methodology described here highlights the potential for concern and provides a basis for future investigations of the contribution of trolley bag carriage and disorders of the arm-shoulder complex among children.
Research Tools to Learn About the Needs of Children With Autism BIBAFull-Text 506-510
  Rachna Khare; Abir Mullick
Even after several years of disability acts and accessibility guidelines in the world, not much work is done for the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. To be truly inclusive, this is one unexplored area that universal design needs to emphasize more. In buildings and spaces, the existing accessibility standards address physical access but children with cognitive limitations are often unrepresented. The major reason for this to remain untouched in design practice and research is unique ethical challenges associated with observing or involving people with such limitations. The present study uses research methods grounded in environment behavior and rehabilitation studies to establish enabling environments for children with autism in educational spaces. Though the research employs multidisciplinary, multilayered approach in multiple sequential stages, the current paper describes ethically-appropriate evidence-based research tools developed by the authors to uncover findings that are not yet known.
Design Competition as a Pedagogical Tool to Teach Concepts of Universal Design in India BIBAFull-Text 511-515
  Rachna Khare; Ajay Khare
Universal Design Education has become a worldwide movement but demonstrated limited acceptance amongst architecture, planning and design schools in India. There are no specialized courses on universal design in the country, this is perhaps because the benefits of designing in a more inclusive way are not immediately apparent and also because there are many other pressing issues that require attention. Center for Human Centric Research in School of Planning and Architecture Bhopal organizes an annual National Student Design Competition on Universal Design (NSDC-UD) together with a Hands-on Workshop and Exhibition, to explore creative ways to offer universal design to the students of diverse design disciplines in the country. The center has organized three such events since 2010, which provided an intense and experiential universal design understanding to the students. The events also provided an opportunity to explore Student Design Competition as a pedagogical tool to meet educational objectives that the school is striving to include in Academic Curricula. The paper presents this annual academic event in brief and summarizes the lessons learnt for the contextual aptness of Universal Design and Universal Design Education.

Environmental Design: ED2 -- Environmental Design: Person-Environment Interactions

A Pilot Study Investigating the Impact of Indoor Wall Construction on Performance during Long Monotonous Work BIBAFull-Text 516-520
  Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Ken-ichi Takao; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
Generating of a mistake and the decline in working efficiency in monotonous work are what is depended on the fall of the concentration, corporal or mental fatigue. Importance is attached to the indoor environment in monotonous work. There is history which has used the natural material (for example clay, grass, bamboo charcoal) for interior materials in Japan. Moisture conditioning properties and absorption properties of an indoor pollutant substance of natural material for interior materials may have a certain influence on monotonous work. Therefore, purpose of in this study is to clarify the influence which an interior material has on working efficiency and fatigue under the long monotonous work with different interior material as wallpaper, clay wall, bamboo charcoal. Long monotonous work was segregation of the examination literature. The motion of segregation work was recorded by video camera. The brain waves under work were measured. The fatigue survey questionnaires before and after work were performed.
Ship Engine Control Room Design: Analysis of Current Human Factors & Ergonomics Regulations & Future Directions BIBAFull-Text 521-525
  Steven C. Mallam; Monica Lundh
A ships' engine control room (ECR) is of central importance to the engine department and overall vessel operation. Modern day ships are becoming increasingly technologically sophisticated and computerization has a growing presence in the engine department. A large portion of marine engineering duties are now dedicated to remotely managing equipment from the ECR. In order to optimize control room design and layout from a user-centered perspective numerous safety-critical industries have implemented mandatory regulations which utilize human factors and ergonomics (HF&E) knowledge. However, shipping's highest governing body, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) currently lacks regulatory support in this area. This paper examines international mandatory regulations and non-mandatory guidelines regarding the human element which influence ECR design. Analysis reveals that a disconnect exists between the regulations which specify ship design criteria and those which specify seafarer training competencies and safe operational procedures. From a regulatory perspective ECR design does not support ECR operation. Assessment of current regulatory gaps establishes a base for developing engine department-specific HF&E applications. Safer shipping practices can be fostered by facilitating operational demands through work environment design. However, due to the complexity of international shipping laws mandatory regulations are the only way to ensure effective implementation.
Space Planning for Multitouch Workspaces: Preliminary Analysis Considering Screen Angle and Scenarios of Use BIBAFull-Text 526-530
  Shuo Zhou; David Feathers
Shared multitouch workspaces offer interpersonal exchanges similar to whiteboards and chalkboards, with additional benefits such as distributed collaboration and longitudinal data capture. This research investigated the space needed for single person use and prospective multi-person collaborative work on a mock multitouch screen system. Sixteen participants performed simulated movements of multitouch tasks across three screen angles (horizontal/vertical/self-adjusted) and two scenarios of use (single person/mock two-person collaboration). Basic space planning needs were analyzed across screen angles and scenarios of use. Preferred screen tilt angles are discussed and two fixed screen angles are suggested.
An Observational Study on Usability Issues in Mumbai Local Trains BIBAFull-Text 531-535
  Shikha Agarwal; Abir Mullick; G. G. Ray
Observational studies are common in the field of environment-behavior and they investigate the causal effects of environmental design on people through action-reaction behavior. The quality and strength of evidence provided by an observational study is determined largely by its design and how it is conducted. This paper employed observational study to learn about the usability and challenges encountered in the use of a commuting system in Mumbai, India. The study determined the influence of the physical environment on diverse users to outline environment-behavior issues and the level of environmental misfit that exists between users and the railway stations and local trains. The study concludes with design questions for further investigation through experimental research and interviews. Why do people avoid using stairs and instead choose to cross railway tracks? How does the two way traffic flow impact navigation on the station while commuters board or alight trains? What factors contribute to people collision on stations?

Environmental Design: ED3 -- Environmental Design Potpourri

Benefits of a Proactive Office Ergonomics Program BIBAFull-Text 536-540
  Alan Hedge
Ergonomics surveys were conducted in a software company with a proactive ergonomics program before and after moving to a new headquarters building in which workstations were equipped with ergonomic products. Sixty-seven workers voluntarily completed surveys of their workstations, workplace environment, work-related health and well-being (job satisfaction, happiness). Post-move results showed that after moving to the ergonomic workstations the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort was reduced, overall satisfaction with workstations improved, and employees were happier and more satisfied with their job.
People, Places and Potentialities in Design -- Research Tools to Examine Challenges in Behind-the-Counter Work BIBAFull-Text 541-545
  Abir Mullick; Gourab Kar
This paper describes the use of research tools that examined challenges of American older adults involved in behind-the-counter (BhC) work. The study investigated human-environment interactions in BhC Workspaces and learned about environmental fit or how the capacity of a person combines with environmental demands to determine performance in a given situation. Three sequential research tools trace study, marginal participant observation and user interviews, were employed to evaluate four types of BhC workspaces -- library circulation counter, hotel check-in counter, airport check-in counter and office reception counter. The interdependent, sequential cycle of adoption of these tools offered important means to learn about worker needs in BhC work, identify environmental problems and develop inclusive design solutions that offer safety, prevent injury, and prolong work-life. The multi-pronged approach helped develop information about BhC work and confirm interdependent methods.
Full Scale Models for Person-Environment Interaction: Case Study of a Bathroom BIBAFull-Text 546-549
  Abir Mullick
Full scale models are representational systems that can be experienced through touch, movement and operation. For designers and researchers, they are simulated designs to observe, interact, experience and study future systems. An important research tool, full scale models offer an efficient means to examine early design assumptions, evaluate problem definition and develop designed systems. This paper will provide an overview of using full-scale models by product and environmental designers for research, design and development. A bathroom case study that employs full scale models conduct accessibility research and validated design assumptions is presented. The findings of the research indicate that accessible bathrooms do not offer functional benefits to all users, mostly to users with disabilities. And yet, everyone likes accessible features and they want to have them. The results of the research were used to develop a universal bathroom. The paper concludes with recommendations for a new modeling system.
Sustainable and User-Centered: Applying Human Factors Solutions Towards Improving the Effectiveness of "Green" Buildings BIBAFull-Text 550-554
  Brittany C. Sellers; Stephen M. Fiore
With climate change threatening the very existence of our species, it is imperative the scientific community collaborate to help solve environmental problems. Human factors professionals are uniquely qualified for addressing issues of climate change, particularly because the potential consequences represent the most human-centric of all concerns. That is, when designing for sustainability, and thus for the preservation of our species, we are designing with the human in mind. However, without a user-centered design, many sustainable products and features may either fail to be adopted or may not be used in a way that maximizes performance, thus limiting their utility and potential benefits. One area of sustainable development that could greatly benefit from improvements in usability is the realm of 'green' and LEED-certified building. However, in order to provide improvements in this area, there are a variety of issues and considerations that must be first addressed. In this paper, we provide an overview of each of these areas of concern within green building, describe what is currently being done to solve these issues, and provide human-factors-based solutions to increase usability, performance, and satisfaction within the realm of green building.
Observing the Urban Space: A Protocol to Analyse Street Furniture in Public Squares BIBAFull-Text 555-559
  Laura Gouvea; Claudia Mont'Alvão
In wider research, in progress, a study was performed, using an Ergonomic approach, to understand the relationship between street furniture and its users and also the importance of its existence in a built space named 'plaza'. This paper presents the first phase of an analysis focusing in physical aspects of some public plazas, where an observation protocol was developed. This tool was used in field research, and its results validate its utility in research in environmental design area.

Forensics Professional: FP1 -- Theoretical Issues in Forensic Human Factors

Practical Method for Forensic Testing of Fall Impact Effects on the Human Spine BIBAFull-Text 560-564
  Steven Albert-Green; Jason Young; Erin Potma
The purpose of this study was to develop a safe, inexpensive, and practical method for estimating the force on the human spine during simulated fall landings for forensic investigations. Although the injury tolerances for the spine are known, the mechanics of spinal loading during fall landing are not well-established and thus limit the use of injury tolerances in establishing risk in landing injury cases. Measuring these spinal forces directly using live subjects would be invasive and unsafe; cadaver and animal models are expensive and do not capture the true mechanics of human spinal loading. As an alternative, this study proposed the use of a heavy duty punching bag to simulate the semi-rigid properties of the human body during a fall landing. The heavy bag was instrumented with accelerometers and dropped from various heights to measure impact acceleration. A live test subject instrumented with accelerometers on the foot and low back performed feet-first fall landings at relatively low heights to establish data for comparison. The impact acceleration for the heavy bag and back acceleration of the live subject matched well at corresponding heights. The measured foot accelerations did not correlate directly with those of the bag, possibly due to additional limb acceleration during landing. These preliminary results suggest that a heavy bag could be used to estimate the acceleration experienced by the back during simulated fall landings in forensic investigations.
Sophisticated User: When Does a Jury Find Users to Have Sophisticated Knowledge after Determining Liability/Failure to Warn? BIBAFull-Text 565-569
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Daniel R. Spencer
This study evaluates the legal term 'sophisticated user.' With increasing frequency, Defendants are relying on this defense to mitigate a failure-to-warn finding. It is the jury's duty to determine which users are sophisticated, based on jury instructions given by the judge. This study evaluates the sophisticated user defense in terms of a recent Federal case finding, in which a jury found a failure to warn, along with finding that the user was sophisticated. The jury instructions in this case include several elements, any one of which may lead a jury to determine that a Plaintiff is sophisticated without any corroborating evidence; this study examines each element separately.
Evaluation of mobile eye tracking for forensic analysis of pedestrian falls BIBAFull-Text 570-574
  Michael Kuzel; H. Harvey Cohen; Robert Rauschenberger; Joseph Cohen
The forensic analysis of falls is most commonly reliant on the application of generalized non-case specific research to support whether a person would be likely to gaze in the direction or area of a hazard prior to a fall event. The recent developments of mobile eye tracking systems may allow for direct, on-site evaluations, to assess probability of detection of claimed hazardous conditions. Herein, an evaluation of a mobile eye tracking system is provided based on the application to a forensic case study that involved a transition from one space to another through a door. The results of the initial study were further evaluated in three other areas, with similar settings. The results of two studies demonstrate support for the hypothesis that a person would not look down at the landing area when stepping. However, in achieving these results, we found both support for the utility of the device as well as certain limitations for future use.
Stairway Step Dimensions: Replication of a Measurement System Study BIBAFull-Text 575-579
  Christopher L. Hicks; Roger C. Jensen; Joselynn M. Adams
This paper reports a replication of a prior measurement system study. The earlier study examined the nosing-to-nosing measurement system for measuring steps in a stairway to determine uniformity. In each study, two individuals measured six flights of stairs on two separate occasions. The difference in the first and second study was the different measurers. Step attributes used to define uniformity are riser height and tread depth. The measurers in each study obtained 744 values of riser height and 672 values of tread depth. The ANOVA for each study indicated that less than 4% of the variance in these attributes was due to the measurers; the remainder of variability was due to physical differences in the steps. ANOVA results of this replication led to essentially the same conclusion as the initial study -- that the nosing-to-nosing measurement system is acceptable for measuring step dimensions.
The Pathology of Everyday Things -- Stairways -- Revisited BIBAFull-Text 580-584
  Jake Pauls
The Pathology of Everyday Things was the title of the Arnold M. Small Lecture in Safety at the 1996 HFES meeting. It focused on epidemiology and etiology in stair-related injuries. Balancing these micro-ergonomics issues were macro-ergonomics issues focused on the role of standards and codes for design. Now, nearly two decades later, there have been major developments in both micro and macro factors. Both need to be understood if we are to appreciate the very large growth in the rate of such injuries in the USA since 1996.

Forensics Professional: FP2 -- Forensic Human Factors Applications and Practice

A Forensic Human Factors Analysis of a Playground Designated for Special Needs Children BIBAFull-Text 585-589
  Ilene B. Zackowitz; Alison G. Vredenburgh
Human factors research has long addressed the issue of hazard management and the adequacy and effectiveness of product design and labeling. One issue that most professionals in the field would likely agree on is that manufacturers typically have the most information about hazards associated with their products and that they are in the best position to pass that information along to consumers. This case study regards a manufacturer who chose to provide multiple and conflicting labels when supplying product information to customers. The manufacturer failed to apply the appropriate label to its product and left that task to the consumer. A human factors analysis evaluated the design, labeling and relevant standards of care for playgrounds.
A False Sense of Security: Hazards Associated with Working on Flat Roofs with Parapet Walls BIBAFull-Text 590-594
  Kevin Runge; Alison G. Vredenburgh
Roofing is a dangerous business in any capacity. The following is a case study presenting the dangers of working on a flat roof with parapet walls. A key issue is the workers' situation awareness of their jobsite while being attentive to their task demands. This case addresses the role of perceptions, safety meetings, trip hazards, barriers and how different subcontractors affect each other's safety as methods to address this hazard.
An Efficient Method to Evaluate Skylight Hazard Conspicuity BIBAFull-Text 595-599
  Benjamin R. Stephens; Allyson M. Ramsey; Gregory R. Angeloff; Kiara S. Glaze; Justin T. Stephens; Zackrus Z. Wilson; George S. Pearl
We evaluated a skylight fall hazard using an 'attention conspicuity' measure, in which observers detect and identify hazards in brief presentations of photographs taken from a skylight accident site. Hazard detection and object identification varied with the scene and indicated that the flat-panel warehouse skylights were not conspicuous. A second experiment replicated these results and demonstrated that longer viewing time (3 sec vs. 15 sec) did not improve detection of the skylight, but did increase detection of other hazards. These results suggest that assessment of conspicuity using a quick hazard detection technique may be valid and efficient.
Falling from Airstairs while Disembarking from a Commuter Plane BIBAFull-Text 600-604
  Alison G. Vredenburgh; Ilene B. Zackowitz
When performing forensic human factors analyses it is imperative to carefully evaluate plaintiff and defense claims to determine if they are consistent with theoretical research and science. This case study concerns a fall from airstairs by a woman who was disembarking an airplane. At face value, the circumstances seemed valid enough that the airline chose to settle with the plaintiff before any kind of expert evaluation was performed. However, when the plane manufacturer was countersued, it chose to hire a human factors expert. A human factors expert analysis revealed that the plaintiff's description of the incident was inconsistent with the evidence. Also considered were safety factors of airstair and airplane design. This case highlights the importance of evaluating witness descriptions of an incident as part of a forensic human factors analysis.

Forensics Professional: FP3 -- Working With Visual Media Professionals to Create Compelling Presentations

Animated Computer Graphics: Working with Visual Media Professionals to Create Compelling Presentations BIBAFull-Text 605-609
  Gary D. Sloan; Joshua Cohen; Jay Syverson
Human factors safety and forensic professionals are often tasked with inspecting a scene where an accident or injury occurred. Retelling a story accurately and in a compelling way, without a visual context, is challenging. Three-dimensional computer modeling is a tool that some human factors professionals are utilizing to assist in their practice. The goal of the alternate format session is to demonstrate how this technology can be beneficial to human factor (HF) professionals. In addition, the session will emphasize the need for collaboration between HF practitioners and visual media professionals whose skill sets embrace computer graphics and animation. Two such professionals have accepted invitations to participate in the session. Both have earned acclaim as innovators, which will be supported by the content of their respective presentations.

Forensics Professional: FP4 -- Current Issues in Warnings: Selected Case Studies and Applications

Current Issues in Warnings: Selected Case Studies and Applications BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Michael J. Kalsher; Kenneth R. Laughery; David R. Lenorovitz; S. David Leonard; Michael S. Wogalter; Edward W. Karnes; B. Mayhorn
Warnings and warnings-related issues continue to be an important focal point of litigation in the U.S. Many personal injury cases, for example, revolve around questions associated with residual hazards in products, facilities, or user environments -- and the steps the manufacturer of a product, or the parties responsible for the safe operation of a facility or environment have taken to mitigate people's exposure to those hazards. If hazards are not eliminated through design and/or guarding, then warnings and other types of precautionary instructions are commonly used to alert, inform, and remind people about the hazard(s) and to tell them what they should do to avoid or at least minimize injury. A significant body of published HFE / Warnings literature over the past several decades has addressed a myriad of issues associated with the proper design, fabrication, and application of warnings and warning systems. However, the continuing stream of warnings-related cases being litigated in courts across the country, serves as an important reminder that warnings issues are not merely abstract and theoretically interesting topics of discussion, but are rather items of concern that can have a significant, real-world impact on the conduct of our daily lives. The four HFE forensic professionals in this panel discussion session provide different but related perspectives on warnings-related applications and case study examples drawn from their respective professional practices. These discussion topics help to provide greater insights into the ways in which warnings-related research and theoretical constructs are translated into warnings experts' opinions in actual court cases. The following are brief summary descriptions of each discussant's presentation.

General Sessions: GS3 -- Globalization of Ergonomics

Globalization of Ergonomics -- Panel Summary BIBAFull-Text 615-617
  Thomas J. Smith
The purpose of this panel is to highlight key milestones in the globalization of ergonomics in the modern era. The past six decades have seen the emergence of human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) from a nascent, largely unrecognized field of study to a well-established human science discipline with global reach. Key milestones include: (1) emergence of ergonomics science in Europe; (2) establishment of national ergonomics societies in a growing number of countries; (3) recognition of the view that ergonomics and human factors share common scientific goals and aspirations; (4) establishment of ergonomics programs in a number of large corporations in the post-World War II era; (5) founding of a growing number of scientific HF/E journals; (6) introduction of ergonomics into developing countries; (7) establishment of common standards for both ergonomics education and certification of professional ergonomists; and (8) the ongoing telecommunications revolution, supporting a worldwide community of HF/E professionals. Panel members will provide perspectives on a selected number of these key issues.

General Sessions: GS4 -- General Methods for Communicating the Structure and Content of a Cognitive Model

General Methods for Communicating the Structure and Content of a Cognitive Model BIBAFull-Text 618-622
  Walter Warwick; Christian Lebiere; Randolph M. Jones; David Reitter; Stuart Rodgers; Scott A. Douglas
The modeling and simulation of human performance forces the analyst to confront a range of well-known but difficult challenges. One challenge the analyst does not seem to face is a shortage of human performance modeling tools. But because there is no uniform framework for expressing the content and structure of a human performance model, it is difficult to understand what is at stake in the implementation of a given model and all but impossible to compare and contrast different models despite the proliferation of quantitative modeling tools. The inability to communicate model structure and content is not just a practical shortcoming: it is a major impediment to assessing the validity, plausibility, and extensibility of human performance models. The latter aspect is particularly important as it prevents the incremental construction of large human performance models along standard software engineering practices. The goal of this panel discussion is to review past and ongoing efforts to develop general languages that specify cognitive models at a functional level of description. We do not expect a standard to emerge from this discussion, but rather we hope to canvass both the theoretical and practical issues that confront any attempt to develop a uniform language that describes different modeling frameworks.

General Sessions: GS5 -- A Tribute to Bentzi Karsh: His Contributions to Macroergonomics in Health Care Research and Education

A Tribute to Bentzi Karsh: His Contributions to Macroergonomics in Health Care Research and Education BIBAFull-Text 623-624
  Pascale Carayon; Brian Kleiner; Michelle Robertson; Matt Weinger; Tosha Wetterneck; Rich Holden; Joy Rodriguez; Enid Montague
The objective of this session is to display the range of contributions to human factors research and education by Professor Bentzi Karsh who passed away too early in August 2012. The session will consist of a series of presentations by colleagues and students of Professor Karsh to highlight his deep and broad contributions.

General Sessions: GS10 -- Situation Awareness, Automation, and Memory Mix

Human Differences in Navigational Approaches during Tele-Robotic Search BIBAFull-Text 625-629
  Richard T. Stone; Michael Dorneich; Stephen Gilbert; Elease McLaurin
This study investigated the navigational approaches used by humans when operating a simple tele-robot in a simulated search and rescue operation. Tele-robots are being increasingly used in safety-critical operations. During tele-operation, the situational awareness of tele-robot operators needs to be supported. Navigation depends on psychological skills of perception and cognition, and can utilize different problem solving strategies. However, there is limited knowledge of how operators develop situational awareness while navigating tele-robots. The study was conducted to understand if there were distinctive, identifiable strategies in the way operators navigated. When participants manually tele-operated a robot in a remote physical environment, two distinct navigation strategies were found (labeled driver method and searcher method). The result of this work can be used to inform the design of human-centric tele-robot navigational algorithms that can support a variety of human navigation strategies.
Visual Aids for Merging Mixed Arrival Traffic: Effects on Controllers' Performance, Situation Awareness, and Mental Workload BIBAFull-Text 630-634
  Bernhard Weber; Hendrik Oberheid; Anne Papenfuss
Innovative concepts for fuel-efficient and noise-reduced air traffic suggest a better utilization of modern aircraft capabilities, like time-based planning of continuous descent approaches (CDA). One challenge of such concepts is the integration of aircraft flying CDA approaches and conventional air traffic. In this study, we examined the effects of different levels of automation provided by four different variants of visual aids on performance, information acquisition, resultant situation awareness, and workload with N = 78 students in a complex and dynamic microworld setting. While visual assistance had a positive effect on performance, attention was deviated from real aircraft. Nevertheless, attention deviation did not negatively affect conflict detection when assistance was activated manually. Moreover, anticipation of future losses of separation was improved by visual aids.
Task Shedding and Control Performance as a Function of Perceived Automation Reliability and Time Pressure BIBAFull-Text 635-639
  James P. Bliss; John W. Harden; H. Charles, Jr. Dischinger
Research has demonstrated that workload and past machine performance influences operator allocation of task responsibilities to machines. We extended past investigations by offering task operators the opportunity to relinquish task control to a robotic entity. Forty-three participants navigated a remotely controlled vehicle around a prescribed course under conditions of low or high time pressure. While navigating, they could allocate camera monitoring to a low-or high-reliability automated agent. Results showed most participants retained control of the camera; others relinquished control immediately. Time pressure and reliability did not interact to influence task performance. Course navigation time was faster under high time pressure but errors were unaffected. Bivariate correlations revealed a positive relation between self-ratings of robotic expertise and pressure to perform, and between pressure to perform and errors committed during navigation. These results demonstrate low levels of trust in the robotic camera and comparative sensitivity of navigation time to time pressure.
Actively Guided Practice Enhances Kinesthetic Memory Development BIBAFull-Text 640-644
  Richard T. Stone
In traditional weld training novice students often have their hands guided by their instructor, however due to class ratios this kind of guidance is very limited in traditional training scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of providing automated movement guidance similar to that which would be provided by a master instructor. The author hypothesized that such a system would in enhancing kinesthetic memory development and by so doing increase student performance. Sixteen welding students participated in this study. These students were trained to weld under different protocols: free-hand (traditional group) and guided (machine group). The tradition group was trained by a certified welding inspector and given physical guidance intermittently. In the machine group, participants were given guidance via a kinesthetic weld trainer (KWT) (designed by the author) that required participants to actively repeat a specific welding angle and speed. The results showed with such guidance, performance and the ability to control the speed with which a weld was made were significantly improved.
Examining Text Enhancement Methods to Improve Look-alike Drug Name Differentiation Accuracy BIBAFull-Text 645-649
  Calvin K. L. Or; Heller H. L. Wang
The current study examined the use of several text enhancement methods with the aim of improving the accuracy of differentiating between confusing look-alike drug names. It also evaluated the influence of orthographic similarity. Although Tall Man (uppercase) lettering is recommended as a means of improving such differentiation, studies have produced mixed results on its efficacy, with other typographic styles suggested as potential alternatives. In the present study, university students (n = 40) participated in a differentiation task in which they were asked to determine whether the two drug names in each of 336 potentially confusing name pairs were the same or different. Accuracy (the proportion of correct responses) was the study outcome. The experiment adopted a two-way, within-subjects factorial design, the factors being text enhancement (Tall Man, boldface, boldface+Tall Man, colored text (red), and contrast and a lowercase control) and orthographic similarity (low, medium, and high degrees of similarity). The results showed text enhancement, orthographic similarity, and the interaction term to have significant main effects. The accuracy of each of the five text enhancement conditions was significantly greater than that of the lowercase control, and, relative to Tall Man lettering, all of the other text enhancement methods produced significantly higher degrees of accuracy. With regard to orthographic similarity, a high degree of similarity yielded the least accuracy, followed by medium and low degrees. Highlighting the primary dissimilarities between confusing drug name pairs using text enhancement methods clearly makes the names easier to differentiate, although Tall man lettering may not be the most effective such method. The results of this study demonstrate that other typographic styles have greater potential to render confusing look-alike names more visually distinct and to reduce confusion errors.

Health Care: HC1 -- Human Factors in the Wild: Insight Teaching HF to Frontline Professionals in Health Care

Human Factors in the Wild: Insights into teaching HF to frontline professionals in healthcare (Discussion Panel) BIBAFull-Text 650-653
  Yan Xiao; Yin Shanqing; Rollin J. (Terry) Fairbanks; Laurie Wolf; Anjum Chagpar; C. Adam Probst
This session will focus on lessons learned when teaching human factors (HF) to those working in the frontline in healthcare. HF education may help frontline professionals to appreciate the perspective to consider strengths and limitations of humans, to design robust solutions to counteract human limitations, and to test systems to understand how human users may interact with the systems. Frontline professionals are often the 'owner' of problems and key stakeholders. Their efforts to improve work systems are driven by solutions, as opposed to learning systematically about concepts and methodologies. Five human factors practitioners who work within healthcare systems will present their innovative approaches to teach HF methods and concepts to frontline professionals. The session will be designed to lead to a discussion about how to assess the impact of HF teaching approaches.

Health Care: HC2 -- Surgery

Laparoscopic Surgical Team Stress Measures During Randomized Controlled Trials of 4-port vs. Single Incision Cholecystecomies: A Pilot Study BIBAFull-Text 654-657
  Susan Hallbeck; Bethany Lowndes; Juliane Bingener
The Institute of Medicine lists investigations of the comparative effectiveness for minimally invasive surgical procedures as a research priority. As new minimally invasive procedures are developed, comparisons of the resulting workload contribute valuable information about the impact of the new procedures. Recent reports suggest that surgeon workload can influence patient outcomes. Measurements of stress and fatigue for the surgical team participating in a randomized NIH supported trial of single incision versus traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy were obtained. These stress measures showed that the SURG-TLX was sensitive to the difficulty of the surgery. The SURG-TLX and a surgical difficulty score was obtained from the surgical team for 16 laparoscopic surgeries by surgical approach (8 SILC and 8 4-port) showed that for this small sample size, there were no statistically significant differences in length of surgery, degree of difficulty, nor patient considerations such as post-operative pain scores. In addition, no statistically significant differences in the individual Surg-TLX subscale scores or Surg-TLX total for the surgical team overall or for the surgeon alone by surgical platform. This is likely due to the small sample size reducing the power of the tests.
Strategies for Training Technical and Non-technical Surgical Skills BIBAFull-Text 658-662
  A. Miller; T. Sun; N. Pyatka; J. Brewer; S. Ganapathy; P. Weyhrauch; J. Niehaus; C. G. L. Cao
Even though laparoscopic surgery has become the preferred technique for many surgeons, the methods of training are not standardized. Most simulators and training programs focus on training technical skills, neglecting very important non-technical skills. This study examined the benefits of different strategies of training both technical and non-technical skills amongst different experience levels. Twenty-seven subjects participated in the study (9 novices, 9 intermediate experience level subjects, and 9 advanced subjects). They were divided into 3 groups: technical, non-technical, and combined. Subjects practiced a purely technical, purely non-technical, and a combined technical and non-technical simulated surgical task. Data from pre-test and post-test scores as well as the last training block of combined training were analyzed for time to completion, number of technical errors and number of non-technical errors. Results suggest that there may be a benefit to training non-technical skills alone first, or in conjunction with technical surgical skills in novices during the beginning phases of learning.
The Impact of New Instruments on Surgical Performance in Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery BIBAFull-Text 663-667
  Amine Chellali; Caroline G. L. Cao
Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is a recent emerging technique for performing general surgery procedures such as cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal). However, the advantages of NOTES over conventional laparoscopic surgery, the current gold standard, are still questionable. The aim of this study was to show the impact of introducing new surgical instruments in the NOTES technique on surgical performance in a cholecystectomy as compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery. A set of videos from real cholecystectomy cases performed using these two different techniques were analyzed. Hierarchical task decomposition and timeline analysis were conducted for each technique. A comparison to show variations between the two techniques at the task level is presented to highlight the technical issues, and their effects on performance, associated with the use of current endoscopic tools in the NOTES technique. The results show a longer procedural time in the NOTES technique than in the laparoscopic technique with the highest increase in surgical time for dissection tasks. The tools used for dissection were also shown to be inadequate for the task based on the motion analysis. Using this systematic method of analysis, new surgical techniques can be assessed based on performance measures, while areas of design improvement in surgical tools can be identified and related to the performance assessment.
Characterization of the Learning Plateau and the Learning Rate of the VBlaST PT© Simulator with a Kinematic Objective Performance Metric BIBAFull-Text 668-672
  Ganesh Sankaranarayanan; Suvranu De; Caroline G. L. Cao
Gaining proficiency in laparoscopic surgery requires a considerable amount of practice. The VBLaST© is a virtual reality simulator that can simulate the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) tasks. It is equipped to compute and record scores automatically along with kinematic parameters such as path length, economy of motion, motion smoothness, etc. In this study the learning curve for the VBLaST PT© simulator was characterized from both the computed numerical score and the path lengths of the left and right tools. From the learning curve, the learning plateau and the learning rate was also found for both parameters. A total of 6 subjects participated in the learning curve study that consisted of 15 sessions of 10 repetitions of the peg transfer task for a total of 150 repetitions in three weeks. Subjects performed better in terms of higher scores and shorter path lengths within the first practice session but improved their performance thereafter and achieved a stable plateau. Paired sampled t-test on the pre, post and retention tests showed significant learning retention for both metrics. Tool path length is a valid kinematic metric that can be used to assess the learning and retention of laparoscopic surgical skill along with the numerical score computed from completion time and errors.

Health Care: HC4 -- Technology, Design, & Safety

A Bottom-Up Approach to Understanding the Efficacy of Event-Analysis in Healthcare: Paradigm Shift from Safety to Resilience Engineering BIBAFull-Text 673-677
  Sudeep Hegde; A. Zach Hettinger; Rollin J. Fairbanks; John Wreathall; Vicky Lewis; Robert Wears; Ann M. Bisantz
Root Cause analysis (RCA) is a widely implemented event-analysis tool in healthcare, used to improve patient safety. Several studies have assessed the effectiveness of RCA solutions and provided recommendations for improving the approach; however few have suggested a systematic approach to align RCA-based interventions with the realities of work practice in healthcare. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with frontline healthcare staff (nurses, nurse managers and technicians) in order to assess their perspectives on the effectiveness and sustainability of RCA-based solutions in a large academic medical center. In general, preventive interventions such as physical environment or equipment changes were more effective and sustainable than reactive or passive measures such as reviews and compliance checks. A thematic analysis of respondents' narratives highlighted several issues related to the design and implementation of various RCA-driven interventions. The analysis however, also revealed important facets of frontline medical practice, including the role played by staff in overcoming systemic hazards in order to increase patient safety. These findings are discussed in the context of the emerging Resilience Engineering approach to safety in complex systems.
Evaluating the Redesign of an ICU Bedside Emergency Equipment Drawer BIBAFull-Text 678-682
  Bonnie Harris; Nicholas Ford; Tobias Grundgeiger; Bala Venkatesh; Penelope Sanderson
Patient safety can be improved by redesigning how medication and bedside equipment is stored in the intensive care unit (ICU). Grundgeiger (2011) noted that an ICU emergency bedside drawer often was not fully stocked. He used human factors principles to design an illustrated and divided drawer that significantly improved drawer restocking compliance and is still in use in the ICU. In two studies we set out to clarify exactly why Grundgeiger's redesign succeeded. In Experiment 1 we tested the redesigned vs. old drawer design using stationery contents and psychology student participants. In Experiment 2 we used the tests developed in Experiment 1 to compare ICU nurses' performance with the redesigned vs. old drawer design. Both experiments indicate that the divided and illustrated drawer leads to faster restocking times and overwhelmingly positive user acceptance.
Tailoring Number Entry Interfaces To The Task of Programming Medical Infusion Pumps BIBAFull-Text 683-687
  Sarah Wiseman; Duncan P. Brumby; Anna Cox; Orla Hennessy
Medical devices are often used to administer medication to patients. This task usually requires a caregiver to enter specific numerical values into a device. In such safety-critical domains, it is vital that this task can be done quickly and accurately. We consider whether tailoring the interface to make it easier for commonly entered numbers to be inputted makes this task faster and less error-prone. To evaluate this idea we take data from infusion pumps programmed on the ward and make adaptations to three existing interfaces to make the task easier (by adding buttons or altering the effects of interaction). The results of a lab-based experiment show that tailoring the interface in this way can significantly reduce the number of key presses that are required to complete the task. We also present findings regarding the process of tailoring interfaces for more general device design.
The Value of Including a Picture of the Medicine on Pharmaceutical Labels BIBAFull-Text 688-692
  Meghann Herron; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
There are a number of adverse drug events that occur per year due to ingesting the wrong medication. The present study examined whether including a picture of the medicine on pharmaceutical labels increased the participants' ability to identify the medicine that they should be taking. Participants were shown fake pharmaceutical labels that included either a picture or text description of the medicine's appearance, and were asked to identify the medicine being depicted or answer questions about the information found on the label. Participants performed better on questions relating to the content on the label than on questions asking them to identify the medicine. However, if the depiction was a color picture of the medication, participants performed better on pill identification questions than if the depiction was a black-and-white picture or text description. Thus, a color picture may help patients identify their medicine and reduce the number of cases involving the ingestion of the wrong medication.
How Surgical Robotics Transform the Development of Expertise in Modern Operating Rooms: An Ethnographic Study BIBAFull-Text 693-697
  E. Asher Balkin
Current models of the clinical surgical process, and as a result, surgical education, present robot-assisted surgery (RAS)1 as a simple sequential step in the evolution of surgical treatment from laparoscopy. In an ongoing research program on robot-assisted surgery this paper presents data from the first, ethnographic, research phase demonstrating that the requisite skills for success in the robot-assisted environment are altered from those expected within the laparoscopic domain, and as a result, the training paths and novice-to-expert progression trajectories are noticeably dissimilar.

Health Care: HC5 -- Patient Care

Evaluating Physician-to-Patient Communication: The Effects of Concurrent and Retrospective Assessment on Verbal and Nonverbal Recall BIBAFull-Text 698-702
  T. Robert Turner; Mark W. Scerbo; Gayle A. Gliva-McConvey; Amelia M. Wallace
Research has established that human patient simulators (i.e., standardized patients) are a highly beneficial component of modern medical education and training, but few studies have explored the cognitive factors that affect the ability of standardized patients to make clinical skills assessments during simulated patient encounters. This study examines the impact of multiple scenario evaluation points (as opposed to a single, postscenario evaluation) and serial position effects on the accuracy of verbal and nonverbal clinical performance evaluations. Results suggest that concurrent recall may result in better verbal and nonverbal recall accuracy for clinical skills assessment than the traditional retrospective framework. For formative clinical skills assessment, in which specificity for the purpose of professional development is critical, concurrent evaluation could be considered as a potential alternative to retrospective approaches.
Occupancy and Patient Care Quality Benefits of Private Room Designs for Five Different Children's Hospital Intensive Care Units -- A Human Factors Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 703-707
  Thomas J. Smith
This report summarizes findings from a human factors evaluation of private patient room (PR) designs for five different types of intensive care units (ICUs) in a children's hospital, after conversion from multi-bed designs. The objective was to ascertain if PR designs benefit occupancy and patient care quality on these units. Past research has documented quality benefits of PR designs with NICUs, but possible PR design benefits for the other unit types have not previously been documented. Staff comments, task activity analysis observations, and responses to ranking questions on an occupancy and patient care quality perceptual response survey, were collected. For most PR quality attributes, quality rankings by CVCC staff are consistently lower than those by staff on the other four units. Staff perceptions of quality levels for most PR quality attributes are about the same, or lower than, those for multi-bed designs. This latter finding is aligned with comments by unit staff targeting numerous quality defects with the PR patient care environments. Collectively, the results suggest that the design, operation and management of the PR patient care environments on the five different units confront a challenge in realizing occupancy and patient care quality benefits that match experience with NICU PR designs in other contexts.
Identifying, Developing, and Quantifying Single-Day Quality Measures within the Neonatal ICU BIBAFull-Text 708-712
  Sara A. Lu; Robert E. Schumacher; Michelle Nemshak; F. Jacob Seagull
Assessing safety culture, while valuable, may neglect day-to-day variation in the experiences of individual care providers. Understanding day-to-day variation may be a key to understanding and improving the single-day quality (SDQ) of care providers. The goal of this study was to: (1) determine the variables that contribute to the quality of each day (SDQ), (2) determine the validity and perceived importance of each contributing variable, and (3) determine how well care providers can predict whether the variables will have an effect on their SDQ. Interviews of NICU nurses and literature reviews were used to identify six variables perceived to influence SDQ. A survey tool assessing the six variables and SDQ was developed. Nurses were then surveyed at the beginning and end of each shift, providing a prospective (pre) and retrospective (post) assessment of all six variables plus an overall SDQ rating. The results identified which variables predicted or contributed to SDQ. Although the predictive power of the six variables differed between prospective and retrospective estimations, environmental factors and patient acuity were consistent contributors to SDQ. Overall, understanding the contributors to day-to-day variation can be used to as means to improve the healthcare provider's SDQ and the safety of patient care.

Health Care: HC6 -- Health Care Systems Design at a Crossroads: Challenges, Opportunities, and Strategies

Healthcare Systems Design At a Crossroads: Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies BIBAFull-Text 713-717
  Shawna J. Perry; Hilary J. Mosher; Thomas J. Persoon; Ellen J. Bass; Rollin (Terry) J. Fairbanks; Priyadarshini R. Pennathur
The healthcare work system contains many constraints resulting from changes in workflow and system structure. The panel reflects on challenges in the healthcare work system human factors researchers can address to improve patient safety. The panelists address: (1) the growing complexities in healthcare and patient safety from the provider and patient perspectives; (2) successful applications of human factors approaches to healthcare systems design; (3) and barriers in following a systems approach and strategies to overcome the challenges that remain for enhancing patient safety.

Health Care: HC7 -- Giving Human Factors/Ergonomics Away: How Can We Bring the Benefits of HF/E to Nursing?

Discussion Panel Giving Human Factors/Ergonomics Away: How can we bring the benefits of HF/E to nursing? BIBAFull-Text 718-722
  Martina I. Klein; Patricia R. DeLucia; Alexa Doig; Frank Drews; Francis T. Durso; Anne Miller
Patients spend the most time with nurses compared with other health care providers, and patient outcomes are directly related to the quality of nursing care. Unfortunately, nursing work systems are often not designed to accommodate the limits and capabilities of perceptual, cognitive, and physical processes, which can result in errors. The Institute of Medicine estimated that hospital patients experience one medication error each day. Increasingly, technology is relied upon to reduce errors and improve work efficiency. However, new technologies can lead to unintended consequences. Applying principles of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) to improve nursing work systems and the technologies nurses use has the potential for significant improvements in the quality of patient care. Incorporating HF/E into the nursing domain presents challenges. Conducting research in the nursing environment poses unique logistical issues, and implementing HF/E recommendations requires that nursing personnel accept HF/E as beneficial. The purpose of this panel session is to discuss issues that HF/E professionals encounter when they attempt to incorporate HF/E into the nursing domain. The panelists will summarize the work that they have done with nurses and describe challenges and successes. The panel will invite the audience to discuss ways to address challenges, increase successes, and identify lessons learned in other domains that may benefit nursing.

Health Care: HC8 -- Workload

Observer's Performance and Perceptual Sensitivity for Detecting Critical Patterns in Static Maternal-Fetal Heart Rate Images BIBAFull-Text 723-727
  Brittany L. Anderson-Montoya; Mark W. Scerbo; Rebecca A. Kennedy; Lee A., II Belfore; Alfred Z. Abuhamad; Stephen S. Davis; Suneet P. Chauhan
The present study examined detection performance and perceptual sensitivity for critical patterns in maternal-fetal heart rate (MFHR) signals in single and combined formats. Forty-one undergraduate students viewed simulated images of MFHR signals under four different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. The images contained an acceleration, early deceleration, late deceleration, or no deviation. Further, the deviations varied in amplitude. The results showed that as variability increased and amplitude decreased perceptual sensitivity also decreased and participants experienced reduced ability to detect signals and committed more false alarms. These effects were more pronounced when performing the combined condition compared to the single condition. These findings highlight that interpretation of MFHR signals is subject to misinterpretation and underscores the need for countermeasures.
A Spatial Secondary Task for Measuring Laparoscopic Mental Workload: Differences in Surgical Experience BIBAFull-Text 728-732
  Mark W. Scerbo; Rebecca A. Kennedy; Michael Montano; Rebecca C. Britt; Stephen S. Davis; Dimitrios Stefanidis
The present study examined whether a spatial secondary task could distinguish among different levels of laparoscopic skill. Novices and surgeons with different levels of laparoscopic experience were asked to perform a peg transfer task on a laparoscopic simulator along with the secondary task. The results showed that novices performed more poorly than the surgeons on both the primary peg task and the secondary task. This pattern of results suggests that the primary task was more difficult for the novices leaving fewer attentional resources for the secondary task. Moreover, the results show that the spatial secondary task used in this study is sensitive to differences in mental resources required by individuals with different levels of laparoscopic surgical skill.
Medical Decision Making Performance in Dual-task Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  Shi Cao; Yili Liu
Physicians often perform multiple tasks concurrently, such as diagnosing a disease while talking with another physician about other patients. However, little experimental evidence is available to determine whether a concurrent task affects the quality and timely performance of diagnostic decisions. In this study, we employed a representative medical diagnostic task to examine the effects of concurrent tasks on diagnostic decision making, in which potential confounding factors are controlled to allow the quantification of diagnostic performance and strategies. The results showed that diagnostic performance was negatively affected by a complex concurrent memorization task that required participants to listen to verbal updates and remember information about other patients while performing the diagnostic task. In contrast, a simple concurrent sound monitoring task did not affect diagnostic performance. Participants used the same diagnostic strategies in the single- and dual-task conditions. These findings provide new insights into the cognitive mechanisms underlying medical diagnostic decision and physician multitasking. Implications for the improvement of healthcare quality are discussed.
Nurses' self-reported smartphone use during clinical care BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Birgit Planitz; Penelope Sanderson; Tahli Kipps; Charles Driver
The Nursing Executive at a large tertiary hospital was concerned that nurses using smartphones on duty could be distracted and more vulnerable to clinical error. However, the nursing executive also recognized that smartphones could deliver on-the-job benefits. As a result, they were unsure how best to manage smartphone use. To guide policy, we designed a questionnaire study to survey nurse smartphone use and attitudes towards use at the hospital. Results showed that 57% of the 299 respondents did not carry their phones on duty. There were significant positive correlations between reported frequency of use and nurse unit manager (NUM) attitude, with most NUMs banning cell phones. Nurses found smartphones disruptive and inappropriate while delivering patient care. However, many nurses liked to be contactable by family/friends, and technically competent nurses used phones for work purposes. Age and technology acceptance were significantly negatively correlated, and use/technology acceptance was more prevalent among younger nurses than their older colleagues. The adoption of smartphones by younger nurses suggests that policy should be formulated around allowing phones.

Health Care: HC9 -- Patient-Centered Issues

How Do Older Adults Manage Osteoarthritis Pain? The Need for a Person-Centered Disease Model BIBAFull-Text 743-747
  Laura H. Barg-Walkow; Sara E. McBride; Michael J. Morgan; Tracy L. Mitzner; Camilla C. Knott; Wendy A. Rogers
In the United States, chronic pain affects at least 116 million Americans, differentially impacting older adults. One of the leading causes of pain for older adults is osteoarthritis. This disease affects approximately 14% of the United States population and can cause disability and mobility problems, in addition to having a high cost for the healthcare system. The methods individuals use to manage their pain are contingent upon their model of the disease (e.g., their beliefs about osteoarthritis pain management). The purpose of the present investigation was to: 1) understand what variables older adults with osteoarthritis believe impact pain, and 2) understand current approaches for self-management of osteoarthritis pain. We conducted structured interviews with eight older adults who have osteoarthritis. The interviews revealed current approaches in pain management, as well as gaps in knowledge. We propose an expansion of the idea of a general disease model for pain management that is patient-centered, allowing for personal customization of factors for reducing pain and increasing successful pain-management.
An Investigation of the Informational Needs of Ovarian Cancer Patients and Their Supporters BIBAFull-Text 748-752
  Kapil Chalil Madathil; Joel S. Greenstein; Kevin A. Juang; David M. Neyens; Anand K. Gramopadhye
Numerous Internet-based peer support groups exist to support the informational needs of patients with chronic illnesses. By analyzing the discussions available in the forum of a major ovarian cancer support group, the Ovarian Cancer National Alliance (OCNA), this study investigates the type of information that newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients and their supporters seek. Using content analysis, 206 publicly available discussion posts exchanged on OCNA were analyzed by two researchers. Each discussion point was classified into one of the three broad themes that emerged: ovarian cancer-specific, treatment-related, or coping information. The discussion points were further analyzed using a multinomial logit model to predict the type of the desired information based on the role of the person looking for the information, the disease phase in which the information was sought, the emotional status of the information seeker, and the stage of the cancer. The results suggest that there is a wide variety of information seekers with divergent goals. Treatment-related material was the most sought-after information by patients, while coping information was most sought by supporters. When forum posts were negative in tone, the information seekers were more likely to be looking for ovarian cancer-specific information than either treatment-related information or coping information. This suggests that the presentation of ovarian cancer-specific information should be particularly sensitive to the negative emotional state of the people seeking this information.
Assessing the distributed nature of home-based heart failure medication management in older adults BIBAFull-Text 753-757
  Robin Mickelson; Richard Holden
Non-adherence to medications in older adult chronic heart failure (CHF) patients suggests the difficulty these patients experience with medication management tasks. This qualitative study explored home-based medication management and how activities were distributed across persons, artifacts, time and space using a distributed cognition framework. Interviews with CHF patients (N = 27) and their informal caregivers (N=11) were content analyzed for cross-cutting themes about distributed task performance. Results illustrated problem areas within this distributed system such as representational discordance, communication difficulties, and lack of portability of information across environments. Implications for future design of interventions include the need for portability and exchange of information, portability of medications and reminder devices, and improved communication across the distributed system.
Performance barriers among elderly chronic heart failure patients: An application of patient-engaged human factors and ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 758-762
  Richard J. Holden; Robin S. Mickelson
Applications of the human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approach in the healthcare domain have largely targeted the work of healthcare professionals. Here, we argue for the importance of targeting the work of patients and their lay caregivers, a relatively underdeveloped approach we call patient-engaged HFE. A multi-method study of the barriers to the self-care work of elderly chronic heart failure patients (N=27) and caregivers (N=11) illustrates the approach. Analyses of interview data using a macroergonomic Work System framework revealed a large variety of barriers unique to patient work as well as to CHF self-care. The most common person-related barriers were physical limitations and knowledge gaps. Task-related barriers included medication complexity and side-effects. Tool and technology barriers included lack of or overdependence on aids. Context barriers were organizational (e.g., no indoor gyms), social (e.g., sodium-rich food culture), and physical-environmental (e.g., stairs). Findings motivate further applying HFE concepts and methods (e.g., workload, decision support, distributed cognition, resilience) to patient work.

Human Performance Modeling: HP2 -- Human Performance and Workload

A Computational Model of Task Overload Management and Task Switching BIBAFull-Text 763-767
  Christopher D. Wickens; Amy Santamaria; Angelia Sebok
We describe a computational model that predicts the decision aspect of sequential multitasking. We investigate how people choose to switch tasks or continue performing an ongoing task when they are in overload conditions where concurrent performance of tasks is impossible. The model is based on a meta-analytic integration of 46 experiments from two literatures: interruption management and applied task switching. Consistent trends from the meta-analysis are used to set parameters in the mathematical model, which is then implemented in a task network model.
Queueing Network-ACTR Modeling of Concurrent Tasks Involving Multiple Controlled Processes BIBAFull-Text 768-772
  Shi Cao; Yili Liu
An important research question of human performance modeling is how to model concurrent task performance and mental workload. In this paper, we introduce a new method to model concurrent tasks involving multiple controlled processes in need of dedicated cognitive resources, which previous methods have difficulties to model. The key concept is a filtering discipline implemented in Queueing Network-ACTR cognitive architecture that allows cognitive resources to be exclusively occupied by one of the concurrent tasks when necessary, instead of switching between the tasks as frequently as possible. In the simulations of dual-tasks involving diagnostic decision making and patient status tracking, we found that the new discipline is necessary to model human performance and mental workload. Implications and practical applications of Queueing Network-ACTR in system evaluation and design are discussed.
Predicting Task-related Properties of Mental Workload with ACT-R Cognitive Architecture BIBAFull-Text 773-777
  Sungjin Park; Rohae Myung
In this paper, a methodology with ACT-R cognitive architecture is proposed to quantitatively predict task-related properties that influence mental workload. A mathematical representation of task-related properties over time with respect to an activated time of each module from ACT-R is proposed in this paper. Experiments were performed on menu selection and visual-manual tasks, varied by task difficulty and time pressure. As a result, it was found that predicted values of each task-related property, consisting of physical demand, mental demand, and temporal demand of NASA-TLX achieved by the proposed method, were highly correlated with mean values of subjective rating from subjects.
Prediction of Perceived Workload From Task Performance and Heart Rate Measures BIBAFull-Text 778-782
  Joshua M. Splawn; Michael E. Miller
To improve operator efficiency and effectiveness, designers increasingly apply automation to allocate tasks once performed by human operators to the system. Unfortunately, these systems are often complex, potentially imposing increased mental task load on the operator, or placing the operator in a supervisory role where they can become overly dependent on automation. A proposed solution is adaptive automation, which increases automation when an operator is overloaded, and disabled as the operator has spare mental capacity. Changes in performance and physiological measures have shown promise in triggering changes in automation levels. However, the literature lacks well-documented or consistently supported measures for mental workload prediction. The present work sought to define a model which could predict perceived workload as a function of performance and heart rate measures by imposing various levels of task loading on a group of individuals while monitoring their performance, recording their heart rate information with an electrocardiogram and obtaining subjective estimates of mental workload. Heart rate (HR) and several heart rate variability (HRV) measurements where significantly affected by Task Load. This paper describes a linear regression model for predicting participants' perceived workload as a function of a proposed summary performance metric and HR measures.
Using Meta-Analyses Results and Data Gathering to Support Human Performance Model Development BIBAFull-Text 783-787
  Angelia Sebok; Christopher Wickens; Robert Sargent
Human performance modeling provides a tool to facilitate the development of well-designed systems that support their users. However, models need to be based on and compared against empirical human-in-the-loop data to ensure that the human performance predictions are correct. This paper describes an approach to gathering already-existing empirical data to support the development of a model of astronaut performance in long-duration space missions.

Human Performance Modeling: HP3 -- Task Performance

The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Soporific Symptoms on Multitasking Cognitive Strategy BIBAFull-Text 788-792
  Panagiotis Matsangas; Michael E. McCauley
We investigate how mild motion sickness and soporific symptoms affect cognitive strategy when performing in a multitasking environment. During two 1-hour sessions, subjects (N=39) performed four concurrent tasks (memory, arithmetic, visual, auditory). Analysis of the cognitive strategy is based on task dwell time, defined as the amount of time the screen cursor is in each task screen quadrant. Results show that the arithmetic task consistently suffers from the development of motion sickness symptoms, and increased drowsiness. Symptomatic individuals reduce the time allocated to the complex arithmetic task and increase time to the, simpler, visual task. Furthermore, symptomatic individuals demonstrate increased reaction time of correct responses in the arithmetic task, and decreased number of responses. Results provide evidence that motion sickness and soporific symptoms affect multitasking cognitive strategy with symptomatic individuals shifting focus from more complex to simpler tasks. We discuss a plausible explanation based on the performance-under-stress perspective.
The Effect of Continuous Wakefulness on Complex Cognitive Task Performance: A Quantitative Synthesis of Research BIBAFull-Text 793-797
  S. D. Hutchins; L. Laux; C. D. Wickens; A. Sebok
In support of NASA's modeling and simulation goals to predict the effects of operator fatigue on performance, research findings from the literature on the effect of acute sleep deprivation on performance of complex cognitive tasks were quantitatively synthesized. Regression models of performance over continuous hours of wakefulness demonstrated complex cognitive task performance decrements for both speed and accuracy, with the greater performance decrement on speed over continuous hours of wakefulness. Circadian effects were also examined and reveal a greater decrement to both speed and accuracy performance over continuous hours of wakefulness during the circadian night than circadian day.
First Steps Toward Modeling ADHD Under a Dual-Task Paradigm Using a Markovian Framework for Diagnosis BIBAFull-Text 798-802
  Sara A. Lu
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common cognitive disorder afflicting many children and adults. Since most ADHD diagnostic procedures are based on subjective assessments, the goal of this study was to develop an objective assessment that takes into account performance differences between ADHD and non-ADHD individuals under a dual-task paradigm. Specifically, a model using a Markovian framework was used to determine the probability people with and without ADHD would switch between two tasks. Two studies were used, one to develop the model and one to validate the model. The values from the Ewen et al. (2012) study were used to determine the values of interest: the percentage of time spent on the each task, the probabilities remaining on each task, and the probabilities of switching between tasks. The developed multiplier value equations, which established the predicted values, were validated using the values from the Cepeda et al. (2000) study. The differences between the predicted values were all within 15% of the actual values. Overall, the study provides the initial stepping stone toward developing an objective ADHD diagnostic tool based on dual-task performance.
Complex Systems And Human Performance Modeling BIBAFull-Text 803-807
  Walter Warwick; Laura Marusich; Norbou Buchler
The development of a human performance model is an exercise in complexity. Despite this, techniques that are commonplace in the study of complex dynamical systems have yet to find their way into human performance modeler's toolbox. In this paper, we describe our efforts to develop new generative and analytical methods within a task network modeling environment. Specifically, we present task network modeling techniques for generating inter-event times series typical of a complex system. We focus on communication patterns. In addition, we describe the associated analytical techniques needed to verify the time series. Again, while these analytical techniques will be familiar to the complexity scientist, they have significant and largely unrecognized methodological implications for the human performance modeler.
Human Performance with Multiple Devices Influencing a Single Cursor BIBAFull-Text 808-812
  Stephen Hughes; Cody Bardell; J. Ben Schafer
The goal of this study is to better understand how collaborative influence upon a single cursor may impact the performance of simple tasks like movement and selection. Two techniques for combining input from multiple devices are compared to an individual controller using a Fitts's selection task. The results suggest that it is possible for multiple users to collaboratively move a single pointer without significant degradation in performance.

Individual Differences: ID1 -- ID Models & Methods for Prediction

Towards Biomechanical Digital Human Modeling of Elderly People for Simulations in Virtual Product Development BIBAFull-Text 813-817
  Jörg Miehling; Bastian Geißler; Sandro Wartzack
This contribution illustrates a methodology to customize biomechanical digital human models to resemble people of different age and ability groups for the use in simulations to support user-centered design. Especially the conception of man models of elderly people holds potential for analyzing and optimizing products to yield more universal designs, due to the high heterogeneity of needs, wants and capabilities in this specific age group. The present approach considers age-related performance restrictions, but is also extendable to disease-related limitations. The conception process itself includes the scaling of anthropometry, muscle forces, range of motion as well as motion speed based on data from literature or manual measurements. The parameters are either selected by percentiles or the specific values itself.
Assessing Resource Utilization during Vigilance Using Transcranial Doppler: The Effects of Extraversion BIBAFull-Text 818-822
  Cynthia Nguyen; Kelly Satterfield; Brooke Bellows; Patrick McKnight; Tyler H. Shaw
Although automated systems have decreased the information-processing load on workers and have increased productivity, studies have shown that automation can have serious drawbacks, such as reductions in operator vigilance that can lead to decreased detection of critical events. Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) is a tool used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), and previous studies have shown that TCD can be used to examine attentional resource utilization and allocation during vigilance task performance. This study was designed to assess the attentional resource utilization of an individual difference measure that has shown to be associated with vigilance performance efficiency, extraversion. Twelve extraverts and thirteen introverts monitored a 60-min vigilance task for critical signals, which in this case, was the absence of a line on one of the five circles displayed on a computer monitor. CBFV and correct detections over six 10-min periods were used as the units of analysis. While a vigilance decrement was observed, there was no difference in detection efficiency between extraverts and introverts. The results pertaining to the CBFV measure reveal a significant hemisphere x personality interaction, such that the lateralization effect often present in vigilance was restricted to introverts. The results are interpreted in terms of findings suggesting that bilateral activation is a function of task difficulty: extraverts were recruiting mental resources from both the left and right cerebral hemispheres while introverts were using resources from only the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that the TCD measure is diagnostic of resource allocation associated with individual differences in vigilance.
Using Biodata to Select Air Traffic Controllers BIBAFull-Text 823-827
  Linda G. Pierce; Dana Broach; M. Kathryn Bleckley; Cristina L. Byrne
Biodata factors were examined as predictors of training performance for candidate air traffic control specialists (ATCSs). These factors, which have been shown to predict controller training performance in previous research, were highest educational degree achieved, grade point average both in high school overall and in high school math courses, aviation operations experience, pilot licenses held, and age. Results from logistic regression analyses were only partially supportive of previous research. Age was the most consistent (inverse) predictor of training success. Most of the other factors did not predict training success. Differences between these results and previous research might be attributed to differences in the criterion measures, samples, and generational differences. Overall, the evidence for using the assessed biodata factors for selection was weak. We suggested that a new biodata instrument be developed to assess and identify experiences to predict performance of the next generation of controllers.
Failure to Maintain Set: A Measure of Distractibility or Cognitive Flexibility? BIBAFull-Text 828-832
  Ivonne J. Figueroa; Robert J. Youmans
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a general behavioral assessment that contains a myriad of dependent variables, each contributing to the overall assessment of executive function. In this paper, the authors explore the underlying ability that is measured by the variable failure to maintain set (FMS). Two opposing theories, cognitive flexibility and distractibility, are presented to determine what cognitive processes underlie failures to maintain set, and two analyses of archival data are presented. In analysis one, we analyzed data from a study where the WCST predicted creativity in participant constructions of Haiku poetry, but the analysis was not able distinguish whether FMS was predicting cognitively flexibility or distractibility. In analysis two, we analyzed data from a separate study where the WCST was used to predict vigilance in a divided attention task, and we detected that FMS inversely predicted vigilant performance. Our overall analysis suggests that FMS is an assessment of distractibility, not cognitive flexibility. We end with a discussion of the implications of our findings, and directions for future research.
Using Neuro-physiological Data to Improve Feedback Timing BIBAFull-Text 833-837
  Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Julian, IV Abich; Teresa Marino Carper
The learning efficiency of complex tasks is an area being widely investigated in the literature. Specifically, many different instructional strategies have been developed in an effort to improve efficiency, especially within automated systems. Of particular interest are application methodologies which provide individualized recommendations. In this paper we compared the impact of individualized feedback based on both performance and real-time workload levels to feedback based on performance alone. Our data suggest paper-based knowledge acquisition test scores were not impacted by the intervention timing assisted by neuro-physiological measures. However, scenario-based decision-making performance scores were significantly improved when utilizing EEG data to aid intervention timing but not with eye-tracking data.

Individual Differences: ID2 -- ID in Emotional & Multi-tasking Performance

The role of calmness in a high-Go target detection task BIBAFull-Text 838-842
  James Head; Kyle Wilson; William S. Helton; Simon Kemp
Individual differences (e.g., extroversion) have been noted to influence performance on sustained attention tasks (Davies & Parasuraman, 1982). It has been proposed that the sustained attention to response task (SART) is a valid measure of lapses in attention and has been extensively used in attention studies (Manly, Robertson, Galloway, & Hawkins, 1999; Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, 1997). In the current investigation we test whether SART is a measure of sustained attention versus a measure of motor control. Additionally, we tested how individual differences using an abridged version of the Big Five personality traits scale related to SART performance. Two-hundred and ninety-six university students completed a SART and the Big Five scale. The behavioral results revealed a negative correlation between errors of commission and response time which is indicative of a speed-accuracy trade-off. The individual difference results revealed that those who report themselves higher on the calmness trait (non-neurotic) make less errors of commission (inappropriate response) and have slower response times. However, mediation regression analysis revealed that the relationship between the calmness individual difference and commission errors may be mediated by response time. Collectively, the SART may be a better measure of response inhibition than sustained attention and SART performance can be influenced by individual differences which influence the speed-accuracy trade-off.
Performance-Based Adaptability Profiles in Multitasking BIBAFull-Text 843-847
  Brent Morgan; Sidney D'Mello; Robert Abbott; Michael Haass; Andrea Tamplin; Gabriel Radvansky
Assessing a person's ability to multitask is a topic that is gaining increased attention. However, task constraints and difficulty rarely remain constant in real-world environments; when task constraints change, people must adapt to avoid diminished task performance or failure. But can we identify and predict differences in multitasking adaptability? This question was assessed in an experiment wherein participants multitasked in a flight simulator. Task difficulty was incrementally increased across three experimental manipulations. We measured participants' performance on tasks with baseline versus increased difficulty. Cluster analyses on performance identified three distinct adaptability groups in each condition, irrespective of performance at baseline. Furthermore, individual membership in each cluster was quite consistent across different difficulty conditions. Cluster membership in this task was predicted by spatial ability, which is a cognitive ability not related to general multitasking ability.
The Effect of Positive vs. Negative Emotion on Multitasking BIBAFull-Text 848-852
  Brent Morgan; Sidney D'Mello
Emotions have been shown to affect cognition and performance on a multitude of individual tasks; however, people increasingly choose (or are required) to perform multiple tasks simultaneously (multitask1). How, then, do emotions affect multitasking performance? This question was assessed in an experiment wherein participants first multitasked in a Baseline phase, watched a video designed to induce a positive, neutral, or negative emotion, and then resumed multitasking for two additional phases. The results indicated that both the positive and neutral video conditions were superior to the negative condition; however, a marginally significant interaction indicated that the neutral condition was equivalent to negative at the final multitasking phase. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and applied aspects of these findings.
The Relationship between Inattentional Insensitivity of Visual, Tactile, and Olfactory Stimuli BIBAFull-Text 853-857
  Andrew. R. Dattel; Amanda N. Battle; Lisa Kossuth; Martin Bifano; Jennifer Decker; Kristen Majdic; Marissa C. Miller; Matthew C. Stefonetti; Daniel P. Dever; Chelsea C. Sheehan
Thirty-six participants were tested on inattentional blindness (IB), inattentional insensitivity for tactile stimuli, and inattentional insensitivity for olfactory stimuli. Inattentional insensitivity (IIS) is the inability to detect the sensation of a salient stimulus while performing a task within a congruent sensory modality. The Invisible Gorilla video (Simons, 2003) was used to test IB. Half of the participants were tasked while engaged in each sensory condition, and half of the participants were not tasked. Chi square analyses showed that tasked participants displayed more IB than nontasked participants. In addition, tasked participants in the tactile condition displayed more IIS for a salient tactile stimulus than participants who were not tasked. No differences were found between groups for IIS in the olfactory condition. High working memory (WM) participants showed better performance than low WM participants in the tactile task. High WM participants also showed better performance during the visual condition (i.e., higher accuracy for basketball counts). Finally, results suggest a possible relationship between IIS with performance across different sensory modalities.

Individual Differences: ID3 -- ID in Performance & Stress

Individual Differences in Movements in Response to Natural Disasters: Tsunami and Earthquake Case Studies BIBAFull-Text 858-862
  William S. Helton; Simon Kemp; Darren Walton
Natural disasters requiring travel to safety include hurricanes, wildfires, floods, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Computational models and agent-based simulations of disaster evacuation and travel behavior have been developed to help disaster planners; however, these models may entail unrealistic assumptions regarding uniform human behavior. Many of these models assume people travel immediately after a disaster notification and that people travel straight out of the area likely to be affected. The present study provides two examples from Christchurch, New Zealand: a small scale but detailed measure of travel behavior after a real tsunami warning was issued and a larger scale study of self-report of considerations of leaving the city after a major local earthquake. In the tsunami study, 15% of the people actually moved towards the tsunami risk zones, not away. In the second study only 11.7% of the 206 people surveyed indicated thinking of leaving the city and they were significantly more likely to be female and high in trait neuroticism. Individual differences in responses to natural disasters need to be considered in disaster travel models.
Influence of Personality Factors and Time Pressure on Human Performance When Using Digital Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 863-867
  Xiaolu Dong; Hang Yu; Zhizhong Li
This study intended to explore the effects of personal characteristics (measured by Cattell's 16 Personality Factors), time pressure and interface design on task performance in an Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) task that required judgment in a simulated Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) condition. The performance criteria included judgment time, error rate, situation awareness, and subjective workload, under different interfaces (ecological /traditional) and time pressure levels (high/low). The analysis of variance showed significant influence of time pressure. And by developing regression models for personality factors under each interface style, significant relationships between personality traits (privateness, openness to change, perfectionism, rule-consciousness, and social boldness) and human performance were found.
The Effect of Individual Differences on How People Handle Interruptions BIBAFull-Text 868-872
  Hilkka L. Meys; Penelope M. Sanderson
Some people handle interrupting and distracting events better than others, but it is not clear how to predict this. We hypothesised that when performing a primary ongoing task, people with a field independent cognitive style would be less distracted from their task by interruptions, and less likely to accept interruptions, than people with a field dependent cognitive style. We also hypothesized that when returning to the original task after an interruption, people with high spatial ability would have better memory for the physical location of their original activity, and people with high working memory would have better memory for the factual contents of their original activity. Our study participants performed an arithmetic task that was interrupted at arbitrary moments by a lexical decision task. Results showed that participants with high working memory remembered the location and contents of their original activity faster and more accurately than did participants with low working memory. Field dependence did not predict participants' willingness to accept interruptions, and spatial ability did not predict how quickly or accurately they returned to the physical location of their original activity. However, the psychometric test instruments we chose may not have been the most appropriate. Our results confirm that working memory plays an important role in helping people recover interruptions and distractions, but further and more precise tests of field dependence and spatial ability are needed.
Emotional Intelligence and Decision Making Under Stress BIBFull-Text 873-877
  Corey K. Fallon; Gerald Matthews; April Rose Panganiban; Ryan Wohleber; Richard D. Roberts

Industrial Ergonomics: IE1 -- Mechanistic Research on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders

The interaction of force and repetition on systemic inflammatory cytokine response in a rat model BIBAFull-Text 878-882
  Sean Gallagher; Mary F. Barbe; Vicky S. Massicotte; Ann E. Barr-Gillespie
In this paper, we describe the effects of force and repetition on systemic inflammatory responses in a voluntary rat model of repetitive reaching and handle pulling. Specifically, we examine the interaction of force and repetition on serum cytokine expression, which we believe may be a response to fatigue failure damage in musculoskeletal tissues. Young adult, Sprague-Dawley rats performed a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at 4 different repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force (LRLF), 2) low repetition with high force (LRHF), 3) high repetition with low force (HRLF), and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Force x repetition interactions were observed at week 12 for serum cytokines including TNFalpha (p = 0.003), IL-1alpha (p < 0.0001), and IL-1beta (p < 0.0001). The pattern of interaction observed with serum cytokines in this study mirrors the force-repetition interaction observed in epidemiological studies of musculoskeletal disorder risk (Gallagher and Heberger, 2013).
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Occupational Workers in India BIBAFull-Text 883-886
  Dheeraj Singh; Greesh Kumar Singh; Sanjay Srivastava
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most widely observed peripheral neuropathies among industrial workers. Occupations involving use of wrist for long working hours are associated with increased occurrence of CTS. Exposure to machine vibrations, force and stress, and repetitive motions further add to the risk. We study the prevalence of CTS among a variety of such workers viz., tempo-drivers, masonry workers, bottom-passing shoe workers and tailors. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) experiments are performed to find out the percentage occurrence of CTS using RMS Aleron 201 electromyography machine. Workers' gripping strength data is also collected using hand dynamometer (SS25, Biopac MP 150 system, Biopac Inc., USA). MNCV studies of the median nerve are performed on 34 workers belonging to four occupations mentioned; out of them nearly 47% workers are found to have CTS. The results suggest that use of wrist for long working hours (10 hours or more) attribute to the incidence of CTS among listed occupational workers. It is observed that per day work duration of tailors, masonry workers, and tempo-drivers is more than that of bottom-passing shoe workers. However tailors are found to be worst affected owing to frequent pinch force exertions and awkward working posture. Bottom-passing shoe workers are less affected due to their shorter working hours (7-8 hours), simple posture, and sufficient rest breaks.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE2 -- Ergonomic Principles Applied to the Design and Evaluation of Tablets, Touchscreens, and Laptops

The Effects of Virtual Keyboard Key Sizes on Typing Productivity and Physical Exposures BIBAFull-Text 887-891
  Jeong Ho Kim; Lovenoor Aulck; Ornwipa Thamsuwan; Michael C. Bartha; Peter W. Johnson
With mobile devices including tablet PCs, gravitating towards smaller sizes, the keyboard key sizes on these devices often have to be smaller than recommended key sizes and spacing (18 to 20 mm) for notebook and desktop keyboards. Currently, there is limited research into how key sizes can affect typing proficiency and physical exposures during virtual keyboard use. Therefore, the present study investigated how different virtual keyboard key sizes affected muscle activity, wrist posture, and typing productivity. A total of 21 subjects (12 males and 9 females) participated in a repeated-measures laboratory experiment where typing speed, accuracy, muscle activity, wrist posture, and subjective discomfort were compared between four different virtual keyboards with key sizes (width x height) of 13x13, 16x16, 19x19, and 22x22 mm with a 2-mm gutter surrounding each key. The results showed that the keyboard with the 13x13 mm keys (15 mm center-to-center key spacing) had a 15% slower typing speed (p < 0.0001), higher static (10th %tile) shoulder muscle activity (2% MVC, p = 0.01), and greater wrist extension in both hands (2°-3°, p's < 0.01). The study findings indicate that 13x13 mm key size may not be optimal for touch typing on a virtual keyboard.
Electromyography & Portable Computing Devices: What Forearm Muscles Should be Measured? BIBAFull-Text 892-896
  Abigail J. Werth; Kari Babski-Reeves
Portable computing devices have become more lightweight and mobile due to changes in the hardware of the devices. In many cases, hardware keyboards are being replacing virtual keyboards, raising concerns on changing ergonomic exposures as, for example, muscle activation patterns may vary with virtual keyboard use. The objective was to identify active forearm muscles across select computing devices. Twenty participants completed a single test session in which seven forearm muscles were evaluated using surface EMG whilst they typed on two portable computing devices (netbook and slate computer) for 5 minutes apiece. Mean normalized EMG was analyzed and indicated that slate computers resulted in significantly lower muscle activation levels than netbooks. The extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum communis had the highest muscle activation levels for both the slate and netbook computers. This indicates that the same muscles should be studied for both slate and netbook computers.
Is the Ambidextrous Advantageous When using Large Touchscreens? BIBAFull-Text 897-901
  Hwa-young Kang; Gwanseob Shin
Conducting touch gestures on large format touchscreens for personal computers (PCs) is known to cause greater body discomforts than that from using a traditional PC due to frequent hand movements in floating arm postures. It was of interest whether the discomforts would vary depending on user's handedness. The current study investigated potential associations between user's handedness and subjectively assessed discomforts during the use of a 23' touchscreen personal computer. Twenty two participants were grouped by their handedness (left-handed, ambidextrous, right-handed), and conducted a typical web browsing task for 30 minutes while their hand/arm movements and subjective body discomfort ratings were periodically collected. Results show that ambidextrous participants used both hands more evenly than the other two groups, and they also reported significantly less body discomforts (p<0.05) compared to the others. To reduce physical discomforts and prevent musculoskeletal problems associated with the extended use of touchscreens, alternating hands in conducting touch gestures could be recommended.
The Effects of Mobile Computer Location in a Vehicle Cab on Muscle Activity and Body Posture of Large and Small Drivers BIBAFull-Text 902-906
  Kyle Saginus; Richard Marklin
The objective of this research is to determine the best location to place a conventional mobile PC supported by a commercially available mount in a vehicle cab for small and large body sizes. Many North American electric utility companies and sales agencies are in the process of integrating mobile computers into their fleet vehicle cabs. Four locations of mobile computers in a light truck cab were tested in a laboratory study to determine how driver body size and computer location affected muscle activity of the lower back and shoulders and joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrists of small and large drivers. Driver size had a negligible effect on biomechanical loading. Regardless of driver size, placing the mobile computer closer to the steering wheel reduced low back and shoulder muscle activity required to use the mobile computer, and joint angles were also closer to neutral. Also locating the mobile computer close to the steering wheel reduces risk factors of injuries such as low back pain and shoulder tendonitis. A recommendation for the initial location along with adjustments to locate the mobile computer with respect to the steering wheel is included.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE3 -- Findings from the NIOSH Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium

An Application of a Job Exposure Profile in Work-related Shoulder Disorders Study BIBAFull-Text 907-910
  Stephen Bao; Joyce Fan; Barbara Silverstein
This study aimed at presenting a method that creates an exposure profile for a combined physical exposure of forceful exertions and work postures. Hand/wrist work posture and forceful exertion data were collected simultaneously through observations from recorded videos from a total of 733 subjects from 12 different workplaces. Combined exposures of the forceful hand exertion and hand/wrist postures were grouped into 32 categories (5 types of forceful exertion each with 3 levels and one exertion category of no forceful exertion, and two categories of wrist flexion/extension postures, (i.e. 5x3+1)x2) = 32). Distributions of the combined exposures were then calculated for each of the subjects. An Exposure Profile Index (EPI) was created by assigning different weights on each of the 32 combined exposure categories. Distribution of the EPI for the eligible 716 subjects was calculated. Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age and gender for the EPI to calculate the odds ratios of being a clinical shoulder case. Clinical shoulder cases were determined by workers' self-reports and physical examinations performed by a physician.
The Impact of Gender on Personal, Health and Workplace Psychosocial Risk Factors for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Pooled Study Cohort BIBAFull-Text 911-914
  Carisa Harris-Adamson; Ellen A. Eisen; Ann Marie Dale; Bradley Evanoff; Kurt T. Hegmann; Matthew S. Thiese; Jay Kapellusch; Arun Garg; Susan Burt; Stephen Bao; Barbara Silverstein; Fred Gerr; Linda Merlino; David Rempel
Between 2001 and 2010 six research groups conducted coordinated multi-year, prospective studies of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in US workers from various industries and collected detailed subject-level exposure information with follow-up symptom, physical examination, electrophysiological measures, and job changes. Objective. This analysis of the pooled cohort examined the incidence of dominant-hand carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in relation to demographic characteristics and estimated associations with occupational psychosocial factors, adjusting for confounding by personal risk factors. Methods. 3,515 participants, without baseline CTS, were followed up to 7 years. Case criteria included symptoms and an electrodiagnostic study consistent with CTS. Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated in Cox proportional hazard models. Workplace biomechanical factors were collected but not evaluated in this analysis. Results. Females were at elevated, though statistically non-significant, risk for CTS (HR=1.30; 95%CI: 0.98-1.72). The incidence of CTS increased linearly with both age and BMI over most of the observed range. High job strain increased risk (HR=1.86; 95%CI: 1.11-3.14) and social support was protective (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.78). There was no effect modification of gender on age, BMI or high job strain. Conclusions. Personal factors associated with an increased risk of developing CTS were BMI, age and being female, though no effect modification by gender was evident. Workplace risk factors were high job strain while social support was protective.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE4 -- The Impact of Biomechanical and Physiological Effects on Balance and Posture

Neural Mechanisms of Anticipatory Balance Control BIBAFull-Text 915-919
  David Rodrick; Vaishali Jayaprakash
Anticipatory balance control is complex motor control ability that human use at workplace and other everyday physical activities. This study investigated the neural mechanism of anticipatory postural balance when participants were exposed to controlling upright stance posture in various balance difficulty levels. A total of 15 healthy male participants without any prior history of physical or neurological disorders took part in the study. A Biodex balance system was utilized to perform the balance control task. A 10-20 international system was used to collect EEG data on 19 brain locations. The participants were assigned three upright stance conditions: 1) standing on the balance platform when the platform was completely stable (baseline), 2) balancing on the platform in gradually increasing instability level, and 3) balancing on the platform in gradually increasing the stability level. Each of second and third condition consisted of a 30-second trial. Each channel EEG data was further decomposed into five frequency bands, such as, delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), Beta (12-30 Hz), gamma1 (30-40 Hz) and gamma2 (40-80 Hz). Balance performance showed that anticipatory control of balance was better for condition where balance surface progressively changes from completely stable to relatively stable level compared to progressively changes from completely unstable to relatively unstable level. Brain mechanisms as measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) showed a general pattern of alpha band power decrease and high frequency gamma band power increase between resting and task condition.
The Influence of Foot Sizes on Human Balance BIBAFull-Text 920-924
  Hai Qiu; Shuping Xiong
This study investigated the relationship between foot size and human balance performance. The balance performances of 30 female subjects (15 young, 15 elderly) were assessed by a force platform system. Mean sway velocity, balance strategy score and composite equilibrium score (CES) were used to quantify balance performances from three different aspects. Correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between foot sizes and human balance measures. The results showed that most foot size measures (with or without normalizations) have significant correlations on mean sway velocity and balance strategy score, but no relationship with CES. In general, the bigger the foot size, the lower mean sway velocity and the bigger the normalized foot size, the higher balance strategy score (more ankle strategy), especially for the young group.
Changes of Lumbar Muscle Flexion Relaxation Phenomenon When Standing on Unilaterally Elevated Ground BIBAFull-Text 925-928
  Boyi Hu; Xiaopeng Ning; Ashish D. Nimbarte
Occupational tasks performed on uneven ground surfaces are common in agriculture and construction industries. The influence of unilaterally elevated ground surface on lumbar muscle flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) during trunk flexion and extension motion has been investigated in the current study. Ten subjects performed trunk flexion and extension motion on flat ground and two unilaterally elevated ground conditions while lumbar muscle EMG and trunk kinematics data were recorded. Results of this study demonstrated clear difference in bilateral lumbar muscle FRP under elevated ground conditions. The current finding can be used to better understand uneven ground surfaces as a risk factor for the development of low back pain.
Trunk Kinematics under Sudden Loading Impact when Adopting Different Foot Postures BIBAFull-Text 929-933
  Jie Zhou; Xiaopeng Ning; Boyi Dai
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of foot posture on trunk biomechanical responses when experiencing sudden external loading. Fifteen subjects were recruited to perform a series of sudden loading tasks using three different foot postures with two levels of weight. Our results showed that sudden external loading generated the smallest impact when subjects adopted 'Staggered Stance'. Compared with 'Wide Stance', 'Staggered Stance' significantly decreased the increment of trunk flexion angle, increment of L5/S1 joint moment, and peak L5/S1 joint anterior-posterior shear force by 21.5%, 6.5%, and 22.5%, respectively. Compared with 'Narrow Stance', the decreases were 15.1%, 3.2%, and 16.2% respectively. Heavier load weight resulted in larger spinal impact. The interaction effect between foot posture and magnitude of the load was not significant. The findings of this study could be used in reducing the risk of low back pain when dealing with sudden loading.
Age-Related Changes in Trunk and Knee Kinematics During Lifting BIBAFull-Text 934-937
  Jiahong Song; Xingda Qu
This study examined the trunk and knee joint kinematics of younger and older people in lifting tasks. Five younger (20-26 years) and six older (58-70 years) participants performed a series of lifting tasks with different load weights in the sagittal plane. The angular displacements, velocities and accelerations of the lumbar spine and knee joint were calculated and analyzed to determine the age-related differences. The results showed the older participants had significantly decreased angular displacements, velocities and accelerations at lumbar spine and knee joint, and preferred a lifting strategy closer to stoop lifting compared with the younger participants. The age-related distinctions in the lifting strategy may result in increased risks of instability and low back pain for older workers during lifting tasks.
Can Electroencephalogram (EEG) Signals Predict Postural Balance Performance? BIBAFull-Text 938-942
  David Rodrick; Hafiz Malik
Although it is argued that EEG signals lack sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, bandwidth, and information content to decode body segment kinematics (Lebedev and Nicolelis, 2006), this pilot study examined the feasibility of decoding lower extremity postural balance kinematics (i.e., anterior-posterior [A-P] and medial-lateral [M-L] deviation) utilizing EEG signals with reasonable accuracy. The study utilized single trial data of 5 participants that completed a postural balance task on a Biodex balance system when balance platform was set at a relatively unstable level. The neural response during the balance task was collected for 19 sites on the scalp. The time series data of 26 cortical locations were calculated. Following velocity calculation, resampling, and smoothing of the data, a linear decoding method was followed for both scalp and cortex data that utilized a fixed lag of 100 milliseconds and 10×10 fold cross validation procedure. Decoding accuracy was measured by estimating the correlation coefficient between measured and model reconstructed velocities. The average correlation coefficient (standard deviation in parenthesis) using scalp EEG signals was 0.356 (0.218) and 0.41 (0.179) for A-P and M-L velocities, respectively. The average correlation using localized cortical time series was 0.396 (0.238) and 0.458 (0.175) for A-P and M-L velocities, respectively. The findings were argued to be reasonably promising compared to other recent findings.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE5 -- Anthropometric and Biomechanical-Based Methods

Combining Very Limited Anthropometric Data: A Simple Method With Less Error Than Adding or Subtracting Percentiles BIBAFull-Text 943-947
  Thomas J. Albin
Occasionally an ergonomist or designer is asked to develop an anthropometric model that will accommodate a desired proportion of an anticipated user population, but with only very limited anthropometric data, such as a summary table of percentiles, available. Despite the known problems of adding or subtracting percentiles, that may be the only option available to him or her. This paper introduces a technique that reduces the error associated with adding percentiles, although it does not eliminate it. Two examples are given.
Investigation of Relationships between Hand Surface Dimensions and Hand Bone Dimensions BIBAFull-Text 948-952
  Joonho Chang; Yong-Ku Kong; Andris Freivalds; Hyun-Sung Kang; Jae Hyun Cho
This study developed a method to predict finger/phalange bone lengths from a surface hand length. 41 Korean college students (25 males and 16 females) were recruited, and their surface hand lengths and finger/phalange bone lengths were measured using a vernier caliper and a X-ray generator, respectively. The conversion method developed equations to estimate finger/phalange bone lengths based on one surface hand length by relationships among the measured finger/phalange bone lengths. The average estimation error between the estimated bone lengths and measured bone lengths was 1.76 mm (2.3%) with SD = 0.3 mm on finger bone lengths and 0.99 mm (3.2%) with SD = 0.4 mm on phalange bone lengths. The estimated finger/phalange bone lengths had strong correlations, more than more than r = 0.8, with the measured finger/phalange bone lengths.
The Effects of Obesity and Workload on Hand Grip Endurance BIBAFull-Text 953-957
  Lora A. Cavuoto; Ranjana K. Mehta
The present study examined the relationship between obesity and workload on hand grip strength and endurance. Twenty-two participants (11 non-obese and 11 obese) attended four experimental sessions, each session involving hand grip strength testing and sustained endurance task at a specified relative workload level (20, 40, 60, and 80% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Dependent measures included absolute hand grip strength, endurance time, and rate of strength loss. Results indicated that obesity was associated with higher absolute hand grip strength and faster rate of strength loss during the endurance task. Additionally, shorter endurance times were observed for the obese group (~26-53% reduction from non-obese group) during the higher workload tasks in both males and females. Findings from this study suggest that obesity impairs hand grip fatigability, and that this relationship is augmented at higher workload levels.
Biomechanical differences between obese and healthy-weight workers in manual materials handling BIBAFull-Text 958-961
  Philippe Corbeil; André Plamondon; Normand Teasdale; Grant Handrigan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the work strategies of obese and healthy-weight workers in manual materials handling. Seventeen obese and 20 healthy-weight manual materials handlers participated in this laboratory study. The tasks consisted of transferring four boxes between a hand trolley and a conveyor. The weight of the box (15 vs. 23 kg), the handling height and the working configuration were modified to see what impact these changes had on the participants' manual materials handling. Biomechanical measures included net moments, expressed in the pelvic system (flexion-extension, lateral bending and torsion moments), kinematics of body segments and box displacements. The results indicated that trunk and knee postures and horizontal hand distances from L5/S1 were not significantly different between the two groups. Peak moments of force around the transverse, sagittal and longitudinal axes at L5/S1 were 13.3% to 59.0% higher during box lifting and lowering for the obese than for the non-obese workers. The individuals' body weight explained 57% of the variability in the maximal transverse moments of force at L5/S1 during the lifting of the boxes from the ground. These results suggest that the extra mass of an obese worker causes additional stress for the musculoskeletal structures of the back. These biomechanical differences potentially place obese workers at a greater risk of developing musculoskeletal problems during manual materials handling.
Comparisons of Tibial Shock when walking on four different flooring surface materials used in distribution centers BIBAFull-Text 962-966
  Steven A. Lavender; Jay P. Mehta; W. Gary Allread
Flooring surfaces can be made from concrete, bar grate, composite materials, or may be covered with matting material. Anecdotal data suggested that surfaces made from wood composite materials may be a more comfortable surface on which to work. The objective of this study was to quantify differences in tibial shock as 16 people walked on concrete, bar grate, a wood composite material, and a concrete surface covered with matting. An accelerometer was attached to the right shin of volunteers who were asked to walk on each surface. Significant differences across the four surfaces were observed when each participant walked at their normal walking speed (p=.041) and when they walked at a faster than normal pace (p=.023). These findings suggest that individuals working in distribution centers, where extensive walking is part of the job, would possibly experience less lower extremity discomfort on selected floor surfaces.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE7 -- Applying Ergonomic Principles to Task and Product Design

Virtual Exertions: Physical Interactions in a Virtual Reality CAVE for Simulating Forceful Tasks BIBAFull-Text 967-971
  Robert G. Radwin; Karen B. Chen; Kevin Ponto; Ross D. Tredinnick
This paper introduces the concept of virtual exertions, which utilizes real-time feedback from electromyograms (EMG), combined with tracked body movements, to simulate forceful exertions (e.g. lifting, pushing, and pulling) against projections of virtual reality objects. The user acts as if there is a real object and moves and contracts the same muscles normally used for the desired activities to suggest exerting forces against virtual objects actually viewed in their own hands as they are grasped and moved. In order to create virtual exertions, EMG muscle activity is monitored during rehearsed co-contractions of agonist/antagonist muscles used for specific exertions, and contraction patterns and levels are combined with tracked motion of the user's body and hands for identifying when the participant is exerting sufficient force to displace the intended object. Continuous 3D visual feedback to the participant displays mechanical work against virtual objects with simulated inertial properties. A pilot study, where four participants performed both actual and virtual dumbbell lifting tasks, observed that ratings of perceived exertions (RPE), biceps EMG recruitment, and localized muscle fatigue (mean power frequency) were consistent with the actual task. Biceps and triceps EMG co-contractions were proportionally greater for the virtual case.
Powered Ambulance Cots: Effects of design differences on muscle activity and subjective perceptions of operators BIBAFull-Text 972-975
  C. M. Sommerich; S. A. Lavender; R. Z. Radin Umar; S. H. Park; J. Li; M. Dutt
An experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of differences in the design of two powered ambulance cots on operators. Experienced EMS workers performed two common tasks, loading and unloading the cots from a simulated ambulance bed. Dependent measures included muscle activity (trunk, shoulder, and arm muscles) and subjective perceptions. Independent variables were cot (Cot R and Cot Y), and weight on the cot (100, 150, and 200 lbs., to simulate patients of different weights). Muscle activity was found to be significantly lower when using Cot R, for both tasks, in comparison to Cot Y. Subjective preferences were mixed, with many subjects preferring the handle design of Cot Y, while preferring Cot R overall. This study showed that it is possible to substantially reduce the physical stress imposed on operators when loading and unloading a cot to and from an ambulance through improvements in cot design.
An Ergonomic Evaluation of Hand-Carried, Track-Type, and Sled-Type Stair Descent Devices Used for High Rise Building Evacuation BIBAFull-Text 976-980
  Steven A. Lavender; Jay P. Mehta; Glenn E. Hedman; Sanghyun Park; Paul A. Reichelt; Karen M. Conrad
Professional firefighters participated in a study that compared physical demands and task performance measures as three hand-carried devices, three track-type evacuation chairs, and three evacuation sleds were used to transport an occupant down flights of stairs that included two landings. Two staircase widths, 1.1 and 1.3 m, were evaluated as the width of the stairs was hypothesized to affect the dependent measures which included heart rate, electromyographic response, and decent velocity. The data indicate there were trade-offs between the types of evacuation devices with some showing high physical demands on the stairs while others showed high demands on the landings. Overall, track-type devices and sled-type devices resulted in reduced physical demands relative to the hand-carried devices.
Quantification of the Physical Demands for Servers in Restaurants BIBAFull-Text 981-984
  Angela C. Wills; Kermit G. Davis; Susan E. Kotowski
Serving staff are an integral part of restaurant establishments. Although over 2.2 million individuals are employed as wait staff in the US and experience a considerable number of musculoskeletal disorders each year, little is known about their work-related risk factors for MSDs. Using observational methods, a physical activity monitor, and surveys, this study quantified the physical demands experienced by servers over a shift. Twenty wait staff were evaluated for postures used during serving, tray weight, pain symptoms, and perceived workload. Results showed increases (upwards of 60%) in pain throughout their shift, substantial time spent standing or walking (~75%), and potentially risky arm/wrist postures during serving, even though a majority of servers indicated lighter than normal workloads during the observation period. While further research is needed, this study provides a first glimpse at the physical demands experienced by wait staff.

Industrial Ergonomics: IE8 -- Methodological Improvements Using Ergonomic and Human Factors-Based Methods

Evaluating the Efficiency of Checklists Used to Assess Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders BIBAFull-Text 985-988
  Thomas J. Albin
Checklists are commonly used to identify jobs considered at-risk for musculoskeletal disorders and to prioritize the identified jobs with regard to remediation. Often an objective criterion for determining the checklist score that indicates a job is at-risk is not known. A poorly drawn criterion score may cause a checklist to perform less effectively at identifying at-risk jobs than guessing. This paper describes a method to objectively determine a minimum score necessary to correctly identify at-risk jobs that is better than randomly guessing. The method incorporates prevalence into the determination of the probability that a positive checklist score truly indicates an at-risk job.
An Innovative Idea for Reducing the Musculoskeletal Disorders in Drywall Installation BIBAFull-Text 989-993
  Priyadarshini Dasgupta Sengupta; Laura Punnett; Susan Moir; Sarah Kuhn; Bryan Buchholz
Objective: The study was conducted to assess an intervention suggested by the workers to reduce the ergonomic exposures of the drywall installation task.
Benefit of Adjustability When Depalletizing: A NIOSH Lifting Equation Assessment BIBAFull-Text 994-996
  Todd Ramsey; Kermit G. Davis; Susan E. Kotowski
Manual material handling is very prevalent in warehousing and large home improvement stores. Product is often shipped on pallets and then loaded to carts or pallet jacks. The objective of the current study was to evaluate two potential interventions: an adjustable pallet carousel and adjustable cart, using the NIOSH lifting index. Thirteen experienced males completed de-palletizing tasks under 4 conditions: pallet to flat cart, pallet to adjustable cart, carousel to flat cart, and carousel to adjustable cart. The carousel reduced the LI by about 20% while the adjustable cart had limited impact. Based on the NIOSH LI, the carousel provide a reduction in risk but remained elevated (e.g. LI>3.0) and the adjustable cart was less effective (LI>4.6). Caution is needed to interpret these results as the spine loads may be significantly reduced and provide a different picture.
Writing Aviation Maintenance Procedures That People Can/Will Follow BIBAFull-Text 997-1001
  Colin G. Drury; William B. Johnson
As safety-critical industries attempt to reduce error rates with the high reliance on procedural tasks, the error of 'procedure not followed' becomes prominent. This paper focuses on aviation maintenance where the need is still urgent although much HF/E research exists to guide procedure designers. The occupation is tightly regulated, but this type of error is still the most prevalent in studies. In practice, new delivery technologies are emerging but that does not ensure that good HF/E practice is followed. The results of a 2012 FAA workshop are used to identify challenges and map future directions for error reduction.

Internet: I1/CS -- Agile and User Experience: The Road to Integration-The Challenges of User Research in an Agile Environment

Agile and UX: The Road to Integration The Challenges of the UX Practitioner in an Agile Environment BIBAFull-Text 1002-1006
  Melissa Meingast; Timothy Ballew; Rochelle Edwards; Eric Nordquist; Christopher Sader; Danielle Smith
Adherence to an agile software development methodology has become commonplace in many organizations. However, while the focus on iteration and frequent investigation appears to readily map onto many of the values advocated by HF/UX professionals, in practice the merging of the two approaches is not always straightforward or complementary. Panel members represent a range of perspectives with regard to the adoption and integration of UX research and agile methodologies, as well as company sizes, from large technology companies to an independent consultancy. Panelists will describe their unique approaches, their transitions into the agile environment and some of the challenges, and their lessons learned when it comes to operating as HF/UX professionals within an agile development environment. Panelist will also discuss common themes, such as the criticality of working ahead of the current sprint, leaner research design, and increased collaboration across developers and research teams.

Internet: I2/CS -- Advances in Design

Ubiquitous Computing: UX When There Is No UI BIBAFull-Text 1007-1011
  Marc L. Resnick
Ubiquitous computing is a term used to describe an approach to product and service delivery in which the technology is concealed in the background, requiring little to no interaction with the user to complete the user's and/or the technology's objectives. This creates unique challenges for user experience design because the typical methods and tools are not applicable. Input to the system is limited to the technology's ability to intuit the users' objectives through their natural behavior. Output is executed on the environment as much as to the user. Several cases are presented to illustrate the common user experience challenges when designing partially or completely ubiquitous systems.
Keeping Up With The Joneses: Assessing Phishing Susceptibility in an Email Task BIBAFull-Text 1012-1016
  Kyung Wha Hong; Christopher M. Kelley; Rucha Tembe; Emerson Murphy-Hill; Christopher B. Mayhorn
Most prior research on preventing phishing attacks focuses on technology to identify and prevent the delivery of phishing emails. The current study supports an ongoing effort to develop a user-profile that predicts when phishing attacks will be successful. We sought to identify the behavioral, cognitive and perceptual attributes that make some individuals more vulnerable to phishing attack than others. Fifty-three participants responded to a number of self-report measures (e.g., dispositional trust) and completed the 'Bob Jones' email task that was designed to empirically evaluate phishing susceptibility. Over 92% of participants were to some extent vulnerable to phishing attacks. Additionally, individual differences in gender, trust, and personality were associated with phishing vulnerability. Application and implications for future research are discussed.
Extrinsic Motivation and User Performance BIBAFull-Text 1017-1021
  Harriet C. King; Robert Pastel; Paul Ward; Charles Wallace
Among daily computer users who are proficient, some are flexible at accomplishing unfamiliar tasks on their own and others have difficulty. We hypothesize that extrinsically motivated users have difficulty with unfamiliar computer tasks and skill transfers, whereas intrinsically motivated daily users accomplish unfamiliar tasks readily. Nine extrinsically motivated users and seven intrinsic users were directed and observed with qualitative ethnographic methods using a think-aloud-type verbal protocol. The observations were coded based on a rubric. The coding was checked with two additional raters, and inter-rater reliability was greater than 90%. The data were then statistically analyzed. Findings show that extrinsically motivated users in all age groups and competence levels have weak productivity when faced with unfamiliar tasks or software, while intrinsically motivated users have few difficulties. This work draws attention to an underrepresented group of competent but extrinsically motivated computer users who become unproductive when operating in unfamiliar conditions. The data suggest that researchers should control for motivation style when evaluating user interface designs.
Application of Personas in the Design of Augmentative Alternative Communication Devices BIBAFull-Text 1022-1026
  Neeraja Subrahmaniyan; Katrina R. Fulcher; Todd E. Hutchinson; Haesik Min; Jennifer M. Seale; Ann M. Bisantz; D. Jeffery Higginbotham
Augmentative Alternative Communication (AAC) aids are devices that help individuals with speech impairments communicate. Currently, the design and development of AAC devices does not follow a user-centered design philosophy. This affects the quality of life of individuals who are in need of AAC devices. Individuals with the progressive disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are a population for which AAC is of critical importance. Due to the ALS individuals' physical capabilities and constraints, there are challenges in involving the user population in a user-centered design process. This paper recommends the application of the methodology of persona development derived from the field of interaction design/user-centered design to solve some of the existing problems in the design of AAC devices for this population. This research demonstrates how current user-centered design methodologies can be adapted to develop personas of individuals with ALS and more generally, how user-centered design should be integrated into the design of AAC devices to enhance the quality of life of individuals with communication impairments.
Artifact Usage, Context, and Privacy Management in Logging and Tracking Personal Health Information in Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1027-1031
  Shadeequa Miller; Bilge Mutlu; John Lee
Consumer health information technology (CHIT) applications have the potential to improve overall care quality for older adults. The design and development of CHIT applications requires an understanding of the current and future personal health information management (PHIM) activities occurring in home and community settings. Building a better understanding of critical PHIM activities, such as how older adults track and log health information, is essential in the design of technologies that support these activities. This paper presents findings from a contextual inquiry of how older adults currently use artifacts in logging and tracking personal health information (PHI). Context and privacy management emerged as key themes in data analysis. Design implications for future CHIT applications are discussed.

Internet: I3/CS -- Methods and Interaction Techniques

How to Successfully Execute Remote Online User Research BIBAFull-Text 1032-1036
  Eugenio Santiago; Marc L. Resnick
There are many techniques used in practice to investigate user interaction with web sites, often with the objectives of better understanding the user and of improving the design. This paper presents three methods that target a variety of objectives with complementary strengths and weaknesses. The purpose is not to encompass the wide scope of methods that are available to practitioners, but rather to demonstrate one complementary set that has proven useful for conducting online user research. The three methods described are Prototype Testing, True Intent, and Competitive Assessment. The descriptions outline some of the major issues for implementing the methods. The insights are based on an organization's use of poststudy quality assessment to continuously improve and build on its remote online user research methods.
The Impact of Advertising Location and User Task on The Emergence of Banner Ad Blindness: An Eye Tracking Study BIBAFull-Text 1037-1041
  Marc L. Resnick; William Albert
The purpose of this study was to explore the emergence of ad banner blindness in the viewing of ecommerce home pages. By using an eye-tracking methodology, the study supported a more granular analysis of user behavior. Building on the literature on inattention blindness and banner blindness, we assess the gaze path of users in goal-directed and free-viewing tasks when viewing pages with advertising banners on the right side of the page or on the top of the page above the main navigation menu. The results support existing literature that banner blindness is strongest for advertising banners on the right side of the page and for goal-directed tasks. The eye-tracking results provide new insight into the cognitive principles underlying these differences.
Placement of Call to Action Buttons for Higher Website Conversion and Acquisition: An Eye Tracking Study BIBAFull-Text 1042-1046
  Ania Hernandez; Marc L. Resnick
Online shopping abandonment is often a sign that consumers failed to achieve their objectives, which often leads to frustration and reduced brand engagement. Several visual scan path patterns are presented to represent different user activities. For landing pages, it is proposed that the Gutenberg pattern is the most effective at supporting customer shopping needs. A series of tests using eye tracking and qualitative page evaluation confirmed this hypothesis. Across over a hundred web sites from a variety of sectors and industries, landing pages that support the use of the Gutenberg pattern consistently showed simpler user scan paths and more user fixations and clicks-through on the Add to Cart button.
Using Haptic Feedback in Human Robotic Swarms Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1047-1051
  Steven Nunnally; Phillip Walker; Mike Lewis; Nilanjan Chakraborty; Katia Sycara
Robotic swarms display emergent behaviors that are robust to failure of individual robots, although they can not necessarily accomplish complex tasks with these behaviors. The research objective is to make use of their robust behaviors to accomplish complex tasks in many types of environments. For now, it is difficult to affect swarm 'goals', and therefore difficult them to direct to perform complex tasks. The extant literature on Human Swarm Interaction (HSI) focuses on demonstrating the usefulness of human operator inputs for swarms to accomplish complex tasks. The human typically gets visual feedback of the state of the swarm and influences the robots through a computer interface. This paper presents a user study investigating the effectiveness of haptic feedback in improving HSI. We use methods developed in studies using haptics in multi-robot systems (where the communication and structure is very rigid) and potential field algorithms developed for fully-autonomous swarms to determine the benefits of haptic feedback from the semi-autonomous control algorithm. In some environments, haptic feedback proved beneficial whereas in other environments haptic feedback did not improve performance over visual feedback alone. However, presence of haptic feedback did not degrade the performance under any of the experimental conditions. This supports our working hypothesis that haptic feedback is potentially useful in HSI.
Two-level Force Input on TouchPad and the Effects of Feedback on Performance BIBAFull-Text 1052-1056
  Mohamed Sheik-Nainar; Anna Ostberg; Nada Matic
Human fingers are accustomed to applying force in everyday activities and this dimension is not captured with today's TouchPads. We developed a prototype TouchPad with force sensors capable of detecting force applied by a finger. We evaluated two-level force interaction by creating a modified Fitts' task with two colored targets -- one selected by light press and the other selected by heavy press. We evaluated the effects of modality of force level feedback on task performance time and error using audio and visual feedback and compared it to a no-feedback control condition. Results showed no difference in Fitts' movement time between the various feedback conditions. Most participants preferred the simple audio feedback over other feedbacks. Many participants also commented that feedback helped them learn the force thresholds for each level but with practice they would prefer to have no additional force level feedback.

Macroergonomics: ME1 -- Human Factors in the Wild: Insight From Developing Solutions in Health Care

Human Factors in the Wild: Insight from developing solutions in healthcare (Discussion Panel) BIBAFull-Text 1057-1060
  Yan Xiao; Natalie Abts; Laurie Wolf; Susan Hallbeck; Svetlena Taneva; Anjum Chagpar; C. Adam Probst
This session will focus on lessons learned when developing solutions for real world problems in healthcare. Human factors (HF) practitioners bring unique knowledge, methods, and perspectives to work with clinicians to address numerous defects in the worksystem but require problem-solving skills that focus on solutions. The HF contribution may be in the area of process improvement (e.g., prevention of patient falls), systems design (e.g., designing crashcart), or identification of design flaws so robust intervention may be deployed (e.g., glucose meters). Six human factors practitioners who work within healthcare systems will present real world challenges which were discovered by HF methods, or which have heavy HF implications, but where direct HF influence on design lead to the ultimate effective solution. The session will be designed to lead to a discussion about how HF methods were adapted to individual problems at hand and to focus on developing solutions.

Macroergonomics: ME2 -- Human Factors and Sustainable Development

The Importance of Ergonomics in Green Design BIBAFull-Text 1061-1065
  Alan Hedge
In the past decade the green building movement has gathered tremendous momentum. Since 2008 the US Green Building Council has provided an opportunity for ergonomists to actively participate in this movement by helping designers earn credit in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification process. This paper outlines the history and reviews requirements of this credit. The value of integrating good ergonomics programs into the design of green buildings is presented and future opportunities are discussed.
Managing Performance Complexity and Manpower Sustainability with Systems Engineering BIBAFull-Text 1066-1070
  Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski; Ben Amaba
Researchers and engineers are finding themselves in a dilemma where supply is not meeting demand with an exponential growing population and complex systems putting more demands on power systems. The demand and supply of natural resources used to generate, transmit, and consume the power make the challenge for the human race even more complex. This research paper provides a motivation and quest for sustainable human factors and ergonomics (HF/E), specifically human performance elements in complex systems design and development. The advancements achieved in complex systems engineering show that the application of sustainable HF/E can lead to highly sophisticated and useable applications to ensure sustainability of limited resources such as energy and clean water. The integration of HF/E and Human-Centered design concepts with systems engineering proves critical for building complex systems and to support meeting the needs for future workforce skills and capabilities.
Sustainable Canadian mining: Occupational health and safety challenges BIBAFull-Text 1071-1074
  Sylvie Nadeau; Adel Badri; Richard Wells; Patrick Neumann; Glen Kenny; Douglas Morrison
Mining is a major industrial activity in Canada and will increase in importance as world demand continues to grow. Demand for mining resources is such that we have little choice but to conduct operations at greater and greater depths. This paper will outline the challenges faced by modern and deep mining operations for establishing safe and sustainable working conditions. The consideration of occupational health and safety in mining vehicle design remains cursory. Current personal protective devices are rudimentary. Risks will increase as mining operations reach greater depths. Organizational and generational changes, continued expansion of mining operations, and economic pressures will complicate the situation. One possible solution would be to design new intelligent personal protective equipment, taking into consideration multiple major human factors concerns by utilizing interdisciplinary industrial/academic research partnerships.
Designing sustainable work systems in a globalized world: a new challenge for ergonomics? BIBAFull-Text 1075-1079
  Klaus J. Zink
There is a growing discussion about sustainability in society which is now also extending to a company and work system level. More and more customers are interested where their products are coming from and under which conditions they have been produced. Burning textile factories in Asian countries as only one example are of increasing public interest. Therefore, companies have to take care about the whole supply chain but also the whole life cycle perspective of their products. Looking at this situation this paper asks the question whether human factors or ergonomics can contribute to find solutions for these problems. Is the perspective of macro-ergonomics or systems-ergonomics broad enough to include such questions? Do we need new instruments and additional knowledge to be able to contribute to solutions?
Sustainability policies and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Ergonomics contribution regarding work in companies BIBAFull-Text 1080-1084
  Ivan Bolis; Sandra N. Morioka; Claudio M. Brunoro; Laerte I. Sznelwar
The growing importance of sustainability in corporate policies represents a great opportunity for workers to gain more consideration, with great benefits to their well being. Sustainable work is believed to be one which improves the organization's performance and fosters professional development as well as workers' health. In a multiple case study based on document research, information was sought about work activities and their sustainability or CSR policies, as disseminated by corporations. All the companies devoted attention to work activities and delivered a good amount of information about them. Nevertheless, the information presented was generic; all the actions developed were top-down and there was no information about the impact of changes aimed at sustainability on the workers' activities. It was found that the companies seemed to be at an early stage. In the future, they need to show more commitment through concrete goals: they must be aware that workers contribute directly to the corporations' sustainability. This would allow room for Ergonomics and Work Psychodynamics to be incorporated and to be useful for both companies and society, so as to promote and ensure work sustainability.

Macroergonomics: ME3 -- Future Directions for Sociotechnical Systems and Safety: Outcomes From the 2012 Liberty Mutual Hopkinton Conference

Future Directions for Sociotechnical Systems and Safety: Outcomes from the 2012 Liberty Mutual Hopkinton Conference BIBAFull-Text 1085-1087
  Lawrence J. Hettinger; Michelle M. Robertson; Patrick Waterson; Pascale Carayon; Marvin J. Dainoff; Alex Kirlik; Brian M. Kleiner
The Sociotechnical Systems (STS) approach has had an enormous influence on both research and practice within occupational safety and has been applied across a range of domains including construction, healthcare, transportation and manufacturing. This panel will discuss the outcomes from a Hopkinton Conference on STS and Safety held at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety in Hopkinton, Massachusetts on October 18-19th 2012. The conference brought together a group of invited international researchers from 20 institutions in order to discuss current and future directions for sociotechnical systems and safety. The panel will focus on summarizing the main outcomes from these discussions, these include new directions for research and practice (Carayon on behalf of Hancock, Leveson, Noy, Sznelwar, van Hootegem and Hettinger); current and future requirements for development of methods and tools within STS and safety (Waterson on behalf of Cooke, Roth, Militello, Robertson and Stanton); the scope for computer-based modeling and simulation of complex sociotechnical systems (Alex Kirlik on behalf of Buckle, Goh and Hettinger); the application of a framework from a dynamical systems framework to the problem of communication and decision-making in complex systems (Dainoff on behalf of Flach, Carroll, Hamilton and Sanderson); and, the identification of the key sociotechnical attributes of safe systems (Kleiner on behalf of DeJoy, Hettinger, Huang and Love).

Macroergonomics: ME4 -- Considering Culture in the Design and Evaluation of Health IT for Patients

Considering Culture in the Design and Evaluation of Health IT for Patients BIBAFull-Text 1088-1092
  Enid Montague; Woodrow Winchester; Rupa Valdez; Monifa Vaughn-Cooke; Jennifer Perchonok
In the context of health care, culture can influence the way a patient understands health information, what they consider a health problem, how they express symptoms, who should provide them treatment, and what type of treatment they should be provided. This panel will discuss why human factors professionals should consider the patient's culture when designing and evaluating health information technology and approaches to developing culturally informed technologies. The discussion will begin by highlighting work from a general cultural group: racial and ethnic minorities. It will then become more specific by looking at cultural groups within a certain disease: Black female college students and HIV/AIDS, Hispanic and African American diabetes patients, and lesbians during pregnancy and childbirth. The panelists will focus on lessons learned from previous research within each of these cultural groups that can be applied to the overall design of culturally-informed health IT.

Macroergonomics: ME5 -- Macroegronomic Applications

Improving Perceived Fairness of Task Assignments in Cardiovascular Intensive Nursing Care Unit with Simple Queuing Mechanism BIBAFull-Text 1093-1097
  M. Saffarian; W. Giang
In this work, a simple computer application is proposed to improve the perceived fairness of Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU) nursing team in hospitals. The proposed system called Intensive care Unit (ICU) Task Assignment Platform (ICU-TAP) is aimed to increase perceived fairness and satisfaction through a systematic but flexible scheduling method. The solution proposed here takes into account the skill preference of each nurse to ensure an equal opportunity to maintain career goals, with an aim to increasing job satisfaction. The system is designed based on the basic concept of queuing. ICU-TAP equally distributes the harder and monotonic tasks among nurses and takes into account the desired skill of each nurse for more frequent assignment of other tasks. The proposed system is expected to make the workflow of the unit traceable, resulting in paperless scheduling, and reducing discrepancies between scheduling and daily task assignment of the nursing unit.
Work System Barriers to Providing Safe Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medication Recommendations for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1098-1102
  Michelle A. Chui; Jamie A. Stone; Joshua M. Thorpe; Beth A. Martin
Background: Unsafe medication use represents a major public health concern, especially for older adults. OTC medications, those that can be purchased without a formal prescription or advice from a health care professional, are one contributor to unsafe use because of their perceived safety and accessibility. Despite the recognition of pharmacists' ability to help patients make safe OTC medication choices, the prevalence of older adult misuse of OTC medications is well documented. Objective: To identify barriers to pharmacists providing safe OTC medication recommendations to older adults. Methods: Twenty-one retail pharmacists in three focus groups with questions developed using the critical incident technique. Analysis was guided by the Input-Performance-Output Model for Health Care Professional Performance. Results: Thematic analysis revealed barriers within all of the input categories of the work system model, including provider, patient, work system, organizational factors, and external environment. The results provide support that any intervention to improve safe OTC medication use in older adults should take into consideration the role of individual and interacting components of the work system.
Ergonomics Practice in Nigeria Today BIBAFull-Text 1103
  S. S. Adaramola
There is a growing need in Nigeria to develop ergonomics in all sectors of the economy. This led to the inauguration of Ergonomics Society of Nigeria (ESN) on the 14th of Sept, 2006, in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The Range of activities undertaken by ESN as at now is not broad coupled with the fact that the society compared with other professional bodies in Nigeria has relatively small number of members. However it is noteworthy that ESN plays a central role in publicizing and promoting ergonomics in the country. In addition: ESN has joined International Ergonomics Association (IEA) as an affiliate society in the third quarter of 2008. As ESN ergonomics activities spread into many areas, it is expected that there will be increase in exchange of information about its activities and about the ways they can address the particular ergonomics related issues found in Nigeria. Promoting Facilitator roles of ergonomists are increasingly important in responding to growing local needs. As a facilitator for ergonomic action, mobilizing local experience and achievements, development of local research and risk-assessment capacities and production and application of participatory ergonomic training programmes are of particular importance. These requirements will be fulfilled by carefully looking at the life and work of the local people in their own socio-cultural conditions. Ergonomics research and training attempts should be reviewed and examined from the viewpoints of facilitating sustainable action and improvement under local initiative. 'Learning from each other' is an important message conveyed by recent progress of ergonomics in Nigeria. Many ergonomic improvements carried out by local non-expert people at low-cost encouraging examples. These vital experiences are largely applicable to improving working conditions in industrially developing country like Nigeria. International cooperation in the field of ergonomics will facilitate and increases further local action when focusing on exchanging experiences and supporting local initiative.

Macroergonomics: ME6 -- Multilevel Ergonomics: Determining How to Bound Your System

Multi-Level Ergonomics: Determining How To Bound Your System BIBAFull-Text 1104-1108
  A. Joy Rivera-Rodriguez; Kerry McGuire; Pascale Carayon; Brian Kleiner; Robert Wears; Michelle Robertson; Richard Holden; Patrick Waterson
Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) researchers have a long tradition of focusing on the individual or micro-level. However, HFE researchers have started expanding their focus to include organizational or macro-level factors. That said, a gap still exists of theories or models that explain the link between micro and macro variables. Identifying these links and thus integrating macroergonomics and microergonomics is called mesoergonomics. Mesoergonomics considers the relationship between variables bounded across multiple levels in a work system. By bounding the system of interest across levels (or time, hierarchy, space, and process), the context surrounding the phenomenon of interest is identified. Understanding the context lessens the risk of missing contributing factors or explanations of the phenomenon, reducing the likelihood of contextual and ecological fallacies. This panel will discuss the challenges and benefits of conducting meso-or multi-level ergonomics research. Some of the panelists, specifically Carayon, will also discuss the difficulties of determining the proper system boundaries for researching particular phenomenon.

Perception & Performance: PP1 -- Vigilance & Attention Research

Do Looming Objects Capture Overt Attention? BIBAFull-Text 1109-1113
  Joanna E. Lewis; Mark B. Neider
Researchers have demonstrated stimuli onset captures attention, particularly in visual search. Although previously published work specifically does not attribute this effect to motion, recent research suggests looming motion captures attention. We investigated eye movements during visual search with looming targets and distractors. We replicated previous response time data, and additionally demonstrated these differences were not from physical distances and varied as a function of distraction stimuli fixation. Our results indicate attentional costs may result from both overt and covert processing.
Vigilance: Hard Work Even if Time Flies BIBAFull-Text 1114-1118
  Michael B. Dillard; Joel S. Warm; Gregory J. Funke; Michael A. Vidulich; W. Todd Nelson; Thomas F. Eggemeier; Matthew E. Funke
This study tested the possibility that the temporal context in which a vigilance task is performed will moderate the perceived workload of the task. We employed a procedure to manipulate participants' perceived time progression (PTP) during task performance by creating a mismatch between their expectations about how long they would perform the task and the actual time they were engaged (Sackett et al., 2010). All participants worked at the task for 30 minutes. Those in a time drags condition were led to believe it would last 15 minutes while those in a time flies condition were told it would last 60 minutes. PTP was significantly slower in the former condition than in the latter. However, workload scores on the NASA Task Load Index were similar in the two conditions and fell at the upper level of the scale. Evidently, vigilance tasks are perceived as hard work even when time flies.
The Effects of Feedback in Vigilance Training on Performance, Workload, Stress and Coping BIBAFull-Text 1119-1123
  Grace W. Teo; Tarah N. Schmidt; James L. Szalma; Gabriella M. Hancock; Peter A. Hancock
The ability to maintain vigilance in scanning the environment for improvised explosive devices (IEDs) can mean the difference between life and death for Soldiers. Although this ability to sustain attention varies among individuals, performance feedback training using knowledge of results (KR) has been found to improve performance. The present study builds on previous work on the influence of KR on vigilance training to investigate the efficacy of such training for improving upon performance and reducing workload and stress. Results indicated that the KR group achieved better vigilance performance than the No KR group and that the training benefits from KR persisted beyond the training phase. However, KR did not substantially affect perceived workload or stress response.
On the Hunt: Visual Search for Camouflaged Targets in Realistic Environments BIBAFull-Text 1124-1128
  Alyssa S. Hess; Andrew J. Wismer; Corey J. Bohil; Mark B. Neider
Visual search tasks commonly involve manipulating the number of targets and distractors to change difficulty levels and observe differences in reaction time and accuracy. What happens when the search background itself serves as a distractor? By creating a target that has been camouflaged to match the environment, we observed RT and accuracy both with and without a target preview. We hypothesized that 1) as target size decreased (increasing difficulty), RT would increase and accuracy would decrease, and 2) that the target preview would not aid in search. Our results support for our first hypothesis, and partially support our second. Reaction times were unaffected by the availability of the target preview, but search accuracy displayed a small cost. Overall, our findings suggest that search for camouflaged targets in the real world, in some cases, is predicated on a categorical representation of the target.

Perception & Performance: PP2 -- Display Research

Information Format and Cognitive Style: The Impact of Paired Styles on Performance and Preference BIBAFull-Text 1129-1133
  Kelly A. Sprehn; Gül E. Okudan Kremer; David R. Riley
The format of information can provide a powerful communication tool; however, a confluence of mismatched formats can be problematic. Particularly in the area of home energy audits, service providers rely on static reports that outline potential savings and recommendations to customers. These reports are created using a variety of information formats. In a broader sense, incorporating an understanding of the user, at a cognitive level, can reduce the cognitive effort required to comprehend the information presented. This research explores the potential for enhancing these static reports for usability and comprehension. In the paper, a summary of reviews on cognitive theory, comprehension, and style is presented. The hypothesis that matched information format and individual cognitive style will result in more accurate recall and a higher usability rating is tested through a comprehension and usability experiment. Results indicate promising associations not only between format and cognitive style, but also with more subjective variables.
Detecting Numerical and Waveform Changes on a Head-Mounted Display vs. Monitor BIBAFull-Text 1134-1138
  Callum L. Tear; Mithila Fox; Matthew Tsai; David Liu; Penelope M. Sanderson
In this study we investigate whether people timesharing two tasks might perform worse when using an HMD than when using a conventional monitor for one of the tasks. Specifically, we set out to partially replicate and extend Liu et al.'s (2009) findings that anesthesiologists took 60 seconds longer to notice a simulated respiratory waveform change (decrease in waveform frequency) when using an HMD than when using a conventional monitor -- a finding consistent with inattentional blindness (IAB). Our study shows that participants using an HMD detect all changes faster, but it also suggests that detecting decreases in waveform frequency might be relatively harder with an HMD than detecting increases. The results suggest future directions to take to investigate the conditions under which participants might not notice changes in an HMD display.
Eye Movements When Viewing a HMD Under Vibration BIBAFull-Text 1139-1143
  Daniel J. Uribe; Michael E. Miller
With improvements in Helmet-Mounted-Display (HMD) technology, they have become an essential element of many military systems. However, vibration and the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) continue to influence the utility of these displays. When a human's head experiences low-frequency motion, the VOR stabilizes the eye with respect to the external environment. However, this response blurs the perceived image on an HMD as the display moves with the user's head. This research investigated the VOR as a function of whole-body, low-frequency vibration. An HMD was developed to allow a user to perform visual tasks, while recording eye movements via Electro-OculoGraphy (EOG). This experiment explored the effect of vibration on eye movements while performing tasks chosen to isolate specific eye motions. The magnitude of vertical eye movement during target fixation was greatest between 4 and 6 Hz, while the addition of target motion significantly increased the magnitude of unintended vertical eye movements at peak frequencies. The findings are consistent with previous research, which has found a decline in visual performance for operators using an HMD in environments undergoing vibration.
Supporting Speeded Navigational Communication via Gesture-Controlled Vibrotactile Displays BIBAFull-Text 1144-1148
  Trey Roady; Thomas K. Ferris
Recent research has shown that haptic displays are particularly well-suited to communicating navigation information, but these displays are rarely evaluated in situations that require time-critical communications. The present study serves as the first proof of concept for 'CHIAD': a new haptic interaction system that allows fast and efficient communication of navigation information by supporting gesture-based encoding of navigational instructions and intuitive decoding of the instructions by mapping them to vibration presentations at different body locations. Participant pairs completed a speeded target-selection navigation task by utilizing three different interfaces: verbal instructions via two-way radio, vibrotactile signals activated by a laptop-based interface, and the CHIAD system. The results show the fastest and most accurate performance with the CHIAD system, suggesting two conclusions: vibrotactile signals are more effective than verbal interactions in supporting speeded communication of simple navigation instructions; and natural gesture methods support faster encoding of instructions.
Music as an Auditory Display: Interaction Effects of Mode and Tempo on Perceived Urgency BIBAFull-Text 1149-1153
  Anson Ho; Catherine Burns
Currently, there are very few guidelines on parameters needed to create an effective auditory display. Auditory displays can be intrusive and may not be used effectively if they are poorly designed. However, music is often in our environments as ambient noise and, instead of being intrusive, can be perceived as making the environment calmer and more productive. We present the initial steps of exploring the option of using music as a medium to develop an auditory display capable of conveying normal state information and warning information. An important feature that may impact the effectiveness of auditory warnings is perceived urgency: the impression of urgency that a sound evokes on a listener. To explore whether music could convey urgency as needed for auditory warnings, we evaluated four different musical phrases that varied in time and key signature as a method of measuring the effects of mode and tempo on perceived urgency. The effectiveness of the study was tested with twenty subjects split into a two by two factorial design: gender (male vs. female) and musical experience (experienced vs. non-experienced). The applications of this research can help develop concrete guidelines when designing effective auditory displays in order to improve users' performance when dealing with complex interfaces.

Perception & Performance: PP3 -- Human-Robot Interaction

Hemispheric Differences and Spatial Ability in Robot to Human Tactile Communication BIBAFull-Text 1154-1158
  Charles R. Descheneaux; Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Daniel Barber
Robots are following an evolutionary path similar to computers. One obstacle for this evolution is language interaction between humans and robots. Traditionally, human-to-robot language has been one way in the form of commands from human to robot. One path of robot-to-human language is tactile. Tactile communication affords the user a hands-free method of interaction. Hands-free tactile communication is an asset for military ground personnel allowing the hands, eyes, and ears to be fully utilized for other tasks. Speech and language are traditionally associated with the left cerebral hemisphere. Since tactile communication does not include the traditional auditory pathway of verbal language, there is potential for employing a more right cerebral hemisphere spatial pathway. The present study looks at the right and left cerebral hemispheric activity measured by an electroencephalogram of participants using a vibrotactile belt for robot to human communication.
Misalignment Effect Function Measurement for Oblique Rotation Axes: Counterintuitive Predictions and Theoretical Extensions BIBAFull-Text 1159-1163
  Stephen R. Ellis; Bernard D. Adelstein; Kiwon Yeom
The Misalignment Effect Function (MEF) describes the decrement in manual performance associated with a rotation between operators' visual display frame of reference and that of their manual control. It now has been empirically determined for rotation axes oblique to canonical body axes and is compared with the MEF previously measured for rotations about canonical axes. A targeting rule, called the Secant Rule, based on these earlier measurements is derived from a hypothetical process and shown to describe some of the data from three previous experiments. It explains the motion trajectories determined for rotations less than 65° in purely kinematic terms without the need to appeal to a mental rotation process. Further analysis of this rule in three dimensions applied to oblique rotation axes leads to a somewhat surprising expectation that the difficulty posed by rotational misalignment should get harder as the required movement is shorter. This prediction is confirmed. Geometry underlying this rule also suggests analytic extensions for predicting more generally the difficulty of making movements in arbitrary directions subject to arbitrary misalignments.
Multimodal Displays for Enhancing Performance in a Supervisory Monitoring Task: Reaction Time to Detect Critical Events BIBFull-Text 1164-1168
  G. Robert Arrabito; Geoffrey Ho; Yeti Li; Wayne Giang; Catherine M. Burns; Ming Hou; Paul Pace
Imperfect Automation in Scheduling Operator Attention on Control of Multi-Robots BIBAFull-Text 1169-1173
  Shih-Yi Chien; Michael Lewis; Siddharth Mehrotra; Katia Sycara
An operator's workload increases substantially when the operator must control multiple robots and continually shift attention from robot to robot. As the number of robots increases, the amount of time an operator can spend operating any particular robot decreases, which leads to inevitable changes in the robot's performance. If the robots could self-report encountered faults, the operator could conserve cognitive resources to spend on reasoning about more complex situations. In the reported experiment, participants performed foraging tasks while assisted by an alarmed system, either Open-queue in which all alarms are displayed or SJF-queue (shortest-job-first), whose reliability level was high (90%) or low (50%) under different task load (3-robots vs. 6-robots). The results showed that simply increasing the system reliability might not effectively contribute to the overall performance or the participants' trust in automation. An inverse relationship was observed between experienced workload and rated trust which also amplified the effects of imperfect automation.
Making eyes with robots: Readiness to engage in Human-Robot-Interaction depends on the attribution of intentionality BIBAFull-Text 1174-1178
  E. Wiese; A. Wykowska; H. J. Müller
One of the most important aims of social robotics is to improve Human-Robot Interaction by providing robots with means to understand observed behavior and to predict upcoming actions of their interaction partners. The most reliable source for inferring the action goals of interaction partners is their gaze direction. Hence, to anticipate upcoming actions, it is necessary to identify where others are currently looking at and to shift the attentional focus to the same location. Interestingly, it has been shown that observing robot gaze direction also induces attentional shifts to the location that is gazed-at by the robot. Given this, gaze direction can be actively used by the robot to direct the attentional focus of interaction partners to important events in the world. In this paper, we review findings from two studies indicating that the readiness to engage attentional resources in interactions with robots is modulated by the degree to which intentionality can be attributed to the robot: Robots believed to behave similar to humans cause stronger gaze-cueing effects than robots perceived as machines, independently of their physical appearance. Based on these findings, and on results from a pilot study with a sample of patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we derive guidelines for improving human-robot interaction by emulating social gaze behavior.

Perception & Performance: PP4 -- Warnings, Cues, & Detection Aids

Development and Validation of Warning Message Utility Scale (WMUS) BIBAFull-Text 1179-1183
  Yiqi Zhang; Changxu Wu; Jingyan Wan; Chunming Qiao
The evaluation of the warning message effectiveness is an important issue in improving communication safety in the system. The goal of the present research was to develop the scale to evaluate the warning message utility, namely, the effectiveness of warning message in preventing accident in general, and an empirical study was conducted to validate the Warning Message Utility Scale (WMUS) in a controlled laboratory environment. The reliability analysis indicated a good the split-half reliability for the WMUS with a Spearman-Brown Coefficient of .873. The predictive validity of WMUS was verified by the significant correlations between the WMUS scores and behavioral indexes of message utility (including reduced kinetic energy and collision rate). The results of regression indicated that the VWMUS is significant predictor of reduced kinetic energy (r2=.339, p<.001) and collision rate (r2=.363, p<.001), which further proved that the validity of WMUS in measuring effectiveness of the warning messages.
Vibro-tactile seat interface as a cueing device for different types of information BIBAFull-Text 1184-1188
  Lisa C. Thomas; Anthony Mize
The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate how well people can discriminate six different tactors embedded in a full seat pad using different cue intensity levels, and 2) investigate the appropriateness of different levels of tactile cue intensity to information types. Participants' ability to discriminate tactors, as measured by accuracy (90%) and response time (2.0 seconds), was not affected by intensity level. However, the location of the tactor affected accuracy; discrimination between the two back tactors was more problematic than discrimination between the four tactors in the seat pan or between any seat and any back tactor. As expected, participants perceived lower intensity cues to be appropriate for general information and higher intensity cues to be appropriate for emergency information. It is proposed that tactile feedback could be used within the context of a commercial flight deck to provide a limited set of information. From these initial results, we provide guidance on the application of seat-based tactile cues.
Direct perception biases with maritime navigation displays of collision risk BIBAFull-Text 1189-1193
  Alexander Eftychiou; John Dowell
Maritime navigation systems need to assist judgments about safe separations and avoidance manoeuvres. Collision Danger Sectors (CDS) are a proposed visualisation for radar displays intended to support the direct perception of impending traffic separation violations. We report an evaluation of the CDS display format in a laboratory study of navigation decision-making involving judgments of safe separations. Contrary to prediction, the CDS display did not bias decision making towards neglecting rules about track crossing. The CDS display did encourage excessive avoidance manoeuvres at higher angles of approach. A marked increase in response time with angle of approach was also evident, indicating a need for decision-aiding.
Optical Detection of Buried Explosive Hazards: A Longitudinal Comparison of Three Types of Imagery BIBAFull-Text 1194-1198
  James J. Staszewski; Charles A. Hibbitts; Drew Bailey; James Bursley; Luke Davis
Visual detection of soil disturbances is an effective, but imperfect method for detecting buried explosive threats such as landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Building upon prior studies of optical detection, this study uses signal detection methods to measure observer sensitivity to images of soil disturbances asking 'How detectable are disturbed soil signatures recorded in visible (VIS), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR) bands?' 'How effective is each band for detection?' and 'How is signature salience in each band effected by extended exposure in the natural environment?' Young adults viewed photos showing either soil disturbed by landmine burial or adjacent undisturbed surfaces and made yes/no decisions about the presence of a disturbance. Stimuli spanned a six-week time period over which VIS, SWIR, and TIR images were collected. Results show that (a) substantial signal strength lasts over the six-week period, (b) generally, SWIR and VIS show consistently strong performance for large anti-tank mines and (c) the soil signatures for the small, anti-personnel mine stay remarkably strong in SWIR. TIR sensitivity lags SWIR and VIS, but shows promising hit rates for anti-tank mine signatures under some conditions. Generally, results show that optical detection, particularly using the SWIR and VIS bands, shows promise for explosive hazards detection, at least under the conditions observed.

Perception & Performance: PP5 -- Research on Speech & Driving: Together & Separate

Visual and Cognitive Predictors of Visual Enhancement in Noisy Listening Conditions BIBAFull-Text 1199-1203
  Samantha Jansen; Alex Chaparro; David Downs; Evan Palmer; Joseph Keebler
Researchers have demonstrated that visual and auditory cues interact, improving speech intelligibility under noisy listening conditions. For instance, recent findings demonstrated that simulated cataracts hinder the ability of listeners to utilize visual cues to understand (i.e., speechread) televised speech sentences. The purpose of this study was to determine which measures of visual, auditory, and cognitive performance predicted participants' ability to speechread televised spoken messages in the presence of background babble. Specifically, 30 young adults with normal visual acuity and hearing sensitivity completed a battery of visual, auditory, and cognitive assessments. Speech intelligibility was tested under two conditions: auditory-only with no visual input and auditory-visual with normal viewing. Speech intelligibility scores were used to calculate average visual enhancement, or the average benefit participants gained from viewing visual information in addition to auditory information. Regression analyses demonstrated that the best predictors of visual enhancement were measures of contrast sensitivity and executive functioning, including the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and Trail Making Test, part B. These results suggest that audiovisual speech integration is dependent on both low-level sensory information and high-level cognitive processes, particularly those associated with executive functioning.
The Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Operational Performance in a Simulated Naval Command Information Center BIBAFull-Text 1204-1208
  Karen Mentel; John Ziriax; Jon Dachos; Alexander Salunga; Hope Turner; Benjamin Sheffield; Douglas Brungart
Despite nearly universal agreement that hearing is critical to the success of military operations, very little quantitative data exists to support this assertion. Unfortunately, hearing-related issues abound across our military services. To design and implement effective measures to mitigate these issues, data is needed to determine the extent to which military effectiveness is impaired when speech communication falls below some specific measurable threshold. In this study, U.S. Navy personnel participated in two experiments to examine the impact of speech intelligibility on operational performance in an Aegis Combat System Command Information Center simulation. Subjects wore headsets with custom-designed software to control speech intelligibility in real time. In the first experiment, speech intelligibility was measured using the modified rhyme test (MRT). In the second experiment, subjects acted as either commanding officer or tactical action officer in a combat scenario divided into time segments, each conducted at a different level of speech intelligibility. Results indicate that mission success, as measured by the percentage of tasks accomplished, decreased dramatically for MRT scores below approximately 65 percent.
Providing conversation partners views of the driving scene mitigates cell phone-related distraction BIBAFull-Text 1209-1213
  John G. Gaspar; Whitney M. Street; Matthew B. Windsor; Ronald Carbonari; Henry Kaczmarski; Arthur F. Kramer; Kyle E. Mathewson
Cognitively demanding cell phone conversations impair driving performance. In some situations, conversations with a passenger are less disruptive than cell phone conversations, in theory because of heightened situational awareness. Here, drivers completed challenging freeway drives in a high-fidelity simulator while conversing with a partner. The pairs engaged in naturalistic conversations in three different conditions: remotely on a hands-free phone, as a passenger in the vehicle, and in a videophone condition where the hands-free phone experience was enhanced by a live video the driving scene and the driver's face. This condition was designed to increase the conversation partner's awareness of the driving situation to a level similar to that of an in-vehicle passenger, to test our hypothesis that this cognizance leads to less distracted driving. We compared these conversation conditions to a driving-alone condition. Drivers were involved in more collisions with merging vehicles in the phone condition compared to drive-alone, passenger or videophone conditions, and crucially there was no difference in collisions between the passenger and videophone conditions. Providing remote conversation partner information about the driver and driving scene reduces the detrimental effect of cell phone conversations, possibly by increasing shared situational awareness.
Off Task Thinking Types and Performance Decrements During Simulated Automobile Driving BIBAFull-Text 1214-1218
  Jennifer A. Cowley
This research examined the relationship between performance decrements and types of off task thinking, including off task thoughts, mind wanderings and wanderings without meta-awareness. Participants (n=118) were probed 5 times during a simulated driving route, wherein they self-classified their own thought types as on task, off task, mind wanderings and meta-unaware mind wanderings. Performance decrements (i.e., seconds of speeding and number of lane deviations) were objectively measured in the 14 seconds preceding the probe. When participants were most frequently mind wandering without meta-awareness, the highest mean number of lane deviations and the second highest mean seconds of speeding were recorded. When participants were most frequently on task, the lowest mean seconds of speeding and second lowest number of mean lane deviations resulted. These findings suggest a relationship between off task thought types and performance decrements. Implications and future research directions are discussed herein.
Can You Feel The Difference? The Just Noticeable Difference of Longitudinal Acceleration BIBAFull-Text 1219-1223
  Thomas Müller; Hermann Hajek; Ljubica Radic-Weißenfeld; Klaus Bengler
In developing the next generation of engines and powertrains in the automotive industry, a deep knowledge of acceleration and its perception by the customer is essential. Because the vehicle's longitudinal acceleration is one of the most dominant factors in perceived driving experience, the desired increase or accepted decrease of this factor should be carefully controlled. The main objective of the present study is to identify the point at which the difference in longitudinal acceleration becomes just noticeable. In particular, this means locating the minimum point at which a vehicle's acceleration can differ from another and still be noticed by the subject. For this purpose, an experimental vehicle was equipped with an application control device, which allowed the vehicle's acceleration performance to change within a few seconds. That on the other hand enabled an experiment to be conducted with 16 subjects and using adapted methods from the field of psychophysical research. The obtained threshold of about 0.1m/s² (level of maximum acceleration) and about 1m/s³ (acceleration gradient, 95% confidence interval) demonstrated a way that this research problem can be taken from the laboratory and applied under real life conditions to obtain application-oriented results.

Perception & Performance: PP6 -- Neural, Perceptual, & Psychomotor Processes

Prefrontal Cortex Activity During Walking While Multitasking: An fNIR Study BIBAFull-Text 1224-1228
  Audrey Hill; Corey Bohil; Joanna Lewis; Mark Neider
Previous work has demonstrated that walking while carrying out secondary cognitive tasks (e.g., talking on a cell phone) can lead to decrements in performance on both tasks. Studying these decrements in an ecologically valid setting has generally been limited to behavioral data (e.g., error rates, task completion times). Recently, the advent of portable neuroimaging technology -- specifically, functional Near-Infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) -- has made it possible to measure cortical activity while a participant is walking. We conducted an experiment using fNIR to measure cortical blood flow (in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) while participants walked and carried out cognitive tasks of varying difficulty. Participants walked 25 feet on each trial, and performed either a low-load condition (counting backward by 1), or a high-load condition (counting backward by 7). Participants in the high load condition walked more slowly and performed the counting task more slowly and with more errors than those in the low load condition. fNIR results indicated a higher level of Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) activity during the high load condition. The difference in blood flow between load conditions was slightly more pronounced in the left hemisphere than in the right.
The Use of Paired Comparisons for Evaluating Complex Route Matching Performance in a Spatial Awareness Task BIBAFull-Text 1229-1233
  Anthony Soung Yee; Paul Milgram
A method is proposed for evaluating participants' performance in a global spatial awareness task involving identification of complex winding routes. Rather than using coarse measures of spatial error, the method of paired comparisons employs impartial judges to compare sets of aggregated experimental data generated by the participants with respect closeness in shape to the target route. The method was applied to a set of data in an experimental investigation of the effect of height on a participant's ability to identify the route he had just flown over (in a 20 second video). Seven participants performed a total of 48 trials in a 4 (heights) X 2 (trial blocks) within-subjects experiment. Results from the paired comparison analysis suggested that height had a statistically significant effect on correct route identification. Of equal importance in the context of the present paper, the method of paired comparison analysis proved to be effective in quantifying performance data that did not otherwise lend themselves to conventional methods of quantification.
Temporal Complexity in Team Coordination Associated with Increased Performance in a Fast-Paced Puzzle Task BIBAFull-Text 1234-1238
  Adam J. Strang; Samantha Epling; Gregory J. Funke; Sheldon M. Russell
Coordination is a critical component of team performance. Nonlinear time-series measures, such as Sample Entropy (SEn), provide a novel means to examine temporal structure in team coordination. The goal for this study was to apply SEn to the continuous motor responses (gamepad button presses) of dyadic teams who performed a fast-paced puzzle task (Quadra -- a variant of videogame Tetris). Inferential analyses were used to: a) determine if meaningful (i.e., deterministic) temporal structure existed in team responses using SEn, and b) examine correlations between team performance and coordination metrics (including SEn). Results confirmed that meaningful temporal structure existed in the sequential type and time of team motor responses. In addition, SEn was the only coordination metric to exhibit a significant relationship with team performance outcomes. Together, these findings support the viability and salience of nonlinear measures such as SEn in assessment of team coordination.
Instructional Strategies for Training Military-Relevant Perceptual-Cognitive Skills BIBAFull-Text 1239-1243
  Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Logan Fiorella; Naomi Malone
A growing body of research evidence suggests that essential perceptual-cognitive skills can be enhanced through training. Despite this success, at present, these skills have been studied in relative isolation and across many domains, resulting in a research literature that lacks a coherent framework for clearly matching specific perceptual skills to specific training interventions. In response, this paper reviews the available literature that investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at training military-relevant perceptual-cognitive skills (e.g., situation awareness, anticipatory skills), organizes these interventions and skills into a usable framework, and provides concrete, research-based recommendations for training specific skills.
Friendly Fire in a Simulated Firearms Task BIBAFull-Text 1244-1248
  Kyle Wilson; James Head; William S. Helton
Factors such as poor visibility, lack of situation awareness, and bad communication have been shown to contribute to friendly fire incidents. However, to the authors' knowledge, an individual's ability to inhibit their motor response of shooting when a non-target is presented has not been investigated. This phenomenon has been modeled empirically using the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, 1997) computer task. The SART is generally a high Go/low No-Go detection task whereby participants respond to numerous neutral stimuli and withhold to rare targets. In the current investigation, we further investigate the SART using a simulated small arms scenario to test whether lack of motor response inhibition can be modeled in a more ecologically valid environment. Additionally, we were interested in how error rates were impacted in low Go/high No-Go versions of the task. Thirteen university students completed a computer and simulated small arms scenario in a SART and low Go condition. Both the computer and small arms scenario revealed similar speed-accuracy trade-offs indicating participants' inability to halt their pre-potent responses to targets even in a more ecologically valid environment. The SART may be used in future studies to model friendly fire scenarios.

Posters: POS1 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 1

Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Wing Recovering Tasks in General Aviation Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 1249-1253
  Sally A. Stader
General aviation (GA) maintenance ergonomics has been a largely understudied area. It is known that risks for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) occur in other types of maintenance. This paper presents an approach to ergonomic evaluations in a GA maintenance workshop for tasks of recovering aircraft wings. First, a high-level analysis and resulting job/task hierarchy were completed. The task hierarchy suggested that the recovering tasks for three different types of aircraft wings present different musculoskeletal risks to maintainers. Next, ergonomic screening tools were used to evaluate the work performed on each wing type. Finally, based on the screening, more detailed ergonomic analyses were performed. Results indicated that risks to the low back as well as hands and wrists are present in these tasks with risks largely dependent on task duration. Evaluation tools used and suggestions for further research in this work domain are discussed.
Visual, Tactile, and Bimodal Presentation of Lateral Drift in Simulated Helicopter BIBAFull-Text 1254-1258
  Per-Anders Oskarsson; Patrik Lif; Johan Hedström; Peter Andersson; Björn Lindahl; Anna Tullberg
Helicopter landing and take-off in degraded visibility caused by blowing sand or dust (brown-out) may distort the pilot's comprehension of the helicopter's position. This is a serious problem that may lead to unattended lateral drift or descending rate. We have previously shown advantages of redundant tactile and multimodal information a simulated combat vehicle. In order to investigate if lateral drift in a helicopter can be reduced by use of a drift display an experiment with a simulated helicopter was performed. Three types of drift displays were tested: visual, tactile, and bimodal display and compared with the primary display that did not present lateral drift. Compared with the primary display lateral drift was reduced with all three drift display configurations. This indicates the value of a drift display in the helicopter and the possibilities of disengaging the pilot's vision for parallel tasks by the use of tactile or bimodal drift displays.
Developing Unmanned Aerial System Training: An Event-Based Approach BIBAFull-Text 1259-1262
  Aaron S. Dietz; Joseph R. Keebler; Rebecca Lyons; Eduardo Salas; V. C. Ramesh
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) will be increasingly utilized for military and domestic purposes in a variety of operations. Unfortunately, the potential these systems afford is marred by a remarkably high accident and incident rate. Pavlas and colleagues (2009) suggested training science is not necessarily integrated into actual UAS training. The purpose of this paper is to propose one approach towards redressing this gap. Specifically, this paper details how the Event-Based Approach to Training (EBAT) can be applied to develop UAS training content and performance measurement tools. Throughout the paper, we outline the steps involved in the EBAT methodology and pare the discussion with exemplars of how UAS training scenario content and performance metrics can be systematically crafted.
A Dual-Process Approach to Understanding Human-Robot Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1263-1267
  Emilio J. C. Lobato; Travis J. Wiltshire; Stephen M. Fiore
Human-robot interaction (HRI) research needs to leverage the theories and findings from multiple disciplines to inform subsequent empirical investigation and robot design. Utilizing evidence and suggestions from social cognitive and neurocognitive disciplines for human-human interaction, we propose an approach for conceptualizing HRI. Comparing HRI to human-human interaction at the surface level and deeper levels allows for the generation and evaluation of testable hypotheses in multiple disciplines to inform the design of future robotic systems.
Best Practices in Human Operation of Robotic/Unmanned Vehicles: A Technical Review of Recommendations Regarding the Human-to-Robot Ratio BIBAFull-Text 1268-1272
  Thomas Fincannon; Florian Jentsch; Brittany Sellers; Andrew Talone
The purpose of this work is to review research in the domain of unmanned vehicle (UV) operations and to provide recommendations regarding the human-to-robot ratio for optimal performance. This begins with a discussion of how remote perception, multitasking, and workload can contribute to the difficulty of performing UV operations. Then, recommendations are provided in order to address three different aspects of the human-to-robot ratio: (a) human-centric factors, (b) robot-centric factors, and (c) collaborative human-robot factors. These recommendations begin by focusing on a team of high-ability operators that execute role-specific behaviors, and processes are supported by systems that are designed to support appropriate coordination. Additional UVs should be added with the intention of increasing unique capabilities and reliable autonomy. Finally, recommendations address methods collaboration that work within the perceptual limitation of humans and UVs.
Effects of Robot Gaze and Proxemic Behavior on Perceived Social Presence during a Hallway Navigation Scenario BIBAFull-Text 1273-1277
  Travis J. Wiltshire; Emilio J. C. Lobato; Anna V. Wedell; Wes Huang; Benjamin Axelrod; Stephen M. Fiore
Robots are increasingly being introduced into task environments that require the ability to exhibit appropriate social functionality. The present study is an examination of how social cues conveyed by a robot, during a brief interaction, affect the perception of the robot as a socially present agent. Participants were exposed to one of three gaze conditions and two proxemic behavioral programs during a number of experimental trials involving path-crossing in a hallway setting. Results indicated that participants perceived the robot as more socially present when it exhibited a passive proxemic behavior and more socially present over time; though, findings varied at the sub-scale level. Design recommendations are presented for roboticists.
Towards Modeling Social-Cognitive Mechanisms in Robots to Facilitate Human-Robot Teaming BIBAFull-Text 1278-1282
  Travis J. Wiltshire; Daniel Barber; Stephen M. Fiore
For effective human-robot teaming, robots must gain the appropriate social-cognitive mechanisms that allow them to function naturally and intuitively in social interactions with humans. However, there is a lack of consensus on social cognition broadly, and how to design such mechanisms for embodied robotic systems. To this end, recommendations are advanced that are drawn from HRI, psychology, robotics, neuroscience and philosophy as well as theories of embodied cognition, dual process theory, ecological psychology, and dynamical systems. These interdisciplinary and multi-theoretic recommendations are meant to serve as integrative and foundational guidelines for the design of robots with effective social-cognitive mechanisms.
Developing a Tactical Language for Future Robotic Teammates BIBAFull-Text 1283-1287
  Elizabeth Phillips; Javier Rivera; Florian Jentsch
The transition of robots from valuable tools to useful teammates to humans is contingent upon successful communication methods. Effective communication has been shown to have a positive effect on the development and quality of shared mental models and on performance within human-human teams. Likely, effective communication will have a similarly positive effect within future human-robot teams. The purpose of this effort was, therefore, to develop a vocabulary database that facilitates the identification of suitable terms for tactical Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) in military contexts. The database can be utilized for the selection of appropriate terms to capture mission and movement intent, as well as to inform the selection of alternate terms to reduce communication errors. The end result of this research will help support the development of a human-robot language that enhances shared mental models among team members, and produce better interactions between human-robot teams.
Identifying the Role of Attributions in Human Perceptions of Robots BIBAFull-Text 1288-1292
  Julia Wright; Tracy Sanders; Peter A. Hancock
To date, research into the potential impact of fundamental design attributes, such as material and color, on human-robot trust has been limited. This study addresses how a human's perception of fundamental, basic design features (i.e., the robot's physical appearance) may influence their attribution of anthropomorphic characteristics to the robot. Two experiments investigated the correlations between the color, texture, and material of a robot body and the perception of the robot's internal characteristics (i.e. intelligence, friendliness, robustness, reliability, personality, and integrity), as well as its appropriate uses and tasks. Experiment 1 found correlations between participants' basic attributions and fundamental design elements of the robot images. Experiment 2 evaluated combinations of significant correlational relationships from study 1 to determine which of competing characteristics would determine the participants' attributions of the robots' internal characteristics. These correlations have implications for robot design and will lead to the creation of design heuristics and guidelines that can address any identified human biases occurring based on robot appearance alone.
Does This Robot Make Me Look Smart? How the Addition of a Robotic Pet Influences First Impressions BIBAFull-Text 1293-1297
  Shane E. Halse; Heather C. Lum; Valerie K. Sims; Christine A. Winkelbauer; Megan A. Harris
The current study examined whether the addition of either a robotic cat or a robotic dog to the picture of a male or female model, could affect the participants first impressions of the model. The participants were directed to a website and randomly assigned to a picture. Next, they answered a survey related to their perceptions of the model. Individual differences including participant gender, entity type, and response on robot attitudes scale were found. The results indicate that the items around or with us can be particularly important in public and social settings where first impressions can be the only ones a person gets to make.
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Mental Models: Evaluating Human Understanding of Robot Teammates BIBAFull-Text 1298-1302
  Scott Ososky; Elizabeth Philips; David Schuster; Florian Jentsch
Across the domains in which robots are prevalent, it is possible to imagine many different forms and functions of robots. The purpose of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the scope and type of a priori knowledge structures humans hold of robots, among novice users of robotic systems. Participant mental models of a hypothetical robot in a military team scenario were elicited along the dimensions of form and function, taking prior individual experiences into consideration. Participants who conceived a robot with anthropomorphic or zoomorphic qualities reported more perceived knowledge of their robotic teammate, as well as of their human-robot team. Participants who had more experience with video games also believed that they had more knowledge of their imagined robot and their human-robot team. Insight into novice users' understanding of robots has implications for HRI design and training.
Testing Usability Goals With Small Samples: A Binomial Analysis Methodology BIBAFull-Text 1303-1307
  K. Michael Dresel
If a usability goal is high, a single failure during summative testing can drive standard approaches to large sample sizes. With a minimum task performance criterion of 95%, a failure by one subject would require testing at least 19 other subjects to show a 95% success rate for the sample. The described small sample methodology for usability testing provides a necessary utility. It provides a method to support a conclusion that a usability performance goal was met, even if a small subset of subjects fail to meet the goal.
Vote-By-Phone: Usability Evaluation of an IVR Voting System BIBAFull-Text 1308-1312
  Danae Holmes; Philip Kortum
There are a myriad of voting technologies available today, but a noted lack of remote voting methods. In this paper we explore a novel remote voting method that allows users to vote-by-phone. This method used an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system to allow users to vote using a touch-tone telephone. The IVR voting system has several advantages including ubiquity of access, accuracy, and accessibility. We developed and tested three iterations of IVR voting systems and examined the usability of each system to determine the merit of an IVR voting system as a voting platform. The usability of the IVR voting systems were compared with traditional voting methods to understand how they performed in relation to these other voting methods. The results showed that the vote-by-phone method was as accurate and as subjectively usable, but not as efficient, as traditional voting methods. These results suggest that an IVR voting system could be viable candidate as a voting platform.
Perceptions and Usability of a Mining Vest: High and Low Seam Heights BIBAFull-Text 1313-1317
  Jennica Bellanca; Brianna Eiter; Lisa Steiner
As miners are expected to wear more and more equipment, space and capacity on their mining belt is becoming scarce. To combat this, several companies have recently developed vests for mining. We explored the usability, acceptance, and performance of one of the mining vests through a field evaluation. A total of 18 miners across various positions were recruited from high and med/low seam underground coal mines to wear a mining vest over a six-week period. Results confirm that comfort, especially related to overhead work, was a key factor to the usability of the vests, and comfort was a bigger factor in the lower seam mine than the higher. Reports of various other factors are included in this publication. Despite other concerns, the miners remained positive and interested in the concept of a mining vest, especially for certain occupations. With some modification, the mining vest could be an effective way to house the necessary equipment traditionally worn on a belt.
Usability Evaluation of a Paratransit Mobile Application BIBAFull-Text 1318-1322
  Elizabeth Mintmire; Chen Ling; Randa Shehab
TransitMobile is a mobile application that provides logistic information to drivers in Oklahoma community-based paratransit operations. Passenger reservation information is transferred from the home agency to in-vehicle mobile devices to notify the drivers as reservations are made in real-time. In this study, user testing and a questionnaire were used to evaluate the usability of the application. Task completion times and subjective measures from the questionnaire pointed to areas of the system design that caused errors. The effects of practice revealed the importance of training for drivers in the field. While TransitMobile is a promising application, the system in which it functions is complex, and users must receive adequate training in order to use the application to its fullest potential.
The effects of mental model conformity on usability in apps BIBAFull-Text 1323-1327
  Audrey W. Fok; Katelyn Procci; Jeremy R. Flynn; Mustapha Mouloua
Designing interfaces to conform to users' mental models is an important usability guideline. With respect to designing apps to be used on tablets and smartphones for existing websites, whether the app conforms exactly to the website's original layout is a design question that must be considered. Aside from general mental models of functionality, this study sought to examine the importance of conformity to system (i.e., website) mental models when designing apps. Sixteen undergraduate students were recruited. They completed a series of tasks, either first on the website to generate a mental model of the system, and then again on the app, or vice-versa. Time to complete the tasks was recorded and participants also completed questionnaires to determine how system mental models affected usability. Results suggested that the app was more usable than the website overall. Task times and usability scores were not affected by condition; however, those who used the website first gave higher subjective usability scores overall to both the app and the website. These results imply that conformity to the website is not necessary to create a usable app.
Usability and Performance of Tablet Keyboards: Microsoft Surface vs. Apple iPad BIBAFull-Text 1328-1332
  Barbara S. Chaparro; Mikki H. Phan; Jo R. Jardina
This study was an evaluation of typing performance and user satisfaction of three tablet keyboards: Surface TouchCover Keyboard, Surface Onscreen Keyboard, and iPad Onscreen Keyboard. Results show that participants typed faster with the Surface TouchCover Keyboard, but also committed more typing errors (e.g., unintended omission of letters and spaces). Users liked the TouchCover standard keyboard layout, but not the lack of sensitivity of the flat keyboard. The results from this study indicate the advantages of a physical keyboard with a standard layout for tablet usage over an onscreen keyboard.
Arrow Key Configuration on Laptops: Performance and User Preference of the Inverted-T and Modified Cross BIBAFull-Text 1333-1337
  Angelene Nery; Christy Harper; Michael Bartha
With the popularization of mobile devices, product design is adapting to the needs of mobility. Laptops are getting smaller, thus the keyboards on laptops are becoming smaller. Having a smaller keyboard means redesigning certain key configurations. A common key configuration that is often modified for the sake of keyboard size is the arrow keys. The most common arrow key configuration is the inverted-T, but the modified cross is being used on laptop keyboards more frequently due to its size and scalability. This study sought to understand how the modified cross performs against the well-known inverted-T in speed and accuracy. Also, we were interested in understanding the user experience and perceived performance with these two configurations. Although, the user rankings and preference ratings favored the inverted-T, we found that the performance of the modified cross was significantly faster than the inverted-T. There was no significant difference of the number of errors between the two configurations.
Assessing Conceptualizations of User Friendliness for Consumer Products BIBAFull-Text 1338-1342
  Christina N. Harrington; Jesseca R. I. Taylor; Jennifer A. Cowley; Michael S. Wogalter
This study examines the conceptualizations of the user-friendliness of technology-based consumer products. Participants (n=205) were asked to evaluate 25 statements related to the topic of user-friendliness. Participants' ratings indicated that statements concerning positive productivity levels and reliable displays (e.g. 'I quickly learned how to use this product' or 'I can find information quickly within the display') received the highest ratings of user friendliness. Low user-friendliness was associated with systems deemed as complex or with longer durations of product adaptation and learning (e.g. 'This product prevents me from choosing what I would like to do' or 'I really have to concentrate to use this product'). A factor analysis of the data suggested four dimensions of user-friendliness: ease-of-use, delight, reliability and feedback. Design implications and possible human factors' interventions for consumer products are discussed.
Ecological Interface Design of a Photo Camera Display: Method and Example BIBAFull-Text 1343-1347
  Natalia Mazaeva; Ann M. Bisantz
Ecological Interface Design (EID) is a framework for designing computer displays that has been applied predominantly to desktop displays. Extensibility of the framework to small format displays (defined by small physical dimensions of height and width) remains to be demonstrated through design and evaluation. This paper illustrates a specific design approach to the design of small format ecological displays as well as the process of the design, for a tractable but complex system: a manual photo camera. Small format displays present challenges for showing information in parallel. To meet this challenge, two methods based on elements of the EID framework were developed and used to integrate information so that it could be condensed to fit on small displays: one based on system functional relationships and one based on task requirements. The abstraction hierarchy model (AH) was used to guide integration of the system functional information. Requirements drawn from the decision ladder model (DL) were used to guide integration based on task requirements. The detailed description of the design approach and process provided here should help designers create small format ecological displays.
Low Profile Keyboard Design: The Effect of Physical Key Characteristics On Typing Productivity and User Preference BIBAFull-Text 1348-1352
  Wimberly S. Hoyle; Michael C. Bartha; Christy A. Harper; S. Camille Peres
The growing usage of tablets and the introduction of ultrabooks have increased consumer demands for smaller, lighter, sleeker, and more mobile devices. With computing technologies gravitating towards thinner designs, there is increased pressure to reduce key travel in order to accommodate the reduced thickness. It is important to understand how reductions in key travel may affect users' performance and preferences. The main goal of this study was to examine how physical key characteristics affect user performance and preference on various computer keyboards. Four keyboards varying in key travel distances from 0.0 mm to 2.0 mm were compared. Participants completed a 7-minute typing task on each of the four keyboards. Typing performance (speed and accuracy) was collected for each of the keyboards. The results showed that words per minute were higher with the 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm keyboards and lower with the 0.4 mm and 0.0 mm keyboards. The 0.0 mm keyboard had a lower accuracy than the other three keyboards. Performance and usability ratings were significantly lower for the 0.0 mm keyboard compared with the other keyboards. Overall, both subjective and objective measures of performance and usability showed that the1.6 mm keyboard was preferred.
Green Expectations: The Story of a Customizable Lighting Control Panel Designed to Reduce Energy Use BIBAFull-Text 1353-1357
  Michael Lee; C. Melody Carswell; Will Seidelman; Michelle Sublette
Environmental control and sustainability have become increasingly important in the design of workspaces. Lighting systems in particular have undergone many changes through the incorporation of computer-integrated control panels working in tandem with occupancy and light sensors. Such control panels can allow for increased perceived environmental control which has been shown to improve job satisfaction and productivity (Kroner, 1992; O'Neil, 2004). However, these controls must be designed effectively according to a number of principles regarding interaction design, including good stimulus-response compatibility and adherence to population stereotypes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usability of one such control panel being used in a smart, green building, and to see how the shortcomings in the design may force users to default to the most familiar setting, which may not be the most energy efficient.
Modeling a Display Adjustment Range for Standing and Keyboarding for Touchscreen Computer Users BIBAFull-Text 1358-1361
  Michael C. Bartha; Melissa Meingast; Cynthia Roe Purvis; Douglas Kokot; Paul Allie
As the number of touchscreen displays begin to proliferate in work settings the need for display placement recommendations based on sound practices and good science rises. While studies have reported on touch display placement and resulting postures and discomfort for seated computer users, investigation into the adjustment requirements for standing workers using a touchscreen display and keyboard are limited, and focus primarily on handheld units. This poster describes a methodology combining existing research and anthropometric modeling to develop a recommended range of touchscreen placement suitable for standing computer users who also need to interface with a keyboard.
Asymmetries in Human Tolerance of Uncertainty in Interaction with Alarm Systems: Effects of Risk Perception or Evidence for a General Commission Bias? BIBAFull-Text 1362-1366
  Torsten Guenzler; Dietrich Manzey
Providing access towards raw data is often considered to be a good solution for improving human decision making in interaction with imperfect automated decision support such as alarm systems. However, there is some evidence that such cross-checking measures are used in an asymmetric manner with respect to the amount of uncertainty involved in the decision. Namely, people seem to accept low amounts of uncertainty when complying with an alarm cue, but not when contradicting it. The current study investigates the question whether this phenomenon is limited to alarm systems and a high risk environment. Within a multi-task PC simulation participants performed a low risk monitoring task which was supported by a system neutrally framed as 'assistant system'. In one group the cues emitted by the system were 90% correct, in the other 10% were correct, thus causing a 10% uncertainty about the real state in both conditions. Results show a strong asymmetry as participants in the latter condition spent a high amount of effort in reducing their uncertainty, while participants in the former condition did not. Furthermore participants' behavior almost exactly replicates the asymmetric cross-checking pattern found in a former study which employed a comparatively high risk monitoring task supported by an 'alarm system'. This supports the hypothesis that the observed commission bias represents a general phenomenon in the context of automated decision support, irrespective of the risk attributed to the environment and irrespective of whether the system represents an alarm system or not.
A Microworld Simulator for Process Control Research and Training BIBAFull-Text 1367-1371
  Brian P. Dyre; Eric J. Adamic; Steffen Werner; Roger Lew; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring
We introduce and will demonstrate a new software tool for creating simulations of simplified process control tasks -- what Vincente (2000) termed microworlds -- for research and training applications. This tool builds on previous software tools, such as the synthetic task environment DURESS, but provides more flexibility in simulation design, a more realistic physics model, and additional components for representing complex processes, such as auditory and visual alarms for nuclear power plants. Further, our microworld simulation tool can be used for a variety of tasks, from flexibly specifying a synthetic environment for research on a desktop computer to scaling up to large format touch displays with realistic controls typical of high-fidelity process control simulators. Potential applications of the microworld simulator include research on the cognitive engineering of human-machine interfaces used in process control, training of process control operators and other personnel, and rapid prototyping and testing of process controls and displays.
The Impact of Transmission Delays on Mission Control-Space Crew Communication BIBAFull-Text 1372-1376
  Ute Fischer; Kathleen Mosier; Judith Orasanu
During long duration missions space-ground communications will involve delays up to 20 minutes one way, a reality that poses a formidable challenge to team communication and task performance. In the present research we examined how transmission delays impacted the interactions between mission controllers and space crews during routine and off-nominal tasks. Method: Four teams of NASA flight controllers and astronauts participated in a space simulation study involving two 2-hour scenarios with transmission delays of 50 sec and 300 sec. Audio-recordings of space-ground communications were transcribed and their structure (turn taking and sequence) and content examined; specifically, whether speakers identified addressees or themselves, and whether listeners confirmed their understanding. Results and Discussion: Transmission delays disrupted the structure of space-ground communications as contributions by flight controllers and astronauts overlapped or were out of sequence. Space crewmembers and flight controllers did not consistently mark the end of their turn; however, our findings suggest that they were more likely to do so under the longer transmission delay. Omissions of identifiers and inadequate listener feedback were observed under both delay conditions. Strategies supportive of grounding processes were also identified.
Learning to Tie Well with Others: Bimanual vs. Intermanual Coordination during Shoe-tying BIBAFull-Text 1377-1381
  Michael J. Crites; Jamie C. Gorman
A shoe-tying paradigm was developed to examine mode effects and motor learning functions when people are asked to handle a familiar object (e.g., tying a shoe) using an unfamiliar coordination mode (e.g., tying a shoe with another person). Dyads first tied a shoe apparatus using their own two hands ('bimanual') for 10 trials and then tied the shoe as a dyad, each person using one hand ('intermanual') for 20 trials. Finally, participants tied the shoe bimanually for another 10 trials. Previous research has indicated that intermanual is faster than bimanual, but those experiments examined novel tasks performed by novices. For this familiar task, results revealed that participants were significantly slower in the intermanual mode compared to either set of bimanual trials, and participants were significantly faster in the second set of bimanual trials than the first. Unlike mode effects for novel tasks with novice participants, the intermanual mode was slowest, though intermanual performance may have enhanced subsequent bimanual performance. Previous research on motor learning suggests an exponential function describes acquisition of a novel skill, whereas a power law describes persistent motor learning. Analyses revealed that dyads exhibited a power law function over both the first set of bimanual trials and the intermanual trials. That finding suggests that participants were not learning a new coordination skill in the intermanual mode but may have transferred persistent, bimanual shoe-tying skill to the novel mode. Theoretical and practical implications of acquisition of a novel coordination mode for a familiar task are described.
Cognitive Resource Demands During Climbing: Considerations for Communication Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1382-1386
  William S. Helton; Alex L. Green; Neil R. de Joux
Climbing is a demanding physical activity often requiring communication with others. In sport and recreational climbing communication may be with belayers and team members. In occupations requiring climbing, like firefighting and search and rescue, this communication demand is even more pressing. Theories in human factors, such as Multiple Resource Theory (MRT), may be useful in designing and selecting communication technology appropriate for climbers. We present the results of a series of dual-task studies in which climbing is combined with a communication task. These results indicate climbing is highly cognitively demanding. Based on these results and MRT, we suggest the need for communication equipment that augments the climber's memory and caution regarding the use of communication equipment using visual or tactile modalities.
The Relationship between Mindfulness and Resiliency among Active Duty Service Members and Military Veterans BIBAFull-Text 1387-1391
  Valerie Rice; Gary Boykin; Angela Jeter; Jessica Villarreal; Cory Overby; Petra Alfred
Soldier resilience is of paramount importance to the U.S. Military. Mindfulness and Resilience are positively correlated to one another in research focused on civilian populations. Since mindfulness can be learned, if the correlations remain consistent over time, then perhaps resilience can be increased by learning to be mindful. However, no published research has investigated the relationship between mindfulness and resilience among military active duty and veteran populations who have not undergone mindfulness training. Thirty active duty and veteran service members volunteered and completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Resilience Scale, while 29 fully completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Results reveal significant correlations between resilience scores and three of the FFMQ scale (Describe, Conscious Action, and Non-Reactive, p < .05), but not with the overall FFMQ, the other two facets (Observe and Non-Discrimination of the FFMQ), and not with the MAAS (p > .05). These results provide initial information on the relationship between mindfulness and resilience among active duty military and veterans, revealing that only some aspects of mindfulness appear related to, and predictive of, resilience. Should the relationships be consistent over time, then instruction in mindfulness may ultimately impact resilience, however additional research is necessary.
Designing for Mars: Mitigating Habitability Factors to Support Crew Performance BIBAFull-Text 1392-1394
  Gisela Munoz; Michael Fehlinger; Jason Kring
This presentation provides an overview of the habitability factors that affect the design of space habitats for long-duration spaceflight missions. Components of habitability that affect human adaptation to an isolated and confined environment are discussed. These elements are presented as part of a larger group of environmental factors, aesthetics, and habitat architecture. Design recommendations are provided to support practicing human factors specialists, architects, and engineers in creating an environment that promotes productivity and supports crew performance. A comparison to a current Mars analog environment is included to illustrate the findings and recommendations for future habitat designs. Current research efforts implementing these recommendations are discussed.
The Impact of Sudden Events and Spatial Configuration on the Benefits of Prior Information to Situation Awareness and Performance BIBAFull-Text 1395-1399
  Avi Parush; Nadya Rustanjaja
Having task-relevant information prior to performing the task can improve performance and situation awareness. This study examined the impact of spatial complexity (apartment vs. office buildings) and the presence of sudden events on the benefits of having information prior to fighting fire in a burning building. Performance of an urban firefighting team (finding victims) and situation awareness (SA) were measured in a lab simulation study. Findings show that having complete prior information did improve SA, performance was better in the office building, and performance deteriorated after a sudden event. However, an in-depth examination of the findings suggests that characteristics of the spatial configuration and the presence of sudden events influence the benefits of having prior information.
Standard Deviation of sEMG: Measuring the dynamicity of muscle activity BIBAFull-Text 1400-1404
  Timothy J. Duffield; S. Camille Peres; William Amonette; Paul Ritchey
Certain muscle activities (e.g. static muscle activities for prolonged periods of time) and resultant movement patterns may be associated with the development of cumulative trauma disorders. Currently, there is no simple, well-defined measure to discern if a muscle is performing a static or dynamic activity. In this paper, we present the results of a simple study designed to investigate whether the standard deviation (SD) of sEMG is an effective method of identifying muscle dynamicity. Participants completed two separate tasks with a desktop touchscreen device -- one requiring static muscle movements and the other to elicit dynamic movements while we measured muscle activity. The SD was more was more varied (M = 4.8 ±.4% MVC) during the dynamic task compared to the Static task (M = 2.5 ±0.2% MVC). Participants' muscles had a lower Mean (exertion) (M = 7.3 ± 0.8% MVC) in the dynamic task compared to the Static task (M = 11.6 ±1.1% MVC). This interaction of measure and task was significant, F(1,18) = 72.23, p < .001, η2 = 0.80. Thus standard deviation of sEMG was found to be a valid measure of muscle dynamicity.
Do Voters Really Fail to Detect Changes to Their Ballots? An Investigation of Ballot Type on Voter Error Detection BIBAFull-Text 1405-1409
  Claudia Ziegler Acemyan; Philip Kortum; David Payne
Data from previous research that investigates whether or not voters fail to notice changes to their electronic ballot selections indicate that high percentages of people do not notice if their votes were altered, even after inspecting a final review screen. This paper questions if voters really do not notice changes as the previous studies found, or if the findings are an artifact of the types of races and propositions that they vote for in the experimental mock elections. Specifically, previous research studies used ballots that were comprised of fabricated candidates and propositions, which do not reflect the types of real-world issues presented on a ballot during an actual election. To investigate the issue, this study replicated the prior research, but introduced into the experiment a new type of ballot that was based on actual people and issues that the participant population was familiar with and felt was relevant to their current circumstances. Our findings reveal that the type of races presented to participants on a ballot in a mock election does not impact the ability of users to notice altered selections on a vote verification review screen. This suggests that the review screens currently implemented in electronic voting technologies might not be effective since user mistakes and potential fraud cannot be reliably identified by the voter before a vote is cast and then counted in the election tally.
Haptic Data Visualization and Creative Thought: Beyond Standard Measures of Performance BIBAFull-Text 1410-1414
  Will Seidelman; C. Melody Carswell; Michael Lee
Recently, there has been a large push for the use of multimodal interfaces to enhance data visualization. However, supporting data visualization displays with haptic feedback has been slower to develop. In the current paper, we argue that the variables traditionally used by human factors practitioners to assess performance of visualization displays will unfairly bias researchers and designers away from the haptic modality. Instead, researchers will be better served to assess the influence of haptic displays on some of the core strengths of visualization: the depth at which the underlying data may be synthesized and the level to which the display enhances novel or creative hypothesis generation.
Considering Task Force Requirements for Hand Posture Predictions BIBAFull-Text 1415-1419
  R. Figueroa; T. Armstrong
This work is concerned with how finger, wrist, elbow and shoulder postures are affected depending the orientation and magnitude of hand force exerted. Six participants, 3 females and 3 males from the ages of 18-25, where asked to perform three exertions (100%, 30% and 10% MVC) perpendicular to an aluminum plate in 45°, 0°, 45° and 90° pitch at elbow height. Exertions were performed using the whole hand and the fingertips. We recorded inter-digit joint angles as force is applied to compute joint moments, and hand and finger motions so that they can be modeled and mapped for each condition. Results show that posture changes depending the force exerted and the threshold for significant changes is at force levels below 50%MVC. Comparing exertions over 50%MVC with exertions of 50%MVC or lower, elbow and wrist angles were significantly greater, and forearm was more perpendicular to the surface. Distance between hand and shoulder increases by decreasing the required %MVC. At 0° pitch males exerted all the required forces using shoulder abduction. Awkward postures, such as shoulder abduction, are some of the contributing factors to develop upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and must be taken into account while designing tasks.

Posters: POS2 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 2

Effects of Display and Task Features on System Monitoring Performance in the Original Multi-Attribute Task Battery and MATB-II BIBAFull-Text 1435-1439
  Sally Stader; Jennifer Leavens; Brittney Gonzalez; Valentina Fontaine; Mustapha Mouloua; Pascal Alberti
This study was designed to empirically examine equipment and system monitoring task features of the new Multi-Attribute Task Battery-I I (MATB-II) and the original version (MATB). It also was intended to examine the effects of adaptive task allocation on system monitoring performance, as found in previous studies. In addition, two different computer displays (CRT and LCD) were used to test performance differences between the two systems in order to add historical fidelity to the study results. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (MATB or MATB-II both on CRT or LCD), all receiving a return to manual control of the system monitoring task at mid experiment. A fifth group using the MATB on CRT with no task allocation was the control. Measures used to compare the two systems included percent of automation failures detected by participants in the system monitoring task and subjective workload. Results failed to show significance for the adaptive task allocation manipulation. However, significant differences in monitoring performance were found between the two systems. Implications for design of display and equipment features and future research are discussed.
Further Evidence for Ground Dominance in Control Of Speed During Low Altitude Flight BIBAFull-Text 1440-1444
  Mark Meyer; Eric J. Adamic; Brian P. Dyre
Previous research found that during simulated low-altitude flight, optical control of speed is based on the flow rate projected by the ground, even when changes in altitude make this information unreliable and other sources of speed information, such as the flow rate of a cloud layer above the flight path, could provide more valid information. However, in these studies factors such as color and contrast differences between the ground and clouds may have contributed to ground dominance. Further, it is possible that ground dominance results from an inability to integrate flow distributed across different surfaces in the environment. Here we report two experiments that test whether these factors contribute to ground dominance. We found ground dominance to be independent of color and contrast differences between the ground and cloud surfaces and that control of speed is based on global optical flow defined across multiple surfaces when these surfaces do not represent the ground.
Effects of Conceptual Training and Procedural Training for Teaching Aviation Instrument Holding Patterns BIBAFull-Text 1445-1449
  Andrew R. Dattel; Lisa Kossuth; Chelsea C. Sheehan; H. Justin Green; Crystal Giannini; Jennifer Decker; Hayley M. Mericle-Swingle; Suzanne A. Crockett
Twenty private pilots without instrument ratings trained how to fly instrument holding patterns. Holding patterns are advanced aviation maneuvers learned during instrument training where pilots maintain a particular 'race-track' figure that keeps the airplane essentially stationary. Participants were randomly assigned to a procedural training group or a conceptual training group. The step-by-step sequence of actions to fly instrument holds was emphasized in the procedural training group. The reasons for flying instruments holds and the interrelationship of elements in a dynamic environment were emphasized in the conceptual training group. Training stimuli included reading text and watching videos. Participants who were conceptually trained showed no difference in situation awareness when flying a typical instrument hold in a flight simulator compared to when flying a more difficult, atypical instrument hold in a flight simulator. However, the procedurally trained participants showed significantly less situation awareness when flying the atypical instrument hold compared to when flying the typical instrument hold. It was found that participants who required more attempts to answer questions correctly during training showed better situation awareness when flying atypical holding patterns. Finally it was found that participants required more attempts to answer questions correctly during the training delivered via video than they did during the training delivered via text.
Action Video Game Players and Vigilance Performance BIBAFull-Text 1450-1454
  Tarah N. Schmidt; Grace W. L. Teo; Gabriella M. Hancock; Zack Amicarelle; James L. Szalma; Peter A. Hancock
The current study used a video game-based vigilance task in which participants viewed a dynamic environment filled with objects and elements from a real-world environment. Participants were to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during a 'patrol route' through a generic Afghanistan village. There was motivation to compare performance measures between participants who play video games and those who do not due to rising popularity in video game culture and the ubiquitous market on serious games as training platforms. Analysis reveals that action video game players (AVGPs) show significant advantages over non-video game players (NVGPs) as it relates to vigilance performance (i.e. proportion of correct detections, response time, false alarms, etc.). Additionally, workload analysis indicated AVGPs do find certain facets of the task to be demanding (Physical and Mental demand) but overall, AVGPs rate the task lower than NVGPs in terms of total or global perceived workload.
Investigating the Impact of Self-Efficacy in Learning Disaster Strategies in an On-Line Serious Game BIBAFull-Text 1455-1459
  Holly Blasko-Drabik; Dawn G. Blasko; Heather C. Lum; Bilge Erdem; Miri Ohashi
As playing serious games becomes a more viable method of teaching it is important to examine the factors that may impact successful learning. In the current study we examined whether college students could learn disaster prevention strategies from an on-line game. We measured perceptions of learning self-efficacy, enjoyment and game usability. Participants were asked to play an online serious game designed to help them learn what to do to prepare for a natural disaster (tsunami). Knowledge of disaster strategies were measured before and after two brief game periods. The results showed that players significantly improved in their knowledge and performance. The best predictor of post-test scores was the players' perceived self-efficacy at the end of the game. Players who felt that they could master the game, tended to have the highest performance scores. Enjoyment of the game also predicted performance suggesting that those who felt more positively also felt that they could master the game. In this relatively simple game space perceptions of usability were not as strong a predictor of performance.
User Perceptions of Facebook Games BIBAFull-Text 1460-1464
  Mikki H. Phan; Barbara S. Chaparro
The popularity of social network sites have helped build and popularize the social (network) game genre. Presently, there are reports that social games are still growing in the established video game industry. This study focused on a giant sector of social games, that is, Facebook games. Particularly, the main goal of this study was to assess the general attitude, habit, and behavior of people who currently or previously played Facebook games. Of the 287 who completed the survey on Facebook games, over 70% indicated that they no longer play games on Facebook (i.e., past Facebook gamers). Respondents reported that the main reasons they stopped playing a Facebook game was due to being bored with the game, the game was too time-consuming, and real-world money and more friends were needed for the game to be fun. When asked what features would be associated with the 'ideal' Facebook game, many indicated features such as fast loading time, good graphics, game rewards, and an option to play the game without needing real-world money.
Reality Check: Perception of Cognitive Ability of Video Game Players BIBAFull-Text 1465-1469
  William J. Graves; Melissa R. Stauble; Stephen Rice; Steve Hottman
There is extensive research showing that video game play can improve certain aspects of cognitive ability. Interestingly most of the stereotypes of video game players are overwhelmingly negative. These stereotypes are usually related to social features (e.g., violent, impulsive, unpopular, etc.). The purpose of this study was to examine stereotypes related to cognitive traits. Due to the overwhelming amount of research indicating video game play is positively associated with cognitive ability, we predicted that participants would rate video game players as superior to non-video game players on cognitive ability. A total of 49 participants were run in two separate experiments (one experiment was limited to residents of the United States, and participants in the other experiment were not limited to the United States). As predicted, results from both experiments indicate that video game players are viewed as cognitively superior to non-video game players. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Walk-Up Acceptability vs. Real Usability? Designing User Interfaces for the Gaming Culture BIBAFull-Text 1470-1474
  Richard K. Steinberg; Jennifer Blume
While a good user interface is often defined as one which is immediately intuitive to use, this assumption can be dangerously applied. Designers of web pages know that if they don't get a user's interest in a few seconds, then the user will exit the site and navigate elsewhere. The gaming enthusiasts will reject a game if they cannot learn to play it in a few minutes. These types of applications require different design attributes than an application that will be used for hours by a trained employee or specialist. Many user experience design techniques involve obtaining feedback on low fidelity prototypes or think out loud protocols which emphasize the need that a user interface be immediately intuitive to use. User interface designers feel the pressure of the gaming culture to value immediate intuitivism or preference as the primary measure for design goodness. However, our study shows that the ability to learn how to use a display for some applications may be more important, especially if the less intuitive display reduces errors after minimal training times. Our study also suggests there may be a unique tendency of gamers to be less risk adverse in using a system, taking action without carefully measuring the risks. This has a tremendous influence on the design of high consequence systems where a user must perform critical tasks with high accuracy for personnel safety and task success.
Mitigation of the Confirmation Bias Using a Game-Based Trainer BIBAFull-Text 1475-1479
  Elizabeth Mersch; Olivia Fox; Jim Leonard; John Flach; Kevin Bennett; Jerred Holt
A search task was developed to test for confirmation bias in a virtual game-based trainer. The goal of the study was to test the effectiveness of the task in detecting analyst biases within the dynamics of virtual game-based trainers. In-game action and performance were measured. Results indicated that participants initially commit confirmation bias and then learn to mitigate it. Findings also show that participants understood the task and were engaged.
Color and Luminance Coding of Vehicle Rear Lighting BIBAFull-Text 1480-1484
  Scott E. McIntyre; Leo Gugerty
Vehicle lamp lens color affects the luminance and perceived brightness of lamps with equal light source output. This has implications for proposals suggesting differentiating rear lighting on vehicles by color because any change in lens color will also change perceived brightness and luminance. This confound could negate or enhance benefits of color coding lamps. This study uses methods related to the visual search paradigm which are often ignored in this type of research but provide novel sources of information. Results indicate that luminance changes due to color changes in tail lamps did not adversely affect RT or error in identifying brake lamps.
Improving Motorcycle Training Programs: Suggestions and Recommendations BIBAFull-Text 1485-1489
  Alexis R. Dewar; Michael A. Rupp; Marc D. Gentzler; Mustapha Mouloua
Motorcycle training and licensing both play an important educational role for preventing traffic accidents and ensuring public safety. While the majority of motorcycle research focuses on preventing accidents, there is relatively little research focusing on the critical skills needed for improving motorcycle training manuals and instructional programs. Previous research showed that accident rates, safety precautions, and risks have been linked to human performance. However, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle training programs and instructional course materials. In the present study, the gaps in learning to ride a motorcycle in a training course are identified. Ninety-four current motorcyclists ranging from 18 to 77 years of age completed an online questionnaire in an effort to better understand the components missing in the most frequently used motorcycle training manual in the United States, the Motorcycle Safety Foundation's (MSF) Basic RiderCourseSM;. Additionally, the implications of this survey for motorcycle training, safety, and educational programs are discussed.
The Impact of Aesthetic Design on Bus Shelter Usability BIBAFull-Text 1490-1494
  James Crouch; Michael Lee; C. Melody Carswell; Tyler Patrick; Will Seidelman; Michelle Sublette
Public transportation is an important tool for any city with the population to support it. According to the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) (2012), between 1995 and 2011, public transportation ridership increased by 34% -- a growth rate higher than the 17% increase in U.S. population and higher than the 22% growth in the use of the nation's highways over the same period. However, even a city with the population to support public transportation will not receive all of its benefits if the implementation is not handled successfully. One requirement for bus transit is that the system be equipped with shelters having minimally the following features: support, visibility, security and information access (Ely, 1998). A field study was conducted to ascertain the impact of these design elements as well as aesthetic pleasantness on users' perceptions of the shelters. Ultimately, our goal is to implement future results in the creation of a needs-based heuristic framework which will aid designers in the formation of functional bus shelters.
Using Hierarchical Task Analysis to Compare Four Vehicle Manufacturers' Infotainment Systems BIBAFull-Text 1495-1499
  Ian J. Reagan; David G. Kidd
Mobile technology has become pervasive in the driving environment, and its use has been linked to increased crash risk. Of particular concern are devices that place visual-manual demands on drivers. In response, auto manufacturers have started equipping vehicles with technology that allows occupants to interact with manufacturer-installed functions and portable devices using speech commands instead of traditional visual-manual inputs. Although voice interfaces alleviate competition for visual resources, they impose cognitive demand that can degrade driving performance, especially if they are too demanding. Hierarchical task analyses were performed for a set of in-vehicle tasks using visual-manual and auditory-vocal interfaces for four different production systems in 2013 model year vehicles to assess the number of steps required to complete the tasks. In general, tasks performed using voice interfaces could be completed in fewer operations than when performed visual-manually. However, in some instances, the voice interfaces required more operations than the visual-manual interfaces. The additional operations resulted from the inability to chain multiple speech commands and verification of speech commands. Allowing chained voice commands reduces the number of operations required to complete a task and should reduce task time and overall cognitive demand. Verification steps likely reduce error but may impose a greater working memory load than generating speech commands and, in some cases, may exceed the limitations of working memory. The findings from this study will be used in a larger field study examining cognitive demand associated with different voice interface designs and the effect on driving and secondary task performance.
What is stressful on the road? Analysis on aggression-inducing traffic situations through self-report BIBAFull-Text 1500-1503
  Yi-Ching Lee; Dana J. Bonfiglio
An exploratory study was designed to understand how drivers perceive and interpret aggression and stress-inducing traffic situations. The goals of the study were to identify the most stressful situations to be used in a follow-on empirical study and to examine the relative rankings of stressful situations across demographic subgroups. Using a convenience sample, our findings support the results from previous studies that gender, history of driving, and driving experience play a significant role in perceiving and interpreting the intentions of others. Drivers who had prior violations and citations perceived others' behaviors more negatively. Males had more situations related to others' deliberate aggressive behaviors in their top 15 traffic situations, compared to females. Females had more environmental factors in their top 15 when compared to males. Continuing education and emphasis on improving the driving culture may be helpful in reducing the aggression toward others, especially when the communications between road users are primarily based on non-verbal observations.
Tactile Route Guidance Performance and Preference BIBAFull-Text 1504-1508
  Jesse Eisert; Andre Garcia; John J. Payne; Carryl L. Baldwin
We examined performance and preference for tactile route guidance formats. Participants drove a simulated vehicle through counterbalanced pairings of four distinct cities using one of four navigation systems (three tactile and one auditory control). One tactile system used only the pulse rate, the second system used only tactor location, and the third used both pulse rate and location to convey guidance instructions. All navigation systems provided both a preliminary and an immediate cue indicating to take the next most immediate turn. The pulse-rate route guidance system was the most commonly preferred system. Results also indicate that participants' ability to accurately retrace their route and identify landmarks did not differ across navigation systems. All four systems resulted in equivalent wayfinding performance and support previous literature indicating that tactile guidance systems can effectively support navigation in unfamiliar environments.
A little knowledge: Medical errors by experienced laypeople BIBAFull-Text 1509-1511
  Marc Egeth; Jennifer Soosaar; Rebecca Margolies; Adam Shames
Errors made by injection-experienced and injection-inexperienced participants were compared to test whether injection experience relates to use errors among potential users of a new injection device. In our sample, healthcare professionals (Group 1) made the fewest errors overall while there was also a trend for injection-experienced laypeople (Group 2) to make more errors than injection-inexperienced laypeople (Group 3). Furthermore, the types of errors made by each of the two layperson groups appear distinct from each other, with the pattern of errors made by injection-experienced laypeople more closely resembling the pattern among medical professionals. We speculate that medically experienced laypeople might inherit the 'worst of both worlds' in that, as laypeople, they make errors due to inexperience with medical procedures and that also, like healthcare professionals, they make errors due to negative transfer from past experience with medical procedures. We suggest that experienced laypeople require special consideration as a potentially vulnerable user group.
Development and Usability Testing of an Online Tool for Intraoperative Assessment of Surgical Residents BIBAFull-Text 1512-1516
  J. T. Flinn; A. Miller; M. Galloway; K. Lin; K. Watson; M. Hellan; R. Woods; C. G. L. Cao
Formal intraoperative assessments of surgical residents are often completed with pencil-and-paper forms, leading to a low rate of compliance with residency program guidelines. An online tool was developed for the evaluation of residents by attending physicians in the OR. Usability testing was conducted using two groups of users, one expert and the other naïve, using a newly developed variant of rapid iterative testing methodology called DONE-RITE. The tool was developed and refined over a series of rapid iterations where user interface and domain-specific usability issues were addressed by the naïve and expert user groups, respectively. The end result was the quick development of the online tool, which the expert users agreed was convenient to use in the OR and was likely to improve compliance with resident assessment guidelines.
Evaluating user response to patient health records represented in temporal and non-temporal form BIBAFull-Text 1517-1521
  Leon Barker; Donia R. Scott; Jackie A. Cassell
Though it is common for research to rely on the results of computer algorithms in the evaluation of data, there is great potential for visualisation tools to enhance researchers' abilities to qualify and evaluate large datasets. Tools for graphically representing patient health records have to date focussed on temporal (i.e., time line) presentations. We present the results of an exploration of the utility to researchers of nontemporal presentations of large medical data resources, and show how they have been incorporated into a web-based interactive tool for visualising electronic health records.
Hand Instrument Performance in A Single Site Surgery Simulator With Novices BIBAFull-Text 1522-1526
  Jakeb D. Riggle; Emily E. Miller; Bernadette McCrory; Alex Meitl; Eric Lim; M. Susan Hallbeck; Chad A. LaGrange
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is a new minimally invasive surgical technique that presents physical and mental challenges to surgeons. Currently, LESS procedures are commonly performed using surgical instruments designed for traditional multi-incision laparoscopic surgery. A pilot study was conducted to determine which laparoscopic instruments were the most efficient for LESS procedures. In a LESS surgical trainer, 24 novice users completed a simple surgical task using standard (non-articulating) straight laparoscopic graspers and two different articulating instruments. Task performance was scored based on completion time and the number of errors. Analyses showed that the use of the simpler straight instruments produced significantly faster times (p = 0.004 and p = 0.014) and higher task scores (p = 0.005 and p = 0.021) than the articulating instruments. These results suggest that standard laparoscopic hand instruments enable better novice performance for a basic LESS task.
Improving Patient Safety through Educational Initiatives BIBAFull-Text 1527-1530
  Douglas E. Paull; Linda C. Williams
The VA National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) came into being just prior to publication of the IOM Report (Kohn, 1999). From the outset, the approach used by NCPS was to seek engineering solutions (Watts, 2012). Human factors engineering (HFE) adds the necessary insight for solving complex patient safety issues (Bagian, 2012; Gurses, 2012). For NCPS, the initial step was development of a specialized professional role, a Patient Safety Manager, employed at every VA hospital [Bagian, 2002]. A second effort, detailed here, is specifically focused on filling a patient safety leadership gap. Clinician-leaders become patient safety leaders as they acquire knowledge and skills in teamwork, communication, and other HFE-based methods for problem-solving.
Increasing Patient Compliance and Satisfaction With Physical Therapy Web-Based Applications BIBAFull-Text 1531-1535
  Katrina M. Ellis; Chad Norman; Alex Van der Merwe; Myounghoon Jeon
Performing independent exercises after clinical visits are crucial for patients recovering from injury. However, patients often fail to comply with physical therapist prescriptions due to lack of time and lack of appropriate feedback. The present study investigated the current medium used for prescribed exercises and compared it to mediums used in web-based applications. In Phase I, we surveyed thirteen practicing physical therapists and twenty-two patients of physical therapy. Responses suggested that video instruction of exercises and video-conference meetings between clinic visits would be beneficial to patient rehabilitation. In Phase II, with fifty-eight undergraduate participants, we examined the influence of self-efficacy and format of instructional materials on willingness to comply, satisfaction with information, and anxiety related to completing rehabilitation. We found that video with text instructions were most satisfying to students. Results are discussed with limitations of the present study and future works.
Assessing Clinical Care using Interactive Value Stream Mapping BIBAFull-Text 1536-1540
  Benjamin S. Ries; Linda Ng Boyle; Monica S. Vavilala; Nithya Kannan; Harriet Saxe; Mary A. Kernic; Frederick P. Rivara; Douglas F. Zatzick; Michael J. Bell; Mark Wainwright; Jonathan I. Groner; Christopher C. Giza; Richard G. Ellenbogen; Pamela Mitchell; Jin Wang; Richard Mink
The objective of this study was to develop a tablet pc application that allows generation of value stream maps across multiple clinical environments. As part of this objective, a methodology was put in place to reduce barriers for using a systems engineering approach in the medical field. The overall intent of using value stream mapping tools and lean philosophies in the medical environment is to begin the process of standardization among different medical centers. An interdisciplinary team of Medical Doctors, Clinical Researchers, and Industrial Engineers created a transformed Value Stream Mapping Application that can be easily used in the management of injured patients. Initial testing demonstrated that there was high inter-rater reliability in application use. This study showed that a systems engineering approach is highly relevant in the medical field and that the developed application can be used for the generation of future research data and for ongoing decision support assisted hospital quality improvement efforts.
Usability Problems in users of specialized and generic masks for protection against pollen BIBAFull-Text 1541-1545
  Mika Morishima; Koya Kishida; Takashi Uozumi; Masayoshi Kamijo
The long-term goal of this study was to identify improvements to both the functionality and comfort of a hygiene masks that protect the wearer from pollen. We conducted a survey on young adults who suffer from hay fever and who use specialized or generic masks to protect from pollen. The results indicate that many females who use a specialized mask are highly aware of problems. We focused on the users, so that the problems with the masks were studied from the viewpoint of associated symptoms and other treatments. Our findings will be of use in the design and development of more comfortable and practical masks for both sexes but particularly for women.
Emergency Medical Services: A Naturalistic Posture Evaluation While Providing Patient Care during Patient Transport BIBAFull-Text 1546-1550
  Jessica A. Mueller; Laura M. Stanley
Emergency medical service workers are a high-risk group, and while some of this risk is inherent in the type of work that they perform, much of it may be avoidable. This study examines medical professionals administering patient care during patient transportation to highlight previously overlooked safety issues in an ambulance. EMS workers were observed over the course of 3 months using video data collected during all patient transports. Visual data reduction recorded the medic back angles, seated/standing posture, and whether or not the medic was providing patient care during all patient transports. Analysis of the data showed that EMS workers display intermediate (between 20° and 60°) and severe (larger than 60°) back angles while standing compared to sitting, and are standing and displaying potentially harmful postures while providing patient care. These findings indicate that there is a relationship between the EMS worker's ability to adequately provide patient care and his inability to do so from a neutral seated posture in an ambulance layout that is currently used in many ambulances used throughout the world.
General Self-Reported Health as it Relates to Self-Esteem, Situational Self-Efficacy and Coping among Soldiers BIBAFull-Text 1551-1555
  Gary L. Boykin; Valerie J. B. Rice
As an indicator of broad-spectrum health, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance scales frequently use a single question on general self-reported health (GSRH). However, little information exists on whether a single question of GSRH is related to indices of a person's mental health. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between GSRH and indices of self-esteem, self-efficacy and coping. During their first two weeks of Advanced Individual Training (AIT), 579 US Army Health Care Specialist Trainees completed demographic and self-report data, including GSRH, the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (RWCCL), the Situational Self-Efficacy Scale (SSE), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Spearman Rho correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data with Stata statistical software (StataCorp, 2005). GSRH was positively correlated with SSE, the SES, and problem focused and social support seeking methods of coping, (p < .05). GSRH was negatively correlated with blaming self, wishful thinking, and avoidance methods of coping (p < .05). Results indicate that, among active duty service members attending medical AIT, a single question on general self-reported health appears to be a good representation of a persons' perception of his or her self-esteem, self-efficacy and coping skills.
Affective Product Design Research Based on Fishing Culture of Northern China BIBAFull-Text 1556-1560
  Yong Wang; Wei Zhao; Bo Liu
Globalization has caused some cultures with little influence to become assimilated, which has gradually resulted in the disappearance of these traditional cultures. Northern Chinese fishing minority groups, such as the Hezhen people, represent this phenomenon. Affectively developing products based on Hezhen fishing culture can both help protect and develop this unique culture. In order to accomplish this goal, this study firstly collected cultural symbols from Northern Chinese fishing groups by compiling and researching the distinct features of these people's religion, art, architecture, clothing, etc. Next an affective design method based on specific cultural symbols was presented through analyzing the relationship between culture and emotions. Finally, the design concepts of affective products that were integrated with Hezhen fishing culture features were proposed and a series of affective products were designed with the purpose of representing leisure furniture.
How Well Do People Rate Their Performance With Different Cursor Settings? BIBAFull-Text 1561-1564
  Tasha Y. David; S. Camille Peres; Christy Harper
Users have many different reasons to choose one product over another and may not be fully aware of why. Understanding these reasons could help Human Factors professionals enhance the user experience by influencing design. In this study, we compared users' subjective ratings of their performances to their actual performances to examine their ability to evaluate their performance during a point and click task using a clickpad. We used seven notebook computers and adjusted the cursor speeds in the control panel. The experimental design is within subjects with two within-group cursor speed conditions, slow and fast. Results indicate that participants are not able to accurately rank their performance on this task.
Differences in the Performance of Older and Younger Adults in a Natural vs. Synthetic Speech Dichotic Listening Task BIBAFull-Text 1565-1569
  Anne M. Sinatra; Valerie K. Sims; Shannon K. T. Bailey; Maxine B. Najle
It has been suggested that older adults have more difficulty processing synthetic (computerized) speech than natural speech. One of the reasons for this is that with age, understanding and interpreting speech require additional working memory resources. As synthetic speech is often listened to when one is engaged in an additional task, it is important to understand how adults process and understand it. The impact of synthetic speech to break into attention while shadowing speech, and blocking out an additional stimulus in a dichotic listening task has previously been examined with a younger adult population (Sinatra, Sims, Najle & Chin, 2011). In order to examine if the ability to process unattended stimuli differs with age, the current study has replicated this task and compared the performance of older adults to that of younger. It was found that while younger adults were able to process details and semantic information from unattended audio, older adults were only able to process physical characteristic information, such as pitch. This research suggests that as we age less unattended information (such as the content of an alert) will be processed than when we are younger.
Applying a Consistency Coefficient Methodology to General and Specific Attitudes Towards Automated Devices BIBAFull-Text 1570-1574
  William J. Graves; Melissa R. Stauble; Stephen Rice; Steve Hottman
The current study addresses two main goals: a) to present a new methodological approach that features within-participants consistency coefficients as a means to analyse data; and b) to show how this new methodology can generate findings otherwise impossible to detect. There have been very few studies that have looked at attitudes towards automation, and none that we know of that have looked at the consistency of attitudes towards automation. Participants rated their attitudes towards 15 different common household automated devices across two identical blocks in order to generate a consistency coefficient. They then rated their attitudes towards automation in general. The results showed that general and specific attitudes were moderately high, the consistency of attitudes towards specific types of automated devices was moderate at best, and that there was a correlation between the consistency of the specific attitudes and general attitudes. This correlation was stronger for female participants compared to male participants. We discuss methodological implications of these findings.
Effects of Age and Gender Stereotypes on Trust in an Anthropomorphic Decision Aid BIBAFull-Text 1575-1579
  Brock Bass; Meghan Goodwin; Kayla Brennan; Richard Pak; Anne McLaughlin
Stereotypes are beliefs about the capabilities of another group. Previous research indicates stereotypes can affect how users interact with anthropomorphic computer aids. User perception can be affected by gender and age stereotypes elicited by the appearance of the computer system. Other research has shown that perceptions of automation (e.g., implicit ones such as propensity to trust automation, or perceptions of etiquette) interact with reliability to influence automation trust behavior. The current study built upon these ideas to examine whether implicit beliefs (i.e., stereotypes) about the perceived age and gender of automation interacted with reliability to affect perceptions of trust in automation. We employed a factorial survey where we presented scenarios of automation to younger adults. The anthropomorphized automation had a perceived age and gender, and was stated to be variably reliable.
Effects of Orientation on Workload during Touch Screen Operation among Individuals With and Without Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1580-1584
  Katherine A. Kuehn; Amrish O. Chourasia; Douglas A. Wiegmann; Mary E. Sesto
As the use of touch screen technology increases in everyday situations for all walks of life, universal design should be taken into account when designing products to be used by a wide range of users. This re-search studies the workload associated with touch screen use from a front and parallel orientation for individuals with and without motor control disabilities. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was used to assess workload. Participants with a motor control disability (+MCD; n=20) and age-matched participants without a motor control disability (-MCD; n=18) completed a four-digit touchscreen number entry task. Results show that the +MCD group had a higher perceived workload than the -MCD group. The workload demands of the parallel vs. front orientation were higher for both groups across most TLX subscales. The magnitude of the difference in workload between parallel and front orientation was greater for the +MCD group. The results from this study suggest that when the parallel orientation is necessary, careful consideration should be given to designing touch screen interfaces to reduce workload for all users.
Effects of Level of Model Control for Implicit Learning of Decision Support Systems BIBAFull-Text 1585-1589
  Christine M. Covas-Smith; Robert E. Patterson; Christina L. Kunkle; Lisa M. Tripp
In highly complex, dynamic environments human decision making abilities can be overwhelmed by exceptionally large amounts of data and inherent uncertainty. Under these circumstances, decision support tools can significantly enhance human decision making. This experiment investigated the effect of level of model control on the development of expertise with a decision support tool through implicit learning. Two groups of participants used the decision support tool with different levels of model control (i.e., number of variables the participants are able to manipulate) across twelve training and three test sessions. Results indicated that participants learned to interact with the model for both levels of control. Participants were able to implicitly learn the interactions with no feedback and minimal instruction on the interdependencies present within the decision support model.
The University as a Setting for Experiential Learning: The Potential for Reciprocal Benefits BIBAFull-Text 1590-1594
  Martha J. Sanders
Multiple opportunities exist in the university setting to provide 'real life' learning experiences for students. Such experiences promote a deep understanding of content and offer the potential for benefits to the university staff of improved wellness, participation in student learning, and understanding of ergonomics. The Experiential Learning Model provides guidance for developing and optimizing student learning opportunities in the university setting. This paper describes two learning activities, performing office ergonomic evaluations on university staff and developing best practice guidelines for custodians, using the Experiential Learning Model. These learning experiences are described according to the stages of the Experiential Learning Model, student feedback and assessment, reciprocal benefits, and lessons learned.
An Expected Value Analysis of When to Avoid Type 1 and Type 2 Statistical Errors in Applied Research BIBAFull-Text 1595-1599
  Stephen Rice; David Traffimow; William Graves; Melissa Stauble
For decades, applied researchers have relied heavily on either the null hypothesis significance testing procedure (NHSTP) or Bayesian statistics to help them determine the probability of the null hypothesis given their findings. While there may be some flaws in both methods, there are cases where the probability of the null hypothesis can be known, or at least estimated fairly accurately, thus making such analyses worthwhile. Assuming the worth of using such analyses, another issue in play is whether or not to avoid Type 1 or Type 2 statistical errors. While much has been said about the importance of avoiding both types of errors, we offer a new way of looking at the situation. We use an Expected Value analysis to help applied researchers determine when to avoid either type of error. We give examples and perform simulations to back up our mathematical arguments. Theoretical and applied issues are discussed.
Further Explorations of the "White Space" Bias in Users' Anticipation of Task Workload BIBAFull-Text 1600-1604
  M. Sublette; C. M. Carswell; W. Seidelman; M. Lee; W. B. Seales
As more designers allow users to customize the look and feel of interfaces, users will be required to recognize the implications of their choices on their future performance, comfort, and enjoyment. Understanding the limits of people's predictive capabilities may be an important component in identifying why people choose one product over another based on ease of use or why people have difficulties identifying tasks that can be performed together. The purpose of this study is to further explore users' biases for utilizing the amount of white space in the stimulus as a predictor of task difficulty, to validate discrepancies between predicted task difficulty and performance outcomes found in previous research and the human factors literature, and to identify task-specific strategies that are used to anticipate task difficulty. The study uses the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) in prospective difficulty judgments for these three types of tasks: 1) a stimulus-response compatibility task, 2) a target acquisition task and 3) a perceptual search task. In general, participants predicted lower task demand for designs with more intervening white space. For the visual search task, these estimates of demand were consistent with participants' actual performance reaction times. However, for the stove design and Fitts' tasks participants rated tasks that were likely to result in more errors as less challenging suggesting that the type of task is an important factor in participants' abilities to predict relative task difficulty.
Effects of Pulse rate, Fundamental Frequency, and Burst Density on Auditory Similarity BIBAFull-Text 1605-1609
  Christian A. Gonzalez; Carryl L. Baldwin
Auditory alarms are currently used in medicine, automotive and aviation settings. However, a high degree of variability and lack of standardization may compromise safety if multiple warning sounds are easily confused with each other. Identifying the parameters that are most relevant to auditory similarity will facilitate the development of guidelines that ensure alarms are distinct without requiring standardization. Twenty-seven undergraduate students judged the similarity of a set of abstract sounds varying in pulse rate, fundamental frequency, and burst density. Results indicate that no single parameter was entirely responsible for determining auditory similarity, but temporal characteristics were most salient. These findings suggest that designers intending to ensure perceptual separation between differentially mapped sounds should manipulate temporal characteristics before frequency or burst density.
Evaluation of the Presence of a Face Search Advantage in Chernoff Faces BIBAFull-Text 1610-1614
  Navaneethan Sivagnanasundaram; Alex Chaparro; Evan Palmer
Chernoff faces (Chernoff, 1973) are an early attempt at large scale multivariate data representation and are based on underlying assumptions that have not been empirically tested. This study investigated i) whether data coded as Chernoff faces benefit from face perception, and ii) whether each feature of a Chernoff face is equally salient. We tested four pairs of oppositely coded Chernoff faces (e.g. smile, frown) in an oddball search paradigm with set sizes of 5, 10 and 15. To evaluate whether face perception aided search, we used a control condition with inverted faces, a manipulation known to diminish holistic face processing. Equivalent search efficiencies for upright and inverted Chernoff faces demonstrates that they do not receive any significant benefit from face perception. Additionally, none of the features tested together produced significantly different search efficiencies from one another. It also appears that overall Chernoff faces do not allow for particularly efficient visual search.

Demonstrations: POS1 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 1

Gestural Control of a Remote Robotic Manipulator BIBAFull-Text 1420-1422
  John W. Harden; James P. Bliss; Charles Dischinger
Recent technological developments in motion tracking technology have lowered the price of motion-capture devices to the extent that nearly anyone can accurately model the dimensions and movement of the human body. The system described herein was the result of an attempt to capitalize on the aforementioned low-cost motion-capture technology to develop an accurate human-robot interface which relies on translating natural forelimb movement into servo actuation commands to control a robotic arm. Given that most endeavors into robotics are interdisciplinary, this work incorporates input from electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, and human-robot interface design. This system was specifically designed, in cooperation with NASA, to be used by an operator in a low-gravity environment, but the number of possible applications are substantial. These applications include, but are not limited to, military explosive ordnance disposal, remote maintenance in hostile environments, and safe exploration into hazardous environments.
Sonification as Sensemaking in Control Room Applications BIBAFull-Text 1423-1426
  Jacob Viraldo; Barrett Caldwell
Traditional analog alarms are nearly always exclusively binary, resulting in a single audio signal display sounding in order to inform users of a particular system parameter which has varied from within its predefined limits. During emergency situations, users can be faced with multiple simultaneous alarms, each relaying information concerning different, but usually related, system parameters. Using advanced sonification principles, achieved real-time with digital sound manipulation according to established human factors principles, new multi-parameter alarms can be created to better inform users of suboptimal conditions. These high-tech alarms also serve to help users maintain high levels of situational awareness, while aiding in sensemaking and decreasing stress caused by alarm flooding and cognitive overload.
Online Training for Resilient Communication during Shift Change Handovers BIBAFull-Text 1427-1431
  Emily S. Patterson; Chad Weiss; Zachary Woods; Austin F. Mount-Campbell; Michael J. Rayo
Numerous training interventions on patient handoffs have been initiated in the last few years, in part to meet new residency program accreditation requirements. Most of these programs focus on increasing the structure, comprehensiveness, and accuracy of the information conveyed by the outgoing clinician in either verbal or written format. Our team has developed online training that can augment these programs with how to foster resilient communication that increases overall system resilience, and thus reduces unintended patient harm. It is anticipated that improving communication competencies with resilient strategies during real-time verbal exchanges conducted at the shift change will increase the likelihood of detecting and addressing erroneous diagnostic assessments, prognoses, and inappropriate elements of treatment plans.
Roc-Estimator Software and Roc Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1432-1434
  Maureen O'Connell; James L. Szalma
Most currently available ROC analysis software programs have not been updated within the last decade or longer. Due to the age of many of these applications they usually do not include graphical user interfaces. Those applications which have graphical user interfaces are not always compatible with current generation operating systems and technology. Through the use of usability design principles ROC-Estimator was developed to address these current limitations of functioning ROC analysis software.

Demonstrations: POS2 -- Poster & Demo Interactive Session 2

Real Time Research Methods: Monitoring Air Traffic Controller Workload During Simulation Studies Using Electroencephalography (EEG) BIBAFull-Text 1615-1619
  Monica Z. Weiland; Daniel M. Roberts; Michael S. Fine; Matthew S. Caywood
For the FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), the ability to reliably measure the effects of automation changes or new task demands on controller/pilot workload and performance is critical. Much of the EEG research has focused on identifying specific cognitive states associated with levels of workload during post processing. However, there are potential benefits for researchers to having EEG results as a continuous measure that can be observed during simulation experiments. This demonstration is a workload gauge that processes EEG data in real time as the Air Traffic Controller (ATC) participant is performing basic cognitive and operational ATC tasks. The visualizations demonstrated are also available during post processing to enable investigation of the continuous relationships between ATC situational variables, controller performance, and EEG.
Tactile Torso Display For Fighter Pilots -- Wing-Oriented And Horizon-Oriented Presentation BIBAFull-Text 1620-1623
  Jonathan Svensson; Peter Andersson; Jens Alfredson; Johan Holmberg
The demonstration proposed will feature two different tactile presentation principles in a software flight simulation which presents missile warnings multimodally using a tactile torso display, audio, and a visual display. In a recent experiment, the tactile torso display with 36 tactors in three rows by 12 columns was developed and integrated into a fighter flight simulator. Two principles of tactile presentation for warnings of incoming missiles were used and compared to using no tactile display when performing evasive maneuvers. The tactile presentation of the vector to the missile was either oriented to the horizon or to the aircraft's wings, taking pitch and roll into account. Results indicate no significant difference in reaction time or maneuver completion time between principles; however pilots were positive to the tactile display and could see benefits of both presentation principles in different situations.
Development of a More Universal Voting Interface BIBAFull-Text 1624-1628
  Seunghyun Tina Lee; Yilin Elaine Liu; Xiao Xiong; Jon Sanford
Voting systems must be usable by all eligible voters regardless of their skills, abilities, and experiences. However, current voting systems do not provide accessibility to all voters, including those with physical and cognitive limitations. To make voting easier for people with and without disabilities, we developed a universal voting interface that integrates a simplified and flexible ballot design that includes multimodal I/O interfaces. The formative usability study results demonstrate people with various types of disabilities could perform the voting tasks on EZ Ballot using their preferred input. In order to refine the EZ Ballot interface, the study found the specific issues on design such as instruction, selection of candidates, confusion about going back, incorrect gestural interaction, and write-in interface.
User Workflow Centered Design: Creating Effective Software User Interface for Complex Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 1629-1633
  Xianjun Sam Zheng; Roberto Silva Filho; Jean M. R. Costa; Xiping Song
Software systems are often built in a tool-centric fashion, providing hierarchical functional groups simultaneously to a user, and the user needs to find and select the right tools to use based on his/her current task needs. Even though this design approach provides some flexibility for the user, it fails to address the needs of the workflow support. Indeed, when such software is used in complex, dynamic, and stressful working domains, users are often overwhelmed and struggling to find the right functionality and data for their time sensitive tasks. Here, we report our experience of applying the user workflow centered design (UWCD) method for redesigning a tool-centric software system in medical intervention. We elaborate the UWCD process from capturing, documenting, and to modeling user workflow information. The user workflow model is then used to derive a user interface (UI) solution with the goal to 'provide the right data and functionality to the right user at the right time'. We show that the new design can more effectively support users' work in term of function selection and task switching as measured by time.

Product Design: PD1 -- Touch Screen

Holding A Tablet Computer With One Hand BIBAFull-Text 1634-1638
  Anna Pereira; Tevis Miller; Yi-Min Huang; Dan Odell; David Rempel
Tablets computers are being rapidly adopted in commercial and home settings. However, there are no guidelines on design features of tablets to optimize usability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tablet size, weight, orientation, grip shape, texture, and stylus shape on productivity, usability, and biomechanics when the tablet is held with just the left hand. Thirty subjects tested eight tablets and three styluses. Overall, the usability, fatigue and biomechanical evaluation of tablet design features supported the use of smaller to medium sized tablets, with a ledge or handle shape on the back and surfaced with a rubberized texture. Larger tablets had significantly worse usability and biomechanics. The stylus with a tapered grip (7.5-9.5 mm) or larger grip (7.6 mm) had better usability and biomechanics than one with a smaller grip (5 mm). These design parameters may be important when designing tablets that will be held with one hand.
Superiority of Freehand Pointing BIBAFull-Text 1639-1642
  Ransalu Senanayake; Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
There is a possibility that computer mice may be replaced with eye-gaze or touchscreen technologies. Hence, it is imperative that we investigate the effect of the type of input device in conditions having lateral constraints. A set of tracks with different levels of difficulty were tested. The type of device had little influence on movement time for ballistic steering tasks, while movement time was affected by the type of device used in visually controlled steering tasks. It was also found that resting the forearm increased movement time. Subjective evaluations indicated that control is easier with freehand pointing. Considering both comfort and performance it appears that freehand pointing, when resting the forearm, is optimal for a touchscreen.
Playing Charades With Your Car -- The Potential of Free-form and Contact-based Gestural Interfaces for Human Vehicle Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1643-1647
  Thomas A. Ulrich; Zachary Spielman; Jordan Holmberg; Connor Hoover; Nicole Sanders; Krutika Gohil; Steffen Werner
Modern cars include a host of secondary in-vehicle technology that requires control by the driver. Center-stack touch-screen displays are a popular way to accommodate the proliferation of additional functions through a flexible and scalable interface. However, touch-screens require visual attention for manual selection and provide poor tactile feedback to the driver, which can pose a significant risk while the vehicle is in motion. Inspired by a bimodal control approach, we propose the use of a steering wheel mounted thumb-based gestural interface as part of a larger multi-modal interaction strategy for human vehicle interaction. Following the spirit of Guiard's (1987) model of bimanual control, a small set of simple gestures for the right hand select appropriate functions within the mode selected by the left hand. A pilot study shows promise of this approach over other, free-form gesture-based methods of interaction.
Touch Screen Devices and the Effectiveness of User Interface Methods BIBAFull-Text 1648-1652
  Anthony Jennings; Spencer Ryser; Frank Drews
This study was designed to examine how several methods for completing tasks (such as scrolling and zooming) differ when using touch screen devices. The goal of this research is to identify which methods produce the least amount of errors, and require the shortest amount of time when trying to accomplish a task. The study also aims to answer whether certain methods are better suited for different screen sizes (i.e., phone sized screen vs. a tablet sized screen). Results indicated that the phone sized device allowed users to complete all tasks more quickly but required greater effort to complete the task than the tablet sized device. Certain methods were identified to reduce the amount of time to accomplish a task, produce fewer errors, and reduce the effort required to accomplish a task.

Product Design: PD3 -- User Testing and Study Practices

Development of the Two-Dimensional Biomechanical Hand Model for a Guitar Player BIBAFull-Text 1653-1657
  Kiseok Sung; Joonho Chang; Andris Freivalds; Yong-Ku Kong
In this study, a two-dimensional biomechanical hand model predicting tendon loads in the fingers during guitar playing was developed. To estimate tendon forces, joint reaction forces, and force reactions against a given fingertip pressure (external force), a static hand model was developed based on the hand anatomy and static equilibrium conditions. Model inputs included 1) adopted existing anthropometry data, 2) fingertip pressures measured while playing the guitar, and 3) measured joint angles on the fingers. The hand model evaluated four chords: C, E, G7, and Am. G7 required the highest internal tendon force (41.0N), and Am (32.8N), E (30.3N), and C (26.6N) followed it. The index finger was mainly recruited for all four chords while the ring finger showed the worst efficiency, using the external force to internal tendon force ratio. Finally, the quick-and-dirty test showed the simulation result had strong correlation (R 2= 65.1%) with EMG result (C: 22.9%MVC, E: 22.1%, G7: 34.8%, and Am: 34.3%) on the FDP muscle, a main flexor of the finger.
Toward a Formal Approach to Information Integration Evaluation of an Automotive Instrument Display BIBAFull-Text 1658-1662
  Y. Shmueli; A. Degani; I. Zelman; R. Asherov; D. Zande; J. Weiss; A. Bernard
Modern cars are equipped with increasing numbers of data and automation features and this trend is only bound to escalate as cars become hubs of information. This article focuses on ways to best integrate informational elements. Drawing on theoretical constructs such as Proximity Compatibility Principles (PCP) and practical tools such as Link Analysis, we show that it is possible to quantify the level of integration in a given display and use it to guide design. We illustrate the approach and method via an analysis of an automotive instrument display and conclude with several insights as to how the approach can support the formation of integrative designs.
A System Transferability Questionnaire (STQ): Measuring Usability in a Multiple-Device System BIBAFull-Text 1663-1667
  Yunchen Huang; Lesley Strawderman
The usability of a multiple device system largely depends on the ease of which users can transfer between using different devices. This paper is aimed at constructing a System Transferability Questionnaire (STQ) to effectively measure the subjective transferability of a multiple device system. Theoretical rationale and approach to develop the questionnaire were presented. A software usability study was conducted to test the STQ. Results showed that STQ helps to capture four factors regarding transferability, which are transfer experience (TE), overall experience (OE), consistency perception (CP) and functionality perception (FP). Users were more satisfied with OE (M=5.11 out of 7) and FP (M=5.20), as compared to TE (M=4.28) and CP (M=3.54), indicating redesign is necessary to improve the transferability of the two-software system.
The Effects of Task-Set Switching On Concurrent Verbal Protocol BIBAFull-Text 1668-1672
  Robert J. Youmans; Christian A. Gonzalez; Ivonne J. Figueroa; Brooke Bellows
Concurrent verbal protocol (CVP) is a common usability testing and analysis technique that requires people to continuously vocalize their thoughts as they complete a task. Given the widespread use of concurrent verbal protocols in applied domains, it is surprising how little is known regarding concurrent verbal protocol's effect on task performance. In the current series of studies, we examined how concurrent verbal protocols affected performance on two tasks that required users to frequently switch between cognitive strategies. Data revealed that CVP slowed down participants in comparison with participants who completed tasks in silence. The number of strategy changes that were required to complete a task did not affect this performance decrement. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the experiments reported here, and with practical advice for usability experts who use CVP in their own work.

Product Design: PD4 -- Wearables

Ergonomic Design and Evaluation of a Pilot Oxygen Mask BIBAFull-Text 1673-1677
  Wonsup Lee; Heeeun Kim; Daehan Jung; Seikwon Park; Heecheon You
The present study developed a virtual fit assessment (VFA) method to design an oxygen mask which fits Korean Air Force (KAF) pilots. The VFA method used 3D face scan data of 336 KAF pilots to find the most proper shape of an oxygen mask for KAF pilots. The oxygen mask design revised in the study showed a 27% design improvement effect on average in terms of fit evaluated by the VFA method. Additionally, the present study evaluated the revised oxygen mask prototypes with 88 KAF pilots to experimentally verify the design improvement effect in terms of discomfort, pressure, and suitability for military equipment (slippage and stability in flight-like situations). The discomfort of the revised mask was 33 ≈ 56% lower on average than the existing oxygen mask. In terms of the pressure, the revised mask showed 11 ≈ 33% of improvement on average compared to the existing mask. Furthermore, on high gravity situation, the slippage distance of the revised mask was 24% shorter on average than the existing mask. The proposed VFA method can be applied to the design and evaluation of wearable products that require an ergonomically better fit for a target population.
Self-Reporting of Firefighter Vital Signs in Emergency Situations BIBAFull-Text 1678-1682
  Christina Harrington; Mike Brown; Lulu Wang; Sharon Joines
The focus of this research study was to address the issues of firefighter safety awareness and personnel management. This team aimed to concentrate on monitoring firefighter vital signs identified as critical during emergency situations. The major objective was to design a device that not only meets industry regulations but supplements current standard equipment. Market and literature reviews informed an in-depth look into injury prevention and hazard recognition in the firefighting profession. This design process included identifying key areas for possible design intervention through in-person interviews, ideations of solutions, concept refinement and prototyping, as well as usability testing. As a result, a design recommendation is made with future testing suggested.
Older Adults' Use of and Attitudes toward Activity Monitoring Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1683-1687
  Cara Bailey Fausset; Tracy L. Mitzner; Chandler E. Price; Brian D. Jones; Brad W. Fain; Wendy A. Rogers
Self-management of health is becoming increasingly important in today's healthcare climate. Activity monitoring technologies have the potential to support health self-management by tracking, storing, compiling, and providing feedback about an individual's engagement in movement activities. Older adults represent a fast growing segment of the population who may benefit from such technologies. To understand how to facilitate technology acceptance and adoption, more information is needed about older adults' attitudes and usage of such technologies. Eight older adult participants (Mage = 65.0 years; SD = 3.2; range = 61-69) used one of four activity monitoring technologies in their own homes for two weeks. Attitudes and usability issues were assessed and evaluated within a technology acceptance framework. Participants' initial attitudes were positive, but after using the technology for two weeks, attitudes were mixed. Three participants indicated they would continue using the technology, whereas five said they would abandon the technology. These data offer insight into older adults' use of and attitudes toward activity monitoring technologies and provide improvement opportunities for designers. The results suggest that efforts should focus on conveying the usefulness and personal benefits of activity monitoring technologies specific to older adults.

Safety: S1 -- Accident Prevention

Leveraging HFACS to Understand Medication Error in Emergency Medical Services (EMS): A Systemtic Review BIBAFull-Text 1688-1692
  Ashley M. Hughes; Shirley Sonesh; Stephanie Zajac; Eduardo Salas
Medication errors are prevalent in EMS settings, and can occur in as frequently as 21% of patient calls (Vilke et al.., 2006), significantly impacting patient care. However, even with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), a widely accepted human factors error taxonomy, there is currently no widely accepted systematic method for organizing and understanding medication errors and its antecedents. The current effort seeks to synthesize the EMS medication error literature with the goal of extracting current themes and gaps to offer recommendations for which use of HFACS could to improve EMS medication error research. By leveraging HFACs and incorporating the emerging knowledge of EMS medication error, medication error can be better understood by practitioners and inform interventions aimed to target specific underlying issues.
An Organizational Resilience-Based Human Factors Safety Method: The Development and Testing of SAfER BIBAFull-Text 1693-1697
  Maureen E. Hassall; Penelope M. Sanderson; Ian T. Cameron
Major accidents still occur in industry. Accidents often emerge from unexpected circumstances and the outcomes are often dependent on human decision making. At present there does not appear to be a human factors method that helps industry practitioners create designs that enhance successful human control in unexpected circumstances. In this article we propose a human factors method that may fulfil this need. The method has been designed (1) to help industry practitioners identify control strategies that operators might use to manage unexpected situations and (2) to offer design insights that could promote control strategies that lead to more resilient system outcomes. We have called the method Strategies Analysis for Enhancing Resilience (SAfER). Results from initial user trials with industry practitioners show that the SAfER method has promise, but that further work is needed to refine it.

Safety: S2 -- Warnings

Warnings, Anti-Warnings, and Pacifiers BIBAFull-Text 1698-1701
  Thomas Ayres
Warnings can play an important part in safety through informing people about hazards and encouraging safe behavior. The effectiveness of warnings, however, can be reduced by contrary messages that counteract the safety information. This paper reviews empirical support and challenges for understanding the effects of contrary messages, including messages that are intended to influence risk perception and behavior (anti-warnings) as well as those that do not proceed from such intentions (pacifiers).
Evaluating the Interactive Social-Cognitive Model for Explaining Non-Compliance to a Disaster Warning BIBAFull-Text 1702-1706
  Marita A. O'Brien; Michael Shreeves
Limited research has been conducted to evaluate how effective design increases compliance with disaster warnings. The Interactive Social-Cognitive Model (ISC) was developed to describe social-cognitive factors that influence compliance to warnings, but it has not been empirically tested (Kalsher & Williams, 2006). The present study examines factors proposed in the ISC to assess one resident's non-compliance to a tornado warning. Systematic analysis suggests that general cognitive factors such as the resident's job responsibility, prior experience, and normalcy bias were more critical to the non-compliance decision than social factors alone; however, social factors suggest opportunities for modifying the perceived context to motivate compliance. Discussion of these factors proposes opportunities for designing response strategies and safe places that invite and positively reinforce compliance disaster warnings by many residents.
Multicultural, Rapid, Collaborative, Iterative Design and Evaluation of a Warning Pictorial BIBAFull-Text 1707-1711
  Kenneth Nemire
Cultural differences may affect a person's response to a warning, however, little research exists to help understand those differences. Developing warnings to address needs of additional groups, such as cultural minorities, would benefit from more time- and cost-effective processes than have been traditionally employed. This study describes the application of a rapid, collaborative and iterative prototype design and evaluation process to the development of a warning pictorial with a multicultural audience. Results of the study showed that the iteratively revised pictorial was sufficient for over 90% of the English- and Spanish-speaking participants to perceive the presence of a hazard, and to indicate that they would avoid the hazard. Implications for future research are discussed.

Safety: S3 -- Design for Safety

Lessons Learned Using a Full-Scale Glasstop Simulator for Control Room Modernization in Nuclear Power Plants BIBAFull-Text 1712-1716
  Ronald L. Boring
The U.S. Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has sponsored a full-scale, full-scope glasstop simulator to support control room modernization in the U.S. nuclear industry. The simulator consists of 15 glasstop panels, each with three touchscreen displays that show functional mimics of analog instrumentation and controls. When linked, these panels are capable of displaying the entirety of the hard panels found in current nuclear power plant control rooms. In this paper, we discuss the use of this glasstop simulator for function allocation and analysis and task analysis workshops in support of a nuclear utility currently undertaking control room modernization. This paper highlights the process undertaken as well as lessons learned on this first-of-a-kind use of a virtual control room with reactor operator crews.
Performance Metrics for Evaluating Petro-chemical Control Room Displays BIBAFull-Text 1717-1721
  Christina Koffskey; Laura H. Ikuma; Craig Harvey
The petro-chemical industry relies on control room operators to manage safety-critical processes through complex displays. The goal of the current paper is to evaluate displays used by petrochemical industry control room operators by measuring performance through speed and accuracy to distinguish between two displays. The two displays represented a 'state-of-the-art' display and a poor display. Speed and accuracy were measured in regard to actions involved in alarm management of a simulated crude refining unit at three workload levels -- easy, medium, and hard. Operators were significantly slower and less accurate on the poor interface than the good interface. Speed progressively got slower from easy to medium to hard workload levels. Speed and accuracy as indicators of performance were able to differentiate between two significantly different displays. These two metrics represent the initial stages of developing a set of tools the petro-chemical industry can use to evaluate operator interface designs.
Computer-Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies BIBAFull-Text 1722-1726
  Katya L. Le Blanc; Johanna H. Oxstrand
The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may also increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.
Example User Centered Design Process for a Digital Control System in a Nuclear Power Plant BIBAFull-Text 1727-1731
  Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring
The U.S. nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This paper centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant.

Student Forum: SF2 -- A Student Perspective of Career Options in Human Factors

A Student and Early Career Professional Perspective of Human Factors Career Options BIBAFull-Text 1732-1734
  Brittany Neilson; Alex Proaps; Dustin Smith; Anand Tharanathan; Nicole Werner
The goal of this panel is to facilitate a discussion among current students and recent graduates about their decision-making process in choosing one of the three main sectors in human factors as a career: academia, government, and industry. Panelists will present their relevant academic and applied experiences and describe how theses experiences shaped their career path. Major themes of the panel will include a student perspective on the increasing interest in industry as opposed to academia among individuals pursuing a career in human factors and how this may affect future education and training of human factors professionals.

Student Forum: SF3 -- Cognition

Impact of Visuospatial Characteristics of Video Games on Improvements in Cognitive Abilities BIBAFull-Text 1735-1739
  HeeSun Choi; Sharolyn A. Lane
The current study aimed to understand the effects of playing video games on navigation skills, spatial cognitive abilities and speed of processing, and to examine the characteristics of games and training hours impacting video game training. Participants were assigned to one of four groups; First Person Shooter (FPS) game training group, Third Person Shooter (TPS) game training group, Control puzzle game training group, and control non-training group. Participants in training groups played the selected games for 30 hours in total. Performances in maze tasks, spatial attention, mental rotation and speed of processing were measured at four time points (pretraining, post-10 hours, 20 hours and 30 hours training) to investigate improvements over the time. The results showed the FPS game playing and not the TPS or puzzle game playing enhanced visual attention ability at both 20° and 30° eccentricity. This result indicates viewpoints of video game are important characteristics which may impact differently on cognitive ability. However, no significant improvement was found in navigation skills, suggesting playing FPS game may not improve dynamic and larger-scaled spatial abilities beyond spatial attention.
Cognitive Ability Predicts Older Adult Performance in a Complex Task but is Moderated by Social Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1740-1744
  Arthur Juliani; William Leidheiser; Anne McLaughlin; Jason Allaire; Maribeth Gandy
Previous research has examined the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities. However, the contribution of cognitive abilities to learning to perform the tasks used as cognitive training, such as complex video games, is not completely understood. Additionally, social interaction while playing a video game may change the relationship between cognitive ability and game success by allowing players to learn from one another instead of solely their own abilities. As part of a larger cognitive intervention designed for older adults, the 50 participants included in our analysis were randomly assigned to either play games alone or take turns with a partner for one hour a day over fifteen days. Those playing with a partner outscored those playing alone. Multiple cognitive abilities predicted game success, but there was also evidence to suggest a moderating effect when playing with a partner on the predictive power of certain cognitive abilities.
Interruption Management and Recovery in Time-critical Supervisory-level Tasks: A Literature Review BIBAFull-Text 1745-1749
  Farzan Sasangohar; Stacey D. Scott; Birsen Donmez
The negative effects of interruptions on task performance in modern work environments are well documented. However, in most time-critical supervisory-level tasks such as emergency response and mission command and control, interruptions to supervisors may contain valuable information necessary for the execution of the task. In such cases, supervisors may need assistance to manage or recover from interruptions as efficiently and effectively as possible. This paper reviews the relevant interruption management and recovery literature to identify opportunities for research.
The Effects of Reminder Type and Anticipatory Interval on Prospective Memory BIBAFull-Text 1750-1754
  Natalee Cartee; Nicole Fink; Richard Pak
Prospective memory (PM) failures (or failures to remember a future intention) can result in a wide range of negative consequences. The use of reminders has been shown to improve the rate of PM successes. The current study aims to examine the effectiveness of reminders based on their type (picture or text) and their timing. We hypothesize that successful PM performance will be maintained over longer anticipatory intervals when paired with picture reminders rather than with text reminders.
The effect of information access cost and overconfidence bias on junior doctors' pre-handover performance BIBAFull-Text 1755-1759
  Xi Yang; Taezoon Park; Christopher D. Wickens; Kewin Tien Ho Siah; Liesel Fong; Shan Qing Yin
This paper examined the effect of information access cost and overconfidence bias on doctors' information retrieval strategies and performances during pre-handover. Sixteen medical residents participated in a simulated experiment, where they studied four patient cases and later on completed recall and recognition questions. The results showed that an increase in information access cost led to less information access attempts and poorer pre-handover performance. Further, there was an interaction between information access cost and overconfidence on pre-handover performance. When information access cost was high, overconfidence contributed to poor pre-handover performance.

Student Forum: SF4 -- Student Forum Potpourri I

Cross-modal matching: The development and evaluation of a new technique BIBAFull-Text 1760-1764
  Brandon J. Pitts; Sara A. Lu; Nadine B. Sarter
Research in the area of multimodal displays and information processing has reported several benefits of distributing information across multiple sensory channels (vision, audition, and touch, in particular). However, with few exceptions, studies on multimodal information processing involve the potential risk of confounding modality with other factors, such as salience, because no cross-modal matching is being performed prior to experiments. To date, no agreed-upon cross-modal matching method has been developed. The goal of our research is to develop and compare the feasibility and validity of various approaches. In this paper, we present the findings for one particular technique that employs cue adjustments and bidirectional matches. Six participants were asked to perform a series of 216 matching tasks for combinations of cues in vision, audition and touch. The results show that participants' matches differed from one another, were inconsistent across trials, and were also a function of the intensity level of the initial cue. The findings from this research further highlight the need for careful matching of multimodal cues in research on multisensory information processing and will result in refinements of the proposed technique.
Human Factors and Behavioral Research at a Mars Analog Habitat BIBAFull-Text 1765-1769
  Chelsea Iwig; Carolyn Newton; Eric Watkins; Gisela Munoz; Noah Feaster; Amy Seo; Carlos Giraldo; Jason Kring
Long-duration space missions pose many challenges to the health of the crew and success of the overall mission. In addition to hazards of the space environment, such as radiation exposure and the effects of microgravity on the human body, poor interactions between crewmembers can result in tension, conflict, or degraded performance. Although scientists have learned a great deal about how to reduce the effects of physical hazards to the crew, few studies have examined ways to monitor the functioning of the crew during a long-duration mission in order to avoid breakdowns in crew performance. This research had two goals. First, we collected data on crew function and performance by administering a battery of behavioral and performance measures to a seven-person crew, comprised of five undergraduate students and two graduate students, during a 2-week mission to the Mars Desert Research Station in Winter 2013. Second, this setting provided a unique opportunity for human factors students to develop a research protocol and then collect data in a field setting. Each study addressed different ways to support crew psychological health in long duration spaceflight.
Decision-Making and Information Use Among Residents During an Extended Natural Disaster BIBAFull-Text 1770-1774
  Michael Shreeves; Marita A. O'Brien
Government agencies are increasingly partnering with social scientists to understand how individuals behave during natural disasters. The April 27th, 2011 tornado outbreak and an ensuing week-long power outage in Madison County, AL presented a unique opportunity to examine resident behavior in an otherwise habitable extended disaster scenario. Ten county residents were interviewed to understand their experiences during this period. Interviews were analyzed for decision-making and information use. Residents displayed novice decision-making, relying heavily on external cues. Peers and local media were the most common sources of external information, and local radio was the most important and versatile information channel. Knowledge in the head was linked to prior knowledge of the area and beliefs about information sources. Our findings suggested that residents have complex, well-developed skills for acquiring information in novel situations, and that long-term community residency provides experience that is valuable in disaster response. Innovative systems to provide disaster information should include cues that facilitate use of this knowledge by long-term residents.

Student Forum: SF5 -- Attention, Workload, and Fatigue

Comparing the Performance, Workload, and Usability of a Gamepad and Joystick in a Complex Task BIBAFull-Text 1775-1779
  Michael A. Rupp; Paul Oppold; Daniel S. McConnell
Complex human system interface systems such as unmanned vehicles utilize controls that range from standard joystick and keyboard interfaces to Xbox controllers. However, few research studies have been conducted to compare Xbox controllers with other types of interfaces, showing mixed results between those controllers. The current study compared the performance of a joystick and keyboard interface with that of an Xbox controller in both a low and high difficulty task. The results indicate that the Xbox controller had lower tracking errors and trended to lower workload and a slightly higher usability score as measured by the system usability scale (SUS). An interaction between difficulty and controller was not found, however allowing for a longer practice time with the interfaces may have shown significant differences which are planned in a future study. Overall these results indicate favorable results that an Xbox controller may be a viable control interface for complex human system interaction tasks.
Perceptual Dual-Task Training via Simulation for Veterinary Students BIBAFull-Text 1780-1784
  Francis A. Trowbridge; Anne Collins McLaughlin
Perceptual training can be implemented via simulation for specific tasks in which the actual event being trained for rarely occurs. Simulation may also be able to train domain-specific skills related to stress-management difficult to train in real-world training. Simulation use is growing wide-spread in the training of the motor skills used in similar tasks, but generalizability of perceptual skills and abilities to specific tasks is not clear. The current study sought to examine the potential of a veterinary training simulation module and examine the relationship between training methods and working memory capacity, and these factors effects on performance in a stressful, dual-task perceptual performance environment.
The Influence of Mental Workload on Trunk Stability and Neuromuscular Control BIBAFull-Text 1785-1789
  Ralph H. Cullen; Michael J. Agnew
Low back disorders are both very prevalent and detrimental, affecting 15-20% of the population every year (Rubin, 2007). Because of this, researchers have addressed a wide variety of risk factors and interactions of low back disorders, including personal, psychosocial, and work-related physical exposures and their effects on this common disability. Investigating these risk factors has suggested that mental and physical workloads interact; a result the current study intends to further explore in the field of postural stability. To that end, the current study has two goals: first, to develop a data-rich protocol to capture physical and mental workload data; second, to use that protocol to understand the effects of mental workload on trunk stability and how that affects those with low back disorders. The results of this study will inform both the theories behind neuromuscular control and postural stability and the designers and evaluators of workplaces.
Task analysis of microsurgery and biomechanical modeling of surgeons to assess static-workloads BIBAFull-Text 1790-1794
  Denny Yu; Steven Kasten; Cooper Green; Thomas J. Armstrong
Physical discomfort has been frequently reported in surgery, and previous studies have focused on surgeon postures and posture movements. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology and collect pilot data that can be used to test the hypothesis that static work requirements during microsurgery exceed published endurance capabilities and are a source of surgeon fatigue. Eight microsurgery surgeons were analyzed for this study. An event-based time study was performed for the entire duration of the microsurgery. Posture was quantified using ten frames randomly sampled from two surgeons using 3D Static Strength Prediction Program, and outputs were used to calculate endurance limits and maximal acceptable effort. Results found that 83% of microsurgery is performed with the microscope. Posture adjustments were highest during rest (5.5 adjustments per minute) and lowest during microscope task (0.3 adjustments per minute). Back and shoulder postures deviated further from neutral during microscope task than rest. The % MVC in the shoulders and torso have endurance times of 5-57 minutes and exceeded maximum acceptable efforts. Results suggest that the operating microscope constrains surgeon posture and restricts posture adjustments. Microsurgery is predominantly microscope tasks, and endurance capabilities are a concern for surgeon fatigue. Application of current tools to surgery are limited due to the low-force and non-cyclical nature of surgical work; however, these findings can be used to design future studies testing larger surgeon populations and workplace improvements.

Student Forum: SF6 -- Driving Behavior

Drivers' Mental Workload In Agricultural Semi-Autonomous Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1795-1799
  Behzad Bashiri; Danny D. Mann
Drivers' mental workload when using driving assistant systems and in-vehicle automation has been the subject of many studies in recent years. Drivers of semi-autonomous agricultural vehicles are experiencing an increasing number of automated systems. Due to implications of automation support on the operators' performance, a human factors perspective is needed to identify the consequences of such automated systems. In this simulator study, the effects of vehicle steering and implement monitoring and control automation were investigated using a tractor air-seeder system as a case study. Experiments were conducted using the tractor air-seeder driving simulator (TAS-DS) located in the Agricultural Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba. Study participants were university students with tractor driving experience. Based on the results from the experiment, most of the automation conditions impose moderate levels of mental workload on operators. Implement monitoring and control automation show significant effect on the drivers' mental workload, contrary to the steering automation.
Drivers' Beliefs, Habits, and Strategies Regarding High Beam Usage BIBAFull-Text 1800-1804
  Drea K. Fekety; Stephanie A. Whetsel; Ashley Stafford Sewall; Richard A. Tyrrell
Research suggests that drivers do not fully understand the visual challenges they face when driving at night, and that drivers typically under-use their high beams. Because little is known about what factors influence drivers' usage of high beams, this study surveyed 202 undergraduates concerning their beliefs, habits, and strategies in choosing beam settings. Participants completed a 29-question survey asking about their general understanding of headlamp usage and roadway safety. These data reflect what drivers learned about beam usage when they were taught to drive and describe the factors that influence drivers' selection of high and low beams. The data also describe the participants' estimates of the frequency with which they use high beams, and quantify drivers' estimates of the distance at which they can see different objects at night. These data offer insight into drivers' beliefs about headlights, night vision, and safety. These insights are expected to be useful when designing educational interventions to encourage appropriate usage of high beams.
Examining Drivers' Perception of Internal and External Distracter Risk and Predictors of These Perceptions BIBAFull-Text 1805-1809
  Marc D. Gentzler; Michael A. Rupp; Katherine Schmieder; Julissa Nunez
Although a large number of studies have investigated the effects of distracted driving, relatively few studies have examined the drivers' perspective of distracter risk. Better understanding of this perspective should help in the important development of road safety instruction. The current study expands on previous research assessing drivers' distracter risk perception by including a larger number of and more detailed distracters overall, as well as the inclusion of personality measures as possible correlates of distracter risk perception. Results demonstrated a wide difference in risk ratings across the 31 distracters, with internal-to-vehicle distracters overall having a higher risk rating than external-to-vehicle distracters. Mental concentration required for the distracter was significantly correlated with average distracter risk, with more mental concentration corresponding to higher risk ratings in general. Individuals who rated higher on external locus of control rated higher on average external-to-vehicle distracter risk, whereas higher sensation seeking individuals rated lower on average external-to-vehicle distracter risk.
Temporary Barriers to Reduce the Effects of Rubbernecking BIBAFull-Text 1810-1814
  Nicholas P. Colon; Michael A. Rupp; Mustapha Mouloua
Driver distraction is an area of research which concerns both public safety and research. Much work has been completed on distractions inside the vehicle; however, distracting scenarios outside of the vehicle can garner visual attention away from driving as well. Occasionally drivers passing a traffic crash will be involved in the crash themselves, due to rubbernecking. To combat this problem one solution is to obscure the scene from view. We empirically examined the efficacy of crash barriers on both eye movements and human performance in regards to driver behavior. Participants drove in a simulator in three separate drives (two control drives and one with a highly salient traffic crash) with either no occlusion, partial occlusion or full occlusion. Significant effects of distraction (crash vs. no crash) were found. In addition, the full barrier occlusion had the biggest effect on decreasing the amount of time participants spend looking at the crash.
Conceptual Development of a Lateral Control Device for Road Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1815-1819
  Rene L. Guerster
In this paper a concept for an innovative lateral control device for road vehicles is proposed. The goal of this design is to potentially improve driver safety by permitting the operator of a vehicle to maintain a constant hand position on the device at all times. The paper provides a brief review of the history of steering means in automobiles and proposes a control device that takes advantage of modern electrical and computational capability. Recommendations for its configuration and the associated technology required for its use in modern automobiles are presented. The paper concludes with a suggested protocol for the testing of this system and the further research required in order to enhance its commercial feasibility.

Student Forum: SF7 -- Student Forum Potpourri II

Police Officer Discomfort and Activity Characterization During a Day Shift and a Night Shift BIBAFull-Text 1820-1824
  Michelle M. Girouard; Michelle M. Rae; James Croll; Jack P. Callaghan; Colin D. McKinnon; Wayne J. Albert
The purpose of this study was to identify occupational and car seat features causing discomfort in patrol officers, and to determine which body parts were experiencing the most discomfort. A Seat Features and Occupational Components Questionnaire, based on a 0 to 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS), revealed that the duty belt was the occupational gear causing the most discomfort, followed by computer use within the car. The seat lumbar support was the seat feature causing the most discomfort. A Body Part Discomfort Questionnaire was administered at the beginning of the shift (T1), after six hours (T6), and at the end of the twelve hour shift (T12), for both day and night shifts. There were no significant differences in body part discomfort between the two types of shifts. There were, however, significant increases in body part discomfort ratings over the course of the working day, especially on the right side of the body. While some body parts experienced a significant increase in discomfort between the T1 and T6 (i.e., the neck, left upper back, right buttocks), some body parts only had a significant increase in discomfort after six hours (i.e., the lower back and mid back). The two body parts that experienced the highest levels of discomfort were the neck and lower back. A secondary purpose of the study was to identify the frequency of the activities that occur within the car. The largest portion of the workday and night were spent outside of the vehicle (46.1±10.8% during the day, and 43.5±14.9% during the night). Left-handed driving occupied the most time in the car (26.3±10.1% during the day, and 25.7 ± 8.6% at night). A reduced or reconfigured duty belt, as well as decreased time spent in the car (doing paper work, computer work, and driving), could help decrease discomfort levels.
An Exploration of Robot Builders' Attachment to Their LEGO Robots BIBAFull-Text 1825-1829
  Lixiao Huang; Terri Varnado; Douglas Gillan
This research explored the emotional attachment that students might develop towards robots that they built in a 2-month period, as well as the factors that contributed to their emotions towards the robots. The research studied 16 students enrolled in the robotics class in the fall 2012 semester who completed a specially-designed questionnaire. The results showed that students had strong positive emotions towards their robots. However, the students differed from typical attachment in that they had low avoidance or anxiety related to loss of the robot. In open-ended responses on the questionnaire students indicated that they would feel sad dismantling their robots, but they rationally reported the robots could be rebuilt. Reflective journal data showed that they enjoyed the building process greatly, especially when they solved challenging problems. The data suggested that students' affection for their robots was not attachment as is typically defined in human-human or human-pet relations. Limitations and further research directions were included.
Practices of Teaching Problem Solving Skills in Robotics Education BIBAFull-Text 1830-1834
  Lixiao Huang; Terri Varnado; Douglas Gillan
The present paper presents the practices of teaching problem solving skills in robotics education using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT at a college level. The fundamentals, the components, and the main course design were introduced in the paper. Problem solving log data were collected from 16 undergraduate students enrolled in this course during the first eight weeks of the course. The data showed that lack of knowledge/understanding was the main cause of problems students encountered. Students most frequently used technical manuals to gather information, and used analysis to process knowledge, and mainly used trial and error to solve problems when they encountered them. Practical applications and implications were included.
Biomechanical Technique Changes in Males and Females during a Prolonged Asymmetrical Lifting Task BIBAFull-Text 1835-1839
  Michelle Rae; Dave A. Smith; Steven L. Fischer; Jim Croll; Wayne J. Albert
The purpose of this study was to examine biomechanical differences between genders during a prolonged fatiguing asymmetric lifting task. Thirty-seven participants performed an asymmetrical lifting task over a period of 75 minutes at a rate of six lifts per minute. The lift envelope started from the floor directly in front of the participant to a shelf 60 degrees to the right of the sagittal plane at a normalized height to the participant's anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). A handled box weighing 10% of the participants' predetermined maximum lifting capacity was used as the lifting object. Electromagnetic tracking sensors were used to provide kinetic and kinematic data. Eleven sensors were affixed bilaterally to the participant's hands, arms, and trunk. Strong indicators for fatigue were found after the lifting task. Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) increased over time and maximal voluntary exertion in back and shoulder extension decreased post lifting. Kinematic changes were altered over time, more markedly in females than males, suggesting that biomechanical differences exist during similar tasks due to factors associated with gender. Males and females differ in their response to a fatigued state during the same asymmetric lifting task. Given that current ergonomic practice is based on gender neutralized or androcentric design, the difference in response between males and females to the same stimuli suggests that current workplace interventions may not be equally effective for both sexes.
A Model for Determining What User Behavior to Strive for in Persuasive Technology BIBAFull-Text 1840-1843
  Susanna Heyman
Persuasive technology is a framework for designing with the intent to influence user's behavior. However, it is assumed that the designer knows exactly what user behavior to design for, which is not always the case. In this paper, a model is proposed for specifying micro-level behavior goals from the macro-level goal of the system. The principle is exemplified through a hypothetical system for financial advice.

Surface Transportation: ST1 -- Health, Behavior, and Emotion

New Insights Into the Detrimental Effects of Peer Passengers on Teen Drivers BIBAFull-Text 1844-1848
  Noelle LaVoie; Yi-Ching Lee; James Parker; Flaura Winston
This paper describes the results of a mixed methods approach to investigate the impact of peer social situations on teen drivers. Research has demonstrated that peer passengers have a detrimental effect on teen drivers, leading to a substantial increase in crash rates when teens are driving with passengers versus driving alone. Specific aspects of the driver and passenger, such as gender, may lead to increased or decreased crash risks. However, these data are often inconsistent, suggesting that additional variables are involved. We posit that teens lack the necessary experience managing complex social skills to adequately handle a peer passenger while driving. Further, evidence from interviews and surveys of teen drivers suggests that this may help to account for the dramatic increase in crash risk observed when a teen drives with multiple peer passengers.
Sadder but Wiser? Effects of Negative Emotions on Risk Perception, Driving Performance, and Perceived Workload BIBAFull-Text 1849-1853
  Myounghoon Jeon; Wei Zhang
Traditional affect research has frequently used a valence dimension -- positive and negative states. However, these approaches have not discriminated the effects of distinct emotions of the same valence. Recent findings have indicated that different emotions may have different impacts even though they belong to the same valence. The current study consists of a simulated driving experiment with two induced affective states to examine how sadness and anger differently influence driving-related risk perception, driving performance, and perceived workload. Thirty two undergraduates drove under three different road conditions with induced sadness, anger, or neutral emotions. Participants in both affect conditions showed significantly more errors than those in the neutral condition. However, only participants with induced anger reported significantly higher perceived workload than participants with neutral. Results are discussed in terms of affect mechanisms and design directions for the in-vehicle emotion regulation system.
How many drinks does it take? Perceptions of risk associated with drinking, driving, and engaging in common activities BIBAFull-Text 1854-1858
  Charles G. Burhans; J. Paul Frantz; Timothy P. Rhoades; Helen J. A. Fuller; Robert M. Schanski
How many drinks does it take? This study asked participants how many drinks it would take to reach a legal limit of 0.08% BAC and what number of drinks they would need to have before they no longer felt safe supervising a child, swimming, bicycling, driving, and walking. Eighty-eight college students with a mean age of 21.7 years responded to a series of questions based on nationwide studies of traffic safety culture and drinking and driving attitudes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the American Automobile Association (AAA). In addition, quantitative and qualitative estimates of participants' perceptions of drinking and driving risks at different BAC levels were collected, categorized, and compared to traffic data.
Highway Healthcare: How Naturalistic Driving Data Index Adherence to CPAP Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea BIBAFull-Text 1859-1863
  Anthony D. McDonald; John D. Lee; Nazan S. Aksan; Jeffrey D. Dawson; Jon Tippin; Matthew Rizzo
Drowsy driving is a major factor in many vehicle crashes around the world. Sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), underpin many of these crashes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is an effective treatment for sleep apnea but it requires consistent use and is often rejected by OSA patients. Rejection of CPAP treatment creates a dangerous on-road environment for both OSA sufferers and the general public. Algorithms capable of detecting CPAP use and its effects on driving are integral to identifying and mitigating this danger. This work uses naturalistic kinematic driving data to develop an algorithm which can detect nightly CPAP abstinence and adequate CPAP use. Speed and lateral acceleration data were collected using a data recorder in participant's primary vehicle and CPAP data were collected by downloading adherence data from participant CPAP machines. The speed and acceleration data were reduced to a set of symbols using Symbolic Aggregate approximation (SAX) time-series analysis. The symbols were converted into a sequence frequency dataset using sliding windows of size 1 to 10 s with a 1 Hz sampling rate. A Random Forest classifier was trained on the data to create a classification algorithm. On a held aside testing set, the Random Forest algorithm correctly identified 71% of the instances and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. The variable importance of the algorithm suggested that kinematic patterns associated with common drowsy driver crash types were key features in the algorithm's prediction performance.
Variations in Road Conditions on Driver Stress: Insights from an On-road Study BIBAFull-Text 1864-1868
  Erika E. Miller; Linda Ng Boyle
A number of studies have used heart rate variability (HRV) measures to estimate driver stress across different driving conditions. Understanding the constructs of driver stress can provide insights regarding the underlying reasons for safety-critical events. The intent of this study is to evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG) activities of drivers along a pre-defined route with varying roadway conditions. Heart rate, standard deviation of selected RR interval series (SDNN) and low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF/HF) were examined. An examination of short interval stress at evenly distributed points along the route indicates that some impact was detected from long duration driving and the statistical model was adjusted accordingly to reflect this. The findings suggest that temporal and frequency domain parameters generated similar characteristics regardless of the direction of travel (clockwise or counterclockwise direction). That is, these two parameters provided fairly consistent outcomes regarding driver workload. However, heart rate was not as good an indicator suggesting that this measure may be picking up some other unexplained effects.

Surface Transportation: ST2 -- Driver Distraction: Visual-Manual to Auditory-Vocal

Driver Safety Impacts of Voice-to-Text Mobile Applications BIBAFull-Text 1869-1873
  Christine E. Yager
Text messaging is no longer limited to manual-entry. There are several mobile applications that aim to assist the driver in sending and receiving text messages by incorporating a voice-to-text component. To date, there has been no published research that evaluates the driver behavior and safety impacts of voice-to-text mobile applications on a handheld device. To address this issue, 43 participants drove an instrumented vehicle on a closed course for a baseline as well as three texting conditions: manual-entry, using Siri, and using Vlingo. Results indicate that driver reaction times were nearly two times slower than the baseline condition, no matter which texting method was used. Additionally, it took drivers longer to complete the same texting task using the voice-to-text applications than it did when texting manually, and Siri produced the fewest errors. Self-assessment feedback revealed that participants felt less safe using any of the three texting methods compared to the baseline, but felt safer using either voice-to-text application than when manually texting. These results have immediate implications for improving our understanding of the dangers of texting while driving and the potential safety improvements of using voice-to-text options.
Distracted While Driving: A Comparison of the Effects of Texting and Talking On a Cell Phone BIBAFull-Text 1874-1878
  David Libby; Alex Chaparro; Jibo He
In the United States, 39 states have passed legislation banning texting while driving. By comparison, no state bans hands-free cellular phone use by adults while driving. The concern regarding texting reflects an underlying assumption that it poses a greater risk than talking on a cellular phone. However, there have been few published studies directly comparing these two tasks and their effects on driving performance. This study investigated the effects of texting and talking on a cellular phone on simulated driving performance while equating task duration. Even after equating the time spent on each task, texting still had a greater impact on driving performance. Drivers in the texting condition had significantly slower reaction times, made more eye movements away from the roadway, and failed to detect as many peripheral letter targets compared to when they were in the calling condition. The results of this study suggest that texting is a more disruptive form of distraction than talking and that its effects are not simply due to differences in task duration.
Text Readability and Drivers' Reading Time: Insights from the Visual Occlusion Method BIBAFull-Text 1879-1883
  Mahtab Ghazizadeh; Vindhya Venkatraman; Miralis Torres; Madeleine C. Gibson; John D. Lee; Linda Ng Boyle
Internet access, vehicle diagnostics, and real-time communication are becoming increasingly common in all vehicles and the complexity of the information displayed is a major concern. Current guidelines focus on the number of characters in a text message, but other measures of text readability might be more sensitive. This study examined how well different metrics of text readability predict the time it takes a driver to read a message on an in-vehicle display. Participants completed reading tasks while seated in the driver's seat of a driving simulator. Occlusion goggles were used to mimic the timesharing between the driving task and the secondary reading tasks, according to the ISO 16673 (2007) guidelines. The results showed that message length (number of characters) predicts the total time spent on the task (Total Shutter Open Time [TSOT]) and that the combination of number of words in the message and Shannon entropy of the message predicts TSOT only as well as number of characters alone. Applying the model human processor calculations of reading rates (Card, Moran, & Newell, 1983) showed that participants likely read the messages word-byword in successive saccades, instead of letter-by-letter or phrase-by-phrase. Findings provide direction for more in-depth lexical analyses of text readability related to in-vehicle displays.
A Framework for Modelling and Analysing Variability in Visual Occlusion Experiments BIBAFull-Text 1884-1888
  Huei-Yen Winnie Chen; Paul Milgram
Research using self-paced visual occlusion has traditionally analysed mean occlusion times, thereby neglecting potential insights to be gained from variability across individual visual sampling decisions. This paper proposes a framework for analysing visual occlusion data based on a hierarchy of sampling strategies. The framework describes each sampling decision as being dependent on both system characteristics (mean performance) and information available during sampling (variability). To illustrate the framework, data from an on-road study were analysed. Self-paced occlusion times were shown to fit a descriptive function both for lane deviations observed at the end of previous visual samples and for predicted lane deviations at the end of occlusion intervals. The fact that the latter fit was better suggests that participants, especially the more experienced ones, were indeed able to use predictions in their sampling decisions.
A Driving Simulation Study Examining Destination Entry with iOS 5 Google Maps and a Garmin Portable GPS System BIBAFull-Text 1889-1893
  Celena Dopart; Anders Häggman; Cameron Thornberry; Bruce Mehler; Jonathan Dobres; Bryan Reimer
A simulation study compared 23 young adult drivers' task completion time, mean glance time, number of glances, and percentage of long glances while performing a navigation entry task with a Garmin portable GPS system and a mobile navigation application (iOS 5 Google Maps) on an iPod Touch. We compared participants' performance on these tasks using the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) eye-glance acceptance criteria. We found that, irrespective of the device used, no participant was able to complete the task within the recommended total time window of 12 seconds. When entering a destination into the iOS interface, only 73.9% of the drivers meet the NHTSA criteria for long duration glances. With the Garmin system, 91.3% of the participants meet this criterion. All participants were able to maintain adequate mean off road glance durations. Finally, we compared the NHTSA recommended method of assessing all off road glances to more traditional methods of assessing glances only to the task interface. Differences between the two methods