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CSCW Tables of Contents: 9496980002040608101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Steven Poltrock; Carla Simone; Jonathan Grudin; Gloria Mark; John Riedl
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:2012-Feb-11 to 2012-Feb-15
Volume:1
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-4503-1086-9, 978-1-4503-1086-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW12-1
Papers:167
Pages:1434
Links:Conference Home Page
Summary:Constraint can spur creativity. Approaching the 26th anniversary of the CSCW conference, we were asked to move the submission deadline two months earlier to reduce the reviewing conflict with CHI 2012. In response, we used the additional time to innovate and to increase participation while maintaining or increasing quality, by allowing authors to revise and resubmit their papers and notes. Conference attendees and proceedings readers will ultimately assess the outcome, but overall the feedback from associate chairs, reviewers and authors has been very positive.
    Submissions increased 57% from CSCW 2011 to a record 290 papers and 125 notes. We increased the program committee to 67 associate chairs (ACs) to handle them; 21 were women and 20 were from outside North America. They comprised representatives from computer science, social media and social networks, psychology, anthropology, software engineering, management, and design. Fifty were from universities.
    Our process most resembled a journal special issue, with a submission deadline, a team of four reviewers, and one revision cycle under a firm time constraint (in this case five weeks). Each submission was assigned to two committee members, designated AC-Coordinator and ACReviewer. Each AC assigned one external reviewer. In the first round, each paper or note was blind-reviewed by the AC-Reviewer and the two external reviewers. Reviewers assessed the likelihood that it could be revised within one month to be acceptable. Based on the outcomes, submissions were considered 'conditional accept' (CA, 8.7%), 'revise=resubmit' (RR, 46.5%) or 'reject' (44.8%). In general, papers that received one or more positive assessments were offered the opportunity to revise.
    Papers that had no positive assessment in the first round were rejected. We based this decision on an analysis of CSCW 2011 data, which revealed that submissions that did not get an advocate in the initial reviewing had 0% chance of acceptance. Sixty percent of CSCW 2011 submissions had no advocate, compared to 45% of CSCW 2012 submissions. The difference is that the CSCW 2012 submissions had a month in which they could be improved. By immediately rejecting the 45% that had no chance, we streamlined and focused the process, and reduced the number of reviews per submission despite the revision cycle.
    The AC Coordinator relied on the reviews in providing written guidance to authors on how to revise RRs. Authors of RR and CA submissions had five weeks to prepare a revision and an explanation of how they had addressed reviewer concerns. Resubmissions of RRs underwent a full second review from the same four-reviewer team; most CAs were checked by just one AC. Reviewing teams were strongly encouraged to resolve decisions prior to the program committee meeting and indeed, only 6% of initial submissions had to be discussed in the meeting.
    The program committee split into two subgroups followed by a plenary session to make the final decisions. 127 papers and 37 notes, 39.5% of initial submissions, reached acceptable quality through revision. This is almost twice the number presented in any previous CSCW, in part due to record submissions. ACs and reviewers nominated papers and notes for consideration for Best Paper awards; 4 were selected, with 17 awarded Honorable Mention.
    The accepted work represents diverse topics. Relatively new topics for CSCW include crowdsourcing, civic engagement, and social media; more traditional CSCW topics include distributed work, coordination, ethnography, and collaborative software development.
    This collaborative effort was an example of computer supported cooperative work. The entire CSCW community provided input throughout the process-many ideas and changes came from outside of the committee. Committee members had to adapt to new ways of working. Our analysis indicates that the work required of reviewers and associate chairs did not exceed that of past years, and authors benefited from two rounds of feedback from committed ACs and reviewers.
    Our goal was to maintain a high quality threshold while enabling more papers to reach that threshold. We believe there are many benefits to a review process with more opportunity for constructive interaction between reviewers and authors. Authors benefit by learning more about the CSCW culture, and by producing papers that are better than they could have produced on their own. Reviewers benefit by seeing their work lead to improved papers. The community benefits, because more of its members are successful at producing high quality research each year.
    As a community, we must consider new ways to assess conference quality-when a larger volume of high quality work is produced, older metrics no longer hold. Considering the fraction of submitted work that is of low quality to be a measure of conference quality is backwards. We need new measures of process quality and the resulting quality of accepted work. Through continued innovation, CSCW will remain the top venue for leading edge research on collaboration and technology. As with any new process, mistakes were made and much was learned. We look forward to participating as community members in ongoing innovation.
    The other technical tracks contribute immeasurably to the program. A record number of interactive posters will be presented. The 14 workshops drew a remarkable number of submissions. With demos, horizon, panels, videos, special sessions, and three plenary keynotes, CSCW 2012 is a great start to the second quarter-century of the CSCW conference.
  1. CSCW 2012-02-11 Volume 1
    1. Keynote address
    2. Social media in war and crisis
    3. Social media in crisis and culture
    4. Across the globe: cross-cultural studies
    5. Ethnography in the very wild
    6. Collaboration in the wild
    7. Civic and community engagement
    8. Community and classification online
    9. Public communities online
    10. Forums online
    11. Online disclosure
    12. Scaling our everest: Wikipedia studies I
    13. Wikipedia studies II
    14. Twitter and social transparency
    15. On the road: mobile
    16. Tabletop displays: from activity to activity theory
    17. Social activity in games
    18. Games and virtual worlds
    19. Social connectedness: studies and systems
    20. Media production
    21. Supporting art & literature
    22. Family life
    23. Privacy and the home
    24. Four life stages
    25. Health: games and online support groups
    26. Medical care and health intervention
    27. eScience and eMedicine
    28. Social network analysis
    29. Recommending
    30. Crowdsourcing
    31. Incentives
    32. Mediating communication
    33. Coordination and performance
    34. Coordination and artifacts
    35. Tools for analysis
    36. Distributed teams I
    37. Distributed teams II
    38. Toolkits and software development
    39. Qualitative studies of software development I
    40. Qualitative studies of software development II
    41. Achieving harmony through technology

CSCW 2012-02-11 Volume 1

Keynote address

The penguin and the leviathan: towards cooperative human systems design BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Yochai Benkler
A decade ago, Wikipedia burst into a world not ready to comprehend it. Thousands of people cooperating effectively, without price signals to offer 'incentives' or managerial hierarchy to direct efforts, was an impossibility. And yet, it moves. And as it moved it combined with a deep shift across many disciplines, from biology and neuroscience to organizational sociology, experimental economics, and social psychology to paint a very different view of who we are as human beings. Slowly pushing back against decades of ever-refined analyses based on self-interested rationality, we begin to see that we are diverse beings; that a majority of us responds cooperatively to cooperative settings -- we tend to treat well those who have treated us well, rather than take advantage of them; we tend to do what we think is right and fair, when it is clear in the setting what that is; we experience empathy, and it makes us more generous and trustworthy; we experience solidarity with others, and that makes us contributed more willingly to the group's goals. Moreover, explicit payments, the touchstone of mechanism design under universal self-interested rationality, turns out to have a much more complex relationship with motivation than simple addition. All this work in basic behavioral sciences combines with observations from organizational sociology, political science, and management studies combines with social software to provide an increasingly better articulated basis on which to develop a field of cooperative human systems design.
Broader impacts: research you can use BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Judith Olson
A number of threads of thought have come together recently having to do with how we make our research useable and useful to the world. One thread is inspired by a movement in medicine called Clinical Translational Science in which funding is given to researchers to translate basic research into guidelines, treatments, and regimens that clinicians can use. A second thread arose in reflecting about our own recent work in which we translated a theory about what makes for good distance collaboration into an online assessment tool and administered it to hundreds of people involved in remote collaboration. Upon completion of the assessment, each participant immediately gets a personalized report on the strengths of their collaboration, the challenges, and what to do about it. We get the data, and they get the help. These two threads point to making a difference, having broader impact.
   In this talk I will review some ways we can have an impact, both directly to people, through design practice (our clinicians), and via a myriad of other tools while doing good research. I encourage us all to spend more energy on having more direct effects on the world in which we live.
Science, technology and society revisited: what is happening to anthropology and ethnography? BIBAFull-Text 5-6
  Marietta L. Baba
Anthropologists and ethnographers have been important contributors to the field of computer-supported cooperative work, with many insights and attendant innovations derived from this partnership. More recently, the discipline of anthropology has taken a critical turn, one of the consequences being doubts regarding anthropology's relationship with science (as in "...the most humanistic of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities.") A shift in stance from one that sought the classical position of the empirical scientist and/or the humanistic interpreter ("verstehen") to another that is more deliberately and self-consciously critical has potential implications for the position of technology in ethnographic field studies, both as a human tool and as a subject of inquiry. The evolution of the social sciences increasingly will be influenced by the availability of and access to massive amounts of digital information, and new types of technology for its collection and analysis. How anthropology and ethnography engage with this new world of digital information remains an open question. Regardless, they will face competitive challenges in the marketplace. The shifting currents that surround changes we are witnessing in anthropology and ethnography will be placed in a historical and social context, and implications for their future prospects will be explored.

Social media in war and crisis

(How) will the revolution be retweeted?: information diffusion and the 2011 Egyptian uprising BIBAFull-Text 7-16
  Kate Starbird; Leysia Palen
This paper examines microblogging information diffusion activity during the 2011 Egyptian political uprisings. Specifically, we examine the use of the retweet mechanism on Twitter, using empirical evidence of information propagation to reveal aspects of work that the crowd conducts. Analysis of the widespread contagion of a popular meme reveals interaction between those who were "on the ground" in Cairo and those who were not. However, differences between information that appeals to the larger crowd and those who were doing on-the-ground work reveal important interplay between the two realms. Through both qualitative and statistical description, we show how the crowd expresses solidarity and does the work of information processing through recommendation and filtering. We discuss how these aspects of work mutually sustain crowd interaction in a politically sensitive context. In addition, we show how features of this retweet-recommendation behavior could be used in combination with other indicators to identify information that is new and likely coming from the ground.
The Egyptian blogosphere: a counter-narrative of the revolution BIBAFull-Text 17-26
  Ban Al-Ani; Gloria Mark; Justin Chung; Jennifer Jones
In this paper we investigate the role blogs played within the context of the Egyptian revolution of early 2011 using blog data authored between 2004-2011. We conducted topic modeling analysis to gain a longitudinal view of the interaction of societal, personal and revolutionary blog topics over this period. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of blog posts during the period that bracketed the political uprising revealed Egyptian bloggers' concerns. Reporting events and supplying commentary provided bloggers with a means to voice dissent against institutionalized power represented by the government-controlled media. In short, blogs reveal a counter-narrative to the government-supplied version of events in Egypt during the 18-day uprising. These narratives offer rich documentation of how blogs, and perhaps social media more generally, can be utilized by individuals operating under repressive conditions.
'Facebooking' towards crisis recovery and beyond: disruption as an opportunity BIBAFull-Text 27-36
  Bryan Semaan; Gloria Mark
This paper reports on an ethnographic study of Facebook use amongst a population living through ongoing disruption. We interviewed 45 Iraqi citizens, as well as received survey responses from 218 individuals, who have been experiencing the current Gulf War since March 2003. We show how people in a society experiencing conflict use Facebook in ways that are different to uses in non-war societies. We find that Facebook supports people living in crisis environments at two levels. First, Facebook aids people directly to recover from disruption. People used Facebook to create "safe lists", to seek help and provide assistance, and to re-construct their social scaffolding. But at a deeper level, citizens also used Facebook to maintain and develop new social norms, and to re-direct their country. We discuss how disruption can serve as an opportunity by which people can re-invent their societies and how our understandings of Facebook should evolve.
Blogs as a collective war diary BIBAFull-Text 37-46
  Gloria Mark; Mossaab Bagdouri; Leysia Palen; James Martin; Ban Al-Ani; Kenneth Anderson
Disaster-related research in human-centered computing has typically focused on the shorter-term, emergency period of a disaster event, whereas effects of some crises are long-term, lasting years. Social media archived on the Internet provides researchers the opportunity to examine societal reactions to a disaster over time. In this paper we examine how blogs written during a protracted conflict might reflect a collective view of the event. The sheer amount of data originating from the Internet about a significant event poses a challenge to researchers; we employ topic modeling and pronoun analysis as methods to analyze such large-scale data. First, we discovered that blog war topics temporally tracked the actual, measurable violence in the society suggesting that blog content can be an indicator of the health or state of the affected population. We also found that people exhibited a collective identity when they blogged about war, as evidenced by a higher use of first-person plural pronouns compared to blogging on other topics. Blogging about daily life decreased as violence in the society increased; when violence waned, there was a resurgence of daily life topics, potentially illustrating how a society returns to normalcy.

Social media in crisis and culture

"Beacons of hope" in decentralized coordination: learning from on-the-ground medical twitterers during the 2010 Haiti earthquake BIBAFull-Text 47-56
  Aleksandra Sarcevic; Leysia Palen; Joanne White; Kate Starbird; Mossaab Bagdouri; Kenneth Anderson
We examine the public, social media communications of 110 emergency medical response teams and organizations in the immediate aftermath of the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake. We found the teams through an inductive analysis of Twitter communications acquired over the three-week emergency period from 89,114 Twitterers. We then analyzed the teams' Twitter streams, as well as all digital media they generated and pointed to in their streams -- blog posts, photographs, videos, status updates and field reports -- to understand the medical coordination challenges they faced from pre-deployment readiness to on-the-ground action. Here we identify opportunities for improving coordination in a decentralized and distributed environment where staffing, disease trajectories, and other circumstances rapidly change. We extrapolate from these findings to theorize about how "beaconing" behavior is a sign of latent potential for coordination upon which mechanisms of coordination can capitalize.
Relief work after the 2010 Haiti earthquake: leadership in an online resource coordination network BIBAFull-Text 57-66
  Sean Goggins; Christopher Mascaro; Stephanie Mascaro
The US Navy directed its vast resources at the relief effort following the Haiti Earthquake on January 12, 2010. To coordinate with non-governmental-organizations (NGOs) participating in the relief effort, the US Navy used an online discussion forum. What follows is an examination of the emergence, rise, on-the-ground utility and decline of this "walled-garden" style discussion forum. Our findings show that most site activity is broadcast oriented and does not result in discussion, but in the small percentage of cases where discussion emerges, participants are focused on the exchange of medical, Global Information Systems (GIS) and equipment on the ground oriented information. We show how activity on the discussion forum changes over time, and corresponds with events on the ground in Haiti. Four archetypical users are profiled to demonstrate how invisible brokerage style leadership, identified through grounded theory analysis of posts, can be made visible through network analysis of interaction traces. Our findings have implications for the use of forum style, "walled garden" technology for coordination and information sharing in future crises.
How and to whom people share: the role of culture in self-disclosure in online communities BIBAFull-Text 67-76
  Chen Zhao; Pamela Hinds; Ge Gao
The global expansion of the use of online communities, including social networking sites, necessitates a better understanding of how people self-disclose online, particularly in different cultures. In a scenario-based study of 1,064 respondents from the United States and China, we aimed to understand how self-disclosure is affected by communication mode (face-to-face vs. online), type of relationship and national culture. Our findings show that national culture interacts with communication mode and type of relationship to affect the extent of self-disclosure. Our analysis also suggests that peoples' disclosure depends on characteristics of the relationship, e.g., closeness and openness. Our results shed new light on how online communities might be designed for users in different cultures and for intercultural collaboration.
Cultural appropriation: information technologies as sites of transnational imagination BIBAFull-Text 77-86
  Silvia Lindtner; Ken Anderson; Paul Dourish
The diverse ways in which technologies are modified and appropriated into local contexts are an important theme in CSCW research. Today, translocal processes such as the formation of international corporations and the movement of people and ideas across nation states increasingly shape these local contexts of technology use and design. We draw from prior work on appropriation in CSCW and meld it with work from transnational studies to illustrate appropriation as a cultural phenomenon and as it unfolds in relation to emerging translocal processes. We ground our explorations in findings from ethnographic research on collaborations and exchange among IT professionals in urban China. This work makes two main contributions. First, it expands CSCW's focus on socio-technical systems by taking seriously socio-political and socio-economic processes. Second, it contributes to debates on cross-cultural and global technological development by employing transnational imagination as an analytical tool.

Across the globe: cross-cultural studies

"This is how we do it in my country": a study of computer-mediated family communication among Kenyan migrants in the united states BIBAFull-Text 87-96
  Susan P. Wyche; Rebecca E. Grinter
Although computer-mediated family communication remains a longstanding focus of study in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), families who face challenges in communication due to differences in technology infrastructures remain understudied. To address this gap in the literature, we interviewed 39 Kenyan migrants living in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. who regularly communicate with friends and family members living in their homeland. The contributions of this work are primarily empirical. Findings from our study reveal how high costs, identity management, and infrastructural differences between rural and urban areas in Kenya, impact decisions families and their extended members make when using information and communication technology (ICT). We present design implications and reflect on how understanding Kenyan migrants' ICT practices can positively influence design for the broader population.
Adapting collaborative radiological practice to low-resource environments BIBAFull-Text 97-106
  Beth E. Kolko; Alexis Hope; Waylon Brunette; Karen Saville; Wayne Gerard; Michael Kawooya; Robert Nathan
We describe how current radiological best practices are predicated on a sophisticated technological ecosystem usually comprised of multiple large-scale displays, and integrated record keeping and communication systems driven by high-speed networks. At the same time, current development of low-cost ultrasound (U/S) devices for low-resource settings trends towards small-scale, independent devices with palm-sized screens. We reviewed existing literature, analyzed findings from two years of fieldwork in Uganda, and conducted an interview study with clinicians about radiology work practices to determine which patterns and technologies contribute to the efficacy of ultrasound. We use these findings to inform how ultrasound technology in low-resource settings can most usefully be developed and deployed. In addition, findings are relevant for creating medical technologies for low-resource environments generally, as we make clear the importance of considering not just technology development aspects like power consumption and interface, but also larger technology and work ecosystems.
Repair worlds: maintenance, repair, and ICT for development in rural Namibia BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Steven J. Jackson; Alex Pompe; Gabriel Krieshok
This paper explores the nature and centrality of maintenance and repair ('M&R') work in the extension and sustainability of ICT infrastructure in the global South. Drawing from pragmatist traditions in CSCW and the social sciences at large, we develop a concept of 'repair worlds' intended to map the varieties and effects of such maintenance and repair activities. Empirically, our analysis builds on ethnographic fieldwork into local practices of maintenance and repair that have accompanied and supported the extension of mobile phone and computing infrastructure in the Kavango region of northeastern Namibia.
How did you feel during our conversation?: retrospective analysis of intercultural and same-culture instant messaging conversations BIBAFull-Text 117-126
  Duyen T. Nguyen; Susan R. Fussell
Research has shown that intercultural communication can be more problematic than same-culture communication. In this study we use a technique called retrospective analysis in order to examine these problems in greater detail. American and Chinese participants discussed a crime story with either an American or a Chinese partner using Instant Messaging (IM). After the session, each participant reviewed the IM conversation in two-minute segments and rated it on several dimensions. Chinese participants reported significantly more problems than American participants, and partner culture affected all participants' feelings of annoyance. An analysis of the communication problems participants reported showed four themes: mismatched communication styles, differences in conversational focus, relationship-building issues, and problems with the IM medium. The results show how differences in communication styles can affect intercultural conversations and provide design suggestions for new tools to improve intercultural collaboration.

Ethnography in the very wild

Supporting traditional music-making: designing for situated discretion BIBAFull-Text 127-136
  Steve Benford; Peter Tolmie; Ahmed Y. Ahmed; Andy Crabtree; Tom Rodden
An ethnographic study of Irish music sessions in pubs elaborates the collaborative work involved in making traditional music. Central to this distinctive achievement is the sequencing of tunes so that they hang together and combine to form discrete "sets", which rely on a shared knowledge of musical repertoires. Our study shows how musicians develop this musical knowledge through the use of digital resources and social networks. It also reveals how musicians construct and make use of various paper props to help bring their knowledge to bear in the actual in vivo course of a session so as to maintain the moral order of making music together in a demonstrably traditional way. The social demands of musical "etiquette" sensitise CSCW to the need to design technologies to support the "situated discretion" that is essential to traditional practices. We elaborate this notion through a discussion of requirements for technologies that bridge between online resources and the collaborative sequencing of tunes during performance.
A gift from the city: mobile phones in rural China BIBAFull-Text 137-146
  Elisa Oreglia; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
In rural Northern China, many people own a mobile phone without ever having purchased it: they received it as a gift from better off relatives, usually their migrant children. Drawing from ethnographic field work in three Chinese villages, we describe practices of mobile phone gifting and the social relations that underlie them, as well as the consequences of the circulation of mobile phones, from the change of use that happens when they move from an urban environment to the countryside, to the possibilities that they open up or close out for rural users. We conclude with implications for technology design that emphasize the situated nature of these experiences and thoughtful approaches to the design of 'traveling' mobiles.
The joy of cheques: trust, paper and eighty somethings BIBAFull-Text 147-156
  John Vines; Paul Dunphy; Mark Blythe; Stephen Lindsay; Andrew Monk; Patrick Olivier
A cheque is a paper document that orders the transfer of money between bank accounts. Whilst an eighty-year-old in the UK is predicted on average to live at least another ten years, cheques may not. Despite many older peoples extensive use of cheques, UK banks are eager to abolish them and design electronic alternatives that are less costly to process and less vulnerable to fraud. This paper reports on two qualitative studies that explored the banking experiences of 23 people over eighty years old. Cheques support financial collaboration with others in ways that digital payment systems do not. We argue that whilst it might be possible to improve the design of digital payment systems to better support financial collaboration, the case for retaining and enhancing cheques is stronger. Rather than replace cheques, we must design ways of making them less costly to process and better linked to electronic payment methods.
Practices of information and secrecy in a punk rock subculture BIBAFull-Text 157-166
  Jessica Lingel; Aaron Trammell; Joe Sanchez; Mor Naaman
By examining the information practices of a punk-rock subculture, we investigate the limits of social media systems, particularly limits exposed by practices of secrecy. Looking at the exchange of information about "underground" shows, we use qualitative interviews to examine uses of social media among fans. This initial analysis centers on understanding the tactical practices of information and technology to avoid police detection, particularly by comparing uses of more traditional online forums, such as message boards, with social network sites, such as Facebook. Understanding the uses and preferences for distinct technologies sheds light on how localized social context drives technological use. These findings are furthermore useful in their implications for design of applications sensitive to granular needs of users for secrecy.

Collaboration in the wild

One piece at a time: why video-based communication is better for negotiation and conflict resolution BIBAFull-Text 167-176
  Wei Dong; Wai-Tat Fu
We compared the effects of three computer mediated communication (CMC) channels (text, audio, and video) on how people performed an appointment-scheduling task. The task involved a grounding and a conflict resolution component. The results showed that video conferencing supported participant dyads in reaching a consensus that had better balanced performance between the dyads only when task difficulty was high and when there were more inherent conflicts in the task. Participants across the three CMC conditions also demonstrated different patterns of conversation dynamics during information exchange and negotiation. Mediation analysis showed that in video-based communication, strategies of exchanging less information at a time predicted higher levels of negotiation, which in turn predicted smaller performance differences in high conflict conditions. The results suggested that the design and use of communication technologies for remote conflict resolution should promote the strategy of exchanging information in small pieces, which could better support subsequent negotiation and foster a sense of fairness.
Hospital robot at work: something alien or an intelligent colleague? BIBAFull-Text 177-186
  Sara Ljungblad; Jirina Kotrbova; Mattias Jacobsson; Henriette Cramer; Karol Niechwiadowicz
This paper describes a case study of the initial reactions to a transport robot running in a semi-public hospital environment. The robot was transporting goods and samples for an orthopedic department, moving within and between different departments for 13 days, and was used by the staff for five days. Based on this case, we discuss how the robot was perceived by staff and visitors and purpose an initial framework, a utopian model, describing four different perspectives; an alien, a machine, a worker and as a work partner. This has been derived from interviews, questionnaires and observation, and exemplifies different qualities that the robot was ascribed. We discuss how the perspectives may mutually co-exist and change, and are affected by time and familiarity with the robot at work.
Psychology of user experience in a collaborative video-conference system BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Takashi Yamauchi; Takehiko Ohno; Momoko Nakatani; Yoichi Kato; Arthur Markman
The authors employ behavioral theories of human motivation and affect and present an explanation for why some CSCW experience is satisfying and engaging for a user. In a longitudinal experiment, participants were divided into four groups and solved two open-ended problems together using a video-conference system. Traditional metrics of usability and product acceptance were examined with respect to psychological variables such as personality, background knowledge, mindsets (i.e., implicit beliefs) and feelings toward group members. The results show that group-level mutual affect and implicit beliefs on one's ability (e.g., whether intelligence is fixed or malleable) are strong predictors of system usability and acceptability judgments. It is proposed that evaluating one's experience with a CSCW system is a meaning-making process and that the variables that modulate this process also influence subjective judgments of usability and acceptability of a complex collaborative system.
Recognizing team context during simulated missions BIBAFull-Text 197-206
  Steven Poltrock; Mark J. Handel; Stephen R. Poteet; Paul Murray
We investigated ways to automatically analyze movement and verbal behavior of teams of soldiers engaged in simulated military missions. Analysis of location data revealed that soldiers' locations were consistent with 3 stationary patterns and 2 movement patterns. Analysis of their dialogue detected statistical regularities. An automated text classifier was developed that employed these regularities to code dialogue utterances. These analyses demonstrate the feasibility of interpreting collaborative activity automatically and constructing models of team context for teams of soldiers engaged in trained activities.

Civic and community engagement

Participation in an online mathematics community: differentiating motivations to add BIBAFull-Text 207-216
  Yla R. Tausczik; James W. Pennebaker
Why do people contribute content to communities of question-answering, such as Yahoo! Answers? We investigated this issue on MathOverflow, a site dedicated to research-level mathematics, in which users ask and answer questions. MathOverflow is the first in a growing number of specialized Q&A sites using the Stack Exchange platform for scientific collaboration. In this study we combine responses to a survey with collected data on posting behavior on the site. User behavior suggests that building reputation is an important incentive, even though users do not report this in the survey. Level of expertise affects users' reported motivation to help others, but does not affect the importance of reputation building. We discuss the implications for the design of communities to target and encourage more contributions.
Dynamic changes in motivation in collaborative citizen-science projects BIBAFull-Text 217-226
  Dana Rotman; Jenny Preece; Jen Hammock; Kezee Procita; Derek Hansen; Cynthia Parr; Darcy Lewis; David Jacobs
Online citizen science projects engage volunteers in collecting, analyzing, and curating scientific data. Existing projects have demonstrated the value of using volunteers to collect data, but few projects have reached the full collaborative potential of scientists and volunteers. Understanding the shared and unique motivations of these two groups can help designers establish the technical and social infrastructures needed to promote effective partnerships. We present findings from a study of the motivational factors affecting participation in ecological citizen science projects. We show that volunteers are motivated by a complex framework of factors that dynamically change throughout their cycle of work on scientific projects; this motivational framework is strongly affected by personal interests as well as external factors such as attribution and acknowledgment. Identifying the pivotal points of motivational shift and addressing them in the design of citizen-science systems will facilitate improved collaboration between scientists and volunteers.
Engaging new digital locals with interactive urban screens to collaboratively improve the city BIBAFull-Text 227-236
  Ronald Schroeter
Local governments struggle to engage time poor and seemingly apathetic citizens, as well as the city's young digital natives, the digital locals. This project aims at providing a lightweight, technological contribution towards removing the hierarchy between those who build the city and those who use it. We aim to narrow this gap by enhancing people's experience of physical spaces with digital, civic technologies that are directly accessible within that space. This paper presents the findings of a design trial allowing users to interact with a public screen via their mobile phones. The screen facilitated a feedback platform about a concrete urban planning project by promoting specific questions and encouraging direct, in-situ, real-time responses via SMS and twitter. This new mechanism offers additional benefits for civic participation as it gives voice to residents who otherwise would not be heard. It also promotes a positive attitude towards local governments and gathers information different from more traditional public engagement tools.
Between us and them: building connectedness within civic networks BIBAFull-Text 237-240
  Jennifer Stoll; W. Keith Edwards; Kirsten A. Foot
Civic networks of community-based organizations face significant challenges in working together to combat issues facing their community (e.g., gang violence, sex trafficking). In our research, we examined how local organizations tried to build and maintain connectedness over time as a network to fight child sex trafficking. We sought to understand how technology supports the social processes of connectedness in this context. Based on our analysis of the field data from this case study, we identify three categories of activities for building and maintaining connectedness. We also find that while different technologies are suited towards supporting different aspects of connectedness, there may be gaps in how adequately social media tools support connectedness in civic networks.

Community and classification online

Unfolding the event landscape on twitter: classification and exploration of user categories BIBAFull-Text 241-244
  Munmun De Choudhury; Nicholas Diakopoulos; Mor Naaman
Social media platforms such as Twitter garner significant attention from very large audiences in response to real-world events. Automatically establishing who is participating in information production or conversation around events can improve event content consumption, help expose the stakeholders in the event and their varied interests, and even help steer subsequent coverage of an event by journalists. In this paper, we take initial steps towards building an automatic classifier for user types on Twitter, focusing on three core user categories that are reflective of the information production and consumption processes around events: organizations, journalists/media bloggers, and ordinary individuals. Exploration of the user categories on a range of events shows distinctive characteristics in terms of the proportion of each user type, as well as differences in the nature of content each shared around the events.
Fresh faces in the crowd: turnover, identity, and commitment in online groups BIBAFull-Text 245-248
  Laura Dabbish; Rosta Farzan; Robert Kraut; Tom Postmes
Turnover is commonplace in many online groups because of low barriers of entry and exit. In offline settings, turnover can have a negative impact because of reduced attachment to the group as an entity. However, in an online setting, turnover in terms of changes in the visible membership of a group may have a very different impact. Online only a limited amount of information about members and their activities is observable; in particular, it is easier to see the behavior of the subset of members who are active than the potentially larger set who are not. In this paper, we describe an experiment examining the influence of visible membership turnover on commitment to an online group. Our results suggest that increased turnover in an online group may increase social presence, creating perceptions of liveness, in turn leading to increased levels of participation in the group. However, this result holds primarily for groups with a common identity, suggesting that attention to behavior of others may be stronger when people share an identity with those others. Our results extend understandings of attachment in an online setting as well as theory about social tuning.
We don't need no stinkin' badges: examining the social role of badges in the Huffington Post BIBAFull-Text 249-252
  Julie Jones; Nathan Altadonna
News sites commonly allow users to post comments under each article, but, until recently, did little more than allow these social spaces on their sites. The Huffington Post took a pro-active stance when they introduced badges that award users for the frequency of their posting behaviors. Both social role and network theories posit that groups create their own normative structures when left to grow organically. However, badges may be symbolic of hierarchical control since they are defined, determined, and awarded by the organization rather than from the group itself. This study is a first step in examining the relationship between badges and group behavior within threads. As active members of the group, badge owners may be serving the role of discussion catalysts [1]. If so, then threads started by badge owners should be longer than for non-badge owners. Preferential attachment posits that highly connected users are "richer" in the social network [2]. Thus, threads started by badge owners may draw in more badge owners to the discussion. If badges have no influence on thread characteristics, then what does? Findings suggest that badges at the thread start do not generate longer threads but rather the type of news story does. Furthermore, some of the most popular commenters were not badge owners despite the overwhelming number of fans they had attracted. This study takes a first look at how parameters set by news organizations are accepted, or rejected, by online communities.
Lurking as personal trait or situational disposition: lurking and contributing in enterprise social media BIBAFull-Text 253-256
  Michael Muller
We examine patterns of participation by employees who are members of multiple online communities in an enterprise communities service. Our analysis focuses on statistical patterns of contributing vs. "lurking". The majority of contributors (in one or more communities) were also lurkers (in one or more other communities). These results argue against hypotheses derived from common theories of participation and lurking. We propose that contributing and lurking are partially dependent on a trait (a person's overall engagement), modified by the individual's disposition toward a particular topic, work task or social group. Contributions include critique of theory, an analytic framework, and implications for design of community services.
Question temporality: identification and uses BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  Aditya Pal; James Margatan; Joseph Konstan
In this paper, we introduce the concept of question temporality as a measure of the usefulness of the answers provided on the questions asked in the Question Answering sites (QA). We define question temporality based on when the answers provided on the questions would expire. We use classification methods to show that the question temporality can be assessed automatically. Our regression analysis highlights features that predict temporality of the questions. Our research can be instructive for interface designers to design temporality-aware interfaces and influence selection of questions and answers for display.
Bootstrapping wikis: developing critical mass in a fledgling community by seeding content BIBAFull-Text 261-264
  Jacob Solomon; Rick Wash
Online communities depend on content contributed by their members. However, new communities have not yet achieved critical mass and are vulnerable to inadequate contribution. To encourage contribution, many fledgling communities seed the site with data from 3rd parties. We study the effectiveness of such seeding by looking at how people react to different types of seeded content. We found that people make larger contributions when there is no seeded content. But when there is seeded content, users learn from that content and contribute similar types of content. Therefore, if websites prefer specific types of contributions, seeding that type of contribution can be a valuable way to elicit appropriate contributions.

Public communities online

Supporting reflective public thought with ConsiderIt BIBAFull-Text 265-274
  Travis Kriplean; Jonathan Morgan; Deen Freelon; Alan Borning; Lance Bennett
We present a novel platform for supporting public deliberation on difficult decisions. ConsiderIt guides people to reflect on tradeoffs and the perspectives of others by framing interactions around pro/con points that participants create, adopt, and share. ConsiderIt surfaces the most salient pros and cons overall, while also enabling users to drill down into the key points for different groups. We deployed ConsiderIt in a contentious U.S. state election, inviting residents to deliberate on nine ballot measures. We discuss ConsiderIt's affordances and limitations, enriched with empirical data from this deployment. We show that users often engaged in normatively desirable activities, such as crafting positions that recognize both pros and cons, as well as points written by people who do not agree with them.
Barter: mechanism design for a market incented wisdom exchange BIBAFull-Text 275-284
  Dawei Shen; Marshall Van Alstyne; Andrew Lippman; Hind Benbya
Information markets benefit the communities they serve by facilitating electronic distributed exchange and enhancing knowledge sharing, innovation, and productivity. This research explores innovative market mechanisms to build incentives while encouraging pro-social behavior. A key advantage of this study is a direct appeal to theories of information economics and macro policies to market design. We built and deployed a web-based software platform called Barter at several universities. Preliminary analysis of user data helps test information market effectiveness and illustrate effects of various market interventions. We present our design framework, demonstrate why such an architecture provides sustainable incentives, and list key findings learned in the process of system deployment.
Puget sound off: fostering youth civic engagement through citizen journalism BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Shelly Farnham; David Keyes; Vicky Yuki; Chris Tugwell
Social media technologies provide unique channels to empower youth to become more civically engaged. Puget Sound Off is an online blogging and networking site focused on helping youth connect, collaborate, and take action around local community issues. We performed an evaluation study seeking lessons learned from a real world deployment. We found that a core group of youth became highly engaged with Puget Sound Off, and that both usage and identification with the community was positively correlated with civic engagement. Youth reported an appreciation for the opportunity for meaningful discussion around issues that mattered to them. We found however that growth of Puget Sound Off was slow, in part due to the constraints of deploying to youth in a real world context with concerns about inappropriate use. We end with recommendations for fostering growth and civic engagement in related social media technologies.
What do you think?: a case study of benefit, expectation, and interaction in a large online critique community BIBAFull-Text 295-304
  Anbang Xu; Brian Bailey
Critique is an indispensible part of creative work and many online communities have formed for this shared purpose. As design choices within the communities can impact the effectiveness of the critiques produced, it is important to study these communities and offer guidance for decisions. In this paper, we report the results of a case study exploring one large online community dedicated to critique in the domain of digital photography. We analyzed a large corpus of interaction data to understand the benefit of participation, the response dynamics, factors predicting critique ratings, and patterns of reciprocal interaction. Interviews with users were also conducted to uncover motives for participation and expectations of the critiques within the community. The results and insights gained from this work were distilled into recommendations for improving the design of systems that support community-based critique of creative artifacts.

Forums online

Learning the lingo?: gender, prestige and linguistic adaptation in review communities BIBAFull-Text 305-314
  Libby Hemphill; Jahna Otterbacher
Women and men communicate differently in both face-to-face and computer-mediated environments. We study linguistic patterns considered gendered in reviews contributed to the Internet Movie Database. IMDb has been described as a male-majority community, in which females contribute fewer reviews and enjoy less prestige than males. Analyzing reviews posted by prolific males and females, we hypothesize that females adjust their communication styles to be in sync with their male counterparts. We find evidence that while certain characteristics of "female language" persevere over time (e.g., frequent use of pronouns) others (e.g., hedging) decrease with time. Surprisingly, we also find that males often increase their use of "female" features. Our results indicate, that even when they resemble men's reviews linguistically, women's reviews still enjoy less prestige and smaller audiences.
Your space or mine?: community management and user participation in a Chinese corporate blogging community BIBAFull-Text 315-324
  Qinying Liao; Yingxin Pan; Michelle X. Zhou; Tingting Gan
In this paper, we present a case study of MoCo Blogs, a publicly accessible, corporate blogging site, which is hosted by a large telecommunication company in China. We study the design and operation of the site from two aspects: (1) how community owners/administrators guide and coordinate blogger activities to meet the company's business goals; and (2) how participants respond to management guidance and act on their own incentives. Through the analysis of three data sources: 17-month activity logs with 1,046 bloggers and 10,291 blog entries, 4-month online participatory observation, and in-depth interviews, we present two key findings. First, we describe three key operational strategies employed by the site administrative team to encourage user contributions and manage content across the organizational boundaries. Second, we examine how these strategies directly influence user participation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings on an organization's roles in corporate social communities.
Socializing volunteers in an online community: a field experiment BIBAFull-Text 325-334
  Rosta Farzan; Robert Kraut; Aditya Pal; Joseph Konstan
Although many off-line organizations give their employees training, mentorship, a cohort and other socialization experiences that improve their retention and productivity, online production communities rarely do this. This paper describes the planning, execution and evaluation of a socialization regime for an online technical support community. In a two-phase project, we first automatically identified from participants' early behavior, those with high potential to become core members. We then designed, delivered and experimentally evaluated socialization experiences intended to build commitment and competence among these potential core members. We were able to identify potential core members with high accuracy from only two weeks of behavior. A year later, those classified as potential core members participated in the community ten times more actively than those not identified. In an evaluation experiment, some potential core members were randomly assigned to receive socialization experiences, while others were not. A year later, those who had participated in the socialization regime contributed more answers in the community compared to those in the control condition. The socialization experiences, however, undercut their sense of connection to the community and the quality of their contributions. We discuss what was effective and what could be improved in designing socialization experiences for online groups.
Diagnostic work in cloud computing: discussion forums, community and troubleshooting BIBAFull-Text 335-338
  John Rooksby; Ali Khajeh-Hosseini
As systems scale, systems management often becomes partially reliant on web forums and other social media. This paper examines the use of web forums for diagnostic work in cloud computing. We argue that forums are not simply used to communicate information but that (with users attempting to negotiate and manage the attention of providers, forming coalitions, criticizing others, and framing problems in particular ways) forums are socially organised, value laden venues for information. We conclude that providers should focus not on improving communication, but more broadly on managing community.

Online disclosure

In case you missed it: benefits of attendee-shared annotations for non-attendees of remote meetings BIBAFull-Text 339-348
  Mukesh Nathan; Mercan Topkara; Jennifer Lai; Shimei Pan; Steven Wood; Jeff Boston; Loren Terveen
Corporate meetings are increasingly being held remotely using web technologies. With such remote meetings being recorded and made available after the fact, there is a pressing need for tools to access and utilize these recordings efficiently. Our work explores the utility of using annotations generated by meeting attendees to meet this need. We conducted a controlled lab study to evaluate the benefits of sharing annotations. Attendee-created annotations were shared with non-attendees to assist them on typical information retrieval tasks. Results indicate that (a) non-attendees given access to shared annotations performed about as well as attendees provided with their own and shared annotations, (b) non-attendees were more confident in their responses when they used shared annotations as access cues into the recording than when they directly skimmed the video, and (c) attendees utilized shared annotations more than their own, with similar success and confidence as using their own annotations.
Markup as you talk: establishing effective memory cues while still contributing to a meeting BIBAFull-Text 349-358
  Steve Whittaker; Vaiva Kalnikaité; Patrick Ehlen
Meeting participants can experience cognitive overload when they need both to verbally contribute to ongoing discussion while simultaneously creating notes to promote later recall of decisions made during the meeting. We designed two novel cuing tools to reduce the cognitive load associated with note-taking, thus improving verbal contributions in meetings. The tools combine real-time automatic speech recognition (ASR) with lightweight annotation to transform note-taking into a low overhead markup process. To create lightweight notes, users do not generate the notes' content themselves. Instead they simply highlight important phrases in a real-time ASR transcript (Highlighter tool), or press a button to indicate when they heard something important (Hotspots tool). We evaluated these markup tools against a traditional pen-and-paper baseline with 26 users. Hotspots was highly successful: compared with handwritten notes, it increased participants' conversational contributions and reduced their perception of overload in the meeting, while improving recall of the meeting two months later. Highlighter also improved recall without compromising conversational contributions, although users found it more demanding.
SketchComm: a tool to support rich and flexible asynchronous communication of early design ideas BIBAFull-Text 359-368
  Guang Li; Xiang Cao; Sergio Paolantonio; Feng Tian
When designers explain their early design ideas to others, they usually use face-to-face communication along with sketches. In practice, however, sometimes face-to-face meetings are not possible, and designers have to rely on asynchronous communication. Important contextual information that is available in face-to-face meetings often becomes missing in such asynchronous communications, which can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. To address this challenge, we present SketchComm: an enhanced tool to support rich and flexible asynchronous communication of early design ideas. The key of the system is to allow designers to capture and communicate important contextual information to the audience in addition to sketches. A user study with designers and audience demonstrated effectiveness of asynchronous early design communication using SketchComm.
Contents and contexts: disclosure perceptions on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 369-372
  Natalya N. Bazarova
Social network sites (SNSs) provide new forms of communication, in which people routinely share personal information with a large audience. The goal of this research is to examine how a public context in which disclosures are revealed influences receivers' impressions of disclosure and a discloser on SNSs. The results of the original study reported in this paper indicate that publicly shared disclosures were perceived as less intimate and less appropriate than privately shared disclosures on Facebook, and perceptions of disclosure appropriateness mediated the effects of public/private contexts on social attraction for a discloser. The results inform research on social outcomes associated with SNS's use, as well as design considerations for privacy- and disclosure-related behaviors in social media.

Scaling our everest: Wikipedia studies I

Technology-mediated contributions: editing behaviors among new Wikipedians BIBAFull-Text 373-382
  Judd Antin; Coye Cheshire; Oded Nov
The power-law distribution of participation characterizes a wide variety of technology-mediated social participation (TMSP) systems, and Wikipedia is no exception. A minority of active contributors does most of the work. While the existence of a core of highly active contributors is well documented, how those individuals came to be so active is less well understood. In this study we extend prior research on TMSP and Wikipedia by examining in detail the characteristics of the revisions that new contributors make. In particular we focus on new users who maintain a minimum level of sustained activity during their first six months. We use content analysis of individual revisions as well as other quantitative techniques to examine three research questions regarding the effect of early diversification of activity, nature vs. nurture, and associations with later administrative and organizational activity. We present analyses that address each of these questions, and conclude with implications for our understanding of the progression of participation on Wikipedia and other TMSP systems.
Conflict, criticism, or confidence: an empirical examination of the gender gap in wikipedia contributions BIBAFull-Text 383-392
  Benjamin Collier; Julia Bear
A recent survey of contributors to Wikipedia found that less than 15% of contributors are women. This gender contribution gap has received significant attention from both researchers and the media. A panel of researchers and practitioners has offered several insights and opinions as to why a gender gap exists in contributions despite gender anonymity online. The gender research literature suggests that the difference in contribution rates could be due to three factors: (1) the high levels of conflict in discussions, (2) dislike of critical environments, and (3) lack of confidence in editing other contributors' work. This paper examines these hypotheses regarding the existence of the gender gap in contribution by using data from an international survey of 176,192 readers, contributors, and former contributors to Wikipedia, including measures of demographics, education, motivation, and participation. Implications for improving the design and culture of online communities to be more gender inclusive are discussed.
What do you think?: the structuring of an online community as a collective-sensemaking process BIBAFull-Text 393-402
  Yiftach Nagar
I observe conversations that take place as Wikipedia members negotiate, construct, and interpret its policies. Logs of these conversations offer a rare perhaps unparalleled opportunity to track how individuals, as they try to make sense, engage others in social interacts that become a collective processes of sensemaking. I draw upon Weick's model of sensemaking as committed-interpretation, which I ground in a qualitative inquiry into policy discussion pages, in attempt to explain how structuration emerges as interpretations are negotiated, and then committed through conversation, and as they are reified in the policy. I argue that the wiki environment provides conditions that help commitments form, strengthen and diffuse, and that this, in turn, helps explain trends of stabilization observed in previous research. The proposed model may prove useful for understanding structurational processes in other large wiki communities, and potentially in other radically open organizations.
Classroom Wikipedia participation effects on future intentions to contribute BIBAFull-Text 403-406
  Paul Zube; Alcides Velasquez; Elif Ozkaya; Cliff Lampe; Jonathan Obar
One of the biggest challenges faced by social media sites like Wikipedia is how to motivate users to contribute content. Research continues to demonstrate that only a small percentage of users contribute to user-generated content sites. In this study we assess the results of a Wikimedia Foundation initiative, which had graduate and undergraduate students from 22 U.S. universities contribute content to Wikipedia articles as part of their coursework. 185 students were asked about their participation in the initiative and their intention to participate on Wikipedia in the future. Results suggest that intentions to continue contributing are influenced by the initial attitude towards the class, and the degree to which students perceived they were writing for a global audience.

Wikipedia studies II

Effectiveness of shared leadership in online communities BIBAFull-Text 407-416
  Haiyi Zhu; Robert Kraut; Aniket Kittur
Traditional research on leadership in online communities has consistently focused on the small set of people occupying leadership roles. In this paper, we use a model of shared leadership, which posits that leadership behaviors come from members at all levels, not simply from people in high-level leadership positions. Although every member can exhibit some leadership behavior, different types of leadership behavior performed by different types of leaders may not be equally effective. This paper investigates how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive and person-focused) and the legitimacy of the people who deliver them (people in formal leadership positions or not) influence the contributions that other participants make in the context of Wikipedia. After using propensity score matching to control for potential pre-existing differences among those who were and were not targets of leadership behaviors, we found that 1) leadership behaviors performed by members at all levels significantly influenced other members' motivation; 2) transactional leadership and person-focused leadership were effective in motivating others to contribute more, whereas aversive leadership decreased other contributors' motivations; and 3) legitimate leaders were in general more influential than regular peer leaders. We discuss the theoretical and practical implication of our work.
Coordination and beyond: social functions of groups in open content production BIBAFull-Text 417-426
  Andrea Forte; Niki Kittur; Vanessa Larco; Haiyi Zhu; Amy Bruckman; Robert E. Kraut
We report on a study of the English edition of Wikipedia in which we used a mixed methods approach to understand how nested organizational structures called WikiProjects support collaboration. We first conducted two rounds of interviews with a total of 20 Wikipedians to understand how WikiProjects function and what it's like to participate in them from the perspective of Wikipedia editors. We then used a quantitative approach to further explore interpretations that arose from the qualitative data. Our analysis of these data together demonstrates how WikiProjects not only help Wikipedians coordinate tasks and produce articles, but also support community members and small groups of editors in important ways such as: providing a place to find collaborators, socialize and network; protecting editors' work; and structuring opportunities to contribute.
Do editors or articles drive collaboration?: multilevel statistical network analysis of wikipedia coauthorship BIBAFull-Text 427-436
  Brian Keegan; Darren Gergle; Noshir Contractor
Prior scholarship on Wikipedia's collaboration processes has examined the properties of either editors or articles, but not the interactions between both. We analyze the coauthorship network of Wikipedia articles about breaking news demanding intense coordination and compare the properties of these articles and the editors who contribute to them to articles about contemporary and historical events. Using p*/ERGM methods to test a multi-level, multi-theoretical model, we identify how editors' attributes and editing patterns interact with articles' attributes and authorship history. Editors' attributes like prior experience have a stronger influence on collaboration patterns, but article attributes also play significant roles. Finally, we discuss the implications our findings and methods have for understanding the socio-material duality of collective intelligence systems beyond Wikipedia.
Learning from history: predicting reverted work at the word level in wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 437-440
  Jeffrey Rzeszotarski; Aniket Kittur
Wikipedia's remarkable success in aggregating millions of contributions can pose a challenge for current editors, whose hard work may be reverted unless they understand and follow established norms, policies, and decisions and avoid contentious or proscribed terms. We present a machine learning model for predicting whether a contribution will be reverted based on word level features. Unlike previous models relying on editor-level characteristics, our model can make accurate predictions based only on the words a contribution changes. A key advantage of the model is that it can provide feedback on not only whether a contribution is likely to be rejected, but also the particular words that are likely to be controversial, enabling new forms of intelligent interfaces and visualizations. We examine the performance of the model across a variety of Wikipedia articles.

Twitter and social transparency

Tweeting is believing?: understanding microblog credibility perceptions BIBAFull-Text 441-450
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Scott Counts; Asta Roseway; Aaron Hoff; Julia Schwarz
Twitter is now used to distribute substantive content such as breaking news, increasing the importance of assessing the credibility of tweets. As users increasingly access tweets through search, they have less information on which to base credibility judgments as compared to consuming content from direct social network connections. We present survey results regarding users' perceptions of tweet credibility. We find a disparity between features users consider relevant to credibility assessment and those currently revealed by search engines. We then conducted two experiments in which we systematically manipulated several features of tweets to assess their impact on credibility ratings. We show that users are poor judges of truthfulness based on content alone, and instead are influenced by heuristics such as user name when making credibility assessments. Based on these findings, we discuss strategies tweet authors can use to enhance their credibility with readers (and strategies astute readers should be aware of!). We propose design improvements for displaying social search results so as to better convey credibility.
Social transparency in networked information exchange: a theoretical framework BIBAFull-Text 451-460
  H. Colleen Stuart; Laura Dabbish; Sara Kiesler; Peter Kinnaird; Ruogu Kang
An emerging Internet trend is greater social transparency, such as the use of real names in social networking sites, feeds of friends' activities, traces of others' re-use of content, and visualizations of team interactions. Researchers lack a systematic way to conceptualize and evaluate social transparency. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for thinking about social transparency. This framework builds upon multiple streams of research, including prior work in CSCW on social translucence, awareness, and visual analytics, to describe three dimensions of online behavior that can be made transparent. Based on the framework, we consider the social inferences transparency supports and introduce a set of research questions about social transparency's implications for computer-supported collaborative work and information exchange.
Friends, Romans, countrymen: lend me your URLs. Using social chatter to personalize web search BIBAFull-Text 461-470
  Abhinay Nagpal; Sudheendra Hangal; Rifat Reza Joyee; Monica S. Lam
People often find useful content on the web via social media. However, it is difficult for users to aggregate the information and recommendations embedded in a torrent of social feeds like email and Twitter. At the same time, the ever-growing size of the web and attempts to spam commercial search engines make it a challenge for users to get search results relevant to their unique background and interests. To address this problem, we propose ways to let users mine their own social chatter and extract people, pages and sites of potential interest. This information can be used to effectively personalize their web search results. Our approach has the benefits of generating personalized and socially curated results, removing web spam and preserving user privacy.
   We have built a system called Slant to automatically mine a user's email and Twitter feeds and populate four personalized search indices that are used to augment regular web search. We evaluated these indices with users and found that the small slice of the web indexed using social chatter can produce results that are equally or better liked by users compared to personalized search by a commercial search engine. We find that user satisfaction with search results can be improved by combining the best results from multiple indices.
Who gives a tweet?: evaluating microblog content value BIBAFull-Text 471-474
  Paul André; Michael Bernstein; Kurt Luther
While microblog readers have a wide variety of reactions to the content they see, studies have tended to focus on extremes such as retweeting and unfollowing. To understand the broad continuum of reactions in-between, which are typically not shared publicly, we designed a website that collected the first large corpus of follower ratings on Twitter updates. Using our dataset of over 43,000 voluntary ratings, we find that nearly 36% of the rated tweets are worth reading, 25% are not, and 39% are middling. These results suggest that users tolerate a large amount of less-desired content in their feeds. We find that users value information sharing and random thoughts above me-oriented or presence updates. We also offer insight into evolving social norms, such as lack of context and misuse of @mentions and hashtags. We discuss implications for emerging practice and tool design.

On the road: mobile

Prescriptive persuasion and open-ended social awareness: expanding the design space of mobile health BIBAFull-Text 475-484
  Eric P. S. Baumer; Sherri Jean Katz; Jill E. Freeman; Phil Adams; Amy L. Gonzales; John Pollak; Daniela Retelny; Jeff Niederdeppe; Christine M. Olson; Geri K. Gay
Most mobile technology systems designed to encourage healthy decisions focus on prescriptive persuasion, telling the user either implicitly or explicitly what to do, as the primary means of improving health. However, other technically and socially viable options exist. Drawing on both relevant social theory and previous CSCW research, this paper suggests that open-ended social awareness, making users aware of both others' and their own decisions, may also serve as an effective central design principle for mobile health. To explore this approach, this paper presents analysis of qualitative data from two studies of such a system. Results suggest that open-endedness allowed users flexibility and freedom in defining what counts as health, and that the social aspects compounded both the positive and the occasionally negative impacts of this openness. The paper concludes with implications for the design and evaluation of research on mobile health technology, as well as suggestions for how future work can further explore the design space of mobile health beyond prescriptive persuasion.
Briefing news reporting with mobile assignments: perceptions, needs and challenges BIBAFull-Text 485-494
  Heli Väätäjä; Paul Egglestone
Mobile handheld devices are an increasing part of everyday fieldwork of news professionals. Mobile assignments delivered to mobile journalists' smartphones are one potential future development step. We present findings on using mobile assignments from two exploratory user studies in which smartphones were used as news reporting tools. Mobile assignments were perceived as handy for fast reporting situations and simple stories but challenging in case of more complex tasks. Structured information content of assignments, process phase based information and supporting situation and activity awareness would support the work of both editorial staff and mobile journalists. The locationing of reporters for sending location-based assignments was found acceptable for coordinating the work although some privacy concerns were expressed. The findings provide new information on using mobile assignments in work where carrying out tasks involves creativity and the tasks may be complex, not strictly limited or they may not have clear completion criteria.
Mixing metaphors in mobile remote presence BIBAFull-Text 495-504
  Leila Takayama; Janet Go
Metaphors for making sense of new communication technologies are important for setting user expectations about appropriate use of the technologies. When users do not share a common metaphorical model for using these technologies, interpersonal communication breakdowns can occur. Through a set of three 8-week-long field deployments and one ongoing observation in-house, we conducted contextual inquiries around the uses of a relatively new communication technology, a mobile remote presence (MRP) system. We observed many nonhuman-like metaphors (e.g., orienting toward the system as a robot, an object) and human-like metaphors (e.g., a person, or a person with disabilities). These metaphors influence people's expectations about social norms in using the systems. We found that there is a serious risk of creating interpersonal conflict when the metaphors are mismatched between people (e.g., locals use nonhuman-like metaphors when remote pilots use human-like metaphors). We explore the implications for understanding remote pilots' rights and responsibilities and present design guidelines for MRP systems that support geographically distributed groups.
HappyGo: a field trial of local group buying BIBAFull-Text 505-508
  Huanglingzi Liu; Wei Wang; Dong Liu; Hao Wang; Nan Du
Group buying is a business model where people with the same merchandise interests form a group and conduct the purchase together to achieve a discount. Third-party proxy websites negotiate with merchants for appealing deals and then provide them to end customers. We call it online group buying. Besides, there exists local group buying where the joiners, the initiator, and sometimes even the merchants are in the same local community. Such locality induces some interesting characteristics in group buying, which remain largely unexplored in the research community. This study attempts to reveal users' behaviors in group buying within the local context. We developed a mobile service called "HappyGo" that supports local group buying. We conducted a trial involving more than 300 users from a company office. From our findings, we believe that local group buying complements online group buying by creating a "local" economic circle while also providing users with social benefits.

Tabletop displays: from activity to activity theory

Culturally based design: embodying trans-surface interaction in rummy BIBAFull-Text 509-518
  Andruid Kerne; William A. Hamilton; Zachary O. Toups
We present culturally based design (CBD), a new paradigm for designing embodied natural user interaction (NUI) with digital information by drawing on customary ways that people use physical objects. CBD coalesces experiences, practices, and embodied mental models of pre-digital activities as a basis for the design of interactive systems. We apply CBD to address trans-surface interaction, the manipulation of information artifacts from one device to another. We develop Trans-Surface Rummy, because the game involves highly dynamic combinations of turn taking and non-linear out of turn play, while transferring information artifacts to and from private and social surfaces. Through the CBD process, we create the trans-surface wormhole, an embodied interface technique. We investigate the trans-surface wormhole's efficacy and other aspects of culturally based design with young students, and with elderly members of our local bridge club. We derive implications for the design of trans-surface interaction, and more broadly, from the process of CBD. We initiate a research agenda for trans-surface interaction.
Evaluating the effectiveness of height visualizations for improving gestural communication at distributed tabletops BIBAFull-Text 519-528
  Aaron Genest; Carl Gutwin
In co-located collaboration, people use the space above the table for deictic gestures, and height is an important part of these gestures. However, when collaborators work at distributed tables, we know little about how to convey information about gesture height. A few visualizations have been proposed, but these have not been evaluated in detail. To better understand how remote embodiments can show gesture height, we developed several visualizations and evaluated them in three studies. First, we show that touch visualizations significantly improve people's accuracy in identifying the type and target of a gesture. Second, we show that visualizations of height above the table help to convey gesture qualities such as confidence, emphasis, and specificity. Third, we show that people quickly make use of height visualizations in realistic collaborative tasks, and that height-enhanced embodiments are strongly preferred. Our work illustrates several designs for effective visualization of height, and provides the first comprehensive evidence of the value of height information as a way to improve gestural communication in distributed tabletop groupware.
A comparison of competitive and cooperative task performance using spherical and flat displays BIBAFull-Text 529-538
  John Bolton; Kibum Kim; Roel Vertegaal
While large flat vertical displays may facilitate persistent public sharing of work, they may do so at a cost of limited personal display space when everyone can see each other's activity. By contrast, new form factors, such as spherical displays, support sharing display space by limiting the user's view to at most one hemisphere. In this paper, we investigate how different interactive large display form factors can support differences in sharing of information during competitive and cooperative task conditions. We implemented three different large display types: spherical, flat, and a flat display with divider. Results show that task performance of the flat display with divider did not differ significantly from that of the spherical display. Additionally, we implemented and compared three peeking techniques that facilitated sharing of information. Results show participants peeked significantly more in competitive tasks than they did in cooperative tasks. Usage of peeking techniques between the spherical display and the flat display with divider were similar, and distinct from that of the flat display. Not surprisingly, results show that the affordance of easily glancing at a partner's work on the flat display provided a significant advantage in cooperative tasks.
A model for the design of interactive systems based on activity theory BIBAFull-Text 539-548
  Sebastian Döweling; Benedikt Schmidt; Andreas Göb
Activity theory has gained increasing popularity as a tool for the design of interactive systems. Its central idea is that user actions can only be fully understood when analyzed within the context of motive-driven activities. However, this context is currently only partially explicit in existing models; e.g. the well-known model by Engestrom promotes social aspects of context, but does not make the physical and technical environment -- relevant aspects for interactive systems design -- explicit. We present a model that incorporates the social, physical and technical context of activities. This model supports designers and developers in understanding users, their activities and the respective contexts, and allows deriving requirements for the design process directly from the model. We believe this will prove especially helpful when designing for novel devices and multi-user scenarios. We illustrate the practical use of our model with examples from two domains: composition of IT services and co-located collaborative modeling.

Social activity in games

"I'm just here to play games": social dynamics and sociality in an online game site BIBAFull-Text 549-558
  Lennart Nacke; Gregor McEwan; Carl Gutwin; Regan L. Mandryk
There are many web sites that allow people to play board or card games against other human players. These sites offer tools and opportunities for social interaction, but little is known about how people really interact on these sites. To learn more about social dynamics on game sites, we analysed three months of log files from a large site to explore three themes: permanence (whether people formed a long-term association with the site); social interaction (in terms of shared activity and verbal communication); and formation of ties (whether people made contacts with others). Our analyses showed that while the site seems very social when we consider gameplay, the population was highly transient, and people talked very little. To explain these behaviours, we suggest that games and game-based activity should be considered as a legitimate form of human interaction. Our analysis provides new information and new ways of thinking about how game environments can be designed to support many kinds of sociability.
Remix and play: lessons from rule variants in Texas Hold'em and Halo 2 BIBAFull-Text 559-568
  Gifford Cheung; Jeff Huang
Players can change the rules of a multi-person game to experience a different gameplay mechanic, add thematic color, or fine-tune its balance. To better understand game variants, we use a grounded approach to analyze 62 variants for Texas Hold'em, a popular card game, and a follow-up case-study of 91 variants of Halo 2, a popular video game. We study their development and examine whether lessons from Texas Hold'em apply to a constrained system such as Halo 2. We discover video gamers' reliance on 'honor rules', rules dependent on the cooperative spirit of its players. We develop a theory of 'necessity' in rule adoption, showing players' sensitivity to the impact of one change on the whole game. In solving game-design problems, adjustments drawn from a set of 'canned' rule changes address common problems with familiar solutions. We find a complex interplay between who can play and what rules are chosen. Our findings have implications for game designers and for variants in non-game contexts.
Communication channels and awareness cues in collocated collaborative time-critical gaming BIBAFull-Text 569-578
  Victor Cheung; Y.-L. Betty Chang; Stacey D. Scott
During collaborative gameplay players make use of various methods to become aware of the overall game status, develop strategies, and convey information to other players. Efficient and effective use of these methods is essential, especially during fast-paced time-critical collaborative games such as first-person shooters. This paper presents an observational study aimed to understand the communication channels and awareness cues used by players during gameplay to collaboratively achieve the game objectives. The study revealed that players utilize a variety of unconventional communication channels and awareness cues in both the physical and virtual environments to compensate for the inability to use commonly available collaborative human interaction mechanisms, such as eye gaze and gesturing, during gameplay. Players tended to use only auditory cues from their partner in the physical environment, while relying heavily on interacting with their partner through the virtual environment, using a variety of central and peripheral cues to maintain awareness during gameplay. Implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations for improving the quality of gameplay are provided.
Verbal coordination in first person shooter games BIBAFull-Text 579-582
  Anthony Tang; Jonathan Massey; Nelson Wong; Derek Reilly; W. Keith Edwards
We explore how expert First Person Shooter (FPS) players coordinate actions using a shared voice channel. Our findings emphasize the importance of the temporality and spatiality of these tactical verbal communications ("call-outs"). From here, we outline potential designs to mitigate problems in the production/interpretation of call-outs to better support coordination.

Games and virtual worlds

Infrastructural experiences: an empirical study of an online arcade game platform in China BIBAFull-Text 583-592
  Qi Wang; Xianghua Ding; Tun Lu; Huanhuan Xia; Ning Gu
This paper discusses issues of infrastructure and user experiences based on an empirical study of the online gaming platform ArcOnline in China. ArcOnline has allowed millions of users to play and watch arcade games over the Internet. What the study of ArcOnline helps bring to the fore are the infrastructural aspects of user experiences, mainly because the high demand for responsiveness and resources of arcade gaming has made infrastructures visible. In this paper, we present our findings of how the experience of playing arcade games changes with different socio-technical infrastructures, the arcade room and the online environment, highlighting how the form of the infrastructure shapes experience and collaboration, as well as how new social infrastructures are emerging through the interplay between the game, the platform, the community and the media ecology. We end by discussing the importance of considering infrastructure in understanding and designing new media experiences.
Metaphors for social relationships in 3d virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 593-602
  Gilly Leshed; Poppy Lauretta McLeod
A number of conceptual metaphors have been previously suggested for identity management, including, for example, theatre stage, onion layers, and identity segments. Based on an analysis of 30 in-depth interviews with Second Life residents, we examine the extent to which these metaphors can be used to explain experiences of social relationships in and across virtual and material worlds. The data suggest that these metaphors are relevant to social interactions in and across virtual and material environments: individuals perform on a stage to and with others, they gradually reveal layers of themselves, and they distinguish between segments of their identity in different social situations. At the same time, these metaphors do not explain all experiences, pointing to future research on virtual environments, social relationships, and identity management.
Come meet me at Ulduar: progression raiding in World of Warcraft BIBAFull-Text 603-612
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Jeffrey Nichols; Tyler Pace; Shaowen Bardzell
In spite of decades of research on virtual worlds, our understanding of one popular form of virtual world behavior -- raiding -- remains limited. Raiding is important because it entails intense, high-risk, and complex collaborative behaviors in computer-mediated environments. This paper contributes to CSCW literature by offering a longitudinal analysis of raiding behavior using system data manually collected from the game world itself, comparing two raiding teams as they worked through the same content. Supplemented with interviews and chat transcripts, this research sheds light on what actually happens during raids across four different temporal scales: seconds, hours, days, and months. It also distinguishes between behaviors that are imposed by the system design and those chosen by players. Finally, it derives two viable raiding styles from the data.
Designing online games for real-life relationships: examining QQ farm in intergenerational play BIBAFull-Text 613-616
  Yong Ming Kow; Jing Wen; Yunan Chen
Intergenerational players are online game players of different generations within an extended family. We investigated intergenerational play between older parents and their adult children in the popular Chinese social networking game QQ Farm. We identified game features that encourage intergenerational play. To do this, we conducted online observations and semi-structured interviews with nine pairs of Chinese parents and their adult children. The results of this study suggest that an online game for intergenerational play needs to consider a range of factors, including social and occupational responsibilities, gaming interests, and gaming expertise among extended family members. The data suggests that intergenerational online games may generally benefit from the following features: (1) low entry barrier, (2) appealing game theme, (3) online interactions that extend real-life relationships, (4) low time commitment, and (5) asynchronous play. We have also found features which may have unique appeal to Chinese intergenerational gamers.

Social connectedness: studies and systems

Integrating local and remote worlds through channel blending BIBAFull-Text 617-626
  Ellen Isaacs; Margaret Szymanski; Yutaka Yamauchi; James Glasnapp; Kyohei Iwamoto
Recent advances in ubiquitous technology have greatly changed the way people stay connected. We conducted an in-depth video shadowing study to observe how close-knit groups use all the technology at their disposal to stay in touch and share their lives. We observed a pattern of related behaviors that we call channel blending, the integration of interactions and content over multiple channels into one coherent conversation, often including both local and remote participants. Channel blending is the opposite of multitasking in that it involves merging many lines of focus into one, rather than switching attention between them. We discuss ways technology could better support this emerging style of multichannel content-sharing and communication.
Designing a social network to support the independence of young adults with autism BIBAFull-Text 627-636
  Hwajung Hong; Jennifer G. Kim; Gregory D. Abowd; Rosa I. Arriaga
Independence is key to a successful transition to adulthood for individuals with autism. Social support is a crucial factor for achieving adaptive self-help life skills. In this paper we describe the results of a formative design exercise with young adults with autism and their caregivers to uncover opportunities for social networks to promote independence and facilitate coordination. We propose the concept of SocialMirror, a device connected to an online social network that allows the young adult to seek advice from a trusted and responsive network of family, friends and professionals. Focus group discussions reveal the potential for SocialMirror to increase motivation to learn everyday life skills among young adults with autism and to foster collaboration among a distributed care network. We present design considerations to leverage a small trusted network that balances quick response with safeguards for privacy and security of young adults with autism.
Building for social translucence: a domain analysis and prototype system BIBAFull-Text 637-646
  David W. McDonald; Stephanie Gokhman; Mark Zachry
The relationships and work that facilitate content creation in large online contributor system are not always visible. Social translucence is a stance toward the design of systems that allows users to better understand collaborative system participation through awareness of contributions and interactions. Like many socio-technical constructs, social translucence is not something that can be simply added after a system is built; it should be at the core of system design. In this paper, we conduct a domain analysis to understand the space of architectural support required to facilitate social translucence in systems. We describe an instantiation of those requirements as a system architecture that relies on data from Wikipedia and illustrate how translucence can be propagated to some basic visualizations which we have created for Wikipedia users. We close with some reflections on the state of social translucence research and some openings for this important design perspective.
Ubiquitous collaborative activity virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 647-650
  Aryabrata Basu; Andrew Raij; Kyle Johnsen
We introduce a new paradigm of collaborative computing called the Ubiquitous Collaborative Activity Virtual Environment (UCAVE). UCAVEs are portable immersive virtual environments that leverage mobile communication platforms, motion trackers and displays to facilitate ad-hoc virtual collaboration. We discuss design criteria and research challenges for UCAVEs, as well as a prototype hardware configuration that enables UCAVE interactions using modern smart phones and head mounted displays.

Media production

Amateur vision and recreational orientation: creating live video together BIBAFull-Text 651-660
  Arvid Engström; Mark Perry; Oskar Juhlin
We explore the use of a live video broadcast system by a group of amateur camera operators to film an event on networked cameraphones. Using an interaction analysis of physical interactions and orientations to the work of others, we examine their choice of camera angles and positions in their filming as they attempt to provide interesting visual content and a coherent narrative. Findings illustrate how users adapt their behaviour as co-ordination problems occur by drawing from a set of everyday visual practices ('amateur vision'). They also show how the specifically temporal aspect of live video requires extended attention on its production, and that this is at odds with the 'recreational orientation' of amateur film crews who simultaneously participate in events for their own enjoyment and film them on behalf of other viewers. Implications for the design of collaborative live broadcast media are made, focusing on approaches to interaction design that augment users' visual practices and allow users to look on behalf of others while experiencing places and events themselves.
Investigating effects of visual and tactile feedback on spatial coordination in collaborative handheld systems BIBAFull-Text 661-670
  Koji Yatani; Darren Gergle; Khai Truong
Mobile and handheld devices have become platforms to support remote collaboration. But, their small form-factor may impact the effectiveness of the visual feedback channel often used to help users maintain an awareness of their partner's activities during synchronous collaborative tasks. We investigated how visual and tactile feedback affects collaboration on mobile devices, with emphasis on spatial coordination in a shared workspace. From two user studies, our results highlight different benefits of each feedback channel in collaborative handheld systems. Visual feedback can provide precise spatial information for collaborators, but degrades collaboration when the feedback is occluded, and sometimes can distract the user's attention. Spatial tactile feedback can reduce the overload of information in visual space and gently guides the user's attention to an area of interest. Our results also show that visual and tactile feedback can complement each other, and systems using both feedback channels can support better spatial coordination than systems using only one form of feedback.
PicoTales: collaborative authoring of animated stories using handheld projectors BIBAFull-Text 671-680
  Simon Robinson; Matt Jones; Elina Vartiainen; Gary Marsden
In this article we describe a novel approach to collaborative video authoring using handheld projectors. PicoTales are created by sketching story elements on a projector+phone prototype, and then animated by moving the projected image. Movements are captured using motion sensor data, rather than visual or other tracking methods, allowing interaction and story creation anywhere. We describe in detail the design and development of our prototype device, and also address issues in position estimation and element tracking. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the prototype, demonstrating its accuracy and usability for ad-hoc creation of story videos. The potential of the system for story authoring is shown via a further experiment looking at the quality of the animated story videos produced. We conclude by considering possible future developments of the concept, and highlighting the benefits of our design for collaborative story capture.
Collaborative museums: an approach to co-design BIBAFull-Text 681-684
  Hugo Fuks; Heloisa Moura; Debora Cardador; Katia Vega; Wallace Ugulino; Marcos Barbato
This paper describes a systemic approach to co-design of collaborative museums, using ethnography, co-creation workshops and fast prototyping, amongst other Social Science and Human Centered Design methods. Focused on the creation of immersive and collaborative museum experiences, it provides a rationale for involving carefully selected multidisciplinary teams and users in the entire design cycle, and presents a process that supports this task, from research to development, pointing its value and limitations. In order to bring the discussion into context and exemplify the use of a group of methods that can support collaborative design, it introduces the case of a Brazilian Planetarium and Science Museum.

Supporting art & literature

People in books: using a FlashCam to become part of an interactive book for connected reading BIBAFull-Text 685-694
  Sean Follmer; Rafael (Tico) Ballagas; Hayes Raffle; Mirjana Spasojevic; Hiroshi Ishii
We introduce People in Books with FlashCam technology, a system that supports children and long-distance family members to act as characters in children's storybooks while they read stories together over a distance. By segmenting the video chat streams of the child and remote family member from their background surroundings, we create the illusion that the child and adult reader are immersed among the storybook illustrations. The illusion of inhabiting a shared story environment helps remote family members feel a sense of togetherness and encourages active reading behaviors for children ages three to five. People In Books is designed to fit into families' traditional reading practices, such as reading ebooks on couches or in bed via netbook or tablet computers. To accommodate this goal we implemented FlashCam, a computationally cost effective and physically small background subtraction system for mobile devices that allows users to move locations and change lighting conditions while they engage in background-subtracted video communications. A lab evaluation compared People in Books with a conventional remote reading application. Results show that People in Books motivates parents and children to be more performative readers and encourages open-ended play beyond the story, while creating a strong sense of togetherness.
A study of multilingual social tagging of art images: cultural bridges and diversity BIBAFull-Text 695-704
  Irene Eleta; Jennifer Golbeck
The goal of this study is to compare social tagging patterns in two languages in image collections of art, while seeking exploitable strengths for the application of multilingual social tagging in digital libraries and museums. Crowdsourcing the annotation of digital image collections of artworks to different language communities has the potential to bridge language borders and reach wider audiences. This mixed methods study is based on a collection of digital images of paintings for which tags in Spanish and English were collected. The results show that the level of agreement in the vocabulary describing an image does not change significantly when adding a second language, but different cultural perspectives can be found for certain images when comparing less frequent tags across languages. Understanding and comparing tagging behaviors across languages is necessary for the design of user interfaces that support diversity and encourage sharing of perspectives about the artwork images.
Bodies in critique: a technological intervention in the dance production process BIBAFull-Text 705-714
  Erin A. Carroll; Danielle Lottridge; Celine Latulipe; Vikash Singh; Melissa Word
The dance production process is strongly influenced within the physical rehearsal space by social context factors and dynamics, such as intimacy of bodies, gender distribution, and the hierarchy of choreographers and dancers. Introducing online tools for asynchronous collaboration can change the traditional dance production process and impact the social dynamics of the group. We developed and deployed the Choreographer's Notebook, a web-based, collaborative, multi-modal annotation tool used in the creative process of making dance. We collected usage logs and choreographer reflections on the use of this tool, along with conducting interviews and focus groups, from the interdisciplinary perspectives of both technologists and choreographers involved in the project. We describe the socio-technical impacts of the Choreographer's Notebook based on the results of its usage in three dance productions. We analyze these case studies through various contextual lenses and provide a visualization of how the choreographic correction process evolved.
SynTag: a web-based platform for labeling real-time video BIBAFull-Text 715-718
  Yen-Chia Hsu; Tay-Sheng Jeng; Yang-Ting Shen; Po-Chun Chen
Real-time video streaming has been widely used in multimedia learning environments. As production of online videos is increasing exponentially, it is becoming more difficult for users to reach relevant content. In this paper, we propose SynTag, a web-based platform that enables users to label three types of tags -- Good, Question, and Disagree -- and to make comments synchronously and asynchronously with visualization of time-stamp video previews on an interactive timeline. SynTag generates real-time thumbnails by using real-time tags for presenters to receive instant feedback and for other users to retrieve presentation videos. In a pilot study, we found our users' tagging behaviors significantly different when they were in lecture events or discussion events. We envision that enabling users to apply tags in real-time will help reduce the complexity of classification of videos.

Family life

Finding a new normal: the role of technology in life disruptions BIBAFull-Text 719-728
  Michael Massimi; Jill P. Dimond; Christopher A. Le Dantec
In recent years, the HCI and CSCW communities have begun to examine the role technology plays in personal, rather than professional settings. Part of this work has begun to address a specific class of life events that are unpredictable, uncontrollable, and destabilizing -- what we refer to as life disruptions. While each disruption is unique, we find that patterns of social and technical reconfigurations occur in a variety of different contexts. Drawing on three case studies of severe life disruptions -- intimate partner violence, homelessness, and death -- we remark on the ways that life disruptions prompt a journey towards a "new normal." We enumerate the common lessons learned among our case studies and seek to inform future technology research and design work which may involve life disruptions.
An examination of how households share and coordinate the completion of errands BIBAFull-Text 729-738
  Timothy Sohn; Lorikeet Lee; Stephanie Zhang; David Dearman; Khai Truong
People often complete tasks and to-dos not only for themselves but also for others in their household. In this work, we examine how household members share and accomplish errands both individually and together. We conducted a three-week diary study with eight households to understand the types of errands that family members and roommates share with each other. We explore their motivations for offering and requesting help to complete their errands and the variety of methods for doing so. Our findings reveal when participants sometimes face challenges completing their errands, and how household members request and receive help. We learned that the cooperative performance of errands is typically dependent on household members' location, availability, and capability. Using these findings, we discuss design opportunities for cooperative errands sharing systems that can assist households.
Brothers and sisters at play: exploring game play with siblings BIBAFull-Text 739-748
  Janet Go; Rafael Ballagas; Mirjana Spasojevic
To effectively design for families, we must understand familial relationships, which exert a significant influence on children's growth, learning, and play. In particular, siblings can be influential play partners and teachers, providing important scaffolding to each other. We report our observations of eight sibling pairs between ages 6 and 10, playing four popular games of different gaming paradigms. We found that certain patterns of sibling behavior persisted through all game sessions, regardless of the play patterns afforded by the different games, and that parents reports were consistent with our observations. We also observed instances where game design seemed to influence sibling play dynamics. We share our insights into considerations for designing for sibling play, including specialized social dynamics, opportunities for scaffolding, and the particular challenges they present.
I love you, let's share calendars: calendar sharing as relationship work BIBAFull-Text 749-758
  Charlotte P. Lee; Katie Derthick; Alexander Thayer; Matthew J. Bietz
While there has been substantial research into the use of online calendar systems (OCS) within organizations and families with children, no research focuses on adults without children. In our study, we focus on these OCS users' practices of calendar sharing as relationship work, the continually negotiated practice of managing friendships and intimacy. We conducted semi-structured interviews as part of a qualitative user study of Google Calendar users. We report the calendar sharing behaviors and strategies of our participants, who maintain multiple calendars for different purposes and with different users, communicating factual and emotional information through their calendar events. We contribute new knowledge by discussing four strategies derived from our participants' calendar sharing and relationship work activities.

Privacy and the home

Interacting with infrastructure: a case for breaching experiments in home computing research BIBAFull-Text 759-768
  Erika Shehan Poole
Why do user experience problems with home computing persist, despite several decades worth of academic study and countless technological innovations to overcome these issues? This paper presents the results of a multi-week trial investigating technical support practices in North American homes using a combination of breaching experiments and custom software. What this study uncovered was not a one-size-fits-all solution to technical problems in residential settings, but instead a rich description of the articulation work required to acquire devices, maintain and configure them over time, and seek help when problems occur. Based on this study, I argue that many of the user experience problems experienced with home computing and electronics are due to issues related to individual agency rather than technical or user interface characteristics of any given technology combination. Additionally, I make a case for the use of breaching experiments to study phenomenon related to technologies infrastructures that are difficult to capture via other traditionally used methods.
Boundary regulation in social media BIBAFull-Text 769-778
  Stutzman Frederic; Hartzog Woodrow
The management of group context in socially mediating technologies is an important challenge for the design community. To better understand how users manage group context, we explored the practice of multiple profile management in social media. In doing so, we observed creative and opportunistic strategies for group context management. We found that multiple profile maintenance is motivated by four factors: privacy, identity, utility, and propriety. Drawing on these motives, we observe a continuum of boundary regulation behaviors: pseudonymity, practical obscurity, and transparent separation. Based on these findings, we encourage designers of group context management systems to more broadly consider motives and practices of group separations in social media. Group context management systems should be privacy-enhancing, but a singular focus on privacy overlooks a range of other group context management practices.
A case study of non-adoption: the values of location tracking in the family BIBAFull-Text 779-788
  Asimina Vasalou; Anne-Marie Oostveen; Adam N. Joinson
A number of commercial location tracking systems exist which enable parents to monitor where their children are when outdoors. The adoption of these services and whether, through their design, they reflect parental values has not been investigated. This question was pursued with a large-scale survey of 920 parents from the UK. The use of location tracking was not prevalent amongst parents and only a minority had considered using these technologies. Parents favoring location tracking described it in the context of security, peace of mind and the need to reduce uncertainty. Parents who were against location tracking described a general lack of need as they had established reliable mechanisms for security and valued trust in the family as well as children's self-direction. Our findings show that location tracking concurrently supports and threatens parental values. By focusing on the values it undermines, we are able to suggest new directions for location systems.
Going to college and staying connected: communication between college freshmen and their parents BIBAFull-Text 789-798
  Madeline E. Smith; Duyen T. Nguyen; Charles Lai; Gilly Leshed; Eric P. S. Baumer
For many first-year college students in their late teen years, communicating with parents provides crucial social support. When going to college involves moving away from home for the first time, students and their parents must rely on technologies to keep communication channels open. We studied the ways in which college freshmen communicate with their parents and the various communication technologies they use. Interviews with nineteen first-year students at a major United States university revealed insights into students' perspectives of their communication and relationships with parents. We found students to use a variety of tools to connect with their parents and identified some considerations they make when choosing tools. Furthermore, the use of these communication tools played a significant role in mediating students' social and emotional closeness with, and independence from, their parents. We conclude by discussing technical and social implications for social support of students and student-parent relationships.

Four life stages

Impression management work: how seniors with chronic pain address disruptions in their interactions BIBAFull-Text 799-808
  Alison Benjamin; Jeremy Birnholtz; Ronald Baecker; Diane Gromala; Andrea Furlan
Chronic pain is an illness that affects nearly a third of senior citizens. Uncontrolled chronic pain can manifest constantly and/or intermittently, and can disrupt seniors' ability to plan or to maintain synchronous and scheduled contact with others. Such disruptions can expose seniors to stigma from others who do not understand this illness, social isolation, and a range of challenges to their social autonomy. We present results from an interview study of 27 seniors with chronic pain exploring how they mitigate and manage these disruptions in their lives. Drawing on Goffman's theory of impression management, we found that participants invested significant effort into controlling both the context of interactions and others' expectations, in order to mitigate the potential negative social consequences of disruptions. In performing this work, seniors were selective about what information they revealed to others about their chronic pain and availability. Given such efforts, seniors with chronic pain have unique needs for technologies to support their social interactions.
Tracking changes in collaborative writing: edits, visibility and group maintenance BIBAFull-Text 809-818
  Jeremy Birnholtz; Steven Ibara
Systems for collaborative writing have long captured the attention of CSCW researchers, but have only recently come into widespread use. One issue in designing and understanding these systems is awareness of others' actions in a document. On the one hand, making edits and changes visible can improve collaborators' knowledge of who has made edits and what has changed in a document. On the other hand, studies of large scale editing systems such as Wikipedia have suggested that the visibility of certain edits can incite social conflict in groups. In this interview study, we aim to understand how people perceive and consider the potential impacts of their own and others' edits as they write together. Results suggest that edits embody not just changes to a document, but also social messages that have group maintenance implications. Many participants reported that they carefully consider how to make and explain edits so as to minimize social conflict.
Bon voyage: social travel planning in the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 819-828
  Netta Aizenbud-Reshef; Artem Barger; Ido Guy; Yael Dubinsky; Shiri Kremer-Davidson
A proliferation of travel-related web sites enable people to share their travel plans, review hotels, offer advice, and more. In this paper we study social travel planning in the enterprise. While business travelers and leisure travelers have different preferences and needs, employees may benefit from sharing information and travel plans within the enterprise. We present a study collecting the requirements for social travel from employees, detail the design principles of a social travel application in the enterprise, and present Voyage, the outcome. We evaluated Voyage based on qualitative and quantitative data and discuss the results using four perspectives: collaborative activities, social information impact, usage patterns, and sharing behavior. Employees expressed their growing satisfaction from the social information contributed by fellow employees. Moreover, we observed that Voyage shortens the reservation time, thus saving costs for the enterprise.
A need-driven design approach: addressing latent needs in collaboration rooted in early childhood BIBAFull-Text 829-832
  Sheng-Ying Pao; Selene Mota; Keywon Chung; Alexander Reben
When the latent needs are un-addressed, collaboration can be easily turned into a non-collaborative activity while the participants are unaware of why. This paper describes a need-driven approach for computer-supported collaborative interaction design, with specific focus on collaboration rooted in early childhood. We conducted a need-identification study, where explicit needs and latent needs in children's collaborative interaction were identified and constructed into a guideline for computer-supported collaboration design. Demonstrating the need-driven approach, a toolkit was designed and the prototype was evaluated based upon the guideline attempting to address the needs identified. The need-driven approach and the design guideline that the toolkit design was based upon may offer new dynamic domains for future computer-supported collaboration design.

Health: games and online support groups

To stay or leave?: the relationship of emotional and informational support to commitment in online health support groups BIBAFull-Text 833-842
  Yi-Chia Wang; Robert Kraut; John M. Levine
Today many people with serious diseases use online support groups to seek social support. For these groups to be sustained and effective, member retention and commitment is important. Our study examined how different types and amounts of social support in an online cancer support group are associated with participants' length of membership. We first built machine learning models to automatically identify the extent to which messages contained emotional and informational support. Agreement with human judges was high (r > 0.76). We then used these models to measure the support exchanged in 1.5 million messages. Finally, we applied quantitative event history analysis to assess how exposure to emotional and informational support predicted group members' length of subsequent participation. The results demonstrated that the more emotional support members were exposed to, the lower the risk of dropout. In contrast, informational support did not have the same strong effects on commitment. We speculate that emotional support enhanced members' relationships with one another or the group as a whole, whereas informational support satisfied members' short-term information needs.
This is not a one-horse race: understanding player types in multiplayer pervasive health games for youth BIBAFull-Text 843-852
  Elsa Eiriksdottir; Dan Kestranek; Richard Catrambone; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Andrew D. Miller; Yan Xu; Erika Shehan Poole
Technology-based interventions for promoting health behavior-change frequently leverage multiplayer game mechanics such as group-based competitions. However, health interventions successful for groups writ large may not always translate to successful behavior change at the individual level. In this paper, we explore the tension between group and individual success, based on an empirical study on a long-term real-world deployment of a pervasive health game for youth. We report five distinctive player types along the dimensions of motivation, behavior, and influence on others. Based on the findings, we provide design suggestions to help game designers integrate group-based mechanisms that maximize intervention effectiveness.
Collaborative help in chronic disease management: supporting individualized problems BIBAFull-Text 853-862
  Jina Huh; Mark S. Ackerman
Coping with chronic illness disease is a long and lonely journey, because the burden of managing the illness on a daily basis is placed upon the patients themselves. In this paper, we present our findings for how diabetes patient support groups help one another find individualized strategies for managing diabetes. Through field observations of face-to-face diabetes support groups, content analysis of an online diabetes community, and interviews, we found several help interactions that are critical in helping patients in finding individualized solutions. Those are: (1) patients operationalize their experiences to easily contextualize and share executable strategies; (2) operationalization has to be done within the larger context of sharing illness trajectories; and (3) the support groups develop common understanding towards diabetes management. We further discuss how our findings translate into design implications for supporting chronic illness patients in online community settings.
Transforming solitary exercises into social exergames BIBAFull-Text 863-866
  Taiwoo Park; Chungkuk Yoo; Sungwon Peter Choe; Byunglim Park; Junehwa Song
This paper discusses an approach for transforming solitary exercises into social exergames. We frame our discussion by highlighting the relation between the original exercises and game interactions, and by analyzing an example exergame which is successfully transformed from its original solitary exercise. We present a user study of the exergame that evaluates the need for holistic transformation strategies from solitary exercises into social exergames.

Medical care and health intervention

Loosely formed patient care teams: communication challenges and technology design BIBAFull-Text 867-876
  Soyoung Lee; Charlotte Tang; Sun Young Park; Yunan Chen
We conducted an observational study to investigate nurses' communication behaviors in an Emergency Department (ED). Our observations reveal unique collaboration practices exercised by ED staff, which we term as "loosely formed team collaboration." Specifically, ED patient care teams are dynamically and quickly assembled upon patient arrival, wherein team members engage in interdependent and complex care activities. The responsible care team then disassembles when a patient leaves the ED. The coordination mechanism required for these work practices challenges nurses' communication processes, often increasing breakdown susceptibility. Our analysis of the ED nurses' communication behaviors and use of communication channels highlights the importance of maintaining team awareness and supporting role-based communication. This points to the need for explicit efforts to coordinate tasks and informative interruptions. These findings call for the design of future communication technologies to meet the needs of loosely formed collaborative environments to provide team-based communication, lightweight feedback, and information transparency.
Electronic medication management: a socio -- technical change process in clinical practice BIBAFull-Text 877-886
  Torbjørg Meum
This paper presents a workplace study of the implementation and use of an electronic medication management system (EMMS) at a university hospital in Norway. The strategic plan at the hospital was a fully computerized medication process that included a new application in the electronic patient record (EPR), as well as a fully automated packaging, dispensing, and distributing system using robot technology. A breakdown in the initial phase of the implementation project opened "Pandora's box" and helped visualize the relationship between coordinative practices and artifacts that took place in the new medication management process. Specifically, this paper highlights the redesign of the EMMS as a consequence of the breakdown that led to the development of an electronic chart. Furthermore, the paper characterizes this change process as a transformation in a socio-technical (material) network in which adjustment and innovation are ongoing processes in daily practice.
Fragmentation and choreography: caring for a patient and a chart during childbirth BIBAFull-Text 887-896
  Katie Pine
CSCW has long been concerned with how work is coordinated. A rich body of literature examines the mechanisms underlying cooperative work and the articulation of discrete tasks into meaningful sequences of action. However, there is less treatment of how workers balance multiple streams of work at once. In hospitals, the introduction of Health Information Technologies coupled with increased requirements for documentation means that workers must simultaneously care for and integrate two work trajectories: that related to the patient and that related to the medical record. Using data from an ethnographic study of labor & delivery nurses in a mid-size hospital, I describe the situated, embodied, and effortful work of coordinating multiple streams of action into a single coherent performance of work, a process I refer to as choreography, and present a number of choreography practices. I then describe implications of this perspective for CSCW.
The work of play: supporting a pervasive health behavior change intervention for us middle school students BIBAFull-Text 897-900
  Andrew Miller; Erika Poole; Yan Xu; Elsa Eiriksdottir; Daniel Kestranek; Richard Catrambone; Elizabeth Mynatt
Technology-based health behavior change interventions involving passive on-body sensing and feedback interfaces show promise for increasing participation in physical activity. However, the majority of prior studies are small-scale interventions that heavily rely on research teams for programmatic support. In larger-scale deployments, participants may have to take over setup and maintenance tasks. In this paper, we examine the "hidden work" involved with the large-scale deployment of a behavior change application in American schools. We offer insight into the coordination required to maintain such deployments, and identify unique challenges that arise when schoolchildren are the target of a behavior change intervention. Our findings highlight the behind-the-scenes coordination and management work required of adult facilitators in order to support pervasive health interventions for children in school environments. We offer advice to researchers and project managers attempting integration of technology-based health behavior change applications for children.

eScience and eMedicine

Sustaining the development of cyberinfrastructure: an organization adapting to change BIBAFull-Text 901-910
  Matthew J. Bietz; Toni Ferro; Charlotte P. Lee
Cyberinfrastructures are virtual organizations comprised of people and large-scale scientific computational infrastructures. Cyberinfrastructures endeavor to support "cutting-edge" science and must continually evolve and be under development in order to maintain their relevance and usefulness. This qualitative study of a cyberinfrastructure development project to support the new science of metagenomics investigates how sustaining cyberinfrastructure entails continually realigning the relationships among people, technologies, and organizations.
Cooperative documentation: the patient problem list as a nexus in electronic health records BIBAFull-Text 911-920
  Xiaomu Zhou; Kai Zheng; Mark Ackerman; David Hanauer
The patient Problem List (PL) is a mandated documentation component of electronic health records supporting the longitudinal summarization of patient information in addition to facilitating the coordination of care by multidisciplinary medical teams. In this paper, we report an ethnographic study that examined the institutionalization of the PL. Specifically, we explored: (1) how different groups (primary care providers, inpatient hospitalists, specialists, and emergency doctors) perceived the purposes of the PL differently; (2) how these deviated perceptions might affect their use of the PL; and (3) how the technical design of the PL facilitated or hindered the clinical practices of these groups. We found significant ambiguity regarding the definition, benefits, and use of the PL across different groups. We also found that certain groups (e.g. primary care providers) had developed effective cooperative strategies regarding the use of the PL; however, suboptimal usage was common among other user types, which could have a profound impact on quality of care and safety. Based on these findings, we provide suggestions to improve the design of the PL, particularly on strengthening its support on longitudinal and cooperative clinical practices.
Medical secretaries' care of records: the cooperative work of a non-clinical group BIBAFull-Text 921-930
  Claus Bossen; Lotte Groth Jensen; Flemming Witt
We describe the cooperative work of medical secretaries at two hospital departments, during the implementation of an electronic health record system. Medical secretaries' core task is to take care of patient records by ensuring that information is complete, up to date, and correctly coded. Medical secretaries also do information gatekeeping and articulation work. The EHR implementation stressed their importance to the departments' work arrangements, coupled their work more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. While medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, this case study identifies their importance, and suggests that they and other non-clinical groups should be considered, when developing health care IT. We propose the term 'boundary-object trimming', to conceptualize their contributions to hospitals' cooperative work arrangements.
Social scientists and cyberinfrastructure: insights from a document perspective BIBAFull-Text 931-934
  Steve Sawyer; Elizabeth Kaziunas; Carsten Øesterlund
Contemporary cyberinfrastructure (CI) seem poorly developed to meet the distributed work practices of social scientists. We draw from the literatures of science studies and e-science practices to advance a document-centered articulation of social scientists' distributed work practices. We report on a pilot study to provide some insights into CI needs for these scholars. This study relied on a mixed-methodological approach involving the mapping of digital and physical documents, automated tracking of desktop and online repositories, participant-generated images of physical documents and desktop, behavioral queries, along with interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest a document perspective provides insight into the distributed work practices and CI uses of social scientists.

Social network analysis

Organizing without formal organization: group identification, goal setting and social modeling in directing online production BIBAFull-Text 935-944
  Haiyi Zhu; Robert Kraut; Aniket Kittur
A challenge for many online production communities is to direct their members to accomplish tasks that are important to the group, even when these tasks may not match individual members' interests. Here we investigate how combining group identification and direction setting can motivate volunteers in online communities to accomplish tasks important to the success of the group as a whole. We hypothesize that group identity, the perception of belonging to a group, triggers in-group favoritism; and direction setting (including explicit direction from group goals and implicit direction from role models) focuses people's group-oriented motivation towards the group's important tasks. We tested our hypotheses in the context of Wikipedia's Collaborations of the Week (COTW), a group goal setting mechanism and a social event within Wikiprojects. Results demonstrate that 1) publicizing important group goals via COTW can have a strong motivating influence on editors who have voluntarily identified themselves as group members compared to those who have not self-identified; 2) the effects of goals spill over to non-goal related tasks; and 3) editors exposed to group role models in COTW are more likely to perform similarly to the models on group-relevant citizenship behaviors. Finally, we discuss design and managerial implications based on our findings.
All-for-one and one-for-all?: a multi-level analysis of communication patterns and individual performance in geographically distributed software development BIBAFull-Text 945-954
  Kate Ehrlich; Marcelo Cataldo
It is well established that distributed software projects benefit from informal communication. However, it is less clear how patterns of informal communication impact the performance of the individual developers. In a study of communication networks in a large commercial software project, we found that individuals performed better when they were central within a team's communication network but their performance worsened if they were central within the communication for the whole project. On the other hand, individuals embedded in a dense communication cluster at the team and at the project level perform better than those who were not embedded. The effects for both network positions were maintained even after controlling for formal role, individual differences in communication, workload and other factors that drive communication. We discuss the implications of the results for intra- and inter-team communication and for the inclusion of network structure into the design of collaborative and awareness tools.
The personality of popular Facebook users BIBAFull-Text 955-964
  Daniele Quercia; Renaud Lambiotte; David Stillwell; Michal Kosinski; Jon Crowcroft
We study the relationship between Facebook popularity (number of contacts) and personality traits on a large number of subjects. We test to which extent two prevalent viewpoints hold. That is, popular users (those with many social contacts) are the ones whose personality traits either predict many offline (real world) friends or predict propensity to maintain superficial relationships. We find that the predictor for number of friends in the real world (Extraversion) is also a predictor for number of Facebook contacts. We then test whether people who have many social contacts on Facebook are the ones who are able to adapt themselves to new forms of communication, present themselves in likable ways, and have propensity to maintain superficial relationships. We show that there is no statistical evidence to support such a conjecture.
Tracking "gross community happiness" from tweets BIBAFull-Text 965-968
  Daniele Quercia; Jonathan Ellis; Licia Capra; Jon Crowcroft
Policy makers are calling for new socio-economic measures that reflect subjective well-being, to complement traditional measures of material welfare as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Self-reporting has been found to be reasonably accurate in measuring one's well-being and conveniently tallies with sentiment expressed on social media (e.g., those satisfied with life use more positive than negative words in their Facebook status updates). Social media content can thus be used to track well-being of individuals. A question left unexplored is whether such content can be used to track well-being of entire physical communities as well. To this end, we consider Twitter users based in a variety of London census communities, and study the relationship between sentiment expressed in tweets and community socio-economic well-being. We find that the two are highly correlated: the higher the normalized sentiment score of a community's tweets, the higher the community's socio-economic well-being. This suggests that monitoring tweets is an effective way of tracking community well-being too.

Recommending

What makes users rate (share, tag, edit...)?: predicting patterns of participation in online communities BIBAFull-Text 969-978
  Paul Fugelstad; Patrick Dwyer; Jennifer Filson Moses; John Kim; Cleila Anna Mannino; Loren Terveen; Mark Snyder
Administrators of online communities face the crucial issue of understanding and developing their user communities. Will new users become committed members? What types of roles are particular individuals most likely to take on? We report on a study that investigates these questions. We administered a survey (based on standard psychological instruments) to nearly 4000 new users of the MovieLens film recommendation community from October 2009 to March 2010 and logged their usage history on MovieLens. We found that general volunteer motivations, pro-social behavioral history, and community-specific motivations predicted both the amount of use and specific types of activities users engaged in after joining the community. These findings have implications for the design and management of online communities.
Recommending routes in the context of bicycling: algorithms, evaluation, and the value of personalization BIBAFull-Text 979-988
  Reid Priedhorsky; David Pitchford; Shilad Sen; Loren Terveen
Users have come to rely on automated route finding services for driving, public transit, walking, and bicycling. Current state of the art route finding algorithms typically rely on objective factors like time and distance; they do not consider subjective preferences that also influence route quality. This paper addresses that need. We introduce a new framework for evaluating edge rating prediction techniques in transportation networks and use it to explore ten families of prediction algorithms in Cyclopath, a geographic wiki that provides route finding services for bicyclists. Overall, we find that personalized algorithms predict more accurately than non-personalized ones, and we identify two algorithms with low error and excellent coverage, one of which is simple enough to be implemented in thin clients like web browsers. These results suggest that routing systems can generate better routes by collecting and analyzing users' subjective preferences.
Searching for the Goldilocks zone: trade-offs in managing online volunteer groups BIBAFull-Text 989-998
  Loxley Sijia Wang; Jilin Chen; Yuqing Ren; John Riedl
Dedicated and productive members who actively contribute to community efforts are crucial to the success of online volunteer groups such as Wikipedia. What predicts member productivity? Do productive members stay longer? How does involvement in multiple projects affect member contribution to the community? In this paper, we analyze data from 648 WikiProjects to address these questions. Our results reveal two critical trade-offs in managing online volunteer groups. First, factors that increase member productivity, measured by the number of edits on Wikipedia articles, also increase likelihood of withdrawal from contributing, perhaps due to feelings of mission accomplished or burnout. Second, individual membership in multiple projects has mixed effects. It decreases the amount of work editors contribute to both the individual projects and Wikipedia as a whole. It increases withdrawal for each individual project yet reduces withdrawal from Wikipedia. We discuss how our findings expand existing theories to fit the online context and inform the design of new tools to improve online volunteer work.
Asking questions of targeted strangers on social networks BIBAFull-Text 999-1002
  Jeffrey Nichols; Jeon-Hyung Kang
When people have questions, they often turn to their social network for answers. If the answer is obscure or time sensitive however, no members of their social networks may know the answer. For example, it may be difficult to find a friend who has experience with a particular feature or model of digital camera or who knows the current wait time for security at the local airport. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of answering questions by asking strangers. In this approach, strangers with potentially useful information are identified by mining the public status updates posted on Twitter, questions are sent to these strangers, and responses are collected. We explore feasibility in two ways: will users respond to questions sent by strangers and, if they do respond, how long must we wait for a response? Our results from asking 1159 questions across two domains suggest that 42% of users will respond to questions from strangers. 44% of these responses arrived within 30 minutes.

Crowdsourcing

Collaboratively crowdsourcing workflows with Turkomatic BIBAFull-Text 1003-1012
  Anand Kulkarni; Matthew Can; Björn Hartmann
Preparing complex jobs for crowdsourcing marketplaces requires careful attention to workflow design, the process of decomposing jobs into multiple tasks, which are solved by multiple workers. Can the crowd help design such workflows? This paper presents Turkomatic, a tool that recruits crowd workers to aid requesters in planning and solving complex jobs. While workers decompose and solve tasks, requesters can view the status of worker-designed workflows in real time; intervene to change tasks and solutions; and request new solutions to subtasks from the crowd. These features lower the threshold for crowd employers to request complex work. During two evaluations, we found that allowing the crowd to plan without requester supervision is partially successful, but that requester intervention during workflow planning and execution improves quality substantially. We argue that Turkomatic's collaborative approach can be more successful than the conventional workflow design process and discuss implications for the design of collaborative crowd planning systems.
Shepherding the crowd yields better work BIBAFull-Text 1013-1022
  Steven Dow; Anand Kulkarni; Scott Klemmer; Björn Hartmann
Micro-task platforms provide massively parallel, on-demand labor. However, it can be difficult to reliably achieve high-quality work because online workers may behave irresponsibly, misunderstand the task, or lack necessary skills. This paper investigates whether timely, task-specific feedback helps crowd workers learn, persevere, and produce better results. We investigate this question through Shepherd, a feedback system for crowdsourced work. In a between-subjects study with three conditions, crowd workers wrote consumer reviews for six products they own. Participants in the None condition received no immediate feedback, consistent with most current crowdsourcing practices. Participants in the Self-assessment condition judged their own work. Participants in the External assessment condition received expert feedback. Self-assessment alone yielded better overall work than the None condition and helped workers improve over time. External assessment also yielded these benefits. Participants who received external assessment also revised their work more. We conclude by discussing interaction and infrastructure approaches for integrating real-time assessment into online work.
Community-based web security: complementary roles of the serious and casual contributors BIBAFull-Text 1023-1032
  Pern Hui Chia; John Chuang
Does crowdsourcing work for web security? While the herculean task of evaluating hundreds of millions of websites can certainly benefit from the wisdom of crowds, skeptics question the coverage and reliability of inputs from ordinary users for assessing web security. We analyze the contribution patterns of serious and casual users in Web of Trust (WOT), a community-based system for website reputation and security. We find that the serious contributors are responsible for reporting and attending to a large percentage of bad sites, while a large fraction of attention on the goodness of sites come from the casual contributors. This complementarity enables WOT to provide warnings about malicious sites while differentiating the good sites from the unknowns. This in turn helps steer users away from the numerous bad sites created daily. We also find that serious contributors are more reliable in evaluating bad sites, but no better than casual contributors in evaluating good sites. We discuss design implications for WOT and for community-based systems more generally.
CrowdWeaver: visually managing complex crowd work BIBAFull-Text 1033-1036
  Aniket Kittur; Susheel Khamkar; Paul André; Robert Kraut
Though toolkits exist to create complex crowdsourced workflows, there is limited support for management of those workflows. Managing crowd workers and tasks requires significant iteration and experimentation on task instructions, rewards, and flows. We present CrowdWeaver, a system to visually manage complex crowd work. The system supports the creation and reuse of crowdsourcing and computational tasks into integrated task flows, manages the flow of data between tasks, and allows tracking and notification of task progress, with support for real-time modification. We describe the system and demonstrate its utility through case studies and user feedback.

Incentives

Phrases that signal workplace hierarchy BIBAFull-Text 1037-1046
  Eric Gilbert
Hierarchy fundamentally shapes how we act at work. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the words people write in workplace email and the rank of the email's recipient. Using the Enron corpus as a dataset, we perform a close study of the words and phrases people send to those above them in the corporate hierarchy versus those at the same level or lower. We find that certain words and phrases are strong predictors. For example, "thought you would" strongly suggests that the recipient outranks the sender, while "let's discuss" implies the opposite. We also find that the phrases people write to their bosses do not demonstrate cognitive processes as often as the ones they write to others. We conclude this paper by interpreting our results and announcing the release of the predictive phrases as a public dataset, perhaps enabling a new class of status-aware applications.
Predicting tie strength in a new medium BIBAFull-Text 1047-1056
  Eric Gilbert
We have friends we consider very close and acquaintances we barely know. The social sciences use the term tie strength to denote this differential closeness with the people in our lives. In this paper, we explore how well a tie strength model developed for one social medium adapts to another. Specifically, we present a Twitter application called We Meddle which puts a Facebook tie strength model at the core of its design. We Meddle estimated tie strengths for more than 200,000 online relationships from people in 52 countries. We focus on the mapping of Facebook relational features to relational features in Twitter. By examining We Meddle's mistakes, we find that the Facebook tie strength model largely generalizes to Twitter. This is early evidence that important relational properties may manifest similarly across different social media, a finding that would allow new social media sites to build around relational findings from old ones.
Tie strength in question & answer on social network sites BIBAFull-Text 1057-1066
  Katrina Panovich; Rob Miller; David Karger
Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, and has provided researchers with opportunities to better observe this process. In this paper, we relate question answering to tie strength, a metric drawn from sociology describing how close a friendship is. We present a study evaluating the role of tie strength in question answers. We used previous research on tie strength in social media to generate tie strength information between participants and their answering friends, and asked them for feedback about the value of answers across several dimensions. While sociological studies have indicated that weak ties are able to provide better information, our findings are significant in that weak ties do not have this effect, and stronger ties (close friends) provide a subtle increase in information that contributes more to participants' overall knowledge, and is less likely to have been seen before.
Removing gamification from an enterprise SNS BIBAFull-Text 1067-1070
  Jennifer Thom; David Millen; Joan DiMicco
Gamification, the use of game mechanics in non-gaming applications, has been applied to various systems to encourage desired user behaviors. In this paper, we examine patterns of user activity in an enterprise social network service after the removal of a points-based incentive system. Our results reveal that the removal of the incentive scheme did reduce overall participation via contribution within the SNS. We also describe the strategies by point leaders and observe that users geographically distant from headquarters tended to comment on profiles outside of their home country. Finally, we describe the implications of the removal of extrinsic rewards, such as points and badges, on social software systems, particularly those deployed within an enterprise.

Mediating communication

Setting the stage for interaction: a tablet application to augment group discussion in a seminar class BIBAFull-Text 1071-1080
  Drew Harry; Eric Gordon; Chris Schmandt
We present a tablet-based system to collaboratively track discussion topics and ideas in a seminar-style discussion classroom. Each student uses his or her own tablet to share text ideas in a synchronized, visual environment. The system is designed to promote diverse participation and increase engagement. Our findings are based on observations of twelve class sessions and interviews with participating students. Instead of simply introducing an additional text-based communication channel into the classroom, we find that the system creates a new "stage" (in the Goffman sense) on which students could perform in ways that the main spoken stage could not support. This stage coexists with spoken communication, and augments how students attend to the material and each other. We conclude that spoken participation alone poses barriers for some participants and the addition of a non-oral, text-based stage can help establish equitable and engaging discussions in the class.
Social visualization and negotiation: effects of feedback configuration and status BIBAFull-Text 1081-1090
  Michael Nowak; Juho Kim; Nam Wook Kim; Clifford Nass
We describe a social visualization system that monitors the vocal arousal levels of the participants in a simulated two-party employment negotiation. In a 3x2 factorial experiment (N = 84), we manipulate two variables of interest for social visualization systems: the feedback configuration of the system's display (participants receive self feedback vs. partner feedback vs. no feedback) and the status of the interactants (high vs. low). Receiving feedback about one's own arousal level has negative consequences for performance in and feelings about the negotiation. Receiving feedback about one's partner's arousal level interacts with status: high-status individuals benefit from the visualization, while low-status individuals do not.
Taking as an act of sharing BIBAFull-Text 1091-1100
  Helena M. Mentis; Siân E. Lindley; Stuart Taylor; Paul Dunphy; Tim Regan; Richard Harper
We present findings from the deployment of a mobile application, Take and Give, which allows users to place image files in a virtual folder or 'Pocket' on a mobile phone. This content can be viewed by a set of 'Buddies', who can, if they wish, attempt to take ownership of a file for themselves, following which they can keep it, delete it, or place it in the Pocket of someone else. There is only one version of each file, creating a twist on traditional sharing technologies. We report findings from a three week trial of the application in an office space, and describe how Take and Give provided a means of self-presentation and supported a sense of awareness, mutual attentiveness and connectedness. Our findings suggest that the taking of unique content can be an engaging form of sharing and can facilitate awareness and connectedness between people.
Video threads: asynchronous video sharing for temporally distributed teams BIBAFull-Text 1101-1104
  Jeremy Barksdale; Kori Inkpen; Mary Czerwinski; Aaron Hoff; Paul Johns; Asta Roseway; Gina Venolia
Work teams are often geographically distributed, and in some cases, experience large time-zone differences with no overlap in working hours. We explored the use of asynchronous video in temporally distributed teams. We developed VideoThreads, which provides a novel thread-based visualization of video messages. Based on a deployment to four teams, we offer design recommendations and insights about the benefits of asynchronous video sharing.

Coordination and performance

Patterns of team processes and breakdowns in information analysis tasks BIBAFull-Text 1105-1114
  Marcela Borge; Craig H. Ganoe; Shin-I Shih; John M. Carroll
In this paper we present findings from a laboratory study of teams of three, collaborating to complete a complex information sharing, synthesis, decision-making task. We use interaction analysis, communication analysis, and task analysis methods to identify the primary activities teams engaged in as they solved a complex information dependant decision-making task. These activities serve as the foundation to present findings related to common team problems and patterns of interaction associated with team performance. We found differences between high and low performing teams related to verbal equity and how they shared and synthesized information.
Using low cost game controllers to capture data for 6th grade science labs BIBAFull-Text 1115-1124
  Wendy Ju; Ugochi Acholonu; Sarah Lewis
This paper describes a cooperative design project to develop ways to use Nintendo Wii Remotes as inexpensive data acquisition tools for science. In collaboration with a 6th grade physics instructor and his students, we have developed software tools and curriculum that enable science teachers and students to repurpose gaming technologies to study concepts such as velocity and acceleration. The project involved a year's observation of students' project based learning in a 6th grade physics class, followed by a year of design experimentation to engage students in integrating game controllers into their projects. Using the insights from their observations and suggestions, we created three different Wii Remote-based setups that used the IR camera and the accelerometer to help students glean data from their projects. In this paper, we provide an overview of the project, and then offer data that demonstrates the added value across the material, social, experiential, and temporal aspects of inquiry science activity. We conclude by identifying key design opportunities within this space.
Effects of sharing text selections on gaze cross-recurrence and interaction quality in a pair programming task BIBAFull-Text 1125-1134
  Marc-Antoine Nüssli; Patrick Jermann
We present a dual eye-tracking study that demonstrates the effect of sharing selection among collaborators in a remote pair-programming scenario. Forty pairs of engineering students completed several program understanding tasks while their gaze was synchronously recorded. The coupling of the programmers' focus of attention was measured by a cross-recurrence analysis of gaze that captures how much programmers look at the same sequence of spots within a short time span. A high level of gaze cross-recurrence is typical for pairs who actively engage in grounding efforts to build and maintain shared understanding. As part of their grounding efforts, programmers may use text selection to perform collaborative references. Broadcast selections serve as indexing sites for the selector as they attract non-selector's gaze shortly after they become visible. Gaze cross-recurrence is highest when selectors accompany their selections with speech to produce a multimodal reference.
Micro-coordination: because we did not already learn everything we need to know about working with others in kindergarten BIBAFull-Text 1135-1144
  Joon Suk Lee; Deborah Tatar; Steve Harrison
How is it that groups of people can complete joint tasks without the expected observable markers of "successful" coordination? The relationship between micro-level, situated actions and broader outcomes such as opportunities for learning is under-explored. We investigated co-located groups as they played a collaborative, problem-solving game using distributed technology on laptops. There was considerable variety in how groups accomplished the work. Some satisfied groups talked a lot but other satisfied groups did not. Talk was diagnostic of satisfaction but lack of talk was not diagnostic of dissatisfaction. In fact, groups that had little or no discourse differed considerably from one another. One kind of group completes the joint tasks very well without observable markers frequently associated with success. Others are less successful in the task goal but man-age difficult interpersonal situations.

Coordination and artifacts

See friendship, sort of: how conversation and digital traces might support reflection on friendships BIBAFull-Text 1145-1154
  Victoria Schwanda Sosik; Xuan Zhao; Dan Cosley
Inspired by conversational visualization tools and the increasing enactment of relationships in social media, we examine how people reflect on friendships and how social data and conversation may affect this. We asked 28 people to reflect on their relationship with a close friend either alone, alone but with access to Facebook's "See Friendship" page, or with the friend using their See Friendship page. Observation and interviews revealed a rich array of practices around why, when, and how people reflect on friendships; that both friends and data make reflection more positive, more focused, and more fun; that those are not necessarily good things; and that third parties are a common theme. These findings suggest a number of design considerations, including supporting different types of reflection, aligning the interface with important moments and content useful for reflection, and carefully considering the fidelity of the visualization and data presented.
The material practices of collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1155-1164
  Daniela K. Rosner
Drawing on a three-month bookbinding apprenticeship, this paper examines how people's coordination work is tightly bound up in material practices, the union of material arrangements and social relations. Through the construction of a book, I reveal how sensitivities to delicacy, flexibility and delay emerge through detailed engagements with the book, the binders and the workshop environment. From small adjustments of the hand, to the coordination and exchange of materials and tools, the accomplishment of each task rests on how digital and age-old resources are woven into everyday collaborative practice. This approach extends how computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) frames and mobilizes the material to recognize materials as compositional elements, surfaces and flows. It also contributes to conversations on digital materiality by emphasizing the temporality of material practice. Thus, I use the bookbinding workshop as a resource for understanding the ways materials, techniques, and relationships are continually rebound in a digital age.
Beyond data sharing: artifact ecology of a collaborative nanophotonics research centre BIBAFull-Text 1165-1174
  Gerard Oleksik; Natasa Milic-Frayling; Rachel Jones
Scientific communities have long been concerned with the design and implementation of effective infrastructures for data access and collaborative scientific work. Recent studies have shown an increase in collaborative data generation and reuse. However, further improvements require a deeper understanding of the social and technological circumstances under which they emerge. To that effect we conduct in-situ observation study of a Nano-photonics Research Centre. We consider the artifact ecology that evolved from the Centre's common experimentation and data platform, the scientific practices, and the intricate interactions with digital artifacts that arise from the researchers' activities. We uncover the use of progress summaries for collaborative data interpretation and knowledge sharing. By studying this reputable collaborative scientific environment we (1) identified the factors that led to its functional and effective artifact ecology and (2) propose expansions of tools and services to improve it further. The latter include effective support for contextual search, browsing, and flexible viewing of information artifacts based on relevant parameters and properties.
Collaboration in open-source hardware: third-party variations on the Arduino Duemilanove BIBAFull-Text 1175-1178
  David Mellis; Leah Buechley
This paper looks at collaboration in open-source hardware: physical goods whose digital design files are shared for others to make or modify. Through research into nine variations on the Arduino Duemilanove (an electronic circuit board) and interviews with their developers, we explore the process and outcome of open-source hardware development. We find a structure that differs substantially from that of most open-source software projects, involving many small-scale collaborations rather than a centralized process. We discuss three possible reasons for this structure: differing component selections, the investment required for prototyping, and the lack of software collaboration tools.

Tools for analysis

Computer support for collaborative data analysis: augmenting paper affinity diagrams BIBAFull-Text 1179-1182
  Gunnar Harboe; Jonas Minke; Ioana Ilea; Elaine M. Huang
The traditional paper-based affinity diagram is a powerful tool for collaborative qualitative data analysis, but the present paper-based process has limitations. In this work we describe how users work with paper-based affinity diagrams as uncovered through a set of interviews with professionals who use the method. We also present an early prototype system to provide computer support for paper-based affinities.
A reference-based scoring model for increasing the findability of promising ideas in innovation pipelines BIBAFull-Text 1183-1186
  Anbang Xu; Brian Bailey
Idea pipelines enable open innovation within organizations but require the evaluation teams to assess large numbers of ideas. To help filter promising ideas, community voting is often included as part of the pipeline but the outcome of the voting rarely aligns with the ideas selected by the team. To address this problem, we introduce a new scoring model for increasing the findability of promising ideas within idea pipelines. In the model, each participant need only score a subset of the ideas, ideas are scored independently, and the individual scores can be aggregated. We tested the model on an authentic data set and found our model filters ideas chosen by an evaluation team better than community votes.
The power of the ask in social media BIBAFull-Text 1187-1190
  Rick Wash; Cliff Lampe
Social computing and social media systems depend on contributions from users. We posit the existence of a latent demand for contribution: many users want to contribute but don't. We then test a simple interface that can induce these users to actually contribute: we display a popup window asking users to contribute. In a real-world randomized field experiment, we found that asking them to contribute right now is ineffective, but reminding the users to contribute actually leads to approximately a 23% increase in contributions with no reduction in quality. However, this effect wanes as users habituate to the popups.
Collaborative workflow for crowdsourcing translation BIBAFull-Text 1191-1194
  Vamshi Ambati; Stephan Vogel; Jaime Carbonell
In this paper we explore the challenges in crowdsourcing the task of translation over the web in which remotely located translators work on providing translations independent of each other. We then propose a collaborative workflow for crowdsourcing translation to address some of these challenges. In our pipeline model, the translators are working in phases where output from earlier phases can be enhanced in the subsequent phases. We also highlight some of the novel contributions of the pipeline model like assistive translation and translation synthesis that can leverage monolingual and bilingual speakers alike. We evaluate our approach by eliciting translations for both a minority-to-majority language pair and a minority-to-minority language pair. We observe that in both scenarios, our workflow produces better quality translations in a cost-effective manner, when compared to the traditional crowdsourcing workflow.
Collaborative design of an oceanographic event logger BIBAFull-Text 1195-1198
  Brian Lindseth; Karen Baker
We report on an in-progress project to design a new field instrument used to link data collection and preservation practices across the gaps separating groups of oceanographic scientists engaged in interdisciplinary collaborations. Oceanographic cruises provide an important means for collecting data as an input for specific scientific investigations and for longer term efforts to make a wide range of environmental field data available for future scientific investigators. For both of these tasks, there is the need to perform the invisible work of identifying and resolving potential gaps and consistency issues in the data in order to make the data usable. The event logger system was designed to address these issues by associating every measurement on two organization's scientific cruises with a latitude, longitude, and time stamp. It is the finding of this ethnographic analysis that the event logger system has been successful to the extent that the design process has been able to incorporate a diverse range of voices into an open and collaborative activity.
Inflo: collaborative reasoning via open calculation graphs BIBAFull-Text 1199-1202
  Jonathan Lung; Steve Easterbrook
Inflo is a web tool that introduces new ways to collaboratively construct and deconstruct logical arguments drawn as visual dataflow graphs. Inflo graphs are dynamic: nodes are logical propositions that can contain computations based on other nodes. Inflo nodes and graphs have URLs, permitting sharing via blogs, e-mails, papers, etc. People can collaboratively construct, refine, and adapt/reuse arguments by making changes to shared nodes. Combining community-curated nodes and using Inflo's nodes for computation, back-of-the-envelope calculations can rapidly be made.

Distributed teams I

Predicting creativity in the wild: experience sample and sociometric modeling of teams BIBAFull-Text 1203-1212
  Priyamvada Tripathi; Winslow Burleson
Relationships between creativity in teamwork, and team members' movement and face-to-face interaction strength were investigated "in the wild" using sociometric badges (wearable sensors), electronic Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), the KEYS team creativity assessment instrument, and qualitative methods, in academic and industry settings. Activities (movement and face-to-face interaction) and creativity of one five-member and two seven-member teams were tracked for twenty-five days, eleven days, and fifteen days respectively. Paired-sample t-test confirmed average daily movement energy during creative days was significantly greater than on non-creative days and that face-to-face interaction tie strength of team members during creative days was significantly greater than for non-creative days. The combined approach of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) conducted on movement and face-to-face interaction data yielded a model that predicted creativity with 87.5% and 91% accuracy, respectively. Computational models that predict team creativity hold particular promise to enhance Creativity Support Tools.
ConvoCons: a tool for building affinity among distributed team members BIBAFull-Text 1213-1222
  Michael Oren; Stephen Gilbert
In this paper we present the result of a user interface designed to increase social affinity between two remote collaborators working on design tasks. The results suggest that the tool is successful in creating an overall affinity that is 14.6% higher than the control group without adding a significant difference in task completion time. Affinity is measured with a framework with demonstrated inter-rater reliability using codes assigned to specific conversational patterns and video recorded interactions. This research approach provides a platform for future work codifying affinity and trust among larger numbers of remote collaborators.
Facilitating the reuse process in distributed collaboration: a distributed cognition approach BIBAFull-Text 1223-1232
  Syavash Nobarany; Mona Haraty; Brian Fisher
Facilitating the reuse process and enabling unanticipated reuse can improve efficiency of distributed collaboration. However, supporting the reuse process in complex and dynamic contexts, where future use of information is difficult to predict, is challenging. Collaborative analytics exemplifies such a context. We employed distributed cognition theory to design a collaborative visual analytics system, called AnalyticStream, for facilitating reuse of analysis outcomes. In contrast with the commonly used detail-oriented approach to applying distributed cognition, we performed a high level analysis of the design situation and we identified the cognitive processes that could be distributed over people to facilitate their collaboration. We examined some of the ideas derived from the theoretical analysis, by designing a simple reminding process through recommending relevant pieces of analysis, as well as a mechanism for attention management through allowing users greater control over their shared activity streams. A mixed-methods study of AnalyticStream showed that suggesting relevant artefacts facilitated discovering and consequently reusing them, and provided context-relevant awareness of other analysts' activities.
Analyzing the structure of the emergent division of labor in multiparty collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1233-1236
  Noriko Suzuki; Tosirou Kamiya; Ichiro Umata; Sadanori Ito; Shoichiro Iwasawa
In our daily life, the interactive roles of leaders, followers, and coordinators tend to emerge from multiparty collaboration. The primary purpose of this study is to automatically predict the leading role in multiparty interaction by ubiquitous computing techniques. Even though the leading role has been predicted for an entire task, there has been little focus on evaluating how roles are reorganized during a task. To find the verbal and nonverbal cues that might predict roles, we asked neutral third parties to select the participant playing the leading role in an assembly task. We examined the correlation between behavioral data gathered during a task and third-party evaluations of the leading role player in terms of temporal alterations. The preliminary results suggest that task-oriented utterances and verification behaviors regarding progress status contribute to the prediction of the emerging and reorganized leader. Moreover, we discuss the implications of our findings for the design of applications that can enhance multiparty collaboration.

Distributed teams II

Awareness as an antidote to distance: making distributed groups cooperative and consistent BIBAFull-Text 1237-1246
  Alex "Sandy" Pentland; Pamela Hinds; Taemie Kim
Sociometric feedback visualizes social signals among group members to increase their awareness of their communication patterns. We deployed the Meeting Mediator, a real-time sociometric feedback system to groups participating in two rounds of a social dilemma task: in one round, all members were co-located and in the other round, the members were geographically distributed. Laboratory results show that the sociometric feedback successfully increases the speaking time and the frequency of turn transitions of groups that are initially distributed and later co-located, and also leads to a higher cooperation rate, increasing the overall earnings of these groups. In addition, the sociometric feedback helps groups have a more consistent pattern of behavior before and after a change in their geographic distribution.
   Therefore, the sociometric feedback influences the communication patterns of distributed groups and makes them more cooperative. Furthermore, the sociometric feedback helps groups sustain those patterns of communication even after a change in geographic distribution.
Distributed scientific group collaboration across biocontainment barriers BIBAFull-Text 1247-1256
  Jane Li; Toni Robertson; Christian Müller-Tomfelde
This paper reports the findings from a field study of distributed scientific collaboration within a national animal health laboratory. Collaboration in this setting is challenged by the need for biosecurity -- there are physical containment barriers between scientists and work groups and movement of people and other physical objects across the barriers requires extensive security procedures. The aim of the field study was to understand how the scientists communicate across the barriers, particularly how they share information and collaborate on its analysis. The findings reveal that the collaboration issues relate not just to the challenges caused by the containment barriers but also to the need for collaboration support between the scientists and their work groups irrespective of the barriers. The paper explains how these findings informed the design of the collaboration platform being installed and how more generic requirements of supporting collaboration over distance were configured and extended to meet the specific requirements of a very particular local setting.
Remote and alone: coping with being the remote member on the team BIBAFull-Text 1257-1266
  Benjamin Koehne; Patrick C. Shih; Judith S. Olson
Geographically distributed work has become a popular way to work. Past CSCW research has shown that remote workers rely on innovative communication platforms but still face challenges being remote. Research has also provided organizational and managerial strategies to bridge the distance gap. Our study in contrast investigates how individuals develop strategies to cope with the daily challenges of working remotely and alone, and what managers can do to help them. We interviewed seventeen individuals involved in remote work about their experiences, identifying unique challenges and their workarounds. Our interview results suggest that, although people may work alone, the process of conducting distributed work is actually very social. Individual remote workers establish a unique kind of work rhythm, visibility management for evaluation, social support infrastructure, and personal connection as a part of their coping strategies to balance their professional and personal lives.
As if being there: mediated reality for crime scene investigation BIBAFull-Text 1267-1276
  Ronald Poelman; Oytun Akman; Stephan Lukosch; Pieter Jonker
This paper presents a novel mediated reality system designed to support collaboration between crime scene investigators during a first analysis on a crime scene, remotely supported by expert colleagues. Requirements elicited from interviews and interactive sessions with practicing crime scene investigators, provided the design criteria for a head mounted display capable of real-time map-making for spatial collaboration. The resulting system is evaluated in a staged crime scene experiment in which lay investigators collaboratively solve a spatial problem with remote experts. The results show that our novel approach to remote spatial interaction with the physical scene enables investigators to tackle current issues on site in collaboration with experts at a distance.

Toolkits and software development

Social coding in GitHub: transparency and collaboration in an open software repository BIBAFull-Text 1277-1286
  Laura Dabbish; Colleen Stuart; Jason Tsay; Jim Herbsleb
Social applications on the web let users track and follow the activities of a large number of others regardless of location or affiliation. There is a potential for this transparency to radically improve collaboration and learning in complex knowledge-based activities. Based on a series of in-depth interviews with central and peripheral GitHub users, we examined the value of transparency for large-scale distributed collaborations and communities of practice. We find that people make a surprisingly rich set of social inferences from the networked activity information in GitHub, such as inferring someone else's technical goals and vision when they edit code, or guessing which of several similar projects has the best chance of thriving in the long term. Users combine these inferences into effective strategies for coordinating work, advancing technical skills and managing their reputation.
DiscoTech: a plug-in toolkit to improve handling of disconnection and reconnection in real-time groupware BIBAFull-Text 1287-1296
  Banani Roy; Nicholas Graham; Carl Gutwin
Disconnection and reconnection are common problems for users of synchronous groupware, but these problems are not easy for developers to handle because of the wide range of scenarios and timeframes that must be considered. We have developed a new toolkit called DiscoTech that helps programmers deal with disconnection. The toolkit is based on five design dimensions that determine how stored information can be manipulated as the system waits for an absent user to rejoin, and how information should be replayed upon reconnection. DiscoTech provides a plug-in architecture to handle a wide variety of behaviours that developers may need during disconnection; these plug-ins range from fully generic tools to customized strategies with full knowledge of the groupware application. We present the design of the DiscoTech toolkit, show examples of its use, and provide evidence that it covers a broad range of situations, imposes minimal performance overhead, and is easy for programmers to learn. DiscoTech handles a wider range of issues than previous toolkits, without requiring undue effort, and provides a practical way to improve the real-world usability of synchronous groupware.
Towards multi-domain collaborative toolkits BIBAFull-Text 1297-1306
  Jacob W. Bartel; Prasun Dewan
A multi-domain collaboration toolkit hides heterogeneity of user-interface toolkits and associated domains from both programmers and end users of collaborative, widget-synchronizing, applications. We have developed such a system for the stand-alone, Eclipse, and web domains; and the AWT, Swing, SWT, and GWT single-user toolkits associated with these domains. Several new concepts are supported to meet these requirements including a widget server allowing a distributed widget client to manipulate widgets on an interactive device, flexible widget synchronization, flexible placement of widget listeners, "piping" centralized non-interactive replicas communicating with interactive user replicas, factory-based retargeting of the user-interface toolkit, and a new process architecture.
CoRED: browser-based Collaborative Real-time Editor for Java web applications BIBAFull-Text 1307-1316
  Janne Lautamäki; Antti Nieminen; Johannes Koskinen; Timo Aho; Tommi Mikkonen; Marc Englund
While the users of completed applications are heavily moving from desktop to the web browser, the majority of developers are still working with desktop IDEs such as Eclipse or Visual Studio. In contrast to professional installable IDEs, current web-based code editors are simple text editors with extra features. They usually understand lexical syntax and can do highlighting and indenting, but lack many of the features seen in modern desktop editors. In this paper, we present CoRED, a browser-based collaborative real-time code editor for Java applications. CoRED is a complete Java editor with error checking and automatic code generation capabilities, extended with some features commonly associated with social media. As a proof of the concept, we have extended CoRED to support Java based Vaadin framework for web applications. Moreover, CoRED can be used either as a stand-alone version or as a component of any other software. It is already used as a part of browser based Arvue IDE.

Qualitative studies of software development I

To talk or not to talk: factors that influence communication around changesets BIBAFull-Text 1317-1326
  Adrian Schröter; Jorge Aranda; Daniela Damian; Irwin Kwan
Building tools to help software developers communicate effectively requires a deep understanding of their communication dynamics. To date we do not have good comprehension of why developers talk to each other as a result of some events in the life of their projects, and not of others. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult to design useful communication models and support systems.
   In this paper, we narrow down the study of communication behaviour to focus on interactions that occur as a result of a particular kind of project event: the submission of a changeset to the project repository. In a case study with the IBM® Rational® Team Concert development team we investigate which factors influence developers to request information about a changeset to their product. We identify several such factors, including the development mode in which the team is operating, the background and recent performance of the author of the changeset, and the risk that the changeset poses to the stability of the product. Incorporating these factors into recommender systems may lead to improvements in their performance.
Conflict detection and resolution for product line design in a collaborative decision making environment BIBAFull-Text 1327-1336
  Xiaoqing (Frank) Liu; Eric Christopher Barnes; Juha Erik Savolainen
Ensuring that the non-functional requirements (NFRs), of a system are satisfied is an essential task in software development. However, this task is complicated by the fact that many NFRs conflict with each other from multiple perspectives. It is essential to resolve conflicts collectively in a collaborative decision making process since stakeholders often disagree on how conflicts should be resolved. In this paper, we describe a method for dividing high-level NFR conflicts within a product line into more manageable sub-problems. Stakeholders make use of an argumentation based collaborative decision support system to determine which design alternatives provide the best trade-offs between NFRs. Finally, we present an empirical study in which the aforementioned system was used to resolve a single instance of an NFR conflict across 3 members of a product line. It shows that the system is effective in resolving conflicts in a collaborative decision process.
On the perceived interdependence and information sharing inhibitions of enterprise software engineers BIBAFull-Text 1337-1346
  Alicia M. Grubb; Andrew Begel
Software teams often have trouble coordinating shared work due to poor communication practices. We surveyed software engineers (N=989) at Microsoft to investigate three rarely explored aspects of coordination: (1) how an engineer's perception of dependence is predicted by his organizational characteristics, (2) how this perception differs when the dependence varies by the kinds of shared work artifacts, and (3) how the work group range affects the likelihood that an engineer will share information about work artifacts with another. Our results indicate that engineers tailor their communications about shared work for each group of intended recipients. This suggests that many existing coordination tools that rely on automatic mining and visualization of engineering activities have prevented senders from controlling the distribution of information about their work, and may have overestimated the receivers' abilities to comprehend it.
A sociotechnical exploration of infrastructural middleware development BIBAFull-Text 1347-1350
  Charlotte P. Lee; Matthew J. Bietz; Katie Derthick; Drew Paine
While previous CSCW research has noted that computer scientists have their own research interests pertaining to cyberinfrastructure development projects, most have focused on the research imperatives of scientists. This qualitative, interview-based study investigates the perspective of computer scientists developing middleware software for cyberinfrastructures at two supercomputing centers. This paper examines how technologists develop and sustain middleware applications over time by leveraging expertise and partnering with different research domains in order to achieve long-term infrastructural goals.

Qualitative studies of software development II

Proximity: a measure to quantify the need for developers' coordination BIBAFull-Text 1351-1360
  Sean Goggins; Kelly Blincoe; Giuseppe Valetto
We describe a method for determining coordination requirements in collaborative software development. Our method uses "live" data based on developer activity rather than relying on historical data such as source code commits which is prevalent in existing methods. We introduce proximity, a measure of the strength of the work dependencies that lead to coordination requirements among members of a software development organization. Our proximity measure relies on a tool which captures the interactions of a developer with her IDE. It quantifies the similarity between records of interactions of developers as they work on their assigned tasks. We describe an algorithm that measures proximity between pairs of tasks or pairs of developers. Through an empirical study on an open source project that routinely records environment interaction data, we show how proximity accurately determines coordination requirements. The proximity measure thus enables proactive detection of coordination requirements and makes possible real time intervention and coordination facilitation via management-, design- and team-related decisions.
Software reuse through methodical component reuse and amethodical snippet remixing BIBAFull-Text 1361-1370
  Kavita Philip; Medha Umarji; Megha Agarwala; Susan Elliott Sim; Rosalva Gallardo-Valencia; Cristina V. Lopes; Sukanya Ratanotayanon
Every method for developing software is a prescriptive model. Applying a deconstructionist analysis to methods reveals that there are two texts, or sets of assumptions and ideals: a set that is privileged by the method and a second set that is left out, or marginalized by the method. We apply this analytical lens to software reuse, a technique in software development that seeks to expedite one's own project by using programming artifacts created by others. By analyzing the methods prescribed by Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE), we arrive at two texts: Methodical CBSE and Amethodical Remixing. Empirical data from four studies on code search on the web draws attention to four key points of tension: status of component boundaries; provenance of source code; planning and process; and evaluation criteria for candidate code. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the implications of this work for the limits of methods, structure of organizations that reuse software, and the design of search engines for source code.
Information needs for integration decisions in the release process of large-scale parallel development BIBAFull-Text 1371-1380
  Shaun Phillips; Guenther Ruhe; Jonathan Sillito
Version control branching allows an organization to parallelize its development efforts. Releasing a software system developed in this manner requires release managers, and other project stakeholders, to make decisions about how to integrate the branched work. This group decision-making process becomes very complex in the case of large-scale parallel development. To better understand the information needs of release managers in this context, we conducted an interview study at a large software company. Our analysis of the interviews provides a view into how release managers make integration decisions, organized around ten key factors. Based on these factors, we discuss specific information needs for release managers and how the needs can be met in future work.
Interactional identity: designers and developers making joint work meaningful and effective BIBAFull-Text 1381-1390
  Judith M. Brown; Gitte Lindgaard; Robert Biddle
We studied collaborating interface designers and software developers engaged in multidisciplinary software creation work. Twenty-one designers and developers in 8 organizations were interviewed to understand how each specialist viewed team interactions. We also shadowed most participants as they worked on novel software projects with user interface design challenges. A grounded theory analysis of interview transcripts showed that designers and developers construct unique identities in the process of collaborating that provide meaning to their artefact-mediated interactions, and that help them to effectively accomplish the work of creating novel software. Our model of interactional identities specifies a number of aspects of joint project work in which an interactional identity is expressed. We suggest these identities are constructed to bridge a gap between how designers and developers were taught to enact their roles and the demands of project-specific work.

Achieving harmony through technology

Operational transformation for orthogonal conflict resolution in real-time collaborative 2d editing systems BIBAFull-Text 1391-1400
  Chengzheng Sun; Hongkai Wen; Hongfei Fan
Operational Transformation (OT) is commonly used for conflict resolution in real-time collaborative applications, but none of existing OT techniques is able to solve a special type of conflict -- orthogonal conflict, which may occur when concurrent operations are inserting/deleting an arbitrary number of objects in different dimensions of a two-dimensional (2D) workspace, such as spreadsheet documents. This paper is the first to identify and solve the orthogonal conflict problem by extending OT with a new capability of resolving 2D conflicts. Extending OT from one- to two-dimensional conflict resolution is fundamental to the theory and application of OT, and technically challenging as well because 2D orthogonal conflict is different from but intimately related to the one-dimensional positional shifting conflict and necessitates new and integral solutions for multi-dimensional conflicts. In this paper, we present formal definitions of orthogonal conflict, pseudo-code description, design rationale analysis, and correctness verification and complexity analysis of the 2DOT solution.
Operational transformation for dependency conflict resolution in real-time collaborative 3D design systems BIBAFull-Text 1401-1410
  A Agustina; Chengzheng Sun; Dong Xu
Conflict resolution is one major challenge in real-time distributed collaborative 3D design systems, which allow concurrent collaborative work on shared 3D documents. Operational Transformation (OT) is a core conflict resolution technique in a range of real-world collaborative systems. No existing OT technique is, however, capable of resolving conflicts among objects with dependency relations, i.e. an update of one object may propagate to other connected/dependent objects, which is commonly used in 3D or complex graphic design systems. This paper contributes a novel OT solution with such a capability for collaborative 3D design systems. This work is the first to extend OT capability to dependency conflict resolution, and OT application scope from 1D/2D to 3D applications, thus advancing the state-of-the-art of OT in both theory and practical application. The proposed solution has been theoretically verified for its correctness in detecting dependency conflicts and achieving consistent results, and implemented in the CoMaya collaborative design system.
Creative conflict resolution in realtime collaborative editing systems BIBAFull-Text 1411-1420
  David Sun; Chengzheng Sun; Steven Xia; Haifeng Shen
Conflict is common in collaboration, and may have both negative and positive effects on collaborative work. Past research has focused on controlling negative aspects of conflict by preventing, eliminating or isolating conflicts, but done little on exploring positive aspects of conflict. In this paper, we contribute a novel creative conflict resolution (CCR) approach to address these issues in real-time collaborative editing systems. In addition to maintaining consistency, the CCR approach is able to create new results from conflicts, generate alternative solutions based on collective effects of conflict operations, and support users to choose suitable conflict solutions and conflict resolution policies according to their needs. The CCR approach provides not only a new way of resolving conflicts in real-time collaborative editing systems, but also a framework for supporting a range of existing conflict resolution strategies. Techniques and user interface issues related to the CCR approach and a prototype implementation are discussed in this paper.
Towards self-optimizing collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 1421-1430
  Sasa Junuzovic; Prasun Dewan
Two important performance metrics in collaborative systems are local and remote response times. Previous analytical and simulation work has shown that these response times depend on three important factors: processing architecture, communication architecture, and scheduling of tasks dictated by these two architectures. We show that it is possible to create a system that improves response times by dynamically adjusting these three system parameters in response to changes to collaboration parameters such as new users joining and network delays changing. We present practical approaches for collecting collaboration parameters, computing multicast overlays, applying analytical models of previous work, preserving coupling semantics during optimizations, and keeping overheads low. Simulations and experiments show that the system improves performance in practical scenarios.