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CSCW Tables of Contents: 90929496980002040608101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-1

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Kori Inkpen; Carl Gutwin; John Tang
Location:Savannah, Georgia
Dates:2010-Feb-06 to 2010-Feb-10
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-795-8, 978-1-60558-795-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW10
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Won't get fooled again: honesty and trust online
  2. He said she said: analyzing interaction patterns
  3. Helping hands: communities and volunteers
  4. Meeting in the middle
  5. Wikipedia as a collaboration culture
  6. Wish you were here: communication in families
  7. Groupware technologies
  8. Me, us and them: affiliation, reputation and social media use
  9. Social software engineering
  10. Participating online
  11. Collaboration in place
  12. A bug's life: collaborative debugging
  13. Everyday healthcare
  14. Crossing cultures
  15. All in the family: living and playing together
  16. What's that?: collaborative visual sense-making
  17. Communication technologies for social inclusion

Won't get fooled again: honesty and trust online

"on my way": deceptive texting and interpersonal awareness narratives BIBAKFull-Text 1-4
  Jeremy Birnholtz; Jamie Guillory; Jeff Hancock; Natalya Bazarova
Managing one's availability for interaction with others is an increasingly complex act, involving multiple media and the sharing of many types of information. In this paper we draw on a field study of 183 SMS users to introduce the idea of the "interpersonal awareness narrative" -- the coherent, plausible and sometimes deceptive stories that people tell each other about their availability and activities. We examine participants' use of deception in these accounts, and focus in particular on "butler lies," those lies told to enter or exit conversations or to arrange other interactions. We argue that participants use this type of deception in SMS strategically, drawing on the inherent ambiguities of SMS while maintaining plausible narratives.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, deception, interpersonal awareness, sms, text messaging
Reading between the lines: linguistic cues to deception in online dating profiles BIBAKFull-Text 5-8
  Catalina L. Toma; Jeffrey T. Hancock
This study investigates whether deception in online dating profiles is detectable through a linguistic approach, which assumes that liars nonconsciously produce different word patterns than truth-tellers. We objectively measure deception in online dating profiles and analyze the linguistic composition of the open-ended component of the profile (i.e., "about me" section) using computerized text analysis. Results show that profile deceptions correlate with fewer self-references, increased negations, fewer negative emotion words and fewer overall words used in the textual self-description. Results are discussed in terms of (1) practical implications for detecting deception in online profiles; and (2) theoretical implications regarding the impact of media affordances (i.e., asynchronicity and editability) on the occurrence of linguistic cues to deception.
Keywords: deception, linguistic cues to deception, online dating, social networking sites
Warrants and deception in computer mediated communication BIBAKFull-Text 9-12
  Darcy Warkentin; Michael Woodworth; Jeffrey T. Hancock; Nicole Cormier
This article explores the operation of warrants, connections between online and real-world identities, on deceptive behavior in computer-mediated communication. A survey of 132 participants assessed three types of warrants (the use of a real name, a photo, and the presence of real-world acquaintances) in five different media: IM, Forums, Chat, Social Networking Sites (SNS) and Email. The effect of warrants on lies about demographic information (e.g., age, gender, education, etc.), one's interests (e.g., religion, music preferences, etc.), and the seriousness of lies was assessed. Overall, deception was observed most frequently in Chat and least often in SNS and Email. The relationship between warrants and deception was negative and linear, with warrants suppressing the frequency and seriousness of deception regardless of medium, although real-world acquaintances were especially powerful in constraining deception in SNS and emails.
Keywords: deception, warrant
Perceptions of trustworthiness online: the role of visual and textual information BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Catalina L. Toma
People increasingly rely on social networking websites to initiate personal and professional relationships. This requires that a considerable amount of trust be placed in strangers solely on the basis of their online profiles. This paper examines how the nature of online information affects how trustworthy online daters are perceived. Visual (i.e., photographs) and textual (i.e., "about me" section) information is considered. Results show that textual information elicits the highest ratings of trustworthiness, and that the addition of a photograph decreases daters' perceived trustworthiness. However, the accuracy of trustworthiness impressions is low regardless of the type of information available, because of a truth bias. Results are discussed in terms of (1) hyperpersonal impression formation and the nature of truth bias; and (2) practical implications for building trustworthiness online.
Keywords: accuracy of impressions, hyperpersonal model, impression formation, trustworthiness, truth bias

He said she said: analyzing interaction patterns

Social language network analysis BIBAKFull-Text 23-26
  Andrew J. Scholand; Yla R. Tausczik; James W. Pennebaker
In this note we introduce a new methodology that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to identify socially situated relationships between individuals, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized. We call this approach social language network analysis (SLNA). We describe the philosophical antecedents of SLNA, the mechanics of preprocessing, processing, and post-processing stages, and the results of applying this approach to a 15-month corporate discussion archive. These example results include an explicit mapping of both the perceived expertise hierarchy and the social support / friendship network within this group.
Keywords: communication, content analysis, group, network structure, social language processing, social network analysis
Notifications and awareness: a field study of alert usage and preferences BIBAKFull-Text 27-30
  Shamsi T. Iqbal; Eric Horvitz
Desktop notifications are designed to provide awareness of information while a user is attending to a primary task. Unfortunately the awareness can come with the price of disruption to the focal task. We review results of a field study on the use and perceived value of email notifications in the workplace. We recorded users' interactions with software applications for two weeks and studied how notifications or their forced absence influenced users' quest for awareness of new email arrival, as well as the impact of notifications on their overall task focus. Results showed that users view notifications as a mechanism to provide passive awareness rather than a trigger to switch tasks. Turing off notifications cause some users to self interrupt more to explicitly monitor email arrival, while others appear to be able to better focus on their tasks. Users acknowledge notifications as disruptive, yet opt for them because of their perceived value in providing awareness.
Keywords: interruption, notifications, task switching, workplace
Receptionist or information kiosk: how do people talk with a robot? BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Min Kyung Lee; Sara Kiesler; Jodi Forlizzi
The mental structures that people apply towards other people have been shown to influence the way people cooperate with others. These mental structures or schemas evoke behavioral scripts. In this paper, we explore two different scripts, receptionist and information kiosk, that we propose channeled visitors' interactions with an interactive robot. We analyzed visitors' typed verbal responses to a receptionist robot in a university building. Half of the visitors greeted the robot (e.g., "hello") prior to interacting with it. Greeting the robot significantly predicted a more social script: more relational conversational strategies such as sociable interaction and politeness, attention to the robot's narrated stories, self-disclosure, and less negative/rude behaviors. The findings suggest people's first words in interaction can predict their schematic orientation to an agent, making it possible to design agents that adapt to individuals during interaction. We propose designs for interactive computational agents that can elicit people's cooperation.
Keywords: agent, conversational interface, cooperation, design, dialogue, human-robot interaction, robot, schemas, scripts, social robots, speech interface
Same places, same things, same people?: mining user similarity on social media BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Ido Guy; Michal Jacovi; Adam Perer; Inbal Ronen; Erel Uziel
In this work we examine nine different sources for user similarity as reflected by activity in social media applications. We suggest a classification of these sources into three categories: people, things, and places. Lists of similar people returned by the nine sources are found to be highly different from each other as well as from the list of people the user is familiar with, suggesting that aggregation of sources may be valuable. Evaluation of the sources and their aggregates points at their usefulness across different scenarios, such as information discovery and expertise location, and also highlights sources and aggregates that are particularly valuable for inferring user similarity.
Keywords: social media, social networks, social software, user similarity

Helping hands: communities and volunteers

Interorganizational coordination and awareness in a nonprofit ecosystem BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Jennifer Stoll; W. Keith Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Nonprofit organizations working with high-risk vulnerable populations such as human trafficking victims often need to engage in a significant level of interorganizational collaboration. Given the importance for nonprofits to be able to work with many different organizations, and given the importance of awareness in initiating and facilitating such collaborations, we conducted a field study to explore existing practices around coordination and awareness across a specific ecosystem of nonprofit organizations. In this paper, we provide an in-depth reflection on interorganizational issues among a cross-section of nonprofits. We identify four aspects of the interorganizational context in which these nonprofits must operate, as well as challenges they may encounter. Our goal is to illuminate first steps towards finding appropriate technological solutions for supporting coordination and awareness between these organizations so they can be more effective in accomplishing their mission.
Keywords: awareness, collective action, interorganizational coordination, nonprofit organizations, social networks
Eliciting and focusing geographic volunteer work BIBAKFull-Text 61-70
  Reid Priedhorsky; Mikhil Masli; Loren Terveen
Open content communities such as wikis derive their value from the work done by users. However, a key challenge is to elicit work that is sufficient and focused where needed. We address this challenge in a geographic open content community, the Cyclopath bicycle route finding system. We devised two techniques to elicit and focus user work, one using familiarity to direct work opportunities and another visually highlighting them. We conducted a field experiment, finding that (a) the techniques succeeded in eliciting user work, (b) the distribution of work across users was highly unequal, and (c) user work benefitted the community (reducing the length of the average computed route by 1 kilometer).
Keywords: geographic volunteer work, geowiki, open content, volunteered geographic information, wiki
An empirical study of critical mass and online community survival BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Daphne R. Raban; Mihai Moldovan; Quentin Jones
There is general consensus that critical mass at inception ensures the sustained success of online communities. However, no clear understanding of what constitutes such a 'critical mass' exists and too few quantitative studies have been conducted into the relationship between initial online community interaction and its longer term success to draw any conclusions. In this paper we start to address this gap through a large-scale study of the relationship between IRC chat channel survival and initial chat channel community interactions. A sample 282 chat channel births was used for survival analysis which explored the relationship between the overall user activity in each channel at its inception and the channel's life expectancy. Significant relationships were observed between online community lifespan and critical mass measures: 1) message volume, 2) user population heterogeneity and 3) production functions. The results lend support to the Critical Mass Theory of collective action.
Keywords: chat, computer-mediated communication, critical mass, irc, online community system design, synchronous communication

Meeting in the middle

Lessons from thoughtswap-ing: increasing participants' coordinative agency in facilitated discussions BIBAKFull-Text 81-90
  Margaret Dickey-Kurdziolek; Matthew Schaefer; Deborah Tatar; Ian P. Renga
A successful collaborative tool designed to aid discussion must be flexible, maintain the user's coordinative agency, and be appropriable in many contexts. We have developed a tool, called ThoughtSwap, to help widen and deepen the scope of participation in facilitated discussions while supporting, not supplanting, discussants' coordination. By driving the design of ThoughtSwap toward a simpler mechanism, we were able to create a more versatile, high-impact tool. We design for an educational setting, but see wider possible use.
Keywords: classroom discussion, collocated discussion, coordinative agency, cscl, cscw
Throwing voices: the psychological impact of the spatial height of projected voices BIBAKFull-Text 91-94
  Leila Takayama; Clifford Nass
Communication mediating technologies are throwing our voices away from our bodies in situations ranging from voice conference meetings to mass presentations. Physical height is known to influence dominance in interactions between people. This study explores how audio projection technologies also influence dominance behaviors between people. In an exploratory 2 (between-participants: own voice location set spatially high vs. low) x 2 (within-participants: voice agent set spatially high vs. low) mixed-design experiment (N=64), we investigated the psychological effects of voice location upon collaborative decision-making interactions between people and voice agents. We found evidence that suggests the dominating effects of project voices' coming from above can be mitigated by hearing one's own voice projected from above.
Keywords: dominance, throwing voices, vocal height
Exploring spatialized audio & video for distributed conversations BIBAKFull-Text 95-98
  Kori Inkpen; Rajesh Hegde; Mary Czerwinski; Zhengyou Zhang
Previous work has demonstrated the benefits of spatial audio conferencing over monophonic when listening to a group conversation. In this paper we examined three-way distributed conversations while varying the presence of spatial video and audio. Our results demonstrate significant benefits to adding spatialized video to an audio conference. Specifically, users perceived that the conversations were of higher quality, they were more engaged, and they were better able to keep track of the conversation. In contrast, no significant benefits were found when mono audio was replaced by spatialized audio. The results of this work are important in that they provide strong evidence for continued exploration of spatialized video, and also suggest that the benefits of spatialized audio may have less of an impact when video is also spatialized.
Keywords: audio conferencing, collaboration, distributed meetings, spatial audio, spatial video, video conferencing
Catchup: a useful application of time-travel in meetings BIBAKFull-Text 99-102
  Simon Tucker; Ofer Bergman; Anand Ramamoorthy; Steve Whittaker
Previous work has demonstrated the benefits of spatial audio conferencing over monophonic when listening to a group conversation. In this paper we examined three-way distributed conversations while varying the presence of spatial video and audio. Our results demonstrate significant benefits to adding spatialized video to an audio conference. Specifically, users perceived that the conversations were of higher quality, they were more engaged, and they were better able to keep track of the conversation. In contrast, no significant benefits were found when mono audio was replaced by spatialized audio. The results of this work are important in that they provide strong evidence for continued exploration of spatialized video, and also suggest that the benefits of spatialized audio may have less of an impact when video is also spatialized.
Keywords: audio conferencing, collaboration, distributed meetings, spatial audio, spatial video, video conferencing
Idea expander: supporting group brainstorming with conversationally triggered visual thinking stimuli BIBAKFull-Text 103-106
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Dan Cosley; Susan R. Fussell
People are often required to catch up on information they have missed in meetings, because of lateness or scheduling conflicts. Catching up is a complex cognitive process where people try to understand the current conversation without access to prior discussion. We develop and evaluate a novel Catchup audio player that allows "time-travel". It automatically identifies the gist of what was missed, allowing people to join the meeting late and still participate effectively. In a lab study, we evaluated people's understanding of meetings they had partly missed, by asking questions about meeting content. We tested whether providing Catchup gist overcomes the potential disadvantage that people must join even later -- because catching up takes time. Catchup users understood meetings 70% better than controls who simply joined late. They were more confident of their understanding and indicated a positive attitude towards the tool. We are currently exploring more general applications of the time-travel approach.
Keywords: audio processing, catchup, gist extraction, meetings, teleconferencing, time travel

Wikipedia as a collaboration culture

Socialization tactics in wikipedia and their effects BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Boreum Choi; Kira Alexander; Robert E. Kraut; John M. Levine
Socialization of newcomers is critical both for conventional groups. It helps groups perform effectively and the newcomers develop commitment. However, little empirical research has investigated the impact of specific socialization tactics on newcomers' commitment to online groups. We examined WikiProjects, subgroups in Wikipedia organized around working on common topics or tasks. In study 1, we identified the seven socialization tactics used most frequently: invitations to join, welcome messages, requests to work on project-related tasks, offers of assistance, positive feedback on a new member's work, constructive criticism, and personal-related comments. In study 2, we examined their impact on newcomers' commitment to the project. Whereas most newcomers contributed fewer edits over time, the declines were slowed or reversed for those socialized with welcome messages, assistance, and constructive criticism. In contrast, invitations led to steeper declines in edits. These results suggest that different socialization tactics play different roles in socializing new members in online groups compared to offline ones.
Keywords: socialization, wikipedia, wikiproject
The work of sustaining order in wikipedia: the banning of a vandal BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  R. Stuart Geiger; David Ribes
In this paper, we examine the social roles of software tools in the English-language Wikipedia, specifically focusing on autonomous editing programs and assisted editing tools. This qualitative research builds on recent research in which we quantitatively demonstrate the growing prevalence of such software in recent years. Using trace ethnography, we show how these often-unofficial technologies have fundamentally transformed the nature of editing and administration in Wikipedia. Specifically, we analyze "vandal fighting" as an epistemic process of distributed cognition, highlighting the role of non-human actors in enabling a decentralized activity of collective intelligence. In all, this case shows that software programs are used for more than enforcing policies and standards. These tools enable coordinated yet decentralized action, independent of the specific norms currently in force.
Keywords: bots, collaboration, distributed cognition, ethnography, qualitative, social, trace ethnography, wiki, wikipedia
Readers are not free-riders: reading as a form of participation on wikipedia BIBAKFull-Text 127-130
  Judd Antin; Coye Cheshire
The success of Wikipedia as a large-scale collaborative effort has spurred researchers to examine the motivations and behaviors of Wikipedia's participants. However, this research has tended to focus on active involvement rather than more common forms of participation such as reading. In this paper we argue that Wikipedia's readers should not all be characterized as free-riders -- individuals who knowingly choose to take advantage of others' effort. Furthermore, we illustrate how readers provide a valuable service to Wikipedia. Finally, we use the notion of legitimate peripheral participation to argue that reading is a gateway activity through which newcomers learn about Wikipedia. We find support for our arguments in the results of a survey of Wikipedia usage and knowledge. Implications for future research and design are discussed.
Keywords: free-riding, incomplete information, motivation, participation, social computing, wikipedia
Egalitarians at the gate: one-sided gatekeeping practices in social media BIBAKFull-Text 131-134
  Brian Keegan; Darren Gergle
Although Wikipedia has increasingly attracted attention for its in-depth and timely coverage of breaking news stories, the social dynamics of how Wikipedia editors process breaking news items has not been systematically examined. Through a 3-month study of 161 deliberations over whether a news item should appear on Wikipedia's front page, we demonstrate that elite users fulfill a unique gatekeeping role that permits them to leverage their community position to block the promotion of inappropriate items. However, these elite users are unable to promote their supported news items more effectively than other types of editors. These findings suggest that "one-sided gatekeeping" may reflect a crucial stasis in social media where the community has to balance the experience of its elite users while encouraging contributions from non-elite users.
Keywords: collaboration, decision-making, deliberation, gatekeeping, social computing, wiki, wikipedia

Wish you were here: communication in families

Home video communication: mediating 'closeness' BIBAKFull-Text 135-144
  David S. Kirk; Abigail Sellen; Xiang Cao
Video-mediated communication (VMC) technologies are becoming rapidly adopted by home users. Little research has previously been conducted into why home users would choose to use VMC or their practices surrounding its use. We present the results of an interview and diary-based study of 17 people about their uses of, and attitudes towards, VMC. We highlight the artful ways in which users appropriate VMC to reconcile a desire for closeness with those with whom they communicate, and we explore the rich ways in which VMC supports different expressions of this desire. We conclude with discussions of how next-generation VMC technologies might be designed to take advantage of this understanding of human values in communicative practice.
Keywords: home users, video-mediated communication, vmc
Making love in the network closet: the benefits and work of family videochat BIBAKFull-Text 145-154
  Morgan G. Ames; Janet Go; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Mirjana Spasojevic
In this paper, we explore the benefits of videochat for families and the corresponding work that home users engage in to make a video call run smoothly. We explore the varieties of social work required, including coordination work, presentation work, behavioral work, and scaffolding work, as well as the technical work necessary. We outline the benefits families enjoy for doing this work and discuss the ways in which families use videochat to reinforce their identity as a family and reinforce their family values, in effect making -- as in creating -- love. We conclude with recommendations for improving videochat and for designing with family values in mind more generally.
Keywords: family, home, home networking, identity, values, video, videochat, videoconferencing
Understanding family communication across time zones BIBAKFull-Text 155-158
  Xiang Cao; Abigail Sellen; A. J. Bernheim Brush; David Kirk; Darren Edge; Xianghua Ding
Nowadays it has become increasingly common for family members to be distributed in different time zones. These time differences pose specific challenges for communication within the family and result in different communication practices to cope with them. To gain an understanding of current challenges and practices, we interviewed people who regularly communicate with immediate family members living in other time zones. We report primary findings from the interviews, and identify design opportunities for improving the experience of cross time zone family communication.
Keywords: family communication, time difference

Groupware technologies

A sequence transformation algorithm for supporting cooperative work on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 159-168
  Bin Shao; Du Li; Ning Gu
Operational transformation (OT) is a promising technique for supporting collaboration using mobile devices because it allows users to work on local data replicas even in a disconnected mode. However, as work goes mobile, a large number of operations may accumulate, defying the capacity of current OT algorithms that are mostly designed for real-time group editing. Since their assumption is that operations are propagated frequently, they generally only address how to integrate one remote operation at a time. As a consequence, most algorithms take O(|H|2) to integrate one operation and thus O(|H|3) to integrate a long sequence, where H is the operation history. This paper proposes a novel algorithm that provides optimized transformation of long sequences, improving the time complexity to O(|H|). Our experiments will show that it takes 59 minutes in a recent algorithm versus 1.5 seconds in this work to integrate two long sequences on a mobile device. The performance improvement is critical towards achieving desired responsiveness and group productivity in a class of mobile collaborative applications.
Keywords: collaborative applications, data consistency, group editing, mobile computing, operational transformation
Multiple mouse text entry for single-display groupware BIBAKFull-Text 169-178
  Saleema Amershi; Meredith Ringel Morris; Neema Moraveji; Ravin Balakrishnan; Kentaro Toyama
A recent trend in interface design for classrooms in developing regions has many students interacting on the same display using mice. Text entry has emerged as an important problem preventing such mouse-based single-display groupware systems from offering compelling interactive activities. We explore the design space of mouse-based text entry and develop 13 techniques with novel characteristics suited to the multiple mouse scenario. We evaluated these in a 3-phase study over 14 days with 40 students in 2 developing region schools. The results show that one technique effectively balanced all of our design dimensions, another was most preferred by students, and both could benefit from augmentation to support collaborative interaction. Our results also provide insights into the factors that create an optimal text entry technique for single-display groupware systems.
Keywords: children, education, ictd, multiple mouse, sdg, text entry
Gone but not forgotten: designing for disconnection in synchronous groupware BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Carl Gutwin; T. C. Nicholas Graham; Chris Wolfe; Nelson Wong; Brian de Alwis
Synchronous groupware depends on the assumption that people are fully connected to the others in the group, but there are many situations (network delay, network outage, or explicit departure) where users are disconnected for various periods. There is little research dealing with disconnection in synchronous groupware from a user and application perspective; as a result, most current groupware systems do not handle disconnection events well, and several user-level problems occur. To address this limitation, we developed the Disco framework, a model for handling several types of disconnection in synchronous groupware. The framework considers how disconnections are identified, what senders and receivers should do during an absence, and what should be done with accumulated data upon reconnection. We have implemented the framework in three applications that show the feasibility, generality, and functionality of our ideas. Our framework is the first to deal with a full range of disconnection issues for synchronous groupware, and shows how groupware can better support the realities of distributed collaboration.
Keywords: disconnection, groupware design, network connectivity

Me, us and them: affiliation, reputation and social media use

Is it really about me?: message content in social awareness streams BIBAKFull-Text 189-192
  Mor Naaman; Jeffrey Boase; Chih-Hui Lai
In this work we examine the characteristics of social activity and patterns of communication on Twitter, a prominent example of the emerging class of communication systems we call "social awareness streams." We use system data and message content from over 350 Twitter users, applying human coding and quantitative analysis to provide a deeper understanding of the activity of individuals on the Twitter network. In particular, we develop a content-based categorization of the type of messages posted by Twitter users, based on which we examine users' activity. Our analysis shows two common types of user behavior in terms of the content of the posted messages, and exposes differences between users in respect to these activities.
Keywords: communication systems, social media, twitter
Student athletes on facebook BIBAKFull-Text 193-196
  Cliff Lampe; Nicole B. Ellison
Student athletes at U.S. universities are bound by rules affecting their participation in their sport and are highly visible to their fellow students and a larger public of fans. This difference makes them more likely than other students to be sensitive to issues of impression management and use of social network sites (SNSs). In this paper, we show how student athletes at a large university engage with the social network site Facebook compared with their fellow students, including differences in the size of their networks, reported uses of the site, and perceptions about their audience. This work shows that while student athletes have a higher anticipation of being watched, they have similar uses and concerns compared to other students.
Keywords: facebook, social network sites, student athletes
Sending mixed signals: multilevel reputation effects in peer-to-peer lending markets BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Benjamin C. Collier; Robert Hampshire
Online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending organizations enable an individual to obtain an unsecured loan from a collection of individuals without the participation of a bank. Previous research has addressed the use of reputation systems to reduce information asymmetry based on individual history within online markets. Within the last few years one of the market leaders in P2P lending, Prosper.com, has sought to replace the information vetting and monitoring typically done by the bank with a community of users free to select its community members based on any criteria it chooses. By embedding individual reputations within a community reputation, incentives become aligned for peers to select highly qualified borrowers and produce more costly information signals to reduce the adverse selection and moral hazard risk typical of any principle-agent relationship. This study draws on theory from the Principle-Agent perspective to empirically examine the signals that enhance community reputation.
Keywords: hierarchical linear model, online communities, online markets, peer-to-peer lending, reputation system, signaling theory

Social software engineering

API peer reviews: a method for evaluating usability of application programming interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 207-210
  Umer Farooq; Dieter Zirkler
API usability tests in the lab are time and resource intensive, thus allowing a relatively small percentage of the API namespace to be evaluated. We describe a group-based usability inspection method -- API Peer Reviews -- to evaluate API usability. Based on an analysis of usability breakdowns from API Peer Reviews and API usability tests, results show that API Peer Reviews identified breakdowns across several cognitive dimensions, some of which were different than what was identified by API usability tests. We reflect on the adoption of API Peer Reviews as a collaborative practice in organizations for evaluating API usability.
Keywords: api usability, cognitive dimensions, usability inspection
Are you having difficulty? BIBAKFull-Text 211-214
  Jason Carter; Prasun Dewan
It would be useful if software engineers/instructors could be aware that remote team members/students are having difficulty with their programming tasks. We have developed an approach that tries to automatically create this semantic awareness based on developers' interactions with the programming environment, which is extended to log these interactions and allow the developers to train or supervise the algorithm by explicitly indicating they are having difficulty. Based on the logs of six programmers, we have found that our approach has high accuracy.
Keywords: context aware computing, help, machine learning
Beyond Wikipedia: coordination and conflict in online production groups BIBAKFull-Text 215-224
  Aniket Kittur; Robert E. Kraut
Online production groups have the potential to transform the way that knowledge is produced and disseminated. One of the most widely used forms of online production is the wiki, which has been used in domains ranging from science to education to enterprise. We examined the development of and interactions between coordination and conflict in a sample of 6811 wiki production groups. We investigated the influence of four coordination mechanisms: intra-article communication, inter-user communication, concentration of workgroup structure, and policy and procedures. We also examined the growth of conflict, finding the density of users in an information space to be a significant predictor. Finally, we analyzed the effectiveness of the four coordination mechanisms on managing conflict, finding differences in how each scaled to large numbers of contributors. Our results suggest that coordination mechanisms effective for managing conflict are not always the same as those effective for managing task quality, and that designers must take into account the social benefits of coordination mechanisms in addition to their production benefits.
Keywords: collaboration, collective intelligence, conflict, coordination, distributed cognition, online production, social computing, wiki, wikipedia

Participating online

Understanding deja reviewers BIBAKFull-Text 225-228
  Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios
People who review products on the web invest considerable time and energy in what they write. So why would someone write a review that restates earlier reviews? Our work looks to answer this question. In this paper, we present a mixed-method study of deja reviewers, latecomers who echo what other people said. We analyze nearly 100,000 Amazon.com reviews for signs of repetition and find that roughly 10-15% of reviews substantially resemble previous ones. Using these algorithmically-identified reviews as centerpieces for discussion, we interviewed reviewers to understand their motives. An overwhelming number of reviews partially explains deja reviews, but deeper factors revolving around an individual's status in the community are also at work. The paper concludes by introducing a new idea inspired by our findings: a self-aware community that nudges members toward community-wide goals.
Keywords: ecommerce, online communities, product reviews, reviewing communities, text processing
On the "localness" of user-generated content BIBAKFull-Text 229-232
  Brent J. Hecht; Darren Gergle
The "localness" of participation in repositories of user-generated content (UGC) with geospatial components has been cited as one of UGC's greatest benefits. However, the degree of localness in major UGC repositories such as Flickr and Wikipedia has never been examined. We show that over 50 percent of Flickr users contribute local information on average, and over 45 percent of Flickr photos are local to the photographer. Across four language editions of Wikipedia, however, we find that participation is less local. We introduce the spatial content production model (SCPM) as a possible factor in the localness of UGC, and discuss other theoretical and applied implications.
Keywords: flickr, local, multilingual, user behavior, user-generated content, volunteered geographic information, wikipedia
Determinants of wikipedia quality: the roles of global and local contribution inequality BIBAKFull-Text 233-236
  Ofer Arazy; Oded Nov
The success of Wikipedia and the relative high quality of its articles seem to contradict conventional wisdom. Recent studies have begun shedding light on the processes contributing to Wikipedia's success, highlighting the role of coordination and contribution inequality. In this study, we expand on these works in two ways. First, we make a distinction between global (Wikipedia-wide) and local (article-specific) inequality and investigate both constructs. Second, we explore both direct and indirect effects of these inequalities, exposing the intricate relationships between global inequality, local inequality, coordination, and article quality. We tested our hypotheses on a sample of a Wikipedia articles using structural equation modeling and found that global inequality exerts significant positive impact on article quality, while the effect of local inequality is indirect and is mediated by coordination.
Keywords: contribution inequality, coordination, global inequality, information quality, local inequality, wikipedia
Inspired by the audience: a topic suggestion system for blog writers and readers BIBAKFull-Text 237-240
  Werner Geyer; Casey Dugan
Employee blogging has benefits both for individuals and the organization. In order to inspire the creation of blog posts, we developed a novel topic suggestion system that connects blog readers with blog writers through sharing topics of interest. We describe our system and the results from an employee survey that informed its design.
Keywords: blog, participation, recommendations, social software
Chatter on the red: what hazards threat reveals about the social life of microblogged information BIBAKFull-Text 241-250
  Kate Starbird; Leysia Palen; Amanda L. Hughes; Sarah Vieweg
This paper considers a subset of the computer-mediated communication (CMC) that took place during the flooding of the Red River Valley in the US and Canada in March and April 2009. Focusing on the use of Twitter, a microblogging service, we identified mechanisms of information production, distribution, and organization. The Red River event resulted in a rapid generation of Twitter communications by numerous sources using a variety of communications forms, including autobiographical and mainstream media reporting, among other types. We examine the social life of microblogged information, identifying generative, synthetic, derivative and innovative properties that sustain the broader system of interaction. The landscape of Twitter is such that the production of new information is supported through derivative activities of directing, relaying, synthesizing, and redistributing, and is additionally complemented by socio-technical innovation. These activities comprise self-organization of information.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, crisis informatics, disaster, emergency, microblogging, risk communication

Collaboration in place

Telling the whole story: anticipation, inspiration and reputation in a field deployment of TellTable BIBAKFull-Text 251-260
  Xiang Cao; Siân E. Lindley; John Helmes; Abigail Sellen
We present a field study of TellTable, a new storytelling system designed to support creativity and collaboration amongst children. The application was deployed on a multi-touch interactive table in the library of a primary school, where children could use it to create characters and scenery based on elements of the physical world (captured through photography) as well as through drawing. These could then be used to record a story which could be played back. TellTable allowed children to collaborate in devising stories that mixed the physical and the digital in creative ways and that could include themselves as characters. Additionally, the field deployment illustrated how children took inspiration from one another's stories, how they planned elements of their own tales before using the technology, and how the fact that stories could be accessed in the library led some to become well-known and popular within the school community. The real story here, we argue, needs to take into account all that happens within the wider context of use of this system.
Keywords: children, collaboration, community, creativity, field studies, interactive tabletop, play, sharing, storytelling
Opening up the family archive BIBAKFull-Text 261-270
  David S. Kirk; Shahram Izadi; Abigail Sellen; Stuart Taylor; Richard Banks; Otmar Hilliges
The Family Archive device is an interactive multi-touch tabletop technology with integrated capture facility for the archiving of sentimental artefacts and memorabilia. It was developed as a technology probe to help us open up current family archiving practices and to explore family archiving in situ. We detail the deployment and study of three of these devices in family homes and discuss how deploying a new, potentially disruptive, technology can foreground the social relations and organizing systems in domestic life. This in turn facilitates critical reflection on technology design.
Keywords: archiving, collaboration, domestic life, field study, home, interactive tabletops
Three's company: understanding communication channels in three-way distributed collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 271-280
  Anthony Tang; Michel Pahud; Kori Inkpen; Hrvoje Benko; John C. Tang; Bill Buxton
We explore the design of a system for three-way collaboration over a shared visual workspace, specifically in how to support three channels of communication: person, reference, and task-space. In two studies, we explore the implications of extending designs intended for dyadic collaboration to three-person groups, and the role of each communication channel. Our studies illustrate the utility of multiple configurations of users around a distributed workspace, and explore the subtleties of traditional notions of identity, awareness, spatial metaphor, and corporeal embodiments as they relate to three-way collaboration.
Keywords: media space, shared workspace, tabletop, video-mediated communication

A bug's life: collaborative debugging

Sources of errors in distributed development projects: implications for collaborative tools BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Marcelo Cataldo
An important dimension of success in development projects is the quality of the new product. Researchers have primarily concentrated on developing and evaluating processes to reduce errors and mistakes and, consequently, achieve higher levels of quality. However, little attention has been given to other factors that have a significant impact on enabling development organizations carry the numerous development activities with minimal errors. In this paper, we examined the relative role of multiple sources of errors such as experience, geographic distribution, technical properties of the product and projects' time pressure. Our empirical analyses of 209 development projects showed that all four categories of sources of errors are quite relevant. We dis-cussed those results in terms of their implications for improving collaborative tools to support distributed development projects.
Keywords: collaborative tools, concurrent engineering, dependencies, distributed development, errors, experience
Communication, collaboration, and bugs: the social nature of issue tracking in small, collocated teams BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Dane Bertram; Amy Voida; Saul Greenberg; Robert Walker
Issue tracking systems help organizations manage issue reporting, assignment, tracking, resolution, and archiving. Traditionally, it is the Software Engineering community that researches issue tracking systems, where software defects are reported and tracked as 'bug reports' within an archival database. Yet, as issue tracking is fundamentally a social process, it is important to understand the design and use of issue tracking systems from that perspective. Consequently, we conducted a qualitative study of issue tracking systems as used by small, collocated software development teams. We found that an issue tracker is not just a database for tracking bugs, features, and inquiries, but also a focal point for communication and coordination for many stakeholders within and beyond the software team. Customers, project managers, quality assurance personnel, and programmers all contribute to the shared knowledge and persistent communication that exists within the issue tracking system. These results were all the more striking because in spite of teams being collocated -- which afforded frequent, face-to-face communication -- the issue tracker was still used as a fundamental communication channel. We articulate various real-world practices surrounding issue trackers and offer design considerations for future systems.
Keywords: issue tracking, shared knowledge, software engineering
Information needs in bug reports: improving cooperation between developers and users BIBAKFull-Text 301-310
  Silvia Breu; Rahul Premraj; Jonathan Sillito; Thomas Zimmermann
For many software projects, bug tracking systems play a central role in supporting collaboration between the developers and the users of the software. To better understand this collaboration and how tool support can be improved, we have quantitatively and qualitatively analysed the questions asked in a sample of 600 bug reports from the MOZILLA and ECLIPSE projects. We categorised the questions and analysed response rates and times by category and project. Our results show that the role of users goes beyond simply reporting bugs: their active and ongoing participation is important for making progress on the bugs they report. Based on the results, we suggest four ways in which bug tracking systems can be improved.
Keywords: bug reports, information needs, question time, questions, response rate, response time

Everyday healthcare

Invisible emotion: information and interaction in an emergency room BIBAKFull-Text 311-320
  Helena M. Mentis; Madhu Reddy; Mary Beth Rosson
Emotions are an often overlooked aspect of work since they are not included in formal work models. However, they continue provide critical information as well as be part of a rich social context for action. The following study focuses on the expression of emotions within the context of a particular work environment -- an emergency room -- and highlights how it is used, why it is invisible in the work, and how it continues to persist through workarounds. These workarounds provide indications towards the design of sociotechnical systems to continue to support the expression of invisible emotions.
Keywords: articulation work, documentation, emotion expressions, ER, healthcare
Understanding together: sensemaking in collaborative information seeking BIBAKFull-Text 321-330
  Sharoda A. Paul; Madhu C. Reddy
An important aspect of collaborative information seeking (CIS) is making sense of the information found, i.e., collaborative sensemaking. We conducted an ethnographic study of the CIS practices of healthcare providers in a hospital emergency department to gain a conceptual understanding of when and how collaborative sensemaking occurs during CIS activities. We present occasions and characteristics of collaborative sensemaking and design implications for collaborative information retrieval tools to support sensemaking.
Keywords: collaborative information seeking, collaborative sensemaking, emergency department, healthcare
Why the plan doesn't hold: a study of situated planning, articulation and coordination work in a surgical ward BIBAFull-Text 331-340
  Jakob E. Bardram; Thomas Riisgaard Hansen
Most studies of plans and situated work have applied ethnographic methods and thus fail to provide any quantitative insight into the extent of this phenomenon. We present a study of planning and executing operations in an operating suite. Quantitative analysis of log data reveals the extent to which operation schedules are carried out as planned, and qualitative studies reveal the reasons behind changes to the plan, the consequences of such changes, and the strategies used to cope with them. 67% of the plan is changed and only 56% of all operations are planned ahead. We discuss how operation schedules are subject to "continuous planning", and how this needs to be supported by technology.

Crossing cultures

What's it worth to you?: the costs and affordances of CMC tools to Asian and American users BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Leslie D. Setlock; Susan R. Fussell
In recent years, a growing number of studies examining how culture shapes computer-mediated communication (CMC) have appeared in the CHI and CSCW literature. Findings from these studies reveal that cultural differences exist, but no clear underlying explanation can account for results across studies. We describe several limitations of the theoretical frameworks used to motivate many of the prior studies over the past decade, most notably the assumption that tasks and media used in these studies are perceived similarly by participants from different cultural backgrounds. We then describe an interview study in which we asked 22 participants from America, Korea, India and China about their perceptions of media and motivations for media choices in different hypothetical settings. The results suggest cultural differences in how media are perceived, specifically, that the ability for media to support social in addition to task processes is more important for participants from China, Korea and India than for participants from the U.S. We conclude with some recommendations for enhancing CMC theories to account for cultural differences.
Keywords: cmc, collaborative work, computer-mediated communication, cultural differences, intercultural collaboration
Groups in groups: conversational similarity in online multicultural multiparty brainstorming BIBAKFull-Text 351-360
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Susan Fussell
Online collaboration, in comparison to face-to-face collaboration, is advantageous in making multiparty teamwork possible at a very low cost. As multicultural multiparty collaboration becomes ubiquitous, it is crucial to understand how communication processes are shaped in the social and media environments that computer-mediated communication affords. We conducted a laboratory study investigating how different types of cultural asymmetry in group composition (Chinese of the majority versus American of the majority) and communication media (text-only versus video-enabled chatroom) influence conversational similarity between Chinese and Americans. The paper presents an analysis identifying that the selection of media and the cultural composition of the group jointly shape intercultural conversational closeness.
Keywords: communication accommodation, computer-mediated communication, cross-cultural communication, group brainstorming, multiparty teamwork
Street fighter IV: braggadocio off and on-line BIBAKFull-Text 361-370
  Norman Makoto Su
In its heyday, the video arcade was a social scene to prove one's video gaming prowess. The introduction of a revolutionary head-to-head fighting game called "Street Fighter II" in 1991 ushered in an era of competitive video gaming with unparalleled complexity. An influx of copy-cat games and the arrival of consoles with capabilities rivaling coin-ops led to the arcade's demise. However, the release of "Street Fighter IV" (SF4) has brought about a revival. I report on the cultural practices of hardcore gaming that have revolved around SF4. SF4's release on both the console (which enables fighting others online) and the arcade has engendered a new set of challenges in constructing what it means to be competitive and legitimate in the world of head-to-head fighting games. I observe that the "enrolment" of an ecology of technological artifacts allows players to translate braggadocio from the arcade, a central phenomenon in competitive gaming.
Keywords: discourse analysis, fighting games, gaming culture, hype, street fighter iv, trash talking, video arcade, video games

All in the family: living and playing together

The individual and the group in console gaming BIBAKFull-Text 371-380
  Amy Voida; Sheelagh Carpendale; Saul Greenberg
In this paper, we present results from a study of collocated group console gaming. We focus, in particular, on observed gaming practices that emphasized the individual gamer within a gaming group as well as practices that emphasized the gaming group as a whole. We relate each of these practices, where possible, to specific elements of the game design including game mechanics, interaction design, and special effects design. We argue that the classic distinction between competitive and cooperative modes of gameplay does not fully transfer to account for the interpersonal dynamics within collocated gaming groups.
Keywords: console games, gamecube, playstation, PS2, PS3, video games, Wii, Xbox360
The roles that make the domestic work BIBAKFull-Text 381-390
  Jennifer A. Rode
This paper builds on earlier CSCW studies of domestic technologies, looking at the frequent maintenance required by new security technologies that households are adopting to provide safety and security. It explores how the roles and responsibilities are allocated within a household to support these domestic routines. This paper reports a qualitative study of usage practices surrounding safety and security. It classifies three primary approaches to computer security in the home, and discusses how technical skill, household structure and gender relate to the approach selected, and discuss the transitory nature of such arrangements.
Keywords: ethnography, gender, security
Sonic souvenirs: exploring the paradoxes of recorded sound for family remembering BIBAKFull-Text 391-400
  Lina Dib; Daniela Petrelli; Steve Whittaker
Many studies have explored social processes and technologies associated with sharing photos. In contrast, we explore the role of sound as a medium for social reminiscing. We involved 10 families in recording 'sonic souvenirs' of their holidays. They shared and discussed their collections on their return. We compared these sounds with their photo taking activities and reminiscences. Both sounds and pictures triggered active collaborative reminiscing, and attempts to capture iconic representations of events. However sounds differed from photos in that they were more varied, familial and creative. Further, they often expressed the negative or mundane in order to be 'true to life', and were harder to interpret than photos. Finally we saw little use of pure explanatory narrative. We reflect on the relations between sound and family memory and propose new designs on the basis of our findings, to better support the sharing and manipulation of social sounds.
Keywords: collaborative remembering, collective memory, families, fieldwork, photos, sounds

What's that?: collaborative visual sense-making

WeSearch: supporting collaborative search and sensemaking on a tabletop display BIBAKFull-Text 401-410
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Jarrod Lombardo; Daniel Wigdor
Groups of users often have shared information needs -- for example, business colleagues need to conduct research relating to joint projects and students must work together on group homework assignments. In this paper, we introduce WeSearch, a collaborative Web search system designed to leverage the benefits of tabletop displays for face-to-face collaboration and organization tasks. We describe the design of WeSearch and explain the interactions it affords. We then describe an evaluation in which eleven groups used WeSearch to conduct real collaborative search tasks. Based on our study's findings, we analyze the effectiveness of the features introduced by WeSearch.
Keywords: collaborative search, interactive tables, sensemaking, surface computing, tabletop computing, web search
Pitfalls of information access with visualizations in remote collaborative analysis BIBAKFull-Text 411-420
  Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Susan R. Fussell; Sara Kiesler; Aniket Kittur
In a world of widespread information access, information can overwhelm collaborators, even with visualizations to help. We extend prior work to study the effect of shared information on collaboration. We analyzed the success and discussion process of remote pairs trying to identify a serial killer in multiple crime cases. Each partner had half of the evidence, or each partner had all the available evidence. Pairs also used one of three tools: spreadsheet only (control condition), unshared visualizations, or shared visualization. Visualizations improved analysis over the control condition but this improvement depended on how much evidence each partner had. When each partner possessed all the evidence with visualizations, discussion flagged and pairs showed evidence of more confirmation bias. They discussed fewer hypotheses and persisted on the wrong hypothesis. We discuss the possible reasons for this phenomenon and implications for design of remote collaboration systems to incorporate awareness of intermediate processes important to collaborative success.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, confirmation bias, empirical studies, experiment, information overload, information sharing, information visualization
Pictionaire: supporting collaborative design work by integrating physical and digital artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 421-424
  Björn Hartmann; Meredith Ringel Morris; Hrvoje Benko; Andrew D. Wilson
This paper introduces an interactive tabletop system that enhances creative collaboration across physical and digital artifacts. Pictionaire offers capture, retrieval, annotation, and collection of visual material. It enables multiple designers to fluidly move imagery from the physical to the digital realm; work with found, drawn and captured imagery; organize items into functional collections; and record meeting histories. These benefits are made possible by a large interactive table augmented with high-resolution overhead image capture. Summative evaluations with 16 professionals and four student pairs validated discoverability and utility of interactions, uncovered emergent functionality, and suggested opportunities for transitioning content to and from the table.
Keywords: design tools, surface computing, tangible interaction

Communication technologies for social inclusion

Social use of computer-mediated communication by adults on the autism spectrum BIBAKFull-Text 425-434
  Moira Burke; Robert Kraut; Diane Williams
The defining characteristics of autism, including difficulty with nonverbal cues and need for structure, and the defining characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC), including reduction of extraneous cues and structured exchange, suggest the two would be an ideal match. Interviews and observations of 16 adults on the high-functioning end of the autism spectrum reveal that many seek greater social connectedness and take advantage of interest-based online communities to foster successful, supportive relationships. However, CMC intensifies problems of trust, disclosure, inflexible thinking, and perspective-taking, making it difficult for some to maintain relationships. Interventions in the form of information visualization and CMC-specific social skills training are presented. Intervention considerations and participatory design opportunities are discussed.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, computer-mediated communication, online communities, social support
Characteristics of shared health reflections in a local community BIBAKFull-Text 435-444
  Andrea Grimes; Brian M. Landry; Rebecca E. Grinter
We performed a content analysis of the information shared in a locally and culturally focused health application, EatWell. In EatWell, information is shared via the creation of audio recordings. Our results highlight the reflective nature of these recordings, in particular, 1) the topics discussed in these reflections as well as their tone, 2) how these reflections were contextualized (locally and culturally) and 3) how system users addressed one another in their reflections. We compare our findings with the dominant technological approach to supporting health information exchange amongst lay people: online support groups. In particular, we reflect upon why, though many of the community-building features of online support groups did not translate into EatWell, our users felt a sense of community empowerment. Based on our results, we discuss implications for designing locally and culturally focused health applications that leverage reflection as a contribution method.
Keywords: community, culture, health, information sharing, local, nutrition, online support groups, reflection
Survival needs and social inclusion: technology use among the homeless BIBAKFull-Text 445-448
  Jahmeilah Roberson; Bonnie Nardi
This research reports an ethnographic study of issues surrounding digital technologies owned and used by homeless people in Los Angeles County. We identify two themes -- survival and social inclusion -- that reveal, in part, how digital technologies enable social ties for collaboration in the lives of the homeless.
Keywords: digital technologies, homeless, social inclusion