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CSCW Tables of Contents: 868890929496980002040608101112-112-213-1

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'98 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'98 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Steve Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin; Christine Neuwirth; Saul Greenberg; David Durand
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:1998-Nov-14 to 1998-Nov-18
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-009-0; ACM Order Number 612980; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW98
Papers:124
Pages:434
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Awareness of Others and Their Actions
  2. Organizational Culture: Memory and Change
  3. Concurrency and Consistency
  4. Supporting Customer and Health-Care Service Workers
  5. Infrastructures for Collaboration
  6. Mirrors to the Future: New Interaction Paradigms
  7. Infrastructures for Collaboration
  8. Shared Visual Spaces
  9. Primitives for Building Flexibile Groupware Systems
  10. Asynchronous Communication
  11. From Single-Display Groupware to Mobility
  12. Finding and Sustaining Relationships
  13. Social Filtering, Social Influences
  14. Supporting Design Activity: Observations and Requirements
  15. Panels
  16. Workshops
  17. Doctoral Colloquium
  18. Videos
  19. Tutorials
  20. Demonstrations
  21. Opening Plenary
  22. Closing Plenary

Awareness of Others and Their Actions

OfficeWalker: A Virtual Visiting System Based on Proxemics BIBAKPDF 1-10
  Akihiko Obata; Kazuo Sasaki
We propose an interaction model for video mediated communication systems that support informal communication among distributed groups. We focused on two issues raised in previous research, the problem of intrusiveness that occurs when a caller glances at a recipient prior to conversation, and the failure of facilitating unintended interactions with unexpected partners. The proposed model addresses these problems by introducing "interactional distance" among users. We developed our prototype system that embodied this model, and examined these problems by conducting a user experiment. We confirmed that the problem of intrusiveness was reduced, and unintended interactions were partially supported.
Keywords: Informal communication, Video, Awareness, Glance, Privacy
Evaluating Image Filtering Based Techniques in Media Space Applications BIBAKPDF 11-18
  Qiang Alex Zhao; John T. Stasko
Media space applications that promote informal awareness in an organization confront an inevitable paradox: the shared video connections between offices and rooms that promote informal awareness also can rob individuals of privacy. An important open problem in this area is how to foster awareness of colleagues while minimizing the accompanying loss of privacy. One proposal put forward is to filter the communicated video streams rather than broadcasting clear video. Such a scheme may facilitate awareness while helping to alleviate some aspects of the privacy loss. In this article, we describe several image filtering techniques that provide awareness in informal group communication applications while blurring the details of an individual's activities, thus potentially preserving more privacy. We describe studies to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the degrees of awareness and accuracy that these filtering techniques provide.
Keywords: Informal group awareness, Privacy, Video, Image, Filter, Media space, Real-time groupware
Interlocus: Workspace Configuration Mechanisms for Activity Awareness BIBAKPDF 19-28
  Takahiko Nomura; Koichi Hayashi; Tan Hazama; Stephan Gudmundson
This paper describes the concept of activity awareness, which enables workspace awareness without employing shared workspaces, and our framework for supporting activity awareness. Activity awareness extends the concept of asynchronous workspace awareness to provide asynchronous progress notifications and collective perspectives on related activities. Our framework adopts the temporally threaded workspace model, which tracks an activity in each individual's workspace by storing a sequence of snapshots of their workspace, and uses workspace configuration mechanisms to provide awareness functions. We then present Interlocus, an implementation of the framework in the WWW environment.
Keywords: Shared workspace, Awareness, Common information space, Contextual information sharing, World Wide Web

Organizational Culture: Memory and Change

The Long and Winding Road: Collaborative IT and Organisational Change BIBAKPDF 29-38
  Helena Karsten; Matthew Jones
The role of collaborative information technology in organisational changes continues to be a source of controversy in the CSCW literature. We report organisational changes in a Finnish computer consultancy accompanying the introduction and use of Lotus Notes over a period of three years. The case shows that collaborative information technologies, such as Lotus Notes, are capable of supporting a variety forms of organisation. The uptake and use of Notes appeared to be more strongly influenced by aspects of the organisational context, internal social structure and the users' capabilities -- in this case economic recession, changing foci of control and the role changes in the company -- than by any intrinsic logic of the technology.
Keywords: Small business, Professional service organisations, Organisational change, Collaboration, Collaborative information technology, Lotus Notes
Considering an Organization's Memory BIBAKPDF 39-48
  Mark S. Ackerman; Christine Halverson
The term organizational memory is due for an overhaul. Memory appears to be everywhere in organizations; yet, the term has been limited to a few uses. In this paper we examine what memory in an organization really is. Based on an ethnographic study of a telephone hotline group, this paper presents a micro-level analysis of a hotline call, the work activity surrounding the call, and the memory used in the work activity. We do this analysis from the viewpoint of distributed cognition theory, finding it fruitful for an understanding of an organization's memory.
Keywords: Organizational memory, Knowledge management, Collective memory, Group memory, Information sharing, Distributed cognition, CSCW, Computer-supported cooperative work
Diaries at Work BIBAKPDF 49-58
  Mikko Kovalainen; Mike Robinson; Esa Auramaki
Brief critiques of organisational memory as "thing" are pre-sented, and an alternative conceptualisation as artefact mediated process is offered. Within this frame, the paper gives an account of usage of a simple electronic artefact within a process industry: specifically an Electronic Diary on the factory floor of a large modern papermill. Analysis of 3,500 entries made in a year illustrates the multifaceted use of the Diary. These show that Diary entries constitute dialogues within and between work-shifts, and partially with other organisational levels. The dialogues share some properties -- "talking out loud" and "overhearing" -- with work co-ordination in face-to-face situations.
Keywords: Organisational memory, Papermill, CSCW, Overhearing, Peripheral awareness

Concurrency and Consistency

Operational Transformation in Real-Time Group Editors: Issues, Algorithms, and Achievements BIBAKPDF 59-68
  Chengzheng Sun; Clarence (Skip) Ellis
Real-time group editors allow a group of users to view and edit the same document at the same time from geographically dispersed sites connected by communication networks. Consistency maintenance is one of the most significant challenges in the design and implementation of this type of system. Research on real-time group editors in the past decade has invented a non-traditional technique for consistency maintenance, called operational transformation. This paper presents an integrative review of the evolution of operational transformation techniques, with the goals of identifying the major issues, algorithms, achievements, and remaining challenges. In addition, this paper contributes a new optimized generic operational transformation control algorithm.
Keywords: Consistency maintenance, Operational transformation, Convergence, Causality preservation, Intention preservation, Group editors, Groupware, Distributed computing
Operation Transforms for a Distributed Shared Spreadsheet BIBAKPDF 69-78
  Christopher R. Palmer; Gordon V. Cormack
The Distributed Operation Transform (dOPT), proposed by Ellis and Gibbs, is used to define concurrently updatable shared objects. Ellis and Gibbs give the operation transforms that define a simple shared text editor supporting single character insertions and deletions on a linear buffer. We report here on the construction of operation transforms for a more sophisticated groupware application: a shared spreadsheet. We identify a set of abstract operations that characterize the operations on a spreadsheet. Using Cormack's Calculus for Concurrent Update, which extends and corrects dOPT, we give the transforms on these operations necessary to define a shared spreadsheet. We use the transforms to build a shared version of sc, the Unix spreadsheet due to Gosling.
Keywords: Groupware, Operation transforms, Distributed spreadsheets
Responsiveness and Consistency Tradeoffs in Interactive Groupware BIBAKPDF 79-88
  Sumeer Bhola; Guruduth Banavar; Mustaque Ahamad
Interactive (or Synchronous) groupware is increasingly being deployed in widely distributed environments. Users of such applications are accustomed to direct manipulation interfaces that require fast response time. The state that enables interaction among distributed users can be replicated to provide acceptable response time in the presence of high communication latencies. We describe and evaluate design choices for protocols that maintain consistency of such state. In particular, we develop workloads which model user actions, identify the metrics important from a user's viewpoint, and do detailed simulations of a number of protocols to evaluate how effective they are in meeting user requirements.
Keywords: Replication, Consistency, Response time, Performance, Evaluation, Workload

Supporting Customer and Health-Care Service Workers

Designing for the Dynamics of Cooperative Work Activities BIBAKPDF 89-98
  Jakob Bardram
CSCW seems to have a persistent problem of understanding the ontology of "cooperative work". This paper argues that this problem is a direct result of not looking at the dynamic aspects of work. Based on Activity Theory the paper gives a conceptual frame for understanding the dynamics of collaborative work activities, and argues that the design of computer support should view cooperative breakdowns not as a problem but as an important resource in design. These arguments are based on empirical studies of healthcare work and the design of a computer support for planning and scheduling operations and other activities within a hospital.
Keywords: Cooperative work, Dynamics, Activity theory, Design, Healthcare
Collaborative Customer Services Using Synchronous Web Browser Sharing BIBAKPDF 99-108
  Makoto Kobayashi; Masahide Shinozaki; Takashi Sakairi; Maroun Touma; Shahrokh Daijavad; Catherine Wolf
In this paper, we describe our experiences in designing two applications for synchronous web browser sharing in the context of Web-based collaborative customer service. Real-world business requirements were the key factors that dictated the design and architecture of these collaborative applications and as such, constitute the foundations for the paper.
Keywords: CSCW, Synchronous Web browser sharing, Web-collaboration customer services, Collaboration architecture
Talking to Customers on the Web: A Comparison of Three Voice Alternatives BIBAKPDF 109-117
  Qiping Zhang; Catherine G. Wolf; Shahrokh Daijavad; Maroun Touma
This paper describes an empirical study that compared three alternatives for voice communication in conjunction with Web page collaboration for customer service. Two of the technologies used a single phone line for both voice and data transmission. These technologies were internet telephony and Simultaneous Voice and Data (SVD), a protocol which allows the voice to be routed over the public telephone network, rather than the internet. The study found that SVD was superior to internet telephony in terms of a number of behavioral and subjective measures of conversational interaction. The study also found that task time using internet telephony was 45% greater than with SVD, making the former a costly alternative in terms of human time.
Keywords: Voice communication, Internet telephony, Web, Customer service, Usability, Collaboration

Infrastructures for Collaboration

Out of This World: An Extensible Session Architecture for Heterogeneous Electronic Landscapes BIBAKPDF 119-128
  Jonathan Trevor; Tom Rodden; Gareth Smith
The growth in interest in virtual environments in CSCW has focused on co-operation within these environments. Little consideration has been given to users management of these environments and their movement between them. In this paper we present a session management architecture that supports the management of virtual environments. The developed architecture is built upon the HTTP protocol and is sufficiently general to allow it to support a range of CSCW application. We present the architecture and its use to support both virtual environments and more generic cooperative applications.
Keywords: CSCW, Session management, E-scape, HTTP, Servlet, Java
Ubiquitous Collaboration via Surface Representations BIBAKPDF 129-138
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Scott E. Hudson; Matt Phelps; Jeremy Heiner; Thom Verratti
Essential prerequisites to asynchronous work with shared artifacts include things such as an ability to effectively communicate information, an ability to understand the actions of collaborators, and an ability to integrate work from others. Systems designed to support ubiquitous collaboration -- collaboration that can scale to communities the size of the Internet -- face a number of important challenges in providing these prerequisites. For example, when the set of potential collaborators becomes large, and collaborative media becomes richer, simple interoperability of application programs quickly becomes a difficult issue. Further, various market pressures, along with the rapid growth of a diverse Internet, will, for the most part, make these problems worse rather than better.
Keywords: Asynchronous, Collaboration, Ubiquitous Collaboration, Shared artifacts, Pictorial surfaces
Rapidly Building Synchronous Collaborative Applications by Direct Manipulation BIBAKPDF 139-148
  Guruduth Banavar; Sri Doddapaneni; Kevan Miller; Bodhi Mukherjee
Existing GUI builder technology supports building user interfaces for interactive applications via direct manipulation. However, it is notoriously difficult to build the underlying data sharing and application logic for multi-user synchronous collaborative applications.
   This paper describes a collection of very high-level software components, built using the JavaBeans component standard, that enables domain experts and application designers to rapidly build entire collaborative applications via visual programming -- drag-and-drop, customization and wiring. Our component suite supports conference setup, awareness, data sharing, media streaming, access synchronization, and temporally coordinated media and event streams. We illustrate that the task of building non-trivial multi-user applications using this approach is significantly simplified.
Keywords: Rapid application development, Visual programming, Software components, Java beans, Client-server synchronous communication

Mirrors to the Future: New Interaction Paradigms

HyperMirror: Toward Pleasant-to-Use Video Mediated Communication System BIBAKPDF 149-158
  Osamu Morikawa; Takanori Maesako
Our purpose in designing the HyperMirror system is to produce a new type of video-image that provides an attractive communication environment with high understandability, rather than imitating face-to-face communication. In the HyperMirror environment, all participants are made to feel they are sharing the same virtual space. In this system, communication is made using images that meet the condition WISIWYS, all the participants become equal and everything on the screen becomes tangible, including objects located in the distance out of reach. It was found that the participants sharing the same screen behaved as if they had been in the same room.
Keywords: HyperMirror, WISIWYS, Mirror image, Awareness, Video conference, Telepresence, Interpersonal communication
Meme Tags and Community Mirrors: Moving from Conferences to Collaboration BIBAKPDF 159-168
  Richard Borovoy; Fred Martin; Sunil Vemuri; Mitchel Resnick; Brian Silverman; Chris Hancock
Meme Tags are part of a body of research on GroupWear: a wearable technology that supports people in the formative stages of cooperative work. Conference participants wear Meme Tags that allow them to electronically share memes -- succinct ideas or opinions -- with each other. Alongside of the person-to-person transactions, a server system collects information about the memetic exchanges and reflects it back to the conference-goers in Community Mirrors -- large, public video displays that present real-time visualizations of the unfolding community dynamics. This paper presents results from a proof-of-concept trial of the Meme Tag technology undertaken at a MIT Media Laboratory conference.
Keywords: Groupware, Name tag, Community, Meme, Collaboration, Wearable computing, Infrared communication, Interaction design
Tangible Interfaces for Remote Collaboration and Communication BIBAKPDF 169-178
  Scott Brave; Hiroshi Ishii; Andrew Dahley
Current systems for real-time distributed CSCW are largely rooted in traditional GUI-based groupware and voice/video conferencing methodologies. In these approaches, interactions are limited to visual and auditory media, and shared environments are confined to the digital world. This paper presents a new approach to enhance remote collaboration and communication, based on the idea of Tangible Interfaces, which places a greater emphasis on touch and physicality. The approach is grounded in a concept called Synchronized Distributed Physical Objects, which employs telemanipulation technology to create the illusion that distant users are interacting with shared physical objects. We describe two applications of this approach: PSyBench, a physical shared workspace, and inTouch, a device for haptic interpersonal communication.
Keywords: Tangible interfaces, Haptic interfaces, Telemanipulation, Force-feedback, Physical presence

Infrastructures for Collaboration

COCA: Collaborative Objects Coordination Architecture BIBAKPDF 179-188
  Du Li; Richard R. Muntz
Coordination policies vary from collaboration to collaboration and are even subject to evolution in different phases of the same collaboration. It is vital for collaborative systems to be flexible enough to accommodate changes to the coordination policies during development time and their adaptation by end users.
   Motivated by previous work of separating coordination and computation, we propose COCA as a generic framework for developing collaborative systems and modeling the coordination policies. We explicitly divide participants into different roles, and specify the coordination policies by roles in a logic-based specification language. Policies are interpreted at runtime at each collaboration site by a COCA virtual machine. It is easy to change the coordination policies both during development and at runtime.
Keywords: CSCW, Groupware, Collaboration, Coordination languages, Logic programming, Distributed systems
Artefact: A Framework for Low-Overhead Web-Based Collaborative Systems BIBAKPDF 189-196
  Jeff Brandenburg; Boyce Byerly; Tom Dobridge; Jinkun Lin; Dharmaraja Rajan; Timothy Roscoe
The Artefact framework is a tool for building collaborative applications that deliver HTML representations of an object-oriented application space to standard browsers. We present some aspects of Artefact's implementation, including HTTP enhancements to support synchronous collaboration, the decoupling of input and output in the interaction protocol, a lightweight general-purpose Java applet, and the user agents that bridge the gap between a browser and an application. We describe some of the characteristics that make it easy to create multi-user applications with Artefact, and illustrate this with a simple example application. Finally, we compare Artefact to some existing distributed application platforms.
Keywords: Artefact, Multi-user environment, CSCW, World Wide Web, Groupware, Collaboration, HTTP, CORBA, Update protocols

Shared Visual Spaces

Supporting Flexible Roles in a Shared Space BIBAKPDF 197-206
  Randall B. Smith; Ronald Hixon; Bernard Horan
We describe the support for roles in a shared space application and programming environment called Kansas. As in reality, the underlying physics of Kansas has no notion of role. However, roles are supported by two features of the system: the spatial character of Kansas (which enables different views for different users) and a capability system that filters user inputs. Spatial positions and capabilities can be easily changed, so the support for roles is dynamic, lightweight, and flexible. Our system is simple, and intentionally limited in scope.
Keywords: Shared space, Video, Audio, Virtual reality, Roles
Design for Individuals, Design for Groups: Tradeoffs between Power and Workspace Awareness BIBAKPDF 207-216
  Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
Users of synchronous groupware systems act both as individuals and as members of a group, and designers must try to support both roles. However, the requirements of individuals and groups often conflict, forcing designers to support one at the expense of the other. The tradeoff is particularly evident in the design of interaction techniques for shared workspaces. Individuals demand powerful and flexible means for interacting with the workspace and its artifacts, while groups require information about each other to maintain awareness. Although these conflicting requirements present real problems to designers, the tension can be reduced in some cases. We consider the tradeoff in three areas of groupware design: workspace navigation, artifact manipulation, and view representation. We show techniques such as multiple viewports, process feedthrough, action indicators, and view translations that support the needs of both individuals and groups.
Keywords: Groupware design and usability, Workspace awareness
Fragmented Interaction: Establishing Mutual Orientation in Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 217-226
  Jon Hindmarsh; Mike Fraser; Christian Heath; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh
This paper explores and evaluates the support for object-focused collaboration provided by a desktop Collaborative Virtual Environment. The system was used to support an experimental 'design' task. Video recordings of the participants' activities facilitated an observational analysis of interaction in, and through, the virtual world. Observations include: problems due to fragmented views of embodiments in relation to shared objects; participants compensating with spoken accounts of their actions; and difficulties in understanding others' perspectives. Design implications include: more explicit representations of actions than are provided by pseudo-humanoid embodiments; and navigation techniques that are sensitive to the actions of others.
Keywords: Social interaction, Virtual environment, Media spaces, Object-focused work

Primitives for Building Flexibile Groupware Systems

Exploring the Design Space for Notification Servers BIBAKPDF 227-235
  Devina Ramduny; Alan Dix; Tom Rodden
Issues of notification and awareness have become increasingly important in CSCW. Notification servers provide a notable mechanism to maintain shared state information of any synchronous or asynchronous groupware system. A taxonomy of the design space for notification servers is presented, based on theoretical results from status-event analysis. This generates a framework and vocabulary to compare and discuss different notification mechanisms to improve design. The paper shows that notification servers are often ideally placed to support impedance matching to give an appropriate pace of feedthrough to the user by allowing them to see changes to shared objects in a timely manner.
Keywords: Collaborative applications, Feedthrough, Awareness, Status-even analysis, Initiative, Mediation, Notification server, Protocol, Impedance matching
Re-Coupling Tailored User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 237-246
  Gareth Smith; Jon O'Brien
The development of shared environments and displays has also seen the emergence of facilities to allow some form of subjective tailoring of shared interfaces. This paper considers the need to dynamically re-couple tailored interfaces as users become increasingly aware of each other. We present a general model to support awareness based re-coupling of shared interfaces and show its implementation in cooperative virtual environments and shared user interfaces.
Keywords: Shared user interfaces, Awareness, Collaborative virtual environments
Flexible Meta Access-Control for Collaborative Applications BIBAKPDF 247-256
  Prasun Dewan; HongHai Shen
Meta access-control, also called access administration, ensures that users do not make unauthorized access definitions. Such control in a collaborative system must support fine-grained protection, a flexible scheme for assigning access administrators, joint ownership of shared objects, multiple ownership semantics of varying complexity, delegation of access rights, and both shallow and deep revocation. It should also be easy to implement in a variety of applications, easy to use by users of varying sophistication with different protection needs, and offer a small set of features that can be incrementally learned. We have designed a new model to meet these requirements and implemented and used it in a generic, extensible collaborative system. We have also developed techniques for simulating a large variety of existing policies for meta access-control. In particular, we have developed an implementation-independent technique of indirect roles to support flexible delegation and revocation. In this paper, we identify requirements of meta access control, describe our model together with the techniques for using it, compare it with related work, give our experience with it, and evaluate how well it meets the requirements.
Keywords: Access control, Collaboration, Computer supported cooperative work, Groupware, Privacy, Security

Asynchronous Communication

The Dynamics of Mass Interaction BIBAKPDF 257-264
  Steve Whittaker; Loren Terveen; Will Hill; Lynn Cherny
Usenet may be regarded as the world's largest conversational application, with over 17,000 newsgroups and 3 million users. Despite its ubiquity and popularity, however, we know little about the nature of the interactions it supports. This empirical paper investigates mass interaction in Usenet. We analyse over 2.15 million messages from 659,450 posters, collected from 500 newsgroups over 6 months. We first characterise mass interaction, presenting basic data about demographics, conversational strategies and interactivity. Using predictions from the common ground model of interaction, we next conduct causal modelling to determine relations between demographics, conversational strategies and interactivity. We find evidence for moderate conversational threading, but large participation inequalities in Usenet, with a small minority of participants posting a large proportion of messages. Contrary to the common ground model and "Netiquette" guidelines, we also find that "cross-posting" to external newsgroups is highly frequent. Our predictions about the effects of demographics on conversational strategy were largely confirmed, but we found disconfirming evidence about the relations between conversational strategy and interactivity. Contrary to our expectations, both cross-posting and short messages promote interactivity. We conclude that in order to explain mass interaction, the common ground model must be modified to incorporate notions of weak ties and communication overload.
Keywords: Mass interaction, Usenet, Conversation, Newsgroups, Common ground, Moderation, FAQS, Netiquette, Empirical
Envisioning Communication: Task-Tailorable Representations of Communication in Asynchronous Work BIBAKPDF 265-274
  Christine M. Neuwirth; James H. Morris; Susan Harkness Regli; Ravinder Chandhok; Geoffrey C. Wenger
This paper reports on our efforts to improve interfaces for asynchronous communication in which a group is communicating to solve a problem. We report results from an observational study and an experiment and use them as a basis for drawing design requirements: task-tailorable representations, emergent representations, emergent sharing, public/private elements in a layout, incremental formalization, and asynchronous awareness. We describe an approach and prototype that embodies some of the key requirements.
Keywords: External representations, Visualization, Interfaces, Incremental, Formalization, Awareness, Asynchronous communication, Electronic mail, Collaborative work
Coordination, Overload and Team Performance: Effects of Team Communication Strategies BIBAKPDF 275-284
  Susan R. Fussell; Robert E. Kraut; F. Javier Lerch; William L. Scherlis; Matthew M. McNally; Jonathan J. Cadiz
The goal of this paper is to identify the communication tactics that allow management teams to successfully coordinate without becoming overloaded, and to see whether successful coordination and freedom from overload independently influence team performance. We found that how much teams communicated, what they communicated about, and the technologies they used to communicate predicted coordination and overload. Team coordination but not overload predicted team success.
Keywords: Work groups, Coordination, Cognitive overload, Electronic mail, Computer-mediated communication, Awareness devices

From Single-Display Groupware to Mobility

Collaboration Using Multiple PDAs Connected to a PC BIBAKPDF 285-294
  Brad A. Myers; Herb Stiel; Robert Gargiulo
The Pebbles project is creating applications to connect multiple Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to a main computer such as a PC. We are using 3Com PalmPilots because they are starting to be ubiquitous. We created the "Remote Commander" application to allow users to take turns sending input from their PalmPilots to the PC as if they were using the PC's mouse and keyboard. "PebblesDraw" is a shared whiteboard application we built that allows all of the users to send input simultaneously while sharing the same PC display. We are investigating the use of these applications in various contexts, such as co-located meetings.
Keywords: Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), PalmPilot, Single display groupware, Pebbles, Amulet
Tailorable Domain Objects as Meeting Tools for an Electronic Whiteboard BIBAKPDF 295-304
  Thomas P. Moran; William van Melle; Patrick Chiu
Our goal is to provide tools to support working meetings on an electronic whiteboard, called Tivoli. This paper describes how we have integrated structured "domain objects" into the whiteboard environment. Domain objects represent the subject matter of meetings and can be exchanged between Tivoli and group databases. Domain objects can be tailored to produce meeting tools that are finely tuned to meeting practices. We describe the facility for tailoring and managing domain objects and the user interface techniques for blending these into the whiteboard environment. We show examples of both specific and generic meeting tools crafted from domain objects, and we describe a long-term case study in which these tools support an ongoing work process.
Keywords: Whiteboard metaphor, Pen-based systems, Freeform interaction, Implicit structure, Informal systems, Recognition-based systems, List structures, Meeting support tools, Gestural interfaces, User interface design, Tailorability, Customization, Object-oriented user interfaces
Mobility in Collaboration BIBAKPDF 305-314
  Paul Luff; Christian Heath
This paper explores an issue that has received little attention within CSCW -- the requirements to support mobility within collaboration activities. By examining three quite different settings each with differing technological support, we reveal ways in which mobility can feature in collaborative work. A focus on such activities may, on the one hand, suggest enhancements to the current support offered for collaborative work and, on the other, suggest a reconsideration of the requirements for mobile and other related technologies.
Keywords: Mobile communications, Augmented reality, Object-centred interaction

Finding and Sustaining Relationships

Just Talk to Me: A Field Study of Expertise Location BIBAKPDF 315-324
  David W. McDonald; Mark S. Ackerman
Everyday, people in organizations must solve their problems to get their work accomplished. To do so, they often must find others with knowledge and information. Systems that assist users with finding such expertise are increasingly interesting to organizations and scientific communities. But, as we begin to design and construct such systems, it is important to determine what we are attempting to augment. Accordingly, we conducted a five month field study of a medium-sized software firm. We found the participants use complex, iterative behaviors to minimize the number of possible expertise sources, while at the same time, provide a high possibility of garnering the necessary expertise. We briefly consider the design implications of the mechanisms identification, selection, and escalation behaviors found during our field study.
Keywords: Expertise networks, Knowledge networks, Computer-mediated communications, Expert locators, Expertise location, Expertise finding, Information seeking, CSCW, Computer-supported cooperative work
Sustaining Mentoring Relationships On-line BIBAKPDF 325-334
  D. Kevin O'Neill; Louis M. Gomez
CSCW systems and research aim to sustain productive relationships over barriers of time and space. For the most part, however, the CSCW literature has focused on short-term relationships or collaborative episodes. Here, we examine 37 lengthy email relationships between students in grades 7 to 12 and volunteer scientists who advised them on lengthy science projects. We consider the unique dynamics of these relationships, illustrate their technical and social demands, and discuss the potential for CSCW systems to help sustain long-term help relationships by better accommodating their needs.
Keywords: CSCW, Help, Long-term relationships, Mentoring, Telementoring
Cooperative Knowledge Work and Practices of Trust: Sharing Environmental Planning Data Sets BIBAKPDF 335-343
  Nancy A. Van House; Mark H. Butler; Lisa R. Schiff
Knowledge communities of all kinds have social and material practices for deciding what is known and who is to be trusted. In this paper, we address a specific kind of knowledge work, environmental planning, and a particular form of collaboration, the sharing of measurement data sets. We are interested in how trust is created; how trustability is assessed in the arm's-length collaboration of sharing data sets; and how changes in technology interact with those practices of trust. We look at several elements of scientific practice that facilitate this sharing -- communities of practice, boundary objects, and assemblages -- and discuss the implications for CSCW, digital libraries, and other information-sharing applications.
Keywords: Knowledge work, Environmental planning, Boundary objects, Assemblages, Communities of practice, Data sets, Digital libraries, UC Berkeley Digital Library

Social Filtering, Social Influences

Using Filtering Agents to Improve Prediction Quality in the GroupLens Research Collaborative Filtering System BIBAKPDF 345-354
  Badrul M. Sarwar; Joseph A. Konstan; Al Borchers; Jon Herlocker; Brad Miller; John Riedl
Collaborative filtering systems help address information overload by using the opinions of users in a community to make personal recommendations for documents to each user. Many collaborative filtering systems have few user opinions relative to the large number of documents available. This sparsity problem can reduce the utility of the filtering system by reducing the number of documents for which the system can make recommendations and adversely affecting the quality of recommendations. This paper defines and implements a model for integrating content-based ratings into a collaborative filtering system. The filterbot model allows collaborative filtering systems to address sparsity by tapping the strength of content filtering techniques. We identify and evaluate metrics for assessing the effectiveness of filterbots specifically, and filtering system enhancements in general. Finally, we experimentally validate the filterbot approach by showing that even simple filterbots such as spell checking can increase the utility for users of sparsely populated collaborative filtering systems.
Keywords: Collaborative filtering, Information filtering, Content analysis, Recommendation systems, Social filtering, GroupLens research, Information filtering agents
Evaluating Emergent Collaboration on the Web BIBAKPDF 355-362
  Loren Terveen; Will Hill
Links between web sites can be seen as evidence of a type of emergent collaboration among web site authors. We report here on an empirical investigation into emergent collaboration. We developed a webcrawling algorithm and tested its performance on topics volunteered by 30 subjects. Our findings include:
  • Some topics exhibit emergent collaboration, some do not. The presence of
       commercial sites reduces collaboration.
  • When sites are linked with other sites, they tend to group into one large,
       tightly connected component.
  • Connectivity can serve as the basis for collaborative filtering. Human
       experts rate connected sites as significantly more relevant and of higher
       quality.
    Keywords: Social filtering, Collaborative filtering, Computer supported cooperative work, Human computer interaction, Information access, Information retrieval
  • MUSICFX: An Arbiter of Group Preferences for Computer Supported Collaborative Workouts BIBAKPDF 363-372
      Joseph F. McCarthy; Theodore D. Anagnost
    Environmental factors affecting shared spaces are typically designed to appeal to the broadest audiences they are expected to serve, ignoring the preferences of the people actually inhabiting the environment at any given time. Examples of such factors include the lighting, temperature, decor or music in the common areas of an office building. We have designed and deployed MusicFX, a group preference arbitration system that allows the members of a fitness center to influence, but not directly control, the selection of music in a fitness center. We present a number of empirical results from our work with this intelligent environment: the results of a poll of fitness center members, a quantitative evaluation of the performance of a group preference arbitrator in a shared environment, and some interesting anecdotes about members' experiences with the system.
    Keywords: Intelligent environment, Ubiquitous computing, Shared spaces, Human-computer interaction, Social behavior, Social interactions, Empirical studies, Evaluation, Audio, Audio spaces

    Supporting Design Activity: Observations and Requirements

    Designing Groupware for Congruency in Use BIBAKPDF 373-382
      Wolfgang Prinz; Gloria Mark; Uta Pankoke-Babatz
    In this paper, we present experiences from long-term groupware development, introduction, and use in an organization. We report lessons learned concerning how a complex design process operates and how its components interact. Our experiences suggest that the processes of requirement analysis, system development, and user support need to facilitate the merging of individual work patterns into congruent system usage. We confirm the changing nature of groupware use by reporting empirical results describing different learning phases.
    Keywords: Cooperative design, User advocacy, Groupware, Requirements, Group work, System introduction, Prototyping
    Representing Fieldwork and Articulating Requirements through VR BIBAKPDF 383-392
      James Pycock; Kevin Palfreyman; Jen Allanson; Graham Button
    Virtual Reality has attracted much attention in CSCW as a means for providing 'Collaborative Virtual Environments'. In this paper an alternative use is made of VR for CSCW. Our work focuses not upon VR as an actual interface to CSCW systems but as a means for providing a rich environment in which to, firstly, represent the results of ethnographic study and, secondly, to explore requirements for a collaborative system by envisioning new work arrangements. We report on our use of VR in this way and what it offers for supporting the transition between ethnographic fieldwork and system design. We also report on the transition from a 3D envisionment to designing a 2D system intended for real world use.
    Keywords: Ethnography, Virtual reality, Envisionment, VRML, Workspaces, Process simulation
    Recomposition: Putting It All Back Together Again BIBAKPDF 393-402
      Rebecca E. Grinter
    Design and development work have become increasingly interesting to CSCW researchers. This paper introduces a new perspective for examining that work: recomposition. Recomposition focuses on the activities required to coordinate the assembly of an artifact. Using examples drawn from a study of three software development organizations I show how recomposition is a form of articulation work. I describe how that articulation work influences the product produced, and how the product itself influences the coordination required. I discuss the implications of a recomposition view for CSCW research.
    Keywords: Software design studies, Articulation work, Recomposition

    Panels

    An Internet Paradox: A Social Medium That May Undermine Sociability BIBAPDF 403-404
      Sara Kiesler; Robert Kraut; Judith Donath; Barry Wellman; Howard Rheingold
    Is the current Internet leading people to have strong connections to others or is it working against this? New empirical results suggest that using the Internet leads to less social involvement, more loneliness, less communication within the family, and more depression. The panel will assess whether these results are believable, and if so whether new services on the Internet can be designed to support strong social ties. The second goal of the panel is to outline these good designs.
    Everyone is Talking about Knowledge Management BIBAPDF 405-406
      Irene Greif
    Everyone is talking about Knowledge Management (KM). At least, everyone in the commercial world who used to buy or sell groupware. It's captured the attention of vendors, customers, analysts and reporters. Is it real or a fad, the next step in evolution from email, through groupware, to what people REALLY need, or the next open area for research on large organizations and their real needs? The panel moderator will assemble a group of experts from the companies leading the KM movement and representatives of academic research organizations with dissenting views. Join us as we take a look at the KM frenzy, with an eye towards identifying open questions that can be addressed by CSCW researchers.
    Six Readings of a Single Text: A Videoanalytic Session BIBAPDF 407-409
      Timothy Koschmann; Anne Anderson; Rogers Hall; Christian Heath; Curtis LeBaron; Judith Olson; Lucy Suchman
    The purpose of this special session will be to illuminate some of the possible ways in which we, as observers and researchers, can come to understand collaboration and how it is achieved within the context of joint activity. Historically, collaboration has been studied in a variety of ways, both quantitative and qualitative, drawing on the research traditions of both the psychological and the social (i.e., Anthropology, Sociology, Linguistics, Communications) sciences. Our goal here is to highlight some of these methodological differences while at the same time demonstrating how different approaches can each contribute to a richer and more fully elaborated view of the collaborative process. In preparation for this session six researchers with extensive experience in studying collaboration were asked to analyze a common piece of data -- a pre-selected segment of videotaped interaction. Each will summarize their findings followed by a discussion intended to highlight the complementarities and incommensurabilities among the six analyses.
    Cooperative Buildings: Integrating Information, Organization, & Architecture BIBAPDF 411-413
      Norbert Streitz; Volker Hartkopf; Hiroshi Ishii; Simon Kaplan; Thomas P. Moran
    Future work, cooperation, and organizations will be characterized by greater dynamics, flexibility and mobility. Realizing this goal has profound implications for information and communication technology as well as architecture because virtual and physical spaces have to be designed in an integrated fashion to provide equally flexible cooperative work environments. We will outline a challenging generation of new problems and issues which are likely to shape future CSCW and building research.

    Workshops

    Methodologies for Evaluation BIBACSCWPDF 415
      Jean Scholtz; Laurie Damianos; Andrew Greenberg; Robyn Kozierok
    This workshop will discuss different approaches used to evaluate CSCW systems. Our goal is to produce a taxonomy of evaluation methodologies for CSCW systems, identifying the type of systems for which a technique is most useful, the stage of development in which a methodology is appropriate, the resources needed to conduct an evaluation, and the appropriate measures for the various techniques. We plan to discuss various methods of data collection for collaborative work and identify the evaluation methodologies for which various types of data collection are most appropriate. Other issues we hope to discuss during the workshop include sharing and comparing collected data, the usefulness of standardized component tests, and the organization of evaluation results to make them more accessible to the development community. See our web page for the expected content of position papers.
    Towards Adaptive Workflow Systems BIBAHTMLPDF 415
      Mark Klein; Chrysanthos Dellarocsa; Abraham Bernstein
    Today's business environments are characterized by dynamic, uncertain and error-prone environments. To effectively support business processes in such contexts, workflow systems must be able to adapt themselves when deviations from the "ideal" process (i.e., "exceptions") occur. The goal of the workshop is to draw together researchers on adaptive workflow systems and help identify the breadth of current work, commonalities, gaps, potential collaborations and future research directions. Relevant topics include, but are not limited to methodologies and tools for detecting, understanding and resolving exceptions; infrastructures for dynamically modifiable process models; semi-prescriptive process models for dynamic environments; and empirical studies of exception handling in collaborative work settings.
    Identifying Constraints in Design BIBAHTMLPDF 415
      Todd Cherkasky; David Levinger
    Scoping out constraints and possibilities is an important task for any designer or consultant. This workshop focuses on improving collaborative design and consulting interventions by better charting technological and organizational constraints. In participatory design and computer supported collaborative work, practitioners and participants must attend to numerous constraints if they are to discover productive possibilities. For example, software is designed on the terrain of hardware capabilities, building configuration and use arise amidst zoning restrictions, and organizations identify and tap sources of legitimacy. Constraints include tools, knowledge, organizational support, social and cultural conventions, time, and others. Making conflicts explicit between different sets of design constraints is productive as it encourages new and creative ways to solve design problems. How do consultants make these conflicts explicit? We will consider experiences in which design practice was improved by explicitly examining constraints. Workshop participants will develop a draft guide including various methods for mapping out constraints to design processes. See our web page for the expected content of position papers.
    Understanding Professional Work and Technology in Domestic Environments BIBAFull-TextPDF 415-416
      Jon O'Brien; Konrad Tollmar; Stefan Junestrand
    Many technologies such as the PC, Internet access, new digital media and advanced telephony are now found in the home and are changing (or seeking to change) the ways in which people are entertained, informed and interpersonally connected in domestic environments. The goal of the workshop is to understand and experience the practice of professional work and the use of advanced communication technology in domestic environments. This will be accomplished through collaborative exploration into the territory of empirical research in CSCW and its increasingly important focus on technological change. Of special interest for the workshop will be to identify where -- and where not -- already known methods and practices could be applied in domestic environments.
    Changing Work Practice in Technology-Mediated Learning Environments BIBAHTMLPDF 416
      Toni Robertson; Sue Fowell; Penny Collings
    The theme of this workshop is the relations between the rhetoric of choice, opportunity, and market advantage that surround the introduction of information technology into learning environments and the practice of those whose work includes the development and facilitation of courses in these environments. Our goal in this workshop is to clarify the dynamics between economic arguments for increasing the use of information technology teaching and learning environments; the very real educational potentials that technology-mediated environments offer; the industrial relations and work practice implications of developing and facilitating courses in these environments; and the changing opportunities for students in terms of access and participation in their education programs.
    Internet-based Groupware for User Participation in Product Development BIBAIGROUPPDF 416
      Monica Divitini; Babak A. Farshchian; Tuomo Tuikka
    This workshop will focus on the adoption of Internet-based groupware for promoting user participation in collaborative development of both software and non-software products. We invite participation of both practitioners and academics. We aim to provide a forum for gaining better understanding of user participation in the product development process through the Internet, as well as of the support that can be provided through groupware systems. We therefore welcome position papers describing tools and prototypes, reporting on experiences, and identifying open problems in this area.
    Designing Across Borders: The Community Design of Community Networks BIBAHTMLPDF 416
      Doug Schuler
    The workshop explores the current state and possible futures of networked (geographic) community communication and information systems ("community networks"). We are especially interested in how participatory design techniques can be integrated into public democratic design approaches and systems. We also believe that input from citizens as "lay designers" will provide an invaluable infusion of insight into the development of effective systems in civic and other realms. Finally, since these communication systems are becoming global in nature, we feel that issues about localism and globalism are extremely appropriate in the context of CSCW and geographically-based community systems. We will examine four main community design themes: (1) Looking at Innovative Regional Systems; (2) Theorizing About New Systems; (3) Recommendations and Future Directions; and (4) Critical Issues.
    Handheld CSCW BIBAWeb PagePDF 416
      Hans-W. Gellersen
    The workshop investigates the application of handheld and wearable computers to support collaborative work. Participation is sought both from the collaborative work research community and handheld computing research areas such as ubiquitous computing, wearable computing, personal digital assistants, and mobile computing. Specific objectives are to analyse handheld CSCW systems and applications, to review handheld technologies with respect to their application in CSCW, and to inform handheld computing development from analysis of collaborative work. More general goals are to promote an awareness of handheld computing in the CSCW community, to stimulate a shift from single-user to multi-user application of handhelds and wearables, and to foster a community for handheld CSCW research.
    Collaborative and Cooperative Information Seeking in Digital Information Environments BIBAWeb PagePDF 416-417
      Elizabeth Churchill; Dave Snowdon; Gene Golovchinsky
    We will discuss current conceptions of collaborative and cooperative information seeking activities, and identify potential areas for future research on the design and use of digital information spaces. We wish to explore different kinds of collaboration, including asynchronous recommendation systems and synchronous collaborative search and browsing activities by non-collocated participants. Our concern is that in the absence of such a debate, systems will be designed embodying assumptions about information seeking as a solitary activity. This workshop will be of interest to researchers concerned with the design of user interfaces and systems for supporting information exploration and information seeking activities. This includes user-centered aspects of design of systems for public use (e.g. public digital libraries, the WWW) and systems for use by more focused work groups.
    Connectivity: Human and Technical BIBAWeb PagePDF 417
      Jolene Galegher
    As opportunities for technological connectivity increase -- between people and people, between people and organizations, and between organizations and organizations -- new social forms are arising, and new opportunities for research are appearing. Examples include uses of the Internet by journalists, connections between marketers and systems designers in banks, and fully automated transactions within or between organizations. CSCW scholars of every stripe -- from system builders to behavioral scientists -- are invited to present theoretical, experiential or research papers, as well as examples of prototypes, either the real thing or a videotape. People from business with interesting or unusual examples to present or questions to ask of the research community are also invited to prepare short "hands on" papers describing issues or problems in their organizations.
    Designing Virtual Communities for Work BIBAWeb PagePDF 417
      Lori Toomey; John C. Tang; Gloria Mark; Lia Adams
    While the popularity of networked virtual communities has been growing, their use has remained primarily social. Given the necessity of communication and collaboration among distributed workers, it seems natural to consider how these spaces might be used to support work and the surrounding social interactions. This workshop will focus on understanding how organizations are currently using virtual communities, and how they could be enhanced to better support the needs of collaborative workers. By "virtual communities" we are thinking primarily of MUDs, MOOs, and other collaboration software involving text, graphics, and/or other media. We will explore how to take advantage of the inherently engaging attributes of virtual communities to accomplish work, preserve organizational memory, promote corporate culture, and encourage professional networking. We will identify issues that are common to groups exploring work-based virtual communities and share the design approaches that are being tried to address them.
    User-Centered Design in Practice -- Problems and Possibilities BIBAWeb PagePDF 417-418
      Jan Gulliksen; Ann Lantz; Inger Boivie
    Approaches in User-Centered Design (UCD) vary from Participatory Design to model-based engineering. No matter what the approach, UCD is not a simple, clear-cut way to develop successful systems. The purpose of this workshop is to discuss the problems encountered in practice and possible solutions, focusing on case studies in real systems development projects. Problems in this area include communication problems or lack of communication between system developers and users, between management and users, and between individuals in a team; and conflicting goals between the different groups in the process. Does UCD require certain attitudes in the organization and in individuals in order to bring success? Do UCD and requirements engineering conflict? What is the role of management and authority in a project in order to be able to make the decisions that are required for a project to succeed? Is UCD appropriate for every type of work activity?

    Doctoral Colloquium

    The Effect of Proxemic Information in Video Mediated Communication BIBAPDF 419
      David Grayson
    Proximity is arguably the most basic form of non-verbal communication and is known to affect the way that an interaction occurs, influencing factors such as dialogue, persuasion, trust and length of an interaction. So far it is unknown however whether proximity can have similar effects in Video Mediated Communication (VMC).
       To investigate the possible effects of a stranger appearing close or far away, an experiment was devised simulating a financial advice transaction using a multimedia banking kiosk, where the financial advisor appeared either very close or far away. The experiment showed that when the financial advisor appeared very close, interactions were longer, with the customer saying more, making more interruptions, and having more turns than if the advisor appeared far away.
       While this research indicates that perceived proximity may indeed have behavioral implications for interacting across a video link, future research aims to investigate further the precise nature both of the consequences and the reasons behind them. As part of this, Conversational Games Analysis (CGA) is used to examine the functional differences in the dialogue as well as the structural. Other issues raised by the research include the nature of familiarity and social presence.
    Computer Mediated Communication Across Divergent Research Networks BIBAPDF 419
      Jenny Fry
    Developments in electronic networks, such as the Internet, provide the potential to alter scholarly communication patterns and work organisation radically. The focus of this study is the mutual interaction between electronic networks and disciplinary culture and the consequences of cultural differences for the uptake and use of such networks. Knowledge domains within academia are not homogenous, each discipline has a distinctive social and epistemological structure which leads to variations in the communication system which underpins academic research. These domains can be categorised into four general types: Pure science; applied science; arts and humanities; and social science. A number of authors have devised typologies that outline the social and epistemological processes which span the disciplines within each group. The relationship between these differential cultures and electronic networks will be explored using in-depth interviews with networks of researchers from several divergent specialisms. Analysis of pilot interviews has revealed domain differences in the purpose, frequency, and perception of electronic network use.
    A Comparison of Video-Mediated, Face-to-Face and Audio-Only Group Communications BIBAPDF 419-420
      Emma France
    Few studies of technology mediated group communication exist. This paper describes a laboratory-based information exchange task comparing the communication and task performance of 36 three-person groups in face-to-face, audio-only, and video-mediated communication (VMC). Analyses revealed no statistically significant differences in dialogue length or performance between the three conditions. However, VMC conversations tended to have most words and speaking turns and those in face-to-face communication the least. This trend was explored using Conversational Games Analysis (Kowtko, Isard & Doherty-Sneddon, 1991), an exhaustive form of coding of the functional use of utterances. The content of 12 face-to-face and 12 video-mediated dialogues was coded. This showed that significantly more interactive work tended to be required in VMC to complete the task. It is proposed that impoverished visual feedback cues, novelty and remoteness in VMC make it more difficult for the participants to reach mutual understanding, and hence more difficult to complete the task.
    Communication and Co-ordination through Public Representations BIBAPDF 420
      Christer Garbis
    In my thesis work I am investigating the way in which teams of operators engage in co-operative process management, such as nuclear power plant control, use 'public representations', i.e., the artifacts representing information in such a way that it is commonly accessible and available to all team members at the same time (for example, a wall mounted electronic display). I am particularly interested in the role that these representations play for the operators' collective assessment and awareness of the state of the system that they are responsible for operating. In addition, I am researching the differences between accessing information through a 'public representation,' such as a fixed line diagram in the underground line control, and through 'private representations,' such as a single-user computer screen. It is my belief that the role and function of 'public' and 'private' representations in the above settings should be carefully studied so they can be designed in a more tightly coupled and integrated way in order to provide the operators with a sufficient and flexible mode of information.
    An Investigation of Multi-user Design Tools for Collaborative 3-D Modeling BIBAPDF 420
      Tek-Jin Nam
    The objective of this research is to help designers working in teams by providing an improved collaborative design environment. The focus is on the investigation into specific issues and requirements for the development of multi-user CAD systems for collaborative 3-D modeling. By examining means for incorporating shared design workspace into conventional design workspace, we propose new mechanisms to transform existing CAD tools into collaboration-aware systems. From an initial experimental study of the team design process and a series of prototype development of collaborative CAD systems, a theoretical framework has been proposed and applied to the new collaboration-aware design systems. The result of the research will lead to the new generation of design tools to support team design tasks improving efficiency and effectiveness of team working.
    EVOLVE: EVOLutionary Aspects of Vidoeconferencing Explored BIBAPDF 420
      Marike Hettinga
    The EVOLVE project focuses on evolutionary processes that take place after the introduction of videoconferencing in medical teleconsultation sessions. Evolution refers to what happens with patterns of work, including patterns of using a technology for particular purposes. As these patterns often divert from the patterns initially expected by designers, we believe that evolutionary processes are an important factor for the successfulness of the introduction of new technology. EVOLVE aims at yielding design guidelines for a better support of these evolutionary processes. These guidelines concern the technology (the "technical system"), as well as the organization of the use of the technology (the "social system"), and the relation between the technical and social system.
    Concurrency Control for Real-Time Diagramming BIBAPDF 420-421
      Jeffrey D. Campbell
    Diagrams represent a design, concept or object. Multiple users working together simultaneously to create a diagram can interfere with each other's work. At a minimum this results in lost productivity. In undetected, the interference can cause inconsistencies or errors in the diagram greatly reducing its value. A concurrency control mechanism is needed to maintain integrity for collaborative diagramming. The method described here focuses on identifying logical units of work for collaborative diagramming. These units are analogous to transactions in a database system. This emphasis on transaction identification is a key distinction between this technique and prior CSCW concurrency control approaches. The improvement in transaction identification along with an implementation of split transactions reduces resource blocking, a problem generally found in applying locking techniques from database to CSCW applications.
    Supporting Dynamic Recommendations in Organizational Information Systems BIBAPDF 421
      David McDonald
    This work explores how information systems can be augmented to assist users in finding other individuals who are likely to have specialized, expert information that they need. In particular, this work considers the social and cognitive mechanisms that people use to find candidate sources of expertise. I recently completed a field study of information finding and sharing in a software development organization. The social and cognitive mechanisms identified during the study will be used to design and implement a system that can assist users with finding potential experts. The design and implementation of a system concomitant with an analysis of subsequent data are work in progress.
    Designing the DomeCityMOO Collaboratory: A Multi-User Simulation in a Text-Based Networked Virtual Environment That Supports Non-Scripted Interactions Toward Intercultural Understanding BIBAPDF 421
      Elaine M. Raybourn
    This proposal argues that designing a multi-user social-process simulation in a shared virtual environment offers unique opportunities to explore intercultural issues such as identity, power, and prejudice because its collaborative environment is much less threatening than face-to-face. In the proposed Text-Based Networked Virtual Environment (TNVE) also known as a Multi-User Dimension Object Oriented (MOO), players' narratives and experiences provide the basis for discovery and exploration in a virtual "collaboratory." The DomeCityMOO environment is unique in that it advances our state of knowledge of the effects of designing a non-scripted collaborative social process simulation which supports both group and individual intercultural learning in a shared virtual space.
    High-Level Requirements Analysis for Systems in Complex Work Settings BIBAPDF 421-422
      Mark Bergman
    Large scale intra- and interorganizational information systems development has failed to yield useful systems 50% of the time. It appears that one cause of these failures is the misunderstanding or overlooking of organizational and institutional requirements in the design of these systems. High-level requirements analysis is being created as one way to start to address this problem. It is a new methodology that can be used to gather organizational, institutional as well as technical information system requirements. Research is being performed to determine how to build a high-level requirements analysis framework. Then, research will continue in applying the framework to identify critical individual or combinations of technical, organizational, institutional requirements for a "real life" project that have been misunderstood or overlooked. Beyond this, high-level requirements analysis should allow for increased insights in (1) requirements analysis, (2) complex system design which contains technological, organizational, and institutional factors, (3) how technology, organizations, and institutions co-evolve over time, (4) policy creation in the development and governance of these types of systems, and (5) how to build, maintain, and improve a high-level requirements extraction and analysis system. Altogether, this sets up a research framework that may eventually yield solutions to become much more successful at either implementing large scale intra- and interorganizational information systems or knowing when not to build them.

    Videos

    A Demonstration of Awareness Driven Video Quality of Service BIBA 423
      Gail Reynard; Chris Greenhalgh; Steve Benford
    We present a combined conferencing/mediaspace application that extends previous work on texture mapping video streams into virtual environments by introducing awareness driven video Quality of Service (QoS). This uses movements within a shared virtual world to activate different video services as defined by their frame-rates. Three different services are supported: portholes, providing 1 frame of video per 5 minutes; glance, 1 frame per second and full frame rate video. Our application uses awareness driven video for facial expressions and for views into remote physical environments. This enables seamless shifts in mutual involvement and makes underlying QoS mechanisms more visible and malleable. The video gives a guided tour through the mediaspace, demonstrating the different video services. This work was published as: "Awareness Driven Video Quality of Service in Collaborative Virtual Environments," Gail Reynard, Steve Benford, Chris Greenhalgh and Christian Heath, Proceedings CHI '98, April, 1998, Los Angeles, pp. 464-471.
    i-LAND: An Interactive Landscape for Creativity and Innovation BIBAHTML 423
      Torsten Holmer; Laurent Lacour; Norbert Streitz
    i-LAND constitutes an example of our vision of the workspaces of the future employing "roomware" components in so called "cooperative buildings". It provides an innovative work environment supporting cooperative work of dynamic teams with changing needs resulting from new work practices as, e.g., ad hoc and on demand teams. We propose an integrated design of digital information spaces and real architectural spaces enabling new forms of human-computer interaction and support for cooperative work. The approach is related to augmented reality and ubiquitous computing. The central concept presented in the video is the notion of "roomware" components, i.e. computer-augmented objects integrating room elements with information technology. We present the current realization of i-LAND in terms of an interactive wall (DynaWall), an interactive table (InteracTable), and two computer-enhanced chairs (CommChairs). They are complemented by the Passage mechanism which allows for an intuitive physical transportation of digital information. The concept and the usage of the roomware components is demonstrated with several sample scenes.
    Insight Lab: A Team Workspace BIBA 423
      James Meyers; Beth Lange; Mark Jones
    The Insight Lab is an environment in which teams come together to analyze complex situations. The lab is particularly valuable when teams are studying large amounts of qualitative data, including videotapes, audio recordings, photos or documents. In addition to utilizing a three monitor large-screen display, the lab takes advantage of electronic whiteboards, linked sticky notes, and linked printed reports to bring information out of the computer box and into the physical world. By linking pieces of paper to the digital world via barcodes, the lab turns its walls into a huge computer desktop. The Insight Lab utilizes electronic whiteboards and linked sticky notes to capture critical team interactions, thereby documenting the rationale behind a group decision. Working "out-of-the-box" and maintaining a group memory provides a truly immersive environment, thereby creating a next generation team workspace.
    The Mirror: Reflections on Inhabited TV BIBA 423-424
      Andrew McGrath; Amanda Oldroyd; Graham Walker
    Inhabited TV is a vision of future television services in which multi-user 3D virtual environments deliver unprecedented levels of audience participation. Social chat and interaction are mixed with professional content and programming to create on-line communities. The Mirror was a ground-breaking collaborative experiment in Inhabited TV, created by BT, Sony, Illuminations and the BBC. Six on-line worlds were available to over 2000 viewers of the BBC2 series "The Net" in January and February 1997, and this video provides a flavour of the project.
    GestureLaser: Supporting Hand Gestures in Remote Instruction BIBA 424
      Hideaki Kuzuoka; Shinya Oyama; Hiroshi Kato; Hideyuki Suzuki; Keiichi Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki; Hiroyuki Miki
    GestureLaser is a remote controlled laser pointer which allows an instructor to gesture at real world objects over distances. To control the position of the GestureLaser's spot, a laser beam is reflected by two mirrors each rotated by a stepping motor. The remote instructor controls the motion of the laser's spot using a computer mouse in the same way an ordinary mouse pointer is controlled. The instructor can thus show position, rotation and direction by moving the spot. The laser's low illumination mode is used to indicate transitions between gestures while still allowing operators to track the spot. We have already undertaken a few experiments in order to understand how users can effectively use the laser's spot as a substitute for real hand gestures.
    Hypermirror: Mirror Reflections Representing Users As If They Are All in the Same Room BIBA 424
      Osamu Morikawa; Takanori Maesako
    HyperMirror is a new video communication system which realizes video WISIWYS (What I See Is What You See). We create an attractive, highly understandable communication environment, rather than imitating face-to-face communication. Like telephones, this system is intended to have easily understood limitations. Each site has a large screen which displays not only the remote participants image, but also the overlaid mirror image of the local participants. In this way, participants can share exactly the same video space. Thus they can use gestures and pointing to indicate background objects or images. There are several ways to synthesize the HyperMirror image. In this video, we present an optical synthesis and an electronic synthesis uses "chroma-keying".
    Crisis in Ragan: Orbit at Work BIBA 424
      Richard Taylor; Tim Mansfield; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
    How can an overworked editor in head office and an unprepared reporter in the far away land of Ragan get a breaking story to press in less than a day? We follow these journalists as they use the WORLDS project's collaboration environment, Orbit, integrated with other prototype tools developed at the DSTC, to accomplish their task. Orbit is based on the notion of software locales or "group-zones" to provide contexts for shared work. A navigator provides access to all the group-zones to which one of the journalists currently belongs. Users can dynamically change their view of each of these group-zones to match their changing needs, and the currently selected documents and folders from all zones are shown in a desktop-style workspace. They can also use integrated audio and video conferencing to communicate with each other. As well as Orbit, the video shows the intrepid team using other integrated DSTC tools including a backwards recovery workflow system, group awareness, and information filtering, to work together to make the 5pm bulletin.
    GAZE: Visual-Spatial Attention in Communication BIBA 425
      Roel Vertegaal
    This video illustrates the importance of conveying visual attention in multiparty mediated systems. In terms of multiparty turntaking efficiency, current-day video-conferencing systems do not seem to provide the expected added value over telephony. We attribute this to a lack of Conversational Awareness: knowing who's talking to whom. The visual attention of participants directly relates to their auditory and articulatory attention, i.e., their gaze direction indicates whom they listen or speak to. Conveying gaze direction seems to ease turntaking by allowing more rapid speaker switches and more efficient use of deictic verbal references (e.g., "What do YOU think?"). This video exemplifies the differences between face-to-face, traditional video-mediated, and attention-based conferencing. It features an early simulation of the GAZE Groupware system, a multiparty mediated system which metaphorically conveys gaze direction. Using an eyetracker, the system measures where participants look inside a 3D virtual meeting room, and rotates their video images to align with their gaze.
    The SubCam: An Insight into the Phenomenal Flow of Office Life BIBA 425
      Anne-Laure Fayard; Saadi Lahlou
    This video presents the SubCam perspective and methods used to analyze the video data it provides. We study office work in a large industrial research center and focus on the interactions of office workers with their social and spatial environment. Current methods (observations, interviews, ethnographic studies with video) provide interesting data, but fail to identify some key phenomena on the situated nature of the work. In order to determine the affordances of the environment, we design a new observation tool: the Subjective camera or SubCam. It is composed of a pair of glasses on which a miniature video camera and a microphone are clipped. The SubCam gives a rather good indication of what the subject sees, although it does not track eye gaze. It provides an insight in the phenomenal flow in which subjects are immersed and a subjective view of subjects' movements and interactions. The SubCam provides a very large and rich set of data. To focus our investigation, we have chosen 6 foci of analysis grounded on previous results and a first perusal of the data: 1. Interruption; 2. Feeling lost; 3. Navigation in the Workspace; 4. Artifacts; 5. Peripheral Awareness; 6. Cooperation.
    Enabling Personal Tele-Embodiment BIBA 425
      Eric Paulos; John Canny
    Current internet applications fail to interface to the real physical world in which we live, work, and play. This video illustrates the development of several simple, inexpensive, internet-controlled, untethered tele-robots or PRoPs (Personal Roving Presences) that provide the sensation of tele-embodiment in a remote real space. These devices range from small helium filled tele-operated airborne blimps to more recent ground based systems with longer ranges, battery life, and abilities. All PRoPs support at least video and two-way audio as well as mobility through the remote space they inhabit. The physical tele-robot serves both as an extension of its operator and as a visible, mobile entity with which other people can interact. ProPs enable their users to perform a wide gamut of human activities in the remote space, such as exploring, conversing with people, hanging out, wandering around, pointing, examining objects, reading, and making simple gestures. The goal is to identify and distill a small yet sufficient number of traits that are vital to human communication and interaction and to physically implement them on PRoPs. For more information please visit http://www.prop.org.
    Focus and Awareness in Groupware BIBA 425-426
      Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
    Medium-sized shared workspaces present two design goals to groupware designers: first, people need to focus on the details of their work; second, people need to stay aware of others working elsewhere in the workspace. This video presents and compares four different visualization techniques for achieving these goals. The techniques are part of a system for building and editing concept maps, visual languages for representing ideas and relationships. When people use concept maps, they often need to work in different parts of the map. Since a groupware workspace can only show a small part of the map at one time, this means that staying aware can become a problem. We present four different visual approaches to supporting both detail and awareness. All approaches extend the earlier versions illustrated in our CSCW '96 videos, and (for ease of comparison) all work within the concept map editor. The radar view splits the interface into detail and awareness windows. The fisheye view uses distortion to integrate detail and awareness in a single window. The dragmag view lets people selectively magnify a portion of a large overview. The two-level view overlays a full-screen overview onto a detail view.

    Tutorials

    A Grand Tour of CSCW Research BIBAPDF 427
      Jonathan Grudin; Steven E. Poltrock; John Patterson
    An introduction to Computer Supported Cooperative Work research for those unfamiliar with the field. We provide a framework for understanding CSCW as a research domain, a development opportunity, and a management challenge. We present a taxonomy of CSCW technologies, explain the computing architectures of CSCW technologies, and analyze successes and obstacles to success.
       This tutorial balances the social and technical issues that thread through this conference. It also identifies the conference events that expand on this social and technical framework.
    A Technical Overview of CSCW BIBAPDF 427
      Presun Dewan
    In the past decade, a variety of systems (applications and infrastructures) have been developed to support collaboration. These systems have been developed in diverse fields including user-interfaces, multimedia, operating systems, database systems, programming languages, networking, computer hardware, distributed systems, and hypermedia. This tutorial will take the audience on a tour of these systems, discussing technical issues that arise in their design and implementation.
    Activity Theory: Basic Concepts and Applications BIBAPDF 427
      Victor Kaptelinin; Bonnie Nardi
    This tutorial introduces participants to Activity Theory, a conceptual approach that provides a broad framework for describing the structure, development, and context of computer-supported activities. The tutorial will consist of lectures, discussion and small group exercises. A Web community will be established so attendees will be able to continue to learn about and use activity theory.
    The Theory and Practice of Fieldwork for System Development BIBAPDF 427
      Dave Randall; Mark Rouncefield
    This tutorial has the objective of developing an appreciation of the various theoretical perspectives utilized by CSCW practitioners and the practical issues that arise during the conduct of "naturalistic" inquiry. A number of competing theoretical perspectives will be examined, compared, and contrasted, including "grounded theory," "soft systems," distributed cognition, ethnomethodology, participatory design, "business-led" perspectives, and activity theory. The tutorial will draw from the instructors' experiences working with design and management teams to illustrate many of the practical problems associated with doing fieldwork.
    Contextual Inquiry: Gathering Customer Data for System Development BIBAPDF 428
      Karen Holtzblatt
    This tutorial, taught by the originator of contextual inquiry, presents a practical introduction to the use of field research in designing computer systems that support and extend people's work. Contextual inquiry is a technique for interviewing and observing users in their own workplace as they work. The tutorial will develop skills in data collection, analysis, and use through hands-on examples of how to apply contextual inquiry throughout the system development cycle and how to adapt the approach to different situations.
    Virtual Humans in Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) BIBAPDF 428
      Nadia Magnenat Thalmann; Daniel Thalmann
    The merging of recent developments in virtual reality, human animation and CSCW has led to new fields of research: the integration of virtual humans in collaborative virtual environments; the interaction of humans with virtual humans; and the representation of humans in virtual worlds. This tutorial will emphasize real-time animation techniques, real-time motion tracking, and communication among humans and virtual humans, using examples of social behavior, group behavior, and crowd behavior. The course will also discuss facial animation techniques for virtual actors and communication with them. Finally, the interaction among humans and autonomous virtual humans inside the virtual space will be illustrated with applications in telecooperative work.
    Computer Support for Community Work: Designing and Building Systems for the "Real World" BIBAPDF 428
      Doug Schuler
    This tutorial is designed to introduce CSCW researchers and implementers to the field of public CSCW applications, services, and institutions (or, what I call "Computer Supported Community Work"). It is the goal of this tutorial to present the major challenges and opportunities involved in this endeavor and to engage all the participants in a dialogue as to the future of these new systems. Each participant should, after attending this tutorial, have a much clearer idea what systems might be developed and what they themselves can do to make them happen.
    Building Computer-Based Shared Information Systems BIBAPDF 428
      John Mariani
    This tutorial compares and contrasts the use of real-world information artifacts and their electronic counterparts in traditional database systems, provides an understanding of the problems facing designers and implementers of shared information systems, and indicates how such systems can present awareness information to end-users. The tutorial will produce an understanding of the nature of shared information spaces, of the techniques used to realize shared information spaces, and of case studies about the design and development of shared information spaces.
    Avoiding Damn Lies: Understanding Statistics BIBAPDF 428-429
      Alan Dix
    Many practitioners and researchers in CSCW have to use statistics. However, many people, despite their ability to run a statistics package or calculate simple statistics, remain uncertain about what the numbers mean. This tutorial will produce an understanding of key statistical concepts enabling understanding and interpretation of statistical analyses.
    Working through Collaboration: A Framework for Designing Technology Support BIBAPDF 429
      John L. Bennett; John Karat
    As we design computing technologies to support collaboration face to face and at a distance, it is important to have a basic understanding of what makes collaboration work. This tutorial focuses on distinctions among types of collaboration; the roles of conversations in establishing and maintaining collaboration; the importance of partnership in successful collaboration; and the role of culture in supporting collaboration. Examples of software support using a commercial product (Lotus Notes/Domino) and the World Wide Web will illustrate strengths and weaknesses of existing systems. Cases will be drawn from the papers review process for CHI'98 and from a longitudinal study of a customer service group.
       After completing the tutorial, attendees should be able to formulate plans for designing, evaluating, installing, and bringing into practice technological support for collaboration.
    Developing Collaborative Applications on the World Wide Web BIBAPDF 429
      Andreas Girgensohn; Alison Lee
    Building collaborative applications from the ground up is a challenging task; one that requires balancing social, user interface, and technical concerns. The Web facilitates this task by providing building blocks that make it easy to rapidly develop collaborative applications. Using the Web helps lower the technical hurdles in the task and allows researchers, designers and developers to focus on exploring and understanding the sociological and HCI concerns. This tutorial demonstrates, with fragments of program and pseudo code, how the Web building blocks can be used to develop typical collaborative applications consisting of components such as awareness, shared objects, and conversational tools. Also, the tutorial highlights ways to address issues (e.g., interactivity, customization, data and tool integration, control, synchronization, firewall support, and security) related to using the Web as a development platform. The goal of the tutorial is to provide insights into and understanding of the Web building blocks and how to use the Web as a rapid prototyping platform for collaborative applications. At the end of the tutorial, participants will be able to begin developing Web-based collaborative applications.
    An Introduction to Distributed Cognition: Analyzing the Organizational, the Social, and the Cognitive for Designing and Implementing CSCW Applications BIBAPDF 429-430
      Christine Halverson; Yvonne Rogers
    To introduce the theory of distributed cognition and elucidate its application to design and evaluation using real examples, and to provide experience to the participants by providing a hands-on example to work through. We will explain the importance of adopting multiple perspectives when designing and evaluating CSCW systems and groupware, and describe the analytic framework provided by distributed cognition. We will provide a detailed outline of the micro-methodology, a step-by-step walkthrough of analysis, and a guided hands-on analysis of a collaborative setting.
    Behavioral Evaluation of CSCW Systems BIBAPDF 430
      Thomas A. Finholt
    Evaluating CSCW systems is much more difficult than evaluating single-user systems because of the additional group and organizational factors. Behavioral evaluation consists of having people use CSCW technologies under appropriate conditions and gathering either qualitative or quantitative information about their behavior. We will examine a variety of methods, including case studies, large scale field studies, surveys, and laboratory studies.
    XML: Modeling Data and Metadata BIBAPDF 430
      Rohit Khare; Adam Rifkin
    Designers of computer-supported cooperative work systems have long sought a portable information delivery format to share knowledge. Extensible Markup Language (XML) provides an effective solution for communicating across time, space, and communities. This tutorial introduces the family of Extensible Markup Language specifications to CSCW researchers and practitioners: XML, Namespaces, XSL (Styles), Xlink, Xpointer, RDF (Resource Description Format), and Schemas, as well as XML's interaction with other Web standards such as HTML, CSS, URI, and HTTP.
    Workflow Management: Concepts, Architecture, Implementation and Deployment BIBAPDF 430
      Christoph Bussler
    This tutorial allows attendees to understand and characterize the field of workflow management and workflow management technologies in general. The tutorial will present and discuss the current state of workflow research, workflow standardization, and workflow products from a "neutral" viewpoint (i.e., independent of a specific philosophy or technology). The approach will be an overview of workflow concepts, architectures, and implementations-as well as references to current literature on workflow issues.
    Using Social Network Analysis to Study Computer Networks: Theory, Methods and Substantive Findings BIBAPDF 430
      Barry Wellman
    When a computer network connects people or organizations, it is a social network. The study of such computer-supported social networks has not received adequate attention. This tutorial will demonstrate the usefulness of a social network approach for the study of computer-mediated communication. Attendees will learn the principles, methods, and substantive findings of social network analysis, including: how to design social network research; how to collect social network data, and how to use standardized packages to analyze social network data.
    Theoretical Foundations of CSCL: How Do We Learn in Collaborative Settings? BIBAPDF 430-431
      Timothy Koschmann
    CSCL (Computer Support for Collaborative Learning) is an emerging area of research in educational technology. The tutorial will survey four prominent socially-motivated theories of learning (i.e., Vygotskyian, Neo-Piagetian, Social Practice Theory, and Distributed Cognition). Following the overview, working teams will undertake a task designed to deepen understanding of the four theories.
    The World Wide Laboratory: Conducting Experiments on the Internet BIBAPDF 431
      Daniel B. Horn; Elena Rocco; Paul Resnick
    Behavioral experiments have traditionally been done within the walls of a lab. Studies of this type have many advantages (e.g., high degree of experimental control), but they have costs and limitations (e.g., use of participants from a limited geographic area). The Internet provides new avenues to conduct research, creating new opportunities for scholars and practitioners. This tutorial examines traditional and new kinds of studies that can be conducted on the Internet. Covered topics include recruiting participants, identity verification, data management, on-line payment, experimental design, and the design of experiment Web sites.

    Demonstrations

    TeamWave Workplace BIBA --
      Mark Roseman
    TeamWave Workplace is one of the few commercial products supporting both real-time and asynchronous collaboration. Using a rooms metaphor, it combines chat, audio/video, whiteboards, calendars, bulletin boards, and other groupware tools in a fully persistent work environment, all running on Windows, Macintosh and Unix platforms. This demonstration will highlight not only the individual components in TeamWave, but also how the system works to integrate them together into a single cohesive environment.
    WebGuide: Guiding Cooperative Work on the Web with Perspectives and Negotiation Support BIBA --
      Gerry Stahl; Rogerio dePaula; Thomas Herrmann; Kai-Uwe Loser
    Cooperative knowledge work typically involves a mix of individual and group activities. Computer support for both personal and team perspectives allows people to view and work on a central information repository in personal, subgroup, and team contexts. Negotiation mechanisms support the merger of information developed and proposed by individuals or subgroups into perspectives representing convergence of group ideas. By intertwining perspective and negotiation mechanisms, a presentation or product representing group consensus can systematically be constructed from the individual results while work on personal ideas progresses within private workspaces. WebGuide is a prototype system that integrates perspective and negotiation mechanisms to support web-based cooperation. It is currently being developed to support two diverse group research projects; the demo will feature the current state of these research collaborations as represented within WebGuide.
    ToolSpace: A Next Generation Computing Environment BIBA --
      T. Goddard; V. S. Sunderam
    User interfaces have evolved from punched cards, to text terminals, to windowing systems. As interface standards move into the third dimension, we have the opportunity to ensure that they inherently support cooperative work as well as other modern ideas from areas such as component software and distributed systems. ToolSpace is our prototype of such an environment.
       Using VRML and Java, ToolSpace workspaces are available over the web through essentially a standard web browser installation. Within the workspace, users can interact with shared objects and applications in real time. With a software abstraction called "tools", applications can scale with number of users, degrees of freedom of input devices, and sophistication of input filtering.
    Patient Support Using the World Wide Web BIBA --
      John E. Lester; Deirdre M. Norris; Daniel B. Hoch
    Traditional medical care relies on face-to-face encounters in which patient and physician work in a collaborative fashion. However, many patients have limited mobility, want additional medical information and wish to share experiences with others in similar medical circumstances. This demonstration illustrates how the WWW can be used as a computer-based tool to augment the physician-patient encounter at an Epilepsy referral center. During this presentation we show how patients and providers use WWW resources running on commercial software. Patients are given access to a library, discussion groups, chatrooms, and the opportunity to communicate privately with healthcare providers. Patients were included in the design process and are involved in the evolution of the site. Monitoring of the project is performed by Epilepsy care providers. We are in the process of examining the impact of this technology on patient satisfaction, quality of life and comparing/contrasting its use to traditional face-to-face encounters.
    WebShaman -- Collaborative Virtual Prototyping in the World Wide Web for Product Designers BIBA --
      Pertti Repo; Jarmo Sarkkinen; Tuomo Tuikka; Marko Salmela
    This demonstration presents a World Wide Web based collaborative virtual prototyping system -- WebShaman. The system was designed after a series of field studies in interdisciplinary collaborative electronics product design. It illustrates how to support synchronous concept design over the WWW, where three dimensional product concepts, design objects, can be shown, manipulated, and simulated in common information space. Thus two or more electronics product designers or their customers can work on a common design object in synchronous collaboration using distributed simulation to mediate their understanding with each others. To facilitate this a techniques which we call 'smart virtual prototyping' is demonstrated. It is a special technique which allows users to add functionality and simulation to virtual prototypes and use them in a collaborative fashion. (See: http://www.hci.oulu.fi/WebShaman.html)
    The Hummingbird: Mobile Support for Group Awareness BIBA --
      Lars Erik Holmquist; Joakim Wigstrom; Jennica Falk
    The Hummingbird is a small portable device which supports social awareness between people who frequent the same physical location. The Hummingbird uses wireless communication to give members of a group continuous aural and visual indications of which other group members are in the vicinity. Although many solutions for providing awareness information exist, they are either tied to the desktop (e.g., ICQ) or dependent on a pre-existing infrastructure (e.g., Active Badges). Hummingbirds have the advantage of working any time, anywhere, which will be shown in this demonstration.
       We will let attendees get hands-on experience with the Hummingbird prototype, but the demonstration will not be limited to the demo room. Attendees will be allowed to borrow Hummingbirds and use them in the conference area. In this way, participants will be able to explore how Hummingbirds can support group awareness during a conference situation.
    WebPath: Synchronous Collaborative Browsing BIBA --
      Paul Moody
    Pathing, trails and guided tours of hypertext have been shown to be valuable means of sharing browsing experiences. Our WebPath project implemented a pathing system for use with a web browser with the addition of awareness, real-time chatting, and sharing of current browse locations. Our experiences using the system led to several new collaborative browsing activities using paths. In this demo, we will show our system and demonstrate some of these new uses.
    Alice: Easy to Learn Interactive 3D Graphics BIBA --
      Angela M. Saval; Dan Maynes-Aminzade; Steve Audia; Kevin Christiansen; Dennis Cosgrove; Shawn Lawson; Dan Moskowitz; Jeffrey Pierce; Jason Pratt; Randy Pausch
    Alice is a rapid prototyping tool for building interactive worlds that allow users to quickly and easily create collaborative virtual environments (CVEs). The versatility of Alice system allows for the easy creation of multi-person worlds for a web browser, on the desktop, and via a head-mounted display. Alice uses Python, a very high level interpreted language, as its scripting language for specifying the behavior of objects. The rapid turn around time of Alices interactive development environment enables users to experiment with more designs than possible with a more traditional compiled language. Alice is available free for Windows 95/98/NT at from http://www.alice.org.
    The SubCam: A Video Tool for Analyzing Cooperative Work BIBA --
      Saadi Lahlou; Anne-Laure Fayard
    The subjective camera, or SubCam, is a wearable video tool designed for studying activity from the workers' point of view. It is composed of a miniature video camera with wide angle lens and a microphone fixed on a pair of glasses, worn by the subject. It gives a rather good account of what the subjects sees, hears and does, although it does not track the eye gaze. The SubCam provides relevant data on the interactions of human beings with their social and spatial environment. It is particularly relevant for the study of cooperative work and social relationships, since it brings no extra observer in the setting. It was initially designed for studying office work, but can be used in other settings as well, and has potential applications in training and remote collaboration.
    CLIVE: Collaborative Live Interactive Voice Environment BIBA --
      Maroun Touma; Shahrokh Daijavad; Catherine Wolf; Alison Lee; Tong Fin; Tetsu Fujisaki; Eric Roffman; Makoto Kobayashi; Masahide Shinozaki; Takashi Sakairi
    The Web is an attractive channel for delivering products and services to Internet-based consumers. This demonstration shows how the CLIVE (Collaborative Live Interactive Voice Environment) technology transforms customer service and support by augmenting conventional self-service Web interactions with synchronous collaboration on demand. A consumer requests to be connected with a call center agent by clicking on a button or text link on a page. This results in the establishment of a simultaneous voice and Web page sharing connection between the agent and the customer. The demonstration illustrates the innovative features of CLIVE using a home banking scenario.
    InTouch: A Tangible Interpersonal Communication Medium BIBA --
      Hiroshi Ishii; Scott Brave; Victor Su; Phil Frei; Andrew Dahley
    Although telecommunication technology has made big advances, real-time interpersonal communication over distance is limited to visual and auditory media. We are going to demonstrate a new approach, inTouch, which allows haptic interpersonal communication over distance. The approach is based on a concept called Synchronized Distributed Physical Objects, which employs force feedback technology to create the illusion that distant users are interacting with shared physical objects.
    An Awareness Tool for Asynchronous, Distributed Workgroups BIBA --
      J. J. Cadiz; R. E. Kraut; F. J. Lerch; S. R. Fussell; M. M. McNally; W. L. Scherlis
    Members of interdependent work groups must coordinate their efforts in intricate ways. These coordination efforts are more successful if team members can stay aware of the state of their team, its tasks, and its environment. A major design goal for tools supporting distributed workgroups is to keep members apprised of important changes without distracting them from their focal tasks. Passive awareness tools coming from the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition have only explored a small part of the design space. This paper describes The Awareness Monitor, a tool that provides passive awareness. We discuss design criteria for providing passive awareness and show how The Awareness Monitor addresses those criteria.
    Demonstration of JCS: A Collaboration Architecture and Toolkit BIBA --
      Jeff Kurtz
    This demonstration presents JCS, an architecture and a toolkit for the construction of tailored collaborative environments. A team at The MITRE Corporation has been developing a flexible architecture that supports several key requirements for collaborative environments: the coordination of activities around a theme, easy integration of existing collaborative tools, the distribution of resources for efficiency, software support on multiple platforms, and rapidly configurable client interfaces. From the architecture a toolkit has been implemented using Java and CORBA that gives developers easy access to a suite of collaboration services. This simplifies collaborative tool integration and client software development. The demonstration will show the toolkit and how it was used to implement a collaboration environment as part of a DARPA sponsored planning system, JFACC. It will show how the toolkit was used to coordinate activities, manage user workspaces, integrate applications, and distribute computing resources.
    Selective Dissemination of Information in a Colleague Awareness Application BIBA --
      Mark Day; Steve Foley
    A colleague awareness tool (or, colloquially, a "buddy list") allows one to see and be seen on a network -- one's presence and related information are advertised. If one can be "visible" to a large audience, users want to be able to control which information is made available to viewers. For example, users may want colleagues in their group to see more detailed information than an arbitrary employee of the same company. Prairie Dog is an experimental colleague awareness tool that we have modified to support the selective dissemination of information.
    Creating and Managing Shared Concept Maps through SMART Ideas BIBA --
      David Martin; Tom Fukushima; Rob Kremer
    SMART Ideas is concept mapping software that provides support for collaborative work in areas such as meetings, knowledge management, brainstorming, and project tracking. It has a graphical interface that is tailored for creating and manipulating shared concept maps from either an interactive whiteboard or a PC. In our demonstration, we will give an example of concept map creation from a meeting where pen-based data is entered into SMART Ideas from a large interactive whiteboard and recorded onto a central server. We also show how participants can manipulate the concept map on the interactive display remotely from a laptop located on the meeting room table. We will then show how the resulting concept map can be taken out of the meeting and elaborated by the group to create a living document. Also described is our support for the offline user who must do work while disconnected from the server.
    The GAZE Groupware System: Mediating Attention in Multiparty Communication and Collaboration BIBA --
      Roel Vertegaal
    When a group is communicating or working together remotely by means of telephony, video conferencing, or groupware systems, it may be difficult for participants to know who is talking or listening to whom (Conversational Awareness). We believe this is because most systems do not convey whom you look at. When you speak or listen to someone, you typically convey your attention by looking at that person's facial region. When such information is not mediated by technology, the process of taking speaker turns can become up to 25% slower, which is an indication of unnatural behaviour. Also, the number of deictic references to persons may drops by as much as a factor two. The GAZE Groupware System (GGS) addresses this problem by measuring where you look within a 3D web-based virtual meeting room on your screen, using deskmounted eyetracking systems. It represents this information to other participants by orienting your picture towards the person you look at. The GAZE Groupware System can also convey exactly where you look within shared document files, potentially easing joint editing tasks by conveying a generic form of Workspace Awareness. Our current prototype uses standard internet audio conferencing tools to support multiparty speech communication. The added value lies in the integrated approach to conveying awareness information in conversations and the workspace in a manner which is technically scalable. (GAZE Groupware System: http://reddwarf.wmw.utwente.nl/gaze.html)
    Simple Collaboration with Java BIBA --
      Derek S. Morris
    We propose to show an application written in Java that provides a simple form of collaborative behavior in order to demonstrate the ease with which collaboration can be included in a Java application. For applications being built using Java it is now practical to add simple collaborative behavior to the application directly rather than use a generalized system like Habanero or DISCIPLE. The task of programming collaborative behavior into an application has been greatly simplified by key features provided in the Java Programming Language. The primary mechanisms needed to provide collaborative behavior will demonstrated to include downloading a collaborative session from a web page, shared entity marshaling, multicasting the shared entity state, and session persistence.
    Incident Report Information System (IRIS) BIBA --
      Steve T. Jones
    The Incident Report Information System (IRIS) is a Lotus Notes application developed by Electronic Data Systems (EDS) for a multi-national manufacturer of automotive electronics. The company has implemented a process for analyzing product failures and installing corrective actions. This process applies to products throughout the manufacturing life cycle from design to close of production. IRIS is the IT support for this process. The core of the Response Process is a five-phase problem resolution procedure. The process is triggered when a defective unit is returned to a team and logged into IRIS. The purpose of IRIS is to capture information about failed units, the cause of the unit's failure, and the means for preventing future failures. Notes replication features ensure that virtually identical information is available anywhere in the world. In conjunction with e-mail and the telephone, Notes allows teams to collaborate with colleagues anywhere in the world.
    Virtual Places: A Heterogeneous Network Environment for Individual and Collaborative Work BIBA --
      Robert B. Kozma; Ruth E. Lang; Martin W. Fong
    Virtual Places is a network-based computing environment that supports a range of asynchronous and synchronous interactions. Our objective is to build a highly interactive computer-based task and social environment that supports individual work and collaboration over distances. This computer-mediated, place-based environment provides access to built-in IRC-like communications and persistent objects, and smoothly integrates external single- and multi-user applications. In Virtual Places,
  • When a user activates an application (e.g., chemistry simulation), the
       application is automatically started on their local computer.
  • When two people enter the same virtual room, equivalent Internet audio
       applications are configured, and an audio conference is automatically
       started.
  • When they both activate the same chemistry simulation, they can collaborate
       via peer-to-peer application sharing. Our demonstration will show how single-user applications are transparently integrated into this environment, and how real-time synchronous collaboration sessions are dynamically defined through social interactions within this environment. (See: http://www.sri.com/policy/teched/projects/vrplprom.htm)
  • Dynamic Virtual Playground BIBA --
      Richard May; Scott Decker; Lauren Bricker; Bruce Campbell; Anne Schur; Irene Schwarting; Paul Schwartz; Tom Furness; Kori Inkpen
    The Dynamic Virtual Playground (DVP) is a prototype system, in its early stages of development, designed to investigate multiple simultaneous collaborations in a virtual setting. The DVP utilizes a typical 3D world where users can dynamically load and place data. Users create data outside for the DVP then join an ongoing DVP session and load their data (geometry, underlying support data, behaviors, unique interactions, etc). The environment could simulate a school lab where each group of students is working on a different project or a command post where each station is dealing with different data sources. Users are free to move between work areas. A critical aspect to this research is understanding the non-verbal and social communications techniques that need to be incorporated in to the DVP to support the multiple-group dynamics. The functionality will be demonstrated in a virtual mall setting. There will be 3D (rooms) shops and 2D (web pages) shops as well as an art/science exhibit area.
       Participants will be able to move between different components of the world. Groups can browse the stores and discuss what is in them. Participants will be able to create art for display both on-line (within the world) and off-line (out side the world). Data created off-line will then be loaded into the world for display and interaction. Groups of participants will be able to interact with the data and download pieces they like to their systems.
    QuickSet: Multimodal Collaboration from Handheld to Wall-Sized BIBA --
      David R. McGee
    Currently, scalability of synchronous CSCW systems (in terms of number of collaborators, wireless networking, and handheld computing) is limited due to the bandwidth required to maintain the error-free, peer-to-peer communications necessary for real-time collaboration. We have discovered that a multi-agent architecture that supports intelligent brokering may prove to be an effective tool for developing synchronous real-time computer-supported cooperative work applications, because such an architecture limits the distribution of tasks and events to only those relevant, at the time of execution.
       QuickSet is our system for map-based multimodal interaction. Recently, we have extended the capabilities of each user interface to include coupled and uncoupled real-time collaboration facilities. Because of its reliance on a lightweight agent architecture for distribution of messages, we are able to demonstrate synchronous collaboration, via a hybrid central-replicated architecture, on hardware ranging from handheld to wall-sized displays.
    Orbit-Amethyst BIBA --
      David Arnold; Andrew Loch; Tim Mansfield; Ted Phelps; Simon Kaplan
    Orbit-Amethyst is a new version of the Orbit prototype collaboration environment. This version is notable for employing a more distributed, modular architecture. The system provides a workspace showing a unified view of documents stored in multiple document repositories along with A/V conferencing and integrated synchronous collaboration tools. Orbit is an attempt to provide a unifying user-level environment for collaboration-oriented resources and tools.
    Rapidly Building Synchronous Collaborative Applications by Direct Manipulation BIBA --
      Guruduth Banavar; Sri Doddapaneni; Kevan Miller; Bodhi Mukherjee
    Existing GUI builder technology supports building user interfaces for interactive applications via direct manipulation. However, it is notoriously difficult to build the underlying data sharing and application logic for multi-user synchronous collaborative applications. This demonstration will show a collection of very high-level software components, built using the JavaBeans component standard, that enables domain experts and application designers to rapidly build entire collaborative applications via visual programming, i.e., drag-and-drop, customization and wiring. Our component suite supports conference setup, awareness, data and event sharing, access synchronization, and temporally coordinated event streams. We will demonstrate that the task of building non-trivial multi-user applications using this approach is significantly simplified. Our demonstration will consist of building representative multi-user applications and modifying them on-line based on audience requests.
    TTR: A Task-tailorable System for Envisioning Asynchronous Communication BIBA --
      Christine M. Neuwirth; James H. Morris; Susan Harkness Regli; Ravinder Chandhok; Geoffrey C. Wenger
    TTR (Task-Tailorable Representation) is a research prototype that allows users to organize electronic mail messages into task-tailorable interfaces. Our goal is to provide a flexible, generative, direct-manipulation layout interface in which users can create a number of views, customize them on-the-fly, and map them to any messages they want to visualize in relation to a task.
    NetMeeting and Flatland BIBA --
      Deborah Dubrow; Anoop Gupta
    Microsoft NetMeeting enables people to work together in real-time over distances via the Internet or Intranet. NetMeeting participants use multi-point application sharing, whiteboarding, chat, and file transfer and point-to-point audio and video to communicate. Common uses of NetMeeting include geographically distributed large team meetings, presentations and demonstrations, and working with others to review a document or solve a problem. Video conferencing and chatting with friends over the Internet is also a common use of NetMeeting.
       Flatland is a project being pursued at Microsoft Research. Flatland provides an easily customizable framework that supports live information delivery and interactive audience feedback. It frees developers from needing to manage client/server communication, data replication, and data persistence. The initial application we are looking into is distance learning. We will demonstrate Flatland in that context and also how it extends into the world of asynchronous collaboration via annotations.
    MOMO: Cooperative and Collaborative Workflow Modeling BIBA --
      Stefan Horn; Stefan Jablonksi; Michael Schlundt
    Workflow-modeling is an essential constituent of every workflow-management-system. Special requirements that arise in the realm of workflow-modeling are not adequately realized by existing graphical editors. We claim for support of flexible versioning mechanisms and effective techniques to enable cooperative modeling of large workflow-scenarios. MOMO implements this aims on basis of reusage of workflow-types, perspective-oriented modeling and versioning as graphical workflow editor for system independent environments.

    Opening Plenary

    Collective IQ and a Framework for Bootstrapping our Society BIB --
      Douglas Engelbart

    Closing Plenary

    The Design Studio of the Future BIBA --
      William J. Mitchell
    Architectural design presents a particular challenge to the technologies of computer supported cooperative work. Architectural projects typically involve geographically distributed participants from a multitude of specialized disciplines, and require complex, graphically mediated discussions and negotiations. Since schedule and budget requirements are typically very rigorous, and since talented designers find themselves in great demand, the benefits from effective use of computer supported cooperative work technologies are potentially very great.
       This talk will discuss a series of practical experiments in geographically distributed, computer-supported design that have been conducted at MIT over the last few years. MIT students and faculty have worked with collaborators in Japan, Hong Kong, Portugal, Canada, California, and elsewhere. They have linked to the offices of prominent architects who have served as design critics, to client organizations, to technical consultants, and to collaborators in other schools of architecture. They have worked with a wide variety of enabling technologies, ranging from straightforward videoconferencing to realtime automated language translation.
       A critical analysis of the successes and failures of these efforts will be presented, lessons will be drawn, and some key challenges for the future of such enterprises will be outlined.