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CSCW Tables of Contents: 868890929496980002040608101112-112-213-113-214-114-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Jim Herbsleb; Gary Olson; Christine A. Halverson; Loren Terveen; A. J. Brush; JJ Cadiz; Michael B. Twidale
Location:Chicago, Illinois, USA
Dates:2004-Nov-06 to 2004-Nov-10
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-810-5; ACM Order Number 612040; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW04
Papers:80
Pages:630
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Dynamic architectures
  2. Collaboration involving large displays
  3. Panel
  4. Knowledge sharing in software engineering
  5. Evaluation methods
  6. Panel
  7. Medical applications
  8. Systems
  9. Social awareness and availability
  10. Communities
  11. Interactions with shared displays
  12. Panel
  13. Tabletop design
  14. Organizational issues
  15. Distilling knowledge
  16. Gaming
  17. Cases from the field
  18. Panel
  19. Distributed teams
  20. Operational transformation
  21. Gesturing, moving and talking together
  22. May I interrupt?
  23. Bridging the physical and the digital
  24. Panel
  25. Information sharing and access
  26. Understanding CSCW: looking from above
  27. Synchronous collaboration

Dynamic architectures

Towards dynamic collaboration architectures BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Goopeel Chung; Prasun Dewan
In this paper, we introduce the concept of dynamically changing between centralized, replicated, and hybrid collaboration architectures. It is implemented by providing users a function that dynamically changes the mapping between user-interface and program components. We decompose the function into more primitive commands that are executed autonomously by individual users. These commands require a mechanism to dynamically replicate user-interface and program components on a user's site. We present a logging approach for implementing the mechanism that records input (output) messages sent to one incarnation of a program (user-interface) component, and replays the recorded messages to a different incarnation of the component. Preliminary experiments with an implementation of the mechanism show that response and completion times can improve by dynamically changing the architecture to adapt to changes to the set of users in a collaboration session involving a mix of mobile and stationary devices.
Separating data and control: support for adaptable consistency protocols in collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Yi Yang; Du Li
Consistency control is critical for the correct functioning of distributed collaboration support systems. A large number of consistency control methods have appeared in the literature with different design tradeoffs and usability implications. However, there has been relatively little work on how to accommodate different protocols and variations in one framework to address the dynamic needs of collaboration. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for supporting adaptable consistency protocols in collaborative systems. Our approach cleanly separates data and control, allowing consistency protocols to be dynamically attached to shared data at the object level. Protocols can be switched at run time without modifying source code.
Introducing collaboration into an application development environment BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  Susanne Hupfer; Li-Te Cheng; Steven Ross; John Patterson
We present contextual collaboration, an approach to building collaborative systems that embeds collaborative capabilities into core applications, and discuss its advantages. We describe the Jazz collaborative application development environment that we are using to explore this concept and discuss design guidelines that have emerged from our experience.
Retrofitting collaboration into UIs with aspects BIBAFull-Text 25-28
  Li-Te Cheng; Steven L. Rohall; John Patterson; Steven Ross; Susanne Hupfer
Mission critical applications and legacy systems may be difficult to revise and rebuild, and yet it is sometimes desirable to retrofit their user interfaces with new collaborative features without modifying and recompiling the original code. We describe the use of Aspect-Oriented Programming as a lightweight technique to accomplish this, present an example of incorporating presence awareness deeply into an application's user interface, and discuss the implications of this technique for developing CSCW software.

Collaboration involving large displays

Collaborative knowledge management supporting mars mission scientists BIBAFull-Text 29-38
  Irene Tollinger; Michael McCurdy; Alonso H. Vera; Preston Tollinger
This paper describes the design and deployment of a collaborative software tool, designed for and presently in use on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) 2003 mission. Two central questions are addressed. Does collaborative content like that created on easels and whiteboards have persistent value? Can groups of people jointly manage collaboratively created content? Based on substantial quantitative and qualitative data collected during mission operations, it remains difficult to conclusively answer the first question while there is some positive support for the second question. The MER mission provides a uniquely rich data set on the use of collaborative tools.
Augmenting the social space of an academic conference BIBAFull-Text 39-48
  Joseph F. McCarthy; David W. McDonald; Suzanne Soroczak; David H. Nguyen; Al M. Rashid
Academic conferences provide a social space for people to present their work, learn about others' work, and interact informally with one another. However, opportunities for interaction are unevenly distributed among the attendees. We seek to extend these opportunities by allowing attendees to easily reveal something about their background and interests in different settings through the use of proactive displays: computer displays coupled with sensors that can sense and respond to the people nearby. We designed, implemented and deployed a suite of proactive display applications at a recent academic conference: AutoSpeakerID augmented formal conference paper sessions; Ticket2Talk augmented informal coffee breaks. A mixture of qualitative observation and survey response data are used to frame the impacts of these applications from both individual and group perspectives, highlighting the creation of new opportunities for both interaction and distraction. We end with a discussion of how these social space augmentations relate to the concepts of focus and nimbus as well as the problem of shared interaction models.
The introduction of a shared interactive surface into a communal space BIBAFull-Text 49-58
  Harry Brignull; Shahram Izadi; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Yvonne Rogers; Tom Rodden
We describe a user study of a large multi-user interactive surface deployed for an initial period within a real world setting. The surface was designed to enable the sharing and exchange of a wide variety of digital media. The setting for the study was the common room of a high school where students come together to mix, socialize, and collaborate throughout the day. We report on how the students use the new technology within their own established communal space. Findings show that the system was used extensively by the students in a variety of ways, including sharing of photos, video clips, and websites, and for facilitating social interaction. We discuss how the interactive shared surface was appropriated by the students and introduced into their everyday lives in ways that both mirrored and extended their existing practices within the communal space.

Panel

Online political organizing: lessons from the field BIBAFull-Text 59-62
  Keri Carpenter; Bonnie Nardi; James Moore; Scott Robertson; Daniel Drezner; Ian Benson; Kirsten Foot; Quintus Jett
In this panel, a group of practitioners and researchers in the area of online political organizing will present their own research in this area and discuss the relevance of online political organizing to the current political scene - including the U.S. general presidential election, which has just been completed. Panelists come from across the political spectrum and also represent views of the political process in countries other than the United States. What are the tools used in online political organizing? What role do each of these new tools bring to the campaign/election process? How effective have they proven in this election cycle? What is their utility outside the scope of the presidential election cycle? Are they merely "teaser" tools to get people in the door or do they have the potential to facilitate lasting political change in all political arenas large and small? In addition, electronic voting is a current open research area. What do systems need to take into account to assure voters' confidence that their votes are being collected and tallied correctly and securely? What information needs to be presented to the voter at the time of polling to ensure the most effective voting systems available? What do we know at this point and where are the future research areas that need scrutiny? Each panelist will present their current research related to this area and comment on the ways in which their findings add to the current body of knowledge. Particular attention will be paid to articulating research streams that currently need to be addressed and positing methods to address these open research questions.

Knowledge sharing in software engineering

Sometimes you need to see through walls: a field study of application programming interfaces BIBAFull-Text 63-71
  Cleidson R. B. de Souza; David Redmiles; Li-Te Cheng; David Millen; John Patterson
Information hiding is one of the most important and influential principles in software engineering. It prescribes that software modules hide implementation details from other modules in order to decrease the dependency between them. This separation also decreases the dependency among software developers implementing modules, thus simplifying some aspects of collaboration. A common instantiation of this principle is in the form of application programming interfaces (APIs). We performed a field study of the use of APIs and observed that they served many roles. We observed that APIs were successful indeed in supporting collaboration by serving as contracts among stakeholders as well as by reifying organizational boundaries. However, the separation that they accomplished also hindered other forms of collaboration, particularly among members of different teams. Therefore, we think argue that API's do not only have beneficial purposes. Based on our results, we discuss implications for collaborative software development tools.
Group awareness in distributed software development BIBAFull-Text 72-81
  Carl Gutwin; Reagan Penner; Kevin Schneider
Open-source software development projects are almost always collaborative and distributed. Despite the difficulties imposed by distance, these projects have managed to produce large, complex, and successful systems. However, there is still little known about how open-source teams manage their collaboration. In this paper we look at one aspect of this issue: how distributed developers maintain group awareness. We interviewed developers, read project communication, and looked at project artifacts from three successful open source projects. We found that distributed developers do need to maintain awareness of one another, and that they maintain both a general awareness of the entire team and more detailed knowledge of people that they plan to work with. Although there are several sources of information, this awareness is maintained primarily through text-based communication (mailing lists and chat systems). These textual channels have several characteristics that help to support the maintenance of awareness, as long as developers are committed to reading the lists and to making their project communication public.
Learning from project history: a case study for software development BIBAFull-Text 82-91
  Davor CubraniC; Gail C. Murphy; Janice Singer; Kellogg S. Booth
The lack of lightweight communication channels and other technical and sociological difficulties make it hard for new members of a non-collocated software development team to learn effectively from their more experienced colleagues while they are coming up-to-speed on a project. To address this situation, we have developed a tool, named Hipikat, that provides developers with efficient and effective access to the group memory for a software development project that is implicitly formed by all of the artifacts produced during the development. This project memory is built automatically with little or no change to existing work practices. We report an exploratory case study evaluating whether software developers who are new to a project can benefit from the artifacts that Hipikat recommends from the project memory. To assess the appropriateness of the recommendations, we investigated when and how developers queried the project memory, how the evaluated the recommended artifacts, and the process by which they utilized the artifacts. We found that newcomers did use the recommendations and their final solutions exploited the recommended artifacts, although most of the Hipikat queries came in the early stages of a change task. We describe the case study, present qualitative observations, and suggest implications of using project memory as a learning aid for project newcomers.

Evaluation methods

Situating evaluation in scenarios of use BIBAFull-Text 92-101
  Steven R. Haynes; Sandeep Purao; Amie L. Skattebo
We report on the use of scenario-based methods for evaluating collaborative systems. We describe the method, the case study where it was applied, and provide results of its efficacy in the field. The results suggest that scenario-based evaluation is effective in helping to focus evaluation efforts and in identifying the range of technical, human, organizational and other contextual factors that impact system success. The method also helps identify specific actions, for example, prescriptions for design to enhance system effectiveness. However, we found the method somewhat less useful for identifying the measurable benefits gained from a CSCW implementation, which was one of our primary goals. We discuss challenges faced applying the technique, suggest recommendations for future research, and point to implications for practice.
Physiological indicators for the evaluation of co-located collaborative play BIBAFull-Text 102-111
  Regan L. Mandryk; Kori M. Inkpen
Emerging technologies offer new ways of using entertainment technology to foster interactions between players and connect people. Evaluating collaborative entertainment technology is challenging because success is not defined in terms of productivity and performance, but in terms of enjoyment and interaction. Current subjective methods are not sufficiently robust in this context. This paper describes an experiment designed to test the efficacy of physiological measures as evaluators of collaborative entertainment technologies. We found evidence that there is a different physiological response in the body when playing against a computer versus playing against a friend. These physiological results are mirrored in the subjective reports provided by the participants. We provide an initial step towards using physiological responses to objectively evaluate a user's experience with collaborative entertainment technology.
Evaluating computer-supported cooperative work: models and frameworks BIBAFull-Text 112-121
  Dennis C. Neale; John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
Evaluating distributed CSCW applications is a difficult endeavor. Frameworks and methodologies for structuring this type of evaluation have become a central concern for CSCW researchers. In this paper we describe the problems involved in evaluating remote collaborations, and we review some of the more prominent conceptual frameworks of group interaction that have driven CSCW evaluation in the past. A multifaceted evaluation framework is presented that approaches the problem from the relationships underlying joint awareness, communication, collaboration, coordination, and work coupling. Finally, recommendations for carrying out multifaceted evaluations of remote interaction are provided.

Panel

Does CSCW need organization theory? BIBAFull-Text 122-124
  Stephen R. Barley; William H. Dutton; Sara Kiesler; Paul Resnick; Robert E. Kraut; JoAnne Yates
CSCW as a field has been driven primarily by researchers' desire to solve real world problems of groups and organizations, and to use new technology to solve these problems. The field has accumulated a set of empirically-based interdisciplinary studies and many interesting new applications. The question to be addressed in this panel is whether CSCW as a field is ready for theory--whether theory is needed to move the field along, or on the contrary, whether the problems and the technology are still too new or are changing too fast to accommodate theory. The panelists will describe some of the organization theories that could be applied to CSCW, and debate their usefulness, taking both sides of the question.

Medical applications

Accountability in an alarming environment BIBAFull-Text 125-131
  Rebecca Randell
This paper considers how adjustable alarms support collaborative monitoring work within the intensive care unit. Drawing on examples from an observational study, it hopes to stimulate new ways of thinking about the role that alarms play in supporting awareness of not only changes in the environment but also awareness of colleagues' actions. Adjustable alarms allow nurses to fit the alarm limits to both the patient state and the nurse's level of experience. The setting of alarm limits is an accountable activity, being visible to and observed by colleagues.
Maintaining redundancy in the coordination of medical emergencies BIBAFull-Text 132-141
  Aksel Tjora
This paper reports from a study of Norwegian medical emergency call (AMK) centres, in which advanced radio and telephone communication technologies are handled by a team of nurses and ambulance personnel to coordinate medical emergency resources (ambulances, doctors, helicopters, and so on). The AMK centres have made use of a range of technologies since they were established 15-20 years ago. During the last 5 years, several of the centres have implemented an information system, AMIS to integrate several functions that before were handled by using separate specialised systems. By observation in seven medical emergency call centres and a survey covering 38 of 43 such centres in Norway in the period 1996-2002, this study focuses on collaboration and use of communication technologies in a teamwork setting. It is found that important aspects of the AMK centre teamwork include redundancy of communication, competence and technologies, as well as a well-developed overall attention from the operators. These aspects support a transparent social integration of technologies in use. The use of integrated systems, such as the AMIS, may challenge this transparency, by which one operator may follow the other operator's actions. It is concluded that serious care must be taken to introduce larger information systems, so that basic principles, which have emerged during the teamwork practice to secure high service reliability, are maintained.
Supporting informality: team working and integrated care records BIBAFull-Text 142-151
  Gillian Hardstone; Mark Hartswood; Rob Procter; Roger Slack; Alex Voss; Gwyneth Rees
This paper reports findings from an ethnographic study of the work of Adult and Care of the Elderly Community Mental Health Teams in the context of the deployment of an Electronic Medical Record. Our findings highlight the importance of informal discussions and provisional judgments as part of the process by which teams achieve consensual clinical management decisions over time. We show how paper-based documentation supports this collaborative work by affording both the revision of preliminary clinical management options and the accretion of contributions by team members with different clinical perspectives and expertise. Finally, we consider the implications both for teamwork and the Integrated Care Record (ICR) as clinical documentation becomes increasingly held and distributed electronically.

Systems

Lessons from the reMail prototypes BIBAFull-Text 152-161
  Daniel Gruen; Steven L. Rohall; Suzanne Minassian; Bernard Kerr; Paul Moody; Bob Stachel; Martin Wattenberg; Eric Wilcox
Electronic mail has become the most widely-used application for business productivity and communication, yet many people are frustrated with their email. Though email usage has changed, our email clients largely have not. In this paper, we describe a prototype email client developed out of a multi-year iterative design process aimed at providing those who "live in their email" with an improved, integrated email experience. We highlight innovative features and describe the user trials for each version of the prototype with resulting modifications. Finally, we discuss how these studies have recast our understanding of the email "habitat" and user needs.
Leveraging single-user applications for multi-user collaboration: the coword approach BIBAFull-Text 162-171
  Steven Xia; David Sun; Chengzheng Sun; David Chen; Haifeng Shen
Single-user interactive computer applications are pervasive in our daily lives and work. Leveraging single-user applications for multi-user collaboration has the potential to significantly increase the availability and improve the usability of collaborative applications. In this paper, we report an innovative transparent adaptation approach for this purpose. The basic idea is to adapt the single-user application programming interface to the data and operational models of the underlying collaboration supporting technique, namely Operational Transformation. Distinctive features of this approach include: (1) Application transparency: it does not require access to the source code of the single-user application; (2) Unconstrained collaboration: it supports concurrent and free interaction and collaboration among multiple users; and (3) Reusable collaborative software components: collaborative software components developed with this approach can be reused in adapting a wide range of single-user applications. This approach has been applied to transparently convert MS Word into a real-time collaborative word processor, called CoWord, which supports multiple users to view and edit any objects in the same Word document at the same time over the Internet. The generality of this approach has been tested by re-applying it to convert MS PowerPoint into CoPowerPoint.
High-performance telepointers BIBAFull-Text 172-181
  Jeff Dyck; Carl Gutwin; Sriram Subramanian; Christopher Fedak
Although telepointers are valuable for supporting real-time collaboration, they are rarely seen in commercial groupware applications that run on the Internet. One reason for their absence is that current telepointer implementations perform poorly on real-world networks with varying traffic, congestion, and loss. In this paper, we report on a new implementation of telepointers (HPT) that is designed to provide smooth, timely, and accurate telepointers in real-world groupware: on busy networks, on cable and dialup connections, and on wireless channels. HPT maintains performance at usable levels with a combination of techniques from multimedia and distributed systems research, including UDP transport, message compression, motion prediction, adaptive rate control, and adaptive forward error correction. Although these techniques have been seen before, they have never been combined and tailored to the specific requirements of telepointers. Tests of the new implementation show that HPT provides good performance in a number of network situations where other implementations do not work at all - we can provide usable telepointers even over a lossy 28K modem connection. HPT sets a new standard for telepointers, and allows designers to greatly improve the support that groupware provides for real-time interaction over distance.

Social awareness and availability

Controlling interruptions: awareness displays and social motivation for coordination BIBAFull-Text 182-191
  Laura Dabbish; Robert E. Kraut
Spontaneous communication is common in the workplace but can be disruptive. Such communication usually benefits the initiator more than the target of the disruption. Previous research has indicated that awareness displays showing the workload of a target can reduce the harm interruptions inflict, but can increase the cognitive load on interrupters. This paper describes an experiment testing whether team membership influences interrupters' motivation to use awareness displays and whether the informational-intensity of a display influences its utility and cost. Results indicate interrupters use awareness displays to time communication only when they and their partners are rewarded as a team and that this timing improves the target's performance on a continuous attention task. Eye-tracking data shows that monitoring an information-rich display imposes a substantial attentional cost on the interrupters, and that an abstract display provides similar benefit with less distraction.
The AWARE architecture: supporting context-mediated social awareness in mobile cooperation BIBAFull-Text 192-201
  Jakob E. Bardram; Thomas R. Hansen
Maintaining social awareness of the working context of fellow co-workers is crucial to successful cooperation. For mobile, non co-located workers, however, this social awareness is hard to maintain. In this paper we present the concept of Context-Mediated Social Awareness to denote how context-aware computing can be used to facilitate social awareness. We illustrate the concept in a case study of mobile collaboration in a hospital and present the 'AwarePhone', which is designed to support context-mediated social awareness among hospital clinicians. Based on this conceptual and empirical basis, the paper presents the AWARE architecture, which is a generic platform for supporting context-mediated social awareness.
Putting systems into place: a qualitative study of design requirements for location-aware community systems BIBAFull-Text 202-211
  Quentin Jones; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Steve Whittaker; Keerti Chivakula; Loren Terveen
We present a conceptual framework for location-aware community systems and results from two studies of how socially-defined places influence people's information sharing and communication needs.
   The first study identified a relationship between people's familiarity with a place and their desire for either stable or dynamic place-related information. The second study explored the utility of various system features highlighted by our conceptual framework. It clarified the role of place information in informal social interaction; it also showed that people valued, and were willing to provide information such as ratings, comments, and event records relevant to a place.
   These preliminary findings have important implications for the design of location-aware community systems. In particular, they suggest that such systems must integrate information about places with data about users' personal routines and social relationships.

Communities

Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities BIBAFull-Text 212-221
  Gerard Beenen; Kimberly Ling; Xiaoqing Wang; Klarissa Chang; Dan Frankowski; Paul Resnick; Robert E. Kraut
Under-contribution is a problem for many online communities. Social psychology theories of social loafing and goal-setting can provide mid-level design principles to address this problem. We tested the design principles in two field experiments. In one, members of an online movie recommender community were reminded of the uniqueness of their contributions and the benefits that follow from them. In the second, they were given a range of individual or group goals for contribution. As predicted by theory, individuals contributed when they were reminded of their uniqueness and when they were given specific and challenging goals, but other predictions were not borne out. The paper ends with suggestions and challenges for mining social science theories as well as implications for design.
Blogging as social activity, or, would you let 900 million people read your diary? BIBAFull-Text 222-231
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Diane J. Schiano; Michelle Gumbrecht
"Blogging" is a Web-based form of communication that is rapidly becoming mainstream. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnographic study of blogging, focusing on blogs written by individuals or small groups, with limited audiences. We discuss motivations for blogging, the quality of social interactivity that characterized the blogs we studied, and relationships to the blogger's audience. We consider the way bloggers related to the known audience of their personal social networks as well as the wider "blogosphere" of unknown readers. We then make design recommendations for blogging software based on these findings.
Flash forums and forumReader: navigating a new kind of large-scale online discussion BIBAFull-Text 232-241
  Kushal Dave; Martin Wattenberg; Michael Muller
We describe a popular kind of large, topic-centered, transient discussion, which we term a flash forum. These occur in settings ranging from web-based bulletin boards to corporate intranets, and they display a conversational style distinct from Usenet and other online discussion. Notably, authorship is more diffuse, and threads are less deep and distinct. To help orient users and guide them to areas of interest within flash forums, we designed ForumReader, a tool combining data visualization with automatic topic extraction. We describe lessons learned from deployment to thousands of users in a real world setting. We also report a laboratory experiment to investigate how interface components affect behavior, comprehension, and information retrieval. The ForumReader interface is well-liked by users, and our results suggest it can lead to new navigation patterns. We also find that, while both visualization and text analytics are helpful individually, combining them may be counterproductive.

Interactions with shared displays

Individual audio channels with single display groupware: effects on communication and task strategy BIBAFull-Text 242-251
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Dan Morris; Terry Winograd
We introduce a system that allows four users to each receive sound from a private audio channel while using a shared tabletop display. In order to explore how private audio channels affect a collaborative work environment, we conducted a user study with this system. The results reveal differences in work strategies when groups are presented with individual versus public audio, and suggest that the use of private audio does not impede group communication and may positively impact group dynamics. We discuss the findings, as well as their implications for the design of future audio-based "single display privacyware" systems.
Avoiding interference: how people use spatial separation and partitioning in SDG workspaces BIBAFull-Text 252-261
  Edward Tse; Jonathan Histon; Stacey D. Scott; Saul Greenberg
Single Display Groupware (SDG) lets multiple co-located people, each with their own input device, interact simultaneously over a single communal display. While SDG is beneficial, there is risk of interference: when two people are interacting in close proximity, one person can raise an interface component (such as a menu, dialog box, or movable palette) over another person's working area, thus obscuring and hindering the other's actions. Consequently, researchers have developed special purpose interaction components to mitigate interference techniques. Yet is interference common in practice? If not, then SDG versions of conventional interface components could prove more suitable. We hypothesize that collaborators spatially separate their activities to the extent that they partition their workspace into distinct areas when working on particular tasks, thus reducing the potential for interference. We tested this hypothesis by observing co-located people performing a set of collaborative drawing exercises in an SDG workspace, where we paid particular attention to the locations of their simultaneous interactions. We saw that spatial separation and partitioning occurred consistently and naturally across all participants, rarely requiring any verbal negotiation. Particular divisions of the space varied, influenced by seating position and task semantics. These results suggest that people naturally avoid interfering with one another by spatially separating their actions. This has design implications for SDG interaction techniques, especially in how conventional widgets can be adapted to an SDG setting.
Beyond "social protocols": multi-user coordination policies for co-located groupware BIBAFull-Text 262-265
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Kathy Ryall; Chia Shen; Clifton Forlines; Frederic Vernier
The status quo for co-located groupware is to assume that "social protocols" (standards of polite behavior) are sufficient to coordinate the actions of a group of users; however, prior studies of groupware use as well as our own observations of groups using a shared tabletop display suggest potential for improving groupware interfaces by incorporating coordination policies - direct manipulation mechanisms for avoiding and resolving conflicts. We discuss our observations of group tabletop usage and present our coordination framework. We conclude with example usage scenarios and discuss future research suggested by this framework.
Toward universal mobile interaction for shared displays BIBAFull-Text 266-269
  Tim Paek; Maneesh Agrawala; Sumit Basu; Steve Drucker; Trausti Kristjansson; Ron Logan; Kentaro Toyama; Andy Wilson
Researchers have noted conflicting trends in collaboration technologies between delivering more information on larger displays and exploiting mobility on smaller devices. Large, shared displays provide greater choice in the presentation of information, but mobile devices offer greater flexibility in the access of information. We describe a platform that leverages the best of both worlds by allowing multiple users to access and interact with a large, shared display using their own personal mobile devices, such as a cell phone, laptop, or wireless PDA. We highlight three applications built on top of the platform that demonstrate its generality and utility in a variety of group settings: namely, web browsing, polling, and entertainment.

Panel

CSCW and cyberinfrastructure: opportunities and challenges BIBAFull-Text 270-273
  Guy Almes; Jonathon Cummings; Jeremy P. Birnholtz; Ian Foster; Tony Hey; Bill Spencer
This panel will provide a forum for a discussion of important and timely issues surrounding the global deployment of cyberinfrastructure to support science and engineering research activities. Representatives of funding agencies, existing cyberinfrastructure projects, specific technologies and social scientists involved in the evaluation of these technologies will be brought together to address questions about the key obstacles to the operational deployment of cyberinfrastructure, whether or not cyberinfrastructure will improve research, and what the role of the CSCW community is and can or should be in this deployment.

Tabletop design

Lumisight table: a face-to-face collaboration support system that optimizes direction of projected information to each stakeholder BIBAFull-Text 274-283
  Mitsunori Matsushita; Makoto Iida; Takeshi Ohguro; Yoshinari Shirai; Yasuaki Kakehi; Takeshi Naemura
The goal of our research is to support cooperative work performed by stakeholders sitting around a table. To support such cooperation, various table-based systems with a shared electronic display on the tabletop have been developed. These systems, however, suffer the common problem of not recognizing shared information such as text and images equally because the orientation of their view angle is not favorable. To solve this problem, we propose the Lumisight Table. This is a system capable of displaying personalized information to each required direction on one horizontal screen simultaneously by multiplexing them and of capturing stakeholders' gestures to manipulate the information.
Exploring the effects of group size and table size on interactions with tabletop shared-display groupware BIBAFull-Text 284-293
  Kathy Ryall; Clifton Forlines; Chia Shen; Meredith Ringel Morris
Interactive tabletops have been previously proposed and studied in the domain of co-located group applications. However, little fundamental research has been done to explore the issue of size. In this paper we identify a number of size considerations for tabletop design, and present an experiment to explore some of these issues, in particular the effects of group size and table size on the speed at which the task was performed, the distribution of work among group members, issues of shared resources, and user preference for table size. Our findings shed light on (1) how work strategies are affected by group size, (2) how social interaction varies with respect to table size, and (3) how the speed of task performance is influenced by group size but not by table size. In addition, our experiments revealed that for larger groups, designers might need to add additional vertical displays for shared information. This finding opens the door for extending single-display groupware to shared-display groupware settings that involve multiple, shared displays.
Territoriality in collaborative tabletop workspaces BIBAFull-Text 294-303
  Stacey D. Scott; M. Sheelagh; T. Carpendale; Kori M. Inkpen
Researchers seeking alternatives to traditional desktop computers have begun exploring the potential collaborative benefits of digital tabletop displays. However, there are still many open issues related to the design of collaborative tabletop interfaces, such as whether these systems should automatically orient workspace items or enforce ownership of workspace content. Understanding the natural interaction practices that people use during tabletop collaboration with traditional media (e.g., pen and paper) can help to address these issues. Interfaces that are modeled on these practices will have the additional advantage of supporting the interaction skills people have developed over years of collaborating at traditional tables. To gain a deeper understanding of these interaction practices we conducted two observational studies of traditional tabletop collaboration in both casual and formal settings. Our results reveal that collaborators use three types of tabletop territories to help coordinate their interactions within the shared tabletop workspace: personal, group, and storage territories. Findings from a spatial analysis of collaborators' tabletop interactions reveal important properties of these tabletop territories. In order to provide a comprehensive picture of the role of tabletop territoriality in collaboration, we conclude with a synthesis of our findings and previous research findings and with several relevant design implications.

Organizational issues

Behind the help desk: evolution of a knowledge management system in a large organization BIBAFull-Text 304-313
  Christine A. Halverson; Thomas Erickson; Mark S. Ackerman
This paper examines the way in which a knowledge management system (KMS)-by which we mean the people, processes and software-came into being and evolved in response to a variety of shifting social, technical and organizational pressures. We draw upon data from a two year ethnographic study of a sophisticated help desk to trace the KMS from its initial conception as a "Common Problems" database for help desk personnel, to its current instantiation as a set of Frequently Asked Questions published on an intranet for help desk clients. We note how shifts in management, organizational structure, incentives, software technologies, and other factors affected the development of the system. This study sheds light on some of the difficulties that accompany the implementation of CSCW systems, and provides an analysis of how such systems are often designed by bricolage.
The diffusion of reachOut: analysis and framework for the successful diffusion of collaboration technologies BIBAFull-Text 314-323
  Vladimir Soroka; Michal Jacovi
While virtual communities become more and more dominant, little attention has been directed towards understanding the conditions for creating a successful community. Significant progress has been made in understanding the diffusion of collaborative tools in the workplace. We read stories about the extraordinary success of some communities, and about the harsh failure of others. This paper argues that lessons learnt from these stories should be analyzed using the theoretical foundations of Diffusion of Innovations theories, and systematized to create a set of guidelines for community creators to make their efforts more efficient. We begin by presenting a theoretical background for analyzing technology diffusion. We then analyze the stories of diffusion of ReachOut - a tool for peer support and community building developed in our Research Lab - in two different communities, using this theory. Finally, we propose a framework for planning for successful diffusion of collaborative tools, using our experiences with ReachOut.
Return on investment and organizational adoption BIBAFull-Text 324-327
  Jonathan Grudin
This paper considers the complexity of measuring the return on investment for technology adoption. A brief case study of technology adoption in a large design and construction firm provides a clear view of factors that came into play. The technology considered is simple; the apparent costs and benefits are relatively clear. Four parties are involved: diverse employees interested in using dual monitors, the information technology support group in the organization, an executive who had worked his way up from drafting, and employees of a software company that is considering expanding their support for dual monitor use. In the construction company, a seemingly logical and inexpensive hardware upgrade was subject to a wide range of technical and social pressures, some obstructing and others promoting adoption. Decisions are made in a manner that did not fit the model held by the product planners and designers in the software company.
Leveraging social networks for information sharing BIBAFull-Text 328-331
  Jeremy Goecks; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Saori is a computation infrastructure that enables users and end-user applications to leverage social networks to mediate information dissemination. Saori provides users with awareness of and control over the information dissemination process within social networks; Saori enables users to employ both technological and social methods to manage information sharing. Saori users can create policies that mediate sharing by exploiting social network structures. Saori also provides social data to users; this data encourages users to be accountable for how they share information. We integrated Saori into a Wiki Wiki Web to demonstrate a concrete use of the infrastructure.

Distilling knowledge

Assembling the senses: towards the design of cooperative interfaces for visually impaired users BIBAFull-Text 332-341
  Fredrik Winberg; John Bowers
The needs of blind and visually impaired users are seriously under-investigated in CSCW. We review work on assistive interfaces especially concerning how collaboration between sighted and blind users across different modalities might be supported. To examine commonly expressed design principles, we present a study where blind and sighted persons play a game to which the former has an auditory interface, the latter a visual one. Interaction analyses are presented highlighting features of interface design, talk and gesture which are important to the participants' abilities to collaborate. Informed by these analyses, we reconsider design principles for cooperative interfaces for the blind.
I know my network: collaboration and expertise in intrusion detection BIBAFull-Text 342-345
  John R. Goodall; Wayne G. Lutters; Anita Komlodi
The work of intrusion detection (ID) in accomplishing network security is complex, requiring highly sought-after expertise. While limited automation exists, the role of human ID analysts remains crucial. This paper presents the results of an exploratory field study examining the role of expertise and collaboration in ID work. Through an analysis of the common and situated expertise required in ID work, our results counter basic assumptions about its individualistic character, revealing significant distributed collaboration. Current ID support tools provide no support for this collaborative problem solving. The results of this research highlight ID as an engaging CSCW work domain, one rich with organizational insights, design challenges, and practical import.
Cutting to the chase: improving meeting effectiveness by focusing on the agenda BIBAFull-Text 346-349
  Ana Cristina Bicharra Garcia; John Kunz; Martin Fischer
We propose an agenda planning technique with a built-in incentive mechanism, based on the VCG (Vickrey-Clarke-Groves) method from game theory, to help project managers in the engineering construction industry create a more effective agenda. Preliminary results have shown an improvement in both instrumented and perceived meeting quality.

Gaming

CSCW at play: 'there' as a collaborative virtual environment BIBAFull-Text 350-359
  Barry Brown; Marek Bell
Video games are of increasing importance, both as a cultural phenomenon and as an application of collaborative technology. In particular, many recent online games feature persistent collaborative virtual environments (CVEs), with complex social organisation and strong social bonds between players. This paper presents a study of 'There', one such game, focusing on how There has been appropriated by its players. In particular we describe how its flexibility has allowed players to develop their own forms of play within the game. Three aspects of There are discussed: first, how the environment supports a range of social activities around objects. Second, how the chat environment is used to produce overlapping chat and how the game itself provides topics for conversation. Lastly, how the 'place' of There is a fluid interaction space that supports safe interactions between strangers. The paper concludes by drawing design lessons concerning the importance of supporting shared online activity, interaction between strangers, and the difficulties of designing for play.
The social side of gaming: a study of interaction patterns in a massively multiplayer online game BIBAFull-Text 360-369
  Nicolas Ducheneaut; Robert J. Moore
Playing computer games has become a social experience. Hundreds of thousands of players interact in massively multiplayer online games (MMORPGs), a recent and successful genre descending from the pioneering multi-user dungeons (MUDs). These new games are purposefully designed to encourage interactions among players, but little is known about the nature and structure of these interactions. In this paper, we analyze player-to-player interactions in two locations in the game Star Wars Galaxies. We outline different patterns of interactivity, and discuss how they are affected by the structure of the game. We conclude with a series of recommendations for the design and support of social activities within multiplayer games.
Hiding and revealing in online poker games BIBAFull-Text 370-373
  Scott A. Golder; Judith Donath
Poker is largely a game of social and psychological information. However, online card room interfaces do not support the subtle communication between players that is integral to the psychological aspect of the game, making the games less authentic and less enjoyable than they could be. We explore how card room interfaces can better support the psychological aspects of the game by critiquing the dominant methods of visualizing players: with generic avatars, and with text-only handles.
FishPong: encouraging human-to-human interaction in informal social environments BIBAFull-Text 374-377
  Jennifer Yoon; Jun Oishi; Jason Nawyn; Kazue Kobayashi; Neeti Gupta
In this paper we introduce FishPong, an interactive system designed to stimulate informal computer-supported cooperative play (CSCP) in public spaces such as coffeehouses and cafes. FishPong consists of a tabletop tangible user interface (TUI) that allows users to control a fish-themed video game using magnetically tagged coffee cups. FishPong has been designed as an "icebreaker" technology to encourage spontaneous social interaction among coffeehouse patrons. This work serves as an example of how environments might be subtly and unobtrusively augmented in order to facilitate informal human-to-human interaction.

Cases from the field

Where am I and who am I?: issues in collaborative technical help BIBAFull-Text 378-387
  Michael Twidale; Karen Ruhleder
In a study of collaborative help-giving within several organizations settings, we identified two forms of trouble and bewilderment that we explore further in this paper. In one case, the user is confused about where they, their files, or other resources are within a larger technical infrastructure (Where am I?). In the second case, the user isn't sure which login is needed and which actions are allowed (Who am I?). We believe that these issues carry important implications for the design of interfaces that can explicitly support repair and problem-solving, and that they are essential to consider in the development of CSCW and ubiquitous computing applications.
Field studies of computer system administrators: analysis of system management tools and practices BIBAFull-Text 388-395
  Rob Barrett; Eser Kandogan; Paul P. Maglio; Eben M. Haber; Leila A. Takayama; Madhu Prabaker
Computer system administrators are the unsung heroes of the information age, working behind the scenes to configure, maintain, and troubleshoot the computer infrastructure that underlies much of modern life. However, little can be found in the literature about the practices and problems of these highly specialized computer users. We conducted a series of field studies in large corporate data centers, observing organizations, work practices, tools, and problem-solving strategies of system administrators. We found system administrators operate within large-scale, complex environments that present significant technical, social, cognitive, and business challenges. In this paper, we describe system administrator tool use in critical, high-cost, labor-intensive work through observational, survey, and interview data. We discuss our findings concerning administrator needs for coordinating work, maintaining situation awareness, planning and rehearsing complex procedures, building tools, and supporting complicated interleaved workflows.
Collaborating around collections: informing the continued development of photoware BIBAFull-Text 396-405
  Andy Crabtree; Tom Rodden; John Mariani
This paper explores the embodied interactional ways in which people naturally collaborate around and share collections of photographs. We employ ethnographic studies of paper-based photograph use to consider requirements for distributed collaboration around digital photographs. Distributed sharing is currently limited to the 'passing on' of photographs to others, by email, webpages, or mobile phones. To move beyond this, a fundamental challenge for photoware consists of developing support for the practical achievement of sharing 'at a distance'. Specifically, this entails augmenting the natural production of accounts or 'photo-talk' to support the distributed achievement of sharing.

Panel

Communities and technologies: an approach to foster social capital? BIBAFull-Text 406-408
  Mark Ackerman; Marlene Huysman; John M. Carroll; Barry Wellman; Giorgio DeMichelis; Volker Wulf
Communities are social entities whose actors share common needs, interests, or practices: they constitute the basic units of social experience. With regard to communities, social capital captures the structural, relational and cognitive aspects of the relationships among their members. Social capital is defined as a set of properties of a social entity (e.g. norms, level of trust, and intensive social networking) which enables joint activities and cooperation for mutual benefit. It can be understood as the glue which holds communities together. On this panel we will discuss whether and how information technology can strengthen communities by fostering social capital.

Distributed teams

Capturing and supporting contexts for scientific data sharing via the biological sciences collaboratory BIBAFull-Text 409-418
  George, Jr. Chin; Carina S. Lansing
Scientific collaboration is largely focused on the sharing and joint analysis of scientific data and results. Today, a movement is afoot within the scientific computing community to shift "collaboratory" development from traditional tool-centric approaches to more data-centric ones. Yet, to effectively support data sharing means more than providing a common repository for storing and retrieving shared data sets. In order to reasonably comprehend and apply another researcher's data set, the scientist must grasp the various contexts of the data as it relates to the overall data space, applications, experiments, projects, and the scientific community. Under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Biological Sciences Collaboratory (BSC) enables the sharing of biological data and analyses through diverse capabilities such as metadata capture, electronic laboratory notebooks, data organization views, data provenance tracking, analysis notes, task management, and scientific workflow management. Overall, BSC strives to identify and capture the various social and scientific contexts in which data sharing collaborations in biology take place and to provide collaboration tools and capabilities that can effectively support and facilitate these important data sharing contexts.
Meeting central: making distributed meetings more effective BIBAFull-Text 419-428
  Nicole Yankelovich; William Walker; Patricia Roberts; Mike Wessler; Jonathan Kaplan; Joe Provino
The Meeting Central prototype is a suite of collaboration tools designed to support distributed meetings. The tools' minimalist design provides only those features that have the most impact on distributed meeting effectiveness. The collaboration suite is built on top of a distributed, extensible, and scalable framework.
In-group/out-group effects in distributed teams: an experimental simulation BIBAFull-Text 429-436
  Nathan Bos; N. Sadat Shami; Judith S. Olson; Arik Cheshin; Ning Nan
Modern workplaces often bring together virtual teams where some members are collocated, and some participate remotely. We are using a simulation game to study collaborations of 10-person groups, with five collocated members and five isolates (simulated 'telecommuters'). Individual players in this game buy and sell 'shapes' from each other in order to form strings of shapes, where strings represent joint projects, and each individual players' shapes represent their unique skills. We found that the collocated people formed an in-group, excluding the isolates. But, surprisingly, the isolates also formed an in-group, mainly because the collocated people ignored them and they responded to each other.

Operational transformation

Operational transformation for collaborative word processing BIBAFull-Text 437-446
  David Sun; Steven Xia; Chengzheng Sun; David Chen
Operational Transformation (OT) is a technique originally invented for supporting consistency maintenance in collaborative text editors. Word processors have much richer data types and more comprehensive operations than plain text editors. Among others, the capability of updating attributes of any types of object is an essential feature of all word processors. In this paper, we report an extension of OT for supporting a generic Update operation, in addition to Insert and Delete operations, for collaborative word processing. We focus on technical issues and solutions involved in transforming Updates for both consistency maintenance and group undo. A novel technique, called Multi-Version Single-Display (MVSD), has been devised to resolve conflict between concurrent Updates, and integrated into the framework of OT. This work has been motivated by and conducted in the CoWord project, which aims to convert MS Word into a real-time collaborative word processor without changing its source code. This OT extension is relevant not only to word processors but also to a range of interactive applications that can be modelled as editors.
Grouping in collaborative graphical editors BIBAFull-Text 447-456
  Claudia-Lavinia Ignat; Moira C. Norrie
Often collaborative graphical systems lag behind well accepted single-user applications in terms of features supported. The frequently used operations of group/ungroup offered by almost every single-user graphical editor have not been considered by the collaborative graphical editing systems that try to preserve the intentions of the users involved in the concurrent editing. In this paper we present a novel algorithm based on operation serialisation for consistency maintenance in collaborative graphical editing dealing not only with simple operations such as create, delete, move, change colour or position, but also with group/ungroup operations. Based on the classification of conflicts into real and resolvable, an undo/redo mechanism is used in order to re-execute the operations in an imposed serialisation order.
Preserving operation effects relation in group editors BIBAFull-Text 457-466
  Du Li; Rui Li
Consistency maintenance is a critical and challenging issue in many interactive groupware applications that can be modeled as group editors. This paper addresses two open consistency problems: divergence and operation effects relation violation. While the former has been partly solved, the latter has never been addressed in any published work. We propose a novel approach to solving both problems in the same framework. Particularly it preserves the effects relation of concurrent operations so that convergence is achieved automatically. Our work provides a new perspective into group editors and operational transformation algorithms.

Gesturing, moving and talking together

Shadow communication: system for embodied interaction with remote partners BIBAFull-Text 467-476
  Yoshiyuki Miwa; Chikara Ishibiki
"Shadow Communication" system has been developed allowing others to communicate by means of their "shadows" in remote space. This is designed so that each participant's shadow enters into a space through a semi-transparent screen and interacts with another subject's shadow. This interaction occurs at a common 'stage' (a co-existing space) that can be self-organized. The interaction takes place in a spatial relationship ("ma"- perceptive distance or "Maai" in Japanese) and generates a situation where, seemingly, the participants are actually talking to each other in a face-to-face manner. Experiments on collaborative drawings or remote lecturing conducted with various subjects resulted in the different groups being properly positioned in their co-existing space, thus suggesting that the co-creative activities between the groups were successfully established.
Mediating dual ecologies BIBAFull-Text 477-486
  Hideaki Kuzuoka; Jun'ichi Kosaka; Keiichi Yamazaki; Yasuko Suga; Akiko Yamazaki; Paul Luff; Christian Heath
In this paper we investigated systems for supporting remote collaboration using mobile robots as communication media. It is argued that the use of a remote-controlled robot as a device to support communication involves two distinct ecologies: an ecology at the remote (instructor's) site and an ecology at the operator's (robot) site. In designing a robot as a viable communication medium, it is essential to consider how these ecologies can be mediated and supported. In this paper, we propose design guidelines to overcome the problems inherent in dual ecologies, and describe the development of a robot named GestureMan-3 based on these guidelines. Our experiments with GestureMan-3 showed that the system supports sequential aspects of the organization of communication.
Action as language in a shared visual space BIBAFull-Text 487-496
  Darren Gergle; Robert E. Kraut; Susan R. Fussell
A shared visual workspace allows multiple people to see similar views of objects and environments. Prior empirical literature demonstrates that visual information helps collaborators understand the current state of their task and enables them to communicate and ground their conversations efficiently. We present an empirical study that demonstrates how action replaces explicit verbal instruction in a shared visual workspace. Pairs performed a referential communication task with and without a shared visual space. A detailed sequential analysis of the communicative content reveals that pairs with a shared workspace were less likely to explicitly verify their actions with speech. Rather, they relied on visual information to provide the necessary communicative and coordinative cues.

May I interrupt?

Predictors of availability in home life context-mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 497-506
  Kristine S. Nagel; James M. Hudson; Gregory D. Abowd
A number of studies have explored issues of interruption and availability in workplace environments, but few have examined how attitudes toward availability play out in home life. In this paper, we begin to explore factors in the home that might be useful for signaling availability to close friends and family. In particular, we use the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure subjects' current activities and self-reported availability to interruption. Based on follow-up interviews, we develop a number of hypotheses that we test through a hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results indicate that individual differences, certain home locations, and leisure activities play an important role in determining patterns of availability. This study has implications for the development of CSCW systems with automatic sensing of activity to deal with interruption and activity recognition both inside and out of the home.
BusyBody: creating and fielding personalized models of the cost of interruption BIBAFull-Text 507-510
  Eric Horvitz; Paul Koch; Johnson Apacible
Interest has been growing in opportunities to build and deploy statistical models that can infer a computer user's current interruptability from computer activity and relevant contextual information. We describe a system that intermittently asks users to assess their perceived interruptability during a training phase and that builds decision-theoretic models with the ability to predict the cost of interrupting the user. The models are used at run-time to compute the expected cost of interruptions, providing a mediator for incoming notifications, based on a consideration of a user's current and recent history of computer activity, meeting status, location, time of day, and whether a conversation is detected.
Lilsys: Sensing Unavailability BIBAFull-Text 511-514
  James Bo Begole; Nicholas E. Matsakis; John C. Tang
As communications systems increasingly gather and propagate information about people's reachability or "presence", users need better tools to minimize undesired interruptions while allowing desired ones. We review the salient elements of presence and availability that people use when initiating face-to-face communication. We discuss problems with current strategies for managing one's availability in telecommunication media. We describe a prototype system called Lilsys which passively collects availability cues gathered from users' actions and environment using ambient sensors and provides machine inferencing of unavailability. We discuss observations and design implications from deploying Lilsys.
QnA: augmenting an instant messaging client to balance user responsiveness and performance BIBAFull-Text 515-518
  Daniel Avrahami; Scott E. Hudson
The growing use of Instant Messaging for social and work-related communication has created a situation where incoming messages often become a distraction to users while they are performing important tasks. Staying on task at the expense of responsiveness to IM buddies may portray the users as impolite or even rude. Constantly attending to IM, on the other hand, may prevent users from performing tasks efficiently, leaving them frustrated. In this paper we present a tool that augments a commercial IM client by automatically increasing the salience of incoming messages that may deserve immediate attention, helping users decide whether or not to stay on task.
Instant messages: a framework for reading between the lines BIBAFull-Text 519-522
  Jeffrey D. Campbell
A framework is described for analyzing keystroke level data from instant messages (IM). This is unlike other analyses of IM which employ server-based logs of messages. This framework can be used to identify metrics for evaluating the usability of IM during message composition. The current objective is evaluating awareness features. The model also identifies quantifiable factors that can be computed automatically during IM usage that could allow the system to adapt to different styles of IM usage. Data from a representative usability evaluation scenario is utilized to illustrate some results of using this framework. Computational aspects of the framework have been implemented in GLogger.

Bridging the physical and the digital

Only touching the surface: creating affinities between digital content and paper BIBAFull-Text 523-532
  Paul Luff; Christian Heath; Moira Norrie; Beat Signer; Peter Herdman
Despite the wide-ranging recognition that paper remains a pervasive resource for human conduct and collaboration, there has been uncertain progress in developing technologies to bridge the paper-digital divide. In this essay we discuss the design of a technology that interweaves developments in new materials, electronics and software, and seeks to provide a cheap and accessible solution to creating new affinities between digital content, in whatever form, and ordinary paper. The technology and its design draws from a broad range of field studies, including research in classrooms and museums. These delineate the requirements and considerations that inform solutions to enhancing paper whilst preserving its integrity. The paper also discusses a naturalistic experiment, an evaluation in a museum, where we assessed the technology and the solution. We also chart the progressive development of this solution and the ways in which seemingly simple actions and issues became reconstituted as highly complex technical and analytic problems.
Where the wild things work: capturing shared physical design workspaces BIBAFull-Text 533-541
  Wendy Ju; Arna Ionescu; Lawrence Neeley; Terry Winograd
We have built and tested WorkspaceNavigator, which supports knowledge capture and reuse for teams engaged in unstructured, dispersed, and prolonged collaborative design activity in a dedicated physical workspace. It provides a coherent unified interface for post-facto retrieval of multiple streams of data from the work environment, including overview snapshots of the workspace, screenshots of in-space computers, whiteboard images, and digital photos of physical objects. This paper describes the design of WorkspaceNavigator and identifies key considerations for knowledge capture tools for design workspaces, which differ from those of more structured meeting or classroom environments. Iterative field tests in workspace environments for student teams in two graduate Mechanical Engineering design courses helped to identify features that augment the work of both course participants and design researchers.
List making in the home BIBAFull-Text 542-545
  Alex S. Taylor; Laurel Swan
This paper presents research on the use of household lists. Drawing on an ethnographic study of mothers' work, it focuses on the centrality of paper lists in home- and child-care arrangements, and reveals that they provide a useful means for organizing the complex interrelations between a household's people, activities and tasks. However, paper lists are also shown to be poor at handling the separation, or classification, of these things. In conclusion, both these positive and negative aspects of list making are used to raise broad pointers for CSCW and system design.
Concepts that support collocated collaborative work inspired by the specific context of industrial designers BIBAFull-Text 546-549
  H. Wang; E. Blevis
Based on a naturalistic study of industrial designers engaged in collocated collaborative design work in a technologically unsophisticated environment, we observed a number of interactions that lead to a number of insights, namely, (1) seating and the shape and orientation of the working surface has an effect on line of sight and eye-contact behaviors, (2) being able to reach objects on the working surface effects an individual collaborator's ability to become the focus of attention, (3) in collaborative work, people may work on the same document or divide labors to work on different documents simultaneously, (4) supporting the use of conventional artifacts that users are familiar with is as important as supporting the use of informational devices, (5) large workspaces with different privacy levels support both the needs of sharing information and the needs of keeping information private, (6) changes of document orientation socially represents a corresponding change of control and privacy level. From these insights and from other sources in the literature, we describe and illustrate a number of concepts for integrated technologies and environments that can support collocated collaborative work specifically in the context of design work. These concepts are intended as an exercise in divergent design thinking that owes to carefully constructed insights based on observations.

Panel

Digital backchannels in shared physical spaces: attention, intention and contention BIBAFull-Text 550-553
  Joseph F. McCarthy; danah boyd; Elizabeth F. Churchill; William G. Griswold; Elizabeth Lawley; Melora Zaner
There are a variety of digital tools for enabling people who are separated by time and space to communicate and collaborate on shared interests and tasks. The widespread use of some of these tools, such as instant messaging and group chat, coupled with the increasingly widespread availability of wireless access to the Internet (WiFi), have created new opportunities for using these collaboration tools by people sharing physical spaces in real time. The use of these tools to augment face-to-face meetings has created benefits for some participants and distractions-and detractions-for others. Our panelists will discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of these emerging uses of collaborative tools.

Information sharing and access

End-user controlled group formation and access rights management in a shared workspace system BIBAFull-Text 554-563
  Joerg M. Haake; Anja Haake; Till Schummer; Mohamed Bourimi; Britta Landgraf
Group formation and access rights management become crucial issues when shared workspaces are used to support flexible, emerging group work. End-Users should be able to form groups and adapt access rights for changing groups and workspaces. Current shared workspace systems do not support this sufficiently. Our approach combines a room metaphor-based shared workspace with the key-metaphor for facilitating both, end-user controlled flexible group formation and access rights management. An evaluation of this approach during four month of use has indicated that end-users can form groups and manage the access rights of their shared spaces.
The multiple views of inter-organizational authoring BIBAFull-Text 564-573
  David W. McDonald; Chunhua Weng; John H. Gennari
Collaborative authoring is a common workplace task. Yet, despite improvements in word processors, communication software, and file sharing, many problems continue to plague co-authors. We conducted a qualitative study in a setting where participants are loosely connected, physically separated, and work together over a period of 4-9 months to author a complex technical document-a clinical trial protocol. Our study differs from most prior work in that the collaboration is longer-lived, and that the collaborators do not share equivalent status, background, nor domains of expertise. Our data demonstrates that the participants do not share the same view or representation of the authoring process, even though it has a long organizational history. Nonetheless, the participants can still coordinate their activity while maintaining only partially consistent representations of what they are doing. We contend that partial consistency in the participants' concept of the collaborative process is a feature for their asynchronous collaboration at a distance. Based on our findings we suggest a number of improvements for both tools and tool usage that have direct impact on support for collaborative authoring.
Collaborative modeling: hiding UML and promoting data examples in NEMo BIBAFull-Text 574-577
  Patricia Schank; Lawrence Hamel
Domain experts are essential for successful software development, but these experts may not recognize their ideas when abstracted into Unified Modeling Language (UML) or ontologies. We describe a Web-based tool for modeling that creates and manipulates a simple data model without representing it in UML, while promoting collaboration and the use of examples to compare and validate the model. The open-source tool, "NEMo," is a by-product of a team effort to invent and refine a complex data model and library of examples.
Asynchronous collaborative writing through annotations BIBAFull-Text 578-581
  Chunhua Weng; John H. Gennari
Annotation is central to iterative reviewing and revising activities in asynchronous collaborative writing. Currently most digital annotation models and systems assume static context information and provide far less functionality than physical annotations. We extend prior annotation research by Marshall and Cadiz and design an activity-oriented annotation model to mimic the rich functionality of physical annotations for an enhanced collaborative writing process. In this model, we define an annotation life cycle and support annotation version control. We implement a collaborative writing system that supports improved in-situ communication and cross-role feedback based on our annotation model.

Understanding CSCW: looking from above

Six degrees of Jonathan Grudin: a social network analysis of the evolution and impact of CSCW research BIBAFull-Text 582-591
  Daniel B. Horn; Thomas A. Finholt; Jeremy P. Birnholtz; Dheeraj Motwani; Swapnaa Jayaraman
In this paper, we describe the evolution and impact of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) research through social network analysis of coauthorship data. A network of authors as nodes and shared papers as links is used to compare patterns of growth and collaboration in CSCW with other domains, such as high-energy physics and computer science. Further, the coauthorship network data are used to depict dynamic changes in the structure of CSCW collaborations over time. Examination of these changes shows high volatility in the composition of the CSCW research community over decade-long time spans. These data are augmented by a brief citation analysis of recent CSCW conferences. We discuss the implications of the CSCW findings in terms of the influence of CSCW research on the larger field of HCI research as well as the general utility of social network analysis for understanding patterns of collaboration.
Emergent networks, locus of control, and the pursuit of social capital BIBAFull-Text 592-595
  Michael Stefanone; Jeffery Hancock; Geri Gay; Anthony Ingraffea
In this paper we examine the relationship between emergent social network characteristics in a computer-supported collaborative learning course and locus of control. An emergent communication network of engineering students that took place in a distributed distance learning environment was examined. Three measures of an actor's social network, density, brokerage, and reach, and participants' locus of control, internal vs. external, were assessed. The data suggest that, relative to participants with external locus of control, participants with internal locus of control decreased their network density over time but increased their brokerage and reach. The results are discussed in the context of instrumental action, through which participants are assumed to develop personal networks in pursuit of maximizing potential social capital.
Student social graphs: visualizing a student's online social network BIBAFull-Text 596-599
  Jeffrey S. Saltz; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Murray Turoff
Most research applying Social Network Analysis (SNA) to online learning has been focused on understanding the social network of the class as an entity. This work, on the other hand, explores student specific analysis (i.e. analyzing each student individually). This student-centered analysis uses a graphical metaphor to provide the instructor an intuitive understanding of the student's interactions within the class. The paper presents a prototype of the visual metaphor and reports on a pilot study of the application of the prototype to students within a web-based course.
A framework for real-world software system evaluations BIBAFull-Text 600-603
  Jean Scholtz; Michelle Potts Steves
This paper introduces an evaluation method that provides the capability of comparing results of like-structured evaluations that occur over time and with changing toolsets or environmental conditions. This makes use of the framework ideal for comparison of collaboration tools. The framework helps to structure evaluations by mapping system goals to evaluation objectives, metrics, and measures. The upper-most levels of the framework are conceptual in nature, while the bottom level is implementation-specific, i.e., evaluation-specific. Careful attention during construction of the conceptual elements for an evaluation template allows for its reuse in a series of like-structured evaluations and comparison of those results.

Synchronous collaboration

Taking it out of context: collaborating within and across cultures in face-to-face settings and via instant messaging BIBAFull-Text 604-613
  Leslie D. Setlock; Susan R. Fussell; Christine Neuwirth
As new communications media foster international collaborations, we would be remiss in overlooking cultural differences when assessing them. In this study, 24 pairs in three cultural groupings--American-American (AA), Chinese-Chinese (CC) and American-Chinese (AC) --worked on two decision-making tasks, one face-to-face and the other via IM. Drawing upon prior research, we predicted differences in conversational efficiency, conversational content, interaction quality, persuasion, and performance. The quantitative results combined with conversation analysis suggest that the groups viewed the task differently--AA pairs as an exercise in situation-specific compromise; CC as consensus-reaching. Cultural differences were reduced but not eliminated in the IM condition.
Influencing group participation with a shared display BIBAFull-Text 614-623
  Joan Morris DiMicco; Anna Pandolfo; Walter Bender
During face-to-face interactions, groups frequently overly rely on the dominant viewpoint to lead the group in its decision-making process. We begin with a discussion of this phenomenon and the possibility for technology to assist in addressing it. We then present findings from a behavioral study that examines how a shared display of individual speaker-participation rates can impact the behavior of the group during a collaboration task. The results from the study indicate that the presence of such a display influences the behavior of group participants in the extremes of over and under participation. While influencing the quantity of time someone speaks is not directly equivalent to influencing the topics discussed, we suggest that this approach of providing peripheral displays of social information is promising for improving certain types of group interactions.
Remote meetings between farmers and researchers: a case study on asymmetry BIBAFull-Text 624-627
  Stefanie Kethers; Dean Hargreaves; Ross Wilkinson
In this Note, we describe the preliminary analysis of the use of NetMeeting (NM) to share outputs of a simulation model between farmers and researchers at a distance. We mainly describe issues relating to the asymmetries between the two groups, which lead to different technology preferences and needs.