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CSCW Tables of Contents: 980002040608101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'13 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Amy Bruckman; Scott Counts; Cliff Lampe; Loren Terveen
Location:San Antonio, Texas
Dates:2013-Feb-23 to 2013-Feb-27
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1331-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CSCW13-1
Links:Conference Website
  1. CSCW 2013-02-23 Volume 1
    1. Keynote talks
    2. Into the petri dish: culture and collaboration
    3. On the record: information and communication in medical contexts
    4. Source work: social factors in software development
    5. Gesture and touch
    6. <3CI: technology supporting relationships
    7. Sharing and privacy
    8. Mining social media data
    9. Teams
    10. Games
    11. Collaboration and sharing in scientific work
    12. Making the world a better place
    13. Group and team issues in the health domain
    14. Trust, credibility, and rumors: international perspectives
    15. Crowdsourcing
    16. Local is where it's at
    17. Working together
    18. Computer-mediated communication
    19. Understanding people's practices in social networks
    20. Wikipedia supported cooperative work
    21. Ideology, politics, and social curation: recent work on twitter
    22. Not lost in translation?
    23. Social media analysis and interventions
    24. Collaboration in creative communities
    25. Controversy, arguments, rule breakers, and policies
    26. Big issues for CSCW to consider
    27. Technology to support family connections
    28. Searching: better together?
    29. Q&A
    30. Crowding out the competition
    31. Computer supported young people
    32. Leveraging a social network
    33. Social networks during a major transitions (personal and political)
    34. Citizen science
    35. Devices matter
    36. Roles
    37. Alternative contexts for collaboration

CSCW 2013-02-23 Volume 1

Keynote talks

Path dependent network advantage BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Ronald S. Burt; Jennifer L. Merluzzi; John G. Burrows
We analyze network volatility as something akin to the hum of a running engine. People active in a network produce vibration and wiggle where the connections and the network structure around these people changes frequently. We want to know how that vibration and wiggle affects their network advantage. We distinguish four dimensions to network volatility (churn, variation, trend, and reversals), measure them with panel data on a population of bankers, then add them to analysis predicting compensation from status and structural-hole measures of network advantage. We find that volatility does not affect performance directly. It creates a slope adjustment that enhances the returns to network advantage. We identify two stability traps that destroy advantage, but the key is not to avoid the traps so much as to avoid them in a particular way. The volatility that enhances is reversal: a pattern in which network advantage is lost then regained, producing oscillations in network metrics, as would be produced by a behavioral pattern of serial closure over time. Bankers who go through reversals enjoy significantly higher returns to their network advantage. In the absence of reversals, in fact, there are no returns to network advantage. We infer a "serial closure" hypothesis in which reversals are the result of bankers engaging and disengaging closed networks. Networks built through serial closure provide advantage well beyond the level expected from structure alone. We present evidence consistent with the hypothesis, but testing remains for future research. What we can say here is that the way a network develops has substantial implications for the advantage it provides.
Digital democracy: how the internet re-elected a president BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Jascha Franklin-Hodge
Jascha Franklin-Hodge, CTO and co-founder of Blue State Digital -- the company whose new media team and technology powered the Obama campaign's record-breaking online fundraising and social networking program -- will share stories and lessons from winning political and advocacy campaigns. Franklin-Hodge will talk about the testing and analytics strategies used to rapidly iterate online programs, the techniques used to reduce friction in the donation experience, and how the campaign combatted supporter fatigue in a saturation media environment. You'll hear tales from the campaign trail, learn what worked in 2008 and what changed in 2012, and hear about the techniques and data behind the president's groundbreaking online campaign operation.

Into the petri dish: culture and collaboration

Closure vs. structural holes: how social network information and culture affect choice of collaborators BIBAFull-Text 5-18
  Ge Gao; Pamela Hinds; Chen Zhao
Collaboration is important to successful organizations and how coworkers are selected is crucial to the dynamics of effective collaborations. In this study we explore how people use social network information, which is increasingly accessible on enterprise systems in organizations, to choose people with whom to collaborate. We conducted a scenario-based study of 459 respondents in a global high-tech company. Our data indicate cultural differences in how social network information was valued when choosing a collaborator. The Chinese, consistent with the cultural value of Guanxi, more closely followed a closure model, whereas Americans favored neither a closure nor a structural holes model. These results provide new insights into how needs for social network information may vary between cultures and how social networking sites might support workers in choosing collaborators from within and across national cultures.
Effect of message content on communication processes in intercultural and same-culture instant messaging conversations BIBAFull-Text 19-32
  Duyen T. Nguyen; Susan R. Fussell
In this paper we explore how and why communication problems such as lack of understanding, low involvement, and negative emotions emerged during the computer-mediated conversations of same-culture and cross-culture pairs. We used retrospective analysis, in which pairs of cross-culture and same-culture American and Chinese participants collaborated on a crime-solving task via Instant Messaging (IM), and later reviewed their IM conversations to report their thoughts and feelings on a minute-by-minute basis. We found differences in the types of messages people produced based on the cultural combination of the pairs. We also found that the content of their partner's messages influenced participants' involvement and negative emotions during the conversation. Our results provide insights into the conversational processes of computer-mediated intercultural teams, and have implications for the design of intercultural collaboration tools.
"Facebook is a luxury": an exploratory study of social media use in rural Kenya BIBAFull-Text 33-44
  Susan P. Wyche; Sarita Yardi Schoenebeck; Andrea Forte
Facebook use is pervasive in developed countries where computers, smartphones, high-bandwidth Internet, and electricity are ubiquitous. In this paper, we examine Facebook use in a country where social media participation is growing, but less developed technological infrastructures and uneven access to technology limit use. We conducted observations and 24 interviews at Internet cafés in rural Kenya. Our findings reveal how costs associated with using the Internet, limited access to computers and smartphones and unreliable electricity hinder online participation. We draw on these results to discuss the critical role of constraints in understanding social media use, to raise questions about broadening online participation and to highlight ethical issues researchers must consider when studying Facebook use in developing regions.
Doodle around the world: online scheduling behavior reflects cultural differences in time perception and group decision-making BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Katharina Reinecke; Minh Khoa Nguyen; Abraham Bernstein; Michael Näf; Krzysztof Z. Gajos
Event scheduling is a group decision-making process in which social dynamics influence people's choices and the overall outcome. As a result, scheduling is not simply a matter of finding a mutually agreeable time, but a process that is shaped by social norms and values, which can highly vary between countries. To investigate the influence of national culture on people's scheduling behavior we analyzed more than 1.5 million Doodle date/time polls from 211 countries. We found strong correlations between characteristics of national culture and several behavioral phenomena, such as that poll participants from collectivist countries respond earlier, agree to fewer options but find more consensus than predominantly individualist societies. Our study provides empirical evidence of behavioral differences in group decision-making and time perception with implications for cross-cultural collaborative work.

On the record: information and communication in medical contexts

Local-universality: designing EMR to support localized informal documentation practices BIBAFull-Text 55-66
  Sun Young Park; Katie Pine; Yunan Chen
In this paper, we describe a practice that is common across multiple heterogeneous contexts but enacted differently depending on the unique constellation of resources and demands present in each local context. Using the case of informal documentation practices in two departments of a single hospital, Emergency and Labor & Delivery, we describe how clinicians in each department develop contextualized informal documentation practices after deployment of a new EMR system. We describe three underlying functions of informal documentation that are inherent to the practice of medical personnel: "memory work," abstraction work," and "future work." We then find that the newly deployed EMR technology does not support these kinds of work. We argue that hospital documentation work systems should be designed with an eye to such universal work practices, while keeping in mind that the effectiveness of informal documentation practices is rooted in its adaptive and flexible deployment in heterogeneous work settings.
Re-coordinating activities: an investigation of articulation work in patient transfers BIBAFull-Text 67-78
  Joanna Abraham; Madhu C. Reddy
The coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual interdependencies is required for smooth work system coordination. Organizations must also manage the interactions between intra- and inter-departmental activities. To investigate how these interactions manifest in organizational work, we conducted a field study examining patient transfer process. We highlight the cross-boundary breakdowns that occur when intra-departmental and inter-departmental activities related to patient transfers negatively affect each other. We then describe the re-coordinating activities performed to mitigate the effects of cross-boundary breakdowns. We discuss a framework of inter-departmental coordination work that describes the relationship between cross-boundary breakdowns and re-coordinating activities. Furthermore, we classify the re-coordinating activities as a type of articulation work performed by hospital staff. This research can help us develop empirically-driven and theoretically-based design guidelines for coordination tools to maintain overall organizational workflow by balancing the goals and requirements of the various departments.
Shared decision making needs a communication record BIBAFull-Text 79-90
  Bridget T. Kane; Pieter J. Toussaint; Saturnino Luz
Increasing dependability in collaboration work among health professionals will directly improve patient outcomes, and reduce healthcare costs. Our research examines the development of a shared visual display to facilitate data entry and validation of an electronic record during multidisciplinary team meeting discussion, where specialists discuss patient symptoms, test results, and image findings. The problem of generating an electronic record for patient files that will serve as a record of collaboration, communication and a guide for later tasks is addressed through use of the shared visual display. Shortcomings in user-informed designed, structured data-entry screens became evident when in actual use. Time constraints prompt the synopsis of discussion in acronyms, free text, abbreviations, and the use of inferences. We demonstrate how common ground, team cohesiveness and the use of a shared visual display can improve dependability, but these factors can also provide a false sense of security and increase vulnerability in the patient management system.
Caring for caregivers: designing for integrality BIBAFull-Text 91-102
  Yunan Chen; Victor Ngo; Sun Young Park
Health and wellness have drawn significant attention in the HCI and CSCW communities. Many prior studies have focused on designing technologies that are patient-centric, allowing caregivers to take better care of patients. Less has been done in understanding and minimizing the burden of caregiving in caregivers' own lives. We conducted a qualitative interview study to understand their experiences in caregiving. The findings reveal a great magnitude of challenges in the caregivers' day-to-day lives, ranging from the physical and social, to the personal and emotional. Caregivers have to constantly balance their personal lives with work, family, and their caregiver roles, which can be overwhelmingly stressful. We discuss how caregivers attempt maintaining this balance through two concepts: first, giving-impact, and second, visibility-invisibility. Our study's findings call for system design that focuses not only on patients but also caregivers, addressing the burdens that often impair their health and wellness.

Source work: social factors in software development

Mutual assessment in the social programmer ecosystem: an empirical investigation of developer profile aggregators BIBAFull-Text 103-116
  Leif Singer; Fernando Figueira Filho; Brendan Cleary; Christoph Treude; Margaret-Anne Storey; Kurt Schneider
The multitude of social media channels that programmers can use to participate in software development has given rise to online developer profiles that aggregate activity across many services. Studying members of such developer profile aggregators, we found an ecosystem that revolves around the social programmer. Developers are assessing each other to evaluate whether other developers are interesting, worth following, or worth collaborating with. They are self-conscious about being assessed, and thus manage their public images. They value passion for software development, new technologies, and learning. Some recruiters participate in the ecosystem and use it to find candidates for hiring; other recruiters struggle with the interpretation of signals and issues of trust. This mutual assessment is changing how software engineers collaborate and how they advance their skills.
Impression formation in online peer production: activity traces and personal profiles in github BIBAFull-Text 117-128
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura Dabbish; Jim Herbsleb
In this paper we describe a qualitative investigation of impression formation in an online distributed software development community with social media functionality. We find that users in this setting seek out additional information about each other to explore the project space, inform future interactions, and understand the potential future value of a new person. They form impressions around other users' expertise based on history of activity across projects, and successful collaborations with key high status projects in the community. These impressions influence their receptivity to strangers' work contributions.
Shared prolepsis and intersubjectivity in open source development: expansive grounding in distributed work BIBAFull-Text 129-144
  Pål Fugelli; Leif C. Lahn; Anders I. Mørch
Intersubjectivity is a term used to conceptualize the psychological relationship between people during conversation, e.g. for building a shared understanding. Ragnar Rommetveit, a Norwegian social psychologist, developed a conceptual framework for intersubjectivity, treating it as a social phenomenon and a dynamic process. One technique for increasing intersubjectivity according to Rommetveit is to issue 'anticipatory cues,' i.e. referring to common knowledge and indicating future situations where the knowledge will be relevant. This framework was adapted for online communication and applied to an analysis of the mod_perl module of the Apache Web server (an open source development project). Based on observations of 215 participants' contributions to the project's mailing list over a 6-month period, we explore how processes of intersubjectivity evolve across the developer network. We conclude with a discussion of how so-called proleptic instances in post-and-reply messages may be significant and trigger the co-construction of shared understanding.
Activity traces and signals in software developer recruitment and hiring BIBAFull-Text 145-156
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura Dabbish
Social networking tools now allow professionals to post and share their work in online spaces. These professionals build reputation within a community of practice, often with the goal of finding a job. But how are the visible traces of their actions and interactions in online workspaces used in the hiring process? We conducted interviews with members of the GitHub "social coding" community to understand how profiles on the site are used to assess people during recruitment and hiring for software development positions. Both employers and job seekers pointed to specific cues provided on profiles that led them to make inferences (or form impressions) about a candidate's technical skills, motivations, and values. These cues were seen as more reliable indicators of technical abilities and motivation than information provided on a resume, because of the transparency of work actions on GitHub and relative difficulty of manipulating behavior traces. The use of online workspaces like GitHub has implications for the type of information sought by employers as well as the activity traces job hunters might seek to leave.

Gesture and touch

KinectArms: a toolkit for capturing and displaying arm embodiments in distributed tabletop groupware BIBAFull-Text 157-166
  Aaron M. Genest; Carl Gutwin; Anthony Tang; Michael Kalyn; Zenja Ivkovic
Gestures are a ubiquitous part of human communication over tables, but when tables are distributed, gestures become difficult to capture and represent. There are several problems: extracting arm images from video, representing the height of the gesture, and making the arm embodiment visible and understandable at the remote table. Current solutions to these problems are often expensive, complex to use, and difficult to set up. We have developed a new toolkit -- KinectArms -- that quickly and easily captures and displays arm embodiments. KinectArms uses a depth camera to segment the video and determine gesture height, and provides several visual effects for representing arms, showing gesture height, and enhancing visibility. KinectArms lets designers add rich arm embodiments to their systems without undue cost or development effort, greatly improving the expressiveness and usability of distributed tabletop groupware.
The mocking gaze: the social organization of Kinect use BIBAFull-Text 167-180
  Richard Harper; Helena Mentis
As the Kinect sensor is being extended from gaming to other applications and contexts, we critically examine what is the nature of the experience garnered through its current use in gaming in the home setting. Through an exploratory study of family experiences with Kinect in gaming, we discuss the character of the experience as one that entails users reveling in absurdity of movement that is required by the Kinect sensor. Through this analysis, we liken the 'third-space' defined by Kinect-based gestural interaction to that of Bakhtin's mocking gaze in the contexts of carnivals. This is followed by remarks on the implications this re-specification of understanding Kinect-enabled interaction has for the term 'natural' and relatedly the emphasis on the 'user' as 'the 'controller' in HCI. Remarks will be made on the implications of this for the application of the Kinect sensor to distributed gaming and other non-gaming interaction spaces in the home.
"almost touching": parent-child remote communication using the ShareTable system BIBAFull-Text 181-192
  Svetlana Yarosh; Anthony Tang; Sanika Mokashi; Gregory D. Abowd
We deployed the ShareTable -- a system that provides easy-to-initiate videochat and a shared tabletop task space -- in four divorced households. Throughout the month of its use, the families employed the ShareTable to participate in shared activities, share emotional moments, and communicate closeness through metaphorical touch. The ShareTable provided a number of advantages over the phone and was easier to use than standard videoconferencing. However, it did also introduce concerns over privacy and new sources of conflict about appropriate calling practices. We relate our findings to the larger research landscape and present implications for future work.
Sometimes when we touch: how arm embodiments change reaching and collaboration on digital tables BIBAFull-Text 193-202
  Andre Doucette; Carl Gutwin; Regan L. Mandryk; Miguel Nacenta; Sunny Sharma
In tabletop work with direct input, people avoid crossing each others' arms. This natural touch avoidance has important consequences for coordination: for example, people rarely grab the same item simultaneously, and negotiate access to the workspace via turn-taking. At digital tables, however, some situations require the use of indirect input (e.g., large tables or remote participants), and in these cases, people are often represented with virtual arm embodiments. There is little information about what happens to coordination and reaching when we move from physical to digital arm embodiments. To gather this information, we carried out a controlled study of tabletop behaviour with different embodiments. We found dramatic differences in moving to a digital embodiment: people touch and cross with virtual arms far more than they do with real arms, which removes a natural coordination mechanism in tabletop work. We also show that increasing the visual realism of the embodiment does not change behaviour, but that changing the thickness has a minor effect. Our study identifies important design principles for virtual embodiments in tabletop groupware, and adds to our understanding of embodied interaction in small groups.

<3CI: technology supporting relationships

Recalibrating the ratio: enacting accountability in intimate relationships using shared calendars BIBAFull-Text 203-214
  Alexander Thayer; Behzod Sirjani; Charlotte P. Lee
This study enriches the understanding of relationship work in the context of calendar sharing by examining how people negotiate and enact accountability in their intimate relationships with and around their shared calendars. We conducted 13 semi-structured interviews as part of a qualitative study of Google Calendar users. Our research discovered how participants develop understandings of how close friends and significant others structure their time using shared calendars, as well as how people negotiate and enact accounts within and beyond their intimate relationships. Our findings indicate ways in which Online Calendar Systems (OCS) can be better designed to more effectively support users' needs.
Audio-enhanced paper photos: encouraging social interaction at age 105 BIBAFull-Text 215-224
  Anne Marie Piper; Nadir Weibel; James Hollan
Photographs are powerful and pervasive media that facilitate communication and support reminiscence. Adding audio narrations to traditional paper photographs combines the familiarity of paper photos with the nuanced richness of voice. We enable creation of and interaction with audio-enhanced paper photographs through custom software deployed on a digital pen. This paper reports on use of a paper-digital photo album by an older adult (Ethel, age 105), her extended family, and nursing staff over a five-month field deployment. The interactive photo album was found to be easy to use and accessible, effectively engaged Ethel's and family members' interest, and provided a focal point for communication and social interaction. Family and caregivers report improvements in Ethel's social interaction. We discuss the properties of our audio-enhanced paper approach that make it a promising medium for engaging older adults and distill general design considerations for paper-digital photo albums.
Electric agents: fostering sibling joint media engagement through interactive television and augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 225-236
  Rafael Ballagas; Thérèse E. Dugan; Glenda Revelle; Koichi Mori; Maria Sandberg; Janet Go; Emily Reardon; Mirjana Spasojevic
Electric Agents is a multi-player game that uses augmented reality on mobile phones to facilitate in-room collaboration and promote joint media engagement around interactive educational television content in the home. Joint media engagement describes 'collaborative' consumption of media and has potential learning benefits. Our research examines whether technology can support joint media engagement, through the use of a series of prototypes that combine handheld augmented reality with web-based video. In pilot testing, sibling play patterns showed evidence of the kind of in-room collaboration and joint media engagement that previous research has shown to facilitate children in making sense of media content.
"Back and forth, back and forth": channel switching in romantic couple conflict BIBAFull-Text 237-248
  Lauren E. Scissors; Darren Gergle
This work explores the act of channel switching, or switching between forms of face-to-face (FtF) and mediated communication (e.g., text messaging, instant messaging) during romantic couple conflict. Interviews were conducted with 24 individuals currently involved in a non-cohabitating romantic dating relationship of 3 months or longer. Results revealed that many patterns of channel switching are used during conflict, including switches from mediated to FtF communication and from FtF to mediated communication. In addition, participants had a number of interpersonal motivations for initiating a channel switch, including avoiding conflict escalation, managing one's emotions, and attempting to reach a resolution. Theoretical and design implications are discussed.

Sharing and privacy

Radiator: context propagation based on delayed aggregation BIBAFull-Text 249-260
  Pedro Alves; Paulo Ferreira
Context-aware systems take into account the user's current context (such as location, time and activity) to enrich the user interaction with the application. However, these systems may produce huge amounts of information that must be efficiently propagated to a group of people or even large communities while still protecting the privacy of the participants.
   We argue that both scalability and privacy can be ensured by delaying context propagation until certain conditions are met and then aggregating such messages both at the syntactic and semantic level. Since such conditions vary from application to application, we propose Radiator, a systematic way to model the propagation characteristics of a distributed context-aware system.
   Our qualitative evaluation shows that Radiator is generic enough to model the needs of different context propagation scenarios. To assess the impact of the model on the scalability of an application, we developed twiRadiator, an adaptation of Twitter to the Radiator model which, while preserving user expectations, reduces bandwidth consumption to approx. one third.
An online experiment of privacy authorization dialogues for social applications BIBAFull-Text 261-272
  Na Wang; Jens Grossklags; Heng Xu
Several studies have documented the constantly evolving privacy practices of social networking sites and users' misunderstandings about them. Researchers have criticized the interfaces to "configure" privacy preferences as opaque, uninformative, and ineffective. The same problems have also plagued the constant growth of third-party applications and their troubling privacy authorization dialogues. In this paper, we report the results of an experimental study examining the limitations of current privacy authorization dialogues on Facebook as well as four new designs which we developed based on the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs). Through an online experiment with 250 users, we study and document the effectiveness of installation-time configuration and awareness-enhancing interface changes.
What a tangled web we weave: lying backfires in location-sharing social media BIBAFull-Text 273-284
  Xinru Page; Bart P. Knijnenburg; Alfred Kobsa
Prior research shows that a root cause of many privacy concerns in location-sharing social media is people's desire to preserve offline relationship boundaries. Other literature recognizes lying as an everyday phenomenon that preserves such relationship boundaries by facilitating smooth social interactions. Combining these strands of research, one might hypothesize that people with a predisposition to lie would generally have lower privacy concerns since lying is a means to preserve relationship boundaries. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling on data from a survey administered nationwide (N=1532), and found that for location-sharing, people with a high propensity to lie actually have increased boundary preservation concerns as well as increased privacy concerns. We explain these findings using results from semi-structured interviews.

Mining social media data

Mining smartphone data to classify life-facets of social relationships BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Jun-Ki Min; Jason Wiese; Jason I. Hong; John Zimmerman
People engage with many overlapping social networks and enact diverse social roles across different facets of their lives. Unfortunately, many online social networking services reduce most people's contacts to "friend". A richer computational model of relationships would be useful for a number of applications such as managing privacy settings and organizing communications. In this paper, we take a step towards a richer computational model by using call and text message logs from mobile phones to classifying contacts according to life facet (family, work, and social). We extract various features such as communication intensity, regularity, medium, and temporal tendency, and classify the relationships using machine-learning techniques. Our experimental results on 40 users showed that we could classify life facets with up to 90.5% accuracy. The most relevant features include call duration, channel selection, and time of day for the communication.
Mining social relationship types in an organization using communication patterns BIBAFull-Text 295-302
  Jinhyuk Choi; Seongkook Heo; Jaehyun Han; Geehyuk Lee; Junehwa Song
Our goal is to show that it is possible to automatically infer social relationship types among people who stay together in an organization by analyzing communication patterns. We collected indoor co-location data and instant messenger data from 22 participants for one month. Based on the data, we designed and explored several indicators which are considered to be useful for mining social relationship types. We applied machine learning techniques using the indicators and found that it is possible to develop an intelligent method to infer social relationship types.
Understanding affect in the workplace via social media BIBAFull-Text 303-316
  Munmun De Choudhury; Scott Counts
We investigate the landscape of affective expression of employees at a large Fortune 500 software corporation via an internal microblogging tool. We present three analyses of emotional expression among employees, based on literature in organizational behavior: its relationship to (1) exogenous/lifestyle and endogenous workplace factors, (2) geography and (3) organizational structure. We find that employees tend to make significant accommodations in affect expression when interacting with others over the organizational hierarchy. We also find that positive affect is expressed through interpersonal communications that connect disparate geographic regions. Our findings have implications for enabling emotional reflection of employees and for management in that they can help uncover emotional patterns associated with episodes of high and low productivity, allowing organizations to improve employee engagement and promote positive attitudes.
Statistical affect detection in collaborative chat BIBAFull-Text 317-328
  Michael Brooks; Katie Kuksenok; Megan K. Torkildson; Daniel Perry; John J. Robinson; Taylor J. Scott; Ona Anicello; Ariana Zukowski; Paul Harris; Cecilia R. Aragon
Geographically distributed collaborative teams often rely on synchronous text-based online communication for accomplishing tasks and maintaining social contact. This technology leaves a trace that can help researchers understand affect expression and dynamics in distributed groups. Although manual labeling of affect in chat logs has shed light on complex group communication phenomena, scaling this process to larger data sets through automation is difficult. We present a pipeline of natural language processing and machine learning techniques that can be used to build automated classifiers of affect in chat logs. Interpreting affect as a dynamic, contextualized process, we explain our development and application of this method to four years of chat logs from a longitudinal study of a multi-cultural distributed scientific collaboration. With ground truth generated through manual labeling of affect over a subset of the chat logs, our approach can successfully identify many commonly occurring types of affect.


Voluntary turnover in a distributed work setting: an examination of the role of spatial propinquity and role similarity in project affiliation networks BIBAFull-Text 329-340
  Gopakumar M. Gopalakrishnan; Daniel S. Halgin; Stephen P. Borgatti
Project affiliation networks (i.e., individuals connected through common project team memberships) create fruitful junctures to understand how individuals are connected to others in their social contexts, especially in distributed organizations. Advances in technology-mediated environments further help individuals develop connections with their colleagues who may or may not be collocated. This embeddedness creates inertial pressures on individuals and constrains them to conform to firm norms and thus stay with the firm. In this paper, we examine whether ties to those who quit the firm can trump the feeling of connection to the firm and thus motivate subsequent quit decisions. We argue that individuals with a greater number of defectors in their project affiliation networks are more likely than others to leave the firm and the influence on those focal individuals will be higher when they are collocated and occupy similar professional roles as the affiliated defectors. We analyze complete project affiliation data linking 728 geographically distributed employees at a multi-national high technology firm across five years to test these arguments. During this time 183 employees voluntarily left the firm. The findings support our arguments and suggest that project affiliation networks in such settings occasion social comparisons among employees and serve as conduits for the diffusion of their career mobility decisions. We discuss the implications of our work for managing voluntary turnover in knowledge intensive distributed organizations.
Analyzing the flow of knowledge in computer mediated teams BIBAFull-Text 341-356
  Joshua E. Introne; Marcus Drescher
In this article, we present an analysis of communication transcripts from computer-mediated teams that illustrates how different kinds of decision support impact collaborative knowledge construction. Our analysis introduces an algorithmic technique called Topic Evolution Analysis (TEvA), which tracks clusters of words in conversation, and illustrates how these clusters change and merge over time. This analysis is combined with measurements of group dynamics to distinguish between teams using different kinds of decision support.
   Our analysis offers evidence that some kinds of decision support improve the apparent rationality of a team, but at the cost of collaborative knowledge construction. This result is not apparent when simply measuring team decision performance. We use this finding to motivate the utility and importance of the approach when assessing the impact of technology on collaborative knowledge processing.
Representation and communication: challenges in interpreting large social media datasets BIBAFull-Text 357-362
  Mattias Rost; Louise Barkhuus; Henriette Cramer; Barry Brown
Online services provide a range of opportunities for understanding human behaviour through the large aggregate data sets that their operation collects. Yet the data sets they collect do not unproblematically model or mirror the world events. In this paper we use data from Foursquare, a popular location check-in service, to argue for the importance of analysing social media as a communicative rather than representational system. Drawing on logs of all Foursquare check-ins over eight weeks we highlight four features of Foursquare's use: the relationship between attendance and check-ins, event check-ins, commercial incentives to check-in, and lastly humorous check-ins These points show how large data analysis is affected by the end user uses to which social networks are put.
A multi-level analysis of the impact of shared leadership in diverse virtual teams BIBAFull-Text 363-374
  Lionel P. Robert
Although organizations are using more virtual teams to accomplish work, they are finding it difficult to use traditional forms of leadership to manage these teams. Many organizations are encouraging a shared leadership approach over the traditional individual leader. Yet, there have been only a few empirical studies directly examining the effectiveness of such an approach and none have taken into account the team diversity. To address this gap, this paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the impacts of shared leadership in virtual teams. Results confirm the proposed research model. The impacts of shared leadership are multilevel and vary by race and gender. In addition, while shared leadership promotes team satisfaction despite prior assumptions, it actually reduces rather than increases team performance.


Friends FTW! friendship and competition in halo: reach BIBAFull-Text 375-386
  Winter Mason; Aaron Clauset
How important are friendships in determining success by individuals and teams in complex collaborative environments? By combining a novel data set containing the dynamics of millions of ad hoc teams from the popular multiplayer online first person shooter Halo: Reach with survey data on player demographics, play style, psychometrics and friendships derived from an anonymous online survey, we investigate the impact of friendship on collaborative and competitive performance. In addition to finding significant differences in player behavior across these variables, we find that friendships exert a strong influence, leading to both improved individual and team performance -- even after controlling for the overall expertise of the team -- and increased pro-social behaviors. Players also structure their in-game activities around social opportunities, and as a result hidden friendship ties can be accurately inferred directly from behavioral time series. Virtual environments that enable such friendship effects will thus likely see improved collaboration and competition.
Media technologies and learning in the StarCraft eSport community BIBAFull-Text 387-398
  Yong Ming Kow; Timothy Young
Interest-driven Internet communities often use an assemblage of media technologies to support knowledge creation and learning. In this paper, we examine the uneven functions of these media technologies in meeting the learning needs of online game players. StarCraft is an online game and electronic sport where millions around the world compete in virtual battlegrounds. To become better players, gamers actively share strategies in online forums, wiki, videos, and in person. We conducted participant observation of a StarCraft community known as Teamliquid. We performed 24 in-depth interviews with professional gamers, editors, game commentators, and community leaders. We found that the novice learners generally learned from, and participated in, public media channels, whereas the StarCraft experts congregated in small teams in which members learn from each other within private media channels and in person. We use the concepts of informational media and socially-oriented media to describe the general learning needs supported by media technologies.
Functional or social?: exploring teams in online games BIBAFull-Text 399-408
  Yun Huang; Wenyue Ye; Nicholas Bennett; Noshir Contractor
Team collaboration in multi-player online games provides opportunities for players to interact with each other. Facilitating teams has become one of the main design principles to increase social activities. However, there is no research evidence that collaborating on tasks in game teams can produce the desired relational outcome. This paper examines more than half a million solo and team activities during a week in Dragon Nest, an MMO game. We measure the degree of team engagement using the percentage of time played in teams and the percentage of play with repeated teammates, and we then identify different types of players using this. The results show that solo players and team players are two distinct populations and they are highly predictable based on players' in-game status. Moreover, we find that spending more time in teams does not always lead to more social interactions. The interviews with players are conducted to validate the findings.
ExerSync: facilitating interpersonal synchrony in social exergames BIBAFull-Text 409-422
  Taiwoo Park; Uichin Lee; Bupjae Lee; Haechan Lee; Sanghun Son; Seokyoung Song; Junehwa Song
Social exergames provide immersive experiences of social interaction via online multiplayer games, ranging from simple group exercises (e.g., virtual cycling/rowing) to more structured multiplayer games (e.g., cooperative boat racing). In exergame design, interpersonal synchrony plays an important role as it enhances social rapport and pro-social behavior. In this paper, we build ExerSync platform that supports various assistive mechanisms for facilitating interpersonal synchrony even with heterogeneous exercise modalities. We consider a rhythm of body movements in repetitive aerobic exercises and explore the design space of incorporating rhythm into exergames. We build a prototype system and comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of various assistive mechanisms. The experiment results show that rhythm significantly lowers the perceived workloads and provides better competence and engagement, but the accuracy of interpersonal synchrony is not dependent on the use of rhythm.

Collaboration and sharing in scientific work

Meanings and boundaries of scientific software sharing BIBAFull-Text 423-434
  Xing Huang; Xianghua Ding; Charlotte P. Lee; Tun Lu; Ning Gu
In theory, software, like other digital artifacts, can be freely copied and distributed. In practice, however, its effective flow is conditioned on various technical and social factors. In this paper, drawing on ethnographic work primarily with a bio-informatics research team in China, we report on meanings of scientific software sharing as embedded in social practices of learning, apprenticeship, membership, publication, and reputation. We illustrate that while free flow is important, boundary management is equally important for the effective travel of software to its appropriate destinations. Our study highlights a number of issues that are important to consider for effectively supporting sharing and collaboration in science.
Beyond trust and reliability: reusing data in collaborative cancer epidemiology research BIBAFull-Text 435-444
  Betsy Rolland; Charlotte P. Lee
While previous CSCW research on data sharing and reuse has focused on how researchers assess the trust and reliability of the data of others, we know little about scientists' data use practices after that decision has been taken. This qualitative study of post-doctoral researchers' use of preexisting datasets investigates the practices of cancer-epidemiology post-docs working to understand their "Small Data" datasets. We report the ongoing and iterative nature of information seeking inherent in using unfamiliar data and the time-consuming and highly-collaborative process post-docs used to understand aspects of the dataset important to their scientific questions. Understanding data use practices can help inform the design of both Small Data projects and large cyberinfrastructure projects where multi-source data are collected and combined.
Explaining field differences in openness and sharing in scientific communities BIBAFull-Text 445-458
  Theresa Velden
This paper explores field differences in openness and sharing of scientific knowledge based on a comparative ethnographic field study of research groups in two research specialties. Tensions between cooperation and openness on the one hand and competition for priority and secrecy on the other hand are common in science. However, fields differ in how these tensions play out, influencing what information is exchanged when and how among research groups in a field. This paper develops an explanatory framework that identifies assumptions made in the generic model of the collective production process in the sciences and specifies epistemic and material field characteristics that affect to what extent those assumptions hold for a specific field, explaining field differences in openness and secrecy behaviors. I suggest that these field-inherent sources for differences in openness and sharing behaviors need to be accounted for in research policies and in the design of information and communication systems that aim to support and advance the collective production of knowledge in science.
Incentives and integration in scientific software production BIBAFull-Text 459-470
  James Howison; James D. Herbsleb
Science policy makers are looking for approaches to increase the extent of collaboration in the production of scientific software, looking to open collaborations in open source software for inspiration. We examine the software ecosystem surrounding BLAST, a key bioinformatics tool, identifying outside improvements and interviewing their authors. We find that academic credit is a powerful motivator for the production and revealing of improvements. Yet surprisingly, we also find that improvements motivated by academic credit are less likely to be integrated than those with other motivations, including financial gain. We argue that this is because integration makes it harder to see who has contributed what and thereby undermines the ability of reputation to function as a reward for collaboration. We consider how open source avoids these issues and conclude with policy approaches to promoting wider collaboration by addressing incentives for integration.

Making the world a better place

Designing for reflection and collaboration to support a transition from welfare to work BIBAFull-Text 471-476
  Nathalie Colineau; Cécile Paris; Surya Nepal
Online support groups have proven to be very effective, in the health domain in particular, to provide their members with social, emotional and moral support. Drawing from this success, we are exploring the use of an online community to build a support group for parents currently in receipt of income support but needing to transition to find a job. Complementing the financial and informational support offered through existing welfare transition programs, our work aims to help people improve their prospect of finding a job to become financially self-sufficient and develop a support network to help them in their transition back to work. In this paper, we present the design of a journey of reflection and collaboration to encourage reflective thinking and foster relationships between community members.
Hollaback!: the role of storytelling online in a social movement organization BIBAFull-Text 477-490
  Jill P. Dimond; Michaelanne Dye; Daphne Larose; Amy S. Bruckman
CSCW systems are playing an increasing role in activism. How can new communications technologies support social movements? The possibilities are intriguing, but as yet not fully understood. One key technique traditionally leveraged by social movements is storytelling. In this paper, we examine the use of collective storytelling online in the context of a social movement organization called Hollaback, an organization working to stop street harassment. Can sharing a story of experienced harassment really make a difference to an individual or a community? Using Emancipatory Action Research and qualitative methods, we interviewed people who contributed stories of harassment online. We found that sharing stories shifted participants' cognitive and emotional orientation towards their experience. The theory of "framing" from social movement research explains the surprising power of this experience for Hollaback participants. We contribute a way of looking at activism online using social movement theory. Our work illustrates that technology can help crowd-sourced framing processes that have traditionally been done by social movement organizations.
Working and sustaining the virtual "Disaster Desk" BIBAFull-Text 491-502
  Kate Starbird; Leysia Palen
Humanity Road is a volunteer organization working within the domain of disaster response. The organization is entirely virtual, relying on ICT to both organize and execute its work of helping to inform the public on how to survive after disaster events. This paper follows the trajectory of Humanity Road from an emergent group to a formal non-profit, considering how its articulation, conduct and products of work together express its identity and purpose, which include aspirations of relating to and changing the larger ecosystem of emergency response. Through excerpts of its communications, we consider how the organization makes changes in order to sustain itself in rapid-response work supported in large part by episodic influxes of volunteers. This case enlightens discussion about technology-supported civic participation, and the means by which dedicated long-term commitment to the civic sphere is mobilized.
Community-oriented spoken web browser for low literate users BIBAFull-Text 503-514
  A Mahelaqua; Sara Basson; Nitendra Rajput; Kundan Shrivastava; Saurabh Srivastava; John C. Thomas
Heavy penetration of mobile devices in rural areas enables access to information services to low-literate users. While connectivity solves a major issue, concepts such as browsing and searching are not intuitive to such users. This paper presents the design of a multimodal (speech+icons) voice browser for low-literate users in rural India. We conducted a field study to determine their current communication styles and preferences. Based on this, we designed three browsers, each influenced by a specific way of communicating -- persona based roles, storytelling and direct interaction. The prototypes were evaluated in a task-based study with 62 low-literate users and were compared with a baseline Interactive Voice Response (IVR) browser. Our results suggest that there is clear acceptance and understanding of the necessary concepts if the browser is designed using the design constructs of persona based roles and storytelling.

Group and team issues in the health domain

ACES: a cross-discipline platform and method for communication and language research BIBAFull-Text 515-526
  Joshua Hailpern; Marina Danilevsky; Andrew Harris; Sunah Suh; Reed LaBotz; Karrie Karahalios
While conducting research focused on individuals with impairments is vitally important, such experiments often have high costs (time and money), and researchers may be limited in the instructions they can give, or participant feedback they can gather (due to the impairment). We present how an impairment emulation system (ACES) can be used by researchers in the behavioral sciences. By repurposing this new technology within the context of a "traditional" psychology experiment, we were able to analyze impaired linguistic and communication in a manner that was not possible without a system such as ACES. Our experiment on 96 participants provided strong support for a theory in the aphasia psychology community, and uncovered new understandings of how people communicate when one interlocutor's speech is distorted with aphasia. These findings illustrate a new direction of HCI research that directly helps researchers in Psychology, Communication, and Speech and Hearing Science.
Understanding visual attention of teams in dynamic medical settings through vital signs monitor use BIBAFull-Text 527-540
  Diana S. Kusunoki; Aleksandra Sarcevic; Zhan Zhang; Randall S. Burd
The purpose of this study was to understand how vital signs monitors support teamwork during trauma resuscitation -- the fast-paced and information-rich process of stabilizing critically injured patients. We analyzed 12 videos of simulated resuscitations to characterize trauma team monitor use. To structure our observations, we adopted the feedback loop concept. Our results showed that the monitor was used frequently, especially by team leaders and anesthesiologists. We identified three patterns of monitor use: (i) periods with a low frequency of short looks (glances) to maintain overall process awareness; (ii) periods with a medium frequency of long looks (scrutiny) to monitor trends in patient status; and (iii) peaks with a high frequency of glances to maintain attention on both the patient and monitor during critical tasks. Approximately 75% of looks were 3 seconds or shorter, but many looks (25%) ranged between 3 and 26 seconds. Our results have implications for improving displays by presenting the status of the patient's physiological systems and team activities.
Privacy management in dynamic groups: understanding information privacy in medical practices BIBAFull-Text 541-552
  Yunan Chen; Heng Xu
Recent wide adoption of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems provides health practitioners with easy access to patient private information. However, there is a dilemma between the easy access to patient information and the potential privacy infringement brought by such easy access. This paper elaborates three types of group dynamics that identify challenges of privacy management in medical practices: team members, temporal involvement, and different levels of information sensitivity. Drawing on the theory of contextual integrity, this work identifies the appropriate actors, information access, and information transmission principles for understanding the norms of information flows. The findings of the study shed lights on the design insights that privacy enhancing features should be appropriately aligned with the dynamic group behaviors of medical practices.
Non-static nature of patient consent: shifting privacy perspectives in health information sharing BIBAFull-Text 553-562
  Aisling A. O'Kane; Helena M. Mentis; Eno Thereska
The purpose of the study is to explore how chronically ill patients and their specialized care network have viewed their personal medical information privacy and how it has impacted their perspectives of sharing their records with their network of healthcare providers and secondary use organizations. Diabetes patients and specialized diabetes medical care providers in Eastern England were interviewed about their sharing of medical information and their privacy concerns to inform a descriptive qualitative and exploratory thematic analysis. From the interview data, we see that diabetes patients shift their perceived privacy concerns and needs throughout their lifetime due to persistence of health data, changes in health, technology advances, and experience with technology that affect one's consent decisions. From these findings, we begin to take a translational research approach in critically examining current privacy enhancing technologies for secondary use consent management and motivate the further exploration of both temporally-sensitive privacy perspectives and new options in consent management that support shifting privacy concerns over one's lifetime.

Trust, credibility, and rumors: international perspectives

Globally distributed system developers: their trust expectations and processes BIBAFull-Text 563-574
  Ban Al-Ani; Matthew J. Bietz; Yi Wang; Erik Trainer; Benjamin Koehne; Sabrina Marczak; David Redmiles; Rafael Prikladnicki
Trust remains a challenge in globally distributed development teams. In order to investigate how trust plays out in this context, we conducted a qualitative study of 5 multi-national IT organizations. We interviewed 58 individuals across 10 countries and made two principal findings. First, study participants described trust in terms of their expectations of their colleagues. These expectations fell into one of three dimensions: that socially correct behavior will persist, that team members possess technical competency, and that individuals will demonstrate concern for others. Second, our study participants described trust as a dynamic process, with phases including formation, dissolution, adjustment and restoration. We provide new insights into these dimensions and phases of trust within distributed teams which extend existing literature. Our study also provides guidelines on effective practices within distributed teams in addition to providing implications for the extension of software engineering and collaboration tools.
Microblog credibility perceptions: comparing the USA and China BIBAFull-Text 575-586
  Jiang Yang; Scott Counts; Meredith Ringel Morris; Aaron Hoff
Microblogs have become an increasingly important source of information, both in the U.S. (Twitter) and in China (Weibo). However, the brevity of microblog updates, combined with increasing access of microblog content through search rather than through direct network connections, makes it challenging to assess the credibility of news relayed in this manner [34]. This paper reports on experimental and survey data that compare the impact of several features of microblog updates (author's gender, name style, profile image, location, and degree of network overlap with the reader) on credibility perceptions among U.S. and Chinese audiences. We reveal the complex mechanism of credibility perceptions, identify several key differences in how users from each country critically consume microblog content, and discuss how to incorporate these findings into the design of improved user interfaces for accessing microblogs in different cultural settings.
She gets a sports car from our donation: rumor transmission in a Chinese microblogging community BIBAFull-Text 587-598
  Qinying Liao; Lei Shi
In this paper we report on a case study of rumor transmission during a nationwide scandal via China's most popular microblogging service, weibo.com. Specifically, we explore dynamics of the rumor discourse by characterizing different statement types and their evolution over time. We examine the roles that different user groups play in the rumor discussions. Through qualitative and statistical analyses, our results identify seven reaction patterns to rumors and their different development trends. We reveal a three-stage pattern of the change of leadership during the rumor discussions. By connecting social theories on rumor transmission to the large scale social platform, this paper offers insight into understanding rumor development in social media, as well as utilizing microblogging data for effectively detecting, analyzing and controlling public rumors.
Trust in online news: comparing social media and official media use by Chinese citizens BIBAFull-Text 599-610
  Yiran Wang; Gloria Mark
Since 2006 social media use has grown dramatically in China. Social media has become a stage for citizens to report and disseminate news and to vocalize viewpoints, at times competing with reports from highly curated official media sources. These competing news channels, oftentimes presenting contradictory information, raise questions about citizens' trust in these different media. This study explores the level of trust Chinese Internet users place on news from social media versus official media. We conducted a large-scale anonymous survey in China that revealed that official and citizen news attract different audience groups and each group uses different features to assess news trustworthiness. We present a model for predicting preference for news from citizen media. The results reveal features of social media that explain why some citizens trust it as a channel for news. The results also suggest that in highly regulated news environments, citizen media has the potential to become an alternative news channel where citizens can trust each other for information.


Putting ubiquitous crowd-sourcing into context BIBAFull-Text 611-622
  Afra Mashhadi; Giovanni Quattrone; Licia Capra
Ubiquitous crowd-sourcing has become a popular mechanism to harvest knowledge from the masses. OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a successful example of ubiquitous crowd-sourcing, where citizens volunteer geographic information in order to build and maintain an accurate map of the changing world. Research has shown that OSM information is accurate, by comparing it with centrally maintained spatial information such as Ordnance Survey. However, we find that coverage is low and non uniformly distributed, thus challenging the suitability of ubiquitous crowd-sourcing as a mechanism to map the whole world. In this paper, we investigate what contextual factors correlate with coverage of OSM information in urban settings. We find that, although there is a direct correlation between population density and information coverage, other socio-economic factors also play an important role. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the design of urban crowd-sourcing applications.
Pay by the bit: an information-theoretic metric for collective human judgment BIBAFull-Text 623-638
  Tamsyn P. Waterhouse
We consider the problem of evaluating the performance of human contributors for tasks involving answering a series of questions, each of which has a single correct answer. The answers may not be known a priori.
   We assert that the measure of a contributor's judgments is the amount by which having these judgments decreases the entropy of our discovering the answer. This quantity is the pointwise mutual information between the judgments and the answer.
   The expected value of this metric is the mutual information between the contributor and the answer prior, which can be computed using only the prior and the conditional probabilities of the contributor's judgments given a correct answer, without knowing the answers themselves.
   We also propose using multivariable information measures, such as conditional mutual information, to measure the interactions between contributors' judgments.
   These metrics have a variety of applications. They can be used as a basis for contributor performance evaluation and incentives. They can be used to measure the efficiency of the judgment collection process. If the collection process allows assignment of contributors to questions, they can also be used to optimize this scheduling.
Enhancing reliability using peer consistency evaluation in human computation BIBAFull-Text 639-648
  Shih-Wen Huang; Wai-Tat Fu
Peer consistency evaluation is often used in games with a purpose (GWAP) to evaluate workers using outputs of other workers without using gold standard answers. Despite its popularity, the reliability of peer consistency evaluation has never been systematically tested to show how it can be used as a general evaluation method in human computation systems. We present experimental results that show that human computation systems using peer consistency evaluation can lead to outcomes that are even better than those that evaluate workers using gold standard answers. We also show that even without evaluation, simply telling the workers that their answers will be used as future evaluation standards can significantly enhance the workers' performance. Results have important implication for methods that improve the reliability of human computation systems.
Quality control mechanisms for crowdsourcing: peer review, arbitration, & expertise at FamilySearch Indexing BIBAFull-Text 649-660
  Derek L. Hansen; Patrick J. Schone; Douglas Corey; Matthew Reid; Jake Gehring
The FamilySearch Indexing project has enabled hundreds of thousands of volunteers to transcribe billions of records, making it one of the largest crowdsourcing initiatives in the world. Assuring high quality transcriptions (i.e., indexes) with a reasonable amount of volunteer effort is essential to keep pace with the mounds of newly digitized documents. Using historical data, we show the relationship between prior experience and native language on transcriber agreement. We then present a field experiment comparing the effectiveness (accuracy) and efficiency (time) of two quality control mechanisms: (1) Arbitration -- the existing mechanism wherein two volunteers independently transcribe records and disagreements go to an arbitrator, and (2) Peer Review -- a mechanism wherein one volunteer's work is reviewed by another volunteer. Peer Review is significantly more efficient, though not as effective for certain fields as Arbitration. Design suggestions for FamilySearch Indexing and related crowdsourcing initiatives are provided.

Local is where it's at

Indebtedness, reciprocity, and fairness in local online exchange BIBAFull-Text 661-672
  Airi Lampinen; Vilma Lehtinen; Coye Cheshire; Emmi Suhonen
Many existing and emerging online systems allow people to share content and coordinate the exchange of goods and favors in local geographic settings. We present a qualitative case study of user experiences concerning exchange and reciprocity in local online exchange. Findings from eleven in-depth interviews (containing forty-nine separate exchange experiences) reveal an aversion to indebtedness and several user behaviors that lessen these negative feelings: (1) offering small tokens of appreciation to exchange partners, (2) understanding and accepting the indirect nature of generalized exchange, (3) managing expectations by framing offers and requests carefully, (4) minimizing efforts needed in exchange processes, and (5) bartering and exchanging for a third party. The paper contributes to our understanding of emergent behaviors and norms in local online exchange systems. We discuss design implications from these empirical insights that can help alleviate the discomfort of indebtedness and better encourage and sustain participation in systems of indirect reciprocity.
Consequences of content diversity for online public spaces for local communities BIBAFull-Text 673-682
  Claudia A. López; Brian S. Butler
While there is significant potential for social technologies to strengthen local communities, creating viable online spaces for them remains difficult. Maintaining a reliable content stream is challenging for local communities with their bounded emphases and limited population of potential contributors. Some systems focus on specific information types (e.g. restaurant, events). Others allow many different information types. This paper reports our findings about the consequences of content diversity from a study of neighborhood-oriented Facebook groups. The findings raise questions about the viability of designs for local online communities that focus narrowly on single topics, goals, and audiences.
Finger on the pulse: identifying deprivation using transit flow analysis BIBAFull-Text 683-692
  Chris Smith; Daniele Quercia; Licia Capra
A common metaphor to describe the movement of people within a city is that of blood flowing through the veins of a living organism. We often speak of the 'pulse of the city' when referring to flow patterns we observe. Here we extend this metaphor by hypothesising that by monitoring the flow of people through a city we can assess the city's health, as a nurse takes a patient's heart-rate and blood pressure during a routine health check. Using an automated fare collection dataset of journeys made on the London rail system, we build a classification model that identifies areas of high deprivation as measured by the Indices of Multiple Deprivation, and achieve a precision, sensitivity and specificity of 0.805, 0.733 and 0.810, respectively. We conclude with a discussion of the potential benefits this work provides to city planning, policymaking, and citizen engagement initiatives.
Digital neighborhood watch: investigating the sharing of camera data amongst neighbors BIBAFull-Text 693-700
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; Jaeyeon Jung; Ratul Mahajan; Frank Martinez
In a neighborhood watch group, neighbors cooperate to prevent crime by sharing information and alerting police of suspicious activities. We propose a digital neighborhood watch (DNW) in which security cameras of individual homes work together to monitor the neighborhood. DNW could augment neighborhood watch by providing digital evidence of crime, increasing visibility of neighborhood activity, and automatically sending alerts when suspicious events occur. We investigate the appeal of sharing camera data with neighbors through semi-structured interviews with 11 households. Our participants validated the potential of sharing data with neighbors, particularly to provide evidence after an incident. But they also had security and privacy concerns about divulging their cameras' field of view and giving ongoing access to neighbors. For some participants, these concerns can be alleviated by enabling sharing of processed cameras views that include only the fore-ground activity or only public property (e.g., sidewalks).

Working together

Complementarity of input devices to achieve knowledge sharing in meetings BIBAFull-Text 701-714
  Himanshu Verma; Flaviu Roman; Silvia Magrelli; Patrick Jermann; Pierre Dillenbourg
In co-located meetings, participants create and share content to establish a common understanding. In this paper, we present a collaborative environment that enables group members to create and share content simultaneously by providing them with different kinds of individual input devices and a shared workspace. We also report on an exploratory study to investigate the influence of the input device used on the shared knowledge produced by the group. The results suggest that driven by the affordances, various input devices complement each other. We thus recommend groups to be equipped with multitude of them to support diverse meeting task demands. Additionally, we observed that groupware usage differs across various phases of the problem-solving activity. This provides implications for the design of collaborative environments to assist each of the respective phases of the task, in order to extend their usefulness for the group.
Dependency-conflict detection in real-time collaborative 3D design systems BIBAFull-Text 715-728
  A Agustina; Chengzheng Sun
One core issue in real-time collaborative 3D design systems is dependency-conflict caused by concurrent access to object replicas in Dependency Graph (DG) states -- the common underlying structure of 3D design systems. Prior work has provided an Operational Transformation (OT) solution to dependency-conflict resolution, assuming dependency-conflict can be detected. But dependency-conflict detection is a complex and challenging issue because dependency relations among targets of concurrent operations -- a necessary condition for dependency-conflict -- is dynamic in nature and the detection must refer to prior DG states that are often unavailable during dependency-conflict detection. Conflict detection was never a difficult issue in prior OT work based on well-defined linear data models because conflict relations are readily derivable from operation position parameters without having to refer to prior document states. This work is the first to recognize and solve the dependency-conflict detection problem, which complements prior work in dependency-conflict resolution to provide a complete solution to dependency-conflict problem in real-time collaborative DG-based systems. Both theoretical verification and real implementation have been applied to validate the proposed dependency-conflict detection solution.
Xpointer: an x-ray telepointer for relaxed-space-time wysiwis and unconstrained collaborative 3d design systems BIBAFull-Text 729-740
  A Agustina; Chengzheng Sun
Telepointers are a real-time collaborative feature to indicate pointing at shared objects. Existing telepointing techniques are, however, restricted to pointing at the foremost object underneath a mouse cursor in relaxed-space but strict-time WYSIWIS environments. In real-time collaborative 3D design systems with animation creation capabilities, multiple 3D objects can be simultaneously visible underneath mouse cursors for users to freely and concurrently work on and point at (unconstrained collaboration), and multiple users can view 3D workspaces and point from different viewing perspectives (relaxed-space WYSIWIS) and animation time frames (relaxed-time WYSIWIS). This paper contributes a novel XPointer technique with the capability of pointing through objects correctly and consistently from different viewing perspectives and time frames, even in the presence of concurrent editing work. This work is the first to identify and address these advanced 3D telepointing needs and capabilities, and to extend the concept of relaxed WYSIWIS to include the time aspect. The XPointer has been implemented in the CoMaya real-time collaborative 3D design system (demonstration video: http://cooffice.ntu.edu.sg/comaya/videoXPointer.php).
Drawing practices in image-enabled collaboration BIBAFull-Text 741-752
  Jaime Snyder
Advances in image-making tools have greatly increased our opportunities to use images to collaborate. Much current research in the area of visualization focuses on building systems to generate visual representations of large data sets. A small but growing subset of this research focuses on collaborative aspects of information and data visualization. In order to expand the scope of collaborative visualization research, a qualitative study examined the role that spontaneous drawing practices play in face-to-face conversations. Empirical examples describe the creation and use of drawing as a form of social interaction. This study provides a methodological and theoretical basis for viewing the process of generating a visual artifact in a collaborative context from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective. Findings identify affordances of drawing related to both material object (artifact) and communicative performance (activity). Implications for design are discussed in terms of both refined heuristics and enhanced features for image-enabled collaborative tools.

Computer-mediated communication

Understanding how the projection of availability state impacts the reception incoming communication BIBAFull-Text 753-758
  Jaime Teevan; Alexander Hehmeyer
Many communication systems infer and project information about a user's availability, making it possible for others to decide whether and how to contact that user. Presumably when the system infers people are busy, they are less open to interruption. But analysis of 103,962 phone calls made using a popular enterprise communications tool reveals that people are actually significantly more likely to answer the phone when the system projects that they are busy than at other times. A follow-up survey of 569 users of the system suggests that this seemingly counter-intuitive fact may arise because people care a lot about the recipient's availability when initiating phone communications and are unlikely to attempt to call someone who appears to be busy unless the communication is important. Recipients thus perceive incoming calls as more important when they are busy than at other times, making them more likely to answer.
How and why teenagers use video chat BIBAFull-Text 759-768
  Tatiana Buhler; Carman Neustaedter; Serena Hillman
Teenagers are increasingly using video chat systems to communicate with others, however, little research has been conducted to explore how and why they use the technology. To better understand this design space, we present the results of a study of twenty teenagers and their use of video chat systems such as Skype, FaceTime, and Google Hangouts. Our results show that video chat plays an important role in helping teenagers socialize with their friends after school and on weekends where it allows them to see emotional reactions and participate in activities like shared homework sessions, show and tell, and performances over distance. Yet video chat is also used to engage in more private activities such as gossiping, flirting, and even the viewing of sexual acts. This presents an interesting design challenge of supporting teen use of video chat while mitigating privacy and parental concerns.
Butler lies from both sides: actions and perceptions of unavailability management in texting BIBAFull-Text 769-778
  Lindsay Reynolds; Madeline E. Smith; Jeremy P. Birnholtz; Jeff T. Hancock
In an always-connected world, managing one's unavailability for interaction with others can be as important and difficult as coordinating mutual availability. Prior studies have identified the butler lie, a linguistic strategy commonly used to manage unavailability, and examined message-level data to examine how message senders' use of butler lies varies across media and situations. This study is the first to examine how butler lies are perceived by those who receive them. Pairs of student participants provided messages sent to each other in real conversations and indicated whether these messages were deceptive or not. These messages were then passed to the partner, who indicated perceived deception and provided an explanation. Results suggest that participants expect butler lies regularly although not as often as they are actually produced, and participants are not very accurate in identifying butler lies. Moreover, detailed analysis of messages and explanations suggests that butler lies play a relational role that is expected by both parties in a dialog.
Virtually dining together in time-shifted environment: KIZUNA design BIBAFull-Text 779-788
  Mamoun Nawahdah; Tomoo Inoue
Dining with a remote person requires that both participants are available at the same time to eat together. Because of time-zone differences and other such contingent factors, this condition can often be hard to fulfill. One solution may lie in time-shifted communication. A person can enjoy a meal while watching an earlier recorded video of a remote person's dining. However, in a time-shifted environment, achieving dining synchronization is a challenge. In this research, we propose a time-shifted tele-dining system (KIZUNA) enabling people to enjoy a meal together in a virtual environment. The system adapts the displayed video's playback speed to the difference in dining progress between the local and remote person. This is likely to enhance communication and increase enjoyment while dining. A validation experiment revealed that the proposed KIZUNA adaptation method enhanced diners' communication behavior, and significantly enhanced the perceived presence of the remote person, in comparison with conventional time-shifted tele-dining. This result suggests a promising future for the KIZUNA system.

Understanding people's practices in social networks

The post that wasn't: exploring self-censorship on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 793-802
  Manya Sleeper; Rebecca Balebako; Sauvik Das; Amber Lynn McConahy; Jason Wiese; Lorrie Faith Cranor
Social networking site users must decide what content to share and with whom. Many social networks, including Facebook, provide tools that allow users to selectively share content or block people from viewing content. However, sometimes instead of targeting a particular audience, users will self-censor, or choose not to share. We report the results from an 18-participant user study designed to explore self-censorship behavior as well as the subset of unshared content participants would have potentially shared if they could have specifically targeted desired audiences. We asked participants to report all content they thought about sharing but decided not to share on Facebook and interviewed participants about why they made sharing decisions and with whom they would have liked to have shared or not shared. Participants reported that they would have shared approximately half the unshared content if they had been able to exactly target their desired audiences.
Widespread underprovision on Reddit BIBAFull-Text 803-808
  Eric Gilbert
Many online communities ask their members to do work for the good of everyone on the site. On social voting sites like Reddit, this means that users judge a stream of incoming links by voting them up or down. The links with the most up-votes bubble up to the main page, pointing everyone toward the best content. A threat to all sites designed this way, however, is underprovision: when too many people rely on others to contribute without doing so themselves. In this paper, we present findings suggesting that widespread underprovision of votes is happening on Reddit, arguably the internet's largest social voting community. Notably, Reddit overlooked 52% of the most popular links the first time they were submitted. This suggests that many potentially popular links get ignored, jeopardizing the site's core purpose. We conclude by discussing possible reasons behind it, and suggest future research on social voting sites.
Users and nonusers: interactions between levels of adoption and social capital BIBAFull-Text 809-820
  Cliff Lampe; Jessica Vitak; Nicole Ellison
Although Facebook is the largest social network site in the U.S. and attracts an increasingly diverse userbase, some individuals have chosen not to join the site. Using survey data collected from a sample of non-academic staff at a large Midwestern university (N=614), we explore the demographic and cognitive factors that predict whether a person chooses to join Facebook. We find that older adults and those with higher perceived levels of bonding social capital are less likely to use the site. Analyzing open-ended responses from non-users, we find that they express concerns about privacy, context collapse, limited time, and channel effects in deciding to not adopt Facebook. Finally, we compare non-adopters against users who differ on three dimensions of use. We find that light users often have social capital outcomes similar to, or worse than, non-users, and that heavy users report higher perceived bridging and bonding social capital than either group.
Uses & gratifications of a Facebook media sharing group BIBAFull-Text 821-826
  Mayur Karnik; Ian Oakley; Jayant Venkatanathan; Tasos Spiliotopoulos; Valentina Nisi
This paper explores uses and gratifications of a content community on a social network service -- a music video sharing group on Facebook. In a two-stage study, 20 users first generated words or phrases to describe how they used the group, and what they enjoyed about their use. These phrases were coded into 34 questionnaire items that were then completed by 57 new participants. Factor analysis on this data revealed four gratifications: contribution; discovery; social interaction and entertainment. These factors are interpreted and discussed, leading to design implications and guidelines aimed at informing the design of future online services that combine media sharing with social interaction to create online systems based on a rich and meaningful object-centered sociality.

Wikipedia supported cooperative work

"Welcome!": social and psychological predictors of volunteer socializers in online communities BIBAFull-Text 827-838
  Gary Hsieh; Youyang Hou; Ian Chen; Khai N. Truong
Volunteer socializers are members of a community who voluntarily help newcomers become familiar with the popular practices and attitudes of the community. In this paper, we explore the social and psychological predictors of volunteer socializers on Reddit, an online social news-sharing community. Through a survey of over 1000 Reddit users, we found that social identity, prosocial-orientation and generalized reciprocity are all predictors of socializers in the community. Interestingly, a user's tenure with the online community has a quadratic effect on volunteer socialization behaviors -- new and long-time members are both more likely to help newcomers than those in between. We conclude with design implications for motivating users to help newcomers.
Tea and sympathy: crafting positive new user experiences on wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 839-848
  Jonathan T. Morgan; Siko Bouterse; Heather Walls; Sarah Stierch
We present the Teahouse, a pilot project for supporting and socializing new Wikipedia editors. Open collaboration systems like Wikipedia must continually recruit and retain new members in order to sustain themselves. Wikipedia's editor decline presents unique exigency for evaluating novel strategies to support newcomers and increase new user retention in such systems, particularly among demographics that are currently underrepresented in the user community. In this paper, we describe the design and deployment of Teahouse, and present preliminary findings. Our findings highlight the importance of intervening early in the editor lifecycle, providing user-friendly tools, creating safe spaces for newcomers, and facilitating positive interactions between newcomers and established community members.
Making peripheral participation legitimate: reader engagement experiments in wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 849-860
  Aaron Halfaker; Oliver Keyes; Dario Taraborelli
Open collaboration communities thrive when participation is plentiful. Recent research has shown that the English Wikipedia community has constructed a vast and accurate information resource primarily through the monumental effort of a relatively small number of active, volunteer editors. Beyond Wikipedia's active editor community is a substantially larger pool of potential participants: readers. In this paper we describe a set of field experiments using the Article Feedback Tool, a system designed to elicit lightweight contributions from Wikipedia's readers. Through the lens of social learning theory and comparisons to related work in open bug tracking software, we evaluate the costs and benefits of the expanded participation model and show both qualitatively and quantitatively that peripheral contributors add value to an open collaboration community as long as the cost of identifying low quality contributions remains low.
Using edit sessions to measure participation in wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 861-870
  R. Stuart Geiger; Aaron Halfaker
Many quantitative, log-based studies of participation and contribution in CSCW and CMC systems measure the activity of users in terms of output, based on metrics like posts to forums, edits to Wikipedia articles, or commits to code repositories. In this paper, we instead seek to estimate the amount of time users have spent contributing. Through an analysis of Wikipedia log data, we identify a pattern of punctuated bursts in editors' activity that we refer to as edit sessions. Based on these edit sessions, we build a metric that approximates the labor hours of editors in the encyclopedia. Using this metric, we first compare labor-based analyses with output-based analyses, finding that the activity of many editors can appear quite differently based on the kind of metric used. Second, we use edit session data to examine phenomena that cannot be adequately studied with purely output-based metrics, such as the total number of labor hours for the entire project.

Ideology, politics, and social curation: recent work on twitter

Structures of broken ties: exploring unfollow behavior on Twitter BIBAFull-Text 871-876
  Bo Xu; Yun Huang; Haewoon Kwak; Noshir Contractor
This study investigates unfollow behavior in Twitter, i.e. people removing others from their Twitter following lists. Considering the interdependency and dynamics of unfollow decisions, we use actor-oriented modeling (SIENA) to examine the impacts of reciprocity, status, embeddedness, homophily, and informativeness on tie dissolution. Focusing on ordinary users in tightly-knitted user groups, the results show that relational properties play key roles in the emergence of unfollow behavior: mutual following relations and common followees reduce the likelihood of unfollowing. And unfollow tends to be reciprocal: when a user is unfollowed by someone, he or she will unfollow back. However, there is no evidence of the impacts of homophily based on common interests and informativeness of interactions. The findings suggest that Twitter has many heterogeneous user groups and relational and informational factors may not be applicable universally.
What's congress doing on Twitter? BIBAFull-Text 877-886
  Libby Hemphill; Jahna Otterbacher; Matthew Shapiro
As Twitter becomes a more common means for officials to communicate with their constituents, it becomes more important that we understand how officials use these communication tools. Using data from 380 members of Congress' Twitter activity during the winter of 2012, we find that officials frequently use Twitter to advertise their political positions and to provide information but rarely to request political action from their constituents or to recognize the good work of others. We highlight a number of differences in communication frequency between men and women, Senators and Representatives, Republicans and Democrats. We provide groundwork for future research examining the behavior of public officials online and testing the predictive power of officials' social media behavior.
Is news sharing on Twitter ideologically biased? BIBAFull-Text 887-896
  Jonathan Scott Morgan; Cliff Lampe; Muhammad Zubair Shafiq
In this paper we explore effects of perceived ideology of news outlets on consumption and sharing of news in Twitter. Selective exposure theory suggests that when given access to a broad range of information, people will tend to consume and share news that confirms their existing beliefs and biases. We find that users share news in similar ways regardless of outlet or perceived ideology of outlet, and that as a user shares more news content, they tend to quickly include outlets with opposing viewpoints. This suggests that while perceived ideology does not inspire most Twitter users to treat liberal or conservative news outlets differently, it is a factor in their news consumption and sharing. Specifically, users in our sample who sent multiple tweets tended to increase the ideological diversity in news they shared within two or three tweets, and users' information diversity increased as their number of tweets sent increased.
Tweets are forever: a large-scale quantitative analysis of deleted tweets BIBAFull-Text 897-908
  Hazim Almuhimedi; Shomir Wilson; Bin Liu; Norman Sadeh; Alessandro Acquisti
This paper describes an empirical study of 1.6M deleted tweets collected over a continuous one-week period from a set of 292K Twitter users. We examine several aggregate properties of deleted tweets, including their connections to other tweets (e.g., whether they are replies or retweets), the clients used to produce them, temporal aspects of deletion, and the presence of geotagging information. Some significant differences were discovered between the two collections, namely in the clients used to post them, their conversational aspects, the sentiment vocabulary present in them, and the days of the week they were posted. However, in other dimensions for which analysis was possible, no substantial differences were found. Finally, we discuss some ramifications of this work for understanding Twitter usage and management of one's privacy.

Not lost in translation?

Understanding informal communication in multilingual contexts BIBAFull-Text 909-922
  Chien Wen Yuan; Leslie D. Setlock; Dan Cosley; Susan R. Fussell
Informal communication in organizations has many benefits, but people who are not native speakers of the organization's common language may find it hard to interact informally. In an interview study of nine native English-speaking and 33 non-native English-speaking students at a large U.S. university, we explore how native language shapes patterns of informal interaction. We found that non-native speakers generally preferred interacting informally with fellow speakers of their own native language as opposed to native English speakers, which hinders communication and collaboration between groups. Three factors led to this "clustering" effect: issues of common ground, feelings of social obligation to other speakers of one's native language, and desires to build social networks within a language group. Four factors led to greater motivation for cross-language interaction: a desire to build bridging capital, physical proximity, one-on-one or small-group interaction, and an established work relationship. The findings suggest ways that communication tools might reduce barriers to informal interaction between speakers of different native languages.
Lost in transmittance: how transmission lag enhances and deteriorates multilingual collaboration BIBAFull-Text 923-934
  Naomi Yamashita; Andy Echenique; Toru Ishida; Ari Hautasaari
Previous research has shown that audio communication is particularly difficult for non-native speakers (NNS) during multilingual collaborations. Especially when audio signals become distorted, NNS are overburdened by not only having to communicate with imperfect language skills, but also compensating for the deteriorations. Under these faulty audio conditions, NNS need to pay extra time and effort to understand the conversation. In order to give NNS more time to process conversations, we tested the insertion of silent gaps (from 0.2 to 0.4 seconds) between conversational turns. First, gaps were inserted into a previously taped conversation, resulting in a significant improvement of NNS's understanding of the conversation. Second, gaps were inserted during a real-time audio conference by adding artificial delay between native speakers. The results show that the added delays have a combination of beneficial and detrimental effects for both native and non-native speakers. The findings have implications towards how audio conferencing can be improved for NNS.
Machine translation vs. common language: effects on idea exchange in cross-lingual groups BIBAFull-Text 935-944
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Susan Fussell; Dan Cosley
Diversity among members of international teams can be a valuable source of novel ideas. However, to reap these benefits, groups need to overcome communication barriers that stem from differences in members' native languages. We compare two strategies for overcoming these barriers: the use of English as a common language, and the use of machine translation (MT) tools that allow each person to communicate in his or her own native language. Dyads consisting of one English-speaking American and one native Mandarin-speaking Chinese participant exchanged ideas to perform brainstorming tasks, either through English or using MT. We found that MT helped the non-native English speakers produce ideas but that both native and non-native English speakers viewed MT-mediated messages as less comprehensible than English messages. The findings suggest it can be effective to support cross-lingual communication with asymmetric design, using MT technology to help people produce messages in their native languages, while leaving incoming messages untranslated and leveraging people's second language proficiency for comprehension.
"Could someone please translate this?": activity analysis of wikipedia article translation by non-experts BIBAFull-Text 945-954
  Ari Hautasaari
Wikipedia translation activities aim to improve the quality of the multilingual Wikipedia through article translation. We performed an activity analysis of the translation work done by individual English to Chinese non-expert translators, who translated linguistically complex Wikipedia articles in a laboratory setting. From the analysis, which was based on Activity Theory, and which examined both information search and translation activities, we derived three translation strategies that were used to inform the design of a support system for human translation activities in Wikipedia.

Social media analysis and interventions

Social navigation for loosely-coupled information seeking in tightly-knit groups using WebWear BIBAFull-Text 955-966
  Scott S. Bateman; Carl A. Gutwin; Gordon I. McCalla
Many web-based information-seeking tasks are set in a social context where other people's knowledge and advice improves success in finding information. However, when tightly-knit contacts (friends, family, colleagues) are not available, information seeking becomes more difficult. Inspired by previous work in social navigation, we developed WebWear, a system that collects and displays traces of activity for tightly-knit groups. WebWear allows people to use contextual knowledge of contacts' interests and activities to interpret the meaning of the traces, improving their usefulness. In a comparative study, we found that WebWear helped people complete information-seeking tasks more accurately, without requiring additional effort. A one-week field trial found that WebWear was both usable and useful, and that privacy concerns were reduced in the small-group context. WebWear shows that small-scale social navigation systems are feasible, and that they can improve the effectiveness of information seeking on the World-Wide Web.
Analyzing the quality of information solicited from targeted strangers on social media BIBAFull-Text 967-976
  Jeffrey Nichols; Michelle Zhou; Huahai Yang; Jeon-Hyung Kang; Xiao Hua Sun
The emergence of social media creates a unique opportunity for developing a new class of crowd-powered information collection systems. Such systems actively identify potential users based on their public social media posts and solicit them directly for information. While studies have shown that users will respond to solicitations in a few domains, there is little analysis of the quality of information received. Here we explore the quality of information solicited from Twitter users in the domain of product reviews, specifically reviews for a popular tablet computer and L.A.-based food trucks. Our results show that the majority of responses to our questions (>70%) contained relevant information and often provided additional details (>37%) beyond the topic of the question. We compare the solicited Twitter reviews to other user-generated reviews from Amazon and Yelp, and found that the Twitter answers provided similar information when controlling for the questions asked. Our results also reveal limitations of this new information collection method, including its suitability in certain domains and potential technical barriers to its implementation. Our work provides strong evidence for the potential of this new class of information collection systems and design implications for their future use.
Personality-targeted design: theory, experimental procedure, and preliminary results BIBAFull-Text 977-984
  Oded Nov; Ofer Arazy
We introduce a framework for personality-targeted design. Much like a medical treatment applied to a person based on his specific genetic profile, we make the case for theory-driven personalized UI design, and argue that it can be more effective than design applied equally to the entire population. In particular, we show that users' conscientiousness levels determine their reactions to UI indicators of critical mass. We created a simulated social recommender system in which participants answer a short personality questionnaire and are subsequently presented with a picture of a pet that purports to be the "best match" for their personality. We then manipulated the UI by providing indicators of the existence and the lack of critical mass. We tested whether the interaction between personality and UI design affects users' participation. The findings validate our hypothesis, showing that manipulation of the critical mass indicators affect high-conscientiousness and low-conscientiousness participants in opposite directions.
Photographer paths: sequence alignment of geotagged photos for exploration-based route planning BIBAFull-Text 985-994
  Abdallah El Ali; Sicco N. A. van Sas; Frank Nack
Urban mobility analysis of geotagged photos can unlock mobility patterns of users who took these photos, which can be used for exploration-based city route planners. Applying sequence alignment techniques on 5 years of geotagged Flickr photos in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) allowed creating walkable city routes based on paths traversed by multiple photographers (or photographer paths). To evaluate our approach, we conducted a user study with Amsterdam residents to compare our routes with the most efficient and popular route variations. Drawing on experience questionnaire data, web survey responses, and user interviews, our results show that our photographer paths were perceived as most stimulating and suitable for city exploration. Moreover, while digital aids based on photographer paths can potentially aid city exploration, their acceptance in mainstream route planners likely depends on their visualization. From our proof-of-concept approach and user study findings, we discuss the potential of data-driven exploration-based city route planners.

Collaboration in creative communities

Supporting creative collaboration in globally distributed companies BIBAFull-Text 995-1007
  Raja Gumienny; Lutz Gericke; Matthias Wenzel; Christoph Meinel
Creative ways of working with whiteboards and sticky notes are growing in popularity even in global companies. However, digital tools for enabling these ways of working, especially for geographically distributed teams, have still not been adopted in these companies. We present Tele-Board, a web-based digital whiteboard and sticky note system and describe how it was used in a large company at three locations. From system log data and interviews recorded after three months of use, we found that idea generation and feedback collection can be facilitated if a system offers real-time synchronous editing as well as asynchronous input. Interestingly, the users who were not located at the company's headquarters regarded the tool as very beneficial and used it more than their colleagues at the headquarters. We provide a detailed analysis of the study and important points for fostering the adoption of creative tools in large companies.
Redistributing leadership in online creative collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1007-1022
  Kurt Luther; Casey Fiesler; Amy Bruckman
In this paper, we integrate theories of distributed leadership and distributed cognition to account for the roles of people and technology in online leadership. When leadership is distributed effectively, the result can be success stories like Wikipedia and Linux. However, finding a successful distribution is challenging. In the online community Newgrounds, hundreds of collaborative animation projects called "collabs" are started each year, but less than 20% are completed. We suggest that many collabs fail because leaders are overburdened and lack adequate technological support. We introduce Pipeline, a collaboration tool designed to support and transform leadership, with the goal of easing the burden on leaders of online creative projects. Through a case study of a six-week, 30-artist collaboration called Holiday Flood, we show how Pipeline supported redistributed leadership. We conclude with implications for theory and the design of social computing systems.
From organizational to community creativity: paragon leadership & creativity stories at Etsy BIBAFull-Text 1023-1034
  Tyler Pace; Katie O'Donnell; Natalie DeWitt; Shaowen Bardzell; Jeffrey Bardzell
With the rise of massive scale, globally distributed creative communities, such as Deviant Art, Etsy, and Minecraft, the role of creative leadership in sociotechnical systems is worth investigating. This paper presents a case study of one strategy Etsy, one such online creative community, uses to articulate the creative dispositions of the community's exemplar members: Featured Seller interviews. For this study, we report on a combined content analysis and close reading of Featured Seller interviews on Etsy.com, followed up with member check interviews. Our analysis highlights the demographics of featured sellers, the ways in they express their identities and creative processes, and how they position themselves within the broader Etsy community. Our findings demonstrate that Etsy's administrators provide both a platform and scaffolding for community leaders to co-articulate with them the creative ideals they believe will strengthen the bonds of the Etsy community.
The cost of collaboration for code and art: evidence from a remixing community BIBAFull-Text 1035-1046
  Benjamin Mako Hill; Andrés Monroy-Hernández
In this paper, we use evidence from a remixing community to evaluate two pieces of common wisdom about collaboration. First, we test the theory that jointly produced works tend to be of higher quality than individually authored products. Second, we test the theory that collaboration improves the quality of functional works like code, but that it works less well for artistic works like images and sounds. We use data from Scratch, a large online community where hundreds of thousands of young users share and remix millions of animations and interactive games. Using peer-ratings as a measure of quality, we estimate a series of fitted regression models and find that collaborative Scratch projects tend to receive ratings that are lower than individually authored works. We also find that code-intensive collaborations are rated higher than media-intensive efforts. We conclude by discussing the limitations and implications of these findings.

Controversy, arguments, rule breakers, and policies

The promise and peril of real-time corrections to political misperceptions BIBAFull-Text 1047-1058
  R. Kelly Garrett; Brian E. Weeks
Computer scientists have responded to the high prevalence of inaccurate political information online by creating systems that identify and flag false claims. Warning users of inaccurate information as it is displayed has obvious appeal, but it also poses risk. Compared to post-exposure corrections, real-time corrections may cause users to be more resistant to factual information. This paper presents an experiment comparing the effects of real-time corrections to corrections that are presented after a short distractor task. Although real-time corrections are modestly more effective than delayed corrections overall, closer inspection reveals that this is only true among individuals predisposed to reject the false claim. In contrast, individuals whose attitudes are supported by the inaccurate information distrust the source more when corrections are presented in real time, yielding beliefs comparable to those never exposed to a correction. We find no evidence of real-time corrections encouraging counterargument. Strategies for reducing these biases are discussed.
Your process is showing: controversy management and perceived quality in wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 1059-1068
  W. Ben Towne; Aniket Kittur; Peter Kinnaird; James Herbsleb
Large-scale collaboration systems often separate their content from the deliberation around how that content was produced. Surfacing this deliberation may engender trust in the content generation process if the deliberation process appears fair, well-reasoned, and thorough. Alternatively, it could encourage doubts about content quality, especially if the process appears messy or biased. In this paper we report the results of an experiment where we found that surfacing deliberation generally led to decreases in perceptions of quality for the article under consideration, especially -- but not only -- if the discussion revealed conflict. The effect size depends on the type of editors' interactions. Finally, this decrease in actual article quality rating was accompanied by self-reported improved perceptions of the article and Wikipedia overall.
Arguments about deletion: how experience improves the acceptability of arguments in ad-hoc online task groups BIBAFull-Text 1069-1080
  Jodi Schneider; Krystian Samp; Alexandre Passant; Stefan Decker
Increasingly, ad-hoc online task groups must make decisions about jointly created artifacts such as open source software and Wikipedia articles. Time-consuming and laborious attention to textual discussions is needed to make such decisions, for which computer support would be beneficial. Yet there has been little study of the argumentation patterns that distributed ad-hoc online task groups use in evaluation and decision-making. In a corpus of English Wikipedia deletion discussions, we investigate the argumentation schemes used, the role of the arguer's experience, and which arguments are acceptable to the audience. We report three main results: First, the most prevalent patterns are the Rules and Evidence schemes from Walton's catalog of argumentation schemes [33], which comprise 36% of arguments. Second, we find that familiarity with community norms correlates with the novices' ability to craft persuasive arguments. Third, acceptable arguments use community-appropriate rhetoric that demonstrate knowledge of policies and community values while problematic arguments are based on personal preference and inappropriate analogy to other cases.
Keeping eyes on the prize: officially sanctioned rule breaking in mass collaboration systems BIBAFull-Text 1081-1092
  Elisabeth W. Joyce; Jacqueline C. Pike; Brian Butler
Mass collaboration systems are often characterized as unstructured organizations lacking rule and order. However, examination of Wikipedia reveals that it contains a complex policy and rule structure that supports the organization. Bureaucratic organizations adopt workarounds to adjust rules more accurately to the context of use. Rather than resorting to these potentially dangerous exceptions, Wikipedia has created officially sanctioned rule breaking. The use and impact of the official rule breaking policy within Wikipedia is examined to test its impact on the outcomes of requests to delete articles in from the encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that officially sanctioned rule breaking and the Ignore all rules (IAR) policy are meaningful influences on deliberation outcomes, and rather than wreaking havoc, the IAR policy in Wikipedia has been adopted as a positive, functional governance mechanism.

Big issues for CSCW to consider

Designing collaboration: comparing cases exploring cultural probes as boundary-negotiating objects BIBAFull-Text 1093-1102
  Megan K. Halpern; Ingrid Erickson; Laura Forlano; Geri K. Gay
This paper examines the use of cultural probes as a method for fostering collaboration within groups of diverse experts working on creative projects. Using two case examples, we show that probes -- short, oblique, and at times whimsical sets of activity prompts -- have boundary object properties that can jumpstart interdisciplinary and cross-functional exchange. The first case explores how social scientists and designers used a smartphone-based scavenger hunt activity to gather insights for a workshop on organizational innovation. The second case examines how artist/scientist pairs utilized probe-like prompts to develop short performances for an arts festival. Drawing together theoretical views on boundary objects and cultural probes, we suggest that designed experiences such as probes can create opportunities for both boundary work and the establishment of common ground, which is increasingly vital in the highly collaborative contexts that define work today.
Medication management in the making: on ethnography-design relations BIBAFull-Text 1103-1112
  Tariq O. Andersen
The relation between ethnography and design is often discussed in terms of being direct or indirect. The debate on using ethnography in design, models the problem as a matter of mediating between users and designers. This fails to take 'use' serious and renders the problem epistemic i.e. a matter of creating a better understanding or description of the user. Inspired by later developments in Science and Technology Studies I engage an ontological reconceptualization and turn to consider and practice the relation as performative -- thus making ethnography, design and users' practices converge. I show this by the case of how the concept of 'medication management' has been performed differently on a combined CSCW and participatory design project in healthcare. It is suggested that through design interventions with working prototypes; prospective analysis and participatory design can be fruitfully assembled in situations of use.
Why CSCW needs science policy (and vice versa) BIBAFull-Text 1113-1124
  Steven J. Jackson; Stephanie B. Steinhardt; Ayse Buyuktur
This paper explores the relationship between CSCW studies of scientific collaboration and the larger worlds of science practice and policy they are embedded in. We argue that CSCW has much to learn from debates in science policy, including questions around the changing nature of science and science-society relations that are partly but obliquely referenced in technology- or data-centered accounts of scientific change. At the same time, science policy has much to learn from CSCW -- about design, infrastructure, and the organizational complexities of distributed collaborative practice. We conclude with recommendations for a better integration of the CSCW and science policy literatures around collaboration and new infrastructure development in the sciences, and speculation around what a post-normal cyberinfrastructure -- and post-normal CSCW -- might look like.
What is a file? BIBAFull-Text 1125-1136
  Richard Harper; Siân Lindley; Eno Thereska; Richard Banks; Philip Gosset; Gavin Smyth; William Odom; Eryn Whitworth
For over 40 years the notion of the file, as devised by pioneers in the field of computing, has been the subject of much contention. Some have wanted to abandon the term altogether on the grounds that metaphors about files can confuse users and designers alike. More recently, the emergence of the 'cloud' has led some to suggest that the term is simply obsolescent. In this paper we want to suggest that, despite all these conceptual debates and changes in technology, the term file still remains central to systems architectures and to the concerns of users. Notwithstanding profound changes in what users do and technologies afford, we suggest that files continue to act as a cohering concept, something like a 'boundary object' between computer engineers and users. However, the effectiveness of this boundary object is now waning. There are increasing signs of slippage and muddle. Instead of throwing away the notion altogether, we propose that the definition of and use of files as a boundary object be reconstituted. New abstractions are needed, ones which reflect what users seek to do with their digital data, and which allow engineers to solve the networking, storage and data management problems that ensue when files move from the PC on to the networked world of today.

Technology to support family connections

Supporting a sense of connectedness: meaningful things in the lives of new university students BIBAFull-Text 1137-1146
  Elizabeth S. Bales; Siân Lindley
We report findings from interviews with new undergraduate students, in which they identified particular items as supporting a sense of connectedness with home. We characterize ways in which artifacts underpinned a sense of connection, including by conveying the character of the parental home, supporting a sense of continuity with it, and enabling a physical presence to be maintained there. We then consider how simple affordances offered by these artifacts, such as being able to move, position and sort them, enabled participants to reinforce the meanings that were associated with them. Such actions are normally taken for granted, but we describe how they are compromised for social media especially, due to functional limitations and questions of ownership. We highlight design opportunities for making the transition from home more gradual, and supporting the archiving and display of social media.
An exploration on long-distance communications between left-behind children and their parents in China BIBAFull-Text 1147-1156
  Lu Pan; Feng Tian; Fei Lu; Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang; Ying Liu; Wenxin Feng; Guozhong Dai; Hongan Wang
In China, hundreds of millions of migrant workers have moved to cities or coastal regions for more or better-paid jobs and have left their children behind at their rural homes. Separated by thousands of kilometers, these "left-behind" children and their migrant parents use mobile phones as their primary -- and often only -- method of maintaining family connections. To better understand the use of technology in this long-distance communication, we conducted a multi-phased study using interviews and surveys in three different Chinese rural areas. In this paper, we report our findings on how these children communicate with their migrant parents and what information they exchange. We also discuss design implications derived from these findings that may improve communication between left-behind children and their parents.
Revisiting the relationship between reunion and technology-mediated separation in periodically transitioning families BIBAFull-Text 1157-1168
  Konstantinos Kazakos; Steve Howard; Frank Vetere
Reunion is one of the most important facets in the lives of periodically transitioning families -- families who experience repeated transitions between being together and apart due to work-related or personal reasons. Even though the role of technology in mediating essential family interactions has been a longstanding focus within HCI and CSCW, the experience of periodic family reunion and its relationship with technology use while apart is little explored. To address this gap, we conducted a field study with nine families from two different professional backgrounds -- defence and academic. Through a comparison between the two cohorts, our findings generate a qualitative understanding of the experience of reunion and describe specific aspects of this experience that are influenced by technology-use while apart. We discuss the complexity of this relationship and reflect on the role of technology in shaping the experience of periodic family reunion.
Exploring remembrance and social support behavior in an online bereavement support group BIBAFull-Text 1169-1180
  Michael Massimi
Designing interactive systems that sensitively engage with end of life issues is a key challenge for CSCW as more and more people turn to the Internet to grapple with the realities of death. However, there are few studies that document how specific remembrance or support features of bereavement websites are used in a real-world setting. This paper describes Besupp, a website where bereaved individuals can participate in online support groups. Three support groups used Besupp in a ten-week long deployment study. Based on this study, I describe how participants perceived and used the remembrance and social support features of the site. These results form the basis for a set of implications regarding the design of technologies for remembrance, social support, and bereavement more generally.

Searching: better together?

Collaborative search revisited BIBAFull-Text 1181-1192
  Meredith Ringel Morris
Despite recent innovations in technologies supporting collaborative web search [11, 13, 25, 34, 35, 37], the features of the primary tools for digital information seeking (web browsers and search engines) continue to reflect a presumption that search is a single-user activity. In this paper, we present the findings of a survey of 167 diverse users' collaborative web search practices, including the prevalence and frequency of such activities, the information needs motivating collaboration, the methods and tools employed in such tasks, and users' satisfaction with the status quo. We find an increased prevalence and frequency of collaborative search, particularly by younger users, and an appropriation of "old" technologies like e-mail as well as "new" technologies like smartphones and social networking sites, rather than the use of dedicated collaborative search tools. We reflect on how and why collaborative search practices have changed in the six years since the first survey detailing this phenomenon was conducted [22], and synthesize our findings to offer suggestions for the design of future collaborative search technologies.
Online silk road: nurturing social search through knowledge bartering BIBAFull-Text 1193-1202
  Yuqing Mao; Haifeng Shen; Chengzheng Sun
Social search empowers seekers to help each other find the information they need by sharing their domain knowledge and search efforts. Current social search activities are primarily voluntary, acted on the goodwill to help others or the purpose for self-promotion and the contributed content is mostly retrievable free of charge to the public. However, the voluntary nature of social search compromises its long-term sustainability as participants are not offered intrinsic incentives to contribute and share information, and free information presents intricate ramifications on the its quality. In this paper, we present the idea of knowledge bartering, where one can barter a knowledge item they have for another item they wish to have. To make the idea viable, we propose the online silk road solution to automate a knowledge bartering process that can maximise the social welfare within a community.
Real-time crowd labeling for deployable activity recognition BIBAFull-Text 1203-1212
  Walter S. Lasecki; Young Chol Song; Henry Kautz; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Systems that automatically recognize human activities offer the potential of timely, task-relevant information and support. For example, prompting systems can help keep people with cognitive disabilities on track and surveillance systems can warn of activities of concern. Current automatic systems are difficult to deploy because they cannot identify novel activities, and, instead, must be trained in advance to recognize important activities. Identifying and labeling these events is time consuming and thus not suitable for real-time support of already-deployed activity recognition systems. In this paper, we introduce Legion:AR, a system that provides robust, deployable activity recognition by supplementing existing recognition systems with on-demand, real-time activity identification using input from the crowd.
   Legion:AR uses activity labels collected from crowd workers to train an automatic activity recognition system online to automatically recognize future occurrences. To enable the crowd to keep up with real-time activities, Legion:AR intelligently merges input from multiple workers into a single ordered label set. We validate Legion:AR across multiple domains and crowds and discuss features that allow appropriate privacy and accuracy tradeoffs.
Who wants to know?: question-asking and answering practices among Facebook users BIBAFull-Text 1213-1224
  Rebecca Gray; Nicole B. Ellison; Jessica Vitak; Cliff Lampe
Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks to the informational resources provided by a diverse network of connections. In order to explicate the mechanism through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources, this study explores the role of bridging social capital, question type, and relational closeness on the perceived utility and satisfaction of information obtained through questions posed to one's network of Facebook Friends through the status update feature. Employing a mixed-method approach, we utilize survey data collected from a sample of non-academic university staff (N=666), as well as actual Facebook question examples and responses collected during a follow-up lab session from a subset of this sample (N=71). Results indicate that question-askers' bridging social capital positively predicts the utility of responses received on SNS, while useful responses are more likely to be received from weaker ties.


Investigating the appropriateness of social network question asking as a resource for blind users BIBAFull-Text 1225-1236
  Erin L. Brady; Yu Zhong; Meredith Ringel Morris; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Recent work has shown the potential of having remote humans answer visual questions that blind users have. On the surface social networking sites (SNSs) offer an attractive free source of human-powered answers that can be personalized to the user. In this paper, we explore the potential of blind users asking visual questions to their social networks. We present the first formal study of how blind people use social networking sites via a survey of 191 blind adults. We also explore whether blind users find SNSs an appropriate venue for Q&A through a log analysis of questions asked using VizWiz Social, an iPhone app with over 5,000 users, which lets blind users ask questions to either the crowd or friends. We then report findings of a field experiment with 23 blind VizWiz Social users, which explored question asking on VizWiz Social in the presence of monetary costs for non-social sources. We find that blind people have a large presence on social networking sites, but do not see them as an appropriate venue for asking questions due to high perceived social costs.
Contributor profiles, their dynamics, and their importance in five q&a sites BIBAFull-Text 1237-1252
  Adabriand Furtado; Nazareno Andrade; Nigini Oliveira; Francisco Brasileiro
Q&A sites currently enable large numbers of contributors to collectively build valuable knowledge bases. Naturally, these sites are the product of contributors acting in different ways -- creating questions, answers or comments and voting in these -- contributing in diverse amounts, and creating content of varying quality. This paper advances present knowledge about Q&A sites using a multifaceted view of contributors that accounts for diversity of behavior, motivation and expertise to characterize their profiles in five sites. This characterization resulted in the definition of ten behavioral profiles that group users according to the quality and quantity of their contributions. Using these profiles, we find that the five sites have remarkably similar distributions of contributor profiles. We also conduct a longitudinal study of contributor profiles in one of the sites, identifying common profile transitions, and finding that although users change profiles with some frequency, the site composition is mostly stable over time.
To answer or not: what non-qa social activities can tell BIBAFull-Text 1253-1263
  Yingxin Pan; Lin Luo; Changyan Chi; Qinying Liao
Various methods have been proposed to help find answerers for a question in QA communities, but almost all work heavily depends on users' QA history. In this paper we seek to investigate the feasibility of leveraging users' non-QA social activities as a way of gaining insight into their question answering behavior. We collected data of 4,484 users on a QA community in an enterprise and examined the relationship of their QA behaviors and non-QA activities supported by other social tools. We found that the two sets of behavioral indicators are significantly correlated. The top user group for non-QA activities outperformed lower groups in both number and quality of the answers. Regression analysis showed involvement in personal blog, micro-blog and forum and replying and recommending behaviors in non-QA communities were predictive of a user's likelihood of answering questions. Online observations provided a qualitative understanding. Design implications and future work were discussed.
Factors influencing the response rate in social question and answering behavior BIBAFull-Text 1263-1274
  Zhe Liu; Bernard J. Jansen
With the increasing growth and popularity of social networking sites, social question and answering has become a venue for individuals to seek and share information. This study evaluates eleven extrinsic factors that may influence the response rate in social question and answering. These factors include the number of followers, the frequency of posting, the number of at-mentioned recipients, whether or not a question contains an at-mentioned verified account, unverified account, hashtag, emoticon, expression of gratitude, repeated punctuation or interjections, as well as the topic and the posting time of a question. We collected and analyzed over 10,000 questions from Sina Weibo. Eight out of all eleven features were found to significantly predict the number of responses received. We believe that our study is of significant value in providing insights for the design and development of future social question and answering tools, as well as enhancing the collaboration among social network users in supporting social information seeking activities.

Crowding out the competition

Crowd vs. crowd: large-scale cooperative design through open team competition BIBAFull-Text 1275-1284
  Cheong Ha Park; KyoungHee Son; Joon Hyub Lee; Seok-Hyung Bae
Following the recent remarkable successes of crowdsourcing, there have been attempts to apply it to design. However a design problem is often too complex and difficult to break down into simpler, distributable tasks as required by the conventional crowdsourcing model. In this paper, we present Crowd vs. Crowd (CvC), a novel design crowdsourcing method, where several design teams made up of designers and crowd compete with each other. In each team, a designer coordinates effective communication between the crowd members and takes responsibility for the final design output, and the crowd contributes at different stages of design. We conducted an initial evaluation of CvC in comparison with other collaborative design methods, and found that: CvC can attract more people to participate; the crowd can make useful contribution in CvC; CvC can produce competent design outputs. We then applied CvC to two real-life design problems: first, designing a new logo for a university department; second, for a small tech company. With quantitative and qualitative analyses on these applications, we observed that the elements of competition and collaboration helped to sustain the crowd's motivation to participate, and to produce quality design outcomes with higher level of satisfaction for the stakeholders.
Co-worker transparency in a microtask marketplace BIBAFull-Text 1285-1290
  Peter Kinnaird; Laura Dabbish; Sara Kiesler; Haakon Faste
Workers in microtask work environments such as Mechanical Turk typically do not know if or how they fit into a workflow. The research question we posed here was whether displaying information about the number of other workers doing the same task would motivate better or poorer work quality. In experiment 1, we varied the information about co-workers presented to the worker and the number of his or her co-workers: "you" or "you alone" are doing a task, or "you" plus 5, 15, or 50 co-workers. We compared these conditions with a no-social information control. In experiment 2, we crossed the number of co-workers (5 vs. 50) with the type of incentive (individual or group). Results show that visual presentations of co-workers changed workers' perceptions of co-workers, and that the more co-workers participants perceived, the lower their work quality. We suggest future work to determine the kinds of co-worker information that will reduce or increase work quality in microtask settings.
EmailValet: managing email overload through private, accountable crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 1291-1300
  Nicolas Kokkalis; Thomas Köhn; Carl Pfeiffer; Dima Chornyi; Michael S. Bernstein; Scott R. Klemmer
This paper introduces privacy and accountability techniques for crowd-powered systems. We focus on email task management: tasks are an implicit part of every inbox, but the overwhelming volume of incoming email can bury important requests. We present EmailValet, an email client that recruits remote assistants from an expert crowdsourcing marketplace. By annotating each email with its implicit tasks, EmailValet's assistants create a task list that is automatically populated from emails in the user's inbox. The system is an example of a valet approach to crowdsourcing, which aims for parsimony and transparency in access control for the crowd. To maintain privacy, users specify rules that define a sliding-window subset of their inbox that they are willing to share with assistants. To support accountability, EmailValet displays the actions that the assistant has taken on each email. In a weeklong field study, participants completed twice as many of their email-based tasks when they had access to crowdsourced assistants, and they became increasingly comfortable sharing their inbox with assistants over time.
The future of crowd work BIBAFull-Text 1301-1318
  Aniket Kittur; Jeffrey V. Nickerson; Michael Bernstein; Elizabeth Gerber; Aaron Shaw; John Zimmerman; Matt Lease; John Horton
Paid crowd work offers remarkable opportunities for improving productivity, social mobility, and the global economy by engaging a geographically distributed workforce to complete complex tasks on demand and at scale. But it is also possible that crowd work will fail to achieve its potential, focusing on assembly-line piecework. Can we foresee a future crowd workplace in which we would want our children to participate? This paper frames the major challenges that stand in the way of this goal. Drawing on theory from organizational behavior and distributed computing, as well as direct feedback from workers, we outline a framework that will enable crowd work that is complex, collaborative, and sustainable. The framework lays out research challenges in twelve major areas: workflow, task assignment, hierarchy, real-time response, synchronous collaboration, quality control, crowds guiding AIs, AIs guiding crowds, platforms, job design, reputation, and motivation.

Computer supported young people

Going digital: understanding paper and photo documentation practices in early childhood education BIBAFull-Text 1319-1328
  Anne Marie Piper; Sarah D'Angelo; James Hollan
Documentation of development is a critical aspect of the work of early childhood education teachers. Through field observations and interviews, we detail the process and tools used in documenting development for children age three months to five-years-old at one school. Teachers use paper forms and printed photos to record and analyze observations of development. The evolving final product is a paper portfolio of development. This practice relies heavily on the teacher's ability to objectively observe children in situ, create a record of the activity, and make salient the link between evidence and developmental milestones. We describe current paper and photo documentation practices in light of an online record keeping system that will be introduced at this school within the next year. The present analysis contributes to a growing literature on the role of paper and digital media in documentation.
Experiences2Go: sharing kids' activities outside the home with remote family members BIBAFull-Text 1329-1340
  Kori Inkpen; Brett Taylor; Sasa Junuzovic; John Tang; Gina Venolia
Video communication is moving beyond face-to-face discussions on desktop computers to sharing experiences out in the real world. We explored how mobile video could enable distributed family members to share experiences wherever they occurred -- kids' sporting events, birthday parties, etc. We investigated how people used two technology probes to share activities outside the home: an iPad running Skype and our Experiences2Go prototype composed of a networked slate and a camcorder on a tripod. We observed their use in the field with nine families and explored the impact that their mobility, optical zoom, and multiple view features had on sharing the experience. We identified four sets of stakeholders in sharing experiences, the variety of sharing scenarios enabled, and reactions to the features that each probe offered, leading to design considerations for future mobile shared experience systems.
Opportunities via extended networks for teens' informal learning BIBAFull-Text 1341-1352
  Peyina Lin; Shelly D. Farnham
With the increasing use of the Internet and social media for knowledge and social connections, we might expect that people more easily expand their opportunities for new learning through social relationships online. Yet, this mixed methods study of teens' use of technologies (e.g. YouTube and social media) in informal learning contexts reveals that, in teens' preferred learning activities, few interact with new ties outside their immediate networks (school, family, and friends). Given the value of social interaction and weak ties for learning new knowledge, this research investigates teens' use of networked technologies with people and resources outside their immediate networks. Based on 23 semi-structured interviews, we describe teens' informal learning activities and technology practices, from which we identify design opportunities. To inform these, we examine teens' paths into extended networks, including the role of digital skills, technology access, intrinsic motivation, and sense of relatedness. We find that relatedness both motivated and inhibited teens to reach beyond immediate networks into extended networks for informal learning activities.
I want to be Sachin Tendulkar!: a spoken English cricket game for rural students BIBAFull-Text 1353-1364
  Martha Larson; Nitendra Rajput; Abhigyan Singh; Saurabh Srivastava
We present a mobile phone based cricket game for improving the spoken English pronunciation of school children designed and tested within a specific socio-cultural context in rural India, the Mewat district of Haryana State. The development of the game concept was informed by a field study, which identified the cultural restrictions respected by the community as well community interests and motivations. The game was accessible using a low-end mobile phone and evaluated with a group of 63 students from classes 4 and 5 of a rural school. The results suggest that the cricket game can be effectively used to engage students and to improve their spoken English skills in the given setting. Further, the game serves as an informative example of how factors impacting the acceptability and appropriation of a technology in a particular setting can be taken into account from the very beginning of the design process.

Leveraging a social network

Trend makers and trend spotters in a mobile application BIBAFull-Text 1365-1374
  Xiaolan Sha; Daniele Quercia; Matteo Dell'Amico; Pietro Michiardi
Media marketers and researchers have shown great interest in what becomes a trend within social media sites. Their interests have focused on analyzing the items that become trends, and done so in the context of YouTube, Twitter, and Foursquare. Here we move away from these three platforms and consider a new mobile social-networking application with which users share pictures of "cool" things they find in the real-world. Besides, we shift focus from items to people. Specifically, we focus on those who generate trends (trend makers) and those who spread them (trend spotters). We analyze the complete dataset of user interactions, and characterize trend makers (spotters) by activity, geographical, and demographic features. We find that there are key characteristics that distinguish them from typical users. Also, we provide statistical models that accurately identify who is a trend maker (spotter). These contributions not only expand current studies on trends in social media but also promise to inform the design of recommender systems, and new products.
I need someone to help!: a taxonomy of helper-finding activities in the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 1375-1386
  Svetlana Yarosh; Tara Matthews; Michelle Zhou; Kate Ehrlich
Finding the right person to ask for help is a difficult task within a large enterprise. While there are a few studies detailing practices for finding an expert often in the context of an expertise locator system, there are fewer studies on workplace practices and challenges for finding a person who can help, especially independent of any particular technology. We conducted a two-part study of helper-finding activities with 36 enterprise workers, representing different job roles and levels of experience. First, we present a taxonomy of workplace helper-finding needs that involves tasks, topics, and helper selection criteria, developed by analyzing two weeks of participant diaries describing helper-finding problems. Second, we present the results of follow-up interviews with each participant, focusing on helper-finding challenges in the workplace. Finally, we present design implications for systems aimed at supporting helper-finding in the workplace.
Combining social information for academic networking BIBAFull-Text 1387-1398
  Tamara Heck
Researchers in almost all scientific disciplines rely heavily on the collaboration of their colleagues. Throughout his or her career, any researcher will build up a social academic network consisting of people with similar scientific interests. A recommendation system could facilitate the process of identifying and finding the right colleagues, as well as pointing out possible new collaborators. As a researcher's reputation is of great importance, the social information gleaned from citations and reference data can be used to cluster similar researchers. Web services, such as social bookmarking systems, provide new functionalities and a greater variety of social information -- if exploited correctly, these could lead to better recommendations. The following chapter describes, by way of example, one approach to recommendation for social networking in academia.
User-centric evaluation of a K-furthest neighbor collaborative filtering recommender algorithm BIBAFull-Text 1399-1408
  Alan Said; Ben Fields; Brijnesh J. Jain; Sahin Albayrak
Collaborative filtering recommender systems often use nearest neighbor methods to identify candidate items. In this paper we present an inverted neighborhood model, k-Furthest Neighbors, to identify less ordinary neighborhoods for the purpose of creating more diverse recommendations. The approach is evaluated two-fold, once in a traditional information retrieval evaluation setting where the model is trained and validated on a split train/test set, and once through an online user study (N=132) to identify users' perceived quality of the recommender. A standard k-nearest neighbor recommender is used as a baseline in both evaluation settings. Our evaluation shows that even though the proposed furthest neighbor model is outperformed in the traditional evaluation setting, the perceived usefulness of the algorithm shows no significant difference in the results of the user study.

Social networks during a major transitions (personal and political)

'On the ground' in Sidi Bouzid: investigating social media use during the Tunisian revolution BIBAFull-Text 1409-1418
  Volker Wulf; Kaoru Misaki; Meryem Atam; David Randall; Markus Rohde
We present a study conducted in Sidi Bouzid, the Tunisian town where the Arab Revolution, also known as 'Arab Spring', started, and where the role of Web 2.0 and social media applications in the people's uprising have been much discussed. We identify four relevant phenomena: (1) the publication of classified materials via WikiLeaks challenged the regime's legitimacy, (2) Web 2.0 connected local activists with Arab satellite TV, (3) social media linked the young activists with actors in other cities in Tunisia, (4) social media allowed organizing resistance inside Sidi Bouzid. Methodologically, we question a too deterministic view of the role of the new media and the representativeness of investigative techniques that uniquely use the new media in order to assess their impact. At the same time, rigorous investigations 'on the ground' are extremely difficult. We present a modest and initial attempt to provide such an 'on the ground' approach, cognizant of necessary limitations. We compare our findings with studies which analyze data downloaded out of social media applications and suggest that studies of the kind we describe offer additional insight and play an essential role in better understanding political uses of social media.
Using Facebook after losing a job: differential benefits of strong and weak ties BIBAFull-Text 1419-1430
  Moira Burke; Robert Kraut
Among those who have recently lost a job, social networks in general and online ones in particular may be useful to cope with stress and find new employment. This study focuses on the psychological and practical consequences of Facebook use following job loss. By pairing longitudinal surveys of Facebook users with logs of their online behavior, we examine how communication with different kinds of ties predicts improvements in stress, social support, bridging social capital, and whether they find new jobs. Losing a job is associated with increases in stress, while talking with strong ties is generally associated with improvements in stress and social support. Weak ties do not provide these benefits. Bridging social capital comes from both strong and weak ties. Surprisingly, individuals who have lost a job feel greater stress after talking with strong ties. Contrary to the "strength of weak ties" hypothesis, communication with strong ties is more predictive of finding employment within three months.
Major life changes and behavioral markers in social media: case of childbirth BIBAFull-Text 1431-1442
  Munmun De Choudhury; Scott Counts; Eric Horvitz
We explore the harnessing of social media as a window on changes around major life events in individuals and larger populations. We specifically examine patterns of activity, emotional, and linguistic correlates for childbirth and postnatal course. After identifying childbirth events on Twitter, we analyze daily posting patterns and language usage before and after birth by new mothers, and make inferences about the status and dynamics of changes in emotions expressed following childbirth. We find that childbirth is associated with some changes for most new mothers, but approximately 15% of new mothers show significant changes in their online activity and emotional expression postpartum. We observe that these mothers can be distinguished by linguistic changes captured by shifts in a relatively small number of words in their social media posts. We introduce a greedy differencing procedure to identify the type of language that characterizes significant changes in these mothers during postpartum. We conclude with a discussion about how such characterizations might be applied to recognizing and understanding health and well-being in women following childbirth.
The new war correspondents: he rise of civic media curation in urban warfare BIBAFull-Text 1443-1452
  Andrés Monroy-Hernández; danah boyd; Emre Kiciman; Munmun De Choudhury; Scott Counts
In this paper we examine the information sharing practices of people living in cities amid armed conflict. We describe the volume and frequency of microblogging activity on Twitter from four cities afflicted by the Mexican Drug War, showing how citizens use social media to alert one another and to comment on the violence that plagues their communities. We then investigate the emergence of civic media "curators," individuals who act as "war correspondents" by aggregating and disseminating information to large numbers of people on social media. We conclude by outlining the implications of our observations for the design of civic media systems in wartime.

Citizen science

Sensr: evaluating a flexible framework for authoring mobile data-collection tools for citizen science BIBAFull-Text 1453-1462
  Sunyoung Kim; Jennifer Mankoff; Eric Paulos
Across HCI and social computing platforms, mobile applications that support citizen science, empowering non-experts to explore, collect, and share data have emerged. While many of these efforts have been successful, it remains difficult to create citizen science applications without extensive programming expertise. To address this concern, we present Sensr, an authoring environment that enables people without programming skills to build mobile data collection and management tools for citizen science. We demonstrate how Sensr allows people without technical skills to create mobile applications. Findings from our case study demonstrate that our system successfully overcomes technical constraints and provides a simple way to create mobile data collection tools.
Comparing the use of social networking and traditional media channels for promoting citizen science BIBAFull-Text 1463-1468
  Christine Robson; Marti Hearst; Chris Kau; Jeffrey Pierce
This paper examines how social networks can be used to recruit and promote a crowdsourced citizen science project and compares this recruiting method to the use of tradition-al media channels including press releases, news stories, and participation campaigns. The target studied is Creek Watch, a citizen science project that allows anyone with an iPhone to submit photos and observations of their local waterways to authorities who use the data for water management, environmental programs, and cleanup events. The results compare promotional campaigns using a traditional press release with news pickups, a participation campaign through local organizations, and a social networking campaign through Facebook and Twitter. Results also include the trial of a feature that allows users to post automatically to Facebook or Twitter. Social networking is found to be a worthwhile avenue for increasing awareness of the project, increasing the conversion rate from browsers to participants, but that targeting existing communities with a participation campaign was a more successful means for increasing the amount of data collected by volunteers.
Free as in puppies: compensating for ICT constraints in citizen science BIBAFull-Text 1469-1480
  Andrea Wiggins
Citizen science is a form of collaborative research engaging the public with professional scientists. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are a leading factor in the recent spread of this phenomenon. A common assumption is that money and ICT are the ideal solutions to issues of data quality and participant engagement. The reality is instead that resource limitations often require adopting suboptimal ICT, including tools that are "free as in puppies" with hidden costs from poor usability and lack of appropriate functionality.
   A comparative case study of three citizen science projects, eBird, The Great Sunflower Project, and Mountain Watch, found that projects with few ICT resources employed a broader range of strategies to address these issues than expected. The most practical and effective strategies integrated available ICT with other resources to open up new solutions and options for supporting citizen science outcomes in spite of resource limitations.

Devices matter

Form factor matters BIBAFull-Text 1481-1486
  Joon Suk Lee; Deborah Tatar
Previous research reports a number of different variables that affect group processes. We examine situations in "triple space", in which people must manage (1) complex problem-solving tasks, (2) social interaction, and (3) the meaning making process of the changing representation created by others on shared mediums. In this case, the complex problem-solving task is solving a shared Sudoku puzzle. Two findings follow from the current study. People in both the laptop and tablet conditions talked less than people in the paper-control condition, but only people in the laptop condition experienced a significant decrease in positive emotion.
Managing mobile multitasking: the culture of iPhones on stanford campus BIBAFull-Text 1487-1498
  Morgan G. Ames
This paper discusses three concepts that govern technosocial practices among university students with iPhones. First is the social expectation of constant connection that requires multitasking to achieve. Second is the resulting technosocial pecking order of who gets interrupted or ignored for whom. Third is the way that many students push back against these demands with techno-resistance, deliberately curtailing constant connection to reduce the negative effects of multitasking, in spite of the risk of social censure. These concepts are developed from interviews with 57 students, 30 hours of field observations, and a survey of 177 students on Stanford campus, which in particular explored iPhone use. This research concludes that so-called "digital natives" must still navigate familiar social dynamics and personal desires, both online and off. Providing a detailed description of how students from across campus make sense of iPhones in their everyday technosocial assemblages, this research suggests opportunities for more socially and cognitively sensitive design of smartphone features.
Designing an effective vibration-based notification interface for mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 1499-1504
  Bahador Saket; Chrisnawan Prasojo; Yongfeng Huang; Shengdong Zhao
We conducted an experiment to understand how mobile phone users perceive the urgency of ten simple vibration alerts that were created from four basic signals: short on, short off, long on, and long off. The short and long signals correspond to 200 ms and 600 ms, respectively. To convey the level of urgency of notifications and help users prioritize them, the design of mobile phone vibration alerts should consider that the gap length preceding or succeeding a signal, the number of gaps in the vibration pattern, and the vibration's duration affect an alert's perceived level of urgency. Our study specifically shows that shorter gap lengths between vibrations (200 ms vs. 600 ms), a vibration pattern with one gap instead of two, and shorter vibration all contribute to making the user perceive the alert as more urgent.


Emergent roles in decision-making tasks using group chat BIBAFull-Text 1505-1514
  Jordan B. Barlow
Individuals assume roles in all aspects of life, including in computer-supported collaborative settings. The concept of roles is particularly interesting in settings where no formal roles are defined, as in self-managing virtual teams. In these settings, roles often emerge not only as a result of individual characteristics, but also as participants interact with each other and develop norms of behavior. Using role theory and speech act theory, this study explores the emergence of roles in computer-mediated decision-making groups, using chat transcripts from a lab experiment. Results indicate that four distinct roles emerge as individuals come together in decision-making groups using synchronous computer-mediated communication. These emerging roles have implications for virtual teams in research and practice.
Appropriation by unanticipated users: looking beyond design intent and expected use BIBAFull-Text 1515-1526
  Pablo-Alejandro Quinones; Stephanie D. Teasley; Steven Lonn
Research in CSCW has demonstrated that people use technology in inventive ways, yet little work investigates the adoption and adaptation of collaborative technologies by unanticipated users. In this paper, we present a study investigating an unanticipated user group's appropriation of a leaning management system, CTools. This group of users, staff at a large research university, has adapted the system, which was designed to support student-content-faculty interactions at the University of Michigan. We present the User/Use Technology Appropriation Matrix (UTAM) as a way to frame our understanding of users and their system use. Based on findings from system log data and surveys, we show that staff use the system similarly to students and faculty, though they value the tools and work affordances differently in their varied work contexts. We discuss these findings, how UTAM can be used to frame these findings, and suggestions for future research.
The work of developing cyberinfrastructure middleware projects BIBAFull-Text 1527-1538
  Matthew J. Bietz; Drew Paine; Charlotte P. Lee
Middleware software, which provides an abstraction layer between low-level computational services and domain-specific applications, is a key component of cyberinfrastructure. This paper presents a qualitative study of how cyberinfrastructure middleware development is accomplished in two supercomputing centers. Our investigation highlights key development phases in the lives of middleware projects. Middleware development is typically undertaken as part of collaborations between technologists and domain scientists, and middleware developers must balance the pressure to meet specific scientific needs and the desire to explore their own R&D agendas. We explore how developers work to sustain an ongoing development trajectory by aligning their own work with particular domain science projects and funding streams. However, we find that the key transition from being a component in a domain-specific project to a stand-alone system that is useful across domains is particularly challenging for middleware development. We provide organizational and national policy implications for how to better support this transition.

Alternative contexts for collaboration

Come drive with me: an ethnographic study of driver-passenger pairs to inform future in-car assistance BIBAFull-Text 1539-1548
  Nicole Perterer; Petra Sundström; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; David Wilfinger; Manfred Tscheligi
There is today a large number of ADAS used while driving. These systems are mainly technology driven and most often fail to make use of the social nature and the collaborative mechanisms between driver-passenger pairs. To inform the development of future automotive user interface designs we need to develop a deeper understanding of collaboration in general. In addition, we need to develop an understanding of how, and in what way, other platforms (e.g., the mobile phones) are and will be used in combination with these systems while driving. This paper presents the results of a participative ethnographic study with nine driver-passenger pairs recruited from two online car-sharing portals. Results are categorized in three areas: common ground as a base for successful in-car communication, types and strategies of front-seat passenger assistance, and lastly the impact of technology on collaboration.
Exploring pet video chat: the remote awareness and interaction needs of families with dogs and cats BIBAFull-Text 1549-1554
  Carman Neustaedter; Jennifer Golbeck
Many people have pets such as dogs and cats that they would consider to be family. Along with this comes a need to stay aware of one's pet and, possibly, interact with it when away from home. There has even been a recent push by companies to create video-mediated communication (VMC) systems to connect pet owners and pets over distance. Yet the problem is that we do not know how such systems should be designed to meet the real needs of pet owners. To investigate this, we conducted a survey with dog and cat owners that explores their needs for remotely monitoring and interacting with their pets. Our results show that many family members would value being able to maintain an awareness of their pets and interact with them over distance using VMC systems. Such systems would be particularly valuable when pet owners are away from home for extended time periods. However, VMC systems for pets must be designed cautiously to avoid issues of owner disembodiment and other ethical challenges.
Engaging robots: easing complex human-robot teamwork using backchanneling BIBAFull-Text 1555-1566
  Malte F. Jung; Jin Joo Lee; Nick DePalma; Sigurdur O. Adalgeirsson; Pamela J. Hinds; Cynthia Breazeal
People are increasingly working with robots in teams and recent research has focused on how human-robot teams function, but little attention has yet been paid to the role of social signaling behavior in human-robot teams. In a controlled experiment, we examined the role of backchanneling and task complexity on team functioning and perceptions of the robots' engagement and competence. Based on results from 73 participants interacting with autonomous humanoid robots as part of a human-robot team (one participant, one confederate, and three robots), we found that when robots used backchanneling team functioning improved and the robots were seen as more engaged. Ironically, the robots using backchanneling were perceived as less competent than those that did not. Our results suggest that backchanneling plays an important role in human-robot teams and that the design and implementation of robots for human-robot teams may be more effective if backchanneling capability is provided.