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CSCW Tables of Contents: 101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW 2016 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing
Editors:Darren Gergle; Meredith Ringel Morris; Pernille Bjørn; Joseph Konstan
Location:San Francisco, California
Dates:2016-Feb-27 to 2016-Mar-02
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3592-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CSCW16-1
Links:Conference Website
  1. CSCW 2016-02-27 Volume 1
    1. Museums and Public Spaces
    2. Modeling Social Media
    3. Crowd Workers
    4. Towards Physical and Social Wellness
    5. Digital Learning Environments
    6. Distributed Teams
    7. Distance, Coordination, and Motivation
    8. Relationships and Romance
    9. Co-present and Remote Media Use
    10. Credibility and Social Media
    11. Managing Personal Data
    12. Internatonal Insights
    13. Computer-Mediated Communication
    14. Newcomers in Peer Production
    15. Games
    16. Online Communities
    17. Healthcare Providers
    18. Engaging the Crowd
    19. Education in the Classroom and Beyond
    20. Ethics and Policy
    21. Hospital Work
    22. Crowd-Powered Applications
    23. Social Network Methods
    24. Hacking, Making, and Discovering
    25. Food and Health
    26. Crowd Innovation and Crowdfunding
    27. Non-Profits and Humanitarian Responses
    28. Work and Work Environments
    29. Parents and Children
    30. Multimedia Creation and Remixing
    31. Unpacking Social Networks
    32. Open Science and Infrastructures
    33. Accessibility and Universal Design
    34. Crowd Workflows
    35. Mobile Design and Usage
    36. Rich Telepresence
    37. Home and Family

CSCW 2016-02-27 Volume 1

Museums and Public Spaces

Supporting Group Coherence in a Museum Visit BIBAFull-Text 1-12
  Lesley Fosh; Steve Benford; Boriana Koleva
Visiting museums as part of a group poses the challenge of managing engagement with exhibits while preserving group cohesion. We respond to this by reconfiguring the social dynamic of visiting with an experience designed specifically for groups, that invites the group members themselves to design and 'gift' interpretations to one another. We present a trial of this experience with groups of family and friends at a museum. We show how groups managed and configured themselves during the visit, revealing the strategies involved in maintaining different group behaviors. We discuss how our design accommodated different visiting styles by making objects social and scaffolding rather than directing the group experience. We interpret our findings to frame group coherence as a flexible and configurable phenomenon within CSCW.
Articulating Co-Design in Museums: Reflections on Two Participatory Processes BIBAFull-Text 13-25
  Luigina Ciolfi; Gabriela Avram; Laura Maye; Nick Dulake; Mark T. Marshall; Dick van Dijk; Fiona McDermott
In this paper we reflect on the process of co-design by detailing and comparing two strategies for the participatory development of interaction concepts and prototypes in the context of technologically-enhanced museum visiting experiences. While much work in CSCW, HCI and related disciplines has examined different role configurations in co-design, more research is needed on examining how collaborative design processes can unfold in different ways. Here we present two instances of co-design of museum visiting aids, one stemming from an open brief, another from an initial working prototype; we discuss the process in each case and discuss how these alternative strategies presented the team with different possibilities as well as constraints, and led to different patterns of collaboration within the design team. Finally, we draw a set of themes for discussion and reflection to inform and aid researchers and practitioners participating in similar co-design processes, particularly in the domain of cultural heritage.
Effects of the Display Angle on Social Behaviors of the People around the Display: A Field Study at a Museum BIBAFull-Text 26-37
  Junko Ichino; Kazuo Isoda; Tetsuya Ueda; Reimi Satoh
In this paper, we investigate through a field study how the angles (horizontal, tilted, and vertical angles) of displays deployed in a public space (at a museum) impact the social behaviors of the people around the display. In the field study, we collected both quantitative and qualitative data of more than 700 museum visitors over a period of approximately three months. Findings of our study include the following: (1) the horizontal and vertical display angles have a higher honeypot effect, i.e., people interacting with a display attract other people, than the tilted display angle, (2) the vertical display angle, compared to the horizontal and tilted display angles, attracts several people to the display and encourages them to stay in the display space and share the space for a short period of time (88 seconds on average), and as a result, people frequently enter and leave the space with a display, and (3) display angles closer to the horizontal promotes the side-by-side arrangement, and display angles closer to the vertical promotes the L-shaped arrangement of F-formation. The findings in our study help design a public display deployed in museums and other public spaces.
Jokebox: Coordinating Shared Encounters in Public Spaces BIBAFull-Text 38-49
  Mara Balestrini; Raymundo Cornejo; Paul Marshall; Monica Tentori; Jon Bird; Yvonne Rogers
Eye contact is crucial to shared encounters in public spaces. However, most urban technologies that aim to foster social interaction tend to rely on screens, directing a significant proportion of the users' attention towards the device rather than to those with whom the encounter is shared. We present the design and evaluation of the Jokebox, a lightweight technology that requires two passers-by to coordinate actions to hear a joke. In three in the wild studies at different locations we found that our design supported micro-level coordination in a consistent manner: by encouraging people to make eye contact and by using audible jokes, users engaged in interactions that often led to further conversation and laughter. We describe how opportunities for macro-level coordination were key to the success of the installation, but varied by context. Finally, we present design implications for considering both the micro and macro levels of social coordination.

Modeling Social Media

#Bieber + #Blast = #BieberBlast: Early Prediction of Popular Hashtag Compounds BIBAFull-Text 50-63
  Suman Kalyan Maity; Ritvik Saraf; Animesh Mukherjee
Compounding of natural language units is a very common phenomena. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that Twitter hashtags which, could be considered as correlates of such linguistic units, undergo compounding. We identify reasons for this compounding and propose a prediction model that can identify with 77.07% accuracy if a pair of hashtags compounding in the near future (i.e., 2 months after compounding) shall become popular. At longer times T = 6, 10 months the accuracies are 77.52% and 79.13% respectively. This technique has strong implications to trending hashtag recommendation since newly formed hashtag compounds can be recommended early, even before the compounding has taken place. Further, humans can predict compounds with an overall accuracy of only 48.7% (treated as baseline). Notably, while humans can discriminate the relatively easier cases, the automatic framework is successful in classifying the relatively harder cases.
Style in the Age of Instagram: Predicting Success within the Fashion Industry using Social Media BIBAFull-Text 64-73
  Jaehyuk Park; Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia; Emilio Ferrara
Fashion is a multi-billion dollar industry with social and economic implications worldwide. To gain popularity, brands want to be represented by the top popular models. As new faces are selected using stringent (and often criticized) aesthetic criteria, a priori predictions are made difficult by information cascades and other fundamental trend-setting mechanisms. However, the increasing usage of social media within and without the industry may be affecting this traditional system. We therefore seek to understand the ingredients of success of fashion models in the age of Instagram. Combining data from a comprehensive online fashion database and the popular mobile image-sharing platform, we apply a machine learning framework to predict the tenure of a cohort of new faces for the 2015 Spring/Summer season throughout the subsequent 2015-16 Fall / Winter season. Our framework successfully predicts most of the new popular models who appeared in 2015. In particular, we find that a strong social media presence may be more important than being under contract with a top agency, or than the aesthetic standards sought after by the industry.
Modeling Self-Disclosure in Social Networking Sites BIBAFull-Text 74-85
  Yi-Chia Wang; Moira Burke; Robert Kraut
Social networking sites (SNSs) offer users a platform to build and maintain social connections. Understanding when people feel comfortable sharing information about themselves on SNSs is critical to a good user experience, because self-disclosure helps maintain friendships and increase relationship closeness. This observational research develops a machine learning model to measure self-disclosure in SNSs and uses it to understand the contexts where it is higher or lower. Features include emotional valence, social distance between the poster and people mentioned in the post, the language similarity between the post and the community and post topic. To validate the model and advance our understanding about online self-disclosure, we applied it to de-identified, aggregated status updates from Facebook users. Results show that women self-disclose more than men. People with a stronger desire to manage impressions self-disclose less. Network size is negatively associated with self-disclosure, while tie strength and network density are positively associated.
Finding Weather Photos: Community-Supervised Methods for Editorial Curation of Online Sources BIBAFull-Text 86-96
  David A. Shamma; Lyndon Kennedy; Jia Li; Bart Thomee; Haojian Jin; Jeff Yuan
There are many cues that can be used to curate media from social networking websites. Beyond metadata, group behavior provide a strong community-based signal for surfacing images, which we show in a user-defined curatorial task. In a departure from micro-task crowdwork, we observe that the curation inherent in online photo communities guides the discoverability and consumption of the media, which in turn provides a strong signal that can be used in new editorial tasks in a community-supervised manner. We use this approach in tandem with other more conventional multimedia methods (i.e. computer vision and contextual metadata) to form a broad multimodal approach to retrieval and recommendation. We present a large-scale system implementation on a real-world curative task for weather images on a web-scale dataset. Finally, we conduct an evaluation of this system using professional editors and find substantial improvements in editorial efficiency.

Crowd Workers

Standing Out from the Crowd: Emotional Labor, Body Labor, and Temporal Labor in Ridesharing BIBAFull-Text 97-107
  Noopur Raval; Paul Dourish
CSCW researchers have become interested in crowd work as a new form of collaborative engagement, that is, as a new way in which people's actions are coordinated in order to achieve collective effects. We address this area but from a different perspective -- that of the labor practices involved in taking crowd work as a form of work. Using empirical materials from a study of ride-sharing, we draw inspiration from studies of the immaterial forms of labor and alternate analyses of political economy that can cast a new light on the context of crowd labor that might matter for CSCW researchers.
Analysing Volunteer Engagement in Humanitarian Mapping: Building Contributor Communities at Large Scale BIBAFull-Text 108-118
  Martin Dittus; Giovanni Quattrone; Licia Capra
Organisers of large-scale crowdsourcing initiatives need to consider how to produce outcomes with their projects, but also how to build volunteer capacity. The initial project experience of contributors plays an important role in this, particularly when the contribution process requires some degree of expertise. We propose three analytical dimensions to assess first-time contributor engagement based on readily available public data: cohort analysis, task analysis, and observation of contributor performance. We apply these to a large-scale study of remote mapping activities coordinated by the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team, a global volunteer effort with thousands of contributors. Our study shows that different coordination practices can have a marked impact on contributor retention, and that complex task designs can be a deterrent for certain contributor groups. We close by providing recommendations about how to build and sustain volunteer capacity in these and comparable crowdsourcing systems.
PlanSourcing: Generating Behavior Change Plans with Friends and Crowds BIBAFull-Text 119-133
  Elena Agapie; Lucas Colusso; Sean A. Munson; Gary Hsieh
Specific, achievable plans can increase people's commitment to behavior change and increase their likelihood of success. However, many people struggle to create such plans, and available plans often do not fit their individual constraints. We conducted a study with 22 participants exploring the creation of personalized plans by strangers and friends to support three kinds of behavior change: diet, physical activity, and financial. In semi-structured interviews and analyses of the generated plans, we found that friends and strangers can help create behavior change plans that are actionable and help improve behavior. Participants perceived plans more positively when they were personalized to their goals, routines and preferences, or when they could foresee executing the plans with friends -- often the friend who created the plan. Participants felt more comfortable sharing information with strangers and they received more diverse recommendations from strangers than friends.
The Crowd is a Collaborative Network BIBAFull-Text 134-147
  Mary L. Gray; Siddharth Suri; Syed Shoaib Ali; Deepti Kulkarni
The main goal of this paper is to show that crowdworkers collaborate to fulfill technical and social needs left by the platform they work on. That is, crowdworkers are not the independent, autonomous workers they are often assumed to be, but instead work within a social network of other crowdworkers. Crowdworkers collaborate with members of their networks to 1) manage the administrative overhead associated with crowdwork, 2) find lucrative tasks and reputable employers and 3) recreate the social connections and support often associated with brick and mortar-work environments. Our evidence combines ethnography, interviews, survey data and larger scale data analysis from four crowdsourcing platforms, emphasizing the qualitative data from the Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform and Microsoft's proprietary crowdsourcing platform, the Universal Human Relevance System (UHRS). This paper draws from an ongoing, longitudinal study of Crowdwork that uses a mixed methods approach to understand the cultural meaning, political implications, and ethical demands of crowdsourcing.

Towards Physical and Social Wellness

Steps, Choices and Moral Accounting: Observations from a Step-Counting Campaign in the Workplace BIBAFull-Text 148-159
  Nanna Gorm; Irina Shklovski
Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace steps are a socially negotiated quantity and that participation in the campaign has an impact on those who volunteer to participate and those who opt-out. We highlight that specific health promotion initiatives do not operate in a vacuum, but are experienced as one out of many efforts offered to the employees. Using a social ecology lens we illustrate how conceptualizing a step-counting campaign as a health promotion rather than a behavior change effort can have implications for what is construed as success.
Confidence & Control: Examining Adolescent Preferences for Technologies that Promote Wellness BIBAFull-Text 160-171
  Farnaz Irannejad Bisafar; Andrea Grimes Parker
Our work contributes to the growing body of CSCW research examining how technology can encourage wellness. In a 10-week participatory design study, we examined how technology can help teens overcome intra-personal and social barriers to healthy eating and positive relationships (the wellness topics of greatest interest to our participants). Our findings revealed teens' desire for expressive technology that helps them initiate dialogue, negotiate conflicts, and restrict communication with family, and their desired degree of engagement with tools promoting healthy eating (passively to actively involved in behavior change). Our analysis further yielded crosscutting themes: the importance of examining issues of self-efficacy, locus of control, and socio-ecological context in the design of health technology. We use our findings to contribute new directions for CSCW research: developing a nuanced perspective on the psychology of change, designing for varying levels of self-efficacy and locus of control, and problematizing the persuasive technology research agenda.
One LED is Enough: Catalyzing Face-to-face Interactions at Conferences with a Gentle Nudge BIBAFull-Text 172-183
  Jay Chen; Azza Abouzied
Face-to-face social interactions among strangers today are becoming increasingly rare as people turn towards computer-mediated networking tools. Today's tools, however, are based on the following assumptions: increased information encourages interaction, profiles are good representations of users to other users, and computer-mediated communications prior to face-to-face meetings lead to better outcomes. This paper describes CommonTies, a gentle technological in the form of a wearable accessory, that encourages immediate, face-to-face, organic social interactions among strangers at conferences. By not exposing any profile information, CommonTies preserves an element of mystery and enables self-disclosure of information through conversation. We evaluate our system through a field study at a three-day research conference -- CSCW 2014. We find that despite our information-scarce design, users were willing to interact with strangers and 74% of the interactions initiated by CommonTies were reported as novel and useful.
Persistent Sharing of Fitness App Status on Twitter BIBAFull-Text 184-194
  Kunwoo Park; Ingmar Weber; Meeyoung Cha; Chul Lee
As the world becomes more digitized and interconnected, information that was once considered to be private such as one's health status is now being shared publicly. To understand this new phenomenon better, it is crucial to study what types of health information are being shared on social media and why, as well as by whom. In this paper, we study the traits of users who share their personal health and fitness related information on social media by analyzing fitness status updates that MyFitnessPal users have shared via Twitter. We investigate how certain features like user profile, fitness activity, and fitness network in social media can potentially impact the long-term engagement of fitness app users. We also discuss implications of our findings to achieve a better retention of these users and to promote more sharing of their status updates.

Digital Learning Environments

RichReview++: Deployment of a Collaborative Multi-modal Annotation System for Instructor Feedback and Peer Discussion BIBAFull-Text 195-205
  Dongwook Yoon; Nicholas Chen; Bernie Randles; Amy Cheatle; Corinna E. Löckenhoff; Steven J. Jackson; Abigail Sellen; François Guimbretière
New multi-modal annotation tools hold the promise of bringing the benefits of face-to-face contact to remote, asynchronous interactions. One such system, RichReview++, incorporates new techniques to improve access to the embedded multimedia commentary and allows users to annotate with new modalities, like deictic gestures. We conducted a series of field deployments of RichReview++ to characterize how these features benefit students using them for activities in the university classroom. Our first deployment investigated the use of multi-modal annotations as a way for instructors to provide feedback on student term papers. Our second deployment used annotations to support peer discussion about assigned readings in a graduate-level course. We found that presenting voice comments as interactive waveforms seems to facilitate students' consumption of the instructor's voice comments. We also found that gestural annotations clarify voice and give annotators a quick and lightweight way to alter the scope of their voice comments. Based on these results, we suggest ways to best leverage multi-modal annotation tools in education environments.
Ask the Instructors: Motivations and Challenges of Teaching Massive Open Online Courses BIBAFull-Text 206-221
  Saijing Zheng; Pamela Wisniewski; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have experienced rapid growth and attracted significant attention within academia. However, despite widespread acceptance of MOOCs as a unique opportunity to transform educational practices, many questions remain regarding their sustainability, given the high dropout rates and challenges related to collaborative learning support [12]. Recent research has attempted to address these concerns by analyzing students' MOOC experiences and how MOOCs may fall short in meeting students' learning needs [41]. However, very little research has approached the problem from an instructor perspective. We report an interview study of 14 MOOC instructors in which we used grounded theory to uncover the complex processes, motivations, and challenges associated with teaching a MOOC. A key finding is that we should provide support through the whole instruction process. By enhancing support for instructors and their MOOC collaborators, we may improve outcomes for all MOOC stakeholders, including students.
Impoverished Visions of Sustainability: Encouraging Disruption in Digital Learning Environments BIBAFull-Text 222-232
  Eric M. Meyers; Lisa P. Nathan
Through this paper we step away from the proposition that there is one universally accepted notion of sustainability. We introduce the CSCW community to the scholarship of Anthony Weston, a philosopher who offers a way to acknowledge and leverage the plurality of values that inform conceptualizations of environmental sustainability. We use key themes from Weston's philosophy to analyze three social computing applications that employ tropes of sustainability, and explore their potential as sites of critical and disruptive discourse. Our focus is on openly or commercially available digital tools, simulations, and experiences that support the broader public, including children, learning about the environment and sustainability concepts. We posit that Weston's work provides an innovative framework for Sustainable HCI, one that is in alignment with the growing diversity of approaches to design in Sustainable HCI, alternatives to designing for tightly bounded problems and anticipated solutions.
Do Massive Open Online Course Platforms Support Employability? BIBAFull-Text 233-244
  Tawanna R. Dillahunt; Sandy Ng; Michelle Fiesta; Zengguang Wang
Past research suggests that many individuals take Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for employment-related reasons. It is unclear, however, how learners leverage MOOCs for employment and how effectively these platforms support employability. To explore this further, we surveyed 441 learners and interviewed 22 learners motivated to take MOOCs for reasons related to financial limitations and/or reasons related to employment. Using the three dimensions of employability as a framework -- human and social capital, career identity, and personal adaptability -- we find that while most of our participants were optimistic about the potential for MOOCs to improve their employability, there was very limited tangible evidence of employment mobility from taking MOOCs. Though MOOCs support human capital, there are opportunities to further support social capital, career identity, and personal adaptability. We contribute a deeper understanding of learners who use MOOCs for employment and provide concrete design implications for MOOC platforms to better support employability in the future. We found very few low SES learners using MOOCs for reasons of employment and identify opportunities for MOOCs to reach and support these learners.

Distributed Teams

Monitoring and Trust in Virtual Teams BIBAFull-Text 245-259
  Lionel P., Jr. Robert
This study was conducted to determine whether monitoring moderated the impact of trust on the project performance of 57 virtual teams. Two sources of monitoring were examined: internal monitoring done by team members and external monitoring done by someone outside of the team. Two types of trust were also examined: affective-based trust, or trust based on emotion; and cognitive trust, or trust based on competency. Results indicate that when internal monitoring was high, affective trust was associated with increases in performance. However, affective trust was associated with decreases in performance when external monitoring was high. Both types of monitoring reduced the strong positive relationship between cognitive trust and the performance of virtual teams. Results of this study provide new insights about monitoring and trust in virtual teams and inform both theory and design.
Personality Matters: Balancing for Personality Types Leads to Better Outcomes for Crowd Teams BIBAFull-Text 260-273
  Ioanna Lykourentzou; Angeliki Antoniou; Yannick Naudet; Steven P. Dow
When personalities clash, teams operate less effectively. Personality differences affect face-to-face collaboration and may lower trust in virtual teams. For relatively short-lived assignments, like those of online crowdsourcing, personality matching could provide a simple, scalable strategy for effective team formation. However, it is not clear how (or if) personality differences affect teamwork in this novel context where the workforce is more transient and diverse. This study examines how personality compatibility in crowd teams affects performance and individual perceptions. Using the DISC personality test, we composed 14 five-person teams (N=70) with either a harmonious coverage of personalities (balanced) or a surplus of leader-type personalities (imbalanced). Results show that balancing for personality leads to significantly better performance on a collaborative task. Balanced teams exhibited less conflict and their members reported higher levels of satisfaction and acceptance. This work demonstrates a simple personality matching strategy for forming more effective teams in crowdsourcing contexts.
Embracing Cultural Diversity: Online Social Ties in Distributed Workgroups BIBAFull-Text 274-287
  Wei Dong; Kate Ehrlich; Michael M. Macy; Michael Muller
Cross-cultural network ties have been shown to improve decision-making, creativity, conflict-resolution and use of collaborative technologies. Nevertheless, cultural barriers are difficult to overcome. We used data from an internal Social Networking System (SNS) in a large global company to see if membership in the same company might reduce the effect of cultural homophily. We found no effect. However, when we focused on members of 87 distributed workgroups, we found that the effect of cultural differences actually reversed, indicating greater cultural diversity in online friendship ties than observed in the company at large. We discuss alternative explanations for this finding and the implications for work environments in global companies.
Effects of Sensemaking Translucence on Distributed Collaborative Analysis BIBAFull-Text 288-302
  Nitesh Goyal; Susan R. Fussell
Collaborative sensemaking requires that analysts share their information and insights with each other, but this process of sharing runs the risks of prematurely focusing the investigation on specific suspects. To address this tension, we propose and test an interface for collaborative crime analysis that aims to make analysts more aware of their sensemaking processes. We compare our sensemaking translucence interface to a standard interface without special sensemaking features in a controlled laboratory study. We found that the sensemaking translucence interface significantly improved clue finding and crime solving performance, but that analysts rated the interface lower on subjective measures than the standard interface. We conclude that designing for distributed sensemaking requires balancing task performance vs. user experience and real-time information sharing vs. data accuracy.

Distance, Coordination, and Motivation

The Diffusion of Trust and Cooperation in Teams with Individuals' Variations on Baseline Trust BIBAFull-Text 303-318
  Yi Wang; David Redmiles
Baseline trust, which refers to the personality aspect of trust and varies with different individuals, is essential for understanding the development of trust and cooperation in a team. At the same time, informal, non-work-related conversations (aka, cheap talk) have positive influences on the diffusion of trust and cooperation in global software engineering (GSE) practice. This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the influences of individuals' baseline trust on the diffusion of trust and cooperation, in the presence of cheap talk over the Internet. We employ a novel approach, designing a virtual experiment that integrates abstract agent-based modeling and simulation with realistic, empirical network structures and baseline trust data from two large open source projects (Lucene and Google Chromium OS). The results highlight the significant impact of baseline trust on the diffusion of trust and cooperation, for instance, the emergence of non-traditional diffusion trajectories. The results also demonstrate that proper seeding strategies can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of diffusion of trust and cooperation.
Vendors' Perspectives of Coordination in the Information Technology Offshore Outsourcing Industry: An Exploratory Study from the Philippines BIBAFull-Text 319-334
  Aloha May Hufana Ambe; Margot F. Brereton; Markus Rittenbruch
This study investigates how offshore information technology (IT) service providers (vendors) coordinate work with their clients (employers) in order to succeed in the global IT offshore outsourcing industry. We reviewed literature on coordination studies, interviewed offshore service providers in the Philippines, and used thematic analysis to analyse coordination practices from the point of view of these individual vendors in a newly industrialized country. We used Olson and Olson's framework on 'collaboration at a distance' as a lens to structure the results. The study provides an understanding of vendors' individual attitudes towards the coordination of distributed work and draws attention to how differences in power affect the work situation of vendors, and by implication all stakeholders. We offer this insight as a way to enhance existing CSCW frameworks, by imbuing them with the perspective of non-equal relationships. The study found that vendors were generally able to produce outputs that satisfy their clients, however these results were only achieved because individuals were willing to take risks and make sacrifices in their personal lives. The relationship was further characterised by a complex interplay between the client's control of the overall work arrangements and the vendors' ability to establish a level of autonomy in their work practices and their flexible use of coordination tools.
When Distance Doesn't Really Matter: Effects of Geographic Dispersion on Participation in Online Enterprise Communities BIBAFull-Text 335-345
  Jeffrey Warshaw; Steve Whittaker; Tara Matthews; Barton A. Smith
Research on small team collaboration repeatedly shows that "distance matters". More recent work has refined this concept of distance to develop geographic dispersion measures to explain the negative effects that team configuration has on productivity and interaction. Dispersion measures explain why teams distributed across multiple time zones, or across multiple sites, have more coordination difficulties than collocated teams with a single remote member. Although larger online communities are increasingly used in enterprises, few studies have examined the effects of dispersion on community behavior. We studied 1206 online enterprise communities (OECs), each using a set of collaborative tools. We present new data showing counter-intuitively that OEC dispersion does not affect content generation or contribution inequality, even when restricting community size to those that most resemble small teams (with 3-12 members). We found that previously documented negative effects of geographic dispersion seem to be reduced in enterprise communities regardless of size. Our results provide additional support to prior case studies suggesting that online communities can mitigate geographic dispersion by providing resources that support coordination and resource sharing.
Work and Play: An Experiment in Enterprise Gamification BIBAFull-Text 346-358
  Laurentiu Catalin Stanculescu; Alessandro Bozzon; Robert-Jan Sips; Geert-Jan Houben
In recent years, gamification, "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts", has drawn the attention of an increasing number of scientists. Although several studies highlighted the benefits of gamification in many applications, its potential in the enterprise environment still needs to be fully understood.
   This work contributes to the studies in enterprise gamification with an experiment performed at a large multinational company. The experiment involved 206 employees for a period of 2 months. We describe a modular and extensible framework for enterprise gamification, designed to seamlessly integrate with existing enterprise-class Web systems. We studied how a gamified tool can help to foster employees' engagement with such systems, by making day-to-day tasks more stimulating.
   We show how different game mechanics can help to achieve two business needs, namely social interaction and learning. To this end, we exploited the gamification framework to develop a Q&A Web application combined with learning, news sharing, and social connections capabilities. Results provide strong evidence of how a gamified experience can foster learning and social behaviour in employees, and provide new insights about the effectiveness of several game mechanics in an enterprise context.

Relationships and Romance

Strangers on Your Phone: Why People Use Anonymous Communication Applications BIBAFull-Text 359-370
  Ruogu Kang; Laura Dabbish; Katherine Sutton
Anonymity online is important to people at times in their lives. Anonymous communication applications such as Whisper and YikYak enable people to communicate with strangers anonymously through their smartphones. We report results from semi-structured interviews with 18 users of these apps. The goal of our study was to identify why and how people use anonymous apps, their perceptions of their audience and interactions on the apps, and how these apps compare with other online social communities. We present a typology of the content people share, and their motivations for participation in anonymous apps. People share various types of content that range from deep confessions and secrets to lighthearted jokes and momentary feelings. An important driver for participation and posting is to get social validation from others, even though they are anonymous strangers. We also find that participants believe these anonymous apps allow more honesty, openness, and diversity of opinion than they can find elsewhere. Our results provide implications for how anonymity in mobile apps can encourage expressiveness and interaction among users.
The Role of Digital Technologies During Relationship Breakdowns BIBAFull-Text 371-382
  Wendy Moncur; Lorna Gibson; Daniel Herron
Relationship breakdowns are undoubtedly difficult. Access to and use of technology can exacerbate the situation. In our networked society, shared lives generate vast amounts of shared digital data which can be difficult to untangle, whilst social media can provide an outlet to emotions that can take a public and often persistent form. In this paper, we report on a qualitative study that considered the role of technology in the process of a relationship breaking down. Four main themes emerged in our findings: communicating about the separation, change in social status, shared digital assets, and moving on. Opportunities for design are identified in reducing misunderstandings via CMCs, enhancing social media, supporting intimacy in distributed families, and refining service provision.
On the bias: Self-esteem biases across communication channels during romantic couple conflict BIBAFull-Text 383-393
  Lauren Scissors; Darren Gergle
Are one's individual biases stronger when mediated communication is used? This paper examines the role of self-esteem-related biases and communication channel during romantic couple conflict. Romantic couples communicated about a conflict either face-to-face (FtF) or via instant messenger (IM). Results revealed that for people with lower levels of self-esteem, their negative biases were triggered when they communicated with their partners via IM; people with lower levels of self-esteem had more negative assessments of the conflict discussion and of the impact of the discussion on the relationship when communicating via IM than when communicating FtF. At a theoretical level, this work deepens our understanding of how individual difference variables like self-esteem impact how individuals process information and communicate via technology. At a practical level, findings suggest that the use of mediated communication during conflict is more harmful to certain individuals than to others.
Mobile Media Matters: Media Use and Relationship Satisfaction among Geographically Close Dating Couples BIBAFull-Text 394-404
  Catalina L. Toma; Mina Choi
Much research has investigated the uses and effects of new communication technologies in long-distance romantic relationships. Comparatively, however, the importance of these technologies within geographically close romantic relationships has been overlooked. The present study fills in this gap by examining the prevalence of media use in this context and its association with relational well-being. A survey of heterosexual undergraduates involved in proximal dating relationships (N = 211) shows that they used mobile media (phone calls, texting) to a significant extent to connect with partners on a daily basis, and that they reported high quality of communication when using these media. Further, the quality, but not quantity, of mobile communication was associated with partner idealization which, in turn, was associated with relational satisfaction. The results support and extend the Hyperpersonal model of online communication, and contribute to elucidating user practices and media effects within the critical domain of romantic relationships.

Co-present and Remote Media Use

MarathOn Multiscreen: Group Television Watching and Interaction in a Viewing Ecology BIBAFull-Text 405-417
  Edward Anstead; Steve Benford; Robert Houghton
This paper reports and discusses the findings of an exploratory study into collaborative user practice with a multiscreen television application. MarathOn Multiscreen allows users to view, share and curate amateur and professional video footage of a community marathon event. Our investigations focused on collaborative sharing practices across different viewing activities and devices, the roles taken by different devices in a viewing ecology, and observations on how users consume professional and amateur content. Our Work uncovers significant differences in user behaviour and collaboration when engaged in more participatory viewing activities, such as sorting and ranking footage, which has implications for awareness of other users' interactions while viewing together and alone. In addition, user appreciation and use of amateur video content is dependent not only on quality and activity but their personal involvement in the contents.
To Beam or Not to Beam: A Study of Remote Telepresence Attendance at an Academic Conference BIBAFull-Text 418-431
  Carman Neustaedter; Gina Venolia; Jason Procyk; Dan Hawkins
Attending and presenting at conferences is a core part of academic and industrial research. Yet it can sometimes be challenging to attend conferences due to travel restrictions, time limitations, or accessibility challenges. To understand how people may be able to attend conferences remotely, we explored the use of commercial telepresence robots called Beams at Ubicomp/ISWC 2014. Seven people attended the conference remotely and used Beams to attend presentations, ask questions, and participate in break mingling activities. We collected data of their activities and conducted an online survey with the broader set of conference attendees. Results show that telepresence robots supported attendance at a basic level and even empowered those with accessibility challenges. However, issues related to identity, interaction, navigation, and privacy emerged. We present recommendations for future telepresence attendance at conferences focused on balancing these concerns with the benefits participants received.
Distributed Liveness: Understanding How New Technologies Transform Performance Experiences BIBAFull-Text 432-437
  Andrew M. Webb; Chen Wang; Andruid Kerne; Pablo Cesar
We identify emerging phenomena of distributed liveness, involving new relationships among performers, audiences, and technology. Liveness is a recent, technology-based construct, which refers to experiencing an event in real-time with the possibility for shared social realities. Distributed liveness entails multiple forms of physical, spatial, and social co-presence between performers and audiences across physical and virtual spaces. We interviewed expert performers about how they experience liveness in physically co-present and distributed settings. Findings show that distributed performances and technology need to support flexible social co-presence and new methods for sensing subtle audience responses and conveying engagement abstractly.

Credibility and Social Media

On the Wisdom of Experts vs. Crowds: Discovering Trustworthy Topical News in Microblogs BIBAFull-Text 438-451
  Muhammad Bilal Zafar; Parantapa Bhattacharya; Niloy Ganguly; Saptarshi Ghosh; Krishna P. Gummadi
Extracting news on specific topics from the Twitter microblogging site poses formidable challenges, which include handling millions of tweets posted daily, judging topicality and importance of tweets, and ensuring trustworthiness of results in the face of spam. To date, all scalable approaches have relied on crowd wisdom, i.e., keyword-matching on the global tweet stream to gather relevant tweets, and crowd-endorsements to judge the importance of tweets. We propose a fundamentally different methodology -- for a given topic, we identify trustworthy experts on the topic, and extract news-stories that are most popular among the experts. Comparing the crowd-based and expert-based methodologies, we demonstrate that the news-stories obtained by our methodology (i) have higher relevance for a wide variety of topics, (ii) achieve very high coverage of important news-stories posted globally in Twitter, and (iii) are far more trustworthy. Using our methodology, we implemented and publicly deployed a topical news system for Twitter, which can extract news-stories on thousands of topics.
Keeping Up with the Tweet-dashians: The Impact of 'Official' Accounts on Online Rumoring BIBAFull-Text 452-465
  Cynthia Andrews; Elodie Fichet; Yuwei Ding; Emma S. Spiro; Kate Starbird
This paper examines how "official" accounts participate in the propagation and correction of online rumors in the context of crisis events. Using an emerging method for interpretive analysis of "big" social data, we investigate the spread of online rumors through digital traces -- in this case, tweets. Our study suggests that official accounts can help to slow the spread of a rumor by posting a denial, and -- supported by reflections from an organization that recently dealt with a rumor-crisis -- offers best practices for organizations around social media strategies and protocols. Based on tweet data and connections to existing literature, we also demonstrate and discuss how mainstream media participate in rumoring, and note the role of a new breed of online media, "breaking news" accounts. This analysis offers a complementary perspective to existing studies that use surveys and interviews to characterize the role official accounts play in online rumoring.
How Information Snowballs: Exploring the Role of Exposure in Online Rumor Propagation BIBAFull-Text 466-477
  Ahmer Arif; Kelley Shanahan; Fang-Ju Chou; Yoanna Dosouto; Kate Starbird; Emma S. Spiro
In this paper we highlight three distinct approaches to studying rumor dynamics -- volume, exposure, and content production. Expanding upon prior work, which has focused on rumor volume, we argue that considering the size of the exposed population is a vital component of understanding rumoring. Additionally, by combining all three approaches we discover subtle features of rumoring behavior that would have been missed by applying each approach in isolation. Using a case study of rumoring on Twitter during a hostage crisis in Sydney, Australia, we apply a mixed-methods framework to explore rumoring and its consequences through these three lenses, focusing on the added dimension of exposure in particular. Our approach demonstrates the importance of considering both rumor content and the people engaging with rumor content to arrive at a more holistic understanding of communication dynamics. These results have implications for emergency responders and official use of social media during crisis management.

Managing Personal Data

Data Narratives: uncovering tensions in personal data management BIBAFull-Text 478-490
  Janet Vertesi; Jofish Kaye; Samantha N. Jarosewski; Vera D. Khovanskaya; Jenna Song
We present an interview study of 34 participants in the US and Korea who described how they manage their personal data, from work files to family photos. Through their "data narratives" -- accounts of their data management practices, including device usage patterns and negotiations with system and brand ecosystems -- we explore how individuals negotiate a complex, multi-service, and morally-charged sociotechnical landscape, balancing demands to share and to safeguard their data in appropriate ways against a shifting background of changing technologies, relationships, individuals, and corporations. We describe the guiding framework that people use to make decisions as a "moral economy" of data management, contributing to our understanding of context-specific system choices.
"This has to be the cats" -- Personal Data Legibility in Networked Sensing Systems BIBAFull-Text 491-502
  Peter Tolmie; Andy Crabtree; Tom Rodden; James Colley; Ewa Luger
Notions like 'Big Data' and the 'Internet of Things' turn upon anticipated harvesting of personal data through ubiquitous computing and networked sensing systems. It is largely presumed that understandings of people's everyday interactions will be relatively easy to 'read off' of such data and that this, in turn, poses a privacy threat. An ethnographic study of how people account for sensed data to third parties uncovers serious challenges to such ideas. The study reveals that the legibility of sensor data turns upon various orders of situated reasoning involved in articulating the data and making it accountable. Articulation work is indispensable to personal data sharing and raises real requirements for networked sensing systems premised on the harvesting of personal data.
Networked Privacy Management in Facebook: A Mixed-Methods and Multinational Study BIBAFull-Text 503-514
  Hichang Cho; Anna Filippova
Users of social network services (SNSs) have to cope with a new set of privacy challenges because personal information on an SNS is often co-owned and co-managed by various distributed social ties. Using a multi-methods and multinational approach, we investigated Facebook users' privacy behavior by focusing on how they co-manage private information. Our findings from focus-group interviews (n = 28) and online surveys (n = 299) suggest that Facebook users primarily apply four different practices of privacy management: collaborative strategies, corrective strategies, preventive strategies, and information control. The four dimensions of privacy management display selective relationships with theoretical antecedents (e.g., self-efficacy, collective-efficacy, attitudes, privacy concern), indicating that each behavior is motivated by a different combination of conditions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Internatonal Insights

SunForum: Understanding Depression in a Chinese Online Community BIBAFull-Text 515-526
  Guo Li; Xiaomu Zhou; Tun Lu; Jiang Yang; Ning Gu
More than 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression. Major depressive disorder has a hugely negative impact on psychological well-being, work, and family life. Yet culture may shape how depressed patients interpret their symptoms, choose treatments, and behave. This paper reports a case study, including participant observations and interviews, of the Chinese online depression community, SunForum. Our findings reveal that Chinese cultural beliefs (e.g., the power of inner self-control) and Chinese beliefs about traditional medicine (e.g., the integrated body-mind relationship) significantly affect patients' understandings of depression, illness management, and social interactions. These beliefs create problems of understanding depression in society -- including family members, friends, co-workers, and others -- and present various challenges for depressed patients who can become marginalized, suffer discrimination, and lose their jobs. We draw implications for how Chinese society as a whole may respond to the misunderstanding of mental illness and the raising of public awareness. We also propose specific social media design to support depressed patients as they seek online information and social support.
Surveillance & Modesty on Social Media: How Qataris Navigate Modernity and Maintain Tradition BIBAFull-Text 527-538
  Sarah Vieweg; Adam Hodges
Recent research on social media use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has focused on their role in the Arab Spring uprisings, but less work has examined the more mundane uses of these technologies. Yet exploring the way populations in the MENA region use social media in everyday life provides insight into how they are adapted to cultural contexts beyond those from which they originated. To better understand this process, we interviewed eleven Qatari nationals currently living in Doha, Qatar. Our analysis identifies ways users, particularly females, practice modesty, manage their own (and by extension) their family's reputation, and use social media to monitor and protect others. These findings are placed within a framework of social, or participatory surveillance, which challenges conventional notions of surveillance as a form of control and instead shows how surveillance has the potential to be empowering.
Examining American and Chinese Internet Users' Contextual Privacy Preferences of Behavioral Advertising BIBAFull-Text 539-552
  Yang Wang; Huichuan Xia; Yun Huang
Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA), which involves tracking people's online behaviors, raises serious privacy concerns. We present results from a scenario-based online survey study on American and Chinese Internet users' privacy preferences of OBA. Since privacy is context-dependent, we investigated the effects of country (US vs. China), activity (e.g., online shopping vs. online banking), and platform (desktop/laptop vs. mobile app) on people's willingness to share their information for OBA. We found that American respondents were significantly less willing to share their data and had more specific concerns than their Chinese counterparts. We situate these differences in the broader historical, legal, and social scenes of these countries. We also found that respondents' OBA preferences varied significantly across different online activities, suggesting the potential of context-aware privacy tools for OBA. However, we did not find a significant effect of platform on people's OBA preferences. Lastly, we discuss design implications for privacy tools.

Computer-Mediated Communication

Capturing Turn-by-Turn Lexical Similarity in Text-Based Communication BIBAFull-Text 553-559
  Noah Liebman; Darren Gergle
Speakers often come to use similar words during conversation; that is, they come to exhibit lexical similarity. The extent to which this occurs is associated with many positive social outcomes. However, existing measures of lexical similarity are either highly labor intensive or too coarse in their temporal resolution. This limits the ability of researchers to study lexical similarity as it unfolds over the course of a conversation. We present a fully automated metric for tracking lexical similarity over time, and demonstrate it on individual conversations, explore general trends in aggregate conversational dynamics, and examine differences in how similarity tracks over time in groups with differing social outcomes.
To Reply or To Reply All: Understanding Replying Behavior in Group Email Communication BIBAFull-Text 560-569
  Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Lyndsey K. Lanagan-Leitzel
"Reply" and "Reply All" buttons in email provide the convenience of a quick reply to those included in the email. Yet this very convenience can be troublesome to both the individual and the group involved if receivers intentionally or unintentionally hit one button instead of the other. In this paper we explore how replying decisions are made and what contributes to erroneous use of Reply All through an experimental study (N=109) and a survey study (N=112). Data from the experiment suggest that errors are not influenced by how the reply button suite is arranged but rather by the explicitness of the desired response action and how multiple recipients are displayed. Qualitative data from the survey suggest that while people are cognizant of Reply All misuse, lack of universally agreed upon criteria for appropriate Reply/Reply All choice leads to errors. We discuss the implications of these insights for email interface design.
It's (Not) Simply a Matter of Time: The Relationship Between CMC Cues and Interpersonal Affinity BIBAFull-Text 570-581
  Noah Liebman; Darren Gergle
Nonverbal, paralinguistic cues such as punctuation and emoticons are believed to be one of the mechanisms through which interpersonal relationship development takes place in text-based interactions. We use a novel experimental apparatus to manipulate these cues in a live Instant Message conversation. Results show a positive causal relationship of conversation duration and cue use on perceived affinity, and the relationship is contingent upon whether or not partners are able to see each other's cues. Further analysis of the dialogue reveals that reciprocity may play a central role in supporting this effect. We then demonstrate how one's cue use is influenced by a partner's cue use, and show that cues are often used in greeting and sign-off rituals.

Newcomers in Peer Production

Toward Automatic Bootstrapping of Online Communities Using Decision-theoretic Optimization BIBAFull-Text 582-594
  Shih-Wen Huang; Jonathan Bragg; Isaac Cowhey; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld
Successful online communities (e.g., Wikipedia, Yelp, and StackOverflow) can produce valuable content. However, many communities fail in their initial stages. Starting an online community is challenging because there is not enough content to attract a critical mass of active members. This paper examines methods for addressing this cold-start problem in datamining-bootstrappable communities by attracting non-members to contribute to the community. We make four contributions: 1) we characterize a set of communities that are "datamining-bootstrappable" and define the bootstrapping problem in terms of decision-theoretic optimization, 2) we estimate the model parameters in a case study involving the Open AI Resources website, 3) we demonstrate that non-members' predicted interest levels and request design are important features that can significantly affect the contribution rate, and 4) we ran a simulation experiment using data generated with the learned parameters and show that our decision-theoretic optimization algorithm can generate as much community utility when bootstrapping the community as our strongest baseline while issuing only 55% as many contribution requests.
Early Activity Diversity: Assessing Newcomer Retention from First-Session Activity BIBAFull-Text 595-608
  Raghav Pavan Karumur; Tien T. Nguyen; Joseph A. Konstan
Online communities suffer serious newcomer attrition. This paper explores whether and how early activity diversity -- the degree to which a newcomer engages in a wide range of a site's activities in the first session -- is associated with their longevity. We introduce a metric (DSCORE) to characterize early activity diversity in online sites and run our analyses on an online community 'MovieLens'. We find that DSCORE is significant both by itself and in conjunction with a measure of quantity of activity in predicting longevity. This finding is robust to different measures of longevity (aggregate number of sessions and attritions after sessions 1, 5, and 10). The immediate implication is an effective classifier for identifying users with higher (or lower) expected longevity from the first-session activity. We also find DSCORE is more useful than a traditional measure of measuring diversity such as the Gini-Simpson index. We conclude by discussing how early activity diversity may be more broadly effective in supporting design and management of online communities.
One and Done: Factors affecting one-time contributors to ad-hoc online communities BIBAFull-Text 609-623
  Brian James McInnis; Elizabeth Lindley Murnane; Dmitry Epstein; Dan Cosley; Gilly Leshed
Often, attention to "community" focuses on motivating core members or helping newcomers become regulars. However, much of the traffic to online communities comes from people who visit only briefly. We hypothesize that their personal characteristics, design elements of the site, and others' activity all affect the contributions these "one-timers" make. We present the results from an experiment asking Amazon Mechanical Turk ("AMT") workers to comment on the AMT participation agreement in a discussion forum. One-timers with stronger ties to other Turkers or feelings of trust for Amazon are more likely to leave more -- but shorter and less relevant -- comments, while those with higher self-efficacy leave longer and more relevant comments. The phrasing of prompts also matters; a general appeal for personally-reflective contributions leads to comments that are less relevant to community discussion topics. Finally, activity matters too; synchronous activity begets responses, while pre-existing content tends to suppress them. These findings suggest design moves that can help communities harness this "long tail" of contribution.
Which Way Did They Go? Newcomer Movement through the Zooniverse BIBAFull-Text 624-635
  Corey Jackson; Carsten Østerlund; Veronica Maidel; Kevin Crowston; Gabriel Mugar
Research on newcomer roles in peer production sites (e.g., Wikipedia) is characterized by a broad and relatively well articulated set of functionally and culturally recognizable roles. But not all communities come with well-defined roles that newcomers can aspire to occupy. The present study explores activity clusters newcomers create when faced with few recognizable roles to fill and limited access to other participants' work that serves as an exemplar. Drawing on a mixed method research design, we present findings from an analysis of 1,687 newcomers' sessions in an online citizen science project. Our analysis revealed three major findings: (1) newcomers' activities exists across six session types; (2) newcomers toggle between light work sessions and more involved types of production or community engagement; (3) high-level contributors contribute large volumes of work but comment very little and another group contributes large volumes of comments, but works very little. The former group draws heavily on posts contributed by the latter group. Identifying shifts and regularities in contribution facilitate improved mechanisms for engaging participants and for the design of online citizen science communities.


Crystallize: An Immersive, Collaborative Game for Second Language Learning BIBAFull-Text 636-647
  Gabriel Culbertson; Erik Andersen; Walker White; Daniel Zhang; Malte Jung
Learning a second language is challenging. Becoming fluent requires learning contextual information about how language should be used as well as word meanings and grammar. The majority of existing language learning applications provide only thin context around content. In this paper, we present Crystallize, a collaborative 3D game that provides rich context along with scaffolded learning and engaging gameplay mechanics. Players collaborate through joint tasks, or quests. We present a user study with 42 participants that examined the impact of low and high levels of task interdependence on language learning experience and outcomes. We found that requiring players to help each other led to improved collaborative partner interactions, learning outcomes, and gameplay. A detailed analysis of the chat-logs further revealed that changes in task interdependence affected learning behaviors.
Uses of Multiple Characters in Online Games and Their Implications for Social Network Methods BIBAFull-Text 648-663
  Alex Leavitt; Joshua Clark; Dennis Wixon
In most sociotechnical systems, individuals are tracked through user accounts. This paper explores the various ways in which people create and use multiple user representations, specifically in online games. Using 8 years of population data from a popular multiplayer online game, EVE Online, we examine how multiple character creation and use occurs at scale and how operationalization of individuals between accounts and characters impacts methods. We suggest that conceptualizing participants in online games based on the assumption that one character equals one individual can lead to incorrect analyses regarding the demographics or behaviors of the population. Additionally, social network analysis suggests that a character-centric, rather than account-level, viewpoint can change the results of statistical relationships with network metrics such as eigenvector centrality.
Can Visualization of Contributions Support Fairness in Collaboration? Findings from Meters in an Online Game BIBAFull-Text 664-678
  Ryan Kelly; Leon Watts; Stephen J. Payne
In this paper we consider how visualizations might support judgements about fairness in collaborative work. We present a qualitative investigation of meters, existing artefacts that enable awareness of contributions in the online game World of Warcraft. Through in-depth interviews with game players, we draw attention to the value of meters as tools for self-reflection and group evaluation. Yet we also describe problematic consequences that arise as a result of meters, distinguishing their usage as in-the-moment awareness tools from instruments used after the fact to apportion credit and blame. We argue that representations like meters may be enough to provoke initial questions about fairness, but are likely to undermine the efforts of collaborators if they fail to combine a set of indices that reflect important aspects of individual work in the context of team activity. We consider broader lessons for the way in which future designs might aim to support fairness in collaborative systems, pointing to multidimensional mechanisms adapted specifically to real-time or retrospective usage.
Virtual Team Networks: How Group Social Capital Affects Team Success in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game BIBAFull-Text 679-690
  Grace A. Benefield; Cuihua Shen; Alex Leavitt
Virtual teams have become a ubiquitous form of organizing, but the impact of social structures within and between teams on group performance remains understudied. This paper uses the case study of a massively multiplayer online game and server log data from over 10,000 players to examine the connection between group social capital (operationalized through guild network structure measures) and team effectiveness, given a variety of in-game social networks. Three different networks, social, task, and exchange networks, are compared and contrasted while controlling for group size, group age, and player experience. Team effectiveness is maximized at a roughly moderate level of closure across the networks, suggesting that this is the optimal level of the group's network density. Guilds with high brokerage, meaning they have diverse connections with other groups, were more effective in achievement-oriented networks. In addition, guilds with central leaders were more effective when they teamed up with other guild leaders.

Online Communities

Thousands of Positive Reviews: Distributed Mentoring in Online Fan Communities BIBAFull-Text 691-704
  Julie Campbell; Cecilia Aragon; Katie Davis; Sarah Evans; Abigail Evans; David Randall
Young people worldwide are participating in ever-increasing numbers in online fan communities. Far from mere shallow repositories of pop culture, these sites are accumulating significant evidence that sophisticated informal learning is taking place online in novel and unexpected ways. In order to understand and analyze in more detail how learning might be occurring, we conducted an in-depth nine-month ethnographic investigation of online fanfiction communities, including participant observation and fanfiction author interviews. Our observations led to the development of a theory we term distributed mentoring, which we present in detail in this paper. Distributed mentoring exemplifies one instance of how networked technology affords new extensions of behaviors that were previously bounded by time and space. Distributed mentoring holds potential for application beyond the spontaneous mentoring observed in this investigation and may help students receive diverse, thoughtful feedback in formal learning environments as well.
The Effects and Antecedents of Conflict in Free and Open Source Software Development BIBAFull-Text 705-716
  Anna Filippova; Hichang Cho
Conflict is an important group process, and more so in self-organizing teams with fluid boundaries and high possibility for turnover. We empirically investigate different types of conflict in Free and Open Source Software development teams, their antecedents and impact on developers' sustained participation. Following a survey of 222 FOSS developers, we find conflict to have an overall negative effect on developer retention. Furthermore, different types of conflict have varying impact on outcomes. In particular, only normative conflict levels negatively impact intention to remain in a FOSS project. Both normative and process conflict negatively affect perceptions of team performance, while the co-occurrence of task and process conflict exacerbate negative effects on outcomes. Though we find structural factors like task interdependence and geographical distribution increase overall conflict levels in FOSS teams, participatory decision-making and a transformational leadership style have an ameliorating effect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Effectiveness of Conflict Management Strategies in Peer Review Process of Online Collaboration Projects BIBAFull-Text 717-728
  Wenjian Huang; Tun Lu; Haiyi Zhu; Guo Li; Ning Gu
In online collaboration projects, conflicts often arise in the peer review process, due to the disagreement over whether one's contribution should be accepted. These conflicts generally have detrimental effects on contributors' continuing participation in the community. Few studies have investigated how to manage these conflicts effectively. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of three strategies -- rational explanation, constructive suggestion, and social encouragement -- in managing conflicts. In an analysis of 170 online software development projects, we investigated how different conflict management strategies aimed at handling contributors' arguments during the peer review process influenced their subsequent participation in the projects. The results show that (i) conflicts significantly increase contributors' likelihood of leaving the communities; (ii) neither rational explanations nor social encouragement could reduce the negative consequences of conflicts; (iii) only constructive suggestions have a positive effect in retaining the contributors.
A Contingency View of Transferring and Adapting Best Practices within Online Communities BIBAFull-Text 729-743
  Haiyi Zhu; Robert E. Kraut; Aniket Kittur
Online communities, much like companies in the business world, often need to transfer "best practices" internally from one unit to another to improve their performance. Organizational scholars disagree about how much a recipient unit should modify a best practice when incorporating it. Some evidence indicates that modifying a practice that has been successful in one environment will introduce problems, undercut its effectiveness and harm the performance of the recipient unit. Other evidence, though, suggests that recipients need to adapt the practice to fit their local environment. The current research introduces a contingency perspective on practice transfer, holding that the value of modifications depends on when they are introduced and who introduces them. Empirical research on the transfer of a quality-improvement practice between projects within Wikipedia shows that modifications are more helpful if they are introduced after the receiving project has had experience with the imported practice. Furthermore, modifications are more effective if they are introduced by members who have experience in a variety of other projects.

Healthcare Providers

Crafting the Image in Surgical Telemedicine BIBAFull-Text 744-755
  Helena M. Mentis; Ahmed Rahim; Pierre Theodore
In the past few years, surgical telemedicine has emerged as a promising answer to the increasing needs of everyday surgical collaboration and education. The implicit desire is to allow a remote surgeon to see the body as the local surgeon does in order to engage in shared decision-making or instruction. With this paper we take a step back by discussing the productive and cross-referential nature of surgical practice and image use. We discuss how it is not simply a case of transferring recorded video, but rather a new practice is instantiated in creating a view of the body for the remote surgeon. In order to investigate these practices for capturing and using video, we have deployed a head-mounted video camera (via the Google Glass) in six transplant organ recovery assessments. Drawing on observations and analysis of the video recordings, we examine how the transmitting surgeon crafts a view for the remote surgeon in order to facilitate the co-construction of knowledge and shared decision making. We use these findings to discuss further design directions for video use in expert telecommunication.
Partners in Care: Design Considerations for Caregivers and Patients During a Hospital Stay BIBAFull-Text 756-769
  Andrew D. Miller; Sonali R. Mishra; Logan Kendall; Shefali Haldar; Ari H. Pollack; Wanda Pratt
Informal caregivers, such as close friends and family, play an important role in a hospital patient's care. Although CSCW researchers have shown the potential for social computing technologies to help patients and their caregivers manage chronic conditions and support health behavior change, few studies focus on caregivers' role during a multi-day hospital stay. To explore this space, we conducted an interview and observation study of patients and caregivers in the inpatient setting. In this paper, we describe how caregivers and patients coordinate and collaborate to manage patients' care and wellbeing during a hospital stay. We define and describe five roles caregivers adopt: companion, assistant, representative, navigator, and planner, and show how patients and caregivers negotiate these roles and responsibilities throughout a hospital stay. Finally, we identify key design considerations for technology to support patients and caregivers during a hospital stay.
Boundary Negotiating Artifacts in Personal Informatics: Patient-Provider Collaboration with Patient-Generated Data BIBAFull-Text 770-786
  Chia-Fang Chung; Kristin Dew; Allison Cole; Jasmine Zia; James Fogarty; Julie A. Kientz; Sean A. Munson
Patient-generated data is increasingly common in chronic disease care management. Smartphone applications and wearable sensors help patients more easily collect health information. However, current commercial tools often do not effectively support patients and providers in collaboration surrounding these data. This paper examines patient expectations and current collaboration practices around patient-generated data. We survey 211 patients, interview 18 patients, and re-analyze a dataset of 21 provider interviews. We find that collaboration occurs in every stage of self-tracking and that patients and providers create boundary negotiating artifacts to support the collaboration. Building upon current practices with patient-generated data, we use these theories of patient and provider collaboration to analyze misunderstandings and privacy concerns as well as identify opportunities to better support these collaborations. We reflect on the social nature of patient-provider collaboration to suggest future development of the stage-based model of personal informatics and the theory of boundary negotiating artifacts.
Designing for Those who are Overlooked: Insider Perspectives on Care Practices and Cooperative Work of Elderly Informal Caregivers BIBAFull-Text 787-799
  Marén Schorch; Lin Wan; David William Randall; Volker Wulf
This paper focuses on the complex and intimate setting of domestic home care. The majority of care for chronically ill people is realized by non-professionals, the relatives, who are often overlooked. Many of these informal caregivers are also elderly and face multiple, seriously demanding challenges in the context of informal care 24/7. In order to support this increasing user group, their cooperative work and coordination adequately, it is essential to gain a better understanding of their care practices and needs. This paper is based on ethnography in ten households in Germany. It combines data from the analysis of participant observations over eight months, interviews and cultural probes. Besides detailed descriptions of two cases, the central features of informal care experience and implications for design are discussed: the self-concept of the caregivers as being care experts, the need for social support, timing issues and coordination with other actors in this field.

Engaging the Crowd

Campus-Scale Mobile Crowd-Tasking: Deployment & Behavioral Insights BIBAFull-Text 800-812
  Thivya Kandappu; Archan Misra; Shih-Fen Cheng; Nikita Jaiman; Randy Tandriansyah; Cen Chen; Hoong Chuin Lau; Deepthi Chander; Koustuv Dasgupta
Mobile crowd-tasking markets are growing at an unprecedented rate with increasing number of smartphone users. Such platforms differ from their online counterparts in that they demand physical mobility and can benefit from smartphone processors and sensors for verification purposes. Despite the importance of such mobile crowd-tasking markets, little is known about the labor supply dynamics and mobility patterns of the users.
   In this paper we design, develop and experiment with a real-world mobile crowd-tasking platform, called TA$Ker. Our contributions are two-fold: (a) We develop TA$Ker, a system that allows us to empirically study the worker responses to push vs. pull strategies for task recommendation and selection. (b) We evaluate our system via experimentation with 80 real users on our campus, over a 4 week period with a corpus of over 1000 tasks. We then provide an in-depth analysis of labor supply, worker behavior & task selection preferences (including the phenomenon of super agents who complete large portions of the tasks) and the efficacy of push-based approaches that recommend tasks based on predicted movement patterns of individual workers.
Botivist: Calling Volunteers to Action using Online Bots BIBAFull-Text 813-822
  Saiph Savage; Andres Monroy-Hernandez; Tobias Höllerer
To help activists call new volunteers to action, we present Botivist: a platform that uses Twitter bots to find potential volunteers and request contributions. By leveraging different Twitter accounts, Botivist employs different strategies to encourage participation. We explore how people respond to bots calling them to action using a test case about corruption in Latin America. Our results show that the majority of volunteers (80%) who responded to Botivist's calls to action contributed relevant proposals to address the assigned social problem. Different strategies produced differences in the quantity and relevance of contributions. Some strategies that work well offline and face-to-face appeared to hinder people's participation when used by an online bot. We analyze user behavior in response to being approached by bots with an activist purpose. We also provide strong evidence for the value of this type of civic media, and derive design implications.
You Get Who You Pay for: The Impact of Incentives on Participation Bias BIBAFull-Text 823-835
  Gary Hsieh; Rafal Kocielnik
Designing effective incentives is a challenge across many social computing contexts, from attracting crowdworkers to sustaining online contributions. However, one aspect of incentivizing that has been understudied is its impact on participation bias, as different incentives may attract different subsets of the population to participate. In this paper, we present two empirical studies in the crowdworking context that show that the incentive offered influence who participates in the task. Using the Basic Human Values, we found that a lottery reward attracted participants who held stronger openness-to-change values while a charity reward attracted those with stronger self-transcendence orientation. Further, we found that participation self-selection resulted in differences in the task outcomes. Through attracting more self-directed individuals, the lottery reward resulted in more ideas generated in a brainstorming task. Design implications include utilizing rewards to target desired participants and using diverse incentives to improve participation diversity.
Assignment Techniques for Crowdsourcing Sensitive Tasks BIBAFull-Text 836-847
  L. Elisa Celis; Sai Praneeth Reddy; Ishaan Preet Singh; Shailesh Vaya
Protecting the privacy of crowd workers has been an important topic in crowdsourcing, however, task privacy has largely been ignored despite the fact that many tasks, e.g., form digitization, live audio transcription or image tagging often contain sensitive information. Although assigning an entire job to a worker may leak private information, jobs can often be split into small components that individually do not. We study the problem of distributing such tasks to workers with the goal of maximizing task privacy using such an approach.
   We introduce information loss functions to formally measure the amount of private information leaked as a function of the task assignment. We then design assignment mechanisms for three different assignment settings: PUSH, PULL and a new setting Tug Of War (TOW), which is an intermediate approach that balances flexibility for both workers and requesters. Our assignment algorithms have zero privacy loss for PUSH, and tight theoretical guarantees for PULL. For TOW, our assignment algorithm provably outperforms PULL; importantly the privacy loss is independent of the number of tasks, even when workers collude. We further analyze the performance and privacy tradeoffs empirically on simulated and real-world collusion networks and find that our algorithms outperform the theoretical guarantees.

Education in the Classroom and Beyond

Identity Work on Social Media Sites: Disadvantaged Students' College Transition Processes BIBAFull-Text 848-859
  Tsubasa Morioka; Nicole B. Ellison; Michael Brown
Prior research suggests that some social media practices can play a role in shaping students' adjustment to college; however, the specific mechanisms by which social media can support the identity work associated with successful transitions to college are not well understood. This paper investigates how social media experiences and interactions can support college-focused identity construction for low-income, first-generation college students. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 31 emergent adults from disadvantaged backgrounds in the United States, we identify social media affordances that support the process of identity work during a critical transition period. Findings indicate that social media platforms support provisional identity work, but disadvantaged college students lack access to mentor-like figures that could be accessible through social media. We also find barriers to sharing information online that may extend to other life transitions in multiple life contexts and review the design implications of our findings.
Modeling Collaboration Patterns on an Interactive Tabletop in a Classroom Setting BIBAFull-Text 860-871
  Abigail C. Evans; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Katie Davis
Interaction logs generated by educational software can provide valuable insights into the collaborative learning process and identify opportunities for technology to provide adaptive assistance. Modeling collaborative learning processes at tabletop computers is challenging, as the computer is only able to log a portion of the collaboration, namely the touch events on the table. Our previous lab study with adults showed that patterns in a group's touch interactions with a tabletop computer can reveal the quality of aspects of their collaborative process. We extend this understanding of the relationship between touch interactions and the collaborative process to adolescent learners in a field setting and demonstrate that the touch patterns reflect the quality of collaboration more broadly than previously thought, with accuracies up to 84.2%. We also present an approach to using the touch patterns to model the quality of collaboration in real-time.
Avalanche Beacon Parks: Skill Development and Team Coordination in a Technological Training Ground BIBAFull-Text 872-886
  Audrey Desjardins; Saul Greenberg; Ron Wakkary; Jeff Hambelton
High-risk outdoor recreation allows its enthusiasts to reach unprecedented levels of adrenaline; it also contains risks and requires specific training (in part technological). In particular, its participants must be ready to react efficiently during an emergency or in response to an accident. Technological training grounds can simulate particular contexts and emergency situations as a place for recreationists to train and practice. In this paper, we use the practice of avalanche companion rescue as a case study to explore how technological training grounds support recreationist training. Our results offer insights into how avalanche beacon training parks support skill development and team coordination training. We also present strategies to orient the design of technological training grounds beyond avalanche companion rescue.
First-Generation Students and College: The Role of Facebook Networks as Information Sources BIBAFull-Text 887-899
  Grace YoungJoo Jeon; Nicole B. Ellison; Bernie Hogan; Christine Greenhow
Social network site (SNS) platforms have the potential to be effective information-seeking channels due to their technical and social affordances, such as the ability to broadcast content to a large group and to aggregate one's contacts. This study tests the impact of a Facebook app that allows users to visualize their network of Facebook Friends to see how it influences who adolescents identify as good sources of information about college. Comparing Friends selected by 24 high school seniors before and after viewing Facebook network visualizations reveals that first-generation students were more likely to select higher quality information sources among their Facebook Friends after exposure to the visualization. Our results suggest that social media can help users identify good human information sources by making hidden resources in one's network more visible.

Ethics and Policy

The Effect of Exposure to Social Annotation on Online Informed Consent Beliefs and Behavior BIBAFull-Text 900-912
  Martina Balestra; Orit Shaer; Johanna Okerlund; Madeleine Ball; Oded Nov
In this study we explore the impact of exposure to social annotation, embedded in online consent forms, on individuals' beliefs and decisions in the context of informed consent. In this controlled between-subjects experiment, participants were presented with an online consent form for a personal genomics study. Individuals were randomly assigned to either a social annotation condition that exposed them to previous users' comments on-screen, or to a traditional consent form without social input. We compared participants' perceptions about their consent decision, their trust in the organization seeking the consent, and their actual consent across conditions. While no significant difference was observed between actual consent rates, we found that on average individuals exposed to social annotation felt that their decision was more informed, and furthermore, that the effect of the exposure to social annotation was stronger among users characterized by relatively lower levels of prior privacy preserving behaviors.
Opportunities and Challenges Around a Tool for Social and Public Web Activity Tracking BIBAFull-Text 913-925
  Amy X. Zhang; Joshua Blum; David R. Karger
While the web contains many social websites, people are generally left in the dark about the activities of other people traversing the web as a whole. In this paper, we explore the potential benefits and privacy considerations around generating a real-time, publicly accessible stream of web activity where users can publish chosen parts of their web browsing data. Taking inspiration from social media systems, we describe individual benefits that can be unlocked by such sharing and that may incentivize users to publish aspects of their browsing. We ask whether and how these benefits outweigh potential costs in lost privacy. We conduct our study of public web activity sharing through scenario-based interviews and a field deployment of a tool for web activity sharing.
Policy as Embedded Generativity: A Case Study of the Emergence and Evolution of HathiTrust BIBAFull-Text 926-940
  Alissa Centivany
The traditional core of CSCW focuses on the relationships, tensions, and gaps between technical systems and social activity. Policy orbits around this core as a persistent but marginally represented presence. In the last few years, however, CSCW has witnessed an upsurge of interest in (re)integrating policy more explicitly and meaningfully into research and practice. For example, recent scholarship stressed the mutually constitutive and interconnected threads of design, practice, and policy [31]. This paper expands upon those motivations through a qualitative case study of the role of policy in library mass digitization work and the subsequent emergence and evolution of the HathiTrust cooperative partnership. By tracing the origins and impacts of early policy decisions in this context, this research contributes to understandings of how and why policy can both close and open spaces of social practice and technical design, functioning as a source of embedded generativity in complex sociotechnical systems.
Beyond the Belmont Principles: Ethical Challenges, Practices, and Beliefs in the Online Data Research Community BIBAFull-Text 941-953
  Jessica Vitak; Katie Shilton; Zahra Ashktorab
Pervasive information streams that document people and their routines have been a boon to social computing research. But the ethics of collecting and analyzing available -- but potentially sensitive -- online data present challenges to researchers. In response to increasing public and scholarly debate over the ethics of online data research, this paper analyzes the current state of practice among researchers using online data. Qualitative and quantitative responses from a survey of 263 online data researchers document beliefs and practices around which social computing researchers are converging, as well as areas of ongoing disagreement. The survey also reveals that these disagreements are not correlated with disciplinary, methodological, or workplace affiliations. The paper concludes by reflecting on changing ethical practices in the digital age, and discusses a set of emergent best practices for ethical social computing research.

Hospital Work

Time to reflect: Supporting health services over time by focusing on collaborative reflection BIBAFull-Text 954-964
  Gabriela Marcu; Sara Kiesler; Anind Dey; Madhu Reddy
When health services involve long-term treatment over months or years, providers have the ability, not present in acute emergency care, to collaboratively reflect on clients' changing health data and adjust interventions. In this paper, we discuss temporality as a factor in the design of health information technology. We define a temporal spectrum ranging from time-critical services that benefit from standardization to long-term services that require more flexibility. We provide empirical evidence from fieldwork that we performed in organizations providing long-term behavioral and mental health services for children. Our fieldwork in this context complements and provides contrasts to previous CSCW studies performed in time-critical hospital settings. Current literature shows a bias toward standardized records and routines in the implementation of health information technology, a policy that may not be appropriate for long-term health services. We discuss how the design of information systems should vary based on temporal factors.
The Collaborative work of Hospital Porters: Accountability, Visibility and Configurations of Work BIBAFull-Text 965-979
  Claus Bossen; Martin Foss
In this paper, we describe the collaborative work of hospital porters. The profession of hospital porters is understudied in sociology and in Computer Supported Cooperative Work, despite numerous studies of healthcare IT. We describe how a new IT system for hospital logistics provided porters with more influence on, and responsibility for their work; supported collaboration among porters, clinicians, and middle management; and effected a new ecology of visibility and accountability of porters' work. We discuss how the new system simultaneously supported collaboration and generated representations and accounts of porters' work. We compare the particular work arrangement in this study with other studies of porters' work, show the widely different configurations of how IT and work can be organized, and argue for the benefit of making comparative studies within CSCW. Finally, we argue for moving beyond dualisms of coordination and accountability for work.
Accounting for the Invisible Work of Hospital Orderlies: Designing for Local and Global Coordination BIBAFull-Text 980-992
  Allan Stisen; Nervo Verdezoto; Henrik Blunck; Mikkel Baun Kjærgaard; Kaj Grønbæk
The cooperative, invisible non-clinical work of hospital orderlies is often overlooked. It consists foremost of transferring patients between hospital departments. As the overall efficiency of the hospital is highly dependent on the coordination of the work of orderlies, this study investigates the coordination changes in orderlies' work practices in connection to the implementation of a workflow application at the hospital. By applying a mixed methods approach (both qualitative and quantitative studies), this paper calls for attention to the changes in orderlies' coordination activities while moving from a manual and centralized form to a semi-automatic and decentralized approach after the introduction of the workflow application. We highlight a set of cross-boundary (spatial and organizational) information-sharing breakdowns and the challenges of orderlies in maintaining local and global coordination. We also present design recommendations for future design of coordination tools to support orderlies' work practices.
Complex Decision-Making in Clinical Practice BIBAFull-Text 993-1004
  Line Silsand; Gunnar Ellingsen
Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Systems are considered crucial for diagnosis, treatment and care of patients. However, practical benefits of such systems have been far below expectations. This paper explores how the evolving interdependencies in organizational, clinical, political, and behavioral terms influence the design and implementation of CDS. The paper discusses how these interdependencies complicate clinical use of CDS where cross-departmental patient pathways increasingly dominate approaches to dealing with patients with complex conditions. Empirically, we report from an acute geriatric patient pathway project. The aim was to design and implement a decision-support form for triage of elderly patients in the emergency unit. The study emphasizes the intertwined collaborative nature of healthcare work, and the resulting need to consider the whole context when designing and implementing CDS tools. The contribution is to emphasize the "extended design" perspective to capture how workplace technologies and practices are shaped across multiple contexts and prolonged periods.

Crowd-Powered Applications

Almost an Expert: The Effects of Rubrics and Expertise on Perceived Value of Crowdsourced Design Critiques BIBAFull-Text 1005-1017
  Alvin Yuan; Kurt Luther; Markus Krause; Sophie Isabel Vennix; Steven P. Dow; Bjorn Hartmann
Expert feedback is valuable but hard to obtain for many designers. Online crowds can provide fast and affordable feedback, but workers may lack relevant domain knowledge and experience. Can expert rubrics address this issue and help novices provide expert-level feedback? To evaluate this, we conducted an experiment with a 2x2 factorial design. Student designers received feedback on a visual design from both experts and novices, who produced feedback using either an expert rubric or no rubric. We found that rubrics helped novice workers provide feedback that was rated nearly as valuable as expert feedback. A follow-up analysis on writing style showed that student designers found feedback most helpful when it was emotionally positive and specific, and that a rubric increased the occurrence of these characteristics in feedback. The analysis also found that expertise correlated with longer critiques, but not the other favorable characteristics. An informal evaluation indicates that experts may instead have produced value by providing clearer justifications.
Storia: Summarizing Social Media Content based on Narrative Theory using Crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 1018-1027
  Joy Kim; Andres Monroy-Hernandez
People from all over the world use social media to share thoughts and opinions about events, and understanding what people say through these channels has been of increasing interest to researchers, journalists, and marketers alike. However, while automatically generated summaries enable people to consume large amounts of data efficiently, they do not provide the context needed for a viewer to fully understand an event. Narrative structure can provide templates for the order and manner in which this data is presented to create stories that are oriented around narrative elements rather than summaries made up of facts. In this paper, we use narrative theory as a framework for identifying the links between social media content. To do this, we designed crowdsourcing tasks to generate summaries of events based on commonly used narrative templates. In a controlled study, for certain types of events, people were more emotionally engaged with stories created with narrative structure and were also more likely to recommend them to others compared to summaries created without narrative structure.
BudgetMap: Engaging Taxpayers in the Issue-Driven Classification of a Government Budget BIBAFull-Text 1028-1039
  Nam Wook Kim; Jonghyuk Jung; Eun-Young Ko; Songyi Han; Chang Won Lee; Juho Kim; Jihee Kim
Despite recent efforts in opening up government data, developing tools for taxpayers to make sense of extensive and multi-faceted budget data remains an open challenge. In this paper, we present BudgetMap, an issue-driven classification and navigation interface for the budgets of government programs. Our novel issue-driven approach can complement the traditional budget classification system used by government organizations by reflecting time-evolving public interests. BudgetMap elicits the public to tag government programs with social issues by providing two modes of tagging. User-initiated tagging allows people to voluntarily search for programs of interest and classify each program with related social issues, while system-initiated tagging guides people through possible matches of issues and programs via microtasks. BudgetMap then facilitates visual exploration of the tagged budget data. Our evaluation shows that participants' awareness and understanding of budgetary issues increased after using BudgetMap, while they collaboratively identified issue-budget links with quality comparable to expert-generated links.
Crowdsourcing Queue Estimations in Situ BIBAFull-Text 1040-1051
  Jorge Goncalves; Hannu Kukka; Iván Sánchez; Vassilis Kostakos
We present the development and evaluation of a situated crowdsourcing mechanism that estimates queue length in real time. The system relies on public interactive kiosks to collect human estimations about their queue waiting time. The system has been designed as a standalone tool that can be retrospectively embedded in a variety of locations without interfacing with billing or customer systems. An initial study was conducted in order to determine whether people who just joined the queue would differ in their estimates from people who were at the front of the queue. We then present our system's evaluation in four different restaurants over 19 weekdays. Our analysis shows how our system is perceived by users, and we develop 2 ways to optimise the waiting time estimation: by correcting the estimations based on the position of the input mechanism, and by changing the sliding window considered inputs to provide better prediction. Our analysis shows that approximately 7% of restaurant customers provided estimations, but even so our system can provide predictions with up to 2 minute mean absolute error.

Social Network Methods

Embeddedness and sequentiality in social media BIBAFull-Text 1052-1064
  Stuart Reeves; Barry Brown
Over the last decade, there has been an explosion of work around social media within CSCW. A range of perspectives have been applied to the use of social media, which we characterise as aggregate, actor-focussed or a combination. We outline the opportunities for a perspective informed by ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (EMCA) -- an orientation that has been influential within CSCW, yet has only rarely been applied to social media use. EMCA approaches can complement existing perspectives through articulating how social media is embedded in the everyday lives of its users and how sequentiality of social media use organises this embeddedness. We draw on a corpus of screen and ambient audio recordings of mobile device use to show how EMCA research is generative for understanding social media through concepts such as adjacency pairs, sequential context, turn allocation / speaker selection, and repair.
Analyzing Organizational Routines in Online Knowledge Collaborations: A Case for Sequence Analysis in CSCW BIBAFull-Text 1065-1079
  Brian C. Keegan; Shakked Lev; Ofer Arazy
Research into socio-technical systems like Wikipedia has overlooked important structural patterns in the coordination of distributed work. This paper argues for a conceptual reorientation towards sequences as a fundamental unit of analysis for understanding work routines in online knowledge collaboration. We outline a research agenda for researchers in computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) to understand the relationships, patterns, antecedents, and consequences of sequential behavior using methods already developed in fields like bio-informatics. Using a data set of 37,515 revisions from 16,616 unique editors to 96 Wikipedia articles as a case study, we analyze the prevalence and significance of different sequences of editing patterns. We illustrate the mixed method potential of sequence approaches by interpreting the frequent patterns as general classes of behavioral motifs. We conclude by discussing the methodological opportunities for using sequence analysis for expanding existing approaches to analyzing and theorizing about co-production routines in online knowledge collaboration.
When the Crowd is Not Enough: Improving User Experience with Social Media through Automatic Quality Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1080-1090
  Dan Pelleg; Oleg Rokhlenko; Idan Szpektor; Eugene Agichtein; Ido Guy
Social media gives voice to the people, but also opens the door to low-quality contributions, which degrade the experience for the majority of users. To address the latter issue, the prevailing solution is to rely on the "wisdom of the crowds" to promote good content (e.g., via votes or "like" buttons), or to downgrade bad content. Unfortunately, such crowd feedback may be sparse, subjective, and slow to accumulate. In this paper, we investigate the effects, on the users, of automatically filtering question-answering content, using a combination of syntactic, semantic, and social signals. Using this filtering, a large-scale experiment with real users was performed to measure the resulting engagement and satisfaction. To our knowledge, this experiment represents the first reported large-scale user study of automatically curating social media content in real time. Our results show that automated quality filtering indeed improves user engagement, usually aligning with, and often outperforming, crowd-based quality judgments.
Distinguishing between Personal Preferences and Social Influence in Online Activity Feeds BIBAFull-Text 1091-1103
  Amit Sharma; Dan Cosley
Many online social networks thrive on automatic sharing of friends' activities to a user through activity feeds, which may influence the user's next actions. However, identifying such social influence is tricky because these activities are simultaneously impacted by influence and homophily. We propose a statistical procedure that uses commonly available network and observational data about people's actions to estimate the extent of copy-influence -- mimicking others' actions that appear in a feed. We assume that non-friends don't influence users; thus, comparing how a user's activity correlates with friends versus non-friends who have similar preferences can help tease out the effect of copy-influence.
   Experiments on datasets from multiple social networks show that estimates that don't account for homophily overestimate copy-influence by varying, often large amounts. Further, copy-influence estimates fall below 1% of total actions in all networks: most people, and almost all actions, are not affected by the feed. Our results question common perceptions around the extent of copy-influence in online social networks and suggest improvements to diffusion and recommendation models.

Hacking, Making, and Discovering

Hacking as Transgressive Infrastructuring: Mobile Phone Networks and the German Chaos Computer Club BIBAFull-Text 1104-1117
  Susann Wagenknecht; Matthias Korn
This paper applies the theoretical lens of infrastructure to study hacking practices that take issue with large-scale communication networks. The paper analyzes a series of hacks targeting the Global System for Mobile Communications (i.e., networks for mobile telephony) carried out by a cluster of people affiliated or sympathetic to the German Chaos Computer Club between 2001 and 2014. These hacks aim at acquiring proprietary knowledge and facilitating the autonomous operation of local mobile phone networks for communities, independent of corporate network providers. The contribution of this paper is to show how hacking of this kind can be understood as transgressive infrastructuring, a way of engaging critically with infrastructure that, in the case of GSM hacking, relied on three strategies -- reverse engineering, re-implementation, and parallel operation, all of which aim at appropriating the targeted network intellectually, legally, functionally, and/or operationally.
How to Hackathon: Socio-technical Tradeoffs in Brief, Intensive Collocation BIBAFull-Text 1118-1130
  Erik H. Trainer; Arun Kalyanasundaram; Chalalai Chaihirunkarn; James D. Herbsleb
Hackathons are events where people who are not normally collocated converge for a few days to write code together. Hackathons, it seems, are everywhere. We know that long-term collocation helps advance technical work and facilitate enduring interpersonal relationships, but can similar benefits come from brief, hackathon-style collocation? How do participants spend their time preparing, working face-to-face, and following through these brief encounters? Do the activities participants select suggest a tradeoff between the social and technical benefits of collocation? We present results from a multiple-case study that suggest the way that hackathon-style collocation advances technical work varies across technical domain, community structure, and expertise of participants. Building social ties, in contrast, seems relatively constant across hackathons. Results from different hackathon team formation strategies suggest a tradeoff between advancing technical work and building social ties. Our findings have implications for technology support that needs to be in place for hackathons and for understanding the role of brief interludes of collocation in loosely-coupled, geographically distributed work.
Out of Time, Out of Place: Reflections on Design Workshops as a Research Method BIBAFull-Text 1131-1141
  Daniela K. Rosner; Saba Kawas; Wenqi Li; Nicole Tilly; Yi-Chen Sung
This paper examines design workshops as research practice: how workshops bind time and participation in ways that privilege certain types of action and foreclose others. In five workshops we facilitated, we asked members to design a new item from two existing items in need of repair and studied their acts of appropriation and reuse. Although we hoped to explore possibilities for collaborative practice, we more clearly saw what happens when garments with rich histories meet the blunt instrument of workshop interventions. Members aligned anticipated outcomes in opposition to our guidelines and abandoned projects due to personal obligations. In reflecting on these encounters we further show how workshops shape what it means to study collaborative settings. This work contributes a reflective study of workshops that gathers and extends CSCW methods for interventionist inquiry.
'A Farmer, a Place and at least 20 Members': The Development of Artifact Ecologies in Volunteer-based Communities BIBAFull-Text 1142-1156
  Susanne Bødker; Henrik Korsgaard; Joanna Saad-Sulonen
In this paper, we present a case study of an urban organic food community and examine the way the community shapes its artifact ecology through a combination of appropriation of freely or cheaply available tools, and the long-term effort of building the community's own website. Based on participatory observation, content analysis of communication documents, and a series of interviews, we see how the collection of artifacts that a community uses to support their practice form what we refer to as their community artifact ecology. A community artifact ecology is multifaceted, dynamic and pending on what the members bring to the table, as well as on particular situations of use. The community artifact ecology concept is important for CSCW as it enables framing of the relationship between communities and technologies beyond the single artifact and beyond a static view of a dedicated technology.

Food and Health

Characterizing Dietary Choices, Nutrition, and Language in Food Deserts via Social Media BIBAFull-Text 1157-1170
  Munmun De Choudhury; Sanket Sharma; Emre Kiciman
Social media has emerged as a promising source of data for public health. This paper examines how these platforms can provide empirical quantitative evidence for understanding dietary choices and nutritional challenges in "food deserts" -- Census tracts characterized by poor access to healthy and affordable food. We present a study of 3 million food related posts shared on Instagram, and observe that content from food deserts indicate consumption of food high in fat, cholesterol and sugar; a rate higher by 5-17% compared to non-food desert areas. Further, a topic model analysis reveals the ingestion language of food deserts to bear distinct attributes. Finally, we investigate to what extent Instagram ingestion language is able to infer whether a tract is a food desert. We find that a predictive model that uses ingestion topics, socio-economic and food deprivation status attributes yields high accuracy (>80%) and improves over baseline methods by 6-14%. We discuss the role of social media in helping address inequalities in food access and health.
Quantifying and Predicting Mental Illness Severity in Online Pro-Eating Disorder Communities BIBAFull-Text 1171-1184
  Stevie Chancellor; Zhiyuan Lin; Erica L. Goodman; Stephanie Zerwas; Munmun De Choudhury
Social media sites have struggled with the presence of emotional and physical self-injury content. Individuals who share such content are often challenged with severe mental illnesses like eating disorders. We present the first study quantifying levels of mental illness severity (MIS) in social media. We examine a set of users on Instagram who post content on pro-eating disorder tags (26M posts from 100K users). Our novel statistical methodology combines topic modeling and novice/clinician annotations to infer MIS in a user's content. Alarmingly, we find that proportion of users whose content expresses high MIS have been on the rise since 2012 (13%/year increase). Previous MIS in a user's content over seven months can predict future risk with 81% accuracy. Our model can also forecast MIS levels up to eight months in the future with performance better than baseline. We discuss the health outcomes and design implications as well as ethical considerations of this line of research.
"Hunger Hurts but Starving Works": Characterizing the Presentation of Eating Disorders Online BIBAFull-Text 1185-1200
  Jessica A. Pater; Oliver L. Haimson; Nazanin Andalibi; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Within the CSCW community, little has been done to systematically analyze online eating disorder (ED) user generated content. In this paper, we present the results of a cross-platform content analysis of ED-related posts. We analyze the way that hashtags are used in ad-hoc ED-focused networks and present a comprehensive corpus of ED-terminology that frequently accompanies ED activities online. We provide exemplars of the types of ED-related content found online. Through this characterization of activities, we draw attention to the increasingly important role that these platforms play and how they are used and misappropriated for negative health purposes. We also outline specific challenges associated with researching these types of networks online. CAUTION: This paper includes media that could potentially be a trigger to those dealing with an eating disorder or with other self-injury illnesses. Please use caution when reading, printing, or disseminating this paper.
#thyghgapp: Instagram Content Moderation and Lexical Variation in Pro-Eating Disorder Communities BIBAFull-Text 1201-1213
  Stevie Chancellor; Jessica Annette Pater; Trustin Clear; Eric Gilbert; Munmun De Choudhury
Pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) communities on social media encourage the adoption and maintenance of disordered eating habits as acceptable alternative lifestyles rather than threats to health. In particular, the social networking site Instagram has reacted by banning searches on several pro-ED tags and issuing content advisories on others. We pre-sent the first large-scale quantitative study investigating pro-ED communities on Instagram in the aftermath of moderation -- our dataset contains 2.5M posts between 2011 and 2014. We find that the pro-ED community has adopted non-standard lexical variations of moderated tags to circumvent these restrictions. In fact, increasingly complex lexical variants have emerged over time. Communities that use lexical variants show increased participation and support of pro-ED (15-30%). Finally, the tags associated with content on these variants express more toxic, self-harm, and vulnerable content. Despite Instagram's moderation strategies, pro-ED communities are active and thriving. We discuss the effectiveness of content moderation as an intervention for communities of deviant behavior.

Crowd Innovation and Crowdfunding

Encouraging "Outside-the-box" Thinking in Crowd Innovation Through Identifying Domains of Expertise BIBAFull-Text 1214-1222
  Lixiu Yu; Aniket Kittur; Robert E. Kraut
People are more creative at solving difficult design problems when they use relevant examples from outside of the problem's domain as inspirations. However, finding such "outside-the-box" inspirations is difficult, particularly in large idea repositories such as the web, because without guidance people select domains to search based on surface similarity to the problem's domain. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach in which non-experts identify domains that have the potential to yield useful and non-obvious inspirations for solutions. We report an empirical study demonstrating how crowds can generate domains of expertise and that showing people an abstract representation rather than the original problem helps them identify more distant domains. Crowd workers drawing inspirations from the distant domains produced more creative solutions to the original problem than did those who sought inspiration on their own, or drew inspiration from domains closer to or not sharing structural correspondence with the original problem.
Improving Crowd Innovation with Expert Facilitation BIBAFull-Text 1223-1235
  Joel Chan; Steven Dang; Steven P. Dow
Online crowds are a promising source of new innovations. However, crowd innovation quality does not always match its quantity. In this paper, we explore how to improve crowd innovation with real-time expert guidance. One approach would for experts to provide personalized feed-back, but this scales poorly, and may lead to premature convergence during creative work. Drawing on strategies for facilitating face-to-face brainstorms, we introduce a crowd ideation system where experts monitor incoming ideas through a dashboard and offer high-level "inspirations" to guide ideation. A series of controlled experiments show that experienced facilitators increased the quantity and creativity of workers' ideas compared to unfacilitated workers, while Novice facilitators reduced workers' creativity. Analyses of inspiration strategies suggest these opposing results stem from differential use of successful inspiration strategies (e.g., provoking mental simulations). The results show that expert facilitation can significantly improve crowd innovation, but inexperienced facilitators may need scaffolding to be successful.
Distributed Analogical Idea Generation with Multiple Constraints BIBAFull-Text 1236-1245
  Lixiu Yu; Robert E. Kraut; Aniket Kittur
Previous work has shown the promise of crowdsourcing analogical idea generation, where distributing the stages of analogical processing across many people can reduce fixation, identify inspirations from more diverse domains, and lead to more creative ideas. However, prior work has only considered problems with a single constraint, while many real-world problems involve multiple constraints. This paper contributes a systematic crowdsourcing approach for eliciting multiple constraints inherent in a problem and using those constraints to find inspirations useful in solving it. To do so we identify methods to elicit useful constraints at different levels of abstraction, and empirical results that identify how the level of abstraction influences creative idea generation. Our results show that crowds find the most useful inspirations when the problem domain is represented abstractly and constraints are represented more concretely.
Social Ties in Organizational Crowdfunding: Benefits of Team-Authored Proposals BIBAFull-Text 1246-1259
  Michael Muller; Mary Keough; John Wafer; Werner Geyer; Alberto Alvarez Saez; David Leip; Cara Viktorov
Social ties have been hypothesized to help people to gain support in achieving collaborative goals. We test this hypothesis in a study of organizational crowdfunding (or "crowdfunding behind the firewall"). 201 projects were proposed for peer-crowdfunding in a large international corporation. The crowdfunding website allowed people to join a project as Co-Proposers. We analyzed the funding success of 114 projects as a function of the number of (Co-)Proposers. Projects that had more co-proposers were more likely to reach their funding targets. Using data from an organizational social-networking service, we show how employees' social ties were associated with these success patterns. Our results have implications for theories of collaboration in social networks, and the design of crowdfunding websites.

Non-Profits and Humanitarian Responses

Repurposing FM: Radio Nowhere to OSNs Everywhere BIBAFull-Text 1260-1272
  Morgan Vigil; Elizabeth Belding; Matthew Rantanen
While online social networks (OSNs) play a critical role in developing social capital [18], many communities are unable to utilize the benefits of OSNs due to lack of Internet accessibility. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of the Radio Broadcast Data System (RBDS) associated with FM radio stations as a means to deliver social network content to OSN users who do not have access to Internet services. Using Instagram as a case study, we analyze data from 254 public Instagram users associated with the Tribal Digital Village (TDV) network in Southern California. Our analysis of over 1.2 million unique Instagram posts reveals that Instagram users in the TDV network interact with locally generated content 46.6× more often than content generated by users from outside the network. We use our observations of OSN usage to compare five OSN content scheduling approaches. Our evaluation reveals that up to 81% of users received at least half of their content requests and 35.5% of the 1.1 million requested Instagram photos were transmitted to users.
Storytelling with Data: Examining the Use of Data by Non-Profit Organizations BIBAFull-Text 1273-1283
  Sheena Erete; Emily Ryou; Geoff Smith; Khristina Marie Fassett; Sarah Duda
Despite the growing promotion of the "open data" movement, the collection, cleaning, management, interpretation, and dissemination of open data is laborious and cost intensive, particularly for non-profits with limited resources. In this paper, we describe how non-profit organizations (NPOs) use open data, building on prior literature that focuses on understanding challenges that NPOs face. Based on 15 interviews of staff from 10 NPOs, our results suggest that NPOs use data to develop narratives to build a case for support from grantors and other stakeholders. We then present empirical results based on the usage of a data portal we created, which suggests that technologies should be designed to not only make data accessible, but also to facilitate communication and support relationships between expert data analysts and NPOs.
Collaborative Analytics and Brokering in Digital Humanitarian Response BIBAFull-Text 1284-1294
  Daniel Hellmann; Carleen Maitland; Andrea Tapia
During large scale humanitarian crises, relief practitioners identify data used for decision making and coordination, as critical to their operations. Implicit in this need is the required capabilities for analyzing data. Given the rapidly evolving systems of collaborative data management and analysis in digital humanitarian efforts, information scientists and practitioners alike are keen to understand the role of data analytics in response operations. Through a case study of a digital humanitarian collaborative effort, we examine the processes for big and small data analytics, specifically focusing on data development, sharing, and collaborative analytics. Informed by theories of articulation work and collaborative analytics, we analyze data from in-depth interviews with digital humanitarians. Our findings identify key practices and processes for collaborative analytics in resource constrained environments, particularly the role of brokering, and in turn generate design recommendation for collaborative analytic platforms.
Early Adopters of the Internet and Social Media in Cuba BIBAFull-Text 1295-1309
  Michaelanne Dye; Annie Antón; Amy S. Bruckman
Although the Cuban government has tightly controlled information access for more than half a century, a small number of Cubans have access at work. In this paper, we examine Internet and social media use by early adopters in Cuba in early 2015, as we enter a time of potential change. Specifically, we explore Cubans' access limitations and the activities they do online, as well as what Internet access means to them. We conducted interviews with 12 Cuban Internet users and observed their social media use. Our findings suggest that access limitations and slow network speeds greatly restrict Cubans' Internet use. To counter these limitations, Cubans are collaborative, often conducting online research and posting photos for friends with less access. Based on these findings, we propose future work to help meet Cuban citizens' information needs.

Work and Work Environments

Embedding Intentions in Drawings: How Architects Craft and Curate Drawings to Achieve Their Goals BIBAFull-Text 1310-1322
  Daniela Retelny; Pamela Hinds
Based on ethnographic data collected at a global architecture firm over a one-year period, we describe the ways in which drawings are strategically created and curated by architects in an attempt to carefully craft their interactions and fulfill specific intentions with clients and contributors. We identify three strategies used by architects when creating drawings and reveal that the way these strategies are employed depends on the intended purpose of each drawing with a specific set of actors. This work builds on existing literature on the role of objects, such as drawings, for work across organizational boundaries and professional disciplines. We conclude with implications for CSCW and propose ideas for approaches and applications that better support cross-boundary and highly visual work involving multiple sets of actors and artifacts.
Infrastructuring and the Challenge of Dynamic Seams in Mobile Knowledge Work BIBAFull-Text 1323-1336
  Ingrid Erickson; Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi
Highly mobile knowledge workers spend a large portion of their time traversing within and among different infrastructural configurations as they move through space. These dynamic configurations are experienced as either technological or contextual constraints, which range from forms of technological exclusion and infrastructural disconnection to divides caused by both spatial and organizational boundaries. The workaday nature of these constrained environments force mobile workers to engage in a type of articulation work that involves the construction of bridging, assembling, or circumventing solutions to repeatedly negotiate these impediments. Engaging in these 'infrastructuring' practices requires that workers develop 'infrastructural competence' -- knowledge of the generative possibilities of infrastructural seams. In effect, this renders mobile workers as infrastructural bricoleurs. We discuss the implications of this required competence and speculate regarding its origin, maintenance, and differentiation among professions.
Understanding Energy Consumption at Work: Learning from Arrow Hill BIBAFull-Text 1337-1348
  Ben Bedwell; Enrico Costanza; Michael O. Jewell
Most work around technological interventions for energy conservation to date has focussed on changing individual behaviour. Hence, there is limited understanding of communal settings, such as office environments, as sites for intervention. Even when energy consumption in the workplace has been considered, the emphasis has typically been on the individual. To address this gap, we conducted a study of energy consumption and management in one workplace, based on a combination of workshops with a broad range of stakeholders, and quantitative data inspections. We report and discuss findings from this study, in light of prior literature, and we present a set of implications for design and further research. In particular, three themes, and associated intervention opportunities, emerged from our data: (1) energy wastage related to "errors"; (2) the role of company policies and the negotiation that surrounds their implementation; and (3) the bigger energy picture of procurement, construction and travel.
A Fundamentally Confused Document: Situation Reports and the Work of Producing Humanitarian Information BIBAFull-Text 1349-1362
  Megan Finn; Elisa Oreglia
Situation reports, or sitreps, are documents commonly used by UN agencies and humanitarian NGOs involved in emergency response to disseminate information to and from relief workers in the field. This paper analyzes the information labor involved in producing sitreps, and how it can be used to understand why these documents are described by insiders as "fundamentally confused." Drawing from document analysis and interviews with over one hundred people involved with sitreps, we examine humanitarian information labor in a decentralized, hierarchical, collaborative, political, and competitive work environment. From an empirical perspective, we contribute to CSCW by adding a case study about the situated practice of making humanitarian information, which includes our work as researcher/consultants in reconstructing the details of information gathering and sharing processes in order to improve them. We consider how the work of producing humanitarian information reproduces problematic humanitarian logics.

Parents and Children

"Thanks for your interest in our Facebook group, but it's only for dads": Social Roles of Stay-at-Home Dads BIBAFull-Text 1363-1375
  Tawfiq Ammari; Sarita Schoenebeck
The number of stay-at-home dads (SAHDs) in the U.S. has risen dramatically over the past 30 years. Despite gaining social acceptability, SAHDs still experience isolation and judgment in their offline environments. This research explores how SAHDs use the Internet and social media related to their roles as fathers. We conducted interviews with 18 SAHDs about their families, their identities, and their social experiences. We find that they turn to social media to gain social support and overcome isolation they experience offline. However, they engage in strategic self-disclosure on particular platforms to avoid judgment related to being SAHDs. They rely on online platforms to give off both traditionally feminine and masculine impressions -- as loving caregivers of their children while simultaneously as do-it-yourself men who make things around the house. Through creating Facebook groups and using anonymous social media sites, SAHDs create multidimensional social networks that allow them to cope better with the role change. We reflect on the evolving roles of SAHDs in society, and put forth an argument for greater support for diverse kinds of parenting online.
Not at the Dinner Table: Parents' and Children's Perspectives on Family Technology Rules BIBAFull-Text 1376-1389
  Alexis Hiniker; Sarita Y. Schoenebeck; Julie A. Kientz
Parents and children both use technology actively and increasingly, but prior work shows that concerns about attention, family time, and family relationships abound. We conducted a survey with 249 parent-child pairs distributed across 40 U.S. states to understand the types of technology rules (also known as restrictive mediation) they have established in their family and how effective those rules are perceived to be. Our data robustly show that children (age 10-17) are more likely to follow rules that constrain technology activities (e.g., no Snapchat) than rules that constrain technology use in certain contexts (e.g., no phone at the dinner table). Children find context constraints harder to live up to, parents find them harder to enforce, and parents' most common challenge when trying to enforce such rules is that children "can't put it down." This is consistent with the idea that banning certain technologies is currently easier than setting more nuanced boundaries. Parents and children agree that parents should also unplug when spending time with family, while children alone express frustration with the common parent practice of posting about children online. Together, our results suggest several mechanisms by which designers and families can improve parent-child relationships around technology use.
Managing Expectations: Technology Tensions among Parents and Teens BIBAFull-Text 1390-1401
  Lindsay Blackwell; Emma Gardiner; Sarita Schoenebeck
Extensive scholarship has investigated technology use among families. Existing work has focused primarily on parents' reactions to and restrictions of their children's technology use; here, we explore the underlying tensions surrounding technology use in the home. We draw on historical perspectives of adolescence and family life to better understand technology's impact on present-day parents and teens. Through an interview study with 18 parent-child pairs (19 parents; 23 children, ages 10-17), we find a number of technology tensions, including 1) parents' underestimation of children's technology use; 2) children's perception that parents only tell them which behaviors to avoid; 3) both parents' and children's poor adherence to household technology rules; and 4) parents' and children's desire for mutual attention. We argue that the use of personal devices introduces distinctive challenges into modern family life, due to the limited visibility (or practical obscurity) of personal device use, expectations of constant connectivity, and overly-romanticized notions of family time. We consider the historical evolution of both teenage and family life, and conclude that consistent and realistic expectations around work, attention, and adolescence may help families better manage household technology use.
Mom, I Do Have a Family!: Attitudes, Agreements, and Expectations on the Interaction with Chilean Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1402-1411
  Francisco J. Gutierrez; Sergio F. Ochoa
Most related research about intra-family communication follows the reality of developed countries, where older adults can live independently from their families and are likely to embrace technology. Contrarily, in Chile and other Latin American countries, most older adults live close to their families, are usually dependent of the latter, and rarely use digital means to communicate. Through cross-generational interviews, we identified attitudes, agreements, and expectations that describe how middle class Chilean families, living in urban settlements, interact with their elders. The study findings indicate that the approach used by the adult children to take care of their parents produces a vicious circle that stresses out the former and limits the technology adoption of the latter. Therefore, new ways of interacting with the elderly are required and digital technology has the potential to produce this change.

Multimedia Creation and Remixing

TryFilm: Situated Support for Interactive Media Productions BIBAFull-Text 1412-1422
  Tom Bartindale; Guy Schofield; Peter Wright
The emergence of participatory, on-demand and interactive media is changing the media production landscape. Producing interactive media is often more complex than creating traditional linear films, resulting in increased pressure for production teams. In this paper we explore what implications this has for cast and crew who participate in the production of such new media. We explore how collaborative technologies can support creative practitioners, within these challenging settings. We present TryFilm, a collaborative editing system, designed by the authors and deployed during an interactive film shoot by a small film company featuring a cast of early career actors.
YouthTube: Youth Video Authorship on YouTube and Vine BIBAFull-Text 1423-1437
  Svetlana Yarosh; Elizabeth Bonsignore; Sarah McRoberts; Tamara Peyton
What kinds of content do children and teenagers author and share on public video platforms? We approached this question through a qualitative directed content analysis of over 250 youth-authored videos filtered by crowdworkers from public videos on YouTube and Vine. We found differences between YouTube and Vine platforms in terms of the age of the youth authors, the type of collaborations witnessed in the videos, and the significantly greater amount of violent, sexual, and obscene content on Vine. We also highlight possible differences in how adults and youths approach online video sharing. Specifically, we consider that adults may view online video as an archive to keep precious memories of everyday life with their family, friends, and pets, humorous moments, and special events, while children and teenagers treat online video as a stage to perform, tell stories, and express their opinions and identities in a performative way.
Remixing as a Pathway to Computational Thinking BIBAFull-Text 1438-1449
  Sayamindu Dasgupta; William Hale; Andrés Monroy-Hernández; Benjamin Mako Hill
Theorists and advocates of "remixing" have suggested that appropriation can act as a pathway for learning. We test this theory quantitatively using data from more than 2.4 million multimedia programming projects shared by more than 1 million users in the Scratch online community. First, we show that users who remix more often have larger repertoires of programming commands even after controlling for the numbers of projects and amount of code shared. Second, we show that exposure to computational thinking concepts through remixing is associated with increased likelihood of using those concepts. Our results support theories that young people learn through remixing, and have important implications for designers of social computing systems.
Reality and Perception of Copyright Terms of Service for Online Content Creation BIBAFull-Text 1450-1461
  Casey Fiesler; Cliff Lampe; Amy S. Bruckman
From amateur creativity to social media status updates, nearly every Internet user is also a content creator -- but who owns that content? Policy, including intellectual property rights, is a necessary but often invisible part of online content sharing and social computing environments. We analyzed the copyright licenses contained in the Terms of Service of 30 different websites where users contribute content, then conducted a survey to match perceptions of copyright terms to the reality. We found that licensing terms vary in unpredictable ways, and that user expectations and opinions differ by license and by type of website. Moreover, the most undesirable terms, such as right to modify, appear more frequently than users expect. We argue that users care about how their content can be used yet lack critical information. Site designers should take user needs and community norms into account in creating and explaining copyright policies.

Unpacking Social Networks

Once More with Feeling: Supportive Responses to Social Sharing on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 1462-1474
  Moira Burke; Mike Develin
Life is more than cat pictures. There are tough days, heartbreak, and hugs. Under what contexts do people share these feelings online, and how do their friends respond? Using millions of de-identified Facebook status updates with poster-annotated feelings (e.g., "feeling thankful" or "feeling worried"), we examine the magnitude and circumstances in which people share positive or negative feelings and characterize the nature of the responses they receive. We find that people share greater proportions of both positive and negative emotions when their friend networks are smaller and denser. Consistent with social sharing theory, hearing about a friend's troubles on Facebook causes friends to reply with more emotional and supportive comments. Friends' comments are also more numerous and longer. Posts with positive feelings, on the other hand, receive more likes, and their comments have more positive language. Feelings that relate to the poster's self worth, such as "feeling defeated," "feeling unloved," or "feeling accomplished" amplify these effects.
Playful Backstalking and Serious Impression Management: How Young Adults Reflect on their Past Identities on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 1475-1487
  Sarita Schoenebeck; Nicole B. Ellison; Lindsay Blackwell; Joseph B. Bayer; Emily B. Falk
Parents, educators, and policymakers have expressed concern about the future implications of young people's sharing practices on social media sites. However, little is known about how young people themselves feel about their online behaviors being preserved and resurfaced later in adulthood. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 28 college-going, primarily female, young adults about their use of social media and their transition from adolescence into young adulthood. We find that participants recognize archival value in their own Facebook histories, despite sometimes perceiving these histories to be embarrassing. They experience tensions between meeting their current self-presentational goals and maintaining the authenticity of historical content. To reconcile these tensions, they engage in retrospective impression management practices, such as curating past content. They also engage in "backstalking" behaviors, in which they view and engage with other users' Facebook histories -- openly with close ties and discreetly with weak ties. We consider this ludic engagement through the lens of emerging adulthood and discuss the theoretical implications of our findings, especially in light of emerging applications which intentionally resurface digital traces.
"Just Cast the Net, and Hopefully the Right Fish Swim into It": Audience Management on Social Network Sites BIBAFull-Text 1488-1500
  Eden Litt; Eszter Hargittai
When users post on social network sites, they can engage in audience-reaching strategies, in an effort to reach desired audience members, as well as audience-limiting strategies, in an effort to avoid unwanted audience members. While much research has focused on users' audience-limiting strategies, little research has explicitly focused on users' audience-reaching strategies. Additionally, little work has explored either strategy at the post level. Using mixed methods involving a diary study and follow-up interviews focused on a diverse group of users' posts, this article reveals several audience-reaching strategies users engaged from altering their content to tagging. However, users in this study rarely used strategies to exclude people proactively and technologically outside of their targeted audiences, and instead broadcasted widely. Participants described several rationales for sharing broadly from skill-related issues to a reliance on the audience or site to filter the content.
What's in a Like?: Attitudes and behaviors around receiving Likes on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 1501-1510
  Lauren Scissors; Moira Burke; Steven Wengrovitz
What social value do Likes on Facebook hold? This research examines people's attitudes and behaviors related to receiving one-click feedback in social media. Likes and other kinds of lightweight affirmation serve as social cues of acceptance and maintain interpersonal relationships, but may mean different things to different people. Through surveys and de-identified, aggregated behavioral Facebook data, we find that in general, people care more about who Likes their posts than how many Likes they receive, desiring feedback most from close friends, romantic partners, and family members other than their parents. While most people do not feel strongly that receiving "enough" Likes is important, roughly two-thirds of posters regularly receive more than "enough." We also note a "Like paradox," a phenomenon in which people's friends receive more Likes because their friends have more friends to provide those Likes. Individuals with lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of self-monitoring are more likely to think that Likes are important and to feel bad if they do not receive "enough" Likes. The results inform product design and our understanding of how lightweight interactions shape our experiences online.

Open Science and Infrastructures

Convivial Decay: Entangled Lifetimes in a Geriatric Infrastructure BIBAFull-Text 1511-1523
  Marisa Leavitt Cohn
This paper discusses the empirical case of an aging and obsolescent infrastructure supporting a space science mission that is currently approaching a known end. Such a case contributes to our understanding of the degrading path at the end-of-life of an infrastructure. During this later stage in the life of infrastructure we can observe common issues associated with aging infrastructures -- hardware's material decay, programming languages and software tools reaching end of support, obsolete managerial methodologies, etc. Such a case of infrastructural decay reveals how work of infrastructure maintenance may reach the limits of repair and shift from repair-as-sustaining into a mode of repair-into-decay, actively working towards the end-of-life. What this reveals is that, rather than infrastructural decay being a natural by-product of time's passing, there is active work that goes into producing a convivial decay in which the multiple temporalities of aging and decay are brought into alignment through negotiation of what aging means, its impacts on different forms of work, and even what counts as old and new.
Citation and Attribution in Open Science: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 1524-1534
  Yla R. Tausczik
Technology is changing the way in which scientists and mathematicians communicate. New platforms for scholarly communication enhance informal communication and imbue it with some of the functionalities of formal communication. A citation analysis was conducted to examine how content from one of these platforms, MathOverflow, has been cited and referenced within the mathematics literature. Citation patterns suggested that some authors were treating MathOverflow content as a legitimate source of scholarly knowledge. Some problems with references and attribution occurred, which can be addressed by changes in the design of these technologies. Developing better systems for scholarly communication can help advance open science.
Considering Time in Designing Large-Scale Systems for Scientific Computing BIBAFull-Text 1535-1547
  Nan-Chen Chen; Sarah Poon; Lavanya Ramakrishnan; Cecilia R. Aragon
High performance computing (HPC) has driven collaborative science discovery for decades. Exascale computing platforms, currently in the design stage, will be deployed around 2022. The next generation of supercomputers is expected to utilize radically different computational paradigms, necessitating fundamental changes in how the community of scientific users will make the most efficient use of these powerful machines. However, there have been few studies of how scientists work with exascale or close-to-exascale HPC systems. Time as a metaphor is so pervasive in the discussions and valuation of computing within the HPC community that it is worthy of close study. We utilize time as a lens to conduct an ethnographic study of scientists interacting with HPC systems. We build upon recent CSCW work to consider temporal rhythms and collective time within the HPC sociotechnical ecosystem and provide considerations for future system design.
Community-based Data Validation Practices in Citizen Science BIBAFull-Text 1548-1559
  Andrea Wiggins; Yurong He
Technology-supported citizen science has created huge volumes of data with increasing potential to facilitate scientific progress, however, verifying data quality is still a substantial hurdle due to the limitations of existing data quality mechanisms. In this study, we adopted a mixed methods approach to investigate community-based data validation practices and the characteristics of records of wildlife species observations that affected the outcomes of collaborative data quality management in an online community where people record what they see in the nature. The findings describe the processes that both relied upon and added to information provenance through information stewardship behaviors, which led to improved reliability and informativity. The likelihood of community-based validation interactions were predicted by several factors, including the types of organisms observed and whether the data were submitted from a mobile device. We conclude with implications for technology design, citizen science practices, and research.

Accessibility and Universal Design

Promoting Joint Attention with Computer Supported Collaboration in Children with Autism BIBAFull-Text 1560-1571
  Sumita Sharma; Saurabh Srivastava; Krishnaveni Achary; Blessin Varkey; Tomi Heimonen; Jaakko Samuli Hakulinen; Markku Turunen; Nitendra Rajput
There exists mounting evidence in favor of computer supported autism interventions at the individual level. However, the potential benefits of using computer supported collaboration to encourage social interactions between individuals with autism and typically developed individuals are underexplored, particularly in developing regions. We present an exploratory study of a collaborative gesture-based application, Balloons. The application encourages joint attention, which is defined as the shared attention between two individuals towards the same object. Using mixed methods, we evaluated Balloons for three weeks in New Delhi with ten medium-low functioning autistic children. Our findings suggest that employing CSC interventions for children with autism in India provide (a) observable improvements in social interaction with typically developed peers, (b) the opportunity to customize and individualize intervention to cater to a large spectrum of children and (c) the potential opportunity of reducing fears of certain objects.
Vulnerability, Sharing, and Privacy: Analyzing Art Therapy for Older Adults with Dementia BIBAFull-Text 1572-1583
  Raymundo Cornejo; Robin Brewer; Caroline Edasis; Anne Marie Piper
Older adults are most often considered consumers of online information, but recent work highlights the importance of engaging older adults in content generation and online sharing. One context in which older adults generate and share content is art therapy for individuals with dementia. Our analysis draws on Altman's notion of privacy and territorial regions to understand what sharing means for this vulnerable population. This theoretical framing reveals the ways in which privacy is cooperatively negotiated, which is in contrast to the individualistic view of existing sharing systems; how older adults derive benefits from sharing depending on interaction with their audience; and how sharing fluctuates between a focus on the process of therapy versus the product depending on privacy needs. Our analysis contributes an understanding of the complex nature of sharing for vulnerable populations and offers design considerations for systems that support this practice.
How Blind People Interact with Visual Content on Social Networking Services BIBAFull-Text 1584-1595
  Violeta Voykinska; Shiri Azenkot; Shaomei Wu; Gilly Leshed
In this paper, we explore blind people's motivations, challenges, interactions, and experiences with visual content on Social Networking Services (SNSs). We present findings from an interview study of 11 individuals and a survey study of 60 individuals, all with little to no functional vision. Compared to sighted SNS users, our blind participants faced profound accessibility challenges, including the prevalence of photos without sufficient text descriptions. To overcome the challenges, they developed creative strategies, including using a variety of methods to access SNS features (e.g., opening the mobile site on a desktop browser), and inferring photo content from textual cues and social interactions. When strategies failed, participants reached out for help from trusted friends, or avoided certain features. We discuss our findings in the context of CSCW research and SNS accessibility as a design value. We highlight the social significance of photo interactions for blind people and suggest design practices.
"Helping Others Makes Me Happy": Social Interaction and Integration of People with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1596-1608
  Peng Liu; Xianghua Ding; Ning Gu
This paper presents a qualitative study of people with disabilities, focusing on issues of their social interaction and integration. Through interviews and participatory observations with a group of people with motor disabilities in China, we found that their perceived limited capabilities to reciprocate, or feelings of indebtedness, were among the main reasons that kept them from interacting with others. The study shows that ICT and communities of people with disabilities are valuable in relieving these issues, in that they provide means and opportunities for them to give help and in turn develop self-esteem, crucial for their social interaction and integration. Our study suggests providing ways for them to give and not simply receive help as an important means to support their social interaction and integration -- in particular, by focusing on their abilities and communities, instead of disabilities and independence.

Crowd Workflows

ReLauncher: Crowdsourcing Micro-Tasks Runtime Controller BIBAFull-Text 1609-1614
  Pavel Kucherbaev; Florian Daniel; Stefano Tranquillini; Maurizio Marchese
Task execution timeliness, i.e., the completion of a task within a given time frame, is a known open issue in crowdsourcing. While running tasks on crowdsourcing platforms a requester experiences long tails in execution caused by abandoned assignments (those left by workers unfinished), which become available for other workers only after some expiration time (e.g., 30 minutes in CrowdFlower). These abandoned assignments result in significant delays and a poor predictability of the overall task execution time. In this paper, we propose an approach and an implementation called ReLauncher to identify such abandoned assignments and relaunch them for other workers. We evaluate our implementation with an experiment on CrowdFlower that provides substantive evidence for a significant execution speed improvement with an average extra cost of about 10%.
Precision CrowdSourcing: Closing the Loop to Turn Information Consumers into Information Contributors BIBAFull-Text 1615-1625
  Qian Zhao; Zihong Huang; F. Maxwell Harper; Loren Terveen; Joseph A. Konstan
We introduce a theoretical framework called precision crowdsourcing whose goal is to help turn online information consumers into information contributors. The framework looks at the timing and nature of the requests made of users and the feedback provided to users with the goal of increasing long-term contribution and engagement in the site or system. We present the results of a field experiment in which almost 3000 users were asked to tag movies (plus a null control group) as we varied the selection of task (popular/obscure), timing of requests (immediate or varying delays), and relational rhetoric (neutral, system reciprocal, other users reciprocal) of the requests. We found that asking increases tags provided overall, though asking generally decreases the provision of unprompted tags. Users were more likely to comply with our request when we asked them to tag obscure movies and when we used reciprocal request rhetoric.
Learnersourcing Personalized Hints BIBAFull-Text 1626-1636
  Elena L. Glassman; Aaron Lin; Carrie J. Cai; Robert C. Miller
Personalized support for students is a gold standard in education, but it scales poorly with the number of students. Prior work on learnersourcing presented an approach for learners to engage in human computation tasks while trying to learn a new skill. Our key insight is that students, through their own experience struggling with a particular problem, can become experts on the particular optimizations they implement or bugs they resolve. These students can then generate hints for fellow students based on their new expertise. We present workflows that harvest and organize students' collective knowledge and advice for helping fellow novices through design problems in engineering. Systems embodying each workflow were evaluated in the context of a college-level computer architecture class with an enrollment of more than two hundred students each semester. We show that, given our design choices, students can create helpful hints for their peers that augment or even replace teachers' personalized assistance, when that assistance is not available.
Parting Crowds: Characterizing Divergent Interpretations in Crowdsourced Annotation Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1637-1648
  Sanjay Kairam; Jeffrey Heer
Crowdsourcing is a common strategy for collecting the "gold standard" labels required for many natural language applications. Crowdworkers differ in their responses for many reasons, but existing approaches often treat disagreements as "noise" to be removed through filtering or aggregation. In this paper, we introduce the workflow design pattern of crowd parting: separating workers based on shared patterns in responses to a crowdsourcing task. We illustrate this idea using an automated clustering-based method to identify divergent, but valid, worker interpretations in crowdsourced entity annotations collected over two distinct corpora -- Wikipedia articles and Tweets. We demonstrate how the intermediate-level view provide by crowd-parting analysis provides insight into sources of disagreement not easily gleaned from viewing either individual annotation sets or aggregated results. We discuss several concrete applications for how this approach could be applied directly to improving the quality and efficiency of crowdsourced annotation tasks.

Mobile Design and Usage

Using Mobile Phones in Pub Talk BIBAFull-Text 1649-1661
  Martin Porcheron; Joel E. Fischer; Sarah Sharples
We present the findings from a study of how people interleave mobile phone use with conversation in pubs. Our findings, informed by ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, unpack the interactional methods through which groups of people in pubs occasioned, sustained, and disengaged from mobile device use during conversation with friends. Fundamentally, the work that is done consists of various methods of accounting for mobile device use, and displaying involvement in social interaction while the device is used. We highlight multiple examples of the nuanced ways in which interleaving is problematic in interaction, and relate our findings to the CSCW and HCI literature on collocated interaction. We conclude by considering avenues for future research, and discuss how we may support or disrupt interleaving practices through design to overcome the highlighted interactional troubles.
Automatic Archiving versus Default Deletion: What Snapchat Tells Us About Ephemerality in Design BIBAFull-Text 1662-1675
  Bin Xu; Pamara Chang; Christopher L. Welker; Natalya N. Bazarova; Dan Cosley
Unlike most social media, where automatic archiving of data is the default, Snapchat defaults to ephemerality: deleting content shortly after it is viewed by a receiver. Interviews with 25 Snapchat users show that ephemerality plays a key role in shaping their practices. Along with friend-adding features that facilitate a network of mostly close relations, default deletion affords everyday, mundane talk and reduces self-consciousness while encouraging playful interaction. Further, although receivers can save content through screenshots, senders are notified; this selective saving with notification supports complex information norms that preserve the feel of ephemeral communication while supporting the capture of meaningful content. This dance of giving and taking, sharing and showing, and agency for both senders and receivers provides the basis for a rich design space of mechanisms, levels, and domains for ephemerality.
Privacy Nudges for Mobile Applications: Effects on the Creepiness Emotion and Privacy Attitudes BIBAFull-Text 1676-1690
  Bo Zhang; Heng Xu
To assist users' privacy decision-making with mobile applications, prior research has investigated ways of enhancing information transparency, via improving privacy permission interfaces. This study takes a soft paternalism approach by proposing two interface cues as "privacy nudges" in a mobile permission interface: the frequency nudge indicates how frequently user information is used, and the social nudge presents the percentage of other users approving certain data permission. We compared the effects of these privacy nudges on users' creepiness emotion and privacy attitudes, through a between-subject online experimental study (n=387). Our results suggest that privacy nudges are effective in altering privacy attitudes, but the direction of effects depends on the nudge's framing valence. In addition, the creepiness emotion mediates the relationship between nudging and privacy attitudes.
Increasing Collocated People's Awareness of the Mobile User's Activities: a Field Trial of Social Displays BIBAFull-Text 1691-1702
  Pradthana Jarusriboonchai; Aris Malapaschas; Thomas Olsson; Kaisa Väänänen
Many activities that have traditionally been performed with different dedicated physical artifacts are now done with personal mobile devices. Consequently, the privacy of mobile interfaces has hampered social observability and chances for serendipitous interactions. For example, reading an electronic newspaper with a mobile device does not allow the surrounding people to be similarly aware of the reader's activity as traditional newspapers. Social displays are additional displays on mobile devices providing the surrounding people with light-weight cues about the activities of the device user. We implemented a prototype that reveals the user's current active application and presents its name on an e-ink display on the backside of a mobile device. We conducted a ten-day field trial with 13 participants using the prototype. The results show that the prototype was able to increase awareness of users' mobile activities and occasionally triggered interactions with others, without significantly violating the sense of privacy.

Rich Telepresence

Beyond Talking Heads: Multimedia Artifact Creation, Use, and Sharing in Distributed Meetings BIBAFull-Text 1703-1715
  Jennifer Marlow; Scott Carter; Nathaniel Good; Jung-Wei Chen
Distributed meetings can be messy, particularly when the task requires collaboration around multimedia artifacts. Teams must not only share a variety of materials related to the work in real time, but also need to refer back to information after a meeting ends. While video tools make it relatively easy to have conversations at a distance, they are less adept at sharing and archiving multimedia content. We conducted a survey of and interviews with members of distributed teams to investigate how they create, use, and share multimedia content before, during, and after distributed meetings. Our findings shed light on decisions made and rationales used in selecting technologies to prepare for, conduct, and archive the results of a video-mediated distributed meeting. The results suggest a need for flexible interfaces for information sharing in multiple meeting contexts so content can be both easily referred to in the moment and also found again later.
Room2Room: Enabling Life-Size Telepresence in a Projected Augmented Reality Environment BIBAFull-Text 1716-1725
  Tomislav Pejsa; Julian Kantor; Hrvoje Benko; Eyal Ofek; Andrew Wilson
Room2Room is a telepresence system that leverages projected augmented reality to enable life-size, co-present interaction between two remote participants. Our solution recreates the experience of a face-to-face conversation by performing 3D capture of the local user with color + depth cameras and projecting their life-size virtual copy into the remote space. This creates an illusion of the remote per-son's physical presence in the local space, as well as a shared understanding of verbal and non-verbal cues (e.g., gaze, pointing.) In addition to the technical details of two prototype implementations, we contribute strategies for projecting remote participants onto physically plausible locations, such that they form a natural and consistent conversational formation with the local participant. We also present observations and feedback from an evaluation with 7 pairs of participants on the usability of our solution for solving a collaborative, physical task.
Taking Notes or Playing Games?: Understanding Multitasking in Video Communication BIBAFull-Text 1726-1737
  Jennifer Marlow; Eveline van Everdingen; Daniel Avrahami
This paper presents a detailed examination of factors that affect perceptions of and attitudes towards multitasking in video conferencing. We first report findings from interviews with 15 professional users of videoconferencing. Our interviews revealed the roles and potential link of technology and activity. We then report results from a controlled online experiment with 397 participants based in the United States. Our results show that the technology used for multitasking has a significant effect on others' assumptions of what secondary activity the multitasker is likely engaged in, and that this assumed activity in turn affects evaluations of politeness and appropriateness. We also show that different layouts of the video conferencing UI can affect perception of engagement in the meeting and in turn ratings of polite or impolite behavior. We propose a conceptual model that captures our results and use the model to discuss implications for behavior and for the design of video communication tools.

Home and Family

A Day in the Life of Things in the Home BIBAFull-Text 1738-1750
  Andy Crabtree; Peter Tolmie
This paper is about human interaction with things in the home. It is of potential relevance to developers of the Internet of Things (IoT), but it is not a technological paper. Rather, it presents a preliminary observational study of a day in a life of things in the home. The study was done out of curiosity -- to see, given the emphasis on 'things' in the IoT, what mundane interaction with things looks like and is about. The results draw attention to the sheer scale of interaction with things, key areas of domestic activity in which interaction is embedded, and what it is about domestic life that gives data about interaction its sense. Each of these issues raises possibilities and challenges for IoT development in the home.
Scaffolding the scaffolding: Supporting children's social-emotional learning at home BIBAFull-Text 1751-1765
  Petr Slovák; Kael Rowan; Christopher Frauenberger; Ran Gilad-Bachrach; Mia Doces; Brian Smith; Rachel Kamb; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
The development of strong social and emotional skills is central to personal wellbeing. Increasingly, these skills are being taught in schools through well researched curricula. Such social-emotional learning (SEL) curricula are most effective if reinforced by parents, thus transferring the skills into everyday contexts. Traditional SEL programs have however had limited success in engaging parents, and we argue that technology might be able to help bridge this school-home divide. Through interviews with SEL experts we identified central design considerations for technology and SEL content: the reliance on experiential learning and the need to scaffold the parents in scaffolding the interaction for their children. This informed the design of a technology probe comprising a magnet card and online SEL activities, deployed in a school and via Mturk. The results provide a nuanced understanding of how technology-based interventions could bridge the school-home gap in real-world settings and support at-home reinforcement of children's social-emotional skills.
Moving Western Neighborliness to East?: A study on Local Exchange in Bangladesh BIBAFull-Text 1766-1776
  Federico Cabitza; Angela Locoro; Carla Simone; Tunazzina Sultana
This paper focuses on the main question whether social media specifically conceived to enable local exchange trading schema can be adopted in different contexts than the western digitized society, where those systems have been considered a feasible alternative to money-based capitalism. We report a qualitative study employing focus groups to study the factors which may affect the adoption of these social media in Bangladesh, a developing country that exhibits characteristics such as strong young unemployment, gender-oriented underemployment, aging population, but also a reduced access to the service economy due to the lack of spare time. The benefits of local exchange seem to be particularly fitting the urban and social structure of Bangladesh.
Social Organization of Household Finance: Understanding Artful Financial Systems in the Home BIBAFull-Text 1777-1789
  Dhaval Vyas; Stephen Snow; Paul Roe; Margot Brereton
In this paper we discuss results of a field study focused on understanding the ways money and financial issues are handled within family settings. Families develop 'systems' or methods through which they coordinate and manage their everyday financial activities. Through an analysis of our fieldwork data collected from fifteen families, we provide several examples of such systems, highlighting their qualities and illustrating how such systems come to support the handling of financial activities in the home. Our results show that these systems are developed with a careful consideration of familial values, relationships and routines; and incorporate the use of physical and digital tools. Consequently, we suggest that design should consider the use and non-use of technology when supporting household financial management, taking into account the richness of families' existing organically formed practices surrounding financial systems. Finally, our findings point to the fact that financial management in the domestic setting is socially organized and is closely connected to supporting everyday household activities.